WorldWideScience

Sample records for yield nutrient uptake

  1. Nutrient Uptake by High-Yielding Cotton Crop in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís Vilela Vieira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Determining nutrient uptake and accumulation rates by cotton crops is important to define management strategies, especially for transgenic varieties, which are cultivated using high-technology approaches that require substantial investment to maximize yield. Currently in Brazil, the states of Bahia and Mato Grosso are responsible for 84.4 % of the total cotton growing area. In the present study, two trials were conducted in 2013, one that involved planting FM 940 GLT, FM 980 GLT, and FM 913 GLT varieties in the state of Bahia and the other which involved FM 940 GLT and FM 980 GLT varieties in the state of Mato Grosso. The aim of the two trials was to represent the two regions that currently encompass the largest areas of cotton cultivation. Tissue samples, consisting of leaves, stems, and reproductive components, were collected eleven times during the crop cycle for determination of nutrient content and shoot dry matter. After weighing, plant tissue samples were dried and ground to determine nutrient contents. Because there were no overall differences in nutrient contents and biomass accumulation of the varieties during the crop cycle, we undertook joint analysis of the data from all varieties at each site. Favorable climatic conditions in Bahia promoted plant biomass production that was twice as much as plants grown in Mato Grosso, with cotton yields of 6.2 and 3.8 t ha−1 of lint and seed, respectively. The maximum nutrient accumulation occurred between 137-150 days after emergence (DAE for N; 143-148 for P; 172-185 for K; 100 for Ca; 144-149 for Mg; and 153-158 for S. Maximum uptake ranged from 218-362 kg ha−1 N; 26-53 kg ha−1 P; 233-506 kg ha−1 K; 91-202 kg ha−1 Ca; 28-44 kg ha−1 Mg; and 19-61 kg ha−1 S. On average, the sites revealed nutrient export of 14, 2, 23, 3, 2, and 2 kg t−1 of lint and seed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S, respectively, with little variation among sites. Extraction of nutrients per area by cotton

  2. Impacts of industrial waste resources on maize (Zea mays L.) growth, yield, nutrients uptake and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satnam; Young, Li-Sen; Shen, Fo-Ting; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2014-10-01

    Discharging untreated highly acidic (pH10.0) paper-mill wastewater (PW) causes environmental pollution. When acidity of MW neutralized (pH 6.5±0.1) with PW and lime (treatments represented as MW+PW and MW+Lime), then MW may be utilized as a potential source of nutrients and organic carbon for sustainable food production. Objectives of this study were to compare the effects of PW and lime neutralized MW and chemical fertilizers on maize (Zea mays L. cv. Snow Jean) plant growth, yield, nutrients uptake, soil organic matter and humic substances. The field experiment was carried out on maize using MW at 6000 L ha(-1). Impacts of the MW application on maize crop and soil properties were evaluated at different stages. At harvest, plant height, and plant N and K uptake were higher in MW treatment. Leaf area index at 60 days after sowing, plant dry matter accumulation at harvest, and kernels ear(-1) and 100-kernel weight were higher in MW+Lime treatment. Kernel N, P, K, Mn, Fe and Zn, and plant Zn uptake were highest in MW+Lime. Plant Fe uptake, and soil organic matter and humic substances were highest in MW+PW. The MW+PW and MW+Lime treatments exhibited comparable results with chemically fertilized treatment. The MW acidity neutralized with lime showed positive impacts on growth, yield and nutrients uptake; nevertheless, when MW pH neutralized with PW has an additional benefit on increase in soil organic matter and humic substances. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Soil Fertility Status, Nutrient Uptake, and Maize (Zea mays L.) Yield Following Organic Matters and P Fertilizer Application on Andisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardi, S.; Harieni, S.; Anasrullah, A.; Purwanto, H.

    2017-04-01

    Objective of this study were to elucidate effects of organic matters and P fertilizer application on soil fertility status, nutrient uptake and maize yield in the Andisol. This experiment consisted of two factors. The first factor comprised of four levels of organic matters input (without organic matter, manure, rice straw, and Gliricidia sepium leaves), with the application dosage 10 t.ha-1 and the second factor comprised of three levels of P fertilizer application (without P addition (control), 50 kg P2O5 ha-1, 100 kg P2O5 ha-1). Results of this study showed that organic matters and P fertilizer application improved soil fertility status, especially pH, soil organic C, cation exchange capacity (CEC), available P which resulted in an increase in P uptake that improve yield of maize. The highest yield of maize (corn cob) was obtained through application Gliricida sepium (8.40 t.ha-1), followed by manure (6.02 t.ha-1) and rice straw (5.87 t.ha-1). Application of 50 kg P2O5 Ha-1 yield was (5.76 t.ha-1) and application of 100 Kg P2O5 Ha-1 yield was (6.12 t.ha-1).

  4. Effect of Pseudomonas and Bacillus bacteria on Yield and Nutrient Uptake in Comparison with Chemical and Organic Fertilizers in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fallah Nosrat Abad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of fertilizers in farming systems, soil pollution and degradation of soil are factors that caused to full use of available renewable nutrient sources of plant (organic and biological with optimal application of fertilizers in order to maintain fertility, structure, biological activity, exchange capacity and water-holding capacity of the water in soil. Therefore, in recent years, according to investigators biofertilizers and organic farming as an alternative to chemical fertilizers has been drawn. Through this study, we examined the effects of triple superphosphate, organic matters and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on quantitative and qualitative yield of wheat and nutrient uptake. The experiment was carried out in the factorial based on randomized complete block design. The factors were: 1-phosphate solubilizing bacteria in three levels including control, Pseudomonas Putida and Bacillus Coagulans bacteria, 2- triple superphosphate in five levels of 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% and 3-organic matter in 2 levels of 0 and 15 ton/ha in the soil with high phosphorous accessibility (13 mg/kg soil but lower than sufficient limit for plant 15 mg/kg soil. The results showed that the highest amount of yield has been recorded in Pseudomonas Putida bacteria treatment with organic matter and 25% phosphate fertilizer. As a result, at the conditions of this experiment phosphate solubilizing bacteria and organic matter significantly had higher yield than control and their combination with phosphate fertilizer had significant effect on reducing phosphate fertilizer use.

  5. Soil biota enhance agricultural sustainability by improving crop yield, nutrient uptake and reducing nitrogen leaching losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bender, S.F.; van der Heijden, M.G.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/240923901

    2015-01-01

    Efficient resource use is a key factor for sustainable production and a necessity for meeting future global food demands. However, the factors that control resource use efficiency in agro-ecosystems are only partly understood. We investigated the influence of soil biota on nutrient leaching,

  6. Effects of different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, nutrient uptake and oil content of sunflower under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Heidari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviating water stress is well documented. In order to study the effects of water stress and two different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, nutrient uptake and oil content of sunflower, a field experiment as split plot design with three replications was conducted in the Research Field Station, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran in 2011. Water stress treatments included control as 90% of field capacity (W1, 70% field capacity (W2 and 50% field capacity (W3 assigned to the main plots and two different mycorrhiza species, consisting of M1 = control (without any inoculation, M2 = Glumus mossea and M3 = Glumus etanicatum as sub plots. Results showed that by increasing water stress from control (W1 to W3 treatment, grain yield was significantly decreased. The reduction in the level of W3 was 15.05%. The content of potassium in seeds significantly decreased due to water stress but water stress upto W2 treatment increased the content of phosphorus, nitrogen and oil content of seeds. In between two species of mycorrhiza in sunflower plants, Glumus etanicatum had the highest effect on grain yield and these elements in seeds and increased both.

  7. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on tomato yield and nutrient uptake under different fertilization levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudovít Nedorost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the arbuscular mycorrhiza on tomato plants (Lycopersicon lycopersicum in the pot experiment was studied. Three different fertilization regimes (optimum – H1, stress a – H2, stress b - H3 and three different mycorrhizal treatments (control – Ctrl, Glomus mossae – Gm, Glomus intraradices – Gi were used. Economical parameter (yield, nutritional characteristic (vitamin C content, phosphates and minerals content, total antioxidant capacity, and level of root colonization were studied. The yield of the tomatoes was influenced by the basic dose of the fertilization, especially in the H2 and H3 treatment. The highest yield was in the H2 treatment in Gm (938 g per plant. The positive effect of the inoculation resulted in the increased content of the vitamin C. The highest significant influence was observed in the H2 treatment (plants inoculated with Gi with the average content of the vitamin C 289 mg.kg−1. The average rate of the colonization was in the range from 39 % to 65 %.

  8. Kinetics of phosphorus and potassium release from rock phosphate and waste mica enriched compost and their effect on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishanth, D; Biswas, D R

    2008-06-01

    An attempt was made to study the efficient use of rice straw and indigenous source of phosphorus and potassium in crop production through composting technology. Various enriched composts were prepared using rice straw, rock phosphate (RP), waste mica and bioinoculant (Aspergillus awamori) and kinetics of release of phosphorus and potassium from enriched composts and their effect on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum) were carried out. Results showed sharp increases in release in water-soluble P and K from all the composts at 8th to 12th day of leaching, thereafter, it decreased gradually. Maximum release of water-soluble P and K were obtained in ordinary compost than enriched composts during the initial stages of leaching, but their differences narrowed down at latter stages. Data in pot experiments revealed that enriched composts performed poorly than diammonium phosphate during initial stages of crop growth, but they out yielded at the latter stages, particularly at maturity stage, as evident from their higher yield, uptake, nutrient recoveries and fertility status of P and K in soils. Moreover, enriched composts prepared with RP and waste mica along with A. awamori resulted in significantly higher biomass yield, uptake and recoveries of P and K as well as available P and K in soils than composts prepared without inoculant. Results indicated that enriched compost could be an alternate technology for the efficient management of rice straw, low-grade RP and waste mica in crop production, which could help to reduce the reliance on costly chemical fertilizers.

  9. Influence of Poultry Manure Rates and Spacing on Growth, Yield, Nutrient Concentration , Uptake and Proximate Composition of Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehizogie Joyce FALODUN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant spacing determines to a greater extent crop performance in terms of growth and yield. The production of crop with organic fertilizer also plays a vital role in organic agriculture. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of spacing and poultry manure on the growth, yield and quality of onion. Three spacing regimes were carried out consisting of (15cm x 15 cm , 20 cm x 20 cm and 25 cm x 25 cm and four levels of poultry manure at ( 0, 5, 10 and 15 t /ha . The effects of spacing and poultry manure were evaluated for 2 years based on plant growth, yield, nutrient concentration, uptake and proximate composition of onion plant. Leaf thickness, bulb and shoot fresh weights were significantly increased by the wider spacing of 20 cm x 20 cm and 25 cm x 25 cm, compared with the narrower spacing of 15cm x 15 cm in both seasons. However, highest total dry yield (1.82 and 1.58 t /ha, shoot yield (2.31 and 1.32 t /ha and total fresh yield (13.69 and 12.55 t/ha were obtained with the spacing of 20cm x 20 cm in both years. Similarly, application of poultry manure increased leaf thickness, bulb and shoot fresh weights and yields compared with the control. Generally, using 10 t/ha poultry manure has a superior effect on proximate composition and most of growth parameters and yield components achieved the highest nutrient concentrations and uptake on most of the macro and micronutrients in leaves and bulbs as compared with the control in both years.

  10. Soil Nutrient Availability, Plant Nutrient Uptake, and Wild Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. Yield in Response to N-Viro Biosolids and Irrigation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitazaz A. Farooque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared the impact of surface broadcasted N-Viro biosolids and inorganic fertilizer (16.5% Ammonium sulphate, 34.5% Diammonium phosphate, 4.5% Potash, and 44.5% s and/or clay filler applications on soil properties and nutrients, leaf nutrient concentration, and the fruit yield of lowbush blueberry under irrigated and nonirrigated conditions during 2008-2009 at Debert, NS, Canada. Application rates of N-Viro biosolids were more than double of inorganic fertilizer applied at a recommended N rate of 32 kg ha−1. The experimental treatments NI: N-Viro with irrigation, FI: inorganic fertilizer with irrigation, N: N-Viro without irrigation, and F: inorganic fertilizer without irrigation (control were replicated four times under a randomized complete block design. The NI treatment had the highest OM (6.68% followed by FI (6.32%, N (6.18%, and F (4.43% treatments during the year 2008. Similar trends were observed during 2009 with the highest soil OM values (5.50% for NI treatment. Supplemental irrigation resulted in a 21% increase in the ripe fruit yield. Nonsignificant effect of fertilizer treatments on most of the nutrient concentrations in soil and plant leaves, and on ripe fruits yield reflects that the performance of N-Viro was comparable with that of the inorganic fertilizer used in this study.

  11. Application of AM Fungi with Bradyrhizobium japonicum in improving growth, nutrient uptake and yield of Vigna radiata L. under saline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Kadian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted under polyhouse conditions, to evaluate the effect of two different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (G. mosseae and A. laevis in combination with Bradyrhizobium japonicum on growth and nutrition of mungbean plant grown under different salt stress levels (4 dS m−1, 8dS m−1 and 12 dS m−1. It was found that under saline conditions, mycorrhizal fungi protect the host plant against the detrimental effect of salinity. The AM inoculated plants showed positive effects on plant growth, dry biomass production, chlorophyll content, mineral uptake, electrolyte leakage, proline, protein content and yield of mungbean plants in comparison to non-mycorrhizal ones but the extent of response varied with the increasing level of salinity. In general, the reduction in Na uptake along with associated increase in P, N, K, electrolyte leakage and high proline content were also found to be better in inoculated ones. The overall results demonstrate that the co-inoculation of microbes with AM fungi promotes salinity tolerance by enhancing nutrient acquisition especially phosphorus (P, producing plant growth hormones, improving rhizospheric and condition of soil by altering the physiological and biochemical properties of the mungbean plant.

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation, evaporation retardants and transpiration suppressants on grain yield, nutrient uptake and moisture-use efficiency on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, D.K.; Sen, Avijit; Misra, N.M.

    1988-01-01

    A field trial was conducted on 'Malaviya 37' bread wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn. emend. Fiori and Paol.) in 1982-83 and 1983-84. It included 4 dos es of gamma irradiation of seeds (0, 2.5, 4.5 and 6.5 kR) and 5 treatments of evaporation retardants and transpiration suppressants, viz. control, rice (Oryza sativa Linn.) straw, wheat straw, rice straw + phenyl mercuric acetate (150 ppm) and wheat straw + kaolin (6 per cent). Seed irradiation with gamma-rays at 6.5 kR and wheat straw + kaolin gave 11.76 and 61.37 per cent higher yield than the control respectively. For moisture-use efficiency and NPK uptake these treatments also showed the same trend. (author). 12 refs

  13. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizae on tomato yield, nutrient uptake, water relations, and soil carbon dynamics under deficit irrigation in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Timothy M; Barrios-Masias, Felipe H; Carlisle, Eli A; Cavagnaro, Timothy R; Jackson, Louise E

    2016-10-01

    Plant strategies to cope with future droughts may be enhanced by associations between roots and soil microorganisms, including arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. But how AM fungi affect crop growth and yield, together with plant physiology and soil carbon (C) dynamics, under water stress in actual field conditions is not well understood. The well-characterized mycorrhizal tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotype 76R (referred to as MYC+) and the mutant nonmycorrhizal tomato genotype rmc were grown in an organic farm with a deficit irrigation regime and control regime that replaced evapotranspiration. AM increased marketable tomato yields by ~25% in both irrigation regimes but did not affect shoot biomass. In both irrigation regimes, MYC+ plants had higher plant nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations (e.g. 5 and 24% higher N and P concentrations in leaves at fruit set, respectively), 8% higher stomatal conductance (gs), 7% higher photosynthetic rates (Pn), and greater fruit set. Stem water potential and leaf relative water content were similar in both genotypes within each irrigation regime. Three-fold higher rates of root sap exudation in detopped MYC+ plants suggest greater capacity for water uptake through osmotic driven flow, especially in the deficit irrigation regime in which root sap exudation in rmc was nearly absent. Soil with MYC+ plants also had slightly higher soil extractable organic C and microbial biomass C at anthesis but no changes in soil CO2 emissions, although the latter were 23% lower under deficit irrigation. This study provides novel, field-based evidence for how indigenous AM fungi increase crop yield and crop water use efficiency during a season-long deficit irrigation and thus play an important role in coping with increasingly limited water availability in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of farmers' practices of fertilizer application and land use types on subsequent maize yield and nutrient uptake in central Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saidou, A.; Kossou, D.; Acakpo, K.; Richards, P.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Four on-farm experiments in central Benin examined whether land-use succession and fertilizer treatments for prior cotton would sustain subsequent maize crop yields and achieve balanced plant nutrition. Treatments consisted of three prior land use successions, i.e. before planting maize (egusi

  15. Sensitivity analysis of a pulse nutrient addition technique for estimating nutrient uptake in large streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence Lin; J.R. Webster

    2012-01-01

    The constant nutrient addition technique has been used extensively to measure nutrient uptake in streams. However, this technique is impractical for large streams, and the pulse nutrient addition (PNA) has been suggested as an alternative. We developed a computer model to simulate Monod kinetics nutrient uptake in large rivers and used this model to evaluate the...

  16. Effect of gamma irradaition on growth and nutrients uptake of sorghum plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleiwa, M.E.; Rabie, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out using sandy calcareous soils to study the effects of gamma irradiating doses for sorghum seeds on dry matter yield and elemental uptake. Three cuttings were taken during the experiment every 40 days. Results showed that 4 Kr. dose was the best dose that caused significant higher increase of dry matter yield and nutrients uptake for three cuttings under both types of soil. Gamma irradiation doses at 8 Kr. and above all had an adverse affect on dry matter yield and nutrients uptake, especially under calcareous soil. (author)

  17. Microbial enzyme activity, nutrient uptake and nutrient limitation in forested streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian H. Hill; Frank H. McCormick; Bret C. Harvey; Sherri L. Johnson; Melvin L. Warren; Colleen M. Elonen

    2010-01-01

    The flow of organic matter and nutrients from catchments into the streams draining them and the biogeochemical transformations of organic matter and nutrients along flow paths are fundamental processes instreams (Hynes,1975; Fisher, Sponseller & Heffernan, 2004). Microbial biofilms are often the primary interface for organic matter and nutrient uptake and...

  18. Nutrient Partitioning and Stoichiometry in Unburnt Sugarcane Ratoon at Varying Yield Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Leite

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unraveling nutrient imbalances in contemporary agriculture is a research priority to improve whenever possible yield and nutrient use efficiency in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. systems while minimizing the costs of cultivation (e.g., use of fertilizers and environmental concerns. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate biomass and nutrient [nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K] content, partitioning, stoichiometry and internal efficiencies in sugarcane ratoon at varying yield levels. Three sites were established on highly weathered tropical soils located in the Southeast region of Brazil. At all sites, seasonal biomass and nutrient uptake patterns were synthesized from four sampling times taken throughout the sugarcane ratoon season. At all sites, in-season nutrient partitioning (in diverse plant components, internal efficiencies (yield to nutrient content ratio and nutrient ratios (N:P and N:K were determined at harvesting. Sugarcane exhibited three distinct phases of plant growth, as follows: lag, exponential-linear, and stationary. Across sites, nutrient requirement per unit of yield was 1.4 kg N, 0.24 kg P, and 2.7 kg K per Mg of stalk produced, but nutrient removal varied with soil nutrient status (based on soil plus fertilizer nutrient supply and crop demand (potential yield. Dry leaves had lower nutrient content (N, P, and K and broader N:P and N:K ratios when compared with tops and stalks plant fractions. Greater sugarcane yield and narrowed N:P ratio (6:1 were verified for tops of sugarcane when increasing both N and P content. High-yielding sugarcane systems were related to higher nutrient content and more balanced N:P (6:1 and N:K (0.5:1 ratios.

  19. Nutrient Exchange through Hyphae in Intercropping Systems Affects Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thun, Tim Von

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF) play a large role in the current understanding of the soil ecosystem. They increase nutrient and water uptake, improve soil structure, and form complex hyphal networks that transfer nutrients between plants within an ecosystem. Factors such as species present, the physiological balance between the plants in the…

  20. Interaction effect on nitrogen and sulfur on growth and nutrient uptake by maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaggi, R.C.; Aulakh, M.S.; Dev, G.

    1977-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was conducted in the greenhouse on an arid brown loamy sand deficient in both available N and S with maize (Ganga-5) as the test corp. Three levels of N (0, 30, 60 ppm) as NH 4 Cl in factorial combination with three levels of S (0, 10, 20 ppm) as Na 2 35 SO 4 were replicated thrice. Application of N upto 60 ppm S significantly increased dry matter yield and uptake of N and S by maize (stem + levels) and their combined application showed sinergistic effect for both yield and uptake of these nutrients. Maximum yield of dry matter and uptake of the nutrients were obtained with the application of 60 ppm N and 20 ppm S. The radioassay data corroborated the beneficial effect of N on the efficiency of applied S. (author)

  1. A dual porosity model of nutrient uptake by root hairs

    KAUST Repository

    Zygalakis, K. C.; Kirk, G. J. D.; Jones, D. L.; Wissuwa, M.; Roose, T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: • The importance of root hairs in the uptake of sparingly soluble nutrients is understood qualitatively, but not quantitatively, and this limits efforts to breed plants tolerant of nutrient-deficient soils. • Here, we develop a mathematical model of nutrient uptake by root hairs allowing for hair geometry and the details of nutrient transport through soil, including diffusion within and between soil particles. We give illustrative results for phosphate uptake. • Compared with conventional 'single porosity' models, this 'dual porosity' model predicts greater root uptake because more nutrient is available by slow release from within soil particles. Also the effect of soil moisture is less important with the dual porosity model because the effective volume available for diffusion in the soil is larger, and the predicted effects of hair length and density are different. • Consistent with experimental observations, with the dual porosity model, increases in hair length give greater increases in uptake than increases in hair density per unit main root length. The effect of hair density is less in dry soil because the minimum concentration in solution for net influx is reached more rapidly. The effect of hair length is much less sensitive to soil moisture. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. A dual porosity model of nutrient uptake by root hairs

    KAUST Repository

    Zygalakis, K. C.

    2011-08-09

    Summary: • The importance of root hairs in the uptake of sparingly soluble nutrients is understood qualitatively, but not quantitatively, and this limits efforts to breed plants tolerant of nutrient-deficient soils. • Here, we develop a mathematical model of nutrient uptake by root hairs allowing for hair geometry and the details of nutrient transport through soil, including diffusion within and between soil particles. We give illustrative results for phosphate uptake. • Compared with conventional \\'single porosity\\' models, this \\'dual porosity\\' model predicts greater root uptake because more nutrient is available by slow release from within soil particles. Also the effect of soil moisture is less important with the dual porosity model because the effective volume available for diffusion in the soil is larger, and the predicted effects of hair length and density are different. • Consistent with experimental observations, with the dual porosity model, increases in hair length give greater increases in uptake than increases in hair density per unit main root length. The effect of hair density is less in dry soil because the minimum concentration in solution for net influx is reached more rapidly. The effect of hair length is much less sensitive to soil moisture. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Nutrient uptake dynamics across a gradient of nutrient concentrations and ratios at the landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Catherine A.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Conine, Andrea L.; Lipshutz, Sondra M.

    2015-02-01

    Understanding interactions between nutrient cycles is essential for recognizing and remediating human impacts on water quality, yet multielemental approaches to studying nutrient cycling in streams are currently rare. Here we utilized a relatively new approach (tracer additions for spiraling curve characterization) to examine uptake dynamics for three essential nutrients across a landscape that varied in absolute and relative nutrient availability. We measured nutrient uptake for soluble reactive phosphorous, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen in 16 headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains, New York. Across the landscape, ammonium-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus had shorter uptake lengths and higher uptake velocities than nitrate-nitrogen. Ammonium-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus uptake velocities were tightly correlated, and the slope of the relationship did not differ from one, suggesting strong demand for both nutrients despite the high ambient water column dissolved inorganic nitrogen: soluble reactive phosphorus ratios. Ammonium-nitrogen appeared to be the preferred form of nitrogen despite much higher nitrate-nitrogen concentrations. The uptake rate of nitrate-nitrogen was positively correlated with ambient soluble reactive phosphorus concentration and soluble reactive phosphorus areal uptake rate, suggesting that higher soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations alleviate phosphorus limitation and facilitate nitrate-nitrogen uptake. In addition, these streams retained a large proportion of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen supplied by the watershed, demonstrating that these streams are important landscape filters for nutrients. Together, these results (1) indicated phosphorus limitation across the landscape but similarly high demand for ammonium-nitrogen and (2) suggested that nitrate-nitrogen uptake was influenced by variability in soluble reactive phosphorus availability and preference for

  4. Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Yield and Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Declining soil fertility is one of the major problems causing yield reduction of barley ... (VC) with inorganic NP on growth, yield and yield components of food barley. ... The experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with ...

  5. Influence of Sources and Rates of Manure on Yield and Nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of University of Maiduguri to assess the effects of sources and rates of manure ... Cow manure treatment on average, produced the best of growth, yield and nutrient uptake (N,P, and K ... fertilizers coupled with their inability to condition the soil.

  6. Coupling nutrient uptake and energy flow in headwater streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Fellows, Christine [Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, Australia; Valett, H. Maurice [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Dahm, Cliff [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Thomas, Steve [University of Nebraska

    2006-08-01

    Nutrient cycling and energy flow in ecosystems are tightly linked through the metabolic processes of organisms. Greater uptake of inorganic nutrients is expected to be associated with higher rates of metabolism [gross primary production (GPP) and respiration (R)], due to assimilatory demand of both autotrophs and heterotrophs. However, relationships between uptake and metabolism should vary with the relative contribution of autochthonous and allochthonous sources of organic matter. To investigate the relationship between metabolism and nutrient uptake, we used whole-stream and benthic chamber methods to measure rates of nitrate-nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N) uptake and metabolism in four headwater streams chosen to span a range of light availability and therefore differing rates of GPP and contributions of autochthonous carbon. We coupled whole-stream metabolism with measures of NO{sub 3}-N uptake conducted repeatedly over the same stream reach during both day and night, as well as incubating benthic sediments under both light and dark conditions. NO{sub 3}-N uptake was generally greater in daylight compared to dark conditions, and although day-night differences in whole-stream uptake were not significant, light-dark differences in benthic chambers were significant at three of the four sites. Estimates of N demand indicated that assimilation by photoautotrophs could account for the majority of NO{sub 3}-N uptake at the two sites with relatively open canopies. Contrary to expectations, photoautotrophs contributed substantially to NO{sub 3}-N uptake even at the two closed-canopy sites, which had low values of GPP/R and relied heavily on allochthonous carbon to fuel R.

  7. Growth and Nutrients Content and Uptake of Garlic ( Allium sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... Thus, the study was conducted on Andosol and Vertisol soils at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia, for two consecutive (dry and main rainy) seasons to assess the effect of various rates of compound fertilizers on growth, and nutrient content and uptake of ...

  8. Compost amendment, enhanced nutrient uptake and dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trial was conducted to assess the influence of Compost and inorganic fertilizer as well as plant growth stage on growth, nutrient uptake, dry matter accumulation and partitioning in maize crop grown on the battery waste contaminated site. Two types of compost (Mexican Sunflower (MSC) and Cassava peels (CPC) ...

  9. Sudden increase in atmospheric concentration reveals strong coupling between shoot carbon uptake and root nutrient uptake in young walnut trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaire, M.; Sigogne, M.; Beaujard, F.; Frak, E.; Adam, B.; Le Roux, X.

    2005-01-01

    Short-term effects of a sudden increase in carbon dioxide concentration on nutrient uptake by roots during vegetative growth was studied in young walnut trees. Rates of carbon dioxide uptake and water loss by individual trees were determined by a branch bag method from three days before and six days after carbon dioxide concentration was increased. Nutrient uptake rates were measured concurrently by a hydroponic recirculating nutrient solution system. Carbon dioxide uptake rates increased greatly with increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide; nutrient uptake rates were proportional to carbon dioxide uptake rates, except for the phosphorus ion. Daily water loss rates were only slightly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Overall, it was concluded that in the presence of non-limiting supplies of water and nutrients, root nutrient uptake and shoot carbon assimilation are strongly coupled in the short term in young walnut trees despite the important carbon and nutrient storage capacities od woody species. 45 refs., 7 figs

  10. Studies on uptake and translocation of some nutrient elements in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, S.S.M.

    1985-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to study the uptake and translocation of some nutrients. In this respect, two experiments, dealing with 3 2 P and 6 5 Zn, were conducted using a sandy clay loam soil where corn plants were grown to study such influence on the uptake and translocation of P, Zn, N and K.The utilization of P and Zn fertilizers by corn plants as well as the production of dry matter yield were considered. Chemical analysis of some mineral components and assay of radioactive materials 3 2 P and 6 5 Zn of both plant and soil and the dry weight of corn plants were estimated

  11. Synchronizing legume residue nutrient release with Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) uptake in a Nitrosol of Kabete, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onwonga, Richard N.; Chepkoech, Caroline; Wahome, R.G.

    fertility improvement for crop production e.g. kales (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) under organic farming systems. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) are leguminous crops commonly intercropped with kales (Genga, 2014) and their influence on crop yield and soil nutrient status...... has been widely studied (Nduku 2014, Genga 2014; Onwonga et al., 2015). There is however a dearth of information with respect to synchronization of nutrient released by legume residues with pattern of nutrient uptake by kales to match their demand. The objective of the current study was therefore...... to assess decomposition and nutrient release rates of chickpea and lupin residues and kale nutrient uptake patterns for better synchrony of nutrient supply and demand....

  12. Effect of CO2 Enrichment on the Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Tomato Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Juan; ZHOU Jian-Min; DUAN Zeng-Qiang; DU Chang-Wen; WANG Huo-Yan

    2007-01-01

    Exposing tomato seedlings to elevated CO2 concentrations may have potentially profound impacts on the tomato yield and quality. A growth chamber experiment was designed to estimate how different nutrient concentrations influenced the effect of elevated CO2 on the growth and nutrient uptake of tomato seedlings. Tomato (Hezuo 906) was grown in pots placed in controlled growth chambers and was subjected to ambient or elevated CO2 (360 or 720 μL L-1), and four nutrient solutions of different strengths (1/2-, 1/4-, 1/8-, and 1/16-strength Japan Yamazaki nutrient solutions) in a completely randomized design. The results indicated that some agricultural characteristics of the tomato seedlings such as the plant height, stem thickness, total dry and fresh weights of the leaves, stems and roots, the G value (G value = total plant dry weight/seedling age),and the seedling vigor index (seedling vigor index = stem thickness/(plant height × total plant dry weight) increased with the elevated CO2, and the increases were strongly dependent on the nutrient solution concentrations, being greater with higher nutrient solution concentrations. The elevated CO2 did not alter the ratio of root to shoot. The total N, P, K, and C absorbed from all the solutions except P in the 1/8- and 1/16-strength nutrient solutions increased in the elevated CO2 treatment. These results demonstrate that the nutrient demands of the tomato seedlings increased at elevated CO2 concentrations.

  13. MACRO NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF FORAGE GRASSES AT DIFFERENT SALINITY STRESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl in saline soils has negative effects on the growth ofmost plants. The experiment was designed to evaluate macro nutrient uptake (Nitrogen, Phosphorus andPotassium of forage grasses at different NaCl concentrations in growth media. The experiment wasconducted in a greenhouse at Forage Crops Laboratory of Animal Agriculture Faculty, Diponegoro University.Split plot design was used to arrange the experiment. The main plot was forage grasses (Elephant grass(Pennisetum purpureum and King grass (Pennisetum hybrida. The sub plot was NaCl concentrationin growth media (0, 150, and 300 mM. The nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K uptake in shootand root of plant were measured. The result indicated increasing NaCl concentration in growth mediasignificantly decreased the N, P and K uptake in root and shoot of the elephant grass and king grass. Thepercentage reduction percentage of N, P and K uptake at 150 mM and 300 mM were high in elephant grassand king grass. It can be concluded that based on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake, elephantgrass and king grass are not tolerant to strong and very strong saline soil.

  14. FOLIAR NUTRIENT CONTENTS AND FRUIT YIELD IN CUSTARD APPLE PROGENIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliar nutrient contents are evaluated in several fruit trees with many objectives. Leaf analysis constitutes a way of evaluating the nutritional requirements of crops. Due to the positive impact that fertilizers have on crop yields, researchers frequently try to evaluate the correlations between yield and foliar nutrient contents. This work's objective was to present fruit yields from the 4th to the 6th cropping seasons, evaluate foliar nutrient contents (on the 5th cropping season, and estimate the correlations between these two groups of traits for 20 half-sibling custard apple tree progenies. The progenies were evaluated in a random block design with five replicates and four plants per plot. One hundred leaves were collected from the middle third of the canopy (in height of each of four plants in each plot. The leaves were collected haphazardly, i.e., in a random manner, but without using a drawing mechanism. In the analysis of variance, the nutrient concentrations in the leaves from plants of each plot were represented by the average of four plants in the plot. Fruit yield in the various progenies did not depend on cropping season; progeny A4 was the most productive. No Spearman correlation was found between leaf nutrient concentrations and fruit yield. Increased nutrient concentrations in the leaves were progeny-dependent, i.e., with regard to Na (progenies FE5 and JG1, Ca (progeny A4, Mg (progeny SM7, N (progeny A3, P (progeny M, and K contents (progeny JG3. Spearman's correlation was negative between Na-Mg, Na-Ca, and Mg-P contents, and positive between Mg-Ca and N-K contents.

  15. Yield Gap, Indigenous Nutrient Supply and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Maize in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinpeng Xu

    Full Text Available Great achievements have been attained in agricultural production of China, while there are still many difficulties and challenges ahead that call for put more efforts to overcome to guarantee food security and protect environment simultaneously. Analyzing yield gap and nutrient use efficiency will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies to increase grain yield. On-farm datasets from 2001 to 2012 with 1,971 field experiments for maize (Zea mays L. were collected in four maize agro-ecological regions of China, and the optimal management (OPT, farmers' practice (FP, a series of nutrient omission treatments were used to analyze yield gap, nutrient use efficiency and indigenous nutrient supply by adopting meta-analysis and ANOVA analysis. Across all sites, the average yield gap between OPT and FP was 0.7 t ha-1, the yield response to nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K were 1.8, 1.0, and 1.2 t ha-1, respectively. The soil indigenous nutrient supply of N, P, and K averaged 139.9, 33.7, and 127.5 kg ha-1, respectively. As compared to FP, the average recovery efficiency (RE of N, P, and K with OPT increased by percentage point of 12.2, 5.5, and 6.5, respectively. This study indicated that there would be considerable potential to further improve yield and nutrient use efficiency in China, and will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies, while some management measures such as soil, plant and nutrient are necessary and integrate with advanced knowledge and technologies.

  16. Yield Gap, Indigenous Nutrient Supply and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Maize in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinpeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; He, Ping; Johnston, Adrian M; Zhao, Shicheng; Qiu, Shaojun; Zhou, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Great achievements have been attained in agricultural production of China, while there are still many difficulties and challenges ahead that call for put more efforts to overcome to guarantee food security and protect environment simultaneously. Analyzing yield gap and nutrient use efficiency will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies to increase grain yield. On-farm datasets from 2001 to 2012 with 1,971 field experiments for maize (Zea mays L.) were collected in four maize agro-ecological regions of China, and the optimal management (OPT), farmers' practice (FP), a series of nutrient omission treatments were used to analyze yield gap, nutrient use efficiency and indigenous nutrient supply by adopting meta-analysis and ANOVA analysis. Across all sites, the average yield gap between OPT and FP was 0.7 t ha-1, the yield response to nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) were 1.8, 1.0, and 1.2 t ha-1, respectively. The soil indigenous nutrient supply of N, P, and K averaged 139.9, 33.7, and 127.5 kg ha-1, respectively. As compared to FP, the average recovery efficiency (RE) of N, P, and K with OPT increased by percentage point of 12.2, 5.5, and 6.5, respectively. This study indicated that there would be considerable potential to further improve yield and nutrient use efficiency in China, and will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies, while some management measures such as soil, plant and nutrient are necessary and integrate with advanced knowledge and technologies.

  17. Yield Gap, Indigenous Nutrient Supply and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Maize in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinpeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; He, Ping; Johnston, Adrian M.; Zhao, Shicheng; Qiu, Shaojun; Zhou, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Great achievements have been attained in agricultural production of China, while there are still many difficulties and challenges ahead that call for put more efforts to overcome to guarantee food security and protect environment simultaneously. Analyzing yield gap and nutrient use efficiency will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies to increase grain yield. On-farm datasets from 2001 to 2012 with 1,971 field experiments for maize (Zea mays L.) were collected in four maize agro-ecological regions of China, and the optimal management (OPT), farmers’ practice (FP), a series of nutrient omission treatments were used to analyze yield gap, nutrient use efficiency and indigenous nutrient supply by adopting meta-analysis and ANOVA analysis. Across all sites, the average yield gap between OPT and FP was 0.7 t ha-1, the yield response to nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) were 1.8, 1.0, and 1.2 t ha-1, respectively. The soil indigenous nutrient supply of N, P, and K averaged 139.9, 33.7, and 127.5 kg ha-1, respectively. As compared to FP, the average recovery efficiency (RE) of N, P, and K with OPT increased by percentage point of 12.2, 5.5, and 6.5, respectively. This study indicated that there would be considerable potential to further improve yield and nutrient use efficiency in China, and will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies, while some management measures such as soil, plant and nutrient are necessary and integrate with advanced knowledge and technologies. PMID:26484543

  18. Agronomic Characteristics Related to Grain Yield and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Wheat Production in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Chuan

    Full Text Available In order to make clear the recent status and trend of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production in China, datasets from multiple field experiments and published literature were collected to study the agronomic characteristics related to grain yield, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency from the year 2000 to 2011. The results showed that the mean grain yield of wheat in 2000-2011 was 5950 kg/ha, while the N, P2O5 and K2O application rates were 172, 102 and 91 kg/ha on average, respectively. The decrease in N and P2O5 and increase in K2O balanced the nutrient supply and was the main reason for yield increase. The partial factor productivity (PFP, kg grain yield produced per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied values of N (PFP-N, P (PFP-P and K (PFP-K were in the ranges of 29.5~39.6, 43.4~74.9 and 44.1~76.5 kg/kg, respectively. While PFP-N showed no significant changes from 2000 to 2010, both PFP-P and PFP-K showed an increased trend over this period. The mean agronomic efficiency (AE, kg grain yield increased per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied values of N (AEN, P (AEP and K (AEK were 9.4, 10.2 and 6.5 kg/kg, respectively. The AE values demonstrated marked inter-annual fluctuations, with the amplitude of fluctuation for AEN greater than those for AEP and AEK. The mean fertilizer recovery efficiency (RE, the fraction of nutrient uptake in aboveground plant dry matter to the nutrient of fertilizer application values of N, P and K in the aboveground biomass were 33.1%, 24.3% and 28.4%, respectively. It was also revealed that different wheat ecological regions differ greatly in wheat productivity, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency. In summary, it was suggested that best nutrient management practices, i.e. fertilizer recommendation applied based on soil testing or yield response, with strategies to match the nutrient input with realistic yield and demand, or provided with the 4R's nutrient management (right time, right rate, right

  19. Dry matter yield and nitrogen-15 uptake by tomatoes under sodium chloride stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessarakli, M.; Tucker, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    An absorption study was conducted in nutrient solution with seedlings of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill; cv. Columbia) to observe the effects of NaCl on ( 15 N) uptake and distribution in plant roots and shoots. The 14-d-old seedlings were grown for 16 d in complete Hoagland solution no. 1, then salinized (except the controls, -0.03 MPa) to -0.3, -0.6, and -0.9 MPa osmotic potentials with NaCl. Nutrient solutions were sampled daily for N loss after addition of 15 NH 4 15 NO 3 to the pots. The cumulative 15 N loss was considered to be absorbed by plants. Lowering the osmotic potential of the culture solution decreased total N uptake at all salinity levels, and 15 N uptake of the plants at medium and high salinity levels. A low level of salinity did not affect 15 N uptake compared with the control. Water uptake and dry matter yield were affected to a greater extent than 15 N absorption. Nitrogen-15 concentration was slightly higher in roots than in shoots

  20. Yield Gap, Indigenous Nutrient Supply and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Maize in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xinpeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; He, Ping; Johnston, Adrian M.; Zhao, Shicheng; Qiu, Shaojun; Zhou, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Great achievements have been attained in agricultural production of China, while there are still many difficulties and challenges ahead that call for put more efforts to overcome to guarantee food security and protect environment simultaneously. Analyzing yield gap and nutrient use efficiency will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies to increase grain yield. On-farm datasets from 2001 to 2012 with 1,971 field experiments for maize (Zea mays L.) were collected in four m...

  1. Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W. [University of Florida, Homestead, FL (United States). Center for Tropical Research & Education

    2006-04-15

    A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

  2. Small Reservoir Impact on Simulated Watershed-Scale Nutrient Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane J. Prochnow

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT is used to assess the influence of small upland reservoirs (PL566 on watershed nutrient yield. SWAT simulates the impact of collectively increasing and decreasing PL566 magnitudes (size parameters on the watershed. Totally removing PL566 reservoirs results in a 100% increase in total phosphorus and an 82% increase in total nitrogen, while a total maximum daily load (TMDL calling for a 50% reduction in total phosphorus can be achieved with a 500% increase in the magnitude of PL566s in the watershed. PL566 reservoirs capture agriculture pollution in surface flow, providing long-term storage of these constituents when they settle to the reservoir beds. A potential strategy to reduce future downstream nutrient loading is to enhance or construct new PL566 reservoirs in the upper basin to better capture agricultural runoff.

  3. Toward a transport-based analysis of nutrient spiraling and uptake in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient addition experiments are designed to study the cycling of nutrients in stream ecosystems where hydrologic and nonhydrologic processes determine nutrient fate. Because of the importance of hydrologic processes in stream ecosystems, a conceptual model known as nutrient spiraling is frequently employed. A central part of the nutrient spiraling approach is the determination of uptake length (SW), the average distance traveled by dissolved nutrients in the water column before uptake. Although the nutrient spiraling concept has been an invaluable tool in stream ecology, the current practice of estimating uptake length from steady-state nutrient data using linear regression (called here the "SW approach") presents a number of limitations. These limitations are identified by comparing the exponential SW equation with analytical solutions of a stream solute transport model. This comparison indicates that (1) SW, is an aggregate measure of uptake that does not distinguish between main channel and storage zone processes, (2) SW, is an integrated measure of numerous hydrologie and nonhydrologic processes-this process integration may lead to difficulties in interpretation when comparing estimates of SW, and (3) estimates of uptake velocity and areal uptake rate (Vf and U) based on S W, are not independent of system hydrology. Given these findings, a transport-based approach to nutrient spiraling is presented for steady-state and time-series data sets. The transport-based approach for time-series data sets is suggested for future research on nutrient uptake as it provides a number of benefits, including the ability to (1) separately quantify main channel and storage zone uptake, (2) quantify specific hydrologic and nonhydrologic processes using various model parameters (process separation), (3) estimate uptake velocities and areal uptake rates that are independent of hydrologic effects, and (4) use short-term, non-plateau nutrient additions such that the effects of

  4. Effects of Nutrient Antagonism and Synergism on Yield and Fertilizer Use Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietra, René P.J.J.; Heinen, Marius; Dimkpa, Chistian O.; Bindraban, Prem S.

    2017-01-01

    Interaction among plant nutrients can yield antagonistic or synergistic outcomes that influence nutrient use efficiency. To provide insight on this phenomenon, peer-reviewed articles were selected that quantified the interaction effects of nutrients on crop yield levels. In total 94 articles were

  5. Seasonal temperatures have more influence than nitrogen fertilizer rates on cucumber yield and nitrogen uptake in a double cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ruiying; Li Xiaolin; Christie, Peter; Chen Qing; Zhang Fusuo

    2008-01-01

    Two-year greenhouse cucumber experiments were conducted to investigate seasonal effects on fruit yield, dry matter allocation, and N uptake in a double-cropping system with different fertilizer management. Seasonal effects were much greater than fertilizer effects, and winter-spring (WS) cucumber attained higher fruit yields and N uptake than autumn-winter (AW) cucumber due to lower cumulative air temperatures during fruit maturation in the AW season. Fertilizer N application and apparent N loss under recommended N management (Nmr) decreased by 40-78% and 33-48% without yield loss compared to conventional N management (Nmt) over four growing seasons. However, there were no seasonal differences in N recommendations, taking into consideration seasonal differences in crop N demand, critical nutrient supply in the root zone and N mineralization rate. - Nitrogen inputs can be reduced to minimize N losses to the environment while maintaining yields but N recommendations must reflect seasonal temperature effects

  6. Seasonal temperatures have more influence than nitrogen fertilizer rates on cucumber yield and nitrogen uptake in a double cropping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Ruiying; Li Xiaolin [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100094 (China); Christie, Peter [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100094 (China); Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Chen Qing [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100094 (China)], E-mail: qchen@cau.edu.cn; Zhang Fusuo [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2008-02-15

    Two-year greenhouse cucumber experiments were conducted to investigate seasonal effects on fruit yield, dry matter allocation, and N uptake in a double-cropping system with different fertilizer management. Seasonal effects were much greater than fertilizer effects, and winter-spring (WS) cucumber attained higher fruit yields and N uptake than autumn-winter (AW) cucumber due to lower cumulative air temperatures during fruit maturation in the AW season. Fertilizer N application and apparent N loss under recommended N management (Nmr) decreased by 40-78% and 33-48% without yield loss compared to conventional N management (Nmt) over four growing seasons. However, there were no seasonal differences in N recommendations, taking into consideration seasonal differences in crop N demand, critical nutrient supply in the root zone and N mineralization rate. - Nitrogen inputs can be reduced to minimize N losses to the environment while maintaining yields but N recommendations must reflect seasonal temperature effects.

  7. stream nutrient uptake, forest succession, and biogeochemical theory

    OpenAIRE

    Valett, H. M.; Crenshaw, C. L.; Wagner, P. F.

    2002-01-01

    Theories of forest succession predict a close relationship between net biomass increment and catchment nutrient retention. Retention, therefore, is expected to be greatest during aggrading phases of forest succession. In general, studies of this type have compared watershed retention efficiency by monitoring stream nutrient export at the base of the catchment. As such, streams are viewed only as transport systems. Contrary to this view, the nutrient spiraling concept emphasizes transformation...

  8. Effect of subsoil tillage depth on nutrient accumulation, root distribution, and grain yield in spring maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Cai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A four-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of subsoiling depth on root morphology, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K uptake, and grain yield of spring maize. The results indicated that subsoil tillage promoted root development, increased nutrient accumulation, and increased yield. Compared with conventional soil management (CK, root length, root surface area, and root dry weight at 0–80 cm soil depth under subsoil tillage to 30 cm (T1 and subsoil tillage to 50 cm (T2 were significantly increased, especially the proportions of roots in deeper soil. Root length, surface area, and dry weight differed significantly among three treatments in the order of T2 > T1 > CK at the 12-leaf and early filling stages. The range of variation of root diameter in different soil layers in T2 treatment was the smallest, suggesting that roots were more likely to grow downwards with deeper subsoil tillage in soil. The accumulation of N, P, and K in subsoil tillage treatment was significantly increased, but the proportions of kernel and straw were different. In a comparison of T1 with T2, the grain accumulated more N and P, while K accumulation in kernel and straw varied in different years. Grain yield and biomass were increased by 12.8% and 14.6% on average in subsoil tillage treatments compared to conventional soil treatment. Although no significant differences between different subsoil tillage depths were observed for nutrient accumulation and grain yield, lodging resistance of plants was significantly improved in subsoil tillage to 50 cm, a characteristic that favors a high and stable yield under extreme environments.

  9. Biochar and manure affect calcareous soil and corn silage nutrient concentrations and uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, R D; Ippolito, J A

    2012-01-01

    Carbon-rich biochar derived from the pyrolysis of biomass can sequester atmospheric CO, mitigate climate change, and potentially increase crop productivity. However, research is needed to confirm the suitability and sustainability of biochar application to different soils. To an irrigated calcareous soil, we applied stockpiled dairy manure (42 Mg ha dry wt) and hardwood-derived biochar (22.4 Mg ha), singly and in combination with manure, along with a control, yielding four treatments. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied when needed (based on preseason soil test N and crop requirements) in all plots and years, with N mineralized from added manure included in this determination. Available soil nutrients (NH-N; NO-N; Olsen P; and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-extractable K, Mg, Na, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe), total C (TC), total N (TN), total organic C (TOC), and pH were evaluated annually, and silage corn nutrient concentration, yield, and uptake were measured over two growing seasons. Biochar treatment resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in available soil Mn and a 1.4-fold increase in TC and TOC, whereas manure produced a 1.2- to 1.7-fold increase in available nutrients (except Fe), compared with controls. In 2009 biochar increased corn silage B concentration but produced no yield increase; in 2010 biochar decreased corn silage TN (33%), S (7%) concentrations, and yield (36%) relative to controls. Manure produced a 1.3-fold increase in corn silage Cu, Mn, S, Mg, K, and TN concentrations and yield compared with the control in 2010. The combined biochar-manure effects were not synergistic except in the case of available soil Mn. In these calcareous soils, biochar did not alter pH or availability of P and cations, as is typically observed for acidic soils. If the second year results are representative, they suggest that biochar applications to calcareous soils may lead to reduced N availability, requiring additional soil N inputs to maintain yield targets. Copyright © by the

  10. The relationship between transpiration and nutrient uptake in wheat changes under elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmandfar, Alireza; Fitzgerald, Glenn J; O'Leary, Garry; Tausz-Posch, Sabine; Fletcher, Andrew; Tausz, Michael

    2017-12-04

    The impact of elevated [CO 2 ] (e[CO 2 ]) on crops often includes a decrease in their nutrient concentrations where reduced transpiration-driven mass flow of nutrients has been suggested to play a role. We used two independent approaches, a free-air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) experiment in the South Eastern wheat belt of Australia and a simulation study employing the agricultural production systems simulator (APSIM), to show that transpiration (mm) and nutrient uptake (g m -2 ) of nitrogen (N), potassium (K), sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn) in wheat are correlated under e[CO 2 ], but that nutrient uptake per unit water transpired is higher under e[CO 2 ] than under ambient [CO 2 ] (a[CO 2 ]). This result suggests that transpiration-driven mass flow of nutrients contributes to decreases in nutrient concentrations under e[CO 2 ], but cannot solely explain the overall decline. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  11. Nitrogen uptake dynamics, yield and quality as influenced by nitrogen fertilization in Piel de sapo melon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos, M. T.; Cabello, M. J.; Cartagena, M. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Arce, A.; Ribas, F.

    2012-11-01

    The need to reduce nitrogen (N) fertilizer pollution strengthens the importance of improving the utilization efficiency of applied N to crops. This requires knowledge of crop N uptake characteristics and how fertilization management affects it. A three-year field experiment was conducted from May to September in central Spain to investigate the influence of different N rates, which ranged from 11 to 393 kg ha{sup -}1, applied through drip irrigation, on the dynamics of N uptake, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), fruit yield and quality of a Piel de sapo melon crop (Cucumis melo L. cv. Sancho). Both N concentration and N content increased in different plant parts with the N rate. Leaves had the highest N concentration, which declined by 40-50% from 34-41 days after transplanting (DAT), while the highest N uptake rate was observed from 30-35 to 70-80 DAT, coinciding with fruit development. In each year, NUE declined with increasing N rate. With N fertilizer applications close to the optimum N rate of 90-100 kg ha -1, the fruits removed approximately 60 kg N ha -1, and the amount of N in the crop residue was about 80 kg N ha -1; this serves to replenish the organic nutrient pool in the soil and may be used by subsequent crops following mineralization. (Author) 36 refs.

  12. Dried gamma-irradiated sewage solids use on calcareous soils: crop yields and heavy metals uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaslin, B.D.; Sivinski, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    The fertilizer values of gamma-irradiated digested sewage solids (RDSS) and gamma-irradiated undigested sewage solids (RUSS) have been examined on calcareous soils. Previously published data from Sandia Laboratories have shown that approximately 1 mega-rad of gamma-irradiation effectively destroys pathogenic bacteria, parasites and plant seeds in dried sewage solids. Greenhouse experiments directly comparing gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated undigested and digested dried sewage solids as fertilizers indicate little or no effect of 1 mega-rad gamma radiation treatment on plant yield or plant-nutrient uptake and demonstrated considerable benefit from using sewage solids on calcareous soils. Plant response to undigested sewage solids was considerably greater than to digested sewage solids when applied at levels that were isonitrogenous. The calcareous soils in New Mexico typically range in pH from 7.5 to 9.0, limiting the plant-availability of many elements, especially heavy metals. Soils irrigated with sewage-effluent for 40 years demonstrated beneficial use of supplied plant-nutrients with no apparent increase in plant-uptake of heavy metals. RDSS applied to a calcareous soil low in plant-available iron increased plant growth in the greenhouse considerably more than treatments with equal amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron applied as common fertilizer materials. Plant tissue concentrations of Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu showed that RDSS was a good source of these nutrients. Results also indicated that the total soluble salt concentration of the RDSS was the factor most limiting plant growth. Chromium, Cd, Ni and Pd plant-tissue concentrations were apparently not increased by RDSS treatments. (Auth.)

  13. Phytotoxic effects of nickel on yield and concentration of macro- and micro-nutrients in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) achenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel; Ashraf, Muhammad; Hussain, Mumtaz

    2011-01-30

    The phytotoxic effects of varying levels of nickel (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg L(-1)) on growth, yield and accumulation of macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were appraised in this study. A marked reduction in root and shoot fresh biomass was recorded at higher Ni levels. Nickel stress also caused a substantial decrease in all macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes. The lower level of Ni (10 mg L(-1)) had a non-significant effect on various yield attributes, but higher Ni levels considerably decreased these parameters. Higher Ni levels decreased the concentrations of Ca, Mn and Fe in achenes. In contrast, achene N, K, Zn, Mn and Cu decreased consistently with increasing level of Ni, even at lower level (10 mg L(-1)). Sunflower hybrid Hysun-33 had better yield and higher most of the nutrients in achenes as compared with SF-187. The maximum reduction in all parameters was observed at the maximum level of nickel (40 mg L(-1)) where almost all parameters were reduced more than 50% of those of control plants. In conclusion, the pattern of uptake and accumulation of different nutrients in sunflower plants were nutrient- and cultivar-specific under Ni-stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantifying stream nutrient uptake from ambient to saturation with instantaneous tracer additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, T. P.; McGlynn, B. L.; McNamara, R.

    2009-12-01

    Stream nutrient tracer additions and spiraling metrics are frequently used to quantify stream ecosystem behavior. However, standard approaches limit our understanding of aquatic biogeochemistry. Specifically, the relationship between in-stream nutrient concentration and stream nutrient spiraling has not been characterized. The standard constant rate (steady-state) approach to stream spiraling parameter estimation, either through elevating nutrient concentration or adding isotopically labeled tracers (e.g. 15N), provides little information regarding the stream kinetic curve that represents the uptake-concentration relationship analogous to the Michaelis-Menten curve. These standard approaches provide single or a few data points and often focus on estimating ambient uptake under the conditions at the time of the experiment. Here we outline and demonstrate a new method using instantaneous nutrient additions and dynamic analyses of breakthrough curve (BTC) data to characterize the full relationship between spiraling metrics and nutrient concentration. We compare the results from these dynamic analyses to BTC-integrated, and standard steady-state approaches. Our results indicate good agreement between these three approaches but we highlight the advantages of our dynamic method. Specifically, our new dynamic method provides a cost-effective and efficient approach to: 1) characterize full concentration-spiraling metric curves; 2) estimate ambient spiraling metrics; 3) estimate Michaelis-Menten parameters maximum uptake (Umax) and the half-saturation constant (Km) from developed uptake-concentration kinetic curves, and; 4) measure dynamic nutrient spiraling in larger rivers where steady-state approaches are impractical.

  15. Influence of activated charcoal amendment to contaminated soil on dieldrin and nutrient uptake by cucumbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilber, Isabel [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Wyss, Gabriela S., E-mail: gabriela.wyss@fibl.or [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Maeder, Paul [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Bucheli, Thomas D. [Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ART, Reckenholzstr. 191, CH-8046 Zuerich (Switzerland); Meier, Isabel; Vogt, Lea; Schulin, Rainer [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstr. 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-08-15

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendments have been suggested as a promising, cost-effective method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments over two years with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in agricultural soil with 0.07 mg kg{sup -1} of weathered dieldrin and 0, 200, 400, and 800 mg AC per kg soil. Dieldrin fresh weight concentrations in cucumber fruits were significantly reduced from 0.012 to an average of 0.004 mg kg{sup -1}, and total uptake from 2 to 1 mug in the 800 mg kg{sup -1} AC treatment compared to the untreated soil. The treatment effects differed considerably between the two years, due to different meteorological conditions. AC soil treatments did neither affect the availability of nutrients to the cucumber plants nor their yield (total fruit wet weight per pot). Thus, some important prerequisites for the successful application of AC amendments to immobilize organic pollutants in agricultural soils can be considered fulfilled. - The addition of activated charcoal to soil reduced dieldrin residues in cucumbers and did not affect nutrients availability.

  16. Influence of activated charcoal amendment to contaminated soil on dieldrin and nutrient uptake by cucumbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilber, Isabel; Wyss, Gabriela S.; Maeder, Paul; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Meier, Isabel; Vogt, Lea; Schulin, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendments have been suggested as a promising, cost-effective method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments over two years with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in agricultural soil with 0.07 mg kg -1 of weathered dieldrin and 0, 200, 400, and 800 mg AC per kg soil. Dieldrin fresh weight concentrations in cucumber fruits were significantly reduced from 0.012 to an average of 0.004 mg kg -1 , and total uptake from 2 to 1 μg in the 800 mg kg -1 AC treatment compared to the untreated soil. The treatment effects differed considerably between the two years, due to different meteorological conditions. AC soil treatments did neither affect the availability of nutrients to the cucumber plants nor their yield (total fruit wet weight per pot). Thus, some important prerequisites for the successful application of AC amendments to immobilize organic pollutants in agricultural soils can be considered fulfilled. - The addition of activated charcoal to soil reduced dieldrin residues in cucumbers and did not affect nutrients availability.

  17. Understanding cassava yield response to soil and fertilizer nutrient supply in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezui, K.S.; Franke, A.C.; Ahiabor, B.D.K.; Tetteh, F.M.; Sogbedji, J.; Janssen, B.H.; Mando, A.; Giller, K.E.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Enhanced understanding of plant and nutrient interactions is key to improving yields. We adapted the model for QUantitative Evaluation of the Fertility of Tropical Soils (QUEFTS) to assess cassava yield response to soil and fertilizer nutrients in West Africa. Methods: Data

  18. Regulation of growth and nutrient uptake under different transpiration regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amor, del F.M.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the extent to which air humidity affects the regulation of nutrient demand, an experiment with tomato plants was carried out under fully controlled climate conditions. Treatments consisted of three levels of relative air humidity (RH): 50%, 70% (control) and 95%, corresponding to 1.32,

  19. Maize nutrient uptake affected by genotype and fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đalović Ivica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of nutrients in maize are commonly related with fertilization and soil quality and rarely explained with the individual hybrid properties. Therefore, the aim of this study is to access a long term fertilization system on ear leaf of Mg, Fe, Mn and Cu content in six maize hybrids(NS 3014, NS 4015, NS 5043, NS 6010, NS 6030 and NS 7020. Samples were collected from a long-term experiment at the Rimski Šančevi experimental field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. The study included maize monoculture and 2-year rotations with the application of NPK and manure. Results showed that ear Mg content was influenced with the treatments, hybrid and their interaction and ranged from 1.77-2.69 g kg-1. Iron variability was significantly affected with the treatments and interaction (hybrid x treatments in range from 103.2 to151.9g kg-1. The ear manganese content (41.1-63.6g kg-1 derived from treatments and hybrid effect and Cu (12.3-23.6 g kg-1 was significantly influenced with treatments. Across all treatments, in average, NS6030 had higher values of nutrient and NS3014 was lower in ear nutrient content. This indicates that vegetation length could favor nutrient accumulation. Obtained results suggested that even on fairly productive soil such as Chernozem hybrid selection and the balanced fertilization is crucial for managing the maize nutrient content. [Projekat Ministarsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR031073

  20. Nutrient Uptake and Metabolism Along a Large Scale Tropical Physical-Chemical Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromboni, F.; Neres-Lima, V.; Saltarelli, W. A.; Miwa, A. C. P.; Cunha, D. G. F.

    2016-12-01

    Nutrient spiraling is a whole-system approach for estimating nutrient uptake that can be used to assess aquatic ecosystems' responses to environmental change and anthropogenic impacts. Historically research on nutrient dynamic uptake in streams has focused on single nutrient dynamics and only rarely the stoichiometric uptake has been considered and linked to carbon metabolism driven by autotrophic and heterotrophic production. We investigated the relationship between uptake of phosphate (PO43-), nitrate (NO3-) ammonium (NH4+) and total dissolve nitrogen (DIN)/ PO43-; and gross primary production (GPP), respiration (R), and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) in six relatively pristine streams with differences regarding canopy cover and physical characteristics, located in a large scale gradient from tropical Atlantic Forest to an Atlantic forest/Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) transition. We carried out whole stream instantaneous additions of PO43-, NO3- and NH4+ added to each stream in combination, using the TASCC (Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization) method. Metabolism measurements were performed in the same streams right after uptake was measured, using one-station open channel method and re-aeration estimations for those sites. We found different background concentrations in the streams located in the Atlantic forest compared with the transition area with Cerrado. In general PO43- and NO3- uptake increased with the decreasing of canopy cover, while a positive relation with background concentration better explained NH4+uptake. DIN/PO43- uptake increased with increasing R and NEP. Little work on functional characteristics of pristine streams has been conducted in this region and this work provides an initial characterization on nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics as well as their stoichiometric uptake in streams.

  1. Produção de matéria seca e absorção de nutrientes pelo milho em razão da saturação por bases e da adubação potássica Dry matter yield and nutrient uptake in corn plants as a function of potassic fertilization and of basis soil saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO ANDREOTTI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em condições de casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta do milho à adubação potássica e à saturação do solo por bases, na produção de matéria seca e na absorção de nutrientes. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 3x2x4, constituindo-se de três solos (Areia Quartzosa, Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro e Latossolo Roxo, dois valores de saturação por bases (40% e 70 % e quatro teores de K no solo (0,5, 1,5, 3,0 e 6,0 mmol c dm-3. Para a calagem, foi utilizada mistura de carbonato de cálcio + carbonato de magnésio (PRNT = 103,3 % na proporção de 4:1. A adubação básica constou de 200 mg kg-1 de N, 200 mg kg-1 de P e 5 mg kg-1 de Zn por vaso de 30 L, sendo o N parcelado em 2,48 g (83,7 mg kg-1 na semeadura e o restante em duas coberturas aos 25 e 40 dias após a emergência das plântulas (DAE. As doses de K utilizadas foram de 0, 3,62, 7,24 e 14,48 g de KCl por vaso. A semeadura foi realizada em 4/3/97, utilizando-se o milho cv. Zêneca 8392, mantendo-se uma planta/vaso durante 60 DAE. O K proporciona ganhos de matéria seca até teores de 1,5 mmol c dm-3 no solo. O aumento dos teores de K no solo resultam em queda na concentração de Ca e Mg na matéria seca do milho. A elevação da saturação por bases e respectivo aumento dos teores de Ca e Mg no solo reduzem a absorção de K pelo milho.The purpose of this research was to study dry matter yield and nutrients uptake by corn plants as a function of potassic fertilization and of soil basis saturation. An experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions, using an early single hybrid corn Zêneca 8392 grown in 30 L pots, tested with three types of soil (Quartzpsamment and two alic Dark-Red Latosol - Haplorthox, with two levels of basis saturation (40 and 70 % and four levels of potassium content (0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 mmol c dm-3. A completely random design with four

  2. Tracer methods to quantify nutrient uptake from plough layer, sub-soil and fertilizer: implications on sustainable nutrient management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haak, E [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Radioecology

    1996-07-01

    Two soils injection methods are presented. The first method consists of homogeneously labelling the whole plough layer with carrier free tracers. this is done in two treatments, (1) a reference treatment without connection with the sub-soil and (2) an experimental treatment where the sub-soil is freely accessible for root penetration. The second method, which is now under development, consists of using isotope labelled fertilizers instead of carrier free tracers. By application of the A-value concept it is possible to quantify (by the first method) the plant uptake of nutrients from plough layer and sub-soil, and from the second method, the uptake of nutrients from the applied fertilizer. A fertilizer strategy for phosphorus is discussed based on data obtained from tracer experiment in the field, and soil survey of specific field sites. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab.

  3. Tracer methods to quantify nutrient uptake from plough layer, sub-soil and fertilizer: implications on sustainable nutrient management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haak, E.

    1996-01-01

    Two soils injection methods are presented. The first method consists of homogeneously labelling the whole plough layer with carrier free tracers. this is done in two treatments, (1) a reference treatment without connection with the sub-soil and (2) an experimental treatment where the sub-soil is freely accessible for root penetration. The second method, which is now under development, consists of using isotope labelled fertilizers instead of carrier free tracers. By application of the A-value concept it is possible to quantify (by the first method) the plant uptake of nutrients from plough layer and sub-soil, and from the second method, the uptake of nutrients from the applied fertilizer. A fertilizer strategy for phosphorus is discussed based on data obtained from tracer experiment in the field, and soil survey of specific field sites. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  4. Leaf absorption of mineral nutrients in carnivorous plants stimulates root nutrient uptake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 155, - (2002), s. 89-100 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : terrestrial carnivorous plant s * utilization of prey * mineral nutrient re-utilization * leaf nutrient supply Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.945, year: 2002

  5. Nutrient uptake and regeneration ratios in the Red sea with reference to the nutrient budgets

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Hansen, H.P.; Kureishy, T.W.

    the Red Se, however, appears to be rather uniform and the atomic ratios between carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the biomass are deduced to be 188:21:1. Increased input of nutrients associated with subsurface inflow of nutrient-rich waters from the Gulf...

  6. Technical Note: A comparison of two empirical approaches to estimate in-stream net nutrient uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schiller, D.; Bernal, S.; Martí, E.

    2011-04-01

    To establish the relevance of in-stream processes on nutrient export at catchment scale it is important to accurately estimate whole-reach net nutrient uptake rates that consider both uptake and release processes. Two empirical approaches have been used in the literature to estimate these rates: (a) the mass balance approach, which considers changes in ambient nutrient loads corrected by groundwater inputs between two stream locations separated by a certain distance, and (b) the spiralling approach, which is based on the patterns of longitudinal variation in ambient nutrient concentrations along a reach following the nutrient spiralling concept. In this study, we compared the estimates of in-stream net nutrient uptake rates of nitrate (NO3) and ammonium (NH4) and the associated uncertainty obtained with these two approaches at different ambient conditions using a data set of monthly samplings in two contrasting stream reaches during two hydrological years. Overall, the rates calculated with the mass balance approach tended to be higher than those calculated with the spiralling approach only at high ambient nitrogen (N) concentrations. Uncertainty associated with these estimates also differed between both approaches, especially for NH4 due to the general lack of significant longitudinal patterns in concentration. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the approaches are discussed.

