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Sample records for yield contributing traits

  1. Combining ability and heterosis for yield and yield contributing traits in brassica rapa (l.) ssp. dichotoma (roxb.) hanelt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasim, A.; Farhatullah, A.; Khan, N.U.; Afzal, M.; Azam, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Combining ability was studied for yield and yield contributing traits in 5 * 5 diallel cross in Brassica rapa (L.) ssp. dichotoma (Roxb.) Hanelt. Primary branches plant-1, pods main raceme-1, pod length, 100-seed weight and seed yield plant-1 were significantly different. Heritability and genetic advance estimates were moderate for primary branches plant-1, pods main raceme-1, 100 seed weight whereas were high for seed yield plant-1. Parental line G-909 for primary branches plant-1, pods main raceme-1 and seed yield plant-1, genotype G-902 for pod length and genotype G-403 for 100-seed weight were the best general combiners. Based on combing ability and heterosis, the F1 hybrids G-909 * G-265 (for primary branches plant-1), G-265 * G- 403, G-1500 * G-909 (for pods main raceme-1), G-403 * G-909 (for pod length), G-265 * G-1500 (for 100-seed weight) and G-1500 * G-902, G-909 * G-902 (for seed yield plant-1) can be utilized in future breeding endeavors. Non-additive genetic control, as predominant mechanism, for all the traits necessitates the use of schemes like bi-parental mating design, diallel selective mating followed by recurrent or reciprocal recurrent selection. (author)

  2. Correlation, path analysis and heritability estimation for agronomic traits contribute to yield on soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyo, A.; Purwantoro; Sari, K. P.

    2018-01-01

    Selection is a routine activity in plant breeding programs that must be done by plant breeders in obtaining superior plant genotypes. The use of appropriate selection criteria will determine the effectiveness of selection activities. The purpose of this study was to analysis the inheritable agronomic traits that contribute to soybean yield. A total of 91 soybean lines were planted in Muneng Experimental Station, Probolinggo District, East Java Province, Indonesia in 2016. All soybean lines were arranged in randomized complete block design with two replicates. Correlation analysis, path analysis and heritability estimation were performed on days to flowering, days to maturing, plant height, number of branches, number of fertile nodes, number of filled pods, weight of 100 seeds, and yield to determine selection criteria on soybean breeding program. The results showed that the heritability value of almost all agronomic traits observed is high except for the number of fertile nodes with low heritability. The result of correlation analysis shows that days to flowering, plant height and number of fertile nodes have positive correlation with seed yield per plot (0.056, 0.444, and 0.100, respectively). In addition, path analysis showed that plant height and number of fertile nodes have highest positive direct effect on soybean yield. Based on this result, plant height can be selected as one of selection criteria in soybean breeding program to obtain high yielding soybean variety.

  3. Evaluations of sugarcane genotypes for yields and yield contributing traits under Thatta conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panhwar, R.N.; Keerio, H.K.

    2004-01-01

    Performance of twelve sugarcane genotypes viz. Th-7, Th-9, Th-10, Th-12, Th-14, Th-18, Th-23, Th-27, Th-31, Th-32, Th-33 and Th-34 developed from local fuzz along with two check varieties BL-4 and BF-129 was studied in advance varietal selection trial at National Sugar Crops Research Institute, Thatta during 2000-2001. Data were recorded for cane girth, number of internodes/stalk, stalk height, mill able cane/m/sup 2/, cane yield t/ha and brix percentage. On the basis of over all performance three genotypes namely Th-34, Th-10 and Th-33 were found promising and produced highest average cane yield 116, 115 and 112 t/ha, respectively against the check varieties BL-4 (110 t/ha) and BF-129 (98.5 t/ha). The average Brix values recorded for Th-10, Th-34 and Th-33 were 23.7, 23.2 and 22.9%, respectively against the check verities BL-4 (21.8%) and BF-129 (22.8%). Thus it was conclude, that genotypes Th-34, Th-10 and Tb-33 might prove best commercial varieties in future. However, potential of these genotypes need to be tested in different environmental conditions to elicit substantial conclusions. (author)

  4. Determining the most important physiological and agronomic traits contributing to maize grain yield through machine learning algorithms: a new avenue in intelligent agriculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avat Shekoofa

    Full Text Available Prediction is an attempt to accurately forecast the outcome of a specific situation while using input information obtained from a set of variables that potentially describe the situation. They can be used to project physiological and agronomic processes; regarding this fact, agronomic traits such as yield can be affected by a large number of variables. In this study, we analyzed a large number of physiological and agronomic traits by screening, clustering, and decision tree models to select the most relevant factors for the prospect of accurately increasing maize grain yield. Decision tree models (with nearly the same performance evaluation were the most useful tools in understanding the underlying relationships in physiological and agronomic features for selecting the most important and relevant traits (sowing date-location, kernel number per ear, maximum water content, kernel weight, and season duration corresponding to the maize grain yield. In particular, decision tree generated by C&RT algorithm was the best model for yield prediction based on physiological and agronomical traits which can be extensively employed in future breeding programs. No significant differences in the decision tree models were found when feature selection filtering on data were used, but positive feature selection effect observed in clustering models. Finally, the results showed that the proposed model techniques are useful tools for crop physiologists to search through large datasets seeking patterns for the physiological and agronomic factors, and may assist the selection of the most important traits for the individual site and field. In particular, decision tree models are method of choice with the capability of illustrating different pathways of yield increase in breeding programs, governed by their hierarchy structure of feature ranking as well as pattern discovery via various combinations of features.

  5. Path Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components and Some Agronomic Traits in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new bread wheat cultivars needs efficient tools to monitor trait association in a breeding program. This investigation was aimed to characterize grain yield components and some agronomic traits related to bread wheat grain yield. The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between different traits and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to grain yield. Correlation and path analysis were carried out in 56 bread wheat genotypes grown under field conditions of Maragheh, Iran. Observations were recorded on 18 wheat traits and correlation coefficient analysis revealed grain yield was positively correlated with stem diameter, spike length, floret number, spikelet number, grain diameter, grain length and 1000 seed weight traits. According to the variance inflation factor (VIF and tolerance as multicollinearity statistics, there are inconsistent relationships among the variables and all traits could be considered as first-order variables (Model I with grain yield as the response variable due to low multicollinearity of all measured traits. In the path coefficient analysis, grain yield represented the dependent variable and the spikelet number and 1000 seed weight traits were the independent ones. Our results indicated that the number of spikelets per spikes and leaf width and 1000 seed weight traits followed by the grain length, grain diameter and grain number per spike were the traits related to higher grain yield. The above mentioned traits along with their indirect causal factors should be considered simultaneously as an effective selection criteria evolving high yielding genotype because of their direct positive contribution to grain yield.

  6. Quantitative trait loci for yield and morphological traits in maize under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important factors contributing to crop yield loss. In order to develop maize varieties with drought tolerance, it is necessary to explore the genetic basis. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL that control the yield and associate agronomic traits is one way of understanding drought genetics. QTLs associated with grain yield (GY, leaf width (LW3, LW4 plant height (PH, ear height (EH, leaf number (NL, tassel branch number (TBN and tassel length (TL were studied with composite interval mapping. A total of 43 QTLs were detected, distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome 9. Phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 20.99 to 87.24%. Mapping analysis identified genomic regions associated with two traits in a manner that was consistent with phenotypic correlation among traits, supporting either pleiotropy or tight linkage among QTLs.

  7. interrelationships between grain yield and other physiological traits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Combined analysis of variance, cluster analysis and genotype-by- ... all phenological and morphological traits, except grain yield and associated yield components. ... egg, and other protein-rich foods (Alghali, 1991). ... systematic modelling approach. ... MD IT98 K -132 – 3 .... traits based on Principal Component axes (PC)1.

  8. Path coefficient and correlation of yield and yield associated traits in candidate bread wheat (triticum aestivum l)lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, T.; Haider, S.; Qureshi, M. J.; Shah, G. S.; Zamir, R.

    2005-01-01

    Yield and yield contributing traits were studied in candidate bread wheat lines to find out the genetic contribution of the different characters towards grain yield at NIFA, Peshawar during 2001-02. All the characteristics studied differed significantly from each other. Days to heading showed negative and significant correlation with harvest index and grain yield but was negative and non-significant with the biological yield. Days to maturity were negatively correlated at both genotypic and phenotypic levels with biological yield; harvest index and grain yield and level of correlations were significant with harvest index and grain yield. Plant height showed negative genotypic and phenotypic correlation with harvest index and grain yield. Biological yield had positive and significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations with harvest index and grain yield. Harvest index had positive and highly significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation with grain yield. Genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients revealed that important characters influencing grain yield are harvest index and biological yield. Path analysis showed the importance in order of harvest index, biological yield, plant height, days to maturity and days to heading with grain yield. (author)

  9. Traits contributing to the autistic spectrum.

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    Colin D Steer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly recognised that traits associated with autism reflect a spectrum with no clear boundary between typical and atypical behaviour. Dimensional traits are needed to investigate the broader autism phenotype.Ninety-three individual measures reflecting components of social, communication and repetitive behaviours characterising autistic spectrum disorder (ASD were identified between the ages of 6 months and 9 years from the ALSPAC database. Using missing value imputation, data for 13,138 children were analysed. Factor analysis suggested the existence of 7 factors explaining 85% of the variance. The factors were labelled: verbal ability, language acquisition, social understanding, semantic-pragmatic skills, repetitive-stereotyped behaviour, articulation and social inhibition. Four factors (1, 3, 5 and 7 were specific to ASD being more strongly associated with this phenotype than other co-morbid conditions while other factors were more associated with learning difficulties and specific language impairment. Nevertheless, all 7 factors contributed independently to the explanation of ASD (p<0.001. Exploration of putative genetic causal factors such as variants in the CNTNAP2 gene showed a varying pattern of associations with these traits. An alternative predictive model of ASD was derived using four individual measures: the coherence subscale of the Children's Communication Checklist (9y, the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (91 m, repetitive behaviour (69 m and the sociability subscale of the Emotionality Activity and Sociability measure (38 m. Although univarably these traits performed better than some factors, their combined explanations of ASD were similar (R(2 =  0.48.These results support the fractional nature of ASD with different aetiological origins for these components despite pleiotropic genetic effects being observed. These traits are likely to be useful in the exploration of ASD.

  10. Relationships between phenological and yield traits of the plant crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple correlation of phenological and yield traits of the plant crop (PC) with those of the first ratoon crop (RC) of 36 Musa genotypes was carried out. The genotypes were landraces (triploid) belonging to AAA, AAB and ABB Musa genomic groups and hybrids (mostly tetraploid) thereof. The plants were grown under four ...

  11. Consequences of Selection for Yield Traits on Calving Ease Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez de Maturana, E.; Ugarte, E.; Komen, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of different breeding goals on the genetic response for calving ease (CE) and yield traits was studied in the Basque Holstein cattle population. The economic value for CE was estimated with a bioeconomic model, using Basque production and market circumstances and taking into account the

  12. Genetic disparity and relationship among quantitatively inherited yield related traits in diallel crosses of upland cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibi, M.; Khan, N.U.; Mohammad, F.; Gul, R.; Idrees, M.; Sayal, O.U.; Khakwani, A.A.; Khan, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    In quantitative genetics, development of high yielding genotypes from parental cultivars of same ancestry is some what confusing as compared to genetically diverse parents. However, sufficient recombinations through allelic variations in mating of closely-related populations result in superior agronomic performance. Development of improved cotton genotypes is one of the prime objectives of any cotton breeding programmes. Genetic divergence and yield potential of parental cotton genotypes versus their diallel hybrids, relationship of yield with various morpho-yield traits and their heritability were studied in 8 X 8 F/sub 1/ diallel hybrids and their parental cultivars in Gossypium hirsutum L. during 2008-09 at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. Highly significant (p less than or equal to 0.01) differences were observed among parental genotypes and F/sub 1/ populations for all the traits. Results revealed that F/sub 1/ hybrids i.e., CIM-506 X CIM-554, CIM-473 X CIM-554, CIM-446 X CIM-496 and CIM-446 X CIM-554 produced significantly higher number of sympodia, bolls per populations showed incredible performance for plant height, locules per boll and seeds plant and seed cotton yield. Some F/sub 1/ per locule. Seed cotton yield manifested positive association with morpho-yield traits which also accounted for greater genetic variations to yield being dependent trait. Heritabilities (broad sense) were moderate to high in magnitude for all populations with larger genetic potential, positive relationship between yield and yield traits. Results revealed that F1 contributing traits and moderate to high heritability can guide intensive selection and improvement per se in segregating populations. (author)

  13. Selection indices for yield and quality traits in sweet corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, M.J.; Mehdi, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of three selection indices, viz., Smith-Hazel index (SHI), Desired gain index (DGI) and Base Index (BI) was compared for the improvement of an open pollinated sweet corn (Zea mays L. Saccharata) population. The data of genetic studies on various yield and quality traits among S1 families were used to construct these selection indices. Smith-Hazel index was found to be the most efficient in improving the aggregate genotype of yield traits for most of the selection strategies. Base index proved to be more efficient as compared to Smith-Hazel index in the improvement of aggregate genotype for five out of six selection strategies of quality traits. Both smith-hazel and Base indices were found useful for the improvement of sweetness and sweet flavour for all the selection strategies. When selection was confined to eight yield and four quality traits simultaneously, Base index proved to be more efficient as compared to Smith-Hazel index and desired gain index in improving the aggregate genotype for almost all the selection strategies. (author)

  14. Heritability estimates for yield and related traits in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Din, R.; Jehan, S.; Ibraullah, A.

    2009-01-01

    A set of 22 experimental wheat lines along with four check cultivars were evaluated in in-irrigated and unirrgated environments with objectives to determine genetic and phenotypic variation and heritability estimates for yield and its traits- The two environments were statistically at par for physiological maturity, plant height, spikes m/sub -2/. spike lets spike/sup -1/ and 1000-grain weight. Highly significant genetic variability existed among wheat lines (P < 0.0 I) in the combined analysis across two test environments for traits except 1000- grain weight. Genotypes x environment interactions were non-significant for traits indicating consistent performance of lines in two test environments. However lines and check cultivars were two to five days early in maturity under unirrigated environment. Plant height, spikes m/sup -2/ and 1000-grain weight also reduced under unirrigated environments. Genetic variances were greater than Environmental variances for most of traits- Heritability estimates were of higher magnitude (0.74 to 0.96) for plant height, medium (0.31 to 0.56) for physiological maturity. spikelets spike/sup -1/ (unirrigated) and 1000-grain weight, and low for spikes m/sup -2/. (author)

  15. Genetic basis of yield and some yield related traits in basmati rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.Y.; Haq, M.A.; Mirza, J.I.

    2010-01-01

    Additive, dominance and epistasis components of genetic variation for yield and some yield related traits were assessed through modified triple test cross technique in Basmati rice. Epistasis was found an important part of genetic variation for plant height, tillers per plant, secondary branches per panicle, grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight and yield per plant except primary branches per panicle and panicle length. Bifurcation of epistasis showed that additive x additive (i) type and additive x dominance + dominance x dominance (j + l) types of non-allelic interactions were involved in the expression of these traits. Additive and dominance type of gene action influenced the expression of primary branches per panicle and panicle length. No evidence of directional dominance was observed for these two traits. For plant height, tillers per plant, secondary branches per panicle, grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight and yield per plant, recurrent selection or bi parental mating may be exercised in F2 and following generations however, selection of desired plants may be postponed till F5 or F6 generations to permit maximum obsession of epistatic effects to develop desired cultivar(s) in Basmati rice.(author)

  16. Genetic control of late blight, yield and some yield related traits in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.Y.; Asghar, M.; Khan, A.R.; Iqbal, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic control of late blight (LB) and some economic traits was assessed to identify genotypes suitable for the hybrids were derived from crossing of 2 male sterile lines viz., development of late blight resistant hybrids in tomato. 10 F/sub 1/ hybrid were derived from crossing of 2 male sterile lines viz., TMS1 and TMS2 with 5 elite lines viz., Nagina, Riogrande, Roma, 88572 and Picdenato according to line x tester technique. Disease resistance was measured using detached leaf and whole plant assay techniques. Data were also recorded for days to maturity, number of fruit per plant, single fruit weight and yield per plant. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among crosses, lines, testers and line x tester interaction for almost all parameters. Estimate of genetic components indicated preponderance of additive type of gene action for detached leaf assay, whole plant assay, number of fruit per plant and yield per plant whereas non-additive type of gene action for days to maturity and single fruit weight. Among parents, TMS2, Nagina, Roma and Picdenato showed significant favorable general combing ability (GCA) effects for disease rating traits while TMS1 and Riogrande indicated desirable GCA effects for yield and some yield related traits. Among hybrids, TMS2 x Roma and TMS1 x Riogrande had significant specific combing ability (SCA) effects for detached and whole plant assays. However, hybrid TMS2 x Roma appeared as good combination of LB resistance as it had both parents with desirable GCA effects. All hybrids showed average type of SCA effects for yield and yield components. Genetic control of LB revealed that a multiple crossing program involving genotypes with high GCA effects would be rewarding to identify LB resistant genotypes in early generations. (author)

  17. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eComas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length (SRL, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less ‘leaky’ and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g. functional differences between fine and coarse roots needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria and rice (Oryza show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait

  18. The Importance of Juvenile Root Traits for Crop Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip; Adu, Michael; Broadley, Martin; Brown, Lawrie; Dupuy, Lionel; George, Timothy; Graham, Neil; Hammond, John; Hayden, Rory; Neugebauer, Konrad; Nightingale, Mark; Ramsay, Gavin; Thomas, Catherine; Thompson, Jacqueline; Wishart, Jane; Wright, Gladys

    2014-05-01

    Genetic variation in root system architecture (RSA) is an under-exploited breeding resource. This is partly a consequence of difficulties in the rapid and accurate assessment of subterranean root systems. However, although the characterisation of root systems of large plants in the field are both time-consuming and labour-intensive, high-throughput (HTP) screens of root systems of juvenile plants can be performed in the field, glasshouse or laboratory. It is hypothesised that improving the root systems of juvenile plants can accelerate access to water and essential mineral elements, leading to rapid crop establishment and, consequently, greater yields. This presentation will illustrate how aspects of the juvenile root systems of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus L.) correlate with crop yields and examine the reasons for such correlations. It will first describe the significant positive relationships between early root system development, phosphorus acquisition, canopy establishment and eventual yield among potato genotypes. It will report the development of a glasshouse assay for root system architecture (RSA) of juvenile potato plants, the correlations between root system architectures measured in the glasshouse and field, and the relationships between aspects of the juvenile root system and crop yields under drought conditions. It will then describe the development of HTP systems for assaying RSA of OSR seedlings, the identification of genetic loci affecting RSA in OSR, the development of mathematical models describing resource acquisition by OSR, and the correlations between root traits recorded in the HTP systems and yields of OSR in the field.

  19. Variation in Yield and Physicochemical Quality Traits among Mutants of Japonica Rice Cultivar Wuyujing 3

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    Jose Daniel Abacar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To select elite germplasms, 112 mutants derived from japonica rice cultivar Wuyujing 3 were evaluated. The yield components such as panicle number per square meter, grain number per panicle, and grain weight were measured. The quality traits such as percentage of chalky grains (PCG, brown rice yield (BRY, milled rice yield (MRY, degree of milling (DM, amylose content (AC, protein content (PC, and relationships among traits were inverstigated. Results showed that grain yield ranged from 2.15 to 12.49 t/hm2 with a mean of 6.4 t/hm2 and number of grains per square meter contributed for 94.64% in grain yield variation. For quality traits, all rice mutants had short size (grain length ≤ 5.5 mm and bold shape (grain length to width ratio = 1.10–2.00. Most of rice mutants (87.5% had PCG values below 20%. All mutants had MRY values above 50%, AC values below 20%, and PC values below 10%. Percentage of chalky grains was significantly negatively correlated with MRY and positively correlated with DM. BRY and MRY were significantly negatively correlated with DM. PC was significantly and positively correlated with MRY and negatively correlated with DM, while AC had no significant correlation with these quality traits. It was concluded that there were 25 rice mutants which fulfilled the major requirements of Jiangsu standard japonica rice such as low percentage of chalky grains, low amylose content, optimal protein content, and which could be used as elite germplasms. Thus the mutants identified may lead to significant progress in improvement of rice quality.

  20. Genetic insight into yield-associated traits of wheat grown in multiple rain-fed environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianshan Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Grain yield is a key economic driver of successful wheat production. Due to its complex nature, little is known regarding its genetic control. The goal of this study was to identify important quantitative trait loci (QTL directly and indirectly affecting grain yield using doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between Hanxuan 10 and Lumai 14. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten yield-associated traits, including yield per plant (YP, number of spikes per plant (NSP, number of grains per spike (NGS, one-thousand grain weight (TGW, total number of spikelets per spike (TNSS, number of sterile spikelets per spike (NSSS, proportion of fertile spikelets per spike (PFSS, spike length (SL, density of spikelets per spike (DSS and plant height (PH, were assessed across 14 (for YP to 23 (for TGW year × location × water regime environments in China. Then, the genetic effects were partitioned into additive main effects (a, epistatic main effects (aa and their environment interaction effects (ae and aae by using composite interval mapping in a mixed linear model. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Twelve (YP to 33 (PH QTLs were identified on all 21 chromosomes except 6D. QTLs were more frequently observed on chromosomes 1B, 2B, 2D, 5A and 6B, and were concentrated in a few regions on individual chromosomes, exemplified by three striking yield-related QTL clusters on chromosomes 2B, 1B and 4B that explained the correlations between YP and other traits. The additive main-effect QTLs contributed more phenotypic variation than the epistasis and environmental interaction. Consistent with agronomic analyses, a group of progeny derived by selecting TGW and NGS, with higher grain yield, had an increased frequency of QTL for high YP, NGS, TGW, TNSS, PFSS, SL, PH and fewer NSSS, when compared to low yielding progeny. This indicated that it is feasible by marker-assisted selection to facilitate wheat production.

  1. Heritability studies of yield and yield associated traits in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghari, K.A.; Sial, M.A.; Arain, M.A.; Mirbahar, A.A.; Pirzada, A.; Mancrio, S.M.; Dahot, M.U.

    2010-01-01

    Heritability studies provide valid information about the traits that are transmitted from parents to offspring and also to the successive generations. Such studies help plant breeders to predict a successful cross with high heritability transmission to the progeny and thus are useful in the incorporation of characters into the offspring. Heritability study was conducted in F5 segregating generation of a cross between HT5 (female) and HT 37 (male) of bread wheat. The genetic parameters calculated were genetic variance (Vg,), environmental variance (Ve) and heritability percentage in broad sense (h2%), genetic advance (GA) and heritability coefficient (H). The highest heritability was observed for spike length (79.3%), number of grains per spike (54.5%) and main spike yield (69.5%) associated with high genetic advance (2.8, 22.8 and 1.5 respectively). Moderate to high heritability were recorded for peduncle length (48.75%) and number of grains per spikelet (47.2%) which associated with high genetic advance (2.3 and 0.68 respectively). However awn length and plant height had shown acceptable heritability values. The present finding suggests that most of the yield associated traits have been successfully transmitted. The information generated will be helpful for better understanding and selection of suitable, desirable material especially in advance generations. (author)

  2. Evaluation of yield and yield components and some agronomic traits of white bean genotypes under Karaj climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ebrahimi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study compatibility of 30 white bean genotypes under Karaj climate, an experiment was conducted based on randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. Evaluation and statistical analysis was performed for 18 important traits. Analysis of variance results showed that there are significant differences between varieties for all traits. Results of genotypes means comparison with Duncan’s multiple range test showed that genotype No. 29 was better than others in plant height, yield, and biological yield, seed no. per plant and pod weight traits. Simple correlation coefficients were significant between yield and weight of pod, biological yield, number of seed per plant, number of pod per plant, plant height, width of pod and number of seed per pod. Only pod length was negative correlated with yield between all investigated traits. Cluster analysis with UPGMA method arrangement genotypes into three groups. According to this experiment results we can recommend 29 and 30 genotypes for Karaj condition

  3. TaER Expression Is Associated with Transpiration Efficiency Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Yang, Zhiyuan; Madgwick, Pippa J; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A J; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2015-01-01

    ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2) and 7 (TaER1) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55) and grain-filling (Z73) stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties), medium (27 varieties) and low (16 varieties) levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE)- related traits, including stomatal density (SD), transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A), instant water use efficiency (WUEi) and carbon isotope discrimination (CID), and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP). Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (Ptranspiration rate (Ptranspiration efficiency -related traits and yield in bread wheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate that TaER could be exploitable for manipulating important agronomical traits in wheat improvement.

  4. Molecular Mapping of QTLs for Yield and Yield-Related Traits in Oryza sativa cv Swarna × O. nivara (IRGC81848 Backcross Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. MALLIKARJUNA SWAMY

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Advanced backcross QTL analysis was used to identify QTLs for seven yield and yield-related traits in a BC2F2 population from the cross between a popular Oryza sativa cv Swarna and O. nivara IRGC81848. Transgressive segregants with more than 15% increased effect over Swarna were observed for all the traits except days to heading and days to 50% flowering. Thirty QTLs were detected for seven yield and yield-related traits using interval and composite interval mapping. Enhancing alleles at 13 (45% of these QTLs were derived from O. nivara, and enhancing alleles at all the QTLs for stem diameter and rachis diameter were derived from O. nivara. Three stem diameter QTLs, two rachis diameter QTLs and one number of secondary branches QTL identified by both Interval and composite interval mapping contributed more than 15% of the total phenotypic variance. The QTL epistasis was significant for stem diameter and plot yield. The most significant QTLs qSD7.2, qSD8.1 and qSD9.1 for stem diameter, qRD9.1 for rachis diameter and qNSB1.1 for number of secondary branches are good targets to evaluate their use in marker-assisted selection. O. nivara is a good source of novel alleles for yield related traits and reveals major effect QTLs suitable for marker-assisted selection.

  5. Genetic characterisation of seed yield and fertility traits in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Jensen, Louise Bach; Hentrup, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    A population. Path analysis partitioned the direct and indirect effects of seed yield components on seed yield per plant. Seed yield per panicle showed the highest effect on total seed yield. The adjusted mean values of each trait and a genetic linkage map consisting of 97 anonymous and 85 gene associated DNA......Seed yield is a trait of major interest for the key grassland species Lolium perenne L. An F2 mapping population of perennial ryegrass (VrnA), recently characterised for vernalisation response, was assessed in a glasshouse for traits related to seed yield based on a lattice design with four...... replications over 2 years. The traits heading date, plant height, length of panicles, number of panicles per plant, seed yield per panicle, flag leaf length, flag leaf width and seed yield per plant revealed repeatabilities ranging from 41 to 76% and a considerable amount of genetic variation in the Vrn...

  6. Combining ability analysis for yield and related traits in basmati rice (oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.Y.; Haq, M.A.; Mirza, J.I.

    2010-01-01

    Line X tester experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of 27 F1 hybrids along with 12 parents in Basmati rice. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among treatments, parents, parents vs. crosses and crosses for number of tillers per plant, panicle length, number of grains per panicle, fertility percentage, 1000-grain weight and yield per plant. Lines were significant for number of tillers per plant, number of grains per panicle and 1000-grain weight while testers and lines X testers were significant for all the traits. The estimates of variance of specific combining ability effects, ratio of variance of general combining ability to specific combining ability and degree of dominance indicated preponderance of non-additive gene effects for each trait. On over all basis, role of testers in the expression of most of the yield components was more than lines and line X tester interaction. However, line X tester interaction contributed more than lines and testers for yield per plant. Three lines viz., Basmati 2000, Super Basmati and Kashmir Basmati and one tester Basmati-385 were identified as good general combiners based on their mean performance and GCA effects for yield and its various traits. Hybrids like Basmati Pak X Basmati-385, Super Basmati X Basmati-385, DM-107-4 X Basmati-385, Basmati 2000 X EL-30- 2-1, Basmati 2000 X DM-25, DM-16-5-1 X Basmati-385 and Kashmir Basmati X DM-25 showed high mean performance, SCA effects and heterobeltiosis for grain yield and are proposed for heterosis breeding. (author)

  7. Variation in Yield and Physicochemical Quality Traits among Mutants of Japonica Rice Cultivar Wuyujing 3

    OpenAIRE

    Abacar, Jose Daniel; Zhao-miao, Lin; Xin-cheng, Zhang; Cheng-qiang, Ding; She, Tang; Zheng-hui, Liu; Shao-hua, Wang; Yan-feng, Ding

    2016-01-01

    To select elite germplasms, 112 mutants derived from japonica rice cultivar Wuyujing 3 were evaluated. The yield components such as panicle number per square meter, grain number per panicle, and grain weight were measured. The quality traits such as percentage of chalky grains (PCG), brown rice yield (BRY), milled rice yield (MRY), degree of milling (DM), amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), and relationships among traits were inverstigated. Results showed that grain yield ranged from ...

  8. Mapping of yield, yield stability, yield adaptability and other traits in barley using linkage disequilibrium mapping and linkage analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kraakman, A.T.W.

    2005-01-01

    Plants is mostly done through linkage analysis. A segregating mapping population Identification and mappping of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) in is created from a bi-parental cross and linkages between trait values and mapped markers reveal the positions ofQTLs. Inthisstudyweexploredlinkagedisequilibrium(LD)mappingof traits in a set of modernbarleycultivars. LDbetweenmolecularmarkerswasfoundup to a distance of 10 centimorgan,whichislargecomparedtootherspecies.Thelarge distancemightbeinducedb...

  9. Location effect on heritability estimates of yield traits in mungbean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... Averaged over five parents and four F2 populations, means for clusters plant-1, pods plant-1, pod .... square root of the phenotypic variance of trait x in a specific F2 population at ..... environmental fluctuation. Additive type of ...

  10. Genetic variability, trait association and path analysis of yield and yield components in mungbean (vigna radiata (L.) wilczek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasum, A.; Saleem, M.; Aziz, I.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variability, heritability along with genetic advance of traits, their association and direct and indirect effects on yield are essential for crop improvement. Ten mungbean genotypes were studied to assess variability and degree to which various plant traits associate with seed yield. Primary and secondary branches, pods per cluster and pod length showed lesser variability while clusters per plant, 100 seed weight and harvest index exhibited intermediate range of variability. Sufficient genetic variability was observed for plant height, pods per plant, total plant weight and seed yield. Moderate to high heritability estimates were found for all traits. Primary and secondary branches per plant, pod length and 100-seed weight exhibited negative and non significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations with seed yield. Plant height showed positive non-significant and significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation. Pods per cluster correlated significantly negative with seed yield. Clusters per plant, pods per plant, total plant weight and harvest index showed positive significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations with seed yield. Positive direct effects were exerted through secondary branches, pods per plant, pod length, 100 seed weight, total plant weight and harvest index while primary branches, plant height, clusters per plant and pods per cluster had negative direct effects. The present findings could be useful for establishing selection criteria for high seed yield in the mungbean breeding. (author)

  11. Genetic, Genomic, and Breeding Approaches to Further Explore Kernel Composition Traits and Grain Yield in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Helena Sofia Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Maize ("Zea mays L.") is a model species well suited for the dissection of complex traits which are often of commercial value. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the genetic control of maize kernel composition traits starch, protein, and oil concentration, and also kernel weight and grain yield. Germplasm with…

  12. Combining ability of phenological traits and seed yield in spring rapeseed genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameeh Valiollah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Six parents and their 15 F2 diallel progenies, totally 21 genotypes, were evaluated for genetic parameters of quantitative characteristics. The traits of interest were growing degree days (GDDs from sowing to the flowering (DDF, to end of flowering (DDE, flowering period (DFP, to maturity (DDM and seed yield (SY. Significant mean squares of general combining ability (GCA was exhibited for DDF, DDE, DFP, DDM and seed yield indicating significant differences of GCA effects of parents for these traits. Significant mean squares of specific combining ability (SCA for all the traits exhibited the importance of non additive genetic effects for the traits. Significant ratio of MS(GCA/MS(SCA and high narrow sense heritability estimates for DDF, DDE, DDM indicating the prime importance of additive genetic effects for controlling these traits. DFP was also less heritable than the other phonological traits, so the efficiency of selection for this trait will be low. All of the combinations with significant negative SCA effects for DDM had at least one parent with significant negative GCA effect for this trait. PF7045/91 with significant positive GCA effect of SY, was best combiner for improving SY. Significant positive correlation between DDM and each of two traits including DDF and DDE, indicating these traits can be used as indirect selection criteria for improving DDM.

  13. Inheritance of seed yield and related traits in some lentil (lens culinaris medik) genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheed, S.; Hanif, M.; Sadiq, S.; Abbas, G.; Asghar, M.J.; Haq, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad during the year 2006-2007. Fifteen lentil lines/varieties were evaluated to exploit yield components to the maximum extent and to formulate section criteria for the improvement of seed yield. Significant genetic variation was observed for all the traits. All the traits under study had high heritability values except number of primary branches. Higher values of heritability coupled with genetic advance were observed for seed yield (98.30%, 128.20%), harvest index (97.10%, 79.40%), biological yield (94.30%, 56.10%) and hundred seed weight (88.30%, 50.80%) which indicates The role of additive genes to control these traits. Hundred seed weight (0.67, 0.65), harvest index (0.94, 0.93) and Biological yield (0.81, 0.80) had positive and highly significant correlation with seed yield at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. Number of primary branches, hundred seed weight, harvest index and biological yield showed positive direct effect along with positive genotypic correlation with seed yield. Finally, it was concluded that the traits like hundred seed weight, harvest index and biological yield can be exploited for the improvement of seed yield in lentil. (author)

  14. Mapping of yield, yield stability, yield adaptability and other traits in barley using linkage disequilibrium mapping and linkage analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraakman, A.T.W.

    2005-01-01

    Plants is mostly done through linkage analysis. A segregating mapping population Identification and mappping of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) in is created from a bi-parental cross and linkages between trait values and mapped markers reveal the positions ofQTLs. In

  15. Qualitative trait loci analysis for seed yield and component traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VANITHA

    2014-02-05

    Feb 5, 2014 ... improvement, plant breeders deal with several qualitative traits. However, the most ... Table 1. Characteristics of parental lines. Character ..... Sunflower, an agronomic crop, adapted to fundamental and applied biotechnology.

  16. Discrete traits of the sternum and ribs: a useful contribution to identification in forensic anthropology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, Emeline; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Bartoli, Christophe; Leonetti, Georges; Adalian, Pascal

    2013-05-01

    During forensic anthropological investigation, biological profile is determined by age, sex, ancestry, and stature. However, several individuals may share the same profile. Observation of discrete traits can yield useful information and contribute to identification. This research establishes the frequency of discrete traits of the sternum and ribs in a modern population in southern France, using 500 computer tomography (CT) scans of individuals aged 15-60 years. Only discrete traits with a frequency lower than 10% according to the literature were considered, a total of eight traits. All scans examined were three-dimensional (3D) volume renderings from DICOM images. In our population, the frequency of all the discrete traits was lower than 5%. None were associated with sex or age, with the exception of a single trait, the end of the xiphoid process. Our findings can usefully be applied for identification purposes in forensic anthropology and medicine. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Contribution of Large Region Joint Associations to Complex Traits Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Guillaume; Asma, Senay; Deng, Wei Q.

    2015-01-01

    A polygenic model of inheritance, whereby hundreds or thousands of weakly associated variants contribute to a trait’s heritability, has been proposed to underlie the genetic architecture of complex traits. However, relatively few genetic variants have been positively identified so far and they collectively explain only a small fraction of the predicted heritability. We hypothesized that joint association of multiple weakly associated variants over large chromosomal regions contributes to complex traits variance. Confirmation of such regional associations can help identify new loci and lead to a better understanding of known ones. To test this hypothesis, we first characterized the ability of commonly used genetic association models to identify large region joint associations. Through theoretical derivation and simulation, we showed that multivariate linear models where multiple SNPs are included as independent predictors have the most favorable association profile. Based on these results, we tested for large region association with height in 3,740 European participants from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) study. Adjusting for SNPs with known association with height, we demonstrated clustering of weak associations (p = 2x10-4) in regions extending up to 433.0 Kb from known height loci. The contribution of regional associations to phenotypic variance was estimated at 0.172 (95% CI 0.063-0.279; p < 0.001), which compared favorably to 0.129 explained by known height variants. Conversely, we showed that suggestively associated regions are enriched for known height loci. To extend our findings to other traits, we also tested BMI, HDLc and CRP for large region associations, with consistent results for CRP. Our results demonstrate the presence of large region joint associations and suggest these can be used to pinpoint weakly associated SNPs. PMID:25856144

  18. Analysis of Yield and Yield Related Traits Variability of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cv. Izolda and Double Haploid Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozdój Janusz

    2015-12-01

    determining grain yield levels were also analyzed. Calculated total variation coefficients values of each analyzed trait during three-year long studies were different depending on plant material – DH lines or standard Izolda. Low variation coefficients values characterized following traits (traits ranked by increasing values for DH lines and standard Izolda, respectively: total spikelets number per spike (6.6 and 6.3%, spike length (11.1 and 12.6%, fertile spikelets number per spike (13.7 and 11.7%, single grain weight (15.0 and 12.2%, shoot length (16.2 and 13.3%, grains number per spikelet (26.4 and 23.3%, total shoots number per plant (23.4 and 29.6%, grains number per spike (30.1 and 28.2%. Higher variation coefficients values were obtained for the following traits: grain yield per spike (40.0 and 35.7%, plant immature tillers number (35.8 and 42.6%, plant productive tillers number (42.2 and 43.2%, spike sterile spikelets number (46.6 and 44.7% and number of grains per plant (58.3 and 60.5%. The highest values characterized grain yield per plant (66.9 and 60.8%.

  19. Analysis of QTLs for yield-related traits in Yuanjiang common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Peijiang; Tan, Lubin; Zhu, Zuofeng; Ma, Dan; Fu, Yongcai; Zhan, Xinchun; Cai, Hongwei; Sun, Chuanqing

    2010-02-01

    Using an accession of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) collected from Yuanjiang County, Yunnan Province, China, as the donor and an elite cultivar 93-11, widely used in two-line indica hybrid rice production in China, as the recurrent parent, an advanced backcross populations were developed. Through genotyping of 187 SSR markers and investigation of six yield-related traits of two generations (BC(4)F(2) and BC(4)F(4)), a total of 26 QTLs were detected by employing single point analysis and interval mapping in both generations. Of the 26 QTLs, the alleles of 10 (38.5%) QTLs originating from O. rufipogon had shown a beneficial effect for yield-related traits in the 93-11 genetic background. In addition, five QTLs controlling yield and its components were newly identified, indicating that there are potentially novel alleles in Yuanjiang common wild rice. Three regions underling significant QTLs for several yield-related traits were detected on chromosome 1, 7 and 12. The QTL clusters were founded and corresponding agronomic traits of those QTLs showed highly significant correlation, suggesting the pleiotropism or tight linkage. Fine-mapping and cloning of these yield-related QTLs from wild rice would be helpful to elucidating molecular mechanism of rice domestication and rice breeding in the future. Copyright 2010 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology and the Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Methanol Spraying on Qualitative traits, Yield and Yield Components of Soybean (Glycine max L. under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Esazadeh Panjali Kharabasi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soybean (Glycin max L. is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. It can provide oil and vegetable protein suitable for feeding humans as well as animals. The productivity Increasing of this crop in Iran has been the subject of continuous investigation over the past few years. It is well known that adequate water supply is considered as a very important factor to affect the accumulation of dry matter in the plant as well as vegetative growth of most crops. Irrigation is an important factor affecting soybean growth and yield and its related components. Exposing soybean plants to soil moisture stress at any phase of its life cycle may lead to a detrimental effect on growth, yield and its components. The methanol spraying can lead to increase in yield, expediting in maturity and reduction in drought stress impacts and water requirement of crops. Material and Methods The experiment was conducted as split plots based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture of Moghan, Iran, in 2011. Treatments included three levels of drought stress as follows irrigation after, 40 (control, 55 and 70 percentage of available soil moisture depletion as main plots, and four levels of methanol spraying including 0 (control, 7, 21 and 35 volumetric percentage as sub plots. The studied traits were included plant height, leaf area, number of pod and seed per plant, 1000 seed weight, biological and seed yield, stomatal conductance and proline contents. Statistical analysis was carried out using SAS version 9.1 software. Significant difference was set at p ≤ 0.05 by using Duncan’s multiple range test. Results and Discussion The results showed that the plant height, leaf area, number of pod and seed per plant, 1000 seed weight, biological and seed yield, stomatal conductance and proline contents as well as number of leaf per plant significantly affected by drought stress and methanol

  1. Estimation of heterosis in yield and yield attributing traits in single cross hybrids of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Prasad Sharma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during winter season from 6th October, 2015 to 5th March 2016 to estimate different heterosis on single cross maize hybrids . Thirteen maize hybrids were tested randomized complete block design with three replications. Hybrid namely RML-98/RL-105 gave the highest standard heterosis (57.5% for grain yield over CP-666 followed by RML-4/NML-2 (32.6%, RML-95/RL-105 (29% and RML-5/RL-105 (20.6%. The hybrid RML-98/RL-105 produced the highest standard heterosis (75.1% for grain yield over Rajkumar followed by RML-4/NML-2(50.2%, RML-95/RL-105(46.6%, RML-5/RL-105 and (35.7%. Mid and better parent heterosis were significantly higher for yield and yield attributes viz. ear length, ear diameter, no of kernel row per ear, no of kernel per row and test weight. The highest positive mid-parent heterosis for grain yield was found in RML-98/RL-105 followed by RML-5/RL-105, RML-95/RL-105, and RML-4/NML-2. For the grain yield the better parent heterosis was the highest in RML-98/RL-105, followed by RML-5/RL-105, RML-95/RL-105, and RML-4/NML-2. These results suggested that maize production can be maximized by cultivating hybrids namely RML-98/RL-105, RML-5/RL-105, RML-95/RL-105, and RML-4/NML-2 .

  2. The Contribution of Callous-Unemotional Traits and Conduct Problems to Bullying in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viding, Essi; Simmonds, Elizabeth; Petrides, K. V.; Frederickson, Norah

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although a lot is known about the association of conduct problems with bullying, less attention has been paid to co-occurring traits, such as callous-unemotional (CU) traits that might additionally contribute to the risk of engaging in bullying. This study investigated the contribution of CU traits to direct and indirect bullying,…

  3. Identification of QTL for maize grain yield and kernel-related traits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Yang C., Zhang L., Jia A. and Rong T. 2016 Identification of QTL for maize grain yield and kernel-related traits. ... 2010; Zhang et al. ...... in the structure and evolution of genetic systems. ... 2013 Fine mapping a major QTL for kernel number per.

  4. Yield and Fruit Quality Traits of Atemoya Cultivars Grown in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand for tropical fruits has increased more than 33% during the last decade as consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) cultivars. Six a...

  5. Yield and fruit quality traits of atemoya hybrids grown in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    As consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products the demand for tropical fruits has increased significantly during the past 15 years. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) hybrids. Six a...

  6. Effects of harvesting time on some yield and quality traits of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of harvesting time was investigated on yield and quality traits for spring season production in different maturing potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars under agro-climatic conditions of southern of Turkey in 2006 and 2007. The experimental layout was a randomized split plot with three replications, including six ...

  7. Fine mapping and candidate gene prediction of a pleiotropic quantitative trait locus for yield-related trait in Zea mays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixiang Liu

    Full Text Available The yield of maize grain is a highly complex quantitative trait that is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs with small effects, and is frequently influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Thus, it is challenging to clone a QTL for grain yield in the maize genome. Previously, we identified a major QTL, qKNPR6, for kernel number per row (KNPR across multiple environments, and developed two nearly isogenic lines, SL57-6 and Ye478, which differ only in the allelic constitution at the short segment harboring the QTL. Recently, qKNPR6 was re-evaluated in segregating populations derived from SL57-6×Ye478, and was narrowed down to a 2.8 cM interval, which explained 56.3% of the phenotypic variance of KNPR in 201 F(2∶3 families. The QTL simultaneously affected ear length, kernel weight and grain yield. Furthermore, a large F(2 population with more than 12,800 plants, 191 recombinant chromosomes and 10 overlapping recombinant lines placed qKNPR6 into a 0.91 cM interval corresponding to 198Kb of the B73 reference genome. In this region, six genes with expressed sequence tag (EST evidence were annotated. The expression pattern and DNA diversity of the six genes were assayed in Ye478 and SL57-6. The possible candidate gene and the pathway involved in inflorescence development were discussed.

  8. Quantitative trait loci for rice yield-related traits using recombinant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-08-19

    Aug 19, 2011 ... lated by map-based cloning strategy (Ashikari et al. 2005). ... 2000; Kojima et al. 2002; Doi et al. 2004). ... and PH but also on rice yield (Xue et al. 2008; Yan et al. ..... Cho Y. C., Suh J. P., Choi I. S., Hong H. C., Baek M. K., Kang K. H. et al. .... Yan C. J., Liang G. H., Chen F., Li X., Tang S. Z., Yi C. D. et al.

  9. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance QTL on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2015-01-01

    Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve....... Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis (CM) and milk yield (MY) on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter...... (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50k), which identifies 1,568 single...

  10. STUDY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGEA L. GENOTYPES FOR SEED YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya R. KOKKIRIPATI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out at Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences (SHIATS, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh during kharif 2014. The experimental material consisted of 11 Groundnut genotypes along with one check (IND-156. The genotypes were sown at Field Experimentation Centre in three replications adopting randomized block design to evaluate seed yield and quality traits. Analysis of variance revealed that the presence of considerable variation among the genotypes for all the characters studied. On the basis of mean performance, genotype ICG 14127 revealed better performance in primary branches/ plant, pods per plant, pod yield/plant, seed yield/plant and ICG 14482 showed better performance in kernel yield q/ha, oil content, oil yield while ICG 188 showed higher protein content.

  11. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance quantitative trait loci on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Naveen K; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S; Sahana, Goutam

    2015-12-01

    Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve. Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis and milk yield on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter but not the former situation, undesirable genetic correlation could potentially be broken by selecting animals that have favorable variants for both traits. First, we performed a within-breed association study using a haplotype-based method in Danish Holstein cattle (HOL). Next, we analyzed Nordic Red dairy cattle (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50K; Illumina, San Diego, CA), which identifies 1,568 single nucleotide polymorphisms on BTA20. Data were combined, phased, and clustered into haplotype states, followed by within- and across-breed haplotype-based association analyses using a linear mixed model. Association signals for both clinical mastitis and milk yield peaked in the 26- to 40-Mb region on BTA20 in HOL. Single-variant association analyses were carried out in the QTL region using whole sequence level variants imputed from references of 2,036 HD genotypes (BovineHD BeadChip; Illumina) and 242 whole-genome sequences. The milk QTL were also segregating in RDC and JER on the BTA20-targeted region; however, an indication of differences in the causal factor(s) was observed across breeds. A previously reported F279Y mutation (rs385640152) within the growth hormone

  12. Stability of agronomic and yield related traits of Jatropha curcas accessions raised from cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Nurul Hidayah Che; Yaakob, Zahira; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring stability of agronomic and yield related traits is important for prediction of crop yields. This study was a latter study for the evaluation of 295 J. curcas individuals representing 21 accessions from eight countries at Biodiesel Research Station of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Pilah planted in December 2012. In this study, 183 J. curcas individuals were selected randomly from the population and their growth performance evaluated from December 2013 to December 2014. All the individual plants were raised from cuttings. The yield related data were recorded periodically and performance of each accession was analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) 9.4. Five traits which were number of fruits per plant (NFPP), number of fruits per inflorescence (NFPI), hundred seed weight (g) (HSW), number of seeds per plant (NSPP) and yield per plant (g) (YPP) showed significant differences among the accessions after two years of planting. Maximum values for each trait were 208 cm for plant height (PH), 31 for number of branches per plant (BPP), 115 for number of inflorescence per plant (NIPP), 582 for NFPP, 7 for NFPI, 307 for number of flowers per inflorescence (NFI), 17 for number of female flowers per inflorescence (NFFPI), 91.6 g for HSW, 1647.1 for NSPP and 927.6 g for YPP. Most of the plants which had performed well in the first year were among the best performers in the second year.

  13. Correlation and path analysis of grain yield and morphological traits in test–cross populations of maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sreckov, Z.; Nastasic, A.; Bocanski, J.; Djalovic, I.; Vukosavljev, M.; Jockovic, B.

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals of this paper was to determine correlation between grain yield, like the most important agronomic trait, and traits of the plant and ear that are influencing on the grain yield, in two test-cross populations, which are formed by crossing progenies of NSU(1) population after 17

  14. Combining ability studies on yield related traits in wheat under normal and water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, A.; Khan, A.S.; Khaliq, I.

    2010-01-01

    Six diverse wheat cultivars/lines viz; Baviacore, Nesser, 9247, 9252, 9258 and 9267 were crossed in a complete diallel fashion to develop 30 F1 crosses, which were tested along with their parents under normal and water stress conditions. Numerical analysis was made for spike density, number of grains per spike, 100-grain weight, biological yield, grain yield and harvest index. Significant differences among genotypic mean were observed in all of the traits under both conditions. GCA and SCA differences were significant for all the traits under study except spike density and 100-grain weight in both conditions. Wheat variety Nesser showed maximum general combining ability value for spike density under water stress conditions and maximum GCA value for biological yield and grain yield under irrigated condition. The variety Baviacore proved best general combiner for number of grains per spike and harvest index under both conditions while biological yield and grain yield under water stress condition. Variety 9252 found best general combiner for 100-grain weight under both condition. The cross 9252 x Nesser showed maximum specific combining ability value for spike density and biological yield under irrigated while for 100-grain weight under water stress condition. 9258 x 9252 exhibited maximum SCA for number of grains per spike under irrigated while 9258 x Nesser under water stress condition. 9267 x Nesser showed maximum SCA for 100-grain weight under irrigated condition while spike density under water stress condition. 9258 x 9247 was proved best combiner for grain yield and harvest index irrigated while 9267 x 9258 for biological yield, grain yield and harvest index under water stress condition. (author)

  15. Effect of Zeolite, Selenium and Silicon on Yield, Yield Components and Some Physiological Traits of Canola under Salt Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bybordi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Canola can be cultivated in large areas of the country due to its specific characteristics such as suitable composition of the fatty acids, its germination ability under low temperature, as well as its good compatibility with different climates. Canola is a high demanding crop in terms of fertilizers so that it uptakes considerable amount of nutrients from the soil during the growing season. Canola cultivation in poor soils or application of imbalanced fertilizers, especially nitrogen, can reduce qualitaty and quantity of final yield. On the other hand, salinity is known as one of the major limiting factors in canola production. Therefore, the aim of this study is the application of zeolite, selenium and silicon treatments to amend soil and increasing salinity tolerance in canola. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of soil applied zeolite and foliar application of selenium and silicon on yield, yield components and some physiological traits of canola grown under salinity stress, a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design was conducted in Agriculture and Natural Resource Research Center in East Azerbaijan during 2011-2013 cropping seasons. Zeolite was applied at three levels (0, 5 and 10 ton ha-1 and foliar selenium and silicon were applied at three levels as well (each one zero, 2 and 4 g l-1. For this purpose, seedbed was prepared using plow and disk and then plot were designed. Canola seeds, cultivar Okapi, were sown in sandy loam soil with 4 dS.m-1 salinity at the depth of 2-3 cm. Irrigation was performed using local well based on 60% field capacity using the closed irrigation system. Potassium selentae and potassium silicate were used for selenium and silicon treatments. Treatments at rosette and stem elongation stages were sprayed on plants using a calibrated pressurized backpack sprayer. At flowering stage, photosynthesis rate was recorded. Then leaf samples were randomly collected to assay

  16. PERFORMANCE OF YIELD AND YIELD CONTRIBUTING CHARACTERISTICS OF BC2F3 POPULATION WITH ADDITION OF BLAST RESISTANT GENE

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    Muhammad Mahmudul Hasan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe study was carried out in the University Putra Malaysia (UPM Rice Research Centre to evaluate the yield performance of newly developed selected blast resistant plants of BC2F3 generations derived from a cross between MR263, a high yielding rice variety but blast susceptible and Pongsu Seribu 1, donor with blast resistant (Pi-7(tand Pi-d (t1, Pir2-3(tgenes and qLN2 QTL, Malaysian local variety. On the basis of assessed traits, the plants 12, 6, 7, 5, 21, 22, 5, 26, 11, 8, 10, 13 and 15 had the higher yield, blast resistant and good morphological traits. More than 70% heritability was found in days to maturity, plant height, tiller numbers per hill, and panicle per hill, 80% heritability was found in filled grain and yield per hill and more than 90% heritability was found in grain length, grain width and seed weight. Cluster analysis based on the traits grouped 30 plants along with MR263 into seven clusters. According to PCA, the first four principal components account for about 69.3% total variation for all measured traits and exhibited high correlation among the characteristics analyzed.

  17. Characterizing drought stress and trait influence on maize yield under current and future conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Matthew T; Tardieu, François; Dong, Zhanshan; Messina, Carlos D; Hammer, Graeme L

    2014-03-01

    Global climate change is predicted to increase temperatures, alter geographical patterns of rainfall and increase the frequency of extreme climatic events. Such changes are likely to alter the timing and magnitude of drought stresses experienced by crops. This study used new developments in the classification of crop water stress to first characterize the typology and frequency of drought-stress patterns experienced by European maize crops and their associated distributions of grain yield, and second determine the influence of the breeding traits anthesis-silking synchrony, maturity and kernel number on yield in different drought-stress scenarios, under current and future climates. Under historical conditions, a low-stress scenario occurred most frequently (ca. 40%), and three other stress types exposing crops to late-season stresses each occurred in ca. 20% of cases. A key revelation shown was that the four patterns will also be the most dominant stress patterns under 2050 conditions. Future frequencies of low drought stress were reduced by ca. 15%, and those of severe water deficit during grain filling increased from 18% to 25%. Despite this, effects of elevated CO2 on crop growth moderated detrimental effects of climate change on yield. Increasing anthesis-silking synchrony had the greatest effect on yield in low drought-stress seasonal patterns, whereas earlier maturity had the greatest effect in crops exposed to severe early-terminal drought stress. Segregating drought-stress patterns into key groups allowed greater insight into the effects of trait perturbation on crop yield under different weather conditions. We demonstrate that for crops exposed to the same drought-stress pattern, trait perturbation under current climates will have a similar impact on yield as that expected in future, even though the frequencies of severe drought stress will increase in future. These results have important ramifications for breeding of maize and have implications for

  18. Association mapping for yield and grain quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Association analysis was applied to a panel of accessions of Embrapa Rice Core Collection (ERiCC) with 86 SSR and field data from two experiments. A clear subdivision between lowland and upland accessions was apparent, thereby indicating the presence of population structure. Thirty-two accessions with admixed ancestry were identified through structure analysis, these being discarded from association analysis, thus leaving 210 accessions subdivided into two panels. The association of yield and grain-quality traits with SSR was undertaken with a mixed linear model, with markers and subpopulation as fixed factors, and kinship matrix as a random factor. Eight markers from the two appraised panels showed significant association with four different traits, although only one (RM190) maintained the marker-trait association across years and cultivation. The significant association detected between amylose content and RM190 was in agreement with previous QTL analyses in the literature. Herein, the feasibility of undertaking association analysis in conjunction with germplasm characterization was demonstrated, even when considering low marker density. The high linkage disequilibrium expected in rice lines and cultivars facilitates the detection of marker-trait associations for implementing marker assisted selection, and the mining of alleles related to important traits in germplasm. PMID:21637426

  19. Determination of Selection Index of Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L.) Yield Traits Using Regression Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Setyawan, Bayu; Taryono; Mitrowihardjo, Suyadi

    2016-01-01

    The increasing chocolate consumption has not been followed by growing production of dry cocoa beans. In order to support the increase in cocoa production, planting materials with high yield are needed. The objective of this research was to determine the components of cocoa traits affecting weight of dry cocoa beans, and set a selection index for superior cocoa trees. The experiment material were four cocoa hybrid populations of which their family ancestry were unknown, and were planted on Sam...

