Sample records for yields ile substitution

  1. Prevalence of Ile-460-Val/ParE substitution in clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates that were less susceptible to fluoroquinolones.

    Kawamura-Sato, Kumiko; Hasegawa, Tadao; Torii, Keizo; Ito, Hideo; Ohta, Michio


    A total of 73 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were measured for susceptibilities to nine fluoroquinolones, and nucleotide sequences of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) were determined. MIC90s of sparfloxacin, tosufloxacin, grepafloxacin, and gatifloxacin were less than 0.5 mg/L and the MIC90 of ciprofloxacin was 2 mg/L, although MIC values of some isolates to ciprofloxacin were more than 2 mg/L. We found that 60 of 73 isolates had only Ile-460-Val/ParE substitution and two isolates had an additional substitution of Ser-114-Gly/GyrA, while none of the isolates had any other substitutions in QRDRs of either ParC/E or GyrA/B. The isolates carrying Ile-460-Val/ParE substitution were more resistant to the fluoroquinolones norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin than the isolates with no amino acid substitution and the differences in MIC values were significant, suggesting that Ile-460-Val/ParE substitution in recent clinical S. pneumoniae isolates should be involved in the low-level fluoroquinolone resistance.

  2. The protein C omega-loop substitution Asn2Ile is associated with reduced protein C anticoagulant activity.

    Preston, Roger J S


    We report a kindred with heritable protein C (PC) deficiency in which two siblings with severe thrombosis showed a composite type I and IIb PC deficiency phenotype, identified using commercial PC assays (proband: PC antigen 42 u\\/dl, amidolytic activity 40 u\\/dl, anticoagulant activity 9 u\\/dl). The independent PROC nucleotide variations c.669C>A (predictive of Ser181Arg) and c.131C>T (predictive of Asn2Ile) segregated with the type I and type IIb PC deficiency phenotypes respectively, but co-segregated in the siblings with severe thrombosis. Soluble thrombomodulin (sTM)-mediated inhibition of plasma thrombin generation from an individual with PC-Asn2Ile was lower (endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) 56 +\\/- 1% that of ETP determined without sTM) than control plasma (ETP 15 +\\/- 2%) indicating reduced PC anticoagulant activity. Recombinant APC-Asn2Ile exhibited normal amidolytic activity but impaired anticoagulant activity. Protein S (PS)-dependent anticoagulant activity of recombinant APC-Asn2Ile and binding of recombinant APC-Asn2Ile to endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) were reduced compared to recombinant wild-type APC. Asn2 lies within the omega-loop of the PC\\/APC Gla domain and this region is critical for calcium-induced folding and subsequent interactions with anionic phospholipids, EPCR and PS. The disruption of these interactions in this naturally-occurring PC variant highlights their collective importance in mediating APC anticoagulant activity in vivo.

  3. Vermicompost substitution influences growth, physiological disorders, fruit yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.).

    Singh, Rajbir; Sharma, R R; Kumar, Satyendra; Gupta, R K; Patil, R T


    Studies were conducted to determine the effect of vermicompost on growth, physiological disorders, fruit yield and quality of 'Chandler' strawberry. For this, 4 levels of vermicompost (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0tha(-1)) were supplemented with inorganic fertilizers to balance fertilizer requirement of strawberry under semi-arid region of northern India. The vermicompost was incorporated into top 10cm layer of soil, which was supplemented on the basis of chemical analysis, with amount of inorganic N, P, K fertilizer calculated to equalize the recommended dose of nutrients. Vermicompost application increased plant spread (10.7%), leaf area (23.1%) and dry matter (20.7%), and increased total fruit yield (32.7%). Substitution of vermicompost drastically reduced the incidence of physiological disorders like albinism (16.1-4.5%); fruit malformation (11.5-4.0%) and occurrence of grey mould (10.4-2.1%) in strawberry indicating that vermicompost had significant role in reducing nutrient-related disorders and disease like Botrytis rot, and thereby increasing the marketable fruit yield up to 58.6% with better quality parameters. Fruit harvested from plant receiving vermicompost were firmer, have higher TSS, ascorbic acid content and lower acidity, and have attractive colour. All these parameters appeared to be dose dependent and best results were achieved @ 7.5tha(-1), however, beyond this dose of vermicompost, there was not significant influence on these parameters.

  4. Genetic Effects and Heterosis of Yield and Yield Component Traits Based on Gossypium Barbadense Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines in Two Gossypium Hirsutum Backgrounds.

    Botao Li

    Full Text Available We hybridized 10 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs each from two CSSL populations and produced 50 F1 hybrids according to North Carolina Design II. We analyzed the genetic effects and heterosis of yield and yield components in the F1 hybrids and parents in four environments via the additive-dominance genetic model. Yield and yield components of the CSSLs were controlled by combined additive and dominance effects, and lint percentage was mainly controlled by additive effects, but boll weight, boll number, seedcotton yield and lint yield were mainly controlled by dominance effects. We detected significant interaction effects between genetics and the environment for all yields traits. Similar interactions were detected between two CSSL populations (Pop CCRI 36 and Pop CCRI 45. Significant positive mid-parent heterosis was detected for all yield traits in both populations, and significant positive better-parent heterosis was also detected for all yield traits except lint percentage. The differences among parents were relatively small, but significant heterosis was detected for yield and yield components. Therefore, the relationship between heterosis and genetic distance for yield traits is complicated and requires further study. These CSSLs represent useful tools for improving yield and yield components in cotton.

  5. Shoot regeneration from leaf petioles of iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume



    Full Text Available Iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume of the Araceae is a source of carbohydrate with a high content of glucomannan which is very useful in preventing several diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, etc. In industry, the tuber is used as a raw material for paper pulp, textile, gum, celluloid, food and cosmetics. Generally, iles-iles is propagated by splitting tubers, bulbils or leaf cuttings, but this method can not yield high quality planting materials and sometimes may carry along many diseases. In this investigation, an in vitro method for shoot regeneration of iles-iles from petiole explants was developed. Sterilization of the explants was carried out in 0.05% HgCl2 for 20 min. after dipping in 70% ethanol and Tween 20 solution. Leaf petioles about 1 cm in length were cultured on Murashige & Skoog (MS medium with a pH of 5.8 containing 30 g sucrose and 2.5 g Gelrite agar. The formation of adventives shoots was induced on MS medium containing 1, 2, and 4 mg/L Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP either with or without the addition of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 mg/L Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA. Each treatment was done on 10 explants. All cultures were incubated at 26°C on a 16-h photoperiod with an illumination of 30 μmol m-2 sec-1 provided by 40-W cool white inflorescent lights. The highest rate of shoot multiplication averaging 19 shoots per explants was achieved within 3 months on MS medium containing 2 mg/L BAP. However, the best shoot elongation was found on MS medium containing 2 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L NAA.

  6. Genetic Effect on Yield and Fiber Quality Traits of 16 Chromosome Substitution Lines in Upland Cotton

    LUAN Ming-bao; GUO Xiang-mo; ZHANG Yongshan; YAO Jin-bo


    Evaluation of the genetic effect on yield and fiber quality can provide useful information on cotton breeding. Sixteen CSB lines and TM-1 introduced from USDA/ARS were used as male and top-crossed with three elite cultivars and the 51 F1 hybrids, 16 CSB lines, TM-1, and 3 elite cultivars were planted at the Cotton Research Institute of CAAS, Anyang, Henan Province and Xiajin, shandong Province, China. The yield traits and fiber quality data were obtained and additive and dominance effect on each trait were measured by AD model. Boll weight takes the largest additive proration, whereas boll number takes the least additive proration. The largest and the least dominant proration for lint yield and boll weight were measured, respectively. Fiber length has the additive and dominance effect, and dominance effect was slightly more than additive effect. Larger additive and no dominance effect on uniformity, micronaire, and fiber strength were measured. Significantly, positive additive effect on boll weight of CSB06 and CSB12Sh was observed. CSBI4Sh and CSB01 have significantly positive additive effect on 4 and 3 traits of fiber quality, respectively. CSB01 has the greatest dominant effect on lint yield among CSB lines. The dominant effect on fiber length of CSB lines showed positive. It is beneficial to use CSB06 and CSB12Sh as parents to improve boll size, to use CSB14Sh and CSB01 as parents to improve fiber quality. As for hybrid cotton breeding, it is reasonable using CSB01 to improve lint yield traits, and using CSB01, CSB11Sh, and CSB06 to improve fiber length.

  7. ILE a Casualty of War


    field grade positions. Officer career progression to the field 68 Jamie Gayton , Force...Statistical data on ILE backlog by email 27 October 2007. Gayton , Jamie. “Force Stabilization.” Soldiers Magazine, June 2001 Hillen, John. "Must US

  8. Bioethanol Production from Iles-Iles (Amorphopallus campanulatus) Flour by Fermentation using Zymomonas mobilis

    Kusmiyati Kusmiyati; H Hadiyanto; Indah Kusumadewi


    Due to the depletion of fossil oil sources, Indonesia attempts to search new source of bioenergy including bioethanol. One of this sources is Iles-iles tubers (Amorphophallus campanulatus), which is abundantly available in Java Indonesia. The carbohydrate content in Iles-Iles tuber flour was 77% and it can be converted to ethanol by three consecutive steps methods consist of liquefaction-saccharification using α and β-amylase, respectively and then followed by fermentation by using Z. mobilis...

  9. Perbandingan umbi iles-iles dan singkong sebagai substrat fermentasi Saccharomyces cerevisiae dalam produksi bioetanol



    Full Text Available Kusmiyati. 2010. Perbandingan umbi iles-iles dan singkong sebagai substrat fermentasi Saccharomyces cerevisiae dalam produksi bioetanol. Bioteknologi 7: 63-72. Produksi bioetanol meningkat dengan cepat karena merupakan energi terbarukan untuk mengatasi krisis energi yang disebabkan oleh habisnya minyak fosil. Produksi bioetanol skala besar di industri umumnya menggunakan bahan baku seperti tebu, jagung, dan ubi kayu yang juga diperlukan sebagai sumber makanan. Oleh karena itu, banyak studi pada proses bioetanol terkait dengan penggunaan bahan baku yang tidak bersaing dengan pasokan makanan. Salah satu alternatif bahan baku dapat dimanfaatkan untuk produksi bioetanol adalah bahan berpati yang tersedia secara lokal yaitu iles-iles (Amorphophallus mueller Blum. Kandungan karbohidrat umbi iles-iles sekitar 71,12% yang sedikit lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan umbi singkong (83,47%. Pengaruh berbagai bahan awal, konsentrasi pati, pH, waktu fermentasi dipelajari. Konversi dari bahan berpati menjadi etanol memiliki tiga langkah, pencairan dan sakarifikasi dilakukan dengan α-amilase dan amyloglucosidase kemudian difermentasi dengan ragi S.cerevisiaie. Bioetanol tertinggi diperoleh pada variabel berikut rasio pati: air = 1:4; likuifaksi dengan 0,40 mL α-amilase (4h; sakarifikasi dengan amyloglucosidase 0,40 mL (40h; fermentasi dengan 10 mL S.cerevisiae (72h memproduksi bioetanol 69,81 g/L dari singkong sementara 53,49 g/L dari umbi iles-iles. Pada kondisi optimum, gula total dihasilkan 33.431 g/L dari ubi kayu sementara 16.175 g/L dari umbi iles-iles. Pengaruh pH menunjukkan bahwa etanol yang dihasilkan terbaik diperoleh pada pH fermentasi 5,5 baik untuk ubi kayu maupun umbi iles-iles. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa umbi iles-iles menjanjikan sebagai bahan baku bioetanol karena menghasilkan bioetanol hampir sama dengan ubi kayu.

  10. The role of Ile87 of CYP158A2 in oxidative coupling reaction

    Zhao, Bin; Bellamine, Aouatef; Lei, Li; Waterman, Michael R. (Vanderbilt)


    Both CYP158A1 and CYP158A2 are able to catalyze an oxidative C-C coupling reaction producing biflaviolin or triflaviolin in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The substrate-bound crystal structures of CYP158A2 and CYP158A1 reveal that the side chain of Ile87 in CYP158A2 points to the active site contacting the distal flaviolin molecule, however, the bulkier side chain of Lys90 in CYP158A1 (corresponding to Ile87 in CYP158A2) is toward the distal surface of the protein. These results suggest that these residues could be important in determining product regiospecificity. In order to explore the role of the two residues in catalysis, the reciprocal mutants, Ile87Lys and Lys90Ile, of CYP158A2 and CYP158A1, respectively, were generated and characterized. The mutant Ile87Lys enzyme forms two isomers of biflaviolin instead of three isomers of biflaviolin in wild-type CYP158A2. CYP158A1 containing the substitution of lysine with isoleucine has the same catalytic activity compared with the wild-type CYP158A1. The crystal structure of Ile87Lys showed that the BC loop in the mutant is in a very different orientation compared with the BC loop in both CYP158A1/A2 structures. These results shed light on the mechanism of the oxidative coupling reaction catalyzed by cytochrome P450.

  11. Milk yield and quality in Guernsey cows fed cottonseed cake-based diets partially substituted with baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) seed cake.

    Madzimure, James; Musimurimwa, Carmen; Chivandi, Eliton; Gwiriri, Lovemore; Mamhare, Eddison


    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of partially substituting cottonseed cake with graded levels of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) seed cake (BSC) on milk yield and quality in Guernsey cows. Sixteen cows in mid-lactation and in their third parity were allocated to diets containing 0% (control), 5%, 10%, and 15% BSC in a completely randomized design. Each cow was given a daily feed ration of 6 kg and a basal diet of soya bean stover ad libitum. There were no differences in daily feed intake (P > 0.05), but basal intake differed among all treatment groups with cows on the control diet having the highest intake (30 ± 0.34 kg/day). Mean daily milk yield differed (P  0.05). These results indicate that BSC can substitute soya bean cake in dairy diets, but milk production and butterfat content are compromised.


    Qijie Chen,


    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in using high-yield pulp (HYP as a partial replacement for hardwood bleached kraft pulp (HWBKP in the production of high-quality fine papers as a cost-effective way of improving the product performance. This study investigated the substitution of HYP for HWBKP and its effect on the Alkenyl Succinic Anhydride (ASA sizing performance. The results showed that the substitution of an aspen HYP for HWBKP can increase the ASA sizing performance at a HYP substitution as high as 15 to 20%. The ASA addition sequence has an influence on the ASA sizing performance and first adding ASA to the HYP followed by mixing with kraft pulps was the preferred method. Using precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC as a paper filler at a dosage of less than 20% can increase the ASA sizing performance due to the contribution of the calcium soap of the hydrolysed ASA. A PCC dosage greater than 20% resulted in a negative impact on the sizing performance. It was also found that different PCC loading sequences can also affect the ASA sizing performance.

  13. Sexual assault in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Olusegun Olalekan Badejoko


    Full Text Available Background: Sexual assault (SA is a shattering malevolence against women. This study determined the burden, periodicity, presentation and management of SA in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 76 SA survivors managed over a 5-year period (2007-2011 in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals complex (OAUTHC, Ile-Ife. Results: Sexual assault accounted for 0.69% of all female and 5.2% of all gynaecological emergencies in OAUTHC, Ile-Ife. The survivors′ ages ranged from 4 to 50 years (mean = 17.7 ± 8.8years and adolescents made up for 48%. The peak prevalence of SA was in February and December and among adults and under-16-year-old survivors, respectively. Daytime and weekday SA were significantly more common among the under-16-year-old survivors (P = 0.008. Majority of the survivors (62% knew their assailant(s. Neighbours were the commonest perpetrators identified (28.2% and the assailants′ house was the commonest location (39.4%. Weapons were involved in 29.6% of cases and various injuries were identified in 28.2% of the survivors. Hospital presentation was within 24 hours in majority (76.1% of the survivors, but rape kit examinations were not performed as the kits were not available. Although appropriate medical management was routinely commenced, only 12.7% of survivors returned for follow-up. Conclusions: Seasonal and diurnal patterns exist in the prevalence of SA in Ile-Ife and most survivors that reported in the hospital presented early. Rape kit examinations were, however, not executed, due to non-availability. Personnel training, protocol development, provision of rape kits and free treatment of SA survivors are, therefore, recommended. Public enlightenment on preventive strategies based on the observed periodicity and age patterns is also suggested.

  14. A proposed mutation, Val781Ile, associated with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis and cardiac dysrhythmia is a benign polymorphism.

    Green, D S; Hayward, L J; George, A L; Cannon, S C


    Twenty different point mutations have been identified in the gene coding for the alpha subunit of the adult skeletal muscle sodium channel in families with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, paramyotonia congenita, and the potassium-aggravated myotonias. One novel mutation (Val(781)Ile) was reported in an adopted boy with potassium-sensitive weakness and cardiac dysrhythmia. The confidence in establishing this rare amino acid substitution as a causative mutation was limited by the absence of family members for segregation analysis. Functional expression studies herein show that Val(781)Ile is most likely a benign polymorphism and not a disease-associated mutation.

  15. Review: Kandungan Mannan pada Tanaman Iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume.



    Full Text Available Mannan is a kind of polysaccharide that shaped from mannose and glucose with molar ratio 3:2. Sum of total mannan have a variation rate, influenced by the age, kind of plant, beginning treatment before drying and many other reason. This kind of carbohydrate is important for the plant, it self, and for human, it can be used for many industries. This polysaccharide produced most by a tuber like iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume. mannan polymer has a special character which have an attitude between cellulose and galactomannan, so have and ability to crystallize and shaping soft patterns. Besides Amorphophallus, mannan can be found in a small number of another plant, like Ivory nut, and some of Orchidaceae and some in subdivision Gymnosperm. The way to isolate can be in physically and chemically. And the benefits are for the development of many industries, like food, medical, paper, laboratory, etc.

  16. Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production



    Full Text Available Kusmiyati (2010 Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 7-13. The production of bioethanol increase rapidly because it is renewable energy that can be used to solve energy crisis caused by the depleting of fossil oil. The large scale production bioethanol in industry generally use feedstock such as sugarcane, corn, and cassava that are also required as food resouces. Therefore, many studies on the bioethanol process concerned with the use raw materials that were not competing with food supply. One of the alternative feedstock able to utilize for bioethanol production is the starchy material that available locally namely iles-iles (Amorphophallus mueller Blum. The contain of carbohydrate in the iles-iles tubers is around 71.12 % which is slightly lower as compared to cassava tuber (83,47%. The effect of various starting material, starch concentration, pH, fermentation time were studied. The conversion of starchy material to ethanol have three steps, liquefaction and saccharification were conducted using α-amylase and amyloglucosidase then fermentation by yeast S.cerevisiaie. The highest bioethanol was obtained at following variables starch:water ratio=1:4 ;liquefaction with 0.40 mL α-amylase (4h; saccharification with 0.40 mL amyloglucosidase (40h; fermentation with 10 mL S.cerevisiae (72h producing bioethanol 69,81 g/L from cassava while 53,49 g/L from iles-iles tuber. At the optimum condition, total sugar produced was 33,431 g/L from cassava while 16,175 g/L from iles-iles tuber. The effect of pH revealed that the best ethanol produced was obtained at pH 5.5 during fermentation occurred for both cassava and iles-iles tubers. From the results studied shows that iles-iles tuber is promising feedstock because it is producing bioethanol almost similarly compared to cassava.

  17. Substitution rate and milk yield response to corn silage supplementation of late-lactation dairy cows grazing low-mass pastures at 2 daily allowances in autumn.

    Pérez-Prieto, L A; Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R


    Feed costs in dairy production systems may be decreased by extending the grazing season to periods such as autumn when grazing low-mass pastures is highly probable. The aim of this autumn study was to determine the effect of corn silage supplementation [0 vs. 8 kg of dry matter (DM) of a mixture 7:1 of corn silage and soybean meal] on pasture intake (PI), milk production, and grazing behavior of dairy cows grazing low-mass ryegrass pastures at 2 daily pasture allowances (PA; low PA=18 vs. high PA=30 kg of DM/cow above 2.5 cm). Twelve multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Pre-grazing pasture mass and pre-grazing plate meter pasture height averaged 1.8 t of DM/ha (above 2.5 cm) and 6.3 cm, respectively. The quality of the offered pasture (above 2.5 cm) was low because of dry conditions before and during the experiment (crude protein=11.5% of DM; net energy for lactation=5.15 MJ/kg of DM; organic matter digestibility=61.9%). The interaction between PA and supplementation level was significant for PI but not for milk production. Supplementation decreased PI from 11.6 to 7.6 kg of DM/d at low PA and from 13.1 to 7.3 kg of DM/d at high PA. The substitution rate was, therefore, lower at low than at high PA (0.51 vs. 0.75). Pasture intake increased with increasing PA in unsupplemented treatments, and was not affected by PA in supplemented treatments. Milk production averaged 13.5 kg/d and was greater at high than at low PA (+1.4 kg/d) and in supplemented than unsupplemented treatments (+5.2 kg/d). Milk fat concentration averaged 4.39% and was similar between treatments. Milk protein concentration increased from 3.37 to 3.51% from unsupplemented to supplemented treatments, and did not vary according to PA. Grazing behavior parameters were only affected by supplementation. On average, daily grazing time decreased (539 vs. 436 min) and daily ruminating time increased (388 vs. 486 min) from 0 to 8 kg of supplement DM. The PI


    Edi Santosa


    Full Text Available Corm of iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume is extracted for glucomannan production, a material that is widely used in medicinal, food, and beverage industries. Increasing demand on glucomannan promotes fast expansion of planting area in Indonesia, however, seed availability is limited. The objective of the experiment was to study corm age, planting distance, and planting depth in order to enhance seed production in A. muelleri. Two experiments were conducted under paranet of 65% in Leuwikopo Experimental Farm, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB from June-November 2015. First experiment used 0- (bulbils, 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old corms. Second experiment used flowering 3-year-old corms, arranged by factorial of planting distance (0 × 0 cm and 50 × 50 cm and planting depth (0 and 5 cm in depth. Results showed that flowering of A. muelleri was dependent on corm age, 96% of 3-year-old corms produced flower but none of the 1- and 4-years-old corms produced flower, whereas 8% of 2-year-old corms produced flower. Planting distance did not affect flower growth, while planting at a depth of 5 cm enhanced seed production. Present experiments imply that application of large 3-year-old corms, planting in dense population and at depth of 5 cm could enhance seed production of A. muelleri. It needs further investigation on seed quality from flowering of present treatments.

  19. Pertumbuhan Bulbil Iles-Iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume Berbagai Ukuran pada Beberapa Jenis Media Tanam



    Full Text Available Iles-iles or porang produces various sizes of bulbils, and farmers usually use only large ones. In this study, all sizes of bulbil: small, medium and large were grown on several planting media types. The purpose of this experiment is to obtain the best bulbil growth and the most suitable media for the initial growth of plant material in the form of bulbil. In addition, this study aims to test the interaction of both factors, bulbil size and type of planting media on bulbils produced. The experiment was done in the Faculty of Agriculture UPN "Veteran" Yogyakarta experimental field in Condongcatur, at 115 m asl, at the beginning of rainy season of 2010/2011. The experiment was done with two-factors and three replications constructed in Randomized Block Design. The first factor was the size of the bulbil (U consisting of three levels: U1 small (± 1.5 gram, U2 medium (± 5 gram, and U3 large (± 10 gram. The second factor is the type of planting media which consists of three levels: M1 (soil + litter, M2 (soil + cow manure, and M3 (soil + chicken manure.The results showed that medium size and large size bulbil are good to be used as seeds, while the small one can be used as seed only if it has been maintained in special treatment. M3 planting medium (soil + chicken manure has given the best result compared to the other 2 treatments. Results of interaction test showed that there were interactions of both factors on some parameters including diameter leaf canopy, pseudo-stem diameter, root diameter and fresh weight of bulb.

  20. A differentially conserved residue (Ile42) of GH42 β-galactosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus BgaB is involved in both catalysis and thermostability.

    Dong, Yi-Ning; Chen, Hai-Qin; Sun, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei


    The glycoside hydrolase family 42 (GH42) of thermophilic microorganisms consists of thermostable β-galactosidases that display significant variations in their temperature optima and stabilities. In this study, we compared the substrate binding modes of 2 GH42 β-galactosidases, BgaB from Geobacillus stearothermophilus and A4-β-Gal from Thermus thermophilus A4. The A4-β-Gal has a catalytic triad (Glu312-Arg32-Glu35) with an extended hydrogen bond network that has not been observed in BgaB. In this study, we performed site-saturation mutagenesis of Ile42 in BgaB (equivalent to Glu312 in A4-β-Gal) to study the effects of different residues on thermostability, catalytic function, and the extended hydrogen bond network. Our experimental results suggest that substitution of Ile42 with polar AA enhanced the thermostability but decreased the catalytic efficiency of BgaB. Polar AA substitution for Ile42 simultaneously affected thermostability, catalytic efficiency, and the hydrogen bond network, suggesting that Ile42 is responsible for functional discrimination between members of the GH42 family. These observations could lead to a novel strategy for investigating the functional evolution of the GH42 β-galactosidases.

  1. Produksi Bioetanol dari Bahan Baku Singkong, Jagung dan Iles-iles :Pengaruh Suhu Fermentasi dan Berat Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    K. Kusmiyati


    Full Text Available Kebutuhan bahan bakar di masa sekarang semakin bertambah besar sehingga berdampak pada menipisnya sumber bahan bakar dan meningkatnya polusi udara di lingkungan. Penggunaan bahan bakar alternatif dari sumber non fosil merupakan pilihan terbaik sebagai pengganti bahan bakar fosil. Bioetanol merupakan salah satu energi alternatif yang tepat digunakan baik di masa sekarang ataupun di masa yang akan datang. Bahan baku etanol yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah singkong, dan iles-iles.Variabel penelitian yang diamati temperatur fermentasi (30°C; 40°C;­­ 50°C dan komposisi Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2,5 g; 5 g; 10 g; 15 g Proses pembuatan bioetanol terdiri dari hidrolisis enzim yaitun likuifikasi menggunakan a-amylase1,6% v/w (t = 1 jam; T = 95-100°C; pH 6 dan sakarifikasi menggunakan b-amylase 3,2% v/w (t = 4 jam; T = 60°C; pH 5 serta proses fermentasi menggunakan Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( t = 120 jam; pH 4,5; yeast 5 g. Kadar etanol tertinggi dihasilkan pada temperatur fermentasi 30°C untuk semua bahan baku dengan kadar etanol masing-masing 83,43 g/L untuk singkong,80,77 g/L untuk jagung,dan 79,94 g/L untuk iles-iles. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  2. The effect of yeast weight and temperature on ethanol production from sorghum and iles-iles flour

    Kusmiyati, Shitophyta, Lukhi Mulia


    An increased of human need that spend a lot of energy, especially fuel resulting in excessive energy consumption. Therefore, the existence of alternative energy that renewable and environmentally friendly, such as bioethanol is required. In this study the use of sorghum and iles-iles as raw materials for bioethanol production were investigated. The variables studied were the saccharification time, weight of dry yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae added in the starter culture (2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20 g) and fermentation temperature (30, 35, 40, 45, 50°C). Bioethanol production consisted of the enzymatic hydrolysis (liquefaction and saccharification), and fermentation. For liquefaction, 1.6% v/w α-amylase enzyme, 1 hour, T = 95-100° C, pH 6 were used. For saccharification, 3.2% v/w b-amylase enzyme, time 4,8,24,48 hours, T = 60°C, pH 5 were used. For fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast were used with conditions of time for 120 hours, pH 4.5. The effect of dry yeast weight and fermentation temperature indicated that 15 g yeast weight and temperature 30° C were found to be the best condition which resulted the highest ethanol concentration of 85.20 g/L and 79.94 g/L for sorghum and iles-iles flour, respectively.

  3. Obstetric hysterectomy: trend and outcome in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Badejoko, O O; Awowole, I O; Ijarotimi, A O; Badejoko, B O; Loto, O M; Ogunniyi, S O


    Worldwide, the incidence of obstetric hysterectomy is expected to be on the decline due to improvements in obstetric care. This hospital-based 10-year review (2001-10) was performed to determine its incidence and outcome in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The trend was determined by comparing the current incidence with that from two previous studies from the same centre. There were 58 obstetric hysterectomies and 15,194 deliveries during the review period, giving a rate of 3.8/1,000 deliveries. A rising trend was observed in the obstetric hysterectomy rate in Ile-Ife over two decades (1990-2010). Uterine rupture was the commonest indication (60%). Postoperative complications such as sepsis, vesico-vaginal fistula and renal failure affected 34.5% of the patients. Maternal and fetal case fatality rates were 18.2% and 43.6%, respectively. The obstetric hysterectomy rate in Ile-Ife is high and the trend is rising. Universal access to skilled birth attendance is advocated to reduce uterine rupture and consequently obstetric hysterectomy.

  4. Carcass and meat traits of Morada Nova, Santa Ines and ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs finished in feedlot

    Juliano Issakowicz


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the carcass and meat traits of Morada Nova, Santa Ines and ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs finished in feedlot. Weight and proportion of meatcuts, measures of carcass size and color, tenderness, cooking loss and ultimate pH of meat from 10 Morada Nova, 6 Santa Ines and 10 ½ Ile de France ½ Texel were evaluated. The lambs were finished in collective pens, fed ad libitum with 50% corn silage and 50% concentrate and slaughtered at about six months old. Analysis of variance was performed by the procedure PROC GLM of SAS (SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% significance. The Morada Nova lambs had values of 14.1 kg, 13.9 kg, 0.240 kg/cm, 56.2 cm and 35.8 cm for hot and cold carcass weight, compactness index, hip and leg circumference respectively and these values were lower (P <0.05 to values observed in Santa Ines (19.4 kg, 18.8 kg, 0.283 cm/kg, 64.6 cm and 40.0 cm and in ½ Ile de France ½ Texel (18.6 kg, 18.2 kg, 0.305 cm/kg; 65.4 cm and 41.6 cm lambs. The hot and cold carcass yield did not differ (P> 0.05 among genetic groups. The scores for conformation and fat cover were higher (P <0.05 in ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs (2.4 and 3.0 and the carcass length was greater in Santa Ines lambs (66.3 cm. The ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs had smaller (P<0.05 proportion of neck and greater of leg (9.10% and 33.1% compared to Morada Nova lambs (10.3% and 30.4% and Santa Inês (10.9% and 31.6%. The weight of shoulder, leg, rack, ribs and flank was lower (P<0.05 in Morada Nova (1.306, 2.127 kg, 0.999 kg, 0.775 kg and 0.433 kg respectively compared to Santa Inês (1.820 kg, 2.972 kg, 1.355 kg, 0.959 and 0.509 kg and ½ Ile de France ½ Texel (1.791 kg, 3.007 kg, 1.212 kg, 1.016 kg and 0.563 kg. The neck was heavier in Santa Ines (1.038 kg which differed (P <0.05 from the other genetic groups (0.725 kg for Morada Nova and 0.830 kg for ½ Ile de France x ½ Texel lambs. The ½ Ile de

  5. GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism and prostate cancer risk: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    Bingbing Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1 is thought to be involved in the detoxification of reactive carcinogen metabolites. Numerous epidemiological studies have evaluated the association of GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism with the risk of prostate cancer. However, the results remain inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation, a meta-analysis was performed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A comprehensive search was conducted to identify the eligible studies. We used odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs to assess the strength of the relationship. The overall association was not significant (Val/Val vs. Ile/Ile OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.90-1.25, P = 0.50; Val/Val vs. Val/Ile+Ile/Ile: OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.91-1.25, P = 0.44. In subgroup analyses by ethnicity and prostate cancer grade, the similar results were observed. However, in stratified analysis by clinical stage, we found a significant association with low-stage prostate cancer (Val/Val vs. Ile/Ile: OR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.73-4.22, P<0.001; Val/Val vs. Val/Ile+Ile/Ile: OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.38-3.33, P = 0.001. Moreover, there was no statistically significant evidence of multiplicative interactions neither between the GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism and GSTM1, nor between smoking status and GSTP1 on prostate cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis showed that GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism might not be significantly associated with overall prostate cancer risk. Further stratified analyses showed a significant association with low-stage prostate cancer.

  6. Efek Imunostimulasi Ekstrak Etanol Umbi Iles-iles Terhadap Aktivitas Fagositosis Sel Makrofag pada Tikus Putih Strain Wistar yang Diinokulasi Staphylococcus aureus

    Arfatul Makiyah


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to test the activity of macrophages based on the notion that macrophages play an important role in the immune response. This study analyzed the phagocytic activities due to the effects of flavonoids and polysaccharides iles-iles tubers in the immune response. The aim of this study was to analyze the immunostimulation effect of iles-iles tubers ethanol extract on phagocytic activities of macrophages in Wistar strain white rat inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus. This study used a complete randomized design with wistar strain white rat. This study was conducted at the Clinical Pathology Laboratory of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital from January–March 2012. Wistar strain white rats (n=30 were divided into 5 groups. Wistar strain white rats in each treatment group were given treatment that was administered orally for 7 days from 1–7 January 2012. The result shows that the number of macrophages in iles-iles tubers ethanol extract group that received 220 mg /kgBW dose after 1 hour, 3 hours, and 6 hours of treatment was higher than that of the tuber-iles iles ethanol extract that received 110 mg /kgBW and 55 mg/kgBW (p<0.05, both for Zymosan A comparison group and control group (p<0.05. Conclusion of this study is iles-iles tubers ethanol extract (Amorphophallus variabilis BL. is effective for immune-stimulatory healing activity and has better effectiveness for improving immune response compared to zymosan A 35 mg/ kgBW.

  7. Ethanol Production from Non-Food Tubers of Iles-iles (Amorphophallus campanulatus by Using Separated Hydrolysis and Fermentation

    Kusmiyati Kusmiyati


    Full Text Available The decrease in production and the raise in needs have led to the rise in oil prices. This work investigated the possibility of Iles-iles (Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber flour, which is rich in carbohydrate con-tent, as a raw material to produce bioethanol. To obtain the maximum ethanol concentration, several parameters had been studied, such as: the concentration of α-amylase and β-amylase in liquefaction and sac-charification processes, respectively, the type of S. cerevisiae enzyme (pure, dry, wet and instant and weight of Diammonium phosphate (DAP as a nutrient for S. cerevisiae in fermentation. The result shows that the highest reducing sugar content (12.5% was achieved when 3.2 ml α-amylase/kg flour and 6.4 ml β-amylase/kg flour were used during liquefaction and saccharification processes. Since the concentration of α- and β-amylase increased, the reducing sugar obtained also increased. The higher sugar content resulted the higher the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth. Furthermore, the highest concentration of ethanol (9 %v/v was obtained at 72 h fermentation using the dry S. cerevisiae, at 3.2 ml and 6.4 ml /kg flour of α-amylase and β-amylase enzymes, respectively. From the study of the effect of S. cerevisiae type, it was shown that dry S. cereviseae produced the highest ethanol concentration 10.2% (v/v at 72 h fermentation. The DAP was used as a nitrogen supply required by S. cerevisiae to growth and as a results can increase the ethanol concentration. The addition of DAP in the fermentation proved that 8.45% (v/v of ethanol was obtained. This result shows that the proposed tuber flour has the potential a raw material for bioethanol production. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 7th January 2014; Revised: 10th March 2014; Accepted: 18th March 2014[How to Cite: Kusmiyati, K. (2014. Ethanol Production from Non-Food Tubers of Iles-iles (Amorphophallus campanulatus by using Separated Hydrolysis and

  8. Empirical codon substitution matrix

    Gonnet Gaston H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Codon substitution probabilities are used in many types of molecular evolution studies such as determining Ka/Ks ratios, creating ancestral DNA sequences or aligning coding DNA. Until the recent dramatic increase in genomic data enabled construction of empirical matrices, researchers relied on parameterized models of codon evolution. Here we present the first empirical codon substitution matrix entirely built from alignments of coding sequences from vertebrate DNA and thus provide an alternative to parameterized models of codon evolution. Results A set of 17,502 alignments of orthologous sequences from five vertebrate genomes yielded 8.3 million aligned codons from which the number of substitutions between codons were counted. From this data, both a probability matrix and a matrix of similarity scores were computed. They are 64 × 64 matrices describing the substitutions between all codons. Substitutions from sense codons to stop codons are not considered, resulting in block diagonal matrices consisting of 61 × 61 entries for the sense codons and 3 × 3 entries for the stop codons. Conclusion The amount of genomic data currently available allowed for the construction of an empirical codon substitution matrix. However, more sequence data is still needed to construct matrices from different subsets of DNA, specific to kingdoms, evolutionary distance or different amount of synonymous change. Codon mutation matrices have advantages for alignments up to medium evolutionary distances and for usages that require DNA such as ancestral reconstruction of DNA sequences and the calculation of Ka/Ks ratios.

  9. Modeling of pollution aerosols in Ile-de-France; Modelisation des aerosols de pollution en Ile-de-France

    Hodzic, A


    The modeling of aerosols is a major stake in the understanding of the emission processes and evolution of particulates in the atmosphere. However, the parameterizations used in today's aerosol models still comprise many uncertainties. This work has been motivated by the need of better identifying the weaknesses of aerosols modeling tools and by the necessity of having new validation methods for a 3D evaluation of models. The studies have been carried out using the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model, which allows to simulate the concentrations and physico-chemical characteristics of pollution aerosols at the European scale and in Ile-de-France region. The validation approach used is based on the complementarity of the measurements performed on the ground by monitoring networks with those acquired during the ESQUIF campaign (study and simulation of air quality in Ile-de-France), with lidar and photometric measurements and with satellite observations. The comparison between the observations and the simulations has permitted to identify and reduce the modeling errors, and to characterize the aerosol properties in the vicinity of an urban area. (J.S.)

  10. Substitutional analysis

    Rutherford, Daniel Edwin


    Classic monograph, suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Topics include calculus of permutations and tableaux, semi-normal representation, orthogonal and natural representations, group characters, and substitutional equations. 1968 edition.

  11. Sugar Substitutes

    ... drinks. You may also have heard them called "artificial sweeteners" or "non-caloric sweeteners." They can be used ... of nutrition for your body.What sugar substitutes/artificial sweeteners are approved by the FDA?The following sugar ...

  12. Childhood intussusception in Ile-ife: What has changed?

    Ademola Olusegun Talabi


    Full Text Available Background: Intussusception is one of the most common causes of intestinal obstruction in children. While the outcome has improved in the developed nations, the same cannot be said of the developing countries, more especially in the sub-Saharan region. This study aims to review our current experience in the management of childhood intussusception and factors affecting surgical outcome at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile-Ife. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 78 patients treated for intussusception at paediatric surgical unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile-Ife between January 1993 and December 2011. The case notes of the patients were retrieved and the following information was recorded: Demographic characteristics, month of occurrence, clinical presentation, investigations, and management as well as the post-operative outcome. The patients were divided into two groups in terms of outcome. Results: There were 58 males and 20 females (M:F = 2.9-1. The age of most of the patients was between 3 months and 9 months with peak incidence at 6 months. Most patients 46 (58.9% were seen during the dry season of December to April. Only six patients (7.7% presented within 24 hours of onset of illness. More than half of the patients presented after 24 hours. Passage of red currant stool, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, and abdominal distension, passage of watery stool, anal protrusion and palpable abdominal mass in various combinations were the clinical features. All the patients had surgical operations. The most common type of intussusception was ileo-colic type in 64 patients (82.1%. Intestinal resection rate was 41%. The overall mortality rate was 15.4%. Conclusion: There was a delay in presentation of children with intussusception with high post-operative mortality.

  13. Childhood intussusception in Ile-ife: what has changed?

    Talabi, Ademola Olusegun; Sowande, Oludayo Adedapo; Etonyeaku, Chiduziem Amarachukwu; Adejuyigbe, Olusanya


    Intussusception is one of the most common causes of intestinal obstruction in children. While the outcome has improved in the developed nations, the same cannot be said of the developing countries, more especially in the sub-Saharan region. This study aims to review our current experience in the management of childhood intussusception and factors affecting surgical outcome at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile-Ife. This was a retrospective study of 78 patients treated for intussusception at paediatric surgical unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile-Ife between January 1993 and December 2011. The case notes of the patients were retrieved and the following information was recorded: Demographic characteristics, month of occurrence, clinical presentation, investigations, and management as well as the post-operative outcome. The patients were divided into two groups in terms of outcome. There were 58 males and 20 females (M:F = 2.9-1). The age of most of the patients was between 3 months and 9 months with peak incidence at 6 months. Most patients 46 (58.9%) were seen during the dry season of December to April. Only six patients (7.7%) presented within 24 hours of onset of illness. More than half of the patients presented after 24 hours. Passage of red currant stool, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, and abdominal distension, passage of watery stool, anal protrusion and palpable abdominal mass in various combinations were the clinical features. All the patients had surgical operations. The most common type of intussusception was ileo-colic type in 64 patients (82.1%). Intestinal resection rate was 41%. The overall mortality rate was 15.4%. There was a delay in presentation of children with intussusception with high post-operative mortality.

  14. Indication for eye removal in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Adeoye, A O; Onakpoya, O H


    The indication for surgical eye removal reflects the pattern of severe ocular diseases in a given community and gives insight into the causes of uniocular blindness. It is an unfortunate end to certain ocular morbidities. In instances where the fellow eye is already blind, it then becomes even more grievous. The aim of the study is to find out the reasons for surgical eye removal in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC) Ile-Ife. Nigeria. Retrospective analytic study of records of all patients who had their eyes removed in the Ophthalmic theatre of OAUTHC Ile-Ife from January 1994 - December 2003 were reviewed without prejudice to method of such removal. A total of 94 eyes were removed during this 10 year period, out of which 92 records were available for inclusion in this study. 30.4% of the patients were below 10 years of age. The male to female ratio was 2.1:1. All cases of eye removal were uniocular. Trauma was the leading cause of eye removal (43.4%) while orbito-ocular tumour was next (30.4%). Tumour was the leading cause of eye removal in the paediatric age group (87.2%) with Retinoblastoma being the commonest indication. Six out of the 92 (6.5%) patients studied unfortunately were already blind in the second eye; in this group of individuals the reason for eye removal was preventable in 83.3%. Most of the indications for eye removal were avoidable. Eye health education is needful for the general populace and particularly for individuals with an 'only' eye.

  15. Typhoid perforation: determinants of outcome in children in Ile-Ife ...

    Typhoid perforation: determinants of outcome in children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. ... Aim: To highlight the factors that adversely influence treatment outcome ... of children aged 1 to 15 years with typhoid fever admitted to OAUTHC, Ile-Ife, over a ...

  16. Solvent substitution


    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  17. Incidence of Bacterial Septicaemia in Ile-Ife Metropolis, Nigeria

    Komolafe, A. O.


    Full Text Available A retrospective study of septicaemia was conducted in Ile-Ife metropolis with a view to determine its incidence and changes in the predominant aetiological agents. Six hundred and fifty (650 subjects, aged from one day to seventy years and above were examined. They all had clinical features suggestive of septicaemia and were on admission at the Obafemi Awolowo University hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Their blood specimens were seeded into thioglycolate and glucose broths and incubated at 37 °C for 7 days. Subcultures were performed after 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 days respectively. Growth (positivity in the broths was assessed using conventional diagnostic methods namely macroscopy (visualization, Gram filming (microscopy and culture. The bacterial isolates harvested were subjected to in-vitro antibiotic susceptibility tests using the disc diffusion method. Etiology was established in 204 out of 650 subjects indicating an incidence of 31.4%. This difference in prevalence among different age groups was statistically significant (P 0.01. Monomicrobial septicaemia had a higher prevalence (92.2% than polymicrobial septicaemia (7.8%. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli constituted 43.8%. Most of the offensive microbes were facultative anaerobes (91.7% while very few were strict aerobes (6.8% and strict anaerobes (1.5%. The isolated anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus sp. (0.5% and Bacteroides fragilis (1%. The in vitro susceptibility of the bacterial isolates to antibiotics indicated 76.4-95.6% sensitivity to vancomycin, zinnat, peflacin and fortum. However, they were 60 – 90% resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline and septrin. This study confirmed the diverse nature of bacterial etiologies of septicaemia in the area; the need for the use of thioglycolate broths, first subcultures on or before 24 h instead of starting off for after 48 h of incubation, complementary application of macroscopy, Gram filming and culture including

  18. Preliminary experience with laparoscopic surgery in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Adisa, A O; Arowolo, O A; Salako, A A; Lawal, O O


    This study presents a pioneer experience with laparoscopic operations in a General Surgical unit of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Consecutive patients who had laparoscopic operations from April through December 2008 were prospectively studied. Following clinical diagnosis, initial diagnostic laparoscopy was undertaken in all patients, followed by therapeutic open or laparoscopic procedures. All procedures were done under general anaesthesia. Duration of operation and outcome including complications were recorded. In all, there were 12 patients (8 males, 4 females), aged 15 to 50 years. Eight patients had clinical diagnoses of acute appendicitis, one each had undetermined right lower abdominal pain suspected ectopic gestation, adhesive intestinal obstruction and metastatic liver disease. The first 4 patients with inflammed appendix confirmed at laparoscopy had open appendicectomy. Of the next cohort of 5 patients, laparoscopic appendicectomy was completed in four but converted to open procedure in one. Normal findings were noted in the lady with suspected ectopic gestation. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis was done for adhesive intestinal obstruction while a laparoscopic liver biopsy was done for the patient with metastatic liver disease. Operative time ranged from 55-105 minutes with marked reduction in operation time as confidence and experience grew. No intraoperative complication was observed but one patient had superficial port site infection postoperatively. We conclude that with good patient selection and some improvisation, laparoscopic general surgical operations are feasible with acceptable outcome even in a poor resource setting.

  19. KNG1 Ile581Thr and susceptibility to venous thrombosis.

    Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Cohen, William; Germain, Marine; Saut, Noémie; Antoni, Guillemette; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Bertrand, Marion; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Letenneur, Luc; Lathrop, Mark; Lopez, Lorna M; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Emmerich, Joseph; Amouyel, Philippe; Trégouët, David-Alexandre


    Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were recently found to be associated with activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Because shortened aPTT levels have been observed in patients experiencing venous thrombosis (VT), we investigated the effects of these 3 aPTT-associated SNPs, rs2731672, rs9898, and rs710446, on the risk of VT in a sample of 1110 healthy patients and 1542 patients with VT. Among the 3 tested SNPs, only rs710446 was associated with VT risk; the rs710446-C allele was associated with an increased risk of VT (odds ratio 1.196, 95% confidence interval 1.071-1.336, P = .0012). This association also was observed in an independent sample of 590 controls and 596 patients (odds ratio 1.171, 95% confidence interval 0.889-1.541, P = .059). We also confirmed that the rs710446-C allele was associated with decreased aPTT levels, making this nonsynonymous Ile581Thr variant a new genetic risk factor for VT.

  20. Sensory Substitution

    Verrillo, Ronald T.

    The idea that the cutaneous surface may be employed as a substitute for the eyes and ears is by no means a modern notion. Although the sense of touch has long been considered as a surrogate for both the visual and auditory modalities, the focus of this chapter will be on the efforts to develop a tactile substitute for hearing, especially that of human speech. The visual system is our primary means of processing information about environmental space such as orientation, distance, direction and size. It is much less effective in making temporal discriminations. The auditory system is unparalleled in processing information that involves rapid sequences of temporal events, such as speech and music. The tactile sense is capable of processing both spatial and temporal information although not as effective in either domain as the eye or the ear.

  1. Substituting complements

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Parisi, F.; Heller, M.


    The presence of multiple sellers in the provision of (nonsubstitutable) complementary goods leads to outcomes that are worse than those generated by a monopoly (with a vertically integrated production of complements), a problem known in the economic literature as complementary oligopoly and recently popularized in the legal literature as the tragedy of the anticommons. We ask the following question: how many substitutes for each complement are necessary to render the presence of multiple sell...

  2. Constitutive activation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR by mutating Ile691 in the cytoplasmic tail segment.

    Zheng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism (ADNAH is a rare genetic disorder of the endocrine system. Molecular genetic studies in ADNAH have revealed heterozygous germline mutations in the TSHR. To data, mutations leading to an increase in the constitutive activation of the TSHR have been described in the transmembrane segments, exoloops and cytoplasmic loop of TSHR. These mutations result in constitutive activation of the G(αs/cAMP or G(αq/11/inositol phosphate (IP pathways, which stimulate thyroid hormone production and thyroid proliferation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a previous study, we reported a new TSHR mutation located in the C-terminal domain of TSHR, which results in a substitution of the conserved Ile(691 for Phe. In this study, to address the question of whether the I691F mutated receptor could be responsible for G(αs/cAMP or G(αq/11/IP constitutive activity, wild-type and TSHR mutants were expressed in COS-7 cells to determine cAMP constitutive activity and IP formation. Compared to the cell surface with expression of the A623V mutated receptor as positive control, the I691F mutated receptor showed a slight increase of cAMP accumulation. Furthermore, I691F resulted in constitutive activation of the G(αq/11/IP signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that Ile(691 not only contributes to keeping TSHR inactive in the G(αs/cAMP pathways but also in the G(αq/11/IP cascade.

  3. Identification of high affinity bioactive Salbutamol conformer directed against mutated (Thr164Ile) beta 2 adrenergic receptor.

    Bandaru, Srinivas; Tiwari, Geet; Akka, Jyothy; Marri, Vijaya Kumar; Alvala, Mallika; Gutlapalli, Venkata Ravi; Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Mundluru, Hema Prasad


    Salbutamol forms an important and widely administered β2 agonist prescribed in the symptomatic treatment of bronchial asthma. Unfortunately, a subset of patients show refractoriness to it owing to ADRB2 gene variant (rs 1800888). The variant substitutes Thr to Ile at the position 164 in the β2 adrenergic receptor leading to sub-optimal binding of agonists. The present study aims to associate the Salbutamol response with the variant and select the bioactive conformer of Sabutamol with optimal binding affinity against mutated receptor by in silico approaches. To assess bronchodilator response spirometry was performed before and 15 min after Salbutamol (200 mcg) inhalation. Responders to Salbutamol were categorized if percentage reversibility was greater than or equal to 12%, while those showing FEV₁ reversibility less than 12% were classified as non-responders. Among the 344 subjects screened, 238 were responders and 106 were non-responders. The frequency of mutant allele "T" was significantly higher in case of non-responders (p Salbutamol conformer ensembles supported by systematic search algorithm. 4369 conformers were generated of which only 1882 were considered bioactive conformers (threshold RMSD≤1 in reference to normalized structure of salbutamol). All the bioactive conformers were evaluated for the binding affinity against (Thr164 Ile) receptor through MolDock aided docking algorithm. One of the bioactive conformer (P.E. = -57.0038, RMSD = 0.6) demonstrated 1.54 folds greater affinity than the normal Salbutamol in the mutated receptor. The conformer identified in the present study may be put to pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies in future ahead.

  4. Beliefs and Perceptions of Pregnant Women at Ileşa About ...

    Beliefs and Perceptions of Pregnant Women at Ileşa About Caesarean Section. ... it is the devil's work; punishment for marital infidelity or out of doctors self interest. ... Conclusion: More pregnant women supported caesarean section than were ...

  5. Changing Water-Resources on Ile de la Gonave, Haiti

    Troester, J. W.


    Ile de la Gonave is a 750-square-kilometer island off the western coast of Haiti. The island is composed of Eocene and Miocene limestones unconformably overlain by Pleistocene limestone. The highest elevation is 778 meters. Annual precipitation varies across the island because of the orographic effect and ranges from 800 to 1,400 millimeters. There is no surface water except immediately after large storms. Droughts, some extending for more than one year, and frequent crop failures due to droughts have been reported. Potential evaporation is estimated to be about 2,000 millimeters at the coast, but less at higher elevations. Consequently most rain is lost through evapotranspiration; recharge to the limestone aquifers apparently occurs only after large storms and is estimated to be about 4 percent of the mean annul precipitation based on a chloride mass balance. Depth to the water table ranges from less than 30 meters in the Eocene and Miocene limestones to over 60 meters in the 300-meter thick Quaternary limestone. Average annual precipitation at Port au-Prince (50 kilometers to the east and on the main island of Hispaniola) has decreased from about 1600 millimeters in 1860's to about 1300 mm in the 1950's. Precipitation data from Port-au-Prince after the 1950's are sporadic, making further comments about climate change difficult. Even without decreasing precipitation, which may be due in part to climate change or the deforestation of Haiti, the increasing population on Ile de la Gonave has and will continue to exacerbate the scarce water supply, particularly because of the small number of sources (springs, cave pools, and wells) where people can obtain water. Women take an average of almost three hours per day to travel an average of 2.5 kilometers (one-way) to obtain water for their families. Because of the difficulties in obtaining freshwater, the 100,000 inhabitants use an average of only 7 to 13 liters per person per day. Reconnaissance field analyses indicate

  6. Prof Dr Zeki Soysal’a Saygi ile

    Sermet Koç


    Full Text Available Dr. Sermet KOÇ Zeki Hoca’mızın kim olduğunu, neler yapıp; neler bıraktığını anlatmayacağım, gerek te yok, çoğumuz biliyor. Ama bilmeyenler var ise, internette bir tuşla öğrenebilirler. Seni yitirmemizin üzerinden aylar geçti, yokluğuna alışamadık Zeki Hocam! Her gün anabilim dalının kapısından girince sanki birden yine karşılaşacağımızı ve o içten ‘abi’ sesinle yine “Günaydın, nasılsın Sermet?" diye sesleneceğini sanıyorum. Sadece ben mi? Bu her gün küçülen çatımızda çalışmaya devam eden diğer arkadaşların da, eminim aynı hisse sık sık kapılmaktalar. Onun kapısı, tabir caiz ise, gerçek bir “Mevlana kapısı" idi. Bu kapının konuğu hiç eksik olmazdı ve Zeki Ahi’miz her defasında herkesi ayakta aynı içtenlikle karşılar, uzun uzun sohbet etmek, sorunlarını paylaşmak isterdi. Odasında, masalar üzerinde elle yazılmış veya bilgisayar çıktısı rulo rulo kağıtlardan; onun yeni bir kitap üzerinde çalıştığını anlamak hiç de zor olmazdı ve her çalışmasına bir çok kişiyi ortak etmeyi (çoğu kez gerekmese de bir hoca olarak görevi gibi kabul ederdi. Yine arka odasındaki sürekli kaynayan çaydanlığın sesi ve tezgahta dizili çay ve kahve bardakları, o gün gelecek konuklarını beklerdi. Şimdi bize, Adli Tıbbın mazisi ile ilgili sıra dışı anılar, öyküler anlatacak pek de kimse kalmadı. Zeki Hoca’nın Adli Tıptaki ilk yılları.. Şemsi Hoca ile bir kaç doktor ve teknisyen ile akşamlara kadar yapılan otopsiler; gecelere kadar yapılan dosyalar ve sonrasında kurulan sofralar; daha sonra araya giren Malta günleri, Kadın-Doğum Kliniği’nde geçen asistanlık yılları; sonra tekrar yuvaya dönüş,.. öğrenci, asistan ve mesai arkadaşları ile paylaşılan sayısız anı. Hastalığının birkaç yıl öncesinde çok sevdiği kızı ve eşi ile birlikte Şile’de yazlık almışlardı da; ama o yine tatilinin

  7. β2-adrenergic receptor Thr164Ile polymorphism, obesity, and diabetes

    Thomsen, Mette; Dahl, Morten; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne;


    The β(2)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) influences regulation of energy balance by stimulating catecholamine-induced lipolysis in adipose tissue. The rare functional ADRB2rs1800888(Thr164Ile) polymorphism could therefore influence risk of obesity and subsequently diabetes.......The β(2)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) influences regulation of energy balance by stimulating catecholamine-induced lipolysis in adipose tissue. The rare functional ADRB2rs1800888(Thr164Ile) polymorphism could therefore influence risk of obesity and subsequently diabetes....