  7. Nutrient uptake by agricultural crops from biochar-amended soils: results from two field experiments in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karer, Jasmin; Zehetner, Franz; Kloss, Stefanie; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    The use of biochar as soil amendment is considered as a promising agricultural soil management technique, combining carbon sequestration and soil fertility improvements. These expectations are largely founded on positive experiences with biochar applications to impoverished or degraded tropical soils. The validity of these results for soils in temperate climates needs confirmation from field experiments with typical soils representative for intensive agricultural production areas. Frequently biochar is mixed with other organic additives like compost. As these two materials interact with each other and each one may vary considerably in its basic characteristics, it is difficult to attribute the effects of the combined additive to one of its components and to a specific physico-chemical parameter. Therefore investigations of the amendment efficacy require the study of the pure components to characterize their specific behavior in soil. This is especially important for adsorption behavior of biochar for macro- and micronutrients because in soil there are multiple nutrient sinks that compete with plant roots for vital elements. Therefore this contribution presents results from a field amendment study with pure biochar that had the objective to characterize the macro- and microelement uptake of crops from different soils in two typical Austrian areas of agricultural production. At two locations in North and South-East Austria, two identical field experiments on different soils (Chernozem and Cambisol) were installed in 2011 with varying biochar additions (0, 30 and 90 t/ha) and two nitrogen levels. The biochar was a product from slow pyrolysis of wood (SC Romchar SRL). During the installation of the experiments, the biochar fraction of corn). An omission of biochar addition at the same nitrogen addition rate resulted in a yield decrease of 10 % for barley although the total N uptake was 11 % higher but P and K uptake decreased by 14 and 6 %. This indicates that the

  8. Nutrient uptake and biomass accumulation for eleven different field crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. HAKALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil hemp (Cannabis sativa L., quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., false flax (Camelina sativa (L. Crantz, caraway (Carum carvi L., dyer’s woad (Isatis tinctoria L., nettle (Urtica dioica L., reed canary grass (RCG (Phalaris arundinacea L., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., timothy (Phleum pratense L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were grown under uniform conditions in pots containing well fertilised loam soil. Dry matter (DM accumulation was measured repeatedly, and contents of minerals N, P, K, Ca and Mg at maturity. Annual crops accumulated above-ground biomass faster than perennials, while perennials had higher DM accumulation rates below ground. Seeds had high concentrations of N and P, while green biomass had high concentrations of K and Ca. Stems and roots had low concentrations of minerals. Concentrations of K and P were high in quinoa and caraway, and that of P in buckwheat. Hemp and nettle had high Ca concentrations, and quinoa had high Mg concentration. N and P were efficiently harvested with seed, Ca and K with the whole biomass. Perennials could prevent soil erosion and add carbon to the soil in the long term, while annuals compete better with weeds and prevent erosion during early growth. Nutrient balances in a field could be modified and nutrient leaching reduced by careful selection of the crop and management practices.;

  9. Laboratory and field methods for measurement of hyphal uptake of nutrients in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiger, P.F.; Jakobsen, I.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental systems for measuring nutrient transport by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in soil are described. The systems generally include two soil compartments that are separated by fine nylon mesh. Both roots and root-external hyphae grow in one compartment, but only hyphae are fine enough...... to grow through the mesh into the other compartment. Application of tracer isotopes to the soil of this hyphal compartment can be used to measure nutrient uptake by plants via AM fungal hyphae. Use of compartmented systems is discussed with particular reference to phosphorus, which is the mineral nutrient...

  10. A mathematical model for investigating the effect of cluster roots on plant nutrient uptake

    KAUST Repository

    Zygalakis, K. C.

    2012-04-01

    Cluster roots are thought to play an important role in mediating nutrient uptake by plants. In this paper we develop a mathematical model for the transport and uptake of phosphate by a single root. Phosphate is assumed to diffuse in the soil fluid phase and can also solubilised due to citrate exudation. Using multiple scale homogenisation techniques we derive an effective model that accounts for the cumulative effect of citrate exudation and phosphate uptake by cluster roots whilst still retaining all the necessary information about the microscale geometry and effects. © 2012 EDP Sciences and Springer.

  11. Low transient storage and uptake efficiencies in seven agricultural streams: implications for nutrient demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, Richard W; Duff, John H; Tesoriero, Anthony J

    2014-11-01

    We used mass load budgets, transient storage modeling, and nutrient spiraling metrics to characterize nitrate (NO), ammonium (NH), and inorganic phosphorus (SRP) demand in seven agricultural streams across the United States and to identify in-stream services that may control these conditions. Retention of one or all nutrients was observed in all but one stream, but demand for all nutrients was low relative to the mass in transport. Transient storage metrics (/, , , and ) correlated with NO retention but not NH or SRP retention, suggesting in-stream services associated with transient storage and stream water residence time could influence reach-scale NO demand. However, because the fraction of median reach-scale travel time due to transient storage () was ≤1.2% across the sites, only a relatively small demand for NO could be generated by transient storage. In contrast, net uptake of nutrients from the water column calculated from nutrient spiraling metrics were not significant at any site because uptake lengths calculated from background nutrient concentrations were statistically insignificant and therefore much longer than the study reaches. These results suggest that low transient storage coupled with high surface water NO inputs have resulted in uptake efficiencies that are not sufficient to offset groundwater inputs of N. Nutrient retention has been linked to physical and hydrogeologic elements that drive flow through transient storage areas where residence time and biotic contact are maximized; however, our findings indicate that similar mechanisms are unable to generate a significant nutrient demand in these streams relative to the loads. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Effects of sulfur and nitrogen on nutrients uptake of corn using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... Sulfur uptake efficiency increases, and the deficiency symptom disappears, upon application of N fertilizer in the form of urea in S deficient soil (Murphy, 1999). Sulfur is considered one of the major essential plant nutrients and an amendment used for reclaiming alkaline and calcareous soils (Marschner ...

  13. Mineral nutrition in aquatic carnivorous plants: effect of carnivory, nutrient reutilization and K+ uptake.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 188, č. 1 (2016), s. 41-49 ISSN 1863-9135 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0783 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Aldrovanda vesiculosa * Utricularia * mineral nutrient uptake Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2016

  14. Predictive modeling of transient storage and nutrient uptake: Implications for stream restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Ben L.; Hondzo, Miki; Harvey, Judson W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined two key aspects of reactive transport modeling for stream restoration purposes: the accuracy of the nutrient spiraling and transient storage models for quantifying reach-scale nutrient uptake, and the ability to quantify transport parameters using measurements and scaling techniques in order to improve upon traditional conservative tracer fitting methods. Nitrate (NO3–) uptake rates inferred using the nutrient spiraling model underestimated the total NO3– mass loss by 82%, which was attributed to the exclusion of dispersion and transient storage. The transient storage model was more accurate with respect to the NO3– mass loss (±20%) and also demonstrated that uptake in the main channel was more significant than in storage zones. Conservative tracer fitting was unable to produce transport parameter estimates for a riffle-pool transition of the study reach, while forward modeling of solute transport using measured/scaled transport parameters matched conservative tracer breakthrough curves for all reaches. Additionally, solute exchange between the main channel and embayment surface storage zones was quantified using first-order theory. These results demonstrate that it is vital to account for transient storage in quantifying nutrient uptake, and the continued development of measurement/scaling techniques is needed for reactive transport modeling of streams with complex hydraulic and geomorphic conditions.

  15. Predictive Modeling of Transient Storage and Nutrient Uptake: Implications for Stream Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Connor, Ben L.; Hondzo, Miki; Harvey, Judson W.

    2010-12-01

    This study examined two key aspects of reactive transport modeling for stream restoration purposes: the accuracy of the nutrient spiraling and transient storage models for quantifying reach-scale nutrient uptake, and the ability to quantify transport parameters using measurements and scaling techniques in order to improve upon traditional conservative tracer fitting methods. Nitrate (NO-3)(NO3-) uptake rates inferred using the nutrient spiraling model underestimated the total NO-3NO3- mass loss by 82%, which was attributed to the exclusion of dispersion and transient storage. The transient storage model was more accurate with respect to the NO-3NO3- mass loss (±20%) and also demonstrated that uptake in the main channel was more significant than in storage zones. Conservative tracer fitting was unable to produce transport parameter estimates for a riffle-pool transition of the study reach, while forward modeling of solute transport using measured/scaled transport parameters matched conservative tracer breakthrough curves for all reaches. Additionally, solute exchange between the main channel and embayment surface storage zones was quantified using first-order theory. These results demonstrate that it is vital to account for transient storage in quantifying nutrient uptake, and the continued development of measurement/scaling techniques is needed for reactive transport modeling of streams with complex hydraulic and geomorphic conditions.

  16. Effects of sulfur and nitrogen on nutrients uptake of corn using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N) fertilizer using acidified water (pH 6.5) to determine nutrients uptake and growth of maize plants grown in calcareous sandy soil. Four levels of elemental sulfur (0, 1, 5 and 10 t ha-1), two levels of N (0 and 0.34 t N ha-1) were tested at Al ...

  17. Foliar mineral nutrient uptake in carnivorous plants: What do we know and what should we know?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 10 (2013), s. 1-3 ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0783 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : terrestrial and aquatic carnivorous plant s * stimulation of root nutrient uptake * Utricularia traps Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.637, year: 2013

  18. Effect of pig manure on nutrient composition, growth and yield of Okra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five rates of manure, 0,2.5,5.0,7.5, and 10.0t/ha and NPK (15-15-15) fertilizer } at 200kg/ha were compared as to their effects on leaf nutrient composition, growth and pod yield of okra. Pig manure increased okra leaf nutrient N,P,K Ca and Mg contents, and the nutrients increased with application of manure. NPK fertilizer ...

  19. Preharvest and postharvest factors affecting yield and nutrient contents of vegetable amaranth (Var. Amaranthus hypochondriacus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onyango, C.

    2010-01-01

    KEYWORDS: Traditional leafy vegetables, Amaranth, diammonium phosphate, manure, yields, nutrients, antinutrients, phenolics, oxalates, small-scale farmers, Kenya Agriculture in developing countries faces a number of pressing challenges including population growth, widespread poverty and food

  20. Astrocytic Insulin Signaling Couples Brain Glucose Uptake with Nutrient Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cáceres, Cristina; Quarta, Carmelo; Varela, Luis; Gao, Yuanqing; Gruber, Tim; Legutko, Beata; Jastroch, Martin; Johansson, Pia; Ninkovic, Jovica; Yi, Chun-Xia; Le Thuc, Ophelia; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Cai, Weikang; Meyer, Carola W; Pfluger, Paul T; Fernandez, Ana M; Luquet, Serge; Woods, Stephen C; Torres-Alemán, Ignacio; Kahn, C Ronald; Götz, Magdalena; Horvath, Tamas L; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2016-08-11

    We report that astrocytic insulin signaling co-regulates hypothalamic glucose sensing and systemic glucose metabolism. Postnatal ablation of insulin receptors (IRs) in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing cells affects hypothalamic astrocyte morphology, mitochondrial function, and circuit connectivity. Accordingly, astrocytic IR ablation reduces glucose-induced activation of hypothalamic pro-opio-melanocortin (POMC) neurons and impairs physiological responses to changes in glucose availability. Hypothalamus-specific knockout of astrocytic IRs, as well as postnatal ablation by targeting glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST)-expressing cells, replicates such alterations. A normal response to altering directly CNS glucose levels in mice lacking astrocytic IRs indicates a role in glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This was confirmed in vivo in GFAP-IR KO mice by using positron emission tomography and glucose monitoring in cerebral spinal fluid. We conclude that insulin signaling in hypothalamic astrocytes co-controls CNS glucose sensing and systemic glucose metabolism via regulation of glucose uptake across the BBB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of elevated [CO2 ] on yield, intra-plant nutrient dynamics, and grain quality of rice cultivars in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Usha Rani; Swain, Dillip Kumar; Hazra, K K; Maity, Mrinal K

    2018-05-16

    Climate models predict an increase in global temperature in response to a doubling of atmospheric [CO 2 ] that may impact future rice production and quality. In this study, the effect of elevated [CO 2 ] on yield, nutrient acquisition and utilization, and grain quality of rice genotypes was investigated in subtropical climate of eastern India (Kharagpur). Three environments (open field, ambient, and elevated [CO 2 ]) were tested using four rice cultivars of eastern India. Under elevated [CO 2 ] (25% higher), yield of high yielding cultivars (HYCs) viz. IR 36, Swarna, and Swarna sub1 was significantly reduced (11-13%), whereas the yield increased (6-9%) for Badshabhog, a low-yielding aromatic cultivar. Elevated [CO 2 ] significantly enhanced K uptake (14-21%), but did not influence the uptake of total N and P. The nutrient harvest index and use efficiency values in HYCs were reduced under elevated [CO 2 ] indicating that nutrients translocation from source to sink (grain) was significantly reduced. An increase in alkali spreading value (10%) and reduction in grain protein (2-3%) and iron (5-6%) was also observed upon [CO 2 ] elevation. The study highlights the importance of nutrient management (increasing N rate for HYCs) and selective breeding of tolerant cultivar in minimizing the adverse effect of elevated [CO 2 ] on rice yield and quality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving Crop Yield and Nutrient Use Efficiency via Biofertilization—A Global Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Schütz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of microbial inoculants (biofertilizers is a promising technology for future sustainable farming systems in view of rapidly decreasing phosphorus stocks and the need to more efficiently use available nitrogen (N. Various microbial taxa are currently used as biofertilizers, based on their capacity to access nutrients from fertilizers and soil stocks, to fix atmospheric nitrogen, to improve water uptake or to act as biocontrol agents. Despite the existence of a considerable knowledge on effects of specific taxa of biofertilizers, a comprehensive quantitative assessment of the performance of biofertilizers with different traits such as phosphorus solubilization and N fixation applied to various crops at a global scale is missing. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify benefits of biofertilizers in terms of yield increase, nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency, based on 171 peer reviewed publications that met eligibility criteria. Major findings are: (i the superiority of biofertilizer performance in dry climates over other climatic regions (yield response: dry climate +20.0 ± 1.7%, tropical climate +14.9 ± 1.2%, oceanic climate +10.0 ± 3.7%, continental climate +8.5 ± 2.4%; (ii meta-regression analyses revealed that yield response due to biofertilizer application was generally small at low soil P levels; efficacy increased along higher soil P levels in the order arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, P solubilizers, and N fixers; (iii meta-regressions showed that the success of inoculation with AMF was greater at low organic matter content and at neutral pH. Our comprehensive analysis provides a basis and guidance for proper choice and application of biofertilizers.

  3. Improving Crop Yield and Nutrient Use Efficiency via Biofertilization—A Global Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Lukas; Gattinger, Andreas; Meier, Matthias; Müller, Adrian; Boller, Thomas; Mäder, Paul; Mathimaran, Natarajan

    2018-01-01

    The application of microbial inoculants (biofertilizers) is a promising technology for future sustainable farming systems in view of rapidly decreasing phosphorus stocks and the need to more efficiently use available nitrogen (N). Various microbial taxa are currently used as biofertilizers, based on their capacity to access nutrients from fertilizers and soil stocks, to fix atmospheric nitrogen, to improve water uptake or to act as biocontrol agents. Despite the existence of a considerable knowledge on effects of specific taxa of biofertilizers, a comprehensive quantitative assessment of the performance of biofertilizers with different traits such as phosphorus solubilization and N fixation applied to various crops at a global scale is missing. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify benefits of biofertilizers in terms of yield increase, nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency, based on 171 peer reviewed publications that met eligibility criteria. Major findings are: (i) the superiority of biofertilizer performance in dry climates over other climatic regions (yield response: dry climate +20.0 ± 1.7%, tropical climate +14.9 ± 1.2%, oceanic climate +10.0 ± 3.7%, continental climate +8.5 ± 2.4%); (ii) meta-regression analyses revealed that yield response due to biofertilizer application was generally small at low soil P levels; efficacy increased along higher soil P levels in the order arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), P solubilizers, and N fixers; (iii) meta-regressions showed that the success of inoculation with AMF was greater at low organic matter content and at neutral pH. Our comprehensive analysis provides a basis and guidance for proper choice and application of biofertilizers. PMID:29375594

  4. Improving Crop Yield and Nutrient Use Efficiency via Biofertilization-A Global Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Lukas; Gattinger, Andreas; Meier, Matthias; Müller, Adrian; Boller, Thomas; Mäder, Paul; Mathimaran, Natarajan

    2017-01-01

    The application of microbial inoculants (biofertilizers) is a promising technology for future sustainable farming systems in view of rapidly decreasing phosphorus stocks and the need to more efficiently use available nitrogen (N). Various microbial taxa are currently used as biofertilizers, based on their capacity to access nutrients from fertilizers and soil stocks, to fix atmospheric nitrogen, to improve water uptake or to act as biocontrol agents. Despite the existence of a considerable knowledge on effects of specific taxa of biofertilizers, a comprehensive quantitative assessment of the performance of biofertilizers with different traits such as phosphorus solubilization and N fixation applied to various crops at a global scale is missing. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify benefits of biofertilizers in terms of yield increase, nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency, based on 171 peer reviewed publications that met eligibility criteria. Major findings are: (i) the superiority of biofertilizer performance in dry climates over other climatic regions (yield response: dry climate +20.0 ± 1.7%, tropical climate +14.9 ± 1.2%, oceanic climate +10.0 ± 3.7%, continental climate +8.5 ± 2.4%); (ii) meta-regression analyses revealed that yield response due to biofertilizer application was generally small at low soil P levels; efficacy increased along higher soil P levels in the order arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), P solubilizers, and N fixers; (iii) meta-regressions showed that the success of inoculation with AMF was greater at low organic matter content and at neutral pH. Our comprehensive analysis provides a basis and guidance for proper choice and application of biofertilizers.

  5. Effect of mycorrhiza and phosphorus content in nutrient solution on the yield and nutritional status of tomato plants grown on rockwool or coconut coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Kowalska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of P level in nutrient solution and the colonization of roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on P uptake by tomato plants, their nutritional status, yield and quality of fruits were studied. Plants were grown on rockwool or coconut coir. Inoculation by a mixture of several AMF species was performed three times during the growing period. The mycorrhizal frequency in roots inoculated with AMF amounted to 35.79 – 50.82%. The highest level of mycorrhiza was found in plants receiving nutrient solution with a lower concentration of P. Among the experimental factors, only P level influenced the fruit yield, being higher from plants receiving a nutrient solution with a higher P level. A higher concentration of P in nutrient solution imposed better nutritional status of plants. Higher contents of ascorbic acid and total soluble sugars were found in fruits collected from inoculated plants, grown on rockwool.

  6. The role of diatom nanostructures in biasing diffusion to improve uptake in a patchy nutrient environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G Mitchell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diatoms are important single-celled autotrophs that dominate most lit aquatic environments and are distinguished by surficial frustules with intricate designs of unknown function. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that some frustule designs constrain diffusion to positively alter nutrient uptake. In nutrient gradients of 4 to 160 times over <5 cm, the screened-chambered morphology of Coscincodiscus sp. biases the nutrient diffusion towards the cell by at least 3.8 times the diffusion to the seawater. In contrast, the open-chambers of Thalassiosira eccentrica produce at least a 1.3 times diffusion advantage to the membrane over Coscincodiscus sp. when nutrients are homogeneous. SIGNIFICANCE: Diffusion constraint explains the success of particular diatom species at given times and the overall success of diatoms. The results help answer the unresolved question of how adjacent microplankton compete. Furthermore, diffusion constraint by supramembrane nanostructures to alter molecular diffusion suggests that microbes compete via supramembrane topology, a competitive mechanism not considered by the standard smooth-surface equations used for nutrient uptake nor in microbial ecology and cell physiology.

  7. Predicted harvest time effects on switchgrass moisture content, nutrient concentration, yield, and profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production costs change with harvest date of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a result of nutrient recycling and changes in yield of this perennial crop. This study examines the range of cost of production from an early, yield-maximizing harvest date to a late winter harvest date at low moisture...

  8. Influence of lead on atrazine uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings from nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Hong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2005-01-01

    Atrazine is a widely used herbicide, and its persistence in soil and water causes environmental concerns. In the past, plant uptake processes are mainly investigated for single contaminants. However, in many cases, contaminants co-exist in environmental matrix, such as soil, and plant uptake of one contaminant may be influenced by its co-existing ones. The uptake of atrazine by rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) from nutrient solution through the roots was investigated in a solution culture, over an exposure period of 4 weeks. Atrazine accumulation in plant tissues was determined by gas chromatography, and lead was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. With different ratios of atrazine and Pb2+ concentrations in solution, the observed atrazine concentrations in shoots and roots varied significantly. In atrazine-Pb2+ mixture systems, the added Pb2+ either increased or decreased the concentrations or BCFs of atrazine in seedlings (relative to those without Pb2+), depending on the atrazine-Pb2+ ratio in nutrient solution. The enhanced atrazine uptake results presumably from atrazine-Pb2+ complex formation. The reduced atrazine uptake, which occurred mainly at high atrazine concentrations, is attributed to atrazine toxicity that inhibited seedling growth and transpiration. The formation of atrazine-Pb2+ complex both in the solution and within plant tissues may affect the accumulation of both contaminants by rice plants.

  9. A review on beneficial effects of rhizosphere bacteria on soil nutrient availability and plant nutrient uptake.

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio Vega, Nelson Walter

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo se constituye en una revisión de los beneficios de bacterias rizosféricas sobre la nutrición vegetal. La interacción entre planta y bacterias solubilizadoras de fosfato es explicada en mayor detalle y usada como modelo para ilustrar el rol que algunas bacterias de la rizosfera juegan en la disponibilidad de nutrientes en el suelo. Las condiciones ambientales de la rizosfera también se discuten con detalle. Los beneficios de estas bacterias han sido obtenidos, y mejorados, en pre...

  10. Growth, nutrient uptake and ectomycorrhizal function in Pinus sylvestris plants exposed to aluminium and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    2000-07-01

    The potential role of aluminium (Al) toxicity to trees has been of particular concern to forest owners and scientists since the early 1980's when Ulrich hypothesised that both Al and heavy metals were involved in forest dieback because of their increased concentrations in soil due to acidification. Since then, numerous studies have examined the effects of metals upon nutrient uptake by plants. However, most of these investigations have been carried out in the absence of mycorrhizal fungi, which, in most ecosystems, are crucial components in nutrient uptake by plants. The present work focused on the effects of elevated concentrations of Al and heavy metals on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and the potential role of ectomycorrhiza in modifying these effects. Ectomycorrhizal colonisation enhanced the growth and nutrient uptake by seedlings. To some extent, colonisation also alleviated reduced nutrient uptake which was a feature of seedlings growing in the presence of the metals. This effect was particularly noticeable with respect to P uptake. In general, mycorrhizal seedlings grew better and had an improved P, K, Mg and S status compared with non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Significant differences were also found in nutrient uptake among seedlings colonised by different fungi. One fungus, Hebeloma cf. longicaudum, was more sensitive to the Al treatment than the pine seedlings. The use of the base cation / Al ratio as an indicator of the potential detrimental effects to trees to acidification and Al is discussed. The production of oxalic acid was found to increase when mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal seedlings were exposed to Al or Cu. Colonisation by Suillus variegatus or Rhizopogon roseolus, in particular, resulted in a marked increase. These results demonstrate that there is a capacity, especially by certain ectomycorrhizal fungi, for increased production of the metal-chelating oxalic acid when root systems are exposed to increased levels of metals. In a field

  11. Growth, nutrient uptake and ectomycorrhizal function in Pinus sylvestris plants exposed to aluminium and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla

    2000-01-01

    The potential role of aluminium (Al) toxicity to trees has been of particular concern to forest owners and scientists since the early 1980's when Ulrich hypothesised that both Al and heavy metals were involved in forest dieback because of their increased concentrations in soil due to acidification. Since then, numerous studies have examined the effects of metals upon nutrient uptake by plants. However, most of these investigations have been carried out in the absence of mycorrhizal fungi, which, in most ecosystems, are crucial components in nutrient uptake by plants. The present work focused on the effects of elevated concentrations of Al and heavy metals on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and the potential role of ectomycorrhiza in modifying these effects. Ectomycorrhizal colonisation enhanced the growth and nutrient uptake by seedlings. To some extent, colonisation also alleviated reduced nutrient uptake which was a feature of seedlings growing in the presence of the metals. This effect was particularly noticeable with respect to P uptake. In general, mycorrhizal seedlings grew better and had an improved P, K, Mg and S status compared with non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Significant differences were also found in nutrient uptake among seedlings colonised by different fungi. One fungus, Hebeloma cf. longicaudum, was more sensitive to the Al treatment than the pine seedlings. The use of the base cation / Al ratio as an indicator of the potential detrimental effects to trees to acidification and Al is discussed. The production of oxalic acid was found to increase when mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal seedlings were exposed to Al or Cu. Colonisation by Suillus variegatus or Rhizopogon roseolus, in particular, resulted in a marked increase. These results demonstrate that there is a capacity, especially by certain ectomycorrhizal fungi, for increased production of the metal-chelating oxalic acid when root systems are exposed to increased levels of metals. In a field

  12. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E; Guo, Xianfeng; de Visser, Pieter H B; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2017-01-01

    Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of water and nutrients in water surpass those in substrate, even though the transport of oxygen may be more complex. Transport rates can only limit growth when they are below a rate corresponding to maximum plant uptake. Our first objective was to compare Chrysanthemum growth performance for three water-based growing systems with different irrigation. We compared; multi-point irrigation into a pond (DeepFlow); one-point irrigation resulting in a thin film of running water (NutrientFlow) and multi-point irrigation as droplets through air (Aeroponic). Second objective was to compare press pots as propagation medium with nutrient solution as propagation medium. The comparison included DeepFlow water-rooted cuttings with either the stem 1 cm into the nutrient solution or with the stem 1 cm above the nutrient solution. Measurements included fresh weight, dry weight, length, water supply, nutrient supply, and oxygen levels. To account for differences in radiation sum received, crop performance was evaluated with Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) expressed as dry weight over sum of Photosynthetically Active Radiation. The reference, DeepFlow with substrate-based propagation, showed the highest RUE, even while the oxygen supply provided by irrigation was potentially growth limiting. DeepFlow with water-based propagation showed 15-17% lower RUEs than the reference. NutrientFlow showed 8% lower RUE than the reference, in combination with potentially limiting irrigation supply of nutrients and oxygen. Aeroponic showed RUE levels similar to the reference and Aeroponic had non-limiting irrigation supply of water, nutrients, and oxygen. Water-based propagation affected the subsequent

  13. Nutrient retention values and cooking yield factors for three South African lamb and mutton cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, Salomina M; Strydom, Phillip E

    2017-11-01

    Nutrient content of raw and cooked foods is important for formulation of healthy diets. The retention of nutrients during cooking can be influenced by various factors, including animal age, carcass characteristics and cooking method, and these factors are often unique to specific countries. Here the effects of animal age (lamb and mutton) and carcass cut (shoulder, loin and leg) combined with cooking method (moist heat and dry heat) on yield and nutrient retention of selected nutrients of South African sheep carcasses were studied. Cooking yields and moisture retention were lower for lamb loin but higher for lamb leg. Energy and fat retention were higher for all cuts of mutton compared with lamb, while higher retention values for cholesterol were recorded for lamb. Mutton retained more iron (P = 0.10) and zinc and also more vitamin B 2 , B 6 and B 12 than lamb. Shoulder cooked according to moist heat cooking method retained more magnesium, potassium and sodium. Incorporating these retention and yield values into the South African Medical Research Council's Food Composition Tables provides a reliable reference to all concerned with nutrient content of food. It will also guide practitioners and primary industry to adjust animal production aimed at optimum nutrient content to specific diets. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Sulphur uptake and yield of soybean as influenced by sulphur fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamima, N.; Farid, A. T. M.

    2005-01-01

    Effect of sulphur fertilization (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg/ha) on sulphur uptake and seed yield was studied in sohag and Bangladesh soybean-4 varieties in the field of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur during the winter (rabi) seasons of 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 in grey Terrace soil (Albaquept). Addition of slphur fertilizer exerted significant influence on the yield attributes of soybean varieties. Sulphur uptake also significantly responded to the application of sulphur fertilizer. Variety Bangladesh soybean-4 was found superior to sohag in respect of sulphur uptake and yield. Greater sulphur utilization was observed at lower levels of fertilizer application. Seed yield and sulphur uptake were increased with the application of 40 kg/ ha for sohag and 60 kg/ha for Bangladesh soybean-4. Response of seed yield to added sulphur was quadratic. The economic optimum doses were found to be 49 kg s/ha for sohag and 52 kg s/ha for Bangladesh soybean-4, yielding 2060 and 2354 kg/ha, respectively. (author)

  15. Nutrient uptake of the criolla potato (Solanum phureja var. Galeras for the determination of critical nutritional levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Torres B.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the nutrient uptake of the criolla potato (Solanum phureja var. Galeras, the critical nutritional levels were determined on a farm in the Carrizal district of the municipality of Granada (Cundinamarca. Five fertilizing treatments were used: 0 fertilization (control, commercial control (CC, proposed recommendation + 50% (PR + 50%, proposed recommendation (PR, proposed recommendation - 50% (PR - 50%; organized with a random complete block design with three repetitions and repeated measurements over time; in each one, the material and nutrient absorption were evaluated in four phonological stages; in which the harvest, yield and profitability were measured. It was observed that the dry material increased rapidly until 113 days after planting (dap and was higher in treatments CC and PR + 50% with 8,818 and 7,743 kg ha-1 , respectively. The statistical analysis showed that the elements: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu and B did not present significant differences over time after 77 dap in treatments CC and PR + 50%. There were no significant differences in yield for treatments CC and PR + 50% but there were significant differences between these treatments and the others. The economic analysis showed that treatment CC had the highest profitability, confirming this as the critical level for the Galeras variety in Granada (Cundinamarca.

  16. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219 Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Palanivell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot−1. Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot−1 significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot−1 and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  17. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219) Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivell, Perumal; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Ab Majid, Nik Muhamad; Jalloh, Mohamadu Boyie; Susilawati, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot(-1)). Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot(-1)) significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot(-1)) and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  18. Uptake and utilization of nutrients by developing kernels of Zea mays L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyznik, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in amino acid and sugar uptake by developing maize kernels were investigated. In the pedicel region of maize kernel, the site of nutrient unloading from phloem terminals, amino acids are accumulated in considerable amounts and undergo significant interconversion. A wide spectrum of enzymatic activities involved in the metabolism of amino acids is observed in these tissues. Subsequently, amino acids are taken up by the endosperm tissue in processes which require energy and the presence of carrier proteins. Conversely, no evidence was found that energy and carriers are involved in sugar uptake. This process of sugar uptake is not inhibited by metabolic inhibitors and shows nonsaturable kinetics, but the uptake is pH-dependent. L-glucose is taken up at a significantly reduced rate in comparison to D-glucose uptake. Based on analysis of radioactivity distribution among sugar fractions after incubations of kernels with radiolabeled D-glucose, it seems that sucrose is not efficiently resynthesized from D-glucose in the endosperm tissue. Thus, the proposed mechanism of sucrose transport involving sucrose hydrolysis in the pedicel region and subsequent resynthesis in endosperm cells may not be the main pathway. The evidence that transfer cells play an active role in D-glucose transport is presented

  19. Broccoli yield and yield quality as affected by gamma rays seeds irradiation and foliar application of some nutrients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabal, M R [Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Moshtohor, Zagazig University (Egypt); Abdallah, A A.G.; Awad, S M; Aboel-Kheir, O H [Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt)

    2005-07-01

    Two field experiments were carried out during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 winter growing seasons at the Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) in Inshas, Egypt. The experiment was conducted to study the effect of pre-sowing seeds irradiation with different doses of gamma rays (0, 2, 3 and 4 Gy) and foliar application of different nutrients (Zn, B, S and S+K) on spear diameter, main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear fresh weight per plant, total spear yield besides NPK in leaves at 90 days after transplanting and NPK and total protein content in spears at maturity. In general, exposing broccoli seeds to different gamma ray doses up to 4 Gy prior to sowing increased the above mentioned parameters with different magnitudes comparing with the non-irradiated control plants. There were no significant differences between 3 Gy and 4 Gy treatments during the two growing seasons. With respect to the effect of nutrient application on the studied parameters, all nutrients application significantly increased all the above mentioned parameters. The highest result was detected with B application. Regarding to the interaction of gamma ray with nutrients application, the highest value of all above mentioned parameters was detected with B application and 3 Gy of gamma ray.

  20. Broccoli yield and yield quality as affected by gamma rays seeds irradiation and foliar application of some nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabal, M.R.; Abdallah, A.A.G.; Awad, S.M.; Aboel-Kheir, O.H.

    2005-01-01

    Two field experiments were carried out during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 winter growing seasons at the Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) in Inshas, Egypt. The experiment was conducted to study the effect of pre-sowing seeds irradiation with different doses of gamma rays (0, 2, 3 and 4 Gy) and foliar application of different nutrients (Zn, B, S and S+K) on spear diameter, main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear fresh weight per plant, total spear yield besides NPK in leaves at 90 days after transplanting and NPK and total protein content in spears at maturity. In general, exposing broccoli seeds to different gamma ray doses up to 4 Gy prior to sowing increased the above mentioned parameters with different magnitudes comparing with the non-irradiated control plants. There were no significant differences between 3 Gy and 4 Gy treatments during the two growing seasons. With respect to the effect of nutrient application on the studied parameters, all nutrients application significantly increased all the above mentioned parameters. The highest result was detected with B application. Regarding to the interaction of gamma ray with nutrients application, the highest value of all above mentioned parameters was detected with B application and 3 Gy of gamma ray

  1. The Potential of the Nutrient Uptake and Outcome network (NUOnet) to Contribute to Soil and Water Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the national and global environmental challenges that we have related to nutrient management, there is a need to use large quantities of information to solve the complex agricultural challenges humanity faces. USDA-ARS is developing a national network called the Nutrient Uptake and Outcome netw...

  2. Switchgrass harvest time management can impact biomass yield and nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a dedicated energy crop native to much of North America. While high-biomass yield is of significant importance for the development of switchgrass as a bioenergy crop, nutrient content in the biomass as it relates to biofuel conversion efficiency is also critical...

  3. Approaches in the determination of plant nutrient uptake and distribution in space flight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyenga, A. G.; Forsman, A.; Stodieck, L. S.; Hoehn, A.; Kliss, M.

    2000-01-01

    The effective growth and development of vascular plants rely on the adequate availability of water and nutrients. Inefficiency in either the initial absorption, transportation, or distribution of these elements are factors which impinge on plant structure and metabolic integrity. The potential effect of space flight and microgravity conditions on the efficiency of these processes is unclear. Limitations in the available quantity of space-grown plant material and the sensitivity of routine analytical techniques have made an evaluation of these processes impractical. However, the recent introduction of new plant cultivating methodologies supporting the application of radionuclide elements and subsequent autoradiography techniques provides a highly sensitive investigative approach amenable to space flight studies. Experiments involving the use of gel based 'nutrient packs' and the radionuclides calcium-45 and iron-59 were conducted on the Shuttle mission STS-94. Uptake rates of the radionuclides between ground and flight plant material appeared comparable.

  4. Relating Hydrogeomorphic Attributes to Nutrient Uptake in Alluvial Streams of a Mountain Lake District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, C. D.; Baker, M. A.

    2005-05-01

    Stream form and hydrologic processes may indirectly drive nutrient uptake, however developing predictive relationships has been elusive. Problems in establishing such relationships may lie in the sets of streams analyzed, which often span diverse channel-sizes, geology, and regions, or are too geomorphically similar. We collected field data on stream geomorphology and hydrologic and nutrient transport processes using solute injections at 22 alluvial stream reaches in the Sawtooth Mountains, Idaho, USA. Many of these streams occur near lakes, which create contrasting fluvial form and functions that we hoped would produce a broad geomorphic dataset to compare to hyporheic and dead-zone transient storage and NO3 and PO4 spiraling metrics. Preliminary results suggest that storage zone residence time (Tsto) was best predicted by sediment D50, wood abundance (CWD), and discharge (r2=0.84, pnutrient cycling processes should be further considered and investigated.

  5. Nematodes enhance plant growth and nutrient uptake under C and N-rich conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremikael, Mesfin T.; Steel, Hanne; Buchan, David; Bert, Wim; de Neve, Stefaan

    2016-09-01

    The role of soil fauna in crucial ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling remains poorly quantified, mainly because of the overly reductionistic approach adopted in most experimental studies. Given that increasing nitrogen inputs in various ecosystems influence the structure and functioning of soil microbes and the activity of fauna, we aimed to quantify the role of the entire soil nematode community in nutrient mineralization in an experimental set-up emulating nutrient-rich field conditions and accounting for crucial interactions amongst the soil microbial communities and plants. To this end, we reconstructed a complex soil foodweb in mesocosms that comprised largely undisturbed native microflora and the entire nematode community added into defaunated soil, planted with Lolium perenne as a model plant, and amended with fresh grass-clover residues. We determined N and P availability and plant uptake, plant biomass and abundance and structure of the microbial and nematode communities during a three-month incubation. The presence of nematodes significantly increased plant biomass production (+9%), net N (+25%) and net P (+23%) availability compared to their absence, demonstrating that nematodes link below- and above-ground processes, primarily through increasing nutrient availability. The experimental set-up presented allows to realistically quantify the crucial ecosystem services provided by the soil biota.

  6. Role of Translocted Signals in Regulating Root Development and Nutrient Uptake in Legumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, C. A. [School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Uptake of nutrients is achieved through the expression and activity of specific carrier/transporter mechanisms localized in the root system and distributed as a consequence of the development of the architecture of the system. Both root system development and the nutrient transport mechanisms are responsive to environmental factors that include nutrient supply and availability, water supply, salinity, soil acidity and compaction together with a wide range of biotic stresses. The response to each may be regulated at the molecular level by both local and systemic signals. These signals include the classical plant growth regulators but also low molecular weight compounds such as sugars and amino acids as well as macromolecules, including peptides, proteins and nucleic acids. Among the latter, recent research has shown that small RNA species and especially small interfering RNAs (siRNA) and microRNAs (miRNA) are potent and effective regulators of gene expression which, in the context of root development as well as nutrient uptake, have central and critical roles. Systemic (translocated) signals that specifically regulate root development and function are less well defined but analyses of phloem exudate in species of lupin (Lupinus albus and L. angustifolius) and species of Brassica and cucurbits have demonstrated that a wide range of macromolecules, including miRNAs, are present and potentially translocated from source organs (principally leaves) to sinks (shoot apical meristems, developing fruits and seeds, roots and nodules). While specific signaling roles for many of these macromolecules are yet to be discovered there are some that have been documented and their regulatory activity in organ development and functioning, as well as in nutrition, confirmed. The following article provides an up to date review and presents the results of recent research using lupin with emphasis on the analysis of small RNAs and their likely role(s) in regulation of root development and

  7. In-stream nutrient uptake kinetics along stream size and development gradients in a rapidly developing mountain resort watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, T.; McGlynn, B.; McNamarra, R.; Gardner, K.

    2012-04-01

    Land use / land cover (LULC) change including mountain resort development often lead to increased nutrient loading to streams, however the potential influence on stream ecosystem nutrient uptake kinetics and transport remain poorly understood. Given the deleterious impacts elevated nutrient loading can have on aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative to improve understanding of nutrient retention capacities across stream scales and watershed development intensities. We performed seventeen nutrient addition experiments on six streams across the West Fork Gallatin Watershed, Montana, USA, to quantify nitrogen (N) uptake kinetics and retention dynamics across stream sizes (1st to 4th order) and along a mountain resort development gradient. We observed that stream N uptake kinetics and spiraling parameters varied across streams of different development intensity and scale. In more developed watersheds we observed a fertilization affect, however, none of the streams exhibited saturation with respect to N. Additionally, we observed that elevated loading led to increased biomass and retentive capacities in developed streams that helped maintain export at low levels during baseflow. Our results indicate that LULC can enhance in-stream uptake of limiting nutrients and highlight the value of characterizing uptake kinetic curves from ambient to saturation.

  8. Investigation the Effects of Different Doses Organic Fertilizers and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterias on Yield and Nutrient Contents in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferit SÖNMEZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (N2; Bacillus megaterium M-3, TV-6I; Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, TV-34A; Hafnia Alve, TV-69E; Acetobacter pasteurianus and TV-83F; Bacillus cereus and organic fertilizer (0, 10 and 20 ton / ha on the seed yield and nutrient content of chickpea under field conditions in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria used in this study were determined by the separate investigation conducted in chamber room by using ten phosphate solubilizing bacteria and organic fertilizer (control, %5,%10. The tiral were laid out with a factorial design in randomized complete block with three replications. In this study, plant height, primary branches, secondary branches and number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, grain yield and biological yield and nutrient content of stem and seed were determined. According to the results of the study bacteria applications increased significantly biological and seed yield. Bacteria applications without organic fertilizer increased nutrient contents of seed and steed except cupper content. In case of inoculation with organic fertilizer provided more increases in biological and seed yields. The highest seed yield were obtained from application of 20 ton/ha + N2 (Bacillus megaterium M-3 with 1020 kg/ha and 1793 kg/ha in 2010 and 2011 years, respectively. Bacteria without organic fertilizer application were more active in terms of phosphorus uptake in both years. 

  9. Trichoderma-Based Biostimulants Modulate Rhizosphere Microbial Populations and Improve N Uptake Efficiency, Yield, and Nutritional Quality of Leafy Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzio Fiorentino

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial inoculants such as Trichoderma-based products are receiving great interest among researchers and agricultural producers for their potential to improve crop productivity, nutritional quality as well as resistance to plant pathogens/pests and numerous environmental stresses. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to assess the effects of Trichoderma-based biostimulants under suboptimal, optimal and supraoptimal levels of nitrogen (N fertilization in two leafy vegetables: Iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and rocket (Eruca sativa Mill.. The yield, nutritional characteristics, N uptake and mineral composition were analyzed for each vegetable crop after inoculation with Trichoderma strains T. virens (GV41 or T. harzianum (T22, and results were compared to non-inoculated plants. In addition, the effect of the Trichoderma-based biostimulants on microbes associated with the rhizosphere in terms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic composition and concentration using DGGE was also evaluated. Trichoderma-based biostimulants, in particular GV41, positively increased lettuce and rocket yield in the unfertilized plots. The highest marketable lettuce fresh yield was recorded with either of the biostimulant inoculations when plants were supplied with optimal levels of N. The inoculation of rocket with GV41, and to a lesser degree with T22, elicited an increase in total ascorbic acid under both optimal and high N conditions. T. virens GV41 increased N-use efficiency of lettuce, and favored the uptake of native N present in the soil of both lettuce and rocket. The positive effect of biostimulants on nutrient uptake and crop growth was species-dependent, being more marked with lettuce. The best biostimulation effects from the Trichoderma treatments were observed in both crops when grown under low N availability. The Trichoderma inoculation strongly influenced the composition of eukaryotic populations in the rhizosphere, in particularly exerting different

  10. Soil Chemical Properties and Nutrient Uptake of Cocoa as Affected by Application of Different Organic Matters and Phosphate Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyanto Sugiyanto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Effort repair of land quality better be done by simultan namely with application of organic matters and inorganic fertilization. The objective of this research is to study the effect of varied organic matters source and phosphate fertilizers on the chemicals soil characteristic and cocoa nutrient uptake. The experiment was laid experimentally in split-plot design and environmentally in randomized complete block design. The main plot was source of P consisted of, control, SP 36 and rock phosphate in dosage of 200 mg P2O5 per kg of air dry soil. Source of organic matter as sub-plot consisted of control (no organic matter, cow dung, cocoa pod husk compost and sugar cane filter cake, each in dosage of 2.5 and 5.0%. Result of this experiment showed application of cow dung, cocoa pod husk compost and sugar cane filter cake increased content of C, N, Ca exchangeable, Fe available, and pH in soil, and SP 36 increased availability of P in soil. Application of sugar cane filter cake increased N, K, Ca, Mg, and SO4 uptake but did not increase Cl uptake, application of cow dung in dosage 5% increased N, K, and Cl uptake and cocoa pod husk compost dosage 5% increased N and K uptake of cocoa. SP 36 increased Mg uptake of cocoa but rock phosphate did not increase it. They were not interaction between organic matters and phosphate fertilizers to nutrient uptake of cocoa. Nutrient soil content as affected by organic matters correlated with nutrient uptake of cocoa.Key words : soil chemical properties, nutrient uptake, cocoa, organic matter, phosphate fertlizers.

  11. Nutrient uptake by intact mycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings: a diagnostic tool to detect copper toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tichelen, Katia K.; Vanstraelen, Tom; Colpaert, Jan V.

    1999-03-01

    We developed a nondestructive method for detecting early toxic effects of inflethal copper (Cu) concentrations on ectomycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal (NM) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings. The fungal symbionts examined were Paxillus involutus (Fr.) Fr., Suillus luteus (Fr.) S.F. Gray and Thelephora terrestris (Ehrh.) Fr. The accumulation of Cu in needles and fungal development (ergosterol) in roots and infstrate were assessed. Inorganic phosphate (P(i)) and ammonium (NH(4) (+)) uptake capacities were determined in a semi-hydroponic cultivation system on intact P-limited plants that were exposed for 3 weeks to 0.32 (control), 8 or 16 &mgr;moles Cu(2+). Short-term effects of a 1-hour exposure to 32 &mgr;moles Cu(2+) on nutrient uptake rates were also determined. None of the Cu(2+) treatments affected plant growth or root ergosterol concentrations. The active fungal biomass in infstrate invaded by S. luteus was reduced by 50% in the 16 &mgr;M Cu(2+) treatment compared with the control treatment; however, colonization by S. luteus prevented an increased accumulation of Cu in the needles. In contrast, the 16 &mgr;M Cu(2+) treatment caused a 2.2-fold increase in needle Cu concentration in NM plants. Ergosterol concentrations in the infstrate colonized by P. involutus and T. terrestris were not affected by 16 &mgr;molar Cu(2+). Although P. involutus and T. terrestris were less sensitive to Cu(2+) than S. luteus, T. terrestris did not prevent the accumulation of Cu in needles of its host plant in the 16 &mgr;molar Cu(2+) treatment. Mycorrhizal plants consistently had higher P(i) and NH(4) (+) uptake capacities than NM plants. In the control treatment, specific P(i) uptake rates were almost 10, 4 and 3 times higher in plants associated with P. involutus, S. luteus and T. terrestris, respectively, than in NM plants, and specific NH(4) (+) uptake rates were about 2, 2 and 5 times higher, respectively, than those of NM seedlings. Compared with the corresponding

  12. The effect of cropping sequence on the crop yield and nutrient availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, W.H.; Rasjid, H.

    1988-01-01

    A two seasons field experiment was conducted to study the carry over effect of previous crop on the succeeding crop yield and plan nutrient (N and P) availability. The experiment consisted of eight treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with six resplications. Cropping sequence was studied that was soybean followed by corn and a continuous corn system. The effect of added P to the previous crops on the succeeding crops yield was also observed. Labelled fertilizer were used in the experiment to measure dinitrogen fixation of two soybean varieties and the amount of available nutrient in the soil by using isotopic dilution technique. The result obtained showed that corn yield was significantly influenced by cropping sequence, but available nutrient was not. Corn grown after soybean produced about 22 percent more grain than those of the continuous corn system. The phosphorus applied to the first season crops increased significantly the succeeding corn yield. The highest amount of accumulation in soybean was 81 kg N/h, around 40 percent of the amount was obtained through fixation. (authors). 19 refs.; 8 tabs

  13. Principles of root water uptake, soil salinity and crop yield for optimizing irrigation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirksen, C.

    1983-01-01

    The paper reviews the principles of water and salt transport, root water uptake, crop salt tolerance, water quality, and irrigation methods which should be considered in optimizing irrigation management for sustained, viable agriculture with protection of the quality of land and water resources. In particular, the advantages of high-frequency irrigation at small leaching fractions with closed systems are discussed, for which uptake-weighted mean salinity is expected to correlate best with crop yields. Optimization of irrigation management depends on the scale considered. Non-technical problems which are often much harder to solve than technical problems, may well be most favourable for new projects in developing countries. (author)

  14. Comparative potentials of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to improve nutrient uptake and biomass of Sorghum bicolor Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattarawadee Sumthong Nakmee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Linn. seedlings were grown in pots using Pakchong soil from Nakhon Ratchasima province. Ten species of native Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi: Glomus sp. 1, Glomus sp. 2, Glomus sp. 3, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus fasciculatum, Acaulospora longula, Glomus occultum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, Acaulospora spinosa and Scutellospora sp., were used to inoculate sorghum seedlings. The sorghum growth and uptake of several major nutrients were evaluated at the harvesting stage. The results revealed that sorghum inoculated with A. scrobiculata produced the greatest biomass, grain dry weight and total nitrogen uptake in shoots. The highest phosphorus uptake in shoots was found in A. spinosa-inoculated plants, followed by Glomus sp. and A. scrobiculata, whereas Scutellospora sp.-inoculated plants showed the highest potassium uptake in shoots followed by A. scrobiculata. Overall, the most efficient AM fungi for improvement of nutrient uptake, biomass and grain dry weight in sorghum were A. scrobiculata.

  15. Amendment of Tephrosia Improved Fallows with Inorganic Fertilizers Improves Soil Chemical Properties, N Uptake, and Maize Yield in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie G. Munthali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in Malawi is limited mainly by low soil N and P. Improved fallows of N-fixing legumes such as Tephrosia and Sesbania offer options for improving soil fertility particularly N supply. The interactions of Tephrosia fallows and inorganic fertilizers on soil properties, N uptake, and maize yields were evaluated at Chitedze Research Station in Malawi. The results indicated that the level of organic matter and pH increased in all the treatments except for the control. Total N remained almost unchanged while available P decreased in all plots amended with T. vogelii but increased in T. candida plots where inorganic P was applied. Exchangeable K increased in all the plots irrespective of the type of amendment. The interaction of N and P fertilizers with T. vogelii fallows significantly increased the grain yield. The treatment that received 45 kg N ha−1 and 20 kg P ha−1 produced significantly higher grain yields (6.8 t ha−1 than all the other treatments except where 68 kg N ha−1 and 30 kg P ha−1 were applied which gave 6.5 t ha−1 of maize grain. T. candida fallows alone or in combination with N and P fertilizers did not significantly affect grain yield. However, T. candida fallows alone can raise maize grain yield by 300% over the no-input control. Based on these results we conclude that high quality residues such as T. candida and T. vogelii can be used as sources of nutrients to improve crop yields and soil fertility in N-limited soils. However, inorganic P fertilizer is needed due to the low soil available P levels.

  16. (18)F-FDG uptake predicts diagnostic yield of transbronchial biopsy in peripheral lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Yukihiro; Demura, Yoshiki; Anzai, Masaki; Matsuoka, Hiroki; Araya, Tomoyuki; Nishitsuji, Masaru; Nishi, Koichi; Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Sumida, Yasuyuki; Morikawa, Miwa; Ameshima, Shingo; Ishizaki, Takeshi; Kasahara, Kazuo; Ishizuka, Tamotsu

    2014-07-01

    Recent advances in endobronchial ultrasonography with a guide sheath (EBUS-GS) have enabled better visualization of distal airways, while virtual bronchoscopic navigation (VBN) has been shown useful as a guide to navigate the bronchoscope. However, indications for utilizing VBN and EBUS-GS are not always clear. To clarify indications for a bronchoscopic examination using VBN and EBUS-GS, we evaluated factors that predict the diagnostic yield of a transbronchial biopsy (TBB) procedure for peripheral lung cancer (PLC) lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 194 patients with 201 PLC lesions (≤3cm mean diameter), and analyzed the association of diagnostic yield of TBB with [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography and chest computed tomography (CT) findings. The diagnostic yield of TBB using VBN and EBUS-GS was 66.7%. High maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), positive bronchus sign, and ground-glass opacity component shown on CT were all significant predictors of diagnostic yield, while multivariate analysis showed only high (18)F-FDG uptake (SUVmax ≥2.8) and positive bronchus sign as significant predictors. Diagnostic yield was higher for PLC lesions with high (18)F-FDG uptake (SUVmax ≥2.8) and positive bronchus sign (84.6%) than for those with SUVmax PLC lesions. (18)F-FDG uptake and bronchus sign may indicate for the accurate application of bronchoscopy with those modalities for diagnosing PLC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of soil acidification on root growth, nutrient and water uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschner, H.

    1989-01-01

    Soil acidification poses various types of stress to plants, especially Al and H + toxicity in roots and Mg and Ca deficiency in roots and shoots. The importance of the various types of stress varies with plant species, location and time. Average data of the chemical composition of the bulk soil or of the molar Ca/Al or Mg/Al ratios in the soil solution without consideration of the Al species are of limited value for precise conclusions of the actual, or for predictions of the potential risk of soil-acidity-induced inhibition of root growth and of nutritional imbalances. The root-induced changes in the rhizosphere and the consequences for Al toxicity and nutrient acquisition by plants deserve more attention. Further it should be considered that roots are not only required for anchoring higher plants in the soil and for nutrient and water uptake. Roots are also important sites for synthesis of phytohormones, cytokinins and abscisic acid in particular, which are transported into the shoots and act either as signals for the water status at the soil-root interface (ABA) or as compounds required for growth and development. Inhibition in root growth may therefore affect shoot growth by means other than water and nutrient supply. (orig./vhe)

  18. The effect of light supply on microalgal growth, CO2 uptake and nutrient removal from wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, A.L.; Simões, M.; Pires, J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of irradiance and light:dark ratio on microalgal growth was analysed. • Microalgal growth, CO 2 capture, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake were evaluated. • Higher irradiances and light periods supported higher growth and CO 2 uptake rates. • All the studied microalgal strains have shown high nitrogen removal efficiencies. • The highest phosphorus removal efficiency was 67.6%. - Abstract: Microalgal based biofuels have been reported as an attractive alternative for fossil fuels, since they constitute a renewable energy source that reduces greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. However, producing biofuels from microalgae is still not economically viable. Therefore, the integration of biofuel production with other microalgal applications, such as CO 2 capture and nutrient removal from wastewaters, would reduce the microalgal production costs (and the environmental impact of cultures), increasing the economic viability of the whole process. Additionally, producing biofuels from microalgae strongly depends on microalgal strain and culture conditions. This study evaluates the effect of culture conditions, namely light irradiance (36, 60, 120 and 180 μE m −2 s −1 ) and light:dark ratio (10:14, 14:10 and 24:0), on microalgal growth, atmospheric CO 2 uptake and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorous) removal from culture medium. Four different microalgal strains, Chlorella vulgaris, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Synechocystis salina and Microcystis aeruginosa, were studied to ascertain the most advantageous regarding the referred applications. This study has shown that higher light irradiance values and light periods resulted in higher specific growth rates and CO 2 uptake rates. C. vulgaris presented the highest specific growth rate and CO 2 uptake rate: 1.190 ± 0.041 d −1 and 0.471 ± 0.047 g CO2 L −1 d −1 , respectively. All the strains have shown high nitrogen removal efficiencies, reaching 100% removal percentages in

  19. Biochar derived from corn straw affected availability and distribution of soil nutrients and cotton yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Tian

    Full Text Available Biochar application as a soil amendment has been proposed as a strategy to improve soil fertility and increase crop yields. However, the effects of successive biochar applications on cotton yields and nutrient distribution in soil are not well documented. A three-year field study was conducted to investigate the effects of successive biochar applications at different rates on cotton yield and on the soil nutrient distribution in the 0-100 cm soil profile. Biochar was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 (expressed as Control, BC5, BC10, and BC20, respectively for each cotton season, with identical doses of chemical fertilizers. Biochar enhanced the cotton lint yield by 8.0-15.8%, 9.3-13.9%, and 9.2-21.9% in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively, and high levels of biochar application achieved high cotton yields each year. Leaching of soil nitrate was reduced, while the pH values, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen (N, and available K content of the 0-20 cm soil layer were increased in 2014 and 2015. However, the changes in the soil available P content were less substantial. This study suggests that successive biochar amendments have the potential to enhance cotton productivity and soil fertility while reducing nitrate leaching.

  20. Biochar derived from corn straw affected availability and distribution of soil nutrients and cotton yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaofei; Zhang, Min; Wan, Yongshan; Xie, Zhihua; Chen, Baocheng; Li, Wenqing

    2018-01-01

    Biochar application as a soil amendment has been proposed as a strategy to improve soil fertility and increase crop yields. However, the effects of successive biochar applications on cotton yields and nutrient distribution in soil are not well documented. A three-year field study was conducted to investigate the effects of successive biochar applications at different rates on cotton yield and on the soil nutrient distribution in the 0–100 cm soil profile. Biochar was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 (expressed as Control, BC5, BC10, and BC20, respectively) for each cotton season, with identical doses of chemical fertilizers. Biochar enhanced the cotton lint yield by 8.0–15.8%, 9.3–13.9%, and 9.2–21.9% in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively, and high levels of biochar application achieved high cotton yields each year. Leaching of soil nitrate was reduced, while the pH values, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen (N), and available K content of the 0–20 cm soil layer were increased in 2014 and 2015. However, the changes in the soil available P content were less substantial. This study suggests that successive biochar amendments have the potential to enhance cotton productivity and soil fertility while reducing nitrate leaching. PMID:29324750

  1. Biochar derived from corn straw affected availability and distribution of soil nutrients and cotton yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaofei; Li, Chengliang; Zhang, Min; Wan, Yongshan; Xie, Zhihua; Chen, Baocheng; Li, Wenqing

    2018-01-01

    Biochar application as a soil amendment has been proposed as a strategy to improve soil fertility and increase crop yields. However, the effects of successive biochar applications on cotton yields and nutrient distribution in soil are not well documented. A three-year field study was conducted to investigate the effects of successive biochar applications at different rates on cotton yield and on the soil nutrient distribution in the 0-100 cm soil profile. Biochar was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 (expressed as Control, BC5, BC10, and BC20, respectively) for each cotton season, with identical doses of chemical fertilizers. Biochar enhanced the cotton lint yield by 8.0-15.8%, 9.3-13.9%, and 9.2-21.9% in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively, and high levels of biochar application achieved high cotton yields each year. Leaching of soil nitrate was reduced, while the pH values, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen (N), and available K content of the 0-20 cm soil layer were increased in 2014 and 2015. However, the changes in the soil available P content were less substantial. This study suggests that successive biochar amendments have the potential to enhance cotton productivity and soil fertility while reducing nitrate leaching.

  2. Combined Application of Biofertilizers and Inorganic Nutrients Improves Sweet Potato Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhongo, Ruth W.; Tumuhairwe, John B.; Ebanyat, Peter; AbdelGadir, AbdelAziz H.; Thuita, Moses; Masso, Cargele

    2017-01-01

    Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] yields currently stand at 4.5 t ha−1 on smallholder farms in Uganda, despite the attainable yield (45–48 t ha−1) of NASPOT 11 cultivar comparable to the potential yield (45 t ha−1) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). On-farm field experiments were conducted for two seasons in the Mt Elgon High Farmlands and Lake Victoria Crescent agro-ecological zones in Uganda to determine the potential of biofertilizers, specifically arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), to increase sweet potato yields (NASPOT 11 cultivar). Two kinds of biofertilizers were compared to different rates of phosphorus (P) fertilizer when applied with or without nitrogen (N) and potassium (K). The sweet potato response to treatments was variable across sites (soil types) and seasons, and significant tuber yield increase (p biofertilizer and NPK treatments during the short-rain season in the Ferralsol. Tuber yields ranged from 12.8 to 20.1 t ha−1 in the Rhodic Nitisol (sandy-clay) compared to 7.6 to 14.9 t ha−1 in the Ferralsol (sandy-loam) during the same season. Root colonization was greater in the short-rain season compared to the long-rain season. Biofertilizers combined with N and K realized higher biomass and tuber yield than biofertilizers alone during the short-rain season indicating the need for starter nutrients for hyphal growth and root colonization of AMF. In this study, N0.25PK (34.6 t ha−1) and N0.5PK (32.9 t ha−1) resulted in the highest yield during the long and the short-rain season, respectively, but there was still a yield gap of 11.9 and 13.6 t ha−1 for the cultivar. Therefore, a combination of 90 kg N ha−1 and 100 kg K ha−1 with either 15 or 30 kg P ha−1 can increase sweet potato yield from 4.5 to >30 t ha−1. The results also show that to realize significance of AMF in nutrient depleted soils, starter nutrients should be included. PMID:28348569

  3. Impact of chelator-induced phytoextraction of cadmium on yield and ionic uptake of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Sumera; Khan, Shahbaz; Ashraf, M Yasin; Noman, Ali; Zafar, Sara; Liu, Lijun; Ullah, Sana; Fahad, Shah

    2017-06-03

    Enhanced phytoextraction uses soil chelators to increase the bioavailability of heavy metals. This study tested the effectiveness of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid in enhancing cadmium (Cd) phytoextraction and their effects on the growth, yield, and ionic uptake of maize (Zea mays). Maize seeds of two cultivars were sown in pots treated with 15 (Cd 15 ) or 30 mg Cd kg -1 soil (Cd 30 ). EDTA and citric acid at 0.5 g kg -1 each were applied 2 weeks after germination. Results demonstrated that the growth, yield per plant, and total grain weight were reduced by exposure to Cd. EDTA increased the uptake of Cd in shoots, roots, and grains of both maize varieties. Citric acid did not enhance the uptake of Cd, rather it ameliorated the toxicity of Cd, as shown by increased shoot and root length and biomass. Cadmium toxicity reduced the number of grains, rather than the grain size. The maize cultivar Sahiwal-2002 extracted 1.6% and 3.6% of Cd from soil in both Cd+ EDTA treatments. Hence, our study implies that maize can be used to successfully phytoremediate Cd from soil using EDTA, without reducing plant biomass or yield.

  4. Response of Yield, Yield Components and Nutrient Concentration of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. to Mycorrhizal Symbiosis under Salt Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bijhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation and salinity stress on the growth, yield and nutrient concentrations of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L., an experiment was carried out as split plot in a completely randomized block design at Zabol University Research Farm in 2013. Treatments consisted of three salinity stresses: 1 (control, 5 and 10 dSm-1, was considered as the main treatments, and four levels of mycorrhizal inoculation (Glomus intraradices, G. etanicatum, G. hoi and non-inoculation as control as the sub-treatments. The effects of salinity on all traits under study, except umbers per plant, were significant, and severe stress (10 dSm-1 reduced 100 seed weight, number of seeds per umbel, concentrations of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in seeds by 17.71, 11.4, 14.95, 46.08, 13.60 %, respectively, as compared to the control. The numbers of seeds per umbel and phosphorus concentration in seed were highest in G. intraradices with 28.4 and 54.4%, respectively as compared to control and umbels per plant was also maximum (9.7 by using G. etanicatum. Mycorrhizal inoculation did not have significant effect on calcium and magnesium concentrations in seeds and 1000 seed weight. However mycorrhiza × salinity stress interaction was significant about concentration of sodium, potassium and sodium to potassium ratio (Na/K in seeds, as well as seed yield and seed number per plant. Among the species of mycorrhiza, applied G. intraradices had better performance in severe salinity (10 dS-1 and increased seed yield and seed number per plant by 28.5 and 47.6%, respectively in comparision control. The results suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation improves water absorption by plant. Yield increases of plants under different salinity regimes dependent on their mycorrhizal inoculation.

  5. Quantifying nutrient uptake as driver of rock weathering in forest ecosystems by magnesium stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Uhlig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants and soil microbiota play an active role in rock weathering and potentially couple weathering at depth with erosion at the soil surface. The nature of this coupling is still unresolved because we lacked means to quantify the passage of chemical elements from rock through higher plants. In a temperate forested landscape characterised by relatively fast (∼ 220 t km−2 yr−1 denudation and a kinetically limited weathering regime of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SSCZO, California, we measured magnesium (Mg stable isotopes that are sensitive indicators of Mg utilisation by biota. We find that Mg is highly bio-utilised: 50–100 % of the Mg released by chemical weathering is taken up by forest trees. To estimate the tree uptake of other bio-utilised elements (K, Ca, P and Si we compared the dissolved fluxes of these elements and Mg in rivers with their solubilisation fluxes from rock (rock dissolution flux minus secondary mineral formation flux. We find a deficit in the dissolved fluxes throughout, which we attribute to the nutrient uptake by forest trees. Therefore both the Mg isotopes and the flux comparison suggest that a substantial part of the major element weathering flux is consumed by the tree biomass. The enrichment of 26Mg over 24Mg in tree trunks relative to leaves suggests that tree trunks account for a substantial fraction of the net uptake of Mg. This isotopic and elemental compartment separation is prevented from obliteration (which would occur by Mg redissolution by two potential effects. Either the mineral nutrients accumulate today in regrowing forest biomass after clear cutting, or they are exported in litter and coarse woody debris (CWD such that they remain in solid biomass. Over pre-forest-management weathering timescales, this removal flux might have been in operation in the form of natural erosion of CWD. Regardless of the removal mechanism, our approach provides entirely novel means towards

  6. Quantifying nutrient uptake as driver of rock weathering in forest ecosystems by magnesium stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, David; Schuessler, Jan A.; Bouchez, Julien; Dixon, Jean L.; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm

    2017-06-01

    Plants and soil microbiota play an active role in rock weathering and potentially couple weathering at depth with erosion at the soil surface. The nature of this coupling is still unresolved because we lacked means to quantify the passage of chemical elements from rock through higher plants. In a temperate forested landscape characterised by relatively fast (˜ 220 t km-2 yr-1) denudation and a kinetically limited weathering regime of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SSCZO), California, we measured magnesium (Mg) stable isotopes that are sensitive indicators of Mg utilisation by biota. We find that Mg is highly bio-utilised: 50-100 % of the Mg released by chemical weathering is taken up by forest trees. To estimate the tree uptake of other bio-utilised elements (K, Ca, P and Si) we compared the dissolved fluxes of these elements and Mg in rivers with their solubilisation fluxes from rock (rock dissolution flux minus secondary mineral formation flux). We find a deficit in the dissolved fluxes throughout, which we attribute to the nutrient uptake by forest trees. Therefore both the Mg isotopes and the flux comparison suggest that a substantial part of the major element weathering flux is consumed by the tree biomass. The enrichment of 26Mg over 24Mg in tree trunks relative to leaves suggests that tree trunks account for a substantial fraction of the net uptake of Mg. This isotopic and elemental compartment separation is prevented from obliteration (which would occur by Mg redissolution) by two potential effects. Either the mineral nutrients accumulate today in regrowing forest biomass after clear cutting, or they are exported in litter and coarse woody debris (CWD) such that they remain in solid biomass. Over pre-forest-management weathering timescales, this removal flux might have been in operation in the form of natural erosion of CWD. Regardless of the removal mechanism, our approach provides entirely novel means towards the direct quantification of

  7. [Influence of aluminum and manganese on the growth, nutrient uptake and the efflux by ectomycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Huang, Jian-Guo; Yuan, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Al3+ and Mn2+ limit forest growth and vegetation restoration in strongly acidic soils and mining areas of aluminum and manganese. The knowledge on the influence of these two elements on ectomycorrhizal fungi can provide theoretical and technical supports for the selection of powerful ectomycorrhizal fungal strains and the bioremediation of contaminated soil. Three ectomycorrhizal fungal strains, namely Suillus luteus 13 (Sl 13), Cenococcum geophilum 04 (Cg 04) and Pisolithus tinctorius 715 (Pt 715), were grown in liquid culture mediums with Al3+ and Mn2+ added alone and together to investigate fungal growth, nutrient uptake and organic acid efflux. The results showed that the biomass of Sl 13, Cg 04 and Pt 715 was decreased by 70.35%, 52.44% and 18.55%, respectively, under Mn2+ stress. Al3 also decreased the biomass of Sl 13 by 50.74% but increased that of Cg 04. The growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi was further inhibited when grown in culture solutions with addition of both Mn2+ and Al3 and the least growth inhibition was found with Pt 715. Cg 04 might thus have a strong resistance to Al3+ stress and Pt 715 to both Al3+ and Mn2+ compared to the others. Al3+ and Mn2+ decreased the nutrient uptake by the fungi, particularly by Sl 13 which showed more obvious reduction than Pt 715 and Cg 04. However, Al3+ and Mn2+ increased the efflux of oxalic acid and protons by ectomycorrhizal fungi. An additional oxalic acid exudation by Cg 04 was observed in the coexistence of Al3+ and Mn2+ and Pt 715 exuded not only oxalic acid but also succinic acid. Therefore, ectomycorrhizal fungi resistant to Mn2+ and Al3+ could effuse more organic acids than the sensitive ones in order to alleviate the harmfulness through complexation under the stress.