  20. Evaluation of early maize genotypes for grain yield and agromorphological traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishal Dhakal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the variation on agro-morphological traits and grain yield. A set of 14 early maize genotypes were studied at research field of Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS, Doti, Nepal in summer seasons of 2015 and 2016. The experiment was carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three replications in each year. The variation among genotypes was observed for grain yield and flowering. The genotype SO3TEY-PO-BM produced the highest grain yield (4.33 t/ha in 2015 whereas Rajahar Local Variety produced the highest grain yield (2.52 t/ha in 2016. The combined analysis over years showed that Farmer’s variety was found earlier in tasseling (36 days and silking (39 days, followed by S97TEYGHAYB(3 in tasseling (45 days and by S97TEYGHAYB(3 and Arun-4 in silking (48 days. EEYC1 produced the highest grain yield (3.17 t/ha, followed by COMPOL-NIBP (3.09 t/ha, SO3TEY-PO-BM (2.90 t/ha, S97TEYGHAYB(3 (2.78 t/ha and Rajahar Local variety (2.77 t/ha, respectively. The information on variation for the agro-morphological traits among studied early maize genotypes will be helpful to plant breeders in constructing their breeding materials and implementing selection strategies.

  1. Yield-related salinity tolerance traits identified in a nested association mapping (NAM) population of wild barley

    KAUST Repository

    Saade, Stephanie

    2016-09-02

    Producing sufficient food for nine billion people by 2050 will be constrained by soil salinity, especially in irrigated systems. To improve crop yield, greater understanding of the genetic control of traits contributing to salinity tolerance in the field is needed. Here, we exploit natural variation in exotic germplasm by taking a genome-wide association approach to a new nested association mapping population of barley called HEB-25. The large population (1,336 genotypes) allowed cross-validation of loci, which, along with two years of phenotypic data collected from plants irrigated with fresh and saline water, improved statistical power. We dissect the genetic architecture of flowering time under high salinity and we present genes putatively affecting this trait and salinity tolerance. In addition, we identify a locus on chromosome 2H where, under saline conditions, lines homozygous for the wild allele yielded 30% more than did lines homozygous for the Barke allele. Introgressing this wild allele into elite cultivars could markedly improve yield under saline conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Combining Ability of Pod Yield and Related Traits of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abul Kalam Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed using 6×6 F1 diallel population without reciprocals to assess the mode of inheritance of pod yield and related traits in groundnut with imposed salinity stress. Heterosis was found for pod number and yield. Data on general and specific combining ability (gca and sca indicated additive and nonadditive gene actions. The gca: sca ratios were much less than unity suggesting predominant role of nonadditive gene effects. Cultivars “Binachinabadam-2” and “Dacca-1” and mutant M6/25/64-82 had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod number, as well as gca values, respectively. These two cultivars and another mutant M6/15/70-19 also had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod yield, as well as gca values, respectively. Therefore, “Dacca-1”, “Binachinabadam-2”, M6/25/64-82, and M6/15/70-19 could be used as source of salinity tolerance. Cross combinations showing high sca effects arising from parents with high and low gca values for any trait indicate the influence of nonadditive genes on their expression. Parents of these crosses can be used for biparental mating or reciprocal recurrent selection for developing high yielding varieties. Crosses with high sca effects having both parents with good gca effects could be exploited by pedigree breeding to get transgressive segregants.

  3. Evaluation of growth traits and yield of new forage corn (Zea mays L. single cross combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khavari Khorasani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study 18 forage corn (Zea mays L. hybrid varieties were evaluated based on RCBD with four replications in Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre, Iran, on 2008-2009. Result of analysis of variance showed that there was significantly difference between hybrids in forage yield, ear weight and ear to biomass ratio. Results of hybrids mean comparison with Duncan’s multiple range test showed that SC700 was higher than other investigated hybrids in forage yield trait. But hybrid 3 with 85.31 forage yield was the best hybrid in weight of ear and ear to biomass ratio. Though the SC704 hybrid was better than others for stem dry weight, ear dry weight and leaf area but there was not any significant difference between this hybrid and hybrid 3.

  4. Genetic variation for seed yield and some of agro-morphological traits in faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman SHARIFI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  An investigation was carried out to select the most successful faba bean genotype(s and to estimate the heritability for seed yield and some of agro-morphological traits. The results of analysis of variance indicated that the studied genotypes differed significantly for all of the traits. For 100-seed weight, two north's of Iran landraces (G1 and G2 and two improved breeding cultivars containing France (G4 and Barrakat (G10 possessed the heaviest seed weight, 161.33, 139, 119.67 and 166 g, respectively. G1 and G10 presented the highest values for dry seed weight (473.98 and 495.44 g m-2, respectively. G1 and G10 showed significantly higher magnitude values of the other traits. Broad sense heritability (h2 estimates were generally high to moderate for all of the studied traits. The highest estimates of broad sense heritability was inscribed as 98 % for pod length, dry seed length and dry seed width and 0.95 for hundred seed weight. The estimated broad-sense heritability was 0.80 for dry seed yield per m2. These results suggested that the environmental factors had a small effect on the inheritance of traits with high heritability. High estimates of heritability indicated that selection based on mean would be successful in improving of these traits. High heritability indicate an additive gene action for the traits, and hence, possible trait improvement through selection. Path coefficient analysis indicated that the traits containing day to harvesting, pod length, hundred seed weight and number of stems per plant play major role in seed yield determination of faba bean. Attention should be paid to these characters for augmentation of seed yield and these traits could be used as selection criteria in faba bean breeding programs. These findings indicate that selection for each or full of the above traits would be accompanied by high yielding ability under such conditions. 

  5. Correlations of visual scores, carcass traits, feed efficiency and retail product yield in Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Cancian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of visual scores (VS and ultrasound (US for carcass evaluation in breeding programs, calls for a knowledge of the relationships between these traits and other relevant characteristics, such as feed efficiency and production of commercial cuts. The objective of this study was to evaluate correlations between body visual scores and carcass traits identified by ultrasound (US and feed efficiency (FE, carcass weight (HCW, dressing percentage (DP and retail product yield (RPY in beef cattle. Nellore cattle (male, 42 non-castrated [NCAST] and 44 castrated [CAST] were evaluated by both VS and US, at the postweaning (15-month old and finishing phases (21-month old. Visual scores of conformation (C, precocity (P and muscling (M were assessed and the backfat thickness (UBFT, rump fat thickness (URFT and ribeye area (UREA were measured by ultrasound. Gain-to-feed (G:F ratio and residual feed intake (RFI were measured in feedlot. Hot carcass weight, DP and RPY were determined at harvest. Non-castrated cattle had greater HCW and RPY but lower UBFT and URFT than CAST. Postweaning VS and US were poorly correlated with FE in both sexual conditions. Finishing VS were negatively correlated with G:F in CAST and finishing URFT was negatively correlated with RPY in NCAST. The relationship of VS and US with feed efficiency and meat yield is affected by age at the date of evaluation and by castration. Feed efficiency is not related to the yield of meat cuts in Nellore cattle

  6. Pattern of quantitative inheritance of yield and component traits in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurya Krishna Nand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation mean analysis of cross NB-5x58/1 and its reciprocal cross was carried out to understand the nature of gene action in opium poppy. The significance of A, B, C and D scaling tests indicated presence of non-allelic interaction in the inheritance of traits except capsule size and husk yield/plant for reciprocal cross. Additive as well as dominance components of gene action were found in both the crosses. Most of the traits had greater non fixable dominance ‘h’ and dominance x dominance effects ‘l’ than fixable additive (d and additive x additive effects (i except leaves/plant, branches/plant, capsules/plant, stem diameter, capsule weight/plant, husk yield/plant, opium yield/plant, codeine and narcotine content which showed greater importance of additive (d and additive x additive effects (i effects. Inter-mating of the best parents, diallel selective mating or biparental mating in early segregating generations followed by recurrent selections were suggested for genetic improvement of opium poppy.

  7. Experiencing Instigations and Trait Aggression Contribute to Harsh Parenting Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Randy J

    2017-01-01

    Three studies (total N = 1777 parents) examined whether harsh parenting behaviors would increase when parents experienced an instigation and whether this increase would be especially pronounced for parents who were high in trait aggression. These predictions were tested both when parents' experience of an instigation was manipulated (Studies 1 and 2) and when parents' perceptions of their child's instigating behavior was reported (Study 3). Further, these predictions were tested across a variety of measures of parents' harsh behaviors: (1) asking parents to report their likelihood of behaving harshly (Study 1), (2) using proxy tasks for parents' inclinations to behave harshly (Study 2), and (3) having parents report their past child-directed behaviors, some of which were harsh (Study 3). Both child instigations and parents' trait aggression were consistently associated with parents' child-directed harsh behaviors. However, parents' trait aggression only moderated the extent to which the instigation was associated with their harsh parenting for self-reported physical harsh behaviors (Study 1). The results of the current studies demonstrate that both situational factors, such as experiencing an instigation, and individual difference variables, such as trait aggression, affect parents' likelihood to exhibit harsh behaviors, but found little evidence these factors interact.

  8. Genetic potential and heritability estimates of yield traits in F3 segregating populations of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soshma Jan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment comprising of 24 wheat genotypes was undertaken during 2011-12, at New Developmental Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, to elucidate information on the nature and magnitude of genetic variability, index of transmissibility and assessing the level of genetic improvement of the quantitative characters. The experimental material comprising 19 F3 populations along with their 5 parents of bread wheat were evaluated in randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. Analysis of variance exhibited highly significant (P ≤ 0.01 differences among genotypes for all the traits studied. F3 population Ghaznavi-98 x Pirsabak-05 showed maximum mean value for 1000-grain weight (47.3 g and biological yield (11474.9 kg ha-1, whereas, maximum values for grain yield (4027.3 kg ha-1, and harvest index (48.1% were observed for Pirsabak-05 x AUP-4006. Moreover, maximum spike length (11 cm was recorded for cross combination Pirsabak-05 x Pirsabak-04 and Janbaz x Pirsabak-05, respectively. In addition, Pirsabak-04 showed maximum value for number of grains spike-1 (55.0. Genetic variances were of greater magnitude than environmental variances for all the traits except for spike length and 1000-grain weight. Heritability estimates were of higher magnitude ranged from 0.64 to 0.92 for harvest index, biological yield, grain yield, and grains spike-1. Moderate to low heritability (0.40-0.46 was observed for 1000-grain weight, and spike length, respectively. Genetic gain was for spike length (0.48 cm, grains spike-1 (8.57, 1000-grain weight (2.93 g, grain yield (639.87 kg ha-1, biological yield (1790.03 kg ha-1, and harvest index (5.32 %. From high values of heritability and genetic advance, it could be concluded that selection for traits like grains spike-1 suggested good selection criteria and could be effective for future breeding programs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12630 International Journal of Environment

  9. Comparing Relationships among Yield and Its Related Traits in Mycorrhizal and Nonmycorrhizal Inoculated Wheat Cultivars under Different Water Regimes Using Multivariate Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Saed-Moucheshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistical techniques were used to compare the relationship between yield and its related traits under noninoculated and inoculated cultivars with mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices; each one consisted of three wheat cultivars and four water regimes. Results showed that, under inoculation conditions, spike weight per plant and total chlorophyll content of the flag leaf were the most important variables contributing to wheat grain yield variation, while, under noninoculated condition, in addition to two mentioned traits, grain weight per spike and leaf area were also important variables accounting for wheat grain yield variation. Therefore, spike weight per plant and chlorophyll content of flag leaf can be used as selection criteria in breeding programs for both inoculated and noninoculated wheat cultivars under different water regimes, and also grain weight per spike and leaf area can be considered for noninoculated condition. Furthermore, inoculation of wheat cultivars showed higher value in the most measured traits, and the results indicated that inoculation treatment could change the relationship among morphological traits of wheat cultivars under drought stress. Also, it seems that the results of stepwise regression as a selecting method together with principal component and factor analysis are stronger methods to be applied in breeding programs for screening important traits.

  10. Relationship Between Seed Yield And Some of Fruit Traits in Iranian Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. Accissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barzegar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation of squash (Cucurbita pepo seed yield per fruit and its relations with other characteristics of fruit include: length, diameter, length: diameter ratio (fruit shape, flesh thickness, thousand seed weight and fruit weight, an experiment was conducted using 24 accessions of squash as a randomized complete-block design with three replications. Morphological traits were evaluated according to UPOV descriptor and UPGMA clustering algorithm clustered the accessions in 4 groups (predominantly on the basis of fruit shape. Correlation, regression and path analysis were done for mentioned characteristics in 4 type-fruit groups. There was negative correlation between seed yield of individual fruit and its length and fruit length: diameter ratio. But fruit weight, fruit diameter, and thousand seeds weight had positive correlation with seed yield. Seed weight: fruit weight ratio had negative relationship with fruit weight. Therefore small size fruit is more suitable for seed yield per area. Path analysis was showed fruit weight had the most positive direct effect on seed yield per fruit in all groups.

  11. Latent Trait Model Contributions to Criterion-Referenced Testing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    levels of ability (ranging from very low to very high). The steps in the reserach were as follows: 1. Specify the characteristics of a "typical" pool...conventional testing methodologies displayed good fit to both of the latent trait models. The one-parameter model compared favorably with the three- parameter... Methodological developments: New directions for testing a!nd measurement (No. 4). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1979. Haubleton, R. K. Advances in

  12. Genetic parameters of reproductive traits in pigs: a contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pagnacco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally pig breeding efficiency is defined as the number of piglets weaned per sow per year, so in every pig breeding programmes, great emphasis is placed on improving reproductive traits in sow lines and generally, the evaluation of litter size is carried out in most selection planes. Usually, the reproduction breeding goal is to increase the number of piglets born, but this trait, as reported by Hanenberg et al. (2001 gives an undesirable correlation with the number of stillborn piglets. Litter size is the result of a large number of traits as number of total piglets born, number of born alive, stillbirth, weaned survival; as reported by Tummaruk et al. (2000 the variation in these parameters is influenced by genetic value of the sow and by environmental factors, such as management and season. Regarding the genetic influence on the litter size, we know that the breed can influence the number of born, but its interaction with stillbirth is not significant, although Leenhouwers et al. (1999 found an higher stillbirth incidence in purebred than in crossbred litters........

  13. Plant growth analysis used as secondary traits in selection for high yield on groundnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manshuri, A.G.; Nugrahaeni

    1996-01-01

    Groundnut growth and yield can be expressed as the product to solar radiation interception (Qi), conversion efficiency of radiation to total dry matter (Ek) and partitioning efficiency to economic yield (Ep) or harvest index. Groundnut genotypes differ in characters related to Qi, Ek and Ep, and the characters have the possibility to be used as secondary traits in selection for high yield. Extinction coefficient (k) and leaf area index (LAI) are the influential factors in increasing Qi. Variability in leaf size lead to the description of the existence of variability in k value within the genotypes under study. LAI three is the level necessary to attain 90 percent total radiation absorption in groundnut. An increased of LAI exceeding four would be inefficient for increasing the fraction of radiation absorption. Convertion efficiency of radiation to total dry matter (Ek) related to the rate of plant photosynthesis and respiration, inspite of the need study the field, however, the study was still limited. Harvest index can be used as a secondary trait to identify high yield genotypes. There was a positive correlation between pod yield and harvest index. An increased of harvest index by 1 percent caused an increased of dry pod as high as 0.365 g/plant. ICG 1697, ICGV 86844 and ICGV 87161 gave yield more than 3.5 t/ha, and their total dry matter (TDM) were 49.2, 52.5 and 40.7 g/plant, whereas their harvest indexes (HI) were 0.47, 0.46 and 0.55, respectively. Theoretically, improvement of the groundnut pod yield can be attained by using variety which has TDM 52.5 g/plant and HI 0.55. Using HI as secondary selection criteria, five genotypes were selected, i.e., G/C/LM-88-B-25 (HI 0.59), local Irian and local Lombok (HI 0.57), ICGV 87161 and LM/ICGV 87165-B-2-1 (HI 0.55). Two genotypes were selected for their high TDM, namely ICGV 86844 and LM/ICGV 87165-88-B-82 [in

  14. Morphological traits and yield of red clover (Trifolium pratense L. genotypes with varying inflorescence length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two red clover breeding strains with elongated flower heads, developed by one of the authors (H.Góral, were studied for forage and seed yield and compared to the standard cultivar 'Nike'. In addition, six morphological shoot traits were measured and their interrelations were computed. The leaf area index (LAI of successive cuts in two harvest years was determined on the basis of shoot density and leaf area of individual shoots. All three genotypes exhibited a high leaf area on shoots and a very high forage productivity. Among the morphological traits only shoot height could be a good selective criterion because it is easily measured, is significantly associated with shoot weight and shoot leaf area and its variation is low. Both strains, particularly the one with longer inflorescences belong to short-lived red clover forms giving satis factory forage and seed yields in the first harvest year. Depending on the strain the number of seeds per elongated inflorescence in the first harvest year was higher by 92 and 42% compared to that of a standard cultivar.

  15. Genetic and QTL analyses of yield and a set of physiological traits in pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimi, N.A.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Dieleman, J.A.; Nicolaï, M.; Wubs, M.; Heuvelink, E.; Magan, J.; Voorrips, R.E.; Jansen, J.; Rodrigues, P.C.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Vercauteren, A.; Vuylsteke, M.; Song, Y.; Glasbey, C.; Barocsi, A.; Lefebvre, V.; Palloix, A.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2013-01-01

    An interesting strategy for improvement of a complex trait dissects the complex trait in a number of physiological component traits, with the latter having hopefully a simple genetic basis. The complex trait is then improved via improvement of its component traits. As first part of such a strategy

  16. VIDEO GAMES CONTRIBUTION TO STUDENTS’ ENTREPRENEURIAL TRAITS AND INTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra PERJU-MITRAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the popularity of video games and the influences they may pose on individuals’ psychology and behavior, the present study analyses whether video game playing among university students can be correlated with traits associated with an entrepreneur’s profile, which may, in turn, lead to an entrepreneurial intent. The results of the study reveal that students who do play video games show a higher entrepreneurial intent, this relationship being mediated by several psychological and cognitive characteristics. With regards to the psychological and cognitive factors studied, the results also suggest that a favorable attitude towards playing videogames fosters students’ entrepreneurial potential and has a positive effect on the entrepreneurial intent.

  17. Yield Traits and Water and Nitrogen Use Efficiencies of Bell Pepper Grown in Plastic-Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Candido

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a two-year study assessing the effects of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation regimes on yield traits and on water and nitrogen use efficiency of greenhouse-grown bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. The trials involved the combination of four N doses (0, 100, 200, 300 kg ha-1 with two irrigation regimes (100% restitution of ETc; repeated cycles of water stress starting from fruit set. In the second year, the crop was transplanted one month earlier than in the first year and was mulched with plastic sheeting. The highest yield in both years was obtained by associating 100% restitution of ETc and the N dose of 200 kg ha-1. The marketable yields were 37 and 72 t ha-1 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. Doubling of the yield in the second year was probably due to the earlier transplantation and mulching, confirming the numerous benefits of the latter technique. The water deficit imposed during the late flowering-early fruit set phase had negative effects on the crop, with declines of the marketable yield of up to 44% due to the reduced number and weight of the fruit and the increased waste, mainly peppers with blossom-end rot, cracking, sun-burn and malformations. The peppers grown under water stress were richer in dry matter and soluble solids. The yield declines due to water deficit varied in relation to the N dose, as confirmed by the numerous interactions recorded between irrigation regime and nitrogen level.Without nitrogen fertilization, the quantity and quality of the fruits remained unchanged, while the maximum dose (300 kg ha-1 enhanced the negative effects of the water deficit on the number (-52% and weight (-161% of marketable peppers. Moreover, the waste peppers reached 31% of the total production (by weight, with over 21% affected by blossom-end rot. Water stress led to a drastic reduction of the total above-ground dry biomass (40% and a significant decrease of nitrogen absorption by the plant (54% with preferential

  18. Response of Barley Double Haploid Lines to the Grain Yield and Morphological Traits under Water Deficit Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroof Khalily

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To study the relationships of grain yield and some of agro-morphological traits in 40 doubled haploid (DH lines along with parental and three check genotypes in a randomized complete block design with two replications under two water regimes (normal and stress were evaluated during 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 growing seasons. Combined analysis of variance showed significant difference for all the traits in terms of the year, water regimes, lines, and and line × year. Comparison of group means, between non-stress and stress conditions, showed that DH lines had the lowest reduction percentage for the number of grains per spike, thousand grain weight, grain yield and biological yield as opposed to check genotypes. The correlation between grain yield with biological yield, harvest index, thousand grain weight, and hectoliter of kernel weight in both conditions, were highly significant and positive. Based on stepwise regression the peduncle length, number of seeds per spike, thousand seed weight, and hectoliter of kernel weight had important effect on increasing seed yield. The result of path analysis showed that these traits had the highest direct effect on grain yield. Based on mean comparisons of morphological characters as well as STI and GMP indices it can be concluded that lines No.11, 13, 14, 24, 29, 30, 35 and 39 were distinguished to be desirable lines for grain yield and their related traits and also tolerant lines in terms of response to drought stress conditions.

  19. The effects of irrigation timing on growth, yield, and physiological traits of hydroponic lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jahedur Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop-specific timing of irrigation is necessary to conserve irrigation water and improve yield of vegetables. Therefore, the experiment was conducted to identify the optimum irrigation timings for hydroponic lettuce plants. Three nutrient solution timings, T1(once a day at 0900 hours, T2(once on alternative days at 0900 hours, and T3(once at two-day intervals, and three varieties, ‘Legacy’ (V1, ‘Red fire’ (V2, and ‘Green wave’ (V3 were evaluated. Growth and yield parameters, including number of leaves, leaf length, leaf diameter, and fresh weight of leaves, and growth parameters, including leaf area (LA, leaf area ratio (LAR, leaf mass ratio (LMR, root weight ratio (RWR, relative growth rate (RGR, and net assimilation rate (NAR were determined. The values of growth parameters were the highest for T1. The highest and lowest NAR and RGR values were obtained for T1 and T3, respectively. The values of most growth traits, including fresh weight, NAR, and RGR were higher for V1 than other varieties. T1 provides high yield with comparatively less irrigation water and nutrient solution so it can be used to culture lettuce using aggregate hydroponics as.

  20. Analysis of chlorophyll content and its correlation with yield attributing traits on early varieties of maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikal Ghimire

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll has direct roles on photosynthesis and hence closely relates to capacity for photosynthesis, development and yield of crops. With object to explore the roles of chlorophyll content and its relation with other yield attributing traits a field research was conducted using fourteen early genotypes of maize in RCBD design with three replications. Observations were made for Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD reading, ear weight, number of kernel row/ear, number of kernel/row, five hundred kernel weight and grain yield/hectare and these traits were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and correlation coefficient analysis. SPAD reading showed a non-significant variation among the genotypes while it revealed significant correlation with no. of kernel/row, grain yield/hectare and highly significant correlation with no. of kernel row/ear and ear weight which are the most yield determinative traits. For the trait grain yield/ha followed by number of kernel row/ear genotype ARUN-1EV has been found comparatively superior to ARUN-2 (standard check. Grain Yield/hectare was highly heritable (>0.6 while no. of kernel / row, SPAD reading, ear weight, number of kernel row/ear were moderately heritable (0.3-0.6. Correlation analysis and ANOVA revealed ARUN-1EV, comparatively superior to ARUN-2 (standard check, had higher SPAD reading than mean SPAD reading with significant correlation with no. of kernel/row, no. of kernel row/ear, ear weight and grain yield/ha which are all yield determinative traits . This showed positive and significant effect of chlorophyll content in grain yield of the maize.

  1. Diallel analysis for seed yield and its component traits in Cuphea procumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cuphea procumbens Orteg. is an important annual plant source of medium chain fatty acids. The present study was conducted to estimate different gene systems involved in the inheritance of important quantitative traits viz. plant height, branches/plant, fruits/plant, seeds/fruit and seed yield/plant in F1 and F2 generations following 6 parents half diallel. Diallel assumptions were fulfilled for all the characters. Wr - Vr graph and component analysis revealed the major influence of over dominance for all the traits except branches/plant in F1. The arrays scattered all along the regression line below limiting parabola in two groups, Dominance and recessive and was confirmed by standardized deviation graph. The ranking on the basis of breeding value (Yr of the parents and per se performance was closely associated (r=0.83**. On the basis of ranking, parents 'NBC-01', 'NBC-25' and 'NBC-30' were found most promising and possessed more dominant alleles for most of the characters. Considering the gene action involved, the breeding plan was discussed.

  2. Effects of delaying transplanting on agronomic traits and grain yield of rice under mechanical transplantation pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihua Liu

    Full Text Available A delay in the mechanical transplantation (MT of rice seedlings frequently occurs in Huanghuai wheat-rice rotation cropping districts of China, due to the late harvest of wheat, the poor weather conditions and the insufficiency of transplanters, missing the optimum transplanting time and causing seedlings to age. To identify how delaying transplanting rice affects the agronomic characteristics including the growth duration, photosynthetic productivity and dry matter remobilization efficiency and the grain yield under mechanical transplanting pattern, an experiment with a split-plot design was conducted over two consecutive years. The main plot includes two types of cultivation: mechanical transplanting and artificial transplanting (AT. The subplot comprises four japonica rice cultivars. The results indicate that the rice jointing, booting, heading and maturity stages were postponed under MT when using AT as a control. The tiller occurrence number, dry matter weight per tiller, accumulative dry matter for the population, leaf area index, crop growth rate, photosynthetic potential, and dry matter remobilization efficiency of the leaf under MT significantly decreased compared to those under AT. In contrast, the reduction rate of the leaf area during the heading-maturity stage was markedly enhanced under MT. The numbers of effective panicles and filled grains per panicle and the grain yield significantly decreased under MT. A significant correlation was observed between the dry matter production, remobilization and distribution characteristics and the grain yield. We infer that, as with rice from old seedlings, the decrease in the tiller occurrence, the photosynthetic productivity and the assimilate remobilization efficiency may be important agronomic traits that are responsible for the reduced grain yield under MT.

  3. Genetic relationship of lactation persistency with milk yield, somatic cell score, reproductive traits, and longevity in Slovak Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Strapáková, Eva; Candrák, Juraj; Strapák, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the breeding values (BVs) of lactation persistency, the test day of milk yield, the somatic cell score, reproductive traits (calving interval, days open), longevity in Slovak Holstein dairy cattle. BVs were used for the detection of relationships among the persistency of lactation and other selected traits. Data for the estimation of BVs of milk production and somatic cell score were collected from 855 240 cows. BVs for reproductive t...

  4. Determination of yield related traits of sesame genotypes selected from world collection and mutant material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silme, R. S.; Cagirgan, M. I.

    2009-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important plant of Turkey that secondary gen center and very used of food industry's a lot of area. Mutation breeding of sesame research continued coordinately with IAEA since 1993. it is aimed in these breeding programmes to improve lines that have dehiscent capsule, determinate growth and resistance to wilting traits. This study was conducted in Antalya City, at Akdeniz University Agricultural Faculty experiment fields under second crop conditions in 2007. At this study, 19 genotypes selected from world sesame collection, 4 mutant genotypes and 2 local cultivars were sown. The experiments were conducted according to Complete Randomized Block Design with three replications. It was found that first flowering date varied between 35 to 45 days, 50% flowering date from 39 to 54 days, last flowering date from 63 to 88 days, first capsule date from 42 to 51 days, first capsule height from 44 to 116 cm, plant height from 102 to 177 cm, number of branch per plant from 0.1 to 2.7, number of pod per plant from 28 to 63, number of seeds in capsule 2.3-4.3 g, 1000 seed weight ranged from 2.3 to 4.3 g, seed yield per da from 18 to 77 kg. The highest yield per da (77 kg/da) was obtained from mutant genotype, wt-5.

  5. Genotype × environment interactions of yield traits in backcross introgression lines derived from Oryza sativa cv. Swarna /Oryza nivara

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    Divya Balakrishnan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced backcross introgression lines (BILs developed from crosses of Oryza sativa var. Swarna/O. nivara accessions were grown and evaluated for yield and related traits. Trials were conducted for consecutive three seasons in field conditions in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on yield traits under irrigated conditions were analyzed using the Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI, Genotype and Genotype × Environment Interaction (GGE and modified rank-sum statistic (YSi for yield stability. BILs viz., G3 (14S and G6 (166S showed yield stability across the seasons along with high mean yield performance. G3 is early in flowering with high yield and has good grain quality and medium height, hence could be recommended for most of the irrigated locations. G6 is a late duration genotype, with strong culm strength, high grain number and panicle weight. G6 has higher yield and stability than Swarna but has Swarna grain type. Among the varieties tested DRRDhan 40 and recurrent parent Swarna showed stability for yield traits across the seasons. The component traits thousand grain weight, panicle weight, panicle length, grain number and plant height explained highest genotypic percentage over environment and interaction factors and can be prioritized to dissect stable QTLs/ genes. These lines were genotyped using microsatellite markers covering the entire rice genome and also using a set of markers linked to previously reported yield QTLs. It was observed that wild derived lines with more than 70% of recurrent parent genome were stable and showed enhanced yield levels compared to genotypes with higher donor genome introgressions.

  6. Effects of water deficit and mycorrhizae on grain yield, reproductive and physiological traits of corn hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikail Nordokht

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing crop production to ensure future food security while reducing environmental pressure on agro-ecosystems requires improved water and nutrient use efficiency. the arid and semiarid regions of the world lack of sufficient water supply is the major problem for corn cultivation and is a restriction for its production, so studies on the growth limitation and germination of corn seeds under drought conditions seems very necessary. The effects of drought on plant growth depend on several factors such as plant genetic resistance, stage of growth and duration of plant expose to drought. The AMF are playing a vital role in sustainable agriculture because they enhance plant water relations, which improve the drought resistance of host plants. It is important to increase our understanding of AM fungal and maize genotype interactions and water condition on the symbiosis, and on the physiology and nutritional status of maize plants. Thus Mycorrhizae application and choosing suitable cultivar are of simple managements in decreasing drought effect. This investigation had done in order to investigate effect of irrigation regimes (irrigation after 70, 110 and 150 mm evaporaation from evaporate basin, Mycorrhizae (non application and application of Mycorrhizae and cultivar (704 and 640 on growth and yield of maize. A split factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted during growing season of 2015 at Islamic Azad University, Malekan Branch, Plots were then furrow irrigated in the mornings every week. Each block was including 12 plots. The size of each plot was 3.5m×4m, and there was in each plot, 5 rows with a distance of 75 cm, and the length of 4 m. The distance between plots was selected 150 cm, and the distance between blocks was selected 3 m. By mid August an area of 2.5 m from 3 line of plot area was separately harvested and traits were evaluated. MSTAT-C and EXCEL were used to analyze data

  7. Early warm-rewarding parenting moderates the genetic contributions to callous-unemotional traits in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jeffrey; Dionne, Ginette; Viding, Essi; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel

    2018-04-23

    Previous gene-environment interaction studies of CU traits have relied on the candidate gene approach, which does not account for the entire genetic load of complex phenotypes. Moreover, these studies have not examined the role of positive environmental factors such as warm/rewarding parenting. The aim of the present study was to determine whether early warm/rewarding parenting moderates the genetic contributions (i.e., heritability) to callous-unemotional (CU) traits at school age. Data were collected in a population sample of 662 twin pairs (Quebec Newborn Twin Study - QNTS). Mothers reported on their warm/rewarding parenting. Teachers assessed children's CU traits. These reports were subjected to twin modeling. Callous-unemotional traits were highly heritable, with the remaining variance accounted for by nonshared environmental factors. Warm/rewarding parenting significantly moderated the role of genes in CU traits; heritability was lower when children received high warm/rewarding parenting than when they were exposed to low warm/rewarding parenting. High warm/rewarding parenting may partly impede the genetic expression of CU traits. Developmental models of CU traits need to account for such gene-environment processes. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  8. Variation, heritability and association of yield, fiber and morphological traits in a near long staple upland cotton population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, D.; Wang, T.; Zhang, H.; Zhu, J.; Tang, F.

    2016-01-01

    Development of near long staple (NLS) cotton germplasm represents a remarkable improvement in fiber properties of upland genotypes without compromising yield potential. This study aimed to evaluate a NLS population for variability in yield, fiber and morphological traits, investigate heritability and genetic advance of these traits, and analyze the interrelationships among them. The NLS lines exhibited large variation for lint yield per hectare and bolls per plant, while little variation for fiber properties. The highest genotypic (GCV) and phenotypic (PCV) coefficient of variation were recorded by lint yield per hectare (25.10%, 23.00%) followed by bolls per plant (18.88%, 16.38%). High heritability along with high response to selection was documented in plant height, bolls per plant and lint yield per hectare indicating that the additive gene function model in the inheritance of these traits and direct selection can be profitably applied on them. Favourable associations were found among fiber length, strength and fineness in this population. It is concluded that there is a great potential in the NSL population for further enhancing yield while maintaining high fiber quality. (author)

  9. A high density genetic map and QTL for agronomic and yield traits in Foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaomei; Dong, Kongjun; Wang, Xiaoqin; Liu, Tianpeng; He, Jihong; Ren, Ruiyu; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Rui; Liu, Xueying; Li, Man; Huang, Mengzhu; Zhang, Zhengsheng; Yang, Tianyu

    2016-05-04

    Foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.], a crop of historical importance in China, has been adopted as a model crop for studying C-4 photosynthesis, stress biology and biofuel traits. Construction of a high density genetic map and identification of stable quantitative trait loci (QTL) lay the foundation for marker-assisted selection for agronomic traits and yield improvement. A total of 10598 SSR markers were developed according to the reference genome sequence of foxtail millet cultivar 'Yugu1'. A total of 1013 SSR markers showing polymorphism between Yugu1 and Longgu7 were used to genotype 167 individuals from a Yugu1 × Longgu7 F2 population, and a high density genetic map was constructed. The genetic map contained 1035 loci and spanned 1318.8 cM with an average distance of 1.27 cM between adjacent markers. Based on agronomic and yield traits identified in 2 years, 29 QTL were identified for 11 traits with combined analysis and single environment analysis. These QTL explained from 7.0 to 14.3 % of phenotypic variation. Favorable QTL alleles for peduncle length originated from Longgu7 whereas favorable alleles for the other traits originated from Yugu1 except for qLMS6.1. New SSR markers, a high density genetic map and QTL identified for agronomic and yield traits lay the ground work for functional gene mapping, map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection in foxtail millet.

  10. Comparison of herbage yield, nutritive value and ensilability traits of three ryegrass species evaluated for the Irish Recommended List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns G. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined 169 of the newest varieties of three ryegrass species, perennial (Lolium perenne L., Italian (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and hybrid (Lolium boucheanum Kunth, from Recommended List trials in Ireland. The traits examined were yield, dry matter concentration, three nutritive value traits (in vitro dry matter digestibility, water-soluble carbohydrate on a dry matter basis and crude protein concentration and two ensilability traits (buffering capacity and water soluble carbohydrate concentration on an aqueous phase basis. Varietal monocultures of each species underwent a six cut combined simulated grazing and silage management in each of two years following sowing. Perennial ryegrass yielded less than both other species in one-year-old swards, but less than only Italian ryegrass in two-year-old swards, but generally had the higher in vitro dry matter digestibility and crude protein values. Italian ryegrass displayed the most favourable ensilability characteristics of the three species with perennial ryegrass less favourable and hybrid ryegrass intermediate. Overall, despite the high yields and favourable nutritive value and ensilability traits recorded, the general differences between the three ryegrass species studied were in line with industry expectations. These findings justify assessing the nutritive value and ensilability of ryegrass species, in addition to yield, to allow farmers select species that match farming enterprise requirements.

  11. Genetic relationships among linear type traits, milk yield, body weight, fertility and somatic cell count in primiparous dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.P.; Evans, R.D.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    Phenotypic and genetic (co)variances among type traits, milk yield, body weight, fertility and somatic cell count were estimated. The data analysed included 3,058 primiparous spring-calving Holstein-Friesian cows from 80 farms throughout the south of Ireland. Heritability estimates for the type

  12. Stability Parameters for Grain Yield and its Component Traits in Maize Hybrids of Different FAO Maturity Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Djurovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An objective evaluation of maize hybrids in intensive cropping systems requires identification not only of yield components and other agronomically important traits but also of stability parameters. Grain yield and its components were assessed in 11 maize hybrids with different lengths of growing season (FAO 300-700 maturity groups using analysis of variance and regression analysis at three different locations in Western Serbia. The test hybrids and locations showed significant differences in grain yield, grain moisture content at maturity, 1,000-kernel weight and ear length. A significant interaction was observed between all traits and the environment. The hybrids with higher mean values of the traits, regardless of maturity group, generally exhibited sensitivity i.e. adaptation to more favourable environmental conditions as compared to those having lower mean values. Regression coefficient (bi values for grain yield mostly suggested no significant differences relative to the mean. The medium-season hybrid gave high yields and less favourable values of stability parameters at most locations and in most years, as compared to mediumlate hybrids. As compared to medium-early hybrids, medium-late hybrids (FAO 600 and 700 mostly exhibited unfavourable values of stability parameters i.e. a specific response and better adaptation to favourable environmental conditions, and gave higher average yields. Apart from producing lower average yields, FAO 300 and 400 hybrids showed higher yield stability as compared to the other hybrids tested. Medium-late hybrids had higher yields and showed a better response to favourable environmental conditions compared to early-maturing hybrids. Therefore, they can be recommended for intensive cultural practices and low-stress environments. Due to their more favourable stability parameter values, medium-early hybrids can be recommended for low-intensity cultural practices and stressful environments.

  13. Environment effects for earliness and grain yield traits in F1 diallel populations of maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sardar; Khan, Naqib Ullah; Khalil, Iftikhar Hussain; Iqbal, Muhammad; Gul, Samrin; Ahmed, Sheraz; Ali, Naushad; Sajjad, Mohammad; Afridi, Khilwat; Ali, Imtiaz; Khan, Shah Masaud

    2017-10-01

    Five maize inbred lines, 20 F 1 diallel hybrids and two check genotypes were evaluated through genotype × environment interaction (GEI) and GGE biplot for earliness and yield traits at four locations. Genotype, environment and GEI showed highly significant differences for all the traits. In total sum of squares, environment and genotype played a primary role, followed by GEI. Larger effects of environment and genotype to total variation influence the earliness and yield traits. However, according to the GGE biplot, the first two principal components (PC1 and PC2) explained 95% of the variation caused by GEI. GGE biplot confirmed the differential response of genotypes across environments. F 1 hybrid SWAJK-1 × FRHW-3 had better stability, with a good yield, and was considered an ideal genotype. F 1 hybrid FRHW-2 × FRHW-1 showed more earliness at CCRI and Haripur, followed by PSEV3 × FRHW-2 and its reciprocal at Swat and Mansehra, respectively. F 1 hybrids FRHW-1 × SWAJK-1, PSEV3 × SWAJK-1 and SWAJK-1 × FRHW-3 at Mansehra and Swat produced maximum grain yield, followed by SWAJK-1 × FRHW-1 and PSEV3 × FRHW-1 at Haripur and CCRI, respectively. Overall, maize genotypes showed early maturity in plain areas (CCRI and Haripur) but higher yield in hilly areas (Mansehra and Swat). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Identification of ISSR and RAPD markers linked to yield traits in bread wheat under normal and drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G.A. Khaled

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability and identification of some molecular markers were studied in twenty promising lines of wheat using agronomic traits, ISSR (inter simple sequences repeats and RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Significant variation was evidenced in all agronomic traits. The lines proved to be superior to the check cultivar Sahel1 in yield and its component traits. Lines L2, L7 and L8 were the best in most yield component traits in both seasons. Moreover, Lines L2, L4, L5, L7 and L8 showed drought tolerance by which they displayed high performance in agronomic traits as well as a low drought susceptibility index. The percentage of polymorphism was 39.3% and 53.2% for ISSRs and RAPDs, respectively. UBC-881 belonged to penta-nucleotide repeat sequences (GGGTG that produced the highest level of polymorphism, while UBC-846 belonged to di-nucleotide repeat sequences (CA that produced the lowest level of polymorphism. Genetic similarities among wheat lines based on ISSR and RAPD markers ranged from 0.81 to 1.00 and from 0.86 to 0.98, respectively. There was a low average of PIC (polymorphism information content values which were 0.10 (ISSR and 0.15 (RAPD. The RAPD technique exhibited a higher marker index (MI = 0.69 compared to ISSR (MI = 0.43. There was insignificant correlation between ISSR and RAPD data (0.168, p > 0.05. There were two markers (UBC-881450bp and OPF-10540bp, on each of which two traits regressed significantly. The associated markers each explained a maximum regression of 18.92–34.95% of the total available variation for individual associated traits.

  15. Genetic risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder contributes to neurodevelopmental traits in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita

    2014-10-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be viewed as the extreme end of traits in the general population. Epidemiological and twin studies suggest that ADHD frequently co-occurs with and shares genetic susceptibility with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ASD-related traits. The aims of this study were to determine whether a composite of common molecular genetic variants, previously found to be associated with clinically diagnosed ADHD, predicts ADHD and ASD-related traits in the general population. Polygenic risk scores were calculated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) population sample (N = 8229) based on a discovery case-control genome-wide association study of childhood ADHD. Regression analyses were used to assess whether polygenic scores predicted ADHD traits and ASD-related measures (pragmatic language abilities and social cognition) in the ALSPAC sample. Polygenic scores were also compared in boys and girls endorsing any (rating ≥ 1) ADHD item (n = 3623). Polygenic risk for ADHD showed a positive association with ADHD traits (hyperactive-impulsive, p = .0039; inattentive, p = .037). Polygenic risk for ADHD was also negatively associated with pragmatic language abilities (p = .037) but not with social cognition (p = .43). In children with a rating ≥ 1 for ADHD traits, girls had a higher polygenic score than boys (p = .003). These findings provide molecular genetic evidence that risk alleles for the categorical disorder of ADHD influence hyperactive-impulsive and attentional traits in the general population. The results further suggest that common genetic variation that contributes to ADHD diagnosis may also influence ASD-related traits, which at their extreme are a characteristic feature of ASD. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of multiple-trait animal models for genetic evaluation of milk, fat and protein lactation yields of dairy cattle in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Coenraets

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of computation time between single-trait and multiple-trait evaluations showed that with the use of the canonicat transformation associated with multiple diagonalization of (covariance matrices, multiple-trait analysis for milk, fat and protein yields is not more expensive than three single-trait analyzes. Rank correlations between breeding values for 54,820 cows with records (for their 1,406 sires estimated with the single-trait and multiple-trait models were over .98 (.99 in fat yield and over .99 (.99 in milk and protein yields. The relative gain expressed as reduction in mean prediction error variance was 3% (1% in milk yield, 6% (3% in fat yield, and .4% (.2% in protein yield for cows (for sires. Relative genetic gains were 3% (1%, 6% (2% and .5% (.2% respectively in milk, fat and protein yields for cows (for sires. The use of multiple-trait models bas therefore the advantages of improved precision and reduced selection bics. Multiple-trait analysis could be extended for the analyzes of test-day records. Results show that this or similar multiple-trait animal model could be implemented immediately in Belgium at low computing cost, using the proposed algorithme and could be the first step to new, more advanced evaluation methods.

  17. Genetic Analysis of Relative Cell Injury Percentage and Some Yield Contributing Traits in Wheat Under Nomral and Heat Stress Conditions Análisis Genético del Porcentaje Relativo de Daño celular y algún Rasgo que Contribuye al Rendimiento en Trigo bajo Condiciones Normales y de Estrés Térmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehanzeb Farooq

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several wheat genotypes were screened against heat stress. Seven wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars obtained after screening against heat classified as tolerant, moderately tolerant, and susceptible to heat stress, were mated in a complete diallel mating system to study the inheritance pattern of relative cell injury percentage (cell injury % and some yield contributing parameters under normal and heat stress conditions. Significant genotypic differences were found (P Varios genotipos de trigo se discriminaron para estrés térmico. De ellos siete cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. incluyendo tolerantes, moderadamente tolerantes, y susceptibles a estrés térmico obtenidos después de discriminar con calor se aparearon en un sistema de apareamiento de dialelo completo para estudiar el patrón de heredabilidad del porcentaje de daño celular relativo (daño celular % y algunos parámetros que contribuyen al rendimiento bajo condiciones normales o de estrés térmico. Se encontraron diferencias genotípicas significativas (P < 0.01 para todos los rasgos estudiados bajo ambas condiciones. Pruebas de ajuste revelaron adecuación parcial para rasgos como días a espigadura y días a madurez en ambas condiciones pero mostraron suficiencia completa para área hoja bandera y daño celular % en ambas condiciones. El modelo para producción de grano por planta y biomasa por planta fue completamente suficiente bajo condiciones normales y completamente adecuado en estrés. El componente aditivo de variación genotípica (D fue significativo para todos los rasgos estudiados y más que los componentes de dominancia H1 y H2. Los valores de la proporción de genes con efectos positivos y negativos en los progenitores (H2/4H1 demostraron distribución desigual de genes dominantes en los progenitores para casi todos los rasgos excepto área de hoja bandera, producción de grano, y daño celular % en ambas condiciones. Se encontraron estimaciones

  18. The Effect of Soil Fertilizers on Yield and Growth Traits of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kamaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Since the use of chemical fertilizers causes environmental pollution and ecological damage, so application of biological fertilizers and selection the effective and compatible species in an special area, could be beneficial for sustainability of agroecosystems there. Nowadays, attention to the interrelation of plant-organism tended to interrelations between plant-organism-organism. Such nutritional relations, have ecological importance and important application in agriculture. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of chemical, organic and bio fertilizers on sorghum performance. Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental treatments include three kinds of biofertilizers and their integrations and vermicompost and chemical fertilizer as follow: 1- mycorhhiza arbuscular (G.mosseae + vermicompost 2- mycorhhiza+ Nitroxine® (included bacteria Azospirillum sp. and Azotobacter sp. 3- mycorhhiza arbuscular+ Rhizobium (Rhizobium sp. 4-mycorhhiza arbuscular + Chemical fertilizer NPK 5- mycorhhiza arbuscular 6-control. Mycorhhiza and chemical fertilizer were mixed with soil at the depth of 30 cm before planting. Seeds were inoculated with bio fertilizers and dried at shadow. First irrigation applied immediately after planting. In order to improve seedling emergence second irrigation was performed after 4 days and other irrigation was applied at regular intervals of 10 days. Studied traits were: height and percentage of root colonization, specific root length, seed yield, number of seeds in panicle, thousands seeds weight. To determine the specific root length (root length in a certain volume of soil at the end of the growing season, plants in each plot were sampled. Then the length of root of each sample was determined. Results and Discussion The results showed that although the treatments did not affect the height of stem significantly

  19. Discovering the desirable alleles contributing to the lignocellulosic biomass traits in Saccharum germplasm collections for energy cane improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianping [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sandhu, Hardev [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-03-23

    1) The success in crop improvement programs depends largely on the extent of genetic variability available. Germplasm collections assembles all the available genetic resources and are critical for long-term crop improvement. This world sugarcane germplasm collection contains enormous genetic variability for various morphological traits, biomass yield components, adaptation and many quality traits, prospectively imbeds a large number of valuable alleles for biofuel traits such as high biomass yield, quantity and quality of lignocelluloses, stress tolerance, and nutrient use efficiency. The germplasm collection is of little value unless it is characterized and utilized for crop improvement. In this project, we phenotypically and genotypically characterized the sugarcane world germplasm collection (The results were published in two papers already and another two papers are to be published). This data will be made available for public to refer to for germplasm unitization specifically in the sugarcane and energy cane breeding programs. In addition, we are identifying the alleles contributing to the biomass traits in sugarcane germplasm. This part of project is very challenging due to the large genome and highly polyploid level of this crop. We firstly established a high throughput sugarcane genotyping pipeline in the genome and bioinformatics era (a paper is published in 2016). We identified and modified a software for genome-wide association analysis of polyploid species. The results of the alleles associated to the biomass traits will be published soon, which will help the scientific community understand the genetic makeup of the biomass components of sugarcane. Molecular breeders can develop markers for marker assisted selection of biomass traits improvement. Further, the development and release of new energy cane cultivars through this project not only improved genetic diversity but also improved dry biomass yields and resistance to diseases. These new cultivars

  20. Estimates of Combining Ability and Heterosis for Yield and Its Related Traits in Pearl Millet Inbred Lines under Downy Mildew Prevalent Areas of Senegal

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    Ghislain Kanfany

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet is an important cereal crop for smallholder farmers’ food security in West and Central Africa. However, its production has stagnated due to several factors such as the continuous use of local populations. A set of 17 inbred lines was crossed with Sosat C 88 and Souna 3 following a line × tester mating design. The F1 hybrids, their parents, and a check were evaluated in Bambey and Nioro research stations during the rainy season of 2017. Data on downy mildew incidence, plant height, flowering time, panicle length and diameter, productive tillers, thousand-grain weight, panicle, and grain yield were recorded. GCA and SCA mean squares were significant for most of the traits indicating that both additive and nonadditive gene effects were involved in the control of the inheritance of these traits. However, the contribution of GCA to total mean squares was higher than that of SCA for all the traits, providing that additive gene action was more important in their inheritance. The top-cross hybrid IBL155-2-1 × Sosat C 88 exhibited negative and significant SCA effects for downy mildew incidence, flowering time, and plant height. Lines IBL003-B-1, IBL091-1-1, IBL095-4-1, IBL110-B-1, and IBL 206-1-1 had positive GCA effects for grain yield and negative GCA effects for downy mildew, flowering time, and plant height. These lines can be used as parents to create synthetic varieties or hybrids.

  1. Identification of heterotic loci associated with yield-related traits in Chinese common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaojin; Wu, Shuang; Tian, Feng; Xin, Xiaoyun; Zha, Xiaojun; Dong, Xianxin; Fu, Yongcai; Wang, Xiangkun; Yang, Jinshui; Sun, Chuanqing

    2011-07-01

    Many rice breeding programs have currently reached yield plateaus as a result of limited genetic variability in parental strains. Dongxiang common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) is the progenitor of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and serves as an important gene pool for the genetic improvement of rice cultivars. In this study, heterotic loci (HLs) associated with six yield-related traits were identified in wild and cultivated rice and investigated using a set of 265 introgression lines (ILs) of O. rufipogon Griff. in the background of the Indica high-yielding cultivar Guichao 2 (O. sativa L.). Forty-two HLs were detected by a single point analysis of mid-parent heterosis values from test cross F(1) offspring, and 30 (71.5%) of these HLs showed significantly positive effects, consistent with the superiority shown by the F(1) test cross population in the six yield-related traits under study. Genetic mapping of hsp11, a locus responsible for the number of spikelets per panicle, confirmed the utility of these HLs. The results indicate that favorable HLs capable of improving agronomic traits are available. The identification of HLs between wild rice and cultivated rice could lead to a new strategy for the application of heterosis in rice breeding. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Regression Association Analysis of Yield-Related Traits with RAPD Molecular Markers in Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.

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    Saeid Mirzaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pistachio (Pistacia vera, a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East. The tree produces seeds that are widely consumed as food. Pistacia vera often is confused with other species in the genus Pistacia that are also known as pistachio. These other species can be distinguished by their geographic distributions and their seeds which are much smaller and have a soft shell. Continual advances in crop improvement through plant breeding are driven by the available genetic diversity. Therefore, the recognition and measurement of such diversity is crucial to breeding programs. In the past 20 years, the major effort in plant breeding has changed from quantitative to molecular genetics with emphasis on quantitative trait loci (QTL identification and marker assisted selection (MAS. The germplasm-regression-combined association studies not only allow mapping of genes/QTLs with higher level of confidence, but also allow detection of genes/QTLs, which will otherwise escape detection in linkage-based QTL studies based on the planned populations. The development of the marker-based technology offers a fast, reliable, and easy way to perform multiple regression analysis and comprise an alternative approach to breeding in diverse species of plants. The availability of many makers and morphological traits can help to regression analysis between these markers and morphological traits. Materials and Methods: In this study, 20 genotypes of Pistachio were studied and yield related traits were measured. Young well-expanded leaves were collected for DNA extraction and total genomic DNA was extracted. Genotyping was performed using 15 RAPD primers and PCR amplification products were visualized by gel electrophoresis. The reproducible RAPD fragments were scored on the basis of present (1 or absent (0 bands and a binary matrix constructed using each molecular marker. Association analysis between

  3. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Phenological Traits, Grain Yield and Yield Components of Three Maize (Zea mays L. Cultivars

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    A Soleimani Fard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of bio-fertilize on yield and its components in maize cultivars, an split plot experiment based on randomized complete bock design with three replications in was conducted in Payam-noor University of Ilam, Iran, in 2009-2010. Treatments were cultivar (SC604, SC704 and SC807 assigned to main plots and bio-fertilizer (non- inoculation, inoculation with Azetobacter, Azospirillum and dual inoculation ofAzotobacterand Azospirillum to subplots. The effect of cultivar on days to maturity, plant height, dry matter, ear length, stem diameter, number of grain per ear row, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and protein content was significant cultivar. SC 704 had the highest dry matter (259.5 g.m-2, plant height (201.1 cm, number of grain per ear row (42.8 grain, grain yield (10850 kg.m-2, and biological yield (22040 kg.m-2. The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on all traits expect harvest index was significant. Dual inoculation ofAzotobacterand Azospirillum had the longest days to ear initiation (71.2 days, days to maturity (115.4 day, number of leaves above ear (5.6 ear, dry matter (240.4 g.m-2, ear length (24.3 cm, plant height (212.4 cm, seed number of rows per ear (14.5 row, number of grains per row (44.2 grain, grain yield (10190 kg.m-2, biological yield (21320 kg.m-2 and protein content (10.7%. Interaction effect of cultivar× plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on grain yield was significant. The highest and lowest grain yield was obtained from SC 704 and application of dual inoculation ofAzotobacterand Azospirillum (12320 kg.ha-1 and lowest from SC 604 when inoculation treatments were not used 7570 kg.ha-1 respectively.