  8. Factor substitution in nursing homes.

    Cawley, John; Grabowski, David C; Hirth, Richard A


    This paper studies factor substitution in one important sector: the nursing home industry. Specifically, we measure the extent to which nursing homes substitute materials for labor when labor becomes relatively more expensive. From a policy perspective, factor substitution in this market is important because materials-intensive methods of care are associated with greater risks of morbidity and mortality among nursing home residents. Studying longitudinal data from 1991 to 2000 on nearly every nursing home in the United States, we use the method of instrumental variables (IV) to address measurement error in nursing home wages. The results from the IV models yield evidence of factor substitution: higher nursing home wages are associated with greater use of psychoactive drugs and lower quality.

  9. Zn(II iyonlarının piromellitik dianhidrit ile modifiye edilmiş poliamin poliüre polimeri ile adsorpsiyonu

    Çiğdem Özer


    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada sulu çözeltilerden Zn(II iyonlarının piromellitik dianhidrit ile modifiye edilmiş poliamin- poliüre polimeri (PMPPP üzerine adsorpsiyonu incelenmiştir. Adsorpsiyon çalışmasına etkisi incelenen parametreler; pH, temas süresi, PMPPP dozu, Zn(II başlangıç konsantrasyonudur. Langmuir ve Freundlich izoterm modelleri kullanılarak analiz edilen Zn(II adsorpsiyonunun deneysel verileri, tek tabakalı adsorpsiyonu ifade eden Langmuir izotermi ile daha yüksek uyum göstermiştir. Langmuir izotermine göre Zn(II iyonları için PMPPP’nin maksimum adsorpsiyon kapasitesi 119.1 mg g-1 olarak hesaplanmıştır. PMPPP ile Zn(II iyonlarının adsorpsiyon kinetiği pseudo ikinci derece modeli ile uyumlu bulunmuştur. Zn(II adsorpsiyonu için termodinamik hesaplar prosesin ekzotermik ve kendiliğinden gerçekleşme eğiliminde olduğunu göstermiştir.

  10. Synthesis of substituted 2-cyanoarylboronic esters

    Lysén, Morten; Hansen, Henriette M; Begtrup, Mikael


    The synthesis of substituted 2-cyanoarylboronic esters is described via lithiation/in situ trapping of the corresponding methoxy-, trifluoromethyl-, fluoro-, chloro-, and bromobenzonitriles. The crude arylboronic esters were obtained in high yields and purities and with good regioselectivities....

  11. Iles Eparses (SW Indian Ocean) as reference ecosystems for environmental research

    Quétel, C.; Marinesque, S.; Ringler, D.; Fillinger, L.; Changeux, T.; Marteau, C.; Troussellier, M.


    TAAF ensures since 2007 the management of 5 small tropical islands lying in the southwestern Indian Ocean: the Iles Eparses. These islands share an exceptional natural heritage including many marine and terrestrial endemic species. At a regional scale the Iles Eparses are some of the most pristine ecosystems, largely preserved from anthropogenic impacts due to their geographical isolation and a historically very limited human occupation. In this context, TAAF wished that Iles Eparses become unique natural laboratories for earth scientists and environmental process observation - like climate change impacts - but also sustainable biodiversity sanctuaries for which the scientific community should provide baseline ecological data to inform on appropriate conservation tools. An inter-agency research consortium emerged in 2009 to meet this commitment for the Iles Eparses. This program was intended to set a science framework in accordance with France' objectives for Research and Conservation. It enabled between 2009 and 2014 the implementation of 18 cross-disciplinary research projects ranging from geology to ecology and represented by the variety of the proposed articles in this special issue. Altogether research projects have dramatically increased knowledge on the Iles Eparses' ecosystems and have provided the first overview of their diversity, their functions and their dynamics and its determinants. In particular applied research efforts have supplied a significant amount of ecological evidence that is now available to develop optimal conservation strategy to ensure the Iles Eparses' long-term biodiversity value. These findings point out that the continuation of research activity in the Iles Eparses should be considered a priority.

  12. The ILE project: a scalable option for customized information literacy instruction and assessment

    Steve Borrelli


    Full Text Available With the vast amount of information available today, information literacy (IL education is a critical component of undergraduate education necessary to prepare students for tomorrow’s world. Instructors want students to demonstrate critical thinking skills and are often disappointed with student submissions resulting from undeveloped IL skills. Library Instruction programs are often tasked with addressing this educational need and often struggle to find a scalable method to provide IL instruction to the student body. The Information Literacy Education (ILE Project is an asynchronous learning environment tailored to deliver instruction and assessment. Posited as a customizable option to present IL instruction, this flexible learning environment can be tailored to develop skills not taught in the classroom setting, but often expected of the students as they complete their research projects. Applications of ILE at a major research institution are presented demonstrating the variety of ways the Library Instruction department has integrated ILE into its curriculum.

  13. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  14. Time-series gene expression prof iles in AGS cells stimulated with Helicobacter pylori


    AIM: To extend the knowledge of the dynamic interaction between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and host mucosa. METHODS: A time-series cDNA microarray was performed in order to detect the temporal gene expression prof iles of human gastric epithelial adenocarcinoma cells infected with H. pylori. Six time points were selected to observe the changes in the model. A differential expression prof ile at each time point was obtained by comparing the microarray signal value with that of 0 h. Real-time polymerase ...

  15. Formation of substituted oxa- and azarhodacyclobutanes.

    Dauth, Alexander; Rigling, Carla; Tsoung, Jennifer; Love, Jennifer A


    The preparation of substituted oxa- and azarhodacyclobutanes is reported. After exchange of ethylene with a variety of unsymmetrically and symmetrically substituted alkenes, the corresponding rhodium-olefin complexes were oxidized with H2O2 and PhINTs (Ts=p-toluenesulfonyl) to yield the substituted oxa- and azarhodacyclobutanes, respectively. Oxarhodacyclobutanes could be prepared with excellent selectivity for incorporation of the oxygen atom on the more substituted carbon atom of the alkene. At the same time, azarhodacyclobutanes showed good-to-excellent selectivity for heteroatom incorporation on the less substituted carbon. Furthermore, it was shown that steric modifications of the ancillary ligand have a significant influence on the selectivity of Rh-olefin complex formation as well as formation of the substituted azametallacycles.

  16. The substitution bias of the consumer price index

    Frenger, Petter


    Abstract: The paper uses elementary consumer theory to propose an inflation independent ratio definition of the substitution bias of the Laspeyres consumer price index, and derives an approximate substitution bias which depends on the size of the price change as measured by a norm in the Laspeyres plane and on the elasticity of substitution in the direction of the price change. This norm or distance measure can be interpreted as a price substitution index which yields useful in...

  17. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.


    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  18. Detection of GSTM1, GSTT1 and the Ile105Val GSTP1 gene variants

    Buchard, Anders; Sanchez, Juan J.; Dalhoff, Kim;


    We have developed a PCR multiplex method that in a fast, inexpensive and reliable manner can detect if a person has two, one or no GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and which at the same time can detect the allelic status of the GSTP1 Ile105Val genetic variant. A total of 200 Danes, 100 Somalis and 100 Green...

  19. Characterization of the Met326Ile variant of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85alpha

    Almind, Katrine; Delahaye, Laurent; Hansen, Torben;


    knockout mice. Both p85alpha(Met) and p85alpha(Ile) had similar effects on AKT activity and were able to reconstitute differentiation of the preadipocytes, although the triglyceride concentration in fully differentiated adipocytes and insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake were slightly lower than...

  20. role of campylobacter jejuni/cou in diarrhoea in ile-ife, nigeria

    country in 1981 and the South-Western part in Ile-Ife in 1983. Objective: To ... compare current isolation rate with that of 1983 and to determine the ... All plates were incubated in candle extinction jars at 37°C for. 48 hours. ... Campylobacter species. Six (6%) of .... such as Central African Republic, Chile and Hong. Kong, С ...

  1. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.


    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  2. Diffusion and Focusing: Phonological Variation and Social Networks in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Salami, L. Oladipo


    Reports on the application of the concept of social network to the process of language usage among Yoruba-speaking city dwellers in Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria. The study focuses on phonetic/phonological variation within common spoken Yoruba. (41 references) (GLR)

  3. Management of Primary Dysmenorrhea by School Adolescents in ILE-IFE, Nigeria

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A.; Babatunde, Oluwayemisi A.


    Dysmenorrhea is a problem that girls and women face and often manage themselves with or without support from health professionals. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescents with dysmenorrhea (N = 150) in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The aims of the study were to determine their knowledge of menstruation and primary dysmenorrhea,…

  4. Association of GSTP1 Ile105Val gene polymorphism and uterine leiomyoma in Iranian population

    Salva Sadat Mostafavi Dehraisi


    Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study performed in Iranian population assessing the association between GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism and risk of uterine leiomyoma. However, further extensive researches with a large number of samples from different populations and ethnicities are required to validate the results obtained in this study.

  5. Val103Ile polymorphism of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R in cancer cachexia

    Scherag André


    Full Text Available Abstract Background At present pathogenic mechanisms of cancer cachexia are poorly understood. Previous evidence in animal models implicates the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R in the development of cancer cachexia. In humans, MC4R mutations that lead to an impaired receptor function are associated with obesity; in contrast, the most frequent polymorphism (Val103Ile, rs2229616; heterozygote frequency approximately 2% was shown to be negatively associated with obesity. We tested if cancer patients that are homo-/heterozygous for the Val103Ile polymorphism are more likely to develop cachexia and/or a loss of appetite than non-carriers of the 103Ile-allele. Methods BMI (body mass index in kg/m2 of 509 patients (295 males with malignant neoplasms was determined; additionally patients were asked about premorbid/pretherapeutical changes of appetite and weight loss. Cachexia was defined as a weight loss of at least 5% prior to initiation of therapy; to fulfil this criterion this weight loss had to occur independently of other plausible reasons; in single cases weight loss was the initial reason for seeing a physician. The average age in years (± SD was 59.0 ± 14.5 (males: 58.8 ± 14.0, females 59.2 ± 14.0. Blood samples were taken for genotyping of the Val103Ile by PCR- RFLP. Results Most of the patients suffered from lymphoma, leukaemia and gastrointestinal tumours. 107 of the patients (21% fulfilled our criteria for cancer cachexia. We did not detect association between the Val103Ile polymorphism and cancer cachexia. However, if we exploratively excluded the patients with early leucaemic stages, we detected a trend towards the opposite effect (p 0.39. Conclusion Heterozygotes for the 103Ile-allele are not more prone to develop cancer cachexia than patients without this allele; possibly, Ile103 carriers might be more resistant to cancer cachexia in patients with solid tumors. Further studies of the melanocortinergic system in cachexia of

  6. Frequency of the Val1016Ile mutation on the kdr gene in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in south Brazil.

    Collet, M L; Frizzo, C; Orlandin, E; Rona, L D P; Nascimento, J C; Montano, M A E; Müller, G A; Wagner, G


    Recently, the number of Aedes aegypti foci has increased in west of Santa Catarina, south Brazil, which has increased concern regarding mosquito-borne disease outbreaks such as dengue fever, Zika virus, and chikungunya. Therefore, it is important to monitor genetic resistance to insecticides through "knockdown resistance". Homozygosity (Ile/Ile) at position 1016 in the coding region of a voltage-dependent sodium channel gene (Nav) may induce resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. We evaluated the frequency of these alleles in A. aegypti in west Santa Catarina. In total, 349 specimens were obtained from the microregions of Joaçaba (31), Concórdia (35), Chapecó (154), and São Miguel do Oeste (129). We found that 109 individuals (31.0%) were homozygous for Val/Val, 102 (29.0%) were heterozygous for Val/Ile, and 138 (40.0%) were homozygous for Ile/Ile. The allele frequencies were similar for Val (0.455) and Ile (0.545). Joaçaba and Concórdia had the highest mutant allele frequencies (0.825 and 0.685, respectively). Therefore, these populations should be monitored for increases in pyrethroid resistance. The São Miguel do Oeste and Chapecó populations had similar frequencies of Val and Ile and were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, suggesting that a selection pressure or other evolutionary force has occurred. In conclusion, the observed frequency of Ile/Ile homozygous individuals in the region studied requires attention, because the implementation of controls using pyrethroid may increase the frequency of the mutant allele through the selection of resistant populations.

  7. Folin-Ciocalteu Çözeltisi ile Biberdeki Acılığın (Capsaisin) Kolorimetrik Tayini

    Yurdagel, Ünal


    Biberlerdeki acılık bileşiğinin kolorimetrik yöntemle tayininde aseton veya etilasetat ile özütlenmesi ve bu özütün bazik alumina kolonundan metanol-aseton-su (25:75.1) çözgeni ile saflaştırıldıktan sonra Folin-Ciocalteu çözeltisinde oluşan rengin 760 nm de verdiği soğutma değeri ile saptanmıştır.

  8. Specificity for a CCR5 Inhibitor Is Conferred by a Single Amino Acid Residue: ROLE OF ILE198.

    Lau, Gloria; Labrecque, Jean; Metz, Markus; Vaz, Roy; Fricker, Simon P


    The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CCR2b share 89% amino acid homology. CCR5 is a co-receptor for HIV and CCR5 antagonists have been investigated as inhibitors of HIV infection. We describe the use of two CCR5 antagonists, Schering-C (SCH-C), which is specific for CCR5, and TAK-779, a dual inhibitor of CCR5 and CCR2b, to probe the CCR5 inhibitor binding site using CCR5/CCR2b chimeric receptors. Compound inhibition in the different chimeras was assessed by inhibition of chemokine-induced calcium flux. SCH-C inhibited RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) (CCL5)-mediated calcium flux on CCR5 with an IC50 of 22.8 nM but was inactive against monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2)-mediated calcium flux on CCR2b. However, SCH-C inhibited CCL2-induced calcium flux against a CCR5/CCR2b chimera consisting of transmembrane domains IV-VI of CCR5 with an IC50 of 55 nM. A sequence comparison of CCR5 and CCR2b identified a divergent amino acid sequence located at the junction of transmembrane domain V and second extracellular loop. Transfer of the CCR5 sequence KNFQTLKIV into CCR2b conferred SCH-C inhibition (IC50 of 122 nM) into the predominantly CCR2b chimera. Furthermore, a single substitution, R206I, conferred partial but significant inhibition (IC50 of 1023 nM) by SCH-C. These results show that a limited amino acid sequence is responsible for SCH-C specificity to CCR5, and we propose a model showing the interaction with CCR5 Ile(198).

  9. Trafalgar Square'ile järjekordne teos valitud / Rael Artel

    Artel, Rael, 1980-


    Järgmisel kevadel paigaldatakse Trafalgar Square'ile 18 kuuks Marc Quinni 4,5 m kõrgune valgest marmorist kuju "Alison Lapper Pregnant". A. Lapper (sünd. 1965) on raske füüsilise väärarenguga kunstnik. Seejärel paigaldatakse väljakule teine finaali jõudnud skulptuur - sakslase Thomas Schütte'i "Hotel for the Birds"

  10. Trafalgar Square'ile järjekordne teos valitud / Rael Artel

    Artel, Rael, 1980-


    Järgmisel kevadel paigaldatakse Trafalgar Square'ile 18 kuuks Marc Quinni 4,5 m kõrgune valgest marmorist kuju "Alison Lapper Pregnant". A. Lapper (sünd. 1965) on raske füüsilise väärarenguga kunstnik. Seejärel paigaldatakse väljakule teine finaali jõudnud skulptuur - sakslase Thomas Schütte'i "Hotel for the Birds"

  11. The prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of dogs in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Sowemimo, Oluyomi A


    A study of gastrointestinal parasites in 269 faecal samples from dogs (Canis familiaris) collected from Ile-Ife, Nigeria between January and December 2004, revealed seven helminth species: Toxocara canis 33.8%, Ancylostoma sp. 34.6%, Toxascaris leonina 3.3%, Trichuris vulpis 3.7%, Dipylidium caninum 4.1%, Uncinaria stenocephala 0.7% and Taenia sp. 1.1%. The faecal egg intensities, determined as mean eggs per gram of faeces ( +/- SEM) were: T. canis 393.8 +/- 83.4, Ancylostoma sp. 101.5 +/- 32.8, T. leonina 14.3 +/- 7.9, T. vulpis 3.4 +/- 1.5, D. caninum 2.2 +/- 0.8, U. stenocephala 0.2 +/- 0.2. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was significantly higher (P 0.05). The prevalence of helminth parasites was significantly higher (P 0.05) except in T. vulpis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for dog care in Ile-Ife. Therefore, there is the need to establish a veterinary facility in Ile-Ife.

  12. Evolution of E. coli tRNA(Ile): evidence of derivation from other tRNAs.

    Staves, M P; Bloch, D P; Lacey, J C


    Two E. coli tRNA(Ile) sequences were compared against those of 36 other E. coli tRNAs. tRNA(Ile) 1 was found to bear high similarity with tRNA(Val) 1 (E = 1.11 X 10(-18] while tRNA(Ile) 2 had the greatest match (E = 3.40 X 10(-19] with tRNA(Lysl) (E is the expected number of such matches, per search, based on coincidence). These matches, which we consider to represent homologies, extend from base 7 to base 67 in the former and base 7 to the end (76) in the latter pair. These results coupled with others on the lower activity of isoleucine in reactions postulated to be important in primitive protein synthesis (i.e., esterification reactions and non-enzymatic activation by ATP [1-3]) lead us to propose that isoleucine was included among the proteinaceous amino acids, and received its anticodonic assignment, relatively late in evolution through mutation of tRNAs previously employed for other amino acids.

  13. Kliimateadlastele ja Al Gore'ile läinud Nobel oli oodatud otsus / Liisi Poll, Oliver Tiks

    Poll, Liisi, 1980-


    Nobeli preemiat välja andev komitee Oslos otsustas anda Nobeli rahupreemia rahvusvahelisele kliimamuutuste töörühmale ja USA endisele asepresidendile Al Gore'ile. Lisa: Tänavune Nobeli rahupreemia

  14. Kliimateadlastele ja Al Gore'ile läinud Nobel oli oodatud otsus / Liisi Poll, Oliver Tiks

    Poll, Liisi, 1980-


    Nobeli preemiat välja andev komitee Oslos otsustas anda Nobeli rahupreemia rahvusvahelisele kliimamuutuste töörühmale ja USA endisele asepresidendile Al Gore'ile. Lisa: Tänavune Nobeli rahupreemia

  15. The hydrophobic dipeptide Leu-Ile inhibits immobility induced by repeated forced swimming via the induction of BDNF.

    Furukawa-Hibi, Yoko; Nitta, Atsumi; Ikeda, Takeshi; Morishita, Koji; Liu, Wenting; Ibi, Daisuke; Alkam, Tursun; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yamada, Kiyofumi


    Depression has recently become a serious problem in society worldwide. However, we lack appropriate therapeutic tools, since the causes of depression remain unclear. Degeneration of neuronal cells and a decrease in neurogenesis have been suggested recently as two of the factors responsible for depression-like behavior. Furthermore, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is also suggested to be an important factor in recovering from such behavior. We have previously demonstrated that the hydrophobic dipeptide leucyl-isoleucine (Leu-Ile) induces BDNF in cultured neuronal cells. We therefore investigated possible antidepressant-like effects of Leu-Ile in an animal model using the repeated forced swim test (FST). Mice were forced to swim for 6 min once a day in a cylinder containing water. The mice were treated with Leu-Ile s.c. or p.o. immediately after each FST. Five-day repeated Leu-Ile treatment significantly increased BDNF mRNA levels and activated the BDNF/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in the hippocampi of the mice. While 2-week repeated FST increased immobility time, Leu-Ile treatment for 2 weeks offset this increase. In C57BL/6J-BDNF heterozygous knockout (BDNF(+/-)) mice, Leu-Ile failed to reduce the immobility time increased by repeated FST. We next investigated the extent of cell proliferation in the hippocampus as 5-bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) uptake into hippocampal cells. Repeated FST significantly reduced the number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, while this deficit was prevented by repeated Leu-Ile treatment. These results suggest that Leu-Ile has an antidepressant-like effect, at least in part by supporting cell proliferation through the BDNF signaling pathway.

  16. Modeling and experimental assessment of a buried Leu–Ile mutation in dengue envelope domain III

    Kulkarni, Manjiri R. [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16, Nakamachi, Koganei-shi, Tokyo, 184-8588 (Japan); Numoto, Nobutaka; Ito, Nobutoshi [Department of Structural Biology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45, Yushima Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510 (Japan); Kuroda, Yutaka, E-mail: [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16, Nakamachi, Koganei-shi, Tokyo, 184-8588 (Japan)


    Envelope protein domain III (ED3) of the dengue virus is important for both antibody binding and host cell interaction. Here, we focused on how a L387I mutation in the protein core could take place in DEN4 ED3, but cannot be accommodated in DEN3 ED3 without destabilizing its structure. To this end, we modeled a DEN4-L387I structure using the Penultimate Rotamer Library and taking the DEN4 ED3 main-chain as a fixed template. We found that three out of seven Ile{sup 387} conformers fit in DEN4 ED3 without introducing the severe atomic clashes that are observed when DEN3 serotype’s ED3 is used as a template. A more extensive search using 273 side-chain rotamers of the residues surrounding Ile{sup 387} confirmed this prediction. In order to assess the prediction, we determined the crystal structure of DEN4-L387I at 2 Å resolution. Ile{sup 387} indeed adopted one of the three predicted rotamers. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of single mutations are to a large extent successfully predicted by systematically modeling the side-chain structures of the mutated as well as those of its surrounding residues using fixed main-chain structures and assessing inter-atomic steric clashes. More accurate and reliable predictions require considering sub-angstrom main-chain deformation, which remains a challenging task. - Highlights: • We mutated L387I of DEN4 ED3 and examined its effects on structure and stability. • We modeled the side-chain of Ile{sup 387} using DEN4 ED3's structure as a template. • We determined the crystal structure of DEN4-L387I and confirmed the modeling. • Side-chain repacking occurring around Ile{sup 387} involved >3 inter-connected residues. • These results explained why L387I mutation in DEN4 ED3 conserves thermostability.

  17. 40 CFR 721.8780 - Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted pyridine azo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8780 Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl. (a) Chemical substance... substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl (PMNs P-96-767 and P-96-773) are subject to reporting under...

  18. Microwave assisted synthesis of 6-Substituted aminopurine analogs in water

    Qu, Guirong; Han,Suhui; Zhang,Zhiguang; Geng,Mingwei; Xue, Feng


    Microwave assisted amination of 6-chloropurine derivatives with various amines in water resulted in a "green chemistry" protocol for the preparation of 6-substituted aminopurine analogs in very good yields. Using a simply modified microwave oven with the refluxing apparatus, the amination of the 6-chloro in the purine structure occurred smoothly. 19 known and 16 unknown 6-substituted aminopurine analogs were prepared through nucleophilic aromatic substitution with simple filtration or column ...

  19. Synthesis of Dialkyl-substituted Terminal Olefin


    Dialkyl-substituted terminal olefins were synthesized from the coupling reaction of αt-olefins which were catalyzed by zirconocene dichloride/methylalumoxane (MAO) catalyst system under mild condition. High yield was gained and no other oligmer was detected. It was found that the ratio of Al/Zr is responsible for the selectivity of product.

  20. Facile Synthesis of N -Substituted Benzimidazoles

    Kurhade, Santosh; Rossetti, Arianna; Dömling, Alexander


    A particularly mild and efficient one-pot synthesis of N-substituted benzimidazole derivatives was developed. 2-Fluoro-5-nitrophenylisocyanide reacts with a diverse set of primary amines to afford the respective products in moderate to very good yield (35-95%; 20 examples).

  1. Facile Synthesis of N -Substituted Benzimidazoles

    Kurhade, Santosh; Rossetti, Arianna; Dömling, Alexander


    A particularly mild and efficient one-pot synthesis of N-substituted benzimidazole derivatives was developed. 2-Fluoro-5-nitrophenylisocyanide reacts with a diverse set of primary amines to afford the respective products in moderate to very good yield (35-95%; 20 examples).

  2. Ultrasound Promoted Synthesis of Bis(substituted pyrazol-4-ylcarbonyl-Substituted Thioureas

    Li Xiao


    Full Text Available A series of novel bis(substituted pyrazol-4-ylcarbonyl-substituted thioureas have been synthesized by the reactions of substituted pyrazol-4-ylcarbonyl isothiocyanates with different diamines under ultrasound irradiation and classical heating method at 20-25 °C. In general, substantial improvement in rates and modest yields increases were observed when reactions were carried out under sonication, compared with the classical heating method. The structures of these compounds have been elucidated by elemental and spectral (IR, 1H-NMR analysis.

  3. Medicineringsfejl ved generisk substitution

    Rölfing, Jan


    Generic substitution is a major cause of medical mistakes in the general population. Danish legislation obligates pharmacies to substitute prescribed medicine with the cheapest equivalent formulation, despite variations in product name, packaging, shape and colour. Consequently, medical mistakes ...... occur. Scientific evidence on the consequences of generic substitution is sparse. Call upon fellow health workers to report medical mistakes to the national entities and scientific peers, in order to increase awareness and scientific evidence about the problem....

  4. Cyclotomic Aperiodic Substitution Tilings

    Stefan Pautze


    Full Text Available The class of Cyclotomic Aperiodic Substitution Tilings (CASTs is introduced. Its vertices are supported on the 2 n -th cyclotomic field. It covers a wide range of known aperiodic substitution tilings of the plane with finite rotations. Substitution matrices and minimal inflation multipliers of CASTs are discussed as well as practical use cases to identify specimen with individual dihedral symmetry D n or D 2 n , i.e., the tiling contains an infinite number of patches of any size with dihedral symmetry D n or D 2 n only by iteration of substitution rules on a single tile.

  5. An efficient synthesis of substituted benzene-1,2-dicarboxaldehydes

    ZHU Peter C; WANG Dei-Haw; LU Kaitao; MANI Neelakandha


    Substituted-benzene-1,2-dicarbaldehydes were synthesized by the reaction of substituted-1,2-bis (dibromomethyl) benzenes with fuming sulfuric acid, followed by hydrolysis, The yields were significantly improved by introducing solid sodium bicarbonate into the reaction mixture before hydrolysis and workup.

  6. An efficient synthesis of substituted benzene-1,2-dicarboxaldehydes

    ZHU; Peter; C; WANG; Der-Haw; MANI; Neelakandha


    Substituted-benzene-1,2-dicarbaldehydes were synthesized by the reaction of substituted-1,2-bis(dibromomethyl) benzenes with fuming sulfuric acid,followed by hydrolysis. The yields were signifi-cantly improved by introducing solid sodium bicarbonate into the reaction mixture before hydrolysis and workup.

  7. Güneş Enerjisi Kaynaklı Bir Stirling Motorunun Matlab-Simulink ile Modellenmesi

    Ş. Melih AKYOL


    Full Text Available Sürdürülebilir bir kalkınma için yerli ve yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarının kullanılması gereklidir.Yenilenebilir Enerji Genel Müdürlüğü (YEGM’nin ölçümlerine göre, ülkemiz günde yeryüzüne düşen ortalama 3600 Wh/m2 ‘lik güneş ışınımı ile önemli bir güneş enerjisi kullanım potansiyeline sahiptir. Bu çalışmada ısı kaynağı olarak güneş enerjisini kullanan beta tipi krank hareket mekanizmalı bir Stirling motoru teorik olarak Matlab-Simulink ortamında modellenmiştir. Hazırlanan model, ülkemizdeki farklı bölgeler için, yılın herhangi bir gününde, yatay veya açılı yüzeylere düşen güneş ışınımı değerlerini tahminleyen bir alt model ile desteklenmiştir. Geliştirilen model ile, Stirling motorunun farklı boyutlandırmaları için güç, çalışma frekansı, verim gibi performans özellikleri hesaplanabilmekte, iş gazının da sıcaklık basınç gibi termodinamik özelliklerinin çevrim boyunca değişimi izlenebilmektedir.

  8. A marine magnetic study of a carbonate-hosted impact structure: Ile Rouleau, Canada

    Evangelatos, John; Butler, Karl E.; Spray, John G.


    Marine magnetic and bathymetric data have been acquired in a 6.5 × 10 km area centred on the Ile Rouleau impact structure, Quebec, Canada. The deeply eroded crater is emplaced in weakly magnetic shaley dolomites of the Palaeoproterozoic Mistassini Group. Subaerial exposure of the structure consists of an island (Ile Mintunikus Misaupinanuch) in Lac Mistassini, which hosts shatter cones. Short-wavelength and linear NNE-trending magnetic anomalies that pervade the survey area are inferred to reflect the presence of magnetic glacial landforms on the lake floor. The most prominent magnetic feature is a high-amplitude anomaly that wraps round the western side of the island. The anomaly correlates with an abrupt change in bathymetry but is not consistently circular about the island and its relationship to the impact is unclear. To the east, a disjointed arcuate anomaly lies parallel to the island 100 m from shore. Its source may be interpreted to be either (1) a locally thickened layer of magnetic glaciofluvial deposits, or (2) post-impact chemically induced magnetization along faults. The abrupt variations in glaciofluvial thickness needed to account for the anomaly under scenario (1) are, however, hard to explain geologically and hypothesis (2) is therefore favoured. Regardless of which model is correct, both suggest that the arcuate anomaly coincides with the fault-bounded perimeter of a central peak. Two possible reconstructions for the original crater diameter, estimated from the curvature of the magnetic anomaly and using morphometric relationships, are 4.4 km and 6.8 km. The former is more realistic with regards to the topography and the lack of conspicuous impact-related deformation on adjacent Ile Manitounouc.

  9. A New Synthetic Method for N-Substituted Selenoamides


    Benzotriazole, aldehydes and primary selenoamides react together with elimination of water to form 1:1:1 adducts which are reduced smoothly by NaBH4 to give the N-substituted selenoamides in good yield.

  10. Supramolecular metal complex systems based on crown-substituted tetrapyrroles

    Tsivadze, Aslan Yu [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The characteristic features of the structures and properties of crown-substituted porphyrinates and phthalocyaninates are considered. Interactions of these compounds with alkali metal salts yield supramolecular ensembles. The factors determining the architecture of such ensembles are described.



    ABSTRACT. Three methods for preparation of D-amino acids by nucleophilic substitution on derivatives of ... In recent years, the preparation of non- ... 1998). DME and THF were distilled under ... methanol/dichloromethane) to yield a white.

  12. Inventory of echinoderms in the Iles Eparses (Europa, Glorieuses, Juan de Nova), Mozambique Channel, France

    Conand, C.; Mulochau, T.; Stöhr, S.; Eléaume, M.; Chabanet, P.


    The multidisciplinary programme BioReCIE (Biodiversity, Resources and Conservation of coral reefs at Eparses Is.) inventoried multiple marine animal groups in order to provide information on the coral reef health of the Iles Eparses. All five classes of echinoderms were observed by visual census, photographed and later identified. About 100 species are reported, including a few unidentified ones which require further studies. The Holothuroidea and Ophiuroidea are the most diverse. One new species, the asterinid Aquilonastra chantalae O'Loughlin and McKenzie (2013), was discovered in addition to several new records of echinoderms. The illegal fishery targeting holothurians, which are presently highly valuable resources in this zone, is discussed.

  13. Mutation of residues 423 (Met/Ile), 444 (Thr/Met), and 506 (Asn/Ser) confer cholesteryl esterase activity on rat lung carboxylesterase. Ser-506 is required for activation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

    Wallace, T J; Kodsi, E M; Langston, T B; Gergis, M R; Grogan, W M


    Site-directed mutagenesis is used to identify amino acid residues that dictate reported differences in substrate specificity between rat hepatic neutral cytosolic cholesteryl ester hydrolase (hncCEH) and rat lung carboxylesterase (LCE), proteins differing by only 4 residues in their primary sequences. Beginning with LCE, the substitution Met(423) --> Ile(423) alone or in combination with other mutations increased activity with p-nitrophenylcaprylate (PNPC) relative to more hydrophilic p-nitrophenylacetate (PNPA), typical of hncCEH. The substitution Thr(444) --> Met(444) was necessary but not sufficient for expression of cholesteryl esterase activity in COS-7 cells. The substitution Asn(506) --> Ser(506), creating a potential phosphorylation site, uniformly increased activity with both PNPA and PNPC, was necessary but not sufficient for expression of cholesteryl esterase activity and conferred susceptibility to activation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase, a property of hncCEH. The 3 mutations in combination were necessary and sufficient for expression of cholesteryl esterase activity by the mutated LCE. The substitution Gln(186) --> Arg(186) selectively reduced esterase activity with PNPA and PNPC but was not required for cholesteryl esterase activity. Homology modeling from x-ray structures of acetylcholinesterases is used to propose three-dimensional models for hncCEH and LCE that provide insight into the effects of these mutations on substrate specificity.

  14. Missense splice variant (g.20746A>G, p.Ile183Val of interferon gamma receptor 1 (IFNGR1 coincidental with mycobacterial osteomyelitis - a screen of osteoarticular lesions

    Agnieszka Bińczak-Kuleta


    Full Text Available Previously, dominant partial interferon-gamma receptor 1 (IFN-g-R1 susceptibility to environmental mycobacteria was found with IFNGR1 deletions or premature stop. Our aim was to search for IFNGR1 variants in patients with mycobacterial osteoarticular lesions. Biopsies from the patients were examined for acid-fast bacilli, inflammatory cell infiltration, and mycobacterial niacin. Mycobacterial rRNA was analyzed using a target-amplified rRNA probe test. Peripheral-blood-leukocyte genomic DNA was isolated from 19 patients using the QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, and all IFNGR1 exons were sequenced using an ABIPRISM 3130 device. After the discovery of an exon 5 variant, a Polish newborn population sample (n = 100 was assayed for the discovered variant. Splice sites and putative amino acid interactions were analyzed. All patients tested were positive for mycobacteria; one was heterozygous for the IFNGR1 exon 5 single-nucleotide-missense substitution (g.20746A>G, p.Ile183Val. No other variant was found. The splice analysis indicated the creation of an exonic splicing silencer, and alternatively, molecular graphics indicated that the p.Ile183Val might alter beta-strand packing (loss of van der Waals contacts; Val183/Pro205, possibly altering the IFN-g-R1/IFN-g-R2 interaction. The probability of non-deleterious variant was estimated as <10%. Heterozygous IFNGR1:p.Ile183Val (frequency 0.003% was found to be coincidental with mycobacterial osteomyelitis. The small amount of variation detected in the patients with osteoarticular lesions indicates that screens should not yet be restricted: Intronic variants should be analyzed as well as the other genes affecting Type 1 T-helper-cell-mediated immunity.

  15. Resurrecting extinct interactions with extant substitutes.

    Griffiths, Christine J; Hansen, Dennis M; Jones, Carl G; Zuël, Nicolas; Harris, Stephen


    There is increasing evidence that restoration ecologists should be most concerned with restoring species interactions rather than species diversity per se [1]. Rewilding with taxon substitutes, the intentional introduction of exotic species to replace the ecosystem functions of recently extinct species, is one way to reverse ecosystem dysfunction following the loss of species interactions [2]. This is highly controversial [3], in part because of a lack of rigorous scientific studies [4]. Here we present the first empirical evidence of an in situ rewilding project undertaken as a hypothesis-driven ecosystem management option. On Ile aux Aigrettes, a 25-hectare island off Mauritius, the critically endangered large-fruited endemic ebony, Diospyros egrettarum (Ebenaceae), was seed-dispersal limited after the extinction of all native large-bodied frugivores, including giant tortoises. We introduced exotic Aldabra giant tortoises, Aldabrachelys gigantea, to disperse the ebony seeds. Not only did the tortoises ingest the large fruits and disperse substantial numbers of ebony seeds, but tortoise gut passage also improved seed germination, leading to the widespread, successful establishment of new ebony seedlings. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of these exotic frugivores is aiding the recovery of ebonies. We argue for more reversible rewilding experiments to investigate whether extinct species interactions can be restored.

  16. Impact of intimate partner violence on anxiety and depression amongst women in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Mapayi, Boladale; Makanjuola, R O A; Mosaku, S K; Adewuya, O A; Afolabi, O; Aloba, O O; Akinsulore, A


    Research into intimate partner violence in the Nigerian environment has been limited. The objective of this study was to determine, amongst a sample of women attending the Enuwa Primary Health Care Center, Ile-Ife, the association between intimate partner violence and anxiety/depression. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 373 women who attended the antenatal clinic and welfare units of a primary health centre in Ile-Ife using the Composite Abuse Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a socio-demographic scale as instruments. Slightly over a third (36.7 %) reported intimate partner violence within the past year, 5.6 % had anxiety and 15.5 % were depressed. Anxiety and depression in the respondents were significantly associated with intimate partner violence. Women were ten times more likely to report being depressed and 17 times more likely to report anxiety if they were in violent relationships. This research has shown that the magnitude of intimate partner violence within the study population is comparable to those found in the developing countries. There are significant associations between intimate partner violence, anxiety and depression amongst the study population and this fact undoubtedly has implications for the mental health of the Nigerian woman.

  17. Dietary glycerin does not affect meat quality of Ile de France lambs

    Thiago Henrique Borghi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of meat from three muscles of Ile de France lambs fed diets containing different levels of glycerin as an alternative to corn. Thirty non-castrated feedlot Ile de France lambs weighing 15±0.2 kg were housed in individual pens and slaughtered at 32±0.2 kg. Treatments consisted of three diets: sugarcane + 0% glycerin; sugarcane + 10% glycerin; and sugarcane + 20% glycerin; and three muscles were evaluated: triceps brachii, semimembranosus, and longissimus lumborum. No interactions were observed among glycerin levels and muscle types for the quality characteristics evaluated. Muscles were similar in terms of physicochemical and nutritional characteristics, and only differed in sarcomere length, diameter of muscle fibers, and cholesterol content. Dietary glycerin did not affect pH, water holding capacity (24 h and 30 days after slaughter, weight loss by thawing and cooking, shear force, diameter of muscle fibers, sarcomere length, lipid oxidation, chemical composition, or meat cholesterol content. Dietary glycerin resulted in a linear decrease of muscle yellowness from 3.99 to 3.29. Dietary glycerin altered intramuscular fat fatty acid profile, increasing the concentration of margaric acid (1.47 to 2.61%. Up to 20% glycerin can be included in the diet of feedlot lambs without any harm to meat quality.

  18. Benthic cyanobacterial diversity of Iles Eparses (Scattered Islands) in the Mozambique Channel

    Zubia, Mayalen; Turquet, Jean; Golubic, Stjepko


    The marine benthic cyanobacteria of the Iles Eparses, Mozambique Channel, were surveyed for the first time. A total of 39 species are reported: 29 from Europa, 17 from Glorioso and 23 from Juan de Nova Islands. The higher biodiversity in Europa is explained by greater habitat diversity on this Island with unique ecosystems (mangroves, fossil reefs, pools). Average species richness varied between the geomorphological habitat types with higher diversity in shallow environments (fossil reef pools, mangroves, reef flats), which are characterized by high temperatures and high irradiances. The most common species observed on the three islands were Hydrocoleum coccineum, Hydrocoleum glutinosum, Hydrocoleum lyngbyaceum, Phormidium laysanense, Lyngbya sordida, and Symploca hydnoides; which are also the dominant species observed in the Southwest Indian Ocean region. The most frequent species was Phormidium laysanense with extensive cover observed in the northwest of Juan de Nova Island. Our study provided a comparison between the cyanobacterial flora of Iles Eparses and the recorded surveys in the Southwest Indian Ocean region. The low similarity observed between these species lists could be explained by differences in sampling strategies and efforts, as well as by different taxonomic approaches employed in past regional studies.

  19. Marine flora of the Iles Eparses (Scattered Islands): A longitudinal transect through the Mozambique Channel

    Mattio, L.; Zubia, M.; Maneveldt, G. W.; Anderson, R. J.; Bolton, J. J.; de Gaillande, C.; De Clerck, O.; Payri, C. E.


    The diversity of marine macrophytes of small islands in the South Western Indian Ocean region has been poorly documented and little or no information is available for the Iles Eparses (or Scattered Islands) in the Mozambique Channel. We present the first species checklist for the three largest islands of the Iles Eparses: Europa, Juan de Nova and Glorioso. Overall, with a total of 321 marine macrophyte species recorded (incl. 56% Rhodophyta, 27% Chlorophyta, 15% Phaeophyceae and 2% Magnoliophyta; Europa: 134 spp., Juan de Nova: 157 spp. and Glorioso: 170 spp.) these islands harbour 23.5% of the total species recorded for the Mozambique Channel region. We report 36 new records for the Mozambique Channel including 29 undescribed new and cryptic species. Our results highlight a decrease in species richness southward in the Channel. Because of their longitudinal arrangement between the northern and the southern ends of the Channel and their central position, Europa, Juan de Nova and Glorioso Islands represent data points of particular biogeographical interest and could be critical 'stepping stones' for connectivity in the highly dynamic Mozambique Channel region.

  20. Additivity of the Stabilization Effect of Single Amino Acid Substitutions in Triple Mutants of Recombinant Formate Dehydrogenase from the Soybean Glycine max.

    Alekseeva, A A; Kargov, I S; Kleimenov, S Yu; Savin, S S; Tishkov, V I


    Recently, we demonstrated that the amino acid substitutions Ala267Met and Ala267Met/Ile272Val (Alekseeva et al., Biochemistry, 2012), Phe290Asp, Phe290Asn and Phe290Ser (Alekseeva et al., Prot. Eng. Des. Select, 2012) in recombinant formate dehydrogenase from soya Glycine max (SoyFDH) lead to a significant (up to 30-100 times) increase in the thermal stability of the enzyme. The substitutions Phe290Asp, Phe290Asn and Phe290Ser were introduced into double mutant SoyFDH Ala267Met/Ile272Val by site-directed mutagenesis. Combinations of three substitutions did not lead to a noticeable change in the catalytic properties of the mutant enzymes. The stability of the resultant triple mutants was studied through thermal inactivation kinetics and differential scanning calorimetry. The thermal stability of the new mutant SoyFDHs was shown to be much higher than that of their precursors. The stability of the best mutant SoyFDH Ala267Met/Ile272Val/Phe290Asp turned out to be comparable to that of the most stable wild-type formate dehydrogenases from other sources. The results obtained with both methods indicate a great synergistic contribution of individual amino acid substitutions to the common stabilization effect.

  1. Syntheses and antimalarial activities of N-substituted 11-azaartemisinins.

    Torok, D S; Ziffer, H; Meshnick, S R; Pan, X Q; Ager, A


    A two-step reaction sequence between artemisinin and methanolic ammonia followed by treatment with Amberlyst 15 yielded 11-azaartemisinin in 65% yield. Substituting a variety of primary alkyl- and heteroaromatic amines for ammonia in the reaction sequence yields N-substituted 11-azaartemisinins in similar or greater yield. When Amberlyst 15 is replaced by a mixture of sulfuric acid/silica gel, both 11-azaartemisinin and the expected metabolite, 10-azadesoxyartemisinin, are formed in 45% and 15% yields, respectively. In vitro and in vivo test data for a number of novel N-substituted 11-azaartemisinins, against drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, show they possess antimalarial activities equal to or greater than that of artemisinin. The most active derivative, N-(2'-acetaldehydo)-11-azaartemisinin, 17, was 26 times more active in vitro and 4 times more active in vivo than artemisinin.

  2. Kinetic proofreading at single molecular level: aminoacylation of tRNA(Ile and the role of water as an editor.

    Mantu Santra

    Full Text Available Proofreading/editing in protein synthesis is essential for accurate translation of information from the genetic code. In this article we present a theoretical investigation of efficiency of a kinetic proofreading mechanism that employs hydrolysis of the wrong substrate as the discriminatory step in enzyme catalytic reactions. We consider aminoacylation of tRNA(Ile which is a crucial step in protein synthesis and for which experimental results are now available. We present an augmented kinetic scheme and then employ methods of stochastic simulation algorithm to obtain time dependent concentrations of different substances involved in the reaction and their rates of formation. We obtain the rates of product formation and ATP hydrolysis for both correct and wrong substrates (isoleucine and valine in our case, respectively, in single molecular enzyme as well as ensemble enzyme kinetics. The present theoretical scheme correctly reproduces (i the amplitude of the discrimination factor in the overall rates between isoleucine and valine which is obtained as (1.8×10(2.(4.33×10(2 = 7.8×10(4, (ii the rates of ATP hydrolysis for both Ile and Val at different substrate concentrations in the aminoacylation of tRNA(Ile. The present study shows a non-michaelis type dependence of rate of reaction on tRNA(Ile concentration in case of valine. The overall editing in steady state is found to be independent of amino acid concentration. Interestingly, the computed ATP hydrolysis rate for valine at high substrate concentration is same as the rate of formation of Ile-tRNA(Ile whereas at intermediate substrate concentration the ATP hydrolysis rate is relatively low. We find that the presence of additional editing domain in class I editing enzyme makes the kinetic proofreading more efficient through enhanced hydrolysis of wrong product at the editing CP1 domain.

  3. Ile-1781-Leu and Asp-2078-Gly Mutations in ACCase Gene, Endow Cross-resistance to APP, CHD, and PPZ in Phalaris minor from Mexico.

    Cruz-Hipolito, Hugo; Fernandez, Pablo; Alcantara, Ricardo; Gherekhloo, Javid; Osuna, Maria Dolores; De Prado, Rafael


    Herbicides that inhibit acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) are commonly used in Mexico to control weedy grasses such as little seed canarygrass (Phalaris minor). These herbicides are classified into three major families (ariloxyphenoxypropionates (APP), cyclohexanodiones (CHD), and, recently, phenylpyrazolines (PPZ)). In this work, the resistance to ACCase (APP, CHD, and PPZ) inhibiting herbicides was studied in a biotype of Phalaris minor (P. minor) from Mexico, by carrying out bioassays at the whole-plant level and investigating the mechanism behind this resistance. Dose-response and ACCase in vitro activity assays showed cross-resistance to all ACCase herbicides used. There was no difference in the absorption, translocation, and metabolism of the (14)C-diclofop-methyl between the R and S biotypes. The PCR generated CT domain fragments of ACCase from the R biotype and an S reference were sequenced and compared. The Ile-1781-Leu and Asp-2078-Gly point mutations were identified. These mutations could explain the loss of affinity for ACCase by the ACCase-inhibing herbicides. This is the first report showing that this substitution confers resistance to APP, CHD, and PPZ herbicides in P. minor from Mexico. The mutations have been described previously only in a few cases; however, this is the first study reporting on a pattern of cross-resistance with these mutations in P. minor. The findings could be useful for better management of resistant biotypes carrying similar mutations.

  4. Ile-1781-Leu and Asp-2078-Gly Mutations in ACCase Gene, Endow Cross-resistance to APP, CHD, and PPZ in Phalaris minor from Mexico

    Hugo Cruz-Hipolito


    Full Text Available Herbicides that inhibit acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase are commonly used in Mexico to control weedy grasses such as little seed canarygrass (Phalaris minor. These herbicides are classified into three major families (ariloxyphenoxypropionates (APP, cyclohexanodiones (CHD, and, recently, phenylpyrazolines (PPZ. In this work, the resistance to ACCase (APP, CHD, and PPZ inhibiting herbicides was studied in a biotype of Phalaris minor (P. minor from Mexico, by carrying out bioassays at the whole-plant level and investigating the mechanism behind this resistance. Dose-response and ACCase in vitro activity assays showed cross-resistance to all ACCase herbicides used. There was no difference in the absorption, translocation, and metabolism of the 14C-diclofop-methyl between the R and S biotypes. The PCR generated CT domain fragments of ACCase from the R biotype and an S reference were sequenced and compared. The Ile-1781-Leu and Asp-2078-Gly point mutations were identified. These mutations could explain the loss of affinity for ACCase by the ACCase-inhibing herbicides. This is the first report showing that this substitution confers resistance to APP, CHD, and PPZ herbicides in P. minor from Mexico. The mutations have been described previously only in a few cases; however, this is the first study reporting on a pattern of cross-resistance with these mutations in P. minor. The findings could be useful for better management of resistant biotypes carrying similar mutations.

  5. The Ile13 residue of microcin J25 is essential for recognition by the receptor FhuA, but not by the inner membrane transporter SbmA.

    Socias, Sergio B; Severinov, Konstantin; Salomon, Raul A


    Entry of the peptide antibiotic microcin J25 (MccJ25) into target cells is mediated by the outer membrane receptor FhuA and the inner membrane protein SbmA. The latter also transports MccB17 into the cell cytoplasm. Comparison of MccJ25 and MccB17 revealed a tetrapeptide sequence (VGIG) common to both antibiotics. We speculated that this structural feature in MccJ25 could be a motif recognized by SbmA. To test this hypothesis, we used a MccJ25 variant in which the isoleucine in VGIG (position 13 in the MccJ25 sequence) was replaced by lysine (I13K). In experiments in which the FhuA receptor was bypassed, the substituted microcin showed an inhibitory activity similar to that of the wild-type peptide. Moreover, MccJ25 interfered with colicin M uptake by FhuA in a competition assay, while the I13K mutant did not. From these results, we propose that the Ile(13) residue is only required for interaction with FhuA, and that VGIG is not a major recognition element by SbmA.

  6. Human epithelial growth factor receptor 2[Ile655Val] polymorphism and risk of breast fibroadenoma.

    Zubor, Pavol; Kajo, Karol; Stanclova, Andrea; Szunyogh, Norbert; Galo, Silvester; Dussan, Carlos A; Minarik, Gabriel; Visnovsky, Jozef; Danko, Jan


    Studies on the association between the Ile to Val polymorphism at codon 655 of the human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) gene and susceptibility to breast cancer have been reported for almost all ethnic populations, with both positive or negative conclusions. No study, however, has yet been focused on the possible association between this gene and its predisposition to benign breast lesions, especially on risk for fibroadenoma. We aimed to study the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism V655 HER-2 gene polymorphism with histologically verified breast fibroadenoma risk. We conducted a molecular epidemiological case-control study of 70 breast fibroadenoma cases without cellular atypia and 172 healthy female controls. We found that the Val variant allele and genotype frequency of this polymorphism is higher in cases with fibroadenoma; however, this difference was not significant (allele Val 655: 27.86 and 22.67% in fibroadenoma and controls, respectively; genotype Ile/Val: 35.71 and 38.37% and Val/Val: 10.0 and 3.49% in fibroadenoma and controls, respectively). Applying logistic regression analysis, we found an increased risk of fibroadenoma formation in carriers of the Val allele (odds ratio = 1.17; 95% confidence interval = 0.67-2.05), in which the highest risk was associated with homozygous genotype (odds ratio = 3.07; 95% confidence interval = 0.97-9.72), but this risk was not significant. Stratification by age (cut-off 45 years) revealed the highest risk of fibroadenoma among young women homozygous for the Val allele (odds ratio = 3.30). The risk, however, was slightly increased (odds ratio = 1.24) among older carriers of the aberrant allele in their genotype as well, but it was not significant. In spite of insignificant differences, our results indicate that HER-2 Ile655Val polymorphism, especially in a homozygous form might play some role in the etiology of breast fibroadenoma formation. The significance of this susceptibility, however

  7. A new interpretation of the structure of the Sept Iles Intrusive suite, Canada

    Higgins, Michael D.


    The layered mafic intrusion at Sept Iles, Canada, is one of the largest intrusions in the world. A new interpretation of its structure is proposed, based on a review of its geology and a comparison with the Skaergaard intrusion, Greenland. Several different magmatic components are recognized; hence the name Sept Iles Intrusive suite (SIIS) is proposed. Emplacement of the suite may have been preceded by eruption of flood basalts. The first magmas of the suite rose in the crust to accumulate beneath the density filter afforded by the basalts. The largest component is the Sept Iles Mafic intrusion (SIMI). The Lower series of the SIMI is dominated by leucotroctolites and leucogabbros. Above it lie the Layered series, which is largely comprised of gabbro and troctolite. Both these units are unchanged from earlier interpretations. The anorthosites (s.l.), gabbros and monzogabbros, formerly called the Transitional series, are now considered to be the Upper Border series, developed by floatation of plagioclase. Common autoliths in the Layered series are parts of the hydrothermally altered Upper Border series from towards the interior of the intrusion, which have foundered and settled through the magma. The contamination of the magma that accompanied this event oxidised iron in the magma and led to the precipitation of magnetite around the periphery of the intrusion. The subsequent depletion of Fe 3+ and/or increase in SiO 2, CaO and P 2O 5 may have induced apatite saturation and accumulation to form two layers rich in apatite, near the base and at top of the Layered series. Granitic magma was developed by fractional crystallisation and was emplaced along the roof of the chamber, where it acquired large quantities of xenoliths. These were probably derived from the flood basalts, their evolved members and fragments of mafic dykes chilled by the granitic magma. Accumulations of monzonite pillows in this unit testify to another magmatic event and a floor to the granitic magma

  8. Synthesis of substituted pyrazines

    Pagoria, Philip F.; Zhang, Mao Xi


    A method for synthesizing a pyrazine-containing material according to one embodiment includes contacting an iminodiacetonitrile derivative with a base and a reagent selected from a group consisting of hydroxylamine, a hydroxylamine salt, an aliphatic primary amine, a secondary amine, an aryl-substituted alkylamine a heteroaryl-substituted alkyl amine, an alcohol, an alkanolamine and an aryl alcoholamine. Additional methods and several reaction products are presented. ##STR00001##

  9. L’année prochaine à Ile-Ife !


    Au Nigeria, les pièces de théâtre yoruba néo-traditionnel à caractère mythologique se déroulent à Ile-Ife, capitale spirituelle de la religion yoruba, figurée sur la scène par une enceinte peinte sur le fond du décor ou reconstituée en papier mâché. Le public du Yoruba traditional theatre à Lagos, Ibadan et dans les villes secondaires de la zone d’expression yoruba paraît expérimenter un moment esthétique à travers le filtre de cette ville idyllique et de la société parfaite qu’elle incarne. ...

  10. Anthropometric Indices Associated with Variation in Cardiovascular Parameters among Primary School Pupils in Ile-Ife

    Adedeji G. Abiodun


    Full Text Available Purpose. This study investigated the anthropometric indices associated with variations in cardiovascular parameters among primary school pupils in Ile-Ife. Method. One thousand and twenty-six pupils (age range 6–14 years, mean age 10.12 years from ten schools were recruited with parents' informed consent. Anthropometric (Height (Ht, Weight (Wt, Abdominal Circumference (AC and cardiovascular (Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP, Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP, Heart Rate (HR parameters were measured using standard instruments and procedures. Blood pressure (BP was measured after ten minutes of quiet sitting. Body Mass Index (BMI, Rate Pressure Product (RPP and Pulse Pressure (PP were estimated. Results. Age, Ht, Wt, BMI, and AC correlated significantly (<.01 with BP and PP. AC and BMI were predictors of BP, HR, RPP, and PP. Conclusion. Significant correlations exist between age, Ht, Wt, BMI, AC, and BP with weight being a more viable predictor of SBP and age a more viable predictor of DBP.

  11. Anthropometric Indices Associated with Variation in Cardiovascular Parameters among Primary School Pupils in Ile-Ife.

    Abiodun, Adedeji G; Egwu, Michael O; Adedoyin, Rufus A


    Purpose. This study investigated the anthropometric indices associated with variations in cardiovascular parameters among primary school pupils in Ile-Ife. Method. One thousand and twenty-six pupils (age range 6-14 years, mean age 10.12 years) from ten schools were recruited with parents' informed consent. Anthropometric (Height (Ht), Weight (Wt), Abdominal Circumference (AC)) and cardiovascular (Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Heart Rate (HR)) parameters were measured using standard instruments and procedures. Blood pressure (BP) was measured after ten minutes of quiet sitting. Body Mass Index (BMI), Rate Pressure Product (RPP) and Pulse Pressure (PP) were estimated. Results. Age, Ht, Wt, BMI, and AC correlated significantly (P < .01) with BP and PP. AC and BMI were predictors of BP, HR, RPP, and PP. Conclusion. Significant correlations exist between age, Ht, Wt, BMI, AC, and BP with weight being a more viable predictor of SBP and age a more viable predictor of DBP.