  8. Transcriptomic analysis displays the effect of (-)-roemerine on the motility and nutrient uptake in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyildiz, Dilara; Arga, Kazim Yalcin; Avci, Fatma Gizem; Altinisik, Fatma Ece; Gurer, Caglayan; Gulsoy Toplan, Gizem; Kazan, Dilek; Wozny, Katharina; Brügger, Britta; Mertoglu, Bulent; Sariyar Akbulut, Berna

    2017-08-01

    Among the different families of plant alkaloids, (-)-roemerine, an aporphine type, was recently shown to possess significant antibacterial activity in Escherichia coli. Based on the increasing demand for antibacterials with novel mechanisms of action, the present work investigates the potential of the plant-derived alkaloid (-)-roemerine as an antibacterial in E. coli cells using microarray technology. Analysis of the genome-wide transcriptional reprogramming in cells after 60 min treatment with 100 μg/mL (-)-roemerine showed significant changes in the expression of 241 genes (p value 2). Expression of selected genes was confirmed by qPCR. Differentially expressed genes were classified into functional categories to map biological processes and molecular pathways involved. Cellular activities with roles in carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, lipid transport and metabolism, amino acid transport and metabolism, two-component signaling systems, and cell motility (in particular, the flagellar organization and motility) were among metabolic processes altered in the presence of (-)-roemerine. The down-regulation of the outer membrane proteins probably led to a decrease in carbohydrate uptake rate, which in turn results in nutrient limitation. Consequently, energy metabolism is slowed down. Interestingly, the majority of the expressional alterations were found in the flagellar system. This suggested reduction in motility and loss in the ability to form biofilms, thus affecting protection of E. coli against host cell defense mechanisms. In summary, our findings suggest that the antimicrobial action of (-)-roemerine in E. coli is linked to disturbances in motility and nutrient uptake.

  9. 32P assessed phosphate uptake by tomato plants Hebros in relation to soil nutrient substance supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanova, I.; Rankov, V.; Dimitrov, G.

    1978-01-01

    The uptake of phosphates by tomato plants, cv.Hebros, was assessed by 32 P in a vegetation pot experiment. Leached meadow-cinnamon soil was used, taken from a stationary field experiment to which, for a period of eight years, various rates of NPK were applied. As a result of that significant changes occurred in the soil nutrient substance supplies (concerning total and mobile forms of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, pH and salts concentration). It was established that the coefficient of phasphate utilization by tomato plants was the highest (19.15%) on soil receiving a N 210 P 210 K 210 fertilizer application. Long-term fertilization with higher rates at a 1:1:1 NPK ratio increased the content of nutrient substances in the soil, but the coefficient of utilization of available phosphate diminished and was lowest (11.40%) in the case when a N 960 P 960 K 720 mineral fertilizer rate was applied. Following prolonged mineral fertilization with growing N rates (from 240 up to 720 kg/ha) at a background of P 720 K 210 , the coefficient of phosphate utilization by tomato plants also diminished from 16.16 to 12.26%. (author)

  10. Liquid Organic Fertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture: Nutrient Uptake of Organic versus Mineral Fertilizers in Citrus Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Bermejo, Almudena; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of two liquid organic fertilizers, an animal and a plant-based fertilizer, with mineral fertilization on citrus trees. The source of the fertilizer (mineral or organic) had significant effect in the nutritional status of the organic and conventionally managed mandarins. Nutrient uptake, vegetative growth, carbohydrate synthesis and soil characteristics were analyzed. Results showed that plants fertilized with animal based liquid fertilizers exhibited higher total biomass with a more profuse development of new developing organs (leaves and fibrous roots). Liquid organic fertilization resulted in an increased uptake of macro and micronutrients compared to mineral fertilized trees. Moreover, organic fertilization positively affected the carbohydrate content (fructose, glucose and sucrose) mainly in summer flush leaves. Liquid organic fertilization also resulted in an increase of soil organic matter content. Animal-based fertilizer, due to intrinsic composition, increased total tree biomass and carbohydrate leaves content, and led to lower soil nitrate concentration and higher P and Mg exchangeable in soil extract compared to vegetal-based fertilizer. Therefore, liquid organic fertilizers could be used as an alternative to traditional mineral fertilization in drip irrigated citrus trees.

  11. Deciphering relationships between in-stream travel times, nutrient concentrations, and uptake through analysis of hysteretic and non-hysteretic kinetic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, T. P.; Bowden, W. B.; Gooseff, M. N.; Wollheim, W. M.; McGlynn, B. L.; Whittinghill, K. A.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Herstand, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between solute travel time, concentration, and nutrient uptake remains a central question in watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry. Theoretical understanding predicts that nutrient uptake should increase as in-stream solute travel time lengthens and/or as concentration increases; however, results from field-based studies have been contradictory. We used a newly developed approach, Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC), to investigate relationships between solute travel time, nutrient concentration, and nutrient uptake across a range of stream types. This approach allows us to quantify in-stream nutrient uptake across a range of travel times and nutrient concentrations using single instantaneous injections (slugs) of conservative and non-conservative tracers. In some systems we observed counter-clockwise hysteresis loops in the relationship between nutrient uptake and concentration. Greater nutrient uptake on the falling limb of tracer breakthrough curves indicates stronger uptake for a given concentration at longer travel times. However, in other systems we did not observe hysteresis in these relationships. Lack of hysteresis indicates that nutrient uptake kinetics were not influenced by travel time travel time. Here we investigate the potential roles of travel time and in-stream flowpaths that could be responsible for hysteretic behavior.

  12. Yield and nutrient composition of biochar produced from different feedstocks at varying pyrolytic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeem, M.A.; Khalid, M.; Arshad, M.; Ahmad, R.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in pyrolytic temperatures and feedstocks affects the yield and nutrient composition of biochar. Selection of suitable feedstock and optimum pyrolytic temperature is crucial before using it for agricultural purposes. We compared biochars produced from two feedstocks (wheat straw and rice) at three temperatures (300, 400 and 500 degree C). Biochar yield decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing pyrolysis temperature, while ash contents were increased. The cation exchange capacity was significantly higher (119 cmolc kg/sup -1/) at temperature 400 degree C. The pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and carbon content of biochars increased significantly with increasing temperature and maximum pH (10.4) and EC (3.35 dS m/sup -1/) were observed in rice straw biochar (WSB) at 500 degree C and carbon content (662 g kg/sup -1/) in wheat straw biochar (RSB) at 500 degree C. Concentration of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) increased significantly with increasing temperature, while of nitrogen (N) decreased. Overall, the maximum N (13.8 g kg/sup -1/at 300 degree C) and P (3.4 g kg/sup -1/at 500 degree C) concentrations were observed in WSB while, maximum K (48 g kg/sup -1/ at 500 degree C)in RSB. High pyrolysis temperature reduced AB-DTPA extractable nutrients (expect Mn). The highest AB-DTPA extractable nutrients such as P (113 mg kg/sup -1/) and Ca (1.07 g kg/sup -1/) were observed in WSB at 300 degree C while, K (18 g kg/sup -1/) and magnesium (Mg) (1.55 g kg/sup -1/) in RSB at 300 degree C. Selected feedstock and use of low pyrolysis temperature may produce nutrient-rich biochar, with high CEC and low pH and these could have positive effects on calcareous soils. (author)

  13. Food Yields and Nutrient Analyses of the Three Sisters: A Haudenosaunee Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Mt.Pleasant

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have studied The Three Sisters, a traditional cropping system of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois, from multiple perspectives. However, there is no research examining food yields, defined as the quantities of energy and protein produced per unit land area, from the cropping system within Iroquoia. This article compares food yields and other nutrient contributions from the Three Sisters, comprised of interplanted maize, bean and pumpkin, with monocultures of these same crops. The Three Sisters yields more energy (12.25 x 106 kcal/ha and more protein (349 kg/ha than any of the crop monocultures or mixtures of monocultures planted to the same area. The Three Sisters supplies 13.42 people/ha/yr. with energy and 15.86 people/ha/yr. with protein. Nutrient contents of the crops are further enhanced by nixtamalization, a traditional processing technique where maize is cooked in a high alkaline solution. This process increases calcium, protein quality, and niacin in maize.

  14. Effect of mycorrhizas application on plant growth and nutrient uptake in cucumber production under field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortas, I.

    2010-07-01

    Mycorrhizas application in horticultural production in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey has been studied under field conditions for several years. The effects of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been evaluated under field conditions for cucumber production. The parameters measured were seedling survival, plant growth and yield, and root colonization. In 1998 and 1999, Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatum inoculated cucumber seedlings were treated with and without P (100 kg P2O5 ha-1) application. A second experiment was set up to evaluate the response of cucumber to the inoculation with a consortia of indigenous mycorrhizae, G. mosseae, G. etunicatum, Glomus clarum, Glomus caledonium and a mixture of these four species. Inoculated and control non inoculated cucumber seedlings were established under field conditions in 1998, 2001, 2002 and 2004. Seedling quality, seedling survival under field conditions and yield response to mycorrhiza were tested. Fruits were harvested periodically; at blossom, plant leaves and root samples were taken for nutrient content and mycorrhizal colonization analysis respectively. The field experiment results showed that mycorrhiza inoculation significantly increased cucumber seedling survival, fruit yield, P and Zn shoot concentrations. Indigenous mycorrhiza inoculum was successful in colonizing plant roots and resulted in better plant growth and yield. The relative effectiveness of each of the inocula tested was not consistent in the different experiments, although inoculated plants always grew better than control no inoculated. The most relevant result for growers was the increased survival of seedlings. (Author) 20 refs.

  15. Uptake of macro- and micro-nutrients into leaf, woody, and root tissue of Populus after irrigation with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Bart T. Sexton; Richard B. Hall

    2008-01-01

    Information about macro- and micro-nutrient uptake and distribution into tissues of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate helps to maximize biomass production and understand impacts of leachate chemistry on tree health. We irrigated eight Populus clones (NC 13460, NCI4O18, NC14104, NC14106, DM115, DN5, NM2, NM6) with fertilized (N, P, K) well...

  16. Foliar copper uptake by maize plants: effects on growth and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Hidalgo Barbosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A slight increase in the levels of a certain nutrient can cause a significant increase in crop yield or can cause phytotoxicity symptoms. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar application of copper (Cu on the growth and yield of DG-501 maize. The experiment was carried out between December 2009 and April 2010 in conventional tillage. When plants were with six to eight leaves, Cu (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600g ha-1 was applied to the leaves. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete block with five replications. When 50% of the plants were in flowering, it was evaluated the plant height, culm diameter, height of the first ear insertion, leaf area, and chlorophyll content. At harvest, it was evaluated diameter and length of the ear, yield and thousand grain weight. There was a linear reduction in the plant height and in the height of the first ear insertion with increasing Cu doses. On the other hand, chlorophyll content, leaf area, diameter and length of ear, thousand grain weight and yield increased at doses up to 100g ha-1 Cu, however, decreased at higher doses. Therefore, foliar Cu application at doses higher than 100g ha-1 has toxic effect in maize plants with losses in growth and yield.

  17. Effects of pasture renovation on hydrology, nutrient runoff, and forage yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koff, J P; Moore, P A; Formica, J; Van Eps, M; DeLaune, P B

    2011-01-01

    Proper pasture management is important in promoting optimal forage growth and reducing runoff and nutrient loss. Pasture renovation is a management tool that improves aeration by mechanically creating holes or pockets within the soil. Pasture renovation was performed before manure application (poultry litter or swine slurry) on different pasture soils and rainfall simulations were conducted to identify the effects of pasture renovation on nutrient runoff and forage growth. Renovation of small plots resulted in significant and beneficial hydrological changes. During the first rainfall simulation, runoff volumes were 45 to 74% lower for seven out of eight renovated treatments, and infiltration rates increased by 3 to 87% for all renovated treatments as compared with nonrenovated treatments. Renovation of pasture soils fertilized with poultry litter led to significant reductions in dissolved reactive P (DRP) (74-87%), total P (TP) (76-85%), and total nitrogen (TN) (72-80%) loads in two of the three soils studied during the first rainfall simulation. Renovation did not result in any significant differences in forage yields. Overall, beneficial impacts of renovation lasted up to 3 mo, the most critical period for nutrient runoff following manure application. Therefore, renovation could be an important best management practice in these areas.

  18. Similarity of nutrient uptake and root dimensions of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir at two contrasting sites in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanai, R; McFarlane, K; Lucash, M; Kulpa, S; Wood, D

    2009-10-09

    Nutrient uptake capacity is an important parameter in modeling nutrient uptake by plants. Researchers commonly assume that uptake capacity measured for a species can be used across sites. We tested this assumption by measuring the nutrient uptake capacity of intact roots of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmanni Parry) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) at Loch Vale Watershed and Fraser Experimental Forest in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado. Roots still attached to the tree were exposed to one of three concentrations of nutrient solutions for time periods ranging from 1 to 96 hours, and solutions were analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Surprisingly, the two species were indistinguishable in nutrient uptake within site for all nutrients (P > 0.25), but uptake rates differed by site. In general, nutrient uptake was higher at Fraser (P = 0.01, 0.15, 0.03, 0.18 for NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, and K{sup +}, respectively), which is west of the Continental Divide and has lower atmospheric deposition of N than Loch Vale. Mean uptake rates by site for ambient solution concentrations were 0.12 {micro}mol NH{sub 4}{sup +} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, 0.02 {micro}mol NO{sub 3}{sup -} g{sub fwt}{sup -1}, 0.21 {micro}mol Ca{sup 2+} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and 0.01 {micro}mol Mg{sup 2+} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1} at Loch Vale, and 0.21 {micro}mol NH{sub 4}{sup +} f{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1}, 0.04 {micro}mol NO{sub 3}{sup -} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, 0.51 {micro}mol Ca{sup 2+}g{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1}, and 0.07 {micro}mol Mg{sup 2+} f{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1} at Fraser. The importance of site conditions in determining uptake capacity should not be overlooked when parameterizing nutrient uptake models. We also characterized the root morphology of these two species and compared them to other tree species we have measured at various sites in the northeastern USA. Engelman spruce and subalpine fir

  19. Yield Evaluation of Nutrient-rich Potato Clones in High Hill of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Prasad Luitel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the yield of nutrient-rich potato clones in high-hill districts: Dolakha and Jumla of Nepal during the years 2013 and 2014, respectively. Fourteen potato clones were tested as on-station and on-farm experiments at both districts, and those fourteen clones were compared to ‘Lady Rosita’ and ‘Jumli Local’ respectively as the check varieties in the first year experiment, 2013. Eight promising clones were selected from the first year experiment, and were evaluated and compared with same local varieties in the consecutive year, 2014. Two clones namely; CIP 395112.32 (19.3 tha-1 and CIP 393073.179 (17.8 tha-1 exhibited superior marketable tuber yield than that of ‘Lady Rosita’(14.2 tha-1 in Dolakha and five CIP clones namely; 395112.32 (25.5 tha-1, 393073.179 (22.5 tha-1, 394611.112 (20.9 tha-1, 390478.9 (19.9 tha-1 and 395017.229 (17.0 tha-1 showed higher marketable tuber yield than ‘Jumli Local’(14.5 tha-1. Based on two years’ phenotypic and tuber yield result, clones CIP 395112.32 and CIP 393073.179 are recommended to potato growers at high hills of Nepal for commercial cultivation.

  20. Nutrient uptake from liquid digestate using ornamental aquatic macrophytes (Canna indica, Iris pseudacorus, Typha latifolia) in a constructed wetland system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediviani, W.; Priadi, C. R.; Moersidik, S. S.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia has implemented energy recovery from organic (food) waste by anaerobic digestion method, but the digestate was commonly treated only by composting, and still as a separated treatment (not integrated into a resource recovery system). Whilst not getting any pretreatment, the digestate was disposed to the environment and then act as a pollutant. Yet it contains nutrients which could be recovered as a nutrient source for plants. The study was about how ornamental aquatic macrophytes could uptake nitrogen from liquid digestate in a constructed wetland method. Canna indica, Iris pseudacorus, and Typha latifolia were the experimented ornamental aquatic macrophytes used to uptake the nutrient (nitrogen—N) from liquid digestate. The study showed that the highest N uptake was done by C. indica (25.1%) which has the highest biomass increment as well (80.5%). Effluent quality improvement also shown by N removal by C. indica (68.5—76.4% TN), I. pseudacorus (61.8—71.3% TN), and T. latifolia (61.6—74.5%). This research proved that C. indica has the performance for the N uptake, best N removal efficiency, with a great growth rate as well. This system using C. indica could also improve the water quality of the effluent and add the aesthetic of environment.

  1. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve grain yield, As uptake and tolerance of rice grown under aerobic conditions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ye, Z.H. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chan, W.F.; Chen, X.W.; Wu, F.Y. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wu, S.C. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) -Glomus intraradices and G. geosporum on arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) uptake by lowland (Guangyinzhan) and upland rice (Handao 502) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 60 mg As kg{sup -1}. In As-contaminated soil, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. intraradices or Handao 502 inoculated with G. geosporum enhanced As tolerance, grain P content, grain yield. However, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. geosporum or Handao 502 inoculated with G. intraradices decreased grain P content, grain yield and the molar ratio of grain P/As content, and increased the As concentration and the ratio of grain/straw As concentration. These results show that rice/AMF combinations had significant (p < 0.05) effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal) symbioses. - Highlights: > Rice/AMF combinations had significant effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. > Rice colonized with suitable AMF can increase grain yield. > The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM symbioses. - Different rice/AMF combinations had very different effects on arsenic and phosphorus uptake.

  2. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve grain yield, As uptake and tolerance of rice grown under aerobic conditions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Ye, Z.H.; Chan, W.F.; Chen, X.W.; Wu, F.Y.; Wu, S.C.; Wong, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) -Glomus intraradices and G. geosporum on arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) uptake by lowland (Guangyinzhan) and upland rice (Handao 502) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 60 mg As kg -1 . In As-contaminated soil, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. intraradices or Handao 502 inoculated with G. geosporum enhanced As tolerance, grain P content, grain yield. However, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. geosporum or Handao 502 inoculated with G. intraradices decreased grain P content, grain yield and the molar ratio of grain P/As content, and increased the As concentration and the ratio of grain/straw As concentration. These results show that rice/AMF combinations had significant (p < 0.05) effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal) symbioses. - Highlights: → Rice/AMF combinations had significant effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. → Rice colonized with suitable AMF can increase grain yield. → The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM symbioses. - Different rice/AMF combinations had very different effects on arsenic and phosphorus uptake.

  3. Effect of goat manure on some soil properties and growth, yield and nutrient status of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeniyi, S.O.; Awodun, M.A.; Akanni, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    Field experiment were conducted at Akure, Negeria, in a rainforest zone of Southwest Nigeria to study the effect of goat manure (droppings) on some soil physical and chemical properties and nutrient status, growth and yied of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Five levels of manure (0, 10, 25, 40 and 50 t/ha) were applied on the soil surface to two crops of tomato at each of two sites, namely, Federal College of Agriculture and Federal University of Technology. Soils were deficient in organic matter (OM), total N, exchangeable Ca and available P. Soil OM, total N, available P and moisture content increased with the level of manure, while soil bulk density decreased. Leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg, growth and fruit yield of tomato were significantly increased by goat manure treatments. Leaf K, Ca and Mg, plant height, number of branches, leaf area, root length, number of fruits and fruit diameter increased with the level of manure, However, the 25 t/ha manure gave optimum values of number and weight of fruits. The mean fruit yields recorded for 0, 10, 25, 40 and 50 t/ha goat manure were 15.0, 19.7, 23.7, 24.3 and 22.3 t/ha, respectively. It is concluded that goat manure is suitable for impoving soil physical and chemical properties and growth and yield of tomato.(Author)

  4. Effects of different mechanized soil fertilization methods on corn nutrient accumulation and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qingwen; Bai, Chunming; Wang, Huixin; Wu, Di; Song, Qiaobo; Dong, Zengqi; Gao, Depeng; Dong, Qiping; Cheng, Xin; Zhang, Yahao; Mu, Jiahui; Chen, Qinghong; Liao, Wenqing; Qu, Tianru; Zhang, Chunling; Zhang, Xinyu; Liu, Yifei; Han, Xiaori

    2017-05-01

    Aim: Experiments for mechanized corn soil fertilization were conducted in Faku demonstration zone. On this basis, we studied effects on corn nutrient accumulation and yield traits at brown soil regions due to different mechanized soil fertilization measures. We also evaluated and optimized the regulation effects of mechanized soil fertilization for the purpose of crop yield increase and production efficiency improvement. Method: Based on the survey of soil background value in the demonstration zone, we collected plant samples during different corn growth periods to determine and make statistical analysis. Conclusions: Decomposed cow dung, when under mechanical broadcasting, was able to remarkably increase nitrogen and potassium accumulation content of corns at their ripe stage. Crushed stalk returning combined with deep tillage would remarkably increase phosphorus accumulation content of corn plants. When compared with top application, crushed stalk returning combined with deep tillage would remarkably increase corn thousand kernel weight (TKW). Mechanized broadcasting of granular organic fertilizer and crushed stalk returning combined with deep tillage, when compared with surface application, were able to boost corn yield in the in the demonstration zone.

  5. Different growing conditions affect nutrient content, fruit yield and growth in strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirsory, L.; Demirsoy, H.; Balci, G.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of organic and conventional growing on contents of some nutrient elements, nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn), yield and some growth parameters such as leaf area, petiole length, petiole diameter, crown number, crow n diameter, leaf, root dry weight in 'Sweet Charlie' and 'Camarosa' strawberry cultivars. This study consisted of two strawberry cultivars ('Camarosa' and 'Sweet Charlie'), two growing systems (organic and conventional growing) and two different mulches (black and floating sheet). There was significant difference among treatments in terms of P, K, and Mn content in root and Fe content in leaf and yield and some growth parameters. The best treatment in terms of yield and growth parameters was conventional growing with black plastic in 'Camarosa' while the best treatments were organic growing with floating sheet and black plastic in 'Sweet Charlie' in terms of P, K in root and organic growing with floating sheet in 'Sweet Charlie' in terms of Fe in leaf. (author)

  6. Post-anthesis nitrate uptake is critical to yield and grain protein content in Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worland, Belinda; Robinson, Nicole; Jordan, David; Schmidt, Susanne; Godwin, Ian

    2017-09-01

    Crops only use ∼50% of applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer creating N losses and pollution. Plants need to efficiently uptake and utilize N to meet growing global food demands. Here we investigate how the supply and timing of nitrate affects N status and yield in Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). Sorghum was grown in pots with either 10mM (High) or 1mM (Low) nitrate supply. Shortly before anthesis the nitrate supply was either maintained, increased 10-fold or eliminated. Leaf sheaths of sorghum grown with High nitrate accumulated nitrate in concentrations >3-times higher than leaves. Removal of nitrate supply pre-anthesis resulted in the rapid reduction of stored nitrate in all organs. Plants receiving a 10-fold increase in nitrate supply pre-anthesis achieved similar grain yield and protein content and 29% larger grains than those maintained on High nitrate, despite receiving 24% less nitrate over the whole growth period. In sorghum, plant available N is important throughout development, particularly anthesis and grain filling, for grain yield and grain protein content. Nitrate accumulation in leaf sheaths presents opportunities for the genetic analysis of mechanisms behind nitrate storage and remobilization in sorghum to improve N use efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Relation of watershed setting and stream nutrient yields at selected sites in central and eastern North Carolina, 1997-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Terziotti, Silvia; Kolb, Katharine R.

    2013-01-01

    Data collected between 1997 and 2008 at 48 stream sites were used to characterize relations between watershed settings and stream nutrient yields throughout central and eastern North Carolina. The focus of the investigation was to identify environmental variables in watersheds that influence nutrient export for supporting the development and prioritization of management strategies for restoring nutrient-impaired streams. Nutrient concentration data and streamflow data compiled for the 1997 to 2008 study period were used to compute stream yields of nitrate, total nitrogen (N), and total phosphorus (P) for each study site. Compiled environmental data (including variables for land cover, hydrologic soil groups, base-flow index, streams, wastewater treatment facilities, and concentrated animal feeding operations) were used to characterize the watershed settings for the study sites. Data for the environmental variables were analyzed in combination with the stream nutrient yields to explore relations based on watershed characteristics and to evaluate whether particular variables were useful indicators of watersheds having relatively higher or lower potential for exporting nutrients. Data evaluations included an examination of median annual nutrient yields based on a watershed land-use classification scheme developed as part of the study. An initial examination of the data indicated that the highest median annual nutrient yields occurred at both agricultural and urban sites, especially for urban sites having large percentages of point-source flow contributions to the streams. The results of statistical testing identified significant differences in annual nutrient yields when sites were analyzed on the basis of watershed land-use category. When statistical differences in median annual yields were noted, the results for nitrate, total N, and total P were similar in that highly urbanized watersheds (greater than 30 percent developed land use) and (or) watersheds with greater

  8. Effect of gamma radiation on wheat plant growth due to impact on gas exchange characteristics and mineral nutrient uptake and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhupinder Singh; Sumedha Ahuja; Singhal, R.K.; Venu Babu, P.

    2013-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of gamma radiation on plant growth and development, flag leaf gas exchange characteristics such as net photosynthetic rate (P N ), stomatal conductance (g s ), and transpiration rate (E) and activity of key carbon and nitrogen assimilating enzymes like Rubisco, starch synthase (SS) and nitrate reductase (NR) in field grown wheat. Grains of cultivar PBW-343 were exposed to a 60 Co (Cobalt-60) gamma source at a dose range from 0 to 500 Gy (Gray). Gas exchange characteristics of flag leaf were measured using Infrared Gas Analyzer (IRGA), while mineral nutrients were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Our results show that an irradiation treatment, in general, caused an improvement in plant growth and yield characteristics such as shoot and root mass, root length and surface area, leaf area and chlorophyll SPAD index, tiller number and grain yield. However, irradiation exceeding 5 Gy reduced the magnitude of radiation advantage for most of the investigated physiological and biochemical traits. No germination was recorded at 500 Gy irradiation dose. A dose-dependant increase in shoot Fe in radiated plants up to 25 Gy reflected its higher plant root to shoot translocation which may yield micronutrient rich grains. At higher dose of 100 Gy, there was a drastic reduction in flag leaf membrane stability index (MSI), photosynthesis, Rubisco, NR, and nutrients like K, P, Mg, Fe, and Zn. Starch synthase enzyme activity was unaffected by gamma irradiation indicating that the negative effect of high dose (100 Gy) on the grain yield were caused by the adverse effect of radiation on the gas exchange attributes particularly photosynthesis, carbon, and nitrogen assimilation efficiency and the plant uptake of mineral nutrients. The study concludes that gamma radiation at a low dose (25 Gy or lower) stimulates, while a high dose (100 Gy and above) inhibits plant growth and development of wheat. The adverse effect at 100 Gy and beyond

  9. Combined Inoculation with Multiple Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Improves Growth, Nutrient Uptake and Photosynthesis in Cucumber Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangchen Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizal inoculation stimulates growth, photosynthesis and nutrient uptake in a wide range of host plants. However, the ultimate effects of arbuscular mycorrhyzal (AM symbiosis vary with the plants and fungal species involved in the association. Therefore, identification of the appropriate combinations of AM fungi (AMF that interact synergistically to improve their benefits is of high significance. Here, three AM fungal compositions namely VT (Claroideoglomus sp., Funneliformis sp., Diversispora sp., Glomus sp., and Rhizophagus sp. and BF (Glomus intraradices, G. microageregatum BEG and G. Claroideum BEG 210, and Funneliformis mosseae (Fm were investigated with respect to the growth, gas exchange parameters, enzymes activities in Calvin cycles and related gene expression in cucumber seedlings. The results showed that VT, BF and Fm could successfully colonize cucumber root to a different degree with the colonization rates 82.38, 74.65, and 70.32% at 46 days post inoculation, respectively. The plant height, stem diameter, dry weight, root to shoot ratio of cucumber seedlings inoculated with AMF increased significantly compared with the non-inoculated control. Moreover, AMF colonization greatly increased the root activity, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, light saturated rate of the CO2 assimilation (Asat, maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax and maximum ribulose-1,5-bis-phosphate (RuBP regeneration rate (Jmax, which were increased by 52.81, 30.75, 58.76, 47.00, 69.15, and 65.53% when inoculated with VT, respectively. The activities of some key enzymes such RuBP carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO, D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase, D-fructose-6-phosphatase (F6P and ribulose-5-phosphate kinase (Ru5PK, and related gene expression involved in the Calvin cycle including RCA, FBPase, FBPA, SBPase, rbcS and rbcL were upregulated by AMF colonization. AMF inoculation also improved macro- and micro nutrient contents such as N, P, K, S, Ca, Cu

  10. Coupled Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Solute Transport, Metabolism and Nutrient Uptake in Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, M. J.; Schmidt, C.

    2017-12-01

    Slower flow velocities and longer residence times within stream transient storage (TS) zones facilitate interaction between solutes and microbial communities, potentially increasing local rates of metabolic activity. Multiple factors, including channel morphology and substrate, variable hydrology, and seasonal changes in biological and physical parameters, result in changes in the solute transport dynamics and reactivity of TS zones over time and space. These changes would be expected to, in turn, influence rates of whole-stream ecosystem functions such as metabolism and nutrient uptake. However, the linkages between solute transport and ecosystem functioning within TS zones, and the contribution of TS zones to whole-stream functioning, are not always so straight forward. This may be due, in part, to methodological challenges. In this study we investigated the influence of stream channel hydro-morphology and substrate type on reach (103 m) and sub-reach (102 m) scale TS and ecosystem functioning. Patterns in solute transport, metabolism and nitrate uptake were tracked from April through October in two contrasting upland streams using several methods. The two streams, located in the Harz Mountains, Germany, are characterized by differing size (0.02 vs. 0.3 m3/s), dominant stream channel substrate (bedrock vs. alluvium) and sub-reach morphology (predominance of pools, riffles and glides). Solute transport parameters and respiration rates at the reach and sub-reach scale were estimated monthly from coupled pulse injections of the reactive tracer resazurin (Raz) and conservative tracers uranine and salt. Raz, a weakly fluorescent dye, irreversibly transforms to resorufin (Rru) under mildly reducing conditions, providing a proxy for aerobic respiration. Daily rates of primary productivity, respiration and nitrate retention at the reach scale were estimated using the diel cycles in dissolved oxygen and nitrate concentrations measured by in-situ sensors. Preliminary

  11. Ammonium and nitrate uptake lengths in a small forested stream determined by {sup 15}N tracer and short-term nutrient enrichment experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, P.J.; Tank, J.L.; Sanzone, D.M.; Webster, J.R.; Wollheim, W.; Peterson, B.J.; Meyer, J.L.

    1998-11-01

    Nutrient cycling is an important characteristic of all ecosystems, including streams. Nutrients often limit the growth rates of stream algae and heterotrophic microbes and the decomposition rate of allochthonous organic matter. Nutrient uptake (S{sub W}), defined as the mean distance traveled by a nutrient atom dissolved in stream water before uptake by biota is often used as an index of nutrient cycling in streams. It is often overlooked, however, that S{sub W} is not a measure of nutrient uptake rate per se, but rather a measure of the efficiency with which a stream utilizes the available nutrient supply. The ideal method for measuring S{sub W} involves short-term addition of a nutrient tracer. Regulatory constraints often preclude use of nutrient radiotracers in field studies and methodological difficulties and high analytical costs have previously hindered the use of stable isotope nutrient tracers (e.g., {sup 15}N). Short-term nutrient enrichments are an alternative to nutrient tracer additions for measuring S{sub W}.

  12. Absorção de nutrientes e resposta à adubação em linhagens de tomateiro Nutrient uptake and response to fertilization of tomato inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Régis de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e nove linhagens de tomateiro rasteiro foram avaliadas quanto à eficiência de absorção de nutrientes e resposta à adubação, em dois ensaios, no ano de 2006, na Embrapa Hortaliças. No primeiro ensaio aplicou-se 1/3 da dosagem de fertilizante utilizada no segundo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. As linhagens foram classificadas quanto à eficiência na absorção de nutrientes e reposta à adubação baseando-se nos incrementos de índice DRIS e nos incrementos de produtividade. Os valores críticos para eficiência na absorção e resposta à adubação foram as médias de incremento de índice DRIS e produtividade, respectivamente. As linhagens diferenciaram-se quanto à eficiência na absorção dos nutrientes e quanto à resposta à adubação. Foram consideradas responsivas à adubação e eficientes na absorção de nutrientes as linhagens 03, 04, 05, 09 e 22, para o N; 03, 04, 09, 13, 15 e 29, para o P; 03, 05, 10, 21, 22, 25 e 27, para o K; 05, 10, 21, 22, 25, 27 e 29, para o Ca; 04, 13, 15, 27 e 29, para o S e B; e 03, 05, 09, 10 e 27, para o Cu. As linhagens com os melhores desempenhos foram a 27, na absorção dos nutrientes, e 03, 04, 05 e 29, na responsividade à adubação.Twenty nine processing tomato inbred lines were evaluated for their efficiency in nutrient uptake and in their response to fertilization. Two field assays were carried out at Embrapa Hortaliças, Brazil, with distinct fertilization dosages in 2006. In the first assay 1/3 of the total fertilization was applied when compared with the second assay. The experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design with three replications. The criteria to rank the inbred lines in both assays were the DRIS (Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System index value and fruit yield. The critical values in order to distinguish efficient versus non-efficient as well as responsive versus non-responsive inbred

  13. Improved horticultural practices against leaf wilting, root rot and nutrient uptake in mango (mangiferaindica l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafees, M.; Ahmad, I.; Ahmad, S.; Anwar, R.; Maryyam, A.; Hussnain, R.R.

    2013-01-01

    Poor plant health condition due to various known biotic and abiotic stresses; becoming a disaster in each mango growing country of the world including Pakistan. On the basis of previous researches on the identification of pathogen and several abiotic factors; Soil drenching and foliar spray of various concentrations of Topsin M (TMIC), Aliette (ATP) and Ridomil Gold (ACE) in combination with CuSO/sub 4/(Copper sulphate) was done on mango plants of cv. S.B. (Samar Bahist) Chaunsa showing wilting of leaves and shoots. Foliar application of micro-nutrients (Fe, B and Zn) (Iron, Boron and Zinc) was also practiced to improve general health of experimental plants Month-wise emergence of flushes was significantly higher in all treated plants compared with control. Percentage of wilted leaves and root rot in plants, which received drenching and foliar treatments, was significantly reduced (50%) compared with untreated plants. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N, P and K) levels in leaves were significantly improved in treated plants compared with control. Sigmoid relatioship was observed between fungicides and copper sulphate concentrations and uptake of N, P and K in treated plants. Application of 250g ATP fungicide by foliar spray plus 125g by soil drench, each along with 50g CuSO/sub 4/proved to be the best against leaf wilting and it improved the N and P level in leaves. While, application of 250g TMIC by foliar spray and 125g by soil drench, each with 50g CuSO/sub 4/, was found to be the best to reduce the spread of root rot in experimental plants. Preliminary spray of TMIC along with Copper sulphate is effective to improve plant health of mango cv. S.B. Chounsa. (author)

  14. Influence of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Plant Growth, Nutrient Absorption and Yield of Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos KATSENIOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have adopted the use of magnetic field as a new pre-sowing, environmental friendly technique. Enhancements on plant characteristics with economic impact on producer’s income could be the future of a modern, organic and sustainable agriculture. A field experiment was established at Soil Science Institute of Athens, Lycovrissi, Greece, in the winter of 2014. Two durum wheat cultivars were used. It was a pot experiment with 6 treatments (2 cultivars with 3 magnetic field time exposure. The seeds were treated using a PAPIMI electromagnetic field generator for 0, 30 and 45 minutes one day before planting. The experiment followed a completely randomized design with six treatments and 30 replications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the positive effect of magnetic field pre-sowing treatment in a wide range of plant measurements, including yield. The influence of pulsed electromagnetic field on two varieties of durum wheat seeds showed some statistically significant differences at the 0.05 level in growth measurements, physiological measurements and root growth measurements. Plant tissue analysis showed that magnetic field treatments had higher values than control in total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, copper (only MF-45, zinc (only MF-30 and boron content, although values showed statistically significant differences only in total nitrogen. The results indicate that this innovative technique can increase the yield of durum wheat, through enhanced absorption of nutrients. Pre-sowing treatment of the seeds leads to vigorous plant growth that are more productive.

  15. Novel Agricultural Conservation System with Sustained Yield and Decreased Water, Nutrient, Energy, and Carbon Footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K.; Shukla, S.; Holt, N.; Hendricks, G.; Sishodia, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are conventionally grown in raised bed plasticulture (RBP), a high intensity, high input, and high output production system. In 2016, the fresh market plasticulture industry covered 680,000 ha in the US, producing crops (e.g. tomato, peppers, melons, and strawberries) valued at ten billion dollars. To meet the increasing future demand for fresh fruits and vegetables and sustain the production potential of croplands, a transformation of the conventional food-water-energy nexus is essential. A novel agricultural conservation system, compact bed geometry, has been proposed to shift the paradigm in RBP, sustaining yield and decreasing inputs (e.g. water, nutrients, energy, and carbon). Compact bed geometries fit the shape of the wetting front created when water is applied through drip irrigation on the production soil, creating a taller (23-30 cm) and thinner bed (66-41 cm). Two seasons of tomato (single row) and pepper (double row) production, in the environmentally fragile watershed of the Florida Everglades, highlight the potential impact of compact bed geometry on environmental sustainability in agricultural production. No difference in plant growth or yield was detected, with a reduction of 5-50% in irrigation water, up to 20% less N application, 12% less P, 20% less K, and 5-15% less carbon dioxide emissions. The hydrologic benefits of compact bed geometry include 26% less runoff generation, decreased need for active drainage pumping, and increased residence time for irrigation water within the bed, overall decreasing instances of nutrient leaching. A water related co-benefit observed was a reduction in the occurrences of Phytophthora capsici in pepper, which has the potential to reduce yield by as much as 70%. Non-water co-benefits include up to a 250/ ha reduction in production cost, with the potential to save the industry 200 million dollars annually. This economic benefit has led to rapid industry adoption, with more than 20

  16. Relations among Valencia orange yields with soil and leaf nutrients in Northwestern Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonez Fidalski

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Valencia orange orchards established on soils of low fertility in the Northwest region of Paraná State, Brazil, have showed symptoms of Mg deficiency and reduced fruit yields. The objective of this study was to verify the relationship between yield with soil and leaf nutrients during 1996/97 growing season. Two sites of low and high productivity were selected in seven orchards. Leaf and soil samples (fertilized rows and interrows were collected in 1996. The results showed that the citrus yields were negatively related with soil Mg/K and Ca+Mg/K ratios in the fertilized rows, and fruit weight positively correlated with leaf Zn in the low productivity orchards. The fruit weight was positively related with leaf Ca and soil Ca in the fertilized rows of the high productivity orchards. The results suggested an adequate lime and K fertilization managements in the fertilized rows, as well as an adequate Zn supply.Os pomares de laranja Valência (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck estabelecidos em solos de baixa fertilidade da região noroeste do Paraná, tem apresentado sintomas de desequilíbrio nutricional, principalmente deficiência de Mg e redução da produção e do tamanho dos frutos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar as relações da produção e peso dos frutos com os nutrientes das folhas e do solo de sete pomares de laranja Valência na safra de 1996/97, em talhões de produtividade inferior e superior. Em 1996, foram coletadas amostras de folha e de solo nas faixas de adubação e nas entrelinhas. Os resultados mostraram que a produção de frutos correlacionou-se negativamente com as relações dos cátions Mg/K e Ca+Mg/K do solo das faixas de adubação dos pomares de baixa produtividade e, o peso dos frutos, correlacionou-se positivamente com os teores foliares de Zn. Nos pomares de produtividade superior, o peso dos frutos correlacionou-se positivamente com os teores de Ca das folhas e do solo nas faixas de adubação. Estes

  17. Nutrient uptake of NPK and result of some rice varieties in tidal land by using combination of organic and inorganic fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlina, Neni; Rompas, Joni Phillep; Marlina, Musbik

    2017-09-01

    Rice planting in tidal land has two main problems: iron (Fe) which has the potential to poison rice and low nutrient availability. Azospirillum enriched chicken manure and phosphate solvent bacteria (Biological Organic Fertilizer = BOF) is an option to overcome iron toxicity and as a source of nutrition. The objective of the study was to obtain a combination of biological organic fertilizers and balanced inorganic fertilizers in reducing doses of inorganic fertilizers, increasing NPK nutrient uptake and yield of several rice varieties in tidal land. This research used Factorial RAK with 25 treatment combinations that were repeated three times. Factor I is a combination of BOF and anorganic fertilizer with 5 levels of treatment (no inorganic fertilizers, BOF 400 kg / ha with inorganic fertilizer 25% NPK, BOF 400 kg / ha with inorganic fertilizer 50% NPK and BOF 400 kg / ha with fertilizer Inorganic 75% NPK). Factor II is several rice varieties (IPB 4S, Martapura, Margasari, Inpara 5, Inpara 7). The results showed that organic fertilizer 400 kg / ha can reduce the use of inorganic fertilizer by 75% of NPK fertilizer. The highest NPK nutrient absorption is in the treatment of organic fertilizer 400 kg / ha and inorganic fertilizer 25% of NPK fertilizer. Production of biological organic fertilizer 400 kg / ha with inorganic fertilizer 25% NPK and 4B IPB varieties 727.77% higher when compared with without the provision of organic fertilizer with Inpara 5 varieties.

  18. Seasonal variability in nitrate and phosphate uptake kinetics in a forested headwater stream using pulse nutrient additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, N. A.; Mulholland, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    We used the Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC) approach to quantify seasonal variability in ambient nutrient spiraling metrics and nutrient uptake kinetics in the West Fork of Walker Branch, a forested headwater stream in eastern Tennessee, USA. We performed instantaneous additions of nitrate (NO3-) and phosphate (PO4-3) separately with a conservative tracer (chloride, Cl-) during the following biologically-important time periods: autumn (during leaf fall, high organic matter [OM] standing stocks), winter (low OM standing stocks), spring (prior to canopy closure), and summer (closed canopy). We predicted that nutrient demand would be highest during autumn and spring, as OM inputs fuel heterotrophic respiration and high light availability stimulates autotrophic production, respectively. The measured ambient PO4-3 uptake rates (Vf-amb) followed our predictions, with the highest Vf-amb rates in autumn (Vf-amb = 2.8 mm/min) and spring (Vf-amb = 2.9 mm/min), and undetectable uptake in winter. Further, maximum areal PO4-3 uptake rates (Umax) were higher in autumn (Umax = 297 μg/m2/min) than spring (Umax = 106 μg/m2/min), possibly due to greater nutrient demand of heterotrophs on leaf litter accumulations. Contrary to our predictions, ambient NO3- uptake rates were highest in autumn and winter (autumn: Vf-amb = 2.8 mm/min, winter: Vf-amb = 2.4 mm/min), and lowest in spring (Vf-amb = 1.0 mm/min). The higher than expected Vf-amb rate in winter may be due to higher stream metabolism rates and thus greater nitrogen demand; the lower than expected Vf-amb rate in spring may reflect an alleviation of nitrogen demand due to high ammonium concentrations during this time. As the demand for both nitrogen and phosphorus in Walker Branch is greatest in autumn, future work will characterize how nutrient metrics change during this dynamic time period (i.e., before, during, and after leaf fall).

  19. Biological nitrogen (N) fixation - The source of N nutrient to increase yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiling, M.; Hardarson, G.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential plant nutrient. It is the nutrient that is most commonly deficient, contributing to reduced agricultural yields throughout the world. Developing countries used more than 85 million metric tones of nitrogenous fertilizer in 2003, worth billions of US dollars. Such fertilizer expenditure can be significantly reduced by incorporating biological nitrogen fixed leguminous crops into a growing rotation. In leguminous crops, a symbiotic relationship between a bacterium called Rhizobium and legumes can provide large amounts of nitrogen to the plant and subsequently to soils where they are grown. In this process the bacteria form nodules on the root system and convert the nitrogen coming from air into molecules that can be absorbed by the plants. Beside their fertilizing properties, legumes are rich in protein and constitute a very important role in the human and animal nutrition. In the Soil Science Unit (SSU) of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory fellows from all over the world receive training in the use of 15 N stable isotope techniques to optimise the nitrogen fixation. Several parameters such as the placement of the nodules on the legume root system, the amount of soil mineral nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer applied and the temperature have an impact on the amount of nitrogen fixed by the plant. It is therefore important to identify relative importance of these parameters on biological N fixation. The 15 N isotope dilution method is an appropriate technique to test the biological nitrogen fixation in the laboratory first. This useful knowledge can then be communicated to the farmers and can be tested under field conditions

  20. Marine ecosystem community carbon and nutrient uptake stoichiometry under varying ocean acidification during the PeECE III experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. J. Bellerby

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes to seawater inorganic carbon and nutrient concentrations in response to the deliberate CO2 perturbation of natural plankton assemblages were studied during the 2005 Pelagic Ecosystem CO2 Enrichment (PeECE III experiment. Inverse analysis of the temporal inorganic carbon dioxide system and nutrient variations was used to determine the net community stoichiometric uptake characteristics of a natural pelagic ecosystem perturbed over a range of pCO2 scenarios (350, 700 and 1050 μatm. Nutrient uptake showed no sensitivity to CO2 treatment. There was enhanced carbon production relative to nutrient consumption in the higher CO2 treatments which was positively correlated with the initial CO2 concentration. There was no significant calcification response to changing CO2 in Emiliania huxleyi by the peak of the bloom and all treatments exhibited low particulate inorganic carbon production (~15 μmol kg−1. With insignificant air-sea CO2 exchange across the treatments, the enhanced carbon uptake was due to increase organic carbon production. The inferred cumulative C:N:P stoichiometry of organic production increased with CO2 treatment from 1:6.3:121 to 1:7.1:144 to 1:8.25:168 at the height of the bloom. This study discusses how ocean acidification may incur modification to the stoichiometry of pelagic production and have consequences for ocean biogeochemical cycling.

  1. EFFECTS OF NITROGEN NUTRIENT ON THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS ACCUMULATION AND YIELD OF SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Ajayi ADELUSI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated photosynthetic pigment accumulation and yield of Solanum lycopersicum so as to ascertain the maximum concentration of nitrogen needed for optimum production. Seeds of S. lycopersicum tagged with VG-TH-017 were firstly raised in nursery bed. At the end of 28th day after sowing, the seedlings with uniform height were transplanted into experimental pots with 4 seedlings per pot under greenhouse. All the experimental pots were 40 in total, 4 levels of nitrogen (KNO3 and NH4NO3 treatment (n, N, 5N, 10N with 10 replicates. All the plants in the four treatments received 200ml of distilled water at 6a.m. in the morning every day. At 6p.m. in the evening, 100 ml of the differential treatments were applied. The photosynthetic pigments were determined spectrophotometrically. The number of flowers and fruits per plant per pot were counted and recorded. The fruit lengths and fruit diameters in each treatment were determined with the use of a Vernier Caliper. The fruits biomass were also determined. The 10N-plants and 5N-plants had leaves with deep-green colouration indicating an increase in chlorophyll content as well as an increase in the photosynthetic capacity. The highest number of flowers and early flowering discovered in 10N-plants and 5N-plants. The best yield was obtained in the treatments for the 5N-plants in which the concentration of nitrogen in the nutrient solution had been increased to a factor of 5. It is therefore suggested that when the seeds of tomato plants VG-TH-017 are to be grown, the 5N treatment is the most suitable level of application.

  2. Nutrient and metal uptake in wetland plants at stormwater detension ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istenic, Darja; Arias, Carlos Alberto; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Nutrients and metals were analysed in tissues of various wetland plants growing in stormwater detention ponds in Denmark. Nutrient and metal concentrations in below and aboveground tissues were compared to the concentrations of the adjacent sediment. The results showed accumulation of heavy metal...

  3. Growth and nutrient uptake of maize plants as affected by elemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... and Cu, thus characterized as deficient in these micro nutrients. Nitrogen, phosphorus (P) and ... play an important role in the protection of plants against nutrient stress and pests and synthesis of vitamins ..... Brassica oleracea is controlled by the expression and the activity of sulphate transporter. Plant Biol.

  4. Effects of Amended Sewage Sludge Application on Yield and Heavy Metal Uptake of Barley: A Case Study of Ahvaz Sewage Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Chorom

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of sewage sludge application as an organic fertilizer on agricultural farms is environmental pollution concerns such as heavy metals uptake by plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of amended sewage sludge application on yield and heavy metal uptake of Barley. This study was carried out over a period of barley growth with two treatments of sewage sludge (50 and 100 ton/ha and control treatment with four replicates arranged in a randomized complete block design. Plant samples were taken at three intervals (50, 90, and 180 days after sowing. The samples were prepared for measuring nutrients and heavy metals in stem, leaf, straw, and grain. Results of plant analysis showed that application of sewage sludge increased nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and cadmium in vegetative parts compared to control. Grain analysis showed that application of sewage sludge significantly increased nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, iron, and zinc. Grass yield significantly increased in the plot treated with 100 ton/ha sewage sludge. Grain yield in the two treatments significantly increased. The results revealed that the sewage sludge increased heavy metals uptake by plants but still below standard levels. It is, therefore, necessary to use the quantities of the elements introduced into soil and absorbed by plants in order to determine the toxicity level for each metal taking into account factors such as plant and soil types as well as environmental conditions. This information can then be used to determine sludge application quantities in each case. Meanwhile, sludge application may only be recommended for irrigated crops receiving adequate irrigation water due to its salinity. Moreover, it cannot be recommended for irrigated crops directly consumed by man.

  5. Effect of multi-nutrient complex fertilizers on growth and tuber yield of very early potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Wadas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effect of multi-nutrient complex fertilizers (HydroComplex, Nitrophoska Blue Special and Viking 13 from the nitrophoska group, and Polimag S from the amophoska group and single-nutrient fertilizers on the growth and tuber yield of very early potato cultivars (‘Aster’, ‘Fresco’, ‘Gloria’. The field experiment was carried out on podzolic soil in mid-eastern Poland during 2005–2007. The study showed a greater beneficial effect of HydroComplex and Nitrophoska Blue Special on the growth of very early potato cultivars than that of Viking 13 and Polimag S. The application of HydroComplex and Nitrophoska Blue Special resulted in greater above-ground plant biomass and assimilation leaf area compared with single-nutrient fertilizers; the leaf area index (LAI was higher by 0.28 and 0.32, respectively. The differences were smaller and not statistically confirmed with the use of Polimag S and Viking 13. When the multi-nutrient complex fertilizers were applied, leaf weight ratio (LWR, leaf area ratio (LAR and specific leaf area (SLA were similar to the single-nutrient fertilizers. Of the multi-nutrient complex fertilizers, only Nitrophoska Blue Special resulted in higher tuber yield, on average by 2.40 t × ha-1, compared with the single-nutrient fertilizers. The studied cultivars showed a similar response to applied fertilizers. LAI for ‘Gloria’ was higher than for ‘Aster’ and ‘Fresco’, with smaller LAR found in ‘Gloria’. LWR for ‘Fresco’ was smaller than for ‘Aster’ and ‘Gloria’, with higher SLA found in ‘Fresco’. The tuber yield of ‘Aster” (24.04 t × ha-1 was higher on average by 3 t × ha-1 than for ‘Fresco’ and ‘Gloria’.

  6. Nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation impact yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in primiparous ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in first parity ewes. Rambouillet ewe lambs (n = 84, age = 240 +/- 17 d, BW = 52.1 +/- 6.2 kg), were allocated to 6 treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial array...

  7. Effects of soil bunds on runoff, soil and nutrient losses, and crop yield in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adimassu Teferi, Z.; Mekonnen, K.; Yirga, C.; Kessler, A.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of soil bunds on runoff, losses of soil and nutrients, and crop yield are rarely documented in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. A field experiment was set up consisting of three treatments: (i) barley-cultivated land protected with graded soil bunds (Sb); (ii) fallow land (F); and

  8. Dryland maize yields and water use efficiency in response to tillage/crop stubble and nutrient management practices in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.B.; Dai, K.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, Q.; Cai, D.X.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Oenema, O.

    2011-01-01

    Rainfed crop production in northern China is constrained by low and variable rainfall. This study explored the effects of tillage/crop residue and nutrient management practices on maize (Zea mays L.) yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and N agronomic use efficiency (NAE) at Shouyang Dryland Farming

  9. Sweet potato yields and nutrient dynamics after short-term fallows in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    Shifting cultivation is common in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea but little is known about the effect of different fallows on sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) yield and nutrient flows and pools in these systems. An experiment was conducted in which two woody fallow species (Piper aduncum and

  10. Effect of integrated forage rotation and manure management on yield, nutrient balance and soil organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Tomasoni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports results from a field experiment established in 1995 and still on going. It is located in Lodi, in the irrigated lowlands of Lombardy, Northern Italy. The experiment compares two rotations: the annual double cropping system, Italian ryegrass + silage maize (R1; and the 6-year rotation, in which three years of double crop Italian ryegrass + silage maize are followed by three years of alfalfa harvested for hay (R6 Each rotation have received two types of dairy manure: i farmyard manure (FYM; ii semi-liquid manure (SLM. The intent was to apply to each unit land area the excreta produced by the number of adult dairy cows sustained, in terms of net energy, by the forage produced in each rotation, corresponding to about 6 adult cows ha-1 for R1 and 4 adult cows ha-1 for R6. Manure was applied with (N1 or without (N0 an extra supply of mineral N in the form of urea. The objectives of this study were: i to assess whether the recycling of two types of manure in two forage rotation systems can sustain crop yields in the medium and long term without additional N fertilization; ii to evaluate the nutrient balance of these integrated forage rotations and manure management systems; iii to compare the effects of farmyard manure and semi-liquid manure on soil organic matter. The application of FYM, compared to SLM, increased yield of silage maize by 19% and alfalfa by 23%, while Italian ryegrass was not influenced by the manure treatment. Yet, silage maize produced 6% more in rotation R6 compared to rotation R1. The mineral nitrogen fertilization increased yield of Italian ryegrass by 11% and of silage maize by 10%. Alfalfa, not directly fertilized with mineral nitrogen, was not influenced by the nitrogen applied to the other crops in rotation. The application of FYM, compared to SLM, increased soil organic matter (SOM by +37 % for the rotation R1, and by +20% for the rotation R6. Conversely, no significant difference on SOM was observed

  11. Effects of acidic deposition on nutrient uptake, nutrient cycling and growth processes of vegetation in the spruce-fir ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Garten, C.T.; Wullschleger, S.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-16

    This report summarizes progress in three years of field research designed to evaluate biological and chemical indicators of the current and future health of the Southern Appalachian spruce-fir ecosystem. The emphasis of this research has been on the identification and understanding of mechanisms through which current levels of acidic deposition are impacting ecosystem processes. The identification of these principal mechanisms and key biological indicators of change was designed to improve our capabilities to detect, monitor, and assess the effects of air quality regulations and attendant future air quality changes on ecosystem response. Individual research tasks focused on the following research areas: (1) the significance of foliar uptake of atmospheric sources of nitrogen in relationship to plant utilization of N from available soil reserves; (2) linkages between atmospheric inputs to the soil surface, solution chemistry, and decomposition in the upper organic soil horizons; (3) effects of soil solution chemistry on uptake of cations and aluminum by fine roots; and (4) the effects of varying rates of calcium supply on carbon metabolism of Fraser fir and red spruce, and the relationship between calcium levels in wood cells and integrity of wood formed in bole and branches. Each of the individual tasks was designed to focus upon a mechanism or process that we consider critical to understanding chemical and biological linkages. These linkages will be important determinants in understanding the basis of past and potential future responses of the high elevation Southern Appalachian Forest to acidic deposition and other co-occurring environmental stresses. This report contains (1) background and rationale for the research undertaken in 1992-94; (2) a summary of principal research findings; (3) publications from this research; and (4) characterization of data sets produced by this research which will be the basis of future research, analyses and/or publications.

  12. Effects of land-applied ammonia scrubber solutions on yield, nitrogen uptake, soil test phosphorus and phosphorus runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia (NH3) scrubbers reduce amounts of NH3 and dust released from animal rearing facilities, while generating nitrogen (N) rich solutions, which may be used as fertilizer. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various NH3 scrubber solutions on yields, N uptake by forage, so...

  13. Yield constraint analysis of rainfed lowland rice in Souteast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boling, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Fertilizer application, field hydrology, plant nutrient uptake, toposequence, weed control, yield loss. Rainfed lowland rice yields are low and unstable due to uncertain water supply, low soil fertility, and pest infestation. To design management interventions aimed at increasing

  14. Compost and Crude Humic Substances Produced from Selected Wastes and Their Effects on Zea mays L. Nutrient Uptake and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivell, Perumal; Susilawati, Kasim; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad

    2013-01-01

    Production of agriculture and timber commodities leads generation of enormous quantity of wastes. Improper disposal of these agroindustrial wastes pollutes the environment. This problem could be reduced by adding value to them. Therefore, a study was carried out to analyse and compare the nutrients content of RS, RH, SD, and EFB of composts and crude humic substances; furthermore, their effect on growth, dry matter production, and nutrient uptake for Zea mays L., and selected soil chemical properties were evaluated. Standard procedures were used to analyze humic acids (HA), crude fulvic acids (CFA), crude humin (CH), soil, dry matter production and nutrient uptake. Sawdust and RS compost matured at 42 and 47 days, respectively, while RH and EFB composts were less matured at 49th day of composting. Rice straw compost had higher ash, N, P, CEC, HA, K, and Fe contents with lower organic matter, total organic carbon, and C/N and C/P ratios. The HA of sawdust compost showed higher carbon, carboxylic, K, and Ca contents compared to those of RS, RH, and EFB. Crude FA of RS compost showed highest pH, total K, Ca, Mg, and Na contents. Crude humin from RS compost had higher contents of ash, N, P, and CEC. Rice straw was superior in compost, CFA, and CH, while sawdust compost was superior in HA. Application of sawdust compost significantly increased maize plants' diameter, height, dry matter production, N, P, and cations uptake. It also reduced N, P, and K based chemical fertilizer use by 90%. Application of CH and the composts evaluated in this study could be used as an alternative for chemical fertilizers in maize cultivation. PMID:24319353

  15. Nutrient uptake efficiency of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva lactuca in an IMTA system with the red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Macchiavello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the nutrient uptake efficiency of Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria chilensis cultivated in tanks associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The experiments evaluated different seaweed stocking densities (1200, 1900, 2600, and 3200 g m-2 and water exchange rates (60, 80, 125, and 250 L h-1. The results show that both U. lactuca and G. chilensis were efficient in capturing and removing all of the inorganic nutrients originating from the abalone cultivation for all of the tested conditions. Furthermore, an annual experiment was performed with U. lactuca, cultivated at a stocking density of 1900 g m-2 and at a water exchanged rate of 125 L h-1, in order to evaluate seasonal changes in the nutrient uptake efficiency, productivity, and growth rate associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The results confirmed high uptake efficiency during the entire year, equivalent to a 100% removal of the NH4, NO3, and PO4 produced by the land-based abalone culture. The growth rate and productivity of U. lactuca presented a marked seasonality, increasing from fall until summer and varying from 0.5 ± 0.2% to 2.6 ± 0.2% d-1 and 10 ± 6.1% to 73.6 ± 8.4% g m-2 d-1 for sustainable growth rate and productivity, respectively. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence that demonstrates the high possibility of changing the traditional monoculture system of abalone in Chile, to a sustainable integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system, generating positive environmental externalities, including the use of U. lactuca as a biofiltration unit.

  16. Effects of different fertilizers on growth and nutrient uptake of Lolium multiflorum grown in Cd-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mohan; Li, Yang; Che, Yeye; Deng, Shaojun; Xiao, Yan

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of different fertilizers and their combinations on growth and nutrient and Cd uptake of Lolium multiflorum. Compared with control treatment, chemical fertilizer, organic manure, and their conjunctions with biofertilizer increased shoot biomass. Biofertilizers were found to cause significant reductions in shoot biomass of plants grown in organic manure-treated and control soil. Decreased soil-available N and P and shoot N and K concentrations in biofertilizer amendment treatments indicated that plant growth and nutrient absorption might be negatively affected under nutrient deficiency conditions. Elevated shoot biomasses contributed to the highest shoot Cd contents in chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer + biofertilizer treatments among all treatments. But the maximum translocation efficiency occurred in biofertilizer + chemical fertilizer + organic manure treatment, followed by organic manure and chemical fertilizer + organic manure treatments. Based on the results, we can conclude that the application of only the biofertilizer Bacillus subtilis should be avoided in nutrient-limited soils. Chemical fertilizer application could benefit the amount of Cd in shoots, and organic manure application and its combinations could result in the higher translocation efficiency.

  17. Nutrient limitation reduces land carbon uptake in simulations with a model of combined carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Goll

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial carbon (C cycle models applied for climate projections simulate a strong increase in net primary productivity (NPP due to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration during the 21st century. These models usually neglect the limited availability of nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P, nutrients that commonly limit plant growth and soil carbon turnover. To investigate how the projected C sequestration is altered when stoichiometric constraints on C cycling are considered, we incorporated a P cycle into the land surface model JSBACH (Jena Scheme for Biosphere–Atmosphere Coupling in Hamburg, which already includes representations of coupled C and N cycles.

    The model reveals a distinct geographic pattern of P and N limitation. Under the SRES (Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B scenario, the accumulated land C uptake between 1860 and 2100 is 13% (particularly at high latitudes and 16% (particularly at low latitudes lower in simulations with N and P cycling, respectively, than in simulations without nutrient cycles. The combined effect of both nutrients reduces land C uptake by 25% compared to simulations without N or P cycling. Nutrient limitation in general may be biased by the model simplicity, but the ranking of limitations is robust against the parameterization and the inflexibility of stoichiometry. After 2100, increased temperature and high CO2 concentration cause a shift from N to P limitation at high latitudes, while nutrient limitation in the tropics declines. The increase in P limitation at high-latitudes is induced by a strong increase in NPP and the low P sorption capacity of soils, while a decline in tropical NPP due to high autotrophic respiration rates alleviates N and P limitations. The quantification of P limitation remains challenging. The poorly constrained processes of soil P sorption and biochemical mineralization are identified as the main uncertainties in the strength of P limitation

  18. [Effect of long-term application of NPK fertilizer on maize yield and yellow soil nutrients sustainability in Guizhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan Ling; Li, Yu; Zhang, Ya Rong; Huang, Xing Cheng; Zhang, Wen An; Jiang, Tai Ming

    2017-11-01

    A long-term fertilization field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilizer on maize relative yield, yield-increasing effect and the changes of nutrients in yellow soil in Guizhou Province. Five fertilizer combinations were evaluated, including balanced fertilization (NPK) and nutrient deficiency treatments (N, NK, NP, and PK). The maize relative yield, contribution efficiency of N, P, K fertilizer application, sustainability index of soil N, P, K nutrients, and other indicators were measured. The results revealed that the balanced fertilization (NPK) significantly increased maize yield, and the average yield under each treatment ranked as: NPK>NP>NK>PK>CK. The contribution efficiency and agronomic efficiency of N, P, K fertilizer application was N>P>K. The fertilization dependence was ranked as: combined application of N, P and K>N>P>K. But in the lack of P treatment (NK), the maize relative yield significantly decreased at a speed of 1.4% per year, with the contribution efficiency and fertilization dependence of applied P significantly increasing at a speed of 2.3% per year and 1.4% per year, respectively. Over time, the effect of P fertilizer on maize yield gradually became equal to that of N fertilizer. The pH and soil organic matter content were the lowest in the P-lack treatment (NK), while they were higher in the N-lack treatment (PK). The application of chemical P significantly improved the sustainability index of soil P, but the application of chemical N and K did not significantly change the sustainability index of soil N and K nutrients compared to the N- and K-lack treatments, respectively. In summary, the use of balanced fertilizer application is critical for achieving high maize yield in typical yellow soil regions in Guizhou Province. P and N fertilizers are equally important for improving maize yield, and long-term application of unbalanced chemical fertilizer, especially the lack

  19. A mathematical model for investigating the effect of cluster roots on plant nutrient uptake

    KAUST Repository

    Zygalakis, K. C.; Roose, T.

    2012-01-01

    phase and can also solubilised due to citrate exudation. Using multiple scale homogenisation techniques we derive an effective model that accounts for the cumulative effect of citrate exudation and phosphate uptake by cluster roots whilst still retaining

  20. Plant aquaporins: new perspectives on water and nutrient uptake in saline environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Martínez-Ballesta, M C; Silva, C; López-Berenguer, C; Cabañero, F J; Carvajal, M

    2006-09-01

    The mechanisms of salt stress and tolerance have been targets for genetic engineering, focusing on ion transport and compartmentation, synthesis of compatible solutes (osmolytes and osmoprotectants) and oxidative protection. In this review, we consider the integrated response to salinity with respect to water uptake, involving aquaporin functionality. Therefore, we have concentrated on how salinity can be alleviated, in part, if a perfect knowledge of water uptake and transport for each particular crop and set of conditions is available.

  1. Seed yield, N-uptake and oil quality in Helianthus annuus as affected by N-fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Al-Ain, F.; Attar, J.

    2008-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the impact of different nitrogen fertilizer rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N/ha as urea) on dry matter yield, N uptake, seed yield, grain oil content and properties of sunflower Helianthus annuus using the 15 N labeling technique. Sunflower plants responded strongly to increasing N supply with respect to growth performance. Dry matter yield and total N uptake were significantly increased with increasing N-supply. Partitioning of N yield in different plant parts showed that capitulum was the principle sink of N (60%) followed by leaves (30%) and stem (10%) regardless of N-fertilizer rates. Seed yield of sunflower was significantly increased at higher N-supply. However, oil concentration was significantly reduced in the N-fertilized treatments. Decreasing of grain oil content due to N addition was overcompensated by the seed yield increase. Consequently, no significant effect of N supply on oil yield was observed. The effect of N supply on iodine number was small, and only a small trend towards lower iodine value in the N100 was observed. No clear trend of the effect of N supply on other oil quality parameters was observed. Nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff) was significantly increased with increasing N-supply. Recovery of fertilizer 15 N was of 64% regardless of N-rates. This efficiency was less pronounced in stem and leaves than that in capitulum which had a greater value at higher N-supply. (Author)

  2. Yield, Quality, and Nutrient Concentrations of Strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. cv. 'Sonata') Grown with Different Organic Fertilizer Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Bhaniswor; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Petersen, Karen Koefoed

    2015-06-17

    Four combinations of two solid organic fertilizers (Monterra Malt and chicken manure) applied before planting and two liquid organic fertilizers (broad bean and Pioner Hi-Fruit/K-Max) given through drip irrigation (fertigation) were compared with inorganic fertilization regarding growth, yield, nutrient concentration, and fruit quality of strawberries. Broad bean fertigation combined with Monterra Malt resulted in a similar fruit yield as inorganic fertilizer and a higher yield than Monterra Malt combined with Pioner; however, total soluble solids, firmness, and titratable acid were improved with Pioner fertigation, although these parameters were more affected by harvest time than the applied fertilizers. The concentrations of most nutrients in fruits and leaves were higher in inorganically fertigated plants. The reductions in fruit yield in three of four treatments and fruit weight in all organic treatments may be due to a combination of the following conditions in the root zone: (1) high pH and high NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio; (2) high EC and/or high NaCl concentration; (3) cation imbalance; and (4) nutrient deficiency.

  3. Comparison of two organic fertilizers along with Zn and B elements on concentration, uptake of nutrients and some growth parameters in millet (Panicum miliaceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Nezhad hoseini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of two organic fertilizers along with zinc and boron elements on some growth parameters, concentration and uptake of nutrients in millet (Panicum miliaceum L. by using factorial based on randomized completely block design with three replications in Qaen region, Iran. The main treatments were municipal solid waste compost and cow manure (each at 0 and 25 t.ha-1 and sub treatments were elements of Zn (0, 50 kg.ha-1 and B (0, 10 kg.ha-1 using their respective ZnSO4 and H3BO3 salts. Results showed that treatments interaction had significant effects on total dry matter yield, number of tillers per plant and plant height of Millet. The highest total dry matter production was achieved by interaction of cow manure along with Zn and B elements. Concentrations of N, Fe, Zn, B and Cu in plant were increased significantly by treatments interaction effects compared to control. Interaction effect of organic fertilizers with B (in the absence of Zn enhanced plant B concentration significantly, whereas, interaction of organic fertilizers with Zn (in the absence of B decreased B concentration in plant. The highest plant uptake of N, P, K, Zn, and B was observed in plots with cow manure and Zn and B elements.