  4. Genotype × environment interaction for fertility and milk yield traits in Canadian, Mexican and US Holstein cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montaldo, H.H.; Pelcastre-Cruz, A.; Castillo-Juárez, H.; Ruiz-López, F.J.; Miglior, F.

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate genotype × environment interaction (G×E) between Canada, the United States and Mexico for fertility and milk yield traits using genetic correlations between countries estimated from genetic evaluations of sires. Genetic correlation between Mexican and Canadian Holsteins for age at first calving was ≤ 0.48 and lower than the simulated value obtained accounting for data structure and selection effects. For calving interval, genetic correlation between Mexico and Canada ranged from 0.48 to 0.69. Genetic correlation between calving interval in Mexico (multiplied by -1) and daughter pregnancy rate in the United States ranged from 0.64 to 0.73, and was lower than simulated and actual Canada-United States values. Genetic correlations between Mexico and Canada and the United States for milk yield traits were ≥ 0.83, similar to simulated genetic correlations, but lower than Canada-United States values (≥ 0.93). Heritability estimates for age at first calving, calving interval, milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat content, and protein content for the Mexican Holstein population were 0.06, 0.03, 0.18, 0.20, 0.19, 0.46, and 0.49, respectively. G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for age at first calving were high, whereas G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for calving interval and between daughter pregnancy rate in the United States and calving interval in Mexico were moderate. G×E interaction effects for milk yield traits between Canada or the United States with Mexico in registered Holsteins were low.

  5. Genotype × environment interaction for fertility and milk yield traits in Canadian, Mexican and US Holstein cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montaldo, H.H.; Pelcastre-Cruz, A.; Castillo-Juárez, H.; Ruiz-López, F.J.; Miglior, F.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate genotype × environment interaction (G×E) between Canada, the United States and Mexico for fertility and milk yield traits using genetic correlations between countries estimated from genetic evaluations of sires. Genetic correlation between Mexican and Canadian Holsteins for age at first calving was ≤ 0.48 and lower than the simulated value obtained accounting for data structure and selection effects. For calving interval, genetic correlation between Mexico and Canada ranged from 0.48 to 0.69. Genetic correlation between calving interval in Mexico (multiplied by -1) and daughter pregnancy rate in the United States ranged from 0.64 to 0.73, and was lower than simulated and actual Canada-United States values. Genetic correlations between Mexico and Canada and the United States for milk yield traits were ≥ 0.83, similar to simulated genetic correlations, but lower than Canada-United States values (≥ 0.93). Heritability estimates for age at first calving, calving interval, milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat content, and protein content for the Mexican Holstein population were 0.06, 0.03, 0.18, 0.20, 0.19, 0.46, and 0.49, respectively. G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for age at first calving were high, whereas G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for calving interval and between daughter pregnancy rate in the United States and calving interval in Mexico were moderate. G×E interaction effects for milk yield traits between Canada or the United States with Mexico in registered Holsteins were low.

  6. High-Throughput Non-destructive Phenotyping of Traits that Contribute to Salinity Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Awlia, Mariam Sahal Abdulaziz; Nigro, Arianna; Fajkus, Jiří ; Schmoeckel, Sandra Manuela; Negrã o, Só nia; Santelia, Diana; Trtí lek, Martin; Tester, Mark A.; Julkowska, Magdalena; Panzarová , Klá ra

    2016-01-01

    stage, plant performance correlated with quantum yield. This integrative approach allows the simultaneous analysis of several phenotypic traits. In combination with various genetic resources, the phenotyping protocol described here is expected

  7. Genetic variability, correlation and path analysis of yield contributing characters in sweet potato (ipomoea batatas lam.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.D.; Rabbani, M.G.; Mollah, M.L.R.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of 30 sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) genotypes for yield contributing characters and tuber yield per plant revealed high phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation (PCV and GCV, respectively) for number of tubers per plant, average tuber weight and tuber yield per plant. The heritability and genetic advance were higher for tuber yield per plant, average tuber weight and number of tubers per plant. These three characters also reflected high heritability as well as high genetic advance. As high positive significant correlation, as well as positive direct effect of average tuber weight and number of tubers per plant on tuber yield per plant were found, these characters should be given prime importance for selecting high yielding sweet potato genotypes. (author)

  8. Association of yield-related traits in founder genotypes and derivatives of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

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    Jie Guo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yield improvement is an ever-important objective of wheat breeding. Studying and understanding the phenotypes and genotypes of yield-related traits has potential for genetic improvement of crops. Results The genotypes of 215 wheat cultivars including 11 founder parents and 106 derivatives were analyzed by the 9 K wheat SNP iSelect assay. A total of 4138 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci were detected on 21 chromosomes, of which 3792 were mapped to single chromosome locations. All genotypes were phenotyped for six yield-related traits including plant height (PH, spike length (SL, spikelet number per spike (SNPS, kernel number per spike (KNPS, kernel weight per spike (KWPS, and thousand kernel weight (TKW in six irrigated environments. Genome-wide association analysis detected 117 significant associations of 76 SNPs on 15 chromosomes with phenotypic explanation rates (R 2 ranging from 2.03 to 12.76%. In comparing allelic variation between founder parents and their derivatives (106 and other cultivars (98 using the 76 associated SNPs, we found that the region 116.0–133.2 cM on chromosome 5A in founder parents and derivatives carried alleles positively influencing kernel weight per spike (KWPS, rarely found in other cultivars. Conclusion The identified favorable alleles could mark important chromosome regions in derivatives that were inherited from founder parents. Our results unravel the genetic of yield in founder genotypes, and provide tools for marker-assisted selection for yield improvement.

  9. Study of Yield and Effective Traits in Bread Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines (Triticum aestivum L. under Water Deficit Condition

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    S. Mohammad zadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects some traits on seed yield of recombinant inbred lines of wheat under water deficit stress was studied. This research was done at the Agricultural Research Stations, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch in 2010- 2011. 28 recombinant inbred lines of wheat bread with two parents (Norstar and Zagros in split plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at two irrigation levels (70 and 140 mm evaporation from pan class A were studied. Analysis of variance indicated a significant genetic differences in all traits under study among the lines. Lines No. 32, 163 and 182 produced highest yield under both irrigation levels. Number of spikes, grains per spike and harvest index had the highest positive correlation with grain yield. Path analysis based on stepwise regression showed that under the normal irrigation conditions, number spike (0.556, number of grains per spike (0.278, weight of 1000 grain (0.259 and the drought stress number spike (0.430, straw yield (0.276 and peduncle length (0.323 had the most direct and positive effect on yield respectively.

  10. Estimation of Heterosis and Combining Ability in F1 Hybrids of Upland Cotton for Yield and Fiber Traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arain, B.T.; Baloch, M.J.; Bughio, Q.U.A.; Sial, P.; Arain, M.A.; Baloch, A.

    2015-01-01

    The experimental research was conducted so as to determine the general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) estimates and heterotic effects for seed cotton yield and fibre traits in 5 x 5 half diallel crosses of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The parental genotypes studied were; CRIS-134, IR-3701, IR-1524, FH-113 and MG-6. The characters such as bolls/plant, sympodial branches/plant, boll weight (g), plant height (cm), fibre length (mm), seed cotton yield/plant (g), seed index (g) and ginning out turn percentage were studied. The experiment was laid-out in a randomized complete block design with four replications at experimental field of the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan during 2013. The results revealed that, parents and hybrids differed significantly for their mean performance regarding all the traits studied. The importance of heterotic effects was evident from the significance of parents vs. hybrids performance. The variances due to GCA and SCA were significant for all the traits except that GCA was non-significant for boll weight only whereas, SCA was non-significant for boll weight, seed index and ginning out turn percentage. The significance of GCA indicated the importance of additive genes advocating the traits while, the involvement of non-additive genes was evident from the significance of SCA variances. The GCA variances were greater than SCA for bolls per plant, plant height, seed cotton yield and lint percentage while, SCA variances were higher than GCA for sympodial branches/plant and fibre length. Parents IR-3701, FH-113 and MG-6 displayed higher positive GCA effects for bolls/plant, sympodial branches/plant, fibre length, seed cotton yield, seed index and ginning out turn percentage. The per se performance of these three parents was exactly reflected in their GCA effects and such happenings are exceptional. Such results suggested that, all three parents were

  11. Effect of Filter Cake on Physiological Traits and Ear Yield of Sweet Corn under Late Drought Stress Condition

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    aziz karmollachaab

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Environmental stresses are one of the main causes of severe yield reductions. Drought is still a serious agronomic problem and also one of the most important factors contributing to crop yield loss in arid and semi-arid areas in the world. Filter Cake is a byproduct of sugarcane industry and experiments on corn showed that the use of 20 tons per hectare Filter Cake increases crop productivity, total amount of dry matter, protein and forage yield compared with the control. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted at the Research Station of the Ramin Agricultural University of Khuzestan in 2012. The experiment was done as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Drought stress at the end of the growth period in three levels, non-stress, mild and severe drought stress, respectively irrigated after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of available water, and was considered as the main factor. Drought stress was applied in early stage of the male inflorescence of plants to maturity for 35 days, due to the critical stage of the plant in late spring. Soil moisture was determined by gravimetric method. Different doses of Filter Cake (0, 10, 20 and 30 tons per hectare were considered as subplot factor and was added to the soil two days before the seeding. The final harvest as green corn was performed in the first phase of dough by hand in three times and two midfields of each subplot was considered as the margin of half a meter for each side. Finally, the data were analyzed using SAS 9.1 and means were compared by Duncan’s multiple range test at probability level of 5%. Results and discussion In non-stress conditions, Filter Cake is significantly increased plant height, So the amounts of 20 and 30 tons per hectare increased by 11.7% and 10.1% of the plant’s height, respectively, but the use of 10 tons of Filter Cake did not have a significant effect on it. In severe stress conditions, the use of

  12. Intraspecific Variation in Wood Anatomical, Hydraulic, and Foliar Traits in Ten European Beech Provenances Differing in Growth Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Peter; Kurjak, Daniel; von Wühlisch, Georg; Delzon, Sylvain; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    In angiosperms, many studies have described the inter-specific variability of hydraulic-related traits and little is known at the intra-specific level. This information is however mandatory to assess the adaptive capacities of tree populations in the context of increasing drought frequency and severity. Ten 20-year old European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provenances representing the entire distribution range throughout Europe and differing significantly in aboveground biomass increment (ABI) by a factor of up to four were investigated for branch wood anatomical, hydraulic, and foliar traits in a provenance trial located in Northern Europe. We quantified to which extend xylem hydraulic and leaf traits are under genetic control and tested whether the xylem hydraulic properties (hydraulic efficiency and safety) trades off with yield and wood anatomical and leaf traits. Our results showed that only three out of 22 investigated ecophysiological traits showed significant genetic differentiations between provenances, namely vessel density (VD), the xylem pressure causing 88% loss of hydraulic conductance and mean leaf size. Depending of the ecophysiological traits measured, genetic differentiation between populations explained 0–14% of total phenotypic variation, while intra-population variability was higher than inter-population variability. Most wood anatomical traits and some foliar traits were additionally related to the climate of provenance origin. The lumen to sapwood area ratio, vessel diameter, theoretical specific conductivity and theoretical leaf-specific conductivity as well as the C:N-ratio increased with climatic aridity at the place of origin while the carbon isotope signature (δ13C) decreased. Contrary to our assumption, none of the wood anatomical traits were related to embolism resistance but were strong determinants of hydraulic efficiency. Although ABI was associated with both VD and δ13C, both hydraulic efficiency and embolism resistance were

  13. Rooting traits of peanut genotypes with different yield responses to terminal drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought at pod filling can severely reduce yield of peanut. Better root systems can reduce yield loss from drought. However, the relationship of root characters with yield under terminal drought is not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the responses of peanut genotyp...

  14. Mutagenic effect of gamma-rays on improvement of yield attributing traits of greengram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, T.R.; Baisakh, B.

    2014-01-01

    Seed samples of two morphologically distinct varieties (Sujata and OBGG-52) of greengram were treated with three doses of Gamma-rays (200 Gy, 400 Gy and 600 Gy). Mutagenic treatments in general showed reduction in mean values of germination, survival and plant growth traits in comparison to control in M 1 generation and the magnitude of reduction was directly related to the dose of the mutagens. The spectrum of chlorophyll mutations includes albina, xantha, chlorina, striata and viridis in both the varieties. The varied morphological mutations observed in leaf of both the genotypes were tricotyledonary, quadrifoliate, pentafoliate and lobed leaf. Early flowering, late flowering, tall plant, trailing type, profused poded, bold poded and sterile plant were also observed as an effect of mutagen in both the genotypes. The M 2 populations showed wider range of variations than the parent varieties. Magnitude of changes varied with mutagen dose and the varieties. Higher the dose of treatment, greater the shift in the mean and variance of different yield parameters. Genetic advance estimates showed that selection in M 2 populations would be effective in improving the yield/plant. Following selection among M 2 plants and M 3 progenies on the basis of higher yield, high yielding mutant cultures in both varieties were isolated in M 4 and evaluated in M 5 generation. Gamma-ray dose of 200 Gy was most effective for improving the yield traits in both the genotypes as it brought out improvement in pods/plant, pod length and 100-seed wt. where as 400 Gy improved 100- seed wt. in only Sujata and 600 Gy improved pod length and seeds/pod only. Isolation of high yielding lines from the gamma-rays treated population of greengram proved that different doses of gamma rays induced improvement of different yield attributing characters in greengram. (author)

  15. Study of Genetic Diversity of grain yield-associated traits in Iranian and Exotic Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Majidi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is cultivated in a wide range of geographical conditions in the world from Africa to Europe, India and China. Previous studies have shown that diversity in indigenous Iranian germplasm is limited for some traits therefore germplasm collections from other origins need to be considered. An experiment was conducted to evaluate agronomic and morphological traits of 100 Iranian and exotic safflower genotypes during 2011- 2012 at the Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, using a simple lattice design of 10 × 10. The results of analysis of variance showed that the differences among genotypes were highly significant (p < 0.01 for days to flowering, seed yield, plant height, number of heads per plant, number of seeds per head, 1000-seed weight, oil content and harvest index, indicating high variability in the studied germplasm. The highest and lowest heritabilities were observed for 1000-seed weight and seed yield, respectively, indicating that indirect improving for seed yield would be more beneficial. Genetic and phenotypic correlation coefficients showed that number of heads per plant, number of seeds per head and harvest index had significantly positive correlations with seed yield. The results of stepwise regression and path analysis showed that number of heads per plant, number of seeds per head and 1000-seed weight are the most important components of seed yield, among which, number of heads per plant had the greatest direct positive effect on seed yield. These traits could be used as criteria for indirect selection in safflower breeding programs. Factor analysis recognized three factors which explained 72.56 percent of total variations. These factors were defined as phenological, physiological source and efficiency factors. Cluster analysis based on the agronomic and morphological traits grouped the genotypes into three clusters. Iranian accessions were clearly discriminated from

  16. Bioenergy Sorghum Crop Model Predicts VPD-Limited Transpiration Traits Enhance Biomass Yield in Water-Limited Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Sandra K; McCormick, Ryan F; Mullet, John E

    2017-01-01

    Bioenergy sorghum is targeted for production in water-limited annual cropland therefore traits that improve plant water capture, water use efficiency, and resilience to water deficit are necessary to maximize productivity. A crop modeling framework, APSIM, was adapted to predict the growth and biomass yield of energy sorghum and to identify potentially useful traits for crop improvement. APSIM simulations of energy sorghum development and biomass accumulation replicated results from field experiments across multiple years, patterns of rainfall, and irrigation schemes. Modeling showed that energy sorghum's long duration of vegetative growth increased water capture and biomass yield by ~30% compared to short season crops in a water-limited production region. Additionally, APSIM was extended to enable modeling of VPD-limited transpiration traits that reduce crop water use under high vapor pressure deficits (VPDs). The response of transpiration rate to increasing VPD was modeled as a linear response until a VPD threshold was reached, at which the slope of the response decreases, representing a range of responses to VPD observed in sorghum germplasm. Simulation results indicated that the VPD-limited transpiration trait is most beneficial in hot and dry regions of production where crops are exposed to extended periods without rainfall during the season or to a terminal drought. In these environments, slower but more efficient transpiration increases biomass yield and prevents or delays the exhaustion of soil water and onset of leaf senescence. The VPD-limited transpiration responses observed in sorghum germplasm increased biomass accumulation by 20% in years with lower summer rainfall, and the ability to drastically reduce transpiration under high VPD conditions could increase biomass by 6% on average across all years. This work indicates that the productivity and resilience of bioenergy sorghum grown in water-limited environments could be further enhanced by development

  17. Reduced soil cultivation and organic fertilization on organic farms: effects on crop yield and soil physical traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surböck, Andreas; Gollner, Gabriele; Klik, Andreas; Freyer, Bernhard; Friedel, Jürgen K.

    2017-04-01

    A continuous investment in soil fertility is necessary to achieve sustainable yields in organic arable farming. Crucial factors here besides the crop rotation are organic fertilization and the soil tillage system. On this topic, an operational group (Project BIOBO*) was established in the frame of an European Innovation Partnership in 2016 consisting of organic farmers, consultants and scientists in the farming region of eastern Austria. The aim of this group is the development and testing of innovative, reduced soil cultivation, green manure and organic fertilization systems under on-farm and on-station conditions to facilitate the sharing and transfer of experience and knowledge within and outside the group. Possibilities for optimization of the farm-specific reduced soil tillage system in combination with green manuring are being studied in field trials on six organic farms. The aim is to determine, how these measures contribute to an increase in soil organic matter contents, yields and income, to an improved nitrogen and nutrient supply to the crops, as well as support soil fertility in general. Within a long-term monitoring project (MUBIL), the effects of different organic fertilization systems on plant and soil traits have been investigated since 2003, when the farm was converted to organic management. The examined organic fertilization systems, i.e. four treatments representing stockless and livestock keeping systems, differ in lucerne management and the supply of organic manure (communal compost, farmyard manure, digestate from a biogas plant). Previous results of this on-station experiment have shown an improvement of some soil properties, especially soil physical properties, since 2003 in all fertilization systems and without differences between them. The infiltration rate of rainwater has increased because of higher hydraulic conductivity. The aggregate stability has shown also positive trends, which reduces the susceptibility to soil erosion by wind and

  18. The Effect of Nitrogen and Zinc Levels on Essential Oil Yield and some Morphological Traits of Hypericum perforatums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Zadeh Esfahlan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of nitrogen and zinc fertilizer on the morphological traits and essential oil yield of St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum a greenhouse experiment in a factorial randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at University of Tabriz, Iran in 2012. Treatments consisted of three levels of zinc sulphate with a concentration of zinc fertilizer (zero, 3 and 6 parts per thousand and four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (zero, 50, 100, 150 kg/ha. One half of the fertilizers were applied 20 days after planting of plants and the rest 40 days after transplanting. Traits evaluated were plant height, inflorescence number, leaf area, plant fresh and dry weights and plant essential oil content. The results showed that the traits under study were affected by rate of fertilizer applications. Highest plant height, number of inflorescences, leaf area and essential oil yield were obtained by using 150 kg/ha of nitrogen and applying zinc with 0.006 concentration. Highest fresh and dry weights of above ground parts were also produced by using 150 kg/ha of nitrogen fertilizer along with zinc fertilizer 0.003.

  19. Incomplete dominance of deleterious alleles contributes substantially to trait variation and heterosis in maize.

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    Jinliang Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Deleterious alleles have long been proposed to play an important role in patterning phenotypic variation and are central to commonly held ideas explaining the hybrid vigor observed in the offspring of a cross between two inbred parents. We test these ideas using evolutionary measures of sequence conservation to ask whether incorporating information about putatively deleterious alleles can inform genomic selection (GS models and improve phenotypic prediction. We measured a number of agronomic traits in both the inbred parents and hybrids of an elite maize partial diallel population and re-sequenced the parents of the population. Inbred elite maize lines vary for more than 350,000 putatively deleterious sites, but show a lower burden of such sites than a comparable set of traditional landraces. Our modeling reveals widespread evidence for incomplete dominance at these loci, and supports theoretical models that more damaging variants are usually more recessive. We identify haplotype blocks using an identity-by-decent (IBD analysis and perform genomic prediction analyses in which we weigh blocks on the basis of complementation for segregating putatively deleterious variants. Cross-validation results show that incorporating sequence conservation in genomic selection improves prediction accuracy for grain yield and other fitness-related traits as well as heterosis for those traits. Our results provide empirical support for an important role for incomplete dominance of deleterious alleles in explaining heterosis and demonstrate the utility of incorporating functional annotation in phenotypic prediction and plant breeding.

  20. Incomplete dominance of deleterious alleles contributes substantially to trait variation and heterosis in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinliang; Mezmouk, Sofiane; Baumgarten, Andy; Buckler, Edward S; Guill, Katherine E; McMullen, Michael D; Mumm, Rita H; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Deleterious alleles have long been proposed to play an important role in patterning phenotypic variation and are central to commonly held ideas explaining the hybrid vigor observed in the offspring of a cross between two inbred parents. We test these ideas using evolutionary measures of sequence conservation to ask whether incorporating information about putatively deleterious alleles can inform genomic selection (GS) models and improve phenotypic prediction. We measured a number of agronomic traits in both the inbred parents and hybrids of an elite maize partial diallel population and re-sequenced the parents of the population. Inbred elite maize lines vary for more than 350,000 putatively deleterious sites, but show a lower burden of such sites than a comparable set of traditional landraces. Our modeling reveals widespread evidence for incomplete dominance at these loci, and supports theoretical models that more damaging variants are usually more recessive. We identify haplotype blocks using an identity-by-decent (IBD) analysis and perform genomic prediction analyses in which we weigh blocks on the basis of complementation for segregating putatively deleterious variants. Cross-validation results show that incorporating sequence conservation in genomic selection improves prediction accuracy for grain yield and other fitness-related traits as well as heterosis for those traits. Our results provide empirical support for an important role for incomplete dominance of deleterious alleles in explaining heterosis and demonstrate the utility of incorporating functional annotation in phenotypic prediction and plant breeding.

  1. Repeatability, number of harvests, and phenotypic stability of dry matter yield and quality traits of Panicum maximum jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Duarte Fernandes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of superior forage genotypes is based on agronomic traits assayed in repeated measures. The questions are how repeatable the performance of individual genotypes is and how many harvests are needed to select the best genotypes. The objectives were to estimate repeatability coefficients of dry matter yield (DMY and forage quality, their phenotypic stability and the number of harvests needed for an accurate selection. Two randomized complete block design experiments data with 24 genotypes each, undergoing 12 and 16 harvests, over a period of 2 and 3 years, respectively, were used. The DMY repeatability estimates ranged from 0.42 to 0.55, suggesting a low heritability. The mean numbers of repeated measures were 5 and 7 harvests for 0.80 and 0.85 accuracy, respectively. The inclusion of the first two harvests negatively affects the estimates. Repeatability for quality traits ranged from 0.30 to 0.69, indicating low to moderate heritability.

  2. The effect of water deficit stress and nitrogen fertilizer levels on morphology traits, yield and leaf area index in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosavi, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of water deficit stress at different growth stages and N fertilizer levels on morphological traits, yield and yield components of maize cv. Single Cross 704, an experiment was conducted as a split-plot based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The main plot included irrigation at four levels (irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages and optimum irrigation) and the sub-plot was N fertilizer at three levels (75, 150 and 225 kg N/ha). The results of analysis of variance showed that water-deficit stress and N fertilizer level significantly affected leaf area index at silking stage, ear length, grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Stem diameter, ear diameter and harvest index were only affected by irrigation treatments and the interaction between irrigation and N level did not significantly affect the studied traits. Means comparison indicated that ear diameter under optimum irrigation was higher than that under the treatments of irrigation stop at 8-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages by 29.9, 19.1 and 33.5%, respectively; and ear length was higher than them by 38.1, 28.9 and 25.2%, respectively. Moreover, the highest grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were obtained under optimum irrigation treatment, and irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages decreased grain yield by 52.8, 66.4 and 44.9%, respectively; and it decreased grain number/ear by 45.9, 59.3 and 30.1%, respectively. In addition, optimum irrigation treatment with mean 1000-grain weight of 289.2 g was significantly superior over other irrigation stop treatments by 27.6-42.8% and produced the highest leaf area index at silking stage (4.1). Means comparison of traits at different N levels indicated that N level of 225 kg/ha produced the highest ear length (17.82 cm), grain number per ear (401.9), 1000-grain weight (258.8 g), leaf area index at silking stage (4

  3. Rooting traits of peanut genotypes with different yield response to terminal drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought at pod filling and maturity stages can severely reduce yield of peanut. Better root systems can reduce yield loss from drought. The goal of this study was to investigate the responses to terminal drought of peanut genotypes for root dry weight and root length density. A field experiment was ...

  4. Gene stacking of multiple traits for high yield of fermentable sugars in plant biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Aude; Chalvin, Camille; Shih, Patrick M.

    2018-01-01

    the ratio of C6 to C5 sugars in the cell wall and decreasing the lignin content are two important targets in engineering of plants that are more suitable for downstream processing for second-generation biofuel production.Results: We have studied the basic mechanisms of cell wall biosynthesis and identified...... genes involved in biosynthesis of pectic galactan, including the GALS1 galactan synthase and the UDP-galactose/UDP-rhamnose transporter URGT1. We have engineered plants with a more suitable biomass composition by applying these findings, in conjunction with synthetic biology and gene stacking tools...... to vessels where this polysaccharide is essential. Finally, the high galactan and low xylan traits were stacked with the low lignin trait obtained by expressing the QsuB gene encoding dehydroshikimate dehydratase in lignifying cells.Conclusion: The results show that approaches to increasing C6 sugar content...

  5. QTL mapping for yield components and agronomic traits in a Brazilian soybean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Isabela da Silva Rodrigues

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to map QTL for agronomic traits in a Brazilian soybean population. For this, 207 F2:3 progenies from the cross CS3035PTA276-1-5-2x UFVS2012 were genotyped and cultivated in Viçosa-MG, using randomized block design with three replications. QTL detection was carried out by linear regression and composite interval mapping. Thirty molecular markers linked to QTL were detected by linear regression for the total of nine agronomic traits. QTL for SWP (seed weight per plant, W100S (weight of 100 seeds, NPP (number of pods per plant, and NSP (number of seeds per plant were detected by composite interval mapping. Four QTL with additive effect are promising for marker-assisted selection (MAS. Particularly, the markers Satt155 and Satt300 could be useful in simultaneous selection for greater SWP, NPP, and NSP.

  6. Identification of QTLs for grain yield and grain-related traits of maize (Zea mays L.) using an AFLP-map, different testers, and cofactor analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajimone Marsan, P.; Gorni, C.; Chitto, A.; Redaelli, R.; Vijk, van R.; Stam, P.; Motto, M.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract We exploited the AFLP?1(AFLP? is a registered trademark of Keygene, N.V.) technique to map and characterise quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain yield and two grain-related traits of a maize segregating population. Two maize elite inbred lines were crossed to produce 229 F2 individuals

  7. Yield and Quality Traits of some Rice Mutant Lines as Affected by Different Nitrogen Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobieh, S.El-S.S.

    2007-01-01

    Two field experiments were carried out during two growing seasons (2004 and 2005) at a farm located in Sahafa village, Sharkia Governorate, to evaluate newly rice mutants comparing with the local cultivar Sakha 104 for yield and quality characteristics as affected by nitrogen fertilizer levels. The obtained results showed that: 1- Rice grain yield and yield attributes were significantly increased with increasing N levels from 23 to 69 kg N fed '. 2- Both mutant MG 16 and MS 6 exhibited highly significant increases in mean values for yield attributes except for number of panicles/m2, as compared with the local cultivar Sakha 104. 3- Percentage of yield increases were 26.85 and 16.21 % for mutant MG16 and MS6 comparing with the local variety Sakha 104, respectively. Mutant MG 16 showed the highest mean values for plant height, panicle length, number of grains per panicle, panicle weight, 1000-grain weight, grain yield/fed, and straw yield/fed, as compared with the mutant MS 6 and Sakha 104. 4- Hulling and milling % were significantly increased as increasing of nitrogen levels from 23 to 69 kg N fed 1 , whereas head rice, gel consistency and amylose content were not significantly affect. 5- Significant differences were obtained between the three rice genotypes for hulling %, milling %, head rice %, amylose content and gel consistency

  8. Effect of Rhizobium and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterial Inoculants on Symbiotic Traits, Nodule Leghemoglobin, and Yield of Chickpea Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Tagore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out during the rabi season of 2004-05 to find out the effect of Rhizobium and phosphate solubilizing bacterial (PSB inoculants on symbiotic traits, nodule leghemoglobin, and yield of five elite genotypes of chickpea. Among the chickpea genotypes, IG-593 performed better in respect of symbiotic parameters including nodule number, nodule fresh weight, nodule dry weight, shoot dry weight, yield attributes and yield. Leghemoglobin content (2.55 mg g−1 of fresh nodule was also higher under IG-593. Among microbial inoculants, the Rhizobium + PSB was found most effective in terms of nodule number (27.66 nodules plant−1, nodule fresh weight (144.90 mg plant−1, nodule dry weight (74.30 mg plant−1, shoot dry weight (11.76 g plant−1, and leghemoglobin content (2.29 mg g−1 of fresh nodule and also showed its positive effect in enhancing all the yield attributing parameters, grain and straw yields.

  9. Comparison of quantitative trait loci for rice yield, panicle length and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-08-19

    Aug 19, 2011 ... and spikelet density across three connected populations ... 2College of Biosafety Science and Technology Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, People's .... 6, 7 and 11; the Teqing allele has an increase in yield.

  10. Contributions to yield strength in an ultrafine grained 1050 aluminum alloy after DC current annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yiheng; He, Lizi; Zhou, Yizhou; Wang, Ping; Cui, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The ultrafine grained (UFG) 1050 aluminum alloy was prepared by equal channel angular pressing at cryogenic temperature (cryoECAP). The evolution of the yield strength and microstructures of UFG 1050 aluminum alloy after direct electric current (DC current) annealing at 150–400 °C for 1 h were investigated by tensile test, electron back scattering diffraction pattern (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For the cryoECAPed and annealed samples at 150–250 °C, the predominant boundaries are high angle boundaries (HABs) (>60%), many dislocations accumulate at subgrain and/or grain boundaries, the yield strength (126–159 MPa) mainly comes from the dislocation and grain boundary strengthening contributions. While an unusual increase in the yield strength (by 8.1–11.2%) observed in samples annealed at 150–200 °C is attributed to an additional strengthening contribution from the more HABs having stable structures which can act as effective barriers to dislocation motion during tensile deformation. When annealing at 300–400 °C, the microstructures are free of dislocations, the yield strength (29–45 MPa) comes from the grain boundary strengthening contribution. With the application of DC current, the larger grain size, lower dislocation density and higher fraction of LABs having misorientation angle between 3−7° in samples annealed at 150–250 °C result in the lower yield strength, while the smaller average grain sizes in samples annealed at 300–400 °C cause the higher yield strength.

  11. Contributions to yield strength in an ultrafine grained 1050 aluminum alloy after DC current annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yiheng [Key Lab of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); He, Lizi, E-mail: helizi@epm.neu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhou, Yizhou [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Ping; Cui, Jianzhong [Key Lab of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-09-30

    The ultrafine grained (UFG) 1050 aluminum alloy was prepared by equal channel angular pressing at cryogenic temperature (cryoECAP). The evolution of the yield strength and microstructures of UFG 1050 aluminum alloy after direct electric current (DC current) annealing at 150–400 °C for 1 h were investigated by tensile test, electron back scattering diffraction pattern (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For the cryoECAPed and annealed samples at 150–250 °C, the predominant boundaries are high angle boundaries (HABs) (>60%), many dislocations accumulate at subgrain and/or grain boundaries, the yield strength (126–159 MPa) mainly comes from the dislocation and grain boundary strengthening contributions. While an unusual increase in the yield strength (by 8.1–11.2%) observed in samples annealed at 150–200 °C is attributed to an additional strengthening contribution from the more HABs having stable structures which can act as effective barriers to dislocation motion during tensile deformation. When annealing at 300–400 °C, the microstructures are free of dislocations, the yield strength (29–45 MPa) comes from the grain boundary strengthening contribution. With the application of DC current, the larger grain size, lower dislocation density and higher fraction of LABs having misorientation angle between 3−7° in samples annealed at 150–250 °C result in the lower yield strength, while the smaller average grain sizes in samples annealed at 300–400 °C cause the higher yield strength.

  12. Combining Ability and Heterosis for Grain Yield and its Component Traits in Rice(Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikrishna LATHA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nature and magnitude of heterosis and combining ability was studied in 18 F1 hybrids involving three CMS lines and six testers using line × tester analysis. The analysis of variance for combining ability of all the traits showed that variances due to treatments, parents, hybrids were highly significant. The line ‘CRMS 32A’ and testers viz. ‘Super rice-8’, ‘R 1099-2569-1-1’ and ‘Jitpiti’ were identified as good general combiners. The significant differences between lines x testers interaction indicates that SCA attributed heavily in the expression of these traits and demonstrates the importance of dominance or non additive variances for all the traits. The hybrid ‘CRMS 32A’/‘R 1099-2569-1-1’ and ‘APMS 6A’/‘Super rice-8’ were promising for grain yield. The magnitude of relative heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis were also estimated for different characters. A high degree of relative heterosis was observed for grain yield (20.45- 82.37% in the hybrids viz., ‘CRMS 32A’/‘Super rice-8’, ‘APMS 6A’/‘Super rice-8’, ‘APMS 6A’/‘Jitpiti’ and ‘CRMS 32A’/‘R 1099-2569-1-1’. While, a higher degree of: heterobeltiosis (13.60 -68.37% was observed for grain yield in the hybrids viz., ‘CRMS 32A’/‘Super rice-8’, ‘CRMS 32A’/‘R 1099-2569-1-1’, ‘APMS 6A’/’Super rice-8’ and ‘APMS 6A’/’Jitpiti’. A high degree of standard heterosis was observed for grain yield in the hybrid ‘CRMS 32A’/‘R 1099-2569-1-1’. The hybrid ‘CRMS 32A’/ ‘R 1099-2569-1-1’ recorded a high degree of relative heterosis (62.01%, heterobeltiosis (57.35% and standard heterosis (15.05 and 25.51% over check hybrids, ‘Mahamaya’ and ‘Indirasona’, respectively that can be tested on yield trials for its further testing over locations.

  13. Contribution of insect pollinators to crop yield and quality varies with agricultural intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi Bartomeus

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Up to 75% of crop species benefit at least to some degree from animal pollination for fruit or seed set and yield. However, basic information on the level of pollinator dependence and pollinator contribution to yield is lacking for many crops. Even less is known about how insect pollination affects crop quality. Given that habitat loss and agricultural intensification are known to decrease pollinator richness and abundance, there is a need to assess the consequences for different components of crop production.Methods. We used pollination exclusion on flowers or inflorescences on a whole plant basis to assess the contribution of insect pollination to crop yield and quality in four flowering crops (spring oilseed rape, field bean, strawberry, and buckwheat located in four regions of Europe. For each crop, we recorded abundance and species richness of flower visiting insects in ten fields located along a gradient from simple to heterogeneous landscapes.Results. Insect pollination enhanced average crop yield between 18 and 71% depending on the crop. Yield quality was also enhanced in most crops. For instance, oilseed rape had higher oil and lower chlorophyll contents when adequately pollinated, the proportion of empty seeds decreased in buckwheat, and strawberries’ commercial grade improved; however, we did not find higher nitrogen content in open pollinated field beans. Complex landscapes had a higher overall species richness of wild pollinators across crops, but visitation rates were only higher in complex landscapes for some crops. On the contrary, the overall yield was consistently enhanced by higher visitation rates, but not by higher pollinator richness.Discussion. For the four crops in this study, there is clear benefit delivered by pollinators on yield quantity and/or quality, but it is not maximized under current agricultural intensification. Honeybees, the most abundant pollinator, might partially compensate the loss of wild

  14. Contribution of insect pollinators to crop yield and quality varies with agricultural intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartomeus, Ignasi; Potts, Simon G; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Vaissière, Bernard E; Woyciechowski, Michal; Krewenka, Kristin M; Tscheulin, Thomas; Roberts, Stuart P M; Szentgyörgyi, Hajnalka; Westphal, Catrin; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Up to 75% of crop species benefit at least to some degree from animal pollination for fruit or seed set and yield. However, basic information on the level of pollinator dependence and pollinator contribution to yield is lacking for many crops. Even less is known about how insect pollination affects crop quality. Given that habitat loss and agricultural intensification are known to decrease pollinator richness and abundance, there is a need to assess the consequences for different components of crop production. Methods. We used pollination exclusion on flowers or inflorescences on a whole plant basis to assess the contribution of insect pollination to crop yield and quality in four flowering crops (spring oilseed rape, field bean, strawberry, and buckwheat) located in four regions of Europe. For each crop, we recorded abundance and species richness of flower visiting insects in ten fields located along a gradient from simple to heterogeneous landscapes. Results. Insect pollination enhanced average crop yield between 18 and 71% depending on the crop. Yield quality was also enhanced in most crops. For instance, oilseed rape had higher oil and lower chlorophyll contents when adequately pollinated, the proportion of empty seeds decreased in buckwheat, and strawberries' commercial grade improved; however, we did not find higher nitrogen content in open pollinated field beans. Complex landscapes had a higher overall species richness of wild pollinators across crops, but visitation rates were only higher in complex landscapes for some crops. On the contrary, the overall yield was consistently enhanced by higher visitation rates, but not by higher pollinator richness. Discussion. For the four crops in this study, there is clear benefit delivered by pollinators on yield quantity and/or quality, but it is not maximized under current agricultural intensification. Honeybees, the most abundant pollinator, might partially compensate the loss of wild pollinators in

  15. Genetic analysis and hybrid vigor study of grain yield and other quantitative traits in auto tetraploid rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.Q.; Xiong, C.Z.; Juan, L.Y.; Ming, X.H.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic analysis and genotype-by-environment interaction for important traits of auto tetraploid rice were evaluated by additive, dominance and additive X additive model. It was show n that genetic effects had more influence on grain yield and other quantitative traits of auto tetraploid rice than genotypic environment interaction. Plant height, panicle length, seed set , grain yield, dry matter production and 1000-grain weight we re mainly regulated by dominance variance. Additive and additive X additive gene action constructed the main proportion of genetic variance for heading date (flowering), number of panicles, grains per panicle, grain length, however grain width was supposed to be affected by additive X additive and dominance variance. Flag leaf length and width, fresh weight, peduncle length, unfilled grains and awn length were greatly influenced by genotypic environment interaction. Heading date produced highly negative heterosis over mid parent (H pm) and better parent ( H pb), whereas H pm and H pb were detected to be highly positive and significant for grain yield, seed set, peduncle length, filled grains and 1000-grain weight in F/sub 1/ and F/sub 2/ generations. The results indicated that auto tetraploid hybrids 96025 X Jackson (indica/japonica), 96025 X Linglun (indica/indica) and Linglun X Jackson (indica/japonica) showed highly significant hybrid vigor with improved seed set percentage and grain yield. These results suggest that intra-specific auto tetraploid rice hybrids have more hybrid vigor as compared to intra-sub specific auto tetraploid rice hybrids and auto tetraploid rice has the potential to be used for further studies and commercial application. (author)

  16. Variability of yield traits and disease resistance in winter triticale genetic resources accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Kociuba

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A systematic gathering of winter triticale accessions was started in Poland in 1982 by the Institute of Genetics, Breeding and Seed Science at the Agricultural University in Lublin (at present its name is: Institute of Genetics, Breeding and Plant Biotechnology at the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. First, breeding lines obtained in local breeding stations were gathered. Next, accessions were imported from the following world gene banks: Beltsville, Gatersleben, and VIR. Interesting hybrid materials obtained in research centers were also included in the collection. Now, the collection includes 2349 accessions (1329 of winter triticale and 1020 of spring triticale. The evaluation is conducted in a 4-year cycle of field experiments using the same methods. The gathered accessions represent a large range of variability of both morphological and commercial traits. The large differentiation of accessions especially concerns traits such as: plant height, number and weight of grains per spi- ke, protein content in grain, field resistance to powdery mildew, brown rust and leaf and spike diseases.

  17. Effects of rootstocks on fruit yield and some quality traits of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Kurum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of rootstocks on watermelon fruit quality and yield were investigated by comparing grafted plants with non-grafted and self-grafted ones in open field conditions in over two consecutive years (2013-2014. The watermelon cultivar Crimson Tide was grafted onto Ferro RZ, Maximus, Nun 9075, RS 841, No:3, Strong Tosa and TZ 148 rootstocks. Non-grafted and self-grafted plants were used as control. Grafting increased the average fruit yield between 17.45% and 52.56% compared to non-grafted treatment. It was concluded that among the tested rootstocks No:3 along with Nun 9075 and TZ 148 rootstocks can be advised due to the increase in fruit yield, total soluble solids and taste panel test values and that the use of grafted plants can be advantageous alternative in watermelon production for producers.

  18. Path analyses of yield and some agronomic and quality traits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... This research was conducted to determine characters effecting grain yield in fifty bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and advanced lines by using simple correlation coefficient and path analysis under 2 locations (high rainfall and low rainfall; 745 and 506 mm, respectively). A total of 50 genotypes,.

  19. Genet and tic vari d seed iability yield t oc y and h traits i cciden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    between two variables; δ2x is the genotypic or phenotypic variance of the variable x, δ2y is the genotypic or phenotypic variance of the variable yield y. .... var = genotypic variance; Env var = environmental variance; PCV = phenotypic coefficient of variability; GCV = genotypic coefficient of variability; Gen adv% = genetic ...

  20. Stability analysis for yield and some other traits in egyptian cotton genotypes across varying environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, A.M.A.; Gomaa, M.A.M.; Khattab, S.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Data obtained from eight genotypes of cotton grown over two successive seasons each included three nitrogen levels i.e. 45, 60 and 75kg nitrogen/feddan were statistically analysed using stability model. Ten quantitative traits were studied to indicate the performance of genotypes, comprised seed cotton yiel/plant, number of bolls/plant, average boll weight, lint percentage, fiber length (2.5%SL), fiber length (50%SL), uniformity ratio, micronair value, fiber strength and oil percentage. stability parameters (b) and (S 2 d) were used to compare the performance of these ge notypes over environment. Genotypes were ranked according to significance of their stability parameters for studied characters. The best genotype according to stability was the genotype 3/28/1 and the worst one was Giza 81

  1. Milk yield and composition, nutrition, body conformation traits, body condition scores, fertility and diseases in high-yielding dairy cows--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberhard, K; Bruckmaier, R M; Kuepfer, U; Blum, J W

    2001-03-01

    Twenty-nine pairs of high-yielding dairy cows (HC; > or = 45 kg/day reached at least once during lactation) and corresponding control cows (CC; with milk yields representing the average yield of the herds) were examined on 29 Swiss farms from March 1995 to September 1996. The hypotheses were tested that there are differences in feed intake, body-conformation traits, body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), fertility status and disease incidence between HC and CC cows. Cows were studied 2 weeks before and at 5, 9, 13, 17 and 40 weeks post-partum. HC cows produced more energy-corrected milk (ECM) than CC cows (10,670 +/- 321 kg in 293 +/- 5 days and 8385 +/- 283 kg in 294 +/- 4 days, respectively; P cows (46.2 +/- 1.1 and 36.2 +/- 1.0 kg ECM/day, respectively; P cows (7.6 +/- 0.5 and 5.7 +/- 0.5 kg/day, respectively) and dry matter intakes (measured in week 5 of lactation over 3 days on six farms) were greater in HC than in CC cows (24.0 +/- 1.1 and 20.3 +/- 1.1 kg/day, respectively; P cows were taller than CC cows (wither heights 143.3 +/- 0.8 and 140.1 +/- 0.8 cm, respectively; P cows was greater than in CC cows throughout the study, differences and decreases of BW during lactation were not significant. BCS at the end of pregnancy and decrements during lactation were similar in HC and CC cows. Fertility parameters were similar in HC and CC cows. Incidences of mastitis, claw and feet problems, hypocalcemia/downer cow syndrome, ovarian cysts and abortions were similar in HC and CC cows, but there were more indigestion problems in HC than in CC cows.

  2. Genetic parameters of linear conformation type traits and their relationship with milk yield throughout lactation in mixed-breed dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, A; Mucha, S; Mrode, R; Coffey, M; Conington, J

    2016-07-01

    Conformation traits are of interest to many dairy goat breeders not only as descriptive traits in their own right, but also because of their influence on production, longevity, and profitability. If these traits are to be considered for inclusion in future dairy goat breeding programs, relationships between them and production traits such as milk yield must be considered. With the increased use of regression models to estimate genetic parameters, an opportunity now exists to investigate correlations between conformation traits and milk yield throughout lactation in more detail. The aims of this study were therefore to (1) estimate genetic parameters for conformation traits in a population of crossbred dairy goats, (2) estimate correlations between all conformation traits, and (3) assess the relationship between conformation traits and milk yield throughout lactation. No information on milk composition was available. Data were collected from goats based on 2 commercial goat farms during August and September in 2013 and 2014. Ten conformation traits, relating to udder, teat, leg, and feet characteristics, were scored on a linear scale (1-9). The overall data set comprised data available for 4,229 goats, all in their first lactation. The population of goats used in the study was created using random crossings between 3 breeds: British Alpine, Saanen, and Toggenburg. In each generation, the best performing animals were selected for breeding, leading to the formation of a synthetic breed. The pedigree file used in the analyses contained sire and dam information for a total of 30,139 individuals. The models fitted relevant fixed and random effects. Heritability estimates for the conformation traits were low to moderate, ranging from 0.02 to 0.38. A range of positive and negative phenotypic and genetic correlations between the traits were observed, with the highest correlations found between udder depth and udder attachment (0.78), teat angle and teat placement (0

  3. Mapping of quantitative trait locus (QTLs that contribute to germination and early seedling drought tolerance in the interspecific cross Setaria italica×Setaria viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufeng Qie

    Full Text Available Drought tolerance is an important breeding target for enhancing the yields of grain crop species in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Two species of Setaria, domesticated foxtail millet (S. italica and its wild ancestor green foxtail (S. viridis are becoming widely adopted as models for functional genomics studies in the Panicoid grasses. In this study, the genomic regions controlling germination and early seedling drought tolerance in Setaria were identified using 190 F7 lines derived from a cross between Yugu1, a S. italica cultivar developed in China, and a wild S. viridis genotype collected from Uzbekistan. Quantitative trait loci were identified which contribute to a number of traits including promptness index, radical root length, coleoptile length and lateral root number at germinating stage and seedling survival rate was characterized by the ability of desiccated seedlings to revive after rehydration. A genetic map with 128 SSR markers which spans 1293.9 cM with an average of 14 markers per linkage group of the 9 linkage groups was constructed. A total of eighteen QTLs were detected which included nine that explained over 10% of the phenotypic variance for a given trait. Both the wild green foxtail genotype and the foxtail millet cultivar contributed the favorite alleles for traits detected in this trial, indicating that wild Setaria viridis populations may serve as a reservoir for novel stress tolerance alleles which could be employed in foxtail millet breeding.

  4. Mapping of quantitative trait locus (QTLs) that contribute to germination and early seedling drought tolerance in the interspecific cross Setaria italica×Setaria viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, Lufeng; Jia, Guanqing; Zhang, Wenying; Schnable, James; Shang, Zhonglin; Li, Wei; Liu, Binhui; Li, Mingzhe; Chai, Yang; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

    2014-01-01

    Drought tolerance is an important breeding target for enhancing the yields of grain crop species in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Two species of Setaria, domesticated foxtail millet (S. italica) and its wild ancestor green foxtail (S. viridis) are becoming widely adopted as models for functional genomics studies in the Panicoid grasses. In this study, the genomic regions controlling germination and early seedling drought tolerance in Setaria were identified using 190 F7 lines derived from a cross between Yugu1, a S. italica cultivar developed in China, and a wild S. viridis genotype collected from Uzbekistan. Quantitative trait loci were identified which contribute to a number of traits including promptness index, radical root length, coleoptile length and lateral root number at germinating stage and seedling survival rate was characterized by the ability of desiccated seedlings to revive after rehydration. A genetic map with 128 SSR markers which spans 1293.9 cM with an average of 14 markers per linkage group of the 9 linkage groups was constructed. A total of eighteen QTLs were detected which included nine that explained over 10% of the phenotypic variance for a given trait. Both the wild green foxtail genotype and the foxtail millet cultivar contributed the favorite alleles for traits detected in this trial, indicating that wild Setaria viridis populations may serve as a reservoir for novel stress tolerance alleles which could be employed in foxtail millet breeding.

  5. Prenatal and postnatal maternal contributions to reproductive, maternal, and size-related traits of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Maurer, R R

    1991-03-01

    Brown Swiss-Hereford (BS-H) reciprocal cross embryos were transferred to BS and H recipient cows and Red Poll-Angus (RP-A) reciprocal cross embryos were transferred to RP and A recipient cows to estimate the relative contributions of ovum cytoplasm and uterine influences to prenatal maternal effects. Calves resulting from embryo transfers (ET) were weaned early (3 to 5 d). Reciprocal cross mating also were made by natural service (NS) between BS and H and between RP and A breeds; part of the offspring were weaned at 3 to 5 d, and the remainder nursed their dams to an age of 150 to 180 d. This was done to estimate breed differences in prenatal and postnatal effects combined and to separate the effects of prenatal maternal influences from postnatal maternal influences of these breeds. Females produced in both ET and NS parts of the experiment were retained to produce three calf crops to an age of about 4.5 yr. The following traits were analyzed: percentage of conception rate; percentage of calf survival; percentage of calves produced per cow exposed; birth and weaning weights of calves produced; and periodic weights, heights, and condition scores of females to an age of 4.5 yr. Neither breed of donor (cytoplasmic influence) nor breed of recipient (uterine influence) had consistently important effects on the traits evaluated. In NS matings, differences between reciprocal crosses were small for most of the traits evaluated. Method of rearing (nursed vs weaned at 3 to 5 d) had no effect on reproductive and maternal traits for RP-A reciprocal cross females, but females that nursed generally were heavier, were taller, and had higher condition scores at most ages than early-weaned females. For the BS-H reciprocal cross, early-weaned females were favored over females reared by their dams in percentage of calves produced per cow exposed, but the method of rearing did not affect other reproductive or maternal traits. BS-H reciprocal cross females that nursed their dams were

  6. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance

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    Jose A. Polania

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT, Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW, canopy biomass and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index and pod harvest index in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE. The main objectives were: (i to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593 and BFS 67 were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into

  7. Effect of Mulch and Water Stress on Some Physiological Traits, Yield Components and Grain Yield of Red Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    R Amini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Water use in agricultural production as one of the most important environmental factors affecting plant growth and development, especially in arid and semi-arid climatic conditions of Iran is of special importance (21. One of the ways of alleviating water scarcity is by enhancing its use efficiency or productivity. Improving water use efficiency in arid and semi-arid areas depends on effective conservation of moisture and efficient use of limited water. Mulching is one of the management practices for increasing water use efficiency (WUE . Straw mulch is commonly used as mulch. Straw mulching has potential for increasing soil water storage (16. Mulches modify the microclimate and growing conditions of crops (16, conserve more water and increase water use efficiency (34. Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume (25 and is an important source of proteins and minerals (28. The majority of red kidney bean production is under drought conditions, and thus yield reductions due to drought are very common (29. This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of wheat straw mulch and water stress on physiological traits, yield components and grain yield of red kidney bean cultivars. Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted in 2012 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran (latitude 38°05_N, longitude 46°17_E, altitude 1360 m above sea level. In order to investigate the effect of mulch on grain yield and yield components of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars at different water stress treatments, a factorial experiment was conducted based on RCB design with three replications. The factors were including water stress treatment (I1 and I2, irrigation after 60 and 120 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively; mulch application at two levels (M1: (no mulch and M2: 2 ton ha-1 wheat straw mulch and red kidney bean cultivars including Akhtar and

  8. Effects of Organic amendments and Biofertilizer Application on some Morphological Traits and Yield of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.

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    mohammad taghi darzi

    2017-09-01

    .28 m wide with the spacing of 15 cm between the plants and 38 cm between the rows. There was a space of one meter between the plots and 2 meters between replications. Hyssop seeds were directly sown by hand. There was no incidence of pest or disease on hyssop during the experiment. Weeding was done manually and the plots were irrigated weekly (as trickle irrigation system. All necessary cultural practices and plant protection measures were followed uniformly for all the plots during the entire period of experiment. In this study, some morphological traits and yield hyssop including plant height, branch no./plant, fresh weight of plant, dry weight of plant, herb fresh yield, herb dried yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield were evaluated. In order to determine herb fresh yield and herb dry yield, 1 m-2 plants were used at the harvest time (full blooming. For determine the essential oil content (%, About 100 g dried herb of hyssop (dried in shadow as sample from the each plot were selected and then were subjected to hydro-distillation (Clevenger type apparatus for 3 hours. Essential oil yield also was calculated by using essential oil content and herb dried yield. Analysis of variance by using SAS software and mean comparisons by Least Significant Difference Test (LSD (at the 5% probability level was done. Results and Discussion: The present results have shown that the highest plant height and branch no/plant in treatment of integrated application of 20 t/ha compost,biofertilizer,the maximum fresh weight of plant and herb fresh yield in treatment of application of 20 t/ha compost were obtained. Also, the highest dry weight of plant in treatment of integrated application of 10 t/ha compost, 6 t/ha vermicompost and biofertilizer and the highest herb dried yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield in treatment of integrated application of 12 t/ha vermicompost and biofertilizer were obtained. Vermicompost application through high ability for

  9. Effects of Organic amendments and Biofertilizer Application on some Morphological Traits and Yield of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad taghi darzi

    2017-02-01

    .28 m wide with the spacing of 15 cm between the plants and 38 cm between the rows. There was a space of one meter between the plots and 2 meters between replications. Hyssop seeds were directly sown by hand. There was no incidence of pest or disease on hyssop during the experiment. Weeding was done manually and the plots were irrigated weekly (as trickle irrigation system. All necessary cultural practices and plant protection measures were followed uniformly for all the plots during the entire period of experiment. In this study, some morphological traits and yield hyssop including plant height, branch no./plant, fresh weight of plant, dry weight of plant, herb fresh yield, herb dried yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield were evaluated. In order to determine herb fresh yield and herb dry yield, 1 m-2 plants were used at the harvest time (full blooming. For determine the essential oil content (%, About 100 g dried herb of hyssop (dried in shadow as sample from the each plot were selected and then were subjected to hydro-distillation (Clevenger type apparatus for 3 hours. Essential oil yield also was calculated by using essential oil content and herb dried yield. Analysis of variance by using SAS software and mean comparisons by Least Significant Difference Test (LSD (at the 5% probability level was done. Results and Discussion: The present results have shown that the highest plant height and branch no/plant in treatment of integrated application of 20 t/ha compost,biofertilizer,the maximum fresh weight of plant and herb fresh yield in treatment of application of 20 t/ha compost were obtained. Also, the highest dry weight of plant in treatment of integrated application of 10 t/ha compost, 6 t/ha vermicompost and biofertilizer and the highest herb dried yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield in treatment of integrated application of 12 t/ha vermicompost and biofertilizer were obtained. Vermicompost application through high ability for

  10. Evaluation the effects of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on morphological traits, yield and yield components of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    S. M.K Tahhami Zarandi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic manure and biofertilizers containing beneficial microorganisms instead of chemical fertilizers are known to improve plant growth through supply of plant nutrients and can help sustain environmental health and soil productivity. Because of special priority of the medicinal plants production in sustainable agricultural systems and lack of studies on assessment of different sources of fertilizer on basil plants, an experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2009. A complete randomize block design with ten treatments, and three replications was used. The treatments were: 1cow manure, 2sheep manure, 3hen manure, 4compost 5vermicompost, 6biological fertilizer nitroxin (consisting of Azotobacter and Azospirillum, 7biological fertilizer consisting of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (Pseudomonas and Bacillus, 8mixture of biological fertilizer nitroxin and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria 9NPK fertilizers, and 10control (no fertilizer. Results showed plant height in sheep manure was higher than other treatments. Number of branches in vermicompost and number of inflorescence in cow manure were significantly higher than other treatments. The number of whorled flowers in compost, sheep and cow manure were more than other treatments. Highest leaf and green area index was observed in nitroxin treatment and biological yield in sheep manure have significant difference with other treatments (except cow manure. The highest seed yield were obtained from plants treated with compost (1945 kg/h and the lowest of that observed in NPK fertilizer and control treatments. In all measured traits (except number of inflorescence NPK fertilizer and control treatment did not have any significant difference.