  12. Total laparoscopic hysterectomy: A case report from ILE-IFE, Nigeria.

    Badejoko, Olusegun O; Ajenifuja, Kayode O; Oluborode, Babawale O; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B


    Total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) is an advanced gynecological laparoscopic procedure that is widely performed in the developed world. However, its feasibility in resource-poor settings is hampered by obvious lack of equipments and/or skilled personnel. Indeed, TLH has never been reported from any Nigerian hospital. We present a 50-year-old multipara scheduled for hysterectomy on account of pre-malignant disease of the cervix, who had TLH with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria and was discharged home on the first post-operative day. She was seen in the gynecology clinic a week later in stable condition and she was highly pleased with the outcome of her surgery. This case is presented to highlight the attainability of operative gynecological laparoscopy, including advanced procedures like TLH in a resource-constrained setting, through the employment of adequate local adaptation and clever improvisation.

  13. Male involvement in family planning decision making in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

    Ijadunola, Macellina Y; Abiona, Titilayo C; Ijadunola, Kayode T; Afolabi, Olusegun T; Esimai, Olapeju A; OlaOlorun, Funmilola M


    This study assessed men's awareness, attitude, and practice of modern contraceptive methods, determined the level of spousal communication, and investigated the correlates of men's opinion in family planning decision making in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Quantitative methodology was employed in this cross-sectional descriptive design using a structured household questionnaire to collect information from 402 male study participants. A multistage sampling procedure was employed. Eighty-nine percent of men approved of the use of family planning while only about 11 percent disapproved of it. Eighty percent of men had ever used contraception while 56 percent of them were current users. Spousal communication about family planning and other family reproductive goals was quite poor. The socio-demographic correlates of men's opinions included religion, marriage type, educational attainment, and occupation (p < 0.05). The study concluded that male involvement in family planning decision making was poor and their patronage of family planning services was low.

  14. Cytomegalovirus ileitis in an immunocompetent patient Ileítis por citomegalovirus en paciente inmunocompetente

    María Auxiliadora Tejedor-Cerdeña


    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a virus that belongs to the family of Herpesviridae. Infection can cause a serious disease in immunocompromised patients, but it can also affect immunocompetent patients, creating generally self limiting symptoms. However, in some cases it can be fatal. We present a case of CMV ileitis with serious clinical symptoms that led to an operation in an immunocompetent patient.El citomegalovirus (CMV es un virus perteneciente a la familia de los Herperviridae. La infección puede causar una enfermedad grave en inmunodeprimidos, sin embargo también puede afectar a inmunocompetentes, y da lugar a cuadros clínicos generalmente autolimitados, aunque se han descrito casos graves que pueden llevar a la muerte. Presentamos un caso de ileítis por CMV con manifestaciones clínicas graves que motivaron intervención quirúrgica urgente en un paciente inmunocompetente.

  15. Lipoprotein Metabolizması ve Ateroskleroz ile İlişkisi

    Delibaş, Namık; Tahan, Veysel


    SüleymanDemirel Üniversitesi TIP FAKÜLTESİ DERGİSİ: 1995 Haziran; 2(2) Lipoprotein Metabolizması ve Ateroskleroz ile İlişkisi Namık Delibaş Veysel Tahan Özet Anormal lipoprotein düzeyleri ateroskleroz risk faktörleri arasındadır ve koroner arter hastalıklarının değerlendirilmesinde biyokimyasal bir markerdir. Apolipo-proteinler lipoproteinlerin sentez ve katabolizmasında önemli rol oynar. Apo A-I, lesitin kolesterol acil transferazı aktive eder. Apo C-II ve C-lIl ...

  16. Environmental assessment of biofuel pathways in Ile de France based on ecosystem modeling.

    Gabrielle, Benoît; Gagnaire, Nathalie; Massad, Raia Silvia; Dufossé, Karine; Bessou, Cécile


    The objective of the work reported here was to reduce the uncertainty on the greenhouse gas balances of biofuels using agro-ecosystem modeling at a high resolution over the Ile-de-France region in Northern France. The emissions simulated during the feedstock production stage were input to a life-cycle assessment of candidate biofuel pathways: bioethanol from wheat, sugar-beet and miscanthus, and biodiesel from oilseed rape. Compared to the widely-used methodology based on fixed emission factors, ecosystem modeling lead to 55-70% lower estimates for N2O emissions, emphasizing the importance of regional factors. The life-cycle GHG emissions of first-generation biofuels were 50-70% lower than fossil-based equivalents, and 85% lower for cellulosic ethanol. When including indirect land-use change effects, GHG savings became marginal for biodiesel and wheat ethanol, but were positive due to direct effects for cellulosic ethanol.

  17. The role of seabirds of the Iles Eparses as reservoirs and disseminators of parasites and pathogens

    McCoy, Karen D.; Dietrich, Muriel; Jaeger, Audrey; Wilkinson, David A.; Bastien, Matthieu; Lagadec, Erwan; Boulinier, Thierry; Pascalis, Hervé; Tortosa, Pablo; Le Corre, Matthieu; Dellagi, Koussay; Lebarbenchon, Camille


    The role of birds as reservoirs and disseminators of parasites and pathogens has received much attention over the past several years due to their high vagility. Seabirds are particularly interesting hosts in this respect. In addition to incredible long-distance movements during migration, foraging and prospecting, these birds are long-lived, site faithful and breed in dense aggregations in specific colony locations. These different characteristics can favor both the local maintenance and large-scale dissemination of parasites and pathogens. The Iles Eparses provide breeding and feeding grounds for more than 3 million breeding pairs of seabirds including at least 13 species. Breeding colonies on these islands are relatively undisturbed by human activities and represent natural metapopulations in which seabird population dynamics, movement and dispersal can be studied in relation to that of circulating parasites and pathogens. In this review, we summarize previous knowledge and recently-acquired data on the parasites and pathogens found in association with seabirds of the Iles Eparses. These studies have revealed the presence of a rich diversity of infectious agents (viruses, bacteria and parasites) carried by the birds and/or their local ectoparasites (ticks and louse flies). Many of these agents are widespread and found in other ecosystems confirming a role for seabirds in their large scale dissemination and maintenance. The heterogeneous distribution of parasites and infectious agents among islands and seabird species suggests that relatively independent metacommunities of interacting species may exist within the western Indian Ocean. In this context, we discuss how the patterns and determinants of seabird movements may alter parasite and pathogen circulation. We conclude by outlining key aspects for future research given the baseline data now available and current concerns in eco-epidemiology and biodiversity conservation.

  18. Distinguishing of Ile/Leu amino acid residues in the PP3 protein by (hot) electron capture dissociation in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Kjeldsen, Frank; Haselmann, Kim F; Sørensen, Esben Skipper


    the isomeric Ile and Leu residues. The analytical utility of HECD is evaluated using tryptic peptides from the bovine milk protein PP3 containing totally 135 amino acid residues. Using a formal procedure for Ile/Leu (Xle) residue assignment, the identities of 20 out of 25 Xle residues (80%) were determined...

  19. CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism contributes to lung cancer susceptibility among lung squamous carcinoma and smokers: a meta-analysis.

    Ya-Nan Ji

    Full Text Available Many studies have examined the association between the CYP1A1 Ile462Val gene polymorphisms and lung cancer risk in various populations, but their results have been inconsistent. To assess this relationship more precisely, a meta-analysis was performed. Ultimately, 43 case-control studies, comprising 19,228 subjects were included. A significantly elevated lung cancer risk was associated with 2 Ile462Val genotype variants (for Val/Val vs Ile/Ile: OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.08-1.40; for (Ile/Val +Val/Val vs Ile/Ile: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.07-1.23 in overall population. In the stratified analysis, a significant association was found in Asians, Caucasians and lung SCC, not lung AC and lung SCLC. Additionally, a significant association was found in smoker population and not found in non-smoker populations. This meta-analysis suggests that the Ile462Val polymorphisms of CYP1A1 correlate with increased lung cancer susceptibility in Asian and Caucasian populations and there is an interaction with smoking status, but these associations vary in different histological types of lung caner.

  20. Solid Phase Synthesis of Ethyl β-Substituted Indolepropionates

    刘占祥; 阮秀秀; 黄宪


    A facile solid phase synthesis of ethyl β-substituted indolepropionates is reported. Condensation between indole, polymer-supported cyclic malonic acid ester and aldehyde yielded the trimolecular adducts, which was cleaved by pyridine/EtOH to release the final products in good yield with high purity.

  1. The functional Thr130Ile and Val255Met polymorphisms of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF4A)

    Ek, Jakob; Rose, Christian Schack; Jensen, Dorit Packert;


    (T2D). We have examined these polymorphisms 1) by in vitro transactivation studies and 2) by genotyping the variants in 1409 T2D patients and in 4726 glucose-tolerant Danish white subjects. When tested in COS7 cells, both the Thr130Ile and the Val255Met variants showed a significant decrease...

  2. [Medication administration practices in elderly residential facilities in Ile de France Region in 2014: findings and room for improvement].

    de Saunière, Anne; Bonneau, Laetitia; Donio, Valérie; Godinot, Valérie; Flouzat, Jean-Philippe; Bensasson, Géraldine; Code, Christelle; Galay, Guillaume; Pige, Dominique


    The institutions expressed great interest in medication administration systems and tools designed to monitor all stages of medication administration. A dozen simple and pragmatic improvement actions were identified and listed in the Ile-de-France Regional Health Agency action plan to improve medication administration management of in EHPAD..

  3. Fluoro-substituted ketones from nitriles using acidic and basic reaction conditions

    Raja, Erum; Klumpp, Douglas A.


    Fluoro-substituted aliphatic nitriles are shown to undergo the Houben-Hoesch reactions with arenes in CF3SO3H to give fluoro-substituted ketones in good yields. The fluorine substituents appear to enhance the reactivities of the nitriles (and the nitrilium ion intermediates) compared to similar aliphatic nitriles. Fluoro-substituted ketones are also shown to be accessible through the reactions of organometallic reagents and fluoro-substituted nitriles.

  4. Aryl substitution of pentacenes

    Andreas R. Waterloo


    Full Text Available A series of 11 new pentacene derivatives has been synthesized, with unsymmetrical substitution based on a trialkylsilylethynyl group at the 6-position and various aryl groups appended to the 13-position. The electronic and physical properties of the new pentacene chromophores have been analyzed by UV–vis spectroscopy (solution and thin films, thermoanalytical methods (DSC and TGA, cyclic voltammetry, as well as X-ray crystallography (for 8 derivatives. X-ray crystallography has been specifically used to study the influence of unsymmetrical substitution on the solid-state packing of the pentacene derivatives. The obtained results add to our ability to better predict substitution patterns that might be helpful for designing new semiconductors for use in solid-state devices.

  5. Bone substitute biomaterials

    Mallick, K


    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  6. Currency Substitution in Turkey

    Ismail H. Genc


    Full Text Available We investigated whether the recent depreciations in the Turkish currency (Lira resulted in the currency substitution away from Lira by using quarterly data over the period from 1987:1 to 2000: 2 with M1 and M2 monetary aggregates and income, interest rate and exchange rate. Other than the variety of monetary aggregates, we tried different ways of including the interest rate into the models to ensure the robustness of our results. Our analysis shows that the currency substitution in fact happened with Lira.

  7. Expedient Organocatalytic Syntheses of 4-Substituted Pyrazolidines and Isoxazolidines

    Tarek Yousfi


    Full Text Available The efficient organocatalytic synthesis of heterocyclic systems of biological relevance is a subject of growing interest. We have found that the pyrrolidine/benzoic acid-catalyzed reaction of α-substituted propenals such as methacrolein, 2-benzylpropenal and 2-(n-hexylpropenal with activated hydrazines takes place in very good yields (83%–99.6% under very mild conditions to afford 4-substituted pyrazolidin-3-ols (as diastereomer mixtures; subsequent oxidation with PCC affords the corresponding-4-substituted-3-pyrazolidinones in essentially quantitative yields. In a similar way, 4-substituted isoxazolidinones are obtained with N-Cbz-hydroxylamine as a reagent. The use of chiral diarylprolinol trimethylsilyl ethers as catalysts allows the synthesis of several of these compounds in optically active form, in some cases with excellent enantioselectivity (up to 96:4 er. A preliminary evaluation of the biological activity shows that some of these compounds exhibit interesting antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  8. [Experience of targeted screening of Chagas disease in Ile-de-France].

    Lescure, F-X; Paris, L; Elghouzzi, M H; Le Loup, G; Develoux, M; Touafek, F; Mazier, D; Pialoux, G


    2009 is marked by the centenary of the discovery by Carlos Chagas of Human American Trypanosomiasis. As a result of international cooperation its incidence has been falling in endemic areas, whereas North America and Europe are witnessing an increase in the number of imported cases. In metropolitan France, 18 such cases were reported between 2004 and 2007. Recently, estimates based on immigration figures have been made and suggest that about 1,500 imported cases can be expected in France. The object of this article is to assess the value of targeted screening of an at-risk population, originally from Latin America and now living in the Ile-de-France (area centred on Paris). The serological techniques employed were indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and, depending on the case, 2 or 3 Elisa tests (Biomérieux, Biokit and Wiener). Trypanosoma cruzi serology was considered positive when the IIF was superior or equal to 200, or when two Elisa's were > 1, or when the IIF was superior or equal to 100 with at least one Elisa > 1. PCR was performed in 48 cases, which were considered to be positive. The tests were carried out on a voluntary basis after a publicity campaign within the Latin American community in the Ile-de-France. In this article, we present the findings of the first year of screening. Two hundred and fifty-four individuals were screened for Chagas' disease between June 2008 and June 2009. The median age was 33 years [11-63], the male/female ratio 102/152. Overall prevalence of positive serology was 23.6% (60/254). For six patients, the results were classified as "uncertain" (discordant serological tests). Of the seropositive group, 87.4% were Bolivian and 100% presented as a chronic form. Of these, 23.6% presented with functional cardiac manifestations and 22% with gastro-intestinal problems. The PCR was positive in 61% of the seropositive individuals. Clinical evaluation together with other investigations and therapeutic intervention is being carried out at

  9. Saving Outweighs Substituting



    @@ Energy crisis has become great challenge to the whole world.As the vehicle population keeps soaring in China,effectie countermeasures should be taken timely to deal with global energy crisis.There are two ways out:one is to substitute and one is to save.

  10. Simulating currency substitution bias

    M. Boon (Martin); C.J.M. Kool (Clemens); C.G. de Vries (Casper)


    textabstractThe sign and size of estimates of the elasticity of currency substitution critically depend on the definition of the oppurtunity costs of holding money. We investigate possible biases by means of Monte Carlo experiments, as sufficient real data are not available.

  11. Low-Yield Cigarettes

    ... Program Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Low-Yield Cigarettes Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... they compensate when smoking them. Smokers Who Use Low-Yield Cigarettes Many smokers consider smoking low-yield ...

  12. Source, flux and balance of atmospheric deposition of metals at Ile-de-France; Source, flux et bilan des retombees atmospheriques de metaux en Ile de France

    Azimi, S.


    The urban atmosphere is submitted to large inputs of anthropogenic contaminants arising from both stationary (power plants, industries, etc.) and mobile (road traffic) sources. These small particles may be transported over long distances and affect ecosystems. Significant dry and wet atmospheric deposition also occurs locally and contributes to the contamination of urban runoff. The aim of this study is to compare heavy metal and hydrocarbon atmospheric deposition fluxes to other input ways on agricultural and urban areas to assess their importance. Moreover, a source investigation has been done to identify the main origins of these pollutants. Before the quantification of pollutant fluxes, a comparison of several sampling procedures was performed. As a result, the sampling of total atmospheric deposition is not affected by the funnel material (Teflon and polyethylene) or by the sampling duration (7 and 28 days). However, the rinsing step of the funnel walls showed a higher relative importance during short sampling periods. The relative amount contained in these solutions reached 24 to 40 % of the total flux during weekly sampling periods and 8 to 18 % during monthly sampling periods, whatever the element considered. The temporal evolution of atmospheric deposition showed no seasonal influence on flux variations during the 2001-2002 period. Considering an 8-year period behaviour, between 1994 and 2002, a significant decrease of the deposition fluxes of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn occurred at the Creteil site which is placed in an industrialized area of the Paris suburb. The decreasing factor reached 16, 2.5, 4 and 7.5 for these elements respectively. At the Ile-de-France scale, the deposition flux levels on urban and semi-urban areas were of the same order of magnitude (?20 tonnes per year for Ba, Cu, Pb and Sr). Since semi-urban surface area is four times higher than urban ones, the important influence of anthropogenic activities on atmospheric deposition of urban areas is

  13. Correlates of Self-Report of Rape Among Male School Adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W


    This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Glutathione S-transferase P1 ILE105Val polymorphism in occupationally exposed bladder cancer cases.

    Kopps, Silke; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Prager, Hans-Martin; Roemer, Hermann C; Lohlein, Dietrich; Weistenhofer, Wobbeke; Bolt, Hermann M; Golka, Klaus


    The genotype glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) influences the risk for bladder cancer among Chinese workers occupationally exposed to benzidine. Studies of Caucasian bladder cancer cases without known occupational exposures showed conflicting results. Research was thus conducted to define the role of GSTP1 genotypes in Caucasian bladder cancer cases with an occupational history of exposure to aromatic amines. DNA from 143 cases reported to the Industrial Professional Associations (Berufsgenossenschaften) in Germany from 1996 to 2004, who had contracted urothelial cancer due to occupational exposure, and 196 patients from one Department of Surgery in Dortmund, without known malignancy in their medical history, were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (LightCycler) in relation to GSTP1 A1578G (Ile105Val) polymorphism. Among the subjects with bladder cancer, 46% presented the AA genotype, 39% the AG genotype, and 15% the GG genotype. In the surgical (noncancer) control group analyzed, 42% presented the AA genotype, 42% the AG genotype, and 16% the GG genotype. A subgroup of bladder cancer cases, represented by 46 painters, showed a distribution of 41% of the AA genotype, 48% of the AG genotype, and 11% of the GG genotype. Data indicated that in Caucasians exposed to aromatic amines the GSTP1 A1578G polymorphism did not appear to play a significant role as a predisposing factor for bladder cancer incidence.

  15. 4-Piridinetiyonamid ile Zn(II kompleksinin spektroskopik özelliklerinin deneysel ve teorik olarak incelenmesi

    Hatice Vural


    Full Text Available Zn(II iyonunun yeni bir kompleksi olan [ZnCl2(peta2] [peta: 4-Pyridinethioamide] sentezledi. Yapısı tek kristal X-ışınları kırınım yöntemi ve FT-IR spektroskopisi kullanılarak aydınlatıldı. Zn(II merkezi etrafındaki geometrinin bozulmuş tetrahedron olduğu belirlendi. Moleküller arası N–H∙∙∙Cl, N–H∙∙∙S ve C–H∙∙∙S hidrojen bağlarının kristal paketlenmeyi dengelediği görüldü. Yapının moleküler modellemesi Hartree-Fock (HF ve yoğunluk fonksiyonel teorisi (YFT ile 6-311++G (d, p baz seti kullanarak yapıldı. Deneysel olarak elde edilmiş titreşim frekansları teorik olarak hesaplanan değerlerle karşılaştırıldı. Çözücü ortamındaki elektronik geçiler zamana bağlı yoğunluk fonksiyonel teorisine sürekli polarizasyon modeli (IEF-PCM uygulanarak hesaplandı.

  16. Plankton communities in the five Iles Eparses (Western Indian Ocean) considered to be pristine ecosystems

    Bouvy, M.; Got, P.; Domaizon, I.; Pagano, M.; Leboulanger, C.; Bouvier, C.; Carré, C.; Roques, C.; Dupuy, C.


    Coral reef environments are generally recognized as being the most threatened of marine ecosystems. However, it is extremely difficult to distinguish the effects of climate change from other forcing factors, mainly because it is difficult to study ecosystems that are isolated from human pressure. The five Iles Eparses (Scattered Islands) are located in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) and can be considered to be "pristine" ecosystems not subject to anthropogenic pressure. This study characterized their plankton assemblages for the first time, by determining the abundances of microbial (virus, bacteria, heterotrophic protists and phytoplankton) and metazooplankton communities in various lagoon and ocean sites around each island. The Europa lagoon has extensive, productive mangrove forests, which have the highest nutrient concentrations (nitrogen forms, dissolved organic carbon) and whose microbial communities present a peculiar structure and functioning. By means of bioassay experiments, we observed that bacterial production and growth rates are higher in Europa than those reported for the other islands. Tromelin, which lies outside the Mozambique Channel, had the lowest biological productivity, nutrient concentrations, and bacterial growth rates. Multivariate analysis indicated that distinct microbial assemblages occur in association to varying nutrient concentrations. Molecular fingerprinting showed clear discrimination of the structure of the archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes community between the sites. Our results suggest that the geographical distance can influence the diversity of dominant microbial taxa in the WIO.

  17. Menstruation: knowledge, attitude and practices of students in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Irinoye, O O; Ogungbemi, A; Ojo, A O


    This study investigated students' knowledge of, beliefs, attitude to and practices during menstruation. Data was collected from a sample of 200 students from Ile-Ife using the multi-stage sampling technique. Only 5% of respondents could correctly define menstruation. Materials used to manage menstruation include sanitary pad, pieces of cloths, toilet rolls, cotton wool, tampon and shoulder pad foam. Practices vary on menstruating and non-menstruating days with 11(39.3%) of the 28 practices classified as healthy, 6(21.43%) as potentially harmful and 11(39.3%) as uncertain. Three (21.43%) of the listed 14 beliefs and taboos are potentially health-promoting, 5(35.71%) are potentially not health-promoting while 6(42.86%) are potentially harmless. Menstruation is associated with restrictions in diet and social interaction with 8%, 20.5% and 5% seeing menstruation as abnormal, dirty and a disease respectively. Findings from this study would be helpful in planning educational programmes to correct misinformation and promote healthy practices among women during menstruation.

  18. Chronic Airflow Obstruction in a Black African Population: Results of BOLD Study, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Obaseki, Daniel O; Erhabor, Gregory E; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Adewole, Olufemi O; Buist, Sonia A; Burney, Peter G


    Global estimates suggest that Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is emerging as a leading cause of death in developing countries but there are few spirometry-based general population data on its prevalence and risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa. We used the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) protocol to select a representative sample of adults aged 40 years and above in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. All the participants underwent spirometry and provided information on smoking history, biomass and occupational exposures as well as diagnosed respiratory diseases and symptoms. Chronic Airflow Obstruction (CAO) was defined as the ratio of post-bronchodilator (BD) one second Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1) to Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) below the lower limit of normal (LLN) of the population distribution for FEV1/FVC. The overall prevalence of obstruction (post-BD FEV1/FVC Ife, Nigeria and unrelated to biomass exposure. The key independent predictors are poor education, and previous diagnosis of tuberculosis or asthma.

  19. Investigation of Ionospheric Response to Geomagnetic Storms over a Low Latitude Station, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Jimoh, Oluwaseyi E.; Yesufu, Thomas K.; Ariyibi, Emmanuel A.


    Due to several complexities associated with the equatorial ionosphere, and the significant role which the total electron content (TEC) variability plays in GPS signal transmission, there is the need to monitor irregularities in TEC during storm events. The GPS SCINDA receiver data at Ile-Ife, Nigeria, was analysed with a view to characterizing the ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms on 9 March and 1 October 2012. Presently, positive storm effects, peaks in TEC which were associated with prompt penetration of electric fields and changes in neutral gas composition were observed for the storms. The maximum percentage deviation in TEC of about 120 and 45% were observed for 9 March and 1 October 2012, respectively. An obvious negative percentage TEC deviation subsequent to sudden storm commencement (SSC) was observed and besides a geomagnetic storm does not necessarily suggest a high scintillation intensity (S4) index. The present results show that magnetic storm events at low latitude regions may have an adverse effect on navigation and communication systems.

  20. Reproductive performance of Ile de France ewes under dietary supplementation before and during the breeding season

    Luis Gabriel Alves Cirne


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of Ile de France ewes undergoing dietary supplementation before and during the breeding season, with and without association with management conditions (pre-mating shearing. Thirty-six ewes with an average body weight of 66 kg were used in the experiment. Treatments involved ewes receiving or not receiving concentrate supplementation (flushing, with groups subdivided according to the management condition to which animals were subjected: shearing or lack of it. Thus, ewes were divided into four treatments: flushed and shorn; flushed and unshorn; unflushed and shorn; and unflushed and unshorn. Flushing increased weight gain and body condition score, and when associated with shearing, it promoted anticipation of estrus. Fertility rate (86.05%, calving rate (77.77%, birth rate (113.83%, and type of birth (single: 82.29% and twin: 17.71% were not influenced. Birth weight (3.96 kg and prolificacy (1.25% also were not affected. Despite the lack of changes in reproductive traits, flushing adopted during the breeding season associated with shearing anticipated estrus in ewes.

  1. [Sickle cell anemia: study of the pediatric mortality in Ile de France from 1985 to 1992].

    Thomas, C; Lemerle, S; Bernaudin, F; Feingold, J; Guillou-Bataille, M; Reinert, P


    Sickle cell anemia is now relatively frequent in France. Its clinical course is punctuated by acute episodes that threaten the life, specially during the first year of life. The files of 26 children (14 boys, 12 girls) dead from sickle cell disease between 1985 and 1992 were retrospectively studied. These files concerned patients from the Ile-de-France area. Their mean age at time of diagnosis was 13.7 months (0 to 3 years 4 months); mean age was 5.5 years at time of death. Infection was the cause of death in 15 patients (S pneumoniae in eight patients despite prophylactic penicillin and pneumococcal vaccine in the majority of them). Splenic sequestration crisis was the cause of death in three patients less than 5 years of age; vasocclusive crisis resulting in cerebral infarction was the cause in three patients aged 7.5 to 13 years. Mortality calculated from those patients followed since 1987 (total: 2,063 years) was 0.29% person/year. Comfort of patients and risk of permanent disability become the main factors of choice for new treatments such as chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation.

  2. A new neurohypophysial peptide, seritocin ([Ser5,Ile8]-oxytocin), identified in a dryness-resistant African toad, Bufo regularis.

    Chauvet, J; Michel, G; Ouedraogo, Y; Chou, J; Chait, B T; Acher, R


    From the pituitary neurointermediate lobe of the African toad Bufo regularis, vasotocin, hydrin 2 (vasotocinyl-Gly) and a mesotocin-like peptide have been isolated by HPLC and characterized by mass spectrometry, amino acid sequence and chromatographic coelution with synthetic peptides. The mesotocin-like peptide has been identified as [Ser5,Ile8]-oxytocin in place of mesotocin ([Ile8]-oxytocin) found in all other amphibians investigated to date. The name seritocin is suggested. The molecule is virtually devoid of oxytocic activity on rat uterus in contrast to mesotocin. On the other hand, the molar ratio of hydrin 2 to vasotocin in the pituitary reaches 2, whereas it is about 1 in toads and frogs from temperate regions. B. regularis is an anuran species able to withstand a hot and dry season by burrowing. The possible relationship between occurrence of seritocin and adaptation to arid environment remains to be demonstrated.

  3. Update on the frequency of Ile1016 mutation in voltage-gated sodium channel gene of Aedes aegypti in Mexico.

    Siller, Quetzaly; Ponce, Gustavo; Lozano, Saul; Flores, Adriana E


    We analyzed 790 Aedes aegypti from 14 localities of Mexico in 2009 to update information on the frequency of the Ile1016 allele in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene that confers resistance to pyrethroids and DDT. The Ile1016 mutation was present in all 17 collections, and was close to fixation in Acapulco (frequency = 0.97), Iguala (0.93), and San Nicolas (0.90). Genotypes at the 1016 locus were not in Hardy-Weinberg proportions in collections from Panuco, Veracruz, Cosoleacaque, Coatzacoalcos, Tantoyuca, and Monterrey due in every case to an excess of homozygotes. The high frequencies of this mutation in Ae. aegypti are probably due to selection pressure from pyrethroid insecticides, particularly permethrin, which has been used in mosquito control programs for >10 years in Mexico.

  4. Apuntes para una historia del gremio de albañiles de Quito. Ciudad y cultura popular

    Eduardo Kingman


    Full Text Available A partir de las entrevistas realizadas a miembros del gremios de albañiles de Quito, el artículo formula algunas hipótesis sobre la formación de la cultura popular en la primera mitad del siglo XX. El gremio de albañiles se desarrolló en el contexto de una ciudad que pretendía ser moderna pero que, al mismo tiempo, reprodujo el privilegio y determinadas formas de violencia simbólica propias de una sociedad más tradicional. Frente a estas concepciones de privilegio, el estudio explora las nociones de raza popular y de respeto que emergen desde el espacio popular. Paralelamente, el artículo discute algunos problemas metodológicos y éticos relacionados con el método hagiográfico y con la posibilidad de escribir una historia de los trabajadores.

  5. Smart Substitutions for Healthy Cooking

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Smart Substitutions Updated:Dec 16,2016 Healthy eating doesn’ ... mean giving up all the foods you love! Smart substitutions can help you maintain an overall healthy ...

  6. Synthesis of 3-substituted 5-arylidene-1-methyl-2-Thiohydantoins under microwave irradiation

    Khodair, Ahmed I.; Nielsen, John


    A mono-modal microwave oven was used to expedite the synthesis of small libraries of 3-substituted 1-methyl-2-thiohydantoins and 3-substituted 5-arylidene-1-methyl-2-thiohydantoins. In comparison with the traditional reflux methods, similar or higher yields were obtained.......A mono-modal microwave oven was used to expedite the synthesis of small libraries of 3-substituted 1-methyl-2-thiohydantoins and 3-substituted 5-arylidene-1-methyl-2-thiohydantoins. In comparison with the traditional reflux methods, similar or higher yields were obtained....

  7. Synthesis of 3-substituted 5-arylidene-1-methyl-2-thiohydantoins under microwave irradiation

    Khodari, A.I.; Nielsen, John


    A mono-modal microwave oven was used to expedite the synthesis of small libraries of 3-substituted 1-methyl-2-thiohydantoins and 3-substituted 5-arylidene-1-methyl-2-thiohydantoins. In comparison with the traditional reflux methods, similar or higher yields were obtained.......A mono-modal microwave oven was used to expedite the synthesis of small libraries of 3-substituted 1-methyl-2-thiohydantoins and 3-substituted 5-arylidene-1-methyl-2-thiohydantoins. In comparison with the traditional reflux methods, similar or higher yields were obtained....

  8. The Prevalence and Pattern of Superficial Fungal Infections among School Children in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria

    Olaide Olutoyin Oke


    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the skin and nails are common global problems with attendant morbidity among affected individuals. Children are mostly affected due to predisposing factors such as overcrowding and low socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the clinical patterns of superficial fungal infections among primary school children in Ile-Ife. A multistage sampling was conducted to select eight hundred pupils from ten primary schools in Ile-Ife. Data on epidemiological characteristics and clinical history was collected using a semistructured questionnaire and skin scrapings were done. The prevalence of superficial fungal infections among the 800 respondents was 35.0%. Male pupils constituted 51.0% of respondents while the females were 49.0%. The mean age for all the respondents was 9.42 ± 2.00. Tinea capitis was the commonest infection with a prevalence of 26.9% and tinea unguium, tinea corporis, and tinea faciei had a prevalence of 0.8%, 0.6%, and 0.5%, respectively. Tinea manuum had the least prevalence of 0.1%. Pityriasis versicolor had a prevalence of 4.4%. Microsporum audouinii was the leading organism isolated. The study shows that the prevalence of superficial fungal infection (SFI among primary school children in Ile-Ife is high with tinea capitis as the commonest SFI.

  9. The Prevalence and Pattern of Superficial Fungal Infections among School Children in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria.

    Oke, Olaide Olutoyin; Onayemi, Olaniyi; Olasode, Olayinka Abimbola; Omisore, Akinlolu Gabriel; Oninla, Olumayowa Abimbola


    Fungal infections of the skin and nails are common global problems with attendant morbidity among affected individuals. Children are mostly affected due to predisposing factors such as overcrowding and low socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the clinical patterns of superficial fungal infections among primary school children in Ile-Ife. A multistage sampling was conducted to select eight hundred pupils from ten primary schools in Ile-Ife. Data on epidemiological characteristics and clinical history was collected using a semistructured questionnaire and skin scrapings were done. The prevalence of superficial fungal infections among the 800 respondents was 35.0%. Male pupils constituted 51.0% of respondents while the females were 49.0%. The mean age for all the respondents was 9.42 ± 2.00. Tinea capitis was the commonest infection with a prevalence of 26.9% and tinea unguium, tinea corporis, and tinea faciei had a prevalence of 0.8%, 0.6%, and 0.5%, respectively. Tinea manuum had the least prevalence of 0.1%. Pityriasis versicolor had a prevalence of 4.4%. Microsporum audouinii was the leading organism isolated. The study shows that the prevalence of superficial fungal infection (SFI) among primary school children in Ile-Ife is high with tinea capitis as the commonest SFI.

  10. The Prevalence and Pattern of Superficial Fungal Infections among School Children in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria

    Oke, Olaide Olutoyin; Onayemi, Olaniyi; Olasode, Olayinka Abimbola; Omisore, Akinlolu Gabriel; Oninla, Olumayowa Abimbola


    Fungal infections of the skin and nails are common global problems with attendant morbidity among affected individuals. Children are mostly affected due to predisposing factors such as overcrowding and low socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the clinical patterns of superficial fungal infections among primary school children in Ile-Ife. A multistage sampling was conducted to select eight hundred pupils from ten primary schools in Ile-Ife. Data on epidemiological characteristics and clinical history was collected using a semistructured questionnaire and skin scrapings were done. The prevalence of superficial fungal infections among the 800 respondents was 35.0%. Male pupils constituted 51.0% of respondents while the females were 49.0%. The mean age for all the respondents was 9.42 ± 2.00. Tinea capitis was the commonest infection with a prevalence of 26.9% and tinea unguium, tinea corporis, and tinea faciei had a prevalence of 0.8%, 0.6%, and 0.5%, respectively. Tinea manuum had the least prevalence of 0.1%. Pityriasis versicolor had a prevalence of 4.4%. Microsporum audouinii was the leading organism isolated. The study shows that the prevalence of superficial fungal infection (SFI) among primary school children in Ile-Ife is high with tinea capitis as the commonest SFI. PMID:25574161

  11. Association of Toll-like receptor 2 Arg753Gln and Toll-like receptor 1 Ile602Ser single-nucleotide polymorphisms with leptospirosis in an Argentine population.

    Cédola, Maia; Chiani, Yosena; Pretre, Gabriela; Alberdi, Lucrecia; Vanasco, Bibiana; Gómez, Ricardo M


    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), a member of the Toll-like receptor family, plays an important role in the recognition of and subsequent immune response activation against leptospirosis in humans. The genetic polymorphism in TLR2 of an arginine to glutamine substitution at residue 753 (Arg753Gln) has been associated with a negative influence on TLR2 function, which may, in turn, determine the innate host response to Leptospira spp. This bacterium signals through TLR2/TLR1 heterodimers in human cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the Arg753Gln single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the TLR2 gene, and the isoleucine to serine transversion at position 602 (Ile602Ser) of the TLR1 gene (previously associated with Lyme disease), in leptospirosis patients compared to healthy controls, carrying out a retrospective case/control study. The TLR2 polymorphism adenine (A) allele was observed in 7.3% of leptospirosis patients but was not found in the control group, whereas the guanine (G) allele of the TLR1 polymorphism was found in 63.6% of patients and 41.6% of controls. Susceptibility to leptospirosis disease was increased 10.57-fold for carriers of the TLR2 G/A genotype (P=0.0493) and 3.85-fold for carriers of the TLR1 G/G genotype (P=0.0428). Furthermore, the risk of developing hepatic insufficiency and jaundice was increased 18.86- and 27.60-fold for TLR2 G/A carriers, respectively. Similarly, the risk of developing jaundice was increased 12.67-fold for TLR1 G allele carriers (G/G and T/G genotypes). In conclusion, the present data suggest that the TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR1 Ile602Ser SNPs influence the risk of developing leptospirosis and its severity.

  12. Tandem SN2' nucleophilic substitution/oxidative radical cyclization of aryl substituted allylic alcohols with 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds.

    Zhang, Zhen; Li, Cheng; Wang, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Fu-Min; Han, Xue; Tu, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Ming


    A novel and efficient tandem SN2' nucleophilic substitution/oxidative radical cyclization reaction of aryl substituted allylic alcohols with 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds has been developed by using Mn(OAc)3 as an oxidant, which enables the expeditious synthesis of polysubstituted dihydrofuran (DHF) derivatives in moderate to high yields. The use of weakly acidic hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) as the solvent rather than AcOH has successfully improved the yields and expanded the substrate scope of this type of radical cyclization reactions. Mechanistic studies confirmed the cascade reaction process involving a final radical cyclization.

  13. Iron isotope fractionation in subduction-related high-pressure metabasites (Ile de Groix, France)

    El Korh, Afifé; Luais, Béatrice; Deloule, Etienne; Cividini, Damien


    Characterisation of mass transfer during subduction is fundamental to understand the origin of compositional heterogeneities in the upper mantle. Fe isotopes were measured in high-pressure/low-temperature metabasites (blueschists, eclogites and retrograde greenschists) from the Ile de Groix (France), a Variscan high-pressure terrane, to determine if the subducted oceanic crust contributes to mantle Fe isotope heterogeneities. The metabasites have δ56Fe values of +0.16 to +0.33‰, which are heavier than typical values of MORB and OIB, indicating that their basaltic protolith derives from a heavy-Fe mantle source. The δ56Fe correlates well with Y/Nb and (La/Sm)PM ratios, which commonly fractionate during magmatic processes, highlighting variations in the magmatic protolith composition. In addition, the shift of δ56Fe by +0.06 to 0.10‰ compared to basalts may reflect hydrothermal alteration prior to subduction. The δ56Fe decrease from blueschists (+0.19 ± 0.03 to +0.33 ± 0.01‰) to eclogites (+0.16 ± 0.02 to +0.18 ± 0.03‰) reflects small variations in the protolith composition, rather than Fe fractionation during metamorphism: newly-formed Fe-rich minerals allowed preserving bulk rock Fe compositions during metamorphic reactions and hampered any Fe isotope fractionation. Greenschists have δ56Fe values (+0.17 ± 0.01 to +0.27 ± 0.02‰) similar to high-pressure rocks. Hence, metasomatism related to fluids derived from the subducted hydrothermally altered metabasites might only have a limited effect on mantle Fe isotope composition under subsolidus conditions, owing to the large stability of Fe-rich minerals and low mobility of Fe. Subsequent melting of the heavy-Fe metabasites at deeper levels is expected to generate mantle Fe isotope heterogeneities.

  14. Monitoring austral and cyclonic swells in the "Iles Eparses" (Mozambique channel) from microseismic noise

    Barruol, Guilhem; Davy, Céline; Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Schlindwein, V.; Sigloch, K.


    We deployed five broadband three-components seismic stations in the Iles Eparses in the south-west Indian Ocean and on Mayotte Island, between April 2011 and January 2014. These small and remote oceanic islands suffer the effects of strong ocean swells that affect their coastal environments but most islands are not instrumented by wave gauges to characterize the swells. However, wave action on the coast causes high levels of ground vibrations in the solid earth, so-called microseismic noise. We use this link between the solid earth and ocean wave activity to quantify the swells locally. Spectral analyses of the continuous seismic data show clear peaks in the 0.05-0.10 Hz frequency band (periods between 10 and 20 s), corresponding to the ocean wave periods of the local swells. We analyze an example of austral swell occurring in August 2013 and a cyclonic event (Felleng) that developed in January 2013, and quantify the ground motion at each station induced by these events. In both cases, we find a linear polarization in the horizontal plane with microseismic amplitude directly correlated to the swell height (as predicted by the global swell model WaveWatchIII), and a direction of polarization close to the predicted swell propagation direction. Although this analysis has not been performed in real time, it demonstrates that terrestrial seismic stations can be efficiently used as wave gauges, and are particularly well suited for quantifying extreme swell events. This approach may therefore provide useful and cheaper alternatives to wave buoys for monitoring swells and the related environmental processes such as beach erosion or coral reef damages.

  15. Early experience with laparoscopic surgery in children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Ademola Olusegun Talabi


    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopy is not yet routinely employed in many Paediatric Surgical Units in Nigeria despite the advantages it offers. This study describes the preliminary experience with laparoscopic procedures in a single centre. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis of all children who had laparoscopic surgery between January 2009 and December 2013 at the Paediatric Surgical Unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile-Ife was carried out. Their sociodemographic, preoperative and intraoperative data along with postoperative records were subjected to descriptive analysis. Results: Eleven (44% diagnostic and 14 (56% therapeutic procedures were performed on 25 children whose age ranged from 5 months to 15 years (Median: 84 months, Mean: 103 ± 64.1 months, including eight (32% females and 17 (68% males. Indications included acute appendicitis in 12 (48%, intra-abdominal masses in six (24%, three (12% disorders of sexual differentiation, two (8% ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunctions and impalpable undescended testes in two (8% children. The procedures lasted 15-90 minutes (Mean = 54 (±21.6 minutes. Conversion rate was 17% for two patients who had ruptured retrocaecal appendices. No intra operative complications were recorded while three (12% patients had superficial port site infections post-operatively. All diagnostic (11 and two therapeutic procedures were done as day case surgery. The mean duration of hospital stay was 3.1 (±3.3 days for those who had appendectomies. Conclusion: Laparoscopic surgery in children is safe and feasible in our hospital. We advocate increased use of laparoscopy in paediatric surgical practice in Nigeria and similar developing settings.

  16. Coral reef monitoring in the Iles Eparses, Mozambique Channel (2011-2013)

    Chabanet, P.; Bigot, L.; Nicet, J.-B.; Durville, P.; Massé, L.; Mulochau, T.; Russo, C.; Tessier, E.; Obura, D.


    Monitoring of coral reefs has become a major tool for understanding how they are changing, and for managing them in a context of increasing degradation of coastal ecosystems. The Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) has near-global coverage, but there are few remote sites free of direct human impact that can serve as reference sites. This study provides baseline data for the French Iles Eparses in the Mozambique Channel, Western Indian Ocean (WIO), whose coral reefs are little known owing to their limited accessibility, and have been free from fishing pressure for over 20 years. Surveys of coral reef health and fish community structure were undertaken at four of the islands (Europa, Bassas da India, Juan de Nova and Glorieuses) in 2011-2013. Monitoring was conducted using standardized GCRMN methods for benthos and fish communities, at the highest taxonomic level. Benthic cover showed a latitudinal gradient, with higher coral cover and conversely lower algae cover (60% and 14% respectively) in the south of the Mozambique Channel. This could be due to the geomorphology of the islands, the latitudinal temperature gradient, and/or the history of chronic stress and bleaching events during the last decades. Fish also showed a latitudinal gradient with higher diversity in the north, in a center of diversity for the western Indian Ocean already recognized for corals. An exceptional biomass fish was recorded (approximately 3500 kg/ha excluding sharks, compared to a maximum of 1400 kg/ha elsewhere in the WIO). The presence of large predators and sharks in all the islands as well as the absence of fleshy benthic algae were indicators of the good health of the reef systems. Nevertheless, these islands are beginning to experience illegal fishing, particularly in the north of the Mozambique Channel, demonstrating their vulnerability to exploitation and the need to protect them as reference sites for coral reef studies, including of climate change impacts, for the region

  17. [Reproducibility of cytologic diagnosis: study of CRISAP Ile-de-France].

    Barrès, D; Bergeron, C


    The cervical Pap smear is the method of choice for early detection of precancerous cervical lesions. However, the sensitivity of the Pap smear is not perfect, nor is the specificity, in particular for minor atypia; quality control is the best method to improve the efficiency of the test. The "Centre de regroupement informatique et statistique des données en anatomie pathologique" (CRISAP) Ile-de-France has initiated an external quality control with a protocol aimed at assessing diagnosis reproducibility among observers. Thirteen pathologists agreed to participate on a voluntary basis fur this protocol, which consisted of the rereading of 650 slides chosen at random. Each participant reread 50 cases and sent 50 cases to be reread anonymously. The diagnosis was given according to the Bethesda classification. The reproducibility was assessed using the percentage of agreement and kappa statistics. The percentage of agreement for the whole group was 65% and the weighted kappa 0.66. When normal and unsatisfactory cases were combined as negative and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) as positive, the percentage of agreement was 83% and Kappa 0.66. When normal, unsatisfactory and ASCUS were combined as negative and LGSIL and HGSIL as positive, the percentage agreement raised to 90% and kappa to 0.76. This attempt at assessing the reproducibility of cytologic diagnosis using an informal method had led to good participation among participants. A fairly good agreement for overall cytologic diagnosis was found, though some variability remained concerning the diagnosis of unsatisfactory and those labelled as ASCUS. These results should lead the participants to reflect upon and eventually reassess their criteria on these specific cases.

  18. A Generalized Yield Criterion

    Shijian YUAN; Dazhi XIAO; Zhubin HE


    A generalized yield criterion is proposed based on the metal plastic deformation mechanics and the fundamental formula in theory of plasticity. Using the generalized yield criterion, the reason is explained that Mises yield criterion and Tresca yield criterion do not completely match with experimental data. It has been shown that the yield criteria of ductile metals depend not only on the quadratic invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor J2, but also on the cubic invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor J3 and the ratio of the yield stress in pure shear to the yield stress in uniaxial tension k/σs. The reason that Mises yield criterion and Tresca yield criterion are not in good agreement with the experimental data is that the effect of J3 and k/σs is neglected.

  19. Ligand-free palladium catalysed Heck reaction of methyl 2-acetamido acrylate and aryl bromides as key step in the synthesis of enantiopure substituted phenylalanines

    Willans, Charlotte E.; Mulders, Jan M.C.A.; Vries, Johannes G. de; Vries, André H.M. de


    A range of substituted aryl bromides were coupled with methyl 2-acetamido acrylate using ligand-free palladium catalysis. Subsequently asymmetric hydrogenation with Rh/MonoPhos yielded substituted phenylalanines in high enantioselectivities (e.e. 92-99%).

  20. Association between the Thr325Ile polymorphism of the thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and stroke in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Kozian, Detlef H; Lorenz, Martin; März, Winfried; Cousin, Emmanuelle; Mace, Sandrine; Deleuze, Jean-Francois


    The thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a key mediator in the regulation of endogenous fibrinolysis, down-regulating clot lysis by degrading the C-terminal lysine residues from fibrin, which are important for binding and activating plasminogen. Elevated TAFI antigen levels have been suggested to be associated with promoter variants and the Ala147Thr polymorphism; increased TAFI stability and antifibrinolytic potential instead have been associated with the Thr325Ile polymorphism. We investigated the influence of these two polymorphisms on cardiovascular and thrombotic events in patients of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study. The LURIC study is a prospective cohort study comprising more than 3,300 patients aimed at identifying biochemical and genetic markers for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We demonstrate that the Ile/Ile genotype at position 325 of TAFI associates with the incidence of stroke and the age at onset of first stroke in patients of the LURIC cohort. Both the incidence of stroke and the risk of a premature event are higher in TAFI Ile325Ile patients with predisposing risk factors for thrombotic events such as diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction or hypertension, alone or in combination. In contrast, no significant association was identified for the TAFI Ala147Thr polymorphism. The robust association of the TAFI Thr325Ile polymorphism with the incidence and the age at onset of first stroke strongly suggests a key role for TAFI in the pathogenetic mechanism of stroke.

  1. 40 CFR 721.10034 - Substituted pyridine coupled with diazotized substituted nitrobenzonitrile, diazotized...


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted pyridine coupled with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10034 Substituted pyridine coupled with diazotized substituted... as substituted pyridine coupled with diazotized substituted nitrobenzonitrile, diazotized...

  2. Rh-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of α-Substituted Vinyl Sulfones: An Efficient Approach to Chiral Sulfones.

    Shi, Liyang; Wei, Biao; Yin, Xuguang; Xue, Peng; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Xumu


    Rh/(S)-(+)-DTBM-Segphos complex catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of α-substituted vinyl sulfones has been achieved, furnishing the desired products in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities (>90% yield, up to 99% ee). This method provided an efficient approach to α-substituted chiral sulfones under mild conditions and has potential applications in organic synthesis.

  3. HM-CFRP ile güçlendirilmiş çelik I kirişlerin eğilme davranışlarının YSA analizi ile incelenmesi

    Elif Ağcakoca


    Full Text Available Köprülerde kullanılan, çelik kompozit kirişler gerek kesit kayıplarından, gerekse artan trafik yüklerinden dolayı mevcut kesitleri yetersiz kalabilmektedir. Çözüm olarak kesitin yenisi ile değiştirilmesi ya da güçlendirilmesi tavsiye edilmektedir. Günümüzdeki teknolojik gelişmeler sayesinde karbon fiberlerin içinde yüksek rijitliğe sahip High moduluscarbon fiber-reinforced polimer(HM-CFRP gibi güçlendirme malzemeleri üretilmekte ve bu malzemeler yine yüksek elastik modüle sahip çelik yapı elemanlarının güçlendirilmesinde kullanılmaktadır. Böylece polimer malzeme ile güçlendirilen çelik yapı elemanlarının rijitlik ve dayanımında mukavemet kazanması sağlanmaktadır. Ancak çelik, epoksi ve fiber takviyeli malzemeden oluşan güçlendirilmiş kirişlere ait deneysel çalışmalar zaman ve parasal yönden ekonomik olmamaktadır. Bu yüzden deney hazırlık aşaması zor olan durumlarda, numerik modeller hazırlanıp doğrulanarak parametrik çalışmalar yürütülebilmektedir. Bu çalışmadaki numerik model, deneysel çalışma ile doğrulanmış daha sonra parametrik çalışmalar yapılmış ve YSA ile test edilmiştir. Çalışmanın numerik modellemesinde ABAQUS sonlu eleman modeli kullanılmış gerek malzeme gerekse geometrik bakımdan doğrusal olmayan analizler yapılmıştır. YSA tabanlı modelinin performansı ile ABAQUS programından elde edilen sonuçlar değerlendirildiğinde YSA tekniği kullanılarak I kesitli Çelik- Betonarme kompozit kirişlerin HM- CFRP ile onarım ve güçlendirilmesinde daha hızlı, güvenilir ve ekonomik sonuçlar elde edilebileceği görülmüştür.

  4. Preparation of 7-substituted ginkgolide derivatives

    Vogensen, Stine Byskov; Strømgaard, Kristian; Shindou, Hideo


    of these derivatives as assayed by cloned PAF receptors. In two cases nucleophilic attack on a 7beta-O-triflate ginkgolide B did not lead to the expected products, but gave rise to two unprecedented ginkgolide derivatives, one with a novel rearranged skeleton. Furthermore, standard reduction of 7alpha-azido ginkgolide...... B did not give the expected primary amine, but instead yielded alkylated amines depending on the solvent employed. Pharmacological testing with cloned PAF receptors showed that ginkgolides with 7alpha-substitutents had increased affinity compared to 7beta-substituents, in particular 7alpha...

  5. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Valéria Maria Limberger


    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  6. Amine-synthesizing enzyme N-substituted formamide deformylase: Screening, purification, characterization, and gene cloning

    Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Goda, Masahiko; Higashibata, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Michihiko


    N-substituted formamide was produced through the hydration of an isonitrile by isonitrile hydratase in the isonitrile metabolism. The former compound was further degraded by a microorganism, strain F164, which was isolated from soil through an acclimatization culture. The N-substituted formamide-degrading microorganism was identified as Arthrobacter pascens. The microbial degradation was found to proceed through an enzymatic reaction, the N-substituted formamide being hydrolyzed to yield the ...

  7. Synthesis of 2-Phenyl-10-substituted Hymenialdisine Derivatives

    WU Yi; WANG Yu; QIN Yong; SONG Hao


    A series of novel 2-phenyl-10-substituted hymenialdisine derivatives was synthesized via the microwave-assisted Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of the 2-phenyl derivative of hymenialdisine and boronic acid,which enabled the successful introduction of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups to the 2-phenylhymenialdisine derivatives in good yields.

  8. Borane-substituted imidazol-2-ylidenes: syntheses in vacuo.

    Taylor, Alasdair W; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Jones, Robert G; Licence, Peter


    The serendipitous discovery of an efficient reactive distillation is reported. Two borane-substituted imidazol-2-ylidenes have been prepared in high yield from precursor tetrafluoroborate derived room temperature ionic liquids by reactive distillation at T > 500 K and p < 1 × 10(-4) mbar.

  9. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis

    Bonn, D.; Denn, M.M.


    We are surrounded in everyday life by yield stress fluids: materials that behave as solids under small stresses but flow like liquids beyond a critical stress. For example, paint must flow under the brush, but remain fixed in a vertical film despite the force of gravity. Food products (such as mayon

  10. Association of GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1-ILE105VAL and ACE I/D polymorphisms with ankylosing spondylitis.

    İnal, Esra Erkol; Görükmez, Orhan; Eroğlu, Selma; Görükmez, Özlem; Solak, Özlem; Topak, Ali; Yakut, Tahsin


    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin. The aim of this study is to clarify the relationships between susceptibility and severity of AS and GST-mu1 (GSTM1), GST-theta1 (GSTT1), GST-pi1 (GSTP1)-Ile105Val and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D polymorphisms in AS patients. One hundred thirty-eight AS patients and seventy-one healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels of the AS patients were recorded. The scores of the numeric rating scale (NRS) pain, the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Activity Index, the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index were calculated. The genotypes distributions and allele frequencies of GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1-Ile105Val and ACE I/D polymorphisms were compared between patients and healthy controls. The Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods were used to detect the polymorphisms of ACE I/D, the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes and the GSTP1-Ile105Val polymorphism, respectively. There were significantly higher levels of the GSTT1 null and the ACE II genotypes in AS patients compared to those in healthy controls (p = 0.002 and 0.005, respectively). We found significantly higher levels of CRP and the NRS pain scores in the patients with ACE ID or DD genotypes compared to those in the patients with ACE II genotypes (p = 0.005 and 0.035, respectively). The present results showed that genes involved in protection from oxidative stress and ACE gene may influence disease development and course in AS.




    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, doğalgaz ile çalışan absorpsiyonlu soğutma sistenıi ve klasik soğutma sisteminin karşıl aştırılması yapılmıştır. LiBr-H20 eriyiği kullanan bir ticari absorpsiyon makinasının sistem eleman larının termodinamik analizi yapılmıştır. Bu sistemde soğutma devresi eşa njörü ve eriyik devresi eşanjörlü sistem ile eş anjörsüz sistemlerin soğutma tesir katsayıları (STK ve ısıtma tesir katsayıları (ITK hesaplanarak, karşılaştırılması yapılmıştır. Bir vi Ila için LiBr-H20 eriyiği kulJaoan 23 KW'lık soğutma yüküne sahip absorpsiyon makinası ile klasik sisteme göre çalışa n soğutma makinasının ilk yatırım ve işletme giderlerine göre karşılaştırılmaları yapılmıştır

  12. Thermogram No Substitute for Mammogram

    ... Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Thermogram No Substitute for Mammogram Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  13. Substitute Valuations: Generation and Structure

    Hajek, Bruce


    Substitute valuations (in some contexts called gross substitute valuations) are prominent in combinatorial auction theory. An algorithm is given in this paper for generating a substitute valuation through Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, the geometry of the set of all substitute valuations for a fixed number of goods K is investigated. The set consists of a union of polyhedrons, and the maximal polyhedrons are identified for K=4. It is shown that the maximum dimension of the maximal polyhedrons increases with K nearly as fast as two to the power K.

  14. Structure and Substitutions in Fluorapatite

    Leroy N.