  4. Acúmulo de nutrientes pela alface destinada à produção de sementes Nutrients uptake by lettuce plants for seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Kano

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a curva de acúmulo de nutrientes pela planta de alface destinada à produção de sementes. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental São Manuel, pertencente à Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas da Universidade Estadual Paulista, no período de 25/09/03 a 19/02/04. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições e seis tratamentos (épocas de coleta das plantas: 0, 20, 34, 49, 69 e 112 dias após o transplante (DAT. Foi utilizada a alface crespa cultivar Verônica, sendo avaliados o acúmulo da massa seca e de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn na parte aérea das plantas. O maior incremento da massa seca das plantas ocorreu após o ponto comercial (34 DAT. O período de maior demanda de macronutrientes foi entre o início do pendoamento e o início do florescimento. Observa-se que para a maioria dos micronutrientes o período de maior exigência foi após o início do florescimento. A ordem decrescente de acúmulo de nutrientes foi: K>N>Ca>Mg>P>S>Fe>Mn>Zn>B>Cu.The nutrients uptake curve of lettuce plants for seed production was evaluated. The experiment was carried out from September 2003 to February 2004 at the Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas of the Universidade Estadual Paulista, in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. A randomized block design was used, with five replicates and six treatments (periods of plant collection: 0, 20, 34, 49, 69 and 112 days after transplant (DAT. We utilized the Verônica lettuce cultivar and evaluated the dry mass and the N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn accumulated in the aboveground part of the plants. The greatest increase in the plant dry matter occurred after the marketable point (34 DAT. The period of greatest demand for nutrients was between the beginning of the stem elongation stage and the beginning of the flowering stage. We also observed that for most micronutrients the period of highest demand

  5. The effect of modifying rooting depths and nitrification inhibitors on nutrient uptake from organic biogas residues in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Charlotte C.; Koller, Robert; Nagel, Kerstin A.; Schickling, Anke; Schrey, Silvia D.; Jablonowski, Nicolai D.

    2017-04-01

    Optimizing the application of and nutrient uptake from organic nutrient sources, such as the nutrient-rich residues ("digestates") from the biogas industry, is becoming a viable option in remediating fertility on previously unsuitable soils for agricultural utilization. Proposedly, concurrent changes in root system architecture and functioning could also serve as the basis of future phytomining approaches. Herein, we evaluate the effect of spatial nutrient availability and nitrification on maize root architecture and nutrient uptake. We test these effects by applying maize-based digestate at a rate of 170 kg/ha in layers of varying depths (10, 25 and 40 cm) and through either the presence or absence of nitrification inhibitors. In order to regularly monitor above- and below-ground plant biomass production, we used the noninvasive phenotyping platform, GROWSCREEN-Rhizo at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, using rhizotrons (Nagel et al., 2012). Measured parameters included projected plant height and leaf area, as well as root length and spatial distribution. Additionally, root diameters were quantified after the destructive harvest, 21 days after sowing (DAS). Spatial nutrient availability significantly affected root system architecture, as for example root system size -the area occupied by roots- increased alongside nutrient layer depths. Fertilization also positively affected root length density (RLD). Within fertilized layers, the presence of nitrification inhibitors increased RLD by up to 30% and was most pronounced in the fine root biomass fraction (0.1 to 0.5mm). Generally, nitrification inhibitors promoted early plant growth by up to 45% across treatments. However, their effect varied in dependence of layer depths, leading to a time-delayed response in deeper layers, accounting for plants having to grow significantly longer roots in order to reach fertilized substrate. Nitrification inhibitors also initiated the comparatively early on-set of growth differences in

  6. The Efficiency of Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth Characteristics and some Nutrients Uptake of Plane tree Seedling (Platanus orientalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alipour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses which significantly reduce yield and growth of most of plants. Plane tree is one of the important trees planted in the urban landscapes of Iran. One of the major limiting factors of landscapes development is providing water for plants. Deficit irrigation is a desirable method for saving water use in water deficit conditions and ultimately reducing necessary cost of water securement to landscape plants. Moreover, inoculation of plant root with mycorrhizal fungi can be considered as a method to reduce water demand of plants. In addition, mycorrhiza can increase plant resistance against environmental stress, such as salinity, temperature stress, drought stress and etc. Mycorrhiza can improve drought stress through enhancing water uptake as result of extra radical hyphae and stomatal regulation or transpiration. Increasing P concentration by mycorrhiza inoculation can be another mechansim for drought resistance in plants. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate two Glomus species in combination together on plane tree under water deficit for growth characteristics and nutrients uptake such as P, Fe and Zn concentration. Materials and Methods: This outdoor experiment was conducted at - Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, with average temperature 14.2 ºC and 27.9 ºC night/day, respectively and relative humidity 35-70% between Mar and Aug 2012 and repeated under the same condition in 2013. This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of inoculation with mycorrhizal fungus on plane saplings response to different applicable water levels (50 and 100% of water needs based on a completely randomized design with 3 replications. The treatments were control (without fertilizer, Germans peat + fertilizer, Germans peat + fertilizer + mycorrhiza in 50% of field capacity and Germans peat + fertilizer + mycorrhizain 100% of field capacity. The Mycorrhiza

  7. effect of plant hormones on the growth and nutrient uptake of maize

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    prolonged vegetative growth, which resulted in decreased grain yield. The investigation of Caldiz et al. (1991) also indicated that foliar application of. BA and nitrogen on wheat plants delayed chlorophyll loss in the flag leaf but modified neither yield nor yield components. Benzylad- ennine (BA) increased only grain protein.

  8. Arsenic-induced nutrient uptake in As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata and their potential role to enhance plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue; Feng, Hua-Yuan; Fu, Jing-Wei; Chen, Yanshan; Liu, Yungen; Ma, Lena Q

    2018-05-01

    It is known that arsenic (As) promotes growth of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV), however, the associated mechanisms are unclear. Here we examined As-induced nutrient uptake in P. vittata and their potential role to enhance plant growth in sterile agar by excluding microbial effects. As-hyperaccumulator P. multifida (PM) and non-hyperaccumulator P. ensiformis (PE) belonging to the Pteris genus were used as comparisons. The results showed that, after 40 d of growth, As induced biomass increase in hyperaccumulators PV and PM by 5.2-9.4 fold whereas it caused 63% decline in PE. The data suggested that As played a beneficial role in promoting hyperaccumulator growth. In addition, hyperaccumulators PV and PM accumulated 7.5-13, 1.4-3.6, and 1.8-4.4 fold more As, Fe, and P than the non-hyperaccumulator PE. In addition, nutrient contents such as K and Zn were also increased while Ca, Mg, and Mn decreased or unaffected under As treatment. This study demonstrated that As promoted growth in hyperaccumulators and enhanced Fe, P, K, and Zn uptake. Different plant growth responses to As among hyperaccumulators PV and PM and non-hyperaccumulator PE may help to better understand why hyperaccumulators grow better under As-stress. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Combined effects of drought stress and npk foliar spray on growth, physiological processes and nutrient uptake in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabir, R.N.; Waraocj, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of supplemental foliar nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) spray, alone or in various combinations, on physiological processes and nutrients uptake in wheat under water deficit conditions. The study comprised of two phases; during the first phase, ten local wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes were evaluated for their response to PEG-6000 induced osmotic stress. One drought tolerant (Bhakkar-2002) and sensitive (Shafaq-2006) genotype selected from screening experiments were used in the second phase to determine the individual and combined effects of N, P and K foliar spray on physiological mechanisms in wheat under drought stress. The results revealed that limited water supply significantly reduced germination, growth and uptake of N, P and K. Supplemental foliar fertilisation of these macronutrients alone or in different combinations significantly improved the water relations, gas exchange characteristics and nutrient contents in both the genotypes. Bhakkar-2002 maintained higher turgor, net CO/sub 2/ assimilation rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs) and accumulated more N, P and K in shoot than Shafaq-2006. The foliar spray of NPK in combination was effective in improving wheat growth under both well-watered and water-deficit conditions. (author)

  10. Growth of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex. Steudel in mine water treatment wetlands: effects of metal and nutrient uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batty, Lesley C.; Younger, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    The abandoned mine of Shilbottle Colliery, Northumberland, UK is an example of acidic spoil heap discharge that contains elevated levels of many metals. Aerobic wetlands planted with the common reed, Phragmites australis, were constructed at the site to treat surface runoff from the spoil heap. The presence of a perched water table within the spoil heap resulted in the lower wetlands receiving acidic metal contaminated water from within the spoil heap while the upper wetland receives alkaline, uncontaminated surface runoff from the revegetated spoil. This unique situation enabled the comparison of metal uptake and growth of plants used in treatment schemes in two cognate wetlands. Results indicated a significant difference in plant growth between the two wetlands in terms of shoot height and seed production. Analyses of metal and nutrient concentrations within plant tissues provided the basis for three hypotheses to explain these differences: (i) the toxic effects of high levels of metals in shoot tissues (ii) the inhibition of Ca (an essential nutrient) uptake by the presence of metals and H + ions, and (iii) low concentrations of bioavailable nitrogen sources resulting in nitrogen deficiency. This has important implications for the engineering of constructed wetlands in terms of the potential success of plant establishment and vegetation development

  11. Nutrient regulation by continuous feeding removes limitations on cell yield in the large-scale expansion of Mammalian cell spheroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley P Weegman

    Full Text Available Cellular therapies are emerging as a standard approach for the treatment of several diseases. However, realizing the promise of cellular therapies across the full range of treatable disorders will require large-scale, controlled, reproducible culture methods. Bioreactor systems offer the scale-up and monitoring needed, but standard stirred bioreactor cultures do not allow for the real-time regulation of key nutrients in the medium. In this study, β-TC6 insulinoma cells were aggregated and cultured for 3 weeks as a model of manufacturing a mammalian cell product. Cell expansion rates and medium nutrient levels were compared in static, stirred suspension bioreactors (SSB, and continuously fed (CF SSB. While SSB cultures facilitated increased culture volumes, no increase in cell yields were observed, partly due to limitations in key nutrients, which were consumed by the cultures between feedings, such as glucose. Even when glucose levels were increased to prevent depletion between feedings, dramatic fluctuations in glucose levels were observed. Continuous feeding eliminated fluctuations and improved cell expansion when compared with both static and SSB culture methods. Further improvements in growth rates were observed after adjusting the feed rate based on calculated nutrient depletion, which maintained physiological glucose levels for the duration of the expansion. Adjusting the feed rate in a continuous medium replacement system can maintain the consistent nutrient levels required for the large-scale application of many cell products. Continuously fed bioreactor systems combined with nutrient regulation can be used to improve the yield and reproducibility of mammalian cells for biological products and cellular therapies and will facilitate the translation of cell culture from the research lab to clinical applications.

  12. Nutrient Regulation by Continuous Feeding Removes Limitations on Cell Yield in the Large-Scale Expansion of Mammalian Cell Spheroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weegman, Bradley P.; Nash, Peter; Carlson, Alexandra L.; Voltzke, Kristin J.; Geng, Zhaohui; Jahani, Marjan; Becker, Benjamin B.; Papas, Klearchos K.; Firpo, Meri T.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular therapies are emerging as a standard approach for the treatment of several diseases. However, realizing the promise of cellular therapies across the full range of treatable disorders will require large-scale, controlled, reproducible culture methods. Bioreactor systems offer the scale-up and monitoring needed, but standard stirred bioreactor cultures do not allow for the real-time regulation of key nutrients in the medium. In this study, β-TC6 insulinoma cells were aggregated and cultured for 3 weeks as a model of manufacturing a mammalian cell product. Cell expansion rates and medium nutrient levels were compared in static, stirred suspension bioreactors (SSB), and continuously fed (CF) SSB. While SSB cultures facilitated increased culture volumes, no increase in cell yields were observed, partly due to limitations in key nutrients, which were consumed by the cultures between feedings, such as glucose. Even when glucose levels were increased to prevent depletion between feedings, dramatic fluctuations in glucose levels were observed. Continuous feeding eliminated fluctuations and improved cell expansion when compared with both static and SSB culture methods. Further improvements in growth rates were observed after adjusting the feed rate based on calculated nutrient depletion, which maintained physiological glucose levels for the duration of the expansion. Adjusting the feed rate in a continuous medium replacement system can maintain the consistent nutrient levels required for the large-scale application of many cell products. Continuously fed bioreactor systems combined with nutrient regulation can be used to improve the yield and reproducibility of mammalian cells for biological products and cellular therapies and will facilitate the translation of cell culture from the research lab to clinical applications. PMID:24204645

  13. AMF Inoculation Enhances Growth and Improves the Nutrient Uptake Rates of Transplanted, Salt-Stressed Tomato Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrit Balliu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of commercially available AMF inoculate (Glomus sp. mixture on the growth and the nutrient acquisition in tomato (Solanumlycopersicum L. plants directly after transplanting and under different levels of salinity. Inoculated (AMF+ and non-inoculated (AMF− tomato plants were subjected to three levels of NaCl salinity (0, 50, and 100 mM·NaCl. Seven days after transplanting, plants were analyzed for dry matter and RGR of whole plants and root systems. Leaf tissue was analyzed for mineral concentration before and after transplanting; leaf nutrient content and relative uptake rates (RUR were calculated. AMF inoculation did not affect plant dry matter or RGR under fresh water-irrigation. The growth rate of AMF−plants did significantly decline under both moderate (77% and severe (61% salt stress compared to the fresh water-irrigated controls, while the decline was much less (88% and 75%,respectivelyand statistically non-significant in salt-stressed AMF+ plants. Interestingly, root system dry matter of AMF+ plants (0.098 g plant–1 remained significantly greater under severe soil salinity compared to non-inoculated seedlings (0.082 g plant–1. The relative uptake rates of N, P, Mg, Ca, Mn, and Fe were enhanced in inoculated tomato seedlings and remained higher under (moderate salt stress compared to AMF− plants This study suggests that inoculation with commercial AMF during nursery establishment contributes to alleviation of salt stress by maintaining a favorable nutrient profile. Therefore, nursery inoculation seems to be a viable solution to attenuate the effects of increasing soil salinity levels, especially in greenhouses with low natural abundance of AMF spores.

  14. The effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on nutrient uptake by plants grown in basaltic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasenor Iribe, E.; Dontsova, K.; Juarez, S.; Le Galliard, J. F.; Chollet, S.; Llavata, M.; Massol, F.; Barré, P.; Gelabert, A.; Daval, D.; Troch, P.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Van Haren, J. L. M.; Ferrière, R.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral weathering is an important process in soil formation. The interactions between the hydrologic, geologic and atmospheric cycles often determine the rate at which weathering occurs. Elements and nutrients weathered from the soil by water can be removed from soils in the runoff and seepage, but they can also remain in situ as newly precipitated secondary minerals or in biomass as a result of plant uptake. Here we present data from an experiment that was conducted at the controlled environment facility, Ecotron Ile-de-France (Saint-Pierre-les-Nemours, France) that studied mineral weathering and plant growth in granular basaltic material with high glass content that is being used to simulate soil in large scale Biosphere 2 Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) project. The experiment used 3 plant types: velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina), green spangletop (Leptochloa dubia), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa), which were grown under varying temperature and CO2 conditions. We hypothesized that plants grown under warmer, higher CO2 conditions would have larger nutrient concentrations as more mineral weathering would occur. Results of plant digestions and analysis showed that plant concentrations of lithogenic elements were significantly influenced by the plant type and were different between above- and below-ground parts of the plant. Temperature and CO2 treatment effects were less pronounced, but we observed significant temperature effect on plant uptake. A number of major and trace elements showed increase in concentration with increase in temperature at elevated atmospheric CO2. Effect was observed both in the shoots and in the roots, but more significant differences were observed in the shoots. Results presented here indicate that climate change would have strong effect on plant uptake and mobility of weathered elements during soil formation and give further evidence of interactions between abiotic and biological processes in terrestrial ecosystems.

  15. The contribution of plant uptake to nutrient removal by floating treatment wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer-Vlek, H.E.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Verdonschot, R.C.M.; Dekkers, T.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) may provide an appealing alternative to the more conventional (sub) surface flow wetlands to solve problems associated with eutrophication in urban surface waters, because they do not claim additional land area. This study examined the contribution of plant uptake

  16. Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated soil by Pteris vittata L. II. Effect on arsenic uptake and rice yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Asit; Purakayastha, T J; Patra, A K; Sanyal, S K

    2012-07-01

    A greenhouse experiment evaluated the effect of phytoextraction of arsenic from a contaminated soil by Chinese Brake Fern (Pteris vittata L.) and its subsequent effects on growth and uptake of arsenic by rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop. Pteris vittata was grown for one or two growing cycles of four months each with two phosphate sources, using single super phosphate (SSP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP). Rice was grown on phytoextracted soils followed by measurements of biomass yield (grain, straw, and root), arsenic concentration and, uptake by individual plant parts. The biomass yield (grain, straw and rice) of rice was highest in soil phytoextracted with Pteris vittata grown for two cycles and fertilized with diammonium phosphate (DAP). Total arsenic uptake in contaminated soil ranged from 8.2 to 16.9 mg pot(-1) in first growing cycle and 5.5 to 12.0 mg pot(-1) in second growing cycle of Pteris vittata. There was thus a mean reduction of 52% in arsenic content of rice grain after two growing cycle of Pteris vittata and 29% after the one growing cycle. The phytoextraction of arsenic contaminated soil by Pteris vittata was beneficial for growing rice resulted in decreased arsenic content in rice grain of <1 ppm. There was a mean improvement in rice grain yield 14% after two growing cycle and 8% after the one growing cycle of brake fern.

  17. Effect of Nutrient Management Planning on Crop Yield, Nitrate Leaching and Sediment Loading in Thomas Brook Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon-Armah, Frederick; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K.; Ahmad, Nafees H. M.; Hebb, Dale; Jamieson, Rob; Burton, David; Madani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    Government priorities on provincial Nutrient Management Planning (NMP) programs include improving the program effectiveness for environmental quality protection, and promoting more widespread adoption. Understanding the effect of NMP on both crop yield and key water-quality parameters in agricultural watersheds requires a comprehensive evaluation that takes into consideration important NMP attributes and location-specific farming conditions. This study applied the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to investigate the effects of crop and rotation sequence, tillage type, and nutrient N application rate on crop yield and the associated groundwater leaching and sediment loss. The SWAT model was applied to the Thomas Brook Watershed, located in the most intensively managed agricultural region of Nova Scotia, Canada. Cropping systems evaluated included seven fertilizer application rates and two tillage systems (i.e., conventional tillage and no-till). The analysis reflected cropping systems commonly managed by farmers in the Annapolis Valley region, including grain corn-based and potato-based cropping systems, and a vegetable-horticulture system. ANOVA models were developed and used to assess the effects of crop management choices on crop yield and two water-quality parameters (i.e., leaching and sediment loading). Results suggest that existing recommended N-fertilizer rate can be reduced by 10-25 %, for grain crop production, to significantly lower leaching ( P > 0.05) while optimizing the crop yield. The analysis identified the nutrient N rates in combination with specific crops and rotation systems that can be used to manage leaching while balancing impacts on crop yields within the watershed.

  18. Influence of Phosphorus and Manganese Rats in Nutrient Solution on Mn-54 Uptake by Mango Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaf, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was designed using solution culture and Mn-54 to study the effect of P and Mn rates on absorption of Mn-54, its translocation and percentage using six month old mango seedlings (Hindi Bi-Sinara cv.). Rates of P in nutrient solution were zero, half, one and two strength i.e. 0, 1, 2 and 4 m M whereas Mn rates were 1, 2 and 3 strength i.e. 2, 4 and 6 μM. The prepared nutrient solutions were labelled with carrier free Mn-54. Total absorption of Mn-54 by mango roots from nutrient solution was highly increased by increasing Mn rates, moreover, increasing P rates in media tended to enhance Mn-54 absorption. Translocation and distribution pattern of absorbed Mn-54 followed, to a great extent, the same trend of total absorption of it but with different magnitude. In this concern, more than 90% (about 94%) of total absorption of Mn-54 was retained in root system, whereas about 4% and 2% was translocated in stems and leaves, respectively. Retained Mn in mango roots is considered a good source of Mn for supplying mango plants with it for long term during growing season.

  19. Effect of Symbiosis of Arbuscular Mycorhiza and Like-endo Mycorhiza on Yield and Uptake of MacroandMicro Elements in Chickpea Genotypes (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J Arshadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Improving of nutrients absorption by biological approaches, in addition to emphasis on sustainable agriculture, will increase or stabilize crop yield. It seems that microorganisms such as mycorrhiza and rhizobium can improve the nutrients absorption in crops such as chickpea. Rhizobiums are effective to provide biological nitrogen for crops and mycorrhizal fungi are involved to supply biological phosphorus to the plants. Among them, the endo myccorihza (or Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza that is abbreviated VAM, in creation of symbiosis with the roots of crops such as legumes have been more successful. Of course, the mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium bacteria before creating symbiosis with host plant, directly affect in the overlay in rhizosphere environment of host plant. Creating colonies in the roots by mycorrhizal fungi leads to conducive for forming nodulation of rhizobium. In other words, mycorrhiza fungi creats favorable conditions for the production of rhizobium nodules on the roots and also they affect on greater availability of phosphorus for nitrogenase enzymes involved in rhizobium bacteria. In contrast, rhizobiums affect in better absorption of nitrogen and followed by the synthesis of amino acids and amino acid availability for required mycorrhiza. It seems that this symbiotic relationship between plants, mycorrhizal and rhizobium can be either normal or adverse environmental conditions, which is effective in promoting the product of crop. However, the Triplet symbiosis of chickpea, mycorrhiza and rhizobium and also chickpea genotypes response to this symbiosis should be examined. Materials and Methods This study was conducted to investigate the inoculation of kabuli seeds of chickpea genotypes with arbuscular mycorrhiza and like - endomycorhiza, in 2014, in split plot by arrangement of two factors with a randomized complete block design and three replications in Research Field, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi

  20. Vigorous root growth is a better indicator of early nutrient uptake than root hair traits in spring wheat grown under low fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    . Vigorous root growth, however, was a better indicator of early nutrient acquisition than RHL and RHD. Vigorous root growth and long and dense root hairs ensured efficient acquisition of macro- and micronutrients during early growth and a high root length to shoot dry matter ratio favored high macronutrient......A number of root and root hair traits have been proposed as important for nutrient acquisition. However, there is still a need for knowledge on which traits are most important in determining macro- and micronutrient uptake at low soil fertility. This study investigated the variations in root growth...... vigor and root hair length (RHL) and density (RHD) among spring wheat genotypes and their relationship to nutrient concentrations and uptake during early growth. Six spring wheat genotypes were grown in a soil with low nutrient availability. The root and root hair traits as well as the concentration...

  1. Seasonal nutrient yield and digestibility of deer forage from a young pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Blair; Henry L. Short; E.A. Epps

    1977-01-01

    Six classes of current herbaceous and woody forage were collected seasonally from a 5-year-old mixed loblolly (Pinus taeda)-shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) plantation (in Texas) and subjected to nutrient analyses and nylon bag dry-matter digestion trials. Forages were most nutritious and digestible in the spring when tissues were succulent and growing rapidly. Browse...

  2. Growth response and nutrient uptake of blue pine (Pinus wallichiana seedlings inoculated with rhizosphere microorganisms under temperate nursery conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ahangar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial inoculants (Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens,Laccaria laccata inoculated either individually or in combinationsignificantly improved the growth and biomass of blue pine seedlings. The ECM fungus Laccaria laccata, when inoculated individually, showed significantly higher plant growth, followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum. The combined inoculation of rhizosphere microorganisms showed synergistic growth promoting action and proved superior in enhancing the growth of blue pine than individual inoculation. Co-inoculation of L. laccata with P. fluorescens resulted in higher ectomycorrhizal root colonization. Uptake of nutrients (N, P, K was significantly improved by microbial inoculants, tested individually or in combination. Combined inoculation of L. laccata with T. harzianum and P. fluorescens significantly increased in N, P and K contents in blue pine seedlings as compared to control. Acid phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere of blue pine seedlings was also enhanced by these microorganisms. L. laccata exhibited higher acid phosphatase activity followed by P. fluorescens.

  3. Effect of Mineral and Humic Substances on Tailing Soil Properties and Nutrient Uptake by Pennisetum purpureum Schumach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhe Phoppy Wira Etika

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tin mining produces a by-product sand tailing from soil leaching with characteristic low pH and total organic carbon, and can be reclaimed by providing a suitable ameliorant. When available in situ, ameliorant materials can be economically used as they are required in large amounts. Fortunately, Bangka Belitung has sample stock of such kaolinite-rich minerals that can be utilized for improving soil chemical properties. Extracted organic materials, such as humic substances, can also be utilized as they influence the complex soil reactions, and promote plant growth. Thus, this study aimed to assess the effects of mineral, humic materials and interaction of both material on soil chemical properties and nutrient uptake of Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. A completely randomized design with 2 factors and 3 replications each was employed. Factor 1 was mineral matter is 0; 420; 840; 1.260 Mg ha-1 while Factor 2 was humic material is 0; 0.46; 0.92; 1.38 kg C ha-1. Air-dried samples of tailing were applied with oil palm compost then mixed evenly with mineral and humic materials. Penissetum purpureum Schumach was planted after 4 weeks incubation, and maintained for another 4 weeks. The results demonstrated that the addition of mineral matter significantly increased soil organic carbon content, total N, exchangeable K, Fe, Mn and boosted nutrient - total Ca, Mg and Mn – uptake of the plant. But the application of humic material increased only soil organic carbon content. The interaction of both materials only lowered soil pH.

  4. Dynamics of plant nutrient uptake as affected by biopore-associated root growth in arable subsoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Eusun; Kautz, Timo; Huang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    %) precrops, respectively. On average root diameter and root dry mass of following crops were greater by 11 and 15 % after chicory than tall fescue. At anthesis chicory-barley treatment accumulated 10 % more K in comparison to tall fescue-barley treatment. P uptake of canola was greater (7 %) after tall...... fescue compared with chicory at the stage of fruit development. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the subsoil heterogenization by altered soil biopores hold relevance for plant root growth and overall crop performance. However, the effects depended on biopore size classes, root characteristics...

  5. Effect of different phosphorus fertilizer rates on N-uptake, N-efficiency and zea maize yield in irrigated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.

    1993-01-01

    Effect of different rates of P fertilizer on N-uptake, N-efficiency and zea mays (C.V.Lg 11) were studied by use of 15 N technique. The main objectives of this study were to study effect of different level of P on N-utilization and determine the interaction between P and N on zea mays yield, and the efficiency of N-fertilizer during different stages of plant growth. The field experiment was conducted for two years 1985 and 1986. The treatments were 0, 80, 160 Kg N, as urea Co( 15 NH 2 ) 2 and 0, 40, 80, 160 Kg P 2 O 5 as triplsuperphophate. The experiment design was randomized block of four replicates for each treatment. Yield (grain and dry matter), utilization of urea, N-uptake, total N, N-yield, Ndff%, NDF% and A-values were determined. All results indicate that zea mays responds to the addition of nitrogen and the yield increases with the increase of added nitrogen. The highest yield was for N 2 (160 Kg) level during two seasons. Also zea mays responds clearly to phosphorus especially at stages 1 and 2, where dry matter yield increases with the increase of phosphorus rate. The highest yield was for P 3 (160 Kg) rate. While in grain stage the response was for rate P 1 (40 Kg) and P 2 (80 Kg) in comparison with control. However P 1 , rate was dominant over P 2 and P 3 . The effect of P 2 rate on grain yield was very little in comparison with P 1 , while P 3 decreases the grain yield during two seasons in comparison with control. There is an effect of N and P when added both or separately. There is also effect for interaction between them on the yield (grain and dry matter). Generally, from the previous data we can conclude that the rate 160 Kg N/ha and 40 Kg P 2 O 5 /ha were optimum rate for zea mays fertilization in Deir-Ezzor (Syria) and similar areas for grain yield. (author). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  6. Soil nutrient content, soil moisture and yield of Katumani maize in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many farmers in Kenya's semi arid lands cannot afford to purchase inorganic fertilisers to improve their crop yields. They thus rely on traditional agronomic practices such as addition of crop residues, animal manures or intercrops of cereals and legumes. This study investigated soil parameters and their influence on yield.

  7. Radiation utilization efficiency, nitrogen uptake and modeling crop growth and yield of rainfed rice under different nitrogen rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouranga, Kar; Ashwani Kumar; Mohapatra, Sucharita

    2014-01-01

    Optimum utilization of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) along with proper nitrogen (N) management for sustainable rice production is still a promising management recommendation for sustainable rainfed rice cultivation in eastern India. The objective of this investigation was to study radiation utilization efficiency (RUE), N uptake and modeling growth and productivity of wet/rainy season rice (cv. Lalat and Gayatri) under 0, 50, 90, 120 and 150 kg ha -1 N application. Results showed that N rates significantly affected plant biomass, leaf area index (LAI), biological yield (straw and grain yield) and N uptake for both the varieties. The intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR) and spectral reflectance based vegetation indices (IR/R, NDVI) were also different between two varieties and among N rates. Higher rate of N increased the RUE significantly; averaged over years and varieties, mean values of RUE were 1.35, 1.70, 2.01, 2.15 and 2.17 g MJ -1 under 0, 50, 90, 120 and 150 kg N ha -1 , respectively. Though crop growth, yield, N uptake and RUE were higher at 150 kg N ha -1 but the results were at par with 120 kg N ha -1 . Agronomic N use efficiency (ANUE) was also low at 150 kg N ha -1 . The DSSAT v 4.5 model was applied to simulate crop growth, yield and phenology of the crop under different N rates. Model performance was found to be poor at low N rates (0, 50 kg N ha -1 ), but the model performed fairly well at higher N rates (90 kg ha -1 and above). (author)

  8. Effect of incorporation of 32P labelled green manure (Sesbania aculeata) on the yield ans P uptake by maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vig, A.C.; Singh, Didar; Biswas, C.R.; Chand, Milap

    1989-01-01

    The effect of applied inorganic P and 32 P labelled Sesbania aculeata (dhaincha) as green manure on the yield and P utilization by maize (Zea mays L.) in soils of two long term experiments was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Significant increase in the drymatter yield and total P uptake was obtained with increasing level of applied sesbania and P fertilizer. The relationship between total P uptake and total P added as organic plus inorganic fertilizer was significant. The Sesbania application significantly increased per cent P derived from added plant material by the maize crop. It also enhanced P uptake and its utilization from fertilizer source. The addition of Sesbania in the absence and presence of inorganic P fertilizer improved P use efficiency. The direct beneficial effect of added organic P was significant only in its application on soils with lower level of residual P. The utilization of P by maize after addition of sesbania varied from 5 to 9 per cent. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs

  9. [Characteristics of phosphorus uptake and use efficiency of rice with high yield and high phosphorus use efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Li, Tinx-Xuan; Yu, Hai-Ying; Ji, Lin; Chen, Guang-Deng

    2014-07-01

    efficiencies to the yield was in order of P uptake efficiency > P utilization efficiency > P transportation efficiency. The greatest contribution rate of P accumulation to the yield was noticed at the jointing-heading stage with the normal P application while it reached the maximal value at the tillering-jointing stage with the low P application. Therefore, these two stages may be the critical periods to coordinate high yield and high P efficiency in rice.

  10. Effect of Biofertilizers on Macro and Micro Nutrients Uptake and Essential Oil Content in Dracocephalum moldavica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahimzadeh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigation the effect of different fertilization treatments on nutrient and essential oil contents in dragonhead drug (Dracocephalum moldavica L., an experiment was conducted in the station of agricultural research in Urmia on 2008. Treatments (nitroxin, barvar phosphate biofertilizer, biosulfur, nitroxin+ barvar phosphate biofertilizer, barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur, nitroxin+ biosulfur, nitroxin+ barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur, chemical fertilizer, control were arranged based on randomized complete block design with 4 replications. Results indicated that uptake of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Iron, Copper, Manganese and essential oil content were affected by studied treatments significantly but uptake of zinc by plant was not affected. Means comparison showed the highest values of Nitrogen (3.55%, Potassium (3.47% and Iron (4.56 ppm in Nitroxin treatment, Phosphorus (0.26% and Copper (0.33 ppm in barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur treatment, Manganese (0.48 ppm in chemical origin of nitrogen+phosphorus+ potassium treatment and essential oil content (0.48% in nitroxin+ barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur treatment

  11. Olivine weathering in soil, and its effects on growth and nutrient uptake in Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.: a pot experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein F M ten Berge

    Full Text Available Mineral carbonation of basic silicate minerals regulates atmospheric CO(2 on geological time scales by locking up carbon. Mining and spreading onto the earth's surface of fast-weathering silicates, such as olivine, has been proposed to speed up this natural CO(2 sequestration ('enhanced weathering'. While agriculture may offer an existing infrastructure, weathering rate and impacts on soil and plant are largely unknown. Our objectives were to assess weathering of olivine in soil, and its effects on plant growth and nutrient uptake. In a pot experiment with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., weathering during 32 weeks was inferred from bioavailability of magnesium (Mg in soil and plant. Olivine doses were equivalent to 1630 (OLIV1, 8150, 40700 and 204000 (OLIV4 kg ha(-1. Alternatively, the soluble Mg salt kieserite was applied for reference. Olivine increased plant growth (+15.6% and plant K concentration (+16.5% in OLIV4. At all doses, olivine increased bioavailability of Mg and Ni in soil, as well as uptake of Mg, Si and Ni in plants. Olivine suppressed Ca uptake. Weathering estimated from a Mg balance was equivalent to 240 kg ha(-1 (14.8% of dose, OLIV1 to 2240 kg ha(-1 (1.1%, OLIV4. This corresponds to gross CO(2 sequestration of 290 to 2690 kg ha(-1 (29 10(3 to 269 10(3 kg km(-2. Alternatively, weathering estimated from similarity with kieserite treatments ranged from 13% to 58% for OLIV1. The Olsen model for olivine carbonation predicted 4.0% to 9.0% weathering for our case, independent of olivine dose. Our % values observed at high doses were smaller than this, suggesting negative feedbacks in soil. Yet, weathering appears fast enough to support the 'enhanced weathering' concept. In agriculture, olivine doses must remain within limits to avoid imbalances in plant nutrition, notably at low Ca availability; and to avoid Ni accumulation in soil and crop.

  12. Age-related changes in oxygen and nutrient uptake by hindquarters in newborn pigs during cold-induced shivering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossec, G; Lebreton, Y; Hulin, J C; Fillaut, M; Herpin, P

    1998-11-01

    Newborn pigs rely essentially on shivering thermogenesis in the cold. In order to understand the rapid postnatal enhancement of thermogenic capacities in piglets, the oxygen and nutrient uptake of hindquarters was measured in vivo in 1- (n = 6) and 5-day-old (n = 6) animals at thermal neutrality and during cold exposure. The hindquarters were considered to represent a skeletal muscle compartment. Indirect calorimetry and arterio-venous techniques were used. The cold challenge (23 C at 1 day old and 15 C at 5 days old for 90 min) induced a similar increase (+90 %) in regulatory heat production at both ages. Hindquarters blood flow was higher at 5 days than 1 day old at thermal neutrality (26 +/- 3 vs. 17 +/- 1 ml min-1 (100 g hindquarters)-1) and its increase in the cold was much more marked (+65 % at 5 days old vs. +25 % at 1 day old). Oxygen extraction by the hindquarters rose from 30-35 % at thermal neutrality to 65-70 % in the cold at both ages. The calculated contribution of skeletal muscle to total oxygen consumption averaged 34-40 % at thermal neutrality and 50-64 % in the cold and skeletal muscle was the major contributor to regulatory thermogenesis. Based on hindquarters glucose uptake and lactate release, carbohydrate appeared to be an important fuel for shivering. However, net uptake of fatty acids increased progressively during cold exposure at 5 days old. The enhancement in muscular blood supply and fatty acid utilization during shivering is probably related to the postnatal improvement in the thermoregulatory response of the piglet.

  13. Revisiting fertilisers and fertilisation strategies for improved nutrient uptake by plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bindraban, P.S.; Dimkpa, Christian; Nagarajan, Latha; Roy, Amit; Rabbinge, Rudy

    2015-01-01

    Meeting human needs within the ecological limits of our planet calls for continuous reflection on, and redesigning of, agricultural technologies and practices. Such technologies include fertilisers, the discovery and use of which have been one of the key factors for increasing crop yield,

  14. Characteristics of wood ash and influence on soil properties and nutrient uptake: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeyer, A; Voundi Nkana, J C; Verloo, M G

    2001-05-01

    Wood industries and power plants generate enormous quantities of wood ash. Disposal in landfills has been for long a common method for removal. New regulations for conserving the environment have raised the costs of landfill disposal and added to the difficulties for acquiring new sites for disposal. Over a few decades a number of studies have been carried out on the utilization of wood ashes in agriculture and forestry as an alternative method for disposal. Because of their properties and their influence on soil chemistry the utilization of wood ashes is particularly suited for the fertility management of tropical acid soils and forest soils. This review principally focuses on ash from the wood industry and power plants and considers its physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics, its effect on soil properties, on the availability of nutrient elements and on the growth and chemical composition of crops and trees, as well as its impact on the environment.

  15. Early sowing increases nitrogen uptake and yields of winter wheat grown with cattle slurry or mineral fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suarez, Alfonso; Rasmussen, Jim; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2018-01-01

    of the two cultivars did not differ consistently with respect to the effect of early sowing on crop yield, N concentration and offtake, or ANR. Within the north-west European climatic region, moving the sowing time of winter wheat from mid-September to mid-August provides a significant yield and N offtake......The current study evaluated the effect of sowing date (early, mid-August or timely, mid-September) on two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Hereford, Mariboss) with different rates of nitrogen (N) (0–225 kg total N/ha) applied as animal manure (AM; cattle slurry) or mineral fertilizers...... (N: phosphorus: potassium; NPK). Overwinter plant N uptake and soil mineral N content were determined during 2014/15, while harvest yields (grain, straw, N content) were determined during 2014/15 and 2015/16. Overwinter uptake of N was 14 kg N/ha higher in early than in timely-sown wheat. Despite...

  16. Effect of Water Stress and Sulfur Fertilizer on Grain Yield, Chlorophyll and Nutrient Status of Black Cumin (Nigella Sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Heidari; A. R. Rezapor

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the effects of water stress and different amounts of sulfur fertilizer on grain yield, nutrient status and chlorophyll content in black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) a field experiment as split plot design with three replications was conducted at Ghaen city in 2009. Treatments included three levels of irrigation after 50, 100 and 150 mm evaporation from Class A pan as main plot and four levels of sulfur fertilizer including 0, 75, 150 and 225 kg/ha from bentonite-sulfur source a...

  17. Effect of Coatings on the Uptake Rate and HONO Yield in Heterogeneous Reaction of Soot with NO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Quiñones, M.; Khalizov, A. F.; Zhang, R.

    2009-12-01

    Heterogeneous reaction of nitrogen dioxide on carbon soot aerosols has been suggested as a possible source of nighttime nitrous acid (HONO) in atmosphere boundary layer. Available laboratory data show significant variability in the measured reaction probabilities and HONO yields, making it difficult to asses the atmospheric significance of this process. Moreover, little is known of how aging of soot aerosol through internal mixing with other atmospheric trace constituents will affect the heterogeneous reactivity and HONO production. In this work, the heterogeneous reaction of NO2 on fresh and aged soot films leading to HONO formation was studied through a series of kinetic uptake experiments and HONO yield measurements. Soot samples were prepared by incomplete combustion of propane and kerosene fuels under lean and rich flame conditions. Experiments were performed in a low-pressure, fast-flow reactor coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS), using atmospheric-level NO2 concentrations. Heterogeneous uptake coefficients, γ(geom) and γ(BET), were calculated using geometric and internal BET soot surface areas, respectively. The uptake coefficient and the HONO yield depend on the type of fuel and combustion regime and are the highest for soot samples prepared using rich kerosene flame. Although, the internal surface area of soot measured by BET method is a factor of 50 to 500 larger than the geometric surface area, only the top soot layers are involved in heterogeneous reaction with NO2 as follows from the observed weak dependence of γ(geom) and decrease in γ(BET) with increasing sample mass. Heating the soot samples before exposure to NO2 increases the BET surface area, the HONO yield, and the NO2 uptake coefficient due to the removal of the organic fraction from the soot backbone that unblocks active sites and makes them accessible for physical adsorption and chemical reactions. Our results support the oxidation-reduction mechanism involving

  18. Effect of fertilisation on biomass yield, ash and element uptake in SRC willow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Kjeldsen, Jens Bonderup

    2016-01-01

    +0, 2) NPK120+0, 3) Slurry180+0, 4) NPK120+120, 5) NPK240+0, 6) Slurry360+0. Fertilization affected biomass yield significantly but interacted with rotation and clone. In first rotation, fertilization increased dry matter (DM) yield across clones significantly from 3.7 Mg ha−1 y−1 for Control0+0 to 6.......5, 6.4 and 5.6 for Slurry360+0, NPK120+120 and NPK240+0, respectively. In second rotation, yield increased from 6.2 Mg ha−1 y−1 to 8.8, 8.2, 7.8 and 7.4 for Slurry360+0, NPK240+0, Slurry180+0 and NPK120+120, respectively. Biomass dry matter yield per ha increased linearly at 15 kg kg−1 of applied total...

  19. Mineral nutrient uptake from prey and glandular phosphatase activity as dual test of carnivory in semidesert plants with glandular leaves suspected of carnivory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plachno, B.J.; Adamec, Lubomír; Huet, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 4 (2009), s. 649-654 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : mineral nutrient uptake * phosphatases * glandular leaves Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.501, year: 2009

  20. Phosphorous as the major yield limiting nutrient for maize in the river basin areas of western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Bhakta Pokharel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is a heavy feeder crop but not always higher quantity of chemical fertilizers leads for higher grain yield. Objective of the study was to identify the major yield limiting macro nutrient for maize in the river basis areas. Field experiments were conducted at four locations viz. Dasharathpur, Ramghat, Mehelkuna, and Gumi VDCs of Surkhet district, under research command areas of Agriculture Research Station, Surkhet. Different doses of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium fertilizers were applied. Planting was done in the summer season of 2010 and 2011. All field experiments were laid out in randomized complete block designs with three replications at each site and year. Deuti variety of maize was used in the experiment. Days to tasseling, silking, and physiological maturity due to fertilizer application were found significant. One week earlier silking, tasseling, and physiological maturity was observed due to use of 100:100 kg ha-1 nitrogen and phosphorous as compared to the most late maturity with application of 100 kg nitrogen ha-1. The highest grain yield (6802 kg ha-1 was found with application of 100:100 kg nitrogen and phosphorous ha-1 and the lowest grain yield (4174 kg ha-1 was found with the normal recommended fertilizer dose. Phosphorous was observed as the major yield limiting factor in this study.

  1. Algal biofuels from urban wastewaters: maximizing biomass yield using nutrients recycled from hydrothermal processing of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaratnam, T; Pegallapati, A K; Reddy, H; Kanapathipillai, N; Nirmalakhandan, N; Deng, S; Lammers, P J

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have proposed algal cultivation in urban wastewaters for the dual purpose of waste treatment and bioenergy production from the resulting biomass. This study proposes an enhancement to this approach that integrates cultivation of an acidophilic strain, Galdieria sulphuraria 5587.1, in a closed photobioreactor (PBR); hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of the wet algal biomass; and recirculation of the nutrient-rich aqueous product (AP) of HTL to the PBR to achieve higher biomass productivity than that could be achieved with raw wastewater. The premise is that recycling nutrients in the AP can maintain optimal C, N and P levels in the PBR to maximize biomass growth to increase energy returns. Growth studies on the test species validated growth on AP derived from HTL at temperatures from 180 to 300°C. Doubling N and P concentrations over normal levels in wastewater resulted in biomass productivity gains of 20-25% while N and P removal rates also doubled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Heavy metal and nutrient uptake in plants colonizing post-flotation copper tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasowska, Dorota; Gediga, Krzysztof; Spiak, Zofia

    2018-01-01

    Copper ore mining and processing release hazardous post-flotation wastes that are difficult for remediation. The studied tailings were extremely rich in Cu (1800 mg kg -1 ) and contaminated with Co and Mn, and contained very little available forms of P, Fe, and Zn. The plants growing in tailings were distinctly enriched in Cu, Cd, Co, Ni, and Pb, and the concentration of copper achived the critical toxicity level in shoots of Cerastium arvense and Polygonum aviculare. The redundancy analysis demonstrated significant relationship between the concentration of available forms of studied elements in substrate and the chemical composition of plant shoots. Results of the principal component analysis enabled to distinguish groups of plants which significantly differed in the pattern of element accumulation. The grass species Agrostis stolonifera and Calamagrostis epigejos growing in the tailings accumulated significantly lower amounts of Cu, but they also had the lowest levels of P, Fe, and Zn in comparison to dicotyledonous. A. stolonifera occurred to be the most suitable species for phytostabilization of the tailings with regard to its low shoot Cu content and more efficient acquisition of limiting nutrients in relation to C. epigejos. The amendments improving texture, phosphorus fertilization, and the introduction of native leguminous species were recommended for application in the phytoremediation process of the tailings.

  3. NADPH oxidases differentially regulate ROS metabolism and nutrient uptake under cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Pena, L B; Romero-Puertas, M C; Hernández, A; Inouhe, M; Sandalio, L M

    2017-04-01

    The role of NADPH oxidases under cadmium (Cd) toxicity was studied using Arabidopsis thaliana mutants AtrbohC, AtrbohD and AtrbohF, which were grown under hydroponic conditions with 25 and 100 μM Cd for 1 and 5 days. Cadmium reduced the growth of leaves in WT, AtrbohC and D, but not in AtrbohF. A time-dependent increase in H 2 O 2 and lipid peroxidation was observed in all genotypes, with AtrbohC showing the smallest increase. An opposite behaviour was observed with NO accumulation. Cadmium increased catalase activity in WT plants and decreased it in Atrboh mutants, while glutathione reductase and glycolate oxidase activities increased in Atrboh mutants, and superoxide dismutases were down-regulated in AtrbohC. The GSH/GSSG and ASA/DHA couples were also affected by the treatment, principally in AtrbohC and AtrbohF, respectively. Cadmium translocation to the leaves was severely reduced in Atrboh mutants after 1 day of treatment and even after 5 days in AtrbohF. Similar results were observed for S, P, Ca, Zn and Fe accumulation, while an opposite trend was observed for K accumulation, except in AtrbohF. Thus, under Cd stress, RBOHs differentially regulate ROS metabolism, redox homeostasis and nutrient balance and could be of potential interest in biotechnology for the phytoremediation of polluted soils. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) identifies seedling root traits linked to variation in seed yield and nutrient capture in field-grown oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C L; Graham, N S; Hayden, R; Meacham, M C; Neugebauer, K; Nightingale, M; Dupuy, L X; Hammond, J P; White, P J; Broadley, M R

    2016-04-06

    Root traits can be selected for crop improvement. Techniques such as soil excavations can be used to screen root traits in the field, but are limited to genotypes that are well-adapted to field conditions. The aim of this study was to compare a low-cost, high-throughput root phenotyping (HTP) technique in a controlled environment with field performance, using oilseed rape (OSR;Brassica napus) varieties. Primary root length (PRL), lateral root length and lateral root density (LRD) were measured on 14-d-old seedlings of elite OSR varieties (n = 32) using a 'pouch and wick' HTP system (∼40 replicates). Six field experiments were conducted using the same varieties at two UK sites each year for 3 years. Plants were excavated at the 6- to 8-leaf stage for general vigour assessments of roots and shoots in all six experiments, and final seed yield was determined. Leaves were sampled for mineral composition from one of the field experiments. Seedling PRL in the HTP system correlated with seed yield in four out of six (r = 0·50, 0·50, 0·33, 0·49;P emergence in three out of five (r = 0·59, 0·22, 0·49;P emergence, general early vigour or yield in the field. Associations between PRL and field performance are generally related to early vigour. These root traits might therefore be of limited additional selection value, given that vigour can be measured easily on shoots/canopies. In contrast, LRD cannot be assessed easily in the field and, if LRD can improve nutrient uptake, then it may be possible to use HTP systems to screen this trait in both elite and more genetically diverse, non-field-adapted OSR. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  5. Effect of Foliar Application of Micro Nutrients on Physiological Growth Indices and Total Dry Matter Yield of Forage Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soleymani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of foliar application of micro nutrients on physiological growth indices and total dry matter yield of forage corn. Field experiment was conducted in 2006 at Bersian village Isfahan. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Plant treated with 8 foliar application treatments (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe + Mn, Cu + Zn, Fe + Mn + Cu + Zn and control. The responses to foliar application in total dry weight, LAI and CGR appeared to differ between the treatments, but there is no significant difference in NAR between the treatments. Maximum leaf area index gained in foliar application of Fe but there is significant difference between this treatment and other treatments except foliar application of Zn and Fe + Mn. Foliar application of Fe and Fe + Mn result to maximum total dry weight, but there is no significant difference between these treatments and foliar application of Zn, Mn, Mn + Cu and Fe + Zn + Cu +Mn. Maximum and minimum NAR gained in foliar application of Mn and control treatments respectively. Maximum CGR gained in foliar application of Zn, there is significant difference between this treatment and others. Control treatment in comparison with others shows minimum value in all measured factors. The results indicate that foliar application of micro nutrients particularly Fe and Fe+Mn may be suitable to product maximum total dry matter yield under similar condition.

  6. Yields and nutrient pools in soils cultivated with Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea in Nigerian rainforest ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A.J. Adekunle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the yield of the two most prominent exotic species in southwest Nigeria and the nutrient status of soils cultivated with these species. The impacts of plantation development on soil nutrients were also examined. The plantations species are Gmelina arborea (Gmelina stands established in 1984, 1988, 1990 and 1994 and Tectona grandis (Teak established in 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996 and 1997. Growth data and composite soil samples from 3 depths (0–15, 15–30 and 30–60 cm were collected from five equal sized plots (20 × 20 m2 randomly located in the plantation of the two species. Also, soil samples were collected from the adjacent natural forest for comparison. The results for both species show that tree growth variables increased substantially with increase in tree age. There was significant difference in number of trees per hectare, dominant diameter, volume/ha and MAI for the Gmelina stands. In the Teak stand, there was significant difference in most of the tree growth variables also. Nutrients required by plants to survive were present in the soil samples from the plantations and the natural forest in different proportions. There was high correlation between percentage sand and most of the tree growth variables for both species. The pH value obtained for the Gmelina stands ranged between 6.47 and 7.47 while that of Teak stands ranged between 5.57 and 8.33. There was also a high and positive relationship between some soil chemical properties and tree growth variables. The highest significant correlation coefficient existed between phosphorus concentration and basal area for stands of both species. The r-values are 0.98 and 0.96 for Gmelina and Teak, respectively. While a high, negative and significant r-value (−0.88 was also obtained between potassium and volume/ha for the Gmelina stands, a high positive r-value was obtained between the potassium and basal area for the Teak stands. Comparison of soil nutrients in the

  7. Impact of integrated nutrient management on growth and grain yield of wheat under irrigated cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawab, K.; Amanullah, A.; Shah, P.; Arif, M.; Khan, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Field study was conducted during 2001-02 and 2002-03 to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on the grain yield of wheat. Trials were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, KPK Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Two factors cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers were studied in the experiment. Randomized complete block design was used with split plot arrangements and four replications having net plot size of 12 m/sup 2/. Wheat variety Ghaznavi-98 was sown in November soon after ploughing the soil at proper moisture level suitable for wheat seed germination. Five cropping patterns were allotted to main plots and the eight combinations of FYM, K and Zn to the sub-plots. Same plots were used for next year sowing. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., rice-wheat, maize-wheat, sunflower-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Highest grain yield was obtained when wheat was planted after pigeon pea. Manures/fertilizer application (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) produced significantly higher grain yield than the control plots. The findings of the present study revealed that leguminous crops can significantly increase the yield of succeeding crops. Thus use of Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable agriculture. (author)

  8. Prediction of Biomass Production and Nutrient Uptake in Land Application Using Partial Least Squares Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios A. Tzanakakis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR can integrate a great number of variables and overcome collinearity problems, a fact that makes it suitable for intensive agronomical practices such as land application. In the present study a PLSR model was developed to predict important management goals, including biomass production and nutrient recovery (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus, associated with treatment potential, environmental impacts, and economic benefits. Effluent loading and a considerable number of soil parameters commonly monitored in effluent irrigated lands were considered as potential predictor variables during the model development. All data were derived from a three year field trial including plantations of four different plant species (Acacia cyanophylla, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Populus nigra, and Arundo donax, irrigated with pre-treated domestic effluent. PLSR method was very effective despite the small sample size and the wide nature of data set (with many highly correlated inputs and several highly correlated responses. Through PLSR method the number of initial predictor variables was reduced and only several variables were remained and included in the final PLSR model. The important input variables maintained were: Effluent loading, electrical conductivity (EC, available phosphorus (Olsen-P, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K2+, SAR, and NO3−-N. Among these variables, effluent loading, EC, and nitrates had the greater contribution to the final PLSR model. PLSR is highly compatible with intensive agronomical practices such as land application, in which a large number of highly collinear and noisy input variables is monitored to assess plant species performance and to detect impacts on the environment.

  9. Characterizing nutrient uptake kinetics for efficient crop production during Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme Alef. growth in a closed indoor hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Yeon; Rahman, Arifur; Azam, Hossain; Kim, Hyung Seok; Kwon, Man Jae

    2017-01-01

    A balanced nutrient supply is essential for the healthy growth of plants in hydroponic systems. However, the commonly used electrical conductivity (EC)-based nutrient control for plant cultivation can provide amounts of nutrients that are excessive or inadequate for proper plant growth. In this study, we investigated the kinetics of major and minor nutrient uptake in a nutrient solution during the growth of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme Alef.) in a closed hydroponic system. The concentrations of major and minor ions in the nutrient solution were determined by various analytical methods including inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), ion chromatography (IC), ion specific electrodes, and/or colorimetric methods. The concentrations of the individual nutrient ions were compared with changes in the EC. The EC of the nutrient solution varied according to the different growth stages of tomato plants. Variation in the concentrations of NO3-, SO42-, Mg2+, Ca2+, and K+ was similar to the EC variation. However, in the cases of PO43-, Na+, Cl-, dissolved Fe and Mn, Cu2+, and Zn2+, variation did not correspond with that of EC. These ions were generally depleted (to 0 mg L-1) during tomato growth, suggesting that these specific ions should be monitored individually and their supply increased. Nutrient uptake rates of major ions increased gradually at different growth stages until harvest (from 15 mg L-1 d-1). Saturation indices determined by MINEQL+ simulation and a mineral precipitation experiment demonstrated the potential for amorphous calcium phosphate precipitation, which may facilitate the abiotic adsorptive removal of dissolved Fe, dissolved Mn, Cu2+, and Zn2+.

  10. Effect of molybdenum on yield and nutrient content of the strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, R.J.; Barros, I.B.I. de

    1984-01-01

    The cultivation of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Campinas in nutrient solution using five fields levels of molybdenum (MO), 0.010 ppm, 0.010 ppm, 0.10 ppm, 1.0 ppm and control (Without applying molybdenum). The experiment was carried out in greenhouse and phytothron to evaluate the changes in the mineral status of the leaves and the quality of the berries. The concentration of Mo in the leaves, at the beginning of fruiting stage, varied from 0.5 ppm to 64 ppm. The total N in the levels was affected significantly by Mo. Average weight of the berries were affected by treatments and presented a quadratic regression response. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Disentangling the effect of environmental factors on yield and nitrogen uptake of irrigated rice in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Q.; Bouman, B.A.M.; Keulen, van H.; Hengsdijk, H.; Cao, W.; Dai, T.

    2008-01-01

    Rice yield is the result of the interaction between genotype (cultivar characteristics), environment (climate and soil conditions), and management. Few studies have attempted to isolate the contribution of each of these factors. Here the rice growth model ORYZA2000 was used to analyse the variation

  12. Influence of urea application on growth, yield and mineral uptake in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was conducted in a wire netting green house in order to assess the beneficial effect of urea on corn cultivars (C-20 and C-79) differing in yield production. Corn plants were grown in loam soil with alkaline in reaction. Application of varying urea levels did not change the physico-chemical properties of soil.

  13. Effect of Water Stress and Sulfur Fertilizer on Grain Yield, Chlorophyll and Nutrient Status of Black Cumin (Nigella Sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heidari

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of water stress and different amounts of sulfur fertilizer on grain yield, nutrient status and chlorophyll content in black cumin (Nigella sativa L. a field experiment as split plot design with three replications was conducted at Ghaen city in 2009. Treatments included three levels of irrigation after 50, 100 and 150 mm evaporation from Class A pan as main plot and four levels of sulfur fertilizer including 0, 75, 150 and 225 kg/ha from bentonite-sulfur source as sub-plot. Statistical analysis of the results showed that water stress has significant effect on grain yield and essential oil of black cumin. At the level of 150 mm evaporation from Class A pan, the grain yield decreased by 22.8% and essential oil by 27.6%. Application of 225 kg/ha sulfur fertilizer increased grain yield up to 7.2%. Water stress and sulfur fertilizer treatments had only significant effect on chlorophyll a content. However, water stress decreased chlorophyll a content, but sulfur fertilizer application up to 225 kg/ha increased the content of chlorophyll a. In this study, water stress decreased potassium content in black cumin leaves, but increased the sodium and calcium accumulation. Although application of sulfur fertilizer affected significantly the potassium and magnesium contents in shoots, but did not have significant effect on sodium and calcium contents.

  14. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E.; Guo, Xianfeng; Visser, De Pieter H.B.; Marcelis, Leo F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of

  15. Evaluation of root water uptake in the ISBA-A-gs land surface model using agricultural yield statistics over France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, N.; Calvet, J.-C.; Decharme, B.; Carrer, D.; Lafont, S.; Pigeon, G.

    2014-12-01

    The simulation of root water uptake in land surface models is affected by large uncertainties. The difficulty in mapping soil depth and in describing the capacity of plants to develop a rooting system is a major obstacle to the simulation of the terrestrial water cycle and to the representation of the impacts of drought. In this study, long time series of agricultural statistics are used to evaluate and constrain root water uptake models. The inter-annual variability of cereal grain yield and permanent grassland dry matter yield is simulated over France by the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere, CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs) generic land surface model (LSM). The two soil profile schemes available in the model are used to simulate the above-ground biomass (Bag) of cereals and grasslands: a two-layer force-restore (FR-2L) bulk reservoir model and a multi-layer diffusion (DIF) model. The DIF model is implemented with or without deep soil layers below the root zone. The evaluation of the various root water uptake models is achieved by using the French agricultural statistics of Agreste over the 1994-2010 period at 45 cropland and 48 grassland départements, for a range of rooting depths. The number of départements where the simulated annual maximum Bag presents a significant correlation with the yield observations is used as a metric to benchmark the root water uptake models. Significant correlations (p value neutral impact of the most refined versions of the model is found with respect to the simplified soil hydrology scheme. This shows that efforts should be made in future studies to reduce other sources of uncertainty, e.g. by using a more detailed soil and root density profile description together with satellite vegetation products. It is found that modelling additional subroot-zone base flow soil layers does not improve (and may even degrade) the representation of the inter-annual variability of the vegetation above-ground biomass. These results are

  16. Effects of Pretreatment with Salicylic Acid on Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Sesame Seedlings under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Safari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Salinity stress is regarded as one of the most important abiotic factors limiting plant growth and agricultural products, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. is an important oilseed crop rated moderately salt tolerant and capable of producing profitable crops in saline conditions. Germination and seedling establishment are critical stages in the life cycle of plants especially under stress conditions. Different methodologies have been adopted by plant physiologists in different crops to alleviate salt stress. Seed priming has proven beneficial in this regard in many important agricultural crops. Salicylic acid is one of the physiological processes regulators that it increases resistant of plants to environmental stresses such as salinity stress. Materials and Methods To evaluate the effect of different levels of salinity and seed pretreatment with salicylic acid (SA, on some growth indices and nutrient uptake of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. seedling, a factorial experiment with completely randomized design and four replicates was conducted in Department of Agronomy, Rafsanjan University of Vali-e- Asr. Factors were seed pretreatment with three levels including, distilled water, 1 mM salicylic acid and 2.5 Mm salicylic acid and salinity at three levels: control (Hoagland standard solution, 2.5 dS.m-1, 6 and 9 dS.m-1. A dry seed treatment (no pretreatment was also added and considered as control. Results and Discussion Results showed that at 9 dS/m-1both SA concentrations caused significant increase in emergence percentage compared to dry seed and distilled water. Plant leaf area and SPAD values decreased along with salinity in dry seed and distilled water, nevertheless, at 2.5 mM SA, values were not significantly different between 6 and 9 dS.m-1. On the other hand, SA seed pretreatment decreased shoot Na and increased K content, although shoot Mg and P contents were the highest at 1 and 2.5 mM SA

  17. Dry matter yield, carbon isotope discrimination and nitrogen uptake in silicon and/ or potassium fed chickpea and barley plants grown under water and non-water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurd Ali, F.; Al-Chammaa, M.; Mouasess, A.

    2012-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon (Si) and/or potassium (K) on dry matter yield, nitrogen uptake and carbon isotope discrimination Δ 13 C in water stressed (FC1) and well watered (FC2) chickpea plants using 15 N and 13 C isotopes. Three fertilizer rates of Si (Si 5 0, Si 1 00 and Si 2 00) and one fertilizer rate of K were used. The results showed that: In chickpeas, it was found, for most of the growth parameters, that Si either alone or in combination with K was more effective to alleviate water stress than K alone. Increasing soil water level from FC1 to FC2 often had a positive impact on values of most studied parameters. The Si 1 00K + (FC1) and Si 5 0K + (FC2) treatments gave high enough amounts of N 2 -fixation, higher dry matter production and greater nitrogen yield. The percent increments of total N 2 -fixed in the above mentioned treatments were 51 and 47% over their controls, respectively. On the other hand, increasing leaves dry matter in response to the solely added Si (Si 5 0K - and Si 1 00K - ) is associated with lower Δ 13 C under both watering regimes. This may indicate that Si fertilization had a beneficial effect on water use efficiency (WUE). Hence, Δ 13 C could be an adequate indicator of WUE in response to the exogenous supply of silicon to chickpea plants. Our results highlight that Si is not only involved in amelioration of growth and in maintaining of water status but it can be considered as an important element for the symbiotic performance of chickpea plants. It can be concluded that synergistic effect of silicon and potassium fertilization with adequate irrigation improves growth and nitrogen fixation in chickpea plants.In barley plants, solely added K or in combination with adequate rate of Si (Si 1 00) were more effective in alleviating water stress and producing higher yield in barley plants than solely added Si. However, the latter nutrient was found to be more effective than the former in producing

  18. Use of alkaline flyash-based products to amend acid soils: Plant growth response and nutrient uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spark, K.M.; Swift, R.S. [University of Queensland, Gatton, Qld. (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    Vast quantities of flyash are generated annually by the burning of coal in the power industry, with most of this material being stockpiled with little prospect of being utilised at present. Two alkaline flyash-based products (FAP) for use as soil amendments (FAP1 and FAP2) have been assessed using glasshouse pot trials to determine the suitability of using these products to treat acid soils. The products both contain about 80% flyash which originated from coal-fired electricity generation. The acid soils used in the study were 2 Podsols and a Ferrosol, all originating from south-east Queensland and ranging in pH (1 : 5 suspension in water) from 4 to 5.5. The flyash products when applied to the soil significantly enhanced growth of maize plants (Zea mays L.), with optimal application rates in the range 1.25-5% w/w. The FAP/soil mixtures and plants were analysed using a range of methods including extraction with DTPA, and plant biomass (aboveground dry matter). The results indicate that in addition to the liming effect, the flyash in the alkaline flyash products may enhance plant growth as a result of increasing the uptake of micro-nutrients such as copper, zinc, and manganese. The study suggests that flyash has the potential to be used as a base material in the production of soil amendment materials that can change soil pH and act as a fertiliser for certain soil micro-nutrients such as Cu, Mn, and Zn.

  19. Cryopreservation of ectomycorrhizal fungi has minor effects on root colonization of Pinus sylvestris plantlets and their subsequent nutrient uptake capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crahay, Charlotte; Wevers, Jan; Munaut, Françoise; Colpaert, Jan V; Declerck, Stéphane

    2013-08-01

    The use of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi for afforestation, bioremediation, and timber production requires their maintenance over long periods under conditions that preserve their genetic, phenotypic, and physiological stability. Cryopreservation is nowadays considered as the most suitable method to maintain the phenotypic and genetic stability of a large number of filamentous fungi including the ECM fungi. Here, we compared the ability of eight ECM fungal isolates to colonize Pinus sylvestris roots and to transport inorganic phosphate (Pi) and NH4 (+) from the substrate to the plant after cryopreservation for 6 months at -130 °C or after storage at 4 °C. Overall, the mode of preservation had no significant effect on the colonization rates of P. sylvestris, the concentrations of ergosterol in the roots and substrate, and the uptake of Pi and NH4 (+). Comparing the isolates, differences were sometimes observed with one or the other method of preservation. Suillus bovinus exhibited a reduced ability to form mycorrhizas and to take up Pi following cryopreservation, while one Suillus luteus isolate exhibited a decreased ability to take up NH4 (+). Conversely, Hebeloma crustuliniforme, Laccaria bicolor, Paxillus involutus, and Pisolithus tinctorius exhibited a reduced ability to form mycorrhizas after storage at 4 °C, although this did not result in a reduced uptake of Pi and NH4 (+). Cryopreservation appeared as a reliable method to maintain important phenotypic characteristics (i.e., root colonization and nutrient acquisition) of most of the ECM fungal isolates studied. For 50 % of the ECM fungal isolates, the colonization rate was even higher with the cultures cryopreserved at -130 °C as compared to those stored at 4 °C.

  20. Assessing winter cover crop nutrient uptake efficiency using a water quality simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In-Young; Lee, Sangchui; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Beeson, Peter C.; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Greg W.; Lang, Megan W.