  11. Photoprotection as a Trait for Rice Yield Improvement: Status and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, Erik H; Ali, Asgar; Herman, Tiara

    2015-12-01

    Solar radiation is essential for photosynthesis and global crop productivity but it is also variable in space and time, frequently being limiting or in excess of plant requirements depending on season, environment and microclimate. Photoprotective mechanisms at the chloroplast level help to avoid oxidative stress and photoinhibition, which is a light-induced reduction in photosynthetic quantum efficiency often caused by damage to photosystem II. There is convincing evidence that photoinhibition has a large impact on biomass production in crops and this may be especially high in rice, which is typically exposed to high tropical light levels. Thus far there has been little attention to photoinhibition as a target for improvement of crop yield. However, we now have sufficient evidence to examine avenues for alleviation of this particular stress and the physiological and genetic basis for improvement in rice and other crops. Here we examine this evidence and identify new areas for attention. In particular we discuss how photoprotective mechanisms must be optimised at both the molecular and the canopy level in order to coordinate with efficient photosynthetic regulation and realise an increased biomass and yield in rice.

  12. Genetic Gains in Yield and Yield Related Traits under Drought Stress and Favorable Environments in a Maize Population Improved Using Marker Assisted Recurrent Selection

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    Folusho Bankole

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of marker assisted recurrent selection (MARS is to increase the frequency of favorable marker alleles in a population before inbred line extraction. This approach was used to improve drought tolerance and grain yield (GY in a biparental cross of two elite drought tolerant lines. The testcrosses of randomly selected 50 S1 lines from each of the three selection cycles (C0, C1, C2 of the MARS population, parental testcrosses and the cross between the two parents (F1 were evaluated under drought stress (DS and well watered (WW well as under rainfed conditions to determine genetic gains in GY and other agronomic traits. Also, the S1 lines derived from each selection types were genotyped with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. Testcrosses derived from C2 produced significantly higher grain field under DS than those derived from C0 with a relative genetic gain of 7% per cycle. Also, the testcrosses of S1 lines from C2 showed an average genetic gain of 1% per cycle under WW condition and 3% per cycle under rainfed condition. Molecular analysis revealed that the frequency of favorable marker alleles increased from 0.510 at C0 to 0.515 at C2, while the effective number of alleles (Ne per locus decreased from C0 (1.93 to C2 (1.87. Our results underscore the effectiveness of MARS for improvement of GY under DS condition.

  13. Genotypic Correlation and Path Analysis of Some Traits related to Oil Yield and Grain Yield in Canola (Brassica napus L. under Non-stress and Water Deficit Stress Conditions

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    A Ismaili

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Obtaining varieties with acceptable yield and tolerant to different arid and semi-arid climate condition of Iran is an important goal in canola breeding programs. Selection of genotypes base on one or more traits without regarding to correlation between them, could biases the expected results. Therefore, identifying of genetic correlation among traits especially in environmental stress condition is very important. The use of genotypic correlation helps evaluating the magnitude and direction of associations between characters facilitating the application of indirect selection, because genetic changes in a given trait may change other traits, leading to faster and larger genetic gains in plant breeding programs. Therefore, the selection for another trait may result in indirect response in the low heritable trait, provided the following conditions are satisfied: the genetic correlation between them is substantial, and the heritability of the secondary trait is greater than that of the primary trait. The purpose of this study was estimating the total genotypic variability, genotypic correlations, and path analysis among some important traits for selection criteria for improving seed and oil yield in canola under water deficit stress condition. Materials and Methods For evaluation of genetic correlation among traits and identifying important affecting traits on grain yield and oil yield in canola genotypes, an experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete blocks design with three replications in two different conditions of water deficit (stress and non-stress. Different traits were measured including seed yield, 1000-seed weight, number of seeds per pod, number of pods per plant, silique length, oil content, days to maturity, protein content, plant height and water use efficiency. Genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients were calculated for ten characters during growing seasons. The genotypic correlation coefficients

  14. Carcass and cut yields and meat qualitative traits of broilers fed diets containing probiotics and prebiotics

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    ERL Pelicano

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of different probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics on the quality of carcasses and meat of broiler chickens. One hundred and eight day-old Cobb male broilers were used (n=108 in a completely randomized design according to a 3x3 factorial, with 3 probiotics in the diet (no probiotics, probiotics 1, probiotics 2 and 3 prebiotics in the diet (no prebiotics, prebiotics 1, prebiotics 2. There were nine treatments with 4 replicates and 3 birds per replicate. The results showed that the carcass and cut yields, color (L* - lightness, a* - redness, and b* - yellowness, pH, cooking losses, shearing force and sensory analysis were not affected by the use of different growth promoters at 42 days of age. It was concluded that growth promoters supplemented to the diet did not affect the studied quantitative and qualitative parameters of the carcass and breast meat of broiler chickens.

  15. Effect of Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Oil, Seed Yield and some Agronomic Traits of Safflower under Different Irrigation Regimes

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    Hamidreza Fanaei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. is a tolerant plant to water deficit due to long roots and capability for high water absorption from soil deeper parts. Safflower can growth successfully in regions with low soil fertility and temperature. Behdani and Mosavifar (2011 reported that drought stress affect on yield by reducing yield components and agronomic traits. Biofertilizer during a biological process chanced the nutrients from unusable to usable form for plants in soils (Aseretal, 2008. Mirzakhani et al. (2008 found that inoculation of seed with free-living bacterium azotobacter and a symbiotic fungus productive mycorrhiza addition to increasing oil and seed cause increasing resistance against two factors of unfavorable environmental and to improve quality of product. In order to study the effect of biological and chemical fertilizers on oil, seed yield and some of agronomic traits of Safflower under irrigation of different regimes an experimental design was conducted. Materials and methods In order to study the effect of biological and chemical fertilizers on oil, seed yield and some of agronomic traits of safflower under irrigation of different regimes an experiment was carried out split plot based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in experimental farm of payame-Noor university of Zabol during 2012-2013 growing season. Irrigation regime in three levels include: I1 (control irrigation in all growth stages, I2 stop irrigation from sowing to flowering (irrigation in growth stages flowering, and seed filling, I3 irrigation in growth stages rosset, stem elongation, heading and stop irrigation in flowering, and seed filling were as main plots and fertilizer resources in five levels included: F1 non application chemical fertilizer (control, F2 pure application chemical fertilizer (NPK 99, 44 and 123 kg.ha-1 respectively, F3 Nitroxin application (2 L.ha-1 F4 Azotobacter application (2 L.ha-1 and F5

  16. QTL mapping of root traits in phosphorus-deficient soils reveals important genomic regions for improving NDVI and grain yield in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xue; McDonald, Glenn

    2017-09-01

    Major QTLs for root rhizosheath size are not correlated with grain yield or yield response to phosphorus. Important QTLs were found to improve phosphorus efficiency. Root traits are important for phosphorus (P) acquisition, but they are often difficult to characterize and their breeding values are seldom assessed under field conditions. This has shed doubts on using seedling-based criteria of root traits to select and breed for P efficiency. Eight root traits were assessed under controlled conditions in a barley doubled-haploid population in soils differing in P levels. The population was also phenotyped for grain yield, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), grain P uptake and P utilization efficiency at maturity (PutE GY ) under field conditions. Several quantitative traits loci (QTLs) from the root screening and the field trials were co-incident. QTLs for root rhizosheath size and root diameter explained the highest phenotypic variation in comparison to QTLs for other root traits. Shared QTLs were found between root diameter and grain yield, and total root length and PutE GY . A common major QTL for rhizosheath size and NDVI was mapped to the HvMATE gene marker on chromosome 4H. Collocations between major QTLs for NDVI and grain yield were detected on chromosomes 6H and 7H. When results from BIP and MET were combined, QTLs detected for grain yield were also those QTLs found for NDVI. QTLs qGY5H, qGY6H and qGY7Hb on 7H were robust QTLs in improving P efficiency. A selection of multiple loci may be needed to optimize the breeding outcomes due to the QTL x Environment interaction. We suggest that rhizosheath size alone is not a reliable trait to predict P efficiency or grain yield.

  17. Sequential path analysis for determining interrelationships between yield and related traits in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. under normal and abiotic stress conditions

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    Bayat Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the relationships between yield and its related traits were investigated in tobacco genotypes under normal and abiotic stress conditions (Orobanche aegyptiaca weed at Urmia Tobacco Research Centre, Iran, during 2006-2009 cropping seasons. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in each condition every year. Analysis of variance revealed extent genetic variability among the genotypes for most of the traits studied. In comparison with normal condition, the mean value of studied traits decreased in stress condition. LAI and FD showed the maximum and minimum diminution in the mean values under stress condition compared to normal one so known as more sensitive and more tolerant traits, respectively. Based on CV values, the traits FD and DLYP showed the minimum and maximum variation among traits in both normal and stress conditions. Correlation analysis revealed significant and positive correlations between DLYP with all studied traits in both normal and stress conditions. Path analysis detected the traits including biomass, APDW and DWR as the first-order variables at normal condition and biomass, APDW, DWR and harvest index as the first-order variables under abiotic stress condition. Based on results, the traits such as biomass, APDW, DWR detected as more important factors in both conditions can be used in tobacco breeding programs for increasing yield. Abbreviation: aerial part fresh weight without leaves weight (APFW, aerial part dry weight without leaves weight (APDW, biomass (BIO, coefficient of variation (CV, dry weight of root (DWR, flowering date (FD, fresh weight of leaf (FWL, fresh weight of root (FWR, harvest index (HI, leaf area index (LAI, dry leaf yield per plant (DLYP, number of leaf (NL, plant height (PH, randomized complete block design (RCBD, standard deviation (Std.

  18. Contribution of above- and below-ground plant traits to the structure and function of grassland soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legay, N; Baxendale, C; Grigulis, K; Krainer, U; Kastl, E; Schloter, M; Bardgett, R D; Arnoldi, C; Bahn, M; Dumont, M; Poly, F; Pommier, T; Clément, J C; Lavorel, S

    2014-10-01

    Abiotic properties of soil are known to be major drivers of the microbial community within it. Our understanding of how soil microbial properties are related to the functional structure and diversity of plant communities, however, is limited and largely restricted to above-ground plant traits, with the role of below-ground traits being poorly understood. This study investigated the relative contributions of soil abiotic properties and plant traits, both above-ground and below-ground, to variations in microbial processes involved in grassland nitrogen turnover. In mountain grasslands distributed across three European sites, a correlative approach was used to examine the role of a large range of plant functional traits and soil abiotic factors on microbial variables, including gene abundance of nitrifiers and denitrifiers and their potential activities. Direct effects of soil abiotic parameters were found to have the most significant influence on the microbial groups investigated. Indirect pathways via plant functional traits contributed substantially to explaining the relative abundance of fungi and bacteria and gene abundances of the investigated microbial communities, while they explained little of the variance in microbial activities. Gene abundances of nitrifiers and denitrifiers were most strongly related to below-ground plant traits, suggesting that they were the most relevant traits for explaining variation in community structure and abundances of soil microbes involved in nitrification and denitrification. The results suggest that consideration of plant traits, and especially below-ground traits, increases our ability to describe variation in the abundances and the functional characteristics of microbial communities in grassland soils. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Genetic Parameters and Combining Ability Effects of Parents for Seed Yield and other Quantitative Traits in Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

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    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Line x tester analysis was carried out in black gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper], an edible legume, to estimate the gca (general combining ability effects of parents (3 lines and 3 testers and the SCA (specific combining ability effects of 9 crosses for seed yield and other eleven quantitative traits. Though additive and nonadditive gene actions governed the expression of quantitative traits, the magnitude of nonadditive gene action was higher than that of additive gene action for each quantitative trait. Two parents viz. �UG157� and �DPU915� were good general combiners. Two crosses namely �PDB 88-31�/�DPU 915� and �PLU 277�/�KAU7� had high per se performance along with positive significant SCA effect for seed yield/plant. The degree of dominance revealed overdominance for all the traits except clusters/plant with partial dominance. The predictability ratio also revealed the predominant role of nonadditive gene action in the genetic control of quantitative traits. Narrow sense heritability was also low for each trait. Recurrent selection or biparental mating followed by selection which can exploit both additive and nonadditive gene actions would be of interest for yield improvement in black gram. Due to presence of high magnitude of nonadditive gene action, heterosis breeding could also be attempted to develop low cost hybrid variety using genetic male sterility system in black gram.

  20. Genetic Parameters and Combining Ability Effects of Parents for Seed Yield and other Quantitative Traits in Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Line x tester analysis was carried out in black gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper], an edible legume, to estimate the gca (general combining ability effects of parents (3 lines and 3 testers and the SCA (specific combining ability effects of 9 crosses for seed yield and other eleven quantitative traits. Though additive and nonadditive gene actions governed the expression of quantitative traits, the magnitude of nonadditive gene action was higher than that of additive gene action for each quantitative trait. Two parents viz. UG157 and DPU915 were good general combiners. Two crosses namely PDB 88-31/DPU 915 and PLU 277/KAU7 had high per se performance along with positive significant SCA effect for seed yield/plant. The degree of dominance revealed overdominance for all the traits except clusters/plant with partial dominance. The predictability ratio also revealed the predominant role of nonadditive gene action in the genetic control of quantitative traits. Narrow sense heritability was also low for each trait. Recurrent selection or biparental mating followed by selection which can exploit both additive and nonadditive gene actions would be of interest for yield improvement in black gram. Due to presence of high magnitude of nonadditive gene action, heterosis breeding could also be attempted to develop low cost hybrid variety using genetic male sterility system in black gram.

  1. Simulating the yield impacts of organ-level quantitative trait loci associated with drought response in maize: a "gene-to-phenotype" modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, Karine; Chapman, Scott C; Tardieu, François; McLean, Greg; Welcker, Claude; Hammer, Graeme L

    2009-12-01

    Under drought, substantial genotype-environment (G x E) interactions impede breeding progress for yield. Identifying genetic controls associated with yield response is confounded by poor genetic correlations across testing environments. Part of this problem is related to our inability to account for the interplay of genetic controls, physiological traits, and environmental conditions throughout the crop cycle. We propose a modeling approach to bridge this "gene-to-phenotype" gap. For maize under drought, we simulated the impact of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling two key processes (leaf and silk elongation) that influence crop growth, water use, and grain yield. Substantial G x E interaction for yield was simulated for hypothetical recombinant inbred lines (RILs) across different seasonal patterns of drought. QTL that accelerated leaf elongation caused an increase in crop leaf area and yield in well-watered or preflowering water deficit conditions, but a reduction in yield under terminal stresses (as such "leafy" genotypes prematurely exhausted the water supply). The QTL impact on yield was substantially enhanced by including pleiotropic effects of these QTL on silk elongation and on consequent grain set. The simulations obtained illustrated the difficulty of interpreting the genetic control of yield for genotypes influenced only by the additive effects of QTL associated with leaf and silk growth. The results highlight the potential of integrative simulation modeling for gene-to-phenotype prediction and for exploiting G x E interactions for complex traits such as drought tolerance.

  2. Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.

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    Yu Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.. Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA, NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P<0.05. The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM, or PEG (15% significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method.

  3. Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method.

  4. The contribution of personality traits and academic and social adjustment to life satisfaction and depression in college freshmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Smojver-Ažić

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the role of personality traits and student academic and social college adjustment to their overall life satisfaction and depression. Sample of 492 freshmen completed a battery of measures. Hierarchical regression analyses are applied to analyze the contribution of predictor variables on life satisfaction and depression in the group of male and female students. After controlling for the personality traits, college adjustment had a significant contribution to student depression and life satisfaction. Optimism has a significant protective role only with male, but not with female students.

  5. Evaluation of Foliar Spraying of Zinc and Calcium Fertilizers on Yield and Physiological Traits of Safflower under Lead Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Jamshidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In order to evaluate the effect of foliar spraying of zinc and calcium on yield and physiological traits of safflower under lead stress, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design was performed in Kerman agricultural and natural resource research and education center in 2014-2015 with three replications. The first factorial included three levels (control, and 0.5 and 1 μM lead spraying, whereas the second and third factorials were spraying zinc sulfate at three concentrations (zero, and 10 and 20 μM and spraying calcium chloride at two levels (zero and 20 μM, respectively. According to the results, grain yield, the 1000-grain weight, leaf dry weight, number of seeds per head, head weight and chlorophyll content decreased. On the other hand, a significant increase was observed in the activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase enzymes and amount of malondialdehyde in plants. Moreover, spraying zinc fertilizer in lead treatment resulted in a significant increase in activity of catalase enzyme, reduction of membrane lipid peroxidation, prevention of chlorophyll destruction and maintenance of grain yield. However, the effect of spraying calcium fertilize in lead treatment was only significant on chlorophyll content. According to the results of the research, it seems that spraying zinc fertilizer had more effects on improved growth of safflower under lead stress, compared to spraying calcium fertilizer. Therefore, in air pollution with heavy metals (lead, application of zinc sulfate fertilizer can be an effective approach to maintain the growth and production of plants. Among the various heavy metals, lead (Pb is a major anthropogenic pollutant that has been released to the environment since the industrial revolution and accumulated in different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems These elements will transfer to leaves in polluted areas and will rapidly uptake and cause irreparable damages to the most

  6. Variation on biomass yield and morphological traits of energy grasses from the genus Miscanthus during the first years of crop establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jezowski, S.; Glowacka, K.; Kaczmarek, Z. [Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Strzeszynska 34, 60-479 Poznan (Poland)

    2011-02-15

    This study presents the results of investigations of variation, genotype x year interactions and genotype x year x location interactions for the yield and morphological traits of several selected clones of energy grasses of the genus Miscanthus. The analyses were performed on the best clones of selected hybrid plants, which were obtained within the species M. sinensis or are the result of interspecific hybridization of M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus. Analyses were conducted on the basis of three-year field trials at two locations. The young plants produced from in vitro cultures were planted at a density of one plant per m{sup 2}. The early stages of plant development, from planting until peak yield in the third year of cultivation, were analysed. Statistical analyses performed on the yield and morphological traits as well as changes in these characteristics over the successive years of the study showed considerable genotypic variation for traits under study. Moreover, significant genotype x year interactions as well as genotype x year x location interactions were observed in terms of yield and morphological traits. Based on the collective results of the study, we suggest that apart from M. x giganteus particularly hybrids of M. sinensis x M. sacchariflorus, should be taken into consideration in genetic and breeding studies on the improvement of yield from energy grasses of the genus Miscanthus. (author)

  7. Supersymmetric contribution to B{yields}{rho}K and B{yields}{pi}K{sup Low-Asterisk} decays in SCET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faisel, Gaber, E-mail: gfaisel@cc.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Physics and Center for Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, National Central University, Chung-li, 32054, Taiwan (China); Egyptian Center for Theoretical Physics, Modern University for Information and Technology, Cairo (Egypt); Delepine, David [Departamento de Fisica, DCI, Campus Leon, Universidad de Guanajuato, C.P. 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Shalaby, M. [Ain Shams University, Faculty of Science, Cairo 11566 (Egypt)

    2011-11-17

    We analyze the supersymmetric contributions to the direct CP asymmetries of the decays B{yields}{pi}K{sup Low-Asterisk} and B{yields}{rho}K within Soft Collinear Effective Theory. We extend the Standard Model analysis of these asymmetries to include the next leading order QCD corrections. We find that, even with QCD correction, the Standard Model predictions cannot accommodate the direct CP asymmetries in these decay modes. Using Mass Insertion Approximation (MIA), we show that non-minimal flavor SUSY contributions mediated by gluino exchange can enhance the CP asymmetries significantly and thus can accommodate the experimental results.

  8. Estimating rice yield related traits and quantitative trait loci analysis under different nitrogen treatments using a simple tower-based field phenotyping system with modified single-lens reflex cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Hiroki; Ogawa, Satoshi; Valencia, Milton Orlando; Mohri, Hiroki; Urano, Yutaka; Hosoi, Fumiki; Shimizu, Yo; Chavez, Alba Lucia; Ishitani, Manabu; Selvaraj, Michael Gomez; Omasa, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Application of field based high-throughput phenotyping (FB-HTP) methods for monitoring plant performance in real field conditions has a high potential to accelerate the breeding process. In this paper, we discuss the use of a simple tower based remote sensing platform using modified single-lens reflex cameras for phenotyping yield traits in rice under different nitrogen (N) treatments over three years. This tower based phenotyping platform has the advantages of simplicity, ease and stability in terms of introduction, maintenance and continual operation under field conditions. Out of six phenological stages of rice analyzed, the flowering stage was the most useful in the estimation of yield performance under field conditions. We found a high correlation between several vegetation indices (simple ratio (SR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), transformed vegetation index (TVI), corrected transformed vegetation index (CTVI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI)) and multiple yield traits (panicle number, grain weight and shoot biomass) across a three trials. Among all of the indices studied, SR exhibited the best performance in regards to the estimation of grain weight (R2 = 0.80). Under our tower-based field phenotyping system (TBFPS), we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield related traits using a mapping population of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) and a single nucleotide polymorphism data set. Our findings suggest the TBFPS can be useful for the estimation of yield performance during early crop development. This can be a major opportunity for rice breeders whom desire high throughput phenotypic selection for yield performance traits.

  9. Intergenerational Similarity in Callous-Unemotional Traits: Contributions of Hostile Parenting and Household Chaos during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; King-Casas, Brooks; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2016-01-01

    Extant research has examined both genetic and environmental risk involved in the transmission of callous-unemotional traits in youth populations, yet no study has examined the intergenerational similarity of these traits between parents and their offspring. The current study examined whether the association between parent callous-unemotional traits and child callous-unemotional traits was mediated by parenting behavior and whether this association was moderated by household environment. Participants included 115 dyads of adolescents (48% female; Mean age = 13.97) and their primary caregivers (87% female; Mean age = 42.54). Measures of callous-unemotional traits, hostile parenting, and household chaos were collected from both adolescents and parents. A two group structural equation modeling revealed that hostile parenting serves as a mediating process in the association between parent and adolescent callous-unemotional traits, but only in the context of high household chaos. Our findings suggest that hostile parenting practices are a mediating process that may explain intergenerational similarity in callous-unemotional traits. Additionally, household chaos may exacerbate the effects of hostile parenting on callous-unemotional traits within adolescents, resulting in heightened vulnerability to intergenerational transmission of callous-unemotional traits. PMID:28029442

  10. Possible contribution of induced mutations on breaking the rice yield barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrizal and Moch Ismachin

    2006-01-01

    At The World Rice Research Conference in Tsukuba, Japan, on 4 — 7 November 2004, there was an active discussion on how to increase the world rice yield production. Breeders agreed that after IR8, the yield potential of rice varieties could not increase drastically. From the breeding point of view, there were two approaches that already started in three to one decade ago, but it is still unfinished yet. These two approaches were to do breeding for hybrid rice varieties or breeding for new plant idiotype varieties. The idea to produce hybrid rice was stimulated by the success of hybrid corn, onion, and sorghum on commercial basis. Among the countries that are working for producing hybrid rice varieties, China was the leading one. China produced hybrid rice varieties and which are planted already in very large area. This success influenced other countries to do the same, including Indonesia. Now Indonesia has already released 11 hybrid rice varieties. Knowing so many characters that are already present in the rice collection, the idea to produce new plant idiotype appears. It seems not difficult to unite selected characters to become a new plant idiotype. In fact, however, up to now there are still a lot of obstacles that make those two approaches could not reach the real goal. This paper will discuss the possible contribution of induced mutations toward the success of these two approaches. (author)

  11. Modeling contribution of shallow groundwater to evapotranspiration and yield of maize in an arid area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoyu; Huo, Zailin; Qu, Zhongyi; Xu, Xu; Huang, Guanhua; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2017-02-21

    Capillary rise from shallow groundwater can decrease the need for irrigation water. However, simple techniques do not exist to quantify the contribution of capillary flux to crop water use. In this study we develop the Agricultural Water Productivity Model for Shallow Groundwater (AWPM-SG) for calculating capillary fluxes from shallow groundwater using readily available data. The model combines an analytical solution of upward flux from groundwater with the EPIC crop growth model. AWPM-SG was calibrated and validated with 2-year lysimetric experiment with maize. Predicted soil moisture, groundwater depth and leaf area index agreed with the observations. To investigate the response of model, various scenarios were run in which the irrigation amount and groundwater depth were varied. Simulations shows that at groundwater depth of 1 m capillary upward supplied 41% of the evapotranspiration. This reduced to 6% at groundwater depth of 2 m. The yield per unit water consumed (water productivity) was nearly constant for 2.3 kg/m 3 . The yield per unit water applied (irrigation water productivity) increased with decreasing irrigation water because capillary rise made up in part for the lack of irrigation water. Consequently, using AWPM-SG in irrigation scheduling will be beneficial to save more water in areas with shallow groundwater.

  12. The Effects of Drought Stress and Humic Acid on Morphological Traits, Yield and Anthocyanin of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mojgan sanjarimijani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. as a medicinal plant belongs to the Malvacea family. Their active ingredient increases under water stress. Humic acid bacteria derived from humus and other natural resources have hormonal effects and can improve nutrient absorption to enhance performance especially under stress conditions . Materials and methods This experiment was conducted in the research of agricultural education centre Jiroft in 2013. Field experiment was carried out as split plot design with three replications. Water deficit stress set as main factor with three levels (A1= Irrigation after 50, A2= 100 and A3= 150 mm evaporation from pan class A and humic acid was in four manners (B1= non humic acid, B2= once with Irrigation, B3= once with Irrigation + Once spraying, B4= once with Irrigation + twice Spraying. Humic acid was used to form Irrigation spray in order to arrange with compactness (10 kg.ha-1, (250 ml/100L. In late September, which coincides with the end of the heading, plant height, inflorescence length, number of branches, stem diameter, fresh and dry weight of plant, fresh and dry weight of sepals, were examined. Wagner method was used to measure anthocyanin content sepals (Wagner, 1979. Finally, data was analyzed using SAS 9.1 and means were compared by Duncan’s multiple range test at 5% level of probability. Results and discussion The analysis of variance showed that drought stress and humic acid had significant effect on growth parameters, vegetative and generative yield and anthocyanin. Drought stress decreased plant height, inflorescence length, stem diameterand fresh and dry weight sepals. The highest values of these traits was obtained in the first level of stress (50 mm evaporation from pan class A. Due to the reduction in mentioned properties, reducing the pressure tolerance and the subsequent reduction in drought conditions was considered as division and cell enlargement. The reduction in growth parameters

  13. Enhanced fire-related traits may contribute to the invasiveness of Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although several invasive species have induced changes to the fire regime of invaded ecosystems, potential intraspecific shifts in fire-related traits that might enhance their invasion success, have never been addressed. We assumed that traits conferring persistence and competitiveness in post-fire ...

  14. Detection of quantitative trait loci in Danish Holstein cattle affecting clinical mastitis, somatic cell score, udder conformation traits, and assessment of associated effects on milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, M S; Guldbrandtsen, B; Buitenhuis, A J

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to 1) detect QTL across the cattle genome that influence the incidence of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score (SCS) in Danish Holsteins, and 2) characterize these QTL for pleiotropy versus multiple linked quantitative trait loci (QTL) when chromosomal regions...... affecting clinical mastitis were also affecting other traits in the Danish udder health index or milk production traits. The chromosomes were scanned using a granddaughter design where markers were typed for 19 to 34 grandsire families and 1,373 to 2,042 sons. A total of 356 microsatellites covering all 29...... autosomes were used in the scan. Among the across-family regression analyses, 16 showed chromosome-wide significance for the primary traits incidence of clinical mastitis in first (CM1), second (CM2), and third (CM3) lactations, and SCS. Regions of chromosomes 5, 6, 9, 11, 15, and 26 were found to affect CM...

  15. Carcass yield traits of kids from a complete diallel of Boer, Kiko, and Spanish meat goat breeds semi-intensively managed on humid subtropical pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R; Phelps, O; Chisley, C; Getz, W R; Hollis, T; Leite-Browning, M L

    2012-03-01

    Bucklings (n = 275) from a complete diallel of Boer, Kiko, and Spanish meat goats were slaughtered at 7 mo of age (4 mo postweaning) to evaluate genetic effects on carcass yield. Breed of sire did not affect (P > 0.05) live, carcass, and primal weights. Conversely, breed of dam was a consistently significant source of variation for carcass weight traits. Kiko dams produced kids with heavier (P 0.05) from Boer or Kiko. Subjective conformation scores for muscularity were affected (P 0.05) by breeds of sire or dam. Direct effects of Boer were negative for carcass weight, dressing percent, and shoulder weight and positive for proportional leg weight. Direct effects of Kiko were positive for carcass weight and shoulder weight and negative for proportional leg weight. Direct effects of Spanish did not differ (P > 0.10) from 0 for any trait tested. Heterosis levels were similar among breed pairings. Heterosis was substantial (P ≤ 0.05) for live, carcass, and primal weights (5 to 9%) but not for dressing percent, proportional boneless meat yield, or primal weight proportions (genetic variation was observed among goat breeds for carcass yield traits. Dam breed was more influential than sire breed. Boer germplasm was not superior to Kiko or Spanish germplasm for carcass yield when semi-intensively managed on humid, subtropical pasture. Results emphasize the importance of comparative breed evaluations to provide industry with reliable information on carcass yield among goat genotypes.

  16. Phenotyping of field-grown wheat in the UK highlights contribution of light response of photosynthesis and flag leaf longevity to grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Andralojc, P John; Scales, Joanna C; Driever, Steven M; Mead, Andrew; Lawson, Tracy; Raines, Christine A; Parry, Martin A J

    2017-06-15

    Improving photosynthesis is a major target for increasing crop yields and ensuring food security. Phenotyping of photosynthesis in the field is critical to understand the limits to crop performance in agricultural settings. Yet, detailed phenotyping of photosynthetic traits is relatively scarce in field-grown wheat, with previous studies focusing on narrow germplasm selections. Flag leaf photosynthetic traits, crop development, and yield traits were compared in 64 field-grown wheat cultivars in the UK. Pre-anthesis and post-anthesis photosynthetic traits correlated significantly and positively with grain yield and harvest index (HI). These traits included net CO2 assimilation measured at ambient CO2 concentrations and a range of photosynthetic photon flux densities, and traits associated with the light response of photosynthesis. In most cultivars, photosynthesis decreased post-anthesis compared with pre-anthesis, and this was associated with decreased Rubisco activity and abundance. Heritability of photosynthetic traits suggests that phenotypic variation can be used to inform breeding programmes. Specific cultivars were identified with traits relevant to breeding for increased crop yields in the UK: pre-anthesis photosynthesis, post-anthesis photosynthesis, light response of photosynthesis, and Rubisco amounts. The results indicate that flag leaf longevity and operating photosynthetic activity in the canopy can be further exploited to maximize grain filling in UK bread wheat. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Association Analysis of SSR Markers with Phenology, Grain, and Stover-Yield Related Traits in Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet is a staple food crop for millions of people living in the arid and semi-arid tropics. Molecular markers have been used to identify genomic regions linked to traits of interest by conventional QTL mapping and association analysis. Phenotypic recurrent selection is known to increase frequencies of favorable alleles and decrease those unfavorable for the traits under selection. This study was undertaken (i to quantify the response to recurrent selection for phenotypic traits during breeding of the pearl millet open-pollinated cultivar “CO (Cu 9” and its four immediate progenitor populations and (ii to assess the ability of simple sequence repeat (SSR marker alleles to identify genomic regions linked to grain and stover yield-related traits in these populations by association analysis. A total of 159 SSR alleles were detected across 34 selected single-copy SSR loci. SSR marker data revealed presence of subpopulations. Association analysis identified genomic regions associated with flowering time located on linkage group (LG 6 and plant height on LG4, LG6, and LG7. Marker alleles on LG6 were associated with stover yield, and those on LG7 were associated with grain yield. Findings of this study would give an opportunity to develop marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS or marker-assisted population improvement (MAPI strategies to increase the rate of gain for pearl millet populations undergoing recurrent selection.

  18. Unique aspects of impulsive traits in substance use and overeating: specific contributions of common assessments of impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Derek; Abdi, Hervé; Filbey, Francesca M

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Background: Impulsivity is a complex trait often studied in substance abuse and overeating disorders, but the exact nature of impulsivity traits and their contribution to these disorders are still debated. Thus, understanding how to measure impulsivity is essential for comprehending addictive behaviors. Identify unique impulsivity traits specific to substance use and overeating. Impulsive Sensation Seeking (ImpSS) and Barratt's Impulsivity scales (BIS) Scales were analyzed with a non-parametric factor analytic technique (discriminant correspondence analysis) to identify group-specific traits on 297 individuals from five groups: Marijuana (n = 88), Nicotine (n = 82), Overeaters (n = 27), Marijuauna + Nicotine (n = 63), and CONTROLs (n = 37). A significant overall factor structure revealed three components of impulsivity that explained respectively 50.19% (pperm Overeating: lacks focus, but plans (short and long term). Our results reveal impulsivity traits specific to each group. This may provide better criteria to define spectrums and trajectories - instead of categories - of symptoms for substance use and eating disorders. Defining symptomatic spectrums could be an important step forward in diagnostic strategies.

  19. The dopamine transporter gene may not contribute to susceptibility and the specific personality traits of amphetamine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Lu, Ru-Band; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Yeh, Yi-Wei; Huang, Chang-Chih; Yen, Che-Hung; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Hsin-An; Ho, Pei-Shen; Cheng, Serena; Shih, Mei-Chen; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    A substantial amount of evidence suggests that dysfunction of the dopamine transporter may be involved in the pathophysiology of amphetamine dependence (AD). The aim of this study was to examine whether the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1, SLC6A3) is associated with development of AD and whether this gene influences personality traits in patients with AD. Eighteen polymorphisms of the DAT1 gene were analyzed in a case-control study that included 909 Han Chinese men (568 patients with AD and 341 control subjects). The patients fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria for AD. The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) was used to assess personality traits and to examine the association between these traits and DAT1 gene variants. A weak association was found between the rs27072 polymorphism and development of AD, but these borderline associations were unconfirmed by logistic regression and haplotype analysis. Although harm avoidance and novelty seeking scores were significantly higher in patients than in controls, DAT1 polymorphisms did not influence these scores. This study suggests that high harm avoidance and novelty seeking personality traits may be a risk factor for the development of AD. However, the DAT1 gene may not contribute to AD susceptibility and specific personality traits observed in AD among Han Chinese men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of pre sowing gamma irradiation on yield and quality traits of sugar beet multi germ varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, R.A.; Elgeddawy, I.W.; Tolba, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this study which was carried out during two growing seasons in the experimental farm of the atomic energy authority, Egypt, seeds of the sugar beet varieties gloria and vital were subjected to different gamma irradiation doses from 0.0 to 1000 gray. Obtained results indicate that dosages up to 400 gray affected insignificantly on germination percent, while the higher doses had a progressive depression on the percentage of the germinated seeds of the both varieties. Stimulating effect of gamma irradiation on seeding height and seeding fresh weight was clearly shown following irradiating vital seeds with 100 or 200 gray, while marked reduction in mean values of these traits was noticed both varieties in the treatments of 500 gray or more. Considerable increases in root and leaves yield/plant of vital and gloria were detected after the application of 200 and 300 gray, respectively seeds received 500 gray or more gave plants with low productivity of roots and leaves. The chemical constituent of sugar beet roots was markedly influenced by gamma ray treatments, a dose of 400 gray existed a favourable and pronounced effect on sucrose content of the couple varieties, while the stimulating effects of gamma dosages on purity % of vital and gloria occurred at the higher doses of 500 and 750 gray. On the contrary, these dosages decreased remarkable the total soluble solids %. Based on the exhibited results, it could be concluded that performing gamma rays at dosages located between 200 and 400 gray may be of significant role in enhancing the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sugar beet genotypes. 2 tabs

  1. Contributions of cultivar shift, management practice and climate change to maize yield in North China Plain in 1981-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dengpan; Tao, Fulu

    2016-07-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yield is compounded by cultivar shifts and agronomic management practices. To determine the relative contributions of climate change, cultivar shift, and management practice to changes in maize ( Zea mays L.) yield in the past three decades, detailed field data for 1981-2009 from four representative experimental stations in North China Plain (NCP) were analyzed via model simulation. The four representative experimental stations are geographically and climatologically different, represent the typical cropping system in the study area, and have more complete weather/crop records for the period of 1981-2009. The results showed that while the shift from traditional to modern cultivar increased yield by 23.9-40.3 %, new fertilizer management increased yield by 3.3-8.6 %. However, the trends in climate variables for 1981-2009 reduced maize yield by 15-30 % in the study area. Among the main climate variables, solar radiation had the largest effect on maize yield, followed by temperature and then precipitation. While a significant decline in solar radiation in 1981-2009 (maybe due to air pollution) reduced yield by 12-24 %, a significant increase in temperature reduced yield by 3-9 %. In contrast, a non-significant increase in precipitation during the maize growth period increased yield by 0.9-3 % at three of the four investigated stations. However, a decline in precipitation reduced yield by 3 % in the remaining station. The study revealed that although the shift from traditional to modern cultivars and agronomic management practices contributed most to the increase in maize yield, the negative impact of climate change was large enough to offset 46-67 % of the trend in the observed yields in the past three decades in NCP. The reduction in solar radiation, especially in the most critical period of maize growth, limited the process of photosynthesis and thereby further reduced maize yield.

  2. Contributions of cultivar shift, management practice and climate change to maize yield in North China Plain in 1981-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dengpan; Tao, Fulu

    2016-07-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yield is compounded by cultivar shifts and agronomic management practices. To determine the relative contributions of climate change, cultivar shift, and management practice to changes in maize (Zea mays L.) yield in the past three decades, detailed field data for 1981-2009 from four representative experimental stations in North China Plain (NCP) were analyzed via model simulation. The four representative experimental stations are geographically and climatologically different, represent the typical cropping system in the study area, and have more complete weather/crop records for the period of 1981-2009. The results showed that while the shift from traditional to modern cultivar increased yield by 23.9-40.3 %, new fertilizer management increased yield by 3.3-8.6 %. However, the trends in climate variables for 1981-2009 reduced maize yield by 15-30 % in the study area. Among the main climate variables, solar radiation had the largest effect on maize yield, followed by temperature and then precipitation. While a significant decline in solar radiation in 1981-2009 (maybe due to air pollution) reduced yield by 12-24 %, a significant increase in temperature reduced yield by 3-9 %. In contrast, a non-significant increase in precipitation during the maize growth period increased yield by 0.9-3 % at three of the four investigated stations. However, a decline in precipitation reduced yield by 3 % in the remaining station. The study revealed that although the shift from traditional to modern cultivars and agronomic management practices contributed most to the increase in maize yield, the negative impact of climate change was large enough to offset 46-67 % of the trend in the observed yields in the past three decades in NCP. The reduction in solar radiation, especially in the most critical period of maize growth, limited the process of photosynthesis and thereby further reduced maize yield.

  3. Lowland Rice Yield And Fertilizer Nitrogen Contribution Affected By Zeolite And Sesbania Green Manure Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryanto; Idawati and Las, Tamsil

    2000-01-01

    A pot experiment has been conducted in P3TIR greenhouse, pasar jumat, south jakarta to study nitrogen uptake and contribution of fertilizer for lowland rice affected by zeolite and sesbania green manure application. To study the N contribution of fertilizer, 15N isotope was used. The zeorea fertilizer was made from the mixture of zeolite and 15N labelled urea having 4.0% atom. Ten treatments of N fertilization were tried : zeorea I was applied once at transplanting (ZI IX), zeorea I was applied twice I.e at transplanting and at 30 days after transplanting - DAT (ZI 2X), zeorea I was applied at transplanting and at 30 DAT (ZI + ZII), zeorea II was applied once at transplanting (ZII IX), zeorea II was applied twice I.e at transplanting and at 30 DAT (ZII 2X), zeolit was applied twice I.e at transplanting and at 30 DAT (ZO 2X), half rate of urea was applied at transplanting and another half rate at 30 DAT ( U 1/2+1/2), sesbania green manure was applied at 30 DAT and zeorea II applied at transplanting (sesbania + ZII), one tate of urea was applied at transplanting (U IX), and half rate of urea was applied at transplanting and sesbania was applied at 30 DAT (sesbania + U 1/2). Result obtained from this experiment showed that the application of zeorea I at tran planting followed by zeorea II at 30 DAT resulted the highest yield of dry grain even though it contained nitrogen only 60% of the nitrogen content of the recommended rate. The highest nitrogen contribution of zeorea I.e 75.22 mg/pot was obtained by applying zeorea II at transplanting and at 30 DAT. Urea half dose (U 1/2) combined with sesbania green manure could be effectuated if given in zeorea from even more effective than urea full dose given at transplanting time (U IX). Impact of sesbania green manure seemed to be more positive if combined with zeolite

  4. Genome-wide identification of QTL for seed yield and yield-related traits and construction of a high-density consensus map for QTL comparison in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo eZhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed yield (SY is the most important trait in rapeseed, which was determined by multiple seed yield-related traits (SYRTs and also easily subject to environmental influence. Lots of quantitative trait loci (QTL for SY and SYRTs were reported in Brassica napus. However, no studies have focused on SY and seven agronomic traits affecting SY simultaneous. Genome-wide QTL analysis for SY and seven SYRTs in eight environments was conducted in a doubled haploid population containing 348 lines. Totally, 18 and 208 QTLs for SY and SYRTs were observed, respectively, and then these QTLs were integrated into 144 consensus QTLs by a meta-analysis. Three major QTLs for SY were observed, including cqSY-C6-2 and cqSY-C6-3 that expressed stably in winter cultivation area for three years and cqSY-A2-2 only expressed in spring rapeseed area. Trait-by-trait meta-analysis revealed that the 144 consensus QTLs were integrated into 72 pleiotropic unique QTLs. Among them, all the unique QTLs affected SY, except for uq-A6-1, including uq.A2-3, uq.C1-2, uq.C1-3, uq.C6-1, uq.C6-5 and uq.C6-6 could also affect more than two SYRTs. According to high density consensus map construction and QTL comparison from literature, 36 QTLs from five populations were co-localized with QTLs identified in this study. In addition, 13 orthologs genes were observed, including five each genes for SY and SW, one each gene for BY, BH and PH, respectively. The genomic information of these QTLs would be valuable in hybrid cultivar breeding, and be helpful to analyze QTL expression in different environments.

  5. The trait contribution to wood decomposition rates of 15 Neotropical tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, Koert G; Poorter, Lourens; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2010-12-01

    The decomposition of dead wood is a critical uncertainty in models of the global carbon cycle. Despite this, relatively few studies have focused on dead wood decomposition, with a strong bias to higher latitudes. Especially the effect of interspecific variation in species traits on differences in wood decomposition rates remains unknown. In order to fill these gaps, we applied a novel method to study long-term wood decomposition of 15 tree species in a Bolivian semi-evergreen tropical moist forest. We hypothesized that interspecific differences in species traits are important drivers of variation in wood decomposition rates. Wood decomposition rates (fractional mass loss) varied between 0.01 and 0.31 yr(-1). We measured 10 different chemical, anatomical, and morphological traits for all species. The species' average traits were useful predictors of wood decomposition rates, particularly the average diameter (dbh) of the tree species (R2 = 0.41). Lignin concentration further increased the proportion of explained inter-specific variation in wood decomposition (both negative relations, cumulative R2 = 0.55), although it did not significantly explain variation in wood decomposition rates if considered alone. When dbh values of the actual dead trees sampled for decomposition rate determination were used as a predictor variable, the final model (including dead tree dbh and lignin concentration) explained even more variation in wood decomposition rates (R2 = 0.71), underlining the importance of dbh in wood decomposition. Other traits, including wood density, wood anatomical traits, macronutrient concentrations, and the amount of phenolic extractives could not significantly explain the variation in wood decomposition rates. The surprising results of this multi-species study, in which for the first time a large set of traits is explicitly linked to wood decomposition rates, merits further testing in other forest ecosystems.

  6. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping in Brassica rapa Revealed the Structural and Functional Conservation of Genetic Loci Governing Morphological and Yield Component Traits in the A, B, and C Subgenomes of Brassica Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-01-01

    Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species. PMID:23223793

  7. Genome-wide linkage mapping of yield-related traits in three Chinese bread wheat populations using high-density SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Faji; Wen, Weie; He, Zhonghu; Liu, Jindong; Jin, Hui; Cao, Shuanghe; Geng, Hongwei; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Pingzhi; Wan, Yingxiu; Xia, Xianchun

    2018-06-01

    We identified 21 new and stable QTL, and 11 QTL clusters for yield-related traits in three bread wheat populations using the wheat 90 K SNP assay. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield-related traits and closely linked molecular markers is important in order to identify gene/QTL for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in wheat breeding. The objectives of the present study were to identify QTL for yield-related traits and dissect the relationships among different traits in three wheat recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from crosses Doumai × Shi 4185 (D × S), Gaocheng 8901 × Zhoumai 16 (G × Z) and Linmai 2 × Zhong 892 (L × Z). Using the available high-density linkage maps previously constructed with the wheat 90 K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, 65, 46 and 53 QTL for 12 traits were identified in the three RIL populations, respectively. Among them, 34, 23 and 27 were likely to be new QTL. Eighteen common QTL were detected across two or three populations. Eleven QTL clusters harboring multiple QTL were detected in different populations, and the interval 15.5-32.3 cM around the Rht-B1 locus on chromosome 4BS harboring 20 QTL is an important region determining grain yield (GY). Thousand-kernel weight (TKW) is significantly affected by kernel width and plant height (PH), whereas flag leaf width can be used to select lines with large kernel number per spike. Eleven candidate genes were identified, including eight cloned genes for kernel, heading date (HD) and PH-related traits as well as predicted genes for TKW, spike length and HD. The closest SNP markers of stable QTL or QTL clusters can be used for MAS in wheat breeding using kompetitive allele-specific PCR or semi-thermal asymmetric reverse PCR assays for improvement of GY.

  8. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for grain yield and its components in a US popular winter wheat TAM 111 using 90K SNPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano O Assanga

    Full Text Available Stable quantitative trait loci (QTL are important for deployment in marker assisted selection in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and other crops. We reported QTL discovery in wheat using a population of 217 recombinant inbred lines and multiple statistical approach including multi-environment, multi-trait and epistatic interactions analysis. We detected nine consistent QTL linked to different traits on chromosomes 1A, 2A, 2B, 5A, 5B, 6A, 6B and 7A. Grain yield QTL were detected on chromosomes 2B.1 and 5B across three or four models of GenStat, MapQTL, and QTLNetwork while the QTL on chromosomes 5A.1, 6A.2, and 7A.1 were only significant with yield from one or two models. The phenotypic variation explained (PVE by the QTL on 2B.1 ranged from 3.3-25.1% based on single and multi-environment models in GenStat and was pleiotropic or co-located with maturity (days to heading and yield related traits (test weight, thousand kernel weight, harvest index. The QTL on 5B at 211 cM had PVE range of 1.8-9.3% and had no significant pleiotropic effects. Other consistent QTL detected in this study were linked to yield related traits and agronomic traits. The QTL on 1A was consistent for the number of spikes m-2 across environments and all the four analysis models with a PVE range of 5.8-8.6%. QTL for kernels spike-1 were found in chromosomes 1A, 2A.1, 2B.1, 6A.2, and 7A.1 with PVE ranged from 5.6-12.8% while QTL for thousand kernel weight were located on chromosomes 1A, 2B.1, 5A.1, 6A.2, 6B.1 and 7A.1 with PVEranged from 2.7-19.5%. Among the consistent QTL, five QTL had significant epistatic interactions (additive × additive at least for one trait and none revealed significant additive × additive × environment interactions. Comparative analysis revealed that the region within the confidence interval of the QTL on 5B from 211.4-244.2 cM is also linked to genes for aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, splicing regulatory glutamine/lysine-rich protein 1 isoform X1

  9. Gene interactions and genetics for yield and its attributes in grass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. K. PARIHAR

    explaining the manifestation of complex traits such as yield. ... interactions (i, j, l) contributed towards the inheritance of traits in the given crosses. ... Keywords. grass pea; scaling test; gene interactions; gene effects; heritability; Lathyrus sativus.

  10. High-Throughput Non-destructive Phenotyping of Traits that Contribute to Salinity Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Awlia, Mariam

    2016-09-28

    Reproducible and efficient high-throughput phenotyping approaches, combined with advances in genome sequencing, are facilitating the discovery of genes affecting plant performance. Salinity tolerance is a desirable trait that can be achieved through breeding, where most have aimed at selecting for plants that perform effective ion exclusion from the shoots. To determine overall plant performance under salt stress, it is helpful to investigate several plant traits collectively in one experimental setup. Hence, we developed a quantitative phenotyping protocol using a high-throughput phenotyping system, with RGB and chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) imaging, which captures the growth, morphology, color and photosynthetic performance of Arabidopsis thaliana plants in response to salt stress. We optimized our salt treatment by controlling the soil-water content prior to introducing salt stress. We investigated these traits over time in two accessions in soil at 150, 100, or 50 mM NaCl to find that the plants subjected to 100 mM NaCl showed the most prominent responses in the absence of symptoms of severe stress. In these plants, salt stress induced significant changes in rosette area and morphology, but less prominent changes in rosette coloring and photosystem II efficiency. Clustering of ChlF traits with plant growth of nine accessions maintained at 100 mM NaCl revealed that in the early stage of salt stress, salinity tolerance correlated with non-photochemical quenching processes and during the later stage, plant performance correlated with quantum yield. This integrative approach allows the simultaneous analysis of several phenotypic traits. In combination with various genetic resources, the phenotyping protocol described here is expected to increase our understanding of plant performance and stress responses, ultimately identifying genes that improve plant performance in salt stress conditions.

  11. Enriching an intraspecific genetic map and identifying QTL for fiber quality and yield component traits across multiple environments in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueying; Teng, Zhonghua; Wang, Jinxia; Wu, Tiantian; Zhang, Zhiqin; Deng, Xianping; Fang, Xiaomei; Tan, Zhaoyun; Ali, Iftikhar; Liu, Dexin; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Dajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Zhengsheng

    2017-12-01

    Cotton is a significant commercial crop that plays an indispensable role in many domains. Constructing high-density genetic maps and identifying stable quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling agronomic traits are necessary prerequisites for marker-assisted selection (MAS). A total of 14,899 SSR primer pairs designed from the genome sequence of G. raimondii were screened for polymorphic markers between mapping parents CCRI 35 and Yumian 1, and 712 SSR markers showing polymorphism were used to genotype 180 lines from a (CCRI 35 × Yumian 1) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Genetic linkage analysis was conducted on 726 loci obtained from the 712 polymorphic SSR markers, along with 1379 SSR loci obtained in our previous study, and a high-density genetic map with 2051 loci was constructed, which spanned 3508.29 cM with an average distance of 1.71 cM between adjacent markers. Marker orders on the linkage map are highly consistent with the corresponding physical orders on a G. hirsutum genome sequence. Based on fiber quality and yield component trait data collected from six environments, 113 QTLs were identified through two analytical methods. Among these 113 QTLs, 50 were considered stable (detected in multiple environments or for which phenotypic variance explained by additive effect was greater than environment effect), and 18 of these 50 were identified with stability by both methods. These 18 QTLs, including eleven for fiber quality and seven for yield component traits, could be priorities for MAS.

  12. DLPFC implication in memory processing of affective information. A look on anxiety trait contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Ferrari

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggested to approach to the analysis of the emotions and cognition from an integrating point of view rather than investigate the two constructs per se. In line with this research approach, the present study aims to investigate how emotions can affect memory processes and which cerebral areas are involved in this mechanism. We also aim to understand if and how this processing is influenced by specific personality traits, as anxiety trait. Using a rTMS measure, participants were asked to performance a memory task (a retrieval task composed by verbal material with and without emotional content. Subjects were also assessed for their anxiety trait (high and low anxiety subjects. Our study provided a strong evidence for the influence of the emotional content and personality trait on the memory processes. Secondly, the role of the Left Dorso-Lateral Prefrontal Cortex in emotional memory was pointed out with a specific function of this frontal network in managing the emotional memories.

  13. The trait contribution to wood decomposition rates of 15 neotropical tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, van K.G.; Poorter, L.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Logtestijn, R.S.P.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2010-01-01

    The decomposition of dead wood is a critical uncertainty in models of the global carbon cycle. Despite this, relatively few studies have focused on dead wood decomposition, with a strong bias to higher latitudes. Especially the effect of inter-specific variation in species traits on differences wood

  14. The trait contribution to wood decomposition rates of 15 Neotropical tree species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, K.G.; Poorter, L.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; van Logtestijn, R.S.P; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2010-01-01

    The decomposition of dead wood is a critical uncertainty in models of the global carbon cycle. Despite this, relatively few studies have focused on dead wood decomposition, with a strong bias to higher latitudes. Especially the effect of interspecific variation in species traits on differences in

  15. Genome-wide association mapping for yield and other agronomic traits in an elite breeding population of tropical rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Hasina; Spindel, Jennifer E; Lalusin, Antonio; Borromeo, Teresita; Gregorio, Glenn; Hernandez, Jose; Virk, Parminder; Collard, Bertrand; McCouch, Susan R

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association mapping studies (GWAS) are frequently used to detect QTL in diverse collections of crop germplasm, based on historic recombination events and linkage disequilibrium across the genome. Generally, diversity panels genotyped with high density SNP panels are utilized in order to assay a wide range of alleles and haplotypes and to monitor recombination breakpoints across the genome. By contrast, GWAS have not generally been performed in breeding populations. In this study we performed association mapping for 19 agronomic traits including yield and yield components in a breeding population of elite irrigated tropical rice breeding lines so that the results would be more directly applicable to breeding than those from a diversity panel. The population was genotyped with 71,710 SNPs using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), and GWAS performed with the explicit goal of expediting selection in the breeding program. Using this breeding panel we identified 52 QTL for 11 agronomic traits, including large effect QTLs for flowering time and grain length/grain width/grain-length-breadth ratio. We also identified haplotypes that can be used to select plants in our population for short stature (plant height), early flowering time, and high yield, and thus demonstrate the utility of association mapping in breeding populations for informing breeding decisions. We conclude by exploring how the newly identified significant SNPs and insights into the genetic architecture of these quantitative traits can be leveraged to build genomic-assisted selection models.