    Full Text Available Fluorapatite, Ca10(PO46F2. is a widely spread form of calcium phosphate present particularly in biological material. Human hard tissues contain crystals structurally related to apatite. Fluoride can be found in various natural sources and is also used for its beneficial action in caries prevention. Fluorapatite belongs to the spatial group P63/m (C6h2 and consists of 3 ions: F-, Ca2+, PO43-. In the present paper, we have carried out a crystallographic study of the fluorapatite structure and of the changes induced by the substitutions. The fluorapatite structure and the presence of a large number of ionic bonds make fluorapatite a very suitable host for many substitutents, some of them harmless for the human organism, some not. According to the substitution site, we can describe four types of substitution. The F- substitution, also called Type A substitution, is the main one, and the best known. Only the Ca2+ substitution implies changes in the crystal structure. However, some questions remain, in particular for the PO43- substitution, which is the main substitution present in the biological calcium phosphates.

  15. Preparation of substituted phenanthridines from the coupling of aryldiazonium salts with nitriles: a metal free approach.

    Ramanathan, Mani; Liu, Shiuh-Tzung


    A transition metal free approach for the synthesis of substituted phenanthridines from the coupling reaction of aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates with nitriles has been developed. This operationally simple protocol proceeds through a substitution of aryldiazonium with nitriles followed by an intramolecular arylation to provide the corresponding phenanthridines in moderate to excellent yields.

  16. Synthesis of 3-substituted 5-arylidene-1-methyl-2-thiohydantoins under microwave irradiation

    Khodari, A.I.; Nielsen, John


    A mono-modal microwave oven was used to expedite the synthesis of small libraries of 3-substituted 1-methyl-2-thiohydantoins and 3-substituted 5-arylidene-1-methyl-2-thiohydantoins. In comparison with the traditional reflux methods, similar or higher yields were obtained....

  17. Synthesis of 3-substituted 5-arylidene-1-methyl-2-Thiohydantoins under microwave irradiation

    Khodair, Ahmed I.; Nielsen, John


    A mono-modal microwave oven was used to expedite the synthesis of small libraries of 3-substituted 1-methyl-2-thiohydantoins and 3-substituted 5-arylidene-1-methyl-2-thiohydantoins. In comparison with the traditional reflux methods, similar or higher yields were obtained....

  18. Ammonium metavanadate: A novel catalyst for synthesis of 2-substituted benzimidazole derivatives

    Ganesh R. Jadhav; Mohammad U. Shaikh; Rajesh P. Kale; Charansingh H. Gill


    Ammonium metavanadate (10 tool%) was found to be a useful catalyst for the synthesis of various 2-substituted aryl benzimidazoles. It was used as an oxidizing agent for the condensation of o-pbenylenediamine with different substituted aryl aldehydes at room temperature in ethanol. The method was proved to be simple, convenient and the product was isolated with good yields (79-91%).

  19. An effective synthesis of β-aryl substituted isotetronic acids via Suzuki coupling

    Huan Sheng Chen; Xia Ping Ma; Zhi Ming Li; Quan Rui Wang; Feng Gang Tao


    lsotetronic acids are of great agricultural and pharmacological relevance and occur in a number of natural products.A convenient synthetic pathway to β-aryl substituted isotetronic acid derivatives was developed via Suzuki cross-coupling of the corresponding β-bromo substituted isotetronic acid derivatives with arylboronic acids under palladium acetate catalysis.Good to excellent yields have been achieved.

  20. Yield Mapping in Salix; Skoerdekartering av salix

    Anderson, Christoffer; Gilbertsson, Mikael; Rogstrand, Gustav; Thylen, Lars


    The most common species for energy forest production is willow. Willow is able to produce a large amount of biomass in a short period of time. Growing willow has a potential to render a good financial result for the farmer if cultivated on fields with the right conditions and plenty of water. Under the right conditions growing willow can give the farmer a net income of 3,000 SEK (about 430 USD) per hectare and year, which is something that common cereal crops cannot compete with. However, this is not the common case since willow is often grown as a substitute crop on fields where cereal crop yield is low. The aim of this study was to reveal if it is possible to measure yield variability in willow, and if it is possible to describe the reasons for yield variation both within the field but also between different fields. Yield mapping has been used in conventional farming for about a decade. The principles for yield mapping are to continuously measure the yield while registering location by the use of GPS when harvesting the field. The collected data is then used to search for spatial variations within the field, and to try to understand the reasons for this variation. Since there is currently no commercial equipment for yield mapping in willow, a yield mapping system had to be developed within this project. The new system was installed on a Claas Jaguar harvester. The principle for yield mapping on the Claas Jaguar harvester is to measure the distance between the feeding rollers. This distance is correlated to the flow through the harvester. The speed and position of the machine was registered using GPS. Knowing the working width of the harvester this information was used to calculate the yield. All collected data was stored on a PDA computer. Soil samples were also collected from the yield mapped fields. This was to be able to test yield against both physical and chemical soil parameters. The result shows that it is possible to measure spatial variations of yield in


    Bambang Purwono


    Full Text Available The nucleophilic substitution reaction to quaternary Mannich base from vanillin has been investigated. Mannich reaction to vanillin was carried out by refluxing mixture of vanillin, formaldehyde and dimethyl amine. Quaternary ammonium halide salt was obtained from reaction of Mannich vanillin base with methyl iodide in THF solvents and yielded 93.28 %. Nucleophilic substituion to the halide salts with cyanide nucleophile produced 4-hidroxy-3-methoxy-5-(cyanomethylbenzaldehyde in 54.39% yield. Reaction with methoxyde ion yielded 4-hydroxy- 3-methoxy-5-(methoxy -methylbenzaldehyde in 67.80% yield. The nucleophilic substitution reaction showed that trimethylamino substituent of quaternary Mannich base can act as a good leaving group on nucleophilic substitution reactions. Keywords: Mannich reaction, vanillin, nucleophilic substitution

  2. A New Synthetic Method of Highly Substituted Cyclopentadienes from α,β-Unsaturated Alkynones

    郑兴良; 张永敏


    Promoted by samarium diiodlde in THF, the α, β-unsaturated alkynones were reduced to afford intermolecular reductive cou-pling products. The multiply substituted cyclopentadienes were prepared conveniently in good yields.

  3. A Practical Synthesis of 3-Oximido-substituted-1,5-diazacycloheptane Dihydrochloride


    From 3-hydroxyl-1, 5-diazacycloheptane dihydrobromide, we have synthesized a series of new compounds, 3-oximido-substituted-1,5-diazacycloheptane dihydrochloride, in high yields. The experimental operations are convenient and mild.

  4. Facile and Stereoselective Synthesis of N-Substituted Benzotriazole with Baylis-Hillman Adducts

    Jian LI; Yun Kui LIU; Yong Min ZHANG


    A convenient method has been developed toward the stereoselective synthesis of N-substituted benzotriazole derivatives under mild conditions. The good stereolectivity, high yields and the simple procedure make the present protocol attractive.

  5. Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)

    Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays


    This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to

  6. An efficient and facile synthesis of highly substituted 2,6-dicyanoanilines.

    Yi, Chenyi; Blum, Carmen; Liu, Shi-Xia; Frei, Gabriela; Neels, Antonia; Renaud, Philippe; Leutwyler, Samuel; Decurtins, Silvio


    A one-pot procedure for the synthesis of substituted 2,6-dicyanoanilines starting from readily available ynones and malononitrile has been developed. For instance, penta-1,4-diyn-3-one is converted into the acetylene-substituted aniline derivative 1 in good yield. Upon photoexcitation, this chromophore shows a strong blue emission with a high quantum yield. The ground- and the excited-state geometries, charge distributions, and excitation energies of 1 have been evaluated by ab initio calculations.

  7. Fluoroalkyl-Substituted Diazomethanes and Their Application in a General Synthesis of Pyrazoles and Pyrazolines.

    Mertens, Lucas; Hock, Katharina J; Koenigs, Rene M


    A novel continuous-flow approach for the synthesis of fluoroalkyl-substituted diazomethanes has been developed. Utilizing a cheap, self-made microreactor fluoroalkyl-substituted amines were transformed into the corresponding diazomethanes using tert-butyl nitrite and acetic acid as catalyst. These diazomethanes were employed in [2+3] cycloaddition reactions with olefins and alkynes, yielding valuable pyrazolines and pyrazoles in good to excellent yields.

  8. The Frequent Adiponutrin (PNPLA3 Variant p.Ile148Met Is Associated with Early Liver Injury: Analysis of a German Pediatric Cohort

    Marcin Krawczyk


    Full Text Available Introduction. The common adiponutrin (PNPLA3 variant p.Ile148Met is associated with liver injury. Here, we investigate the association of this polymorphism with hepatic and metabolic traits in a pediatric cohort. Patients and Methods. The study cohort comprised 142 German children (age 5–9 years, 98 overweight, 19 children with NAFLD. Results. Overweight children presented with increased serum ALT (P=0.001 and GGT (P<0.001 activities. ALT activities differed significantly (P=0.02 between carriers of different PNPLA3 genotypes in the entire study cohort, in normal weight children (P=0.02 and in children younger than 7 years (P=0.02. Carriers of the prosteatotic PNPLA3 genotype p.148Met/Met displayed higher ALT activities as compared to children with the frequent genotype p.148Ile/Ile (P=0.01. The BMI was however a stronger predictor of ALT activities compared to the PNPLA3 genotype (P<0.001 and P=0.06, resp.. The variant was associated with increased serum glucose levels (P=0.01 and HOMA index (P=0.02 in carriers of the p.148Ile/Met genotype but did not affect other metabolic traits or the presence of NAFLD. Discussion. The frequent PNPLA3 variant p.Ile148Met is associated with serum ALT activities already at a young age.

  9. Efeito da suplementação alimentar nas respostas fisiológicas, hormonais e sanguíneas de ovelhas Santa Inês, Ile de France e Texel = Effect of supplementary feeding on physiological, hormonal and blood responses of Santa Ines, Ile de France and Texel ewes

    Fábio José Lourenço


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a suplementação de proteína (12% de proteína bruta (PB (T1 e 16% de PB (T2 na temperatura retal (TR, frequências respiratória (FR e cardíaca (FC, glicose (Gl, albumina (Alb, proteínas totais (PT, triiodotironina (T3 e tiroxina (T4 de 16 ovelhas Santa Inês, 16 Texel e 15 Ile de France. A FR não diferiu no T1 e T2 na Santa Inês e Ile de France, sendo maior na Texel no T2. FR aumentou na primavera, na Texel, seguida da Ile de France e pela Santa Inês e caiu no outono para Santa Inês e Ile de France. FR foi maior à tarde, na Texel, na Ile de France e na Santa Inês. Maior FC na Santa Inês e Texel no T1 e menor na Ile de France. FC na Santa Inês foi superior nas estações do ano, e na primavera maior para todas as raças. Maior Gl, PT, Alb e T3 na Santa Inês, e iguais para Texel e Ile de France. T3 maior na Santa Inês no inverno; na Texel maior no inverno e primavera, sem diferenças para Ile de France. Gl, T3 e T4 iguais no T1 e T2, e a PT e Alb maiores no T2.We evaluated the supplemental protein (12% crude protein (CP (T1 and 16% CP (T2 in rectal temperature (RT, respiratory rate (RR and heart rate (HR, glucose (Gl, albumin (Alb, total protein (TP, triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 in 16 Santa Ines, 16 Texel and 15 Ile de France ewes. The RR was not differing in T1 and T2 in Santa Ines and Ile de France, being higher in Texel in T2. FR increased in the spring, in the Texel, followed by Ile de France and Santa Ines, and decreased in fall in Santa Ines and Ile de France. RR was higher in the afternoon, in the Texel, in Ile de France and Santa Ines. Higher HR in Santa Ines and Texel in T1, and smaller in Ile de France. HR in Santa Ines was higher in the seasons, and spring higher for all breeds. Greater Gl, TP, Alb and T3 in Santa Ines, and equal for Texel and Ile de France. T3 higher for the Santa Ines in the winter; in Texel higher in winter and spring; no differences for Ile de France. Gl, T3 and T4 were similar

  10. Currency substitution in Eastern Europe

    van Aarle, B.; Budina, N.


    Monetary instability during the transition process from a command economy to a market economy has induced a considerable increase in currency substitution in Eastern Europe. Currency substitution itself affects monetary stability since it reduces the stability of velocity. This paper investigates cu

  11. Displacement, Substitution, Sublimation: A Bibliography.

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Sigmund Freund worked with the mechanisms of displacement, substitution, and sublimation. These mechanisms have many similarities and have been studied diagnostically and therapeutically. Displacement and substitution seem to fit in well with phobias, hysterias, somatiyations, prejudices, and scapegoating. Phobias, prejudices, and scapegoating…

  12. Substitute Teachers: The Professional Contradiction.

    Shreeve, William C.; And Others

    The substitute teacher's public image was investigated by means of an informal survey of part-time and full-time teachers in Washington. Survey results revealed that working conditions appeared to be the largest factor in damaging the self-image of most substitute teachers. The majority of full-time teachers and administrators surveyed were…

  13. Alternative fat substitutes for beef burger: technological and sensory characteristics.

    Bastos, Sabrina C; Pimenta, Maria Emília S G; Pimenta, Carlos J; Reis, Tatiana A; Nunes, Cleiton A; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Fabrício, Luís Felipe F; Leal, Renato Silva


    This study aimed to develop a type of hamburger meat product and evaluate the physical features and sensory formulations of oatmeal flour, flour of green banana pulp, flour of green banana peel, flour of apple peel and pulp of Green Banana as fat substitutes. Regarding color, the formulations containing fat substitutes based on green banana presented lower values for b* and L*. Hamburgers with added oatmeal and apple peel flour obtained high values of a* and low values of L*, producing the reddest burgers. Substitutes based on green banana differed from others, resulting in a higher yield of burgers and water-holding capacity during cooking, besides having lower toughness and less shrinkage. The sensory acceptance test for untrained consumers suggests that the flour of peel and pulp of green banana, and oatmeal flour are excellent choices for fat-substitution in beef burger. Although fat contributes to a series of physical and sensory attributes such as softness, juiciness and yield, it is possible to reduce the lipid content in beef burgers without depreciating the quality of food through the use of the following fat substitutes: oat flour, apple peel flour, green banana pulp flour, green banana peel flour and green banana pulp.

  14. Bromate and trace metal levels in bread loaves from outlets within Ile-Ife Metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    J.A.O. Oyekunle


    Full Text Available Bread loaves randomly sampled from nine outlets and bakeries within Ile-Ife were analysed to determine their safety levels for human consumption with respect to bromate and trace metal contents. Bromate determination was carried out via spectrophotometric method while trace metals in the digested bread samples were profiled using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Bromate levels in the analyzed bread samples ranged from 2.051 ± 0.011 μg/g to 66.224 ± 0.014 μg/g while the trace metal levels were of the order: 0.03–0.10 μg/g Co = 0.03–0.10 μg/g Pb < 0.23–0.46 μg/g Cu < 2.23–6.63 μg/g Zn < 25.83–75.53 μg/g Mn. This study revealed that many bread bakers around Ile-Ife had not fully complied with the bromate-free rule stipulated by NAFDAC contrary to the “bromate free” inscribed on the labels of the bread. The bread samples contained both essential and toxic trace metals to levels that could threaten the health of consumers over prolonged regular consumption.

  15. Trifluoromethyl-substituted tetrathiafulvalenes

    Olivier Jeannin


    Full Text Available A series of tetrathiafulvalenes functionalized with one or two trifluoromethyl electron-withdrawing groups (EWG is obtained by phosphite coupling involving CF3-substituted 1,3-dithiole-2-one derivatives. The relative effects of the EWG such as CF3, CO2Me and CN on the TTF core were investigated from a combination of structural, electrochemical, spectrochemical and theoretical investigations. Electrochemical data confirm the good correlations between the first oxidation potential of the TTF derivatives and the σmeta Hammet parameter, thus in the order CO2Me 3 3, where, as in TTF itself, the low energy absorption band is essentially attributable to a HOMO→LUMO + 1 transition. Despite relatively high oxidation potentials, these donor molecules with CF3 EWG can be involved in charge transfer complexes or cation radical salts, as reported here for the CF3-subsituted EDT-TTF donor molecule. A neutral charge transfer complex with TCNQ, (EDT-TTF-CF32(TCNQ was isolated and characterized through alternated stacks of EDT-TTF-CF3 dimers and TCNQ in the solid state. A radical cation salt of EDT-TTF-CF3 is also obtained upon electrocrystallisation in the presence of the FeCl4− anion. In this salt, formulated as (EDT-TTF-CF3(FeCl4, the (EDT-TTF-CF3+• radical cations are associated two-by-two into centrosymmetric dyads with a strong pairing of the radical species in a singlet state.

  16. A simple strategy for {sup 13}C,{sup 1}H labeling at the Ile-{gamma}2 methyl position in highly deuterated proteins

    Ruschak, Amy M.; Velyvis, Algirdas; Kay, Lewis E., E-mail: [The University of Toronto, Departments of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Chemistry (Canada)


    A straightforward approach for the production of highly deuterated proteins labeled with {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H at Ile-{gamma}2 methyl positions is described. The utility of the methodology is illustrated with an application involving the half proteasome (360 kDa). High quality 2D Ile {sup 13}C{sup {gamma}2},{sup 1}H{sup {gamma}2} HMQC data sets, exploiting the methyl-TROSY principle, are recorded with excellent sensitivity and resolution, that compare favorably with Ile {sup 13}C{sup {delta}1},{sup 1}H{sup {delta}1} spectra. This labeling scheme adds to a growing list of different approaches that are significantly impacting the utility of solution NMR spectroscopy in studies of supra-molecular systems.

  17. Conduction block and tonic pupils in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease caused by a myelin protein zero p.Ile112Thr mutation.

    Murphy, Sinéad M


    We report a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) due to the p.Ile112Thr mutation in myelin protein zero (MPZ) who presented with a patchy neuropathy with conduction block and tonic pupils. Conduction block is unusual in inherited neuropathies, while pupil abnormalities are recognised to occur in CMT especially due to MPZ mutations. This case highlights that patchy demyelinating neuropathy with conduction block may occur in p.Ile112Thr MPZ mutations. Involvement of the pupils, as in this case, may be a pointer towards a genetic rather than inflammatory cause of neuropathy.

  18. Review of the sanitary state of coniferous forests in windfall places in the Ile-Alatau National park (Kazakhstan) in 2011–2015

    Vladimir L. Kazenas; Izbasar I. Temreshev; Esenbekova, Perizat A.


    The article presents the results of a study on the species composition of stem pests- insects and limitation of their number, carried out in the Ile-Alatau State National Park (Kazakhstan) in 2011–2015. The reason for this study was a windfall, which occurred in 2011 in the National Park and followed a few years later by forest fires. These emergencies created a favourable environment for the reproduction of stem pests. The management of the Ile-Alatau National Park, together with the Institu...

  19. Vitreous substitutes: challenges and directions

    Qian-Ying; Gao; Yue; Fu; Yan-Nian; Hui


    The natural vitreous body has a fine structure and complex functions. The imitation of the natural vitreous body by vitreous substitutes is a challenging work for both researchers and ophthalmologists. Gases, silicone oil, heavy silicone oil and hydrogels, particularly the former two vitreous substitutes are clinically widely used with certain complications. Those, however, are not real artificial vitreous due to lack of structure and function like the natural vitreous body. This article reviews the situations, challenges, and future directions in the development of vitreous substitutes, particularly the experimental and clinical use of a new artificial foldable capsular vitreous body.


    department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. (Received 28 ... properties, growth and shoot yield of large-green leafy amaranth (Amaranth sp.). Soil moisture ... microorganisms which stimulate the physical processes ... to plants and, consequently, crop establishment ... sustainable soil structure.

  1. 6 Grain Yield

    evaluate new interspecific genotypes for intensified double cropping of irrigated rice. The experimental ... the performance of the new irrigated .... nursing at a spacing of 20 cm between plants ..... if new technologies, comprising high yielding.

  2. Thermal comfort characteristics of some selected building materials in the regional setting of Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    S. K. Fasogbon


    Full Text Available In Ile-Ife, it is very common to see quite a lot of local people engaging in mud bricks moulding, concrete block making, mud house construction and the bricklaying profession in general. These have particular bearing on the economy and the political situation of the people involved as in the profession there is set of rules and regulations guiding the rate and procedure for carrying out any such moulding or construction work. Considering the importance of this, the present study investigated the thermal performance of some selected building materials in the ancient city of Ile-Ife in Nigeria. The work demonstrated how a building envelope responds to outdoor conditions through graphic illustrations. This was followed by constructing three physical building models, with model 1 constructed of mud bricks, model 2 constructed of concrete blocks and model 3 constructed of cast concrete. Each of the models was first roofed with galvanised Iron roofing sheets, later with aluminium roofing sheets and finally with asbestos roofing. Readings were taken by inserting TGP-4500 Data loggers into appropriate positions. The results showed that internal temperatures in the mud-brick and cast concrete buildings remained fairly stable despite external diurnal fluctuations. Humidity data collected also showed that fluctuations in external humidity levels do not affect humidity levels within the mud-brick and cast concrete structures significantly. On the other hand, the structure made of concrete blocks responded more to external fluctuations in temperature and humidity. Moreover, humidity levels in the cast concrete building were the least, followed by those in the mud-brick house; while the concrete block structure had the highest level of humidity. It was also discovered that aluminium roofing gave the highest internal temperature, followed by galvanised iron roofing and the least was seen with asbestos roofing. For external diurnal fluctuations, building model


    Bambang Purwono


    Full Text Available The nucleophilic substitution reaction to quaternary Mannich base from vanillin has been investigated. Mannich reaction to vanillin was carried out by refluxing mixture of vanillin, formaldehyde and dimethyl amine. Quaternary ammonium halide salt was obtained from reaction of Mannich vanillin base with methyl iodide in THF solvents and yielded  93.28%. Nucleophilic substituion to the halide salts with cyanide nucleophile produced 4-hidroxy-3-methoxy-5-(cyanomethylbenzaldehyde in 54.39% yield, with methoxyde ion obtained  4-hidroxy- 3-methoxy-5-(methoxy-methyl-benzaldehide in 67.80% yield. The nucleophilic substitution reaction showed that substituen of trimethylamino quaternary Mannich base can act as a good leaving on nucleophilic reaction substitutions.   Keywords: Mannich Reaction, Vanillin, nucleophilic substitution.

  4. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols in Ile-de-France: Local contribution and Long range transport; Caracteisation des aeosols atmospheiques en Ile-de-France: contribution locale et transport a longues distances

    Cuesta, J.E


    Atmospheric aerosols interact directly in a great number of processes related to climate change and public health, modifying the energy budget and partly determining the quality of the air we breathe. In my PhD, I chose to study the perturbation, if not the aggravation, of the living conditions in Ile-de-France associated to aerosol transport episodes in the free troposphere. This situation is rather frequent and still badly known. To achieve my study, I developed the observation platform 'TReSS' Transportable Remote Sensing Station, whose instruments were developed at the Laboratoire de Meteorology Dynamique by the LiMAG team. 'TReSS' consists of a new high-performance 'Mini-Lidar' and of two standard radiometers: a sun photometer and a thermal infrared radiometer. The principle of my experimental approach is the synergy of the vertical Lidar profiles and the particle size distributions over the column, obtained by the 'Almucantar' inversion of sun photometer data. The new 'Lidar and Almucantar' method characterizes the vertical distribution by layer and the optical micro-physical properties of the local and transported aerosols. Firstly, I undertook the characterization of the Paris aerosol, mainly of anthropogenic origin. Their radiative properties were analyzed in the daily and yearly scales. Then, I conducted a statistical multi-year study of transport episodes and a two-week study case, representative of a succession of desert dust intrusion in Ile-de-France. My PhD work concludes by a study on the impact of biomass burning aerosols during the heat wave on August 2003. I study the impact of the transported aerosols into the local radiative budget and the possible consequences on the diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer. (author)

  5. The beta-arrestin pathway-selective type 1A angiotensin receptor (AT1A) agonist [Sar1,Ile4,Ile8]angiotensin II regulates a robust G protein-independent signaling network.

    Kendall, Ryan T; Strungs, Erik G; Rachidi, Saleh M; Lee, Mi-Hye; El-Shewy, Hesham M; Luttrell, Deirdre K; Janech, Michael G; Luttrell, Louis M


    The angiotensin II peptide analog [Sar(1),Ile(4),Ile(8)]AngII (SII) is a biased AT(1A) receptor agonist that stimulates receptor phosphorylation, β-arrestin recruitment, receptor internalization, and β-arrestin-dependent ERK1/2 activation without activating heterotrimeric G-proteins. To determine the scope of G-protein-independent AT(1A) receptor signaling, we performed a gel-based phosphoproteomic analysis of AngII and SII-induced signaling in HEK cells stably expressing AT(1A) receptors. A total of 34 differentially phosphorylated proteins were detected, of which 16 were unique to SII and eight to AngII stimulation. MALDI-TOF/TOF mass fingerprinting was employed to identify 24 SII-sensitive phosphoprotein spots, of which three (two peptide inhibitors of protein phosphatase 2A (I1PP2A and I2PP2A) and prostaglandin E synthase 3 (PGES3)) were selected for validation and further study. We found that phosphorylation of I2PP2A was associated with rapid and transient inhibition of a β-arrestin 2-associated pool of protein phosphatase 2A, leading to activation of Akt and increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β in an arrestin signalsome complex. SII-stimulated PGES3 phosphorylation coincided with an increase in β-arrestin 1-associated PGES3 and an arrestin-dependent increase in cyclooxygenase 1-dependent prostaglandin E(2) synthesis. These findings suggest that AT(1A) receptors regulate a robust G protein-independent signaling network that affects protein phosphorylation and autocrine/paracrine prostaglandin production and that these pathways can be selectively modulated by biased ligands that antagonize G protein activation.

  6. Coevolution of the Ile1,016 and Cys1,534 Mutations in the Voltage Gated Sodium Channel Gene of Aedes aegypti in Mexico.

    Farah Z Vera-Maloof


    Full Text Available Worldwide the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L. is the principal urban vector of dengue viruses. Currently 2.5 billion people are at risk for infection and reduction of Ae. aegypti populations is the most effective means to reduce the risk of transmission. Pyrethroids are used extensively for adult mosquito control, especially during dengue outbreaks. Pyrethroids promote activation and prolong the activation of the voltage gated sodium channel protein (VGSC by interacting with two distinct pyrethroid receptor sites [1], formed by the interfaces of the transmembrane helix subunit 6 (S6 of domains II and III. Mutations of S6 in domains II and III synergize so that double mutants have higher pyrethroid resistance than mutants in either domain alone. Computer models predict an allosteric interaction between mutations in the two domains. In Ae. aegypti, a Ile1,016 mutation in the S6 of domain II was discovered in 2006 and found to be associated with pyrethroid resistance in field populations in Mexico. In 2010 a second mutation, Cys1,534 in the S6 of domain III was discovered and also found to be associated with pyrethroid resistance and correlated with the frequency of Ile1,016.A linkage disequilibrium analysis was performed on Ile1,016 and Cys1,534 in Ae. aegypti collected in Mexico from 2000-2012 to test for statistical associations between S6 in domains II and III in natural populations. We estimated the frequency of the four dilocus haplotypes in 1,016 and 1,534: Val1,016/Phe1,534 (susceptible, Val1,016/Cys1,534, Ile1,016/Phe1,534, and Ile1,016/Cys1,534 (resistant. The susceptible Val1,016/Phe1,534 haplotype went from near fixation to extinction and the resistant Ile1,016/Cys1,534 haplotype increased in all collections from a frequency close to zero to frequencies ranging from 0.5-0.9. The Val1,016/Cys1,534 haplotype increased in all collections until 2008 after which it began to decline as Ile1,016/Cys1,534 increased. However, the Ile1,016/Phe1

  7. Nucleophilic Substitution by Benzodithioate Anions.

    Bonnans-Plaisance, Chantal; Gressier, Jean-Claude


    Describes a two-session experiment designed to provide a good illustration of, and to improve student knowledge of, the Grignard reaction and nucleophilic substitution. Discusses the procedure, experimental considerations, and conclusion of this experiment. (CW)

  8. Food taboos in maternal and child health: the views of traditional healers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Odebiyi, A I


    This paper reports the interviews with 82 randomly selected healers in Ile-Ife about food taboos in relation to maternal and child health. The healers were asked to list the childhood ailments they treat most often and the food proscriptions and prescriptions associated with these ailments. Of particular interest in the study was the fact that these food proscriptions and prescriptions form an integral part of traditional medical procedures in that relapses or slow rate of recovery are sometimes attributed to a break of these food norms. Moreover, these proscriptions and prescriptions reflect: (i) the healers' concept of the various childhood diseases and (ii) the healers' belief in the respect for the traditional Yoruba gods in health matters. It was further noted that although these taboos reinforce the beliefs in traditional medicine, their relevance from the point of view of the health of the clientele needs further investigation.

  9. Front-end of the ILE Project: A design study for a 100 mJ sub-10 fs laser

    Papadopoulos, Dimitris N.; Ramirez, Patricia; Pellegrina, Alain; Druon, Frédéric; Georges, Patrick; Chen, Xiaowei; Canova, Lorenzo; Malvache, Arnaud; Jullien, Aurélie; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo


    Within the development of the ILE French project aiming on the building of a 10 PW, 150 J/15 fs laser chain (named APOLLON), a design study for a sub-10-fs, 100 mJ pilot laser operating at 800 nm have been conceived. This system is based on a non-collinear optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (NOPCPA) of the spectrally broadened and compressed pulses of a Ti:Sapphire laser system providing 1.5-mJ, 25-fs, pumped at 515 nm by a high-energy diode-pumped Yb-doped-based laser chain. The envisioned system, based on a novel combined architecture of picosecond and nanosecond NOPCPA stages, will finally deliver carrier envelope phased (CEP) stabilized 1 ns pulses (compressible to less than 10 fs) at 800 nm with 100 mJ energy and at a repetition rate in the range of 10-100 Hz.

  10. Association study of the Ile349val polymorphism of the gene ADH1C and alcohol dependence

    André Soares Rebello


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism Ile349Val of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1C gene among individuals with alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS attending Alcoholics Anonymous (AA meetings. METHODS: A total of 120 subjects residing in Rio de Janeiro city participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two groups: a group consisting of 54 individuals from the ADS group and 66 individuals that declared not having any alcohol dependence (control group. DNA was extracted from mouth epithelial cells by phenol-chloroform method and further submitted to amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: Our results did not show differences between the genotypes of control individuals and ADS subjects. Nevertheless, we found increased rates of alcoholism in families of ADS subjects as compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our results did not show any genotype difference on the ADH1C gene when control and AA genotypes are compared.

  11. Yatırım Araçları Tercihlerinin Markov Analizi ile Yorumlanması

    Ersoy Öz


    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada İstanbul ilinde Bilgi-İşlem sektöründe çalışan 189 kişiye düzenlenen ankete göre kişilerin tercih ettikleri yatırım araçları ile ilgili bir değerlendirme yapılmıştır. Yatırım araçları arasında gelecekte tercih edilecek yatırım aracının halen kullandıkları yatırım aracı ile olan ilişkileri "Markov Zincirleri" kullanılarak belirlenmiştir. Markov Zincirlerinin temel özelliklerinden olan uzun dönem denge vektörü kullanılarak anket sonuçları için yatırım araçlarının uzun dönem denge durumları hesaplanmıştır. Ayrıca, ankette yer alan her bir durumun diğer durumlara ulaşabilmesi için gerekli olan adım (periyod sayısı bulunmuştur. Markov Zincirleri için matris hesaplamalarında ve grafik çizimlerinde MATLAB7.5 ve WINQSB uygulama programları kullanılmıştır.

  12. Ectoparasites and endoparasites of peridomestic house-rats in ile-ife, Nigeria and implication on human health.

    Titus Ogunniyi


    Full Text Available There has never been a single case report of any parasitic zoonosis in Ile-Ife while just a case of human Acanthocephalan infection in Nigeria is available.Fifty (house-rats Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758 were caught in houses and raw food sellers' stalls in a market in Ile-Ife. A caught rat was removed from the cage and sacrificed by cervical jerking. A rat was weighed, measured, quickly following which thick and thin blood films on microscope slides were made from blood collected from the tail vein. The rat was examined for ectoparasites then dissected to check for endoparasites.Two ectoparasites (Xenopsylla cheopis and Laelaptid mite were recovered from 19 (38.0% of the rats. Five genera of helminthes (Moniliformis, Hymenolepis, Taenia, Trichuris and Trichinella were recovered from 29 (58.0% of the rats while seven genera of protozoa organisms (Amoeba, Dientamoeba, Entamoeba, Retortamonas, Trichomonas, Chilomastix and Trypanosoma were recovered from 48 (96.0% of them. There was no correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.111 between the weight of the individual rat and the total number of alimentary canal acquired parasites.In relation to human health, implications of the rats serving as reservoir hosts for the different pathogens are highlighted. In view of the possibility of unexpected zoonosis arising from the parasites found in the peridomestic rats in this investigation and others not found, and in view of the difficulties that may be associated with diagnosing such ailment, especially by a clinician who trained locally, this report should be like raising awareness to these salient facts.

  13. Isotopic characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons for identification of sources and transfer mechanisms in Ile de France.

    Fauches, Raphaël; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Alliot, Fabrice; Mendez, Mercedes; Chevreuil, Marc


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic pollutants that accumulate in the environment as mainly a result of human processes in anthropic environment. Emission of PAHs in Ile de France region is a major environmental and public health problem. Seventy percent of the Seine Watershed Rivers do not respect the requirement of the 2012 European Water Framework Directive for good chemical status due to PAHs. We study the 16 PAHs selected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The measurement of the ratio of stable Carbon (δ13C) and hydrogen (δ2H) isotopes may be used as a means to identify the source of PAHs. Two samplings campaign in the Seine watershed was conducted in summer and in winter during dry periods and one during rainy periods. Water and sediment were sampled from 12 locations along the Orge River (France) and classified in three categories: urban, peri-urban and rural. Extraction and purification methods have been developed and tested. This method consists on a liquid-liquid extraction and sonication extraction. The Aromatic fraction is purified and isolated on silica/alumina column before performing thin purification by using a semi-preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). HPLC is used for separation of each PAH one by one. Moreover, this fractionation reduces background noise generated in part by unwanted compounds like alkanes and allows the isotopic analysis of PAH. The purity of each fraction was verified by Mass-Spectrometry Gas Chromatography in scan mode. The mean recovery of the method for all PAHs was around 80%. Isotopic analysis for carbon 13 and deuterium by Gas Chromatography-Combustion- Isotope-ratio mass spectrometry are ongoing. Beside the sampling campaign, biodegradation, hydrolysis and photolysis tests were performed. In addition, combustion testing of gasoline and diesel on an experimental device are provided to estimate the isotopic ratio of motorized vehicles in the Ile de France region.

  14. Frequencies of the Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu and Thr164Ile Adrenoceptor β2 Polymorphisms among Omanis

    Khalid Al-Balushi


    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the distribution of missense mutations in the adrenoceptor β2 (ADRB2 gene in an Omani cohort. Methods: This study was carried out between May 2014 and March 2015 at the Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. Blood samples were taken from 316 unrelated Omani subjects. Genotyping for rs1042713 (c.46A>G, p.Arg16Gly, rs1042714 (c.79C>G, p.Gln27Glu and rs1800888 (c.491C>T, p.Thr164Ile polymorphisms was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping assays. The allelic frequencies of these polymorphisms were estimated on the basis of the observed numbers of specific alleles from the genotype data for male and female subjects. The genotype frequencies for each polymorphism were tested for deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Results: Gly16 and Glu27 were the most frequent variants found among the cohort (63% and 75%, respectively. The Ile164 variant was not detected in the study population. There was a significant linkage disequilibrium between the rs1042713 and rs1042714 SNPs (r2 = 0.209; P ≤0.001. The most observed haplotypes were Gly16-Gln27 and Arg16-Gln27 (0.37 and 0.38, respectively. The frequency of Gly16-Glu27 was 0.25, comprising all Glu27 carriers. Conclusion: The allelic distribution of variants in this Omani cohort was similar to distributions reported among Caucasian populations.

  15. Geology, petrography, geochemistry, and genesis of sulfide-rich pods in the Lac des Iles palladium deposits, western Ontario, Canada

    Duran, Charley J.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Corkery, John T.


    The Lac des Iles Pd deposits are known for their Pd-rich sulfide-poor mineralization. However, previously undocumented sulfide-rich pods also occur within the intrusion that hosts the deposits. Given the complex magmatic and hydrothermal history of the mineralization at Lac des Iles, the sulfide-rich pods could have crystallized from magmatic sulfide liquids or precipitated from hydrothermal fluids. Sulfide-rich pods occur throughout the stratigraphy, in all rock types, and along comagmatic shear zones, and contain net-textured to massive sulfides. They can be divided into four main groups based on the variation in mineral assemblages: (1) pyrrhotite-pentlandite ± pyrite-chalcopyrite-magnetite-ilmenite; (2) chalcopyrite ± pyrrhotite-pentlandite-pyrite-magnetite-ilmenite; (3) pyrite ± pentlandite-chalcopyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite-ilmenite; and (4) magnetite ± ilmenite-pyrrhotite-pentlandite-pyrite-chalcopyrite. Whole rock metal contents and S isotopic compositions do not change with the amount of pyrite present, except for slight enrichments in As and Bi. The presence of an essentially magmatic sulfide mineral assemblage (pyrrhotite-pentlandite ± chalcopyrite) with pentlandite exsolution flames in pyrrhotite in some pods suggests that the pods crystallized from magmatic sulfide liquids. The very low Cu contents of the pods suggests that they are mainly cumulates of monosulfide solid solution (MSS). We propose a model whereby sulfide liquids were concentrated into dilation zones prior to crystallizing cumulus MSS. Intermediate solid solution crystallized from the fractionated liquids at the edges of some pods leaving residual liquids enriched in Pt, Pd, Au, As, Bi, Sb, and Te. These residual liquids are no longer associated with the pods. During subsequent alteration, pyrite replaced MSS/pyrrhotite, but this did not affect the platinum-group element contents of the pods.

  16. Arylethynyl Substituted 9,lO-Anthraquinones: Tunable Stokes Shifts by Substitution and Solvent Polarity

    Yang, Jinhua; Dass, Amala; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monem M.; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia; Panzner, Matthew J.; Tyson, Daniel S.; Kinder, James D.; Leventis, Nicholas


    2-Arylethynyl- and 2,6- and 2,7-diarylethynyl-substituted 9,lO-anthraquinones were synthesized via Sonogashira coupling reactions of 2-bromo-, 2,6-dibromo-, and 2,7-dibromo-9,10- anthraquinone with para-substituted phenylacetylenes. While the redox properties of those compounds are almost insensitive to substitution, their absorption maxima are linearly related to the Hammett constants with different slopes for electron donors and electron acceptors. ABI compounds are photoluminescent both in solution (quantum yields of emission polarity. Maximum Stokes shifts are attained by both electron-donating and -withdrawing groups. This is explained by a destabilization of the HOMO by electron donors and a stabilization of the LUMO by electron acceptors. X-ray crystallographic analysis of, for example, 2,7-bisphenylethynfl- 9,lO-anthraquinone reveals a monoclinic P21In space group and no indication for pi-overlap that would promote quenching, thus explaining emission from the solid state. Representative reduced forms of the title compounds were isolated as stable acetates of the corresponding dihydrs-9,10- anthraquinones. The emission of these compounds is blue-shifted relative to the parent oxidized forms and is attributed to internal transitions in the dihydro-9,lO-anthraquinone core.

  17. No evidence for a role of Ile587Val polymorphism of EIF2B5 gene in multiple sclerosis in Kashmir Valley of India.

    Zahoor, Insha; Asimi, Ravouf; Haq, Ehtishamul


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory neurodegenerative disease of the nervous system with a profound genetic element. It is already known that alterations in Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 2B (EIF2B) gene encoding the five subunits of eIF2B complex cause Vanishing White Matter (VWM) disease of the brain and emerging evidences have advocated certain resemblances between MS and VWM in terms of clinical and epidemiological characteristics, thus validating the association study between EIF2B and MS. Moreover, a recent study has implicated EIF2B5 Ile587Val (rs843358) polymorphism as a susceptibility factor for MS. In order to investigate the association of EIF2B5 Ile587Val polymorphism with MS susceptibility in Kashmir region in India, we screened EIF2B5 Exon 13 in 30 MS patients and 65 controls (a total of 95 participants). During the present course of study, we could not find statistically significant difference in the frequency of Ile587Val between MS patients and controls, thus indicating that such alteration does not appear to influence MS development in Kashmiri population. Our results provide evidence against a major role for Ile587Val polymorphism in MS susceptibility.

  18. 164Ile allele in the beta2-Adrenergic receptor gene is associated with risk of elevated blood pressure in women. The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    Sethi, Amar A; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Jensen, Gorm B;


    Since beta2-adrenergic receptors are important regulators of blood pressure, genetic variation in this receptor could explain risk of elevated blood pressure in selected individuals. We tested the hypothesis that Gly16Arg, Gln27Glu, and Thr164Ile in the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene associated w...

  19. 164Ile allele in the beta2-Adrenergic receptor gene is associated with risk of elevated blood pressure in women. The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    Sethi, AA; Tybjærg-Hansen, A; Jensen, Gorm Boje


    Since beta2-adrenergic receptors are important regulators of blood pressure, genetic variation in this receptor could explain risk of elevated blood pressure in selected individuals. We tested the hypothesis that Gly16Arg, Gln27Glu, and Thr164Ile in the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene associated...... with elevated blood pressure....

  20. Effect of herbicide resistance endowing Ile-1781-Leu and Asp-2078-Gly ACCase gene mutations on ACCase kinetics and growth traits in Lolium rigidum.

    Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Yu, Qin; Han, Heping; Powles, Stephen B


    The rate of herbicide resistance evolution in plants depends on fitness traits endowed by alleles in both the presence and absence (resistance cost) of herbicide selection. The effect of two Lolium rigidum spontaneous homozygous target-site resistance-endowing mutations (Ile-1781-Leu, Asp-2078-Gly) on both ACCase activity and various plant growth traits have been investigated here. Relative growth rate (RGR) and components (net assimilation rate, leaf area ratio), resource allocation to different organs, and growth responses in competition with a wheat crop were assessed. Unlike plants carrying the Ile-1781-Leu resistance mutation, plants homozygous for the Asp-2078-Gly mutation exhibited a significantly lower RGR (30%), which translated into lower allocation of biomass to roots, shoots, and leaves, and poor responses to plant competition. Both the negligible and significant growth reductions associated, respectively, with the Ile-1781-Leu and Asp-2078-Gly resistance mutations correlated with their impact on ACCase activity. Whereas the Ile-1781-Leu mutation showed no pleiotropic effects on ACCase kinetics, the Asp-2078-Gly mutation led to a significant reduction in ACCase activity. The impaired growth traits are discussed in the context of resistance costs and the effects of each resistance allele on ACCase activity. Similar effects of these two particular ACCase mutations on the ACCase activity of Alopecurus myosuroides were also confirmed.

  1. Epileptik hastada iki taraflı geniş hill sachs lezyonunun infraspinatus tendon transferi ile rekonstrüksiyonu: Olgu sunumu



    ... oranları bildirilmektedir. Bu yazıda, epilepsi nedeniyle her iki humerus başında geniş defektleri bulunan hastada defektlerin infraspinatus tendon transferi yöntemi ile rekonstrüksiyonu sunuldu. Yirmi üç yaşındaki...

  2. Physical fitness levels of adolescents in the Ile de France region: comparisons with European standards and relevance for future cardiovascular risk.

    Vanhelst, Jérémy; Fardy, Paul S; Chapelot, Didier; Czaplicki, Grégory; Ulmer, Zekya


    The aim was to assess physical fitness in French schoolchildren in the region of Ile de France and to compare the results with European countries. The relationship between physical fitness and future health profile was of particular interest. Participants were 1851 French youth in the Ile de France region. Cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular endurance, speed, flexibility and speed agility were tested. Independent t-tests were used to compare differences between different variables. Spearman's rho correlation coefficients assessed the relationship between body mass index, socio-economic status and physical fitness. Boys were physically fitter than girls with the most significant difference being in agility. Subjects of normal weight have significantly better results than overweight or obese adolescents (+10·9% to 56·1%) (Pphysical fitness than those with low socio-economic status (+0·5% to 9·4%) (PPhysical fitness in French schoolchildren living in the region of Ile de France is relatively low and unfavourable, especially in girls, when compared with existing European test results. In contrast, the adolescent boys are generally fitter and also above the average of the European data. Introducing a health promotion curriculum in the schools of Ile de France is suggested to improve health and physical fitness. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Ecosystem Viable Yields

    De Lara, Michel; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Tam, Jorge


    The World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002) encouraged the application of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook to restore and exploit their stocks at maximum sustainable yield (MSY), a concept and practice without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model. Acknowledging this gap, we propose a definition of "ecosystem viable yields" (EVY) as yields compatible i) with biological viability levels for all time and ii) with an ecosystem dynamics. To the difference of MSY, this notion is not based on equilibrium, but on viability theory, which offers advantages for robustness. For a generic class of multispecies models with harvesting, we provide explicit expressions for the EVY. We apply our approach to the anchovy--hake couple in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem between the years 1971 and 1981.

  4. Türkiye’de Varroa Destructor ile Doğal Enfeste Bal Arısı Kolonilerinde Apıvar®’ın (Amitraz) Etkisi

    AYDIN, Levent; GİRİŞGİN, A. Onur


    Bu çalışmada, Bursa yöresinde Varroa destructor ile doğal bulaşık olan balarısı kolonilerinde (polen tuzaklı kovanlarda) Apivar’ın (Amitraz) etkinliği araştırılmıştır. V.destructor ile doğal olarak bulaşık 40 koloni yirmişer koloniden oluşan 2 gruba ayrılmıştır. Birinci grup Apivar strip ile 6 hafta süre ile sonbaharda tedavi edilmiş, ikinci grup ise tedavisiz kontrol bırakılmıştır. Tedavi sonrası Apivar strip’in etkinlii istatistiki olarak Henderson-Tilton ve Yüzde Değişim Testleri ile karşı...

  5. Long term substitution treatment (maintenance treatment of opioid dependent persons

    Wirl, Charlotte


    Full Text Available Health political background: Methadone substitution treatment in Germany is introduced in 1988 in the framework of a scientific pilot study in North Rhein Westphalia. Recent statistics show that by now a broad offer of substitution treatment exists. From 1 June 2002 to 31 December 2003 113,000 substitution treatments have been recorded as being started of which around 56,000 have been recorded as ongoing treatments by 1 December 2003. Scientific background: Substitution treatment (treatment of opioid-dependent persons using substitution substances is one part of addiction treatment. Its goals are harm reduction and the stabilisation of opioid dependent persons. Integration of opioid-dependent persons in a treatment-setting, reduction of consumption of psychoactive substances, reduction of risk behaviour (primarily related to infectious diseases, decrease of mortality and improvements concerning the social, psychic and physic situation are seen as a success of substitution treatment as maintenance therapy. Research questions: The aim of this HTA report is to investigate which indicators can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of substitution treatment. Based on these indicators an evaluation of the medical, social and economical benefit of substitution treatment - also in relation to abstinence oriented treatment - is carried out. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in 31 international databases which yielded 2451 articles with publication date between 1995 and February 2005. Results: After a twofold selection process 32 publications were included for assessment and 276 publications were used as background literature. Despite serious restrictions due to selection bias and dropout in most studies focusing on substitution treatment, reduction of consumption of illegal opioids, reduction of risk behaviour, criminal behaviour, mortality and incidence of HIV can be seen as an empirically proven success of substitution treatment

  6. Gold-catalyzed oxidation of substituted phenols by hydrogen peroxide

    Cheneviere, Yohan


    Gold nanoparticles deposited on inorganic supports are efficient catalysts for the oxidation of various substituted phenols (2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol and 2,3,6-trimethyl phenol) with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. By contrast to more conventional catalysts such as Ti-containing mesoporous silicas, which convert phenols to the corresponding benzoquinones, gold nanoparticles are very selective to biaryl compounds (3,3′,5,5′-tetra-tert-butyl diphenoquinone and 2,2′,3,3′,5,5′-hexamethyl-4,4′- biphenol, respectively). Products yields and selectivities depend on the solvent used, the best results being obtained in methanol with yields >98%. Au offers the possibility to completely change the selectivity in the oxidation of substituted phenols and opens interesting perspectives in the clean synthesis of biaryl compounds for pharmaceutical applications. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Flow carbonylation of sterically hindered ortho-substituted iodoarenes

    Mallia, Carl J; Walter, Gary C


    Summary The flow synthesis of ortho-substituted carboxylic acids, using carbon monoxide gas, has been studied for a number of substrates. The optimised conditions make use of a simple catalyst system compromising of triphenylphosphine as the ligand and palladium acetate as the pre-catalyst. Carbon monoxide was introduced via a reverse “tube-in-tube” flow reactor at elevated pressures to give yields of carboxylated products that are much higher than those obtained under normal batch conditions. PMID:27559403

  8. Synthesis and characterization of new meso-substituted unsymmetrical metalloporphyrins

    Babasaheeb P Bandgar; Pradip B Gujarathi


    The synthesis and characterization of new meso-substituted unsymmetrical metalloporphyrins has been described. A new modified Adler method was used for the synthesis of two unsymmetrical porphyrins. Reactions of these unsymmetrical porphyrins with metal acetates afforded the corresponding metalloporphyrins in high yields with excellent purity. These porphyrins and their metal derivatives were characterized by spectroscopic methods. However, the copper complexes were further studied by ESR spectra and zinc complex by fluorescence spectrum.

  9. Copper-catalyzed regioselective allylic substitution reactions with indium organometallics.

    Rodríguez, David; Sestelo, José Pérez; Sarandeses, Luis A


    The first nucleophilic allylic substitution reactions of triorganoindium compounds with allylic halides and phosphates are reported. The reactions of trialkyl- and triarylindium reagents with cinnamyl and geranyl halides and phosphates, with the aid of copper catalysis [Cu(OTf)(2)/P(OEt)(3)], are described. In general, the reaction proceeds efficiently to give good yields and regioselectively to afford the S(N)2' product.

  10. Crop yields in intercropping

    Yu, Y.



    Intercropping, the cultivation of two or more crop species simultaneously in the same field, has been widely practiced by smallholder farmers in developing countries and is gaining increasing interest in developed countries. Intercropping can increase the yield per

  11. Crop yields in intercropping

    Yu, Y.



    Intercropping, the cultivation of two or more crop species simultaneously in the same field, has been widely practiced by smallholder farmers in developing countries and is gaining increasing interest in developed countries. Intercropping can increase the yield per

  12. Ders çalışma becerileri ile akademik risk alma arasındaki ilişkinin kanonik korelasyon ile incelenmesi [An investigation of the relationship between study skills and academic risk taking with canonical correlation

    Mustafa İLHAN


    Full Text Available Bu araştırmada ders çalışma becerileri ile akademik risk alma arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaca uygun olarak araştırmada ilişkisel tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu, 2011-2012 Öğretim Yılı Güz Dönemi’nde Siirt Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi’nde öğrenim gören 221 üniversite öğrencisi oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada öğrencilerin ders çalışma becerilerini ölçmek için Bay, Tuğluk ve Gençdoğan (2004 tarafından geliştirilen “Ders Çalışma Becerileri Ölçeği” kullanılmıştır. Öğrencilerin akademik risk alma davranışlarını ölçmek amacıyla ise Clifford (1991 tarafından geliştirilen ve Korkmaz (2002 tarafından Türkçe’ye uyarlanan “Akademik Risk Alma Ölçeği” kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada motivasyon, zaman yönetimi ve sınava hazırlanma-sınav kaygısı yönetimi değişkenlerinden oluşan ders çalışma becerileri veri seti ile başarısızlık sonrası olumsuzluk eğilimi, güç işlemleri tercih etme eğilimi, başarısızlık sonrası yeniden toparlanma ve etkin olma eğilimi ve ödev yapmama eğilimi değişkenlerinden oluşan akademik risk alma veri seti arasındaki ilişki kanonik korelasyon analizi ile incelenmiştir. Kanonik korelasyon analizi sonucunda, ders çalışma becerileri ve akademik risk alma arasında anlamlı ilişki tespit edilmiş ve veri setleri arasında paylaşılan ortak varyansın % 29.5 olduğu saptanmıştır.

  13. Magnesium substitution in brushite cements.

    Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Cabrejos-Azama, Jatsue; Rodríguez, Carmen Rueda; Jerez, Luis Blanco; Cabarcos, Enrique López


    The use of magnesium-doped ceramics has been described to modify brushite cements and improve their biological behavior. However, few studies have analyzed the efficiency of this approach to induce magnesium substitution in brushite crystals. Mg-doped ceramics composed of Mg-substituted β-TCP, stanfieldite and/or farringtonite were reacted with primary monocalcium phosphate (MCP) in the presence of water. The cement setting reaction has resulted in the formation of brushite and newberyite within the cement matrix. Interestingly, the combination of SAED and EDX analyses of single crystal has indicated the occurrence of magnesium substitution within brushite crystals. Moreover, the effect of magnesium ions on the structure, and mechanical and setting properties of the new cements was characterized as well as the release of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions. Further research would enhance the efficiency of the system to incorporate larger amounts of magnesium ions within brushite crystals.

  14. On Regular Power-Substitution

    Huanyin CHEN


    The necessary and sufficient conditions under which a ring satisfies regular power-substitution are investigated. It is shown that a ring R satisfies regular power-substitution if and only if a(-~)b in R implies that there exist n ∈ N and a U ∈ GLn(R) such that aU =Ub if and only if for any regular x ∈ R there exist m,n ∈ N and U ∈ GLn(R) such that xmIn = xmUxm, where a(-~)b means that there exists x, y, z ∈ R such that a = ybx, b = xaz and x = xyx = xzx. It is proved that every directly finite simple ring satisfies regular power-substitution. Some applications for stably free R-modules are also obtained.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10040 - Substituted acridine naphtha substituted benzamide (generic).


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted acridine naphtha... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10040 Substituted acridine naphtha substituted... substance identified generically as a substituted acridine naphtha substituted benzamide (PMN P-02-522) is...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2577 - Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine...


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copper complex of (substituted... Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt... substances identified generically as copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted...

  17. Direct palladium-catalyzed arylations of aryl bromides with 2/9-substituted pyrimido[5,4-b]indolizines.

    Jiang, Min; Li, Ting; Meng, Linghua; Yang, Chunhao; Xie, Yuyuan; Ding, Jian


    C-5 arylated 2/9-substituted pyrimido[5,4-b]indolizines were synthesized via palladium-catalyzed direct arylation. A variety of substituents on both pyrimido[5,4-b]indolizines and aryl/heteroaryl bromides are tolerated, providing rapid access to substituted pyrimido[5,4-b]indolizines in good to excellent yields.

  18. A Gold(I)-Catalyzed Domino Coupling of Alcohols with Allenes Enables the Synthesis of Highly Substituted Indenes.

    Preinfalk, Alexander; Misale, Antonio; Maulide, Nuno


    The reaction of aryl-substituted allenes with alcohols under gold catalysis led to highly substituted indenes in good yields, with low catalyst loading and under mild conditions. During this domino transformation, two C-C bonds are formed with water as the only byproduct. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Substituted decision making: elder guardianship.

    Leatherman, Martha E; Goethe, Katherine E


    The goal of this column is to help experienced clinicians navigate the judicial system when they are confronted with requests for capacity evaluations that involve guardianship (conservatorship). The interface between the growing elderly medical population and increasing requests for substituted decision making is becoming more complex. This column will help practicing psychiatrists understand the medical, legal, and societal factors involved in adult guardianship. Such understanding is necessary in order to effectively perform guardianship evaluations and adequately inform courts, patients, and families about the psychiatric diagnoses central to substituted decision making.