    2013-01-01

    Winter cover crops are an effective conservation management practice with potential to improve water quality. Throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW), which is located in the Mid-Atlantic US, winter cover crop use has been emphasized and federal and state cost-share programs are available to farmers to subsidize the cost of winter cover crop establishment. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of planting winter cover crops at the watershed scale and to identify critical source areas of high nitrate export. A physically-based watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was calibrated and validated using water quality monitoring data and satellite-based estimates of winter cover crop species performance to simulate hydrological processes and nutrient cycling over the period of 1991–2000. Multiple scenarios were developed to obtain baseline information on nitrate loading without winter cover crops planted and to investigate how nitrate loading could change with different winter cover crop planting scenarios, including different species, planting times, and implementation areas. The results indicate that winter cover crops had a negligible impact on water budget, but significantly reduced nitrate leaching to groundwater and delivery to the waterways. Without winter cover crops, annual nitrate loading was approximately 14 kg ha−1, but it decreased to 4.6–10.1 kg ha−1 with winter cover crops resulting in a reduction rate of 27–67% at the watershed scale. Rye was most effective, with a potential to reduce nitrate leaching by up to 93% with early planting at the field scale. Early planting of winter cover crops (~30 days of additional growing days) was crucial, as it lowered nitrate export by an additional ~2 kg ha−1 when compared to late planting scenarios. The effectiveness of cover cropping increased with increasing extent of winter cover crop implementation. Agricultural fields with well-drained soils

  1. Assessing winter cover crop nutrient uptake efficiency using a water quality simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, I.-Y.; Lee, S.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Beeson, P. C.; Hively, W. D.; McCarty, G. W.; Lang, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Winter cover crops are an effective conservation management practice with potential to improve water quality. Throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed (CBW), which is located in the mid-Atlantic US, winter cover crop use has been emphasized, and federal and state cost-share programs are available to farmers to subsidize the cost of cover crop establishment. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of planting winter cover crops to improve water quality at the watershed scale (~ 50 km2) and to identify critical source areas of high nitrate export. A physically based watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was calibrated and validated using water quality monitoring data to simulate hydrological processes and agricultural nutrient cycling over the period of 1990-2000. To accurately simulate winter cover crop biomass in relation to growing conditions, a new approach was developed to further calibrate plant growth parameters that control the leaf area development curve using multitemporal satellite-based measurements of species-specific winter cover crop performance. Multiple SWAT scenarios were developed to obtain baseline information on nitrate loading without winter cover crops and to investigate how nitrate loading could change under different winter cover crop planting scenarios, including different species, planting dates, and implementation areas. The simulation results indicate that winter cover crops have a negligible impact on the water budget but significantly reduce nitrate leaching to groundwater and delivery to the waterways. Without winter cover crops, annual nitrate loading from agricultural lands was approximately 14 kg ha-1, but decreased to 4.6-10.1 kg ha-1 with cover crops resulting in a reduction rate of 27-67% at the watershed scale. Rye was the most effective species, with a potential to reduce nitrate leaching by up to 93% with early planting at the field scale. Early planting of cover crops (~ 30

  2. Analysis of chitosan/tripolyphosphate micro- and nanogel yields is key to understanding their protein uptake performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuhang; Lapitsky, Yakov

    2017-05-15

    Chitosan/tripolyphosphate (TPP) micro- and nanogels are widely explored as vehicles for protein drug and vaccine delivery. Yet, aside from the consensus that protein uptake into these particles is enhanced by stronger protein/particle binding, factors that control their uptake performance, such as differences in the chitosan, TPP and protein concentrations, remain poorly understood. Here, we show that many of the differences in the reported association efficiencies (AE-values) for protein uptake likely reflect the largely-ignored variability in the particle yield (X Agg ), which is the fraction of the added chitosan that self-assembles into particles and (like the AE) varies with the chitosan, TPP and protein concentrations. Factors affecting X Agg are first systematically explored. The AE is then shown to scale almost linearly with the X Agg (which increases with the TPP and protein-to-chitosan ratios) until all chitosan aggregates into particles. Remarkably, the data collected at variable TPP and protein concentrations collapses onto a single AE∝X Agg curve for each protein type. Further analysis of protein/particle binding reveals this rise in AE with X Agg to reflect: (1) an increase in binding sites within the particles; and (2) a decrease in soluble (non-particulate) chitosan molecules, which form soluble protein/chitosan complexes and compete with the chitosan/TPP particles for the unassociated protein. These findings highlight the need to carefully analyze the effects of formulation parameters on chitosan/TPP particle yields and can likely be extended to other ionically crosslinked colloidal drug carriers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantification of ozone exposure- and stomatal uptake-yield response relationships for soybean in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Feng, Zhaozhong; Wang, Xiaoke; Liu, Xiaobing; Hu, Enzhu

    2017-12-01

    High ground-level O 3 is a new threat to agricultural production in Northeast China with the increasing ambient O 3 concentration. Little is known about its impacts on soybean production in this key agricultural region. Accumulated O 3 exposure-response and stomatal O 3 flux-response relationships were developed during two continuous growing seasons to evaluate O 3 -induced yield reduction of four typical soybean cultivars in Northeast China. Results showed that critical levels of AOT40 (accumulated hourly O 3 concentrations over a threshold of 40nmol·mol -1 ), SUM06 (sum of all hourly average O 3 concentrations over 0.06μmol·mol -1 ) and W126 (sum of O 3 concentrations weighted by a sigmoidal function) in relation to 5% reduction in relative seed yield were 4.2, 7.6 and 6.8μmol·mol -1 ·h, respectively. The effect of O 3 on plants was influenced by leaf position in canopy. An improved Jarvis stomatal conductance model including leaf (node) position fitted well with field measurements. The best linear relationship between stomatal O 3 flux and relative soybean yield was obtained when phytotoxic ozone dose was integrated over a threshold of 9.6nmol·m -2 ·s -1 (POD 9.6 ) to represent the detoxification capacity of soybean. POD 9.6 and the commonly used POD 6 in relation to 5% reduction in relative seed yield of soybean were 0.9mmol·m -2 and 1.8mmol·m -2 , respectively. O 3 concentrations above ~38nmol·mol -1 contributed to POD 9.6 and caused seed yield loss in soybean. Current annual yield loss of soybean at ambient O 3 was estimated to range between 23.4% and 30.2%. The O 3 dose-response relationships and corresponding thresholds obtained here will benefit regional O 3 risk assessment on soybean production in Northeast China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Integrated Nutrient Application on Growth and Yield of Maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, M.; Ahmed, R.; Islam, M.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on the growth and yield of maize variety Hicorn-984 was studied at agronomic research area of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during the year 2005. The trial was laid out according to randomised complete block design in triplicate and plot size was 3m*6m. There were six treatments comprising of various levels of organic and inorganic fertilizer in different combinations and a control. Combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizer differed significantly from control as well as from their sole application. Comparison of treatments showed that inorganic fertilizer application at the rate of 70-50-35 kg NPK/ha along with 5 t/hapoultry manure showed maximum plant growth parameters such as leaf area (1537 cm2), plant height (195 cm), number of grains per cob (452) and thousand grain weight (234 g) which were at par with T5 (70 -50-35 kg NPK/ha along with 8 t/ha FYM) but significantly higher than the treatments where organic manures and inorganic fertilizers were applied separately. Maximum grain yield (5.7 t/ha) and cost-benefit ratio (1.7) were achieved in the treatment T6 (NPK at 70-50-35 kg/ha along with 5 t/hapoultry manure) while, minimum grain yield (2.3 t/ha) and cost benefit ratios (1.1) were recorded in control. Combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizer results in increase in yield and profitability to farmer as compared to their sole application. (author)

  5. Enhancement of Growth and Grain Yield of Rice in Nutrient Deficient Soils by Rice Probiotic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Mohibul Alam KHAN; Effi HAQUE; Narayan Chandra PAUL; Md Abdul KHALEQUE; Saleh M. S. AL-GARNI; Mahfuzur RAHMAN; Md Tofazzal ISLAM

    2017-01-01

    Plant associated bacteria are promising alternatives to chemical fertilizers for plant growth and yield improvement in an eco-friendly manner. In this study, rice associated bacteria were isolated and assessed for mineral phosphate solubilization and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production activity in vitro. Six promising strains, which were tentatively identified as phylotaxon Pseudochrobactrum sp. (BRRh-1), Burkholderia sp. (BRRh-2), Burkholderia sp. (BRRh-3), Burkholderia sp. (BRRh-4), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (BRRh-5 and BRRh-6) based on their 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, exhibited significant phosphate solubilizing activity in National Botanical Research Institute phosphate growth medium, and BRRh-4 displayed the highest phosphate solubilizing activity, followed by BRRh-5. The pH of the culture broth declined, resulting in increase of growth rate of bacteria at pH 7, which might be due to organic acid secretion by the strains. In presence of L-tryptophan, five isolates synthesized IAA and the maximum IAA was produced by BRRh-2, followed by BRRh-1. Application of two most efficient phosphate solubilizing isolates BRRh-4 and BRRh-5 by root dipping (colonization) of seedling and spraying at the flowering stage significantly enhanced the growth and grain yield of rice variety BRRI dhan-29. Interestingly, application of both strains with 50% of recommended nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers produced equivalent or higher grain yield of rice compared to the control grown with full recommended fertilizer doses, which suggests that these strains may have the potential to be used as bioinoculants for sustainable rice production.

  6. Dairy cows fed on tropical legume forages: effects on milk yield, nutrients use efficiency and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Montoya, J M; García, R A; Ramos, R A; Flores, J M; Alas, E A; Corea, E E

    2018-04-01

    Two trials with multiparous dairy cows were conducted. Experiment 1 tested the effects of increasing forage proportion in the diet (500, 600, and 700 g/kg DM) when a mixed sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and jackbean (Cannavalia ensiformis) silage was used as forage. Experiment 2 studied the substitution of sorghum silage and soybean meal by jackbean silage or fresh cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) forage in the diet. All diets were iso-energetic and iso-proteic. In each experiment, 30 cows were used and separated into three groups. In experiment 1, there were no differences in dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield (MY), or apparent total tract digestibility (aTTd) among the three diets, but milk fat content increased with increasing forage proportion, even though the similar neutral detergent fiber of all diets. Nitrogen use efficiency was highest in the diet containing 600 g forage/kg DM, and some evidence was observed for a better profitability with this forage proportion. In experiment 2, feeding legumes increased DMI despite no effects on aTTd. Milk yield increased in line with DMI, with a larger increase for the fresh cowpea. Nitrogen use efficiency and milk composition were not affected by the diets. The increased MY and lower feed costs increased the economic benefits when feeding legumes, particularly when feeding fresh cowpea. Feeding fresh cowpea or jackbean silage to dairy cows appears to be an alternative to soybean as protein source, ideally at a forage proportions of 600 g/kg DM, without altering milk yield and quality and increasing the farm profitability.

  7. Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal mixture induces changes in heavy metal and nutrient uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Pongrac, Paula; Kump, Peter; Necemer, Marijan; Regvar, Marjana

    2006-01-01

    Plants of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen (Brassicaceae) inoculated or not with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mixture were grown in a highly Cd, Zn and Pb contaminated substrate in order to evaluate the functionality of symbiosis and assess the possible impact of AM colonisation on heavy metal uptake and tolerance. The results suggest AM development in the metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox is favoured at elevated nutrient demands, e.g. during the reproductive period. AM colonisation parameters positively correlated with total soil Cd and Pb. Colonised plants showed significantly improved nutrient and a decreased Cd and Zn uptake as revealed by TRXRF, thus confirming the functionality of the symbiosis. Reduced heavy metal uptake, especially at higher soil metal contents, indicates a changed metal tolerance strategy in colonised T. praecox plants. This is to our knowledge the first report on AM colonisation of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator T. praecox in a greenhouse experiment. - Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi resulted in improved nutrient and reduced Cd and Zn uptake

  8. Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal mixture induces changes in heavy metal and nutrient uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pongrac, Paula [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kump, Peter [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Necemer, Marijan [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, Marjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: marjana.regvar@bf.uni-lj.si

    2006-01-15

    Plants of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen (Brassicaceae) inoculated or not with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mixture were grown in a highly Cd, Zn and Pb contaminated substrate in order to evaluate the functionality of symbiosis and assess the possible impact of AM colonisation on heavy metal uptake and tolerance. The results suggest AM development in the metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox is favoured at elevated nutrient demands, e.g. during the reproductive period. AM colonisation parameters positively correlated with total soil Cd and Pb. Colonised plants showed significantly improved nutrient and a decreased Cd and Zn uptake as revealed by TRXRF, thus confirming the functionality of the symbiosis. Reduced heavy metal uptake, especially at higher soil metal contents, indicates a changed metal tolerance strategy in colonised T. praecox plants. This is to our knowledge the first report on AM colonisation of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator T. praecox in a greenhouse experiment. - Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi resulted in improved nutrient and reduced Cd and Zn uptake.

  9. Benthic Uptake Rate due to Hyporheic Exchange: The Effects of Streambed Morphology for Constant and Sinusoidally Varying Nutrient Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Tonina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyporheic exchange carries reactive solutes, which may include biological oxygen demand (BOD, dissolved oxygen (DO and reactive dissolved inorganic nitrogen (Nr, into the sediment, where biochemical reactions consume DO. Here, we study the impact of streambed morphology, stream-reactive solute loads and their diel oscillations on the DO benthic uptake rate (BUR due to hyporheic processes. Our model solves the hyporheic flow field and the solute transport equations analytically, within a Lagrangian framework, considering advection, longitudinal diffusion and reactions modeled as first order kinetics. The application of the model to DO field measurements over a gravel bar-pool sequence shows a good match with measured DO concentrations with an overall agreement of 58% and a kappa index of 0.46. We apply the model to investigate the effects of daily constant and sinusoidally time varying stream BOD, DO and Nr loads and of the morphodynamic parameters on BUR. Our modeling results show that BUR varies as a function of bedform size and of nutrient loads and that the hyporheic zone may consume up to 0.06% of the stream DO at the pool-riffle bedform scale. Daily oscillations of stream BOD and DO loads have small effects on BUR, but may have an important influence on local hyporheic processes and organisms’ distribution.

  10. Breed of cow and herd productivity affect milk nutrient recovery in curd, and cheese yield, efficiency and daily production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Gasparotto, V; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about cheese-making efficiency at the individual cow level, so our objective was to study the effects of herd productivity, individual herd within productivity class and breed of cow within herd by producing, then analyzing, 508 model cheeses from the milk of 508 cows of six different breeds reared in 41 multi-breed herds classified into two productivity classes (high v. low). For each cow we obtained six milk composition traits; four milk nutrient (fat, protein, solids and energy) recovery traits (REC) in curd; three actual % cheese yield traits (%CY); two theoretical %CYs (fresh cheese and cheese solids) calculated from milk composition; two overall cheese-making efficiencies (% ratio of actual to theoretical %CYs); daily milk yield (dMY); and three actual daily cheese yield traits (dCY). The aforementioned phenotypes were analyzed using a mixed model which included the fixed effects of herd productivity, parity, days in milk (DIM) and breed; the random effects were the water bath, vat, herd and residual. Cows reared in high-productivity herds yielded more milk with higher nutrient contents and more cheese per day, had greater theoretical %CY, and lower cheese-making efficiency than low-productivity herds, but there were no differences between them in terms of REC traits. Individual herd within productivity class was an intermediate source of total variation in REC, %CY and efficiency traits (10.0% to 17.2%), and a major source of variation in milk yield and dCY traits (43.1% to 46.3%). Parity of cows was an important source of variation for productivity traits, whereas DIM affected almost all traits. Breed within herd greatly affected all traits. Holsteins produced more milk, but Brown Swiss cows produced milk with higher actual and theoretical %CYs and cheese-making efficiency, so that the two large-framed breeds had the same dCY. Compared with the two large-framed breeds, the small Jersey cows produced much less milk, but with greater actual

  11. The effects of humic acid on nutrient status yield and quality of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Işıl DEMİRTAŞ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase organic matter content of soil, humic acid application is the most economic and fast method. In this study, the effects of humic acid and their dosages (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 L da-1 on nutritional, status of tomato and yield-quality were investigated. During the growing period, a dose of NPK was applied through drip irrigation. The experiment was carried out according to randomized complete block design with four replications under greenhouse conditions in 2011-2013 autumn tomato growing season. In order to determine effects of humic acid, plant and leaves fruit were analyzed during the experiment. The results of analysis showed that increases of N, P, K, Fe, Cu content of tomato leaves was found important whereas Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn and B content was not important statistically. The effect of humic acid+NPK applications on fruit quality of tomato was positive. Fruit yield was increased by humic acid applications compared to control.

  12. A Study of the Efficacy of Various Nutrient Sources on the Growth and Yield of Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch. Dawam Maghfoer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Research evaluated various nitrogen sources, and a supplementary foliar fertilizer or biochar on cabbage. It was conducted from July to October 2014 in Poncokusumo, Malang ca. 600 meters above sea level. The experiment used a randomized block design with four replications. The treatments were fertilized with different concentrations of urea, goat manure and selected substances i.e. 100% N urea (controls; 75% N urea + 25% N goat manure; 50% N urea + 50% N goat manure; 75% N urea + 25% N goat manure + foliar fertilizer (6-30-30, 50% N urea + 50% N goat manure + foliar fertilizer (6-30-30; 75% N urea + 25% N manure + biochar; and 50% N urea + 50% N goat manure + biochar. The dose of N fertilizer used was 69 kg ha-1. The results showed that a higher yield was recorded in the application of 75% N urea + 25% N goat manure and 50% N urea + 50% N manure with an addition of foliar fertilizer that was not significant with the application of 75% N urea + 25% N goat manure with the addition of biochar, resulting in a marketable yield of 68.84, 66.5 and 64.75 t ha-1, respectively.

  13. Effect of Treated Wastewater Combined with Various Amounts of Manure and Chemical Fertilizers on Nutrient Content and Yield in Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazal Tavassoli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of treated wastewater combined with manure and chemical fertilizers on the nutrients content and forage yield in corn, field experiments were conducted in 2007. The experiments were conducted in a split plot design with three replications. The treatments were comprised of two levels of irrigation water (W1= well water and W2= wastewater in the main plot and five levels of fertilizer (F1= unfertilized, F2 = 100% manure, F3= 50% manure, F4= 100% fertilizer, and F5= 50% fertilizer in the subplot. Results showed that, compared to ordinary water, irrigation with treated wastewater significantly increased fresh and dry forage yield of corn. The treatment using treated wastewater also had a significant effect on N, P, and K contents in corn forage. However, wastewater had no significant effect on plant Fe, Mn, and Zn contents. Among the fertilizer treatments, the highest fresh and dry forage yields and the highest N, P and K contents belonged to the treatments using 100% fertilizer. The highest Fe, Mn, and Zn contents were observed in plants in the treatment with 100% manure.

  14. Uptake and Diagnostic Yield of Chromosomal Microarray in an Australian Child Development Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan Mordaunt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism is an etiologically heterogeneous developmental disorder for which the range of genetic investigations has expanded considerably over the past decade. Introduction of chromosomal microarray (CMA to clinical practice has expanded the range of conditions which pediatricians are able to detect. This study reviewed the utilization, yield and cost of genetic investigations in a sample of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD in an Australian metropolitan child development service. Six hundred and ninety eight patients with PDD were identified from the clinic population. One hundred and ten (15.7% of the clinic population had undergone investigation with chromosomal microarray, 140 (20.0% with karyotype (KT, and 167 (23.9% with Fragile X testing (FRGX. Twelve (10.9% CMA findings were reported, of which seven (6.3% were felt to be the likely cause of the child’s clinical features. Five (3.5% KT findings were reported, of which four (2.9% were felt to be the likely cause of the child’s clinical features. Two patients (1.2% were identified with Fragile X expansions. One fifth of the clinic’s recent PDD population had undergone testing with CMA. CMA appears to have increased the diagnostic yield of the genetic investigation of autism, in line with internationally reported levels. Number needed to test (NNT and cost per incremental diagnosis, were also in line with internationally reported levels.

  15. Varying plant density and harvest time to optimize cowpea leaf yield and nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, T. A.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plant density and harvest time were manipulated to optimize vegetative (foliar) productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] canopies for future dietary use in controlled ecological life-support systems as vegetables or salad greens. Productivity was measured as total shoot and edible dry weights (DW), edible yield rate [(EYR) grams DW per square meter per day], shoot harvest index [(SHI) grams DW per edible gram DW total shoot], and yield-efficiency rate [(YER) grams DW edible per square meter per day per grams DW nonedible]. Cowpeas were grown in a greenhouse for leaf-only harvest at 14, 28, 42, 56, 84, or 99 plants/m2 and were harvested 20, 30, 40, or 50 days after planting (DAP). Shoot and edible dry weights increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. A maximum of 1189 g shoot DW/m2 and 594 g edible DW/m2 were achieved at an estimated plant density of 85 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. EYR also increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. An EYR of 11 g m-2 day-1 was predicted to occur at 86 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. SHI and YER were not affected by plant density. However, the highest values of SHI (64%) and YER (1.3 g m-2 day-1 g-1) were attained when cowpeas were harvested 20 DAP. The average fat and ash contents [dry-weight basis (dwb)] of harvested leaves remained constant regardless of harvest time. Average protein content increased from 25% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Carbohydrate content declined from 50% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Total dietary fiber content (dwb) of the leaves increased from 19% to 26% as time to harvest increased from 20 to 50 days.

  16. Remoción de nutrientes por cebada en seis suelos de Cundinamarca y Boyacá - Colombia Nutrient uptake by barley in six Colombian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amézquita Edgar

    1993-12-01

    soil productivity tolerant cultivars. To arrive at appropiate recommendations for farmers, it was consider the quantity of removal nutrients at physiological maturity. The 124 commercial barley preferred moderately fertil soils but with a lower nutritional efficiency after a commercial cultivar wheat. Its nutritional requirements to reach a 2.5 t/ha yield without irrigation was: Macronutrientes (kg/ha: 30 N, 8 P, 24 K, 8 Ca, 2.5 Mg; Micronutrients (g/ha: 140 Mn, 40 Zn, 24 Cu, 340 Fe. For many new barley cultivars sowed over ondulating terrains, the highest nutritional efficiency was in a Vertic Tropudalf, moderately behavoir in the Paralithic Humitropept and the lowest in an Ustic Dystropept. There were two cultivars with low adaptation, only one grow well in a difficult terrain and three cultivars exhibit good adaptation in all studied terrains.

  17. [Nutrient use efficiency and yield-increasing effect of single basal application of rice specific controlled release fertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiansheng; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Zhang, Fabao; Xie, Chunsheng

    2005-10-01

    A series of pot and field experiments and field demonstrations showed that in comparing with the commonly used specific-fertilizers containing same amounts of nutrients, single basal application of rice-specific controlled release fertilizer could increase the use efficiency of N and P by 12.2% - 22.7% and 7.0% - 35.0%, respectively in pot experiment, and the use efficiency of N by 17.1% in field experiment. In 167 field demonstrations successively conducted for 3 years in various rice production areas of Guangdong Province, single basal application of the fertilizer saved the application rate of N and P by 22.1% and 21.8%, respectively, and increased the yield by 8.2%, compared with normal split fertilization.

  18. A two-diet feeding regime for lactating sows reduced nutrient deficiency in early lactation and improved milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Sønderby Bruun, Thomas; Feyera, Takele

    2016-01-01

    was recorded weekly. In addition, weekly milk samples and blood samples on d 3 and 17 were collected. Furthermore, sows were enriched with D2O (deuterated water) on d 2 and 28 after parturition to calculate body pools of fat and protein. Sows’ feed intake and weight loss interacted with diet regime across wk......The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a new feeding concept composed of two dietary components fed daily throughout lactation could minimize sow weight loss and increase milk yield (MY) and piglet weight gain. In total, 14 sows were included in the experiment from parturition...... until weaning 28 d later. The sows were fed one of two dietary feeding regimes from lactation d 2 and throughout lactation. The 1-diet feeding regime represented the Danish feeding standards and recommendations. The new 2-diet regime supplied sows feed and nutrients (ME and AA) according...

  19. Effect of Different Silicon Sources on Yield and Silicon Uptake of Rice Grown under Varying Phosphorus Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia B. Agostinho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of pot experiments were conducted to: (1 evaluate the effects of different Si sources (soil- and foliar-applied on grain yield and Si accumulation of rice supplied with varying P rates, and (2 evaluate Si absorption of rice using foliar- and soil-applied Si fertilizers. Three P rates, (0, 112, and 224 kg ha−1 combined with five Si treatments (wollastonite and slag applied at 4.5 ton ha−1 and one foliar Si solution applied at 20, 40 and 80 mg Si L−1 and a check were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The presence of P and Si in the soil created a synergistic effect on soil Al, Mn, and As (P < 0.01, but not on rice growth and P uptake. Wollastonite and slag application were most effective in raising rice Si content than foliar applied Si (P < 0.001. While there was an improvement in biomass (42% and tiller production (25% for rice receiving foliar Si, no supporting evidence was obtained in these experiments to verify leaf surface Si absorption. The application of Si-rich materials to soil still remains the most effective method for enhancing Si uptake by plants.

  20. Effect of Different Silicon Sources on Yield and Silicon Uptake of Rice Grown under Varying Phosphorus Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, Flavia B; Tubana, Brenda S; Martins, Murilo S; Datnoff, Lawrence E

    2017-08-29

    A series of pot experiments were conducted to: (1) evaluate the effects of different Si sources (soil- and foliar-applied) on grain yield and Si accumulation of rice supplied with varying P rates, and (2) evaluate Si absorption of rice using foliar- and soil-applied Si fertilizers. Three P rates, (0, 112, and 224 kg ha -1 ) combined with five Si treatments (wollastonite and slag applied at 4.5 ton ha -1 and one foliar Si solution applied at 20, 40 and 80 mg Si L -1 ) and a check were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The presence of P and Si in the soil created a synergistic effect on soil Al, Mn, and As ( P rice growth and P uptake. Wollastonite and slag application were most effective in raising rice Si content than foliar applied Si ( P production (25%) for rice receiving foliar Si, no supporting evidence was obtained in these experiments to verify leaf surface Si absorption. The application of Si-rich materials to soil still remains the most effective method for enhancing Si uptake by plants.

  1. Effect of coated urea and non-coated urea on grain yield, N uptake and N distribution in different parts of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Yi; Li Guihua; Zhao Linping; Zhang Shuxiang

    2011-01-01

    In order to regulate nitrogen metabolism with nitrogen application rate and to increase nitrogen use efficiency, an isotopic method was used to compare grain yield, biomass and nitrogen use efficiency of coated urea (CU) to those of non-coated urea (U) at the N application rates of 0, 100, 150 and 225 kg/hm 2 . Results showed that CU significantly increased maize N uptake from 15 N fertilizer and aboveground biomass. The nitrogen use efficiency ( 15 NUE) of CU was 13.3-21.4% greater than that of U. There was a significant different of fertilizer 15 N uptake between CU and U in maize parts. And N uptake of CU treatment followed the order of seed > leaves > straws > cob > husk, while N uptake of U treatment was in the order of seed > straws > leaves > cob > husk. The N uptake of maize parts by both CU and U followed the same order when non-isotopic method was applied. No significant variations were observed among treatments in N uptake, Nitrogen Harvest Index and grain yield. The reason maybe that low soil temperatures (< 10 ℃) from the fourth week of October to next April reduced N uptake of winter wheat, therefore, residual NO3-N in cultivated soil layer was high after harvest. Thus, maize N uptake was more dependent on the shoot growth potential than fertilizer amount and types under high amount of available nitrogen. (authors)

  2. Response of Cotton to Irrigation Methods and Nitrogen Fertilization: Yield Components, Water-Use Efficiency, Nitrogen Uptake, and Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.

    2009-01-01

    Efficient crop use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer is critical from economic and environmental viewpoints, especially under irrigated conditions. Cotton yield parameters, fiber quality, water- and N-use efficiency responses to N, and irrigation methods in northern Syria were evaluated. Field trials were conducted for two growing seasons on a Chromoxerertic Rhodoxeralf soil. Treatments consisted of drip fertigation, furrow irrigation, and five different rates of N fertilizer (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg N /ha). Cotton was irrigated when soil moisture in the specified active root depth was 80% of the field capacity as indicated by the neutron probe. Seed cotton yield was higher than the national average (3,928 kg/ha) by at least 12% as compared to all treatments. Lint properties were not negatively affected by the irrigation method or N rates. Water savings under drip fertigation ranged between 25 and 50% of irrigation water relative to furrow irrigation. Crop water-use efficiencies of the drip-fertigated treatments were in most cases 100% higher than those of the corresponding furrow-irrigated treatments. The highest water demand was during the fruit-setting growth stage. It was also concluded that under drip fertigation, 100 -150 N kg/ha was adequate and comparable with the highest N rates tested under furrow irrigation regarding lint yield, N uptake, and recovery. Based on cotton seed yield and weight of stems, the overall amount of N removed from the field for the drip-fertigated treatments ranged between 101-118 kg and 116-188 N/ha for 2001 and 2002, respectively. The N removal ranged between 94-113 and 111-144 kg N/ha for the furrow-irrigated treatments for 2001 and 2002, respectively. (author)

  3. Effects of Land-Applied Ammonia Scrubber Solutions on Yield, Nitrogen Uptake, Soil Test Phosphorus, and Phosphorus Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jerry W; Moore, Philip A; Li, Hong; Ashworth, Amanda J; Miles, Dana M

    2018-03-01

    Ammonia (NH) scrubbers reduce amounts of NH and dust released from animal rearing facilities while generating nitrogen (N)-rich solutions, which may be used as fertilizers. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various NH scrubber solutions on forage yields, N uptake, soil-test phosphorus (P), and P runoff. A small plot study was conducted using six treatments: (i) an unfertilized control, (ii) potassium bisulfate (KHSO) scrubber solution, (iii) aluminum sulfate [Al(SO) ⋅14HO, alum] scrubber solution, (iv) sodium bisulfate (NaHSO) scrubber solution, (v) sulfuric acid (HSO) scrubber solution, and (vi) ammonium nitrate (NHNO) fertilizer. The scrubber solutions were obtained from ARS Air Scrubbers attached to commercial broiler houses. All N sources were applied at a rate of 112 kg N ha. Plots were harvested approximately every 4 wk and soil-test P measurements were made, then a rainfall simulation study was conducted. Cumulative forage yields were greater ( scrubber solutions than for alum (6.7 Mg ha) or HSO (6.5 Mg ha) scrubber solutions or for NHNO (6.9 Mg ha). All N sources resulted in higher yields than the control (5.1 Mg ha). The additional potassium in the KHSO treatment likely resulted in higher yields. Although Mehlich-III-extractable P was not affected, water-extractable P in soil was lowered by the alum-based scrubber solution, which also resulted in lower P runoff. This study demonstrates that N captured using NH scrubbers is a viable N fertilizer. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Comparative short-term effects of sewage sludge and its biochar on soil properties, maize growth and uptake of nutrients on a tropical clay soil in Zimbabwe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Willis Gwenzi; Moreblessing Muzava; Farai Mapanda; Tonny P Tauro

    2016-01-01

    Soil application of biochar from sewage could potentialy enhance carbon sequestration and close urban nutrient balances. In sub-Saharan Africa, comparative studies investigating plant growth effect and nutrients uptake on tropical soils amended with sewage sludge and its biochar are very limited. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sewage sludge and its biochar on soil chemical properties, maize nutrient and heavy metal uptake, growth and biomass partitioning on a tropical clayey soil. The study compared three organic amendments; sewage sludge (SS), sludge biochar (SB) and their combination (SS+SB) to the unamended control and inorganic fertilizers. Organic amendments were applied at a rate of 15 t ha–1 for SS and SB, and 7.5 t ha–1 each for SS and SB. Maize growth, biomass production and nutrient uptake were signiifcantly improved in biochar and sewage sludge amendments compared to the unamended control. Comparable results were observed with F, SS and SS+SB on maize growth at 49 d of sowing. Maize growth for SB, SS, SS+SB and F increased by 42, 53, 47, and 49%, respectively compared to the unamended control. Total biomass for SB, SS, SS+SB, and F increased by 270, 428, 329, and 429%, respectively compared with the unamended control. Biochar amendments reduced Pb, Cu and Zn uptakes by about 22% compared with sludge alone treatment in maize plants. However, there is need for future research based on the current pot experiment to determine whether the same results can be produced under ifeld conditions.

  5. The yeast H+-ATPase Pma1 promotes Rag/Gtr-dependent TORC1 activation in response to H+-coupled nutrient uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Elie; Evangelinos, Minoas; Gournas, Christos; Corrillon, Florent; Georis, Isabelle; André, Bruno

    2018-03-23

    The yeast Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) plays a central role in controlling growth. How amino acids and other nutrients stimulate its activity via the Rag/Gtr GTPases remains poorly understood. We here report that the signal triggering Rag/Gtr-dependent TORC1 activation upon amino-acid uptake is the coupled H + influx catalyzed by amino-acid/H + symporters. H + -dependent uptake of other nutrients, ionophore-mediated H + diffusion, and inhibition of the vacuolar V-ATPase also activate TORC1. As the increase in cytosolic H + elicited by these processes stimulates the compensating H + -export activity of the plasma membrane H + -ATPase (Pma1), we have examined whether this major ATP-consuming enzyme might be involved in TORC1 control. We find that when the endogenous Pma1 is replaced with a plant H + -ATPase, H + influx or increase fails to activate TORC1. Our results show that H + influx coupled to nutrient uptake stimulates TORC1 activity and that Pma1 is a key actor in this mechanism. © 2018, Saliba et al.

  6. Soil strength and maize yield after topsoil removal and application of nutrient amendments on a gravelly Alfisol toposequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salako, F.K.; Dada, P.O.; Adejuyigbe, C.O.; Adedire, M.O.; Martins, O.; Akwuebu, C.A.; Williams, O.E.

    2006-04-01

    Vast areas of degraded soils exist in southwestern Nigeria due to topsoil removal by soil erosion and gravel/stone mining operators. The restoration of such soils has become imperative to sustain food production in most rural communities. Therefore, a factorial field experiment was designed in 2003 and 2004 with the factors being slope positions (upper and lower slopes), topsoil removal (0, 15 and 25 cm depths) and nutrient amendments (0, 10 t ha -1 poultry manure and 60:30:30 N: P 2 O 5 : K 2 O as NPK + urea). This was complemented with a laboratory study to determine the effects of soil water, gravel concentration and gravel size on soil strength. Maize was planted. Soil strength was measured with a self-recoding penetrometer at soil depth interval of 2.5 cm up to 50 cm depth. Soil bulk density, water content, maize root and shoot biomass and grain yield were measured. In the laboratory, soil strength decreased from 483-314 kPa as water content increased from 0.05-0.62 cm 3 cm - 3 while it increased from 294-469 kPa as gravel concentration increased from 100-500 g kg -1 . Soil strength was affected more by water content and gravel concentration than gravel size. Under various moist conditions in the field, soil strength increased with soil depth from 1177-5000 kPa at the upper slope and from 526-5000 kPa at the lower slope. Thus, the lower slope had significantly lower soil strength than the upper slope. Soil strength increased with increasing soil depth removal and was significantly reduced by poultry manure. For the 2 years of study, high grain yields were sustained with poultry manure/no topsoil removal (1784-3571 kg ha -1 ) and NPK + urea/no topsoil removal (2371-2600 kPa) at the lower slope. However, soil at the upper slope was more resistant to degradation as 16-67% loss in yield was observed compared to 65-75% for lower slope when no nutrients were applied. Nonetheless, both the upper and lower slope positions were productive with the application of

  7. MATÉRIA SECA E ABSORÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES EM FUNÇÃO DO ESPAÇAMENTO E DA DENSIDADE DE SEMEADURA EM ARROZ DE TERRA ALTA DRY MATTER AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF DRYLAND RICE RELATED TO ROW SPACING AND PLANT POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi instalado um experimento em condições de campo, em um Latossolo Vermelho escuro, epi-eutrófico, textura argilosa, em Selvíria-MS, com arroz de sequeiro cv. IAC 201, estudando-se três espaçamentos entre fileiras (30, 40 e 50 cm e três densidades de semeadura (100, 150 e 200 sementes viáveis/m2. Foram avaliadas a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea no momento do florescimento e determinados os teores e quantidades de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S absorvidos, assim como a eficiência de utilização de nutrientes. A redução do espaçamento entre fileiras aumentou a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e a quantidade de nutrientes absorvidos. A variação da densidade de semeadura não afetou os parâmetros estudados. A redução do espaçamento entre fileiras proporcionou maior eficiência de utilização do Ca e diminuiu a do N e Mg. Os teores de nutrientes na matéria seca da parte aérea não foram afetados pela variação do espaçamento entre fileiras.A field experiment was conducted in a clayey Dark Red Latosol in Selviria, MS, Brazil, to study the effect of three row spacings (30, 40 and 50 cm and three seed densities (100, 150 and 200 viable seeds/m2 on plant dry matter yield, macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S uptake at flowering, and the nutrient use efficiency. A decrease in row spacing led to an increase in shoot dry matter production and nutrient uptake. There was no effect of plant densities on dry matter or nutrient uptake. The decrease in row spacing allowed a higher Ca use efficiency, but not for N and Mg. The concentration of the macronutrients in the shoots was not affected by spacing.

  8. Grain yield and arsenic uptake of upland rice inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in As-spiked soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuyong; Hu, Junli; Wu, Shengchun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-06-01

    A pot trial was conducted to investigate the effects of three arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi species, including Glomus geosporum BGC HUN02C, G. versiforme BGC GD01B, and G. mosseae BGC GD01A, on grain yield and arsenic (As) uptake of upland rice (Zhonghan 221) in As-spiked soils. Moderate levels of AM colonization (24.1-63.1 %) were recorded in the roots of upland rice, and up to 70 mg kg(-1) As in soils did not seem to inhibit mycorrhizal colonization. Positive mycorrhizal growth effects in grain, husk, straw, and root of the upland rice, especially under high level (70 mg kg(-1)) of As in soils, were apparent. Although the effects varied among species of AM fungi, inoculation of AM fungi apparently enhanced grain yield of upland rice without increasing grain As concentrations in As-spiked soils, indicating that AM fungi could alleviate adverse effects on the upland rice caused by As in soils. The present results also show that mycorrhizal inoculation significantly (p rice production when growing in As-contaminated soils.

  9. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on the Concentration and Uptake of Macro Nutrients by Corn in a Cd-contaminated Calcareous Soil under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahrzad karami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd are found naturally in soils, but their amount can be changed by human activities. The study of the uptake and accumulation of heavy metals by plants is done in order to prevent their threats on human and animal’s health.Cadmium is a toxic element for living organisms. Cadmium competes with many of nutrients to be absorbed by the plant and interferes with their biological roles. Water stress affects the cell structure and the food is diverted from its normal metabolic pathway. It also reduces the availability and uptake of nutrients by the plant. One reason for the reduction of plant growth under drought stress is the accumulation of ethylene in plants. There are ways to mitigate the negative effects of drought stress that one of which is the use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria(PGPRs to increasing the availability of nutrients. Soil beneficial bacteria play an important role in the biological cycles and have been used to increase plant health and soil fertility over the past few decades.The aim of this study was to investigate theeffect of PGPRson the concentration and uptake of macro nutrients by corn in a Cd-contaminated calcareous soil under drought stress. Materials and Methods: A greenhouse factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments were two levels of bacteria (with and without bacteria, four levels of Cd (5, 10, 20, and 40 mg kg-1, and three levels of drought stress (without stress, 80, and 65% of field capacity. The pots were filled with 3 kg of treated soil. Cd was treated as its sulfate salt in amounts of 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg kg-1. The soil was mixed uniformly with 150 mg N kg-1 as urea, 20 mg P kg-1 as Ca (H2PO42, 5 mg Fe kg-1 as Fe-EDDHA and 10, 10 and 2.5 mg Zn, Mn and Cu kg-1, respectively as their sulfate salt in order to meet plant needs for these nutrients. Six seeds of Zea mays (var. HIDO were planted at

  10. Evaluation of Vermicompost and Nitrogen Biofertilizer Effects on Flowering Shoot Yield, Essential Oil and Mineral Uptake (N, P and K in Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Haj Seyed Hadi

    2018-02-01

    (2.01% were obtained by using 10 ton per hectare of vermicompost. Applying 15 ton per hectare of vermicompost caused maximum flowering shoot yield (2237.82kg/ha, nitrogen (2.21% and phosphorus (0.52% content in the aboveground shoot. Mean comparison indicated that seed inoculation with Supernitroplus had significant effects on all measured traits except for nitrogen content in aboveground shoot. The maximum fresh and dry plant weight (40.21 and 14.42g/plant, flowering shoot yield (2406.21kg/ha, essential oil (2.05%, phosphorus (0.49% and potassium (1.34% were obtained by applying Supernitroplus. The maximum nitrogen content (2.23% was obtained by using Nitroxine. Results of interaction effects showed that using supernitroplus and 15 ton per hectare of vermicompost caused maximum potassium content (1.50% in Savory shoots. Several types of studies have shown a beneficial effect on crop plants by inoculation of seeds with Azospirillum and Azotobacter strains. Inoculation of plants with Azospirillum and Azotobacter can results in significant changes in various plant growth parameters. Positive effects of inoculation have been demonstrated on including increase in root length and nutrition (NO3- , NH4+, P042- , K +, Rb+ and Fe++ uptake. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the two major plant nutrients and combined inoculation of nitrogen fixers and PSM may benefit the plants better than either group of organisms alone. Interaction studies have been done both in vitro and in vivo. Nitrogen fixers and PSM when inoculated together colonized the rhizosphere and enhanced the growth of crops by providing it with nitrogen and phosphate, respectively. Vermicompost contains most of the plant nutrients such as nitrate, phosphates, exchangeable calcium and soluble potassium, and microelements which result in improved plant growth and development and is responsible for increased qualitative and quantitative yield of many crops. Conclusion The results of current experiment showed that

  11. Reducing Severity of Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans and Improving Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Tuber Yield with Pre-Harvest Application of Calcium Nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yewubnesh Wendimu Seifu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of pre-harvest application of calcium chloride alone, calcium nitrate alone, and combined application of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate (1:1 was evaluated in reducing the severity of P. infestans and improving potato tuber yield. Pot experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replications. The treatments consisted of combination of two potato varieties (Shenkola and Gera and three types of calcium nutrients (calcium chloride alone, calcium nitrate alone, and calcium chloride mixed with calcium nitrate, each at three levels (5, 10, and 15 g per liter per plant and the control treatment (0 g of calcium nutrients. In comparison to the control treatment, the application of calcium nutrients significantly decreased the severity of late blight disease and improved potato tuber yield. The effect of calcium nutrients on the severity of late blight disease and potato tuber yield differed among the two potato varieties. The maximum severity reduction (60% was noticed in the Gera potato variety with the application of calcium chloride mixed with calcium nitrate (1:1, supplied at 15 g per plant. However, the highest average tuber yield was obtained with the application of calcium nitrate at 15 g per plant, and average tuber yield was increased by 77% in both potato varieties. Hence, foliar application of either calcium nitrate alone or calcium nitrate mixed with calcium chloride was found to be more efficient than the application of calcium chloride alone. This result suggests that the nitrate ion present in the calcium nitrate may make a difference in terms of reducing the severity of late blight disease and improving potato tuber yield. The lowered severity of late blight disease and the increased tuber yield in potato plants sprayed with calcium nutrients may be because of the higher accumulation of calcium in the plant tissue.

  12. Effect of humic acid on the growth, yield, nutrient composition, photosynthetic pigment and total sugar contents of peas (pisum sativum l)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Khan, M.Z.; Hussain, F.; Akhtar, M.E.; Gurmani, A.R.; Khan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of humic acid (HA) applied as soil and foliar at 15, 30 and 45 ppm on the growth, biochemical content, nutrient concentrations and yield of peas. Soil as well as foliar application of HA increased the plant growth and grain yield of peas; however magnitude of increase was higher in soil application than foliar. Highest plant growth and grain yield was achieved with soil application of 15 ppm HA followed by 30 ppm and foliar application of 45 ppm HA respectively. Percentage increase in dry grain yield due to 15 ppm was 37%, with 30 ppm was 29% and foliar application of 45 ppm was 25%. Nutrient concentrations (P, K, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) were increased with soil and foliar application of HA. The concentrations of nutrients were relatively higher in shelf than grain. Maximum concentration of P, K and Fe was obtained with the soil application of HA at 15 ppm. Humic acid applied at 15, 30 as soil as well as foliar application at 45 ppm significantly increased chlorophyll, carotenoid and total sugar content. Our results indicate that soil application of HA at 15 and 30 ppm, while foliar application at 45 ppm can increase growth, nutrients concentration, chlorophyll content and yield of Peas in calcareous soil conditions. (author)

  13. Effect of zinc and phosphorus on dry matter yield, uptake and utilization of 65Zn on Maize (Zea Mays L.) grown in a molli-soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Megha; Shri Ram; Joshi, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc uptake and its utilization by Maize (Zea mays L.) variety Pragati using radiotracer 65 Zn technique along with varying levels of phosphorus treatments on dry matter yield was studied. The gamma activity was measured by calibrated NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer. It was observed that zinc uptake in treatment T 2 found to be higher. However, treatment T 6 showed good growth parameters and dry matter yield. The 65 Zn activity was found maximum in roots and minimum in the leaves of maize plant. (author)

  14. Effect of gypsum, pressmud, fulvic acid and zinc sources on yield and zinc uptake by rice crop in a saline-sodic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chand, M.

    1980-01-01

    The application of fulvic acid to a saline-sodic soil augmented the solubility of zinc by thousands fold. Zinc fulvate when applied at levels equivalent to that of zinc sulphate was more effective in enhancing diffusion of zinc in the soil. Application of gypsum, zinc sulphate and fulvic acid significantly increased dry matter yield and uptake of zinc by rice crop in a saline-sodic soil. Application of gypsum with pressmud or with fulvic acid and zinc sulphate resulted in significantly higher yield and zinc uptake than in other treatments. (orig.)

  15. Influence of hydraulics on the uptake of ammonium by two freshwater plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, K.D.; Brion, N.; Woule-Ebongué, V.; Schoelynck, J.; Jooste, A.; Barrón, C.; Dehairs, F.; Meire, P.; Bouma, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    1 Macrophytes are important in the biogeochemistry of flowing rivers, although most information so far has relied on measurements of nutrients in plant tissues. This yields only indirect information on the nutrient uptake fluxes by roots and shoots and about nutrient translocation between roots

  16. Effects of inorganic nitrogen forms on growth, morphology, nitrogen uptake capacity and nutrient allocation of four tropical aquatic macrophytes (Salvinia cucullata, Ipomoea aquatica, Cyperus involucratus and Vetiveria zizanioides)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans; Kantawanichkul, Suwasa

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the growth and morphological responses, nitrogen uptake and nutrient allocation in four aquatic macrophytes when supplied with different inorganic nitrogen treatments (1) NH4+, (2) NO3−, or (3) both NH4+ and NO3−. Two free-floating species (Salvinia cucullata Roxb. ex Bory...... and Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) and two emergent species (Cyperus involucratus Rottb. and Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash ex Small) were grown with these N treatments at equimolar concentrations (500 M). Overall, the plants responded well to NH4+. Growth as RGR was highest in S. cucullata (0.12±0.003 d−1......) followed by I. aquatica (0.035 ±0.002 d−1), C. involucratus (0.03±0.002 d−1) and V. zizanioides (0.02±0.003 d−1). The NH4+ uptake rate was significantly higher than the NO3− uptake rate. The free-floating species had higher nitrogen uptake rates than the emergent species. The N-uptake rate differed between...

  17. Effect of zinc-lysine on growth, yield and cadmium uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Hussain, Afzal; Ali, Qasim; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Farid, Mujahid; Asma, Maliha

    2017-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is among the most widespread toxic trace elements found in agricultural soils due to various anthropogenic activities. The role of micronutrient-amino chelates on reducing Cd toxicity in crop plants is recently introduced. The current study was conducted to highlight the role of foliar application of zinc-lysine (Zn-lys) complex on biochemical and growth parameters and Cd uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in aged Cd-contaminated soil. Foliar concentration of Zn-lys (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg L -1 ) was applied at different time intervals (2nd, 3rd, 5th and 7th week of sowing) and plants were harvested at maturity. Folliar application of Zinc-lys significantly increased the photosynthesis, grain yield, enzyme activities and Zn contents in different plant tissues. Zinc-lys reduced Cd contents in grains, shoot and root as well as reduced the oxidative stress in wheat linearly in a dose-additive manner. Taken together, Zn-lys chelate efficiently improved wheat growth and fortified Zn contents while reduced Cd concentration in plant in a Zn-deficient Cd-contaminated soil. Although, health risk index (HRI) from the soil sampling area seems to be lower than <1 for Cd but may exceed due to long-term consumption of grains produced from such contaminated soil. Foliar applied Zn-lys reduced HRI which may help to reduce health risks associated with Cd. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of microbial inoculation and industrial by-product phosphogypsum in growth and nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Enazy, Abdul-Aziz R; Al-Oud, Saud S; Al-Barakah, Fahad N; Usman, Adel Ra

    2017-08-01

    Alkaline soils with high calcium carbonate and low organic matter are deficient in plant nutrient availability. Use of organic and bio-fertilizers has been suggested to improve their properties. Therefore, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the integrative role of phosphogypsum (PG; added at 0.0, 10, 30, and 50 g PG kg -1 ), cow manure (CM; added at 50 g kg -1 ) and mixed microbial inoculation (Incl.; Azotobacter chroococcum, and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum and Pseudomonas fluorescens) on growth and nutrients (N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) in calcareous soil. Treatment effects on soil chemical and biological properties and the Cd and Pb availability to maize plants were also investigated. Applying PG decreased soil pH. The soil available P increased when soil was inoculated and/or treated with CM, especially with PG. The total microbial count and dehydrogenase activity were enhanced with PG+CM+Incl. Inoculated soils treated with PG showed significant increases in NPK uptake and maize plant growth. However, the most investigated treatments showed significant decreases in shoot micronutrients. Cd and Pb were not detected in maize shoots. Applying PG with microbial inoculation improved macronutrient uptake and plant growth. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effects of anaerobic growth conditions on biomass accumulation, root morphology, and efficiencies of nutrient uptake and utilization in seedlings of some southern coastal plain pine species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topa, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Seedlings of pond (Pinus serotina (Michx.)), sand (P. clausa (Engelm.) Sarg.), and loblolly pines (P. taeda L., drought-hardy and wet site seed sources) were grown in a non-circulating, continuously-flowing solution culture under anaerobic or aerobic conditions to determine the effects of anaerobics on overall growth, root morphology and efficiencies of nutrient uptake and utilization. Although shoot growth of the 11-week old loblolly and pond pines was not affected by anaerobic treatment, it did significantly reduce root biomass. Sand pine suffered the largest biomass reduction. Flooding tolerance was positively correlated with specific morphological changes which enhanced root internal aeration. Oxygen transport from shoot to the root in anaerobically-grown loblolly and pond pine seedlings was demonstrated via rhizosphere oxidation experiments. Tissue elemental analyses showed that anaerobic conditions interfered with nutrient absorption and utilization. Short-term 32 p uptake experiments with intact seedlings indicated that net absorption decreased because of the reduction in root biomass, since H 2 PO 4 - influx in the anaerobically-grown seedlings was more than twice that of their aerobic counterparts. Sand pine possessed the physiological but not morphological capacity to increase P uptake under anaerobic growth conditions. Pond and wet-site loblolly pine seedlings maintained root growth, perhaps through enhanced internal root aeration - an advantage in field conditions where the phosphorus supply may be limited or highly localized

  20. Determining the Threshold Value of Basil Yield Reduction and Evaluation of Water Uptake Models under Salinity Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarai Tabrizi

    2016-10-01

    by calculating statistical indices such as maximum error (ME, normalized root mean square error (nRMSE, modeling efficiency (EF, and coefficient of residual mass (CRM. At the end of the experiment, dry matter yield at the different treatments was measured and relative yield was calculated by dividing dry matter yield of treatments on dry matter yield at no stress treatment (control treatment. Leaching requirement in experimental treatments was calculated by Ayarset al., (2012 equation. Results and Discussion: The results indicated that Basil threshold value based on soil salinity was 2.25 dSm-1 with the yield reduction of 7.2% per dSm-1. The mathematical model of van Genuchten and Hoffman (1984 had a higher precision than other models in simulating Basil yield reduction function based on saturated soil extract salinity. The overall observations revealed that van Genuchten and Hoffman (1984, Steppuhnet al., (2005 and Homaeeet al., (2002 models were accurate for simulating Basil root water uptake and yield response to saturated soil extract salinity. Considering the presented results, it seems that among math-empirical models for salinity stress conditions, model of van Genuchten and Hoffman (1984 is more accurate than Maas and Hoffman (1977, Dirksen and Augustijn (1988 and Homaeeet al., (2002a models. The works of Green et al., (2006 and Skaggs et al., (2006 came to the same conclusion. Our work indicated that mostly statistical models have lower precision than math-empirical models. Steppuhn et al., (2005a reported that statistical models had the higher accuracy than math-empirical model of Maas and Hoffman (1977 and among statistical models, the modified Weibull model had the best fit on measured data which is in good agreement with the results of this study. Conclusion: The goals of this research were to evaluate Basil response to saturated soil extract salinity, to estimate threshold value of Basil crop coefficients, to obtain yield reduction gradient, and also to

  1. Growth and uptake of nutrients curves in star fruit plants budded with nota 10 cultivar Marcha de absorção de nutrientes e crescimento de mudas de caramboleira enxertada com a cultivar nota-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Burani Arouca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional state of star fruit seedlings must be adequate for a successful field implementation. The objective of the present work was to study the growth and uptake of macro e micronutrients curves by star fruit plants budded with Nota 10 cultivar in nutrient solution conditions. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with four replications and six treatments, which were consisted by the times of collects during the 150 days of the experiment (each 25 days. In each collection, the plant growth was evaluated by the division of the plants in root, stem and leaves in order to obtain the height, diameter of the stem, leave area and the dry matter. The accumulation of dry matter followed sigmoidal adjustment, while the uptake of nutrients followed quadratic adjustment, except Mg, P, and Cu that followed sigmoidal adjustment. The accumulation of nutrients by star fruit seedlings ‘nota 10’ followed the sequence: NO adequado estado nutricional das mudas de caramboleira permite o sucesso da implantação de um pomar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a marcha de absorção de nutrientes e o crescimento de mudas enxertadas de caramboleira ‘Nota 10’ produzida em solução nutritiva. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos tempos de coleta (25; 50; 75; 100; 125 e 150 dias após o início da brotação das borbulhas. As plantas foram avaliadas quanto a: altura, diâmetro do enxerto e do porta-enxerto, área foliar e massa da matéria seca (folhas, caule e raízes. Nos diferentes órgãos das mudas, determinou-se o acúmulo de macronutrientes. O acúmulo de massa seca das mudas de caramboleira apresentou ajuste sigmoidal, enquanto o acúmulo de nutrientes apresentou incremento quadrático, exceto Mg, P e Cu, que foi sigmoidal, obedecendo à seguinte sequência: N>K>Ca>P>S>Mg>Fe>Mn>Zn>B>Cu, sendo maior nas

  2. Yield, nutrient utilization and soil properties in a melon crop amended with wine-distillery waste compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa

    2014-05-01

    In Spain, large quantities of wine are produced every year (3,339,700 tonnes in 2011) (FAO, 2011) with the consequent waste generation. During the winemaking process, solid residues like grape stalks are generated, as well as grape marc and wine lees as by-products. According to the Council Regulation (EC) 1493/1999 on the common organization of the wine market, by-products coming from the winery industry must be sent to alcohol-distilleries to generate exhausted grape marc and vinasses. With an adequate composting treatment, these wastes can be applied to soils as a source of nutrients and organic matter. A three-year field experiment (2011, 2012 and 2013) was carried out in Ciudad Real (central Spain) to study the effects of wine-distillery waste compost application in a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.). Melon crop has been traditionally cultivated in this area with high inputs of water and fertilizers, but no antecedents of application of winery wastes are known. In a randomized complete block design, four treatments were compared: three compost doses consisted of 6.7 (D1), 13.3 (D2) and 20 t compost ha-1 (D3), and a control treatment without compost addition (D0). The soil was a shallow sandy-loam (Petrocalcic Palexeralfs) with a depth of 0.60 m and a discontinuous petrocalcic horizon between 0.60 and 0.70 m, slightly basic (pH 8.4), poor in organic matter (0.24%), rich in potassium (410 ppm) and with a medium level of phosphorus (22.1 ppm). During each growing period four harvests were carried out and total and marketable yield (fruits weighting cycle, four plants per treatment were sampled and the nutrient content (N, P and K) was determined. Soil samplings (0-30 cm depth) were carried before the application of compost and at the end of each growing season and available N and P, as well as exchangeable K content were analyzed. With this information, an integrated analysis was carried out with the aim to evaluate the suitability of this compost as organic

  3. Cheesemaking in highland pastures: Milk technological properties, cream, cheese and ricotta yields, milk nutrients recovery, and products composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, M; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Stocco, G; Valorz, C; Bazzoli, I; Sturaro, E; Ramanzin, M; Bittante, G

    2016-12-01

    (before and after natural creaming), the whole morning milk, and the mixed vat milk had different chemical compositions, traditional coagulation properties, and curd-firming modeling parameters. These variations over the pasture season were similar to the residual variations with respect to chemical composition, and much lower with respect to coagulation and curd-firming traits. Much larger variations were noted in cream, cheese, and ricotta yields, as well as in nutrient recoveries in curd during the pasture season. The protein content of forage was correlated with some of the coagulation and curd-firming traits, the ether extract of forage was positively correlated with milk fat content and cheese yields, and fiber fractions of forage were unfavorably correlated with some of the chemical and technological traits. Traditional cheese- and ricotta-making procedures showed average cream, cheese, and ricotta yields of 6.3, 14.2, and 4.9%, respectively, and an overall recovery of almost 100% of milk fat, 88% of milk protein, and 60% of total milk solids. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptomic Analysis of Compromise Between Air-Breathing and Nutrient Uptake of Posterior Intestine in Loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus), an Air-Breathing Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Songqian; Cao, Xiaojuan; Tian, Xianchang

    2016-08-01

    Dojo loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) is an air-breathing fish species by using its posterior intestine to breathe on water surface. So far, the molecular mechanism about accessory air-breathing in fish is seldom addressed. Five cDNA libraries were constructed here for loach posterior intestines form T01 (the initial stage group), T02 (mid-stage of normal group), T03 (end stage of normal group), T04 (mid-stage of air-breathing inhibited group), and T05 (the end stage of air-breathing inhibited group) and subjected to perform RNA-seq to compare their transcriptomic profilings. A total of 92,962 unigenes were assembled, while 37,905 (40.77 %) unigenes were successfully annotated. 2298, 1091, and 3275 differentially expressed genes (fn1, ACE, EGFR, Pxdn, SDF, HIF, VEGF, SLC2A1, SLC5A8 etc.) were observed in T04/T02, T05/T03, and T05/T04, respectively. Expression levels of many genes associated with air-breathing and nutrient uptake varied significantly between normal and intestinal air-breathing inhibited group. Intraepithelial capillaries in posterior intestines of loaches from T05 were broken, while red blood cells were enriched at the surface of intestinal epithelial lining with 241 ± 39 cells per millimeter. There were periodic acid-schiff (PAS)-positive epithelial mucous cells in posterior intestines from both normal and air-breathing inhibited groups. Results obtained here suggested an overlap of air-breathing and nutrient uptake function of posterior intestine in loach. Intestinal air-breathing inhibition in loach would influence the posterior intestine's nutrient uptake ability and endothelial capillary structure stability. This study will contribute to our understanding on the molecular regulatory mechanisms of intestinal air-breathing in loach.

  5. Leaf vegetables for use in integrated hydroponics and aquaculture systems: Effects of root flooding on growth, mineral composition and nutrient uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trang, Ngo Thuy Diem; Schierup, Hans-Henrik; Brix, Hans

    2010-01-01

    In recirculating aquaculture and hydroponics systems, the waste products from fish production are used to produce vegetables or other crops of economic value, and the water is recirculated to the fish tanks. We studied growth, productivity and nutrient uptake of four leaf vegetable species (Lactuca...... sativa, Ipomoea aquatica, Brassica rapa var. chinensis and Brassica rapa var. parachinensis) in a controlled growth experiment with three root flooding treatments (drained, half-flooded and flooded) to assess their preferred hydroponic growth requirements, biomass production and nutrient removal......, respectively. The two Brassica varieties produced much less aerial biomass (50-54 g DW/m2 during a 60-day period). Both I. aquatica and L. sativa are promising species to be included in integrated hydroponic and aquaculture facilities, with I. aquatica showing the most promise because of its higher growth...

  6. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on the Concentration and Uptake of Macro Nutrients by Corn in a Cd-contaminated Calcareous Soil under Drought Stress

    OpenAIRE

    shahrzad karami; mehdi zarei; jafar yasrebi; najafali karimian; s.Ali Akbar Moosavi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) are found naturally in soils, but their amount can be changed by human activities. The study of the uptake and accumulation of heavy metals by plants is done in order to prevent their threats on human and animal’s health.Cadmium is a toxic element for living organisms. Cadmium competes with many of nutrients to be absorbed by the plant and interferes with their biological roles. Water stress affects the cell structure and the food is diverted fr...

  7. Some observation on the root growth of young apple trees and their uptake of nutrients when grown in herbicided strips in grassed orchards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, D.

    1977-01-01

    Root laboratory observations of the root growth of 4-year-old trees of Cox/M.26 planted in a herbicided strip in grass indicated that during the year 70% of the new growth occurred in the strip. Growth appeared to begin earlier during the year under bare soil than under grass. Nitrogen absorption from the strip and the grassed alley was assessed by measuring 15 N uptake; at 10 cm depth uptake was almost entirely from the strip. An experiment using 2-year-old trees of Cox/M.106 and 15 N placements at 7.5 and 15 cm depths in the strip and 15 cm in the grassed alley gave similar results. With 32 P as a tracer and similar trees a small amount of uptake from 25 cm depth under grass was detected. The experiments indicate that young trees produce most of their new roots in the herbicide strips where most of their nutrient uptake occurs and little or none from the grassed alleys. The absorption of nitrogen into the leaves was greater in early summer than autumn

  8. Comparison of mineral weathering and biomass nutrient uptake in two small forested watersheds underlain by quartzite bedrock, Catoctin Mountain, Maryland, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen; Price, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    To quantify chemical weathering and biological uptake, mass-balance calculations were performed on two small forested watersheds located in the Blue Ridge Physiographic Province in north-central Maryland, USA. Both watersheds, Bear Branch (BB) and Fishing Creek Tributary (FCT), are underlain by relatively unreactive quartzite bedrock. Such unreactive bedrock and associated low chemical-weathering rates offer the opportunity to quantify biological processes operating within the watershed. Hydrologic and stream-water chemistry data were collected from the two watersheds for the 9-year period from June 1, 1990 to May 31, 1999. Of the two watersheds, FCT exhibited both higher chemical-weathering rates and biomass nutrient uptake rates, suggesting that forest biomass aggradation was limited by the rate of chemical weathering of the bedrock. Although the chemical-weathering rate in the FCT watershed was low relative to the global average, it masked the influence of biomass base-cation uptake on stream-water chemistry. Any differences in bedrock mineralogy between the two watersheds did not exert a significant influence on the overall weathering stoichiometry. The difference in chemical-weathering rates between the two watersheds is best explained by a larger proportion of reactive phyllitic layers within the bedrock of the FCT watershed. Although the stream gradient of BB is about two-times greater than that of FCT, its influence on chemical weathering appears to be negligible. The findings of this study support the biomass nutrient uptake stoichiometry of K1.0Mg1.1Ca0.97 previously determined for the study site. Investigations of the chemical weathering of relatively unreactive quartzite bedrock may provide insight into critical zone processes.

  9. Effect of combined water and nutrient management on runoff and sorghum yield in semi-arid Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zougmoré, R.; Mando, A.; Ringersma, J.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2003-01-01

    In the semiarid regions of sub-Saharan Africa, fertilizer recovery and nutrient release from organic sources are often moisture limited. Moreover, in these regions runoff brings about large nutrient losses from fertilizer or organic inputs. This study was conducted in the north sudanian climate zone

  10. Soil pH and nutrient uptake in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) in Northern Sweden. Multielement studies by means of plant and soil analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Margareta [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden

    2000-07-01

    To reveal nutrient element deficiencies or imbalances limiting vegetable production in northern Sweden, multielement soil and plant analyses were performed in cauliflower and broccoli during the period 1989 to 1996. The pH range of the soils was 4.4-8. 1. The results were evaluated with the multivariate statistical methods PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and PLS (Partial Least Squares Projection to Latent Structures). The major yield-limiting elements were Mg, B, Mn, Zn, Fe and Cu. This was a result of high soil pH and large content of Ca in the soil. The reason for B deficiency was also low B content in the soil. Applications of green mulch increased yield on soils with a pH below 6.0. It also increased the uptake and concentration in the plants of B, Ba, Cl, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, N, P, Se and Zn, and decreased the uptake and concentration of Al, Cs and Tl. The mineral fertilizer applied, NPK 11-5-18 micro, decreased soil pH. This has resulted in larger uptake and higher concentrations in the plants of Co and Mn, in comparison to where cattle manure was applied. This fertilizer strongly decreased uptake of Mo, as a result of both the acidifying effect and the large S content. Repeated applications of nitrate of lime in combination with the NPK 11-5-18 strongly increased the uptake of Cs by the plants. The results in this investigation, together with the literature reviews, strongly indicate that a relatively low soil pH (5.0-5.5) is favourable when organic fertilizers are used and that harmful effects of very low soil pH (<5.0), are ameliorated by organic materials but aggravated by mineral fertilizers. The main purpose of lime is to counteract the acidity and increased leaching created by mineral fertilizers. Because of the historical context in which the lime requirements were established, the dangers of acid soils appear to have been strongly overestimated.

  11. THE IMPACT OF FRESH SAWDUST AND DRY PIG MANURE PRODUCED ON SAWDUST BEDDING APPLICATION ON THE NUTRIENTS MOBILITY IN SOIL AND SUGAR BEET YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kováčik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the pot trial carried out at the area of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra was to determine the impact of dry pig manure produced on the sawdust bedding and sawdust litter on the level of nutrients’ mobility in the soil and sugar beet yield. The achieved results showed that one month after the sawdust and manure application to the soil, the contents of mobile nutrients (Nan, P, K, Ca, Mg in soil were lower than in the control unfertilized treatment. The sawdust litter immobilized nutrients more considerably than manure. Four months after the manure application into soil, its immobilization effect was not evident. On the contrary, the manure increased the mobile nutrients content in soil. In the second year of experiment the immobilization effect of sawdust litter was proved even four months after its application into soil. The application of manure increased considerably the beet root yield. The maximum root yield was determined in the treatment where the highest dose of manure was applied. The minimum root yield was detected in the treatment where the highest dose of sawdust litter was applied.

  12. The influence of change of concentration of sum of nutrient elements on uptake 137Cs from inert substrate to the lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipbekov, O.A.; Dlimbetova, G.K.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation ecology has become the science of applied character after the numbers of great accidents at the nuclear fuel cycle enterprises (United Kingdom, 1957; Russia,1957; Ukraine, 1986). The success of the fight on the consequences liquidations of the uncontrolled fallen artificial radionuclides on the agricultural fields depends a lot on the correct use of accumulated division products in the soil-plant system in the field migration appropriateness. The considerable lowering of radionuclides uptake into the plants from the soil can be achieved by increase of disability of products fastening of soil division. At the same time the addition of the stuff with high sorption and fixing characteristics into the soil, as a rule, gives a considerable effect only in the first period of their use. Later the fixed isotopes can come into ion-exchange process again after the achievement of the balance condition with the soil-absorbing complex, i.e. pass in the more mobile forms. Entering of mineral fertilizers into the soil often leads to the contradictory results, so the search in this direction is going on. The given information emphasizes the actuality of the further studying the methods of regulation of long living radionuclides availability from the soil to the plants with the help of the nutrient mineral elements. The aim of the present work is the study of the influence of concentration of sum of basic nutrient elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt, molybdenum, boron) on the uptake of 137 Cs from the inert substrate to the Lettuce plants. The vegetation experiments were carried out in one liter polyethylene vascular. One liter of milled quartz sand (size of the fractions was 0.5-1.0 mm) was put into each vascular specially cleaned from admixtures. The nutrient elements were added according to Rinkis. The results of the carried out researches have shown that the decrease of the concentration of sum of macro

  13. Effect of soil application of humic acid on nutrients uptake, essential oil and chemical compositions of garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozisharaf, Alireza; Kaviani, Maryam

    2018-05-01

    Humic acid is natural biological organic, which has a high effect on plant growth and quality. However, the mechanisms of the promoting effect of humic acid on the volatile composition were rarely reported. In this study, the effects of soil application of humic acid on the chemical composition and nutrients uptake of Thymus vulgaris were investigated. Treatments comprised 0, 50, 75 and 100 g m -2 . Essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-MS and GC-FID. Essential oil content was enhanced by increase of the humic acid level and its content ranged from 0.8% (control) to 2.0% (75 g m -2 ). Thirty-two volatile compounds were identified and these compounds were considerably affected by humic acid. The highest percentage of thymol (74.15%), carvacrol (6.20%), p -cymene (4.24%), borneol (3.42%), trans -caryophyllene (1.70%) and cis -sabinene hydrate (1.35%) as major compounds were observed in T. vulgaris under 100 g m -2 humic acid. There was a linear relationship ( R 2  = 97%) between humic acid levels and thymol as a major compound. The oils were dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Based on the path coefficient analysis, the highest direct effects on essential oil content were observed in monoterpene esters (3.465) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (3.146). The humic acid application also enhanced the uptake of N, P, K, Mg and Fe in garden thyme. The highest N (2.42%), P (0.75%), K (2.63%), Mg (0.23%) and Fe (1436.58 ppm) were observed in medium supplemented with 100 g m -2 humic acid. In all, the utilization of humic acid could positively change nutrients uptake, essential oil content and its major constituents in T. vulgaris .