  16. Effect of Corm Density on Yield and Qualitative Traits of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. under Different Urea and Biological Fertilizers in Shahr-e-Rey Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza pazoki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of corm density on yield and qualitative traits of saffron (Crocus sativus L. under different biological and chemical nitrogen fertilizers, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized block design with 3 replications was done in 2014 at Shahr-e-Rey region (Ghomi Abad. The experimental factors were: corm density in 3 levels (60, 120 and 180 corm per square meter and biological and chemical nitrogen fertilizers in 4 levels (without fertilizer application, 150 kg.ha-1 of Urea, 5 L.ha-1 of Nitroxin and 75 kg.ha-1 of Urea +5 L.ha-1 of Nitroxin. The results indicated that the corm density affects number of daughter corm, fresh daughter corm weight, corm diameter, dry stigma and style weight, dry and fresh flower weight significantly. Mean comparisons also indicated that by increasing corm density from 6o to 180, saffron dry yield of saffron improved by 2.7 fold. However, increasing corm density reduced corm diameter, fresh corm daughter weight and their numbers per square meter. It can be concluded that nitroxin as an organic fertilizer, increases vegetative traits and saffron dry yield (stigma + style weight to 2.08 kg.ha-1 and highly improves in qualitative traits like Safranal, Picrocrocin, and Crocin. It can be also said that combined use of nitroxin and urea would be an alternative method to reduce application of urea.

  17. Functional traits drive the contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition among multiple arid-zone species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xu; Song, Yao-Bin; Liu, Guo-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Ye, Xue-Hua; Cornwell, William K; Prinzing, Andreas; Dong, Ming; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2015-08-18

    In arid zones, strong solar radiation has important consequences for ecosystem processes. To better understand carbon and nutrient dynamics, it is important to know the contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition of different arid-zone species. Here we investigated: (1) whether such contribution varies among plant species at given irradiance regime, (2) whether interspecific variation in such contribution correlates with interspecific variation in the decomposition rate under shade; and (3) whether this correlation can be explained by leaf traits. We conducted a factorial experiment to determine the effects of solar radiation and environmental moisture for the mass loss and the decomposition constant k-values of 13 species litters collected in Northern China. The contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition varied significantly among species. Solar radiation accelerated decomposition in particular in the species that already decompose quickly under shade. Functional traits, notably specific leaf area, might predict the interspecific variation in that contribution. Our results provide the first empirical evidence for how the effect of solar radiation on decomposition varies among multiple species. Thus, the effect of solar radiation on the carbon flux between biosphere and atmosphere may depend on the species composition of the vegetation.

  18. Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci for seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianzhi; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Green, Marci; Scott, Roy A; Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L; Cregan, Perry B

    2014-10-01

    Soybean seeds contain high levels of oil and protein, and are the important sources of vegetable oil and plant protein for human consumption and livestock feed. Increased seed yield, oil and protein contents are the main objectives of soybean breeding. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations, and to evaluate the consistency of QTLs across different environments, studies and genetic backgrounds. Both the mapping population (SD02-4-59 × A02-381100) and validation population (SD02-911 × SD00-1501) were phenotyped for the three traits in multiple environments. Genetic analysis indicated that oil and protein contents showed high heritabilities while yield exhibited a lower heritability in both populations. Based on a linkage map constructed previously with the mapping population and using composite interval mapping and/or interval mapping analysis, 12 QTLs for seed yield, 16 QTLs for oil content and 11 QTLs for protein content were consistently detected in multiple environments and/or the average data over all environments. Of the QTLs detected in the mapping population, five QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and five QTLs for protein content were confirmed in the validation population by single marker analysis in at least one environment and the average data and by ANOVA over all environments. Eight of these validated QTLs were newly identified. Compared with the other studies, seven QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and nine QTLs for protein content further verified the previously reported QTLs. These QTLs will be useful for breeding higher yield and better quality cultivars, and help effectively and efficiently improve yield potential and nutritional quality in soybean.

  19. Characterisation of a novel quantitative trait locus, GN4-1, for grain number and yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Tao, Yajun; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Yanzhou; Miao, Jun; Zhang, Ron; Yi, Chuandeng; Gong, Zhiyun; Yang, Zefeng; Liang, Guohua

    2018-03-01

    A novel QTL for grain number, GN4-1, was identified and fine-mapped to an ~ 190-kb region on the long arm of rice chromosome 4. Rice grain yield is primarily determined by three components: number of panicles per plant, grain number per panicle and grain weight. Among these traits, grain number per panicle is the major contributor to grain yield formation and is a crucial trait for yield improvement. In this study, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) responsible for rice grain number on chromosome 4, designated GN4-1 (a QTL for Grain Number on chromosome 4), using advanced segregating populations derived from the crosses between an elite indica cultivar 'Zhonghui 8006' (ZH8006) and a japonica rice 'Wuyunjing 8' (WYJ8). GN4-1 was delimited to an ~ 190-kb region on chromosome 4. The genetic effect of GN4-1 was estimated using a pair of near-isogenic lines. The GN4-1 gene from WYJ8 promoted accumulation of cytokinins in the inflorescence and increased grain number per panicle by ~ 17%. More importantly, introduction of the WYJ8 GN4-1 gene into ZH8006 increased grain yield by ~ 14.3 and ~ 11.5% in the experimental plots in 2014 and 2015, respectively. In addition, GN4-1 promoted thickening of the culm and may enhance resistance to lodging. These results demonstrate that GN4-1 is a potentially valuable gene for improvement of yield and lodging resistance in rice breeding.

  20. Responses of Seed Yield, Yield Components and Some Morpho-physiological Traits of Wheat Cultivars (Triticum aestivum to the Application Methods of Fulzyme Biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eslami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of application methods of Fulzym biofertilizer (containing Bacillus subtilis on yield, yield components and some morpho-physiological characteristics of four cultivars wheat, an experiment was conducted in field of Astan Quds Razavi in 2010- 2011. The experiment performed was in split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Four wheat cultivars (Falat, Pishtaz, Bahar and Toos were assigned to main plots and four biofertilizer application methods (as seed inoculation, using in irrigation water, seed inoculation and irrigation and control to sub plots. Results indicated that Falat had the lowest plant height (61.5 cm than other varieties. Plant height of Toos and Pishtaz were about 14.5 percent higher than Falat. Application methods of Fulzym increased chlorophyll content and plant height. Highest chlorophyll contents were obtained when seeds inoculated by Fulzyme and used through irrigation. At the end of growing season, it was found that chlorophyll content of Falat and Toos flag leaves were higher than Pishtaz and Bahar. It was also revealed that Bahar when Fulzyme was used showed a better response to treatments than other varieties as for as biological and seed yields were concerned. Highest seed yield produced by irrigation and combination of seed inoculation and irrigation (9063 and 8609 kg.ha-1 and lowest seed yield (5858 kg.ha-1 to Falat in the control treatment.

  1. High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) identifies seedling root traits linked to variation in seed yield and nutrient capture in field-grown oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C L; Graham, N S; Hayden, R; Meacham, M C; Neugebauer, K; Nightingale, M; Dupuy, L X; Hammond, J P; White, P J; Broadley, M R

    2016-04-06

    Root traits can be selected for crop improvement. Techniques such as soil excavations can be used to screen root traits in the field, but are limited to genotypes that are well-adapted to field conditions. The aim of this study was to compare a low-cost, high-throughput root phenotyping (HTP) technique in a controlled environment with field performance, using oilseed rape (OSR;Brassica napus) varieties. Primary root length (PRL), lateral root length and lateral root density (LRD) were measured on 14-d-old seedlings of elite OSR varieties (n = 32) using a 'pouch and wick' HTP system (∼40 replicates). Six field experiments were conducted using the same varieties at two UK sites each year for 3 years. Plants were excavated at the 6- to 8-leaf stage for general vigour assessments of roots and shoots in all six experiments, and final seed yield was determined. Leaves were sampled for mineral composition from one of the field experiments. Seedling PRL in the HTP system correlated with seed yield in four out of six (r = 0·50, 0·50, 0·33, 0·49;P emergence in three out of five (r = 0·59, 0·22, 0·49;P emergence, general early vigour or yield in the field. Associations between PRL and field performance are generally related to early vigour. These root traits might therefore be of limited additional selection value, given that vigour can be measured easily on shoots/canopies. In contrast, LRD cannot be assessed easily in the field and, if LRD can improve nutrient uptake, then it may be possible to use HTP systems to screen this trait in both elite and more genetically diverse, non-field-adapted OSR. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  2. Genetic markers of inflammation may not contribute to metabolic traits in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeti Vashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-grade chronic inflammation is a common feature of obesity and its cardio-metabolic complications. However, little is known about a possible causal role of inflammation in metabolic disorders. Mexico is among the countries with the highest obesity rates in the world and the admixed Mexican population is a relevant sample due to high levels of genetic diversity. Methods: Here, we studied 1,462 Mexican children recruited from Mexico City. Six genetic variants in five inflammation-related genes were genotyped: rs1137101 (leptin receptor (LEPR, rs7305618 (hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A, rs1800629 (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA, rs1800896, rs1800871 (interleukin-10 (IL-10, rs1862513 (resistin (RETN. Ten continuous and eight binary traits were assessed. Linear and logistic regression models were used adjusting for age, sex, and recruitment centre. Results: We found that one SNP displayed a nominal evidence of association with a continuous trait: rs1800871 (IL-10 with LDL (beta = −0.068 ± 1.006, P = 0.01. Subsequently, we found one nominal association with a binary trait: rs7305618 (HNF1A with family history of hypertension (odds-ratio = 1.389 [1.054–1.829], P = 0.02. However, no P-value passed the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Discussion: Our data in a Mexican children population are consistent with previous reports in European adults in failing to demonstrate an association between inflammation-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and metabolic traits.

  3. Food and fitness: associations between crop yields and life-history traits in a longitudinally monitored pre-industrial human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Adam D; Holopainen, Jari; Pettay, Jenni E; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-10-22

    Severe food shortage is associated with increased mortality and reduced reproductive success in contemporary and historical human populations. Studies of wild animal populations have shown that subtle variation in environmental conditions can influence patterns of mortality, fecundity and natural selection, but the fitness implications of such subtle variation on human populations are unclear. Here, we use longitudinal data on local grain production, births, marriages and mortality so as to assess the impact of crop yield variation on individual age-specific mortality and fecundity in two pre-industrial Finnish populations. Although crop yields and fitness traits showed profound year-to-year variation across the 70-year study period, associations between crop yields and mortality or fecundity were generally weak. However, post-reproductive individuals of both sexes, and individuals of lower socio-economic status experienced higher mortality when crop yields were low. This is the first longitudinal, individual-based study of the associations between environmental variation and fitness traits in pre-industrial humans, which emphasizes the importance of a portfolio of mechanisms for coping with low food availability in such populations. The results are consistent with evolutionary ecological predictions that natural selection for resilience to food shortage is likely to weaken with age and be most severe on those with the fewest resources.

  4. Yield Traits, Physico-chemical Characteristics and Nutritional Composition of MR219 M3 Generation and its Effect on Glycemic Index and Responses in Animal Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asma Ilyani Kadar; Sobri Hussein; Abdul Rahim Harun; Fazliana Mohd Saaya

    2014-01-01

    Mutation technique is a conventional breeding technique and it is very effective in improving of main crop characteristics such as yield traits, resistance to diseases and pests and nutritional qualities. In this study, MR219 seeds were treated with Carbon ion radiation (60 Gy) by AVF-Cyclotron at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Takasaki, Japan and were planted at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency up to third mutant generation (M3). Thirty one M3 mutant lines (ML1 to ML31) were evaluated on morphological, yield and yield components, and were compared to the parental variety, MR219. Analysis of variance revealed that there was a significant difference among mutant lines in culm height, days to flowering, number of tillers, number of panicles, 1000 grain weight, total grain weight, total of dry matter, alkaline spreading value, gel consistency, amylose content, ash, crude protein, fat, dietary fibre, carbohydrate and energy. Mutant line ML21 had the best performance in majority of yield components and vegetative traits as compared to others mutant lines and parental variety. For nutritional composition, mutant lines namely ML31, ML21, ML10, ML19 were improved in crude protein content, dietary fibre and carbohydrate content. The estimation of glycemic index revealed that two mutant lines namely ML3 and ML30 can be consumed by diabetics. (author)

  5. Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 2 HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eLiu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological and molecular techniques (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis, and gene expression to investigate stomatal behaviour and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterisation of stomatal behaviour of large numbers of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we have found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture in 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield in salt treatment. Phenotypic characterisation and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to high barley grain yield in the field.

  6. REML/BLUP and sequential path analysis in estimating genotypic values and interrelationships among simple maize grain yield-related traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivoto, T; Nardino, M; Carvalho, I R; Follmann, D N; Ferrari, M; Szareski, V J; de Pelegrin, A J; de Souza, V Q

    2017-03-22

    Methodologies using restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction (REML/BLUP) in combination with sequential path analysis in maize are still limited in the literature. Therefore, the aims of this study were: i) to use REML/BLUP-based procedures in order to estimate variance components, genetic parameters, and genotypic values of simple maize hybrids, and ii) to fit stepwise regressions considering genotypic values to form a path diagram with multi-order predictors and minimum multicollinearity that explains the relationships of cause and effect among grain yield-related traits. Fifteen commercial simple maize hybrids were evaluated in multi-environment trials in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The environmental variance (78.80%) and genotype-vs-environment variance (20.83%) accounted for more than 99% of the phenotypic variance of grain yield, which difficult the direct selection of breeders for this trait. The sequential path analysis model allowed the selection of traits with high explanatory power and minimum multicollinearity, resulting in models with elevated fit (R 2 > 0.9 and ε analysis is effective in the evaluation of maize-breeding trials.

  7. Seasonal variability in physiological and anatomical traits contributes to invasion success of Prosopis juliflora in tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marciel T; Souza, Gustavo M; Pereira, Silvia; Oliveira, Deborah A S; Figueiredo-Lima, Karla V; Arruda, Emília; Santos, Mauro G

    2017-03-01

    We investigated whether there were consistent differences in the physiological and anatomical traits and phenotypic variability of an invasive (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.) and native species (Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan) in response to seasonality in a tropical dry forest. The water potential, organic solutes, gas exchange, enzymes of the antioxidant system, products of oxidative stress and anatomical parameters were evaluated in both species in response to seasonality. An analysis of physiological responses indicated that the invasive P. juliflora exhibited higher response in net photosynthetic rate to that of the native species between seasons. Higher values of water potential of the invasive species than those of the native species in the dry season indicate a more efficient mechanism for water regulation in the invasive species. The invasive species exhibits a thicker cuticle and trichomes, which can reduce transpiration. In combination, the increased epidermal thickness and the decreased thickness of the parenchyma in the dry season may contribute to water saving. Our data suggest a higher variability in anatomical traits in the invasive species as a response to seasonality, whereas physiological traits did not present a clear pattern of response. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FIELD CROPS YIELD IN TEISANI AREA HOUSEHOLDS, PRAHOVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena ANGELESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to analyze the technological performance of the field crops on luvisoils in Teisani area, Prahova County, where corn and potato are cultivated for personal consumption and beet for animal nutrition. The cultivation of wheat and fodder plants has been an exception. Studies conducted have firstly referred to the introduction of crops in rotation system, through cooperation and exchange between households and within their own household for those with larger surfaces. To compare the productivity of crops, the yield energy value has been used as a measure unit, which facilitates the comparison. The yields was reduced up to the lower limit of crop potential because of monocultures and the lack of appropriate technologies, even for small farming machinery. The results showed that using improved technologies, in 2013 and 2014, the yields were significantly superior, the highest ones, for potatoes and alfalfa, the last one as jumper field. Introducing alfalfa in the crop rotation system has led to the potato yield doubling, but also of those of wheat, corn and beet. Using manure and organic material available and degradable in the form of compost made in their own household, to which are added small amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus, there were obtained average yields by 40% higher than the average of the experience and by 139%, i.e. 2.4 times higher than the unfertilized variant, very much used in the area. Therefore, it was demonstrated, that there are huge resources to produce agricultural products and primary food in the Teisani rural area. Small peasant households should be encouraged and financially supported to participate to food production both for their own consumption, but also for the market.

  9. High Density Linkage Map Construction and Mapping of Yield Trait QTLs in Maize (Zea mays) Using the Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chengfu; Wang, Wei; Gong, Shunliang; Zuo, Jinghui; Li, Shujiang; Xu, Shizhong

    2017-01-01

    Increasing grain yield is the ultimate goal for maize breeding. High resolution quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping can help us understand the molecular basis of phenotypic variation of yield and thus facilitate marker assisted breeding. The aim of this study is to use genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) for large-scale SNP discovery and simultaneous genotyping of all F2 individuals from a cross between two varieties of maize that are in clear contrast in yield and related traits. A set of 199 F2 progeny derived from the cross of varieties SG-5 and SG-7 were generated and genotyped by GBS. A total of 1,046,524,604 reads with an average of 5,258,918 reads per F2 individual were generated. This number of reads represents an approximately 0.36-fold coverage of the maize reference genome Zea_mays.AGPv3.29 for each F2 individual. A total of 68,882 raw SNPs were discovered in the F2 population, which, after stringent filtering, led to a total of 29,927 high quality SNPs. Comparative analysis using these physically mapped marker loci revealed a higher degree of synteny with the reference genome. The SNP genotype data were utilized to construct an intra-specific genetic linkage map of maize consisting of 3,305 bins on 10 linkage groups spanning 2,236.66 cM at an average distance of 0.68 cM between consecutive markers. From this map, we identified 28 QTLs associated with yield traits (100-kernel weight, ear length, ear diameter, cob diameter, kernel row number, corn grains per row, ear weight, and grain weight per plant) using the composite interval mapping (CIM) method and 29 QTLs using the least absolute shrinkage selection operator (LASSO) method. QTLs identified by the CIM method account for 6.4% to 19.7% of the phenotypic variation. Small intervals of three QTLs (qCGR-1, qKW-2, and qGWP-4) contain several genes, including one gene (GRMZM2G139872) encoding the F-box protein, three genes (GRMZM2G180811, GRMZM5G828139, and GRMZM5G873194) encoding the WD40-repeat protein, and

  10. Association of candidate gene polymorphisms with milk technological traits, yield, composition, and somatic cell score in Italian Holstein-Friesian sires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viale, E; Tiezzi, F; Maretto, F; De Marchi, M; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M

    2017-09-01

    Advances in DNA-based marker technology have enabled the identification of genomic regions underlying complex phenotypic traits in livestock species. The incorporation of detected quantitative trait loci into genetic evaluation provides great potential to enhance selection accuracies, hence expediting the genetic improvement of economically important traits. The objective of the present study was to investigate 96 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located in 53 candidate genes previously reported to have effects on milk production and quality traits in a population of highly selected Holstein-Friesian bulls. A total of 423 semen samples were used to genotype the bulls through a custom oligo pool assay. Forty-five SNP in 32 genes were found to be associated with at least 1 of the tested traits. Most significant and favorable SNP trait associations were observed for polymorphisms located in CCL3 and AGPAT6 genes for fat yield (0.037 and 0.033 kg/d, respectively), DGKG gene for milk yield (0.698 kg/d), PPARGC1A, CSN1S1, and AGPAT6 genes for fat percentage (0.127, 0.113, and 0.093%, respectively), GHR gene for protein (0.064%) and casein percentage (0.053%), and TLR4 gene for fat (0.090%), protein (0.066%), and casein percentage (0.050%). Somatic cell score was favorably affected by GHR (-0.095) and POU1F1 (-0.137), and interesting SNP-trait associations were observed for polymorphisms located in CSN2, POU1F1, and AGPAT6 genes for rennet coagulation time (-0.592, -0.558, and -0.462 min, respectively), and GHR and CSN2 genes for curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition (1.264 and 1.183 mm, respectively). In addition to the influence of individual SNP, the effects of composite genotypes constructed by grouping SNP according to their individual effects on traits considered in the analysis were also examined. Favorable and significant effects on milk traits were observed for 2 composite genotypes, one including 10 SNP and the other 4 SNP. The former was associated

  11. Inheritance of grain yield and its correlation with yield components in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... 7 × 7 incomplete diallel cross of seven wheat parents during the crop season of 2009 to 2010. Mean square of general ... Genetic background and yield traits of the seven parents. Parent. Pedigree. Released year ..... Correlation and path analysis for yield and yield contributing characters in wheat (Triticum ...

  12. Inflammation and lithium: clues to mechanisms contributing to suicide-linked traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurel, E; Jope, R S

    2014-12-16

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death in the United States, yet it remains difficult to understand the mechanistic provocations and to intervene therapeutically. Stress is recognized as a frequent precursor to suicide. Psychological stress is well established to cause activation of the inflammatory response, including causing neuroinflammation, an increase of inflammatory molecules in the central nervous system (CNS). Neuroinflammation is increasingly recognized as affecting many aspects of CNS functions and behaviors. In particular, much evidence demonstrates that inflammatory markers are elevated in traits that have been linked to suicidal behavior, including aggression, impulsivity and depression. Lithium is recognized as significantly reducing suicidal behavior, is anti-inflammatory and diminishes aggression, impulsivity and depression traits, each of which is associated with elevated inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effects of lithium result from its inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3). GSK3 has been demonstrated to strongly promote inflammation, aggressive behavior in rodents and depression-like behaviors in rodents, whereas regulation of impulsivity by GSK3 has not yet been investigated. Altogether, evidence is building supporting the hypothesis that stress activates GSK3, which in turn promotes inflammation, and that inflammation is linked to behaviors associated with suicide, including particularly aggression, impulsivity and depression. Further investigation of these links may provide a clearer understanding of the causes of suicidal behavior and provide leads for the development of effective preventative interventions, which may include inhibitors of GSK3.

  13. Plant-based assessment of inherent soil productivity and contributions to China's cereal crop yield increase since 1980.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsheng Fan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: China's food production has increased 6-fold during the past half-century, thanks to increased yields resulting from the management intensification, accomplished through greater inputs of fertilizer, water, new crop strains, and other Green Revolution's technologies. Yet, changes in underlying quality of soils and their effects on yield increase remain to be determined. Here, we provide a first attempt to quantify historical changes in inherent soil productivity and their contributions to the increase in yield. METHODS: The assessment was conducted based on data-set derived from 7410 on-farm trials, 8 long-term experiments and an inventory of soil organic matter concentrations of arable land. RESULTS: Results show that even without organic and inorganic fertilizer addition crop yield from on-farm trials conducted in the 2000s was significantly higher compared with those in the 1980s - the increase ranged from 0.73 to 1.76 Mg/ha for China's major irrigated cereal-based cropping systems. The increase in on-farm yield in control plot since 1980s was due primarily to the enhancement of soil-related factors, and reflected inherent soil productivity improvement. The latter led to higher and stable yield with adoption of improved management practices, and contributed 43% to the increase in yield for wheat and 22% for maize in the north China, and, 31%, 35% and 22% for early and late rice in south China and for single rice crop in the Yangtze River Basin since 1980. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, without an improvement in inherent soil productivity, the 'Agricultural Miracle in China' would not have happened. A comprehensive strategy of inherent soil productivity improvement in China, accomplished through combining engineering-based measures with biological-approaches, may be an important lesson for the developing world. We propose that advancing food security in 21st century for both China and other parts of world will depend on continuously improving

  14. Effect of Plant Density and Nitrogen Fertilizeron Morphological Traits, Seed and Essential Oil Yield and Essential Oil Content of Ajowan (Carum copticum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Ali Tabatabaei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ajowan (Carum copticum Benth. & Hook. is an annual herbaceous essential oil bearing plant belonging to the Apiaceae family, which grows in India, Iran, and Egypt. Ajowan seeds have essential oil as an active substance, which is used in pharmaceutical industry as a diuretic, antivomiting, analgesic, antiasthma, antispasmodic and a carminative. Nitrogen is a part of all living cells and is a necessary part of all proteins, enzymes and metabolic processes involved in the synthesis and transfer of energy. Also, nitrogen is a part of chlorophyll, the green pigment of the plant that is responsible for photosynthesis. Generally, proper agronomic management including suitable plant density has a high influence on growth and yield of medicinal plants. In this regard, Kloss et al., (2012 highlighted the need for strategies to improve crop growth, make irrigation more efficient and sustainable and conserve farmlands. In addition, yield is influenced by inter-row spacing and sowing density. Ghilavizadeh et al., (2013 have reported that application of suitable amount of nitrogen fertilizer and plant density of 25 plan/m2 increased seed yield, essential oil yield and essential oil content of ajowan. In another research, Borumand Rezazadeh et al., (2009 reported that the plant density of 50 plant/m2 have produced the highest seed yield, essential oil yield and essential oil content. Generally, with regard to importance of medicinal plants and the necessity of understanding their crop and the impact of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on the performance of these plants, this study was conducted to investigate the impact of these factors on some traits of ajowan. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on different traits of ajowan (Carum copticum L., an experiment was conducted using factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Agricultural and Natural

  15. Composition of open pollinated varieties and newly developed hybrids for yield and contributing trials in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, H.N.; Ara, I.; Naeem, M.; Hussain, M.; Hanif, M.; Yousaf, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Eighteen hybrids and 13 open pollinated varieties of maize were evaluated at the National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad during kharif 2007. Significant differences were observed for days to 50% tasseling and silking, plant height, ear height, number of kernel rows per ear, number of grain per row, 100 grain weight. grain moisture and grain yield. The hybrids NT-6622 and NT-6651 ranked top and second in grain yield by producing 7842 and 7759 kg ha/sup -1/, respectively. Generally the hybrids produced more grain yield than the open pollinated varieties. Days to 50% tasseling ranged from 47.33 (EV-1098) to 64 (NT- 6632) while for silking varied from 47.67 (EV-1098) to 63.33 (30-K-95). The variety Soan-3 (149 cm) was the shortest and hybrid 30-K-95 (202.3 cm) was the tallest amongst all the varieties and hybrids. Ear height ranged from 70.33 (Soan-3) to 107 cm (NT-6651) while number of kernel rows per ear varied from 12 (NT-6622, 30- K95, 2512 and 2514) to 18 (R-2207). The hybrid P-30-25 produced the maximum number of grains (51) Grast-8288 produced the lowest (29). One hundred grain weight ranged from 23g (EV-6098) to 39g (2512). (author)

  16. Genetic Analysis of Yield and Physiological Traits in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. under Irrigation and Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam POURMOHAMMAD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Implementing appropriate breeding strategies for sunflower, alongside dependable information on heritability and gene effects upon yield and related traits under drought conditions, are all necessary. Thirty sunflower hybrids were produced by line × tester cross of six male-sterile and five restorer lines. Their hybrids were evaluated in three levels of irrigation, as follows: (1 non-stressed plots, irrigated at regular intervals (W1; (2 mild water stress (W2, irrigated from the beginning of the button stage (R4 to seed filling initiation (R6; (3 severe water stress (W3 started from the beginning of button stage (R4 to physiological maturity. Based on observations and specific methods for determination, canopy temperatures, chlorophyll index, relative water content and proline content, were studied by additive effects, under the different irrigation conditions. Canopy temperatures,chlorophyll index, relative water content, leaf water potential, proline content and yield were controlled by additive effects under mild stressed conditions. Under severe stress conditions however, canopy temperatures, leaf water potential and proline content were controlled by additive effects, while chlorophyll index and relative water content were controlled by both additive and dominant effects, as seed yield was mainly influenced by the dominant effects. The narrow sense heritability ranged from 47-97% for all traits, except for chlorophyll fluorescence. Yield correlated positively with chlorophyll index and relative water content, and negatively with canopy temperature and leaf water potential. Therefore, under drought stressed conditions in breeding programs, canopy temperatures, chlorophyll index and relative water content can be reliable criteria for the selection of tolerant genotypes with prospect to higher yields.

  17. Identification of traits and QTLs contributing to salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Viet Long, L.

    2012-01-01

    Salinity is the most severe abiotic stress perceived by plants and affects about 800 million hectares of land worldwide, including 20% of the world’s highly productive irrigated land. Significant crop yield losses are observed due to salinity. Salinization is increasing because of poor

  18. The contribution of trait negative affect and stress to recall for bodily states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma-Kellams, Christine; Lai, Lei; Taylor, Shelley E; Lerner, Jennifer S

    2016-12-01

    How does trait negative affect shape somatic memory of stressful events? We hypothesized that negative affect would impair accurate recall of one's own heart rate during stressful situations. Two bio-behavioral studies used a new paradigm to test retrospective visceral perception and assessed whether negative affective states experienced during aversive events (i.e., the Trier Stress Task-Time 1) would retrospectively shape recall of past heart rate (Time 2), even when accounting for actual heart rate at the time of each stressful event (Time 1). Results across both studies showed that individual differences in negative affect in response to a stressful task predicted visceral recollections, and those who experienced more negative affect were more inaccurate. Negative affect was associated with a tendency to remember visceral reactions as worse than they actually were. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Traits in Spring Wheat Cultivars Associated with Yield Loss Caused by a Heat Stress Episode after Anthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vignjevic, Marija; Wang, Xiao; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2015-01-01

    with heat tolerance. Fifteen spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were grown in pots under semifield conditions, and heat stress (35/26 °C) and control treatments (20/12 °C) were applied in growth chambers for 5 days starting 14 days after flowering. The heat stress treatment reduced final yield...... in the grain-filling period was negatively correlated with grain nitrogen yield (r = −0.60). A positive correlation (r = 0.73) was found between the treatment effect on green leaf area (GLA) and the reduction in yield resulting from heat stress. The amount of stem water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC...

  20. Polymorphisms in monolignol biosynthetic genes are associated with biomass yield and agronomic traits in European maize (Zea mays L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yongsheng; Zein, Imad; Brenner, Everton A

    2010-01-01

    Background Reduced lignin content leads to higher cell wall digestibility and, therefore, better forage quality and increased conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. However, reduced lignin content might lead to weaker stalks, lodging, and reduced biomass yield. Genes encoding enzymes...

  1. Volunteering in Religious Communities: Does it Contribute to Society? Calculating Social Yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boender, Welmoet

    2015-01-01

    In a special issue of Research on Social Work Practice 21 (4), 2011, Ram Cnaan and Thomas McLauglin launch an academic debate about ways to quantify the accomplishments of social work and social services as unique contributions to society. They argue that for too long social work has failed to claim

  2. Improving the reliability of female fertility breeding values using type and milk yield traits that predict energy status in Australian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Recio, O; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to propose changing the selection criteria trait for evaluating fertility in Australia from calving interval to conception rate at d 42 after the beginning of the mating season and (2) to use type traits as early fertility predictors, to increase the reliability of estimated breeding values for fertility. The breeding goal in Australia is conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season. Currently, the Australian model to predict fertility breeding values (expressed as a linear transformation of calving interval) is a multitrait model that includes calving interval (CVI), lactation length (LL), calving to first service (CFS), first nonreturn rate (FNRR), and conception rate. However, CVI has a lower genetic correlation with the breeding goal (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) than conception rate. Milk yield, type, and fertility data from 164,318 cow sired by 4,766 bulls were used. Principal component analysis and genetic correlation estimates between type and fertility traits were used to select type traits that could subsequently be used in a multitrait analysis. Angularity, foot angle, and pin set were chosen as type traits to include in an index with the traits that are included in the multitrait fertility model: CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and conception rate at d 42 (CR42). An index with these 8 traits is expected to achieve an average bull first proof reliability of 0.60 on the breeding objective (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) compared with reliabilities of 0.39 and 0.45 for CR42 only or the current 5-trait Australian model. Subsequently, we used the first eigenvector of a principal component analysis with udder texture, bone quality, angularity, and body condition score to calculate an energy status indicator trait. The inclusion of the energy status indicator trait composite in a multitrait index with CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and CR42 achieved a 12-point increase in

  3. Estimation of best parents parents and superior cross combinations for yield and fiber quality related traits in upland cotton (gossypium hirsutum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaukat, S.; Khan, T.M.; Ijaz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Combining ability was studied for identification of potential cultivars and hybrids in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in a 6x6 set of diallel crosses among six genotypes of cotton, i.e., VH-232, CRS-2007, SB-149, GR-156, FH-207, and MARVI carried out on fiber length, fiber fineness, fiber elongation, fiber strength, ginning out tern (GOT) and seed cotton yield. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant (p < 0.01) differences among the genotypes for all traits. Combining ability studies showed that the mean squares, due to general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal effects were highly significant in F1 generation. Genetic components, due to GCA and SCA, revealed that traits, such as, fiber length, strength and fineness, showed high proportion of additive type of gene action in F1 generation because of greater GCA variances were greater than SCA variance. GR-156 was the best combiner for lint percentage and fiber length. FH-207 was the best combiner for fiber fineness. FH-207, MARVI and SB-149 were the best general combiners for fiber character and were suggested to be used in future breeding programme to improve fiber quality traits. CRS-2007 x GR-156, CRS-2007 x MARVI, SB-149 x MARVI and VH-232 x SB-149 had higher specific combining ability and reciprocal effects and they can be used for future breeding programme to improve fiber quality. (author)

  4. Stress generation in adolescence: Contributions from five-factor model (FFM) personality traits and childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Shauna C; Bagby, R Michael; Harkness, Kate L

    2017-04-01

    Youth with depression are theorized to generate stress in their lives because of a complex interaction between their personal characteristics and their chronic environmental context. Using a moderated regression approach, we provided a novel test of this hypothesis by examining whether adolescent 5-factor model personality traits moderate the associations between early emotional, physical, and sexual maltreatment and life events experienced in the past 6 months. Participants in this cross-sectional study were 110 adolescents (M = 16.24, SD = 1.53, age range = 13-17, 74.5% female) with major depressive disorder. The relation of physical maltreatment to dependent interpersonal life events was moderated by extraversion. Among physically maltreated youth, dependent interpersonal events were positively associated with extraversion. Further, the relation of sexual maltreatment to independent events were moderated by extraversion and agreeableness. Among sexually maltreated youth, independent events were negatively associated with extraversion and positively associated with agreeableness. The observed vulnerability-risk interactions are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the role of stress generation mechanisms in an integrated model of depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The Effect of Water Stress and Polymer on Water Use Efficiency, Yield and several Morphological Traits of Sunflower under Greenhouse Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein NAZARLI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In many part of Iran, the reproductive growth stages of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. are exposed to water deficit stress. Therefore, the investigation of irrigation management in the farm conditions is a necessary element for increasing irrigation efficiency and decreasing water losses. The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of different rates of super absorbent polymer and levels of water stress on water use efficiency (WUE, yield and some morphological traits of sunflower (cultivar Master. Factorial experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with 3 replications. Factors were water stress in three levels (irrigation in 0.75; 0.50 and 0.25% of field capacity and super absorbent polymer in five levels (0; 0.75; 0.150; 2.25; 3 g/kg of soil. Super absorbent polymer was added in eight leaves stage of sunflower to pots in deepness of roots development. Water stress treatment was also applied in this growth stage of sunflower. For stress application, pots were weighted every day and irrigated when soil water received to 0.75; 0.50 and 0.25 of field capacity, respectively. The results of ANOVA indicated that the effect of different rates of super absorbent polymer and different rates of consumed water in all traits were significant. ANOVA also revealed that the interactive effects of two mentioned factors were significant except for seed yield trait. Polynomial model based on the ANOVA results was fitted for each trait. The results indicated that water stress significantly convert in decreasing the number of leaves per plant, chlorophyll content, 100 weight of seeds, seed yield and WUE in sunflower, whereas the application of super absorbent polymer moderated the negative effect of deficit irrigation, especially in high rates of polymer (2.25 and 3 g/kg of soil. The above mentioned rates of polymer have the best effect to all characteristics of sunflower in all levels of water stress treatment. The findings

  6. A High Density Genetic Map Derived from RAD Sequencing and Its Application in QTL Analysis of Yield-Related Traits in Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is an annual legume of economic importance and widely grown in the semi-arid tropics. However, high-density genetic maps of cowpea are still lacking. Here, we identified 34,868 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms that were distributed in the cowpea genome based on the RAD sequencing (restriction-site associated DNA sequencing technique using a population of 170 individuals (two cowpea parents and 168 F2:3 progenies. Of these, 17,996 reliable SNPs were allotted to 11 consensus linkage groups (LGs. The length of the genetic map was 1,194.25 cM in total with a mean distance of 0.066 cM/SNP marker locus. Using this map and the F2:3 population, combined with the CIM (composite interval mapping method, eleven quantitative trait loci (QTL of yield-related trait were detected on seven LGs (LG4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 11 in cowpea. These QTL explained 0.05–17.32% of the total phenotypic variation. Among these, four QTL were for pod length, four QTL for thousand-grain weight (TGW, two QTL for grain number per pod, and one QTL for carpopodium length. Our results will provide a foundation for understanding genes related to grain yield in the cowpea and genus Vigna.

  7. Haplotype analysis of the genes encoding glutamine synthetase plastic isoforms and their association with nitrogen-use- and yield-related traits in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Peng; Zhao, Xue-Qiang; He, Xue; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Li, Bin; Liu, Dong-Cheng; Zhang, Ai-Min; Zhang, Xue-Yong; Tong, Yi-Ping; Li, Zhen-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) plays a key role in the growth, nitrogen (N) use and yield potential of cereal crops. Investigating the haplotype variation of GS genes and its association with agronomic traits may provide useful information for improving wheat N-use efficiency and yield. We isolated the promoter and coding region sequences of the plastic glutamine synthetase isoform (GS2) genes located on chromosomes 2A, 2B and 2D in bread wheat. By analyzing nucleotide sequence variations of the coding region, two, six and two haplotypes were distinguished for TaGS2-A1 (a and b), TaGS2-B1 (a-f) and TaGS2-D1 (a and b), respectively. By analyzing the frequency data of different haplotypes and their association with N use and agronomic traits, four major and favorable TaGS2 haplotypes (A1b, B1a, B1b, D1a) were revealed. These favorable haplotypes may confer better seedling growth, better agronomic performance, and improved N uptake during vegetative growth or grain N concentration. Our data suggest that certain TaGS2 haplotypes may be valuable in breeding wheat varieties with improved agronomic performance and N-use efficiency. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  8. Tree leaf and root traits mediate soil faunal contribution to litter decomposition across an elevational gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujii, Saori; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C.; Berg, Matty P.; Mori, Akira S.

    2018-01-01

    © 2018 British Ecological Society. Plant litter decomposition is key to carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil fauna are important litter decomposers, but how their contribution to decomposition changes with alterations in plant composition and climate is not well established.

  9. Expression quantitative trait loci for PAX8 contributes to the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Ma

    Full Text Available Paired-box family member PAX8 encodes a transcription factor that has a role in cell differentiation and cell growth and may participate in the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. By bioinformatics analysis, we identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within a newly identified long non-coding RNA (lncRNA AC016683.6 as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs for PAX8. Hence, we hypothesized that PAX8eQTLs in lncRNA AC016683.6 may influence the HCC prognosis. We then performed a case-only study to assess the association between the two SNPs as well as the prognosis of HCC in 331 HBV-positive HCC patients without surgical treatment. Cox proportional hazard models were used for survival analysis with adjustments for the age, gender, smoking status, drinking status, Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC stage, and chemotherapy or TACE (transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization status. We found that the G allele of rs1110839 and the T allele of rs4848320 in PAX8was significantly associated with a better prognosis compared with the T allele of rs1110839 and the C allele of rs4848320 (adjusted HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61-0.91, P = 0.004 for rs1110839 and adjusted HR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.54-0.94, P = 0.015 for rs4848320 in the additive model. Furthermore, the combined effect of the variant genotypes for these two SNPs was more prominent in patients with the BCLC-C stage orpatients with chemotherapy or TACE. Although the exact biological function remains to be explored, our findings suggest a possible association of PAX8eQTLs in lncRNA AC016683.6 with the HCC prognosis inthe Chinese population. Further large and functional studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  10. Contribution of Root Traits to Phosphorus Acqusition Efficiency by Maize Landraces in Acid Soils of the Highlands in Central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayuelo-Jimenez, J. S.; Hernandez-Bravo, N.; Magdaleno-Armas, M. L.; Perez-Decelis, V. A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Tarimbaro, Michoacan (Mexico); Gallardo-Valdez, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agricolas y Pecuarias,. Campo Experimental Uruapan (Mexico); Ochoa, I. [Unipalma S.A. Bogota D.C. (Colombia); Paredes-Gutierrez, L. C. [Centro Nuclear Dr. Nabor Carrillo Flores, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Municipio de Ocoyoacac, Salazar (Mexico); Lynch, J. P. [Department of Horticulture, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Plants have a wide range of mechanisms and morphological features that increase availability and acquisition of orthophosphate from soil. Root growth, root branching, and root hair morphology are important for the efficient acquisition of phosphorus (P). The series of studies reported here was based on the hypothesis that Mexican maize landraces, which have developed mostly in environments with low P availability and have a well-developed root system, could be a source of variation for the improvement of phosphorus acquisition. Several studies were conducted to evaluate genotypic variation in both root (root architecture and morphology, including root hairs) and plant growth traits associated with P acquisition efficiency (PAE) and/or P utilization efficiency (PUE) of maize landraces in a P-deficient Andisol in the Central Mexican Highlands, and to identify genotypic differences, among both efficient and inefficient in P acquisition and responsive and non-responsive maize landraces to applied P. The results showed that accessions differed greatly in plant growth, grain yield, root morphology, total uptake of P, PAE, PUE, and P efficiency defined as growth with suboptimal P availability. Phosphorus-efficient accessions had not only greater biomass per unit of absorbed P, but also larger root systems, greater P uptake per unit root weight, more nodal roots, nodal root laterals, and greater root hair density of nodal root main axes and first-order laterals than did Pinefficient accessions under P deficiency. Root biomass allocation, as quantified by the allometric partitioning coefficient (K) was not altered by P availability in the efficient accessions, but inefficient accessions had less biomass partitioning to roots (i.e. a lower K) under low P conditions. Accessions with enhanced nodal rooting and laterals had greater P uptake and growth under low P. Dense root hairs on nodal root main axes and first-order laterals conferred a marked benefit under low P, as

  11. Mapping the Flavor Contributing Traits on "Fengwei Melon" (Cucumis melo L. Chromosomes Using Parent Resequencing and Super Bulked-Segregant Analysis.

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    Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available We used a next-generation high-throughput sequencing platform to resequence the Xinguowei and Shouxing melon cultivars, the parents of Fengwei melon. We found 84% of the reads (under a coverage rate of "13×" placed on the reference genome DHL92. There were 2,550,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 140,000 structural variations in the two genomes. We also identified 1,290 polymorphic genes between Xinguowei and Shouxing. We combined specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq and bulked-segregant analysis (super-BSA to analyze the two parents and the F2 extreme phenotypes. This combined method yielded 12,438,270 reads, 46,087 SLAF tags, and 4,480 polymorphic markers (average depth of 161.81×. There were six sweet trait-related regions containing 13 differential SLAF markers, and 23 sour trait-related regions containing 48 differential SLAF markers. We further fine-mapped the sweet trait to the genomic regions on chromosomes 6, 10, 11, and 12. Correspondingly, we mapped the sour trait-related genomic regions to chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, and 12. Finally, we positioned nine of the 61 differential markers in the sweet and sour trait candidate regions on the parental genome. These markers corresponded to one sweet and eight sour trait-related genes. Our study provides a basis for marker-assisted breeding of desirable sweet and sour traits in Fengwei melons.

  12. How pre-service teachers' personality traits, self-efficacy, and discipline strategies contribute to the teacher-student relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Romi; Mainhard, Tim; van Tartwijk, Jan; Veldman, Ietje; Verloop, Nico; Wubbels, Theo

    2014-06-01

    Although the teacher-student relationship is a well-documented phenomenon, few attempts have been made to identify its predictors. Research has mainly focused on in-service teachers, less is known about characteristics of pre-service teachers in relation to the teacher-student relationship. The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of pre-service secondary teachers' relationships with their students. It was hypothesized that friendliness and extraversion, self-efficacy in classroom management and in student engagement, and various discipline strategies would contribute to the teacher-student relationship in terms of influence and affiliation. A total of 120 pre-service teachers in teacher education programmes participated. Data on pre-service teachers' background (e.g., gender and age), personality traits, and self-efficacy were gathered with teacher questionnaires; data on teachers' discipline strategies and the teacher-student relationship with student questionnaires. The two personality traits and self-efficacy appeared not to be related to the teacher-student relationship in terms of affiliation or influence. However, significant relationships were found between the different discipline strategies and the teacher-student relationship in terms of influence and affiliation. There were differential effects for gender on the relationship between discipline strategies on the one hand and influence and affiliation on the other. This study provides relevant new insights into the research fields of classroom management and interpersonal relationships in education. It contributes to our understanding of discipline strategies by fine tuning an existing instrument and revealing interesting connections with the teacher-student relationship. Specific gender effects on this connection are discussed, as are implications for practice. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Effects of drought stress and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on some morphophysiological traits and yield of savory (Satureja hortensis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    B. Esmaielpour; P. Jalilvand; J. Hadian

    2016-01-01

    Water deficit stress permanent or temporary limits the growth and distribution of natural vegetation and performance of plants more than other environmental factors. In order to investigate the effect of drought stress and mycorrhizal-arbuscular fungi inoculation on the growth and yield of savory (Satureja hortensis L.) a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design were conducted in Research Greenhouse of Horticulture Department of Mohaghegh Ardabili University during 2010. Exp...

  14. USA National Phenology Network’s volunteer-contributed observations yield predictive models of phenological transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Crimmins, Michael A.; Gerst, Katherine L.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Weltzin, Jake

    2017-01-01

    In support of science and society, the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) maintains a rapidly growing, continental-scale, species-rich dataset of plant and animal phenology observations that with over 10 million records is the largest such database in the United States. Contributed voluntarily by professional and citizen scientists, these opportunistically collected observations are characterized by spatial clustering, inconsistent spatial and temporal sampling, and short temporal depth. We explore the potential for developing models of phenophase transitions suitable for use at the continental scale, which could be applied to a wide range of resource management contexts. We constructed predictive models of the onset of breaking leaf buds, leaves, open flowers, and ripe fruits – phenophases that are the most abundant in the database and also relevant to management applications – for all species with available data, regardless of plant growth habit, location, geographic extent, or temporal depth of the observations. We implemented a very basic model formulation - thermal time models with a fixed start date. Sufficient data were available to construct 107 individual species × phenophase models. Of these, fifteen models (14%) met our criteria for model fit and error and were suitable for use across the majority of the species’ geographic ranges. These findings indicate that the USA-NPN dataset holds promise for further and more refined modeling efforts. Further, the candidate models that emerged could be used to produce real-time and short-term forecast maps of the timing of such transitions to directly support natural resource management.

  15. Effect of Nitrogen and Zinc Sulphate Fertilizers and Azotobacter and Azospirillum Biofertilizer on Yield and Growth Traits of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jafari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of simultaneous application of nitrogen (N and ZnSO4 fertilizers and biofertilizer (Azotobacter and Azospirillum on grain yield and growth traits of rapeseed, Hyola308 cultivar, a field experiment, with split plot factorial layout based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications, was conducted at Research Field of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran, during 2007-2008 growing season. Nitrogen fertilizer at four levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha were the main plot and ZnSO4 fertilizer at two levels (0 and 50 kg/ha and biofertilizer at two levels (with and without biofertilizer were arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that maximum and minimum leaf area indices at flowering stage (average of 1.29 and 0.95, respectively were obtained in 150 kg/ha N+ZnSO4+ biofertilizer and in 50 kg/ha N+ no ZnSO4+ no biofertilizer treatments. Maximum and minimum crop growth rates at flowering stage (average of 5.89 and 3.19 g/m2.GDD, respectively were obtained in 150 kg/ha N+ZnSO4+ biofertilizer and control treatments. Maximum and minimum grain yields (2568, 2468 and 543 kg/ha, respectively were obtained in 150 kg/ha N+ with/without ZnSO4+ biofertilizer and control (no fertilizer treatments. Maximum and minimum oil yields (42.8 and 37.3%, respectively were measured in 0 kg/ha N+ZnSO4+ biofertilizer and 150 kg/ha N+ no ZnSO4+ no biofertilizer treatments. Since there was no significant difference between 150 and 100 kg/ha N+ZnSO4+ biofertilizer treatments in terms of impact on canola grain yield and growth traits, it seems that application of biofertilizer (Azotobacter and Azospirillum, without any reduction in yield, increased grain production and oil content and saved 50 kg/ha of N fertilizer. Biofertilizer (Azotobacter and Azospirillum, along with zinc and sulfur, produced phytohormones, and N fertilizer increased dry matter accumulation and leaf area index (by increasing carbohydrate conversion

  16. Effect of Planting Patterns' and Plant Population on Some of Morphological Traits, Harvest Index and Conservable Grain Yield of Sweet Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrolah Alhossini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn is one of the most important crops in Iran and due to its short period of growth, it has been an important position after wheat and barley in khorasane Razavi Province. In this study two methods of planting (one raised bed and furrow planting and 3 plant densities (65000, 75000 and 85000 plant/ha was evaluated on some of Morphological Traits, harvest index and conservable grain yield of sweet Corn(Chase and KSC403su Varieties in Torbat-e-Heidarie in saline (4.060ds/m condition on 2009. The experimental design was factorial based on RCBC with 4 replications. The result of ANOVA showed significant differences between Anthesis silking interval (ASI, tassel length, plant height, ear height, stem diameter, harvest index, and conservable grain yield of sweet corn varieties that effected by planting methods. the highest harvest index was belonged to Chase in 75000 Plant/ha on one raised bed planting method with 31.75% and the lowest mean was belonged to KSC403su in 85000 Plant/ha on furrow planting method with 14.93%. In addition the highest grain yield was belonged to chase variety at 75000 plant/ha and furrow planting method with 11.912 ton/ha, while the lowest grain yield was belonged to KSC403su variety at 85000 plant/ha and raised bed planting (3.610 ton/ha. The Chase variety was better than KSC403su Due to its canopy and photo period is shorter than KSC403su. The superiority of Chase variety can be related to better distribution of leaves, highest harvest index, conservable grain yield and plant arrangement in the row.

  17. Effect of Planting Date and Weed Control Methods on Yield and Agronomic Traits of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. in Khoy Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akbari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of planting dates and weed control methods on yield and agronomic traits of sunflower was investigated. A factorial experiment based on a complete randomized blocks design with four replications was conducted in 2009. Treatments consisted of three planting date (April 4th, May5th and Juns5th and five weed control methods, Trifluralin (2 Lit/ha + Fokus (1.5 Lit/ha, Trifluralin+Nabu-s (3Lit/ha, Trifluralin, Hand weeding and without control. Results indicated that planting dates and weed control methods significantly affected head diameter, 100 grain weight, seed number per head and grain yield. Harvest index and oil percent was affected only by planting dates. The highest grain yield (630.1 g/m2, was produced in the second planting date (May 5 by using Trifluralin+Fokus. Delaying sowing date (after May 5 significantly decreased grain yield. The most important weeds in the experimental site were common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album, field bind weed (Convolvulus arvensis, bastard cabbage (Rapistrum rugosum, flower-of-an-hour (Hibiscus trionum, cockspur grass (Echinochloa colorum and green bristle grass (Setaria verticillata. It was observed that the dry matter weight sharply varied in all weed species in different planting dates, that is, in the 4th April the dry matter production of common lambsquarter and bastard cabbage, in June 5th planting date were maximum. Dry matter of broad leaf and narrow leaf weeds in the date of May 5th was lower than the other two planting dates. The interaction of planting date ×control methods on head diameter, seed number per head, grain yield and weeds dry matter was significant.