  20. Hypoxic radiosensitizers: substituted styryl derivatives.

    Nudelman, A; Falb, E; Odesa, Y; Shmueli-Broide, N


    A number of novel styryl epoxides, N-substituted-styryl-ethanolamines, N-mono and N,N'-bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-cinnamamides--analogues to the known radiosensitizers RSU-1069, pimonidazole and etanidazole--display selective hypoxic radiosensitizing activity. The styryl group, especially when substituted by electron withdrawing groups, was found to be bioisosteric to the nitroimidazolyl functionality. The most active derivative 2-(2'-nitrophenyl)ethen-1-yl-oxirane 8a displayed a sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) of 5 relative to misonidazole.

  1. Asymmetric synthesis of gem-diaryl substituted cyclic sulfamidates and sulfamides by rhodium-catalyzed arylation of cyclic ketimines.

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Ebe, Yusuke; Fujimoto, Hiroto; Hayashi, Tamio


    Asymmetric addition of arylboronates to aryl-substituted cyclic ketimines proceeded in the presence of a rhodium catalyst coordinated with a chiral diene ligand to give high yields of sulfamidates and sulfamides with high enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee).

  2. Asymmetric Synthesis of Substituted Thiolanes through Domino Thia-Michael-Henry Dynamic Covalent Systemic Resolution using Lipase Catalysis.

    Zhang, Yan; Vongvilai, Pornrapee; Sakulsombat, Morakot; Fischer, Andreas; Ramström, Olof


    Dynamic systems based on consecutive thia-Michael and Henry reactions were generated and transformed using lipase-catalyzed asymmetric transformation. Substituted thiolane structures with three contiguous stereocenters were resolved in the process in high yields and high enantiomeric excesses.

  3. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner


    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  4. Seboreik keratozun dermatoskopik görüntüleri ile histopatolojik alt tipleri arasında korelasyon

    Rukiye Yasak


    Full Text Available Amaç. Seboreik keratoz daha çok yaşlılarda görülen benign karakterli epidermal bir tümördür. Akantotik, hiperkeratotik, irrite, retiküler, klonal tip ve melanoakantoma olmak üzere 6 farklı histopatolojik alt tipi vardır. Dermatoskopi (epiluminans mikroskopi pigmente deri lezyonlarının çıplak göz ile görülemeyen klinik morfolojik özelliklerini gösteren in vivo, non-invaziv bir tekniktir. Bu çalışmadaki amacımız seboreik keratozun dermatoskopik özelliklerinin, histopatolojik alt grupları ile korelasyonu olup olmadığını saptamaktı. Yöntem. Çalışmaya alınan 53 hastanın toplam 80 adet SK lezyonu alındı. Dermatoskopik bulgular tanımlandı. 77 lezyondan insizyonel biyopsi alınırken üç lezyona total rezeksiyon yapıldı ve histopatolojik alt tipler velirlendi. Bulgular. SK alt tipleri; komedon benzeri açıklıklar, mila benzeri kistler, fissür, polimorf damar, ekzofitik papiller, dot/globül ve mavi beyaz yapı açısından değerlendirildiklerinde istatiksel olarak aralarındaki fark önemsiz bulunmuştur (p>0,05. Alt tiplerde sosis parmak hiperkeratotik tip ve irrite tip SK’da, milia-bulut irrite tip SK en fazla gözlenirken (p<0,05, psödostreaks ve psödoretiküler patern en çok retiküler tip SK’da saptanmıştır (p<0,05. Sonuç. Dermatoskopi, seboreik keratoz olgularında histopatolojik alt tiplerin belirlenebilmesine yardımcı bir tanı aracı olarak kullanılabilir.

  5. Investigation of Synthetic Jets Efficiency to Control Cavity Flotation with Subsonic External Flow by High-Resolution RANS / ILES Method

    D. A. Lyubimov


    Full Text Available Cavities often found in airplanes: a niche for the landing gear, various weapons, etc. Reducing fluctuations of pressure and temperature in the cavity is a relevant practical problem. The article presents simulation results of external subsonic flow around the cavity (M = 0.85, T = 300K. . Calculations were performed using the high-resolution RANS/ILES (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes - RANS, Implicit Large Eddy Simulation - ILES method. To control flow the authors propose to use synthetic jets. Synthetic jets are produced by periodic ejection and suction of fluid from a slot induced by the movement of a diaphragm (generator of synthetic jets inside a cavity. They are compact and efficient and do not require a special working body and the ways for its supply. Instead of calculating the flow in the synthetic jet generator was used the modified boundary condition on the wall where the output slots was positioned. Under consideration there were two variants of slots for synthetic jets output: in front of the cavity and inside the cavity on the front wall. The frequency and amplitude values of the synthetic jet specified a mode of each jet. For a jet inside the cavity two modes have been reviewed, namely: 100 Hz and 50m/s, 200Hz and 50m/s. For jet in front of the cavity three modes have been reviewed, specifically: 20Hz and 20m/s, 100Hz and 50m/s, 200Hz and 50m/s. Analysis of calculation results showed that for all modes under examination, the synthetic jets reduced fluctuation of static pressure and temperature on the bottom and back walls of the cavity. The mode with parameters 200Hz, 50 m/s and synthetic jet located in front of the cavity was the most efficient. Furthermore, we compared the results of calculations for two-and three-dimensional cavities, which have the same length and depth. Research has shown that the simplified quasi-two-dimensional calculations cannot be used to evaluate the pressure and temperature fluctuations. This is due to

  6. Sickle cell knowledge, premarital screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Oyegbade, Olanrewaju; Bello, Ibrahim; Osakwe, Chiddude


    ABSTRACT Background In Nigeria, as in the rest of equatorial Africa, sickle cell disease (SCD) has its highest incidence and continues to cause high morbidity and early death. The condition is a major public health problem among the black race. The aim of this survey is to determine the level of knowledge about SCD and the factors associated with its prevention among local government workers in Ile-Ife. Method This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of the knowledge about SCD, attitude towards premarital sickle cell screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results 69% of study subjects had poor knowledge of SCD, while attitude towards premarital screening was favourable in 95% of the study subjects. Knowledge and attitude were significantly better among subjects with tertiary education. There was a strong positive association between attitude towards sickle cell screening and a history of undergoing screening or partner screening. Most (86.7%) of the respondents and 74.0% of their partners have had sickle cell screening. One-quarter of married and engaged respondents did not know their partner's sickle cell status. One-third to two-thirds of study subjects will continue the relationship with their partner when either or both have haemoglobinopathy. Conclusion This study showed poor knowledge of SCD among the studied subjects. There is a need for more emphasis on health education through programmes promoting sickle cell education. In addition, the development of multifaceted patient and public health education programmes, the intensification of screening for the control of SCD by heterozygote detection, particularly during routine preplacement and premarital medical examinations, and the provision of genetic counselling to all SCD patients and carriers are vital to the identification and care of the couples at risk. These will enhance the capacity of the intending couples to make

  7. Sickle cell knowledge, premarital screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Emmanuel A. Abioye-Kuteyi


    Full Text Available Background: In Nigeria, as in the rest of equatorial Africa, sickle cell disease (SCD has its highest incidence and continues to cause high morbidity and early death. The condition is a major public health problem among the black race. The aim of this survey is to determine the level of knowledge about SCD and the factors associated with its prevention among local government workers in Ile- Ife.Method: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of the knowledge about SCD, attitude towards premarital sickle cell screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, using a self-administered questionnaire.Results: 69% of study subjects had poor knowledge of SCD, while attitude towards premarital screening was favourable in 95% of the study subjects. Knowledge and attitude were significantly better among subjects with tertiary education. There was a strong positive association between attitude towards sickle cell screening and a history of undergoing screening or partner screening. Most (86.7% of the respondents and 74.0% of their partners have had sickle cell screening. One-quarter of married and engaged respondents did not know their partner’s sickle cell status. One-third to two-thirds of study subjects will continue the relationship with their partner when either or both have haemoglobinopathy.Conclusion: This study showed poor knowledge of SCD among the studied subjects. There is a need for more emphasis on health education through programmes promoting sickle cell education. In addition, the development of multifaceted patient and public health education programmes, the intensification of screening for the control of SCD by heterozygote detection, particularly during routine preplacement and premarital medical examinations, and the provision of genetic counselling to all SCD patients and carriers are vital to the identification and care of the couples at risk. These will enhance the capacity of the intending

  8. Tax Rates as Strategic Substitutes

    R.A. de Mooij (Ruud); H. Vrijburg (Hendrik)


    textabstractThis paper analytically derives the conditions under which the slope of the tax reaction function is negative in a classical tax competition model. If countries maximize welfare, we show that a negative slope (reflecting strategic substitutability) occurs under relatively mild conditions

  9. Tax rates as strategic substitutes

    H. Vrijburg (Hendrik); R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)


    textabstractThis paper analytically derives conditions under which the slope of the tax-reaction function is negative in a classical tax competition model. If countries maximize welfare, a negative slope (reflecting strategic substitutability) occurs under relatively mild conditions. The strategic t

  10. Tax rates as strategic substitutes

    H. Vrijburg (Hendrik); R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)


    textabstractThis paper analytically derives conditions under which the slope of the tax-reaction function is negative in a classical tax competition model. If countries maximize welfare, a negative slope (reflecting strategic substitutability) occurs under relatively mild conditions. The strategic t

  11. No Substitute Teacher Left behind

    O'Connor, Kevin


    Schools and districts routinely recruit, retain, and support highly qualified teachers to ensure that students receive the best learning opportunities. However, even if one's school employs highly qualified full-time teachers, it is important to acknowledge that substitute teachers also have a significant impact on the education of students. One…

  12. Novel Diarylethenes: N-Substituted-3, 4-bisheteroaryl-2, 5-dihydropyrrole

    Yong HAN; Zhi Bin ZHANG; Jun Ping XIAO; Wen Peng YAN; Mei Gong FAN


    Novel diarylethene derivatives: N-substituted-3,4-bisheteroaryl-2,5-dihydropyrroles were synthesized through Mcmurry couple reaction with high yields. The photochromic properties and UV-Vis absorption spectra were studied. The maximal absorptions of their close forms were around at 406 nm or 446 nm, which related mainly with heteroaryl groups but not with substituted groups at nitrogen atom of dihydropyrrole. The absorption of their colored form could be matched with blue light laser.

  13. Runoff of pesticides from rice fields in the Ile de Camargue (Rhone river delta, France): Field study and modeling

    Comoretto, Laetitia; Arfib, Bruno; Talva, Romain; Chauvelon, Philippe; Pichaud, Marc; Chiron, Serge [Laboratoire Chimie et Environnement, Universite de Provence, Case 29, 3, Place Victor Hugo, F-13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France); Hoehener, Patrick [Laboratoire Chimie et Environnement, Universite de Provence, Case 29, 3, Place Victor Hugo, F-13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail:


    A field study on the runoff of pesticides was conducted during the cultivation period in 2004 on a hydraulically isolated rice farm of 120 ha surface with one central water outlet. Four pesticides were studied: Alphamethrin, MCPA, Oxadiazon, and Pretilachlor. Alphamethrin concentrations in runoff never exceeded 0.001 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The three other pesticides were found in concentrations between 5.2 and 28.2 {mu}g L{sup -1} in the runoff water shortly after the application and decreased thereafter. The data for MCPA compared reasonably well with predictions by an analytical runoff model, accounting for volatilization, degradation, leaching to groundwater, and sorption to soil. The runoff model estimated that runoff accounted for as much as 18-42% of mass loss for MCPA. Less runoff is observed and predicted for Oxadiazon and Pretilachlor. It was concluded that runoff from rice paddies carries important loads of dissolved pesticides to the wetlands in the Ile de Camargue, and that the model can be used to predict this runoff. - Runoff of dissolved pesticides was measured on a rice farm in the Camargue (France) and modeled with an analytical model.

  14. Evaluation Of Geo-Spatial Proximity Of Mobile Communication GSM Base Transceiver Stations To Buildings In Ile-Ife Nigeria



    Full Text Available Efficient placement of radio facilities for the communication base transceiver station CBS of the two small global system for mobile communication GSM has being an area of research due to fast growing of GSM market in Nigeria. In line with this development Nigerian Communication Commission NCC and Nigeria Environmental Standard and Regulation Enforcement Agency NESREA have stated the setback between communication base station and the nearest infrastructure as 5 m and 10 m respectively. To evaluate the degree of the implementation of these setbacks in Ile-Ife the study area the research study identified the spatial locations of the CBS using a global communication for satellite GPS receiver and also employed the use of a high resolution satellite imagery which were processed using geo-spatial techniques. The results of this study revealed that 45.6 and 59.5 of the CBS had setback to building structures at 5 m and 10 m respectively with spatial variability between 30 m to 17074 m at elevation between 193 m to 377 m.

  15. Knowledge Attitude and Practices Toward Lassa Fever Control and Prevention Among Residents of Ile-Ife, Southwest Nigeria.

    Olowookere, S A; Adegbenro, C A; Idowu, A; Omisore, A G; Shabi, O M; Ikem, U R; Ekwere, G A; Oderinde, I F


    Lassa fever had been reported as a cause of death especially in endemic parts of Nigeria. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude, and practices toward Lassa fever control and prevention among residents of Ile-Ife, southwest Nigeria. Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among consenting randomly selected adults using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. A total of 400 questionnaires with completed data were analyzed (response rate 96%). Majority, 207 (51.8%), were males while 193 (48.2%) were females. Most, 234 (58.5%), had tertiary education while 148 (37%) had secondary education. Fifty-nine percent had heard of Lassa fever with radio as their major source of information. About 76% had inadequate knowledge, 54% had negative attitude while 51% had poor practice toward Lassa fever. Determinants of knowledge of Lassa fever include having higher education (Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR) = 11.49, 95% CI [3.10, 42.69], p = .0001), being in civil service (AOR = 0.22, 95% CI [0.09, 0.51], p = .01), and earning higher income (AOR = 4.23, 95% CI [2.61, 6.84], p = .0001). In conclusion, the knowledge, attitude, as well as preventive practices to Lassa fever were poor. It is necessary to increase public education and improve hygienic practices.

  16. Studies of ionospheric variations during geomagnetic activities at the low-latitude station, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Emmanuel, Ariyibi

    The dual frequency SCINDA NovAtel GSV 4004B GPS receiver installed at the Ile-Ife (low-latitude station) has been in operation since December 2009. Data records for the year 2010 were processed to obtain Total Electron Content (TEC) and S 4 index. These were interpreted to analyze the ionospheric condition during low geomagnetic activity period (when Dst is from -40 to 0 nT) and during geomagnetic storm events (with Dst about -100 nT). Seasonal variations of the TEC and S 4 index were also investigated. The occurrence of scintillations is closely linked to the peak value of TEC during the daytime; this is very evident during the equinox months when TEC ≥ 30 TECu. When the maximum TEC value is below 30 TECu, as shown by most of the days in the summer months, the scintillation phenomenon does not occur. During geomagnetic storms, the daytime segment of the TEC plot experiences fluctuations (even bifurcations) in values with the peak TEC value of about 40 TECu. From the interpreted data, the occurrence of geomagnetic storm does not necessarily suggest an increase in the level of scintillations at a low-latitude region. Also, there is a remarkable difference between the IRI 2007 model and the observed TEC values, as the daytime TEC peak differs in magnitude and time of occurrence from the observed TEC.

  17. Contributions to the knowledge and capitalization of spa potential for tourism: Băile Buziaș resort.



    Full Text Available Romania is a country that has rich spa resources that consist of natural healing factors, scattered over the entire country: mineral and thermal waters, mud and therapeutic gases, lakes and therapeutic salt. Spa tourism resources generated since antiquity the oldest and most characteristic form of tourism in Romania - health tourism. Spa sector is one of the six elements (called health and wellness within the national touristic brand. Băile Buziaş is one of the oldest spa in Romania, known in Roman times as the Centum Putei [4]. Due to favorable natural conditions, with rich mineral springs and a mild climate, Buziaş may be the "spa pearl" of Banat, framing the resort in a strategy to exploit the spa potential, which is a necessity that needs to be solved rapidly. Strategy construction is realized using strategic questions: What are our resources? How can we improve the spa resort? How can we develop a spa product? What are the promotion techniques of this product on the Romania’ resort market and abroad?

  18. Comparative evaluation of perceptions of dental students to three methods of teaching in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Esan, T A; Oziegbe, E O


    The World Health Organization in 1994 recommended that dental education should be problem based, socially and culturally relevant, and community oriented. To explore the perceptions of Pre-phase II (pre-clinical II) dental students on three methods of teaching used during two academic sessions. All part IV dental students in two consecutive sessions undergoing pre phase II course in the Faculty of Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife were recruited into the study. Three different modes of teaching that is, Problem based learning (PBL), hybrid PBL and traditional teaching were used to teach the students. A twenty two itemed anonymous questionnaire on a five point Likert scale was administered to the students at the end of the course. Six perceived factors were extracted from the questionnaire using factor analysis. There was a statistically significant difference (p method compared to the other methods of teaching. The perceived factor "communication with peers" had the highest mean score for PBL in both sessions (4.57 ± 0.58 and 4.09 ± 0.93 respectively). However, PBL method was very helpful in all the six perceived factors while the students perceived that the traditional method of teaching was not helpful in "interaction with tutors" and "challenge to critical thinking". The findings showed that students preferred the PBL method to other forms of teaching. PBL enhanced the students' communication skill, was very useful as pedagogic tool and improved their critical thinking.

  19. Theoretical Study of 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition of Hydrazoic Acid to Substituted Ynamines

    Xiaofang Chen; Kun Yang; Keli Han


    The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of various substituted ynamines with hydrazoic acid were theoretically investigated with the high-accuracy CBS-QB3 method. Two regioisomers,4-amine, and 5-amine substituted adducts, were obtained, with the former as the preferred yield. This regioselectivity is rationalized by the frontier molecular orbital theory. The reactivity and synchronicity are enhanced with the increase of the electron-withdrawing character of the substitute on ynamine fragment. The calculations also show that the effect of solvent increases the activation energy, and the reaction becomes even harder in polar solvent.

  20. Theoretical Study of 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition of Hydrazoic Acid to Substituted Ynamines

    Chen, Xiao-fang; Yang, Kun; Han, Ke-li


    The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of various substituted ynamines with hydrazoic acid were theoretically investigated with the high-accuracy CBS-QB3 method. Two regioisomers, 4-amine, and 5-amine substituted adducts, were obtained, with the former as the preferred yield. This regioselectivity is rationalized by the frontier molecular orbital theory. The reactivity and synchronicity are enhanced with the increase of the electron-withdrawing character of the substitute on ynamine fragment. The calculations also show that the effect of solvent increases the activation energy, and the reaction becomes even harder in polar solvent.

  1. Probing silicon substitution in molecular sieves by plasma desorption mass spectrometry

    Van Stipdonk, M. J.; von Heimburg, S. L.; Schweikert, E. A.


    Plasma desorption was used to produce secondary ion mass spectra from samples of unsubstituted and substituted aluminum phosphate materials. The yield of fingerprint ions representative of silicon oxide solids indicates that the incorporation of silicon into the material during synthesis and following calcination occurs via the formation of silicon-rich islands. Complementary X-ray photoelectron data provide supporting evidence that the surface of the substituted aluminum phosphate material becomes silicon rich and phosphorus depleted. No changes in the unsubstituted and substituted material with respect to composition and phase were detected using powder X-ray diffraction.

  2. A Facile Solvent Free Claisen-Schmidt Reaction: Synthesis of α,α′-bis-(Substituted-benzylidenecycloalkanones and α,α′-bis-(Substituted-alkylidenecycloalkanones

    Yurngdong Jahng


    Full Text Available Solvent-free Claisen-Schmidt reactions of cycloalkanones with various substituted benzaldehydes (aryl aldehydes using solid NaOH (20 mol% and applying a grinding technique were studied. Quantitative yields (96–98% of α,α-bis-(substituted-benzylidenecycloalkanones were obtained. Aliphatic aldehydes also provided α,α-bis-(substituted-alkylidenecycloalkanones in very good yields with minor amounts of a-(substituted-alkylidenecycloalkanones. The catalytic performance of solid NaOH was examined. The molar ratio of NaOH was optimized. The catalytic effect of solid NaOH was also evaluated by comparing it with KOH, NaOAc, and NH4OAc and it turns out that 20 mol% of solid NaOH was good enough to catalyze the Claisen-Schmidt reactions of cycloalkanones with various substituted benzaldehydes. Additionally, the regioselectivity of the Claisen-Schmidt reaction of acetone with benzaldehyde was examined. Using the same method, we could synthesize the corresponding bis-benzylidene- and mono-benzylideneacetone separately in 98% and 96% yields, respectively.

  3. Asset Princes and Wealth Dynamics with Heterogeneous Beliefs - Varlýk Fiyatlarý ve Heterojen Düþünceler ile Servet Dinamikleri

    COGLEY, Timothy; Sargent, Thomas J.; Viktor TSYRENNIKOV


    Biz, bu makalede hibeler, öncellerin (priors) ve bilgi akýþlarýnýn özdeþ kalýplarýyla ancak tam piyasalar ve tüketicilerin sadece tekil risksiz tahvillerle iþlem yapabildikleri iki farklý piyasa yapýlarý ile risk piyasa fiyatlarýný karþýlaþtýracaðýz. Makalede spekülasyon fýrsatlarýnýn, olaðandýþý önceki olaylarýn ve öðrenmenin risk piyasa fiyatlarýný nasýl etkilediði incelenmektedir. Ýki tip tüketici, rastgele bir dýþ kaynaklý hibe konusunda devinim yasalarý ile ilgili çeþitli inançlara sahip...

  4. Asset Princes and Wealth Dynamics with Heterogeneous Beliefs [Varlık Fiyatları ve Heterojen Düşünceler ile Servet Dinamikleri

    COGLEY, Timothy; Sargent, Thomas J.; Viktor TSYRENNIKOV


    Biz, bu makalede hibeler, öncellerin (priors) ve bilgi akışlarının özdeş kalıplarıyla ancak tam piyasalar ve tüketicilerin sadece tekil risksiz tahvillerle işlem yapabildikleri iki farklı piyasa yapıları ile risk piyasa fiyatlarını karşılaştıracağız. Makalede spekülasyon fırsatlarının, olağandışı önceki olayların ve öğrenmenin risk piyasa fiyatlarını nasıl etkilediği incelenmektedir. İki tip tüketici, rastgele bir dış kaynaklı hibe konusunda devinim yasaları ile ilgili çeşitli inançlara sahip...

  5. Substituted Pyrazinecarboxamides: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    Katarina Kralova


    Full Text Available Condensation of the corresponding chlorides of some substituted pyrazine-2-carboxylic acids (pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid, 6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid, 5-tert-butylpyrazine-2-carboxylic acid or 5-tert-butyl-6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid withvarious ring-substituted aminothiazoles or anilines yielded a series of amides. Thesyntheses, analytical and spectroscopic data of thirty newly prepared compounds arepresented. Structure-activity relationships between the chemical structures and the anti-mycobacterial, antifungal and photosynthesis-inhibiting activity of the evaluatedcompounds are discussed. 3,5-Bromo-4-hydroxyphenyl derivatives of substitutedpyrazinecarboxylic acid, 16-18, have shown the highest activity against Mycobacteriumtuberculosis H37Rv (54-72% inhibition. The highest antifungal effect againstTrichophyton mentagrophytes, the most susceptible fungal strain tested, was found for5-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N-(4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-ylpyrazine-2-carboxamide (8, MIC =31.25 μmol·mL-1. The most active inhibitors of oxygen evolution rate in spinachMolecules 2006, 11 243 chloroplasts were the compounds 5-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N-(5-bromo-2-hydroxyphenyl- pyrazine-2-carboxamide (27, IC50 = 41.9 μmol·L-1 and 5-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N-(1,3- thiazol-2-yl-pyrazine-2-carboxamide (4, IC50 = 49.5 μmol·L-1.

  6. Analyse und Bewertung von Naturgefahren als Grundlage für ein nachhaltiges Naturgefahrenmanagement in Gebirgssystemen SO-Kasachstans am Beispiel des Ile-Alatau


    Den Fragen der Erarbeitung des Naturgefahrenmanagements in Gebirgsystemen SO-Kasachstans und in den Ländern des Zentralasiens insgesamt wurde bisher keine gebührende Aufmerksamkeit zuteil. Die Naturkatastrophen der letzten Jahrzehnte sowie die Erfahrung mit Maßnahmen zum Schutz des Ile-Alatau vor Naturgefahren haben gezeigt, dass die Lösung dieser Probleme für die weitere nachhaltige Entwicklung dieser Region von erstrangiger Bedeutung ist. In dieser Arbeit wurde vom Autor umfangreiches Ma...

  7. Ser80Ile mutation and a concurrent Pro25Leu variant of the VHL gene in an extended Hungarian von Hippel-Lindau family

    Fazakas Ferenc


    Full Text Available Abstract Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by development of cystic and tumorous lesions at multiple sites, including the brain, spinal cord, kidneys, adrenals, pancreas, epididymis and eyes. The clinical phenotype results from molecular abnormalities of the VHL tumor suppressor gene, mapped to human chromosome 3p25-26. The VHL gene encodes two functionally active VHL proteins due to the presence of two translational initiation sites separated by 53 codons. The majority of disease-causing mutations have been detected downstream of the second translational initiation site, but there are conflicting data as to whether few mutations located in the first 53 codons, such as the Pro25Leu could have a pathogenic role. In this paper we report a large Hungarian VHL type 2 family consisting of 32 members in whom a disease-causing AGT80AAT (Ser80Ile c.239G>A, p.Ser80Ile mutation, but not the concurrent CCT25CTT (Pro25Leu c.74C>T, p.Pro25Leu variant co-segregated with the disease. To our knowledge, the Ser80Ile mutation has not been previously described in VHL type 2 patients with high risk of pheochromocytoma and renal cell cancer. Therefore, this finding represents a novel genotype-phenotype association and VHL kindreds with Ser80Ile mutation will require careful surveillance for pheochromocytoma. We concluded that the Pro25Leu variant is a rare, neutral variant, but the presence such a rare gene variant may make genetic counseling difficult.

  8. Association of GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism and risk of head and neck cancers: a meta-analysis of 28 case-control studies.

    Juntian Lang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1 polymorphism have been considered a risk modifier for developing head and neck cancer (HNC in many studies; however, the results of such studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible association between the GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism and risk of HNC. METHOD: We performed a search in the relevant electronic database and a meta-analysis based on 28 published case-control studies that included 6,404 cases and 6,523 controls. To take into account the possibility of heterogeneity across the studies, a Chi-square based I(2-statistic test was performed. Crude pooled odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were assessed using both fixed-effects and random-effects models. RESULTS: The results of this meta-analysis showed that the GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism was not significantly associated with risk of HNC in the overall study population (pooled OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.92-1.09 or in subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity, sample size, tumor site or publication year. Moreover, substantial evidence of heterogeneity among the studies was observed. Publication year was identified as the main cause of heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis does not support a significant association between the GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism and risk of HNC.

  9. From Six Gene Polymorphisms of the Antioxidant System, Only GPX Pro198Leu and GSTP1 Ile105Val Modulate the Risk of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Claudia Bănescu


    Full Text Available Oxidative stress might contribute to the occurrence of cancers, including the hematological ones. Various genetic polymorphisms were shown to increase the quantity of reactive oxygen species, a phenomenon that is able to induce mutations and thus promote cancers. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association between CAT C262T, GPX1 Pro198Leu, MnSOD Ala16Val, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 Ile105Val gene polymorphisms and acute myeloid leukemia risk, in a case-control study comprising 102 patients and 303 controls. No association was observed between AML and variant genotypes of CAT, MnSOD, GSTM1, and GSTT1 polymorphisms. Our data revealed a statistically significant difference regarding the frequencies of GPX1 Pro198Leu and GSTP1 Ile105Val variant genotypes between AML patients and controls (p<0.001. Our results showed no association in the distribution of any of the CAT C262T, GPX1 Pro198Leu, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms regarding age, gender, FAB subtype, cytogenetic risk groups, FLT3 and DNMT3 gene mutations, and overall survival. Our data suggests that the presence of variant allele and genotype of GPX1 Pro198Leu and GSTP1 Ile105Val gene polymorphisms may modulate the risk of developing AML.

  10. Approaches in Substitution of Organic Solvents

    Jacobsen, Thomas


    In substitution of harmful chemicals or products with less harmful or harmless ones, there are different approaches according to the different situations, the technical requirements to the substitutes, and the goals for the substitution. Three different cases are presented. The substitution process...... may be characterized by two phases, the invention phase and the implementation phase. Different qualifications are needed in the two phases, but a thorough knowledge of the production process in question is necessary in both....

  11. Smart Phones and their Substitutes

    Bødker, Mads; Gimpel, Gregory; Hedman, Jonas


    Drawing on data from a longitudinal field study, this paper investigates the influence of existing, better and stand-alone technology substitutes on the use of smart phones. By applying prospect theory, media richness theory, and business model literature, the purpose of this paper is to improve...... our understanding of the role of substitutes, device content fit issues, and implications for business models by asking the question: What is an effective business model to address the relationship between user preference and the fit of the smart phone and everyday task? The field study data suggest...... the need for business models to recognize that adoption decisions are reference-dependent and strongly influenced by the fit between task and smart phone....

  12. 40 CFR 721.323 - Substituted acrylamide.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted acrylamide. 721.323... Substances § 721.323 Substituted acrylamide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted acrylamide (PMN P-90-1687) is...

  13. 24 CFR 220.253 - Substitute mortgagors.


    ... Contract Rights and Obligations-Homes § 220.253 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The mortgagee... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 220.253... the Commissioner's approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section. (b)...

  14. 24 CFR 221.252 - Substitute mortgagors.


    ... Cost Homes § 221.252 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The mortgagee may effect the release... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 221.252... approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section. (b) Purchasing mortgagor. The...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  16. Substituted Indoleacetic Acids Tested in Tissue Cultures

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen


    Monochloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot induction in tobacco tissue cultures about as much as IAA. Dichloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot formation less. Other substituted IAA except 5-fluoro- and 5-bromoindole-3-acetic acid were less active than IAA. Callus growth was quite variable...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9820 - Substituted triazole.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted triazole. 721.9820 Section... Substances § 721.9820 Substituted triazole. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as a substituted triazole (PMN P-90-1731)...

  18. Substitution reactions at boron atoms in metallacarboranes

    Bregadze, Vladimir I; Timofeev, Sergei V; Sivaev, Igor B; Lobanova, Irina A [A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Data on substitution reactions at boron atoms in 10-12-vertex metallacarboranes, which are of fundamental and applied significance, are generalised. The possible mechanisms of substitution reactions and the influence of the metal fragment on substitution positions in the polyhedron are discussed.

  19. 40 CFR 721.8775 - Substituted pyridines.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted pyridines. 721.8775... Substances § 721.8775 Substituted pyridines. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted pyridine (PMN P-84-1219)...

  20. A novel approach for the synthesis of 5-substituted-1H-tetrazoles

    Akhlaghinia, Batool; Rezazadeh, Soodabeh, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    A series of 5-substituted-1H-tetrazoles (RCN{sub 4}H) have been synthesized by cycloaddition reaction of different aryl and alkyl nitriles with sodium azide in DMSO using CuSO{sub 4}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O as catalyst. A wide variety of aryl nitriles underwent [3+2] cycloaddition to afford tetrazoles under mild reaction conditions in good to excellent yields. The catalyst used is readily available and environmentally friendly. Short reaction times, good to excellent yields, safe process and simple workup make this method an attractive and useful contribution to present organic synthesis of 5-substituted-1H-tetrazoles. (author)

  1. Iridium-Catalyzed Allylic Substitution

    Hartwig, John F.; Pouy, Mark J.

    Iridium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution has become a valuable method to prepare products from the addition of nucleophiles at the more substituted carbon of an allyl unit. The most active and selective catalysts contain a phosphoramidite ligand possessing at least one arylethyl substituent on the nitrogen atom of the ligand. In these systems, the active catalyst is generated by a base-induced cyclometalation at the methyl group of this substituent to generate an iridium metalacycle bound by the COD ligand of the [Ir(COD)Cl]2 precursor and one additional labile dative ligand. Such complexes catalyze the reactions of linear allylic esters with alkylamines, arylamines, phenols, alcohols, imides, carbamates, ammonia, enolates and enolate equivalents, as well as typical stabilized carbon nucleophiles generated from malonates and cyanoesters. Iridium catalysts for enantioselective allylic substitution have also been generated from phosphorus ligands with substituents bound by heteroatoms, and an account of the studies of such systems, along with a description of the development of iridium catalysts is included.

  2. Substitution Effects and Linear Free Energy Relationships During Reduction of 4- Benzoyl-n-(4-substituted Benzyl)pyridinium Cations

    Leventis, Nicholas; Zhang, Guo-Hui; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monem M.; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)


    In analogy to 4-(para-substituted benzoyl)-N-methylpyridinium cations (1-X's), the title species (2-X's, -X = -OCH3, -CH3, -H, -Br, -COCH3, -NO2) undergo two reversible, well-separated (E(sub 1/2) greater than or equal to 650 mV) one-electron reductions. The effect of substitution on the reduction potentials of 2-X's is much weaker than the effect of the same substituents on 1-X's: the Hammett rho-values are 0.80 and 0.93 for the 1st- and 2nd-e reduction of 2-X's vs. 2.3 and 3.3 for the same reductions of 1-X's, respectively. Importantly, the nitro group of 2-NO2 undergoes reduction before the 2nd-e reduction of the 4-benzoylpyridinium system. These results suggest that the redox potentials of the 4-benzoylpyridinium system can be course-tuned via p-benzoyl substitution and fine-tuned via para-benzyl substitution. Introducing the recently derived substituent constant of the -NO2(sup)- group (sigma para-NO2(sup)- = -0.97) yields an excellent correlation for the 3rd-e reduction of 2- NO2 (corresponding to the reduction of the carbonyl group) with the 2nd-e reduction of the other 2-X's, and confirms the electron donating properties of -NO2(sup)-.

  3. Şerefiye’nin İktisabı ve Değerlemesi: UFRS ile Arnavutluk Mevzuatının Karşılaştırılması

    ÜÇ, Mustafa; MANCELLARI, Erjon


    Bu çalışma, şerefiye ile ilgili muhasebe işlemlerinde  UFRS, SKK (Arnavutluk Muhasebe Standartları) UFRS’nin adaptosyonu ve Arnavutluk vergi mevzuatı açısından farklılıklar olup olmadığı incelemektedir. Çalışmanın ilk kısmı maddi olmayan duran varlıklar ile ilgili genel teori sunulmaktadır. Ardından şerefiyenin detaylı açıklamaları ile şerefiyenin hesaplanması, değerlemesi ve muhasebesi daha ayrıntılı iredelenmektedir. Şerefiye ile ilgili muhasebe işlemleri UFRS ve yerel mevzuat açısından Alb...

  4. Correlation Analysis of some Growth, Yield, Yield Components and ...

    Keywords: Correlation, Wheat; growth, yield, yield components, grain quality. INTRODUCTION. Wheat ... macaroni, biscuits, cookies, cakes, pasta, noodles and couscous; beer, many .... and 6 WAS which ensured weed free plots. Fertilizer was ...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1555 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt.


    ... benzenediazonium salt. 721.1555 Section 721.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1555 Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt. (a... generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt (PMN P-92-652) is subject to...

  6. Synthesis of substituted guanidines using Zn-Al hydrotalcite catalyst

    Lakshmi Kantam Mannepalli; Venkanna Dupati; Swarna Jaya Vallabha; Manorama Sunkara V


    Substituted guanidines were synthesized by the guanylation of amines with carbodiimides using Zn-Al hydrotalcite (Zn-Al HT) catalyst. Zn-Al HT was prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman and Thermogravimetric-Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA). The heterogeneous catalyst afforded moderate to good yields (∼ 50-60 %) of substituted guanidines in toluene at 110°C in 12 h. The catalyst was recovered quantitatively by simple filtration and reused for three cycles with consistent activity. The XRD and FTIR studies of the used catalyst shows no variation in the structure of the catalyst even after three recycles.

  7. Personality profiles and psychopathology among students exposed to dating violence at theObafemi AwolowoUniversity, Ile-Ife.

    Boladale, Mapayi; Yetunde, Oladimeji; Adesanmi, Akinsulore; Olutayo, Aloba; Olanrewaju, Ibigbami


    Dating violence is a complex phenomenon, and researchers continue to examine a wide range of precursors and contributing factors. Evidence indicates that violent intimate partners may be more likely to have personality disorders and dependency and attachment problems compared with non-violent ones. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the interaction between the personality profiles, pattern of psychopathology, and dating violence among university students in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. The study utilized a cross-sectional survey design with a total of 400 students selected using a multistage sampling technique. They completed the Sociodemographic Data Schedule, the Conflict Tactic Scale (CTS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Univariate analysis was used to determine the prevalence of dating violence, psychopathology, and personality traits, and these were expressed in percentages. Association at bivariate level was assessed using chi-square and at multivariate level using logistic regression and correlations as was appropriate depending on the type of variable. The age of the respondents ranged between 18 and 35 years (M = 21.44, SD = 2.99). The prevalence of dating violence in the previous 12 months was 34%, and the prevalence of psychopathology was 15%. In the logistic regression model constructed, it was found that the significant predictors of dating violence were the psychoticism and neuroticism personality traits, which were also found to be positive correlates of psychopathology. The magnitude of dating violence found in this study is comparable with those found in other countries of the world. This study found an association between dating violence and personality in the study population and also between certain personality traits and psychopathology. The personality profiles of students could affect their interpersonal relationships greatly, and this fact must feature in dating violence

  8. Respiratory symptoms, lung function and particulate matter pollution in residential indoor environment in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Lawrence I Ibhafidon


    Full Text Available Introduction: Particulate air pollution is associated with increased incidence of respiratory symptoms and decreased pulmonary, function but the relative impact of pollution from different domestic energy sources is not well-known or studied. Aim: The study was aimed at assessing the association between particulate concentrations, respiratory symptoms and lung function. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study comprised of randomly selected residents of three communities. These communities were selected according to the predominant type of fuel used for household cooking which were: firewood, kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG. Assessment of the indoor PM 10 levels was done by filtration using the Gent stacked filter unit sampler for collection of atmospheric aerosol in two size fractions (PM 2.5 and PM 10 . The Medical Research Council (MRC questionnaire was administered followed by spirometry test. Results: The mean PM 10 concentration in participants using LPG, kerosene and firewood was 80.8 ± 9.52 μg/m [3] , 236.9 ± 26.5 μg/m [3] and 269 ±93.7 μg/m [3] , respectively. The mean age and height-adjusted percent predicted forced expiratory volumes in 1 s (FEV1 for men were 127 ± 7, 109 ± 40 and 91 ± 20 and for women were 129 ± 13, 115 ± 14, 100 ± 14 in users of LPG, kerosene and firewood, respectively. A similar trend was found in the forced vital capacity (FVCs. Users of firewood had significantly lower FEV1 and FVC compared with LPG users (P < 0.05. The participants using firewood had the highest prevalence of pulmonary and non-pulmonary symptoms (57.1%, whereas subjects using LPG had the lowest (23.8%. Conclusion: There are high levels of particulate matter pollutions with respiratory effects in residential indoor environments in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

  9. The bacteriological quality of different brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife, south-western Nigeria.

    Igbeneghu, Oluwatoyin A; Lamikanra, Adebayo


    The upsurge in the demand for bottled water has prompted the interest of many manufacturers in the production of bottled water and very many water bottling companies are therefore involved in its production. These range from large scale multinational companies to medium scale business enterprises, institutional and government business investment companies as well as small scale entrepreneurs. There is however little information on the comparative quality of bottled water brands produced by different classes of water bottling companies in Nigeria. This study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological quality of brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife. Forty-three samples of bottled water comprising of three batches each of thirteen bottled water brands and two batches of two brands were purchased and analyzed for total bacterial count, presence of coliform and the presence of other bacterial indicators of drinking water quality. Only 67.4% of the water samples representing the products of 10 companies or 66.7% of the brands had heterotrophic counts within the acceptable limits. Coliforms present in 100 ml of water were detected in 26.7% of the bottled water brands. Other indicator organisms detected included Staphylococci isolated from 27.9% of the samples (33.3% of the brands) and specifically Staphylococcus aureus found in four brands constituting 14% of the samples. Pseudomonas strains were consistently detected in consecutive batches of three brands of the water samples. Bottled water samples produced by the large scale multinational producers were of acceptable bacteriological quality unlike those produced by most small companies. There is need for a greater control of water bottling processes carried out by commercial bottled water producers in Nigeria.

  10. Efeito da suplementação alimentar nas respostas fisiológicas, hormonais e sanguíneas de ovelhas Santa Inês, Ile de France e Texel - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i4.4920 Effect of supplementary feeding on physiological, hormonal and blood responses of Santa Ines, Ile de France and Texel ewes - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i4.4920

    Fábio José Lourenço


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a suplementação de proteína (12% de proteína bruta (PB (T1 e 16% de PB (T2 na temperatura retal (TR, frequências respiratória (FR e cardíaca (FC, glicose (Gl, albumina (Alb, proteínas totais (PT, triiodotironina (T3 e tiroxina (T4 de 16 ovelhas Santa Inês, 16 Texel e 15 Ile de France. A FR não diferiu no T1 e T2 na Santa Inês e Ile de France, sendo maior na Texel no T2. FR aumentou na primavera, na Texel, seguida da Ile de France e pela Santa Inês e caiu no outono para Santa Inês e Ile de France. FR foi maior à tarde, na Texel, na Ile de France e na Santa Inês. Maior FC na Santa Inês e Texel no T1 e menor na Ile de France. FC na Santa Inês foi superior nas estações do ano, e na primavera maior para todas as raças. Maior Gl, PT, Alb e T3 na Santa Inês, e iguais para Texel e Ile de France. T3 maior na Santa Inês no inverno; na Texel maior no inverno e primavera, sem diferenças para Ile de France. Gl, T3 e T4 iguais no T1 e T2, e a PT e Alb maiores no T2.We evaluated the supplemental protein (12% crude protein (CP (T1 and 16% CP (T2 in rectal temperature (RT, respiratory rate (RR and heart rate (HR, glucose (Gl, albumin (Alb, total protein (TP, triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 in 16 Santa Ines, 16 Texel and 15 Ile de France ewes. The RR was not differing in T1 and T2 in Santa Ines and Ile de France, being higher in Texel in T2. FR increased in the spring, in the Texel, followed by Ile de France and Santa Ines, and decreased in fall in Santa Ines and Ile de France. RR was higher in the afternoon, in the Texel, in Ile de France and Santa Ines. Higher HR in Santa Ines and Texel in T1, and smaller in Ile de France. HR in Santa Ines was higher in the seasons, and spring higher for all breeds. Greater Gl, TP, Alb and T3 in Santa Ines, and equal for Texel and Ile de France. T3 higher for the Santa Ines in the winter; in Texel higher in winter and spring; no differences for Ile de France. Gl, T3 and T4 were similar

  11. Yield enhancement with DFM

    Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok


    A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

  12. Maximizing ROI with yield management

    Neil Snyder


    .... the technology is based on the concept of yield management, which aims to sell the right product to the right customer at the right price and the right time therefore maximizing revenue, or yield...

  13. Shortcomings in wheat yield predictions

    Semenov, Mikhail A.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Whitmore, Andrew P.; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; Parry, Martin A. J.; Shewry, Peter R.


    Predictions of a 40-140% increase in wheat yield by 2050, reported in the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment, are based on a simplistic approach that ignores key factors affecting yields and hence are seriously misleading.

  14. Ganho de peso e componentes do peso vivo em borregos Ile de France inteiros ou castrados e Hampshire Down castrados abatidos aos doze meses de idade Weight gain and live weight components of intact or castrated Ile de France and castrated Hampshire Down lambs slaughtered at twelve months of age

    Edson Luis De Azambuja Ribeiro


    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar o ganho de peso e os componentes do peso vivo em ovinos inteiros ou castrados abatidos aos 12 meses de idade. Foram usados 16 borregos Ile de France, sendo metade inteiros e metade castrados, e oito Hampshire Down castrados. Os borregos foram mantidos em pastagem de grama Coast-Cross e foram pesados dos três aos 12 meses de idade, quando abatidos. Não houve diferenças entre as raças para peso, ganhos de peso e para os componentes do peso vivo. Porém, os machos inteiros da raça Ile de France ganharam mais peso dos três aos 12 meses do que os castrados, com médias, respectivamente, de 0,078 e 0,063kg por dia; o ganho de peso médio diário para os borregos Hampshire Down foi de 0,064kg. As médias para os pesos vivos no abate e para os rendimentos de carcaça quente (entre parenteses foram: 38,54 (47,51%; 36,08 (47,82% e 36,44 (46,38%kg, respectivamente, para os borregos Ile de France inteiros, Ile de France castrados e Hampshire Down castrados. Os resultados indicam que, quando o abate for realizado aos 12 meses de idade, o uso de machos inteiros é recomendado devido ao seu maior ganho de peso.The main objective of this work was to evaluate the weight gain and live weight components of intact or castrated lambs slaughtered at 12 months of age. Sixteen Ile de France lambs, half intact and half castrated, and eight castrated Hampshire Down lambs were used in this experiment. The animals were kept on a Coast-Cross pasture from three to 12 months of age, and then slaughtered. There were no differences between breeds for weight, weight gain and live weight components. However, intact Ile de France lambs had a greater daily weight gain than castrated Ile de France lambs, with averages of 0.078 and 0.063kg, respectively; the average daily weight gain for the castrated Hampshire Down was 0.064kg. The averages for live weight before slaughtering and hot dressing percentage were: 38.54, 36

  15. Sustainability of Universal ILE


    64.71 % Moderately Important 5 9.41 % 1 5.88 % ree from a Civilian Un Extremely Important 1 6.25 % Moderately Important 5 31.25...Undecided 1 5.88 % 7 00.00 % ree from a Extremely Important 4 4 23.53 % Undecided 1 5.88 % 7 00.00 % ee... Laurence I. Radway. Soldiers and Scholars: M National Policy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1957. ick, David. The Downsized


    Álvaro Nogueira de Souza1;


    Full Text Available The few studies on renewal of Eucalyptus spp populations done in Brazil consider constant technology. This is done this way for facilitating the modeling of how variables affect this activity, such as income, costs, rates of discount and yield. The reason for not considering the gains earned through technological progress is the lack of a specific dynamic model. This study was carried out aiming to get to know the forest rotation with values from the sixties (beginning of tax exemption programme and current values (nineties aiming to obtain wood for cellulose and charcoal production; to determine the moment of substitution of a population which presents the same yield and the same cost structure through time as well as to determine how many cuttings should be done until the final cycle; to determine how many cuttings should be done until substitution (substitution chain; to verify the sensitivity of the substitution time to variations in the discount rates, wood prices, yield, land costs, harvesting costs and coppice yield. The results were tested in a case study, employing the Gompertz Function to determine the population yield. The Current Net Value Method was used as a crieterion of economic decision. It has been concluded that: The forest rotation to produce charcoal in the sixties was at 13 years of age; the current rotation is at 7 years of age; the final cycle allows up to 13 cuttings, but considering the possibility of land leasing, the best alternative is to conduce the sproutings up to the third cutting; an increase in factors such as discount rates, wood prices and yield caused reduction of the cutting age; increase in land costs did not affect the cutting ages; increase in the logging cost increased the cutting ages; the substitution of population now a days happens after 3 cuttings, while in the sixties it happened after 2 cuttings due to the lesser loss; an increase in factors such as discount rates, wood prices, logging costs and

  17. Novel Synthesis of N-Substituted p-Hydroxybenzoic Amides on Soluble Polymer-Support

    胡春玲; 陈祖兴; 杨桂春


    The synthesis of N-substituted p-hydroxybenzoic amides using a liquid phase approach is described. Poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were linked by oxalyl chloride to give compound 1, which was chlorinated by thionyl chloride, followed by amidation with NHR1R2 to yield compound 3. Hydrolysis of compound 3 gave the title amide 4.These crude library members were obtained in good yields with high purities.

  18. Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview

    Halim Ahmad


    Full Text Available The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substitutes can be divided into two main classes, namely, biological and synthetic substitutes. The biological skin substitutes have a more intact extracellular matrix structure, while the synthetic skin substitutes can be synthesised on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Each class has its advantages and disadvantages. The biological skin substitutes may allow the construction of a more natural new dermis and allow excellent re-epithelialisation characteristics due to the presence of a basement membrane. Synthetic skin substitutes demonstrate the advantages of increase control over scaffold composition. The ultimate goal is to achieve an ideal skin substitute that provides an effective and scar-free wound healing.

  19. Novel synthesis of substituted benzylidenecyclohexanone by microwave assisted organic synthesis

    Handayani, Sri; Budimarwanti, Cornelia; Haryadi, Winarto


    Benzylidenecyclohexanone derivatives are compounds with wide bioactivity. Usually, it was synthesized from cyclohexanones and benzaldehyde derivatives under base condition. This research presents a rapid and simple method to synthesis substituted benzylidenecyclohexanone. Cyclohexanone was mixed with 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde in acid condition under MAOS for 2 minutes, then it was left to cooled. Brownish purple powder in 81.47% yield was obtained. The product was identified by gas chromatography, then followed by structure elucidation by using NMR spectrophotometer. The novel compound is confirmed as 4-((E)-((1E,3'E)-3'-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2'-oxo-[1,1'-bi(cyclohexylidene)]-2,5-dienylidene-4-ylidene) me-thoxy)benzaldehyde.

  20. Substitution of isoleucine for methionine at position 1153 in the beta-subunit of the human insulin receptor. A mutation that impairs receptor tyrosine kinase activity, receptor endocytosis, and insulin action.

    Cama, A; Quon, M J; de la Luz Sierra, M; Taylor, S I


    The intracellular domain of the insulin receptor possesses activity as a tyrosine-specific protein kinase. The receptor tyrosine kinase is stimulated by insulin binding to the extracellular domain of the receptor. Previously, we have identified a patient with a genetic form of insulin resistance who is heterozygous for a mutation substituting Ile for Met1153 in the tyrosine kinase domain of the receptor near the cluster of the three major autophosphorylation sites (Tyr1158, Tyr1162, and Tyr1163). In this investigation, the Ile1153 mutant receptor was expressed by transfection of mutant cDNA into NIH-3T3 cells. The mutation impairs receptor tyrosine kinase activity and also inhibits the ability of insulin to stimulate 2-deoxyglucose uptake and thymidine incorporation. These data support the hypothesis that the receptor tyrosine activity plays a necessary role in the ability of the receptor to mediate insulin action in vivo. Furthermore, expression of the Ile1153 mutant receptor exerted a dominant negative effect to inhibit the ability of endogenous murine receptors for insulin and insulin-like growth factor I to mediate their actions upon the cell. This observation is consistent with previous suggestions that mutant receptors dimerize with wild type receptors, thereby creating hybrid molecules which lack biological activity. The dominant negative effect of the mutant receptor may explain the dominant mode of inheritance of insulin resistance caused by the Ile1153 mutation. Finally, the mutation inhibits the ability of insulin to stimulate receptor endocytosis. This may explain the normal number of insulin receptors on the surface of the patient's cells in vivo. Despite the presence of markedly elevated levels of insulin in the patient's plasma, the receptors were resistant to down-regulation.

  1. Cement from magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite.

    Lilley, K J; Gbureck, U; Knowles, J C; Farrar, D F; Barralet, J E


    Brushite cement may be used as a bone graft material and is more soluble than apatite in physiological conditions. Consequently it is considerably more resorbable in vivo than apatite forming cements. Brushite cement formation has previously been reported by our group following the mixture of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and phosphoric acid. In this study, brushite cement was formed from the reaction of nanocrystalline magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite with phosphoric acid in an attempt to produce a magnesium substituted brushite cement. The presence of magnesium was shown to have a strong effect on cement composition and strength. Additionally the presence of magnesium in brushite cement was found to reduce the extent of brushite hydrolysis resulting in the formation of HA. By incorporating magnesium ions in the apatite reactant structure the concentration of magnesium ions in the liquid phase of the cement was controlled by the dissolution rate of the apatite. This approach may be used to supply other ions to cement systems during setting as a means to manipulate the clinical performance and characteristics of brushite cements.

  2. 3-/3,5-Pyrrole-substituted BODIPY derivatives and their photophysical and electrochemical studies



    Nucleophilic substitution on 3-bromo/3,5-dibromo-4,4'-difluoro-8-(aryl)-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-sindacene (BODIPY), substituted with anisyl or thienyl at meso positions, with neat pyrrole afforded the mono and di-pyrrole substituted BODIPYs 1–4 in good yields. Large bathochromic shifts, upto ∼180 nm in absorption maxima (581–682 nm), and fluorescence maxima (606–695 nm) were observed for these BODIPYs. Absorption and fluorescence properties were studied in different solvents to compare the effect of mono and di substitution on BODIPY. The Lippert-Mataga equations were used which predict strong polarization of monosubstituted BODIPYs. Electrochemical studies were carried out to find the oxidation potential and HOMO energy levels were calculated. Theoretical studies of 1–4 provide the insight on the electron density distribution in 1–4. Theoretical and experimental photo-physical studies in different solvents were correlated to findthe substituent effects on BODIPY.

  3. Geomagnetic Storm Main Phase effect on the Equatorial Ionosphere as measured from GPS observations at Ile-Ife

    Olabode, Ayomide; Ariyibi, Emmanuel


    The effect of the main phase of two intense geomagnetic storm events which occurred on August 5-6 and September 26-27, 2011 on the equatorial ionosphere have been investigated using Global Positioning System (GPS) data obtained from an Ile-Ife station (geomagnetic lat. 9.84°N, long. 77.25°E). The WinTEC-P and GPS-TEC analysis software programs were used to process the GPS data to obtain Total Electron Content (TEC) and Scintillation Index (S4). TEC profiles during the main phase of the two geomagnetically disturbed days were compared with quiet time average profiles to examine the response of the equatorial ionosphere. International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 TEC model was also obtained from Virtual Ionosphere, Thermosphere, Mesosphere Observatory (VITMO) and the extents of deviation from measured GPS-derived TEC were examined for the main phase of the storm events. The results showed that the intensity of both storm events during the main phase which occurred at night-time correlated well with a strong southward direction of the z-component of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF-Bz) and Solar Wind Speed (Vsw), with the Disturbance storm time (Dst) profile showing multiple step development. TEC depletion was observed during the main phase of the August 5-6, 2011 storm event with TEC recording a maximum value of 9.31 TECU. A maximum TEC value of 55.8 TECU was recorded during the main phase of the September 26-27, 2011 storm event depicting TEC enhancement. Significant scintillation index value of 0.57 was observed when the main phase started on August 5-6, 2011 followed by a prolonged suppression while there was less significant scintillation impact on September 26-27, 2011 with a maximum value of 0.33. The study concluded that the intensification of the ring current during the main phase of geomagnetic storm events was responsible for the intensity of the storm events causing large variations in TEC and significant scintillation phenomenon.

  4. Genetic relationship between yield and yield components of maize

    Nastasić Aleksandra


    Full Text Available One of the objectives of this paper was to determine relationship between grain yield and yield components, in S1 and HS progenies of one early synthetic maize population. Grain yield was in high significant, medium strong and strong association with all studied yield components, in both populations. The strongest correlation was recorded between grain yield and 1000-kernel weight (S1 progenies rg = 0.684; HS progenies rg = 0.633. Between other studied traits, the highest values of genotypic coefficient of correlations were found between 1000-kernel weight and kernel depth in S1 population, and 1000-kernel weight and ear length in HS population. Also, objective of this research was founding the direct and indirect effects of yield components on grain yield. Desirable, high significant influence on grain yield, in path coefficient analysis, was found for 1000-kernel weight and kernel row number, and in S1 and HS progenies, and for ear length in population of S1 progenies. Kernel depth has undesirable direct effect on grain yield, in both populations.

  5. Hyperbranched Polycarbosilanes via Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions

    Interrante, L.; Shen, Q.