  14. Effect of Biofertilizers on Macro and Micro Nutrients Uptake and Essential Oil Content in Dracocephalum moldavica L.

    OpenAIRE

    S Rahimzadeh; Y Sohrabi; Gh.R Heidari; A.R Eivazi; S.M.T Hoseini

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigation the effect of different fertilization treatments on nutrient and essential oil contents in dragonhead drug (Dracocephalum moldavica L.), an experiment was conducted in the station of agricultural research in Urmia on 2008. Treatments (nitroxin, barvar phosphate biofertilizer, biosulfur, nitroxin+ barvar phosphate biofertilizer, barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur, nitroxin+ biosulfur, nitroxin+ barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur, chemical fertilizer, c...

  15. Nutrient uptake and community metabolism in streams draining harvested and old-growth watersheds: A preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian H. Hill; Frank H. McCormick

    2004-01-01

    The effect of timber harvesting on streams is assessed using two measures of ecosystem function: nutrient spiraling and community metabolism. This research is being conducted in streams of the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina, the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas, the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, and the redwood forests of northern California, in order to...

  16. The Effect of Catchment Urbanization on Nutrient Uptake and Biofilm Enzyme Activity in Lake Superior (USA) Tributary Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used landscape, habitat, and chemistry variables, along with nutrient spiraling metrics and biofilm extracellular enzyme activity (EEA), to assess the response of streams to the level of urbanization within their catchments. For this study nine streams of similar catchment are...

  17. Evolution of nutrient uptake reveals a trade-off in the ecological stoichiometry of plant-herbivore interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branco, P.; Stomp, M.; Egas, M.; Huisman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Nutrient limitation determines the primary production and species composition of many ecosystems. Here we apply an adaptive dynamics approach to investigate evolution of the ecological stoichiometry of primary producers and its implications for plant‐herbivore interactions. The model predicts a

  18. Root yield and reserpine content of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. on media under the plant with potential allelopathic effect by nutrient addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULANDJARI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The root of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth (pule pandak contains more than 50 kinds of alkaloid which is useful to treat many kinds of diseases and reserpine is ones to treat of hypertension. Eucalyptus deglupta and Acacia mangium have become release an allelochemy to ecosystem that are can reduce the growth of the plant association. The purpose of this research is to know about the influence of nutrient and media under the plant with potential allelopathic effect to root yield and reserpine content. The research was arranged in Complete Random Block Design. Nutrient was nested on media. Media are: under Tectona grandis, A. mangium, and E. deglupta. Nutrient is 30 t ha-1 organic fertilizers, 200 ha-1 inorganic (NPK fertilizers and control. Polybag with 30 cmx30 cm plant densities and 20% of shading. The result are that beside under the T. grandis, pule pandak was capable to growth under the A. mangium and E. deglupta. Thirty ton per hectare organic fertilizers was increased of growth and yield more than 200 ha-1 inorganic (NPK fertilizers. Allelocemy from A. mangium and E. deglupta was decreased dry root yield but was not effect to reserpine content.

  19. Synergistic effects and optimization of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations on the growth and nutrient uptake of a freshwater Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alketife, Ahmed M; Judd, Simon; Znad, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    The synergistic effects and optimization of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris (CCAP 211/11B, CS-42) and nutrient removal have been investigated under different concentrations of N (0-56 mg/L) and P (0-19 mg/L). The study showed that N/P ratio has a crucial effect on the biomass growth and nutrient removal. When N/P=10, a complete P and N removal was achieved at the end of cultivation with specific growth rate (SGR) of 1 d -1 and biomass concentration of 1.58 g/L. It was also observed that when the N content <2.5 mg/L, the SGR significantly reduced from 1.04 to 0.23 d -1 and the maximum biomass produced was decreased more than three-fold to 0.5 g/L. The Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface method were used to study the effects of the initial concentrations (P, N and C) on P and N removal efficiencies. The optimized P, N and C concentrations supporting 100% removal of both P and N at an SGR of 0.95 were 7, 55 and 10 mg/L respectively, with desirability value of 0.94. The results and analysis obtained could be very useful when applying the microalgae for efficient wastewater treatment and nutrient removal.

  20. Study on biofiltration capacity and kinetics of nutrient uptake by Gracilaria cervicornis (Turner J. Agardh (Rhodophyta, Gracilariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella A. A. Carneiro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The absorption efficiency and kinetic parameters (Vmax, Ks and Vmax:Ks of the seaweed Gracilaria cervicornis for the nutrients NH4+, NO3- and PO4(3- were evaluated. Absorption efficiency was measured by monitoring nutrient concentrations for 5 h in culture media with initial concentrations of 5, 10, 20 and 30µM. Kinetic parameters were determined by using the Michaelis-Menten formula. Absorption efficiencies for this algae were greater in treatments with lower concentrations, as evidenced by a reduction of 85.3, 97.5 and 81.2% for NH4+, NO3- and PO4(3-, respectively. Kinetic parameters show that G. cervicornis exhibits greater ability to take up high concentrations of NH4+ (Vmax=158.5µM g dw-1 h-1 and low concentrations of PO4(3- (Ks=5µM and Vmax:Ks=10.3. These results suggest that this algal species has good absorption capacity for the nutrients tested and may be a promising candidate as a bioremediator of eutrophized environments.

  1. Responses of Wheat Yield, Macro- and Micro-Nutrients, and Heavy Metals in Soil and Wheat following the Application of Manure Compost on the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Wang, Zhaohui; Kou, Changlin; Ma, Zhenghua; Zhao, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The recycling of livestock manure in cropping systems is considered to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity. However, there have been no systematic long-term studies of the effects of manure application on soil and crop macro- and micro-nutrients, heavy metals, and crop yields in China, despite their great importance for sustainable crop production and food safety. Thus, we conducted field experiments in a typical cereal crop production area of the North China Plain to investigate the effects of compost manure application rates on wheat yield, as well as on the macro-/micro-nutrients and heavy metals contents of soil and wheat. We found that compost application increased the soil total N and the available K, Fe, Zn, and Mn concentrations, whereas the available P in soil was not affected, and the available Cu decreased. In general, compost application had no significant effects on the grain yield, biomass, and harvest index of winter wheat. However, during 2012 and 2013, the N concentration decreased by 9% and 18% in straw, and by 16% and 12% in grain, respectively. With compost application, the straw P concentration only increased in 2012 but the grain P generally increased, while the straw K concentration tended to decrease and the grain K concentration increased in 2013. Compost application generally increased the Fe and Zn concentrations in straw and grain, whereas the Cu and Mn concentrations decreased significantly compared with the control. The heavy metal concentrations increased at some compost application rates, but they were still within the safe range. The balances of the macro-and micro-nutrients indicated that the removal of nutrients by wheat was compensated for by the addition of compost, whereas the level of N decreased without the application of compost. The daily intake levels of micronutrients via the consumption of wheat grain were still lower than the recommended levels when sheep manure compost was applied, except for that of Mn. PMID

  2. [Effect of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth, nutrient uptake and synthesis of volatile oil in Schizonepeta tenuifolia briq].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, G; Wang, H

    1991-03-01

    Inoculating Schizonepeta tenuifolia with VA mycorrhizal fungi can significantly improve the plant growth and uptake of P and S, and influence the absorption of K, Na, Fe, Mo, Mn, Zn, Co, Ba, Ni and Pb. It is interesting to note that VA mycorrhiza can also increase the synthesis of volatile oil in the shoots of S. tenuifolia. The efficiency of VA mycorrhiza varies with the fungal species.

  3. The effect of Zn, N and P application on nutrient uptake in wheat-maize sequence using isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehrani, M.M.; Sachdev, P.; Sachdev, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted at the Nuclear Research Laboratory , Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi in 2000-2001. The experiment was 3x3x3 factorial in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Fertilizers were applied as three levels of zinc 0. 2.5 and 5 mg Zn kg -1 as ZnSO 4 , three levels of phosphorus 0, 7.5 and 15 mg P kg -1 through KH 2 PO 4 and three levels of nitrogen 30, 60 and 90 mg N kg -1 as urea. Zn fertilizer was not applied for the second crop in sequence. The amount of available Zn in soil decreased by the application of P and N, but increased by the Zn application. The P application increased the available pool of P in soil, but the zinc levels had no effect on it. Data revealed that the P application decreased the Zn concentration in plant tissue for both the crops. The per cent N utilization decreased drastically with increasing rate of N application from N 30 to N 90 in wheat. The highest level of P application resulted in least total Zn uptake, per cent Zndff, fertilizer Zn uptake and per cent Zn utilized from fertilizer. The no zinc application showed the highest value of Zn application to the wheat crop. The highest values of total P uptake, per cent Pdff, fertilizer uptake and per cent P utilized from fertilizer in the succeeding crop of maize were observed with residual effect of Zn 5 among three levels of Zn application to the first crop of maize. (author)

  4. Nutrient concentrations, loads, and yields in the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin, Arkansas and Oklahoma, 2002-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The city of Tulsa, Oklahoma, uses Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lake in the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin in northwestern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma for public water supply. The city has spent millions of dollars over the last decade to eliminate taste and odor problems in the drinking water from the Eucha-Spavinaw system, which may be attributable to blue-green algae. Increases in the algal biomass in the lakes may be attributable to increases in nutrient concentrations in the lakes and in the waters feeding the lakes. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Tulsa, investigated and summarized total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in water samples and provided estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus loads, yields, and flow-weighted concentrations during base flow and runoff for two streams discharging to Lake Eucha for the period January 2002 through December 2009. This report updates a previous report that used data from water-quality samples collected from January 2002 through December 2006. Based on the results from the Mann-Whitney statistical test, unfiltered total nitrogen concentrations were significantly greater in runoff water samples than in base-flow water samples collected from Spavinaw Creek near Maysville and near Cherokee City, Arkansas; Spavinaw Creek near Colcord, Oklahoma, and Beaty Creek near Jay, Oklahoma. Nitrogen concentrations in runoff water samples collected from all stations generally increased with increasing streamflow. Nitrogen concentrations in base-flow and runoff water samples collected in Spavinaw Creek significantly increased from the station furthest upstream (near Maysville) to the Sycamore station and then significantly decreased from the Sycamore station to the station furthest downstream (near Colcord). Nitrogen concentrations in base-flow and runoff water samples collected from Beaty Creek were significantly less than base-flow and runoff water samples collected from Spavinaw Creek. Based on the results

  5. Effects of coal combustion byproduct encapsulated ammonium nitrate on wheat yield and uptake of nitrogen and metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen is an essential plant nutrient that is taken up in large quantity. Ammonium nitrate (AN) is used in agriculture as an N fertilizer, but it is also an ingredient in explosives. As a result of the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in April 1995, regulations o...

  6. Mixed fertilizers incorporated in organic polimer matrix and pressed in tablets as means of enhancing the nutrients productive use in increased crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavriluta, I.; Borlan, Z.; Alexandrescu, A; Budoi, G.; Bireescu, L.; Bireescu, G.

    1999-01-01

    In view of increasing productive use of fertilizer nutrients in crops an admixture of brown coal dust containing up to 40 % carbon ammonia lignosulfonate with 50 % lignoles dry matter as binding agent were used to press water soluble fertilizer sources with a total of N+P 2 O 5 +K 2 O content of up to 26 % in tablets. These may be manufactured at different N:P 2 O 5 :K 2 O ratios as for instance 1:1:1; 1:0.75:0.50 etc. Brown coal and coal refuse dust were used as matrix for inclusion while lignosulfonates served for binding the ingredients when pressing them in tablets of 15-20 g dry mass each. These were tested in accurate field experiments to compare the agronomic effectiveness of equal amounts of NPK in tablets with equivalent rates of powdered sources of nutrients in the same chemical forms. NPK pressed in tablets were applied locally along the plant row, while the powdered mixed fertilizer have been thoroughly mixed in the ploughed layer. Accurate field experiments have pointed out the higher agronomical effectiveness of NPK pressed in tablets as compared to equal amounts of NPK powdered and thoroughly mixed into the ploughed layer of soil. Indicators were higher yield increases per nutrient unit and higher degrees of apparent productive use of nutrients in crops. Refs. 4 (author)

  7. Nutrient uptake by greenhouse net melonAcúmulo de nutrientes e rendimento de óleo em plantas de girassol influenciados pelo vigor dos aquênios e pela densidade de semeadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana da Silva Cardoso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available For presenting more commercial value, the net melon (Cucumis melo L. var reticulatus Naud. has been an option of greenhouse planting for the horticulturists. This work was carried out in Piracicaba, Brazil with the aim of evaluating the nutrient uptake from this melon cultivated in greenhouse. To obtain the nutrients accumulation in the different stages of the plant development, plants were collected in the transplant day (seedling, in the vegetative stage, in the beginning of the flowering stage, in the beginning and in the middle of fruit production period and in the harvest period. It was verified that the greatest increase of nutrient uptake happened between the beginning of the flowering and the beginning of the fruit production. The greatest dry matter accumulation happened between the beginning of the fruit production and the middle of fruit production period. The decrescent order of nutrients accumulated in the above ground part of the plant was: potassium > nitrogen > calcium > magnesium > sulphur > phosphorus > iron > manganese > zinc > copper ~ boron. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o acúmulo de nutrientes e o rendimento de óleo dos aquênios em plantas de girassol produzidas sob a influência do vigor dos aquênios e da densidade de semeadura. Para isto, foi instalado um experimento no campo experimental no município de Seropédica/RJ, em outubro de 2006, com três distintos lotes de aquênios de girassol cv Embrapa 122 V2000, classificados como de baixo, de médio e de alto vigor, sob duas densidades de semeadura (45.000 e 75.000 sementes ha-1. Aos 20, 60 e 100 dias após a semeadura (DAS, foram coletadas as plantas para avaliação da massa de matéria seca e do acúmulo de nitrogênio, de fósforo, de potássio e de cálcio, no caule, nas folhas e nos capítulos. Nas plantas coletadas aos 100 DAS, foi feita também a avaliação do rendimento de aquênios (kg ha-1, do teor de óleo e do rendimento de óleo (kg ha-1. Observou

  8. Interactive effects of aluminum, phosphorus and mycorrhizae on growth and nutrient uptake of Panicum virgatum L. (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslowsky, S D; Boener, R E

    1989-01-01

    The effects of Al on Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), a widespread perennial grass, were determined in relation to factors which might interact with Al in the soil. Plants were grown for 8 weeks in sand culture and were treated with 3 Al levels (0.5, 2.0, 5.0 mM), 2 P levels (0.065, 0.161 mM), 2 inoculum types (vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) inoculum or VAM-free soil inoculum) and 2 inoculum sources (a high Al forest in NY or a low Al forest in Ohio) in a factorial design. Plant growth decreased with increasing Al and increased with increasing P, but the Al effect was less at high P than low P. VAM-inoculated plants outgrew non-VAM plants, especially at low and medium Al levels. Total P and Ca uptake decreased with increasing Al concentration, especially at low P levels. VAM inoculation did not result in increased P uptake at any Al level though VAM plants took up significantly more Ca than non-VAM plants at any Al level. VAM plants had lower tissue Al concentrations and took up less Al than non-VAM plants; Al uptake increased with increasing soil Al in non-VAM plants but not in VAM plants. Plants given inoculum from the high Al site had significantly lower tissue Al than plants given the low Al site inoculum, regardless of VAM status. We conclude that the presence of a VAM infection, moderate levels of soil P, and the source of the inoculum can reduce the effects of soluble Al. We discuss potential physiological and edaphic mechanisms by which Al may be immobilized and Ca availability increased in the presence of VAM fungi and other soil microflora.

  9. Concentrations, loads, and yields of nutrients and suspended sediment in the South Pacolet, North Pacolet, and Pacolet Rivers, northern South Carolina and southwestern North Carolina, October 2005 to September 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste A.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Feaster, Toby D.; Petkewich, Mattew D.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    . The Pacolet River had a mean annual total nitrogen load of 99,780 kilograms per year and yield of 1.82 kilograms per hectare per year. Mean annual total phosphorus loads of 2,576; 9,404; and 11,710 kilograms per year and yields of 0.180, 0.313, and 0.213 kilograms per hectare per year were estimated at the South Pacolet, North Pacolet, and Pacolet River sites, respectively. Annually, the intervening subbasin of the Pacolet River contributed negligible amounts of total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads, and large losses of dissolved nitrate plus nitrite and orthophosphate loads were determined for the subbasin. Biological (algal) uptake in the two reservoirs in this intervening area was considered the likely explanation for the loss of these constituents. Estimated mean annual suspended-sediment loads were 21,190,000; 9,895,000; and 6,547,000 kilograms per year at the South Pacolet, North Pacolet, and Pacolet River sites, respectively. In the intervening Pacolet River subbasin, computed annual suspended-sediment loads were consistently negative, indicating large percentage losses in annual suspended-sediment load. Sedimentation processes in the two reservoirs are the most likely explanations for these apparent losses. At all sites, the winter season tended to have the highest estimated seasonal dissolved orthophosphate and dissolved nitrate plus nitrite fluxes, and the summer and fall seasons tended to have the lowest fluxes. The reverse pattern, however, was observed in the intervening drainage area in the Pacolet River where the lowest fluxes of dissolved orthophosphate and nitrate plus nitrite occurred during the winter and spring seasons and the highest occurred during the summer and fall seasons. Synoptic samples were collected during a high-flow event in August 2009 at eight sites that represented shoreline and minor tributary drainages. The South Pacolet River site was identified as contributing greater than 80 percent of the cumulative nutrient and sediment l

  10. Effect of off-season flooding on growth, photosynthesis, carbohydrate partitioning, and nutrient uptake in Distylium chinense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebin Liu

    Full Text Available Distylium chinense is an evergreen shrub used for the vegetation recovery of floodplain and riparian areas in Three Gorges Reservoir Region. To clarify the morphological and physiological responses and tolerance of Distylium chinense to off-season flooding, a simulation flooding experiment was conducted during autumn and winter. Results indicated that the survival rate of seedlings was 100%, and that plant height and stem diameter were not significantly affected by flooding. Adventitious roots and hypertrophic lenticels were observed in flooded seedlings after 30 days of flooding. Flooding significantly reduced the plant biomass of roots, net photosynthetic rate (Pn, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration rate (Tr, maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm, photochemical quenching (qP, and electron transport rate (ETR in leaves, and also affected the allocation and transport of carbohydrate and nutrients. However, D. chinense was able to maintain stable levels of Pn, Fv/Fm, qP, ETR, and nutrient content (N and P in leaves and to store a certain amount of carbohydrate in roots over prolonged durations of flooding. Based on these results, we conclude that there is a high flooding tolerance in D. chinense, and the high survival rate of D. chinense may be attributable to a combination of morphological and physiological responses to flooding.

  11. Effect of off-season flooding on growth, photosynthesis, carbohydrate partitioning, and nutrient uptake in Distylium chinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zebin; Cheng, Ruimei; Xiao, Wenfa; Guo, Quanshui; Wang, Na

    2014-01-01

    Distylium chinense is an evergreen shrub used for the vegetation recovery of floodplain and riparian areas in Three Gorges Reservoir Region. To clarify the morphological and physiological responses and tolerance of Distylium chinense to off-season flooding, a simulation flooding experiment was conducted during autumn and winter. Results indicated that the survival rate of seedlings was 100%, and that plant height and stem diameter were not significantly affected by flooding. Adventitious roots and hypertrophic lenticels were observed in flooded seedlings after 30 days of flooding. Flooding significantly reduced the plant biomass of roots, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (Tr), maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching (qP), and electron transport rate (ETR) in leaves, and also affected the allocation and transport of carbohydrate and nutrients. However, D. chinense was able to maintain stable levels of Pn, Fv/Fm, qP, ETR, and nutrient content (N and P) in leaves and to store a certain amount of carbohydrate in roots over prolonged durations of flooding. Based on these results, we conclude that there is a high flooding tolerance in D. chinense, and the high survival rate of D. chinense may be attributable to a combination of morphological and physiological responses to flooding.

  12. Effect of graphene oxide on copper stress in Lemna minor L.: evaluating growth, biochemical responses, and nutrient uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changwei; Liu, Lei; Li, Xiuling; Xu, Yundi; Ge, Zhigang; Zhao, Yongjun

    2018-01-05

    The wide application and unique properties of graphene oxide (GO) make it to interact with other pollutants and subsequently alter their behavior and toxicity. We evaluated the influences of GO at different concentrations (1 and 5mg/L) on copper (Cu) stress in duckweed (Lemna minor L.) GO below a concentration of 5mg/L showed no adverse effects on L. minor. The addition of Cu above 10μM represented a stress condition, which was evidenced by various parameters such as frond number, percent inhibition of growth rate (I r ), total chlorophyll content, dry weight, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD). When L. minor was simultaneously exposed to GO and Cu, especially at a GO concentration of 5mg/L and a Cu level above 10μM, the increase of I r and decrease of chlorophyll content were inhibited, suggesting that the Cu stress was diminished in the presence of GO. The addition of Cu alone, ranging between 5 and 20μM, increased Cu, B, Mn, Fe, Co, and Zn uptake, but decreased P uptake. Our results suggest that GO can lessen Cu stress in L. minor via Cu adsorption, thereby protecting the plants from the damaging effects of high Cu concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Residual Effect Of Organic Fertilizer And Addition Inorganik Fertilizer To Nutrient Uptake Growth And Productions Of Black Soy Bean Glycine Max L. Merr At Rainfed Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elli Afrida

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research that have theme Residual Effect of Organic Fertilizer and Addition Anorganik Fertilizer to Nutrient Uptake Growth and pruductions of Black Soy Bean Glycine max L. Merr at Rainfed Wetland. Research was conducted at Suka Makmur village sub-distric Binjai Distric Langkat. Research was arranged in split plot design main plot is applications of phonska fertilizerwith 4 level i.e 0 t ha-1 A0 0.20 t ha-1 A1 0.25 t ha-1 A2 dan 0.30 t ha-1 A3 and sub plot is residual effect from first research with 16 combinations. Research was replicated 3 times. Result of research was showed application organic fertilizer that was combinated with anorganic fertilizer can increased N and K uptake. Application organic and anorganic fertilizer as single factor showed significantly effect of number of pods and soy bean productions but at interaction treatment not significantly effect however generally occurs increased production at O33A3 tratment until 80 comparison with control.

  14. Zinc, iron, manganese and copper uptake requirement in response to nitrogen supply and the increased grain yield of summer maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Xue

    Full Text Available The relationships between grain yields and whole-plant accumulation of micronutrients such as zinc (Zn, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and copper (Cu in maize (Zea mays L. were investigated by studying their reciprocal internal efficiencies (RIEs, g of micronutrient requirement in plant dry matter per Mg of grain. Field experiments were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in North China to evaluate RIEs and shoot micronutrient accumulation dynamics during different growth stages under different yield and nitrogen (N levels. Fe, Mn and Cu RIEs (average 64.4, 18.1 and 5.3 g, respectively were less affected by the yield and N levels. ZnRIE increased by 15% with an increased N supply but decreased from 36.3 to 18.0 g with increasing yield. The effect of cultivars on ZnRIE was similar to that of yield ranges. The substantial decrease in ZnRIE may be attributed to an increased Zn harvest index (from 41% to 60% and decreased Zn concentrations in straw (a 56% decrease and grain (decreased from 16.9 to 12.2 mg kg-1 rather than greater shoot Zn accumulation. Shoot Fe, Mn and Cu accumulation at maturity tended to increase but the proportions of pre-silking shoot Fe, Cu and Zn accumulation consistently decreased (from 95% to 59%, 90% to 71% and 91% to 66%, respectively. The decrease indicated the high reproductive-stage demands for Fe, Zn and Cu with the increasing yields. Optimized N supply achieved the highest yield and tended to increase grain concentrations of micronutrients compared to no or lower N supply. Excessive N supply did not result in any increases in yield or micronutrient nutrition for shoot or grain. These results indicate that optimized N management may be an economical method of improving micronutrient concentrations in maize grain with higher grain yield.

  15. Mycorrhizal phosphate uptake pathway in maize: Vital for growth and cob development on nutrient poor agricultural and greenhouse soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eWillmann

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF form a mutually beneficial symbiosis with plant roots providing predominantly phosphorus in the form of orthophosphate (Pi in exchange for plant carbohydrates on low P soils. The goal of this work was to generate molecular-genetic evidence in support of a major impact of the mycorrhizal Pi uptake (MPU pathway on the productivity of the major crop plant maize under field and controlled conditions. Here we show, that a loss-of-function mutation in the mycorrhiza-specific Pi transporter gene Pht1;6 correlates with a dramatic reduction of above-ground biomass and cob production in agro-ecosystems with low P soils. In parallel mutant pht1;6 plants exhibited an altered fingerprint of chemical elements in shoots dependent on soil P availability. In controlled environments mycorrhiza development was impaired in mutant plants when grown alone. The presence of neighbouring mycorrhizal nurse plants enhanced the reduced mycorrhiza formation in pht1;6 roots. Uptake of 33P-labelled orthophosphate via the MPU pathway was strongly impaired in colonized mutant plants. Moreover, repression of the MPU pathway resulted in a redirection of Pi to neighbouring plants. In line with previous results, our data highlight the relevance of the MPU pathway in Pi allocation within plant communities and in particular the role of Pht1;6 for the establishment of symbiotic Pi uptake and for maize productivity and nutritional value in low-input agricultural systems. In a first attempt to identify cellular pathways which are affected by Pht1;6 activity, gene expression profiling via RNA-Seq was performed and revealed a set of maize genes involved in cellular signalling which exhibited differential regulation in mycorrhizal pht1;6 and control plants. The RNA data provided support for the hypothesis that fungal supply of Pi and/or Pi transport across Pht1;6 affects cell wall biosynthesis and hormone metabolism in colonized root cells.

  16. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Foliar Application of Some Micro nutrients on Growth and Yield Quality of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath El-Bab, T. Sh.; Abo Elkhier, OH.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    The experiments were carried out on common bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris L.) cv Bronco under sandy-loam soil conditions in the farm of the Research Station of the Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas, Kalubia Governorate on October 15 th in the two successive growing seasons of 2009-2010 and 2010-2011. The aim of the experiments was to investigate the effect of gamma irradiated seeds at the doses of 0, 40 and 80 Gy and foliar spray with Zn, Mn and Fe micro nutrients at the concentrations of 0, 25 and 50 ppm on vegetative growth, yield and chemical responses of common bean plants at age of 21 days. Three levels of application namely 0.0 (control), 25 and 50 ppm were sprayed twice during the growing seasons after two and four weeks of planting. Data analysis showed that all sprayed concentrations improved plant growth i.e plant height, number of branches and helped in earliness of flowering. Pod yield as well as pod quality parameters were also improved with the increase of concentration of sprayed materials. The improvement in plant growth and production were positively correlated with the doses and concentrations. The highest response recorded with the concentration 50 ppm with irradiated dose of 40 Gy after which the response started to decline but still significantly higher than control treatment. Pod yield was positively correlated with the applied concentration of the two substances with the highest effect recorded with 50 ppm of micro nutrients. The treatments resulted in higher total chlorophyll in leave content compared to control. Also treatments significantly improved chemical compositions of pod quality particularly total nitrogen and total sugar contents which responded more positively to all applied treatments. Mineral contents of Zn, Mn and Fe in un cracked seeds also showed similar trend to the applied concentrations. While the best results were in treated plants at 40 Gy and 50 ppm micro nutrient.

  17. Spatial and temporal variability in nutrients and carbon uptake during 2004 and 2005 in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacz, A. P.; Chai, F.

    2012-01-01

    The eastern equatorial Pacific plays a great role in the global carbon budget due to its enhanced biological productivity linked to the equatorial upwelling. However, as confirmed by the Equatorial Biocomplexity cruises in 2004 and 2005, nutrient upwelling supply varies strongly, partly due...... and intraseasonal time scales. Here, high resolution Pacific ROMS-CoSiNE (Regional Ocean Modeling System-Carbon, Silicon, Nitrogen Ecosystem) model results were evaluated with in situ and remote sensing data. The results of model-data comparison revealed a good agreement in domain-average hydrographic....... In order to fully resolve the complexity of biological and physical interactions in the eastern equatorial Pacific, we recommended improving CoSiNE and other models by introducing more phytoplankton groups, variable Redfield and carbon to chlorophyll ratios, as well as resolving the Fe-Si co...

  18. Estimating the relative nutrient uptake from different soil depths in Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göransson, Hans; Wallander, Håkan; Ingerslev, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of fine roots and external ectomycorrhizal mycelium of three species of trees was determined down to a soil depth of 55 cm to estimate the relative nutrient uptake capacity of the trees from different soil layers. In addition, a root bioassay was performed to estimate the nutrien...

  19. Effect of land-applied biosolids on surface-water nutrient yields and groundwater quality in Orange County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Chad R.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Harden, Stephen L.; Gurley, Laura N.; Rogers, Shane W.

    2015-01-01

    Land application of municipal wastewater biosolids is the most common method of biosolids management used in North Carolina and the United States. Biosolids have characteristics that may be beneficial to soil and plants. Land application can take advantage of these beneficial qualities, whereas disposal in landfills or incineration poses no beneficial use of the waste. Some independent studies and laboratory analysis, however, have shown that land-applied biosolids can pose a threat to human health and surface-water and groundwater quality. The effect of municipal biosolids applied to agriculture fields is largely unknown in relation to the delivery of nutrients, bacteria, metals, and contaminants of emerging concern to surface-water and groundwater resources. Therefore, the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (NCDENR) collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) through the 319 Nonpoint Source Program to better understand the transport of nutrients and bacteria from biosolids application fields to groundwater and surface water and to provide a scientific basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the current regulations.

  20. Effect of mulch types on nutrient composition, maize (Zea mays L. yield and soil properties of a tropical Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Awopegba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Field investigations were carried out to evaluate the influence of shrub and herbaceous mulch types on soil properties and nutrient composition of maize (Zea mays L. at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Akure in the rainforest zone of southwestern Nigeria in 2013 and 2014 respectively. The shrub mulch; Gliricidia sepium and Tithonia diversifolia, herbaceous mulch; Calopogonium mucunoides and Moringa oleifera were applied at the rate of 5 t ha-1. Application of NPK (20:10:10 fertilizer at the rate of 200 kg ha-1 was included as the standard treatment for the experiments. The treatments were laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replication. The growth, agronomic parameters and nutritional quality of maize (Zea mays L. were monitored and determined in both experiments. Results indicated that herbaceous mulch types and NPK fertilizer significantly (P<0.05 increased the number of leaves, plant height and leaf area when compared with the control in both years. Significant increases in yield parameters over the control were obtained for the NPK fertilizer treatment. In 2013 and 2014 cropping season NPK 20-10-10 treatment significantly produced the highest cob yield but was not significantly higher than the yield from Gliricidia sepium treatment in 2014. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen (N, potassium (K, and exchangeable cations were positively stimulated by herbaceous mulches while residual phosphorus (P was increased by NPK fertilizer treatment. Mulched treatments significantly increased crude protein, carbohydrate, nitrogen, phosphorus and ash content of maize grain in both years of cropping season thereby improving nutritional content of maize grain. Therefore, shrub and herbaceous mulch treatments applied at 5t/ha-1 could be applied alternatively in lieu of scarce and expensive inorganic fertilizer for improved maize yield, soil properties and nutrient composition.

  1. Impacts of Soil and Water Conservation Practices on Crop Yield, Run-off, Soil Loss and Nutrient Loss in Ethiopia: Review and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Langan, Simon; Johnston, Robyn; Mekuria, Wolde; Amede, Tilahun

    2017-01-01

    Research results published regarding the impact of soil and water conservation practices in the highland areas of Ethiopia have been inconsistent and scattered. In this paper, a detailed review and synthesis is reported that was conducted to identify the impacts of soil and water conservation practices on crop yield, surface run-off, soil loss, nutrient loss, and the economic viability, as well as to discuss the implications for an integrated approach and ecosystem services. The review and synthesis showed that most physical soil and water conservation practices such as soil bunds and stone bunds were very effective in reducing run-off, soil erosion and nutrient depletion. Despite these positive impacts on these services, the impact of physical soil and water conservation practices on crop yield was negative mainly due to the reduction of effective cultivable area by soil/stone bunds. In contrast, most agronomic soil and water conservation practices increase crop yield and reduce run-off and soil losses. This implies that integrating physical soil and water conservation practices with agronomic soil and water conservation practices are essential to increase both provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. Additionally, effective use of unutilized land (the area occupied by bunds) by planting multipurpose grasses and trees on the bunds may offset the yield lost due to a reduction in planting area. If high value grasses and trees can be grown on this land, farmers can harvest fodder for animals or fuel wood, both in scarce supply in Ethiopia. Growing of these grasses and trees can also help the stability of the bunds and reduce maintenance cost. Economic feasibility analysis also showed that, soil and water conservation practices became economically more viable if physical and agronomic soil and water conservation practices are integrated.

  2. The Effect of Phosphorus and Zinc Fertilizers on Nutrient Content and Essential Oil Yield of German Chamomile under Drought Stress (Matricaria recutita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaedi Jeshni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L. is mainly cultivated for essential oil. Nowadays, it is a highly favored and much-used medicinal plant in reqular and traditional medicine. Water deficit is one of the most important limiting factors on crops production in arid and semi-arid regions (Sharafi et al. 2002. Drought stress limits the growth of plants by reducing water content of tissues and causes some metabolic and physiological changes. On the other hand, the availability of nutrients in the soil is affected by drought stress. Thus, nutritional management of plants under drought stress conditions is one of the most important factors in crop production. A better understanding of the role of nutrients in plant resistance to drought is associated with improvement of fertilizer management in arid and semi-arid areas. Our objectives were to investigate the effects of phosphorus and zinc fertilizers on nutrient content and essential oil yield of German chamomile under drought stress. Material and Methods: The experiment was conducted in split plot factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research farm of University of Zabol in 2013. Drought stress consisted of three levels 75% (control, 50% (mild stress and 25% of field capacity (severe stress as main plots, and factorial combinations of three triple superphosphate fertilizer (CaH4P2O8 levels (0, 150, and 300 kg ha-1 and two zinc sulphate fertilizer (ZnSO4H2O levels (0 and 30 kg ha-1 as sub plots (the fertilizers were applied before planting time. The seeds were sown at 20 cm apart in rows 40 cm wide, on first half of March 2013. Drought stress levels were determined by the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR. The success of chamomile cultivation as a commercial venture lies in how efficiently and effectively one can collect the flowers at the right stage during the peak flowering season extending over a period of 3–6 weeks. So, flowers were

  3. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi and Pseudomonas fluorescent bactria on Nutrient Uptake of Pistachio Seedling (Pistacia Vera Cv. Qazvini under Four Irrigation Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shool

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio is one of the most important products exported from the country, which due to the low rainfall, its production is faced with water deficiency in Iran. One of the strategies adopted to deal with water deficiency and drought stress in recent years is the use of mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Therefore, to study the effect of co-inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and Pseudomonas fluorescens P52 strain bacteria on nutrient uptake of pistachio seedling (Pistacia vera cv. Qazvini under drought stress, a greenhouse experiment was conducted using four levels of drought stress (%100 Field capacity (FC as control and 75, 50 and 25 %FC and four levels of biofertilizer (plant without mycorrhizae and bacteria as control, mycorrhizae alone (100 gr of mycorrhizal inoculum in every pot, bacteria alone (two ml of the bacterial suspension in every pot and mycorrhizae and bacteria combination (100 gr of mycorrhizal inoculum and two ml of the bacterial suspension in every pot in a completely randomized design as factorial with four replications. The experiment was carried out between the years of 2010 to 2011 on 3-months old seedlings with three seedlings per pot. In this experiment, bacteria inoculation in different levels of drought had no significant effect on root colonization by mycorrhizae, but regardless of bacterial treatment, an increase in drought intensity had a promotive effect on root colonization. The amount of phosphorus was increased using biofertilizer and in many cases the greatest amount of phosphorus was obtained in mycorrhizae and mixed treatments under 25 and 50% FC. The K+ content of shoot was maximum in the mixed treatment. The greatest amount of root Ca+ was recorded under 25% FC. Drought stress caused a significant increase in micronutrients compared with control at 25% of field capacity, but was ineffective in the roots. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that in many

  4. Use of flow cytometry and stable isotope analysis to determine phytoplankton uptake of wastewater derived ammonium in a nutrient-rich river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Calla M.; Kraus, Tamara; Young, Megan B.; Kendall, Carol

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic alteration of the form and concentration of nitrogen (N) in aquatic ecosystems is widespread. Understanding availability and uptake of different N sources at the base of aquatic food webs is critical to establishment of effective nutrient management programs. Stable isotopes of N (14N, 15N) are often used to trace the sources of N fueling aquatic primary production, but effective use of this approach requires obtaining a reliable isotopic ratio for phytoplankton. In this study, we tested the use of flow cytometry to isolate phytoplankton from bulk particulate organic matter (POM) in a portion of the Sacramento River, California, during river-scale nutrient manipulation experiments that involved halting wastewater discharges high in ammonium (NH4+). Field samples were collected using a Lagrangian approach, allowing us to measure changes in phytoplankton N source in the presence and absence of wastewater-derived NH4+. Comparison of δ15N-POM and δ15N-phytoplankton (δ15N-PHY) revealed that their δ15N values followed broadly similar trends. However, after 3 days of downstream travel in the presence of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, δ15N-POM and δ15N-PHY in the Sacramento River differed by as much as 7 ‰. Using a stable isotope mixing model approach, we estimated that in the presence of effluent between 40 and 90 % of phytoplankton N was derived from NH4+ after 3 days of downstream transport. An apparent gradual increase over time in the proportion of NH4+ in the phytoplankton N pool suggests that either very low phytoplankton growth rates resulted in an N turnover time that exceeded the travel time sampled during this study, or a portion of the phytoplankton community continued to access nitrate even in the presence of elevated NH4+ concentrations.

  5. Use of flow cytometry and stable isotope analysis to determine phytoplankton uptake of wastewater derived ammonium in a nutrient-rich river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Schmidt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic alteration of the form and concentration of nitrogen (N in aquatic ecosystems is widespread. Understanding availability and uptake of different N sources at the base of aquatic food webs is critical to establishment of effective nutrient management programs. Stable isotopes of N (14N, 15N are often used to trace the sources of N fueling aquatic primary production, but effective use of this approach requires obtaining a reliable isotopic ratio for phytoplankton. In this study, we tested the use of flow cytometry to isolate phytoplankton from bulk particulate organic matter (POM in a portion of the Sacramento River, California, during river-scale nutrient manipulation experiments that involved halting wastewater discharges high in ammonium (NH4+. Field samples were collected using a Lagrangian approach, allowing us to measure changes in phytoplankton N source in the presence and absence of wastewater-derived NH4+. Comparison of δ15N-POM and δ15N-phytoplankton (δ15N-PHY revealed that their δ15N values followed broadly similar trends. However, after 3 days of downstream travel in the presence of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP effluent, δ15N-POM and δ15N-PHY in the Sacramento River differed by as much as 7 ‰. Using a stable isotope mixing model approach, we estimated that in the presence of effluent between 40 and 90 % of phytoplankton N was derived from NH4+ after 3 days of downstream transport. An apparent gradual increase over time in the proportion of NH4+ in the phytoplankton N pool suggests that either very low phytoplankton growth rates resulted in an N turnover time that exceeded the travel time sampled during this study, or a portion of the phytoplankton community continued to access nitrate even in the presence of elevated NH4+ concentrations.

  6. Use of flow cytometry and stable isotope analysis to determine phytoplankton uptake of wastewater derived ammonium in a nutrient-rich river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Calla M.; Kraus, Tamara E. C.; Young, Megan B.; Kendall, Carol

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic alteration of the form and concentration of nitrogen (N) in aquatic ecosystems is widespread. Understanding availability and uptake of different N sources at the base of aquatic food webs is critical to establishment of effective nutrient management programs. Stable isotopes of N (14N, 15N) are often used to trace the sources of N fueling aquatic primary production, but effective use of this approach requires obtaining a reliable isotopic ratio for phytoplankton. In this study, we tested the use of flow cytometry to isolate phytoplankton from bulk particulate organic matter (POM) in a portion of the Sacramento River, California, during river-scale nutrient manipulation experiments that involved halting wastewater discharges high in ammonium (NH4+). Field samples were collected using a Lagrangian approach, allowing us to measure changes in phytoplankton N source in the presence and absence of wastewater-derived NH4+. Comparison of δ15N-POM and δ15N-phytoplankton (δ15N-PHY) revealed that their δ15N values followed broadly similar trends. However, after 3 days of downstream travel in the presence of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, δ15N-POM and δ15N-PHY in the Sacramento River differed by as much as 7 ‰. Using a stable isotope mixing model approach, we estimated that in the presence of effluent between 40 and 90 % of phytoplankton N was derived from NH4+ after 3 days of downstream transport. An apparent gradual increase over time in the proportion of NH4+ in the phytoplankton N pool suggests that either very low phytoplankton growth rates resulted in an N turnover time that exceeded the travel time sampled during this study, or a portion of the phytoplankton community continued to access nitrate even in the presence of elevated NH4+ concentrations.

  7. Effects of past sewage sludge additions on heavy metal availability in light textured soils: implications for crop yields and metal uptakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhogal, A.; Nicholson, F.A.; Chambers, B.J.; Shepherd, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Topsoil extractable zinc and copper concentrations are a good indicator of metal bioavailability to crops. - The effect of heavy metal additions in past sewage sludge applications on soil metal availability and the growth and yield of crops was evaluated at two sites in the UK. At Gleadthorpe, sewage sludges enriched with salts of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) had been applied to a loamy sand in 1982 and additionally naturally contaminated Zn and Cu sludge cakes in 1986. At Rosemaund, sewage sludges naturally contaminated with Zn, Cu, Ni and chromium (Cr) had been applied in 1968-1971 to a sandy loam. From 1994 to 1997, the yields of both cereals and legumes at Gleadthorpe were up to 3 t/ha lower than the no-sludge control where total topsoil Zn and Cu concentrations exceeded 200 and 120 mg/kg, respectively, but only when topsoil ammonium nitrate extractable metal levels also exceeded 40 mg/kg Zn and 0.9 mg/kg Cu. At Rosemaund, yields were only decreased where total topsoil Cu concentrations exceeded 220 mg/kg or 0.7 mg/kg ammonium nitrate extractable Cu. These results demonstrate the importance of measuring extractable as well as total heavy metal concentrations in topsoils when assessing likely effects on plant yields and metal uptakes, and setting soil quality criteria

  8. Characteristics of dairy farms in the North-Eastern part of Italy: rations, milk yield and nutrients excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Schiavon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey was aimed to evaluate the characteristics of dairy farms in the North- Eastern part of Po valley in terms of ration composition, milk yield and N and P excretions. Eightynine farms, with Italian Holstein Friesian cows, were selected in order to cover different situations in term of farm size and milk yield (MY. MY and quality were obtained from the national database of functional controls. Each farm was visited in order to collect information about ingredients and chemical composition of rations used. Farms were classified in four groups differing for dietary crude protein density (LCP15.3% DM and for MY (LMY30 kg/d. N and P excretions were quantified by following a mass balance approach. Dietary crude protein content (CP was not correlated to milk yield (MY and quality. The estimated amounts of N excreted, discounted for 28% of N losses in atmosphere, were 78.5, 78.2, 87.2 and 89.1 kg/cow/year, and P excreted were 20.2, 18.6, 18.7 and 19.8 kg/cow/year for the LCPLMY, LCPHMY, HCPLMY, HCPHMY groups, respectively. On corn silage and cereals based rations, a dietary CP of 14.3% DM can support 31 kg MY/cow/day.

  9. Determining the Threshold Value of Basil Yield Reduction and Evaluation of Water Uptake Models under Salinity Stress Condition

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sarai Tabrizi; H. Babazadeh; M. Homaee; F. Kaveh Kaveh; M. Parsinejad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Several mathematical models are being used for assessing the plant response to the salinity of the root zone. The salinity of the soil and water resources is a major challenge for agricultural sector in Iran. Several mathematical models have been developed for plant responses to the salinity stress. However, these models are often applicable in particular conditions. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the threshold value of Basil yield reduction, modeling Basil respon...

  10. Effect of Harvesting Frequency, Variety and Leaf Maturity on Nutrient Composition, Hydrogen Cyanide Content and Cassava Foliage Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuc Thi Hue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment studied the effect of harvesting frequencies and varieties on yield, chemical composition and hydrogen cyanide content in cassava foliage. Foliage from three cassava varieties, K94 (very bitter, K98-7 (medium bitter and a local (sweet, were harvested in three different cutting cycles, at 3, 6 and 9 months; 6 and 9 months and 9 months after planting, in a 2-yr experiment carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam. Increasing the harvesting frequency increased dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP production in cassava foliage. The K94 variety produced higher foliage yields than the other two varieties. Dry matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF and total tannin content increased with months to the first harvest, whereas CP content decreased. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN content was lower at the first harvest than at later harvests for all cutting cycles. At subsequent harvests the content of total tannins tended to decline, while HCN content increased (p<0.05. Chemical composition differed somewhat across varieties except for total tannins and ash. Dry matter, NDF, ADF and total tannins were higher in fully matured leaves, while CP and HCN were lower in developing leaves.

  11. Differences in nutrient uptake capacity of the benthic filamentous algae Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. under varying N/P conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junzhuo; Vyverman, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The N/P ratio of wastewater can vary greatly and directly affect algal growth and nutrient removal process. Three benthic filamentous algae species Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. were isolated from a periphyton bioreactor and cultured under laboratory conditions on varying N/P ratios to determine their ability to remove nitrate and phosphorus. The N/P ratio significantly influenced the algal growth and phosphorus uptake process. Appropriate N/P ratios for nitrogen and phosphorus removal were 5-15, 7-10 and 7-20 for Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp., respectively. Within these respective ranges, Cladophora sp. had the highest biomass production, while Pseudanabaena sp. had the highest nitrogen and phosphorus contents. This study indicated that Cladophora sp. had a high capacity of removing phosphorus from wastewaters of low N/P ratio, and Pseudanabaena sp. was highly suitable for removing nitrogen from wastewaters with high N/P ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Short communication: Partial replacement of ground corn with algae meal in a dairy cow diet: Milk yield and composition, nutrient digestibility, and metabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, G G; Ferreira de Jesus, E; Takiya, C S; Del Valle, T A; da Silva, T H; Vendramini, T H A; Yu, Esther J; Rennó, F P

    2016-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of partially replacing dietary ground corn with a microalgae meal from Prototheca moriformis (composed of deoiled microalgae and soyhulls) on milk yield and composition, nutrient intake, total-tract apparent digestibility, and blood profile of lactating dairy cows. Twenty multiparous Holstein cows (57.7±49.4d in milk, 25.3±5.3 of milk yield, and 590±71kg of live weight at the start of experiment, mean ± standard deviation) were used in a cross-over design experiment, with 21-d periods. Diets were no microalgae meal (CON) or 91.8g/kg of microalgae meal partially replacing dietary ground corn (ALG). Cows showed similar milk yield and composition. The 3.5% fat-corrected milk production was 30.2±1.34kg/d for CON and 31.1±1.42kg/d for ALG. Despite cows having similar dry matter intake, ALG increased neutral detergent fiber and ether extract intake. In addition, cows fed ALG exhibited higher ether extract digestibility. No differences were detected in glucose, urea, amino-aspartate transferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase blood concentrations. Feeding ALG increased the total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein in blood compared with CON. The microalgae meal may partially replace ground corn in diets of lactating cows without impairing the animal's performance. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing the effects of soil liming with dolomitic limestone and sugar foam on soil acidity, leaf nutrient contents, grape yield and must quality in a Mediterranean vineyard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olego, M.A.; Visconti, F.; Quiroga, M.J.; Paz, J.M. De; Garzón-Jimeno, E.

    2016-11-01

    Aluminium toxicity has been recognized as one of the most common causes of reduced grape yields in vineyard acid soils. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two liming materials, i.e. dolomitic lime and sugar foam, on a vineyard cultivated in an acid soil. The effects were studied in two soil layers (0-30 and 30-60 cm), as well as on leaf nutrient contents, must quality properties and grape yield, in an agricultural soil dedicated to Vitis vinifera L. cv. ‘Mencía’ cultivation. Data management and analysis were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). As liming material, sugar foam was more efficient than dolomitic limestone because sugar foam promoted the highest decrease in soil acidity properties at the same calcium carbonate equivalent dose. However, potassium contents in vines organs, including leaves and berries, seemed to decrease as a consequence of liming, with a concomitant increase in must total acidity. Soil available phosphorus also decreased as a consequence of liming, especially with sugar foam, though no effects were observed in plants. For these reasons fertilization of this soil with K and P is recommended along with liming. Grape yields in limed soils increased, although non-significantly, by 30%. This research has therefore provided an important opportunity to advance in our understanding of the effects of liming on grape quality and production in acid soils. (Author)

  14. Biomass Yield and N Uptake in Tall Fescue and Reed Canary Grass Depending on N and PK Fertilization on Two Marginal Sites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    areas with limited suitability for cereal production. Plots with TF and RCG were sown in April 2011, and fertilization trials were established in spring 2012 with three factors: (a) grass species, (b) PK fertilization (either no P and K or 24 and 250 kg ha−1 y−1 of P and K, respectively), and (c) N...... fertilization (0, 150, 300, or 450 kg ha−1 y−1 N). Three cuts were taken annually from 2012 to 2014. Both species responded strongly to N fertilization. In TF, 450 kg ha−1 y−1 N combined with PK fertilization gave DM yields of 19.3, 12.1, and 14.2 t ha−1 y−1 in the 3 years, respectively, and corresponding...... yields for RCG were 17.3, 14.4, and 14.3 t ha−1 y−1. Without PK fertilization yields were significantly lower: 15.2, 7.5, and 7.3 t ha−1 y−1 in TF and 16.3, 8.7, and 4.8 ha−1 y−1 in RCG. When fertilized with PK, N uptake in harvested biomass balanced with N fertilization at rates of 244, 187, and 172 kg...

  15. Effects of water restriction following feeding on nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and composition and blood hormones in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghassemi Nejad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water restriction following feeding under heat stress conditions on nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and composition and some blood hormones in lactating Holstein cows were evaluated. The design was completely randomized with 30 high producing lactating Holstein cows (80.8±40.5 DIM which were assigned to two treatment groups (15 cows per treatment. Treatments were free access to water (FAW and 2 h water restriction (2hWR following feeding. Average temperature-humidity index (THI in the farm was over 80 throughout the experiment which defines heat stress conditions. Neutral detergent fibre, organic matter and ether extract digestibilities increased by water restriction (P0.05. Water intake was recorded daily during the digestibility period and was not different between FAW and 2hWR group (P>0.05. Fat corrected milk was higher in 2hWR group than FAW group (P0.05. Somatic cell counts were greater in 2hWR than FAW group (P0.05. Blood prolactin and growth hormone were higher in 2hWR group than the FAW group (P<0.05. It is concluded that water restriction for 2 hours following feeding improved nutrient digestibility of some dietary components and increased milk fat percentage in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

  16. Trends in nutrient concentrations, loads, and yields in streams in the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Santa Ana Basins, California, 1975-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Charles R.; Kent, Robert; Seleh, Dina K.; Knifong, Donna L.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Orlando, James L.

    2011-01-01

    San Joaquin Basin but decreased in the Sacramento and Santa Ana Basins from 1982 to 2002. Tile drainage accounted for 22 percent of the total nitrogen load in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis for 1985-2004. Nutrient loads and trends were calculated by using the log-linear multiple-regression model, LOADEST. Loads were calculated for water years 1975-2004 for 22 sites in the Sacramento Basin, 15 sites in the San Joaquin Basin, and 6 sites in the Santa Ana Basin. The average annual load of total nitrogen and total phosphorus for 1985-2004 in subbasins in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Basins were divided by their drainage areas to calculate average annual yield. Total nitrogen yields were greater than 2.45 tons per square mile per year [(tons/mi2)/yr] in about 61 percent of the valley floor in the San Joaquin Basin compared with only about 12 percent of the valley floor in the Sacramento Basin. Total phosphorus yields were greater than 0.34 (tons/mi2)/yr in about 43 percent of the valley floor in the San Joaquin Basin compared with only about 5 percent in the valley floor of the Sacramento Basin. In a stepwise multiple linear-regression analysis of 30 subbasins in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Basins, the most important explanatory variables (out of 11 variables) for the response variable (total nitrogen yield) were the percentage of land use in (1) orchards and vineyards, (2) row crops, and (3) urban categories. For total phosphorus yield, the most important explanatory variable was the amount of fertilizer application plus manure production. Trends were evaluated for three time periods: 1975-2004, 1985-2004, and 1993-2004. Most trends in flow-adjusted concentrations of nutrients in the Sacramento Basin were downward for all three time periods. The decreasing nutrient trends in the American River at Sacramento and the Sacramento River at Freeport for 1975-2004 were attributed to the consolidation of wastewater in the Sacramento metropolitan area in December 1982 to

  17. Effects of Tillage Systems on Changes of Soil Nutrients, Yield and Land Equivalent Ratio in Roselle – Green Gram Intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hodiani mehr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Intercropping is one of the components of sustainable agriculture and as part of crop rotation in the design of sustainable system. One of the benefits of intercropping is greater use of available resources. The aims of this study were to evaluate different tillage systems and cropping patterns of Roselle and Green Gram on some soil nutrients and the use efficiency of environmental resources. Usually, intercropping used at Low fertility soil with low input conditions in the tropics region. Bahrani et al. (2007 reported that no tillage systems compared with conventional tillage with crop residue, were increased soil organic carbon content in maize production. Ramroudi et al. (2011 expressed conventional tillage reduced amount of nitrogen compared to no tillage system. Material and Methods The research was conducted at Zabol city. Split plot experiment performed based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plot was three levels of tillage system (zero (without plowing, reduced (disk and conventional tillage (disc plow and sub plot was planting ratio with five levels (pure culture of Roselle, pure culture of Green gram, 50% roselle+50% green gram, 25% roselle+75% green gram, 75% roselle+25% green gram were considered. Preparing the ground in mid-June 2012, according to the type of plowing was performed. For comparison of means were used by Duncan's test at 5% probability. Results and Discussion The effects of tillage systems, planting ratios and interaction of tillage systems × planting ratio on soil organic carbon and nitrogen were very significant. The highest and lowest levels of organic carbon were obtained in zero tillage (1.14% and conventional tillage systems (0.63 %, respectively. The highest and lowest nitrogen of soil after harvest, of pure culture of Green gram (0.11 % and 75 % of Roselle + 25% Green gram intercropping (0.06 % were obtained respectively, Tillage system could not affected the

  18. Produtividade e exportação de nutrientes em beterraba cultivada com cobertura morta e adubação orgânica Yield and nutrient export of sugar beet under mulching and organic fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. N. Sediyama

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito da cobertura do solo e doses de lodo de lagoa de decantação de água residuária de suinocultura na produtividade e na exportação de nutrientes pela beterraba, cultivar Early Wonder. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental Vale do Piranga, pertencente à EPAMIG, Zona da Mata, em Oratórios, MG, no período de 07/08/08 a 09/11/08, no delineamento de blocos casualizados em parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas foram dispostos três tipos de cobertura de solo: bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, palha de café e sem cobertura e, nas subparcelas, foram usadas cinco doses do lodo de lagoa: 0; 10; 20; 40 e 60 t ha-1. Aos 70 dias após o transplante das mudas realizou-se a colheita. A cobertura com palha de café proporcionou maior massa unitária de raiz e maior produtividade de raízes comerciais, independente das doses de lodo. Os nutrientes mais exportados pela parte aérea das plantas foram Ca, Mg e S e, pelas raízes, N, P e K. Com a população de 400.000 plantas ha-1e produtividade de 34,22 t ha-1, as quantidades médias de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S exportadas pelas raízes foram 140; 24; 180; 8, 17 e 5 kg ha-1e, para Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu e B, 371, 435, 320, 74 e 250 g ha-1, respectivamente.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of soil cover and doses of sludge from sedimentation pond of swine wastewater on yield and nutrient export in sugar beet cultivar Early Wonder. The experiment was conducted at the Vale do Piranga Experimental Farm belonging to EPAMIG Zona da Mata in Oratórios (MG, from 07/08/08 to 09/11/08. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot in randomized block design with four replications. The main plots consisted of three types of mulching: sugarcane bagasse, coffee husk and without any cover, and the subplots of five doses of sludge: 0, 10, 20, 40 and 60 t ha-1. At 70 days after transplanting, harvest was carried out. Mulching with coffee husk provided

  19. Evaluation of nutrient status and grain yield of two corn cultivars under different soil aluminum levels after liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Pauletti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of decreasing levels of Al saturation through the addition of lime under field conditions in the nutritional status and grain yield of two corn (Zea mays L. cultivars: one tolerant and one non-tolerant to Al. The experiment was conducted on Red Yellow Latosol (Oxisol at the Paraná, Brazil. Control plots received no lime (T0, the treatment T3 received lime to achieve 0% Al saturation and treatments T1 and T2 recieved 33.3% and 66.6%, respectively, of the lime applied to treatment T3. At full bloom stage, representative leaves ("nutritional leaves" were analysed for macro, micronutrients and Al contents, and in treatments T0 and T3 were also analyzed for Al distribution in shoot plants parts (stem, node, internode and leaves. Liming increased concentrations of N, P and Mg and decreased concentrations of Mn and Al in the "nutritional leaves"of both cultivars. The Al distribution in the shoot plant parts showed that its concentration was higher in the leaves than in any other plant part, independent of liming level. Grain yield of the tolerant cultivar was higher, although for both cultivars increase in yield was correlated with decrease in Al saturation.Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de níveis decrescentes de saturação por Al em função da calagem, em condições de campo, na nutrição e produtividade de grãos de dois cultivares de milho: um tolerante e outro sensível ao Al. O experimento foi conduzido em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo (Oxisol, no estado do Paraná - Brasil. O tratamento T0 não recebeu calagem, o tratamento T3 recebeu calagem para obter 0% de saturação por Al e os tratamentos T1 e T2 receberam 33,3% e 66,6% da quantidade aplicada no T3, respectivamente. No pleno florescimento foram coletadas folhas representativas do estado nutricional ("folhas nutricionais" para análise dos macro e micronutrientes e Al. Nos tratamentos T0 e T3 foi avaliado a distribui

  20. Effect of rate and time of nitrogen application on fruit yield and accumulation of nutrient elements in Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Heidari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbitaceae is one of the largest families in vegetable kingdom consisting of largest number of edible type species. Momordica charantia is one such important vegetable that belongs to the family of Cucurbitaceae. In order to evaluate the effect of rate and time of nitrogen application on M. charantia, a field experiment was conducted at the University of Zabol in Iran during 2011 growing season. The experiment was laid out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Three levels of nitrogen rates consisting of: N1 = 75, N2 = 150 and N3 = 225 kg N ha−1 as main plot and three time application including: T1 = 1/2 at 3 and 4 leaves and 1/2 before flowering, T2 = 1/2 at 3 and 4 leaves and 1/2 after fruit to start, and T3 = 1/3 at 3 and 4 leaves, 1/3 before flowering, and 1/3 after fruit to start were used as sub plot. The results revealed that both rate and time of nitrogen application had a significant effect on fruit yield. The highest fruit yield was recorded at the rate of N3 and time of nitrogen application in T3 treatment. In this study, by increasing nitrogen levels from 75 to 225 kg N ha−1, the values of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in fruit increased. The time of nitrogen application and interaction between rate and time of nitrogen treatments had no significant effect on the amounts of these three elements. Nitrogen level had a significant effect on the amounts of calcium, manganese and zinc elements. The highest values of calcium and zinc were obtained at N2 and manganese at N3 nitrogen level. Time of nitrogen application treatment in this experiment had only significant effect on the amounts of calcium and zinc elements and had no significant effect on the other elements.

  1. Effect of different fertilization and irrigation methods on nitrogen uptake, intercepted radiation and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L.) grown in the Keta Sand Spit of Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danso, E. Oppong; Abenney-Mickson, S.; Sabi, E.B.

    2015-01-01

    spread, (ii) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with localized manure, (iii) irrigation by drip, fertilized with localized manure, (iv) irrigation by drip, fertigated with N-K chemical fertilizers (twice during the crop season in the first experiment, weekly in the second and third experiment). Nitrogen...... uptake, crop interception of solar radiation, yield and water productivity were compared among treatments. The crop did not respond well when fertigation was done only twice, probably due to N-leaching. However, in the second and third experiments, when fertigation was done weekly for eight weeks......Three seasons' experiments were conducted in the Keta Sand Spit to test if current use of sprinkler irrigation and animal manure can be substituted by water saving drip fertigation with reduced P supply to okra. The treatments compared were: (i) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with manure...

  2. Effect of decapitation and nutrient applications on shoot branching, yield, and accumulation of secondary metabolites in leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Probir Kumar; Prasad, Ramdeen; Pathania, Vijaylata

    2013-11-15

    The axillary buds of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) often remain dormant for a long time and sometimes remain dormant permanently until the plants enter into the reproductive stage. The present study was conducted to ascertain whether decapitation and foliar fertilization enhance the productivity and quality of stevia through breaking the apical dominance and increasing physiological activities. Ten treatment combinations comprising two cultural operations (non-decapitation and decapitation) and five foliar spray treatments (water spray control, KNO3 @ 5.0gL(-1), Ca(NO3)2 @ 4.06gL(-1), CuSO4·5H2O 2.0gL(-1) and (NH4)6Mo7O24 @ 1.0gL(-1)) were applied. The decapitation of apical buds of stevia increased the branches and increased dry leaf yield by 13 and 17% compared with non-decapitation during 2010 and 2011, respectively, without affecting quality. Foliar application of nutrient solutions also exerted a considerable effect on growth parameters, yield attributes and chlorophyll content, and significantly (P=0.05) higher dry leaf yield ranging from 8 to 26% over the control. Among the foliar spray treatments, KNO3 @ 5.0gL(-1) and Ca (NO3)2 4.06gL(-1) were found most effective in dry leaf yield. Thus, the decapitation of apical buds and foliar application of KNO3 and Ca (NO3)2 could enhance the productivity of stevia through improving the growth of axillary buds and physiological activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 expression enhances nitrogen uptake efficiency and grain yield in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingguang; Fan, Xiaoru; Qian, Kaiyun; Zhang, Yong; Song, Miaoquan; Liu, Yu; Xu, Guohua; Fan, Xiaorong

    2017-10-01

    The nitrate (NO3-) transporter has been selected as an important gene maker in the process of environmental adoption in rice cultivars. In this work, we transferred another native OsNAR2.1 promoter with driving OsNAR2.1 gene into rice plants. The transgenic lines with exogenous pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 constructs showed enhanced OsNAR2.1 expression level, compared with wild type (WT), and 15 N influx in roots increased 21%-32% in response to 0.2 mm and 2.5 mm 15NO3- and 1.25 mm 15 NH 4 15 NO 3 . Under these three N conditions, the biomass of the pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 transgenic lines increased 143%, 129% and 51%, and total N content increased 161%, 242% and 69%, respectively, compared to WT. Furthermore in field experiments we found the grain yield, agricultural nitrogen use efficiency (ANUE), and dry matter transfer of pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 plants increased by about 21%, 22% and 21%, compared to WT. We also compared the phenotypes of pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 and pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 transgenic lines in the field, found that postanthesis N uptake differed significantly between them, and in comparison with the WT. Postanthesis N uptake (PANU) increased approximately 39% and 85%, in the pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 and pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 transgenic lines, respectively, possibly because OsNRT2.1 expression was less in the pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 lines than in the pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 lines during the late growth stage. These results show that rice NO 3 - uptake, yield and NUE were improved by increased OsNAR2.1 expression via its native promoter. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Integrated effect of nutrients from a recirculation aquaponic system and foliar nutrition on the yield of tomatoes Solanum lycopersicum L. and Solanum pimpinellifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullian Klanian, Mariel; Delgadillo Diaz, Mariana; Aranda, Javier; Rosales Juárez, Carolina

    2018-04-20

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of tomato plants to efficiently use the nitrogen (N) of a recirculation aquaponic system (RAS) and to evaluate the effects of foliar fertilization as a complement to the water nutrition on the growth of the two tomato cultivars. The significant effect of six macro- and seven micronutrients was evaluated on the plant growth and on the fruit yield. Two experiments were performed in a nutrient film aquaponic unit. The first experiment was designed to study the effects of foliar fertilization on the seedlings of two tomato cultivars Costoluto Genovese (CG) (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and Currant tomato (Ct) (Solanum pimpinellifolium) with 8% of weekly water exchange (WE8%-RAS). The foliar fertilizer was formulated with N restriction in the last 11 weeks (TF1). In the second experiment, two other foliar fertilization treatments (TF2 and TF3) were applied with a concentration of nutrients twice and triple that in TF1, but with a lower proportion of NPK ratio. These treatments were tested on the cultivar CG in a RAS with zero water exchange (WE0%-RAS). The data from the 1st experiment showed a positive effect of the foliar fertilization on the yield of both cultivars. The fertilization markedly influenced the dry matter weight of the CG; however, this effect was not observed in the Ct. The root length of both cultivars was positively influenced by the P content, whereas the plant height was affected by the excess of Co and S. According to the results from the 2nd experiment, the TF2 plants had the highest number of fruits with a high mean weight. The system was efficient in utilizing N from fish tank; the water K favored the yield of the CG fruit and the foliar K favored the growth of the TF2 plants. With a decrease in the foliar N, the CG plants were able to absorb 27.5% of the NO 3 - and 7.06% of total ammonia nitrogen from water. The absolute and relative growth rate of Nile tilapia was not affected by the rate

  5. Salts and nutrients present in regenerated waters induce changes in water relations, antioxidative metabolism, ion accumulation and restricted ion uptake in Myrtus communis L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Motos, José R; Alvarez, Sara; Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Hernández, José A; Sánchez-Blanco, María J

    2014-12-01

    The use of reclaimed water (RW) constitutes a valuable strategy for the efficient management of water and nutrients in landscaping. However, RW may contain levels of toxic ions, affecting plant production or quality, a very important aspect for ornamental plants. The present paper evaluates the effect of different quality RWs on physiological and biochemical parameters and the recovery capacity in Myrtus communis L. plants. M. communis plants were submitted to 3 irrigation treatments with RW from different sources (22 weeks): RW1 (1.7 dS m(-1)), RW2 (4.0 dS m(-1)) and RW3 (8.0 dS m(-1)) and one control (C, 0.8 dS m(-1)). During a recovery period of 11 weeks, all plants were irrigated with the control water. The RW treatments did not negatively affect plant growth, while RW2 even led to an increase in biomass. After recovery,only plants irrigated with RW3 showed some negative effects on growth, which was related to a decrease in the net photosynthesis rate, higher Na accumulation and a reduction in K levels. An increase in salinity was accompanied by decreases in leaf water potential, relative water content and gas exchange parameters, and increases in Na and Cl uptake. Plants accumulated Na in roots and restricted its translocation to the aerial part. The highest salinity levels produced oxidative stress, as seen from the rise in electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation. The use of regenerated water together with carefully managed drainage practices, which avoid the accumulation of salt by the substrate, will provide economic and environmental benefits.