  18. The Effect of Foliar Application of Humic Acid and Nano Fertilizer (Pharmks® on Morphological Traits, Yield, Essential Oil Content and Yield of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid azizi

    2017-08-01

    until after flowering. Foliar application continued until the plants were well treated with the solution. Plant height, leaf area index, dry weight, the number of branches, and the number of capsules per plant, the number of seeds per capsule, seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, essential oil content and yield were measured. The factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications. For the variance analysis of test data and drawing graphs, Excel and Minitab-16 software was used. All the averages data were compared at the 5 and 1% level, according to LSD test. Results and Discussion: Different levels of humic acid imposed a significant effect on plant height, leaf area index, dry weight, the number of branches, and the number of capsules per plant, the number of seeds per capsule, seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, essential oil content and yield. Nano fertilizer application significantly increased the yield and essential oil content of Nigella sativa. Combined treatment at various levels had significant effect on dry weight, seed weight, biological yield and essential oil content and yield. According to the results, it can be concluded that the levels of 6 mg.l-1 of humic acid and Nano fertilizer (Farmks® application the treatments were more effective in the increase of growth index, yield, yield components, essential oil content on other traits. The increased seed yield affected by humic acid and nano¬ fertilizer can be attributed to the better vegetative growth, canopy development and consequently, more appropriate use of solar radiation and high photosynthesis. Using nano ¬fertilizer, the time and speed of nutrients dispersion is coordinated by food requirements of the plant and thus, the plant will be able to absorb the maximum amount of nutrients and therefore, while reducing the leaching of nutrients and the crop yield increases. Conclusion: The results showed that the use of nano fertilizer and humic

  19. Contributions of acculturation, enculturation, discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants: A context-specific assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ke; Friedlander, Myrna; Pieterse, Alex L

    2016-01-01

    Based on the diathesis-stress model of anxiety, this study examined the contributions of cultural processes, perceived racial discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants. Further guided by the theory of intergroup anxiety, this study also adopted a context-specific approach to distinguish between participants' experience of social anxiety when interacting with European Americans versus with other Chinese in the United States. This quantitative and ex post facto study used a convenience sample of 140 first-generation Chinese immigrants. Participants were recruited through e-mails from different university and community groups across the United States. The sample includes 55 men and 82 women (3 did not specify) with an average age of 36 years old. Results showed that more social anxiety was reported in the European American context than in the Chinese ethnic context. The full models accounted for almost half the variance in anxiety in each context. Although personality accounted for the most variance, the cultural variables and discrimination contributed 14% of the unique variance in the European American context. Notably, low acculturation, high neuroticism, and low extraversion were unique contributors to social anxiety with European Americans, whereas in the Chinese ethnic context only low extraversion was a unique contributor; more discrimination was uniquely significant in both contexts. The findings suggest a need to contextualize the research and clinical assessment of social anxiety, and have implications for culturally sensitive counseling with immigrants. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Selection of Common Bean Lines, Recombinant Inbred Lines and Commercial Genotypes Tolerant to Low Phosphorus Availability in an Acrisol Soil on the Basis of Root Traits and Grain Yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A.; Gomez, L. A.; Morales, A. [Instituto de Suelos, MINAG (Cuba); others, and

    2013-11-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume for human consumption worldwide and especially in Latin America and Africa, but low soil phosphorus (P) availability limits grain production in these areas. For these reason eighty five recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of BAT 477 x DOR 364 and twenty commercial bean genotypes were sown in plots in an Acrisol soil with low P availability to evaluate nine root traits and grain yield. The study was carried out in Pinar del Rio province in Cuba between November 2006 and February 2009. The plots received basal fertilization (N and K) and P fertilization between 15 and 90 kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5} ha{sup -1}. Ten plants were sampled from each plot at R{sub 6} pod fill to evaluate root traits and shoot biomass, and at R{sub 9} physiological maturity to estimate grain yield. The 85 RILs showed great variability for root traits, grain yield and P stress tolerance calculated as relative grain yield. The commercial bean lines also showed large diversity in yield parameters. Principal Component Analysis showed that there were high and significant correlations between root traits (basal root number, primary root depth, adventitious root length and adventitious root number) and grain yield parameters (grain yield at 15 P level and relative grain yields). Adventitious root traits showed the greatest correlation with yield under low P. Promising RILs included 75.1.1, 60.1.1, 38.1.1, 14.1.1 and 38.1.1 and promising commercial bean lines included ICA Pijao, BAT 482, ICA 23, BAT 24 and BAT 832. (author)

  1. Effect of Water Stress and Spraying of Potassium Iodide on Agronomic Traits and Grain Yield of Bread Wheat (Tiriticum aistivum L. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pooladsaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effect of water stress and chemical desiccation (potassium iodide on grain yield and agronomic traits of 8 wheat genotypes, a field experiment was conducted using a split split plot design based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in Torogh Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station (Mashhad, Iran in 2006-2007 and 2007-2008. Main plots were assigned to two levels of water stress treatments; D1: optimum irrigation, and D2: cessation of watering from anthesis to maturity stages. Sub plots were assigned to eight bread wheat genotypes: 9103, 9116, 9203, 9205, 9207, 9212, C-81-10 and Cross Shahi (drought sensitive; and photosynthetic conditions with two levels: P1: using of current photosynthesis and P2: inhibition of current photosynthesis were in sub-sub plots. The results showed that the effects of water stress and photosynthetic conditions on number of total florets per spike (NTF/S, seed set percentage (SSP, spike harvest index (SHI, duration of grain filling (DGF and grain yield (GY were significant. There was a significant difference between genotypes for spike dry weight at anthesis (SDWA, number of spikletes per spike (NSP/S, NTF/S, SSP, SHI, spike partitioning coefficient (SPC, plant height (PLH, spike length (SL, DGF and GY. 9103 genotype produced the most GY (7870 kg/ha under D1P1 treatment. The least GY ( 1114 kg/ha related to Cross Shahi cultivar under D2P2 treatment. Considering that C-81-10, 9103 and 9116 genotypes showed the highest grain yield, potential for reserves and remobilizations of assimilates under different irrigation conditions thus, these genotypes could be introduced as promising in breeding programs for arid and semi-arid regions. Keywords: Triticum aestivum L., Cessation of watering, Chemical Desiccation, Spike, Grain yield

  2. Associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbo, T; Ruegg, P L; Stocco, G; Fiore, E; Gianesella, M; Morgante, M; Pasotto, D; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits. Forty-one multibreed herds were selected for the study, and composite milk samples were collected from 1,508 cows belonging to 3 specialized dairy breeds (Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss, and Jersey) and 3 dual-purpose breeds of Alpine origin (Simmental, Rendena, and Grey Alpine). Milk composition [i.e., fat, protein, casein, lactose, pH, urea, and somatic cell count (SCC)] was analyzed, and separation of protein fractions was performed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven coagulation traits were measured: 5 traditional milk coagulation properties [time from rennet addition to milk gelation (RCT, min), curd-firming rate as the time to a curd firmness (CF) of 20 mm (k 20 , min), and CF at 30, 45, and 60 min from rennet addition (a 30 , a 45 , and a 60 , mm)], and 6 new curd firming and syneresis traits [potential asymptotical CF at an infinite time (CF P , mm), curd-firming instant rate constant (k CF , % × min -1 ), curd syneresis instant rate constant (k SR , % × min -1 ), modeled RCT (RCT eq , min), maximum CF value (CF max, mm), and time at CF max (t max , min)]. We also measured 3 cheese yield traits, expressing the weights of total fresh curd (%CY CURD ), dry matter (%CY SOLIDS ), and water (%CY WATER ) in the curd as percentages of the weight of the processed milk, and 4 nutrient recovery traits (REC PROTEIN , REC FAT , REC SOLIDS , and REC ENERGY ), representing the percentage ratio between each nutrient in the curd and milk. Milk samples with SCC > 100,000 cells/mL were subjected to bacteriological examination. All samples were divided into 7 clusters of udder health (UH) status: healthy (cows with milk SCC culture-negative samples with low, medium, or high SCC; and culture-positive samples divided into contagious, environmental, and opportunistic

  3. Test-day somatic cell score, fat-to-protein ratio and milk yield as indicator traits for sub-clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, J; Schaeffer, L R

    2012-02-01

    Test-day (TD) records of milk, fat-to-protein ratio (F:P) and somatic cell score (SCS) of first-lactation Canadian Holstein cows were analysed by a three-trait finite mixture random regression model, with the purpose of revealing hidden structures in the data owing to putative, sub-clinical mastitis. Different distributions of the data were allowed in 30 intervals of days in milk (DIM), covering the lactation from 5 to 305 days. Bayesian analysis with Gibbs sampling was used for model inferences. Estimated proportion of TD records originated from cows infected with mastitis was 0.66 in DIM from 5 to 15 and averaged 0.2 in the remaining part of lactation. Data from healthy and mastitic cows exhibited markedly different distributions, with respect to both average value and the variance, across all parts of lactation. Heterogeneity of distributions for infected cows was also apparent in different DIM intervals. Cows with mastitis were characterized by smaller milk yield (down to -5 kg) and larger F:P (up to 0.13) and SCS (up to 1.3) compared with healthy contemporaries. Differences in averages between healthy and infected cows for F:P were the most profound at the beginning of lactation, when a dairy cow suffers the strongest energy deficit and is therefore more prone to mammary infection. Residual variances for data from infected cows were substantially larger than for the other mixture components. Fat-to-protein ratio had a significant genetic component, with estimates of heritability that were larger or comparable with milk yield, and was not strongly correlated with milk and SCS on both genetic and environmental scales. Daily milk, F:P and SCS are easily available from milk-recording data for most breeding schemes in dairy cattle. Fat-to-protein ratio can potentially be a valuable addition to SCS and milk yield as an indicator trait for selection against mastitis. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Evaluation of tomato genotypes against tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) and its effect on yield contributing parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, N.; Ali, A.; Ahmad, M.; Din, N.; Ahmad, F.; Fahim, M.

    2017-01-01

    The use of resistant varieties is an effective, economic and environment friendly management of plant diseases particularly those caused by viruses. This paper reports, evaluation of 21 different tomato genotypes to find out resistance sources against Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) and to study effect of the virus on yield contributing parameters. The virus identity was confirmed both by Direct Antibody Coating Enzyme Linked Immunoassay (DAC-ELISA) and differential host assay. Characteristic necrotic lesions were observed on differential hosts viz., Nicotiana tabacum var. White burly and Chenopodium amaranticolor after 10 and 3-4 days of inoculation, respectively. Upon ToMV inoculation, plants of accession No. 017902 developed no symptoms and were rated as highly resistant. Its resistance was further confirmed by both DAC-ELISA and indicator host assay, while the remaining genotypes displayed a range of symptoms. Plants of accession No. 017883 showed lowest percent disease index (PDI) and were rated as resistant, while plants of cultivar Red jumbo showed maximum PDI (44.97%) and were rated as susceptible. In susceptible genotypes average ELISA absorbance A405 value (2.19) was found higher than resistant one (1.05), while in control healthy plants ELISA absorbance A405 was 0.18. Maximum virus titre 2.73 and 0.91 were found in leaf and root tissues of cultivar Red jumbo, respectively. Among tested genotypes, one was highly resistant, one resistant, four moderately susceptible and 15 were susceptible. The virus significantly (p<=0.05) reduced the yield contributing parameters i.e. plant height, fresh shoot and root weight, dry shoot and root weight in susceptible genotypes. (author)

  5. Global QTL Analysis Identifies Genomic Regions on Chromosomes 4A and 4B Harboring Stable Loci for Yield-Related Traits Across Different Environments in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfeng Guan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in wheat production are needed to address global food insecurity under future climate conditions, such as high temperatures. The grain yield of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is a quantitatively inherited complex trait that is strongly influenced by interacting genetic and environmental factors. Here, we conducted global QTL analysis for five yield-related traits, including spike yield, yield components and plant height (PH, in the Nongda3338/Jingdong6 doubled haploid (DH population using a high-density SNP and SSR-based genetic map. A total of 12 major genomic regions with stable QTL controlling yield-related traits were detected on chromosomes 1B, 2A, 2B, 2D, 3A, 4A, 4B, 4D, 5A, 6A, and 7A across 12 different field trials with timely sown (normal and late sown (heat stress conditions. Co-location of yield components revealed significant tradeoffs between thousand grain weight (TGW and grain number per spike (GNS on chromosome 4A. Dissection of a “QTL-hotspot” region for grain weight on chromosome 4B was helpful in marker-assisted selection (MAS breeding. Moreover, this study identified a novel QTL for heat susceptibility index of thousand grain weight (HSITGW on chromosome 4BL that explains approximately 10% of phenotypic variation. QPh.cau-4B.2, QPh.cau-4D.1 and QPh.cau-2D.3 were coincident with the dwarfing genes Rht1, Rht2, and Rht8, and haplotype analysis revealed their pleiotropic architecture with yield components. Overall, our findings will be useful for elucidating the genetic architecture of yield-related traits and developing new wheat varieties with high and stable yield.

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study for Identifying Loci that Affect Fillet Yield, Carcass, and Body Weight Traits in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Gao, Guangtu; Baranski, Matthew; Moen, Thomas; Cleveland, Beth M; Kenney, P Brett; Vallejo, Roger L; Palti, Yniv; Leeds, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Fillet yield (FY, %) is an economically-important trait in rainbow trout aquaculture that affects production efficiency. Despite that, FY has received little attention in breeding programs because it is difficult to measure on a large number of fish and cannot be directly measured on breeding candidates. The recent development of a high-density SNP array for rainbow trout has provided the needed tool for studying the underlying genetic architecture of this trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted for FY, body weight at 10 (BW10) and 13 (BW13) months post-hatching, head-off carcass weight (CAR), and fillet weight (FW) in a pedigreed rainbow trout population selectively bred for improved growth performance. The GWAS analysis was performed using the weighted single-step GBLUP method (wssGWAS). Phenotypic records of 1447 fish (1.5 kg at harvest) from 299 full-sib families in three successive generations, of which 875 fish from 196 full-sib families were genotyped, were used in the GWAS analysis. A total of 38,107 polymorphic SNPs were analyzed in a univariate model with hatch year and harvest group as fixed effects, harvest weight as a continuous covariate, and animal and common environment as random effects. A new linkage map was developed to create windows of 20 adjacent SNPs for use in the GWAS. The two windows with largest effect for FY and FW were located on chromosome Omy9 and explained only 1.0-1.5% of genetic variance, thus suggesting a polygenic architecture affected by multiple loci with small effects in this population. One window on Omy5 explained 1.4 and 1.0% of the genetic variance for BW10 and BW13, respectively. Three windows located on Omy27, Omy17, and Omy9 (same window detected for FY) explained 1.7, 1.7, and 1.0%, respectively, of genetic variance for CAR. Among the detected 100 SNPs, 55% were located directly in genes (intron and exons). Nucleotide sequences of intragenic SNPs were blasted to the Mus musculus genome to create a

  7. Genetic and environmental contributions to the inverse association between specific autistic traits and experience seeking in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Moya-Albiol, Luís; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Polderman, Tinca J C

    2016-12-01

    Autistic traits are characterized by social and communication problems, restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities. The relation between autistic traits and personality characteristics is largely unknown. This study focused on the relation between five specific autistic traits measured with the abridged version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient ("social problems," "preference for routine," "attentional switching difficulties," "imagination impairments," "fascination for numbers and patterns") and Experience Seeking (ES) in a general population sample of adults, and subsequently investigated the genetic and environmental etiology between these traits. Self-reported data on autistic traits and ES were collected in a population sample (n = 559) of unrelated individuals, and in a population based family sample of twins and siblings (n = 560). Phenotypic, genetic and environmental associations between traits were examined in a bivariate model, accounting for sex and age differences. Phenotypically, ES correlated significantly with "preference for routine" and "imagination impairments" in both samples but was unrelated to the other autistic traits. Genetic analyses in the family sample revealed that the association between ES and "preference for routine" and "imagination impairments" could largely be explained by a shared genetic factor (89% and 70%, respectively). Our analyses demonstrated at a phenotypic and genetic level an inverse relationship between ES and specific autistic traits in adults. ES is associated with risk taking behavior such as substance abuse, antisocial behavior and financial problems. Future research could investigate whether autistic traits, in particular strong routine preference and impaired imagination skills, serve as protective factors for such risky behaviors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Modeling Biometric Traits, Yield and Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Seeds of Three Soybean Cultivars Through the Application of Biostimulant Containing Seaweed and Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Kocira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, attempts have been made to use preparations that allow obtaining high and good quality yields, while reducing the application of pesticides and mineral fertilizers. These include biostimulants that are safe for the natural environment and contribute to the improvement of yield size and quality, especially after the occurrence of stressors. Their use is advisable in the case of crops sensitive to such biotic stress factors like low temperatures or drought. One of these is soybean which is a very important plant from the economic viewpoint. Field experiments were established in the years 2014-2016 in a random block design in four replicates on experimental plots of 10 m2. Three soybean cultivars: Annushka, Mavka, and Atlanta were planted in the third decade of April. Fylloton biostimulant was used at 0.7% or 1% concentrations as single spraying (BBCH 13-15 or double spraying (BBCH 13-15, BBCH 61 in the vegetation period. The number of seeds per 1 m2, seed yield, thousand seed weight, number of pods per plant, number of nodes in the main shoot, height of plants, and protein and fat contents in seeds were determined. The content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and antioxidant effect of soybean seeds were assayed as well. Foliar treatment of soybean with Fylloton stimulated the growth and yield of plants without compromising their nutritional and nutraceutical properties. The double application of the higher concentration of Fylloton was favorable for the plant height, seed number and soybean yield. Moreover, the highest number of pods was obtained after single treatment of plants with the lower biostimulant concentration. There was also a positive effect of using this biostimulant on the content and activity of some bioactive compounds, such as phenolics and flavonoids, and on the reducing power.

  9. Trait contributions to fish community assembly emerge from trophicinteractions in an individual-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Henrique C.; DeAngelis, Donald; Trexler, Joel C.; Petrere, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Community ecology seeks to understand and predict the characteristics of communities that can develop under different environmental conditions, but most theory has been built on analytical models that are limited in the diversity of species traits that can be considered simultaneously. We address that limitation with an individual-based model to simulate assembly of fish communities characterized by life history and trophic interactions with multiple physiological tradeoffs as constraints on species performance. Simulation experiments were carried out to evaluate the distribution of 6 life history and 4 feeding traits along gradients of resource productivity and prey accessibility. These experiments revealed that traits differ greatly in importance for species sorting along the gradients. Body growth rate emerged as a key factor distinguishing community types and defining patterns of community stability and coexistence, followed by egg size and maximum body size. Dominance by fast-growing, relatively large, and fecund species occurred more frequently in cases where functional responses were saturated (i.e. high productivity and/or prey accessibility). Such dominance was associated with large biomass fluctuations and priority effects, which prevented richness from increasing with productivity and may have limited selection on secondary traits, such as spawning strategies and relative size at maturation. Our results illustrate that the distribution of species traits and the consequences for community dynamics are intimately linked and strictly dependent on how the benefits and costs of these traits are balanced across different conditions.

  10. [Body condition and metabolic stability as the basis for high milk yield and undisturbed fertility in dairy cows--a contribution for deduction of reference values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenbiel, R; Arndt, G; Schröder, U; Gelfert, C C

    2004-05-01

    The target of this study was to describe the interactions between body condition and various descriptors of yield and fertility. It was aimed to identify an optimal conditional range to be used in herd management which combines high milk yield with acceptable fertility traits and general health. For this purpose, backfat thickness was measured by ultrasound at 46111 dairy cows on 78 different farms and was subsequently related to production variables. Negative energy balance is getting more intense and prolonged with increasing milk yield. However a conditional nadir below 10 mm leads to decreased milk production. To reach a high production level without an increasing incidence of health disorders, conditional nadir should not decline below 13 mm backfat thickness on herd average. Lower value only lead to negligibly higher milk yield but cause a distinctively higher risk of fertility problems and culling. High herd yields do not have to be at expense of reproduction performance and can be achieved without extreme body condition losses. An efficient herd management can offset depression in fertility, which commonly is combined with increasing milk yield. A standard curve for backfat thickness throughout lactation is suggested to be used in dairy herd management.

  11. Study of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR and Drought on Physiological Traits and Ultimate Yield of Cultivars of Oilseed Rape (Brassica spp. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pooya arvin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oilseed rape (Brassica spp L. is one of the valuable oilseed crops which has been attracting attention in recent years. Iran is located in a semi-arid region, and water shortage has caused problems, namely providing drinking water as much as water supply for crop production. Not only does Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR make plant growth stimulating hormones like Auxin and Gibberellin but also can ease stress conditions by producing ABA. Consequently, considering the current water shortage crisis in Iran, we took three main criteria into account: the roles of PGPRs in increasing resistance to abiotic stress, relief of drought effects, and the importance of cultivation of oilseed rape. The present research has been compiled to study drought and some Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Physiological Traits and Ultimate Yield of Cultivars of Oilseed Rape. Materials and Methods The current study was done on the basis of two simultaneous experiments (under stress and non-stress experiments during 2010- 2011 growing season at Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Station of Torogh, Mashhad is situated in East-North of Iran (36° N, 59° E, 1003 ASL . Two research sites (under stress and no-stress fields were selected beside each other. This region has a semi-arid climate (annual rainfall 286 mm. The experimental design was factorial based on randomized completely block design with three replications in each experiment. The first treatment was Plant Growth Promoting Rizobactria, including B0: no inoculation (control, B1: co-inoculation (Pseudomonas flourescens 169+P. putida 108, B2: inoculation with P. flourescens 169 and B3: inoculation with P. putida 108. Second treatment was cultivar, including Hayola401 and Hayola330 cultivars belong to Brassica napus, Parkland and Goldrush cultivars belong to B. rapa and BP18 and landrace cultivars belong to B.juncea .Greenness index, plant height, relative water content

  12. Contribution of Common Genetic Variants to Obesity and Obesity-Related Traits in Mexican Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; López-Contreras, Blanca; Gutiérrez-Vidal, Roxana; Vega-Badillo, Joel; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Posadas-Romeros, Carlos; Canizalez-Román, Adrián; Río-Navarro, Blanca Del; Campos-Pérez, Francisco; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have identified multiple obesity-associated loci mainly in European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities such as Mexicans is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine 26 obesity-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a sample of Mexican mestizos. Methods 9 SNPs in biological candidate genes showing replications (PPARG, ADRB3, ADRB2, LEPR, GNB3, UCP3, ADIPOQ, UCP2, and NR3C1), and 17 SNPs in or near genes associated with obesity in first, second and third wave GWAS (INSIG2, FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, FAIM2/BCDIN3, BDNF, SH2B1, GNPDA2, NEGR1, KCTD15, SEC16B/RASAL2, NPC1, SFRF10/ETV5, MAF, PRL, MTCH2, and PTER) were genotyped in 1,156 unrelated Mexican-Mestizos including 683 cases (441 obese class I/II and 242 obese class III) and 473 normal-weight controls. In a second stage we selected 12 of the SNPs showing nominal associations with obesity, to seek associations with quantitative obesity-related traits in 3 cohorts including 1,218 Mexican Mestizo children, 945 Mexican Mestizo adults, and 543 Indigenous Mexican adults. Results After adjusting for age, sex and admixture, significant associations with obesity were found for 6 genes in the case-control study (ADIPOQ, FTO, TMEM18, INSIG2, FAIM2/BCDIN3 and BDNF). In addition, SH2B1 was associated only with class I/II obesity and MC4R only with class III obesity. SNPs located at or near FAIM2/BCDIN3, TMEM18, INSIG2, GNPDA2 and SEC16B/RASAL2 were significantly associated with BMI and/or WC in the combined analysis of Mexican-mestizo children and adults, and FTO locus was significantly associated with increased BMI in Indigenous Mexican populations. Conclusions Our findings replicate the association of 8 obesity-related SNPs with obesity risk in Mexican adults, and confirm the role of some of these SNPs in BMI in Mexican adults and children. PMID:23950976

  13. Effect of Selenium and Application Methods of Urea Top-dress on Yield and its Components and Quality Traits of Wheat under Rainfed Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Konani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is the greatest nourishment for most of world’s population. In many lands of Iran, water is not enough for irrigation and also the most regions of country have arid and semi-arid climate. Water deficit is an important stressful factor for plant growth and crop productivity. Nitrogen is main component of proteins and enzymes. It is essential in all of the plant growth stages. Application of nitrogen is essential for retard leaf senescence, maintenance of photosynthetic leaf during grain filling period and increasing grain protein. The time and method of nitrogen fertilizer application are effective on grain yield. The reported that maximum of grain yield recorded when that nitrogen fertilizer was applied at sowing time along with foliar application at the tillering stage. In higher plants, the role of selenium is still unclear. Selenium can increase the tolerance of plants to induced oxidative stress include drought, salinity, high temperature. Selenium increases the tolerance of plants by transpiration or osmotic potential under water deficit. The current paper studies the influence of selenium and application methods of urea top-dress under rainfed conditions in order to promote improved drought stress tolerance and increase the quantity and quality of wheat. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of selenium and application methods of urea top-dress on yield, yield components and quality traits of wheat under rainfed conditions, an experiment was conducted at Ashianeh-ye Sofla village, Khomeyn County, Markazi Province during 2012- 2013 growing season. This experiment was carried out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with four replicates. Experimental factors were included application methods of urea fertilizer in four levels (without application of fertilizer (control, application of 60 kg ha-1 at the tillering stage, application of 30 kg ha-1 at the tillering stage

  14. Dry matter yield and forage quality traits of oat (Avena sativa L. under integrative use of microbial and synthetic source of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bilal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The natural microbes are potential contributor to build up soil nitrogen through transformation of molecular nitrogen to plant available forms. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the contribution of biofertilizer to reduce the synthetic nitrogen application without deteriorating the yield and forage quality. The supplementary nitrogen rates included 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha−1 and the seed inoculation was carried out with the mixture of Azospirillum + Azotobacter spp. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. The results indicated that organic matter contents and ether extractable fat were negatively associated with both nitrogen and inoculation factors. The inoculation produced 6.58%, 9.58%, 2.51%, 16.94%, 10.26%, 17.59%, 14.02%, 33.81% and 66.18% more No. tillers, plant height, leaf to stem ratio, dry matter yield, mineral matter contents, crude fibre, crude protein, crude protein yield and total digestible crude protein yield, respectively over uninoculation. The interactive effects indicated that inoculation alone without nitrogen application produced 19.16% and 6.87% more dry matter yield and crude protein (%, respectively. The beneficiary effects of biofertilizers on growth and dry matter of oat were more pronounced at intermediate level of inorganic nitrogen which was gradually decreased at higher nitrogen levels. The CP, CPY and DCPY achieved with inoculation alone were statistically equivalent to plots fertilized with 0 and 40 kg N ha−1. It is clear that plots sown with inoculated seeds must be fertilized with 80 kg N to produce higher dry matter and economic returns. However, the highest protein contents in dry matter were recorded with highest fertilization level along with inoculation. By giving due attention to stimulatory effects of bacterial species in the present study, it is therefore, recommended to integrate the use of biofertilizers with supplemental

  15. The Contribution of Personality Traits, Motivation, Academic Risk-Taking and Metacognition to the Creative Ability in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas, Ayhan Kursat; Bas, Selda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which personality traits, motivation, academic risk-taking, and metacognition explain the mathematical creative ability of high school students. The participants were 217 9th-grade students that were exceptionally high achievers. The participants responded to a set of measures about…

  16. The Contributions of Student Organization Involvement to Students' Self-Assessments of Their Leadership Traits and Relational Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lois J.; Chenoweth, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Many business schools designate leadership as a learning outcome for their undergraduates, but the question of how to teach leadership is challenging. Results of this study showed that students who were engaged in extracurricular student organizations rated themselves higher on both leadership traits and behaviors than those who were not involved…

  17. 不同种肥施用量对高油大豆产量及品质的影响%Effects of Different Seed Fertilization on Yield and Quality Traits of High-oil Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽娟

    2013-01-01

      为促进大豆高产高效栽培,采用二因素裂区试验设计,研究了不同种肥施用量对高油大豆产量及品质的影响。结果表明:施肥量对高油大豆的农艺性状影响不大,而对产量性状和品质性状影响较大。施肥量在150~300 kg・hm-2时,单株荚数、单株粒数、单株粒重、产量及脂肪含量均随着施肥量的增加而增加,蛋白质含量则与之相反。%In order to promote the high yield and high efficient cultivation ,the effects of seed fertilization on the high-oil soybean yield and quality traits were studied using a split plot experiment with two factors .The results showed that the seed fertilization had smaller effects on agronomic trait of high-oil soybean ,and had larger effects on the yield and quality trait of high-oil soybean .The pods per plant ,grains per plant ,grain weight per plant ,yield and fat content were increased when fertilization increased from 150 to 300 kg・hm-2 ,and the protein content was dropped .

  18. Social cognition: empirical contribution. The developmental building blocks of psychopathic traits: revisiting the role of theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Vanwoerden, Salome

    2014-02-01

    In the context of personality disorder development, theories of typical and atypical development both emphasize social cognition as an important building block for personality development. Prior claims of intact theory of mind (ToM) abilities in psychopathic individuals have relied upon a narrow conception of ToM as equivalent to "cognitive empathy." In this article, the authors make use of a broader conception of ToM comprising top-down and bottom-up processing, as well as the fractionation of ToM in terms of reduced or excessive ToM function, to examine relationships between ToM and psychopathic traits. A total of 342 adolescents (ages 12-17; Mage 15.39; SD = 1.45; 61.5% females) completed the Movie Assessment for Social Cognition (Dziobek, Fleck, Kalbe, et al., 2006) and the Child Eyes Test (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001) in addition to three measures of psychopathic traits. Results demonstrated unique relations between the affective components of psychopathy (callous-unemotional traits [CU traits]) and impairment in both top-down and bottom-up ToM. In addition, excessive ToM related to affective components of psychopathy, while reduced or no ToM related to behavioral components of psychopathy. In mediational analyses, bottom-up ToM was shown to be necessary for top-town ToM in its relation with CU traits. Taken together, these results from the study lend support to revisiting the link between ToM and psychopathy.

  19. Contributions of human activities to suspended-sediment yield during storm events from a steep, small, tropical watershed, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, A. T.; Biggs, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic watershed disturbance by agriculture, deforestation, roads, and urbanization can alter the timing, composition, and mass of sediment loads to adjacent coral reefs, causing enhanced sediment stress on corals near the outlets of impacted watersheds like Faga'alu, American Samoa. To quantify the increase in sediment loading to the adjacent priority coral reef experiencing sedimentation stress, suspended-sediment yield (SSY) from undisturbed and human-disturbed portions of a small, steep, tropical watershed was measured during baseflow and storm events of varying magnitude. Data on precipitation, discharge, turbidity, and suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) were collected over three field campaigns and continuous monitoring from January 2012 to March 2014, which included 88 storm events. A combination of paired- and nested-watershed study designs using sediment budget, disturbance ratio, and sediment rating curve methodologies was used to quantify the contribution of human-disturbed areas to total SSY. SSC during base- and stormflows was significantly higher downstream of an open-pit aggregate quarry, indicating the quarry is a key sediment source requiring sediment discharge mitigation. Comparison of event-wise SSY from the upper, undisturbed watershed, and the lower, human-disturbed watershed showed the Lower watershed accounted for more than 80% of total SSY on average, and human activities have increased total sediment loading to the coast by approximately 200%. Four storm characteristics were tested as predictors of event SSY using Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients. Similar to mountainous watersheds in semi-arid and temperate watersheds, SSY from both the undisturbed and disturbed watersheds had the highest correlation with event maximum discharge, Qmax (Pearson's R=0.88 and 0.86 respectively), and were best fit by a power law relationship. The resulting model of event-SSY from Faga'alu is being incorporated as part of a larger

  20. Genetic correlations of clinical mastitis and feet and legs problems with milk yield and type traits in Dutch Black and White dairy cattle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.; Hellinga, I.; Oldenbroek, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    Direct selection for decreased disease incidence is difficult given low hsuperscript 2s and the absence of disease recording. Genetic correlations between diseases and type traits indicate possibilities for indirect selection; however, correlations often include experimentally instead of routinely

  1. Evaluation of Yield Component Traits of Honeybee-Pollinated (Apis mellifera L.Rapeseed Canola (Brassica napus L. Evaluación de Parámetros de Rendimiento del Raps (Brassica napus L. Polinizado por Abejas (Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Araneda Durán

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent introduction of hybrid varieties raises the question if bees (Apis mellifera L. contribute as pollinator agents in developing the full yield potential of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. In order to evaluate the yield achieved by B. napus cv. Artus pollinated by A. mellifera testing was carried out in the district of Freire, La Araucanía Region, Chile. This consisted in isolating or excluding rapeseed plants from pollinators with exclusion cages. Treatments applied were total exclusion (T1, partial exclusion (T2 and free pollination (T0 with a density of 6.5 hives ha-1, in order to determine the following yield components traits: grains per silique, siliques per plant, 1000 grain weight and yield. The experimental design used was randomized complete blocks with three treatments and three replicates. Results obtained show that the parameter least affected by bee intervention was the grains per silique variable. In contrast, siliques per plant and 1000 grain weight parameters presented significant differences, contributing to a yield greater than 5 t ha-1; which represented a figure 50.34% higher than in the treatment without bees. It may be concluded that the inclusion of bees in crops is fully justified as a production tool.La reciente introducción de variedades híbridas plantea la interrogante de la contribución que pueda tener la presencia de abejas (Apis mellifera L. como agentes polinizadores para desarrollar en pleno el potencial productivo del raps (Brassica napus L.. Con el objetivo de evaluar el rendimiento alcanzado por B. napus cv. Artus polinizado por A. mellifera, se realizó un ensayo en la localidad de Freire, Región de La Araucanía, Chile. Éste consistió en aislar o excluir las plantas de raps de los polinizadores mediante el uso de jaulas excluidoras. Los tratamientos consistieron en la exclusión total (T1, exclusión parcial (T2 y libre polinización (T0 con una densidad de 6,5 colmenas ha-1, con el fin de determinar

  2. Discovering the desirable alleles contributing to the lignocellulosic biomass traits in saccharum germplasm collections for energy cane improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, James [USDA ARS Sugarcane Field Station, Canal Point, FL (United States); Comstock, Jack C. [USDA ARS Sugarcane Field Station, Canal Point, FL (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Phenotyping Methods: The accessions (which includes 21 taxa and 1,177 accessions) in the World Collection of Sugarcane and Related Grasses (WCSRG) was evaluated for the following traits: arenchyma, internode length and diameter, pubescence, pith, Brix, stalk number and fiber. A core of 300 accessions that included each species in the World Collection was selected by using the Maximization Strategy in MStrat software. Results: The core had a higher diversity rating than random selections of 300 accessions. The Shannon–Weaver Diversity Index scores of the core and whole collection were similar indicating that the majority of the diversity was captured by the core collection. The ranges and medians between the core and WCSRG were similar; only two of the trait medians were not significant at P = 0.05 using the non-parametric Wilcoxon method and the coincidence rate (CR % = 96.2) was high (>80) indicating that extreme values were retained. Thus, the phenotypic diversity of these traits in the WCSRG was well represented by the core collection. Associations Methods: Genotypic and phenotypic data were collected for 1002 accessions of the WCSRG including 209 SSR markers. Association analysis was performed using both General Linear (GLM) and Maximum Likelihood (MLM) models. Different core collections with 300 accessions each were selected based on genotypic, phenotypic and combined data based on the Maximization Strategy in MStrat software. Results: A major portion of the genotyping involving SNPs is being conducted by Dr. Jianping Wang of the University of Florida under the DOE award DE-FG 02-11ER 65214 and the genotypic and phenotypic associations will be reported separately next year. In the current, study forty one and seventeen markers were found to be associated with traits using the GLM and MLM methods respectively including associations with arenchyma, internode length and diameter, pubescence, pith, and Sugar Cane Yellow Leaf Virus. The data indicates that each

  3. Excitonic processes and their contribution to non-proportionality observed in the light yield of inorganic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.; Koblov, A.

    2013-01-01

    Using the derived expression for the light yield in a scintillator, the influence of linear radiative and non-radiative (quenching) rates on the non-proportionality in light yield is studied. It is found that if the excitation created within the electron track initiated by a γ-photon incident on a scintillator, remains mainly excitonic, then non-proportionality can be minimized by inventing a scintillator material with linear radiative rate > 10 7 s -1 , linear quenching rate 6 s -1 and track radius ≥ 70 nm along with maintaining the rates of other non-linear processes as discovered earlier. If one can increase the linear radiative rate to 10 9 s -1 , then the non-proportionality can be eliminated at a track radius > 20 nm. (authors)

  4. Elevated CO2 Increases Nitrogen Fixation at the Reproductive Phase Contributing to Various Yield Responses of Soybean Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yansheng Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen deficiency limits crop performance under elevated CO2 (eCO2, depending on the ability of plant N uptake. However, the dynamics and redistribution of N2 fixation, and fertilizer and soil N use in legumes under eCO2 have been little studied. Such an investigation is essential to improve the adaptability of legumes to climate change. We took advantage of genotype-specific responses of soybean to increased CO2 to test which N-uptake phenotypes are most strongly related to enhanced yield. Eight soybean cultivars were grown in open-top chambers with either 390 ppm (aCO2 or 550 ppm CO2 (eCO2. The plants were supplied with 100 mg N kg−1 soil as 15N-labeled calcium nitrate, and harvested at the initial seed-filling (R5 and full-mature (R8 stages. Increased yield in response to eCO2 correlated highly (r = 0.95 with an increase in symbiotically fixed N during the R5 to R8 stage. In contrast, eCO2 only led to small increases in the uptake of fertilizer-derived and soil-derived N during R5 to R8, and these increases did not correlate with enhanced yield. Elevated CO2 also decreased the proportion of seed N redistributed from shoot to seeds, and this decrease strongly correlated with increased yield. Moreover, the total N uptake was associated with increases in fixed-N per nodule in response to eCO2, but not with changes in nodule biomass, nodule density, or root length.

  5. Does the Eye of the Beholder Construct Beauty? Contributions of Self-Efficacy Factors to Divergent Thinking Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V.

    2017-01-01

    The study initiated a project exploring a contribution of creative perception to creative behavior. This study investigated the factors in creative self-perception contributing to creative potential. Creative potential was operationalized as divergent thinking and measured by the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults. Creative self-perception was…

  6. Color suppressed contributions to the decay modes B{sub d,s}{yields}D{sub s,d}D{sub s,d}, B{sub d,s}{yields}D{sub s,d}D{sup *}{sub s,d}, and B{sub d,s}{yields}D{sup *}{sub s,d} D{sup *}{sub s,d}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eeg, J.O. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Fajfer, S. [University of Ljubljana, Department of Physics, Ljubljana (Slovenia); J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Prapotnik, A. [J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2005-07-01

    The amplitudes for decays of the type B{sub d,s}{yields}D{sub s,d}D{sub s,d}, have no factorizable contributions, while B{sub d,s}{yields}D{sub s,d}D{sup *}{sub s,d}, and B{sub d,s}{yields}D{sup *}{sub s,d}D{sup *}{sub s,d} have relatively small factorizable contributions through the annihilation mechanism. The dominant contributions to the decay amplitudes arise from chiral loop contributions and tree level amplitudes which can be obtained in terms of soft gluon emissions forming a gluon condensate. We predict that the branching ratios for the processes anti B{sup 0}{sub d}{yields}D{sub s}{sup +}D{sub s}{sup -}, anti B{sup 0}{sub d}{yields}D{sub s}{sup +*} D{sub s}{sup -} and anti B{sup 0}{sub d}{yields}D{sub s}{sup +}D{sub s}{sup -*} are all of order (2-3) x 10{sup -4}, while anti B{sup 0}{sub s}{yields}D{sub d}{sup +}D{sub d}{sup -}, anti B{sup 0}{sub s}{yields}D{sub d}{sup +*}D{sub d}{sup -} and anti B{sup 0}{sub s}{yields}D{sub d}{sup +}D{sub d}{sup -*} are of order (4-7) x 10{sup -3}. We obtain branching ratios for two D{sup *}'s in the final state of order two times bigger. (orig.)

  7. Update of the Dutch PV specific yield for determination of PV contribution to renewable energy production: 25% more energy!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, Wilfried; Bosselaar, L.; Gerrissen, P.; Esmeijer, K.B.D.; Moraitis, Panagiotis; van den Donker, M.; Emsbroek, G.

    2014-01-01

    Statistics Netherlands (CBS) annually publishes the contribution of renewables to the Dutch electricity supply, by following a national protocol. The amount of electricity generated by photovoltaic (PV) technology is calculated from the average installed capacity in a particular year multiplied by a

  8. Quantitative trait loci for yield and grain plumpness relative to maturity in three populations of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grown in a low rain-fall environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulti Tesso Obsa

    Full Text Available Identifying yield and grain plumpness QTL that are independent of developmental variation or phenology is of paramount importance for developing widely adapted and stable varieties through the application of marker assisted selection. The current study was designed to dissect the genetic basis of yield performance and grain plumpness in southern Australia using three doubled haploid (DH populations developed from crosses between adapted parents that are similar in maturity and overall plant development. Three interconnected genetic populations, Commander x Fleet (CF, Commander x WI4304 (CW, and Fleet x WI4304 (FW developed from crossing of Australian elite barley genotypes, were used to map QTL controlling yield and grain plumpness. QTL for grain plumpness and yield were analysed using genetic linkage maps made of genotyping-by-sequencing markers and major phenology genes, and field trials at three drought prone environments for two growing seasons. Seventeen QTL were detected for grain plumpness. Eighteen yield QTL explaining from 1.2% to 25.0% of the phenotypic variation were found across populations and environments. Significant QTL x environment interaction was observed for all grain plumpness and yield QTL, except QPlum.FW-4H.1 and QYld.FW-2H.1. Unlike previous yield QTL studies in barley, none of the major developmental genes, including Ppd-H1, Vrn-H1, Vrn-H2 and Vrn-H3, that drive barley adaption significantly affected grain plumpness and yield here. Twenty-two QTL controlled yield or grain plumpness independently of known maturity QTL or genes. Adjustment for maturity effects through co-variance analysis had no major effect on these yield QTL indicating that they control yield per se.

  9. Postzygotic single-nucleotide mosaicisms contribute to the etiology of autism spectrum disorder and autistic traits and the origin of mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yanmei; Yang, Xiaoxu; Li, Ziyi; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Zheng; Ye, Adam Yongxin; Yan, Linlin; Yang, Changhong; Wu, Qixi; Li, Jiarui; Zhao, Boxun; Huang, August Yue; Wei, Liping

    2017-08-01

    The roles and characteristics of postzygotic single-nucleotide mosaicisms (pSNMs) in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) remain unclear. In this study of the whole exomes of 2,361 families in the Simons Simplex Collection, we identified 1,248 putative pSNMs in children and 285 de novo SNPs in children with detectable parental mosaicism. Ultra-deep amplicon resequencing suggested a validation rate of 51%. Analyses of validated pSNMs revealed that missense/loss-of-function (LoF) pSNMs with a high mutant allele fraction (MAF≥ 0.2) contributed to ASD diagnoses (P = 0.022, odds ratio [OR] = 5.25), whereas missense/LoF pSNMs with a low MAF (MAF<0.2) contributed to autistic traits in male non-ASD siblings (P = 0.033). LoF pSNMs in parents were less likely to be transmitted to offspring than neutral pSNMs (P = 0.037), and missense/LoF pSNMs in parents with a low MAF were transmitted more to probands than to siblings (P = 0.016, OR = 1.45). We estimated that pSNMs in probands or de novo mutations inherited from parental pSNMs increased the risk of ASD by approximately 6%. Adding pSNMs into the transmission and de novo association test model revealed 13 new ASD risk genes. These results expand the existing repertoire of genes involved in ASD and shed new light on the contribution of genomic mosaicisms to ASD diagnoses and autistic traits. © 2017 The Authors. Human Mutation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Functional traits drive the contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition among multiple arid-zone species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, Xu; Song, Yao-Bin; Liu, Guo-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Ye, Xue-Hua; Cornwell, W.K.; Prinzing, A.; Dong, Ming; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2015-01-01

    In arid zones, strong solar radiation has important consequences for ecosystem processes. To better understand carbon and nutrient dynamics, it is important to know the contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition of different arid-zone species. Here we investigated: (1) whether such

  11. Determinatıon of Some Genetic Parameters, Phenotypic, Genetic and Environmental Trends and Environmental Factors Affecting Milk Yield Traits of Brown Swiss Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Hanifi Selvi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, genetic parameters, macro environmental factors and genetic, phenotypic and environmental trends for actual and 305 day milk yield of Brown Swiss cattle reared in Research Farm of Agricultural College at Atatürk University were estimated. Estimated breeding values that were used for calculation of the genetic trend and genetic parameters were estimated by using MTDFREML computer package program. Environmental factors affecting on actual and 305day milk yields were analysed by using Harvey statistic package program. While effects of the years and parities on the actual and 305-day milk yields were highly significant, the influence of the calving season was found to be insignificant. Environmental and phenotypic trends for actual and 305-day milk yields were determined as -33.2 kg and -29.0 kg; and -27.8±19.1 kg/year and -25.9±8.7 kg/year respectively. Genetic trends for actual and 305-day milk yields were calculated as 5.4±3.8 kg and 3.1±3.4 kg. Heritability’s for actual and 305-day milk yields were 0.21±0.12 and 0.16±0.14 respectively. Repeatability values for actual and 305-day milk yield were found as 0.29 and 0.33 respectively.

  12. Contribution to the design, fulfillment, and data analysis of fission fragment yields of the SOFIA experiment at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellereau, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The isotopic fission yields of U 238 following the SOFIA experiment, conducted at the GSI facility (Darmstadt), are presented here. This experiment takes advantage of the inverse kinematics technique at relativistic energies. Benefits are several: fission fragments are highly focused (high geometrical efficiency) and are also completely stripped, which greatly simplifies their nuclear charge measurement. The first detector of the SOFIA setup is an active target in which fission occurs via electromagnetic excitation, followed by an ionization chamber to measure the nuclear charge and the horizontal angle of both fission fragments. The masses are deduced by the bending radius measurement of the fragments, deflected by a strong magnet (ALADIN), thanks to two position detectors (MWPC), and also by a highly resolved time-of-flight measurement (40 ps FWHM) so that heavy neighboring isotopes can be separated. The data analysis shows that the main goals are achieved since the isotopic separation is reached over the whole range of the fission fragments. A strong even-odd effect is seen in the charge spectrum, which also exhibits a mean heavy charge close to Z = 54. Surprisingly, the neutron even-odd effect of the light region is seen to be very close to the one in thermal neutron induced fission. The peak-to-valley ratio of the mass spectrum confirms that the mean excitation energy at fission is close to the expected one (14 MeV). The GEF code is used for comparison and always gives results very close to ours. (author) [fr

  13. Reproductive traits of Holsteins and Jerseys. Effects of age, milk yield, and clinical abnormalities on involution of cervix and uterus, ovulation, estrous cycles, detection of estrus, conception rate, and days open.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, F A; Britt, J H; McDaniel, B T; Wilk, J C; Rakes, A H

    1983-05-01

    Two hundred and twelve Holstein and Jersey cows were in a study to determine factors that affected reproductive traits. First ovulation occurred about 3 wk postpartum, and interval to first ovulation was greater in cows that had clinical abnormalities postpartum than in normal cows. Jerseys producing more milk ovulated sooner postpartum than lower producing herdmates. Involution of cervix and uterus occurred later postpartum in cows that had clinical problems postpartum. Involution of genital tract occurred later postpartum in older cows and sooner postpartum in cows that had higher milk yields. Duration of first postpartum estrous cycle was 4 days less than for second postpartum cycle. Percentages of estrous cycles detected by standing estrus were 43 and 73% for Holsteins and Jerseys. Estrous detection rates were highest for cows that produced slightly above the mean milk yield and did not differ between cows in highest and lowest milk production quartiles. First detected estrus and days to first insemination occurred later postpartum in Holsteins as milk yield deviation from herdmates increased, regardless of sign. In Jerseys, days to first insemination and days open increased linearly as milk yield increased. Days to first insemination and conception were greater in cows with postpartum clinical problems. Conception rate at first insemination postpartum increased in proportion to concentration of progesterone in blood samples collected during 12 days before first insemination. Overall, clinical problems at parturition and postpartum lowered reproductive performance in both breeds. There was a slight antagonism between milk yield and reproductive performance (days open) in Jerseys but not in Holsteins.

  14. Analysis of yield and plant traits of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivated in temperate region in light of the possibilities of sowing in arid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of selected literature on the species of Brassica with the greatest economic significance. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera currently ranks third worldwide among oilseed crops used for oil production and is the most important in the temperate zone. The manifold uses of rape include not only human consumption of oil, but also the use of post-extraction meal to feed livestock as well as industrial applications as a source of bioenergy or cellulose. The improvement in the economic position of rape among crop plants is also due to the doubling of its yield between 1970 and 2009; the average annual increase in seed yield worldwide was 27 kg ha−1 yr−1. The yield level in Europe exceeds the average yields achieved in the world, particularly in Asia. Recently, the cultivation of oilseed rape was started on a relatively large acreage in Iran where the yield amounted 2.1 t ha−1, exceeding the yields of China and India. In Poland, the acreage of oilseed rape cultivation between 1965 and 2013 increased 3–4 times, and during this period the annual increase in seed yield was 29 kg ha−1 yr−1. Under the field conditions of the temperate climate zone, winter oilseed rape yield is mainly determined by agro-climatic conditions during the growing period, the level of nitrogen fertilization, and the production potential of varieties, which is currently highest in hybrids. There is a noticeable tendency of hybrids towards formation of more siliques by individual oilseed plants. Different production categories of plants appear in a rape crop. Semi-dwarf varieties of winter rapeseed are distinguished by greater silique density, particularly on the main shoot. Moreover, these hybrids are characterized by faster growth of the root system, which enables them to take up nitrogen from the soil more efficiently.

  15. Indirect genetic effects contribute substantially to heritable variation in aggression-related traits in group-housed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Bijma, Peter; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the recommendations on group housing of mink (Neovison vison) were adopted by the Council of Europe in 1999, it has become common in mink production in Europe. Group housing is advantageous from a production perspective, but can lead to aggression between animals and thus raises...... a welfare issue. Bite marks on the animals are an indicator of this aggressive behaviour and thus selection against frequency of bite marks should reduce aggression and improve animal welfare. Bite marks on one individual reflect the aggression of its group members, which means that the number of bite marks...... genetic effects contribute to variation in number of bite marks in group-housed mink. Thus, a genetic selection design that includes both direct genetic and indirect genetic effects could reduce the frequency of bite marks and probably aggression behaviour in group-housed mink....

  16. Ecological characteristics and in situ genetic associations for yield-component traits of wild Miscanthus from eastern Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Lindsay V; Dzyubenko, Elena; Dzyubenko, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    , a strategy is proposed to facilitate the rapid utilization of new germplasm collections: by implementing low-cost SNP genotyping to conduct GWA studies of phenotypic data obtained at collection sites, plant breeders can be provided with actionable information on which accessions have desirable traits...... that this crop is more temperate adapted than its C4 relatives maize, sorghum and sugarcane. Methods A plant exploration was conducted in eastern Russia, at the northern extreme of the native range for Miscanthus, with collections including 174 clonal germplasm accessions (160 M. sacchariflorus and 14 M....... sinensis) from 47 sites. Accessions were genotyped by restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) and plastid microsatellites. Key Results Miscanthus sinensis was found in maritime climates near Vladivostok (43·6°N) and on southern Sakhalin Island (46·6°N). Miscanthus sacchariflorus was found...

  17. Perspectives on the behavior of entomopathogenic nematodes from dispersal to reproduction: traits contributing to nematode fitness and biocontrol efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Christine T

    2012-06-01

    The entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are widely used for the biological control of insect pests and are gaining importance as model organisms for studying parasitism and symbiosis. In this paper recent advances in the understanding of EPN behavior are reviewed. The "foraging strategy" paradigm (distinction between species with ambush and cruise strategies) as applied to EPN is being challenged and alternative paradigms proposed. Infection decisions are based on condition of the potential host, and it is becoming clear that already-infected and even long-dead hosts may be invaded, as well as healthy live hosts. The state of the infective juvenile (IJ) also influences infection, and evidence for a phased increase in infectivity of EPN species is mounting. The possibility of social behavior - adaptive interactions between IJs outside the host - is discussed. EPNs' symbiotic bacteria (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus) are important for killing the host and rendering it suitable for nematode reproduction, but may reduce survival of IJs, resulting in a trade-off between survival and reproduction. The symbiont also contributes to defence of the cadaver by affecting food-choice decisions of insect and avian scavengers. I review EPN reproductive behavior (including sperm competition, copulation and evidence for attractive and organizational effects of pheromones), and consider the role of endotokia matricida as parental behavior exploited by the symbiont for transmission.

  18. Contributions of dynamic environmental signals during life-cycle transitions to early life-history traits in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Tongli; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.

    2016-05-01

    Environmental signals are important triggers in the life-cycle transitions and play a crucial role in the life-history evolution. Yet very little is known about the leading ecological factors contributing to the variations of life-history traits in perennial plants. This paper explores both the causes and consequences for the evolution of life-history traits (i.e., seed dormancy and size) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) across British Columbia (B.C.), Canada. We selected 83 logepole pine populations covering 22 ecosystem zones of B.C. and through their geographic coordinate, 197 climatic variables were generated accordingly for the reference (1961-1990) and future (2041-2070) periods. We found that dynamic climatic variables rather than constant geographic variables are the true environmental driving forces in seed dormancy and size variations and thus provide reliable predictors in response to global climate change. Evapotranspiration and precipitation in the plant-to-seed chronology are the most critical climate variables for seed dormancy and size variations, respectively. Hence, we predicted that levels of seed dormancy in lodgepole pine would increase across large tracts of B.C. in 2050s. Winter-chilling is able to increase the magnitude of life-history plasticity and lower the bet-hedge strategy in the seed-to-plant transition; however, winter-chilling is likely to be insufficient in the north of 49° N in 2050s, which may delay germination while unfavorable conditions during dry summers may result in adverse consequences in the survival of seedlings owing to extended germination span. These findings provide useful information to studies related to assessments of seed transfer and tree adaptation.

  19. Assessment and Reaction of Triticum aestivum Genotypes to Fusarium graminearum and effects on Traits Related to Grain Yield and Seed Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Chappell, Matthew Randolph

    2001-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe), causal organism of fusarium head blight (FHB), has become a major pathogen of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout North America. Since its discovery in the United States, the disease has spread south and east until at present it is an annual threat for growers of winter wheat in the Mid-Atlantic region. Yield losses for soft red winter (SRW) wheat averaged 908 kg ha-1 in the FHB outbreak of 1998 (Griffey et al., 1999). The economic loss from this single FHB...

  20. Comparative analysis of milk yield and reproductive traits of Holstein-Friesian cows born in Turkey or imported from Italy and kept on farms under the Turkish-ANAFI project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Akbas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the milk yield, reproductive traits and productive life of Holstein-Friesian cows born in Turkeyor imported from Italy and raised on farms involved in the Turkish-ANAFI Project. A total of 2600 records for age at firstcalving, 4733 completed lactation records from 2080 cows, and 1130 productive life (from first calving to disposalrecords from 50 farms in the provinces of I•zmir, Manisa and Aydın under the Turkish-ANAFI Project were evaluated. Leastsquares means for age at first calving, 305-day milk yield, lactation milk yield, lactation duration, days open, days dry,and productive life were 28.2 months, 6232 kg, 6829 kg, 336.0 days, 138.0 days, 78.3 days, and 28.9 months, respectively.Corresponding least squares means for cows born in Turkey and imported from Italy were 28.8 and 27.6 months(P0.05, 6761 and 6897 kg (Pdays (P0.10, and 21.6 and 36.1 months (Pof Holstein-Friesian cows in herd-book herds under the project in the Aegean Region was satisfactory. However, therewere reproductive problems as shown by the length of days open. Shorter productive life of cows born in Turkey comparedto cows from Italy suggested that breeders tended to cull locally born cows at a younger age but that they tendedto keep imported cows in the herd for a longer period unless serious problems occurred.