    Nucleophilic substitution reactions involving organomagnesium (Grignard) [1] and organolithium reagents have been used extensively for many years to form Si—C bonds (see Reaction Scheme 12.1). However, their use for the construction of hyperbranched polymers whose backbone contains, as a major structural component, silicon—carbon bonds, i.e., polycarbosilanes [2] is relatively more recent. (12.1) begin{array}{l} {{R}}_3 {{SiX + MR'}} to {{R}}_3 {{SiR' + MX}} \\ left({{{R,R' = alkyl}} {{or aryl;}} {{M = Mg(X),}} {{Li,}} {{Na}};{{X = halogen, OR''}}} right) \\ This chapter focuses on the application of such nucleophilic substitution reactions toward the synthesis of hyperbranched polycarbosilanes, with particular emphasis on those preparations that have resulted in relatively well characterized products. These syntheses are organized by the type of ABn monomer unit used (see Section 1.2), where A and B refer to the (C)X and (Si)Xn, respectively, functional ends of the monomer unit and where the nature of the coupling reaction leads to entirely or primarily Si—C bond formation. In most cases, these are “one-pot” reactions that employ monomers that bear halogen or alkoxy groups on the C and Si ends of the unit. Indeed, hyperbranched polycarbosilanes have been described, in general, as “obtained in one synthetic step via a random, one-pot polymerization of multifunctional monomers of AB n type” [2]. Treatment of the ABn monomer with either elemental Mg or an organolithium reagent, ideally (but not always) forms a complexed carbanion (the nucleophile) by reaction with the C-X end of the monomer unit, resulting in an intermediate of the type, (XxM)CSiXn, where M = Mg or Li, X = halogen or alkoxy, and x = 1 (Mg) or 0 (Li). Self-coupling of this reagent via reactions of the type shown in Reaction Scheme 12.1 leads to oligomeric and polymeric products that are connected primarily through Si—C bonds and yield an inorganic MXx by-product.

  6. Synthesis of 3-substituted indazoles from arynes and N-tosylhydrazones.

    Li, Pan; Zhao, Jingjing; Wu, Chunrui; Larock, Richard C; Shi, Feng


    Readily available, stable, and inexpensive N-tosylhydrazones react with arynes under mild reaction conditions to afford 3-substituted indazoles in moderate to good yields. The reaction appears to involve a dipolar cycloaddition of in situ generated diazo compounds and arynes.

  7. Rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric ring opening of azabenzonorbornadiene with substituted piperazine nucleophiles

    Lei Xie; Ding Qiao Yang; Shuang Qi Zhao; Huan Wang; Li Hua Liang; Ren Shi Luo


    We have developed an asymmetric ring opening reaction of azabenzonorbornadiene with substituted piperazine. By increasing the amount of catalyst (from 2.5 to 5%) and ligands (5 to 10%) as well as addition of ammonium iodide, the products can be obtained in high yield and the reaction time shortened dramatically, but the ee values were rather low.

  8. Exploring the power of rice (O. sativa x O. rufipogon) chromosome segment substitution line libraries

    Transgressive variation was reported as an increase in grain yield for several rice (Oryza sativa x O. rufipogon) advanced backcross mapping populations. The objective of this study was to develop chromosome segment substitution line (CSSL) libraries to further dissect the reported transgressive var...

  9. Copper-catalyzed synthesis of substituted benzothiazoles via condensation of 2-aminobenzenethiols with nitriles.

    Sun, Yadong; Jiang, Huanfeng; Wu, Wanqing; Zeng, Wei; Wu, Xia


    An efficient and convenient method was developed for the formation of 2-substituted benzothiazoles via a copper-catalyzed condensation of 2-aminobenzenethiols with nitriles. The developed method is applicable to a wide range of nitriles containing different functional groups furnishing excellent yields of the corresponding products.

  10. Rhodium-catalyzed Asymmetric Ring Opening Reaction of Oxabenzo-norbornadiene with Substituted Phenolic Nucleophiles


    We have developed an asymmetric ring opening reaction of oxabenzonorbornadienes with substituted phenolic nucleophiles. Under the reaction conditions ( [Rh(COD)Cl]2 (1 mol%),(S)-(R)-PPF-ptBu2 (2 mol%), THF, reflux), the reaction products were obtained with high yield and enantiomeric excesses ( up to 99% ee).

  11. Asymmetric α-amination of 3-substituted oxindoles using chiral bifunctional phosphine catalysts

    Qiao-Wen Jin


    Full Text Available A highly enantioselective α-amination of 3-substituted oxindoles with azodicarboxylates catalyzed by amino acids-derived chiral phosphine catalysts is reported. The corresponding products containing a tetrasubstituted carbon center attached to a nitrogen atom at the C-3 position of the oxindole were obtained in high yields and with up to 98% ee.

  12. An efficient and green preparation of 5-aminophosphonate substituted pyrimidine nucleosides under solvent-free conditions

    Xin Ying Zhang; Ying Ying Qu; Xue Sen Fan


    An environmentally benign and highly efficient one-pot preparation of α-aminophosphonates under solvent-free conditions was developed.By employing this method,5-aminophosphonate substituted pyrimidine nucleosides were synthesized in good to excellent yields starting from 5-formyl-2'-deoxyuridine,aniline and dimethylphosphite.

  13. Reaction of β-enaminones and acetylene dicarboxylates: synthesis of substituted 1,2-dihydropyridinones.

    Nagaraju, Vemu; Purnachander, Dalovai; Mangina, N S V M Rao; Suresh, Surisetti; Sridhar, Balasubramanian; Karunakar, Galla V


    Synthesis of substituted 1,2-dihydropyridinones is described in a one pot reaction of β-enaminones and acetylene dicarboxylates where new C-C and C-N bonds were formed. The title compounds were obtained in moderate to good yields.

  14. Microwave-assisted Bohlmann–Rahtz synthesis of highly-substituted 2-aminonicotinates

    Bagley, Mark C; Alnomsy, Ayed; Temple, Scott J


    Microwave irradiation of 2-carbethoxyacetamidine and an ethynyl ketone under acidic or basic conditions in ethanol at 150 °C for 1.5 h facilitated Bohlmann-Rahtz pyridine synthesis to give highly-substituted ethyl 2 aminonicotinates with total regiocontrol and in reasonable to excellent yield, following purification by immobiliza tion upon an acidic resin.

  15. A vascularized nerve graft substitute generated in a chamber bioreactor- A preliminary report

    Murat Sinan Engin


    Conclusion: According to the literature review, this is the first achievement of engineering a nerve graft substitute containing vascularized Schwann cells. Therefore, it is believed this study has yielded significant preliminary results, providing a basis for future studies. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(2.000: 62-69

  16. Trends in Substitution Models of Molecular Evolution

    Miguel eArenas


    Full Text Available Substitution models of evolution describe the process of genetic variation through fixed mutations and constitute the basis of the evolutionary analysis at the molecular level. Almost forty years after the development of first substitution models, highly sophisticated and data-specific substitution models continue emerging with the aim of better mimicking real evolutionary processes. Here I describe current trends in substitution models of DNA, codon and amino acid sequence evolution, including advantages and pitfalls of the most popular models. The perspective concludes that despite the large number of currently available substitution models, further research is required for more realistic modeling, especially for DNA coding and amino acid data. Additionally, the development of more accurate complex models should be coupled with new implementations and improvements of methods and frameworks for substitution model selection and downstream evolutionary analysis.

  17. Associations of Polymorphisms in Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH Ile49Ser and its Type II Receptor (AMHRII -482 A>G on Reproductive Outcomes and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Noel Pabalan


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Reported associations of reproductive outcomes (RO and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS with genotypes of the Ile49Ser and -482A>G polymorphisms in the Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH gene and its type II receptor (AMHRII, respectively, have conflicting results. Methods: PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct databases were searched for studies that investigated Ile49Ser and -482A>G in RO and PCOS. Using the metaanalytic approach, we estimated risk (odds ratio [OR] with 95% confidence intervals using standard genetic models. Results: All calculated summary effects were non-significant. Overall associations of Ile49Ser and -482A>G with RO were absent (OR 0.95-0.99, P = 0.76-0.96 but implied increased risk in PCOS (OR 1.07-1.17, P = 0.49-0.55. Where heterogeneity of the pooled ORs were present, its sources were explored using the Galbraith plot. Detection and omission of the outlying studies in both polymorphisms not only erased heterogeneity of the recalculated pooled outcomes but also changed direction of association, where null effects turned to increased risk (Ile49Ser in RO and increased risk became reduced risk (-482A>G in PCOS. Implications of the Ile49Ser and -482A>G, effects pointed to protection for Caucasians (OR 0.64-0.89, P = 0.36-0.73 in RO and increased risk in PCOS (OR 1.19-1.45, P = 0.28-0.65. Asian effects in RO and PCOS were variable (OR 0.97-1.24, P = 0.58-0.91. Conclusions: In summary, we found no evidence of significant associations of Ile49Ser and -482A>G with RO and PCOS, although contrasting Ile49Ser effects were implied among Caucasians between RO (up to 0.36% reduced risk and PCOS (up to 1.5-fold increased risk.


    Tatiana ERHAN


    Full Text Available Lucrarea prezintă o revistă a derivaților N(4-ariltiosemicarbazidelor și a metodelor de sinteză a acestora. De asemenea, sunt evaluate căile de amplificare a proprietăților lor biologice, fiind scoase în evidență proprietățile antiproliferative asupra liniilor de celule de cancer, precum HeLa, MCD-7, SW620, MiaPaCa-2 și Hep-2, și proprietățile antimicrobiene, care pot servi drept bază pentru obținerea de noi inhibitori performanți în terapia anticancer. Au fost trasate căi pentru dezvoltarea sintezei organice în vederea obținerii unor derivați noi din seria N(4-ariltiosemicarbazidelor.SYNTHESIS, STRUCTURE AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OFN(4-ARILTHIOSEMICARBAZIDES AND THEIR DERIVATIVESThis paper presents a review of N(4-arilthiosemicarbazide derivatives. The synthesis methods of N(4-arylthio­semicarbazides and their derivatives are described. There are also represented the possible ways of modification of their biological properties. The antiproliferative activity towards HeLa, MCD-7, SW620, MiaPaCa-2, and Hep-2 cancer cells and antimicrobial activity of these substances are revealed. These biological properties make it possible to use them as the basis for the obtaining of new performant molecular inhibitors that can be used in anticancer therapy. Some ways of the development of organic synthesis for the obtaining of new derivatives of N(4-arilthiosemicarbazides were outlined.

  19. Role of Thr399Ile and Asp299Gly polymorphisms of toll-like receptor-4 gene in acute dental abscess

    Miri-Moghaddam, Ebrahim; Baghaee, Elnaz; Bazi, Ali; Garme, Yasaman


    Background Apical Periodontitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease that affects the tissues surrounding the root end of a tooth. The disease which is caused by endodontic infections presents in different clinical ways including development of an acute abscess. Recent studies have provided information suggesting role of a multitude of factors in pathogenesis of acute apical abscess (AAA). In this case-control study, our goal was to evaluate the frequency and potential role of two common polymorphisms of toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4) gene; Thr399Ile (1196 C>T) and Asp299Gly (+896 A>G), in 50 patients with AAA as cases and 50 patients with asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP) as controls. Material and Methods Saliva sample containing mucosal epithelial cells was used for DNA extraction. Polymorphisms were detected by Tetra-ARMS (Amplification Refractory Mutation System) PCR method. Statistical analyses were carried out in SPSS 21 software. Results Homozygous wild type (CC) and heterozygous (CT) genotypes of Thr399Ile polymorphism were detected in 84% and 16% of AAA patients respectively. In controls, respective ratios were 94% (CC) and 6% (CT). Observed difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05) for distribution of these genotypes. The mutant homozygous (TT) genotype of this polymorphism was identified in neither of the participants. Overall, T allele frequency was obtained 8% in AAA and 3% in AAP (OR=2.6, 95% CI; 0. 6-10.6, p>0.05). For Asp299Gly polymorphism, no individual was detected with the mutant allele in case or control groups. Conclusions Our results indicated a possible role for Thr399Ile polymorphism in acute presentations of abscess in AAA. However, the impact of this polymorphism needs to be more assessed in future studies. Key words:Genetic polymorphism, periapical abscess, periapical periodontitis, toll-like receptor 4. PMID:28210435

  20. TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms: no impact on human immune responsiveness to LPS or respiratory syncytial virus.

    Renée N Douville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A broad variety of natural environmental stimuli, genotypic influences and timing all contribute to expression of protective versus maladaptive immune responses and the resulting clinical outcomes in humans. The role of commonly co-segregating Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile in this process remains highly controversial. Moreover, what differential impact these polymorphisms might have in at risk populations with respiratory dysfunction, such as current asthma or a history of infantile bronchiolitis, has never been examined. Here we determine the importance of these polymorphisms in modulating LPS and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV--driven cytokine responses. We focus on both healthy children and those with clinically relevant respiratory dysfunction. METHODOLOGY: To elucidate the impact of TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile on cytokine production, we assessed multiple immune parameters in over 200 pediatric subjects aged 7-9. Genotyping was followed by quantification of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses by fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells upon acute exposure to LPS or RSV. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In contrast to early reports, neither SNP influenced immune responses evoked by LPS exposure or RSV infection, as measured by the intermediate phenotype of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses to these ubiquitous agents. There is no evidence of altered sensitivity in populations with "at risk" clinical phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Genomic medicine seeks to inform clinical practice. Determination of the TLR4 Asp299Gly/Thr399Ile haplotype is of no clinical benefit in predicting the nature or intensity of cytokine production in children whether currently healthy or among specific at-risk groups characterized by prior infantile broncholitis or current asthma.

  1. Relative yields of radicals produced in deuterated methanol by irradiation

    Nakagawa, Seiko


    The relative yields of radicals produced in four kinds of methanols; i.e., CH3OH, CH3OD, CD3OH and CD3OD, by γ-irradiation have been studied using ESR spin trapping with PBN. Both PBN-H and PBN-D were produced from CH3OD and CD3OH. This means that the proton transfer to the neutral methanol from the cationic one is one of the processes to produce both the methoxy and hydoxy-methyl radicals. The yield of the methoxy radical adduct relative to the hydroxy-methyl radical adduct decreased in the order CD3OH>CD3OD>CH3OH>CH3OD. The difference in the rates of the proton transfer and hydrogen abstraction reactions by substitution with deuterium is the reason for the variation in the relative radical yield.

  2. Currency substitution, portfolio diversification, and money demand

    Freitas, Miguel Lebre de; Veiga, Francisco José


    We extend the Thomas (1985) dynamic optimising model of money demand and currency substitution to the case in which the individual has restricted or no access to foreign currency denominated bonds. In this case Currency Substitution decisions and Asset Substitution decisions are not separable. The results obtained suggest that the significance of an expected exchange rate depreciation term in the demand for domestic money provides a valid test for the presence of currency subst...

  3. Effect of density and planting pattern on yield and yield

    alireza yadavi


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate competition ability of Grain maize (Zea mays L. against redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. a field experiment was conducted at Esfahan on 2003. In this research the effect of corn spatial arrangement on yield and yield components of corn (647 Three Way Cross hybrids under different levels of redroot pigweed infestation was investigated. Treatments were arranged in a factorial split experiment based on RCBD with three replications. Factorial arrangement of corn densities (74000 and 111000 plant ha-1 and planting patterns (single row, rectangular twin row and zigzag twin row formed the main plots. Split-plots referred to pigweed densities (0, 4, 8 and 12 plant m-1. Results showed that both grain and biological yield of corn increased as corn density rates increased but rows number per cob, number of grains per row of cob and 1000 grains weight decreased. The effects of planting arrangement on yield and yield components despite rows grain in cob, 1000 seeds weight and harvest index were statistically significant. Corn grain yield and yield components decreased significantly by increasing pigweed density. The effect of redroot pigweed density on corn grain and biological yield loss was predicted using Cousence hyperbolic yield equation. It showed that maximum grain yield loss and biological yield loss happened in single row arrangement and low corn density. Rows number per cob and grain numbers per row in higher corn density treatment showed lower reduction slopes under pigweed competition. In addition, grain rows numbers per cob and corn harvest index in twin arrangement treatments decreased lower than single row treatment under pigweed competition. The results of this research indicated that corn competition ability against redroot pigweed could be increased using dense population (1/5 fold of general density and zigzag twin row arrangement.

  4. Romanian Association of Balneology Conference – 2015, 28 – 31 May, Băile Tuşnad

    MUNTEANU Constantin



  5. Brevicompanine C, cyclo-(D-Ile-L-Trp), and cyclo-(D-Leu-L-Trp), plant growth regulators from Penicillium brevi-compactum.

    Kimura, Yasuo; Sawada, Aya; Kuramata, Masato; Kusano, Miyako; Fujioka, Shozo; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Atsumi


    New plant growth regulators, named brevicompanine C (1), cyclo-(D-Ile-L-Trp) (2), and cyclo-(D-Leu-L-Trp) (3), have been isolated from Penicillium brevi-compactum Dierckx, and their structures have been established by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR and chiral TLC analysis. Plant growth activities of 1, 2, and 3 have been examined using lettuce seedling bioassay methods. All compounds accelerated the root growth of the seedlings in proportion to their concentration from 1 to 100 mg/L.

  6. Synthesis of the C-terminal octapeptide of pig oxyntomodulin. Lys-Arg-Asn-Lys-Asn-Asn-Ile-Ala: a potent inhibitor of pentagastrin-induced acid secretion.

    Audousset-Puech, M P; Jarrousse, C; Dubrasquet, M; Aumelas, A; Castro, B; Bataille, D; Martinez, J


    The synthesis of Lys-Arg-Asn-Lys-Asn-Asn-Ile-Ala representing the C-terminal octapeptide of oxyntomodulin isolated from pig intestine is described. Its structure was confirmed by its 360-MHz 1H NMR spectra. The octapeptide was tested for its ability to inhibit pentagastrin-induced acid secretion, in the anaesthetized rat, in the conscious rat with chronic gastric fistula, and in the conscious cat with gastric chronic fistula. The octapeptide inhibits pentagastrin-induced acid secretion in all three models. Compared to oxyntomodulin, the parent hormone, the synthetic peptide was approximately 150 times less potent but has the same efficacy. Biological data are presented and discussed.

  7. Conservation and promotion of the geological heritage in the «Ile-de-France» region (France): Establishment of a decision support-tool based on inventory

    Auberger, Elise; Gély, Jean-Pierre; De Wever, Patrick; Merle, Didier


    Based on an initiative by the "Regional Commission of Geological Patrimony" (CRPG), the French state and the regional government of Ile-de-France co-financed the setting up of an inventory with the aim of safeguarding geological sites of patrimonial interest. This project forms part of larger scale policies, at the national and European level. Geological studies in the Paris region began as early as the 18th century, in the fields of cartography and paleontology. Later on, prominent scientists like G. Cuvier, A. Brongniart and A. d'Orbigny established the first concepts in sedimentology and stratigraphy through the description of Cenozoic fossil sites that rank amongst the richest in the world and geological formations in the Paris Basin. Eventually, later on, five historical stratotypes were established in the Ile-de-France region. Yet, at present, this geological heritage is constantly threatened by expanding urbanisation. To conserve this diverse geological patrimony, we have set up a protocol composed of 4 main actions: i) The exhaustive and objective referencing of geological sites in Ile-de-France. This information is centralised in a database, which currently comprises 639 sites (mainly of anthropic nature such as quarries) ii) The pre-selection of sites (298 out of the initial 639) based on sufficient accessibility and potential geological interest. iii) The use of a method of description and hierarchisation - following the guidelines of the National Geological Heritage Inventory Program (INPG) - on the pre-selected sites. iv) Establishment of a schedule specifying actions of geo-conservation which will take into account the patrimonial value of the sites, but also their threats, their juridical status and the socio-economic context of the region. The purpose of this program is to conserve a collection of geological sites that reflect the totality of the regional geology in Ile-de-France. The results of this study will be released to the general public and

  8. Dehalogenation of aromatics by nucleophilic aromatic substitution.

    Sadowsky, Daniel; McNeill, Kristopher; Cramer, Christopher J


    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution has been implicated as a mechanism for both the biotic and abiotic hydrodehalogenation of aromatics. Two mechanisms for the aqueous dehalogenation of aromatics involving nucleophilic aromatic substitution with hydride as a nucleophile are investigated using a validated density functional and continuum solvation protocol. For chlorinated and brominated aromatics, nucleophilic addition ortho to carbon-halogen bonds via an anionic intermediate is predicted to be the preferred mechanism in the majority of cases, while concerted substitution is predicted to be preferred for most fluorinated aromatics. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions with the hydroxide and hydrosulfide anions as nucleophiles are also investigated and compared.

  9. Extracellular synthesis of magnetite and metal-substituted magnetite nanoparticles.

    Roh, Y; Vali, H; Phelps, T J; Moon, J W


    We have developed a novel microbial process that exploits the ability of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms to produce copious amounts of extracellular magentites and metal-substituted magnetite nanoparticles. The Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (Theroanaerobacter ethanolicus and Shewanella sp.) have the ability to reduce Fe(III) and various metals in aqueous media and form various sized magnetite and metal-substituted magnetite nano-crystals. The Fe(III)-reducing bacteria formed metalsubstituted magnetites using iron oxide plus metals (e.g., Co, Cr, Mn, Ni) under conditions of relatively low temperature (magnetite particles of well-defined size (typically tens of nanometers) and crystallographic morphology, containing selected dopant metals into the magnetite (Fe(3-y)XyO4) structure (where X = Co, Cr, Mn, Ni). Magnetite yields of up to 20 g/L per day have been observed in 20-L vessels. Water-based ferrofluids were formed with the nanometer sized, magnetite, and metal-substituted biomagnetite particles.

  10. A convenient route to symmetrically and unsymmetrically substituted 3,5-diaryl-2,4,6-trimethylpyridines via Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reaction

    Szawkało, Joanna; Czarnocki, Zbigniew


    Summary A series of differently substituted 3,5-diaryl-2,4,6-trimethylpyridines were prepared and characterized using the Suzuki–Miyaura coupling reaction with accordingly selected bromo-derivatives and arylboronic acids. The reaction conditions were carefully optimized allowing high yield of isolated products and also the construction of unsymmetrically substituted diarylpyridines, difficult to access by other methods. PMID:27340474

  11. Phenylalanine Aminomutase-Catalyzed Addition of Ammonia to Substituted Cinnamic Acids : a Route to Enantiopure alpha- and beta-Amino Acids

    Szymanski, Wiktor; Wu, Bian; Weiner, Barbara; de Wildeman, Stefaan; Feringa, B.L.; B. Janssen, Dick


    An approach is described for the synthesis of aromatic alpha- and beta-amino acids that Uses phenylalanine aminomutase to catalyze a highly enantioselective addition of ammonia to substituted cinnamic acids. The reaction has a broad scope and yields Substituted alpha- and beta-phenylalanines with ex

  12. Improved Synthesis of 5-Substituted 1H-Tetrazoles via the [3+2] Cycloaddition of Nitriles and Sodium Azide Catalyzed by Silica Sulfuric Acid

    Du, Zhenting; Si, Changmei; Li, Youqiang; Wang, Yin; Lu, Jing


    A silica supported sulfuric acid catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition of nitriles and sodium azide to form 5-substituted 1H-tetrazoles is described. The protocol can provide a series of 5-substituted 1H-tetrazoles using silica sulfuric acid from nitriles and sodium azide in DMF in 72%–95% yield. PMID:22606004

  13. Improved Synthesis of 5-Substituted 1H-Tetrazoles via the [3+2] Cycloaddition of Nitriles and Sodium Azide Catalyzed by Silica Sulfuric Acid

    Jing Lu


    Full Text Available A silica supported sulfuric acid catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition of nitriles and sodium azide to form 5-substituted 1H-tetrazoles is described. The protocol can provide a series of 5-substituted 1H-tetrazoles using silica sulfuric acid from nitriles and sodium azide in DMF in 72%–95% yield.

  14. H-Y-zeolites induced heterocyclization: Highly efficient synthesis of substituted-quinazolin-4(3H)ones under microwave irradiation

    M. Bakavoli; O. Sabzevari; M. Rahimizadeh


    A highly efficient synthesis of 2-amino-N-substituted-benzamides was performed by the condensation of isatoic anhydride with several amines in solvent-free conditions under microwave irradiation. H-Y-zeolites induced heterocyclization of these products with ortho-esters under similar conditions afforded the relevant substituted-quinazolin-4(3H)ones in high yields.

  15. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.


    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  16. Controversial issues of maternity substitution

    Andy Pușcă


    Full Text Available Substitute maternity consists in a woman carrying a pregnancy (the implant of an embryo, at therequest of a sterile couple, most of the times in exchange of a sum of money, with her commitment tounconditionally give away the newborn after birth to the couple she concluded the agreement with. Manycontroversies emerged in what concerns the contract between the sterile couple and the carrying mother,especially when this contract is by onerous title, which happens in most of the cases. In that a civil contract? Is ita sales contract for the child? Is it a contract to provide services? Is it body marketing? Between total prohibitionand excessive liberalism, the middle way, which is the regulation according to ethical religious, cultural andsocial norms of each community, represents a realistic solution.

  17. Monodromy Substitutions and Rational Blowdowns

    Endo, Hisaaki; van Horn-Morris, Jeremy


    We introduce several new families of relations in the mapping class groups of planar surfaces, each equating two products of right-handed Dehn twists. The interest of these relations lies in their geometric interpretation in terms of rational blowdowns of 4-manifolds, specifically via monodromy substitution in Lefschetz fibrations. The simplest example is the lantern relation, already shown by the first author and Gurtas to correspond to rational blowdown along a -4 sphere; here we give relations that extend that result to realize the "generalized" rational blowdowns of Fintushel-Stern and Park by monodromy subsitution, as well as several of the families of rational blowdowns discovered by Stipsicz-Szab\\'o-Wahl.

  18. Substitution dynamical systems spectral analysis

    Queffélec, Martine


    This volume mainly deals with the dynamics of finitely valued sequences, and more specifically, of sequences generated by substitutions and automata. Those sequences demonstrate fairly simple combinatorical and arithmetical properties and naturally appear in various domains. As the title suggests, the aim of the initial version of this book was the spectral study of the associated dynamical systems: the first chapters consisted in a detailed introduction to the mathematical notions involved, and the description of the spectral invariants followed in the closing chapters. This approach, combined with new material added to the new edition, results in a nearly self-contained book on the subject. New tools - which have also proven helpful in other contexts - had to be developed for this study. Moreover, its findings can be concretely applied, the method providing an algorithm to exhibit the spectral measures and the spectral multiplicity, as is demonstrated in several examples. Beyond this advanced analysis, many...

  19. Interdependence of yield and yield components of confectionary sunflower hybrids

    Hladni Nada


    Full Text Available The two most important criteria for introducing new confectionary hybrids into production are high seed and protein yield. That is why it is important to find the traits that are measurable, and that at the same time show a strong correlation with seed and protein yield, so that they can be used as a criteria for confectionary hybrid breeding. Results achieved during 2008 at the locations Rimski Šančevi (Region of Vojvodina and Kula (Central Serbia show that the new confectionary hybrids are expressing higher seed yields in comparison to standards (Vranac and Cepko though with a lower seed oil content. A very strong positive correlation was determined between seed yield and seed protein content, kernel content and mass of 1000 seeds. A very strong positive correlation was determined between seed protein content, seed yield and mass of 1000 seeds, with protein yield. This indicates that seed yield, seed protein content and mass of 1000 seeds have a high influence on protein yield. The degree of interdependence between different traits is a sign of direction which is supposed to facilitate better planning of sunflower breeding program.

  20. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Substituted Phenylnitrenes

    Wijeratne, Neloni R.; Fonte, Maria Da; Wenthold, Paul G.


    Nitrenes are unusual molecular structures with unfilled electronic valences that are isoelectronic with carbenes. Although, both can be generated by either thermal or photochemical decomposition of appropriate precursors they usually exhibit different reactivities. In this work, we carry out spectroscopic studies of substituted phenylnitrene to determine how the introduction of substituents will affect the reactivity and its thermochemical properties. All studies were carried out by using the newly constructed time-of-flight negative ion photoelectron spectrometer (NIPES) at Purdue University. The 355 nm photoelectron spectra of the o-, m-, and p-chlorophenyl nitrene anions are fairly similar to that measured for phenylnitrene anion. All spectra show low energy triplet state and a high energy singlet state. The singlet state for the meta isomer is well-resolved, with a well defined origin and observable vibrational structure. Whereas the singlet states for the ortho and para isomers have lower energy onsets and no resolved structure. The isomeric dependence suggests that the geometry differences result from the resonance interaction between the nitrogen and the substituent. Quinoidal resonance structures are possible for the open-shell singlet states of the o- and p-chlorinated phenyl nitrenes. The advantages of this type of electronic structures for the open-shell singlet states is that the unpaired electrons can be more localized on separate atoms in the molecules, minimizing the repulsion between. Because the meta position is not in resonance with the nitrenes, substitution at that position should not affect the structure of the open-shell singlet state. The measured electron affinities (EA) of the triplet phenylnitrenes are in excellent agreement with the values predicted by electronic structure calculations. The largest EA, 1.82 eV is found for the meta isomer, with para being the smallest, 1.70 eV.

  1. Comparison of diagnostic yield and complications of bronchoscopy, closed pleural biopsy and medical thoracoscopic pleural biopsies in undiagnosed pleural effusions

    Kizhakkepeedika Davis Rennis


    Conclusions: Medical thoracoscopy is a comparatively safe procedure which has got the highest sensitivity for the diagnosis of undiagnosed exudative pleural effusions. Bronchoscopy combined with closed pleural biopsy, the diagnostic yield was increased (than that of individual yield, but cannot be a substitute for medical thoracoscopy.

  2. Amino acid substitutions in random mutagenesis libraries: lessons from analyzing 3000 mutations.

    Zhao, Jing; Frauenkron-Machedjou, Victorine Josiane; Kardashliev, Tsvetan; Ruff, Anna Joëlle; Zhu, Leilei; Bocola, Marco; Schwaneberg, Ulrich


    The quality of amino acid substitution patterns in random mutagenesis libraries is decisive for the success in directed evolution campaigns. In this manuscript, we provide a detailed analysis of the amino acid substitutions by analyzing 3000 mutations of three random mutagenesis libraries (1000 mutations each; epPCR with a low-mutation and a high-mutation frequency and SeSaM-Tv P/P) employing lipase A from Bacillus subtilis (bsla). A comparison of the obtained numbers of beneficial variants in the mentioned three random mutagenesis libraries with a site saturation mutagenesis (SSM) (covering the natural diversity at each amino acid position of BSLA) concludes the diversity analysis. Seventy-six percent of the SeSaM-Tv P/P-generated substitutions yield chemically different amino acid substitutions compared to 64% (epPCR-low) and 69% (epPCR-high). Unique substitutions from one amino acid to others are termed distinct amino acid substitutions. In the SeSaM-Tv P/P library, 35% of all theoretical distinct amino acid substitutions were found in the 1000 mutation library compared to 25% (epPCR-low) and 26% (epPCR-high). Thirty-six percent of distinct amino acid substitutions found in SeSaM-Tv P/P were unobtainable by epPCR-low. Comparison with the SSM library showed that epPCR-low covers 15%, epPCR-high 18%, and SeSaM-Tv P/P 21% of obtainable beneficial amino acid positions. In essence, this study provides first insights on the quality of epPCR and SeSaM-Tv P/P libraries in terms of amino acid substitutions, their chemical differences, and the number of obtainable beneficial amino acid positions.

  3. Room temperature syntheses of entirely diverse substituted β-fluorofurans.

    Li, Yan; Wheeler, Kraig A; Dembinski, Roman


    Synthesis of highly substituted 3-fluorofurans is reported. The sequence began with preparation of tert-butyldimethylsilyl alk-1-en-3-yn-1-yl ethers from 1,4-disubstituted alk-3-yn-1-ones. Subsequent fluorination of alkenynyl silyl ethers with Selectfluor gave 2-fluoroalk-3-yn-1-ones in almost quantitative yield. Subsequent 5-endo-dig cyclizations using chlorotriphenylphosphine gold(I)/silver trifluoromethanesulfonate (5/5 mol%), N-bromo- or N-iodosuccinimide and gold(I) chloride/zinc bromide (5/20 mol%), all at room temperature, provided a facile method for the generation of substituted 3-fluoro-, 3-bromo-4-fluoro-, and 3-fluoro-4-iodofurans in good yields. Also, 2,2-difluoroalk-3-yn-1-ones were prepared by fluorination of alk-3-yn-1-ones under organocatalytic conditions. The structures of (Z)-tert-butyldimethylsilyl but-1-en-3-yn-1-yl ether, 3-bromo-4-fluorofuran, and 3-fluoro-4-(phenylethynyl)furan were confirmed by X-ray crystallography.

  4. 40 CFR 721.5340 - Substituted benzothiazole-azo-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (generic).


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted benzothiazole-azo... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5340 Substituted benzothiazole-azo... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted...

  5. Specific yield: compilation of specific yields for various materials

    Johnson, A.I.


    Specific yield is defined as the ratio of (1) the volume of water that a saturated rock or soil will yield by gravity to (2) the total volume of the rock or soft. Specific yield is usually expressed as a percentage. The value is not definitive, because the quantity of water that will drain by gravity depends on variables such as duration of drainage, temperature, mineral composition of the water, and various physical characteristics of the rock or soil under consideration. Values of specific yields nevertheless offer a convenient means by which hydrologists can estimate the water-yielding capacities of earth materials and, as such, are very useful in hydrologic studies. The present report consists mostly of direct or modified quotations from many selected reports that present and evaluate methods for determining specific yield, limitations of those methods, and results of the determinations made on a wide variety of rock and soil materials. Although no particular values are recommended in this report, a table summarizes values of specific yield, and their averages, determined for 10 rock textures. The following is an abstract of the table. [Table

  6. Incorporating phenology into yield models

    Gray, J. M.; Friedl, M. A.


    Because the yields of many crops are sensitive to meteorological forcing during specific growth stages, phenological information has potential utility in yield mapping and forecasting exercises. However, most attempts to explain the spatiotemporal variability in crop yields with weather data have relied on growth stage definitions that do not change from year-to-year, even though planting, maturity, and harvesting dates show significant interannual variability. We tested the hypothesis that quantifying temperature exposures over dynamically determined growth stages would better explain observed spatiotemporal variability in crop yields than statically defined time periods. Specifically, we used National Agricultural and Statistics Service (NASS) crop progress data to identify the timing of the start of the maize reproductive growth stage ("silking"), and examined the correlation between county-scale yield anomalies and temperature exposures during either the annual or long-term average silking period. Consistent with our hypothesis and physical understanding, yield anomalies were more correlated with temperature exposures during the actual, rather than the long-term average, silking period. Nevertheless, temperature exposures alone explained a relatively low proportion of the yield variability, indicating that other factors and/or time periods are also important. We next investigated the potential of using remotely sensed land surface phenology instead of NASS progress data to retrieve crop growth stages, but encountered challenges related to crop type mapping and subpixel crop heterogeneity. Here, we discuss the potential of overcoming these challenges and the general utility of remotely sensed land surface phenology in crop yield mapping.

  7. Coiling of yield stress fluids

    Y. Rahmani; M. Habibi; A. Javadi; D. Bonn


    We present an experimental investigation of the coiling of a filament of a yield stress fluid falling on a solid surface. We use two kinds of yield stress fluids, shaving foam and hair gel, and show that the coiling of the foam is similar to the coiling of an elastic rope. Two regimes of coiling (el

  8. Yield gaps in oil palm

    Woittiez, Lotte S.; Wijk, van Mark T.; Slingerland, Maja; Noordwijk, van Meine; Giller, Ken E.


    Oil palm, currently the world's main vegetable oil crop, is characterised by a large productivity and a long life span (≥25 years). Peak oil yields of 12 t ha−1 yr−1 have been achieved in small plantations, and maximum theoretical yields as calculated with simulation models are 18.5 t oil ha−1 yr−1,

  9. Nucleophilic Substitution on 2-Monosubstituted Quinoxalines Giving 2,3-Disubstituted Quinoxalines: Investigating the Effect of the 2-Substituent

    Ndumiso Thamsanqa Ndlovu


    Full Text Available An investigation on the effect of substituent at the 2-position of mono-substituted quinoxalines in the synthesis of di-substituted quinoxaline derivatives via nucleophilic substitution reactions, is reported. Di-substituted quinoxalines bearing aryl-alky, aryl-aryl, aryl-heteroaryl, aryl-alkynyl, and amino-alkyl substituents were prepared in moderate to good yields. 2-Monosubstituted quinoxalines bearing a phenyl and butyl substituent reacted readily with alkyl-, aryl-, heteroaryl- and alkynyl- nucluephiles, giving di-substituted quinoxalines. 2-Monosubstituted quinoxalines bearing an amine and alkynyl substituent only reacted with alkyl nucleophiles. Oxidative rearomatization to give 2,3-disubstituted quinoxaline products occurred in atmospheric O2.

  10. Intégrer le genre dans les politiques de l’emploi en Ile-de-France

    Gwenaëlle Perrier


    Full Text Available Cet article analyse la mise en œuvre de la méthode de gender mainstreaming par le biais d’une étude de cas. Il analyse l’effectivité et les modalités de l’intégration de l’objectif d’égalité entre les sexes dans la mise en œuvre du Fonds Social Européen (programme européen cofinançant les politiques d’emploi des Etats-membres, à travers l’étude des discours et des pratiques des acteurs de ce programme dans la région française d’Ile-de-France. L’introduction du gender mainstreaming communautaire a certes légitimé et promu l’action des chargées de mission aux droits des femmes et à l’égalité auprès des acteurs des politiques de l’emploi au niveau local. Ainsi, celles-ci ont initié une stratégie d’apprentissage de l’égalité reposant sur des mesures de sensibilisation et de formation. Toutefois, cette stratégie non contraignante se heurte à des limites. Tout d’abord car elle manque encore de contrôles et de sanctions effectifs dans la mise en œuvre du Fonds Social Européen, qui permettraient de rendre le critère de la promotion de l’égalité plus contraignant. En outre, l’action des agent-e-s locaux de la politique de l’emploi est limitée par les difficultés liées au contexte social. Dans cette perspective, ceux-ci viennent en aide aux demandeurs d’emploi pour résoudre de nombreux problèmes, sur lesquels ils ont parfois peu d’influence, de sorte que le critère d’égalité entre les sexes peut apparaître secondaire.In diesem Artikel wird die konkrete Umsetzung des sog. Gender Mainstreaming in einer Fallstudie analysiert. Untersucht werden die Effektivität und die Bedingungen einer Umsetzung des Ziels, Frauen und Männer gleichzustellen, am Beispiel des Europäischen Sozialfonds, eines Programms der Europäischen Union zur Kofinanzierung der Beschäftigungspolitiken der Mitgliedsstaaten. Anhand der konkreten Implementierung dieses Programms in der französischen Region

  11. Solid Phase Synthesis of 2-Substituted 1,3-Oxazin-6-ones Using Resin-bound Cyclic Malonic Acid Ester

    LIU, Zhan-Xiang(刘占祥); RUAN, Xiu-Xiu(阮秀秀); HUANG, Xian(黄宪)


    A facile solid phase synthesis of 2-substituted 1,3-oxazin-6-ones using polymer-supported Meldrum's acid has been reported. Reaction of the resin-bound cyclic malonic acid ester with triethyl orthoformate and subsequent double substitution with amide, afforded the corresponding polymer-supported acylaminomethylene cyclic malonic acid ester, which upon thermal treatment led to 1, 3-oxazin-6-ones in good yields and with high purity.

  12. Synthesis of N,O-Type Inherently Chiral Calix[4]arenes Substituted on the Lower Rim and their Organocatalysis Properties

    Chang, Ming-Liang; He, Yong; Zhou, Jing; Li, Shao-Yong


    This work presented the first study of organocatalytic behaviors of inherently chiral calix[4]arenes substituted at the lower rim. A pair of N, O-type enantiomers based on inherently chiral calix[4]arenes substituted at the lower rim were readily synthesized and applied to catalyze Henry reaction between aromatic aldehydes and nitromethane. Their organocatalytic reaction can afford the desired products in excellent yields (up to 99%) but poor enantioselectivities (up to 7.5% ee).

  13. Dimedone-catalyzed Addition of Amines into Cyano Group: Facile Synthesis of Thiazol-2-yl Substituted E-Acrylonitriles

    朱伟军; 屠兴超; 冯惠; 屠蔓苏; 姜波; 吴飞跃; 屠树江


    An efficient dimedone-catalyzed synthesis of highly functionalized thiazol-2-yl substituted E-acrylonitrile derivatives has been established through two-step reaction of a-thiocyanate ketones with malononitrile and amines. The a-thiocyanate ketones were subjected with malononitrile to provide thiazol-2-ylidenemalononitrile derivatives, followed with various amines in the presence of dimedone to yield the final thiazol-2-yl substituted acrylonitrile derivatives.

  14. Synthesis, antimicrobial screening and structure-activity relationship of some novel 2-hydroxy-5-(nitro-substituted phenylazo benzylidine anilines

    Halve A


    Full Text Available The title compounds were synthesized by the condensation of nitro-substituted 2-hydroxy-5- (nitro-substituted phenylazo benzaldehyde (3 with different aromatic amines in presence of ethanol in good yield. The chemical structures were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. All the synthesized compounds (4a-j have been evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against S. aureus , P. aeruginosa , E. coli , A. fumigatus , A. niger and C. neoformans .

  15. Regio- and Stereospecific Formation of Protected Allylic Alcohols via Zirconium-Mediated SN2' Substitution of Allylic Chlorides

    Fox, Richard J; Lalic, Gojko; Bergman, Robert G.


    A new, highly regio- and stereospecific SN2' substitution reaction between a zirconium oxo complex and allylic chloride has been achieved. The resulting allylic alcohol or TBS-protected allylic ether products were isolated in good to excellent yields with a wide range of E-allylic chlorides. A mechanism for the SN2' allylic substitution consistent with kinetic, stereochemical and secondary isotope effect studies was proposed.

  16. Synthesis of 2-substituted pyridines via a regiospecific alkylation, alkynylation, and arylation of pyridine N-oxides.

    Andersson, Hans; Almqvist, Fredrik; Olsson, Roger


    [structure: see text]. Sequential addition of Grignard reagents to pyridine N-oxides in THF at room temperature followed by treatment with acetic anhydride at 120 degrees C afforded 2-substituted pyridines in good to high yields. Furthermore, by exchanging acetic anhydride for DMF in the second step, 2-substituted pyridine N-oxides were obtained, as intermediates suitable for addition of a second Grignard reagent for the synthesis of 2,6-disubstituted pyridines.

  17. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno


    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....



    The Portland cement is equivalently substituted by slag micropowders with various specific areas. The workability,activity and acid-corrosion resistance of the slag-substituted cements are investigated,the activation of gypsum is discussed,also the porosity and pore distribution of mortars of the slag micropowders cement are determined by mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  19. Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation

    Proulx, Michael J; Ptito, Maurice; Amedi, Amir


    Sensory substitution has advanced remarkably over the past 35 years since first introduced to the scientific literature by Paul Bach-y-Rita. In this issue dedicated to his memory, we describe a collection of reviews that assess the current state of neuroscience research on sensory substitution...

  20. 24 CFR 235.206 - Substitute mortgagors.


    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS FOR HOME OWNERSHIP AND PROJECT REHABILITATION Contract Rights and Obligations-Homes for Lower Income Families § 235.206 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors....

  1. Type Substitution for Object-Oriented Programming

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens


    Genericity allows the substitution of types in a class. This is usually obtained through parameterized classes, although they are inflexible since any class can be inherited but is not in itself parameterized. We suggest a new genericity mechanism, type substitution, which is a subclassing concep...

  2. Biomechanical properties of four dermal substitutes

    ZHANG Guo-an; NING Fang-gang; ZHAO Nan-ming


    @@ Many kinds of cell-free dermal substitutes have been developed during the past several years, however,their biomechanical properties, including hysteresis,stress relaxation, creep, and non-linear stress-strain, are still unknown. In this study, we tested these biomechanical characteristics of four dermal substitutes,and compared them with those of fresh human skin (FHS).

  3. Investigation of Inlet Condition Effect on Flow and Turbulence Characteristics in Subsonic Jets from Conical and Chevron Nozzles Using RANS/ILES High Resolutions Method

    L. A. Benderskiy


    Full Text Available Effect of Mach number and temperature on subsonic jets flow with a combined highresolution RANS/ILES method (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes - RANS, Implicit Large Eddy Simulation - ILES was investigated. Cold Mj=0.985 T0=300К and hot Mj=0.548 T0=858.6К jets were considered (Mj – Mach number at the nozzle exit and T0 – total temperature at the nozzle inlet. Conical and two chevron nozzles with angle of chevrons to the nozzle axis α=5° and α=18.2° were investigated. The jet flow calculations were carried out together with flow calculation in nozzles. Computation grids were Meshes for simulations (2.8-3.2×106 cells. Investigated cases were compared by average velocity and velocity fluctuations at the jet axis and at the mixing layer. The magnitude of velocity fluctuations at the jet axis and at the mixing layer for hot jets is higher than for cold jets. It leads to increasing expansion angle of the mixing layer inward the jet axis. This is why the initial part length of hot jets becomes shorter than in cold jets. Comparison of simulations with the experimental data of other authors showed a good agreement by flow and turbulences characteristics.

  4. The Amoco CadizOil Spill: Evolution of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Ile Grande Salt Marshes (Brittany) after a 13-year Period

    Mille, G.; Munoz, D.; Jacquot, F.; Rivet, L.; Bertrand, J.-C.


    The Ile Grande salt marshes (Brittany coast) were polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons after theAmoco Cadizgrounding in 1978. Thirteen years after the oil spill, sediments were analysed for residual hydrocarbons in order to monitor the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon signatures and to assess both qualitatively and quantitatively the changes in composition of theAmoco Cadizoil. Six stations were selected in the Ile Grande salt marshes and sediments were sampled to a depth of 20 cm. For each sample, the hydrocarbon compositions were determined for alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and biomarkers (terpanes, steranes, diasteranes). Hydrocarbon levels drastically decreased between 1978 and 1991, but to different extents according to the initial degree of contamination. In 1991, hydrocarbon concentrations never exceeded 1·7 g kg-1sediment dry weight, and in most cases were less than 0·1 g kg-1sediment dry weight. Even though petroleum hydrocarbons are still present, natural hydrocarbons were also detected at several stations. Changes in some biomarker distributions were observed 13 years after the oil spill. Nevertheless, most of the biomarkers are very stable in the salt marsh environment and remain unaltered even after a 13-year period.

  5. Influence of family size, household food security status, and child care practices on the nutritional status of under-five children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Ajao, K O; Ojofeitimi, E O; Adebayo, A A; Fatusi, A O; Afolabi, O T


    Fertility pattern and reproductive behaviours affect infant death in Nigeria. Household food insecurity and poor care practices also place children at risk of morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of family size, household food security status, and child care practices on the nutritional status of under-five children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 423 mothers of under-five children and their children in the households selected through multistage sampling methods. Food-insecure households were five times more likely than secure households to have wasted children (crude OR = 5.707, 95 percent CI = 1.31-24.85). Children with less educated mothers were significantly more likely to be stunted. The prevalence of food insecurity among households in Ile-Ife was high. Households with food insecurity and less educated mothers were more likely to have malnourished children.

  6. Internet kullanicilarinin demografik özellikleri ile önde gelen web arama motorlari tercihleri arasindaki ilişki üzerine bir araştirma

    Evren AYRANCI


    Full Text Available Günümüzde milyarlarca insan interneti farklı amaçlar için kullanmaktadır. Web arama motorları internet kullanıcıları arasında, ihtiyaç duyulan bilgiyi bulmak için çok popülerdir. Bu makale, internet kullanıcılarının bazı demografik özellikleri ile önde gelen web arama motorları tercihleri arasında bir ilişkinin olup olmadığını anlamak için yapılan bir araştırmayı içermektedir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre demografik özelliklerin çoğu önde gelen web arama motorları tercihleri ile bir takım bağlantılara sahiptir.

  7. Internet kullanicilarinin demografik özellikleri ile önde gelen web arama motorlari tercihleri arasindaki ilişki üzerine bir araştirma

    Evren AYRANCI


    Günümüzde milyarlarca insan interneti farklı amaçlar için kullanmaktadır. Web arama motorları internet kullanıcıları arasında, ihtiyaç duyulan bilgiyi bulmak için çok popülerdir. Bu makale, internet kullanıcılarının bazı demografik özellikleri ile önde gelen web arama motorları tercihleri arasında bir ilişkinin olup olmadığını anlamak için yapılan bir araştırmayı içermektedir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre demografik özelliklerin çoğu önde gelen web arama motorları tercihleri ile bir takım bağla...

  8. Multikonik Simülasyon Yöntemi ile Peptidlerin Sıvı İçindeki Yapılarını İncelenmesi

    Handan ARKIN


    Full Text Available Tropoelastin molekülünün en önemli tekrar motifi olan Val–Pro-Gly-Val-Gly diziliminin sıvı içindeki yapısı multikanonik simülasyon yöntemi ile elde edilmistir ve düsük enerjili ve termodinamik olarak kararlı yapıları belirlenmistir. Sıvı teriminin yapılar üstündeki etkisi Ramachandran grafikleri ile analiz edilmistir. Sıvı teriminin moleküle esneklik getirdigi, vakum içinde çok sınırlı bir bölgeye hapsolmus bulunan konfigürasyonların sıvı içinde degistigi gözlenmistir. Sıvı içinde besli-peptidin sahip oldugu en düsük enerji degeri belirlenmistir.

  9. Hız yön değiştirmesinin Langmuir kayma sınır koşulu ile incelenmesi

    Ali Dinler


    Full Text Available Bir mikro-akış davranışı olan hız yön değiştirmesi, iki silindir arasındaki Couette akışında, iç silindir dönerken dış silindirin durduğu durumda ortaya çıkar. Bu mikro-akış davranışı, gazın yüzeydeki teğetsel hızının dönen iç silindirden sabit duran dış silindire doğru beklenmedik şekilde artması ile oluşur. Knudsen sayısı büyük ve dış silindir yüzey konaklama (accommodation katsayısı nispeten küçük olduğunda bu akış davranışı oluşur. Bu çalışmada, hız yön değiştirmesi Langmuir kayma sınır koşulu ile incelenmiştir.

  10. Highly Stereoselective Synthesis of Terminal Chloro-Substituted Propargylamines and Further Functionalization.

    Jordan, Savannah; Starks, Samuel A; Whatley, Michael F; Turlington, Mark


    The highly stereoselective addition of lithiated chloroacetylene, derived in situ from cis-1,2-dichloroethene and methyl lithium, to Ellman chiral N-tert-butanesulfinyl imines is reported. The reaction proceeds in high yield (up to 98%) and with excellent diastereoselectivity (up to >20:1) for a variety of aryl, heteroaromatic, alkyl, and α,β-unsaturated imine substrates. Transformations of the terminal chloro-substituted propargylamine products are described in which lithium-halogen exchange yields nucleophilic acetylides that can be quenched to yield terminal alkynes or intercepted by carbon electrophiles.

  11. Aluminum substitution in goethite in lake ore

    Carlson, L.


    Full Text Available The extent of substitution of Fe by Al in goethite in 32 lake ore samples collected from 11 lakes in Finland varied between 0 and 23 mol-%. The data indicated a negative relationship between Al-substitution and the particle size of lake ore. Differences in the Al-substitution were apparent between sampling sites, suggesting that kinetic and environmental variation in lake ore formation influences the substitution. Non-substituted goethite is formed in coarse-grained sediments with locally high concentrations of Fe due to iron-rich springs. Unit cell edge lengths and volumes of goethite varied as function of Al-subsitution but deviated from the Vegard relationship towards higher values.

  12. The Lys234Arg Substitution in the Enzyme SHV-72 Is a Determinant for Resistance to Clavulanic Acid Inhibition▿

    Mendonça, Nuno; Manageiro, Vera; Robin, Frédéric; Salgado, M. José; Ferreira, Eugénia; Caniça, Manuela; Bonnet, Richard


    The new β-lactamase SHV-72 was isolated from clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae INSRA1229, which exhibited the unusual association of resistance to the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination (MIC, 64 μg/ml) and susceptibility to cephalosporins, aztreonam, and imipenem. SHV-72 (pI 7.6) harbored the three amino acid substitutions Ile8Phe, Ala146Val, and Lys234Arg. SHV-72 had high catalytic efficiency against penicillins (kcat/Km, 35 to 287 μM−1·s−1) and no activity against oxyimino β-lactams. The concentration of clavulanic acid necessary to inhibit the enzyme activity by 50% was 10-fold higher for SHV-72 than for SHV-1. Molecular-dynamics simulation suggested that the Lys234Arg substitution in SHV-72 stabilized an atypical conformation of the Ser130 side chain, which moved the Oγ atom of Ser130 around 3.5 Å away from the key Oγ atom of the reactive serine (Ser70). This movement may therefore decrease the susceptibility to clavulanic acid by preventing cross-linking between Ser130 and Ser70. PMID:18316518


    Milan Pospišil


    Full Text Available To evaluate new winter rapeseed hybrids and cultivars, investigations were conducted at the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, in the period 2009/10 - 2011/12. The trial involved 11 hybrids and 5 cultivars rapeseed of 5 seed producers selling seed in Croatia. The studied rapeseed hybrids and cultivars differed significantly in seed and oil yields, oil content and yield components (seed number per silique and 1000 seed weight. However, a number of hybrids rendered identical results, since the differences in the investigated properties were within statistically allowable deviation. Hybrids Traviata and CWH 119 can be singled out based on the achieved seed and oil yields, and the cultivar Ricco and hybrids CWH 119 and PR46W15 for their high oil content in seed. Hybrids with a larger silique number per plant also achieved a higher seed yield.

  14. Interdependence of yield and yield components of confectionary sunflower hybrids

    Hladni Nada; Jocić Siniša; Miklič Vladimir; Saftić-Panković Dejana; Kraljević-Balalić Marija


    The two most important criteria for introducing new confectionary hybrids into production are high seed and protein yield. That is why it is important to find the traits that are measurable, and that at the same time show a strong correlation with seed and protein yield, so that they can be used as a criteria for confectionary hybrid breeding. Results achieved during 2008 at the locations Rimski Sancevi (Region of Vojvodina) and Kula (Central Serbia) show t...

  15. A process optimization for bio-catalytic production of substituted catechols (3-nitrocatechol and 3-methylcatechol

    Tiwary Bhupendra N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substituted catechols are important precursors for large-scale synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other industrial products. Most of the reported chemical synthesis methods are expensive and insufficient at industrial level. However, biological processes for production of substituted catechols could be highly selective and suitable for industrial purposes. Results We have optimized a process for bio-catalytic production of 3-substituted catechols viz. 3-nitrocatechol (3-NC and 3-methylcatechol (3-MC at pilot scale. Amongst the screened strains, two strains viz. Pseudomonas putida strain (F1 and recombinant Escherichia coli expression clone (pDTG602 harboring first two genes of toluene degradation pathway were found to accumulate 3-NC and 3-MC respectively. Various parameters such as amount of nutrients, pH, temperature, substrate concentration, aeration, inoculums size, culture volume, toxicity of substrate and product, down stream extraction, single step and two-step biotransformation were optimized at laboratory scale to obtain high yields of 3-substituted catechols. Subsequently, pilot scale studies were performed in 2.5 liter bioreactor. The rate of product accumulation at pilot scale significantly increased up to ~90-95% with time and high yields of 3-NC (10 mM and 3-MC (12 mM were obtained. Conclusion The biocatalytic production of 3-substituted catechols viz. 3-NC and 3-MC depend on some crucial parameters to obtain maximum yields of the product at pilot scale. The process optimized for production of 3-substituted catechols by using the organisms P. putida (F1 and recombinant E. coli expression clone (pDTG602 may be useful for industrial application.