  6. Variation of milk coagulation properties, cheese yield, and nutrients recovery in curd of cows of different breeds before, during and after transhumance to highland summer pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendri, Francesco; Ramanzin, Maurizio; Cipolat-Gotet, Claudio; Sturaro, Enrico

    2017-02-01

    This paper aimed at evaluating the effect of summer transhumance to mountain pastures of dairy cows of different breeds on cheese-making ability of milk. Data were from 649 dairy cows of specialized (Holstein Friesian and Brown Swiss) dual purpose (Simmental) and local (mostly Rendena and Alpine Grey) breeds. The Fourier-Transform Infra-Red Spectra (FTIRS) of their milk samples were collected before and after transhumance in 109 permanent dairy farms, and during transhumance in 14 summer farms (with multi-breeds herds) of the Trento Province, north-eastern Italy. A variety of 18 traits describing milk coagulation, curd firming, cheese yield and nutrients recovery in curd/loss in whey were predicted on the basis of FTIRS collected at the individual cow level. Moving the cows to summer farms improved curd firming traits but reduced cheese yields because of an increase of water and fat lost in the whey. During summer grazing, most of cheese-making traits improved, often non-linearly. The milk from summer farms supplementing cows with more concentrates showed better curd firming and cheese yield, because of lower fat lost in the whey. The breed of cows affected almost all the traits with a worst cheese-making ability for milk samples of Holsteins through all the trial, and interacted with concentrate supplementation because increasing compound feed tended to improve cheese-making traits for all breed, with the exception of local breeds for coagulation time and of Brown Swiss for curd firming time. In general, summer transhumance caused a favourable effect on cheese-making aptitude of milk, even though with some difference according to parity, initial days in milk, breed and concentrate supplementation of cows.

  7. Densidade de plantio na produtividade e nos teores de nutrientes nas folhas e frutos da bananeira cv. Thap Maeo Plants density on yield and nutrients concentration in leaves and fruits of banana cv. Thap Maeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adônis Moreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da densidade de plantio na produtividade, tempo de colheita e teores dos nutrientes nas folhas e nos frutos de bananeira cv. Thap Maeo (AAB cultivada em Manaus (AM. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos fatores: três densidades de plantio (1.111; 1.667 e 3.333 plantas ha-1 e duas épocas de colheita (primeiro e segundo ciclos. Os resultados do primeiro e segundo ciclos mostraram incremento significativo da produtividade, com aumento da densidade de plantio. O tempo médio para colheita dos cachos foi menor na densidade de 1.111 plantas ha-1 (1º ciclo, 338 e 2º ciclo, 401 dias. Na média das densidades e independentemente do ciclo, os teores de macronutrientes nos frutos apresentaram a ordem de: K>N>P>Mg>Ca=S, enquanto a dos micronutrientes foi: 1º ciclo - Cl>Fe>Mn=B>Zn>Cu e 2º ciclo - Cl>Fe>Zn>B=Mn>Cu.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of plants density on yield, period of harvest and nutrients concentration in leaves and fruits of banana cv. Thap Maeo (AAB, cultivated in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. The experiment was conduced in a randomized blocks, with three replicates. Treatments were comprised of planting density (1,111; 1,667 and 3,333 plants ha-1, and two cycles of harvest (sub treatments. The results obtained from 1st cycle and 2nd cycle showed significant increase in the yield per unit area as the employed plant density increased. The shortest average period to harvest banana bunches (1st cycle, 338 days and 2nd cycle, 401 days was observed for the lower density (1,111 plants ha-1. Pooled data of density and cycles showed that exportation of macronutrients through the fruits was, in order: K>N>P>Mg>Ca=S, while in micronutrients was: 1st cycle - Cl>Fe>Mn=B>Zn>Cu, and 2nd cycle - Cl>Fe>Zn>B=Mn>Cu.

  8. Influence of composted tobacco waste and farmyard manure applications on the yield and nutrient composition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezai Delibacak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic wastes in agriculture, forestry and land reclamation has been increasingly identified as an important issue for soil fertility, soil conservation and residue disposal. Using organic wastes in agriculture helps not only to dispose these materials economi¬cally, but also reduces negative effects on the envi¬ronment. In the present study, composted tobacco waste (CTW combined with farmyard manure (FM at different ratios was applied to Typic Xerofluvent soil, and the influence of these amendments on the yield and nutrient composition of butter head letttuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata were investigated. The experiment was conducted in 18 parcels in a randomized-block design with three replications at the Agriculture Faculty’s Research Farm of Ege University in Menemen plain, in the Western Anatolia Region of Turkey (38°58′35.51″-38°58′36.03″N; 27°03′84.56″-27°03′89.81″E. Organic materials were applied to the soil after composting. The treatments were (1 control, (2 12.5 t ha-1 FM + 37.5 t ha-1 CTW, (3 25 t ha-1 FM + 25 t ha-1 CTW, (4 50 t ha-1 FM, (5 50 t ha-1 CTW, and (6 37.5 t ha-1 FM + 12.5 t ha-1 CTW. The maximum yield was obtained during the 1st vegetation period (62,7 t ha-1 in the 100 % CTW application. On account of the 2nd vegetation period’s coinciding with winter and the coldness of the months December, January and February, there happened a slowdown in the lettuce yield. The highest total yield of lettuce in both vegetation periods (102.7 t ha-1 was determined in 100% CTW application parcels. The lower lettuce yields were determined in the control parcels. CTW and FM applications raised N, P, K Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Zn and Mn contents of the lettuce. According to the results obtained, it can be said that CTW can be used in agricultural fields just like FM.

  9. Effects of replacing wheat bran by pistachio skins on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naserian, A A; Staples, C R; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pistachio skins (PiS) as a replacement of wheat bran on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats. Eight multiparous lactating Saanen goats (55 ± 7.2 days post-partum, 45 ± 2 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments arranged in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were 1) 0 g/kg PiS and 210 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (0PiS), 2) 70 g/kg PiS and 140 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (7PiS), 3) 140 g/kg PiS and 70 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (14PiS) and 4) 210 g/kg PiS and 0 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (21PiS). The trial consisted of four 21-day periods, each composed of 14 days adaptation and 7 days data collection. Dry matter intake (p < 0.05) and crude protein digestibility (p < 0.01) increased linearly with increasing PiS proportions in the diet. Increasing the proportion of PiS in the diet caused a quadratic increase in apparent digestibility of dry matter (p < 0.05), and tended (p = 0.05) to increase quadratically organic matter, and ether extract digestibility. Replacing wheat bran with PiS in the diet had no effects on milk yield, whereas milk fat concentration increased linearly (p < 0.01) with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. As the dietary proportion of PiS increased, ruminal pH tended (p = 0.07) to increase linearly, whereas ammonia-N concentration declined in the rumen. Plasma concentrations of glucose and BUN remained unaffected, whereas triglycerides (p < 0.05) and cholesterol (p < 0.01) concentrations increased linearly with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. It was concluded that PiS based on local ingredients can successfully replace wheat bran in diets of dairy goats without detrimental effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell

  10. Subprodutos industriais na ensilagem de capim-elefante para cabras leiteiras: consumo, digestibilidade de nutrientes e produção de leite Industrial by-products in elephant grass silage for dairy goats: intake, nutrient digestibility and milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobel Beserra de Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente e a produção do leite em cabras alimentadas com silagens de capim-elefante contendo subprodutos industriais. Utilizaram-se oito cabras da raça Saanen, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos 4 × 4, com 4 períodos de 14 dias (10 dias de adaptação e 4 dias para coleta de dados. Os tratamentos foram: silagem de capim-elefante + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de farelo de mandioca + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de casca de café + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% farelo de cacau + concentrado. Os maiores consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, carboidratos totais (CT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e nutrientes digestíveis totais foram observados entre os animais alimentados com a silagem contendo farelo de mandioca. As silagens com farelo de mandioca ou casca de café promoveram maior consumo de extrato etéreo. Os maiores valores de digestibilidade da MS, MO, EE e CT foram obtidos na dieta contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca. O valor de digestibilidade dos CNF foi semelhante entre as dietas contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca, casca de café e farelo de cacau. A digestibilidade de fibra em detergente neutro e de fibra em detergente ácido foi maior para a silagem sem aditivo, com farelo de mandioca ou farelo de cacau. Entre os subprodutos avaliados, o farelo de mandioca é o que promove maiores consumos, digestibilidades dos nutrientes e produção de leite em cabras alimentadas com silagem de capim-elefante.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the intake, apparent digestibility and the milk yield of goats fed elephant grass silages containing industrial by-products. Eight Saanen breed goats were used, distributed in two 4 × 4 Latin squares, with four 14-day periods (ten days of adaptation and four days for data collection. The treatments were

  11. Yield, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency by tomato, pepper, cucumber, melon and eggplant as affected by nitrogen rates applied with drip-irrigation under greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Akin, A.I.; Kislal, H.; Ozturk, A.; Deviren, A.

    2002-01-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of different N rates applied through drip irrigation on the growth and N uptake by tomato, pepper, cucumber, melon and eggplant under greenhouse conditions. It was found that, for tomato, the % NUE was significantly increased by applying the N fertilizer through fertigation (53.9%) as compared to the soil application (34.0%) at 100 mg N/L. In general, any further increase of N fertilizer did not have an improving effect on the tomato yield. With pepper, the % NUE was significantly increased by applying the N fertilizer in the irrigation water (49.2%) as compared to the soil application (33.9%) at the same N level (140 mg N/L), being the optimum N rate under our greenhouse conditions. At a fertilization level of 100 mg N/L with fertigation, the % NUE was significantly increased as compared to the soil application. With respectively cucumber, melon and eggplant; the % NUE with fertigation was 63.4, 21.4 and 50.8%, while with soil application it was 34,0 11.0 and 18.8%. (author)

  12. Yield performance and leaf nutrient levels of coffee cultivars under different plant densities Produtividade e níveis foliares de nutrientes em cultivares de café sob diferentes populações de plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Martins Paulo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee (Coffea Arabica L. plantations using adapted cultivars to regional environmental conditions with optimal plant population density and adequate nutrition are expected to show high yield responses. The triennial production and leaf macronutrient concentrations of four coffee cultivars were studied under different plant population densities. Catuaí Amarelo (IAC 47, Obatã (IAC 1669-20, Acaiá (IAC 474-19 and Icatu Amarelo (IAC 2944 were planted in densities of 2,500; 5,000; 7,519; and 10,000 plants ha-1 with one plant per hole and two plants per hole in the 2,500 plant ha-1. Plants were homogeneously fertilized without liming. As the population density increased the triennial coffee productivity increased, the yield per plant decreased, and leaf concentrations of phosphorus (P, potassium (K and sulfur (S increased. Coffee plants under dense systems presented equal or higher leaf macronutrient concentrations compared to the plants under conventional population. Taller cultivars presented the highest nutrient concentration values, and Obatã, a dwarf cultivar, the lowest values. Higher coffee yields and lower leaf P, Ca and S concentrations were observed in plots with one plant compared to the plots with two plants. In general, the coffee cultivars had leaf N and S concentrations above the reference limits reported in the literature, but leaf concentrations of other macronutrients were within adequate ranges.Cultivares de cafeeiro (Coffea Arabica L. adaptadas às regiões de cultivo, com população de plantas otimizada e adequado estado nutricional são premissas para a obtenção de produções elevadas de café. Estudou-se a produção trienal de café e o teor foliar de macronutrientes de cultivares de cafeeiro em função das densidades de plantio. Foram utilizados os cultivares Catuaí Amarelo (IAC 47, Obatã (IAC 1669-20, Acaiá (IAC 474-19 e Icatu Amarelo (IAC 2944 nas populações de 2.500 plantas ha-1 com duas plantas por cova; e, 5

  13. Evaluation of proline, chlorophyll, soluble sugar content and uptake of nutrients in the German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. under drought stress and organic fertilizer treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Salehi

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Totally, organic fertilization by vermicompost could partly alleviate the effect of drought stress on chamomile by increasing N, P and K uptake and leaf soluble sugar, especially in stressed treatments.

  14. Effect of available phosphorus in paddy soils on phosphorus uptake of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Delin; Zhu Zhaomin

    1996-01-01

    Relation between available phosphorus in 6 types of paddy soil in Hunan Province and its uptake by rices was studied by 32 P tracing. The result indicated that the P uptake by rices varied with available P content in the paddy soils. When the content was high, the rice absorbed more P nutrient from the soil and decreased the P uptake from the P fertilizer, which showed a poor contribution of the P fertilizer to the rice yield increase, and vice versa. The recovery of the P fertilizer varied with the soil types. Ranked the first was in paddy soils derived from lacustrine deposite but little rice yield increased. While in paddy soils derived from limestone, the yield greatly increased although the recovery of P fertilizer was the lowest. Rice absorbed P nutrient during its whole growth duration. No matter the different uptake amount due to the P supply by the different soils, rice plant generally had the greatest P nutrient uptake from tillering stage to elongation stage, and along with the rise of the rices dry matter, amount of P uptake was gradually increased but the P content in unit dry matter was tended to decrease. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Ambient and elevated carbon dioxide on growth, physiological and nutrient uptake parameters of perennial leguminous cover crops under low light intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaptability and optimum growth of cover crops in plantation crops is affected by the inherent nature of the cover crop species and the light intensity at canopy levels. Globally concentrations of atmospheric CO2 are increasing and this creates higher photosynthesis and nutrient demand by crops as l...

  16. Efeito da Gliricidia sepium sobre nutrientes do solo, microclima e produtividade do milho em sistema agroflorestal no Agreste Paraibano Effects of Gliricidia sepium on soil nutrients, microclimate and maize yield in an agroforestry system in semi-arid Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrin Martin Pérez Marin

    2006-06-01

    Northeastern semi-arid region of Brazil because of its good development under water stress conditions. However, little information is available on the effects of the introduction of this species into regional agroecosystems. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the distance of Gliricidia sepium plants on the characteristics of maize crop, soil properties and microclimate conditions in the semi-arid region of Paraiba, Brazil. The study was conducted in the Esperança County, Paraíba State, Brazil., where G. sepium trees were planted on a 0.5 ha field in 1996. The spacing used was 6 m between rows and 1 m between plants within the rows. In 2002, four 48 m² plots were established within this field. Within each plot, three sampling positions were established: (1 under tree crowns in the rows (0 m; (2 1 m apart from tree rows; and (3 3 m apart from the tree rows. The experiment had a randomized block design with four replications. Litterfall dry matter amounted to 1.390 kg ha-1 under the trees and decreased to 270 kg ha-1 at a distance of 3 m from the trees. Soil P, K and light fraction of organic matter were significantly greater under the trees as compared to those between the tree rows. Soil and air monthly minimum temperature averages were not influenced by the distance from the trees. However, soil and air monthly maximum temperature averages were 6 and 2 °C lower under the trees, respectively. Soil moisture was significantly lower under the trees as compared to positions 1 and 3 m away from tree rows. Maize grain and straw yields as well as nutrient accumulation were higher under the trees and decreased with increasing the distance from the trees.

  17. Nutrient acquisition strategies of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Wilhelm; Thompson, Craig B

    2017-06-07

    Mammalian cells are surrounded by diverse nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, various macromolecules and micronutrients, which they can import through transmembrane transporters and endolysosomal pathways. By using different nutrient sources, cells gain metabolic flexibility to survive periods of starvation. Quiescent cells take up sufficient nutrients to sustain homeostasis. However, proliferating cells depend on growth-factor-induced increases in nutrient uptake to support biomass formation. Here, we review cellular nutrient acquisition strategies and their regulation by growth factors and cell-intrinsic nutrient sensors. We also discuss how oncogenes and tumour suppressors promote nutrient uptake and thereby support the survival and growth of cancer cells.

  18. Produção de matéria seca de forragem e acúmulo de nutrientes em pastagem anual de inverno tratada com esterco líquido de suínos Forage dry matter production and nutrient uptake of a hibernal pasture under application of pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Mari Assmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O Esterco líquido de suínos (ELS pode ser usado como fertilizante orgânico, mas seu uso incorreto pode contaminar o solo e os mananciais de água. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de nutrientes ao solo, através do ELS, sobre a produção de matéria seca (MS e o acúmulo de nutrientes de uma pastagem de aveia branca+azevém (Avena sativa + Lolium multiflorum. Um experimento foi realizado de 2004 a 2006, no campo experimental da UTFPR, em Pato Branco, Paraná, Brasil. O solo era um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. Diferentes doses (0, 20, 40, 80 e 120m³ ha-1 de ELS foram aplicadas na pastagem, aos 20 e 61 dias após a emergência (DAE da pastagem, em 2004, e aos 30 e 67DAE, em 2005. Outras duas aplicações foram realizadas nas culturas de verão, milho em 2004 e soja em 2005, respectivamente. A maior produção de MS foi obtida com a dose de 120m³ ha-1 de ELS, tanto no primeiro, quanto no segundo ano. A absorção de nutrientes pelas plantas respondeu de forma linear à aplicação de esterco líquido de suínos.The pig slurry can be used as an organic fertilizer but its improper use can contaminate water and soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of nutrient addition to the soil on pasture oat + ryegrass (Avena sativa + Lolium multiflorum dry matter production and nutrient uptake. One experiment was carried out from 2004 to 2006, installed in the experimental farm of UTFPR in Pato Branco, Paraná State, Brazil. The soil was an Oxisol (Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, Brazil systems. Different rates (0, 20, 40, 80 and 120m³ ha-1 of pig slurry were applied in the pasture. The pig slurry applications were performed 20 and 61 days after emergence (DAE of pasture, in 2004, and 30 and 67DAE of pasture in 2005. Another two applications were performed in summer crops, corn in 2004 and soybean in 2005. In both years the rate 120m³ ha-1 of pig slurry resulted in the highest dry matter production

  19. ABSORÇÃO E EXTRAÇÃO DE ALGUNS NUTRIENTES PELA CULTIVAR 'GUAJARINA' DE PIMENTA-DO-REINO NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND EXTRACTION BY BLACK PEPPER CULTIVAR 'GUAJARINA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O potencial econômico da cultura da pimenta do reino e a necessidade real de pesquisas que sustentem a sua exploração levaram a elaboração deste trabalho que teve por objetivo determinar a concentração e a distribuição dos nutrientes N, P, K, Ca e Mg, nas diversas partes da planta. O experimento foi conduzido em Belém, PA, em solo classificado como Latossolo Amarelo, textura média, com as seguintes características químicas: pH em H2O = 4,5; M.O = 17,5 g kg-1; P= 2,0 mg dm-3 e os cátions trocáveis, em mmolc.dm-3, K = 0,48; Ca2+= 4,0; Mg2+ =2,0; Al3+ = 13,0. As amostras foram constituídas de um grupo de seis plantas da cultivar Guajarina, coletadas aos 28 meses de idade, na época da produção. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os nutrientes extraídos pela pimenta-do-reino obedecem à seguinte ordem: N > Ca > K > Mg > P. As quantidades de macronutrientes exportadas pelos frutos, na colheita em kg.ha-1 foram: N=11,22; K=6,15; Ca=3,84; Mg=1,18 e P=1,07.The economic importance of black pepper and the need for information of production sustainability justified this work, to determine the concentration and the distribution of nutrients N, P, K, Ca and Mg, in several parts of the plant. The experiment was carried out in Belém, Pará, in a soil classified as Yellow Latosol (Alic Haplustox, medium texture, with the following chemical characteristics: pH in H2O = 4.5; OM = 17.5 g kg-1; P = 2.0 mg .dm-3 and the exchangeable cations, in mmolc.dm-3, K = 0.48; Ca2+ = 4.0; Mg2+ =2,0; Al3+ = 13.0. The samples were composed of six plants of the cultivar 'Guajarina', collected at 28 months after planting, at the production period. The nutrients were extracted in the decreasing order: N> Ca> K> Mg> P. The amounts of macronutrients exported by the fruits, in kg.ha-1, are: N=11.22; K=6.15; Ca=3.84; Mg=1.18 and P=1.07.

  20. Treated Olive Cake as a Non-forage Fiber Source for Growing Awassi Lambs: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Rumen and Urine pH, Performance, and Carcass Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Awawdeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial replacement of wheat hay with sun-dried (SOC or acid-treated SOC (ASOC olive cake on nutrient intake and performance of Awassi lambs. An additional objective was to study the effects of acid treatment of olive cake (OC on its chemical composition and nutritive value. On DM basis, sun-drying of OC did not dramatically affect its chemical composition. On the other hand, treating SOC with phosphoric acid decreased (p<0.05 SOC contents of neutral detergent fiber. Twenty seven male lambs (17.6±0.75 kg body weight individually housed in shaded pens were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments (9 lambs/treatment. Dietary treatments were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous by replacing 50% of wheat hay in the control diet (CTL with SOC or ASOC and to meet all nutrient requirements. Dietary treatments had no effects on nutrient intake or digestibility except for ether extract. Lambs fed the SOC diet had (p = 0.05 faster growth rate, greater final body weight, and greater total body weight gain in comparison with the CTL diet, but not different from the ASOC diet. Additionally, lambs fed the SOC diet had greater (p = 0.03 hot and cold carcass weights than the ASOC diet, but not different from the CTL diet. However, feed conversion ratios and dressing percentages were similar among dietary treatments. In conclusion, replacing half of dietary wheat hay with SOC improved performance of Awassi lambs with no detrimental effects on nutrients intake or digestibility. No further improvements in the nutritive value of SOC and lambs performance were detected when SOC was treated with acid.

  1. Biofortification of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with iodine: the effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce grown in water culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, Wim; Holwerda, Harmen T; Khodabaks, Rashied

    2010-04-15

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Two billion individuals have insufficient iodine intake. Biofortification of vegetables with iodine offers an excellent opportunity to increase iodine intake by humans. The main aim was to study the effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce, grown in water culture. In both a winter and summer trial, dose rates of 0, 13, 39, 65, and 90 or 129 microg iodine L(-1), applied as iodate (IO(3)(-)) or iodide (I(-)), did not affect plant biomass, produce quality or water uptake. Increases in iodine concentration significantly enhanced iodine content in the plant. Iodine contents in plant tissue were up to five times higher with I(-) than with IO(3)(-). Iodine was mainly distributed to the outer leaves. The highest iodide dose rates in both trials resulted in 653 and 764 microg iodine kg(-1) total leaf fresh weight. Biofortification of lettuce with iodine is easily applicable in a hydroponic growing system, both with I(-) and IO(3)(-). I(-) was more effective than IO(3)(-). Fifty grams of iodine-biofortified lettuce would provide, respectively, 22% and 25% of the recommended daily allowance of iodine for adolescents and adults. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Macro and micro nutrient uptake parameters and use efficiency in cacao genotypes influenced by deficient to excess levels of soil K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important economic crop for many of the tropical countries. Adequate levels of soil K are essential for good growth and achieving high cocoa bean yields. Soils under cacao invariably have low levels of plant available K to support good cacao growth. Growth chamber ex...

  3. The role of cattle manure in enhancing on-farm productivity, macro- and micro-nutrient uptake, and profitability of maize in the Guinea savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, A.C.; Diels, J.; Schulz, S.; Oyewole, B.D.; Tobe, O.

    2008-01-01

    An on-farm trial was conducted in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria, over a period of five years, with the objectives of quantifying the effects on maize of applying cattle manure in combination with synthetic fertilizer with regard to soil characteristics, yield, plant nutrition and

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  5. Nitrogen, phosphor, and potassium nutrients uptake of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) on three levels of radiation intensities and soil moisture content of latosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahbuddin, H.; Apriyana, Y.; Heryani, N.; Darmijati, S.; Las, I.

    1998-01-01

    An experiment was implemented from July to August 1994 in greenhouse of the Ecophysiology Division, Bogor Research Institute for Food Crops using a split-split plot design with three replications. Radiation intensity levels as main plot were: without shelter, 25 percent shelter, and 67 percent shelter. Levels of available water in soil as sub-plot were: less than 25 percent soil water availability, content of soil water availability, and 125 percent soil water availability. Soybean varieties as sub-sub plots were: Wilis, Malabar, and Lokon. The experiment showed that nitrogen and phosphor uptake of Wilis was the highest, 41.228 mg and 1.225 mg per hill, especially under 100 percent light intensity and soil water availability more than 25 percent. Under 25 percent shade the potassium uptake of Wilis was 45.997 mg, this was higher than Malabar. The highest increased in seed dry weight, up to 0.733 g, occurred if soil water content changed from available water to 125 percent water content. One calory decreased in radiation caused 0.006 g decreased in seed dry weight per hill, Malabar variety produced an average of 0.892 g seed dry weight, where each millimeter of water will increased 2.0 mg of dry seed weight. Malabar variety had water use efficiency of 0.043 percent g/ml and radiation use efficiency 0.011 percent g/cal. Malabar variety produced the heaviest 100 good seed (7.293 g), followed by Wilis variety (5.520 g) and Lokon variety (4.597 g) [in

  6. Effect of Silicon application on Morpho-physiological Characteristics, Grain Yield and Nutrient Content of Bread Wheat under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmollachaab

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on some physiological characteristics, yield and yield components, and grain mineral contents of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum under water stress condition, an experiment was conducted in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan, in 2012. The experiment was arranged in split-plots design in RCBD (Completely Randomized Blocks Design with three replications. Treatments consisted of drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of Available Water Content in main plots and silicon (0, 10, 20 and 30 Kg Si ha-1 arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that the effect of drought stress was significant on most traits and led to the increase of electrolyte leakage (EL, cuticular wax, leaf and grain silicon content and grain nitrogen content. But drought led to negative impacts on grain yield and its components, and leaf potassium content, i.e. moderate and severe stresses reduced yield by 17% and 38% compared to control, respectively. Effect of silicon application was significant on all traits except for spike per square meter. Silicon had the greatest impact on EL and led to 35% decrease in this trait. Also, silicon led to increase in leaf and grain silicon contents and grain K content and grain yield and yield components, when applied at 30 kg ha-1. Generally, application of 30 kg ha-1 of silicon led to 6 and 14% increases of grain yield at the presence of moderate and severe drought stresses, respectively. Thus, given the abundance of silicon it can be used as an ameliorating element for planting bread wheat in drought-prone conditions.

  7. Effects of Combined Application of Nitrogen and Potassiumon on Yield and Nutrient Accumulation of Wheat in Huaibei Lime Concretion Black Soil Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEI Zhi-meng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To provide theoretical and technical basis for the scientific application of nitrogen (N and potassium (K fertilizer in wheat cropping in Huaibei lime concretion black soil area, a field experiment was performed to study the effects of different N and K treatments (N:180, 240, 300, 360 kg·hm-2;K:90, 135, 180 kg·hm-2 on wheat yields, absorption of N and K, and fertilizer benefits. The results showed that: (1The wheat yield under application of N240K180 reached 7 686 kg·hm-2, which was significantly increased by 7.24% comparing with that under N180K90, and there was no significant differences between the yields under N240K180 and N360K180; (2Compared with the contents of N and K in wheat under N180K90, those under N240K180 were significantly increased by 14.67% and 29.53%, respectively; (3There was a positive interaction between the application of N and K fertilizer, and the interaction was significantly correlated with wheat yield at a contribution rate of 14.06%, which consequently increased the partial productivities of N and K fertilizer. Considering wheat yield and fertilizer benefit, the optimum application amounts of N and K2O fertilizer were 240 kg·hm-2和180 kg·hm-2 in Huaibei lime concretion black soil area.

  8. Treated Olive Cake as a Non-forage Fiber Source for Growing Awassi Lambs: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Rumen and Urine pH, Performance, and Carcass Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awawdeh, M S; Obeidat, B S

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial replacement of wheat hay with sun-dried (SOC) or acid-treated SOC (ASOC) olive cake on nutrient intake and performance of Awassi lambs. An additional objective was to study the effects of acid treatment of olive cake (OC) on its chemical composition and nutritive value. On DM basis, sun-drying of OC did not dramatically affect its chemical composition. On the other hand, treating SOC with phosphoric acid decreased (pcomparison with the CTL diet, but not different from the ASOC diet. Additionally, lambs fed the SOC diet had greater (p = 0.03) hot and cold carcass weights than the ASOC diet, but not different from the CTL diet. However, feed conversion ratios and dressing percentages were similar among dietary treatments. In conclusion, replacing half of dietary wheat hay with SOC improved performance of Awassi lambs with no detrimental effects on nutrients intake or digestibility. No further improvements in the nutritive value of SOC and lambs performance were detected when SOC was treated with acid.

  9. EFECTOS BENEFICOS DE BACTERIAS RIZOSFÉRICAS EN LA DISPONIBILIDAD DE NUTRIENTES EN EL SUELO Y LA ABSORCIÓN DE NUTRIENTES POR LAS PLANTAS A REVIEW ON BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF RHIZOSPHERE BACTERIA ON SOIL NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY AND PLANT NUTRIENT UPTAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Walter Osorio Vega

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se constituye en una revisión de los beneficios de bacterias rizosféricas sobre la nutrición vegetal. La interacción entre planta y bacterias solubilizadoras de fosfato es explicada en mayor detalle y usada como modelo para ilustrar el rol que algunas bacterias de la rizosfera juegan en la disponibilidad de nutrientes en el suelo. Las condiciones ambientales de la rizosfera también se discuten con detalle. Los beneficios de estas bacterias han sido obtenidos, y mejorados, en presencia de hongos formadores de micorrizas. Algunos autores han acuñado el termino “micorrizosfera” para describir la parte del suelo afectada por estas interacciones. Las plantas pueden liberar carbohidratos, aminoácidos, lípidos y vitaminas, entre otros, a través de sus raíces y estimular con ello la actividad y el número de microorganismos del suelo que las rodea. Este volumen de suelo afectado por tales exudados, aproximadamente 2 mm desde la superficie de la raíz, es llamado rizosfera. Las bacterias rizosfericas participan en el ciclo geoquímico de nutrientes y determinan su disponibilidad para las plantas y la comunidad microbial del suelo. Por ejemplo, en la rizosfera algunas bacterias fijan N2 simbiótica o asociativamente, otras son importantes en la conversión del nitrógeno de compuestos orgánicos a formas inorgánicas (NH4+ y NO3- disponibles para las plantas. También es relevante la habilidad de algunas bacterias rizosféricas para disolver fosfatos insolubles (nativo y aplicado a través de ácidos orgánicos, mientras que otras son más activas en la liberación de fosfato de compuestos orgánicos mediante enzimas fosfatasas. Por otro lado, la disponibilidad del azufre, hierro, manganeso es afectada por reacciones bioquímicas de oxido-reducción llevadas a cabo por bacterias de la rizosfera. De la misma manera, agentes quelatantes liberados por estas bacterias controlan la disponibilidad y absorción de micronutrientes y

  10. Beneficial Effects of Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth Characteristics and Nutrients Uptake by Plane Tree (Platanus orientalis L, Subjected to Deficit Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alipour Amraie1

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plane tree is one of the important trees cultivated in urban landscapes of Iran and often suffers from different nutritional issues including deficiency and toxicity of mineral nutrients. Mycorrhizal fungi have been introduced to increase growth and quality of plants in horticulture. To study the combined effect of two mycorrhizal fungi (G. mosseae and G. intraradices on plane trees, an experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with 4 treatments and 6 replicates. Treatments included control (without fertilizer, livestock manure, complete fertilizer (20:5:10 and manure + fertilizer + mycorrhizal fungi. Some traits and indices including phosphorus, nitrogen, iron and zinc contents, leaf fresh weight, current year growth and total soluble carbohydrate and chlorophyll contents were evaluated. The results showed the positive effects of manure, fertilizer and mycorrhizal fungi on the plane tree, as these treatments significantly increased all examined parameters except for current year growth. Contents of phosphorus, nitrogen, zinc, iron, chlorophyll and total soluble sugar increased by 400%, 20%, 500%, 34%, 41% and 23%, in mycorrhizal-treated plants, respectively, as compared to the control trees. The results of this study showed a promising effect of the mycorrhizal fungi to be applied along with fertilizer and manure as an appropriate biological fertilizer for plane tree.

  11. Diagnosis of nutrient imbalances with vector analysis in agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Marney E; Kimaro, Anthony A

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has had unintended environmental consequences, including increased nutrient leaching and surface runoff and other agrarian-derived pollutants. Improved diagnosis of on-farm nutrient dynamics will have the advantage of increasing yields and will diminish financial and environmental costs. To achieve this, a management support system that allows for site-specific rapid evaluation of nutrient production imbalances and subsequent management prescriptions is needed for agroecological design. Vector diagnosis, a bivariate model to depict changes in yield and nutritional response simultaneously in a single graph, facilitates identification of nutritional status such as growth dilution, deficiency, sufficiency, luxury uptake, and toxicity. Quantitative data from cocoa agroforestry systems and pigeonpea intercropping trials in Ghana and Tanzania, respectively, were re-evaluated with vector analysis. Relative to monoculture, biomass increase in cocoa ( L.) under shade (35-80%) was accompanied by a 17 to 25% decline in P concentration, the most limiting nutrient on this site. Similarly, increasing biomass with declining P concentrations was noted for pigeonpea [ (L). Millsp.] in response to soil moisture availability under intercropping. Although vector analysis depicted nutrient responses, the current vector model does not consider non-nutrient resource effects on growth, such as ameliorated light and soil moisture, which were particularly active in these systems. We revisit and develop vector analysis into a framework for diagnosing nutrient and non-nutrient interactions in agroforestry systems. Such a diagnostic technique advances management decision-making by increasing nutrient precision and reducing environmental issues associated with agrarian-derived soil contamination. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  12. Semi-quantitative methods yield greater inter- and intraobserver agreement than subjective methods for interpreting 99m technetium-hydroxymethylene-diphosphonate uptake in equine thoracic processi spinosi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zadelhoff, Claudia; Ehrle, Anna; Merle, Roswitha; Jahn, Werner; Lischer, Christoph

    2018-05-09

    Scintigraphy is a standard diagnostic method for evaluating horses with back pain due to suspected thoracic processus spinosus pathology. Lesion detection is based on subjective or semi-quantitative assessments of increased uptake. This retrospective, analytical study is aimed to compare semi-quantitative and subjective methods in the evaluation of scintigraphic images of the processi spinosi in the equine thoracic spine. Scintigraphic images of 20 Warmblood horses, presented for assessment of orthopedic conditions between 2014 and 2016, were included in the study. Randomized, blinded image evaluation was performed by 11 veterinarians using subjective and semi-quantitative methods. Subjective grading was performed for the analysis of red-green-blue and grayscale scintigraphic images, which were presented in full-size or as masked images. For the semi-quantitative assessment, observers placed regions of interest over each processus spinosus. The uptake ratio of each processus spinosus in comparison to a reference region of interest was determined. Subsequently, a modified semi-quantitative calculation was developed whereby only the highest counts-per-pixel for a specified number of pixels was processed. Inter- and intraobserver agreement was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients. Inter- and intraobserver intraclass correlation coefficients were 41.65% and 71.39%, respectively, for the subjective image assessment. Additionally, a correlation between intraobserver agreement, experience, and grayscale images was identified. The inter- and intraobserver agreement was significantly increased when using semi-quantitative analysis (97.35% and 98.36%, respectively) or the modified semi-quantitative calculation (98.61% and 98.82%, respectively). The proposed modified semi-quantitative technique showed a higher inter- and intraobserver agreement when compared to other methods, which makes it a useful tool for the analysis of scintigraphic images. The

  13. Produtividade de rúcula hidropônica cultivada em diferentes épocas e vazões de solução nutritiva Yield of hydroponic rocket cultivated in different seasons and flow rates of nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucio da C Genuncio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A rúcula é uma das principais hortaliças produzidas no Brasil via hidroponia. Entretanto, além da aplicação de uma solução nutritiva adequada à cultura, torna-se imprescindível o conhecimento e o controle das variáveis intrínsecas ao manejo da solução nutritiva. Assim, o objetivo foi avaliar o acúmulo de biomassa fresca de parte aérea e raiz e a produtividade da rúcula cultivada em três vazões de solução nutritiva em hidroponia NFT, durante seis ciclos de cultivo. Os tratamentos consistiram de três vazões de solução nutritiva, sendo V1= 0,75, V2= 1,00 e V3= 1,50 L min-1. Foram avaliados seis ciclos de cultivo (de julho a dezembro. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com oito repetições. Realizaram-se as colheitas aos 30 dias após o transplante para os canais de hidroponia. O acúmulo de biomassa de parte aérea e de raiz foi maior nos meses de novembro e dezembro, devido a maiores temperaturas em casa de vegetação. Foi observado menor valor de biomassa de parte aérea na menor vazão do sistema. A produtividade da parte aérea e total (parte aérea + raiz foi maior nos meses mais quentes. Observou-se um incremento na produtividade com um aumento da vazão da solução nutritiva nos canais de hidroponia.The rocket is one of the main vegetable crops produced in Brazil through hydroponics. Nevertheless, besides the application of an appropriate nutrient solution for the crop, the knowledge and control of intrinsic variables for the management of the nutrient solution is essential. The accumulation of fresh biomass of the aboveground part, roots and the yield of rocket grown in three flow rates of nutrient solution during six crop cycles was studied. The treatments consisted of three flows rates of nutrient solution, V1= 0.75, V2= 1.00 and V3= 1.50 L min-1. We also evaluated six cycles of cultivation (from July to December. The experimental design was randomized blocks with eight replications. Harvest

  14. Soil fertility status and nutrients provided to spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. by pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Gómez-Garrido

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient recycling using pig slurry is a common agricultural practice to manage the ever-increasing amounts of wastes from the pig industry. This study was conducted in the southeast of Spain to quantify the enrichments in major (N, P, K, Mg and minor (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn nutrients in soils amended with D1-170 kg N ha-1 (European Union legislated dose or D2-340 kg N ha-1, and understand the influence of pig slurry on yield and nutrient uptake in two crop seasons of spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. Compared to control, D2 increased NO3--N by 11.4X to 109 mg kg-1, Olsen-P by 6.9X to 423 mg kg-1, exchange K (2.5X to 1.6 cmol+ kg-1, Mg (1.7X to 1.8 cmol+ kg-1, diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA-Zn (94X to 18.2 mg kg-1, and Fe (2X to 11.3 mg kg-1. Available NO3--N, Olsen-P, and DTPA-Zn have the best correlations with crop yield and nutrient uptake. These results indicate that the assessment of soil fertility status at 1-mo after pig slurry addition provides a good indicator for potential yield and uptake of barley. However, it is suggested that leachates should be monitored to effectively manage potential releases of nitrate and phosphate into the environment.

  15. Root Fungal Endophytes Enhance Heavy-Metal Stress Tolerance of Clethra barbinervis Growing Naturally at Mining Sites via Growth Enhancement, Promotion of Nutrient Uptake and Decrease of Heavy-Metal Concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Yamaji

    Full Text Available Clethra barbinervis Sieb. et Zucc. is a tree species that grows naturally at several mine sites and seems to be tolerant of high concentrations of heavy metals, such as Cu, Zn, and Pb. The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism(s underlying this species' ability to tolerate the sites' severe heavy-metal pollution by considering C. barbinervis interaction with root fungal endophytes. We measured the heavy metal concentrations of root-zone soil, leaves, branches, and fine roots collected from mature C. barbinervis at Hitachi mine. We isolated fungal endophytes from surface-sterilized root segments, and we examined the growth, and heavy metal and nutrient absorption of C. barbinervis seedlings growing in sterilized mine soil with or without root fungal endophytes. Field analyses showed that C. barbinervis contained considerably high amounts of Cu, Zn, and Pb in fine roots and Zn in leaves. The fungi, Phialocephala fortinii, Rhizodermea veluwensis, and Rhizoscyphus sp. were frequently isolated as dominant fungal endophyte species. Inoculation of these root fungal endophytes to C. barbinervis seedlings growing in sterilized mine soil indicated that these fungi significantly enhanced the growth of C. barbinervis seedlings, increased K uptake in shoots and reduced the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb in roots. Without root fungal endophytes, C. barbinervis could hardly grow under the heavy-metal contaminated condition, showing chlorosis, a symptom of heavy-metal toxicity. Our results indicate that the tree C. barbinervis can tolerate high heavy-metal concentrations due to the support of root fungal endophytes including P. fortinii, R. veluwensis, and Rhizoscyphus sp. via growth enhancement, K uptake promotion and decrease of heavy metal concentrations.

  16. The Effect of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on the Yield of Two Contrasting Soybean Varieties and Residual Nutrient Effects on a Subsequent Finger Millet Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerihun Abebe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of low soil fertility resulting from continuous monocropping, crop residue removal and limited fertilizer use represent key challenges to produce surplus food for the ever increasing population of Ethiopia. However, the practices of crop rotation and integrated sources of fertilizer uses could potentially improve soil fertility and productivity. In 2012 and 2014, soybean with different trials consisting of two soybean varieties (Boshe and Ethio-ugozilavia, three levels of farm yard manure (FYM (3, 6 and 9 t/ha and three phosphorus levels (8, 16 and 24 kg P ha−1 were combinedin2×3×3factorialarrangements. Twosoybeanvarietiesreceivingnofertilizerapplication followed by finger millet receiving a recommended rate (20 kg P/ha were included. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. In 2013 and 2015, finger millet was planted on each soybean plot as per previous treatment arrangements to evaluate the effect of the precursor crop (soybean and integrated fertilizer application on yield performance of the subsequent finger millet. Soil pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen and available phosphorus before planting and after crop harvest of soybean in each year showed treatment differences. Both precursor crop and fertilizer application had a positive effect on soil fertility status and, hence, improved the performance of the subsequent finger millet. On the other hand, since the rainfall amount and distribution were different in the 2012 and 2014 seasons, the response of soybean varieties to applied fertilizers was significantly affected, and the correlation between soybean yield and annual rainfall was strongly positive. Use of an early maturing soybean variety (Boshe with the lowest rates of organicandinorganicfertilizersgavesignificantlyhigheryieldin2012(shortrainyseasoncompared with other treatment combinations. In the 2014 cropping season, however, ‘Ethio-ugozilavia’ showed

  17. Estimates of matter yield and N-uptake in sorghum grown on saline and non-saline soils manured with dhaincha (sesbania aculeata) plant residues utilizing 15N tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.

    2002-11-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to study the effect of manuring with three types of plant residues (roots, shoots or roots plus shoots) of Dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata Pers.) on the yield and N-uptake of Sorghum bicolor grown in saline and non-saline soils. For measuring various sources of N-uptake, two isotopic dilution techniques were utilized by adding to these soils either 15 N-labelled inorganic N-fertilizer (indirect method) or 15 N-labelled sesbania leaves (direct method). For the indirect method, both soils manured with each type of sesbania residue, received four split applications of 15 N-labelled ammonium sulphate. Results indicated that each type of sesbania residue, applied as a green manure, resulted in significant increases in both dry matter yield and N-uptake of sorghum as compared with the un manured control. Moreover, sesbania residues decreased the harmful effect of salinity on plant growth. Percentages of N derived from residues (%Ndfr) in sorghum grown in non saline soil ranged between 3.9 and 33%; whereas, in saline soil, the observed values ranged between 4.9 and 19.8%. N recoveries in sorghum grown in non saline soil were 61, 45 and 37% of the total amount contained in the sesbania root, shoot and root plus shoot; whereas, values in sorghum grown in saline soils were 48, 14,8 and 15.7%, respectively. The beneficial effects of sesbania residues have been attributed not only to the additional N availability to the plants, but also to its effects on the enhancement of soil N uptake. Percentages and amounts of Ndfr calculated using the indirect method were not significantly different from those obtained by the direct method indicating that the indirect method used herein is feasible and simple for measuring N release from organic residues. It is suggested that the use of Sesbania aculeata residues, particularly the shoots, as a green manure, can provide a substantial portion of total N in sorghum. Moreover, the use of sesbania green manure in

  18. 生物碳对土壤磷素和棉花养分吸收的影响%Effects of biochar on soil phosphorus content and cotton nutrient uptake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏倩; 侯振安; 赵靓; 茹思博; 翟勇; 董天宇

    2014-01-01

    通过两年温室盆栽试验,研究了不同磷肥用量下生物碳对土壤磷素含量、棉花生长和养分吸收的影响。试验以棉花秸秆为原料制备生物碳,制成三种热解温度(450℃、600℃和750℃)的生物碳,分别以BC450、 BC600和BC750表示,同时以空白土壤为对照( CK);磷肥( P2 O5)用量设3个水平0、0.25、0.5 g/kg(分别以P0、P1、 P2表示)。研究结果表明,施用生物碳可显著提高土壤磷素含量及其有效性,随着生物碳热解温度的升高,土壤水溶性磷、速效磷及全磷含量均显著增加,且对三种磷素含量的影响表现为水溶性磷>全磷>速效磷。施用生物碳处理两年棉花的干物质重均显著高于对照,但不同热解生物碳处理对两年棉花干物质重的影响各异。施用生物碳可显著增加棉花养分吸收量,总体表现为750℃>600℃>450℃。因此,施用生物碳可显著提高土壤磷素含量,促进棉花生长和养分吸收;热解温度是影响生物碳质量的重要因素,生物碳的热解温度越高(450750℃),其促进作用越好。%Influence of biochar on soil phosphorus ( P ) , cotton growth and nutrient uptake under different phosphorus fertilizer application rates was evaluated with a pot experiment in years of 2011 and 2012.Biochar was produced from dried cotton stalks via pyrolysis in oxygen-limited conditions .Three types of biochar produced at 450℃, 600℃ and 750℃ ( BC450 , BC600 and BC750 ) were used as the soil organic amendment , and an untreated soil was set as control (CK) in this study.Each soil treatment was applied with three levels of P fertilizer (P2O5) as 0, 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg of soil weight (P0, P1 and P2).The experiment was that of 4 ×3 factorial design with four biochar treatments (BC450, BC600, BC750 and CK) and three P application rates (P0, P1 and P2).Cotton was planted for two consecutive growth seasons in 2011 and 2012.The

  19. Differential expression of CURS gene during various growth stages, climatic condition and soil nutrients in turmeric (Curcuma longa): Towards site specific cultivation for high curcumin yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, I Sriram; Das, Suryasnata; Nasim, Noohi; Mishra, Antaryami; Acharya, Laxmikanta; Joshi, Raj Kumar; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Mohanty, Sujata

    2017-09-01

    Curcuma longa L., accumulates substantial amount of curcumin and essential oil. Little is known about the differential expression of curcumin synthase (CURS) gene and consequent curcumin content variations at different agroclimatic zones. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of climate, soil and harvesting phase on expression of CURS gene for curcumin yield in two high yielding turmeric cultivars. Expression of CURS gene at different experimental zones as well as at different harvesting phase was studied through transcriptional analysis by qRT-PCR. Curcumin varied from 1.5 to 5% and 1.4-5% in Surama and Roma respectively. The expression of CURS also varied from 0.402 to 5.584 fold in Surama and 0.856-5.217 fold in Roma. Difference in curcumin content at a particular zone varied among different harvesting period from 3.95 to 4.31% in Surama and 3.57-3.83% in Roma. Expression of CURS gene was also effected by harvesting time of the rhizome which varied from 7.389 to 16.882 fold in Surama and 4.41-8.342 fold in Roma. The CURS gene expression was found regardless of variations in curcumin content at different experimental zones. This may be due to the effects of soil and environmental variables. Expression was positively correlated with curcumin content with different harvesting time at a particular zone. This find indicates effect of soil and environment on molecular and biochemical dynamics of curcumin biosynthesis and could be useful in genetic improvement of turmeric. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutrients requirements in biological industrial wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both these wastewaters nutrients were not added. A simple formula is introduced to calculate nutrient requirements based on removal efficiency and observed biomass yield coefficient. Key Words: Olive mill wastewater; anaerobic treatment; aerobic treatment; sequencing batch reactor; biomass yield; nutrient requirement.

  1. Manipulating vineyard nitrogen on a saline site: 1. Effect of nitrogen on growth, grape yield and nutrients of Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sally-Jean; Francis, I Leigh

    2013-08-15

    With increased prevalence of saline irrigation water applied to vines worldwide, the issue of appropriate nitrogen management is of concern. Different rates of nitrogen per vine as urea were applied to Shiraz vines on own roots over four seasons in a low-rainfall, saline growing environment. Application of nitrogen in the vineyard early in the season not only altered the vine nitrogen status but also increased some other elements in the petioles, notably chloride and sodium but also manganese and magnesium. In contrast, nitrogen application decreased petiole phosphorus. In comparison with the majority of nitrogen studies on non-saline sites, nitrogen-induced growth responses were restricted under the saline conditions in this study. While some changes in canopy density in response to nitrogen were observed, this did not affect light interception in the fruit zone. Yield responses were varied and could be related to the nutritional conditions under which bud development and flowering took place. This study demonstrated that current best practice guidelines, in terms of rate of nitrogen applied, for correcting a nitrogen deficiency on a non-saline site may not be appropriate for saline sites and that application of nitrogen can increase the potential for salt toxicity in vines. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Manejo da adubação do arroz irrigado em sistema pré-germinado na produtividade e perda de nutrientes através da água de drenagem inicial Irrigated rice fertilization management on grain yield and nutrients loss through initial drain discharge in the pregerminated system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Marchezan

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido objetivando avaliar os efeitos de formas de manejo da adubação (P e K do arroz irrigado, semeado no sistema pré-germinado, sobre a produtividade do arroz e as perdas de nutrientes através da água de drenagem inicial. Os tratamentos foram: T1- testemunha sem adubação; T2- adubação aos 20 dias antes da semeadura sem incorporação; T3- adubação aos 20 dias antes da semeadura com incorporação do fertilizante; T4- adubação aos 05 dias antes da semeadura sem incorporação; T5- adubação aos 05 dias antes da semeadura com incorporação do fertilizante; T6- aplicação do fertilizante à lanço 10 dias após a semeadura; T7- aplicação do fertilizante à lanço 25 dias após a semeadura. O rendimento de grãos não foi afetado pelos diferentes procedimentos de manejo da adubação. A adubação realizada aos 5 dias antes da semeadura mostrou-se a menos indicada, devido a maior perda de nutrientes, principalmente de potássio. Contudo as perdas verificadas estiveram dentro de limites aceitáveis de acordo com a legislação vigente.The experiment was conducted aiming to evaluate the effects of fertilization management in the pregerminated system, on grain yield and nutrient loss through early drain discharge. The treatments were: T1- Control (without fertilization; T2- fertilization 20 days before sowing without incorporation; T3- fertilization 20 days before sowing with fertilizer incorporation; T4- fertilization 05 days before sowing without incorporation; T5- fertilization 05 days before sowing with fertilizer incorporation; T6- fertilizer application 10 days after sowing; T7- fertilizer application 25 days after sowing. Grain yield was not affected by the different fertilization management procedures. The fertilizer applied 05 days before sowing promoted the highest nutrients loss, especially potassium. However, recorded loss values were within the range allowed by current legislation.

  3. Scaling laws in phytoplankton nutrient uptake affinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, Christian; Fiksen, Øyvind; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2016-01-01

    instantaneously. Here we provide empirical evidence that the perfect sink strategy is not common in phytoplankton. Although small cells are indeed favored by a large surface to volume ratio, we show that they are punished by higher relative investment cost in order to fully benefit from the larger surface...

  4. Composição química do feijoeiro e absorção de elementos nutritivos, do florescimento à maturação Chemical composition of garden bean plant and the uptake of nutrients from the stage of blooming to maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romano Gallo

    1961-01-01

    magnesium in leaves were higher than in other plant parts. Total sulphur content was higher in the roots than in leaves, stems or pods plus seeds. Nitrogen and potassium were absorbed in greater total amount than phosphorus and other elements. The unfertilized mature plants contained 29 and 23 kg of nitrogen and potassium respectively per hectare. Phosphorus was absorbed in a smaller amount than any other nutrient studied. The maximum absorption rate changed according to the element and was modified by treatment. In fertilized plants the maximum rate of uptake of calcium and magnesium from the soil ocurred during the interval 33 to 44 days from sowing; potassium, 44 to 53 days; and nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur, 53 to 65 days, the period of growth of seed in the pod. Table 7 shows the distribution of total nutrient in roots, stems, leaves, and pods plus seeds in the mature plant. Data presented in the foregoing pages suggest certain practical considerations of interest. Environmental conditions during the early growth stages were generally favorable, but a deficiency in precipitation that occurred in the period of pod formation and seed development depressed the yield. However, fertilization promoted an increase in the uptake of nutrients, dry matter production, and in yield of bean. Since only the level of phosphorus was higher in the plant of the fertilized plot, it is assumed that phosphate fertilization induced such increase. Analytical results indicate that relatively large quantities of bases will be removed from the land if the entire bean plant is harvested, whereas if seeds alone are harvested only nitrogen and phosphorus are removed in relatively large amounts. The soil becomes most impoverished by the removal of potassium, nitrogen being less affected due to a partial supply from fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. The results showing that nitrogen absorption rate is maximum at the time the seeds are developed suggest that a delayed nitrogen application for

  5. Effects of aluminum on plant growth and nutrient uptake in young physic nut plantsEfeitos do alumínio no crescimento e na absorção de nutrientes em plantas jovens de pinhão-manso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alexandre Lopes Dranski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al3+ toxicity is a major limiting factor to crop productivity in acid soils. The effects of aluminum on root and shoot growth of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. young plants and, the uptake and distribution of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and aluminum in the roots and shoots were investigated in the present study. Plants were grown in 2.5L pots in a greenhouse. After fourteen days of adaptation to nutrient solution, plants were exposed to Al concentrations of 0, 370, 740, 1,100 and 1,480 ?mol L–1, corresponding to an active Al3+ solution of 13.3, 35.3, 90.0, 153.3 and 220.7 ?mol L–1, respectively. The dry matter partitioning between roots, stems and leaves, and the concentrations of P, Ca, Mg and Al in plant tissue, were measured after 75 days exposure to Al. The increasing level of Al3+ activity in solution progressively decreased the growth of the shoot and root of physic nut plants, and at the two highest active Al3+ levels, plants showed morphological abnormalities typical of the toxicity caused by this metal. Higher Al3+ activity reduced P concentrations in leaves and Ca and Mg in leaves and roots of physic nut, demonstrating the effect of Al on the uptake, transport and use of these nutrients by plants. The Al accumulated preferentially in the roots of physic nut, whereas only a small amount was transported to shoots.A toxicidade de alumínio (Al3+ é um dos principais fatores que limitam a produtividade das culturas em solos ácidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do alumínio no crescimento e na absorção de fósforo, cálcio, magnésio e alumínio em plantas jovens de pinhão-manso, cultivadas em solução nutritiva. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos de 2,5 L e as plantas crescidas em casa de vegetação. Após 14 dias de adaptação em solução nutritiva, as plantas foram submetidas a concentrações de Al de: 0; 370; 740; 1.110 e 1.480 ?mol L–1, que corresponderam a atividade de Al3+ em solução de

  6. Genotypic Variation in Yield, Yield Components, Root Morphology and Architecture, in Soybean in Relation to Water and Phosphorus Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Jin, Yi; Du, Yan-Lei; Wang, Tao; Turner, Neil C.; Yang, Ru-Ping; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.; Li, Feng-Min

    2017-01-01

    Water shortage and low phosphorus (P) availability limit yields in soybean. Roots play important roles in water-limited and P-deficient environment, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study we determined the responses of four soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes [Huandsedadou (HD), Bailudou (BLD), Jindou 21 (J21), and Zhonghuang 30 (ZH)] to three P levels [applied 0 (P0), 60 (P60), and 120 (P120) mg P kg-1 dry soil to the upper 0.4 m of the soil profile] and two water treatment [well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS)] with special reference to root morphology and architecture, we compared yield and its components, root morphology and root architecture to find out which variety and/or what kind of root architecture had high grain yield under P and drought stress. The results showed that water stress and low P, respectively, significantly reduced grain yield by 60 and 40%, daily water use by 66 and 31%, P accumulation by 40 and 80%, and N accumulation by 39 and 65%. The cultivar ZH with the lowest daily water use had the highest grain yield at P60 and P120 under drought. Increased root length was positively associated with N and P accumulation in both the WW and WS treatments, but not with grain yield under water and P deficits. However, in the WS treatment, high adventitious and lateral root densities were associated with high N and P uptake per unit root length which in turn was significantly and positively associated with grain yield. Our results suggest that (1) genetic variation of grain yield, daily water use, P and N accumulation, and root morphology and architecture were observed among the soybean cultivars and ZH had the best yield performance under P and water limited conditions; (2) water has a major influence on nutrient uptake and grain yield, while additional P supply can modestly increase yields under drought in some soybean genotypes; (3) while conserved water use plays an important role in grain yield under drought

  7. Growth and yield of summer squash: effect of the ionic concentration of nutrient solutionCrescimento e produtividade da abobrinha italiana: efeito da concentração iônica da solução nutritiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Zanatta Aumonde

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating the effect of different ionic concentrations of the nutrient solution on growth of summer squash cultivated in raw rice husk substrate with leaching recirculation, two experiments were conducted in two crop-seasons: spring-summer of 2005 and summer-autumn of 2006, in Pelotas, RS. Four ionic concentrations of the nutrient solution (based on electrical conductivity - EC were studied: 1.3; 1.7; 2.1 and 4.2 dS m-1. Crop growth was determinated by accumulated dry mass production and partitioning among the different above-ground plant organs (leafs, stem and fruits at the end of the crop-seasons. Fruit yield was also evaluated. The obtained results indicate that ionic concentrations equal or lower than 1.7 dS m-1 were limiting for proper growth and yield of the crop. The effect of high ionic concentration of the nutrient solution (above 2.1 dS m-1 on dry mass production and partitioning varied according to the crop-season. The lower solar radiation availability of the summer-autumn crop season minimized the effects of the different concentrations of nutrient solution on dry mass production and partitioning to the fruits, as well as on the yield. The fruits comprised from 28 to 52% of the total above-ground dry mass production. Fruits represented the largest sink of assimilates of the plant only at 2.1 dS m-1 ionic concentration of the nutrient solution and in crescent solar radiation availability condition (spring-summer. According the mathematics models, the electrical conductivity that maximizes dry mass production and yield is approximately 3.0 dS m-1 for both crop-seasons.Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações iônicas da solução nutritiva sobre o crescimento e a produtividade da abobrinha italiana cultivada em substrato de casca de arroz in natura com recirculação dos lixiviados, foram realizados dois experimentos em duas épocas de cultivo: primavera-verão de 2005 e verão-outono de

  8. Produtividade e qualidade de frutos de meloeiro cultivado em substrato com três doses de solução nutritiva Yield and quality of muskmelon fruits grown in substrate under three concentrations of the nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo Luiz Andriolo

    2005-08-01

    .0 K+ ; 5.01 Ca++ ; 2.25 Mg++ ; 2.25 SO4-, with added micronutrients. For treatments T1 and T3, quantities of fertilizers from T2 were multiplied by a factor of 0.5 and 2, respectively. LAI values at the ending date were 1.99; 2.22 and 2.28 m² m-2 for T1, T2 and T3, respectively, T1 differing significantly from T2 and T3. Fruit yield reached 56.2; 65.0 and 65.9 Mg++ ha-1, for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Maximum fruit yield was estimated by a nutrient concentration of 44.1 mmol L-1, corresponding to the following composition of the nutrient solution, in mmol L-1: 19.5 of NO3-; 1.35 of H2PO4-; 9.0 of K+; 7.51 of Ca++; 3.37 of Mg++; 3.37 of SO4-, and in mumol L-1: 50.25 of Fe; 22.5 of Mn; 3.45 of Zn; 1.5 of Cu; 22.5 of B e 0.78 of Mo. Similar results were observed for fruit quality variables.

  9. Effects of alkaline and bioorganic amendments on cadmium, lead, zinc, and nutrient accumulation in brown rice and grain yield in acidic paddy fields contaminated with a mixture of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huaidong; Tam, Nora F Y; Yao, Aijun; Qiu, Rongliang; Li, Wai Chin; Ye, Zhihong

    2016-12-01

    Paddy soils and rice (Oryza sativa L.) contaminated by mixed heavy metals have given rise to great concern. Field experiments were conducted over two cultivation seasons to study the effects of steel slag (SS), fly ash (FA), limestone (LS), bioorganic fertilizer (BF), and the combination of SS and BF (SSBF) on rice grain yield, Cd, Pb, and Zn and nutrient accumulation in brown rice, bioavailability of Cd, Pb, and Zn in soil as well as soil properties (pH and catalase), at two acidic paddy fields contaminated with mixed heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn). Compared to the controls, SS, LS, and SSBF at both low and high additions significantly elevated soil pH over both cultivation seasons. The high treatments of SS and SSBF markedly increased grain yields, the accumulation of P and Ca in brown rice and soil catalase activities in the first cultivation season. The most striking result was from SS application (4.0 t ha -1 ) that consistently and significantly reduced the soil bioavailability of Cd, Pb, and Zn by 38.5-91.2 % and the concentrations of Cd and Pb in brown rice by 20.9-50.9 % in the two soils over both cultivation seasons. LS addition (4.0 t ha -1 ) also markedly reduced the bioavailable Cd, Pb, and Zn in soil and the Cd concentrations in brown rice. BF remobilized soil Cd and Pb leading to more accumulation of these metals in brown rice. The results showed that steel slag was most effective in the remediation of acidic paddy soils contaminated with mixed heavy metals.

  10. Effect of aluminum on the growth and nutrient uptake in cryptomeria japonica D.Don and Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.; Sugi oyobi hinoki no ikusei to yobun kyushu ni oyobosu aluminium no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Y; Matsumura, H; Kobayashi, T [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-10

    Two-year-old seedlings of Sugi (Japanese cedar: Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and Hinoki (Japanese cypress: Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.) were grown for 4 months in 1/5 Hoagland`s No.2 nutrient culture solution containing aluminum chloride in the concentration range of 0.5 to 20 mM within the pH range of 3.5 to 4.0. Aluminium supplied at or below 1 mM of Al had no effect on the mortality of these species. However, the increase Al concentration higher than 2 mM increased the mortality. While they showed significant growth reduction at or higher Al concentration of 5 mM, there were no difference in growth response to Al between the two species in this experiment. While Al contents in leaf and root significantly increased with increasing Al concentration in the solution, contents of Ca, Mg and P in leaf decreased. Roof p content in Sugi increased with the increase of Al concentration in the solution, while no such change was observed in Hinoki root. This result suggests that Al might make phosphate immobile or inviolable form in Sugi root and this might lead to the reduced translocation of P into the leaf. In contrast, Al did not interfere with the uptake of phosphate in the root, however, it might interrupt phosphate transport into leaf from root system in Hinoki. The Al concentration such as 5 mM in the root sphere induced growth reductions in Sugi and Hinoki, with no significant difference in the response between the two species. This concentration was much higher than those reported in the field crops, vegetables and/or herbs. Thus, if soil acidification will be induced by acidic deposition in future, these herbaceous plants will be influenced faster than the conifer trees. This also means that ground vegetation change will be observed earlier than the conifer decline by the soil acidification stress. 23 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Plant availability of nutrients recovered as solids from human urine tested in climate chamber on Triticum aestivum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganrot, Zsófia; Dave, Göran; Nilsson, Eva; Li, Bo

    2007-11-01

    Recovered nutrients by freezing-thawing from human urine in combination with struvite precipitation and nitrogen adsorption on zeolite and activated carbon have been tested in pot trials with wheat, Triticum aestivum L., in a climate chamber during 21 days. A simple test design using sand as substrate was chosen to give a first, general evaluation of the nutrient (P and N) availability from these sources. Dry weight, plant growth morphology, total-P and total-N were analysed. The tests show a slow-release of nutrients (P and N) from struvite and from N-adsorbents. The nitrogen in all treatments was in the deficiency range for optimum yield for wheat. Higher pH than usual for soil tests contributed to the difficulties in plant uptake, especially in the pots with only struvite (with highest MgO addition) as nutrient source.

  12. Aplicação foliar de cálcio em pessegueiro na Serra Gaúcha: avaliação do teor de nutrientes na folha, no fruto e produção Foliar application of calcium in peach in Serra Gaúcha: evaluation of content of nutrients in the leaf, fruit and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2008-06-01

    calcium in Peach tree in the Southern Brasil is used during productive cycle, without any information about calcium content and other nutrients in the leaves, fruits and yield. Two experiments were carried out in 2003/2004 to evaluate the effect of foliar application of different sources of calcium in its content and other nutrients in the leaf, fruit and yield of peach trees, Chimarrita cultivar, at an Haplumbrept soil in Southern Brazil, Pinto Bandeira city. The treatments in the experiment 1 were three foliar applications of calcium chloride, concentrations 0 (water, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%.Experiment 2 were three foliar applications of calcium nitrate, concentrations 0 (water, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%. A randomized block experimental design was used with three replications and three plants for treatment. Leaves were collected, oven-dried and analyzed total calcium, nitrogen, potassium and magnesium. In the maturation, fruits were collected and determined the mass, yield and total content of calcium, nitrogen, potassium and magnesium. The results showed that foliar applications of calcium in the form of chloride and nitrate in peach tree, increase calcium content in the leaves, but did not affect the content of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in the leaves, content of calcium, nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in the fruit and yield.

  13. Manure placement method influenced growth, phenology and bunch yield of three Musagenotypes in a humid zone of Southern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A. Tenkouano; O. O. Ndukwe; K. P. Baiyeri

    2013-01-01

    Manure placement methods earlier evaluated in a greenhouse using the banana cultivar PITA 14 as a test-crop significantly influenced root system development, vegetative growth, nutrient uptake, whole plant dry matter yield and distribution of the crop. These placement methods plus an additional treatment were re-evaluated in a field experiment over two cropping cycles using three Musa genotypes. The treatments were: a full dose of poultry manure placed on the soil surface – top dressing(T1),a...

  14. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate

  15. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate.

  16. Effect of biweekly shoot tip harvests on the growth and yield of Georgia Jet sweet potato grown hydroponically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuehi, Cyriacus R.; Loretan, Phil A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Hill, Walter A.; Morris, Carlton E.; Biswas, P. K.; Mortley, Desmond G.

    1989-01-01

    Sweet potato shoot tips have been shown to be a nutritious green vegetable. A study was conducted to determine the effect of biweekly shoot tip harvests on the growth and yield of Georgia Jet sweet potato grown in the greenhouse using the nutrient film technique (NFT). The nutrient solution consisted of a modified half Hoagland solution. Biweekly shoot tip harvests, beginning 42 days after planting, provided substantial amounts of vegetable greens and did not affect the fresh and dry foliage weights or the storage root number and fresh and dry storage root weights at final harvest. The rates of anion and cation uptake were not affected by tip harvests.

  17. Water quality in the Anacostia River, Maryland and Rock Creek, Washington, D.C.: Continuous and discrete monitoring with simulations to estimate concentrations and yields of nutrients, suspended sediment, and bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cherie V.; Chanat, Jeffrey G.; Bell, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations and loading estimates for nutrients, suspended sediment, and E. coli bacteria were summarized for three water-quality monitoring stations on the Anacostia River in Maryland and one station on Rock Creek in Washington, D.C. Both streams are tributaries to the Potomac River in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area and contribute to the Chesapeake Bay estuary. Two stations on the Anacostia River, Northeast Branch at Riverdale, Maryland and Northwest Branch near Hyattsville, Maryland, have been monitored for water quality during the study period from 2003 to 2011 and are located near the shift from nontidal to tidal conditions near Bladensburg, Maryland. A station on Paint Branch is nested above the station on the Northeast Branch Anacostia River, and has slightly less developed land cover than the Northeast and Northwest Branch stations. The Rock Creek station is located in Rock Creek Park, but the land cover in the watershed surrounding the park is urbanized. Stepwise log-linear regression models were developed to estimate the concentrations of suspended sediment, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and E. coli bacteria from continuous field monitors. Turbidity was the strongest predictor variable for all water-quality parameters. For bacteria, water temperature improved the models enough to be included as a second predictor variable due to the strong dependence of stream metabolism on temperature. Coefficients of determination (R2) for the models were highest for log concentrations of suspended sediment (0.9) and total phosphorus (0.8 to 0.9), followed by E. coli bacteria (0.75 to 0.8), and total nitrogen (0.6). Water-quality data provided baselines for conditions prior to accelerated implementation of multiple stormwater controls in the watersheds. Counties are currently in the process of enhancing stormwater controls in both watersheds. Annual yields were estimated for suspended sediment, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and E. coli bacteria using

  18. Engineering crop nutrient efficiency for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyu; Liao, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Increasing crop yields can provide food, animal feed, bioenergy feedstocks and biomaterials to meet increasing global demand; however, the methods used to increase yield can negatively affect sustainability. For example, application of excess fertilizer can generate and maintain high yields but also increases input costs and contributes to environmental damage through eutrophication, soil acidification and air pollution. Improving crop nutrient efficiency can improve agricultural sustainability by increasing yield while decreasing input costs and harmful environmental effects. Here, we review the mechanisms of nutrient efficiency (primarily for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron) and breeding strategies for improving this trait, along with the role of regulation of gene expression in enhancing crop nutrient efficiency to increase yields. We focus on the importance of root system architecture to improve nutrient acquisition efficiency, as well as the contributions of mineral translocation, remobilization and metabolic efficiency to nutrient utilization efficiency. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Temporal Changes in the Spatial Variability of Soil Nutrients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoskinson, Reed Louis; Hess, John Richard; Alessi, Randolph Samuel

    1999-07-01

    This paper reports the temporal changes in the spatial variability of soil nutrient concentrations across a field during the growing season, over a four-year period. This study is part of the Site-Specific Technologies for Agriculture (SST4Ag) precision farming research project at the INEEL. Uniform fertilization did not produce a uniform increase in fertility. During the growing season, several of the nutrients and micronutrients showed increases in concentration although no additional fertilization had occurred. Potato plant uptake did not explain all of these changes. Some soil micronutrient concentrations increased above levels considered detrimental to potatoes, but the plants did not show the effects in reduced yield. All the nutrients measured changed between the last sampling in the fall and the first sampling the next spring prior to fertilization. The soil microbial community may play a major role in the temporal changes in the spatial variability of soil nutrient concentrations. These temporal changes suggest potential impact when determining fertilizer recommendations, and when evaluating the results of spatially varying fertilizer application.