  1. Investigating the Effect of Chemical Management on Weeds Population, Agronomical Traits and Yield of Garlic (Allium sativum L. in Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhan Mahzari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Garlic (Allium sativum L. is an important winter crop in northern of Iran with a total of 9580 ha which produces approximately 90, 197 tons per year. It is the second most widely cultivated species of the genus, Allium after onion (Allium cepa. Also, Garlic along with onions and leeks are three major cultivated species in Alliaceae family. This plant because of high economic and medicinal values is cultivated in 2610 hectares of agricultural lands of Mazandaran Province, Iran. Slow growth rate, low height, and a thin canopy that does not cover the soil enough to sup-press weeds make garlic a poor competitor against the latter until the beginning of spring. According results, reported 71% yield losses in garlic crop if weeds are allowed to grow during the crop season. Weed interference is affected by the time of weed emergence relative to the crop’s phenological development. The weeds, which emerge early or simultaneously with the crop, are highly competitive and should be managed by farmers. Most weed management strategies in cereals target seedlings, as they are the most sensitive stage of the weed. However, emergence of weed seedlings varies every year in timing, extent and intensity. Therefore in this study, the effect of chemical management on reducing the density and biomass of weeds, yield and agronomic characteristics of garlic were studied in Mazandaran Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: After the selection of location test, in order to determine the physical and chemical properties before the preparation of soil for planting, sampling from the soil was carried out from the depth of 0 to 30 cm at some point. The farm was plowed using a moldboard plow, then the used fertilizers in this study were added to the soil twice before planting and then the fertilizers were incorporated with the soil using a Disc. The amount of used fertilizers in this study according to soil test were including: 200 kg Urea per hectare that

  2. A phenotypical approach to the effects of production traits, parturition, puerperium and body condition on commencement of luteal activity in high yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Ariane; Becker, Frank; Martin, Gunter; Nürnberg, Gerd; Römer, Anke; Kanitz, Wilhelm

    2015-06-01

    The interval from calving to commencement of luteal activity (CLA) was determined by progesterone measurements from milk samples obtained once a week until the 14th week post-partum in 513 German Holstein cows in first to third parity. Milk samples were analyzed by an "on-farm" device (eProCheck(®), Minitüb, Germany) and simultaneously by RIA. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of milk yield, protein content and body condition of a cow on the CLA post-partum. Milk progesterone concentrations of "on-farm" measurements correlated with measurements done by the RIA-method significantly (r=0.72; PCows with a milk protein content at 1st milk recording of ≤3.5% revealed first luteal activity 1.3±0.3 weeks later than cows that had a content of >3.75% protein (Pcows with assisted calving or dystocia presented significantly later CLA than cows which required no help during the calving process (Pfertility cannot be confirmed regarding to CLA. The negative energy balance after calving, caused by the high milk yields, is more detrimental for the cyclical activity as was shown by the parameters milk protein content and change in BFT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cell wall metabolism and hexose allocation contribute to biomass accumulation in high yielding extreme segregants of a Saccharum interspecific F2 population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Ching Man; Zhang, Jisen; Jones, Tyler C; Nagai, Chifumi; Ming, Ray

    2017-10-11

    Sugarcane is an emerging dual-purpose biofuel crop for energy and sugar production, owing to its rapid growth rate, high sucrose storage in the stems, and high lignocellulosic yield. It has the highest biomass production reaching 1.9 billion tonnes in 2014 worldwide. To improve sugarcane biomass accumulation, we developed an interspecific cross between Saccharum officinarum 'LA Purple' and Saccharum robustum 'MOL5829'. Selected F1 individuals were self-pollinated to generate a transgressive F2 population with a wide range of biomass yield. Leaf and stem internodes of fourteen high biomass and eight low biomass F2 extreme segregants were used for RNA-seq to decipher the molecular mechanism of rapid plant growth and dry weight accumulation. Gene Ontology terms involved in cell wall metabolism and carbohydrate catabolism were enriched among 3274 differentially expressed genes between high and low biomass groups. Up-regulation of cellulose metabolism, pectin degradation and lignin biosynthesis genes were observed in the high biomass group, in conjunction with higher transcript levels of callose metabolic genes and the cell wall loosening enzyme expansin. Furthermore, UDP-glucose biosynthesis and sucrose conversion genes were differentially expressed between the two groups. A positive correlation between stem glucose, but not sucrose, levels and dry weight was detected. We thus postulated that the high biomass sugarcane plants rapidly convert sucrose to UDP-glucose, which is the building block of cell wall polymers and callose, in order to maintain the rapid plant growth. The gene interaction of cell wall metabolism, hexose allocation and cell division contributes to biomass yield.

  4. The combined contribution of personality, family traits, and reckless driving intentions to young men's risky driving: What role does anger play?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taubman – Ben-Ari, Orit; Kaplan, Sigal; Lotan, Tsippy

    2016-01-01

    of 163 young male drivers, who also completed self-report instruments tapping traits and perceptions. Personality traits were assessed near in time to receipt of the driving license, and actual risky driving and driving-related variables were measured 9–12 months after licensure to examine relatively......The study investigated the relation between the risky driving behavior of young male drivers and their personality traits, familial attitudes and conduct in respect to road safety, intentions to drive recklessly, and driving anger. In-vehicle data recorders were used to measure the actual driving...... stable driving behavior and attitudes. Findings indicate that (a) young male drivers’ personality traits and tendencies play a major role in predicting risky behavior; (b) intentions to drive recklessly are translated into actual behavior; and (c) the parental role is extremely relevant and counteracts...

  5. 抗灰斑病大豆品种农艺性状、品质性状与产量性状的典型相关分析%Canonical Correlation Analysis for Agronomic Trait Group, Quality Trait Group and Yield in Soybean Immune to Grey Speck Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于凤瑶; 辛秀珺; 张代军; 周顺启

    2012-01-01

    To study the relationship between agronomic trait groups yield and quality trait groups of grey speck immune soybean, Canonical correlation analysis in 17 soybean cultivars and the establishment of a comprehensive selection index for yield are reported in this paper. The result showed that: the most important factors for seed yield are yield group's seed per plant, 3-seed pod, pods per plant; agronomic trait group's growth period, knot per plant and plant height, agronomic character and yield group are positively correlated. Growth days and 100-seed weight are positively correlated, bottom pod height and 4-seed pod are negatively correlated; canonical correlation coefficient between agronomic character and quality group has reached the significant level; growth days and protein content are positively correlated, middle height plant, moderate grow period, more knots per plant, low pod position, middle seed, more seed per plant in yield character should be chose as breeding goal, protein content can be improved by selection of grow days and 100-seed weight character.%为了探究抗灰斑病大豆品种农艺性状、产量性状、品质性状间的相互关系,选用了近年黑龙江省审定的17个抗灰斑病的大豆品种为试验材料,对其各性状及性状组基因型值进行相关与典型相关分析,并建立了以产量性状为目标的各性状选择指数.结果表明:对单株产量影响最大的是产量性状组的单株粒数、3粒荚数、单株荚数;农艺性状组的生育期、单株节数及株高,农艺性状与产量性状组间以正相关为主;生育日数与百粒重呈正相关、底荚高与4粒荚数呈负相关;品质性状与农艺性状组间典型相关系数达显著水平;且生育日数与蛋白质含量呈正相关,产量性状的选择应以株高中等、生育期适中、单株多有效节数、较低的结荚部位、粒中等大、单株粒数多为选育目标,蛋白质含量的提高可通过生育日

  6. Evaluating a Contribution of the Knock-on Deuterons to the Neutron Yield in the Experiments with Weakly Collisional Plasma Jets (Part 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Laser-generated interpenetrating plasma jets are widely used in the studies of collisionless interaction of counter-streaming plasmas in conjunction with possible formation of collisionless shocks. In a number of experiments of this type the plasma is formed on plastic targets made of CH or CD. The study of the DD neutron production from the interaction between two CD jets on the one hand and between a CD jet and a CH jet could serve as a qualitative indicator of the collisionless shock formation. The purpose of this memo is a discussion of the effect of collisions on the neutron generation in the interpenetrating CH and CD jets. First, the kinematics of the large-deflection collisions of the deuterons and carbon are discussed. Then the scattering angles are related with the corresponding Rutherford cross-section. After that expression for the number of the backscattered deuterons is provided, and their contribution to the neutron yield is evaluated. The results may be of some significance to the kinetic codes benchmarking and developing the neutron diagnostic.

  7. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with yield and yield ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. RESEARCH ... world's rice production comes from Asia, especially south and southeast Asia that has about 21.5 million ha as salt affected, of which 12 ...... culture, Agricultural Handbook No. 60. Government ...

  8. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of pod related traits in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... assistant breeding selection. Key words: Soybean, pod traits, QTL, different environments. INTRODUCTION. Yield related traits in soybean are generally controlled by multiple genes and environmental dependent (Kwon and. Torrie, 1964). Epigenetics of genes controlling these traits also affect the yield.

  9. Udder Morphological Traits and Milk Yield of Chilota and Suffolk Down Sheep Breeds Morfología Mamaria y Producción Lechera de las Razas Ovinas Chilota y Suffolk Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Martínez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological traits of the whole udder (circumference, width, height, and length, teats (angle, length and width, udder cistern (teat opening and cistern height, and milk yield were measured over one lactation in a total of 18 ewes (nine Chilota and nine Suffolk Down sheep belonging to the same experimental flock (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile. Analysis of variance showed significant effects for breed, sheep within breed, and stage of lactation. Chilota ewes evidenced greater udder circumference (433 mm, udder length (86 mm, teat opening (96º, and milk yield (947 mL d-1 than Suffolk Down ewes (410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, and 559 mL d-1, respectively. Udder circumference, udder width, udder length, cistern height and teat size significantly decreased throughout lactation. Repeatabilities of all traits were between 0.17 and 0.60; the highest repeatability was for udder circumference. This trait is easy to measure and had a discriminatory value for breed differentiation. In conclusion, Chilota sheep had a dairy aptitude greater than Suffolk Down sheep and similar to Spanish and Mediterranean dairy sheep breeds at beginning of their breeding programs.Los caracteres morfológicos de la ubre (perímetro, anchura, longitud y altura, de los pezones (ángulo de inclinación, longitud y anchura, de las cisternas mamarias (apertura de los pezones y altura de la cisterna y la producción lechera fueron medidos a lo largo de una lactación en un total de 18 ovejas del mismo rebaño (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile, nueve de raza Chilota y nueve de raza Suffolk Down. El análisis de varianza mostró efectos significativos de la raza, la oveja dentro de la raza y del estado de lactación sobre las variables estudiadas. La raza Chilota evidenció un mayor perímetro de la ubre (433 mm, longitud de la ubre (86 mm, abertura de los pezones (96º, y producción lechera (947 mL d-1 que la Suffolk Down ( 410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, y 559 m

  10. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Traits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The traits database was compiled for a project on climate change effects on river and stream ecosystems. The traits data, gathered from multiple sources, focused on information published or otherwise well-documented by trustworthy sources.

  11. Heritability of blood pressure traits and the genetic contribution to blood pressure variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, M.J. van; Schut, A.F.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Deinum, J.; Sayed-Tabatabaei, F.A.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Isaacs, A.; Axenovich, T.I.; Zorkoltseva, I.V.; Zillikens, M.C.; Pols, H.A.; Witteman, J.C.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the heritability of four blood pressure traits and the proportion of variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes. METHODS: All participants are members of an extended pedigree from a Dutch genetically isolated population. Heritability and genetic correlations of

  12. Assessment of factors possibly contributing to the susceptibility of sickle trait erythrocytes to mild hypoxia. I., Design considerations and research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    This report continues a review (see FAA-AM-76-15) of the evidence for mixed dominance of the Hbs beta gene in people with the sickle cell trait. These individuals, whose erythrocytes contain a mixture of hemoglobins (HbA/HbS), are healthy and have a ...

  13. Contribution of semen trait selection, artificial insemination technique, and semen dose to the profitability of pig production systems: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Knox, Robert V; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L

    2016-01-15

    The economic impact of selection for semen traits on pig production systems and potential interaction with artificial insemination (AI) technique and semen dose remains partially understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the financial indicators (gross return, net profit, cost) in a three-tier pig production system under one of two selection strategies: a traditional strategy including nine paternal and maternal traits (S9) and an advanced strategy that adds four semen traits (S13). Maternal traits included the number of pigs born alive, litter birth weight, adjusted 21-day litter weight, and the number of pigs at 21 days, and paternal traits included days to 113.5 kg, back fat, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and carcass lean percentage. The four semen traits included volume, concentration, progressive motility of spermatozoa, and abnormal spermatozoa. Simultaneously, the impact of two AI techniques and a range of fresh refrigerated semen doses including cervical AI with 3 × 10(9) (CAI3) and 2 × 10(9) (CAI2) sperm cells/dose, and intrauterine AI with 1.5 × 10(9) (IUI1.5), 0.75 × 10(9) (IUI0.75), and 0.5 × 10(9) (IUI0.5) sperm cells/dose were evaluated. These factors were also evaluated using a range of farrowing rates (60%-90%), litter sizes (8-14 live-born pigs), and a selected semen collection frequency. The financial impact of the factors was assessed through simulation of a three-way crossbreeding system (maternal nucleus lines A and B and paternal nucleus line C) using ZPLAN. The highest return on investment (profit/cost) of boars was observed at 2.33 collections/wk (three periods of 24 hours between collections). Under this schedule, a significant (P profit. The highest gross return was obtained under S13 with IUI0.75 and IUI0.5. The net profit of S13 was 34.37% higher than the traditional S9 (P profit favored IUI0.5 with relative differences of 4.13%, 2.41%, 1.72%, and 0.43% compared to CAI3, CAI2, IUI1.5, and IUI0

  14. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  15. Quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to gray leaf spot and grain yield in corn QTLs associados à resistência a cercosporiose e produção de grãos em milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Delly Veiga

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of hybrid development programs include incorporating genetic resistance to diseases and increasing grain yield. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL through the statistical analysis of molecular markers allows efficient selection of resistant and productive hybrids. The objective of this research was to identify QTL associated with resistance to gray leaf spot and for grain yield in the germplasm of tropical corn. We used two strains with different degrees of reaction to the disease; the genotypes are owned by GENESEEDS Ltda, their F1 hybrid and the F2 population. The plants were evaluated for gray leaf spot resistance, for grain yield and were genotyped with 94 microsatellite markers. Association of the markers with the QTL was performed by single marker analysis using linear regression and maximum likelihood analysis. It was observed that the additive effect was predominant for genetic control of resistance to gray leaf spot, and the dominant effect in that of grain yield. The most promising markers to be used in studies of assisted selection are: umc2082 in bins 4.03 and umc1117 in bins 4.04 for resistance to gray leaf spot; for grain yield umc1042 in bins 2.07 and umc1058 in bins 4.11.A incorporação de resistência genética a doenças e o aumento na produtividade de grãos estão entre os principais objetivos dos programas de desenvolvimento de híbridos. A identificação de locos de caracteres quantitativos (QTL por meio de análises estatísticas associadas a marcadores moleculares possibilita a rápida obtenção de híbridos resistentes e produtivos. Nesta pesquisa, objetivou-se identificar locos de caracteres quantitativos (QTL associados com resistência à cercosporiose e com produção de grãos em germoplasma de milho tropical. Foram utilizadas duas linhagens contrastantes em níveis de reação à doença (genótipos pertencentes à GENESEEDS - Ltda, seu híbrido F1 e a população segregante F2

  16. Effects of Silicon Fertilization on Agronomic Traits, Yield and Quality of Soybean%硅肥对大豆农艺性状、产量及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟英辉; 陈志梁; 程艳波; 年海; 李秀平

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was carried out in the field to study the effects of Silicon fertilizations on SPAD, leaf area index (LAI) , agronomic traits, yield and qualities of soybean Huaxia No. 3 (Glycine max L. ). The results showed that Silicon could increase soybean LAI,plant height,total pod number, the number of valid pods, 100-seed weight,and decrease invalid pods, plant lodging rate. However,there was no significant difference in leaf SPAD. Compared with CK,the Silicon fertilization increased soybean yield by 11. 97%-32. 56% and soybean protein content by 1. 07%-2. 04% ,but significantly decreased oil content by 1. 68% -3. 61%. The results suggested that Silicon fertilizations with proper quantity can effectively enhance soybean production.%以华夏3号大豆为材料,在大田条件下控制硅肥的施用量,研究硅肥对大豆的叶绿素含量(SPAD值)、叶面积指数(LAI)、农艺性状、产量及品质的影响.结果表明,硅肥能增加大豆叶面积指数(LA1)、株高、总荚数、有效荚数、百粒重,减少无效荚数,降低植株的倒伏率;对大豆倒3叶SPAD值无显著性影响.同时,与对照相比,施用硅肥处理大豆产量显著增加11.97%~32.56%,蛋白质含量增加1.07% ~2.04%,油分含量显著降低1.68% ~3.61%.施用硅肥对大豆生产具有很好的促进作用,但在使用过程中要注意用量.

  17. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally. PMID:25866439

  18. Principal Component Analysis of Some Quantitative and Qualitative Traits in Iranian Spinach Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohebodini Mehdi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Landraces of spinach in Iran have not been sufficiently characterised for their morpho-agronomic traits. Such characterisation would be helpful in the development of new genetically improved cultivars. In this study 54 spinach accessions collected from the major spinach growing areas of Iran were evaluated to determine their phenotypic diversity profile of spinach genotypes on the basis of 10 quantitative and 9 qualitative morpho-agronomic traits. High coefficients of variation were recorded in some quantitative traits (dry yield and leaf area and all of the qualitative traits. Using principal component analysis, the first four principal components with eigen-values more than 1 contributed 87% of the variability among accessions for quantitative traits, whereas the first four principal components with eigen-values more than 0.8 contributed 79% of the variability among accessions for qualitative traits. The most important relations observed on the first two principal components were a strong positive association between leaf width and petiole length; between leaf length and leaf numbers in flowering; and among fresh yield, dry yield and petiole diameter; a near zero correlation between days to flowering with leaf width and petiole length. Prickly seeds, high percentage of female plants, smooth leaf texture, high numbers of leaves at flowering, greygreen leaves, erect petiole attitude and long petiole length are important characters for spinach breeding programmes.

  19. Physiological, vascular and nanomechanical assessment of hybrid poplar leaf traits in micropropagated plants and plants propagated from root cuttings: A contribution to breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďurkovič, Jaroslav; Husárová, Hana; Javoříková, Lucia; Čaňová, Ingrid; Šuleková, Miriama; Kardošová, Monika; Lukáčik, Ivan; Mamoňová, Miroslava; Lagaňa, Rastislav

    2017-09-01

    Micropropagated plants experience significant stress from rapid water loss when they are transferred from an in vitro culture to either greenhouse or field conditions. This is caused both by inefficient stomatal control of transpiration and the change to a higher light intensity and lower humidity. Understanding the physiological, vascular and biomechanical processes that allow micropropagated plants to modify their phenotype in response to environmental conditions can help to improve both field performance and plant survival. To identify changes between the hybrid poplar [Populus tremula × (Populus × canescens)] plants propagated from in vitro tissue culture and those from root cuttings, we assessed leaf performance for any differences in leaf growth, photosynthetic and vascular traits, and also nanomechanical properties of the tracheary element cell walls. The micropropagated plants showed significantly higher values for leaf area, leaf length, leaf width and leaf dry mass. The greater leaf area and leaf size dimensions resulted from the higher transpiration rate recorded for this stock type. Also, the micropropagated plants reached higher values for chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and for the nanomechanical dissipation energy of tracheary element cell walls which may indicate a higher damping capacity within the primary xylem tissue under abiotic stress conditions. The performance of the plants propagated from root cuttings was superior for instantaneous water-use efficiency which signifies a higher acclimation capacity to stressful conditions during a severe drought particularly for this stock type. Similarities were found among the majority of the examined leaf traits for both vegetative plant origins including leaf mass per area, stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rate, hydraulic axial conductivity, indicators of leaf midrib vascular architecture, as well as for the majority of cell wall nanomechanical traits. This research revealed that

  20. Does Post-operative Psychotherapy Contribute to Improved Comorbidities in Bariatric Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder Traits and Bulimia Tendencies? A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallé, Francesca; Maida, Pietro; Cirella, Assunta; Giuliano, Elena; Belfiore, Patrizia; Liguori, Giorgio

    2017-07-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and eating disorders may affect the outcomes of bariatric surgery. This study was aimed to evaluate the influence of a post-operative dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) intervention on weight loss and comorbidities in a sample of comorbid obese Italian patients with BPD traits and bulimia tendencies who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). One hundred fifty-four LRYGB or LAGB patients showing BPD and bulimia traits and type II diabetes, hypertension, and/or sleep apnea (OSAS) voluntarily adhered to DBT (n = 72) or treatment as usual (n = 82) for 12 months after surgery. Total weight loss (%TWL) and remission/improvement of comorbidities were considered as outcomes. Differences between treatment groups and between LRYGB and LAGB subgroups were evaluated through Student's t test for TWL and chi-square test for comorbidities. DBT was more effective than treatment as usual (TAU) in reducing weight loss (p bulimia tendencies. Further in-depth investigations and a longer follow-up are needed to strengthen these results.

  1. Dose response behaviour of water scarcity towards genetical and morphological traits in spring wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorkha, I.R.; Tabasum, S.

    2015-01-01

    Combining ability was studied in a Line * Tester mating fashion in wheat (Tricticum aestivum L.). Significant differences were observed for all the yield and yield contributing traits. GCA and SCA components of variation were found significant for most of the traits. Under water stressed conditions among lines the genotype Kohistan-97 revealed significant GCA effects for all the traits except spike length. Among testers, the genotype V08172 showed significant effects for the traits spike length, 1000-grain weight and flag leaf area. Based on desirable SCA effects and mean performance the cross combinations Kohistan-97 * V08172, Chakwal-86 * Punjab-81, Fsd-2008 * Punjab-81, Sehar-2006 * V08172 and Chakwal-86 * V08172 behaved best combiner to tolerate the water stress. Results of genetic analysis offered over dominance type of gene action that remained unchanged with the change in water provision for the traits like 1000 grain weight and economic yield. Similarly additive gene action was observed for the trait plant height under both normal irrigation and water stress conditions. However the cumulative genetic effects to control the expression of yield and yield components was shifted due to the changed environments. The study was concluded that due to presence of additive variance, selection could be practiced in early generation whereas in the presence of recessiveness the selection may be delayed up to the later generations. Plant traits associated with water stress tolerance having high heritability and with additive gene action may be used as indirect selection criteria for early selection of water stress tolerant genotypes. The information generated as a result of this study on genetic analysis of important economic traits of wheat under contrasting water availability positions will be of great value to the wheat breeders to design future breeding programmes. (author)

  2. correlation studies and path coefficient analysis for seed yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 51 - 59 ... Yield being a quantitative trait has complex inheritance, which is ... Analysis for seed yield and yield components in Ethiopian coriander. 53 ..... The financial assistance of Canadian.

  3. Dissection of additive, dominance, and imprinting effects for production and reproduction traits in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jicai; Shen, Botong; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; VanRaden, Paul M; Cole, John B; Ma, Li

    2017-05-30

    Although genome-wide association and genomic selection studies have primarily focused on additive effects, dominance and imprinting effects play an important role in mammalian biology and development. The degree to which these non-additive genetic effects contribute to phenotypic variation and whether QTL acting in a non-additive manner can be detected in genetic association studies remain controversial. To empirically answer these questions, we analyzed a large cattle dataset that consisted of 42,701 genotyped Holstein cows with genotyped parents and phenotypic records for eight production and reproduction traits. SNP genotypes were phased in pedigree to determine the parent-of-origin of alleles, and a three-component GREML was applied to obtain variance decomposition for additive, dominance, and imprinting effects. The results showed a significant non-zero contribution from dominance to production traits but not to reproduction traits. Imprinting effects significantly contributed to both production and reproduction traits. Interestingly, imprinting effects contributed more to reproduction traits than to production traits. Using GWAS and imputation-based fine-mapping analyses, we identified and validated a dominance association signal with milk yield near RUNX2, a candidate gene that has been associated with milk production in mice. When adding non-additive effects into the prediction models, however, we observed little or no increase in prediction accuracy for the eight traits analyzed. Collectively, our results suggested that non-additive effects contributed a non-negligible amount (more for reproduction traits) to the total genetic variance of complex traits in cattle, and detection of QTLs with non-additive effect is possible in GWAS using a large dataset.

  4. Genetic divergence in sesame based on morphological and agronomic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Helena Castro Arriel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of diversity in germplasm collections is important for both plant breeders and germplasmcurators to optimize the use of the variability available. Diversity can be estimated by different genetic markers. The purposeof this study was to estimate the genetic divergence of 30 morphological and agronomic traits in 108 sesame genotypes bymultivariate analysis. The Cole-Rodgers index was used to establish the dissimilarity matrices. The principal componentanalysis identified the traits that contributed most to the divergence and the genotypes were clustered by Tocher’s optimization.Despite the narrow genetic basis, the markers were efficient to characterize the genotypes and identify the most similar groupsor duplicate and divergent genotypes. Greatest variation was found for the traits number of capsules per plant and grain yield.

  5. Quantitative Trait Loci for Fertility Traits in Finnish Ayrshire Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulman, Nina F; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens S

    2008-01-01

    A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate...... combinations, which were observed significant in the regression method. Twenty-two chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected. Several of the detected QTL areas were overlapping with milk production QTL previously identified in the same population. Multi-trait QTL analyses were carried out to test...... if these effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments...

  6. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  7. Genetic relationship between lactation curve traits of dairy cattle in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wasike Chrislukovian

    2014-08-23

    Aug 23, 2014 ... Lactation milk yield is an important trait in selection of dairy cattle all ... affect functional traits such as fertility, somatic cell count and mastitis, ... explain physiological issues reported in Kenyan herds and guide future selection decisions. The correlation between milk yield and lactation curve traits has not ...

  8. Gene actions for yield and its attributes and their implications in the inheritance pattern over three generations in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Brij K; Mishra, R; Jena, S N; Shukla, Sudhir

    2016-09-01

    The gene actions for yield and its attributes and their inheritance pattern based on five parameter model have been explored in four single crosses (NBIHT-5 × NBIHT-6, NBIHT-5 × NBMHT-1, NBMHT-1 × NBIHT-6 and NBMHT-2 × NBMHT-1) obtained using thebaine rich pure lines of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) for three consecutive generations. All the traits showed nonallelic mode of interaction, however, dominance effect (h) was more pronounced for all the traits except thebaine and papaverine. The dominance × dominance (l) effects were predominant over additive × additive (i) for all traits in all the four crosses except for papaverine. The seed and opium yield, and its contributing traits inherited quantitatively. The fixable gene effects (d) and (i) were lower in magnitude than nonfixable (h) and (l) gene effects. The estimates of heterosis were also higher in comparison to the respective parents which suggested preponderance of dominance gene action for controlling most of the traits. The phenotypic coefficient of variation was marginally higher than those of genotypic coefficient of variation for all the traits. The traits thebaine, narcotine, morphine and opium yield had high heritability coupled with high genetic advance. The leaf number, branches per plant and stem diameter showed positive correlation with opium and seed yields. The selection of plants having large number of leaves, branches and capsules with bigger size would be advantageous to enhance the yield potential.

  9. Quantitative trait loci for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viitala Sirja M

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate were used as phenotypic data. In a granddaughter design, 171 markers were typed on all 29 bovine autosomes. Associations between markers and traits were analysed by multiple marker regression. Multi-trait analyses were carried out with a variance component based approach for the chromosomes and trait combinations, which were observed significant in the regression method. Twenty-two chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected. Several of the detected QTL areas were overlapping with milk production QTL previously identified in the same population. Multi-trait QTL analyses were carried out to test if these effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments.

  10. Makeup of the genetic correlation between milk production traits using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Binsbergen, R; Veerkamp, R F; Calus, M P L

    2012-04-01

    The correlated responses between traits may differ depending on the makeup of genetic covariances, and may differ from the predictions of polygenic covariances. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the makeup of the genetic covariances between the well-studied traits: milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, and their percentages in more detail. Phenotypic records of 1,737 heifers of research farms in 4 different countries were used after homogenizing and adjusting for management effects. All cows had a genotype for 37,590 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). A bayesian stochastic search variable selection model was used to estimate the SNP effects for each trait. About 0.5 to 1.0% of the SNP had a significant effect on 1 or more traits; however, the SNP without a significant effect explained most of the genetic variances and covariances of the traits. Single nucleotide polymorphism correlations differed from the polygenic correlations, but only 10 regions were found with an effect on multiple traits; in 1 of these regions the DGAT1 gene was previously reported with an effect on multiple traits. This region explained up to 41% of the variances of 4 traits and explained a major part of the correlation between fat yield and fat percentage and contributes to asymmetry in correlated response between fat yield and fat percentage. Overall, for the traits in this study, the infinitesimal model is expected to be sufficient for the estimation of the variances and covariances. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The potential of non-invasive pre- and post-mortem carcass measurements to predict the contribution of carcass components to slaughter yield of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Lida; Sánchez-Macías, Davinia; Barba, Iván; Rodríguez, Nibaldo

    2018-06-01

    Guinea pig meat consumption is increasing exponentially worldwide. The evaluation of the contribution of carcass components to carcass quality potentially can allow for the estimation of the value added to food animal origin and make research in guinea pigs more practicable. The aim of this study was to propose a methodology for modelling the contribution of different carcass components to the overall carcass quality of guinea pigs by using non-invasive pre- and post mortem carcass measurements. The selection of predictors was developed through correlation analysis and statistical significance; whereas the prediction models were based on Multiple Linear Regression. The prediction results showed higher accuracy in the prediction of carcass component contribution expressed in grams, compared to when expressed as a percentage of carcass quality components. The proposed prediction models can be useful for the guinea pig meat industry and research institutions by using non-invasive and time- and cost-efficient carcass component measuring techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic analysis on yield, panicle and grain traits in rice RIL population of long panicle and big grain%水稻长穗大粒RIL群体产量、穗部和谷粒性状的遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志强; 郑燕; 蔡英杰; 黄姗; 李志勇; 沈伟伟; 郑秀娟; 梁康迳

    2011-01-01

    The yield-related traits of rice on an RIL population of long panicle and big grain character was studied for exploring the inheritance of the yield-related traits of rice. We genetically analyzed 18 yield, panicle and grain traits by using the recombinant inbred lines population (RILs) F9 of the 130 lines which were derived from MIYANG 46/FJCD. The FJCD variety was bred by ourselves and had the characteristics of long panicle and big grain. The analytical method was based on the mixed inheritance model of major genes and polygenes of the quantitative traits in plants. The genetic analysis was conducted about 18 traits of the recombinant inbred lines population. The main research results were as follows; grain thickness ( CT) and grain width/grain thickness ( GW/ GT) were controlled only by polygenes, 1000-grain weight (1000 GW) was controlled by a pair of major genes and polygenes, grain width ( GW) was controlled by three pairs of major genes and polygenes, the other yield-related traits of rice were all controlled by two pairs of major genes and polygenes. The traits of grain weight per plant ( GWPP) , rate of seed setting (RSS) , panicles number of per plant (PN) , PL, number of first branch ( NFB) , length of Eirst branch ( LFB) , length of second branch ( LSB) , grain length/grain width ( GL/GW) , GW were controlled by the heritability of major genes. Grain length ( GL) , grain length/grain thickness ( GL/GT) were controlled by the heritability of polygenes. And the major QTLs may be detected in the traits of 1000 GW and GW.Rice ( Oryza saliva L. ) ; recombinant inbred lines population ( RIL) ; quantitative traits; inheritance model; inheritance parametersBased on the meteorological data from 1971 to 2007 at the meteorological stations in Qujing City, climatic feasibility to tobacco growing was evaluated comprehensively by using the method of fuzzy math and multivariate statistical analysis. The method of PCCA (principal component cluster analysis) was used

  13. Genetic analyses for conformation traits in South African Jersey and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JACO

    Genetic trends for conformation traits of the South African Holstein show that ... conformation traits can be used to improve stayability, fertility and disease resistance (Rogers et al., 1999; .... Genetic correlations among protein yield, productive.

  14. Cerebellum and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosini, Laura; Cutuli, Debora; Picerni, Eleonora; Laricchiuta, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Personality traits are multidimensional traits comprising cognitive, emotional, and behavioral characteristics, and a wide array of cerebral structures mediate individual variability. Differences in personality traits covary with brain morphometry in specific brain regions. A cerebellar role in emotional and affective processing and on personality characteristics has been suggested. In a large sample of healthy subjects of both sexes and differently aged, the macro- and micro-structural variations of the cerebellum were correlated with the scores obtained in the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) by Cloninger. Cerebellar volumes were associated positively with Novelty Seeking scores and negatively with Harm Avoidance scores. Given the cerebellar contribution in personality traits and emotional processing, we investigated the cerebellar involvement even in alexithymia, construct of personality characterized by impairment in cognitive, emotional, and affective processing. Interestingly, the subjects with high alexithymic traits had larger volumes in the bilateral Crus 1. The cerebellar substrate for some personality dimensions extends the relationship between personality and brain areas to a structure up to now thought to be involved mainly in motor and cognitive functions, much less in emotional processes and even less in personality individual differences. The enlarged volumes of Crus 1 in novelty seekers and alexithymics support the tendency to action featuring both personality constructs. In fact, Novelty Seeking and alexithymia are rooted in behavior and inescapably have a strong action component, resulting in stronger responses in the structures more focused on action and embodiment, as the cerebellum is.

  15. Forage yield and quality of kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L.) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate 40 kenaf accessions for forage yield and quality at Universiti Putra Malaysia in 2009. Forage yield and quality traits were measured at the initial flowering stage. The kenaf accessions showed highly significant variation for most of trait studied. Plant dry matter yield ranged from 5286 kg ...

  16. Evaluation of quality protein maize hybrids for yield, association of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was initiated with the objectives to evaluate quality protein maize pipeline varieties in terms of yield and yield related traits, and to investigate association of yield with its components and other desirable traits at Bako. Eighteen genotypes were planted in randomized complete block design with three replications.

  17. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for resistance to fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer leaf-feeding damage in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and southwestern corn borer (SWCB), Diatraea grandiosella Dyar are damaging insect pests of maize resulting in significant yield and economic losses. A previous study identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contribute to reduced leaf-fe...

  18. Heterosis and combining ability for grain yield and yield component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ranged from 0 to -13% indicating that the hybrids tend to be earlier in maturity than the parents. The mean squares due to GCA for days to maturity, ear diameter, member of kernels per row, 1000 kernel weight and grain yield were significant, indicating the importance of additive genetic variance in controlling these traits.

  19. Cryogenic silicon detectors and analysis of Primakoff contributions to the reaction {pi}{sup -}Pb {yields} {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}Pb at COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabmueller, Stefanie

    2012-09-25

    component of the beam as normalization, the absolute cross-section for the process {pi}{sup -}{gamma}{yields}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} could be determined for the first time. It is in good agreement with the prediction of Chiral Perturbation Theory.

  20. Coping skills: role of trait sport confidence and trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Scott; Hodge, Ken

    2004-04-01

    The current research assesses relationships among coping skills, trait sport confidence, and trait anxiety. Two samples (n=47 and n=77) of international competitors from surf life saving (M=23.7 yr.) and touch rugby (M=26.2 yr.) completed the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory, Trait Sport Confidence Inventory, and Sport Anxiety Scale. Analysis yielded significant correlations amongst trait anxiety, sport confidence, and coping. Specifically confidence scores were positively associated with coping with adversity scores and anxiety scores were negatively associated. These findings support the inclusion of the personality characteristics of confidence and anxiety within the coping model presented by Hardy, Jones, and Gould, Researchers should be aware that confidence and anxiety may influence the coping processes of athletes.

  1. Quantitative trait loci mapping for stomatal traits in interspecific ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dr.YASODHA

    seedling raising, field planting and maintenance of the mapping population. ... tereticornis and production of interspecific hybrids displaying hybrid vigour in terms of .... A total of 114, 115 and 129 SSR, ISSR and SRAP markers were generated .... stomatal traits with yield and adaptability would help to improve productivity of ...

  2. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of Romanian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Wheat is adapted to diverse environments, between the ... international collaborative studies many new varieties ... Stability of grain yield and quality characteristics over locations ... grain yield capacity and yield components of twelve .... Analysis of variance for grain yield and yield-related traits over two ...

  3. combining high seed number and weight to improve seed yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    ABSTRACT. Increasing seed size and seed weight is an important trait for trade, yield component and adaptation of chickpea ... determining yield or quality, and the development of rapid and ..... C.G. 1981. Control of seed growth in soybeans.

  4. Using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to estimate sugarcane yield and yield components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) yield and yield components are important traits for growers and scientists to evaluate and select cultivars. Collection of these yield data would be labor intensive and time consuming in the early selection stages of sugarcane breeding cultivar development programs with a ...

  5. Contribution to the study of the reaction {pi}{+-} + p {yields} {pi}{+-} + p + {pi}{sup 0} between 0,5 and 1.5 GeV/c (1963); Contribution a l'etude des reactions {pi}{+-} + p {yields} {pi}{+-} + p + {pi}{sup 0} entre 0,5 et 1,5 GeV/c (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenet, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-06-15

    We measured, with {gamma} rays counters, the total production cross section of {gamma} accompanied by charged secondaries in {pi}{sup {+-}} p interactions between 0.5 and 1.5 GeV/c. We obtained the cross section of the reaction {pi}{sup +} p {yields} {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup 0} p, with incident {pi}{sup -} we could determined only the cross section of {pi}{sup -} p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} + (charged particles) because the lack of information on multiple production. We compared our experimental results with the predictions of simple production models. A method for calculation of high energy {gamma} rays efficiency of detectors with lead converters is given in the appendix. (author) [French] Nous avons mesure, au moyen de compteurs sensibles aux photons, la section efficace totale de production de {gamma} accompagnes de secondaires charges dans les interactions {pi}{sup {+-}} p entre 0,5 et 1,5 GeV/c. Nous avons obtenu la section efficace de la reaction {pi}{sup +} p {yields} {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup 0} p, mais avec des {pi}{sup -} incidents nous n'avons pu determiner que la section efficace de la reaction {pi}{sup -} p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} + particules chargees, par manque d'information sur la production multiple. Nous avons compare nos resultats aux predictions des principaux modeles de production simple. En appendice, nous donnons une methode de calcul de l'efficacite de detecteurs a ecrans de plomb pour les photons de grande energie. (auteur)

  6. Correlações genéticas e fenotípicas entre características de conformação e produção de leite em bovinos da raça Pardo-Suíça no Brasil Genetic and phenotypic correlations among type traits and milk yield of Brown Swiss Cattle in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palma Rennó

    2003-12-01

    traits and milk yield. For the study of non-genetic factors was utilized the least square metolology using the GLM procedure of SAS, and, for estimate of heritability and genetic and phenotypic correlation was used an animal model. The REML metodology was used to obtain variance and covariance components to estimate heritability and genetic and phenotypic correlations. The non-genetic factors influenced most of the type traits and should be considered in the type evaluation of cattle of this breed. Heritability estimates suggest the possibility of moderate genetic gain for selection of type traits. Genetic correlations among some type traits were high, suggesting that some of them could be excluded from the used classification system. The genetic correlations between some type traits and milk yield suggest the participation of these in the elaboration of selection index of animals of this breed.

  7. Genetic Analysis of Kernel Traits in Maize-Teosinte Introgression Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengbin Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed traits have been targeted by human selection during the domestication of crop species as a way to increase the caloric and nutritional content of food during the transition from hunter-gather to early farming societies. The primary seed trait under selection was likely seed size/weight as it is most directly related to overall grain yield. Additional seed traits involved in seed shape may have also contributed to larger grain. Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays kernel weight has increased more than 10-fold in the 9000 years since domestication from its wild ancestor, teosinte (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis. In order to study how size and shape affect kernel weight, we analyzed kernel morphometric traits in a set of 10 maize-teosinte introgression populations using digital imaging software. We identified quantitative trait loci (QTL for kernel area and length with moderate allelic effects that colocalize with kernel weight QTL. Several genomic regions with strong effects during maize domestication were detected, and a genetic framework for kernel traits was characterized by complex pleiotropic interactions. Our results both confirm prior reports of kernel domestication loci and identify previously uncharacterized QTL with a range of allelic effects, enabling future research into the genetic basis of these traits.

  8. Determination of gene action for some biometrical traits in Lens ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RESEARCH NOTE. Determination ... limitation of this design is that if the testers do not differ at all loci for ... the traits under study indicating the presence of epistasis for these traits ... Quantitative genetic analysis for yield traits in lentil. Table 1.

  9. Yield trends and yield gap analysis of major crops in the world

    OpenAIRE

    Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the gap between current and potential yields of major crops in the world, and the production constraints that contribute to this yield gap. Using an expert-based evaluation of yield gaps and the literature, global and regional yields and yield trends of major crops are quantified, yield gaps evaluated by crop experts, current yield progress by breeding estimated, and different yield projections compared. Results show decreasing yield growth for wheat and rice, but ...

  10. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to riboflavin (vitamin B2) and contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    substantiation of a health claim related to riboflavin (vitamin B2) and contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism. The food constituent, riboflavin, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. Contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism is a beneficial physiological...... effect for infants and young children. A claim on riboflavin and contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism in the general population has already been assessed with a favourable outcome. The Panel notes that the role of riboflavin on normal energy-yielding metabolism applies to all ages, including...... infants and young children (from birth to three years). The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of riboflavin and contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism....

  11. Improvement in genetic evaluation of female fertility in dairy cattle using multiple-trait models including milk production traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, C; Madsen, P; Lund, M S

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the improvement in genetic evaluation of fertility traits by using production traits as secondary traits (MILK = 305-d milk yield, FAT = 305-d fat yield, and PROT = 305-d protein yield). Data including 471,742 records from first lactations of Denmark Holstein cows, covering...... the years of inseminations during first lactations from 1995 to 2004, were analyzed. Six fertility traits (i.e., interval in days from calving to first insemination, calving interval, days open, interval in days from first to last insemination, numbers of inseminations per conception, and nonreturn rate...... stability and predictive ability than single-trait models for all the fertility traits, except for nonreturn rate within 56 d after first service. The stability and predictive ability for the model including MILK or PROT were similar to the model including all 3 milk production traits and better than...

  12. Development of methodics for the characterization of the composition of the ion-collision-induced secondary-particle flux by comparison of the yield contributions of photoinduced ion formation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vering, Guido

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a method to distinguish between different ion formation processes and to determine the influence of these processes on the total number of detected monatomic ions of a certain element. A vector/matrix-formalism was developed, which describes the physical processes of sputtering, ion formation, mass separation and detection in laser-SNMS. In the framework of the method developed, based on this theoretic formalism, changes in the secondary flux contribution of the respective element were observed by comparing the detected monatomic ion yield obtained in specifically aligned (SIMS and) laser-SNMS experiments. The yields resulting from these experiments were used to calculate characteristic numbers to compare the flux composition from different surfaces. The potential of the method was demonstrated for the elements boron, iron and gadolinium by investigating the changes in the flux composition of secondary particles sputtered from metallic surfaces, as a function of the oxygen concentration at the surface. Finally, combined laser-SNMS depth profiles and images, obtained with both laser systems, were presented to demonstrate how the parallel detection of the three differently originated ion signals of the same element can be used to get additional information about the composition of the flux of secondary particles synchronously during the analysis of elemental distributions. In this respect the presented method can be a very helpful tool to prevent misleading interpretations of SIMS or laser-SNMS data. (orig.)

  13. Comparative Analyses of Phenotypic Trait Covariation within and among Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiman, Kathryn S; Robinson, Beren W

    2017-10-01

    Many morphological, behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits covary across the biological scales of individuals, populations, and species. However, the processes that cause traits to covary also change over these scales, challenging our ability to use patterns of trait covariance to infer process. Trait relationships are also widely assumed to have generic functional relationships with similar evolutionary potentials, and even though many different trait relationships are now identified, there is little appreciation that these may influence trait covariation and evolution in unique ways. We use a trait-performance-fitness framework to classify and organize trait relationships into three general classes, address which ones more likely generate trait covariation among individuals in a population, and review how selection shapes phenotypic covariation. We generate predictions about how trait covariance changes within and among populations as a result of trait relationships and in response to selection and consider how these can be tested with comparative data. Careful comparisons of covariation patterns can narrow the set of hypothesized processes that cause trait covariation when the form of the trait relationship and how it responds to selection yield clear predictions about patterns of trait covariation. We discuss the opportunities and limitations of comparative approaches to evaluate hypotheses about the evolutionary causes and consequences of trait covariation and highlight the importance of evaluating patterns within populations replicated in the same and in different selective environments. Explicit hypotheses about trait relationships are key to generating effective predictions about phenotype and its evolution using covariance data.

  14. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... used different genotypes and the environmental conditions under which their ... and Jinks (1971):. Y = m + aa + βd + a2aa + 2aβad +β2dd … .... /plant, 100-grain weight per plant and Grain yield per plant (g) of six generations in IET6279 X IR70445-146-3-. 3 cross. Traits. Generation. Mean. Standard. Range.

  15. Quantitative trait loci for milk production and functional traits in two Danish Cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, M D; Rychtarova, J; Zink, V

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) in Danish Jersey and Danish Red cattle were independently mapped by least squares regression analysis. For Jersey breed, five grandsire families were genotyped for 186 markers on 16 chromosomes (BTAs). Eight traits analysed were milk yield (MY), fat percentage (FP), ...

  16. Heritability of Drought Adaptive Traits and Relationships with Grain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationships with Grain Yield in Maize Grown under. High Plant ... components and flowering traits observed across all growing conditions in the same ... serious yield instability at farm level (Bolaños and Edmeades, 1996). For this .... factors. Analysis of variance (Table 1) for each trait in each environment was carried.

  17. Studies on seed yield potential of some selected kenaf (Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-11

    Jun 11, 2014 ... Kenaf seed yield depends on morpho-physiological traits between varieties, .... separated using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% ... Mean squares derived from combined analysis of variance for seed yield and yield components in 20 .... environment interaction and yield stability in winter wheat.

  18. Zero tillage: A potential technology to improve cotton yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hafiz Ghazanfar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zero tillage technology revealed with no use of any soil inverting technique to grow crops. The crop plant seed is planted in the soil directly after irrigation to make the soil soft without any replenishing in soil layers. A study was conducted to evaluate cotton genotypes FH-114 and FH-142 for the consecutive three years of growing seasons from 2013-15. The seed of both genotypes was sown with two date of sowing, 1 March and 1 May of each three years of sowing under three tillage treatments (zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage in triplicate completely randomized split-split plot design. It was found from results that significant differences were recorded for tillage treatments, date of sowing, genotypes and their interactions. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the yield and it attributed traits for potential of FH-114 and FH-142 cotton genotypes. The genotype FH-142 was found with higher and batter performance as compared to FH-114 under zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage techniques. The traits bolls per plant, boll weight, fibre fineness, fibre strength, plant height, cotton yield per plant and sympodial branches per plant were found as most contributing traits towards cotton yield and production. It was also found that FH-142 gives higher output in terms of economic gain under zero tillage with 54% increase as compared to conventional tillage technique. It was suggested that zero tillage technology should be adopted to improve cotton yield and quality. It was also recommended that further study to evaluate zero tillage as potential technology should be performed with different regions, climate and timing throughout the world.

  19. Morphological traits based diversity in safflower (carthamus tinctorius L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinwari, Z.K.; Rehman, H.

    2014-01-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) one of the world minor oil crops originated in the Middle East. The breeding potential of the safflower genotypes held in the gene-bank of Plant Genetic Resources Institute (PGRI) has not been exploited to date. Present work was carried out to evaluate 122 genotypes collected from various eco-geographical regions/countries of the world. Observations were recorded for eleven quantitative and five qualitative characters to estimate substantial variation and relationship among the genotypes and identify promising accession(s) for traits of economic significance. A significant level of morphological diversity was noticed for a number of traits. The largest variation was recorded for capsules plant-1, seeds capsule-1, seed yield plant-1, plant height, days to flowering initiation and days to maturity. Relatively low level of variability was distinguished in 100-seed weight, capsule diameter, primary branches plant-1, days to flower completion, time of flowering, flower color, leaf shape and spininess. The correlation analysis indicated that seed diameter, capsules plant-1 and seeds capsule-1 had highly significant positive contribution to seed yield plant-1. Only one trait, time of flowering showed negative correlation with seed yield plant-1. Principal component (PC) analysis of 122 safflower germplasm displayed significant variation with PC1 having 26.02% of the total variation, 19.97% for PC2, 12.38% for PC3 and PC4 contributed 11.24% of the total variation and revealed that the characters that mainly distinguish the germplasm are: capsule diameter, capsules plant-1, seeds capsule-1, days to maturity, plant height and time of flowering. Cluster analysis recognized five major clusters. Our findings have an important application for safflower germplasm evaluation and preservation. (author)

  20. The Contribution of Personality and Refugee Camp Experience to Callous and Unemotional Traits Among Immigrant Adolescents in the United States: Implications for the DSM-5 "Limited Prosocial Emotions" Specifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D; Malikina, Mariya V; Hecht, Lisa K; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Chan, Wing Yi

    2016-04-01

    Callous and Unemotional (C&U) traits characterize a group of adolescents who engage and persist in especially severe antisocial behaviors. These traits have been included in DSM-5 within a "Limited Prosocial Emotions" (LPE) specifier for Conduct Disorder. To investigate the generalizability of this specifier to non-Western cultures, we examined associations among Big Five personality, refugee camp experience, and C&U traits among 81 immigrant adolescents from non-Western cultures. Adolescents with refugee camp history endorsed higher levels of Uncaring than other adolescents. Personality traits explained 6 (Unemotional) to 18 % (Callousness) of the variance in C&U traits. The association between Neuroticism and Callousness held only for adolescents with a refugee camp history. Our results corroborate the importance of considering personality to understand C&U traits and the LPE specifier. Results also raise questions regarding the applicability of C&U traits to non-Western adolescents with varying pre-immigration experiences, and raise the possibility that the LPE specifier is vulnerable to false-positive identifications among such individuals.

  1. Gene interactions and genetics for yield and its attributes in grass pea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Parihar A. K., Dixit G. P. and Singh D. 2016 Gene interactions and genetics for yield and its attributes .... Biological yield. Seed yield factors. Plant height. Primary branches plant pod ..... indicates that these traits are under the control of several.

  2. Genetic variability, correlation and path coefficients of yield and its components analysis in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch Ex Poir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM Mohsin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability, correlation and path coefficient were studied for yield and yield component traits in twenty one diverse genotypes of pumpkin. Highest genotypic coefficient of variation was recorded for fruit length (cm, single fruit weight (kg, Brix (% and yield per plant (kg. Heritability estimates in broad sense were higher for almost all the characters. The characters namely, fruit length, single fruit weight, yield per plant and brix% had high genotypic coefficient of variation coupled with heritability gave high genetic advance expressed as percentage of mean ranged from 76.84 to 96.06 which indicated that these characters were less influenced by environment confirming additive gene action, and therefore, selection of these characters would be more effective for yield improvement of pumpkins. Total six traits likely fruit length, fruit diameter, flesh thickness, single fruit weight and number of fruits per plant were positively and significantly associated with yield per plant. Path coefficient analysis also revealed maximum contribution of single fruit weight (0.869 to yield and this was followed by the contribution of number of fruit per plant (0.527 at genotypic level.

  3. Correlation and path-cofficient analysis of seed yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken in order to determine the association among yield components and their direct and indirect effects on the seed yield of confectionery sunflower. 36 confectionery sunflower populations originated from different regions of Northwest Iran were characterized using 11 agromorphological traits ...

  4. Effect of water stress on yield and yield components of sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment during year 2009 was conducted in the research station of the University of Tehran, College of Abouraihan in Pakdasht region, Iran. The study was aimed to investigate the effect of water stress on seed yield, yield component and some quantitative traits of four sunflower hybrids namely Azargol, Alstar, ...

  5. Genetic Divergence and Heritability of 42 Coloured Upland Rice Genotypes (Oryzasativa) as Revealed by Microsatellites Marker and Agro-Morphological Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faiz; Hanafi, Mohamed Musa; Hakim, Md Abdul; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Arolu, Ibrahim Wasiu; Akmar Abdullah, Siti Nor

    2015-01-01

    Coloured rice genotypes have greater nutritious value and consumer demand for these varieties is now greater than ever. The documentation of these genotypes is important for the improvement of the rice plant. In this study, 42 coloured rice genotypes were selected for determination of their genetic divergence using 25 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers and 15 agro-morphological traits. Twenty-one out of the 25 SSR primers showed distinct, reproducible polymorphism. A dendrogram constructed using the SSR primers clustered the 42 coloured rice genotypes into 7 groups. Further, principle component analysis showed 75.28% of total variations were explained by the first—three components. All agro-morphological traits showed significant difference at the (p≤0.05) and (p≤0.01) levels. From the dendrogram constructed using the agro-morphological traits, all the genotypes were clustered into four distinct groups. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed that among the 15 agro-morphological traits, the yield contributing factor had positive correlation with the number of tillers, number of panicles, and panicle length. The heritability of the 15 traits ranged from 17.68 to 99.69%. Yield per plant and harvest index showed the highest value for both heritability and genetic advance. The information on the molecular and agro-morphological traits can be used in rice breeding programmes to improve nutritional value and produce higher yields. PMID:26393807

  6. Genetic Characterization of Dog Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilska, Joanna; Haskell, Marie J; Blott, Sarah C; Sánchez-Molano, Enrique; Polgar, Zita; Lofgren, Sarah E; Clements, Dylan N; Wiener, Pamela

    2017-06-01

    The genetic architecture of behavioral traits in dogs is of great interest to owners, breeders, and professionals involved in animal welfare, as well as to scientists studying the genetics of animal (including human) behavior. The genetic component of dog behavior is supported by between-breed differences and some evidence of within-breed variation. However, it is a challenge to gather sufficiently large datasets to dissect the genetic basis of complex traits such as behavior, which are both time-consuming and logistically difficult to measure, and known to be influenced by nongenetic factors. In this study, we exploited the knowledge that owners have of their dogs to generate a large dataset of personality traits in Labrador Retrievers. While accounting for key environmental factors, we demonstrate that genetic variance can be detected for dog personality traits assessed using questionnaire data. We identified substantial genetic variance for several traits, including fetching tendency and fear of loud noises, while other traits revealed negligibly small heritabilities. Genetic correlations were also estimated between traits; however, due to fairly large SEs, only a handful of trait pairs yielded statistically significant estimates. Genomic analyses indicated that these traits are mainly polygenic, such that individual genomic regions have small effects, and suggested chromosomal associations for six of the traits. The polygenic nature of these traits is consistent with previous behavioral genetics studies in other species, for example in mouse, and confirms that large datasets are required to quantify the genetic variance and to identify the individual genes that influence behavioral traits. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  7. Genetic and environmental contributions to increased wheat yield in Minas Gerais, Brazil Contribuições genéticas e ambientais para aumento do rendimento do trigo em Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeliano Cargnin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Producers need wheat cultivars adapted to the predominant climate conditions of the end of the rainy period. Having this in mind, EPAMIG (Agriculture and Livestock Research Institute of Minas Gerais has been developing a wheat genetic improvement program since 1976, and the estimates of the genetic improvement established by the breeding programs could be useful to quantify their efficiency. This study focused on the quantification of the genetic progress achieved by these improvement programs of dryland wheat in the Brazilian-savanna between 1976 and 2005. The efficiency of these programs was evaluated based on grain yield data of VCU (Value for Cultivation and Use trials conducted at ten locations in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The mean estimated genetic progress for mean grain yield between 1976 and 2005 was 37 kg ha-1 year-1. The genetic yield gain in the study period indicates that the improvement programs of dryland wheat in the Brazilian-savanna are effective. Besides the marked contribution of genetic gain, the environmental and technological improvements were also relevant for the yield, accounting for 47.4% of the total progress in the period. The improvement programs of dryland wheat resulted in a genotype renovation rate of 35% over the years.Devido à necessidade dos produtores por cultivares de trigo adaptados às condições climáticas do final da época das chuvas, desde 1976 a EPAMIG (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais vem desenvolvendo um programa de melhoramento genético. As estimativas dos progressos genéticos alcançados pelos programas de melhoramento são instrumentos hábeis para se quantificar a eficiência dos trabalhos executados. Quantificou-se o progresso genético obtido pelos programas de melhoramento do trigo de sequeiro no cerrado brasileiro no período de 1976 a 2005 utilizando-se resultados de produtividade de grãos obtidos nos ensaios de valor de cultivo e uso. O progresso genético m

  8. Using traits to uncover tropical forest function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Nate G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Xu, Chonggang [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA

    2017-04-11

    Plant traits reflect their evolutionary history and influence physiological processes (Reich, 2014). For example, the embolism risk taken by plants, called the embolism safety margin, is a good predictor of stomatal conductance, and hence photosynthesis (Skelton et al., 2015). Trait-science has grown dramatically in the last decade as we have found niversal patterns governing the carbon and nutrient economies of plants (Bloom et al., 1985). Perhaps the greatest value of studying plant functional traits is that they yield understanding of plant functional processes.