  16. Substituted hydroxyapatites with antibacterial properties.

    Kolmas, Joanna; Groszyk, Ewa; Kwiatkowska-Różycka, Dagmara


    Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions) and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency.

  17. Substituted Hydroxyapatites with Antibacterial Properties

    Joanna Kolmas


    Full Text Available Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency.

  18. Uproar over Milk Substitutes Act.


    Health policy activists lobbied 7 years for the Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Food Bill. Proponents of the bill say that it basically curtails unethical marketing practices, not the sales of baby foods, and argue that it was conceived to reduce the trend of mothers over-diluting commercial milk in order to reduce household expenses as well as stem the potential erosion of knowledge on locally available weaning foods. Even though the bill will become an Act only after its rules and regulations have been finalized, the government has already banned baby food advertisements on television and in other electronic media under its control. Women's groups now argue that the bill tends to focus almost exclusively upon the welfare of children and compromises the position of women who can not lactate adequately. Moreover, they hold that the bill may be used to compel wives to stay out of the formal workforce so that they may feed their babies. The intention of the bill may be meaningless without complementary legislation addressing the problems of working mothers. Specifically, amendments to the Maternity Benefits Act of 1961 would extend maternity leave to 4 months after delivery and lengthen the duration of nursing breaks. It is, however, feared that these changes may reduce employment prospects for women.

  19. Substituted androstanes as aromatase inhibitors

    Levina, Inna S [N.D.Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of inhibitors of steroid aromatase which catalyses the last stage of a multistep biotransformation of cholesterol into estrogens, viz., aromatisation of C{sub 19}-steroids into C{sub 18}-phenolic steroids, are discussed. Compounds of the androstane series which are structurally related to the natural substrate, viz., androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, are the subjects of consideration. The review encompasses problems of synthesis of various substituted androstanes and their aromatase-inhibiting activities and structural requirements for selective specific aromatase inhibitors based on in vitro and in vivo structure-activity studies of compounds synthesised, their biological properties and the results of clinical trials. Special attention is paid to practical applications of aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of hormone-dependent mammary and ovarian tumours as well as benign prostatic tumours. In writing this report, the author has used all the information currently available in the chemical, biochemical, endocrinological and medicinal literature as well as in patents. The bibliography includes 173 references.

  20. Substituted androstanes as aromatase inhibitors

    Levina, Inna S.


    The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of inhibitors of steroid aromatase which catalyses the last stage of a multistep biotransformation of cholesterol into estrogens, viz., aromatisation of C19-steroids into C18-phenolic steroids, are discussed. Compounds of the androstane series which are structurally related to the natural substrate, viz., androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, are the subjects of consideration. The review encompasses problems of synthesis of various substituted androstanes and their aromatase-inhibiting activities and structural requirements for selective specific aromatase inhibitors based on in vitro and in vivo structure-activity studies of compounds synthesised, their biological properties and the results of clinical trials. Special attention is paid to practical applications of aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of hormone-dependent mammary and ovarian tumours as well as benign prostatic tumours. In writing this report, the author has used all the information currently available in the chemical, biochemical, endocrinological and medicinal literature as well as in patents. The bibliography includes 173 references.

  1. Inventory Decisions in a Product-Updated System with Component Substitution and Product Substitution

    Yancong Zhou


    Full Text Available Substitution behaviors happen frequently when demands are uncertain in a production inventory system, and it has attracted enough attention from firms. Related researches can be clearly classified into firm-driven substitution and customer-driven substitution. However, if production inventory is stock-out when a firm updates its product, the firm may use a new generation product to satisfy the customer’s demand of old generation product or use updated component to substitute old component to satisfy production demand. Obviously, two cases of substitution exist simultaneously in the product-updated system when an emergent shortage happens. In this paper, we consider a component order problem with component substitution and product substitution simultaneously in a product-updated system, where the case of firm-driven substitution or customer-driven substitution can be reached by setting different values for two system parameters. Firstly, we formulate the problem into a two-stage dynamic programming. Secondly, we give the optimal decisions about assembled quantities of different types of products. Next, we prove that the expected profit function is jointly concave in order quantities and decrease the feasible domain by determining some bounds for decision variables. Finally, some management insights about component substitution and product substitution are investigated by theoretical analysis method.

  2. Grapevine canopy reflectance and yield

    Minden, K. A.; Philipson, W. R.


    Field spectroradiometric and airborne multispectral scanner data were applied in a study of Concord grapevines. Spectroradiometric measurements of 18 experimental vines were collected on three dates during one growing season. Spectral reflectance, determined at 30 intervals from 0.4 to 1.1 microns, was correlated with vine yield, pruning weight, clusters/vine, and nitrogen input. One date of airborne multispectral scanner data (11 channels) was collected over commercial vineyards, and the average radiance values for eight vineyard sections were correlated with the corresponding average yields. Although some correlations were significant, they were inadequate for developing a reliable yield prediction model.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Crystal Structure of Some Novel 1-(3,5-Dimethyl-1 H-pyrazol-l-yl)-3-(substituted anilino)propan-l-ones

    SAEED Aamer; HUSSAIN Shahid; ABBAS Naeem; BOLTE Michael


    Michael addition of some substituted anilines to methyl acrylate in acidic medium afforded the methyl 3-(substituted anilino)propionates (1a-1i), which on treatment with hydrazine hydrate in methanol were converted into corresponding 3-(substituted anilino) propionohydrazides (2a-2i) in good yields. Microwave irradiation of the latter with pentane-2,4-dione afforded 1-(3,5-dimethyl- 1H-pyrazol-1-y1)-3-(substituted anilino)propan- 1-ones (3a-3i) under solventless conditions. The structures were confirmed by spectroscopic data, elemental analyses and in case of the 3h by single crystal X-ray diffraction data.

  4. First principles investigation of substituted strontium hexaferrite

    Dixit, Vivek

    This dissertation investigates how the magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite change upon the substitution of foreign atoms at the Fe sites. Strontium hexaferrite, SrFe12O19, is a commonly used hard magnetic material and is produced in large quantities (around 500,000 tons per year). For different applications of strontium hexaferrite, its magnetic properties can be tuned by a proper substitution of the foreign atoms. Experimental screening for a proper substitution is a cost-intensive and time-consuming process, whereas computationally it can be done more efficiently. We used the 'density functional theory' a first principles based method to study substituted strontium hexaferrite. The site occupancies of the substituted atoms were estimated by calculating the substitution energies of different configurations. The formation probabilities of configurations were used to calculate the magnetic properties of substituted strontium hexaferrite. In the first study, Al-substituted strontium hexaferrite, SrFe12-x AlxO19 with x=0.5 and x=1.0 were investigated. It was found that at the annealing temperature the non-magnetic Al +3 ions preferentially replace Fe+3 ions from the 12 k and 2a sites. We found that the magnetization decreases and the magnetic anisotropy field increases as the fraction, x of the Al atoms increases. In the second study, SrFe12-xGaxO19 and SrFe12-xInxO19 with x=0.5 and x=1.0 were investigated. In the case of SrFe12-xGaxO19, the sites where Ga+3 ions prefer to enter are: 12 k, 2a, and 4f1. For SrFe12-xInxO19, In+3 ions most likely to occupy the 12k, 4f1 , and 4f2 sites. In both cases the magnetization was found to decrease slightly as the fraction of substituted atom increases. The magnetic anisotropy field increased for SrFe12-xGaxO 19, and decreased for SrFe12-xInxO19 as the concentration of substituted atoms increased. In the third study, 23 elements (M) were screened for their possible substitution in strontium hexaferrite, SrFe12-xMxO 19

  5. Substitutions of Ser83Leu in GyrA and Ser80Leu in ParC Associated with Quinolone Resistance in Acinetobacter pittii.

    Gu, Dan-xia; Hu, Yun-jian; Zhou, Hong-wei; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Gong-xiang


    To investigate the prevalence and the mechanism of quinolone-resistant Acinetobacter pittii, 634 Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex isolates were collected throughout Zhejiang Province. Identification of isolates was conducted by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), blaOXA-51-like gene, and partial RNA polymerase β-subunit (rpoB) amplification. Twenty-seven isolates of A. pittii were identified. Among the 634 isolates, A. baumannii, A. pittii, Acinetobacter nosocomialis, and A. calcoaceticus counted for 87.22%, 4.26%, 8.20%, and 0.32%, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility of nalidixic acid, ofloxacin, enoxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin for 27 A. pittii were determined by the agar dilution method. Detection of quinolone-resistant determining regions of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE was performed for the A. pittii isolates. In addition, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qnrC, qnrD, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qepA, oqxA, and oqxB) were investigated. All the 27 isolates demonstrated a higher minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to old quinolones than the new fluoroquinolones. No mutation in gyrA, gyrB, parC, or parE was detected in 20 ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates. Seven ciprofloxacin-resistant A. pittii were identified with a Ser83Leu mutation in GyrA. Among them, six isolates with simultaneous Ser83Leu amino acid substitution in GyrA and Ser80Leu in ParC displayed higher MIC values against ciprofloxacin. Additionally, three were identified with a Met370Ile substitution in ParE, and two were detected with a Tyr317His mutation in ParE, which were reported for the first time. No PMQR determinants were identified in the 27 A. pittii isolates. In conclusion, mutations in chromosome play a major role in quinolone resistance in A. pittii, while resistance mechanisms mediated by plasmid have

  6. Nucleophilic Aromatic tele-Substitution of Hydrogen of 9-Nitroanthracene with 2-Naphthols and Phloroglucinol

    Kim, Su Yeon; Lim, Jin Woo; Nam, Kye Chun; Kim, Jae Nyoung [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Nucleophilic substitution reaction of hydrogen atom in electron-deficient arenes has been extensively studied. An addition of nucleophile to electron-deficient arenes such as nitroarene proceeds readily at the positions occupied by hydrogen atom to form σ{sup H}-adducts. A selective nucleophilic aromatic tele-substitution reaction has been observed in the reaction of 9-nitroanthracene with 2-naphthols, 1,3-cyclohexanediones, and phloroglucinol. The corresponding nitroanthracene derivatives, obtained by an ONSH process, were formed in variable yields as minor products depending on the substrates.

  7. A microwave-catalyzed rapid, efficient and ecofriendly synthesis of substituted pyrazol-5-ones



    Full Text Available A series of 1-(3,4-dihydro-3-oxo-2H-1,4-benzoxazine-2-carbonyl-3-methyl-4-(substituted phenylhydrazono-2-pyrazolin-5-ones have been synthesized by the reaction of 2H-3,4-dihydro-3-oxo-1,4-benzoxazine-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide with substituted acetoacetic ester derivatives using acetic acid as solvent under microwave irradiation (MWI, as well as by conventional methods. The reaction rate is enhanced tremendously and the yields are improved under MWI as compared to conventional methods.

  8. Multiaxial yield behaviour of polypropylene

    Lang R.


    Full Text Available In order to characterize the yield behavior of polypropylene as a function of pressure and to verify the applicability of the Drucker-Prager yield function, various tests were conducted to cover a wide range of stress states from uniaxial tension and compression to multiaxial tension and confined compression. Tests were performed below and above the glass transition temperature, to study the combined effect of pressure and temperature. The pressure sensitivity coefficient as an intrinsic material parameter was determined as a function of temperature. Increasing pressure sensitivity values were found with increasing temperature, which can be related to the change in the free volume and thus, to the enhanced molecular mobility. A best-fit Drucker-Prager yield function was applied to the experimental yield stresses and an average error between the predictions and the measurements of 7 % was obtained.

  9. Effect of biofertilizers on yield and yield components of cucumber

    Faranak Moshabaki Isfahani


    Full Text Available Biofertilizer is defined as a substance which contains living organisms which, when applied to seed, plant surface, or soil, colonize the rhizosphere or interior of the plant and promote growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. Biofertilizers are well recognized as an important component of integrated plant nutrient management for sustainable agriculture and hold a great promise improve crop yield. The present study for the sake of evaluating the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria produced by Pseudomonas sp. and phosphate bio fertilizers produced by Pseudomonas putida strain P13 and Pantoea agglomerans strain P5 and chemical fertilizers in the separate treatments on yield and yield components of cucumber by using a factorial experiment in completely randomized block design with three repetition were performed in the field. The symbol of P represents chemical fertilizer by amount of respectively (0, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, B1 shows plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and B2 indicates bio fertilizer-2. The results showed that P1B0 has the most yield, and control treatments has the least yield. P100B1 has the most length of plant and P100B0 has the least length of plant, P25B1 has the most amount of chlorophyll and P75B2 has the least chlorophyll. P75B2 has the most shoots dry weight and P100B0 has the least shoots dry weight. B1P50 has the most shoots fresh weight and P25B2 has the least shoots fresh weight. B1P50 has the most roots dry weight and P100B0 has the least roots dry weight. B1P50 has the most roots fresh weight and P25B2 has the least roots fresh weight. So the results indicate that use of biological fertilizers have caused increase yield and components yield of cucumber.

  10. Modeling competitive substitution in a polyelectrolyte complex

    Peng, B.; Muthukumar, M., E-mail: [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)


    We have simulated the invasion of a polyelectrolyte complex made of a polycation chain and a polyanion chain, by another longer polyanion chain, using the coarse-grained united atom model for the chains and the Langevin dynamics methodology. Our simulations reveal many intricate details of the substitution reaction in terms of conformational changes of the chains and competition between the invading chain and the chain being displaced for the common complementary chain. We show that the invading chain is required to be sufficiently longer than the chain being displaced for effecting the substitution. Yet, having the invading chain to be longer than a certain threshold value does not reduce the substitution time much further. While most of the simulations were carried out in salt-free conditions, we show that presence of salt facilitates the substitution reaction and reduces the substitution time. Analysis of our data shows that the dominant driving force for the substitution process involving polyelectrolytes lies in the release of counterions during the substitution.

  11. Students’ perceptions about interactive white board used in physics classFizik dersinde öğrencilerin akıllı tahta kullanımı ile ilgili algıları

    Cem Gürel


    Bu çalışmanın amacı ortaöğretim öğrencilerinin fizik dersinde akıllı tahtanın kullanımı ile ilgili algılarını ortaya koymaktır. Çalışmada Türkiye’nin Zonguldak ilindeki bir lisede Seçmeli Fizik dersini alan öğrencilerin bu derslerdeki akıllı tahta kullanımıyla ilgili algıları incelenmiştir. Çalıma, iki sınıfta akıllı tahta ile beyaz tahta-projeksiyon sistemlerinin kullanımlarının dönüşümlü olarak uygulanması şeklinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Süreç ABAB modeli ile uygulanmış ve veriler nitel yöntem ve araçlar ile toplanmıştır. Çalışmada 16 kız ve 13 erkek olmak üzere toplam 29 öğrenciye uygulanan anketler ve derslerde tutulan günlükler ile elde edilen veriler kullanılmıştır. Günlük ve anketlerdeki sorular üç alanı ele almaktadır: (1 Faydalar, (2 Sınırlılıklar ve (3 Gelecek için tavsiyeler. Çalışmanın sonuçlarına göre, akıllı tahtanın çoklu ortam kullanımı ve çekici yönü ile öğrenciler tarafından ilgi uyarıcı bulunduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Ayrıca, akıllı tahtanın gelecekteki kullanımları için tavsiyelerde de bulunulmuştur. Bu çalışmanın ortaya koyduğu verilerle eğitimciler akıllı tahtanın sınıflarda kullanımı ile ilgili bilgi edinebilecekler ve gelecekteki kullanıcılar akıllı tahta ile ilgili faydalı ipuçları bulabileceklerdir.


    José Luiz Pereira de Rezende


    Full Text Available The importance of technological progress for the Brazilian forest enterprises cannot be denied. Its influencecomprehends all the activities, but can be summarized in the increase of income via yield increase or cost reduction and, mainly,in the two cases occurring together. Technological effects influence, among other aspects, the cutting age and the optimal time torenewal (a new plantinting or “reforma” Eucalyptus plantations. Studies to determine these times are not so common in theliterature since it requires both forestry and economic knowledge. Before renewing an Eucalyptus stand, it is necessary totechnically and economically to define the optimal cut age the original planting and the coppicings and after how many cuttingsthe substitution of the plantations should be done. This study aimed at studying the optimal time to substitute Eucalyptus spp.Plantations, considering the gains earned through technological progress; to determine the cutting age of the population, theincome being increasing and the cost being decreasing; to propose and verify the efficiency of a mathematical model whichallows modeling the effects of technological progress; to study the substitution chain between 1960 and 2000 and between 2000and 2040, considering technological progress; and to test the results in a case study. The Gompertz Function was employed toobtain the volumes at the various ages. The criterion employed for the economic evaluation of the projects was the Presente NetValue (PNV. The proposed model allowed the calculation of yields and costs through time, study the effect of yield increaseand cost reduction and determine the rates of these increase and, or, reductions as well as determining rates which served asmoderators so that the yield and costs did not reach unreal values. It was concluded that: The rotation, with current values, is at 7years of age; the model proved to be efficient for estimates up to 40 years; with the income and costs from

  13. Determinants of generic drug substitution in Switzerland

    Lufkin Thomas M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since generic drugs have the same therapeutic effect as the original formulation but at generally lower costs, their use should be more heavily promoted. However, a considerable number of barriers to their wider use have been observed in many countries. The present study examines the influence of patients, physicians and certain characteristics of the generics' market on generic substitution in Switzerland. Methods We used reimbursement claims' data submitted to a large health insurer by insured individuals living in one of Switzerland's three linguistic regions during 2003. All dispensed drugs studied here were substitutable. The outcome (use of a generic or not was modelled by logistic regression, adjusted for patients' characteristics (gender, age, treatment complexity, substitution groups and with several variables describing reimbursement incentives (deductible, co-payments and the generics' market (prices, packaging, co-branded original, number of available generics, etc.. Results The overall generics' substitution rate for 173,212 dispensed prescriptions was 31%, though this varied considerably across cantons. Poor health status (older patients, complex treatments was associated with lower generic use. Higher rates were associated with higher out-of-pocket costs, greater price differences between the original and the generic, and with the number of generics on the market, while reformulation and repackaging were associated with lower rates. The substitution rate was 13% lower among hospital physicians. The adoption of the prescribing practices of the canton with the highest substitution rate would increase substitution in other cantons to as much as 26%. Conclusions Patient health status explained a part of the reluctance to substitute an original formulation by a generic. Economic incentives were efficient, but with a moderate global effect. The huge interregional differences indicated that prescribing behaviours and

  14. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    Lantz M.


    Full Text Available The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f and Th(p,f have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  15. Substitution between cars within the household

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan


    .98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...... to the fuel price; the difference strongly increases at the highest deciles of the distribution of kilometre demand. Extending the model to account for driver heterogeneity and the role of car characteristics confirmed the relevance of substitution between cars within the household. We found strong evidence......’ fuel efficiency choices are related to their price sensitivity....

  16. Elasticity of Substitution and Antidumping Measures

    Drud Hansen, Jørgen; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    Abstract This paper analyzes the role of the elasticity of substitution for anti-dumping decisions across countries. In monopolistic competition models with cost heterogeneous firms across countries, price differences vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution. Anti-dumping duties should...... therefore also vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution at least for countries which have a strong focus on prices in the determination of their anti-dumping measures. We test this for ten countries from 1990 to 2009 using data on anti-dumping from Chad Bown (2010) and US-data at 8-digit level...

  17. Regioselective monochloro substitution in carbohydrates and non-sugar alcohols via Mitsunobu reaction: applications in the synthesis of reboxetine.

    Dar, Abdul Rouf; Aga, Mushtaq A; Kumar, Brijesh; Yousuf, Syed Khalid; Taneja, Subhash Chandra


    A regioselective high yielding monochloro substitution (chlorohydrin formation) via Mitsunobu reaction is reported. In carbohydrates and sterically hindered non-sugars, only the primary hydroxyl group is chlorinated, whereas in the non-sugar 1,2- and 1,3-alcohols, predominantly the secondary chloride substitution occurs. The versatile methodology provides indirect access to epoxides with the retention of configuration, as against conventional Mitsunobu reaction which generates epoxides with inversion. The methodology was successfully used as a key step in the synthesis of optically active diastereoisomers of the antidepressant drug reboxetine from (R)-2,3-O-cyclohexylidene-d-glyceraldehyde in ∼43% overall yields.

  18. A tandem Mannich addition–palladium catalyzed ring-closing route toward 4-substituted-3(2H-furanones

    Jubi John


    Full Text Available A facile route towards highly functionalized 3(2H-furanones via a sequential Mannich addition–palladium catalyzed ring closing has been elaborated. The reaction of 4-chloroacetoacetate esters with imines derived from aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes under palladium catalysis afforded 4-substituted furanones in good to excellent yields. 4-Hydrazino-3(2H-furanones could also be synthesized from diazo esters in excellent yields by utilising the developed strategy. We could also efficiently transform the substituted furanones to aza-prostaglandin analogues.

  19. DCP-LA Activates Cytosolic PKCε by Interacting with the Phosphatidylserine Binding/Associating Sites Arg50 and Ile89 in the C2-Like Domain

    Takeshi Kanno


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA selectively and directly activates PKCε. The present study aimed at understanding the mechanism of DCP-LA-induced PKCε activation. Methods: Point mutation in the C2-like domain on PKCε was carried out, and each kinase activity was monitored in PC-12 cells using a föerster resonance energy transfer (FRET probe with cyan fluorescent protein (CFP and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP at the N- and C-terminal ends of PKCε, respectively, or in the cell-free systems using a reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Intracellular PKCε mobilization was monitored in PC-12 cells using mRuby-conjugated PKCε. DCP-LA binding to PKCε was assayed using a fluorescein conjugated to DCP-LA at the carboxyl-terminal end (Fluo-DCP. Uptake of DCP-LA into cells was measured in PC-12 ells. Results: In the FRET analysis, DCP-LA decreased the ratio of YFP signal intensity/CFP signal intensity in PC-12 cells and in the cell-free kinase assay, DCP-LA increased area of phosphorylated PKC substrate peptide, indicating DCP-LA-induced PKCε activation. These effects were significantly suppressed by replacing Arg50 and Ile89 by Ala or Asn in the C2-like domain of PKCε. In the fluorescent cytochemistry, DCP-LA did not affect intracellular PKCε distribution. In the cell-free binding assay, Fluo-DCP, that had no effect on the potential for PKCε activation, bound to PKCε, and the binding was inhibited only by mutating Ile89. Extracellularly applied DCP-LA was taken up into cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Although no activation was obtained in the cell-free kinase assay, the broad PKC activator PMA activated PKCε in PC-12 cells in association with translocation towards the cell surface, which was inhibited by mutating I89A. Conclusion: Unlike PMA DCP-LA activates cytosolic PKCε by binding to the phosphatidylserine binding/associating sites Arg50 and Ile89, possibly at the carboxyl

  20. DEEA-Volkanit Üzerine Toryum(IV Adsorpsiyonunun Yanıt Yüzey Metodu (YYM ile Optimizasyonu

    Ümit H. KAYNAR


    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Th(IV adsorpsiyonu için ekonomik ve bol miktarda bulunan alkali bazaltik yapıdaki Kula volkanitinin DEEA organik katyonu ile modifiye edilip adsorpsiyon kapasitesinin artırılarak kullanılması amaçlanmıştır. Öncelikle hazırlanan DEEA-volkanitin XRF, FT-IR, SEM ve BET yüzey alanı gibi yapısal karakteristik özellikleri incelendi, daha sonra sulu çözeltilerden Th(IV adsorpsiyonu endüstriyel araştırmalarda geniş bir kullanıma sahip yanıt yüzey metodu (YYM ile optimize edildi. Adsorpsiyon verimi üzerine etkin deneysel koşullar: pH (3-8, Th(IV konsantrasyonu (20-100 mg/L, sıcaklık (20-60 °C ve süre (15-120 dakika olarak seçildi. Bu parametrelerin en iyi muhtemel kombinasyonları Yanıt Yüzey Metodu (YYM ile elde edildi. Deneysel koşulların tasarımı için merkezi kompozit dizayn (CCD seçildi. RSM verilerine göre, tasarımın ikinci dereceden (kuadratik modele uyduğu ve model uyumunu gösteren parametrelerden R2 ve R2Ayarlı değerlerinin sırasıyla 0,99 ve 0,99 olduğu görülmüştür. Optimum koşullarında DEEA-Volkanit için adsorpsiyon kapasitesi 38,94 mg/g elde edilmiştir. Ayrıca, çalışmada Th (IV adsorpsiyonunun izotermlere uygunluğu araştırılmış ve termodinamik parametreler hesaplanmıştır.

  1. Questioning nuclear waste substitution: a case study.

    Marshall, Alan


    This article looks at the ethical quandaries, and their social and political context, which emerge as a result of international nuclear waste substitution. In particular it addresses the dilemmas inherent within the proposed return of nuclear waste owned by Japanese nuclear companies and currently stored in the United Kingdom. The UK company responsible for this waste, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), wish to substitute this high volume intermediate-level Japanese-owned radioactive waste for a much lower volume of much more highly radioactive waste. Special focus is given to ethical problems that they, and the UK government, have not wished to address as they move forward with waste substitution. The conclusion is that waste substitution can only be considered an ethical practice if a set of moderating conditions are observed by all parties. These conditions are listed and, as of yet, they are not being observed.


    Hisao Kumamoto


    Full Text Available This study investigates the impacts of the degree of currency substitution on nominal exchange rate volatility in seven countries (Indonesia, the Philippines, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Argentina, and Peru. We use the Threshold ARCH model to consider the ratchet effect of currency substitution and sample periods in the 2000s, during which time the economies of the sample countries stabilized, while the U.S. dollar and euro depreciated against other major currencies following the recent global financial crisis. The presented empirical analyses show that the degree of currency substitution has significant positive effects on the conditional variance of the depreciation rate of the nominal exchange rate in most sample countries. Moreover, a shock to the depreciation rate of the nominal exchange rate has asymmetric effects on the conditional variance, depending on the sign. One possible explanation for these differential effects is the existence of the ratchet effect of currency substitution.

  3. Artificial Sweeteners and Other Sugar Substitutes

    ... in many processed foods and other products, including chocolate, candy, frozen desserts, chewing gum, toothpaste, mouthwash, baked ... sugar substitutes, generally don't offer the same health benefits as do whole foods, such as fruits and ...


    Preferred Customer

    Printed in Ethiopia ... light emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), flexible displays, and sensors [1-3]. ... Influence of substitution on electronic properties of perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximides). Bull. Chem. Soc.

  5. Development of a diesel substitute fuel

    Reiter, Anton; Mair-Zelenka, Philipp [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology; Zeymer, Marc [OMV Refining and Marketing GmbH, Vienna (Austria). MRDI-D Product Development and Innovation


    Substitute fuels composed of few real chemical compounds are an alternative characterisation approach for conventional fuels as opposed to the traditional pseudo-component method. With the algorithm proposed in this paper the generation of such substitutes will be facilitated and well-established thermodynamic methods can be applied for physical property-data prediction. Based on some quality criteria like true boiling-point curve, liquid density, C/H ratio, or cloud point of a target fuel a surrogate which meets these properties is determined by fitting its composition. The application and capabilities of the algorithm developed are demonstrated by means of an exemplary diesel substitute fuel. The substitute mixture obtained can be generated and used for evaluation of property-prediction methods. Furthermore this approach can help to understand the effects of mixing fossil fuels with biogenic compounds. (orig.)

  6. LMD, proposition de plateforme commune des Départements et UFR de Géographie des universités d’Ile-de-France


    Full Text Available Cette note présente l’état des discussions sur un Master commun de Géographie à Paris ou Paris-Ile-de-France, ou de Masters articulés à un projet cohérent d’ensemble. La réforme LMD est une occasion unique (i de renforcer la cohérence de l’offre de formation régionale en géographie, évitant ainsi une concurrence inter-établissements dont la discipline n’a pas les moyens ; (ii de lui apporter la masse critique nécessaire pour lui donner la place qu’elle mérite sur l’étude des territoires – é...


    Maria Cecília de Arruda PALHARINI


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the prof ile of orange consumption and consumer attitude to minimally processed orange. Seven hundred and seventeen questionnaires were applied in commercial establishments in three municipalities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Main results of this research are: orange is a highly appreciated fruit, being consumed in natura and also as its natural juice, moreover orange is purchased weekly at hypermarkets, the purchase intent for minimally processed orange was low and the likely consumers’ willingness of paying for that product would be near 200% over the ‘in natura’ fruit. Considering the high consume of ‘in natura’ orange and the increasing need for convenience and practicality, it is possible to affirm that there is a potential for commercializing minimally processed orange.

  8. MRP1 G1666A gen polimorfizmi ile idrar arsenik düzeyleri arasındaki ilişki

    Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek; Kayaaltı, Zeliha; Özdemir, Fezile; Tutkun, Engin; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin


    Çoklu ilaç direnci ile ilişkili protein 1 (Multidrug-Resistance associated Protein 1=MRP1), ATP bağlayan kaset (ATP-binding cassette, ABC) taşıyıcı protein ailesinin bir üyesidir. Birçok endojen ve ekzojen bileşiği hücre dışına taşıyarak organizmayı hücresel düzeyde, ksenobiyotik birikiminden ve dolayısıyla toksisitesinden korumaktadır. MRP1, özellikle Faz II reaksiyonlarında üretilen glutatyon-, glukuronid- ve sülfat-konjugatlarını taşımaktadır.MRP1, ABCC1 geni tarafından kodlanmaktadır ve b...

  9. Erişkin erkek sıçanlarda doksorubisin ile oluşturulan testis hasarı üzerine L-karnitinin etkisi

    Mutlu, Ebru


    Erişkin erkek sıçanlarda doksorubisin ile oluşturulan testis hasarı üzerine L-karnitinin etkisi. Doksorubisin, lösemi, lenfoma ve çeşitli kanser tiplerinde, dayanıklı tümörlere karşı antitümör ajanı olarak kullanılan antrasiklin tipi bir antibiyotiktir. Kanser tedavisinde kullanılan doksorubisin, kemoterapik bir ajandır. Sitotoksik etkilerine ek olarak çok sayıda ciddi yan etkileri de bulunmaktadır. L-karnitin, in vivo olarak metiyonin ve lizin aminoasitlerinden sentezlenen, antiapoptotik ...

  10. Lactococcus Lactis Suşlarında Ekzopolisakkarit Üretiminin Faj Dirençlilik ile İlişkisi

    KOÇER, Ela; TÜKEL, Çağla; Akçelik, Mustafa


    Türkiye kökenli 90 Lactococcus lactis suşunun 25 laktik faja karşı test edilmesi sonucu, 7 adet susun tüm fajlara karşı tam direnç gösterdiği belirlendi. Yedi suştan altı adedi ekzopolisakkarit üretme yeteneğinde bulundu. Bu suşlardan 4 adedinin kapsüler, 2 adedinin ise hücre duvarı ile gevşek ilişkili ekzopolisakkaritler ürettiği saptandı. Tüm ekzopotisakkarit üreten L. lactis suşlarında, faj dirençlilik fenotipinin faj adsorbsiyonunun engellenmesi suretiyle oluşturulduğu tespit edildi....

  11. İdiopatik-post menopozal-senil osteoporozun ağrılı akut epizodlarının calcitonin ile tedavisi

    Kokino, Siranus


    Bakırköy Fizik Tedavi ve Rehabilitasyon Merkezi'nde yapmış olduğumuz idiopatik veya sekonder osteoporozun ağrılı akut epizodlarının Salmon-Calcitonin tedavisi ile ilgili çalışmamız 31'i kadın 2'si erkek, 33 hasta üzerinde incelenmiştir. Deneklerimize çalışma süresi boyunca klinik tablonun şiddetine ve hastanın ilaca toleransına göre günlük 50100 UI Salmon Calcitonin tedavisi uygulanmıştır. İlacın çalışma süresince laboratuar parametrelerde anlamlı bir değişme saptanmamış, fonksiyonel yetm...

  12. Ağır metal içeren atık sulardan izole edilecek bakteriler ile Cr (VI) biyoremediasyonu

    ERGÜL ÜLGER, Zeynep


    Krom giderimi için genelde kullanılan yöntemler doğal ortamların temizlenmesi için uygun değildir ve bu alanlardaki kirletici etmenlerin giderimi için tasarlanmış özel yöntemlere günümüzde yüksek bir ihtiyaç bulunmaktadır. Bu tez çalışmasında, ağır metal içeren atık sulardan Cr (VI)’ ya dayanıklı bakterilerin izole edile edilmesi ve heksavalen kromu, canlılar için daha az zararlı olan trivalen kroma indirebilen bakteri türlerinin araştırılması konu alınmaktadır. Krom ile kontamine al...

  13. Cohesion in Computer Text Generation: Lexical Substitution.


    substitutions. Paul is able to generate a cohesive text which exhibits the binding of sentences through presupposition dependencies, the marking of old...lexical substitutions, Paul is able to generate a cohesive text - • which exhibits the binding of sentences through presupposition dependencies, the...problem in using these cohesive devices is that it is necessary to guarantee that they are understandable. That is, since these items refer anaphorically

  14. Hyperfine magnetic fields in substituted Finemet alloys

    Brzózka, K., E-mail: [University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Department of Physics (Poland); Sovák, P. [P.J. Šafárik University, Institute of Physics (Slovakia); Szumiata, T.; Gawroński, M.; Górka, B. [University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Department of Physics (Poland)


    Transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the hyperfine fields of Finemet-type alloys in form of ribbons, substituted alternatively by Mn, Ni, Co, Al, Zn, V or Ge of various concentration. The comparative analysis of magnetic hyperfine fields was carried out which enabled to understand the role of added elements in as-quenched as well as annealed samples. Moreover, the influence of the substitution on the mean direction of the local hyperfine magnetic field was examined.

  15. Genetic polymorphism of glutathion S-transferase P1 (GSTP1 Ile105Val and susceptibility to atherogenesis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Grubiša Ivana


    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is the state of persistent oxidative stress (OS that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases such is atherosclerosis mainly through chronic hyperglycemia that stimulates production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and increases OS. Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1 is a member of the cytosolic GST superfamily. It plays an important role in neutralizing OS as an enzyme. Also, it participates in regulation of stress signaling and protects cells against apoptosis via its noncatalytic ligand-binding activity. GSTP1 Ile105Val functional polymorphism influences protein catalytic activity and stability and the aim of this study was to determine whether this gene variation influences susceptibility to atherogenesis in T2DM patients. A total of 240 individuals (140 patients with T2DM, accompanied with clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis, and 100 healthy controls were included in this study. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood cells and genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis. We obtained no statistically significant differences in the distribution of alleles and genotypes between cases and controls (P>0.05 but association between Ile/Val (OR=0.6, 95%CI=0.35-1.05, P=0.08 and Val/Val (OR=0.45, 95%CI=0.18-1.11, P=0.08 genotypes and disease approached significance (P=0.08. Our results indicated that a larger study group is needed to establish the true relationship between potentialiy protective allele Val and the disease, and to determine the influence of other GSTP1 polymorphisms on atherogenesis in T2DM patients. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175075

  16. İzmir Körfezi'nde Karides Uzatma Ağları ile Kalamar (Loligo vulgaris Lamarck, 1798 Avcılığı.

    Gökhan Gökçe


    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada İzmir Körfezi’nde kalamar (Loligo vulgaris avcılığında kullanılan, yıpranmış çatılı karides uzatma ağlarının av verimin incelenmesi hedeflenmiştir. Ekim-Kasım 2003 arasında ticari balıkçılık koşulları altında 11 av operasyonu gerçekleştirilmiştir. Uzatma ağları ile 23 tür yakalanmış ve bu türlerin ağırlık olarak %66 sını kalamarın oluşturduğu tespit edilmiştir. Yakalanan 288 birey içerinde ortalama kalamar ağırlığı ve manto boyu sırasıyla, 166.7±6.834 gr ve18.2±0.307 cm olarak tespit edilmiştir. Sonuç olarak, 26 adet/gün ve 4.13 kg/gün CPUE ile eskiyen karides uzatma ağları kalamar avcılığında etkili bir av aracı olarak İzmir Körfezi’nde kullanılmaya başlanmıştır

  17. Ligand-Substitution Reactions of the Tellurium Compound AS-101 in Physiological Aqueous and Alcoholic Solutions.

    Silberman, Alon; Albeck, Michael; Sredni, Benjamin; Albeck, Amnon


    Since its first crystallization, the aqueous structure of the tellurium-containing experimental drug AS-101 has never been studied. We show that, under the aqueous conditions in which it is administered, AS-101 is subjected to an immediate ligand-substitution reaction with water, yielding a stable hydrolyzed oxide anion product that is identified, for the first time, to be TeOCl3(-). Studying the structure of AS-101 in propylene glycol (PG), an alcoholic solvent often used for the topical and oral administration of AS-101, revealed the same phenomenon of ligand-substitution reaction between the alcoholic ligands. Upon exposure to water, the PG-substituted product is also hydrolyzed to the same tellurium(IV) oxide form, TeOCl3(-).

  18. Modified plastic compression of collagen hydrogels provides an ideal matrix for clinically applicable skin substitutes.

    Braziulis, Erik; Diezi, Mirco; Biedermann, Thomas; Pontiggia, Luca; Schmucki, Marlene; Hartmann-Fritsch, Fabienne; Luginbühl, Joachim; Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst


    Tissue engineering of clinically applicable dermo-epidermal skin substitutes is crucially dependent on the three-dimensional extracellular matrix, supporting the biological function of epidermal and dermal cells. This matrix essentially determines the mechanical stability of these substitutes to allow for safe and convenient surgical handling. Collagen type I hydrogels yield excellent biological functionality, but their mechanical weakness and their tendency to contract and degrade does not allow producing clinically applicable transplants of larger sizes. We show here that plastically compressed collagen type I hydrogels can be produced in clinically relevant sizes (7×7 cm), and can be safely and conveniently handled by the surgeon. Most importantly, these dermo-epidermal skin substitutes mature into a near normal skin that can successfully reconstitute full-thickness skin defects in an animal model.

  19. Spectroscopic study on the photophysical properties of chlorine substituted tetraphenylporphyrinhistidine and its zinc (Ⅱ) complexes

    ZHANG Huijuan; FENG Juan; AI Xicheng; ZHANG Xingkang; YU Zhongheng; ZHANG Jianping


    The photophysical properties of ortho-Cl, meta-Cl and para-Cl substituted tetraphenylporphyrin-histidine and their zinc (Ⅱ) complexes have been studied by means of steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies, as well as time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. For the cases of both free-base and zinc complexes, it was found that the ortho-chlorine substitution onto the phenyl rings significantly altered the fluorescence quantum yield, the fluorescence lifetime and the ratio between radiative and nonradiative deactivation rates of the porphyrin chromophore, i.e. the photophysical parameters were quite differentfrom those of meta- and para-substi- tuted compounds. On the other hand, however, the introduction of covalently-linked histidine did not exert much effects onthe photophysical behavior of the porphyrin chromophore. The results are interpreted in terms of the steric effect and the heavy-atom effect from the chlorine atoms substituted onto the phenyl rings.

  20. Synthesis of 2-Substituted Benzimidazoles and 1,5-Disubstituted Benzodiazepines on Alumina and Zirconia Catalysts



    In this study, alumina, zirconia, manganese oxide/alumina, and manganese oxide/zirconia have been investigated for their catalytic activity in the condensation reaction between o-phenylenediamine and an aldehyde or a ketone to synthesise 2-substituted benzimidazoles and 1,5-disubstituted benzodiazepines respectively. Surface area, surface acidity, and morphology of the catalysts have been analysed and correlated with their catalytic activity. The isolated yields of 2-substituted benzimidazoles and 1,5-disubstituted benzodiazepines are in the range of 30% to 95%. A good correlation between the amount of surface acid sites as well as the surface morphology of the catalysts and the catalytic activity has been observed. This method has been found to be simple and economical. The solid supports could be regenerated and reused without much loss in their activity. Further, the solid supports have been also found to be effective as general catalysts in the condensation of o-phenylenediamine with other substituted aldehydes and ketones.

  1. Substituting missing data in compositional analysis

    Real, Carlos, E-mail: [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Ecologia, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Angel Fernandez, J.; Aboal, Jesus R.; Carballeira, Alejo [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)


    Multivariate analysis of environmental data sets requires the absence of missing values or their substitution by small values. However, if the data is transformed logarithmically prior to the analysis, this solution cannot be applied because the logarithm of a small value might become an outlier. Several methods for substituting the missing values can be found in the literature although none of them guarantees that no distortion of the structure of the data set is produced. We propose a method for the assessment of these distortions which can be used for deciding whether to retain or not the samples or variables containing missing values and for the investigation of the performance of different substitution techniques. The method analyzes the structure of the distances among samples using Mantel tests. We present an application of the method to PCDD/F data measured in samples of terrestrial moss as part of a biomonitoring study. - Highlights: > Missing values in multivariate data sets must be substituted prior to analysis. > The substituted values can modify the structure of the data set. > We developed a method to estimate the magnitude of the alterations. > The method is simple and based on the Mantel test. > The method allowed the identification of problematic variables in a sample data set. - A method is presented for the assessment of the possible distortions in multivariate analysis caused by the substitution of missing values.

  2. Amino acid substitutions in the thymidine kinase gene of induced acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1

    Hussin, Ainulkhir; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md; Ibrahim, Nazlina


    Acyclovir (ACV) is an antiviral drug of choice in healthcare setting to treat infections caused by herpes viruses, including, but not limited to genital herpes, cold sores, shingles and chicken pox. Acyclovir resistance has emerged significantly due to extensive use and misuse of this antiviral in human, especially in immunocompromised patients. However, it remains unclear about the amino acid substitutions in thymidine (TK) gene, which specifically confer the resistance-associated mutation in herpes simplex virus. Hence, acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 was selected at high concentration (2.0 - 4.5 μg/mL), and the TK-gene was subjected to sequencing and genotypic characterization. Genotypic sequences comparison was done using HSV-1 17 (GenBank Accesion no. X14112) for resistance-associated mutation determination whereas HSV-1 KOS, HSV-1 473/08 and HSV clinical isolates sequences were used for polymorphism-associated mutation. The result showed that amino acid substitutions at the non-conserved region (UKM-1: Gln34Lys, UKM-2: Arg32Ser & UKM-5: Arg32Cys) and ATP-binding site (UKM-3: Tyr53End & UKM-4: Ile54Leu) of the TK-gene. These discoveries play an important role to extend another dimension to the evolution of acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 and suggest that selection at high ACV concentration induced ACV-resistant HSV-1 evolution. These findings also expand the knowledge on the type of mutations among acyclovir-resistant HSV-1. In conclusion, HSV-1 showed multiple strategies to exhibit acyclovir resistance, including amino acid substitutions in the TK gene.

  3. Yield statistics of interpolated superoscillations

    Katzav, Eytan; Perlsman, Ehud; Schwartz, Moshe


    Yield optimized interpolated superoscillations have been recently introduced as a means for possibly making the use of the phenomenon of superoscillation practical. In this paper we study how good is a superoscillation that is not optimal. Namely, by how much is the yield decreased when the signal departs from the optimal one. We consider two situations. One is the case where the signal strictly obeys the interpolation requirement and the other is when that requirement is relaxed. In the latter case the yield can be increased at the expense of deterioration of signal quality. An important conclusion is that optimizing superoscillations may be challenging in terms of the precision needed, however, storing and using them is not at all that sensitive. This is of great importance in any physical system where noise and error are inevitable.

  4. Currency Substitution and Government Revenue from Inflation Currency Substitution and Government Revenue from Inflation

    C. Luis Ramírez-Rojas


    Full Text Available Currency Substitution and Government Revenue from Inflation The purpose of this paper is to show that in the case of an open economy the calculations of revenue-maximing rates of inflation have been made using a restrictive model that assumes that domestic residents can only substitute between domestic money and goods (and real assets. The paper demonstrates that once the effects of currency substitution, so common in developing countries, are taken into account, the inflation rate that maximizes the proceeds of the inflation tax can be quite lower than would be the case when currency substitution is ignored.

  5. Inversion of the Side-Chain Stereochemistry of Indvidual Thr or Ile Residues in a Protein Molecule: Impact on the Folding, Stability, and Structure of the ShK Toxin.

    Dang, Bobo; Shen, Rong; Kubota, Tomoya; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Bezanilla, Francisco; Roux, Benoit; Kent, Stephen B H


    ShK toxin is a cysteine-rich 35-residue protein ion-channel ligand isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. In this work, we studied the effect of inverting the side chain stereochemistry of individual Thr or Ile residues on the properties of the ShK protein. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to calculate the free energy cost of inverting the side-chain stereochemistry of individual Thr or Ile residues. Guided by the computational results, we used chemical protein synthesis to prepare three ShK polypeptide chain analogues, each containing either an allo-Thr or an allo-Ile residue. The three allo-Thr or allo-Ile-containing ShK polypeptides were able to fold into defined protein products, but with different folding propensities. Their relative thermal stabilities were measured and were consistent with the MD simulation data. Structures of the three ShK analogue proteins were determined by quasi-racemic X-ray crystallography and were similar to wild-type ShK. All three ShK analogues retained ion-channel blocking activity.

  6. Polymeric Materials for Tissue Engineering of Arterial Substitutes

    Ravi, Swathi; Qu, Zheng; Chaikof, Elliot L.


    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. The limited availability of healthy autologous vessels for bypass grafting procedures has led to the fabrication of prosthetic vascular conduits. Synthetic polymeric materials, while providing the appropriate mechanical strength, lack the compliance and biocompatibility that bioresorbable and naturally occurring protein polymers offer. Vascular tissue engineering approaches have emerged in order to meet the challenges of designing a vascular graft with long-term patency. In vitro culture techniques that have been explored with vascular cell seeding of polymeric scaffolds and the use of bioactive polymers for in situ arterial regeneration have yielded promising results. This review describes the development of polymeric materials in various tissue engineering strategies for the improvement in the mechanical and biological performance of an arterial substitute. PMID:19426609

  7. Specific yield, High Plains aquifer

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents specific-yield ranges in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer underlies 112.6 million acres (176,000...

  8. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

    Robert F. Powers


    Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

  9. Efficient 1,4-addition of α-substituted fluoro(phenylsulfonylmethane derivatives to α,β-unsaturated compounds


    Full Text Available The 1,4-addition of a monofluoromethyl nucleophile to a variety of α,β-unsaturated compounds has been achieved under mild conditions using either phosphines or potassium carbonate at room temperature. α-Substituted fluoro(phenylsulfonylmethane easily undergoes Michael addition to α,β-unsaturated ketones, esters, nitriles, sulfones, as well as propynoates at room temperature to yield the corresponding adducts in moderate to excellent yields.

  10. Convenient synthesis of substituted pyrroles via a cerium (IV ammonium nitrate (CAN-catalyzed Paal–Knorr reaction

    Ahmed Kamal


    Full Text Available A screening of various cerium salts for promoting the Paal–Knorr pyrrole synthesis revealed the superiority of cerium (IV ammonium nitrate (CAN as a catalyst. Excellent yields of substituted pyrroles were obtained in CAN-catalyzed Paal–Knorr reactions of 1,4-diketones with various amines. The protocol is noteworthy for the mild reaction condition, short reaction times, scalability and easy isolation of products and high yields of the products.

  11. Characterization of pigmented dermo-epidermal skin substitutes in a long-term in vivo assay.

    Böttcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; Biedermann, Thomas; Klar, Agnieszka S; Widmer, Daniel S; Neuhaus, Kathrin; Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst


    In our laboratory, we have been using human pigmented dermo-epidermal skin substitutes for short-term experiments since several years. Little is known, however, about the long-term biology of such constructs after transplantation. We constructed human, melanocyte-containing dermo-epidermal skin substitutes of different (light and dark) pigmentation types and studied them in a long-term animal experiment. Developmental and maturational stages of the epidermal and dermal compartment as well as signs of homoeostasis were analysed 15 weeks after transplantation. Keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts from human skin biopsies were isolated and assembled into dermo-epidermal skin substitutes. These were transplanted onto immuno-incompetent rats and investigated 15 weeks after transplantation. Chromameter evaluation showed a consistent skin colour between 3 and 4 months after transplantation. Melanocytes resided in the epidermal basal layer in physiological numbers and melanin accumulated in keratinocytes in a supranuclear position. Skin substitutes showed a mature epidermis in a homoeostatic state and the presence of dermal components such as Fibrillin and Tropoelastin suggested advanced maturation. Overall, pigmented dermo-epidermal skin substitutes show a promising development towards achieving near-normal skin characteristics and epidermal and dermal tissue homoeostasis. In particular, melanocytes function correctly over several months whilst remaining in a physiological, epidermal position and yield a pigmentation resembling original donor skin colour. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A Sequential and Comprehensive Method for Effective Substitute Teaching

    Byer, John L.


    This article dealt with methods for making substitute teaching more effective. The purpose was to articulate a sequential method for maximizing the effectiveness of substitute teaching while providing substitutes with a comprehensive method for diligently and flexibly earning respect and using reflection to continually improve substitute teaching.…

  13. Genetic progress in Dutch crop yields

    Rijk, H.C.A.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Withagen, J.C.M.


    Crop yields are a result of interactions between genetics, environment and management (G × E × M). As in the Netherlands differences between potential yield and actual farm yields (yield gaps) are relatively small, progress in genetic potential is essential to further increase farm yields. In this p

  14. Baker's yeast mediated reduction of substituted acenaphthenequinones: Regio- and enantioselective preparation of mono-hydroxyacenaphthenones

    Xing Yong Wang; Jing Nan Cui; Wei Min Ren; Feng Li; Chun Liang Lu; Xu Hong Qian


    Baker's yeast mediated reduction of acenaphthenequinone within 4-10 h afforded mono-hydroxyacenaphthenone mainly with low enantioselectivity, the substrate and mono-hydroxyacenaphthenone product almost converted to dihydroxyacenaphthene after 48 h.By control of the reaction time and in the presence of DMF as co-solvent, the reduction of 6-substituted acenaphthenequinones under vigorous agitation afforded the corresponding 2-hydroxyacenaphthenones in 24-84% yields with 10-93% ee.

  15. An efficient synthesis of 8-substituted Odoratine derivatives by the Suzuki coupling reaction

    Ravi Kumar P; Balakrishna C; Murali B; Ramakrishna Gudipati; Prasanta K Hota; Avinash B Chaudhary; Jaya Shree A; Satyanarayana Yennam; Manoranjan Behera


    An efficient method for the preparation of 8-substituted odoratine [(3-(3', 4' -methylenedioxyphenyl)-5,6,7-trimethoxyisoflavone] derivatives, structurally similar to glaziovianin A, a known cytotoxic substance, has been described. The key steps in the synthesis are site selective bromination reaction followed by Suzuki coupling reaction in very good yield. The structural assignment of the bromo derivative was determined utilizing 2D-HMBC and NOEs NMR techniques.

  16. A versatile and an efficient synthesis of 5-substituted-1-tetrazoles

    Madhusudana Reddy Muthukur Bhoje Gowd; Mohamed Afzal Pasha


    A simple, efficient and a versatile method for the synthesis of 5-substituted-1-tetrazoles by a [3+2]-cycloaddition reaction of arylnitriles with sodium azide in DMF using ZrOCl2·8 H2O as catalyst has been developed. The reactions work well at 100°C and give the desired products in excellent yield. The examples studied include arylnitriles having electron donating as well as electron releasing groups on the arene nucleus.

  17. Eco-friendly synthesis of 2-substituted benzothiazoles catalyzed by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) in water

    Yang, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Chun-Mei; Lin,Shao-Miao; Chen,Jiu-Xi; Ding,Jin-Chang; Wu,Hua-Yue; Su,Wei-Ke


    A series of 2-substituted benzothiazoles have been synthesized by the condensation of 2-aminothiophenol with aldehydes (RCHO: R = Alkyl, Aryl, Heteroaryl, 2-Arylformyl) in the presence of a catalytic amount of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) "on water" by a one-pot procedure without additional organic solvents and oxidants. Thereinto, 2-alkylbenzothiazoles were synthesized in high yields and 2-arylformylbenzothiazoles were obtained from the condensation of 2-aminothiophenol with arylfo...

  18. Synthesis of alkenyl boronates from allyl-substituted aromatics using an olefin cross-metathesis protocol.

    Hemelaere, Rémy; Carreaux, François; Carboni, Bertrand


    An efficient synthesis of 3-aryl-1-propenyl boronates from pinacol vinyl boronic ester and allyl-substituted aromatics by cross metathesis is reported. Although the allylbenzene derivatives are prone to isomerization reaction under metathesis conditions, we found that some ruthenium catalysts are effective for this methodology. This strategy thus provides an interesting alternative approach to alkyne hydroboration, leading to the preparation of unknown compounds. Moreover, the boron substituent can be replaced by various functional groups in good yields.

  19. Synthesis and Properties of Triazol-5-one Substituted Phthalocyanines by Microwave Irradiation

    KAHVECİ, Bahittin; ŞAŞMAZ, Selami; ÖZİL, Musa; KANTAR, Cihan


    Triazol-5-one substituted phthalocyanines were prepared quickly by the reaction of 4-nitrophthalonitrile with anhydrous metal salts in DBU (1,8-diazabicyclo[5,4,0]undec-7-ene) and DMAE (dimethylaminoethanol) by microwave irradiation. Microwave yields were higher than those of the conventional synthesis methods. All of these complexes are insoluble in polar solvents such as ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform. The characterization of the compounds was accomplished by elemental anal...

  20. A Scalable Method for Regioselective 3-Acylation of 2-Substituted Indoles under Basic Conditions

    Johansson, Karl Henrik; Urruticoechea, Andoni; Larsen, Inna


    Privileged structures such as 2-arylindoles are recurrent molecular scaffolds in bioactive molecules. We here present an operationally simple, high yielding and scalable method for regioselective 3-acylation of 2-substituted indoles under basic conditions using functionalized acid chlorides. The ....... The method shows good tolerance to both electron-withdrawing and donating substituents on the indole scaffold and gives ready access to a variety of functionalized 3-acylindole building blocks suited for further derivatization....

  1. Clarifying substituted judgement: the endorsed life approach.

    Phillips, John; Wendler, David


    A primary goal of clinical practice is to respect patient autonomy. To promote this goal for patients who have lost the ability to make their own decisions, commentators recommend that surrogates make their treatment decisions based on the substituted judgment standard. This standard is commonly interpreted as directing surrogates to make the decision the patient would have made in the circumstances, if the patient were competent. However, recent commentators have argued that this approach--attempting to make the decision the patient would have made if competent--is theoretically problematic, practically infeasible, and ignores the interests of the patient's family and loved ones. These commentators conclude that the substituted judgment standard should be revised significantly, or abandoned altogether. While this response would avoid the cited problems, it also would require substantial changes to clinical practice and would raise significant problems of its own. The present paper thus considers the possibility that the criticisms do not point to problems with the substituted judgment standard itself; instead, they point to problems with the way it is most commonly interpreted. This analysis suggests that the substituted judgment standard need not be dramatically revised or abandoned. Instead, it should be interpreted in a way that effectively promotes respect for the autonomy of incompetent patients. The 'endorsed life' interpretation described here helps clinicians and surrogates to achieve this important goal. To clarify this approach, we explain how it differs from three other recently proposed alternatives to the standard interpretation of the substituted judgment standard.

  2. 40 CFR 721.3063 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted phenyl esters (generic name).


    ... phenyl esters (generic name). 721.3063 Section 721.3063 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as substituted phenyl azo substituted phenyl esters (PMNs P-95...