  20. Sustaining soil productivity by integrated plant nutrient management in wheat based cropping system under rainfed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilshad, M.; Lone, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    The study of the use of organic (FYM) and inorganic (NPK) nutrient sources with bio fertiliser on wheat-fallow and wheat-maize cropping system under rainfed environment revealed significant increase in bio metric parameters of wheat during winter and summer seasons of two years. During both the seasons, application of half NPK + half FYM + Bio power (brand) produced the highest grain yield (3684 kg/ha) and (3781 kg/ha) of wheat with the maximum N uptake of 357 kg/ha, P uptake of 51 kg/ha and K uptake of 215 kg/ha. Wheat-maize cropping system was found to be profitable economically with integrated use of mineral and organic and/or Bio power under rainfed conditions of Pakistan. (author)

  1. Nutritional quality and ions uptake to PTNDS in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Porous-tube nutrient delivery system (PTNDS) allows high control of the root environment and prevents plant infections in both microgravity and ground conditions. In this paper, six soybean cultivars ('ZH13', 'ZH57', 'LD10', 'HH35', 'HH43', and 'ZGDD') were evaluated in terms of yield, photosynthetic efficiency, insoluble dietary fiber and ions uptake efficiency. Besides proximal composition, the concentrations of mineral and isoflavones were monitored in the seeds. 'HH35' and 'ZH13' plants showed much higher yield and harvest index, in addition to the lower lignin content of inedible biomass. Data showed that 'HH35' had the higher photosynthetic efficiency of soybean leaves with regard to photosynthetic rate and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency, whereas chlorophyll ratio and carotenoids content were no difference with the other cultivars. Both cations and anions except NH4(+) and H2PO4(-), were accumulated excessively compared to controls, especially with anions in PTNDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. New nitrogen uptake strategy: specialized snow roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onipchenko, Vladimir G; Makarov, Mikhail I; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Ivanov, Viktor B; Akhmetzhanova, Assem A; Tekeev, Dzhamal K; Ermak, Anton A; Salpagarova, Fatima S; Kozhevnikova, Anna D; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2009-08-01

    The evolution of plants has yielded a wealth of adaptations for the acquisition of key mineral nutrients. These include the structure, physiology and positioning of root systems. We report the discovery of specialized snow roots as a plant strategy to cope with the very short season for nutrient uptake and growth in alpine snow-beds, i.e. patches in the landscape that remain snow-covered well into the summer. We provide anatomical, chemical and experimental (15)N isotope tracking evidence that the Caucasian snow-bed plant Corydalis conorhiza forms extensive networks of specialized above-ground roots, which grow against gravity to acquire nitrogen directly from within snow packs. Snow roots capture nitrogen that would otherwise partly run off down-slope over a frozen surface, thereby helping to nourish these alpine ecosystems. Climate warming is changing and will change mountain snow regimes, while large-scale anthropogenic N deposition has increased snow N contents. These global changes are likely to impact on the distribution, abundance and functional significance of snow roots.

  3. Kinetic parameters of silicon uptake by rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Oliveira Martins

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon is considered an important chemical element for rice, because it can improve tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. However, in many situations no positive effect of silicon was observed, probably due to genetic factors. The objective of this research was to monitor Si uptake kinetics and identify responses of rice cultivars in terms of Si uptake capacity and use. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the São Paulo State University (UNESP, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized, factorial design with three replications. that consisted of two rice cultivars and two Si levels. Kinetic parameters (Vmax, Km, and Cmin, root morphology variables, dry matter yield, Si accumulation and levels in shoots and roots, uptake efficiency, utilization efficiency, and root/shoot ratio were evaluated. Higher Si concentrations in the nutrient solution did not increase rice dry matter. The development of the low-affinity silicon uptake system of the rice cultivar 'Caiapó' was better than of 'Maravilha'.

  4. A two-dimensional simulation model of phosphorus uptake including crop growth and P-response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollier, A.; Willigen, de P.; Heinen, M.; Morel, C.; Schneider, A.; Pellerin, S.

    2008-01-01

    Modelling nutrient uptake by crops implies considering and integrating the processes controlling the soil nutrient supply, the uptake by the root system and relationships between the crop growth response and the amount of nutrient absorbed. We developed a model that integrates both dynamics of maize

  5. Cadmium toxicity to two marine phytoplankton under different nutrient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, A.-J.; Wang, W.-X.

    2006-01-01

    Cd accumulation and toxicity in two marine phytoplankton (diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii and dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum) under different nutrient conditions (nutrient-enriched, N- and P-starved conditions) were examined in this study. Strong interactions between the nutrients and Cd uptake by the two algal species were found. Cd accumulation as well as N and P starvation themselves inhibited the assimilation of N, P, and Si by the phytoplankton. Conversely, N starvation strongly inhibited Cd accumulation but no influence was observed under P starvation. However, the Cd accumulation difference between nutrient-enriched and N-starved cells was smaller when [Cd 2+ ] was increased in the medium, indicating that net Cd accumulation was less dependent on the N-containing ligands at high-Cd levels. As for the subcellular distribution of the accumulated Cd, most was distributed in the insoluble fraction of T. weissflogii while it was evenly distributed in the soluble and insoluble fractions of P. minimum at low-Cd levels. A small percentage of cellular Cd ( 2+ ], which increased when the [Cd 2+ ] increased. Cd toxicity in phytoplankton was quantified as depression of growth and maximal photosynthetic system II quantum yield, and was correlated with the [Cd 2+ ], intracellular Cd concentration, and Cd concentrations in the cell-surface-adsorbed, soluble, and insoluble fractions. According to the estimated median inhibition concentration (IC50) based on the different types of Cd concentration, the toxicity difference among the different nutrient-conditioned cells was the smallest when the Cd concentration in the soluble fraction was used, suggesting that it may be the best predictor of Cd toxicity under different nutrient conditions

  6. A targeted management of the nutrient solution in a soilless tomato crop according to plant needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo eSignore

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of closed soilless systems is useful in minimizing the environmental impact of the greenhouse crops. Instead, a significant problem in closed soilless systems is represented by the accumulation of ions in the recycled nutrient solution, in particular the unabsorbed or poorly absorbed ones. To overcome such problem, we: 1 studied the effect of several values of the electrical conductivity (EC of nutrient solution in a NFT (Nutrient Film Technique system on a cherry type tomato crop, and 2 define a NS (called recovery solution, based on the concept of uptake concentration and transpiration-biomass ratio, that fits the real needs of the plant with respect to water and nutrients. Three levels of EC set point (SP, above which the NS was completely replaced (SP5, SP7.5, and SP10 for the EC limit of 5, 7.5 and 10 dS m-1, respectively, were established. The SP10 treatment yield was not different from other treatments, and it allowed a better quality of the berries (for dry matter and total soluble solids and higher environmental sustainability due to a lower discharge of total nutrients into the environment (37 and 59% with respect to SP7.5 and SP5, respectively.The recovery solution used in the second trial allowed a more punctual NS management, by adapting to the real needs of the crop. Moreover, it allowed a lesser amount of water and nutrients to be discharged into the environment and a better use of brackish water, due to a more accurate management of the EC of the NS. The targeted management, based on transpiration-biomass ratio, indicates that, in some stages of the plant cycle, the nutrient solution used can be diluted, in order to save water and nutrients. With such management a closed cycle can be realized without affecting the yield, but improving the quality of the tomato berries.

  7. Interaction of amide-nitrogen and sulphur for growth and nutrient accumulation in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.L.; Dev, G.

    1980-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted on an arid brown loamy sand deficient in both available N and S with sunflower (var. Rumsun Record). The treatments consisted of a control, 3 levels of N (30, 60 and 90 ppm) as urea alone and applied in combination with S as K 2 35 SO 4 in the ratio of 30:1, 15:1 and 5:1. Dry matter yield and total uptake of N and S increased significantly with applied N and with narrowing of N-S ratio at all levels of applied N. Maximum yield of dry matter, uptake of nutrients and a constant N-S ratio of 13:1 in plants were obtained with the application of 90 ppm N plus 18 ppm S. (author)

  8. Effect of Mycorrhiza Symbiosis on Yield, Yield Components and Water Use Efficiency of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. Affected by Different Irrigation Regimes in Mashhad Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Plant association with mycorrhiza has been considered as one of the options to improve input efficiency particularly for water and nutrient - (Allen and Musik, 1993; Bolan, 1991. This has been due to kncreasing the absorbing area of the root and therefore better contact with water and nutrients. Inoculation with mycorrhiza enhances nutrient uptake with low immobility such as phosphorus and solphur-, improve association and could be an option to drought and other environmental abnormalities such as salinity (Rice et al., 2002. Moreover, higher water use efficiency (WUE for crops -has been reported in the literatures (Sekhara and Reddy, 1993.The sustainable use of scarce water resources in Iran is a priority for agricultural development. The pressure of using water in agriculture sector is increasing, so creating ways to improve water-use efficiency and taking a full advantage of available water are crucial. Water stress reduce crop yield by impairing the growth of crop canopy and biomass. Scheduling water application is very crucial for efficient use of drip irrigation system, as excessive irrigation reduces yield, while inadequate irrigation causes water stress and reduces production. The aim of present study was to evaluate the symbiotic effect of mycorrhiza on yield, yield components and water use efficiency of sesame under different irrigation regimes in Mashhad. Material and Methods In order to investigate the impact of inoculation with two species of Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on yield, yield components and water use efficiency (WUE of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. under different irrigation regimes, an experiment was conducted as split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications during two growing seasons 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 at the Agricultural Research Station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.. The experimental factors were three irrigation regimes include 2000, 3000 and

  9. Effect of Root Pruning and Irrigation Regimes on Yield and Physiology of Pear Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yufei

    Clara Frijs’ is the dominant pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar in Denmark. It is vigorous with long annual shoots, and therefore can be difficult to prune. Root pruning has been widely used to control the canopy size of fruit trees including pears. However, root pruned trees are more likely......, it was concluded that root pruning not only decreases water uptake but also nutrient uptake, and both have contributed to the reduced canopy growth. Supplemental irrigation partially improved the tree water status and nitrogen uptake without stimulating additional shoot growth in the root pruned trees....... A combination of root pruning and irrigation could be a promising practice to control tree size and secure a stable fruit yield in pear orchard....

  10. Long-term soil nutrient dynamics comparison under smallholding land and farmland policy in northeast of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Wei, Xinfeng; Hao, Fanghua

    2013-04-15

    There are two kinds of land policies, the smallholding land policy (SLP) and the farmland policy (FLP) in China. The farmland nutrient dynamics under the two land policies were analysed with the soil system budget method. The averaged nitrogen (N) input of the SLP and the FLP over sixteen years increased about 23.9% and 33.3%, respectively and the phosphorus (P) input climbed about 39.1% and 42.3%, respectively. The statistical analysis showed that the land policies had significant impacts on N and P input from fertilizer and manure, but did not obviously affect the N input from seeds and biological N fixation. The efficiency percentage of N of the SLP and the FLP climbed about 54.5% and 59.4%, respectively, and the P efficiency improved by 52.7% and 82.6%, respectively. About the nutrient output, the F-test analysis indicated that the land polices had remarkable impacts on N output by crop uptake, ammonia volatilisation, denitrification, leaching and runoff, and P output by uptake, runoff, and leach. The balance showed that the absolute loss of N from land deceased about 43.6% and 46.0%, respectively, in the SLP and the FLP, and P discharge reduced about 34.2% and 75.2%, respectively. The F-test analysis of N and P efficiency and balance of between two polices both indicated that the FLP had significant impact on nutrient dynamic. With the Mitscherlich model, the correlations between nutrient input and crop uptake, usage efficiency and loss were analysed and showed that was a threshold value for the optimal nutrient input with the highest efficiency rate. For the optimal nutrient efficiency, the space for extra P addition was bigger than the N input. The FLP have more advantage than the SLP on the crop yield, nutrient efficiency and environmental discharge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of inorganic nitrogen form on growth, morphology, N uptake, and nutrient allocation in hybrid Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum × Pennisetum americanum cv. Pakchong1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans; Kantawanichkul, Suwasa

    2014-01-01

    in such systems. We studied the effects of inorganic nitrogen form (NH4 +, NH4NO3 or NO3 -) on growth, morphology, N uptake, water content and mineral allocation in this species under hydroponic conditions at equimolar concentrations (500μmolNL-1). Generally, the N-form significantly affected growth, biomass...

  12. A Data Base of Nutrient Use, Water Use, CO2 Exchange, and Ethylene Production by Soybeans in a Controlled Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Peterson, B. V.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.; Berry, W. L.; Sharifi, M. R.

    1998-01-01

    A data set is given describing daily nutrient and water uptake, carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange, ethylene production, and carbon and nutrient partitioning from a 20 sq m stand of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. McCall] for use in bioregenerative life support systems. Stand CO2 exchange rates were determined from nocturnal increases in CO2 (respiration) and morning drawdowns (net photosynthesis) to a set point of 1000 micromol/ mol each day (i.e., a closed system approach). Atmospheric samples were analyzed throughout growth for ethylene using gas chromatography with photoionization detection (GC/PH)). Water use was monitored by condensate production from the humidity control system, as well as water uptake from the nutrient solution reservoirs each day. Nutrient uptake data were determined from daily additions of stock solution and acid to maintain an EC of 0.12 S/m and pH of 5.8. Dry mass yields of seeds, pods (without seeds), leaves, stems, and roots are provided, as well as elemental and proximate nutritional compositions of the tissues. A methods section is included to qualify any assumptions that might be required for the use of the data in plant growth models, along with a daily event calendar documenting set point adjustments and the occasional equipment or sensor failure.

  13. Rendimento e concentração de nutrientes em alface, em função das adubações orgânica e mineral Yield and nutrient concentration in lettuce as a function of organic and mineral manuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Talarico Rodrigues

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O rendimento e a concentração de nutrientes na alface, cultivar Babá, foram quantificados em função das adubações orgânica e mineral, em solo distrófico. Utilizou-se o sistema de transplante de mudas em vasos de polietileno de 5 dm³, em casa de vegetação e o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram dispostos no arranjo fatorial 4 x 3, com quatro doses de composto orgânico (0; 0,9; 1,8 e 2,7 dm³, equivalentes a 0, 33, 66 e 99 t/ha, na base seca e três níveis de adubação mineral (0, 1 e 2. O nível 2 veiculou as doses de macro e micronutrientes apropriadas e o nível 1 consistiu de metade do nível 2. As produtividades máximas foram estimadas em 119,5, 119,4 e 153,9 g/planta, com as doses de 37,7, 18,9 e 13 t/ha de composto, nos níveis 0, 1 e 2 de adubo mineral, respectivamente. As doses de composto orgânico promoveram aumentos menos acentuados que a adubação mineral nas concentrações foliares de N, elevaram as concentrações de P, K e Na e diminuíram as de Ca, demonstrando que doses altas de adubos orgânicos provocam excesso de cátions monovalentes, prejudicando a absorção do Ca.Nutrient accumulation in lettuce plants, cv. Babá, was quantified as a function of organic and mineral fertilisers, in a low fertility soil. The experiment was established by transplanting seedlings to 5 dm³ capacity pots in a greenhouse. The experiment was laid out in a complete randomised block design with three replications ordered in factorial arrangement (4 x 3 of four doses of organic compost (0, 0.9, 1.8 and 2.7 dm³; equivalent to 0, 33, 66, and 99 t/ha, in drought basis and three mineral fertiliser levels (0, 1 and 2. Level two carried doses of macro and micronutrients normally recommended for the culture, with level one carrying half the dose of level two. The maximum estimated yields were 119.5, 119.4 and 153.9 g/plant with 37.7, 18.9 and 13 t/ha compost doses, for levels 0

  14. Yields of cotton and other crops as affected by applications of sulfuric acid in irrigation water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, P.D.; Lyerly, P.J.

    1954-01-01

    Effects of sulfuric acid on crop yields and on some physical and chemical properties of a calcareous soil were investigated in a field experiment from 1947 through 1952. On cotton plots, the treatments consisted of applications of irrigation water containing no acid (pH 8.3), water acidified to pH 6, and water acidified to pH 2.3. Cotton was grown five seasons followed by sesbania the sixth season. A test on alfalfa was established using irrigation water not acidified and water acidifeid to pH 4. Alfalfa was grown for 3 years. The fourth year the alfalfa was plowed under and a crop of corn was raised. Cotton yields on the acid plots relative to the checks became progressively higher (with two exceptions) from one year to the next; however, in only one year (1950) were differences in yield statistically significant. With sesbania following cotton, highly significant yield increases resulted from the high acid treatment. Alfalfa yields on the acid plots became progressively greater relative to the non-acid plots, but yield differences were not significant. In cotton leaves, the acid treatments resulted in increased uptake of magnesium, sulfur, and phosphorus, but the increases were probably not significant. Uptake of sodium, potassium, calcium, manganese, and iron were not appreciably affected. In sesbania, the acid treatments did not significantly alter the uptake of any of the plant nutrients determined. There was some indication, however, that the uptake of sodium and iron was reduced by the acidification. The results of this study support the view that soil acidification on calcareous soils may improve the soil physical conditions and result in increased yields, particularly in some crops. The application of acid in the irrigation water did not prove to be economically feasible. 12 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

  15. Plant functional traits and canopy structure control the relationship between photosynthetic CO2 uptake and far-red sun-induced fluorescence in a Mediterranean grassland under different nutrient availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, Mirco; Perez-Priego, Oscar; Rossini, Micol; El-Madany, Tarek S; Moreno, Gerardo; van der Tol, Christiaan; Rascher, Uwe; Berninger, Anna; Bessenbacher, Verena; Burkart, Andreas; Carrara, Arnaud; Fava, Francesco; Guan, Jin-Hong; Hammer, Tiana W; Henkel, Kathrin; Juarez-Alcalde, Enrique; Julitta, Tommaso; Kolle, Olaf; Martín, M Pilar; Musavi, Talie; Pacheco-Labrador, Javier; Pérez-Burgueño, Andrea; Wutzler, Thomas; Zaehle, Sönke; Reichstein, Markus

    2017-05-01

    Sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) in the far-red region provides a new noninvasive measurement approach that has the potential to quantify dynamic changes in light-use efficiency and gross primary production (GPP). However, the mechanistic link between GPP and SIF is not completely understood. We analyzed the structural and functional factors controlling the emission of SIF at 760 nm (F 760 ) in a Mediterranean grassland manipulated with nutrient addition of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) or nitrogen-phosphorous (NP). Using the soil-canopy observation of photosynthesis and energy (SCOPE) model, we investigated how nutrient-induced changes in canopy structure (i.e. changes in plant forms abundance that influence leaf inclination distribution function, LIDF) and functional traits (e.g. N content in dry mass of leaves, N%, Chlorophyll a+b concentration (Cab) and maximum carboxylation capacity (V cmax )) affected the observed linear relationship between F 760 and GPP. We conclude that the addition of nutrients imposed a change in the abundance of different plant forms and biochemistry of the canopy that controls F 760 . Changes in canopy structure mainly control the GPP-F 760 relationship, with a secondary effect of Cab and V cmax . In order to exploit F 760 data to model GPP at the global/regional scale, canopy structural variability, biodiversity and functional traits are important factors that have to be considered. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  17. Investigations on the nutrient demands of different balsam poplar clones (Populus trichocarpa Torr. et Grey) based on growth, nutrient uptake, and vapor exchange. Untersuchungen ueber die Naehrstoffansprueche verschiedener Balsam-Pappelklone (Populus trichocarpa Torr. et Grey) in Hinsicht auf das Wachstum, die Naehrstoffaufnahme und den Gaswechsel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griese, C.

    1991-01-01

    This work tries to describe the nutrient demands of six different, very fast-growing clones of the species Populus trichocarpa Torr. Et. Grey. Relevant are the capability for taking up different nutrients, and the plants' efficiency in using these nutrients for vapour exchange of the leaves (photosynthesis, respiration in the dark, transpiration) as well as for increasing biomass. A further aim pursued with these measurements is the attempt to explain the different growth of these six popular clones. Here, field experiments have shown a gradiation of the clones' growth performance. From the first to the sixth clone, growth performance declines steadily. Should there be differences among the clones as to the physiological, biometric and phenological variables to be investigated, then this work might lead to the identification of growth-determining factors suitable for postulating of the investigated clones. (orig.).

  18. Lichen substances prevent lichens from nutrient deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Willenbruch, Karen; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The dibenzofuran usnic acid, a widespread cortical secondary metabolite produced by lichen-forming fungi, was shown to promote the intracellular uptake of Cu(2+) in two epiphytic lichens, Evernia mesomorpha and Ramalina menziesii, from acidic, nutrient-poor bark. Higher Cu(2+) uptake in the former, which produces the depside divaricatic acid in addition to usnic acid, suggests that this depside promotes Cu(2+) uptake. Since Cu(2+) is one of the rarest micronutrients, promotion of Cu(2+) uptake by lichen substances may be crucial for the studied lichens to survive in their nutrient-poor habitats. In contrast, study of the uptake of other metals in E. mesomorpha revealed that the intracellular uptake of Mn(2+), which regularly exceeds potentially toxic concentrations in leachates of acidic tree bark, was partially inhibited by the lichen substances produced by this species. Inhibition of Mn(2+) uptake by lichen substances previously has been demonstrated in lichens. The uptake of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), which fail to reach toxic concentrations in acidic bark at unpolluted sites, although they are more common than Cu(2+), was not affected by lichen substances of E. mesomorpha.

  19. Quantitative understanding of nanoparticle uptake in watermelon plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Raliya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of agrochemical-nutrient fertilizers has come under scrutiny in recent years due to concerns that they damage the ecosystem and endanger public health. Nanotechnology offers many possible interventions to mitigate these risks by use of nanofertilizers, nanopesticides, and nanosensors; and concurrently increases profitability, yields, and sustainability within the agricultural industry. Aerosol based foliar delivery of nanoparticles may help to enhance nanoparticle uptake and reduce environmental impacts of chemical fertilizers conventionally applied through a soil route. The purpose of this work was to study uptake, translocation, and accumulation of various gold nanostructures, 30 to 80 nm, delivered by aerosol application to a watermelon plant. Cellular uptake and accumulation of gold nanoparticles were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS. Observations suggested that nanoparticles could be taken up by the plant through direct penetration and transport through the stomatal opening. Observed translocation of nanoparticles from leaf to root shows evidence that nanoparticles travel by the phloem transport mechanism. Accumulation and transport of nanoparticles depend on nanoparticle shape, application method, and nature of plant tissues.

  20. Plants may alter competition by modifying nutrient bioavailability in rhizosphere: a modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, Xavier; Jaillard, Benoît; Leadley, Paul W

    2008-01-01

    Plants modify nutrient availability by releasing chemicals in the rhizosphere. This change in availability induced by roots (bioavailability) is known to improve nutrient uptake by individual plants releasing such compounds. Can this bioavailability alter plant competition for nutrients and under what conditions? To address these questions, we have developed a model of nutrient competition between plant species based on mechanistic descriptions of nutrient diffusion, plant exudation, and plant uptake. The model was parameterized using data of the effects of root citrate exudation on phosphorus availability. We performed a sensitivity analysis for key parameters to test the generality of these effects. Our simulations suggest the following. (1) Nutrient uptake depends on the number of roots when nutrients and exudates diffuse little, because individual roots are nearly independent in terms of nutrient supply. In this case, bioavailability profits only species with exudates. (2) Competition for nutrients depends on the spatial arrangement of roots when nutrients diffuse little but exudates diffuse widely. (3) Competition for nutrients depends on the nutrient uptake capacity of roots when nutrients and exudates diffuse widely. In this case, bioavailability profits all species. Mechanisms controlling competition for bioavailable nutrients appear to be diverse and strongly depend on soil, nutrient, and plant properties.

  1. Biotechnology in plant nutrient management for agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology in plant nutrient management for agricultural production in the tropics: ... and yields, marker assisted selection breeding, to develop new uses for agricultural products, to facilitate early maturation and to improve food and feed ...

  2. Effects of salinity stress on seedlings growth, mineral nutrients and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... mechanisms, including low external water potential, ion toxicity and interference with the uptake of nutrients, particulary ... to which each of these factors affects growth depends on ..... Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts:.

  3. Uptake of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by mudflat bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... bacteria exposed to nitrogenous fertilizer plant ... accompanied by a rapid decline in the level of crude petroleum in the amended .... conductivity, turbidity, salinity, dissolved oxygen (fresh sample only) ... Nutrient uptake was.

  4. Nutrient Dynamics in an Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh., Mangrove Forest in Vamleshwar, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah Nirmal KUMAR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the nutrient budget of plants, sediments and nutrient dynamics in an Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh., dominated forest in Vamleshwar near Narmada estuary, West Coast of Gujarat for a period of one year from November 2008 to October 2009. The average tree height of the mangrove is 1.5 to 2 m without much vertical stratification. Allometric methodology was used to measure the biomass, and yield a figure of 86.47 t ha-1 and the litter fall rate amounted to 2.9 t ha-1. Nutrient stocks of N, P and K in this mangrove were 137.05, 14.38 and 241.29 kg ha-1, with an annual accumulation of 55.74, 12.38 and 83.94 kg ha-1, and an annual return of 51.30, 10.83 and 13.52 kg ha-1, respectively, in the form of litter. The annual uptake for N, P and K were 61.04, 14.28 and 97.46 kg ha-1, and turnover rates of N, P and K were estimated at 3, 6 and 14 years, respectively, for the study period. Flow coefficients, which reveal the dynamic processes of nutrients between mangrove plants and sediments, are also explained. The present study concluded that the A. marina dominated mangrove plantation is more efficient in nutrient use and conservation.

  5. Metal uptake by corn grown on media treated with particle-size fractionated biosolids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Weiping [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)], E-mail: chenweip@yahoo.com.cn; Chang, Andrew C.; Wu, Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Zhang, Yongsong [School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 31009 (China)

    2008-03-15

    Particle-size of biosolids may affect plant uptake of heavy metals when the biosolids are land applied. In this study, corn (Zea mays L.) was grown on sand media treated with biosolids to study how particle-size of biosolids affected the plant uptake of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Two biosolids, the Nu-Earth biosolids and the Los Angeles biosolids, of dissimilar surface morphology were utilized. The former exhibited a porous and spongy structure and had considerably greater specific surface area than that of the latter, which was granular and blocky. The specific surface area of the Los Angeles biosolids was inversely proportional to its particle-size, while that of Nu-Earth biosolids did not change significantly with particle-size. For each biosolid, the metal concentrations were not affected by particle sizes. The biomass yields of plants grown on the treated media increased as the biosolid particle-size decreased, indicating that plant uptake of nutrients from biosolids was dependent on interactions at the root-biosolids interface. The effect of particle-size on a metal's availability to plants was element-specific. The uptake rate of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Ni was correlated with the surface area of the particles, i.e., smaller particles having higher specific area provided greater root-biosolids contact and resulted in enhanced uptake of Cd and Zn and slightly less increased uptake of Cu and Ni. The particle morphology of biosolids had limited influence on the plant tissue concentrations of Cr and Pb. For both types of biosolids, total metal uptake increased as biosolid particle-size decreased. Our research indicates that biosolid particle-size distribution plays a deciding role in plant uptake of heavy metals when they are land applied.

  6. Nutrient spiraling in streams and river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Scott H.; Doyle, Martin W.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past 3 decades, nutrient spiraling has become a unifying paradigm for stream biogeochemical research. This paper presents (1) a quantitative synthesis of the nutrient spiraling literature and (2) application of these data to elucidate trends in nutrient spiraling within stream networks. Results are based on 404 individual experiments on ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and phosphate (PO4) from 52 published studies. Sixty-nine percent of the experiments were performed in first- and second-order streams, and 31% were performed in third- to fifth-order streams. Uptake lengths, Sw, of NH4 (median = 86 m) and PO4 (median = 96 m) were significantly different (α = 0.05) than NO3 (median = 236 m). Areal uptake rates of NH4 (median = 28 μg m-2 min-1) were significantly different than NO3 and PO4 (median = 15 and 14 μg m-2 min-1, respectively). There were significant differences among NH4, NO3, and PO4 uptake velocity (median = 5, 1, and 2 mm min-1, respectively). Correlation analysis results were equivocal on the effect of transient storage on nutrient spiraling. Application of these data to a stream network model showed that recycling (defined here as stream length ÷ Sw) of NH4 and NO3 generally increased with stream order, while PO4 recycling remained constant along a first- to fifth-order stream gradient. Within this hypothetical stream network, cumulative NH4 uptake decreased slightly with stream order, while cumulative NO3 and PO4 uptake increased with stream order. These data suggest the importance of larger rivers to nutrient spiraling and the need to consider how stream networks affect nutrient flux between terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

  7. Malabsorption of mineral nutrients and effects of foliar fertilization on continuously cropped capsicum annuum l. var. annuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, X.H.; Zhao, Z.L.; Zhao, Z.L.; Zhao, H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Cayenne pepper (C. annuum var. annuum) cultivar known as line No. 5 was used to establish a reference baseline for fertilization experiments under conditions of continuous cropping versus crop rotation. The effects of continuous cropping on absorption of 11 essential nutrient elements and fruit yield were studied. Concurrently, we also examined the effects of foliar application of urea + KH/sub 2/ PO/sub 4/ and Fe + B + Zn + Mn on nutrient absorption due to continuous cropping. The results showed that, compared with peppers grown in rotation soil, continuous cropping affected the uptake of eight elements (P, K, Mg, Fe, B, Zn, Mn, Cu) and transport of these elements to the aerial parts of the plant, although the element concentrations in continuous cropping soil were not lower than those in rotation soil. Continuous cropping caused a decline in fruit yield. The impact of continuous cropping on the uptake of trace elements was greater than it was for macro elements. Foliar application of urea + KH/sub 2/ PO/sub 4/ significantly improved the P, Mg, Fe, and Mo content of continuously-cropped pepper plants, but did not significantly improve the content of N and K, and there was an antagonistic effect on Zn uptake. Foliar application of Fe + B + Zn + Mn, significantly increased the Fe, B, Zn, Mn, and P content in the plants; Ca uptake in the leaves and fruits was promoted to a certain degree, but there was obvious antagonism toward Mo and Cu uptake in the stems, leaves and fruits. Pepper fruit yields were significantly increased by foliar application of urea + KH/sub 2/ PO/sub 4/ or foliar application of Fe + B + Zn + Mn. However the effects of foliar application of Fe + B + Zn + Mn on increased production were significantly better than the effects of foliar application of urea + KH/sub 2/ PO/sub 4/. (author)

  8. Rhizospheric Microflora Escalating Aroma Constituents and Yield Attributes in Ocimum tenuiflorum (L. cv. CIM-Ayu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Khare Saikia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of rhizospheric microbial flora for crop yield enhancement is well established. Rhizospheric microbes influence the plant physiology by imparting several beneficial effects, namely, Nitrogen fixation, increased nutrient uptake, and secondary metabolites production on their host plants. The present study investigates the response of Bacillus megaterium ATCC No. 13525, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC No. 14581, and Trichoderma viride MTCC No. 167 in alone and combined treatments for their effect on growth and yield parameters in a commercially important Ocimum tenuiflorum L. cv. CIM-Ayu. The plant is therapeutically important for its essential oil constituents, namely, eugenol, β-caryophyllene, and various monoterpenes. The combination treatments, T7 (B. megaterium + P. fluorescens and T8 (B. megaterium + P. fluorescens + T. viride, showed maximum enhancement (27.27% of percentage essential oil as compared to untreated control. Nutrient uptake especially N2 content was significantly increased (43% with the treatment T8 (B. megaterium + P. fluorescens + T. viride. Amongst major essential oil constituents, eugenol content was maximally increased by 58.5% as compared to 42.9% (control indicating a cumulative role of microbial inoculants for crop yield boost-up.

  9. Uptake and transport of chromium in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, V.; D'souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake of chromium, an important soil and water pollutant, by five different plant species was examined in nutrient culture experiments using chromium-51 as a tracer. The concentration in aerial tissues of both trivalent and hexavalent forms of chromium was the greatest in peas followed by beans, tomato and the cereals over identical uptake periods. The uptake of 51 Cr 3+ was, in general, greater than 51 CrO 4 2- . Studies with bean plants indicated that shoot uptake of both forms of chromium decreased with increasing pH and salt concentration of the external solution. Concentrations of 10 -4 M and 10 -5 M DNP inhibited 51 Cr uptake by bean shoots. (author)

  10. Roots, plant production and nutrient use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigen, de P.; Noordwijk, van M.

    1987-01-01

    The role of roots in obtaining high crop production levels as well as a high nutrient use efficiency is discussed. Mathematical models of diffusion and massflow of solutes towards roots are developed for a constant daily uptake requirement. Analytical solutions are given for simple and more

  11. Uptake of fertilizer nitrogen and soil nitrogen by rice using 15N-labelled nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.R.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Data from five field experiments using labelled nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine the relative effects of soil nitrogen and fertilizer nitrogen on rice yield. Yield of grain was closely correlated with total aboveground nitrogen uptake (soil + fertilizer), less closely correlated with soil nitrogen uptake and not significantly correlated with fertilizer nitrogen uptake. When yield increase rather than yield was correlated with fertilizer nitrogen uptake, the correlation coefficient was statistically significant. (orig.)

  12. Uptake kinetics of arsenic by lettuce cultivars under hydroponics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arsenic (As) uptake ability based on kinetic parameters by two lettuce cultivars; Sijibaiye (SJBY) and Texuanyanlingsun (TXYLS) was investigated in nutrient solution containing eight levels of arsenic (As). Depletion of As from solution was monitored over a period of 24 h at regular time to estimate As uptake kinetics of the ...

  13. Crop yield, root growth, and nutrient dynamics in a conventional and three organic cropping systems with different levels of external inputs and N re-cycling through fertility building crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2012-01-01

    systems based on fertility building crops (green manures and catch crops). In short, the main distinctions were not observed between organic and conventional systems (i.e. C vs. O1, O2 and O3), but between systems based mainly on nutrient import vs. systems based mainly on fertility building crops (C...... of the organic rotation, both relying on green manures and catch crops grown during the autumn after the main crop as their main source of soil fertility, and the O3 system further leaving rows of the green manures to grow as intercrops between vegetable rows to improve the conditions for biodiversity...... were found. Root growth of all crops was studied in the C and O2 system, but only few effects of cropping system on root growth was observed. However, the addition of green manures to the systems almost doubled the average soil exploration by active root systems during the rotation from only 21% in C...

  14. Analysis of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) performance in relation to radiation level and rate of nitrogen supply II. Uptake and distribution of nitrogen, leaf photosynthesis and first bean yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna Debela; Zana, Zewdneh; Ocho, Fikre L.; Vos, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Natural supply of nitrogen is often limiting coffee production. From the viewpoints of growth and biomass production, adequate nitrogen supply is important. Growing coffee under full sunlight not only enhances potential yields but also increases demands for nitrogen fertilizer, the extent of which

  15. Finger Millet Growth and Nutrient Uptake Is Improved in Intercropping With Pigeon Pea Through “Biofertilization” and “Bioirrigation” Mediated by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Saharan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Legume-cereal intercropping is well known in traditional dry land agriculture. Here, we tested whether finger millet, a shallow-rooted cereal, can profit from neighboring pigeon pea, a deep-rooted legume, in the presence of “biofertilization” with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, under drought conditions. We conducted a greenhouse experiment using compartmented microcosms. Pigeon pea was grown in a deep compartment with access to a moist substrate layer at the bottom, whereas finger millet was grown in a neighboring shallow compartment, separated by 25-μm nylon mesh, without access to the moist substrate layer. In the presence of a common mycorrhizal network (CMN, with or without PGPR, a drought condition had little negative effect on the biomass production of the finger millet plant whereas in absence of biofertilization, finger millet biomass production was less than half compared to well-watered condition. Biofertilization strongly increased nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by both plants, both under well-watered and drought conditions. In the presence of AMF, both plants also acquired 15N and 33P, offered in a labeling compartment accessible to fungal hyphae but not to roots. Our results show that “biofertilization” with AMF alleviates the negative effects of drought condition on finger millet, indicating that the CMN connecting pigeon pea and finger millet exert clearly a positive influence in this simulated intercropping system.

  16. The effects of pH and temperature on phosphate and nitrate uptake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the effects of pH and temperature on nutrient uptake efficiency of 3 wastewater protozoan isolates (Aspidisca (A), Trachelophyllum (B) and Peranema (C)) that have previously been screened for nutrient uptake ability. The study was carried out in shake flask at pH 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 ...

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhiza and water and nutrient supply differently impact seedling performance of dry woodland species with different acquisition strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emiru Birhane, E.B.; Kuyper, T.W.; Sterck, F.J.; Gebrehiwot, K.; Bongers, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi increase seedling survival and performance through enhancement of nutrient and water uptake under stress conditions. Acacia etbaica, A. senegal and Boswellia papyrifera dominate large areas in African drylands where both moisture and nutrients are

  18. Photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, photon yield of O2 evolution, photosynthetic capacity, and carotenoid composition during the midday depression of net CO2 uptake in Arbutus unedo growing in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmig-Adams, B; Adams, W W; Winter, K; Meyer, A; Schreiber, U; Pereira, J S; Krüger, A; Czygan, F C; Lange, O L

    1989-03-01

    During the "midday depression" of net CO2 exchange in the mediterranean sclerophyllous shrub Arbutus unedo, examined in the field in Portugal during August of 1987, several parameters indicative of photosynthetic competence were strongly and reversibly affected. These were the photochemical efficiency of photosystem (PS) II, measured as the ratio of variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence, as well as the photon yield and the capacity of photosynthetic O2 evolution at 10% CO2, of which the apparent photon yield of O2 evolution was most depressed. Furthermore, there was a strong and reversible increase in the content of the carotenoid zeaxanthin in the leaves that occurred at the expense of both violaxanthin and β-carotene. Diurnal changes in fluorescence characteristics were interpreted to indicate three concurrent effects on the photochemical system. First, an increase in the rate of radiationless energy dissipation in the antenna chlorophyll, reflected by changes in 77K fluorescence of PSII and PSI as well as in chlorophyll a fluorescence at ambient temperature. Second, a state shift characterized by an increase in the proportion of energy distributed to PSI as reflected by changes in PSI fluorescence. Third, an effect lowering the photon yield of O2 evolution and PSII fluorescence at ambient temperature without affecting PSII fluorescence at 77K which would be expected from a decrease in the activity of the water splitting enzyme system, i.e. a donor side limitation.

  19. yield and yield componemts of extra early maize (zea mays l.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SHARIFAI

    maize crop and improve the soil structures and chemical nutrients of the soil. The significant interaction between intra-row spacing and poultry manure on cob diameter, 100 grain weight and grain yield showed the importance of poultry manure on yield and yield components of maize crop. Poultry manure increases both ...

  20. Dopamine alleviates nutrient deficiency-induced stress in Malus hupehensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bowen; Li, Cuiying; Ma, Changqing; Wei, Zhiwei; Wang, Qian; Huang, Dong; Chen, Qi; Li, Chao; Ma, Fengwang

    2017-10-01

    Dopamine mediates many physiological processes in plants. We investigated its role in regulating growth, root system architecture, nutrient uptake, and responses to nutrient deficiencies in Malus hupehensis Rehd. Under a nutrient deficiency, plants showed significant reductions in growth, chlorophyll concentrations, and net photosynthesis, along with disruptions in nutrient uptake, transport, and distribution. However, pretreatment with 100 μM dopamine markedly alleviated such inhibitions. Supplementation with that compound enabled plants to maintain their photosynthetic capacity and development of the root system while promoting the uptake of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B, altering the way in which those nutrients were partitioned throughout the plant. The addition of dopamine up-regulated genes for antioxidant enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle (MdcAPX, MdcGR, MdMDHAR, MdDHAR-1, and MdDHAR-2) but down-regulated genes for senescence (SAG12, PAO, and MdHXK). These results indicate that exogenous dopamine has an important antioxidant and anti-senescence effect that might be helpful for improving nutrient uptake. Our findings demonstrate that dopamine offers new opportunities for its use in agriculture, especially when addressing the problem of nutrient deficiencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutrient cycling strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews pathways by which plants can influence the nutrient cycle, and thereby the nutrient supply of themselves and of their competitors. Higher or lower internal nutrient use efficiency positively feeds back into the nutrient cycle, and helps to increase or decrease soil

  2. Integrated crop management practices for maximizing grain yield of double-season rice crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Depeng; Huang, Jianliang; Nie, Lixiao; Wang, Fei; Ling, Xiaoxia; Cui, Kehui; Li, Yong; Peng, Shaobing

    2017-01-01

    Information on maximum grain yield and its attributes are limited for double-season rice crop grown under the subtropical environment. This study was conducted to examine key characteristics associated with high yielding double-season rice crop through a comparison between an integrated crop management (ICM) and farmers’ practice (FP). Field experiments were conducted in the early and late seasons in the subtropical environment of Wuxue County, Hubei Province, China in 2013 and 2014. On average, grain yield in ICM was 13.5% higher than that in FP. A maximum grain yield of 9.40 and 10.53 t ha-1 was achieved under ICM in the early- and late-season rice, respectively. Yield improvement of double-season rice with ICM was achieved with the combined effects of increased plant density and optimized nutrient management. Yield gain of ICM resulted from a combination of increases in sink size due to more panicle number per unit area and biomass production, further supported by the increased leaf area index, leaf area duration, radiation use efficiency, crop growth rate, and total nitrogen uptake compared with FP. Further enhancement in the yield potential of double-season rice should focus on increasing crop growth rate and biomass production through improved and integrated crop management practices.

  3. N Uptake From Irradiated Sludge Combined With N Fertilizer By Edible Nightshade Crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrosuharjo, M.M.; Haryanto; S, Suwirma; Harsojo; Hilmy N

    2000-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment has been carried out to study the amount of N uptake from sludge by edible nightshade (solanum melongena) crop. Sludge used in this experiment was a municipal sludge that has been processed (to be a compost sludge so it was ready to be used) from pulo gebang, east jakarta, then sludge was irradiated in a dose rate between 3.6 to 4.4 kGy at P3TIR-BATAN, jakarta. The sludge was given in the amount equivalent to 60, 120, 180 and 240 kg N/ha. For control was used treatment without sludge, without sludge but with N fertilizer in a normal rate. Each of treatment was applied with 15N in the rate equivalent to 20 kg N/ha. For buffer of soil nutrient, fertilizer P and K were also applied in normal rate. As experimental crop hybrid edible nightshade of FORTUNA variety was used. Result of this experiment showed that application of sludge was able to increase yield, dry matter production, total N uptake and N uptake derived from sludge. The amount of N uptake derived from sludge was spread between 17.5 to 151.8 mg N/pot for application sludge in 1% N content at the rate equivalent 60 to 240 kg N/ha

  4. Nutrient cycling potential of camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz.) as a cover crop in the US Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Marisol; Samarappuli, Dulan

    2017-04-01

    Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.] is an industrial oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family with multiple uses. Currently, camelina is not used as a cover crop, but it has the potential to be used as such in maize-soybean-wheat cropping systems. The objectives of this study were to determine the agronomic performance and nutrient scavenging potential of winter camelina in comparison with other common cover crops. Experiments were conducted in Fargo, ND in 2015 and 2016, and in Prosper, ND in 2015. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. The main plot was the sowing date and the subplot were camelina cultivars as well as other common cover crops in the area. Sowing dates were targeted to 15 August and September 1, although the final dates varied slightly each year. Biomass yield, N content of the biomass N uptake and P uptake was evaluated. Winter camelina N and P uptake ranged between 21 and 30.5 kg N ha-1 and 3.4 to 5.3 kg P ha-1. The nutrient scavenging potential of winter camelina was similar to other cover crops although slightly lower than turnip (Brassica rapa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars which had significantly higher P uptake than winter camelina and the other cover crops in the study. An evaluation of spring regrowth and cover indicated that only rye, winter camelina, and pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) survived the winter, although a few plants of triticale (x Trticosecale Witt.) and rape were found on a few plots. Because of the high variability on the plots there were no significant differences among the surviving cover crops on soil coverage. The soil coverage for rye cultivars was 25 and 35% and for camelina cv. Bison was 27%.In 2016, biomass yield was not significant for sowing date, cultivars, or their interaction. Winter camelina cultivars biomass yield fluctuated between 1.15 and 2.33 Mg dry matter ha-1 on the first sowing

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING IN AGRICULTURE: NUTRIENT ACCOUNTING AND OTHER ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P URFI

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available While traditional accounting focuses on accounting for capital assets, costs, yields valued and sold in the market, environmental accounting intends to do the same with non-marketed capital assets, costs and yields, that is, externalities. The farm level nutrient balances are based on an input-output comparison, in which the nutrients entering the farm within inputs are compared to nutrients leaving the farm within the sold products. The method considers the amounts of nutrients entering the farm but not leaving it with the products to be wastes polluting the environment. The weakness of this approach is the handling of stock changes. In a farming year high amounts of nutrients contained in unsold products are not wastes, nor are they stored in the soil, but are stored in the stocks. To handle this problem the concepts of external nutrient balance and internal nutrient balance are introduced, and are tested in case studies of two Hungarian mixed farms.

  6. Review on Periphyton as Mediator of Nutrient Transfer in Aquatic Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjya K. Saikia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the studies of aquatic ecology, periphyton has been uncared for despite its vital role in nutrient uptake and transfer to the upper trophic organisms. Being the component of food chain as attached organism it takes part in nutrient cycling in the ecosystem like that of suspended planktonic counterparts. The present review, with an aim to understand the role of periphyton in nutrient transfer from benthic environment to upper trophic level, focuses many aspects of periphyton-nutrient relationship based on available literatures. It also attempts to redefine periphyton, as a part of biofilm, harboring nutrient components like protein, fat and carbohydrate preferably in its extracellular polymeric substance (EPS, cyanobacteria, diatom and other algal communities. In addition to physical processes, nutrient uptake by periphyton is catalyzed by enzymes like Nitrogen Reductase and Alkaline Phosphatase from the environment. This uptake and transfer is further regulated by periphytic C: nutrient (N or P stoichiometry, colonization time, distribution of periphyton cover on sediments and macrophytes, macronutrient concentration, grazing, sloughing, temperature, and advective transport. The Carbon (C sources of periphyton are mainly dissolve organic matter and photosynthetic C that enters into higher trophic levels through predation and transfers as C-rich nutrient components. Despite of emerging interests on utilizing periphyton as nutrient transfer tool in aquatic ecosystem, the major challenges ahead for modern aquatic biologists lies on determining nutrient uptake and transfer rate of periphyton, periphytic growth and simulating nutrient models of periphyton to figure a complete energy cycle in aquatic ecosystem.

  7. Earthworms and nutrient availability: the ecosystem engineer as (bio)chemical engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Ros, Mart; Vos, Hannah; De Deyn, Gerlinde; Hiemstra, Tjisse; Oenema, Oene; Koopmans, Gerwin

    2017-04-01

    The ability of earthworms to increase plant production has long been recognized. However, the pathways through which they do so, and the magnitude of this effect, have not been conclusively addressed. In two studies we address these issues for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability to plants. In the first study, a meta-analysis, we concluded that earthworm presence increases crop yield on average with 26% and aboveground biomass with 24%. The positive effects of earthworms increase when more residue is returned to the soil, but disappear when soil N availability is high. This suggests that earthworms stimulate plant growth predominantly through N mineralization from soil organic matter or crop residue. In a second study, we tested the effect of earthworms on plant P uptake from inorganic sources. In a greenhouse experiment on a soil with low P availability we showed that presence of the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris resulted in increased aboveground biomass (from 164 to 188 g dry matter m-2) and P uptake (from 0.21 to 0.27 g m-2). Concentrations of total dissolved P and dissolved inorganic P in water extractions of earthworm casts were 7-9 times higher than in those of bulk soil. Using advanced surface complexation modelling, we showed that these effects were primarily related to desorption of inorganic P due to competition with organic carbon for binding sites. We conclude that earthworms can alter nutrient cycling and increase N and P uptake by plants through a combination of biochemical and chemical pathways. Earthworms are most likely to stimulate N uptake in organic farming systems and tropical subsistence farming, which largely rely on nutrient mineralization. Additional benefits of earthworms might be expected in conventional farming systems with low levels of available P.

  8. Crescimento, desenvolvimento e produtividade do tomateiro cultivado em substrato com três concentrações de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva Growth, development and yield of tomato plants grown in substrate under three nitrogen concentrations of the nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo Luiz Andriolo

    2004-10-01

    e T3, com produtividade máxima estimada de 7,8kg m-2 na dose de 9,3mmolN L-1. Concluiu-se que a concentração de N na solução nutritiva afetou o crescimento e a produtividade da cultura do tomateiro em substrato, porém não foi observada resposta similar nos dois ciclos de cultivo.The effect of three N concentrations of the nutrient solution on growth and yield of tomato plants grown in substrate was determined in autumn and spring growing periods. Two experiments were conducted inside a polyethylene tunnel, at Departamento de Fitotecnia - UFSM, using the hybrid Monte Carlo. Sowing was made on February 8 and on July 5, 2002, and planting inside the tunnel 36 and 40 days later, in autumn and spring, respectively. Plants were grown in plastic bags filled with 5.5dm³ of commercial substrate (Plantmax®, with one plant per bag and a plant density of 3.3 plants m-2. Nutrients were supplied to plants by a complete nutrient solution, with the following composition, in mmol L-1: 5.5 of KNO3; 1.3 of KH2PO4; 2.75 of Ca(NO32; 0.75 of MgSO4, with iron chelate and micronutrients. The treatment T2 was the nutrient solution described above, with 11.0mmolN L-1. For treatment T1, the N concentration of the nutrient solution was reduced to 5.5mmolN L-1, whereas for T3 it was increased to 15.16mmolN L-1. A randomised experimental design was used, with four replications and 15 plants per plot. Plants were harvested at 33, 48, 55, 62, 69, 76 and 83 days after planting (DAP in autumn, and at 55, 62, 69, 78, 85 and 92 DAP in spring, to measure plant growth and development. Crop yield was determined by fresh weight of fruits. The number of leaves was lower on T3 plants in autumn and spring, whereas the number of fruits was higher on T1 plants in spring. The dynamics of fruit dry mass accumulation did not show significant differences among treatments in autumn. In spring, the lowest value of this variable was recorded on T3 plants. Mean values of fresh fruit weight reached 5.4; 5

  9. Improving tolerance of sunflower and safflower during growth stages to salinity through foliar spray of nutrient solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, N.; Ahmad, R.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of salinity and foliar application of nutrient solutions on sunflower and safflower in vegetative and reproductive phases of the growth were investigated in Bio saline Research Field, University of Karachi, Pakistan. The seeds were sown in pots under non saline condition and saline water irrigation was started at three leaf stage after germination. Different concentration of saline water were made by dissolving 3g and 6g sea salt per litre of tap water, equivalent to an EC of 4.8 and 8.6 dS/m respectively. Nutrient solution (KNO/sub 3 /, H/sub 3/ BO/sub 3/, Fe-EDTA or its mixture) was sprayed thrice, i.e., 45, 75 and 95 days after planting. KNO/sub 3/ was given at the rate 250 ppm and other H/sub 3/ BO/sub 3/ and Fe-EDTA was given at the rate 5 ppm. Salinity caused a significant reduction in nutrient uptake, height, biomass and yield of both sunflower and safflower. Foliar application of macro and micro nutrients (i.e. KNO/sub 3/, H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, Fe-EDTA and mixture of KNO/sub 3/ + H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ + Fe-EDTA) partially minimized the salt induced deficiency and showed significant increase in height, fresh and dry biomass, number and weight of seeds, and amount of oil per sunflower and safflower plant irrespective to their growth under non saline or saline conditions. Among the nutrient solutions, mixture of KNO/sub 3/+ H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ + Fe-EDTA seemed to be the most effective followed by H/sub 3/ BO/sub 3/ and Fe-EDTA. These results suggested that foliar application of nutrients could be used to improve plant tolerance to salinity by alleviating the adverse effects of salinity on growth and reproductive yield. (author)

  10. Comparison of Coconut Coir, Rockwool, and Peat Cultivations for Tomato Production: Nutrient Balance, Plant Growth and Fruit Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xiong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rockwool (RC and peat are two common substrates used worldwide in horticultural crop production. In recent years environmental and ecological concerns raised the demand for reducing the use of RC and peat. Although coconut coir (CC has been increasingly used as an alternative to RC and peat, it is still needed to comprehensively evaluate the feasibility of CC before widely used. To meet this need, CC, RC, and peat-vermiculite (PVC cultivations were used as tomato cultivation substrates to evaluate their effects on EC, pH and mineral ions in root-zone solution and drainage, nutrient uptake by crops, nutrient balance of cultivation system, plant growth and fruit quality. In general, CC significantly increased K and S uptake by crops, photosynthesis, individual fruit weight and total fruit yield compared to RC, and increased P and K uptake by crops and total fruit yield compared to PVC. Moreover, CC significantly increased organic acid of fruit in first truss compared to both RC and PVC. The uncredited nutrient was overally lower under CC than under RC and PVC (the lower, the better. For all substrates, the blossom-end rot (BER of fruit increased gradually from 3rd to 13th trusses. The BER of fruit was not significantly influenced by CC compared to RC or PVC, but was sginificantly decreased by PVC compared to RC. Our results infer that CC was a potential substrate that could be widely used in tomato production. However, the inhibition of BER was still a challenge when CC was used as cultivation substrate for tomato.

  11. Comparison of Coconut Coir, Rockwool, and Peat Cultivations for Tomato Production: Nutrient Balance, Plant Growth and Fruit Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jing; Tian, Yongqiang; Wang, Jingguo; Liu, Wei; Chen, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Rockwool (RC) and peat are two common substrates used worldwide in horticultural crop production. In recent years environmental and ecological concerns raised the demand for reducing the use of RC and peat. Although coconut coir (CC) has been increasingly used as an alternative to RC and peat, it is still needed to comprehensively evaluate the feasibility of CC before widely used. To meet this need, CC, RC, and peat-vermiculite (PVC) cultivations were used as tomato cultivation substrates to evaluate their effects on EC, pH and mineral ions in root-zone solution and drainage, nutrient uptake by crops, nutrient balance of cultivation system, plant growth and fruit quality. In general, CC significantly increased K and S uptake by crops, photosynthesis, individual fruit weight and total fruit yield compared to RC, and increased P and K uptake by crops and total fruit yield compared to PVC. Moreover, CC significantly increased organic acid of fruit in first truss compared to both RC and PVC. The uncredited nutrient was overally lower under CC than under RC and PVC (the lower, the better). For all substrates, the blossom-end rot (BER) of fruit increased gradually from 3rd to 13th trusses. The BER of fruit was not significantly influenced by CC compared to RC or PVC, but was sginificantly decreased by PVC compared to RC. Our results infer that CC was a potential substrate that could be widely used in tomato production. However, the inhibition of BER was still a challenge when CC was used as cultivation substrate for tomato.

  12. Comparative effect of steam and gamma irradiation sterilization of sawdust compost on the yield, nutrient and shelf-life of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Ex.Fr) Kummer stored in two different packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortei, J. N. K.

    2015-06-01

    The conventional method of decontamination of the spawn substrate sorghum and compost of 'wawa' (Triplochiton scleroxylon) sawdust by the use of steam sterilization has attendant problems. In this thesis the possibility of using gamma radiation to decontaminate sorghum based spawn substrate and the compost before cultivation of the fruit bodies was determined as well as its effectiveness on selected nutritional, physical and organoleptic properties of the fruit bodies. A survey was carried out using the rapid appraisal method to determine the existing methods of sterilization, use of gamma radiation in food preservation, preference of mushrooms in Ghana by consumers and nutritional and medicinal attributes of the mushroom. The resident mycoflora in the sorghum grains and 'wawa' sawdust as well as in the fresh and dry fruitbodies of P. ostreatus was determined by using Standard Decimal Series Dilution technique on two media (Cooke's and DRBC). At the end of the prescribed incubation period of the compost bags, the following parameters were determined: surface mycelia density and contamination, total number of fruit bodies, number of primordial formed, total yield, Biological Efficiency, mycelia growth rate, average stipe length, average cap diameter and mushroom size at each dose applied. The bacterial loads were determined by the conventional microbiological techniques and identification was by the use of the API 20E system. The D IO dose requirement for reduction of fungi and Baccillus cereus were also carried out on the preserved fresh and dry mushroom using Fricke Dosimetry. To ascertain the influence of the different combinations of radiation and steam treatments and packaging material on the nutritional quality of the sporophore formed, proximate analysis and mineral elements composition (Na, Ca, K, P, N, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Pb) were determined by using the International Standard Methods in the Mushroom Industry. Dry curves showing the

  13. Ultraviolet-B radiation and nitrogen affect nutrient concentrations and the amount of nutrients acquired by above-ground organs of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Carlos M; Coutinho, João F; Bacelar, Eunice A; Gonçalves, Berta M; Björn, Lars Olof; Moutinho Pereira, José

    2012-01-01

    UV-B radiation effects on nutrient concentrations in above-ground organs of maize were investigated at silking and maturity at different levels of applied nitrogen under field conditions. The experiment simulated a 20% stratospheric ozone depletion over Portugal. At silking, UV-B increased N, K, Ca, and Zn concentrations, whereas at maturity Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu increased and N, P and Mn decreased in some plant organs. Generally, at maturity, N, Ca, Cu, and Mn were lower, while P, K, and Zn concentrations in stems and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) were higher in N-starved plants. UV-B and N effects on shoot dry biomass were more pronounced than on nutrient concentrations. Nutrient uptake decreased under high UV-B and increased with increasing N application, mainly at maturity harvest. Significant interactions UV-B x N were observed for NUE and for concentration and mass of some elements. For instance, under enhanced UV-B, N, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations decreased in leaves, except on N-stressed plants, whereas they were less affected by N nutrition. In order to minimize nutritional, economical, and environmental negative consequences, fertiliser recommendations based on element concentration or yield goals may need to be adjusted.

  14. Ultraviolet-B Radiation and Nitrogen Affect Nutrient Concentrations and the Amount of Nutrients Acquired by Above-Ground Organs of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Correia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-B radiation effects on nutrient concentrations in above-ground organs of maize were investigated at silking and maturity at different levels of applied nitrogen under field conditions. The experiment simulated a 20% stratospheric ozone depletion over Portugal. At silking, UV-B increased N, K, Ca, and Zn concentrations, whereas at maturity Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu increased and N, P and Mn decreased in some plant organs. Generally, at maturity, N, Ca, Cu, and Mn were lower, while P, K, and Zn concentrations in stems and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE were higher in N-starved plants. UV-B and N effects on shoot dry biomass were more pronounced than on nutrient concentrations. Nutrient uptake decreased under high UV-B and increased with increasing N application, mainly at maturity harvest. Significant interactions UV-B x N were observed for NUE and for concentration and mass of some elements. For instance, under enhanced UV-B, N, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations decreased in leaves, except on N-stressed plants, whereas they were less affected by N nutrition. In order to minimize nutritional, economical, and environmental negative consequences, fertiliser recommendations based on element concentration or yield goals may need to be adjusted.

  15. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake at the surgical margin after hepatic resection: Patterns of uptake and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peungjesada, Silanath [University New Mexico, Department of Radiology, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aloia, Thomas A. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Surgical Oncology, Unit 444, Houston, TX (United States); Fox, Patricia [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Biostatistics, Unit 1411, Houston, TX (United States); Chasen, Beth [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Unit 1483, Houston, TX (United States); Shin, Sooyoung; Loyer, Evelyne M. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Houston, TX (United States); Baiomy, Ali [Cairo University, National Cancer Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate the patterns of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake at the surgical margin after hepatectomy to identify features that may differentiate benign and malignant uptake. Patients who had undergone a PET/CT after hepatectomy were identified. Delay between resection and PET/CT, presence of uptake at the surgical margin, pattern of uptake, and maximal standardized value were recorded. The PET/CT findings were correlated with contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. There were 26 patients with increased 18F-FDG uptake; uptake was diffuse in seven and focal in 19. Diffuse uptake was due to inflammation in all cases. Focal uptake was due to recurrence in 12 and inflammation in seven cases. Defining a focal pattern only as a positive for malignancy yielded 100 % sensitivity, 87 % specificity, 37 % false positive rate. As expected, SUV{sub max} was significantly higher for recurrence than inflammation, but did overlap. Contrast-enhanced CT allowed differentiation between malignant and benign uptake in all cases. F-FDG uptake after hepatectomy does not equate to recurrence and yields a high false positive rate. Diffuse uptake did not require additional evaluation in our sample. Focal uptake, however, may be due to recurrence; differentiating benign and malignant nodular uptake relies on optimal contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. (orig.)

  16. A comparison of nutrient dynamics in forest ecosystems along with the Warmth Index Gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsubo, Goro; Li Changhua; Katagiri, Shigeo.

    1993-01-01

    Nutrient elements contained in litter fall flux, that of uptake flux and turnover rate had generally tended to increase with the increase in the Warmth Index, while the amount of nutrient in the A 0 horizon and nutrient use efficiency did not. However, it is suggested that topographic and climatic aridity, and the amount of available and exchangeable phosphorus, calcium and magnesium greatly affect the nutrient dynamics in a each forest ecosystem as the Warmth Index increases. (J.P.N.)

  17. Land use/land cover and scale influences on in-stream nitrogen uptake kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, Tim; McGlynn, Brian; McNamara, Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    Land use/land cover change often leads to increased nutrient loading to streams; however, its influence on stream ecosystem nutrient transport remains poorly understood. Given the deleterious impacts elevated nutrient loading can have on aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative to improve understanding of nutrient retention capacities across stream scales and watershed development gradients. We performed 17 nutrient addition experiments on six streams across the West Fork Gallatin Watershed, Montana, USA, to quantify nitrogen uptake kinetics and retention dynamics across stream sizes (first to fourth order) and along a watershed development gradient. We observed that stream nitrogen (N) uptake kinetics and spiraling parameters varied across streams of different development intensity and scale. In more developed watersheds we observed a fertilization affect. This fertilization affect was evident as increased ash-free dry mass, chlorophylla, and ambient and maximum uptake rates in developed as compared to undeveloped streams. Ash-free dry mass, chlorophylla, and the number of structures in a subwatershed were significantly correlated to nutrient spiraling and kinetic parameters, while ambient and average annual N concentrations were not. Additionally, increased maximum uptake capacities in developed streams contributed to low in-stream nutrient concentrations during the growing season, and helped maintain watershed export at low levels during base flow. Our results indicate that land use/land cover change can enhance in-stream uptake of limiting nutrients and highlight the need for improved understanding of the watershed dynamics that control nutrient export across scales and development intensities for mitigation and protection of aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Concentração foliar de nutrientes e produtividade de tomateiro cultivado sob diferentes substratos e doses de ácidos húmicos Leaf nutrient content and yield of tomato grown in different substrates and doses of humic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Lima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o estado nutricional e a produtividade do tomateiro, híbrido Vênus, cultivado em substratos, com aplicação de ácidos húmicos (AH e fertirrigação. Foram avaliadas quatro doses de AH (0, 20, 40 e 80 L ha-1 e quatro substratos: S1 (fibra de coco (FC, S2 (FC + casca de café carbonizada (CC na proporção 1:3, S3 (FC + CC na proporção 2:3 e S4 (CC. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados distribuídos em esquema fatorial 4x4. As mudas foram transplantadas com 35 dias para sacolas plásticas com capacidade de 7,0 L. Os AH foram aplicados quatro vezes em um intervalo de oito dias, sendo a primeira aplicação oito dias após o transplantio. Não houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos nos teores de N, K e S nas folhas e na produção de frutos não comerciais. No entanto, houve efeito significativo dos substratos nos teores de P, Ca, Mg e sobre a produção de frutos total e comercial. Doses crescentes de AH induziram redução de forma linear dos teores de B e Cu (em S1; porém, induziram aumento dos teores de Zn. Em doses de 31 a 49 L ha-1 de AH, ocorreu o máximo teor foliar de Fe, Cu e o mínimo de Mn. As maiores produtividades comerciais foram obtidas com a fibra de coco (S1 com média de 5,6 kg planta-1, apresentando incremento médio de produtividade de 22,9%, 38,7% e 49,7% em relação a S2, S3 e S4, respectivamente.We evaluated the nutritional status and yield of tomato hybrid "Vênus", grown on substrates, with application of humic acids (AH and fertigation. Four doses of AH (0, 20, 40 and 80 L-1 ha and four substrates: S1 (coconut fiber (CF, S2 (FC + carbonized coffee husk (CC in the ratio 1:3, S3 (CF + CC - in the ratio 2:3 and S4 (CC were evaluated following the randomized blocks design in factorial 4x4 scheme with four replications. The 35-day old seedlings were transplanted into plastic bags of 7 L. The humic acids were applied four times in eight

  19. Phosphorus deficiency enhances molybdenum uptake by tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuwinkel, H.; Kirkby, E.A.; Le Bot, J.; Marschner, H.

    1992-01-01

    Water culture experiments are described which provide conclusive evidence that Mo uptake by tomato plants is markedly enhanced by P deficiency. In a longterm experiment, which ran for 11 days, in marked contrast to the uptake of other nutrients, a three fold higher Mo uptake rate was observed after only four days of withdrawal of P from the nutrient medium. In contrast to the gradual increase in pH of the nutrient medium of the plants supplied with P, the pH in the medium of the -P plants fell. Throughout the growth of these plants net H+ efflux could be accounted for by excess cation over anion uptake, indicating that organic acid extrusion plays no major role in the observed fall in pH. Further evidence that Mo uptake is enhanced in P deficient tomato plants is provided in short-term nutrient solution experiments (1h and 4h) using radioactive molybdenum (99Mo). Compared with P sufficient plants, the uptake rates of 99Mo by P deficient plants were three to five times higher after 1h and nine to twelve times higher after 4h. Resupplying P during the uptake periods to deficient plants reduced the uptake rate of 99Mo to values similar to those of P sufficient plants. It is concluded that the uptake of molybdate occurs via phosphate binding/ transporting sites at the plasma membrane of root cells. Further support for this conclusion comes from exchange experiments with non-labelled molybdenum, which show a much larger amount of 99Mo exchangeable from the roots of P deficient plants

  20. Soluble organic nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...

  1. Dried gamma-irradiated sewage solids use on calcareous soils: crop yeilds and heavy metals uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaslin, B.D.; Sivinski, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments designed to examine gamma-radiation effects on extractable and plant-available sludge elements and to examine the response of crops to sludge ap