  3. Meso-ester and carboxylic acid substituted BODIPYs with far-red and near-infrared emission for bioimaging applications

    Ni, Yong


    A series of meso-ester-substituted BODIPY derivatives 1-6 are synthesized and characterized. In particular, dyes functionalized with oligo(ethylene glycol) ether styryl or naphthalene vinylene groups at the α positions of the BODIPY core (3-6) become partially soluble in water, and their absorptions and emissions are located in the far-red or near-infrared region. Three synthetic approaches are attempted to access the meso-carboxylic acid (COOH)-substituted BODIPYs 7 and 8 from the meso-ester-substituted BODIPYs. Two feasible synthetic routes are developed successfully, including one short route with only three steps. The meso-COOH-substituted BODIPY 7 is completely soluble in pure water, and its fluorescence maximum reaches around 650 nm with a fluorescence quantum yield of up to 15 %. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations are conducted to understand the structure-optical properties relationship, and it is revealed that the Stokes shift is dependent mainly on the geometric change from the ground state to the first excited singlet state. Furthermore, cell staining tests demonstrate that the meso-ester-substituted BODIPYs (1 and 3-6) and one of the meso-COOH-substituted BODIPYs (8) are very membrane-permeable. These features make these meso-ester- and meso-COOH-substituted BODIPY dyes attractive for bioimaging and biolabeling applications in living cells. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Mechanistic Perspectives on Organic Photoredox Catalysis for Aromatic Substitutions.

    Majek, Michal; Jacobi von Wangelin, Axel


    such as the determination of quantum yields by conventional actinometric studies or modern photon counter devices. Careful analyses of key thermodynamic and kinetic data of the single electron transfer steps involved in aromatic photoredox substitutions by experimental and theoretical techniques are being exemplified with recent examples from the literature including the determination of redox potentials by DFT and CV, fluorescence quenching studies, and transient absorption/emission spectroscopy. This Account provides the uninitiated reader with an overview of the potential of organic photoredox catalysis for aromatic substitution reactions and encourages the practitioners to consult highly instructive synthetic, mechanistic, theoretical, and spectroscopic tools that are available in research laboratories.

  5. Synthesis and cellular cytotoxicities of new -substituted indole-3-carbaldehyde and their indolylchalcones

    Magdy A H Zahran; Atef M Ibrahim


    A simple and efficient method for -alkylation of indole-3-carbaldehyde derivatives using a mixture of different bases in DMF under conventional and microwave irradiation conditions to afford -substituted indole-3-carbaldehyde derivatives 3a-o is reported. These derivatives which undergo Claisen-Schmidt condensation with 1-biphenyl-4-yl-ethanone yielded the corresponding indolylchalcone derivatives 5a-h. A comparative study showed that the microwave irradiation condition afforded excellent yield and shorten reaction time of all the synthesized indole derivatives which possess promising antitumor activity as well as interchelation bioactivity of indolylchalcones 5a-h with DNA.

  6. Selective oxidation of primary substituted aromatic amines to azoxy products using lacunary catalyses

    A.Nezhadali; M.Akbarpour


    Some of the substituted anilines were selectively converted in to the corresponding azoxy and azobenzenes by oxidation with 30%aqueous hydrogen peroxide.The reactions were catalyzed by various heteropolyoxometalates,at boiling point of the used solvents.An improvement in the product yield and selectivity towards azoxybenzens was also observed.Azobenzenes was obtained as by-product.In the all similar cases,the highest yield of azoxy compounds was observed using K_5PW_(11) ZnO_(39) as catalyst in N,N-dimet...

  7. An Asymmetric Organocatalytic Quadruple Cascade to Tetraaryl-Substituted 2-Azabicyclo[3.3.0]octadienones

    Joie, Céline; Deckers, Kristina; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter


    A new asymmetric organocatalytic three-component quadruple cascade of α-ketoamides with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes is described. The reaction is catalyzed by the (S)-diphenylprolinol TMS ether catalyst and proceeds via an aza-Michael/aldol condensation/vinylogous Michael/aldol condensation sequence to yield tetraaryl-substituted 2-azabicyclo[3.3.0]octadienone derivatives. The cascade products are obtained with good to very good yields (34–71%), virtually complete diastereoselectivities (>20:1), and very good enantioselectivities (84–97%). PMID:25278633

  8. Facile Synthesis of 3-Substituted Isoquinolines Derivatives via Microwave-assisted Tandem Three-component Coupling Cyclization

    林龙; 吴琼友; 黄绍维; 杨光富


    A novel three-component reaction of o-bromobenzaldehyde, terminal alkynes and tert-butyl amine has been established, which proceeded smoothly to give 3-substituted isoquinolines in good yields in the presence of palladium/copper catalysts under microwave irradiation.

  9. Synthesis of novel redox calix[4]arene derivative with 1,3-substituted large conjugated ferrocene bridge

    Bi Qiong Hong; Fa Fu Yang; Hong Yu Guo; Yan Hua Wang; Xian Feng Chai


    A novel redox calix[4]arene derivative with 1,3-substituted large conjugated ferrocene bridge was designed and synthesized in high yield.Its structure was characterized by element analysis,IR,ESI-MS,NMR spectrum,etc.The primary study of cyclic voltammetry showed it possessed excellent reversible electrochemistry response property.

  10. Comparison of (η6-Fluoroarene)tricarbonylchromium Complexes with Their Chloro-analogs in Radical Aromatic Substitutions

    林和春; 杨立; 李超忠


    Reactions of fluoroarene-Cr(CO)3 complexes with SmI2 and earbonyl compounds in THF/HMPA at -40~- 60℃ afforded the correspoDdin~ radical aromatic substitution products in high yield. Compared to the corresponding chloroarene-Cr(CO)3 complexes, fluoroarene-Cr(CO)3 complexes showed a higher efficiency and slightly lower regioselectivity.

  11. Application of Magnetic Dicationic Ionic Liquid Phase Transfer Catalyst in Nuclophilic Substitution Reactions of Benzyl Halids in Water

    Manouchehr Aghajeri; Ali Reza Kiasat; Bijan Mombeni Goodajdar


    magnetic dicationic ionic liquid (MDIL) was successfully prepared and evaluated as phase-transfer catalyst for nucleophilic substitution reactions. The reactions was occurred in water and furnished the corresponding benzyl derivatives in high yields. No evidence for the formation of by-product for example benzyl alcohol of the reaction was observed and the products were obtained in pure form without further purification.

  12. One-pot synthesis of substituted di-hydrofurans from Lewis base-catalyzed three-component condensation.

    Zhong, Cheng; Liao, Tao; Tuguldur, Odbadrakh; Shi, Xiaodong


    A one-pot synthesis of substituted dihydrofurans was developed through a Lewis base-catalyzed three-component cascade condensation between nitroalkenes, aldehydes, and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds. The desired cyclization products were prepared with a large substrate scope (22 examples) and excellent diastereoselectivity (only trans isomers) in good to excellent yields (up to 95%).

  13. B(HSO43: An efficient and recyclable catalyst for the preparation of substituted Friedländer quinoline synthesis

    Saghanezhad Seyyed Jafar


    Full Text Available Substituted quinolines have been synthesized in the presence of catalytic amounts of boron sulfonic acid (BSA in solvent-free conditions. This methodology offers some advantages including high yield, short reaction time, low cost of the catalyst, green conditions by avoiding toxic solvents and recoverable catalyst.

  14. Characteristics of fluid substitution in porous rocks

    Li Shengjie


    Analysis of the effect of changes in fluid properties of rocks on the compressional-wave velocity VP and shear-wave velocity Vs is very important for understanding the rock physical properties, especially in oilfield exploration and development.The fluid substitution process was analyzed by using ultrasonic measurement and theoretical calculations.The results showed that the effect of fluid substitution on the rock elastic modulus was mainly controlled by fluid properties, saturation, and confining pressure.For a rock with specific properties and porosity, the result of theoretical prediction for fluid substitution accorded with the experimental result under high confining pressure (higher than 60 MPa for our experimental data), but failed to describe the trend of experimental result under low confining pressure and VP predicted by Gassmann's equation was higher than that measured by experiment.A higher porosity resulted in stronger sensitivity of the bulk modulus of saturated rocks to the change of fluid properties.

  15. Freeze substitution in 3 hours or less.

    McDonald, K L; Webb, R I


    Freeze substitution is a process for low temperature dehydration and fixation of rapidly frozen cells that usually takes days to complete. New methods for freeze substitution have been developed that require only basic laboratory tools: a platform shaker, liquid nitrogen, a metal block with holes for cryotubes and an insulated container such as an ice bucket. With this equipment, excellent freeze substitution results can be obtained in as little as 90 min for cells of small volume such as bacteria and tissue culture cells. For cells of greater volume or that have significant diffusion barriers such as cuticles or thick cell walls, one can extend the time to 3 h or more with dry ice. The 3-h method works well for all manner of specimens, including plants and Caenorhabditis elegans as well as smaller samples. Here, we present the basics of the techniques and some results from Nicotiana leaves, C. elegans adult worms, Escherichia coli and baby hamster kidney tissue culture cells.

  16. Breast milk substitutes in Hong Kong.

    Nelson, E A S; Chan, C W; Yu, C M


    In 1981 the World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes (the Code) to support breastfeeding. Despite improving trends, Hong Kong has low rates of breastfeeding compared to other developed countries. We surveyed companies marketing breast milk substitutes in Hong Kong to determine self-reported adherence to the Code. Companies were informed that individual responses would not be published and seven of nine companies responded to the questionnaire. The majority of respondents promoted infant and follow-on formula in hospitals and provided free supplies of infant formula to hospitals. Follow-on formula and weaning foods were promoted in shops and to the general public and free samples were given to mothers reflecting a belief that, despite WHA resolutions, follow-on formula is not a breast milk substitute. Transnational companies should follow the Code and subsequent WHA resolutions equally in all countries.

  17. Homological Pisot Substitutions and Exact Regularity

    Barge, Marcy; Jones, Leslie; Sadun, Lorenzo


    We consider one-dimensional substitution tiling spaces where the dilatation (stretching factor) is a degree d Pisot number, and where the first rational Cech cohomology is d-dimensional. We construct examples of such "homological Pisot" substitutions that do not have pure discrete spectra. These examples are not unimodular, and we conjecture that the coincidence rank must always divide a power of the norm of the dilatation. To support this conjecture, we show that homological Pisot substitutions exhibit an Exact Regularity Property (ERP), in which the number of occurrences of a patch for a return length is governed strictly by the length. The ERP puts strong constraints on the measure of any cylinder set in the corresponding tiling space.

  18. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    , respectively. When we do take into account the substitution effect, these figures reduce to, respectively, -0.32 and -0.45. We further estimate an alternative version of the model to test the hypothesis that substitution in response to higher fuel prices will be predominantly from the least to the most fuel...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  19. A New Substitution Cipher - Random-X

    Falguni Patel


    Full Text Available Ciphers are the encryption methods to prepare the algorithm for encryption and decryption. The currently known ciphers are not strong enough to protect the data. A new substitution cipher Random-X that we introduce in this paper can be used for password encryption and data encryption. Random-X cipher is a unique substitution cipher which replaces the units of plaintext with triplets of letters. The beauty of this cipher is that the encrypted string of the same plain text is not always same. This makes it strong and difficult to crack. This paper covers the principle the implementation ideas and testing of Random-X cipher.

  20. Substitution-diffusion based Image Cipher

    Narendra K Pareek


    Full Text Available In this paper, a new image encryption scheme using a secret key of 128-bit size is proposed. In thealgorithm, image is partitioned into several key based dynamic blocks and further, each block passesthrough the eight rounds of diffusion as well as substitution process. In diffusion process, sequences ofblock pixels are rearranged within the block by a zigzag approach whereas block pixels are replaced withanother by using difference calculation of row and column in substitution process. Due to high order ofsubstitution and diffusion, common attacks like linear and differential cryptanalysis are infeasible. Theexperimental results show that the proposed technique is efficient and has high security features.

  1. Occult Hepatitis B virus infection in previously screened, blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: implications for blood transfusion and stem cell transplantation.

    Olotu, Amadin A; Oyelese, Adesola O; Salawu, Lateef; Audu, Rosemary A; Okwuraiwe, Azuka P; Aboderin, Aaron O


    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission through blood transfusion is reduced by screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). However this method cannot detect the presence of occult hepatitis B virus infection. This study sought to determine the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. For the first time in Nigeria we employed an automated real-time PCR- method to investigate the prevalence of occult HBV in blood donors. Blood donors screened with HBsAg immunochromatographic rapid test kits at the blood transfusion units of two hospitals and found to be negative were recruited into the study. Questionnaires to elicit risk factors for HBV infection were administered and then 10 ml of blood was collected from each donor. Plasma samples obtained from these HBsAg negative blood donors were screened again for HBsAg using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, and those found negative were screened for the presence of total antibody to the HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) using ELISA method. Those positive to anti-HBc were then tested for HBV DNA, using an automated real-time PCR method. Five hundred and seven blood donors found HBsAg negative by immunochromatographic rapid test kits at both blood transfusion units, were tested for HBsAg using ELISA and 5 (1 %) were HBsAg positive. The 502 found negative were tested for anti-HBc and 354 (70.5 %) were found positive implying previous exposure to HBV and 19 (5.4 %) of the 354 anti-HBc positive had HBV DNA signifying occult HBV infection. No risk factors were found to be associated with the presence of HBV DNA among those who tested positive. Occult HBV infection exists in blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria and the use of HBsAg alone for screening prospective donors will not eliminate the risk of HBV transmission in blood transfusion or stem cell transplantation.

  2. Işık ve Optik Konuları ile İlgili Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Kavramsal Anlama Düzeyleri

    Neşet DEMİRCİ


    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı üniversite öğrencilerinin ışık ve optik konuları ile ilgili kavramsal anlama düzeylerini belirlemektir. Bu çalışma, Türkiye’nin farklı bölgelerinde bulunan dört adet üniversiteden (Balıkesir Üniversitesi, Atatürk Üniversitesi, Dicle Üniversitesi ve Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi toplam 252 kişi ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmaya katılan öğrencilerin ışık ve optik konularıyla ilgili kavramsal anlama düzeylerini belirlemek amacıyla; görüntü oluşumu, yansıma, kırılma, ince kenarlı ve kalın kenarlı mercekler, polarizasyon, tek yarıkta kırınım ve çift yarıkta girişim konularını kapsayan optik kavram testi kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizi sonucunda, üniversite öğrencilerinin ışık ve optik konularında (görüntü oluşumu, yansıma, kırılma, ince kenarlı ve kalın kenarlı mercekler, polarizasyon, tek yarıkta kırınım ve çift yarıkta girişim birçok problemleri olduğu ve öğrencilerin kavramsal anlama düzeylerinin de düşük olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Kavramsal anlama düzeylerinin düşük olmasında öğrencilerin sahip oldukları kavram yanılgılarının büyük etkisinin olduğu düşünülmektedir.

  3. Yerleşime uygunluğun Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri (CBS ile sorgulanması, Esenler (İstanbul örneği

    T. Fikret Kurnaz


    Full Text Available Yerleşim alanlarının planlamalarında, zemin özellikleri açısından güvenli ve riskli olan bölgelerin tespit edilmesinin gerekliliği, özellikle deprem, heyelan vb. doğal afetler göz önüne alındığında oldukça önem arz etmektedir. Özellikle 1999 Marmara depreminde yaşanan kayıpların ardından, ülkemizde yeni yerleşim alanlarının seçiminde ve mevcut yerleşim alanlarının kullanım açısından planlanmasında, Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri’nden (CBS yararlanılarak hazırlanan çalışmalar etkin bir rol almaktadır. CBS’nin sağladığı en önemli avantajlarından birisi, oluşturulan veri tabanları içinde farklı türde sorgulamalar yapılabilmesidir. Bu çalışmada, İstanbul’un Avrupa yakasında yer alan Esenler ilçesinin zemin özellikleri jeolojik, jeofizik ve jeoteknik verilerin bir arada kullanımı ile araştırılmış ve yerleşime uygunluk durumu CBS’nin sorgulama özelliği ile değerlendirilmiştir. Bu değerlendirmede, ilçe zeminlerine ait SPT-N30 darbe sayıları, kayma dalgası hızları (Vs, yerel zemin sınıfları, taşıma gücü (qnet, zemin büyütme ve yamaç stabilite durumları kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre, ilçenin kuzey kesimleri, yerleşime uygunluk açısından güney kesimlere oranla çok daha güvenilir jeoteknik koşullara sahiptir.

  4. Frequency of estrus in Santa Inês, Texel and Ile de France ewes in the northwest of Paraná State, Brazil

    Gentil Vanini de Moraes


    Full Text Available The incidence of estrus in nulliparous Santa Inês (n = 16, Texel (n = 16 and Ile de France (n = 15 ewes fed two levels of crude protein (CP, 12 or 16% was monitored from July 2005 to December 2006, and seasonality in the Santa Inês breed in the south of Brazil was characterized. The solar radiation data were recorded daily, and samples of blood were collected biweekly for determination of the plasma concentration of progesterone in Santa Inês lambs at, on average, 11±1 months of age. The female Santa Inês lambs, in the experimental period, stayed among teaser rams with a powdered-dye-ink mixture placed on their chest to mark the females that accepted to be mounted. Santa Inês ewes did not manifest estrus in the first fortnight of November and in December 2005, nor in the last fortnight of December 2006. Estrus activity was not observed on any of the three breeds in October 2006. Breeds differed at the level of 12% CP. Santa Inês and Ile de France females did not differ as for the probability estrus manifestation and both presented higher probabilities then Texel. When the effect of 12 or 16% CP on each breed was evaluated separately, it was verified that levels of 12 or 16% of crude protein did not change the probability of estrus manifestation in any of the studied breeds. The concentration of plasma progesterone in Santa Inês ewes during the spring of 2005 and 2006 indicated that there is difference between 12% CP (0.68±1.32 ng/mL and 16% CP (1.28±1.99 ng/mL and between the years 2005 (0.39±0.78 ng/mL and 2006 (1.47±2.08 ng/mL, demonstrating the anestrous seasonality of Santa Inês in South Brazil.

  5. A clinical study on the efficacy of natural therapeutic factors in Băile Tuşnad for the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients

    Gabriela Dogaru


    Full Text Available Introduction. Stroke is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hypotonic carbonated mineral waters in Băile Tușnad are used for their peripheral and cerebral vasodilator effects in the prophylaxis, therapy and rehabilitation of cardiovascular patients. Objectives. The aim of the clinical study was to assess the efficacy of natural therapeutic factors in Băile Tușnad for continuing the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients in a spa and climatic resort for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Methods. The study included 30 patients with a history of stroke, aged between 56 and 89 years, with a mean age of 69 years, at the Facility Treatment of the Tușnad Spa Complex SA, in the period April-December 2014. The clinical study was a prospective longitudinal analysis. Of all 30 patients, 50% had ischemic stroke, 43% transient cerebral ischemic attack, and 7% hemorrhagic stroke. Hemiparesis was the most frequent clinical sign, followed by coordination, balance and gait disorders. Patients attended rehabilitation treatment consisting of kinesiotherapy, carbonated mineral water baths for 15 minutes, aerotherapy for 30 minutes daily, massotherapy, performed daily for 16 days. Each patient was clinically assessed before and after treatment based on the TINETTI Balance Scale, the 10-m walk test, the Motor Assessment Scale, the BARTHEL Index, adverse reactions. Results. At the end of treatment, an improvement in the walking speed, a statistically significant improvement in the quality of gait were observed, p < 0.05. Statistically significant results p<0.05 were also obtained for balance. On the Motor Assessment Scale, by comparing the means before and after treatment with the paired T test, a statistically significant value p<0.05 was obtained. When evaluating the patients’ performance for 10 activities of daily living depending on the need for external assistance, using the Barthel Index, the value of p <0.05 was

  6. Review of the sanitary state of coniferous forests in windfall places in the Ile-Alatau National park (Kazakhstan in 2011–2015

    Vladimir L. Kazenas


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study on the species composition of stem pests- insects and limitation of their number, carried out in the Ile-Alatau State National Park (Kazakhstan in 2011–2015. The reason for this study was a windfall, which occurred in 2011 in the National Park and followed a few years later by forest fires. These emergencies created a favourable environment for the reproduction of stem pests. The management of the Ile-Alatau National Park, together with the Institute of Zoology of the MES, has taken the necessary measures to investigate the species composition of the pests, their natural regulators and to conduct protective measures in the hotbeds of xylophages mass production. At the same time consultations and joint research with scientists from Kazakhstan, Russia, Kyrgyzstan and the Czech Republic were held. The monitoring of the state of forests started in 2011. The composition of species and number of xylophagous pests has been carried out. In the 2011–2015-surveys 48 species of stem pests, belonging to three orders of the class of insects, were found: Hemiptera, or Bugs (1 species, 1 family, Coleoptera, or Beetles (42 species, 5 families, Hymenoptera (5 species, 1 family. During all the years of research the Hauzer bark beetle Ips hauseri and the longhorn beetle ribbed ragy Rhagium inquisitor dominated numerically. Slightly less Orthotomicus suturalis and the kyrgyzstan micrograph Pityophthorus kirgisicus were found. Besides, the study of diseases of stem pests and their entomophages (predators and parasites was carried out, which is a prerequisite for carrying out forest-pathological examinations. In total 53 species, from five classes, eleven orders and 27 families of invertebrates have been revealed. Most of them belong to the class of insects, others to spiders and centipedes. On several species of bark beetles and longhorn beetles an entomopathogenic fungus – white muscardine Beauveria bassiana was

  7. Lif Takviyeli Plastik Levhalar ile Güçlendirilmiş Betonarme Kirişlerde Arayüz Gerilmelerini Etkileyen Parametreler

    Barış Sayın


    Full Text Available Betonarme kirişlerin, dıştan FRP (Lif Takviyeli Plastik levhalarla güçlendirilmesi, güçlendirmede etkin bir yöntem olarak kabul edilmektedir. Yöntem, FRP malzemesinin, yüksek dayanım-ağırlık oranı, iyi korozyon direnci, farklı kesit şekilleri ve köşelere uygulanabilirlik avantajlarından dolayı kullanılır olmuştur. Konuyla ilgili birçok çalışma 1990'lı yılların başlarından itibaren yürütülmüştür. Gerçekleştirilecek olan çalışma kapsamında, FRP ile güçlendirilen betonarme kirişlerin arayüz gerilmelerini etkileyen parametreler deneysel ve nümerik olarak incelenecektir. FRP'nin kirişe uygulanmasında kullanılan yapıştırıcı kalınlığı, yapıştırıcı türü ve beton yüzeyinin durumu, üretilen deney numuneleri üzerinde eğilme etkisine maruz bırakılarak mukayeseli olarak incelenecektir. Sonrasında, ANSYS® WB sonlu elemanlar programı kullanılarak FRP'li betonarme kirişler modellenecek ve analizler gerçekleştirilecektir. Yapıştırıcı kalınlığı, yapıştırıcı türü, beton yüzeyi parametreleri girilerek yapılacak analizler neticesinde gerilme değerleri elde edilecektir. Böylece, analitik ifadelerde yer alan kayma gerilmesi ve normal gerilme bağıntılarının modifiye edilmesi gerekliliği ortaya konulacaktır. Sonlu eleman analizleri ile deneysel sonuçlar karşılaştırılacak, uyumluluğu irdelenip, sonuçlar ve önerilerin sunulması suretiyle çalışma tamamlanacaktır.

  8. Two dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of patients presenting at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile Ife Nigeria a prospective study of 2501 subjects

    Adebayo RA


    Full Text Available Rasaaq Ayodele Adebayo,1 Patience Olayinka Akinwusi,2 Michael Olabode Balogun,1 Anthony Olubunmi Akintomide,1 Victor Oladeji Adeyeye,1 Olugbenga Olusola Abiodun,1 Luqman Adeleke Bisiriyu,3 Suraj Adefabi Ogunyemi,1 Ebenezer Adekunle Ajayi,4 Olufemi Eyitayo Ajayi,1 Adebayo Tolulope Oyedeji5 1Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, 2Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, 3Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, 4Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, 5Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria Background: Echocardiography remains a key noninvasive cardiac investigative tool in the management of patients, especially in a developing economy like Nigeria. In this study, we investigated the indications for transthoracic echocardiography and spectrum of cardiac disease found in patients referred to our cardiac unit for echocardiography. Methods: A prospective two-dimensional, pulsed, continuous, and color-flow Doppler echocardiographic evaluation was done using the transthoracic approach in 2501 patients over an eight-year period. Univariate data analysis was performed for mean age, gender, clinical indications, and diagnoses. Results: The subject age range was less than 12 months to 97 years (mean 52.39 years. There were 1352 (54.06% males and 1149 (45.94% females. The most common indication for echocardiography was hypertension (52.1% followed by congestive cardiac failure (13.9%. Others were for screening (6.1%, arrhythmias (5%, cerebrovascular disease (5%, chest pain (3.3%, chronic kidney disease (3.2%, congenital heart disease (2.6%, cardiomyopathy (1.8%, rheumatic heart disease (1.7%, diabetes mellitus (1.3%, thyrocardiac disease (1.2%, ischemic heart

  9. Technical Note: New ground-based FTIR measurements at Ile de La Réunion: observations, error analysis, and comparisons with independent data

    C. Senten


    Full Text Available Ground-based high spectral resolution Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR solar absorption spectroscopy is a powerful remote sensing technique to obtain information on the total column abundances and on the vertical distribution of various constituents in the atmosphere. This work presents results from two FTIR measurement campaigns in 2002 and 2004, held at Ile de La Réunion (21° S, 55° E. These campaigns represent the first FTIR observations carried out at a southern (subtropical site. They serve the initiation of regular, long-term FTIR monitoring at this site in the near future. To demonstrate the capabilities of the FTIR measurements at this location for tropospheric and stratospheric monitoring, a detailed report is given on the retrieval strategy, information content and corresponding full error budget evaluation for ozone (O3, methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, carbon monoxide (CO, ethane (C2H6, hydrogen chloride (HCl, hydrogen fluoride (HF and nitric acid (HNO3 total and partial column retrievals. Moreover, we have made a thorough comparison of the capabilities at sea level altitude (St.-Denis and at 2200 m a.s.l. (Maïdo. It is proved that the performances of the technique are such that the atmospheric variability can be observed, at both locations and in distinct altitude layers. Comparisons with literature and with correlative data from ozone sonde and satellite (i.e., ACE-FTS, HALOE and MOPITT measurements are given to confirm the results. Despite the short time series available at present, we have been able to detect the seasonal variation of CO in the biomass burning season, as well as the impact of particular biomass burning events in Africa and Madagascar on the atmospheric composition above Ile de La Réunion. We also show that differential measurements between St.-Denis and Maïdo provide useful information about the concentrations in the boundary layer.


    Rafiq, Muhammad; Abbas, Qamar; Saleem, Muhammad; Hanif, Muhammad; Lee, Ki Hwan; Seo, Sung-Yum


    A series of aralkanoic acids was converted into aralkanoic acid hydrazides through their esters formation. The aralkanoic acid hydrazides upon treatment with carbon disulfide and methanolic potassium hydroxide yielded potassium dithiocarbazinate salts, which on refluxing with aqueous hydrazine hydrate yielded 5-aralkyl-4-amino-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazoles. The target compounds, 3-aralkyl-6-(substitutedquinolinyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles, were synthesized by condensing various quinolinyl substituted carboxylic acids with 5-aralkyl-4-amino-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazoles in phosphorus oxychloride. The structures of the newly synthesized triazolothiadiazoles were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis studies. The structure of one of the 5-aralkyl-4-amino-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazoles was unambiguously deduced by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities. Four of the triazolothiadiazoles exhibited excellent acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities as compared to the reference inhibitor.

  11. Bispektral İndeks (BIS ile total intravenöz anestezi derinliği izlemi; propofol ajan tüketimi, derlenme kriterleri ve farkında olmaya etkisi

    Aynur Özensoy


    Full Text Available Amaç. Bispektral İndeks (BIS ile anestezi derinliği izlemenin, kullanılan total intravenöz anestezik madde tüketimi ve derlenme kriterleri ve farkında olmaya etkisini araştırmak araştırmak üzere planlandı. Yöntem. Genel anestezi ile kolesistektomi planlanan, 20-60 yaş arası, ASA I-III, 60 hasta çalışmaya alındı. Olgular rasgele 2 gruba ayrıldı. Bispektral indeks monitörizasyonu ile izlenen grup; Grup BIS, hemodinamik parametrelerle izlenen grup; Grup Kontrol olarak sınıflandırıldı. Her iki grupta da anestezi indüksiyonunda 1μg/kg remifentanil uygulandı. Kontrol grubunda propofol 2mg/kg, BIS grubunda BIS 40-60 arasında olacak şekilde ayarlandı; 0,6mg/kg-1 rocuronyum ile hastalar kürarize edildi. Anestezi idamesi propofol ve remifentanil ile yapıldı. Toplam propofol tüketimi, ekstübasyon zamanı ve farkında olma kaydedildi. Bulgular. Demografik veriler gruplar arasında benzerdi. BIS grubunda propofol tüketimi (p<0,05, anlamlı olarak düşük bulundu. Ekstübasyon zamanı BIS grubunda daha kısa bulundu (p<0,05, farkında olma açısından gruplar arasında fark bulunmadı. Her iki grup, kalp atım hızları, ortalama arteriyel basınçları ve hastanede kalış süreleri bakımından benzerdi. Sonuç. ASA I-III laparoskopik kolesistektomi uygulanan hastalarda anestezi titrasyonunu hemodinamik parametrelere göre yapmanın yeterli olduğu ancak BIS ile monitörize takip etmenin fazla anestezik ajan kullanımını önlemeye ve anesteziden daha hızlı derlenmeye yardımcı olduğu kanısına varıldı.

  12. Simulating an Optimizing Model of Currency Substitution Simulating an Optimizing Model of Currency Substitution

    Leonardo Leiderman


    Full Text Available Simulating an Optimizing Model of Currency Substitution This paper reports simulations based on the parameter estimates of an intertemporal model of currency substitution under nonexpected utility obtained by Bufman and Leiderman (1991. Here we first study the quantitative impact of changes in the degree of dollarization and in the elasticity of currency substitution on government seigniorage. Then, when examine whether the model can account for the comovement of consumption growth and assets' returnr after the 1985 stabilization program, and in particular for the consumption boom of 1986-87. The results are generally encouraging for future applications of optimizing models of currencysubstitution to policy and practical issues.

  13. Capillary Electrophoresis of Substituted Benzoic Acids

    Mills, Nancy S.; Spence, John D.; Bushey, Michelle M.


    A series of substituted benzoic acids (SBAs) are prepared by students. The pKa shift, a result of the electron-withdrawing or electron-donating characteristics of the subsistent is examined in reference to the electrophoretic migration behavior of benzoic acid.

  14. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of 3-Substituted Pyridinium Salts

    Renom-Carrasco, Marc; Gajewski, Piotr; Pignataro, Luca; de Vries, Johannes G.; Piarulli, Umberto; Gennari, Cesare; Lefort, Laurent


    The use of an equivalent amount of an organic base leads to high enantiomeric excess in the asymmetric hydrogenation of N-benzylated 3-substituted pyridinium salts into the corresponding piperidines. Indeed, in the presence of Et3N, a Rh-JosiPhos catalyst reduced a range of pyridinium salts with ee

  15. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    Schrader, Kevin; Riedel, Marco; Eichert, Helmut


    For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  16. Trends in Autism Prevalence: Diagnostic Substitution Revisited

    Coo, Helen; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Lloyd, Jennifer E. V.; Kasmara, Liza; Holden, Jeanette J. A.; Lewis, M. E. Suzanne


    There has been little evidence to support the hypothesis that diagnostic substitution may contribute to increases in the administrative prevalence of autism. We examined trends in assignment of special education codes to British Columbia (BC) school children who had an autism code in at least 1 year between 1996 and 2004, inclusive. The proportion…

  17. 19 CFR 191.32 - Substitution drawback.


    ... provisions of the manufacturing drawback law, on the commercially interchangeable substituted merchandise is..., and liabilities of the predecessor; or (ii) The assets and other business interests of a division... drawback rights, whether vested or contingent. (3) Certifications and required evidence—(i) Records...

  18. Multisensory perceptual learning and sensory substitution.

    Proulx, Michael J; Brown, David J; Pasqualotto, Achille; Meijer, Peter


    One of the most exciting recent findings in neuroscience has been the capacity for neural plasticity in adult humans and animals. Studies of perceptual learning have provided key insights into the mechanisms of neural plasticity and the changes in functional neuroanatomy that it affords. Key questions in this field of research concern how practice of a task leads to specific or general improvement. Although much of this work has been carried out with a focus on a single sensory modality, primarily visual, there is increasing interest in multisensory perceptual learning. Here we will examine how advances in perceptual learning research both inform and can be informed by the development and advancement of sensory substitution devices for blind persons. To allow 'sight' to occur in the absence of visual input through the eyes, visual information can be transformed by a sensory substitution device into a representation that can be processed as sound or touch, and thus give one the potential to 'see' through the ears or tongue. Investigations of auditory, visual and multisensory perceptual learning can have key benefits for the advancement of sensory substitution, and the study of sensory deprivation and sensory substitution likewise will further the understanding of perceptual learning in general and the reverse hierarchy theory in particular. It also has significant importance for the developing understanding of the brain in metamodal terms, where functional brain areas might be best defined by the computations they carry out rather than by their sensory-specific processing role.

  19. Synthesis of enantiopure 3-substituted morpholines

    Bornholdt, Jan; Felding, Jakob; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard


    Enantiopure 3-substituted morpholines were assembled through ring-opening of a N-2-benzothiazolesulfonyl (Bts) activated aziridine with organocuprates followed by a ring annulation reaction with a vinylsulfonium salt under microwave conditions. Deprotection of the N-Bts group proceeds under very ...

  20. Formation enthalpies of peroxy-substituted silanes

    Dibrivnyi, V. N.; Pavlovskii, Yu. P.; van-Chin-Syan, Yu. Ya.


    Enthalpies of combustion and formation of four peroxy-substituted silanes containing one or several peroxide groups bonded directly to the silicon atom were determined experimentally. The [O-(Si)(O)] group contribution and the correction for the pair interaction of peroxide groups were determined.

  1. An efficient Biginelli one-pot synthesis of new benzoxazole-substituted dihydropyrimidinones and thiones catalysed by trifluoro acetic acid under solvent-free conditions

    D.Shobha; M.Adharvana Chari; K.H.Ahn


    An efficient synthesis of benzoxazole-substituted 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones(DHPMs)using trifluoro acetic acid as the catalyst for the first time from an aldehyde,β-keto ester and benzoxazole-substituted urea/thiourea under solvent-free conditions is described.Compared to the classical Biginelli reaction conditions,this new method consistently has the advantage of excellent yields(80-91%)and short reaction time(40-130 min)at reflux temperature.

  2. Direct Nucleophilic Substitution of Free Allylic Alcohols in Water Catalyzed by FeCl3⋅6 H2O: Which is the Real Catalyst?

    Trillo Alarcón, María Paz; Baeza, Alejandro; Nájera Domingo, Carmen


    The allylic substitution reaction, and particularly the direct allylic amination reaction, of free allylic alcohols in water catalyzed by FeCl3⋅6 H2O is described. This novel environmentally-friendly methodology allows the use of a wide variety of nitrogenated nucleophiles such as sulfonamides, carbamates, benzamides, anilines, benzotriazoles, and azides, generally giving good yields of the corresponding substitution products. The synthetic applicability of the process is also demonstrated be...

  3. One-pot synthesis of tri-and tetra-substituted imidazoles using sodium dihydrogen phosphate under solvent-free conditions

    Zahed Karimi-Jaberi; Mohammad Barekat


    Sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4) efficiently catalyzes the condensation reaction of benzil,aldehydes,amines and ammonium acetate in a four-component reaction under solvent-free conditions.The reaction proceeds rapidly and affords the corresponding tetra-substituted imidazoles in high yields.Also an efficient route was developed for the synthesis of tri-substituted imidazoles from condensation of benzil,aldehydes and ammonium acetate using NaH2PO4.

  4. A General Method for Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution of Aryl Fluorides and Chlorides with Dimethylamine using Hydroxide-Assisted Decomposition of N,N-Dimethylforamide.

    Garcia, Juana; Sorrentino, Jacob; Diller, Emily J; Chapman, Daniel; Woydziak, Zachary R

    A practical and convenient procedure for the nucleophilic aromatic substitution of aryl fluorides and chlorides with dimethylamine was developed using a hydroxide assisted, thermal decomposition of N,N-dimethylforamide. These conditions are tolerant of nitro, nitrile, aldehyde, ketone, and amide groups but will undergo acyl substitution to form amides for methyl esters and acyl chlorides. Isolated yields of the products range from 44 - 98%, with the majority being greater than 70% for seventeen examples.

  5. Fe-catalyzed novel domino isomerization/cyclodehydration of substituted 2-[(indoline-3-ylidene)(methyl)]benzaldehyde derivatives: an efficient approach toward benzo[b]carbazole derivatives.

    Paul, Kartick; Bera, Krishnendu; Jalal, Swapnadeep; Sarkar, Soumen; Jana, Umasish


    A new and efficient protocol to synthesize substituted benzo[b]carbazole derivatives has been demonstrated involving iron-catalyzed domino isomerization/cyclodehydration sequences from substituted 2-[(indoline-3-ylidene)(methyl)]benzaldehyde derivatives. The substrates could be easily made via Pd-catalyzed domino Heck-Suzuki coupling from 2-bromo-N-propargylanilide derivatives in high yields. Notably, the generality and efficiency of this two-stage domino strategy was further exemplified by the synthesis of a polycyclic benzofuran derivative.

  6. Further evidence for the association of the NPSR1 gene A/T polymorphism (Asn107Ile) with impulsivity and hyperactivity.

    Laas, Kariina; Eensoo, Diva; Paaver, Marika; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Reif, Andreas; Harro, Jaanus


    Administration of neuropeptide S (NPS) elicits anxiolysis, arousal and higher activity in rodents. In humans, the NPS receptor (NPSR1) gene rs324981 A/T (Asn(107)Ile) polymorphism is associated with fear responses and anxiety. We have recently revealed an association of NPSR1 with impulsivity-related traits and psychopathology. In the present study the association of the NPSR1 genotype with impulsivity and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms was re-examined in two independent non-clinical cohorts. We used self-reports of two population-derived samples of the Estonian Psychobiological Study of Traffic Behaviour (EPSTB): a community car driving sample (n=491, MAge=37) and a driving school student sample (n=773, MAge=24). Impulsivity was measured with the Adaptive and Maladaptive Impulsivity Scale (AMIS) in both samples, and with the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) in driving schools only. For the latter sample, also measurement of ADHD symptoms was carried out with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). NPSR1 T-allele carriers had higher scores of impulsivity, motor restlessness and total ADHD scores. The effect on impulsivity originated from male participants but for ADHD symptoms the association was independent of sex. Thus we have confirmed in two additional population-derived samples that the T-allele of the NPSR1 rs324981 polymorphism is associated with increased impulsivity and ADHD-related traits. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Rational improvement of gp41-targeting HIV-1 fusion inhibitors: an innovatively designed Ile-Asp-Leu tail with alternative conformations

    Zhu, Yun; Su, Shan; Qin, Lili; Wang, Qian; Shi, Lei; Ma, Zhenxuan; Tang, Jianchao; Jiang, Shibo; Lu, Lu; Ye, Sheng; Zhang, Rongguang


    Peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) of HIV gp41 have been developed as effective fusion inhibitors against HIV-1, but facing the challenges of enhancing potency and stability. Here, we report a rationally designed novel HIV-1 fusion inhibitor derived from CHR-derived peptide (Trp628~Gln653, named CP), but with an innovative Ile-Asp-Leu tail (IDL) that dramatically increased the inhibitory activity by up to 100 folds. We also determined the crystal structures of artificial fusion peptides N36- and N43-L6-CP-IDL. Although the overall structures of both fusion peptides share the canonical six-helix bundle (6-HB) configuration, their IDL tails adopt two different conformations: a one-turn helix with the N36, and a hook-like structure with the longer N43. Structural comparison showed that the hook-like IDL tail possesses a larger interaction interface with NHR than the helical one. Further molecular dynamics simulations of the two 6-HBs and isolated CP-IDL peptides suggested that hook-like form of IDL tail can be stabilized by its binding to NHR trimer. Therefore, CP-IDL has potential for further development as a new HIV fusion inhibitor, and this strategy could be widely used in developing artificial fusion inhibitors against HIV and other enveloped viruses.

  8. Current status of soil-transmitted helminthiases among pre-school and school-aged children from Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

    Sowemimo, O A; Asaolu, S O


    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminths among pre-school and school-aged children attending nursery and primary schools in Ile-Ife. Single stool samples were collected between January and March, 2009 from 352 children randomly selected from a total of 456 children attending both private and government schools. The stool samples were processed using the modified Kato-Katz technique, and then examined for the eggs of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). One hundred and twenty-one (34.4%) samples were positive for STH eggs. The overall prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm were 33.2%, 3.7% and 0.9%, respectively. The prevalence of STH infection in government schools (47.8%) was significantly higher than in private schools (16.1%) (P Ife and that the burden of parasitic infections is greater in government schools than in private schools.

  9. Novel nonsense mutation (p.Ile411Metfs*12) in the SLC19A2 gene causing Thiamine Responsive Megaloblastic Anemia in an Indian patient.

    Manimaran, Paramasivam; Subramanian, Veedamali S; Karthi, Sellamuthu; Gandhimathi, Krishnan; Varalakshmi, Perumal; Ganesh, Ramasamy; Rathinavel, Andiappan; Said, Hamid M; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem


    Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia (TRMA), an autosomal recessive disorder, is caused by mutations in SLC19A2 gene encodes a high affinity thiamine transporter (THTR-1). The occurrence of TRMA is diagnosed by megaloblastic anemia, diabetes mellitus, and sensorineural deafness. Here, we report a female TRMA patient of Indian descent born to 4th degree consanguineous parents presented with retinitis pigmentosa and vision impairment, who had a novel homozygous mutation (c.1232delT/ter422; p.Ile411Metfs*12) in 5th exon of SLC19A2 gene that causes premature termination of hTHTR-1. PROSITE analysis predicted to abrogate GPCRs family-1 signature motif in the variant by this mutation c.1232delT/ter422, suggesting uncharacteristic rhodopsin function leading to cause RP clinically. Thiamine transport activity by the clinical variant was severely inhibited than wild-type THTR-1. Confocal imaging had shown that the variant p.I411Mfs*12 is targeted to the cell membrane and showed no discrepancy in membrane expression than wild-type. Our findings are the first report, to the best of our knowledge, on this novel nonsense mutation of hTHTR-1 causing TRMA in an Indian patient through functionally impaired thiamine transporter activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Family history of immigration from a tuberculosis endemic country and low family income are associated with a higher BCG vaccination coverage in Ile-de-France region, France.

    Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Chauvin, Pierre; Le Strat, Yann; Soler, Marion; Fonteneau, Laure; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel


    After withdrawal of multipuncture BCG device from the French market in January 2006, vaccination coverage (VC) with the intradermal device has dropped and since remained sub-optimal in Ile-de-France, the only region of mainland France where BCG is recommended to all children. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify socio-economic factors associated with BCG VC in children of Paris metropolitan area born after January 2006. Two-stage random sampling was used to include 425 children up to 5 years old from Paris and its suburbs. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews and vaccination status confirmed by a vaccination document. Poisson regression analyzed the association between VC and potential determinants. VC of children from families with the lowest incomes (first quartile of family income/consumption unit (CU) (history of immigration, regardless of family income, are correctly identified as being at high risk of tuberculosis and properly vaccinated with BCG in this area.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two weevils, Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis and E. brandti: conserved genome arrangement in Curculionidae and deficiency of tRNA-Ile gene

    Liu Zhen-Kai


    Full Text Available The weevils Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis and Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, are two of the most important pests of the tree-of-heaven, Ailanthus altissima, which is found throughout China. In this study, the complete mitogenomes of the two weevils have been sequenced using Illumina HiSeqTM 2000. The mitogenomes of E. chinensis and E. brandti are 15,628bp and 15,597bp long with A+T contents of 77.7% and 76.6%, respectively. Both species have typical circular mitochondrial genomes that encode 36 genes. Except the deficiency of tRNA-Ile, the gene composition and order of E. chinensis and E. brandti are identical to the inferred ancestral gene arrangement of insects. In both mitochondrial genomes, the start codons for COI and ND1 are AAT and TTG, respectively. A5bp motif (TACTA is detected in intergenic region between the tRNA-Ser (UCN and ND1 genes. The ATP8/ATP6 and ND4L/ND4 gene pairs appear to overlap four or seven nucleotides (ATAA/ATGATAA in different reading frames. The complete sequences of AT-rich region have two regions including tandem repeats. The study identifies useful genetic markers for studying the population genetics, molecular identification and phylogeographics of Eucryptorrhynchus weevils. The features of the mitochondrial genomes are expected to be valuable in

  12. Does L to D-amino acid substitution trigger helix→sheet conformations in collagen like peptides adsorbed to surfaces?

    Velmurugan, Punitha; Jonnalagadda, Raghava Rao; Sankaranarayanan, Kamatchi; Dhathathreyan, Aruna


    The present work reports on the structural order, self assembling behaviour and the role in adsorption to hydrophilic or hydrophobic solid surfaces of modified sequence from the triple helical peptide model of the collagenase cleavage site in type I collagen (Uniprot accession number P02452 residues from 935 to 970) using (D)Ala and (D)Ile substitutions as given in the models below: Model-1: GSOGADGPAGAOGTOGPQGIAGQRGVV GLOGQRGER. Model-2: GSOGADGP(D)AGAOGTOGPQGIAGQRGVVGLOGQRGER. Model-3: GSOGADGPAGAOGTOGPQG(D)IAGQRGVVGLOGQRGER. Collagenase is an important enzyme that plays an important role in degrading collagen in wound healing, cancer metastasis and even in embryonic development. However, the mechanism by which this degradation occurs is not completely understood. Our results show that adsorption of the peptides to the solid surfaces, specifically hydrophobic triggers a helix to beta transition with order increasing in peptide models 2 and 3. This restricts the collagenolytic behaviour of collagenase and may find application in design of peptides and peptidomimetics for enzyme-substrate interaction, specifically with reference to collagen and other extra cellular matrix proteins.

  13. Estudo alométrico dos tecidos da carcaça de cordeiros Santa Inês puros ou mestiços com Texel, Ile de France e Bergamácia Allometric study on carcass tissues from purebred Santa Inês lambs or crossbred with Texel, Ile de France and Bergamácia

    Iraides Ferreira Furusho Garcia


    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 103 cordeiros, machos e fêmeas, Santa Inês puros (SS e mestiços com Texel (TS, Ile de France (FS e Bergamácia (BS confinados individualmente e abatidos aos 15, 25, 35 ou 45 kg de peso vivo. Após abate e resfriamento da carcaça, foram separados os cortes comerciais pescoço, costela/fralda, costeleta, lombo, paleta e perna, os quais foram dissecados em músculo, osso e gordura. O crescimento alométrico de cada tecido da meia-carcaça foi avaliado em relação ao peso da carcaça fria e os tecidos da perna, do lombo e da paleta em relação ao peso do corte. O desenvolvimento do músculo na meia-carcaça nos machos Santa Inês, Santa Inês × Texel e Santa Inês × Ile de France e nas fêmeas Santa Inês e Santa Inês × Texel foi semelhante ao do peso vivo vazio (coeficiente alométrico (b = 1, enquanto, nos machos Bergamácia e nas fêmeas Ile de France e Bergamácia, foi precoce (b1 em todos os grupos, com exceção da gordura da paleta nos machos BS, cujo desenvolvimento foi semelhante ao do corte (b=1.This study was conducted using 103 male and female lambs from the following genetic groups: Santa Inês (SS purebred and Santa Inês × Texel (TS, Santa Inês × Ile de France (FS, and Santa Inês × Bergamacia (BS crossbred. The animals were slaughtered at the following body weights: 15, 25, 35 or 45 kg. After slaughter and cooling of the carcasses, the following cuts were made: neck, rib/flank, short ribs, loin, blade, and hind limb. The composition in muscle, bone and fat of cuts and ½ carcass were evaluated. The alometric growth of each tissue of the loin, shoulder and leg in relation to the cut weight, and of each tissue of the ½ carcass in relation to the cold carcass weight, was measured. The allometric growth of muscles in the ½ carcass, for BS males and FS and BS females, was early (b1, except shoulder fat in BS males, with isogonic growth (b=1. The growth rate of shoulder muscles in SS and FS males, SS and TS

  14. Crescimento alométrico dos componentes da carcaça de cordeiros Texel × Ile de France confinados do desmame aos 35kg de peso vivo Allometric growth of the carcass components of feedlot Texel × Ile de France crossbred lambs from weaning to 35kg live weight

    Diego Barcelos Galvani


    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o crescimento alométrico de ossos, músculos e gordura, e das regiões da carcaça de cordeiros Texel × Ile de France, terminados em confinamento. Vinte cordeiros, machos não-castrados, foram desmamados aos 42 dias de idade (15,9 ± 2,1kg de peso vivo e confinados em baias individuais recebendo alimentação ad libitum. Destes, cinco foram abatidos 10 dias após o desmame e, os remanescentes, aos 25, 30 ou 35kg de peso vivo. Para determinação do crescimento alométrico dos cortes e tecidos foi utilizada a equação exponencial Y = aXb, transformada logaritmicamente em um modelo linear. Observou-se crescimento precoce (b = 0,89 da paleta, ao passo que a perna, a costela e o pescoço apresentaram crescimento isogônico (b = 1,00, 1,03 e 1,11, respectivamente, ou seja, equivalente ao da carcaça. O aumento do peso da carcaça implicou em redução da taxa de crescimento de ossos e músculos (b = 0,60 e 0,92, respectivamente e aumento da taxa de crescimento da gordura (b = 1,78. O crescimento muscular foi diferenciado nas distintas regiões da carcaça, sendo isogônico na paleta (b = 0,98 e na perna (b = 0,99 e precoce na costela (b = 0,90 e no pescoço (b = 0,79. Recomenda-se que o abate de cordeiros Texel × Ile de France seja realizado com, no máximo, 30kg de peso vivo.Allometric growth of bone, muscle and fat, as well as of the carcass cuts of feedlot Texel × Ile de France crossbred lambs was evaluated. Twenty non-castrated male lambs weaned at 42 days of age (15.9 ± 2.1kg live weight were housed in individual stalls and fed ad libitum. Five lambs were slaughtered ten days after weaning, and the remaining were randomly assigned to one of three slaughter weights: 25, 30 and 35kg live weight. To determine allometric growth of individual cuts and tissues, exponential equation Y = aXb was logarithmically transformed and used. Shoulder presented early maturity (b = 0.89, whereas allometric growth of leg, rib and neck were

  15. SILAR yöntemi ile üretilen CuO filmlerin yapısal, morfolojik ve optik özelliklerine ikili katkılamanın (Zn, Li) etkisi


    Bu çalışmada katkısız CuO ve farklı konsantrasyonlarda Li-katkılı Li-ZnCuO filmler cam altlıklar üzerine SILAR yöntemi ile başarılı bir şekilde büyütüldü. Üretilen bu filmler metalurjik mikroskop (MM), X-ışını kırınımı (XRD) ve UV-Vis. spektroskopi ile karakterize edildi. MM sonuçları, CuO filmlerin morfolojisi üzerine Li-Zn ikili katkılama konsantrasyonunun önemli bir etkiye sahip olduğunu gösterdi. XRD verileri filmlerin nanoboyutta kristalize olduklarını ve kristallenme kalitesinin katkı k...

  16. Köpeklerde üriner sistem enfeksiyonunda ultrasonografik muayene sonuçları ile idrar analiz sonuçları arasındaki ilişkiler

    CINGI, Cenker Çağrı


    Bu çalışmada; idrar muayenesi ile ÜSE belirlenen köpeklerde idrarın fiziksel, kimyasal, mikroskobik ve mikrobiyolojik bulguları, ÜSE’den sorumlu bakteriler ve antibiyotik duyarlılıkları ile bu hastalarda üriner sistemdeki ultrasonografik bulguların yorumlanması amaçlanmıştır. Bu araştırma Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi İç Hastalıkları Anabilim Dalı Kliniğine getirilen, üriner sistem enfeksiyonu olabileceği düşünülen ve idrar örnek...

  17. Currency Substitution and the Regressivity of Inflationary Taxation Currency Substitution and the Regressivity of Inflationary Taxation

    Federico A. Sturzeneger


    Full Text Available Currency Substitution and the Regressivity of Inflationary Taxation The purpose of this paper is to show that in the presence of financial adaptation or currency substitution. the inflation tax is extremely regressive. This regressivity arises from the existence of a fixed cost of switching to inflation-proof transactions technologies. This fixed cost makes it optimal only for those agents with sufficiently high incomes to switch out of domestic currency. The effects are illustrated and quantified for a particular case.

  18. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    Gerlach Ralf


    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP, who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a

  19. Synthesis of BODIPY derivatives substituted with various bioconjugatable linker groups: a construction kit for fluorescent labeling of receptor ligands.

    Heisig, Fabian; Gollos, Sabrina; Freudenthal, Sven J; El-Tayeb, Ali; Iqbal, Jamshed; Müller, Christa E


    The goal of the present study was to design small, functionalized green-emitting BODIPY dyes, which can readily be coupled to target molecules such as receptor ligands, or even be integrated into their pharmacophores. A simple two-step one-pot procedure starting from 2,4-dimethylpyrrole and ω-bromoalkylcarboxylic acid chlorides was used to obtain new ω-bromoalkyl-substituted BODIPY fluorophores (1a-1f) connected via alkyl spacers of different length to the 8-position of the fluorescent dye. The addition of radical inhibitors reduced the amount of side products. The ω-bromoalkyl-substituted BODIPYs were further converted to introduce various functional groups: iodo-substituted dyes were obtained by Finkelstein reaction in excellent yields; microwave-assisted reaction with methanolic ammonia led to fast and clean conversion to the amino-substituted dyes; a hydroxyl-substituted derivative was prepared by reaction with sodium ethylate, and thiol-substituted BODIPYs were obtained by reaction of 1a-1f with potassium thioacetate followed by alkaline cleavage of the thioesters. Water-soluble derivatives were prepared by introducing sulfonate groups into the 2- and 6-position of the BODIPY core. The synthesized BODIPY derivatives showed high fluorescent yields and appeared to be stable under basic, reducing and oxidative conditions. As a proof of concept, 2-thioadenosine was alkylated with bromoethyl-BODIPY 1b. The resulting fluorescent 2-substituted adenosine derivative 15 displayed selectivity for the A3 adenosine receptor (ARs) over the other AR subtypes, showed agonistic activity, and may thus become a useful tool for studying A3ARs, or a lead structure for further optimization. The new functionalized dyes may be widely used for fluorescent labeling allowing the investigation of biological targets and processes.

  20. Regard sur la participation de populations marginalisées à la recherche-action. Le cas des squatteurs en Ile-de-France The participation of Marginalised populations in research-action: a case study of squatters in the Ile-de-France region (Paris and surrounding region

    Lionel Pourtau


    Full Text Available La recherche-action comporte deux caractéristiques principales : elle met en œuvre la collaboration entre plusieurs types d’acteurs et vise une transformation de la réalité sociale. Elle possède des forces et des faiblesses différentes de la recherche à objectif strictement cognitif. L’article rend compte d’une recherche-action menée par des sociologues, des intervenants sociaux et des populations vivant en squats en Ile-de-France. Les auteurs analysent les enjeux méthodologiques qui se sont posés sur ce terrain particulier relevant de la sociologie de la déviance. Ceux-ci sont liés, notamment, à la participation de chaque groupe d’acteurs aux différentes étapes de la recherche, à la présence d’intérêts différents portés par chacun d’entre eux, et à la conciliation entre les principes habituellement de rigueur dans l’enquête sociologique et les principes de la recherche-action.Research-Action has two main objectives: to allow different players to cooperate, and to transform social reality. This methodology has both the strengths and the weaknesses of strictly cognitive research. In this article, the authors discuss a research-action project which brought together sociologists, social workers and squatters from the Ile-de-France region (Paris and surrounding region. Methodological issues that arise specifically in the context of deviance are addressed, notably the participation of the different players at different stages of the research project, their different areas of interest, as well as the reconciliation between more conventional sociological research and the principles of research-action.