  9. Yield trends and yield gap analysis of major crops in the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the gap between current and potential yields of major crops in the world, and the production constraints that contribute to this yield gap. Using an expert-based evaluation of yield gaps and the literature, global and regional yields and yield trends of major crops are

  10. Genetic basis of nitrogen use efficiency and yield stability across environments in winter rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Anne-Sophie; Laperche, Anne; Bissuel-Belaygue, Christine; Baron, Cécile; Morice, Jérôme; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Dheu, Jean-Eric; George, Pierre; Pinochet, Xavier; Foubert, Thomas; Maes, Olivier; Dugué, Damien; Guinot, Florent; Nesi, Nathalie

    2016-09-15

    Nitrogen use efficiency is an important breeding trait that can be modified to improve the sustainability of many crop species used in agriculture. Rapeseed is a major oil crop with low nitrogen use efficiency, making its production highly dependent on nitrogen input. This complex trait is suspected to be sensitive to genotype × environment interactions, especially genotype × nitrogen interactions. Therefore, phenotyping diverse rapeseed populations under a dense network of trials is a powerful approach to study nitrogen use efficiency in this crop. The present study aimed to determine the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with yield in winter oilseed rape and to assess the stability of these regions under contrasting nitrogen conditions for the purpose of increasing nitrogen use efficiency. Genome-wide association studies and linkage analyses were performed on two diversity sets and two doubled-haploid populations. These populations were densely genotyped, and yield-related traits were scored in a multi-environment design including seven French locations, six growing seasons (2009 to 2014) and two nitrogen nutrition levels (optimal versus limited). Very few genotype × nitrogen interactions were detected, and a large proportion of the QTL were stable across nitrogen nutrition conditions. In contrast, strong genotype × trial interactions in which most of the QTL were specific to a single trial were found. To obtain further insight into the QTL × environment interactions, genetic analyses of ecovalence were performed to identify the genomic regions contributing to the genotype × nitrogen and genotype × trial interactions. Fifty-one critical genomic regions contributing to the additive genetic control of yield-associated traits were identified, and the structural organization of these regions in the genome was investigated. Our results demonstrated that the effect of the trial was greater than the effect of nitrogen nutrition

  11. Correlation, Regression and Path Analyses of Seed Yield Components in Crambe abyssinica, a Promising Industrial Oil Crop

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Banglian; Yang, Yiming; Luo, Tingting; Wu, S.; Du, Xuezhu; Cai, Detian; Loo, van, E.N.; Huang Bangquan

    2013-01-01

    In the present study correlation, regression and path analyses were carried out to decide correlations among the agro- nomic traits and their contributions to seed yield per plant in Crambe abyssinica. Partial correlation analysis indicated that plant height (X1) was significantly correlated with branching height and the number of first branches (P <0.01); Branching height (X2) was significantly correlated with pod number of primary inflorescence (P <0.01) and number of secondary branch...

  12. Towards a reference plant trait ontology for modeling knowledge of plant traits and phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontology engineering and knowledge modeling for the plant sciences is expected to contribute to the understanding of the basis of plant traits that determine phenotypic expression in a given environment. Several crop- or clade-specific plant trait ontologies have been developed to describe plant tr...

  13. Genotypic Variation in Yield, Yield Components, Root Morphology and Architecture, in Soybean in Relation to Water and Phosphorus Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Jin, Yi; Du, Yan-Lei; Wang, Tao; Turner, Neil C.; Yang, Ru-Ping; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.; Li, Feng-Min

    2017-01-01

    , root traits also contribute to high nutrient uptake efficiency and benefit yield under drought. PMID:28912792

  14. Capturing pair-wise epistatic effects associated with three agronomic traits in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Wu, Yajun; Wu, Jixiang

    2018-04-01

    Genetic association mapping has been widely applied to determine genetic markers favorably associated with a trait of interest and provide information for marker-assisted selection. Many association mapping studies commonly focus on main effects due to intolerable computing intensity. This study aims to select several sets of DNA markers with potential epistasis to maximize genetic variations of some key agronomic traits in barley. By doing so, we integrated a MDR (multifactor dimensionality reduction) method with a forward variable selection approach. This integrated approach was used to determine single nucleotide polymorphism pairs with epistasis effects associated with three agronomic traits: heading date, plant height, and grain yield in barley from the barley Coordinated Agricultural Project. Our results showed that four, seven, and five SNP pairs accounted for 51.06, 45.66 and 40.42% for heading date, plant height, and grain yield, respectively with epistasis being considered, while corresponding contributions to these three traits were 45.32, 31.39, 31.31%, respectively without epistasis being included. The results suggested that epistasis model was more effective than non-epistasis model in this study and can be more preferred for other applications.

  15. Dissecting grain yield pathways and their interactions with grain dry matter content by a two-step correlation approach with maize seedling transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melchinger Albrecht E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of maize for human and animal nutrition, but also as a source for bio-energy is rapidly increasing. Maize yield is a quantitative trait controlled by many genes with small effects, spread throughout the genome. The precise location of the genes and the identity of the gene networks underlying maize grain yield is unknown. The objective of our study was to contribute to the knowledge of these genes and gene networks by transcription profiling with microarrays. Results We assessed the grain yield and grain dry matter content (an indicator for early maturity of 98 maize hybrids in multi-environment field trials. The gene expression in seedlings of the parental inbred lines, which have four different genetic backgrounds, was assessed with genome-scale oligonucleotide arrays. We identified genes associated with grain yield and grain dry matter content using a newly developed two-step correlation approach and found overlapping gene networks for both traits. The underlying metabolic pathways and biological processes were elucidated. Genes involved in sucrose degradation and glycolysis, as well as genes involved in cell expansion and endocycle were found to be associated with grain yield. Conclusions Our results indicate that the capability of providing energy and substrates, as well as expanding the cell at the seedling stage, highly influences the grain yield of hybrids. Knowledge of these genes underlying grain yield in maize can contribute to the development of new high yielding varieties.

  16. Whole Trait Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeson, William; Jayawickreme, Eranda

    2014-01-01

    Personality researchers should modify models of traits to include mechanisms of differential reaction to situations. Whole Trait Theory does so via five main points. First, the descriptive side of traits should be conceptualized as density distributions of states. Second, it is important to provide an explanatory account of the Big 5 traits. Third, adding an explanatory account to the Big 5 creates two parts to traits, an explanatory part and a descriptive part, and these two parts should be recognized as separate entities that are joined into whole traits. Fourth, Whole Trait Theory proposes that the explanatory side of traits consists of social-cognitive mechanisms. Fifth, social-cognitive mechanisms that produce Big-5 states should be identified. PMID:26097268

  17. Comparative morphophysiological and yield characteristics of musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that crop cycle did not significantly influenced height of the tallest sucker at harvest of the paint crop, black sigatoka disease responses and the fruit weight. All phonological and yield traits were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the environment evaluation. Similarly, genotype, genome groups and their ...

  18. Cottonseed oil and yield assessment via economic heterosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-11-01

    Nov 1, 2010 ... ISSN 1684–5315 ©2010 Academic Journals. Full Length ... Key words: Hybrid vigor, inbreeding depression, cottonseed traits, cottonseed oil, Gossypium hirsutum. ... in yield and superior performance than well-adapted.

  19. Contribution to the study of {pi}{sup -} + p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} + n and {pi}{sup -} + p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} + {pi} + n reactions at the energies of the maxima of the {pi}-nucleon interaction in the T = 1/2 state total cross section; Contribution a l'etude des reactions {pi}{sup -} + p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} + n et {pi}{sup -} + p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} + n aux energies des maxima de la section efficace totale de l'interaction {pi}{sup -} nucleon dans l'etat de spin isobarique T = 1/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turlay, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    In the first part of this experiment, we determined the total cross section for processes yielding only neutral particles, from 300 to 1600 MeV. For this, we counted the number of incident {pi}{sup -}, as defined by a counter telescope, which interact in a liquid-hydrogen target without giving charged particles in a 4{pi} counter surrounding the target. In the second part of this experiment, we have separated the reaction {pi}{sup -} p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} n and {pi}{sup -} p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0} n between 300 and 1100 MeV, by supposing that only these two reactions was realized by placing lead absorbers between the target and 4{pi} counter and by comparing the counting rate for neutral events with and without lead. The transmission thus measured is a function of the average number of photons produced and therefore of the ratio between the two neutral channels, {pi}{sup 0} n and {pi}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0} n. In the last section of this work, we discuss the experimental results and compare them to those obtained by other authors in the study of photoproduction and the {pi}-nucleon interaction. (author) [French] Dans une premiere partie de cette experience, nous determinons la section efficace totale des processus ne donnant naissance qu'a des particules neutres de 300 et 1 600 MeV. Pour cela nous comptons le nombre de {pi}{sup -}, defini par un telescope incident, qui interagissent dans une cible d'hydrogene liquide sans donner de particules chargees dans un compteur 4{pi} entourant cette cible. Dans la deuxieme partie de l'experience nous avons separe les reactions {pi}{sup -} p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} n et {pi}{sup -} p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0} n entre 300 et 1 600 MeV en supposant que seules ces deux voies soient importantes a ces energies. La separation de ces deux reactions a ete realisee en placant des ecrans de plomb entre la cible et le compteur 4 {pi}, et en comparant les traces de comptage des evenements a secondaires neutres avec et sans

  20. Traits traded off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueffler, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The course of evolution is restricted by constraints. A special type of constraint is a trade-off where different traits are negatively correlated. In this situation a mutant type that shows an improvement in one trait suffers from a decreased performance through another trait. In a fixed fitness

  1. Spontaneous trait inference and spontaneous trait transference are both unaffected by prior evaluations of informants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengel, Bettina; Ambler, James K; McCarthy, Randy J; Skowronski, John J

    2017-01-01

    This article reports results from a study in which participants encountered either (a) previously known informants who were positive (e.g. Abraham Lincoln), neutral (e.g., Jay Leno), or negative (e.g., Adolf Hitler), or (b) previously unknown informants. The informants ostensibly described either a trait-implicative positive behavior, a trait-implicative negative behavior, or a neutral behavior. These descriptions were framed as either the behavior of the informant or the behavior of another person. Results yielded evidence of informant-trait linkages for both self-informants and for informants who described another person. These effects were not moderated by informant type, behavior valence, or the congruency or incongruency between the prior knowledge of the informant and the behavior valence. Results are discussed in terms of theories of Spontaneous Trait Inference and Spontaneous Trait Transference.

  2. Sequential Path Model for Grain Yield in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SEDGHI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine some physiological traits that affect soybean,s grain yield via sequential path analysis. In a factorial experiment, two cultivars (Harcor and Williams were sown under four levels of nitrogen and two levels of weed management at the research station of Tabriz University, Iran, during 2004 and 2005. Grain yield, some yield components and physiological traits were measured. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that grain yield had significant positive and negative association with measured traits. A sequential path analysis was done in order to evaluate associations among grain yield and related traits by ordering the various variables in first, second and third order paths on the basis of their maximum direct effects and minimal collinearity. Two first-order variables, namely number of pods per plant and pre-flowering net photosynthesis revealed highest direct effect on total grain yield and explained 49, 44 and 47 % of the variation in grain yield based on 2004, 2005, and combined datasets, respectively. Four traits i.e. post-flowering net photosynthesis, plant height, leaf area index and intercepted radiation at the bottom layer of canopy were found to fit as second-order variables. Pre- and post-flowering chlorophyll content, main root length and intercepted radiation at the middle layer of canopy were placed at the third-order path. From the results concluded that, number of pods per plant and pre-flowering net photosynthesis are the best selection criteria in soybean for grain yield.

  3. Correlation between agronomic and stem borer resistant traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-06-30

    Jun 30, 2015 ... Resistant traits had negative correlations with most agronomic traits including grain yield. (GY). .... on a scale of 1-9 with 1 = clean plant without leaf defoliation and 9 .... Negative signs indicate direction of relationship. Table 3 ...

  4. Bayesian analysis of interacting quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... 1School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 201101, China. ... genetic map, spanning the tomato genome of 808.4 cM long was ..... Leading Academic Discipline Project (B209) to HY, and.

  5. Combining ability for grain yield, agronomic traits and Striga lutea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2Department of Crop Production, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. ... General combining ability (gca) effects for striga syndrome ratings were generally low with .... farmer's field because of S. lutea infestation at Temidire in Ibarapa ... fertilizer dosage (50kg/ha NPK 20-10-10) was applied by broadcast ..... Graffing B (1956).

  6. PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL COMPONENTS OIL YIELD IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MIjić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigation was to analyse oil yield components and their relations by simple coefficient correlations as well as direct and indirect effects to oil yield by path analysis. Twenty-four sunflower hybrids were included in the investigation and their seven traits (plant height, head diameter, 1000 seed weight, hec- tolitar mass, grain yield, oil content and oil yield. Very strong positive correlation was estimated between grain yield and oil yield, strong positive correlation between hectolitar mass and oil yield, and middle corre- lation among oil yield and: 1000 seed weight, plaint height and oil content. There was no correlation between grain yields and oil content. Grain yield showed the strongest effect to oil yield. Oil content had lower effect to oil yield. Other traits showed no significant effect to oil yield, and their effect to oil yield was covered by indirect effect of grain yield.

  7. Assessment relationship between agro-morphological traits and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmadizadeh.M

    2012-05-01

    May 1, 2012 ... Principal component analysis (PCA) identifies plant traits which ..... interaction analysis of yield performance in bread wheat genotypes across environments. Turk J. ... Determination of grain protein concentration in barley.

  8. Carcass and meat quality traits of rabbits under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Fernandes, S; Sartori, J R; Teixeira, P S S; Moura, A S A M T

    2013-03-01

    yellowness diminished as ambient temperature increased, whereas cooking loss was linearly elevated with ambient temperature. Meat color traits revealed paler meat in the purebreds, but no differences in instrumental texture properties and water-holding capacity between genetic groups. Purebred rabbits were less susceptible to heat stress than the crossbreds. Heat stress resulted in lower slaughter and carcass weights and proportional reductions of organ weights, which contributed to a higher carcass yield. Moreover, it exerted a small, but negative, effect on meat quality traits.

  9. Effect of Carcass Traits on Carcass Prices of Holstein Steers in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M.; Cho, K. H.; Lee, S. S.; Choy, Y. H.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, C. I.; Choi, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of carcass traits on carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea. Phenotypic data consisted of 76,814 slaughtered Holsteins (1 to 6 yrs) from all over Korea. The means for live body weight at slaughter (BWT), chilled carcass weight (CWT), dressing percentage (DP), quantity grade index (QGI), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS), carcass unit price (CUP), and carcass sell prices (CSP) were 729.0 kg, 414.2 kg, 56.79%, 64.42, 75.26 cm2, 5.77 mm, 1.98, 8,952.80 Korean won/kg and 3,722.80 Thousand Korean won/head. Least squares means were significantly different by various age groups, season of slaughter, marbling scores and yield grades. Pearson’s correlation coefficients of CUP with carcass traits ranged from 0.12 to 0.62. Besides, the relationships of carcass traits with CSP were relatively stronger than those with CUP. The multiple regression models for CUP and CSP with carcass traits accounted 39 to 63% of the total variation, respectively. Marbling score had maximum economic effects (partial coefficients) on both prices. In addition, the highest standardized partial coefficients (relative economic weights) for CUP and CSP were calculated to be on MS and CWT by 0.608 and 0.520, respectively. Path analyses showed that MS (0.376) and CWT (0.336) had maximum total effects on CUP and CSP, respectively; whereas BF contributed negatively. Further sub-group (age and season of slaughter) analyses also confirmed the overall outcomes. However, the relative economic weights and total path contributions also varied among the animal sub-groups. This study suggested the significant influences of carcass traits on carcass prices; especially MS and CWT were found to govern the carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea. PMID:25049722

  10. Assessment of genetic diversity in tomato for fruit morphology, composition and yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaif, K.; Amjad, M.; Saeed, A.

    2016-01-01

    Postharvest losses are of great concern in vegetable crops, including tomato, due to their perishable nature. Damage to tomato fruit during transportation is related to its shape besides other factors. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess genetic diversity in the available tomato germplasm (35 genotypes) for fruit morphology, biochemical composition and yield. Considerable variation was observed for all studied traits except number of locules per fruit, TSS and reducing sugars, for which very low range was recorded. While, moderate level of variation existed for stem-end blockiness, blossom-end blockiness and elongated shape which suggested that fruit of most of the varieties could belong to more than one category of fruit shape. Fruit length and diameter had significantly positive correlation with heart shape of tomato, while later was also correlated with blossom-end-blockiness. Heart shape of tomato fruit was also correlated with stem-end blockiness. Yield showed significantly positive correlation with number of inflorescence per plant. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed PC-I to PC-VI had Eigen values >1, which contributed 73.86% of total variability for different traits. The highest factor loading values for blossom-end-blockiness, stem-end-blockiness, heart shape and elongated shape was recorded in PC-6, PC-4, PC-6 and PC-2, respectively. Thirty five genotypes were grouped into three clusters. Higher yield and stem-end-blockiness was observed in genotypes from cluster II, while higher values for blossom-end-blockiness, heart shape and elongated shape were noticed in cluster I followed by cluster III. So, it can be assumed that genotypes in cluster II showed higher yield and also possessed blocky fruit, a desirable character for transportation and processing purpose. Moreover, it is suggested that genotypes of cluster I and cluster II can be crossed to find heterosis for yield and fruit shape related traits. (author)

  11. Multivariate analysis of quantitative traits can effectively classify rapeseed germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankulovska Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the use of different multivariate approaches to classify rapeseed genotypes based on quantitative traits has been presented. Tree regression analysis, PCA analysis and two-way cluster analysis were applied in order todescribe and understand the extent of genetic variability in spring rapeseed genotype by trait data. The traits which highly influenced seed and oil yield in rapeseed were successfully identified by the tree regression analysis. Principal predictor for both response variables was number of pods per plant (NP. NP and 1000 seed weight could help in the selection of high yielding genotypes. High values for both traits and oil content could lead to high oil yielding genotypes. These traits may serve as indirect selection criteria and can lead to improvement of seed and oil yield in rapeseed. Quantitative traits that explained most of the variability in the studied germplasm were classified using principal component analysis. In this data set, five PCs were identified, out of which the first three PCs explained 63% of the total variance. It helped in facilitating the choice of variables based on which the genotypes’ clustering could be performed. The two-way cluster analysissimultaneously clustered genotypes and quantitative traits. The final number of clusters was determined using bootstrapping technique. This approach provided clear overview on the variability of the analyzed genotypes. The genotypes that have similar performance regarding the traits included in this study can be easily detected on the heatmap. Genotypes grouped in the clusters 1 and 8 had high values for seed and oil yield, and relatively short vegetative growth duration period and those in cluster 9, combined moderate to low values for vegetative growth duration and moderate to high seed and oil yield. These genotypes should be further exploited and implemented in the rapeseed breeding program. The combined application of these multivariate methods

  12. Genetic and phenotypic variance and covariance components for methane emission and postweaning traits in Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, K A; Bird-Gardiner, T; Arthur, P F; Herd, R M; Hegarty, R F

    2016-04-01

    Ruminants contribute 80% of the global livestock greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mainly through the production of methane, a byproduct of enteric microbial fermentation primarily in the rumen. Hence, reducing enteric methane production is essential in any GHG emissions reduction strategy in livestock. Data on 1,046 young bulls and heifers from 2 performance-recording research herds of Angus cattle were analyzed to provide genetic and phenotypic variance and covariance estimates for methane emissions and production traits and to examine the interrelationships among these traits. The cattle were fed a roughage diet at 1.2 times their estimated maintenance energy requirements and measured for methane production rate (MPR) in open circuit respiration chambers for 48 h. Traits studied included DMI during the methane measurement period, MPR, and methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI), with means of 6.1 kg/d (SD 1.3), 132 g/d (SD 25), and 22.0 g/kg (SD 2.3) DMI, respectively. Four forms of residual methane production (RMP), which is a measure of actual minus predicted MPR, were evaluated. For the first 3 forms, predicted MPR was calculated using published equations. For the fourth (RMP), predicted MPR was obtained by regression of MPR on DMI. Growth and body composition traits evaluated were birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), final weight (FWT), and ultrasound measures of eye muscle area, rump fat depth, rib fat depth, and intramuscular fat. Heritability estimates were moderate for MPR (0.27 [SE 0.07]), MY (0.22 [SE 0.06]), and the RMP traits (0.19 [SE 0.06] for each), indicating that genetic improvement to reduce methane emissions is possible. The RMP traits and MY were strongly genetically correlated with each other (0.99 ± 0.01). The genetic correlation of MPR with MY as well as with the RMP traits was moderate (0.32 to 0.63). The genetic correlation between MPR and the growth traits (except BWT) was strong (0.79 to 0.86). These results indicate that

  13. Genetic diversity based on morphological traits in walnut (Juglans regia L.) landraces from Karakoram region-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.; Sultan, A.; Shinwari, Z. K.

    2016-01-01

    Walnut is one of the most important nutritive nut crops and widely grown in Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan. In the present study 19 local landraces were analyzed for morphological traits to investigate genetic diversity and identify promising landraces for cultivar development. Multivariate analyses showed high variation for morphological traits and nut and kernel characteristics. Cluster analyses depicted diversity among the local land races which separated them into 2 major clusters groups, showing more association to morphological differences. PCA revealed that the 1st four principal components (PCs) possessed Eigen value >1.0, where PC1 and PC2 contributed total variance of 41.65 percent and 23.42 percent respectively with total variance (65.05 percent) showing maximum factor loadings by kernel ratio, shell percent, kernel yield and nut width by the first two PCs. Pearson correlation coefficient among walnut landraces revealed positively significant correlation between shell yield and nut weight(r=0.96), kernel yield and nut width(r=0.85), whereas negative correlation were observed (r = -0.89 and r = -0.76) between kernel ratio with shell yield and nut weight respectively. A wide range of diversity was observed among the local landraces from Karakoram regions and the landrace HKK and GNAG were reported as promising one with highest kernel ratio. These landraces are potential for future breeding of nut crops with distinct morphological traits. (author)

  14. QTL Analysis of Major Agronomic Traits in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-shan; ZHANG Zhong-chen; LIU Chun-yan; XIN Da-wei; QIU Hong-mei; SHAN Da-peng; SHAN Cai-yun; HU Guo-hua

    2007-01-01

    Soybean is a main crop, and most agronomic traits of soybean are quantitative; therefore, there is very important studying and applying value to locating these traits. A F2:10 RIL population containing 154 lines, derived from the cross between Charleston as female and Dongnong 594 as male parent, were used in this experiment. A genetic linkage map was constructed with 164 SSR primers, which were screened with the two parents and amplified on the 154 lines. 12 agronomic traits different between the two parents were investigated, and QTLs of all the traits were analyzed using the software Windows QTL Cartographer V2.0. The agronomic traits included quality traits: protein content, oil content, and content of protein and oil; yield traits: pods per plant, seed weight per plant, arnd 100 seeds weight; and other agronomic traits: plant height, days to maturity, branches, nod number in main stem, average leaf length, and average leaf width. The results showed that 68 QTLs in total were found for the 12 agronomic traits. The number of QTLs per trait varied from 3 for the average leaf width to 11 for 100 seeds weight and plant height, and was 5.8 on average. Good accordance was seen in many QTLs between the results of this study and the results obtained by other similar studies; therefore, these QTLs may be valuable for molecular marker assistant selection in soybean. In this study, 68 major QTLs of 12 important traits of soybean were analyzed.

  15. Influencing agent group behavior by adjusting cultural trait values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuli, Gaurav; Hexmoor, Henry

    2010-10-01

    Social reasoning and norms among individuals that share cultural traits are largely fashioned by those traits. We have explored predominant sociological and cultural traits. We offer a methodology for parametrically adjusting relevant traits. This exploratory study heralds a capability to deliberately tune cultural group traits in order to produce a desired group behavior. To validate our methodology, we implemented a prototypical-agent-based simulated test bed for demonstrating an exemplar from intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance scenario. A group of simulated agents traverses a hostile territory while a user adjusts their cultural group trait settings. Group and individual utilities are dynamically observed against parametric values for the selected traits. Uncertainty avoidance index and individualism are the cultural traits we examined in depth. Upon the user's training of the correspondence between cultural values and system utilities, users deliberately produce the desired system utilities by issuing changes to trait. Specific cultural traits are without meaning outside of their context. Efficacy and timely application of traits in a given context do yield desirable results. This paper heralds a path for the control of large systems via parametric cultural adjustments.

  16. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Some Pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genotypes under Late Season Water Deficit Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    somayyeh soheili movahhed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought or water deficit stress is the most important environmental factor which has severe negative impacts on crop yields, especially when the water stress occurs in the flowering stage. Iran is located in arid and semi-arid areas, therefore, attention to the effects of water deficit stress in different stages of plants growth seems necessary. Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is one of the most important legumes that has a major contribution to human diet and provides an important part of the human protein. According to studies, cultivation areas of legumes in Iran are about 97300 hectares and its total production is about 208350 tons of grain. Bean is a fast-growing plant (Tran and Singh, 2002, thus soil water must be sufficiently available to ensure its desirable growth and yield. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of drought stress on yield and yield components of some pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivated in Zanjan province. Materials and methods An experiment was conducted as spilt plot based on randomized complete block design with four replications in Zanjan university research farm. Irrigation levels (control and drought stress and genotypes (Local khomein, Sadri, Ks21193 and Ks21189 were set in the main and subplot, respectively. Water deficit stress was applied during flowering stage (50% of the plants were at anthesis. Sampling was performed to measure yield and yield components at the end of the growth period and final maturity. In this experiment number of pod per Plant, numberof grain per pod, 100 grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index were measured. Results and Discussion In this experiment it was observed that drought stress, genotype and interact irrigation×genotyps were significantly for all traits except biological yield. Drought stress reduced number of pod perplant, number of grain per pod, 100 grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and Harvest Index. Results

  17. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  18. Genetic analysis of yield and yield components in Oryza sativa x ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... inheritance of yield and yield components and to estimate the heritabilities of important quantitative traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Six generations viz., P1, P2, F1, F2, BCP1 and BCP2 of a cross between IET6279 and IR70445-146-3-3 were used for the study. Generation mean analysis suggested that additive effects had a ...

  19. Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calingacion, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice

    Mariafe N. Calingacion

    Most rice breeding programs have focused on improving agronomic traits such as yield, while enhancing grain quality traits

  20. GDP growth and the yield curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stig Vinther

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the forecastability of GDP growth using information from the term structure of yields. In contrast to previous studies, the paper shows that the curvature of the yield curve contributes with much more forecasting power than the slope of yield curve. The yield curvature also...... predicts bond returns, implying a common element to time-variation in expected bond returns and expected GDP growth....

  1. Genetic diversity of Iranian rice germplasm based on morphological traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nade ali bagheri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Study of genetic diversity of rice is very important for rice breeders. In this study 64 genotypes for 14 agronomic traits were evaluated. Phenotypic variation coefficients of some of traits were high which showed essential variation in this traits. Principal component analysis detected 6 components which explained 74.66 percent of the total variations. The first component was related to generative traits such as number of spiklet per panicle, number of full grain per panicle, date of 50% flowering and length of panicle. In the third component, the date of complete maturity with -0.730 has negative effects on yield. Correlation analysis of morphological traits indicated a negative and significant relationship between early maturity and plant height, which showed early maturity cultivars had higher plant type. Results of stepwise regression analysis for early maturity, indicated that three traits such as date of 50% flowering, number of full grain per panicle and plant height showed higher variation and explained 54.3 percent of total early maturity variations. All traits were classified into 2 groups, by cluster analysis and traits belonged to early maturity classified as a sub-group. Genotypes were classified into 4 groups by using method of Ward,s minimum variance and squared Euclidean distance. Native cultivars from the view point of early maturity and yield components had useful information for rice breeding. Key words: Genetic diversity, rice, morphological traits.

  2. TRY – a global database of plant traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kattge, J.; Diaz, S.; Lavorel, S.

    2011-01-01

    species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant...... trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy‐in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world's 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits...... is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation – but for several traits most variation occurs...

  3. Identity processes and personality traits and types in adolescence : Directionality of effects and developmental trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyckx, K.; Teppers, E.; Klimstra, T.A.; Rassart, J.

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits are hypothesized to be among the most important factors contributing to individual differences in identity development. However, longitudinal studies linking Big Five personality traits to contemporary identity models (in which multiple exploration and commitment processes are

  4. Genetic analysis and QTL mapping of maize yield and associate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... strongly influenced by both genotype and environment, and the interaction of ... associated with yield components as well as secondary ... QTLs that control grain yield under drought ... statistical analysis (ANOVA etc) of phenotypic traits was carried out .... which means that the loci had stable heredity.

  5. Generation by Generation Correlation and Path Analysis for Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six advanced generations (F7 - F12) of tomato hybrids were evaluated in the Department of Crop Science Research Farm, University of Nigeria, Nsukka from 2004 to 2008 to estimate the magnitude of character association of yield and yield related attributes in each filial generation. Traits under focus were days to flowering, ...

  6. High yielding mutants of blackgram variety 'PH-25'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, R.C.; Mohapatra, B.D.; Panda, B.S.

    2001-01-01

    Seeds of blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) variety 'PH-5' were treated with chemical mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), nitrosoguanidine (NG), maleic hydrazide (MH) and sodium azide (NaN 3 ), each at 3 different concentrations. Thirty six mutant lines developed from mutagenic treatments along with parent varieties were tested in M 4 generation. The mutants showed wide variation in most of the traits and multivariante D 2 analysis showed genetic divergence among themselves. Twenty of the thirty mutants showed genetic divergence from parent. Ten selected high yielding mutants were tested in M 5 . Yield and other productive traits of five high yielding mutants in M 4 and M 5 are presented

  7. The Effect of Iron Fertilization on Nodulation, Yield and Yield Traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984). Fe deficiency also primarily affects the structure and functioning of the .... polyethylene bags containing 200 g of soybean seeds. ... seed coat. ..... iron application could also be related to genetic make-up of the host, which regulates the.

  8. Differential gene expression at different stages of mesocarp development in high- and low-yielding oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yick Ching; Teh, Huey Fang; Mebus, Katharina; Ooi, Tony Eng Keong; Kwong, Qi Bin; Koo, Ka Loo; Ong, Chuang Kee; Mayes, Sean; Chew, Fook Tim; Appleton, David R; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna

    2017-06-21

    The oil yield trait of oil palm is expected to involve multiple genes, environmental influences and interactions. Many of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to oil yield are still poorly understood. In this study, we used a microarray approach to study the gene expression profiles of mesocarp tissue at different developmental stages, comparing genetically related high- and low- oil yielding palms to identify genes that contributed to the higher oil-yielding palm and might contribute to the wider genetic improvement of oil palm breeding populations. A total of 3412 (2001 annotated) gene candidates were found to be significantly differentially expressed between high- and low-yielding palms at at least one of the different stages of mesocarp development evaluated. Gene Ontologies (GO) enrichment analysis identified 28 significantly enriched GO terms, including regulation of transcription, fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolic processes. These differentially expressed genes comprise several transcription factors, such as, bHLH, Dof zinc finger proteins and MADS box proteins. Several genes involved in glycolysis, TCA, and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways were also found up-regulated in high-yielding oil palm, among them; pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component Subunit Beta (PDH), ATP-citrate lyase, β- ketoacyl-ACP synthases I (KAS I), β- ketoacyl-ACP synthases III (KAS III) and ketoacyl-ACP reductase (KAR). Sucrose metabolism-related genes such as Invertase, Sucrose Synthase 2 and Sucrose Phosphatase 2 were found to be down-regulated in high-yielding oil palms, compared to the lower yield palms. Our findings indicate that a higher carbon flux (channeled through down-regulation of the Sucrose Synthase 2 pathway) was being utilized by up-regulated genes involved in glycolysis, TCA and fatty acid biosynthesis leading to enhanced oil production in the high-yielding oil palm. These findings are an important stepping stone to understand the processes that lead to

  9. Qualitative trait loci analysis for seed yield and component traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation was carried out to identify the molecular markers associated with various characters in sunflower using recombinant inbred lines. Linkage analysis was carried out and five linkage groups were obtained with 19 simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. Linkage map construction, single marker ...

  10. Variability, correlation and path coefficient analysis of seedling traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Indirect selection is a useful means for improving yield in cotton crop. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic variability, broad sense heritability, genetic advance and correlation among the six seedling traits and their direct and indirect effects on cotton yield by using path coefficient ...

  11. Variability, correlation and path coefficient analysis of seedling traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indirect selection is a useful means for improving yield in cotton crop. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic variability, broad sense heritability, genetic advance and correlation among the six seedling traits and their direct and indirect effects on cotton yield by using path coefficient analysis.

  12. and maturity-related traits in white yam ( Dioscorea rotundata )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tuber fresh weight (tuber yield), tuber number/plant, tuber parenchyma colour, tuber dry matter content and tuber dormancy period were assessed in eight accessions of D. rotundata (white Guinea yam) on the field in 2008 and 2009. Shoot dry weight and plant height were identified as the major tuber yield-related traits.

  13. Patterns of trait associations in various wheat populations under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... Correlation coefficient among various yield traits in CIMMYT germplasm. ... spikes per plant; NSpt/S: number of spikelets per spike; MFFL/Spt: maximum fertile florets per spikelet; SDW: spike dry weight; ... Faisalabad (Latitude = 31°, 26' N, Longitude = 73°, 06' E, Altitude = .... positive correction with yield.

  14. Genetic variation and trait correlations in a birdresistant pearl millet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selection indices for effective improvement. There was significant genetic variation for grain yield and most yield component traits, indicating that selection within the population would be feasible. Genetic variation was, however not significant for the percent incidence of downy mildew, implying that selection for improving ...

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study for Traits Related to Plant and Grain Morphology, and Root Architecture in Temperate Rice Accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Filippo; Cozzi, Paolo; Casella, Laura; Riccardi, Paolo; Vattari, Alessandra; Orasen, Gabriele; Perrini, Rosaria; Tacconi, Gianni; Tondelli, Alessandro; Biselli, Chiara; Cattivelli, Luigi; Spindel, Jennifer; McCouch, Susan; Abbruscato, Pamela; Valé, Giampiero; Piffanelli, Pietro; Greco, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    In this study we carried out a genome-wide association analysis for plant and grain morphology and root architecture in a unique panel of temperate rice accessions adapted to European pedo-climatic conditions. This is the first study to assess the association of selected phenotypic traits to specific genomic regions in the narrow genetic pool of temperate japonica. A set of 391 rice accessions were GBS-genotyped yielding-after data editing-57000 polymorphic and informative SNPS, among which 54% were in genic regions. In total, 42 significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected: 21 for plant morphology traits, 11 for grain quality traits, 10 for root architecture traits. The FDR of detected associations ranged from 3 · 10-7 to 0.92 (median: 0.25). In most cases, the significant detected associations co-localised with QTLs and candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variation of single or multiple traits. The most significant associations were those for flag leaf width on chromosome 4 (FDR = 3 · 10-7) and for plant height on chromosome 6 (FDR = 0.011). We demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of the developed platform for high-throughput phenotyping, genotyping and GWAS in detecting major QTLs for relevant traits in rice. We identified strong associations that may be used for selection in temperate irrigated rice breeding: e.g. associations for flag leaf width, plant height, root volume and length, grain length, grain width and their ratio. Our findings pave the way to successfully exploit the narrow genetic pool of European temperate rice and to pinpoint the most relevant genetic components contributing to the adaptability and high yield of this germplasm. The generated data could be of direct use in genomic-assisted breeding strategies.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study for Traits Related to Plant and Grain Morphology, and Root Architecture in Temperate Rice Accessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Biscarini

    Full Text Available In this study we carried out a genome-wide association analysis for plant and grain morphology and root architecture in a unique panel of temperate rice accessions adapted to European pedo-climatic conditions. This is the first study to assess the association of selected phenotypic traits to specific genomic regions in the narrow genetic pool of temperate japonica. A set of 391 rice accessions were GBS-genotyped yielding-after data editing-57000 polymorphic and informative SNPS, among which 54% were in genic regions.In total, 42 significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected: 21 for plant morphology traits, 11 for grain quality traits, 10 for root architecture traits. The FDR of detected associations ranged from 3 · 10-7 to 0.92 (median: 0.25. In most cases, the significant detected associations co-localised with QTLs and candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variation of single or multiple traits. The most significant associations were those for flag leaf width on chromosome 4 (FDR = 3 · 10-7 and for plant height on chromosome 6 (FDR = 0.011.We demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of the developed platform for high-throughput phenotyping, genotyping and GWAS in detecting major QTLs for relevant traits in rice. We identified strong associations that may be used for selection in temperate irrigated rice breeding: e.g. associations for flag leaf width, plant height, root volume and length, grain length, grain width and their ratio. Our findings pave the way to successfully exploit the narrow genetic pool of European temperate rice and to pinpoint the most relevant genetic components contributing to the adaptability and high yield of this germplasm. The generated data could be of direct use in genomic-assisted breeding strategies.

  17. Analyses of genetic relationships between linear type traits, fat-to-protein ratio, milk production traits, and somatic cell count in first-parity Czech Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, V; Zavadilová, L; Lassen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    . The number of animals for each linear type trait was 59 454, except for locomotion, for which 53 424 animals were recorded. The numbers of animals with records of milk production data were 43 992 for milk yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, and fat-to-protein percentage ratio and 43 978 for fat yield...... and protein yield. In total, 27 098 somatic cell score records were available. The strongest positive genetic correlation between production traits and linear type traits was estimated between udder width and fat yield (0.51 ± 0.04), while the strongest negative correlation estimated was between body......Genetic and phenotypic correlations between production traits, selected linear type traits, and somatic cell score were estimated. The results could be useful for breeding programs involving Czech Holstein dairy cows or other populations. A series of bivariate analyses was applied whereby (co...

  18. Genetic Variability Studies on Twelve Genotypes of Rice (Oryza sativa L. for Growth and Yield Performance in South Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent N. ONYIA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Twelve genotypes of rice collected from the National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI, Badeggi, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria were evaluated to estimate the magnitude of genetic variability and relationship of some agronomic traits of rice and their contributions to yield. The results obtained showed a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 among the genotypes in all the traits studied. Genotype ‘WAB 35-1-FX2’ produced a significantly higher grain yield of 3.40 t/ha compared with all the other genotypes in the two years combined. Genotypes ‘WAB 33-25’, ‘WAB 56-1-FX2’, ‘WAB 56-39’, ‘WAB 56-125’, ‘ITA 150’ and ‘FAROX 16 (LC’ were the most stable grain yielding genotypes across the two years of the experiment. High broad sense heritability (h2bs was associated with grain yield (h2bs = 98.63%, number of spikelets/panicle (98.78%, plant height (98.34% for the first year planting, whereas in the second year planting, days to 50% flowering (96.72%, days to maturity (94.14% and grain yield (83.33% were among the traits that showed high broad sense heritability. The two years combined correlation analysis showed that grain yield correlated significantly and positively with number of spikelets/panicle (r = 0.2358*, number of panicles/m2 (r = 0.1895*, number of fertile spikelets/panicle (r = 0.1672* and 1,000 grain weight (r = 0.1247*, indicating that these traits can be phenotypic basis for improving grain yield of rice. Conversely, grain yield exhibited negative correlation with days to 50% flowering (-0.3009 and days to maturity (-0.2650, though not significant. This suggests that rice grain yield can be improved by selecting early flowering and maturing genotypes especially under heat and drought prone conditions.

  19. A Genetic Epidemiological Study of Behavioral Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Amin (Najaf)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHuman behavioural genetics aims to unravel the genetic and environmental contributions to variations in human behaviour. Behaviour is a complex trait, involving multiple genes that are affected by a variety of other factors. Genetic epidemiological research of behaviour goes back to

  20. Environmental Response and Genomic Regions Correlated with Rice Root Growth and Yield under Drought in the OryzaSNP Panel across Multiple Study Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Len J Wade

    Full Text Available The rapid progress in rice genotyping must be matched by advances in phenotyping. A better understanding of genetic variation in rice for drought response, root traits, and practical methods for studying them are needed. In this study, the OryzaSNP set (20 diverse genotypes that have been genotyped for SNP markers was phenotyped in a range of field and container studies to study the diversity of rice root growth and response to drought. Of the root traits measured across more than 20 root experiments, root dry weight showed the most stable genotypic performance across studies. The environment (E component had the strongest effect on yield and root traits. We identified genomic regions correlated with root dry weight, percent deep roots, maximum root depth, and grain yield based on a correlation analysis with the phenotypes and aus, indica, or japonica introgression regions using the SNP data. Two genomic regions were identified as hot spots in which root traits and grain yield were co-located; on chromosome 1 (39.7-40.7 Mb and on chromosome 8 (20.3-21.9 Mb. Across experiments, the soil type/ growth medium showed more correlations with plant growth than the container dimensions. Although the correlations among studies and genetic co-location of root traits from a range of study systems points to their potential utility to represent responses in field studies, the best correlations were observed when the two setups had some similar properties. Due to the co-location of the identified genomic regions (from introgression block analysis with QTL for a number of previously reported root and drought traits, these regions are good candidates for detailed characterization to contribute to understanding rice improvement for response to drought. This study also highlights the utility of characterizing a small set of 20 genotypes for root growth, drought response, and related genomic regions.

  1. Effect of Different Tillage Methods and Cover Crop Types on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Sharefee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Conservation agriculture is an appropriate strategy for maintaining and improving agricultural resources which increases crop production and stability and also provides environmental protection. This attitude contributes to the conservation of natural resources (soil, water, and air and is one of the most effective ways to overcome the drought crisis, water management and compensation of soil organic matter in arid and semi-arid regions. The practice of zero-tillage decreases the mineralization of organic matter and contributes to the sequestration of organic carbon in the soil. Higher amounts of organic matter in the soil improve soil structure and root growth, water infiltration and retention, and cation exchange capacity. In addition, zero-tillage reduces soil compaction and crop production costs. Cover crops are cultivated to protect the soil from erosion and elements loss by leaching or runoff and also improve the soil moisture and temperature. Given that South Khorasan farmers still use traditional methods of cultivation of wheat, and cover crops have no place in their farming systems, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cover crops types and tillage systems on yield and yield components of wheat in Birjand region. Materials and Methods A split plot field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Farm of the University of Birjand over the growing season of 2014-2015. The main factor was the type of tillage (no-till, reduced tillage and conventional tillage and cover crop type (chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus, rocket salad (Eruca sativa, triticale (X Triticosecale witmack, barley (Hordeum vulgaris and control (no cover crop was considered as sub plots. Cover crops were planted on July 2014. Before planting wheat, cover crops were dried through spraying paraquat herbicide using a backpack sprayer at a rate of 3 L ha-1. Then the three tillage

  2. 氮离子束注入和钴60伽玛辐射对大豆产量性状和品质的影响%Effects of Nitrogen Ion Beam Implantation and 60Co-γ Irradiation on Yield Traits and Quality of Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季良; 王仙; 彭琳; 聂石辉

    2013-01-01

    Selection of materials, mutagenic methods and doses are very important in mutation breeding. The objectives of this experiment was to discuss the mutation breeding technique of soybean by nitrogen ion beam implantation and 60Co-γ ray radiation. The dried seeds of four soybean varieties were treated by nitrogen ion beam implantation including 4 × 1016 ,6 × 1016 and 8 × 1016 N+ ·cm-2 and 60Co-γ ray irradiation of 100,150 and 200 Gy. The biological effects of two treatments on yield traits and quality of M6 generation were compared under the same planting conditions. The results indicated that compared with control, 4×l016 and 6 ×l0l6N+ ·cm-2 increased pods per plant(P <0. 05) and yield(P <0. 01 )of Xindadou 3 significantly;8 × 1016 ,6 × 1016and 100 Gy60Co-γ irradiation decreased seeds number and weight per plant(P <0. 05) ,100-seed weight(P< 0.05)and protein content of He99-756,respectively. 100,150 and 200 Gy60Co-γ irradiation increased fat content(P<0.05)of He99-756;4×l016and 8×l016N+ ·cm-2,100 and 200 Gy60Co-γ irradiation decreased seeds weight per plant(P <0. 05) of Xindadou 8 ,4 × 1016 ,6 × 1016 N+ ·cm-2 and 200 Gy60Co-γ irradiation increased yield of Xindadou 8 significantly;nitrogen ion beam implantation and 60Co-γ irradiation had no effect on the yield,yield components and quality of Shidadou 2. Thus the objectives of mutation breeding were determined according to sensitivity of materials, mutagenic methods and doses.%分别以3种剂量的N离子束注入(4×1016,6×1016和8×1016 N+ ·cm-2)和3种剂量的60C o-γ射线辐射(100,150和200 Gy)处理4份大豆干种子,在相同种植条件下对其M6代产量性状和品质进行研究,比较2种处理方法对大豆产量性状及品质的诱变效应.结果表明:与对照相比,新大豆3号4×1016N+·cm-2离子束注入处理单株荚数显著增加,6×1016N+ ·cm-2离子束注入处理产量极显著增加;合99-756 8×1016 N+ ·cm-2离子束注入处理单株粒

  3. Line tester analysis of yield and yield related attributed in different sunflower genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Din, S.U.; Khan, M.A.; Usman, K.; Sayal, O.U.

    2014-01-01

    This paper encompasses the study of line * tester analysis to chalk out genetic implications regarding yield and yield relating components in different genotypes of sunflower. Eight parents (four CMS lines and four restorers) along with their sixteen F1 hybrids were considered and planted in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated thrice at experimental area of Oilseed Research Program, National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan in 2011. Combining ability for some important morphological traits included days to flower initiation, days to flower completion, days to maturity, plant height, head diameter and seed yield plant-1. In this concern general combining ability (GCA), reciprocals combining ability (RCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) for all traits were studied. The GCA and SCA variances due to lines and testers interaction were significant for all the characters. However, the magnitude of GCAs from CMS lines (females) and restorers (pollinators) were higher than the SCA indicating preponderance of additive genes in the expression of all the traits. Among the lines, CMS-HA-54 whereas in testers, RHP-71, by manifesting maximum GCA effects were considered as the best general combiners for almost all the traits indicating the presence of more additive gene effects in these parents, therefore may serve as potential parents for hybridization and to improve the characters studied. Among the F1 hybrids, CMS HA-99 * RHP-76 (1.54, 212.65) and CMS HA-101 * RHP-73 (0.91, 432.73) were found as the best specific combiners for head or capitulum and seed yield. Hence, if farming community and researchers include these hybrids in their selection and hybridization program for the trait under study optimum result may be obtained. (author)

  4. Path analysis of the productive traits in Sorghum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikanović Jela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the phenotypic correlation coefficients between three Sorghum species, namely forage sorghum S. bicolor Moench. (c. NS-Džin, Sudan grass S. sudanense L. (c. Zora and interspecies hybrid S. bicolor x S. sudanense (c. Siloking. The analyses were performed on plant material samples taken from the first cutting, when plants were in the beginning phase of tasseling. The following morphologic traits were studied: plant height, number of leaves per plant, stem leaf weight and mean stem weight. Additionally, their direct and indirect effect on dependent variable green biomass yield was analyzed, for which path coefficients were calculated. This method enables more quality and full insight into relations existing among the studied traits, more precise establishment of cause-effect connections among them, as well as to separate direct from indirect effects of any particular trait on dependent variable, being biomass yield in this case. The analysis of phenotypic coefficients revealed differences in direct and indirect effect of certain traits on dependent variable. Sudan grass had the highest stem (2.281 m and most leaves per plant (7.917. Forage sorghum had the largest leaf weight per plant (49.05 g, while interspecies hybrid had the highest mean stem weight (80.798 g. Variations of these morphologic traits among species were found to be significant and very significant. Morphologic traits - stem height and weight significantly affected sorghum green biomass yield. Leaf number and leaf portion in total biomass were negatively correlated with yield. Cultivars differed significantly regarding morphologic and productive traits. Sudan grass had the lowest green biomass yield, while forage sorghum and interspecies hybrid had significant yield increase.

  5. Developing Leadership Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan King

    1980-01-01

    Defines six leadership traits that are necessary to and fostered by editing a college newspaper: delegating authority, developing subordinates, motivating others, being approachable, commanding respect, and bringing out optimum performances in others. (TJ)

  6. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    create a favourable environment for rice ... developing lines adaptable to many ... have stable, not too short crop duration with ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant ..... and yield components.

  7. Genetic Diversity of Iranian and Exotic Sainfoin Accessions (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop Based on Morphological Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zarabiyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. is widely grown as forage and pasture legume in Iran and is tolerant to environmental stresses. To investigate the genetic diversity among 56 accessions of sainfoin germplasm (including 46 Iranian and 10 foreign based on morphological and agronomic characteristics, present experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications in Isfahan University of Technology Research Farm during 2010-2011. The results of analysis of variance indicated considerable variation between studied germplasm for all traits and the better performance for Iranian accessions. The estimation of broad sense heritability for plant height, number of stems per plant, number of stems per meter square and number of nods per stem was high suggesting contribution of the major genes for controlling these traits. On the basis of means comparison, the forage yield was greatest for the first cutting as compared to the second cutting. Also the highest yield obtained from second year. Regarding the palatability (based on leaf to stem ratio the exotic accessions had higher values. Developing of superior cultivars may be possible through combining high yield and palatability in breeding programs.

  8. Same Traits, Different Variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie S. Churchyard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Personality trait questionnaires are regularly used in individual differences research to examine personality scores between participants, although trait researchers tend to place little value on intra-individual variation in item ratings within a measured trait. The few studies that examine variability indices have not considered how they are related to a selection of psychological outcomes, so we recruited 160 participants (age M = 24.16, SD = 9.54 who completed the IPIP-HEXACO personality questionnaire and several outcome measures. Heterogenous within-subject differences in item ratings were found for every trait/facet measured, with measurement error that remained stable across the questionnaire. Within-subject standard deviations, calculated as measures of individual variation in specific item ratings within a trait/facet, were related to outcomes including life satisfaction and depression. This suggests these indices represent valid constructs of variability, and that researchers administering behavior statement trait questionnaires with outcome measures should also apply item-level variability indices.

  9. The co-occurrence of autistic traits and borderline personality disorder traits is associated to increased suicidal ideation in nonclinical young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, Henri; Raynal, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    The co-occurrence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is not rare and has been linked to increased suicidality. Despite this significant comorbidity between ASD and BPD, no study had examined the co-occurrence of autistic traits and borderline personality disorder traits in the general population. The aim of the present study was to examine the co-occurrence of autistic and borderline traits in a non-clinical sample of young adults and its influence on the levels of suicidal ideation and depressive symptomatology. Participants were 474 college students who completed self-report questionnaires. Data were analysed using correlation and cluster analyses. Borderline personality traits and autistic traits were weakly correlated. However, cluster analysis yielded four groups: a low traits group, a borderline traits group, an autistic traits group, and a group characterized by high levels of both traits. Cluster analysis revealed that autistic and borderline traits can co-occur in a significant proportion of young adults. The high autistic and borderline traits group constituted 17% of the total sample and had higher level of suicidal ideation than the borderline traits group, despite similar levels of depressive symptoms. This result suggests that the higher suicidality observed in patients with comorbid ASD and BPD may extent to non-clinical individuals with high levels of co-occurrent autistic and borderline traits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Power and Autistic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Overskeid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness -- and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits

  11. Power and Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness – and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more

  12. Trait based selection of superior Kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum L.) genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    A.Subramanian, A.Nirmalakumari and P.Veerabadhiran

    2010-01-01

    One hundred and eighty eight germ plasm accessions of Kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum L.) were evaluated in a fieldstudy to assess genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for eight yield component traits. The ANOVA revealedthat there were significant differences among the accessions for all the traits studied. High genotypic variance, phenotypicvariance, GCV and PCV were observed for dry fodder yield, plant height and grain yield per plant. Broad sense heritabilityranged fro...

  13. QTLs for seedling traits under salinity stress in hexaploid wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Yongzhe; Xu, Yanhua; Teng, Wan; Li, Bin; Lin, Tongbao

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Soil salinity limits agricultural production and is a major obstacle for increasing crop yield. Common wheat is one of the most important crops with allohexaploid characteristic and a highly complex genome. QTL mapping is a useful way to identify genes for quantitative traits such as salinity tolerance in hexaploid wheat. In the present study, a hydroponic trial was carried out to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with salinity tolerance of wheat under 150mM NaCl co...

  14. Yield improvement of Kenyan sesame varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayiecho, P.O.; Nyabundi, J.O.

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to improve the yield of Kenyan sesame cultivars the seeds of three cultivars, SPS SIK6, SIK 096 and SPS SIK 50/1 were subjected to 300Gy, 400Gy and 600Gy of gamma rays. A first batch of seeds were subjected to these treatments in March 1994 (Experiment I) while the second batch was treated in March 1995 (Experiment II). The M 1 , M 2 , M 3 and M 4 generations of experiment I and M 1 generation of Experiment II were raised at the University of Nairobi Dryland Research Field Station, Kibwezi from 1994 to 1996. The M 6 and M 7 generations of Experiment I and M 2 of Experiment II were raised at Siaya Farmer's Training Centre in 1997. The effects of radiation in M 1 generation were expressed in reduced and delayed seedling emergence, reduced plant height, sectorial deformed plants, delayed flowering and extremely low yield. There was increased variation in M 2 for most evaluated traits. Plants in M 2 and subsequent generations were scored for a number of yield related morphological traits and days to flowering. Selection was done in the early generations for increased capsule number and earliness. As a result of selection, a total of 88 lines from M 4 generation were used to derive M 5 generation. Further selection in M 6 generation lead to 35 lines being retained for preliminary yield trials in M 7 generations. (author)

  15. Improving biological understanding and complex trait prediction by integrating prior information in genomic feature models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon

    externally founded information, such as KEGG pathways, Gene Ontology gene sets, or genomic features, and estimate the joint contribution of the genetic variants within these sets to complex trait phenotypes. The analysis of complex trait phenotypes is hampered by the myriad of genes that control the trait...

  16. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, D.; Denn, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We are surrounded in everyday life by yield stress fluids: materials that behave as solids under small stresses but flow like liquids beyond a critical stress. For example, paint must flow under the brush, but remain fixed in a vertical film despite the force of gravity. Food products (such as

  17. Variance Component Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Body Weight Traits in Purebred Korean Native Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Cahyadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative trait locus (QTL is a particular region of the genome containing one or more genes associated with economically important quantitative traits. This study was conducted to identify QTL regions for body weight and growth traits in purebred Korean native chicken (KNC. F1 samples (n = 595 were genotyped using 127 microsatellite markers and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms that covered 2,616.1 centi Morgan (cM of map length for 26 autosomal linkage groups. Body weight traits were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 20 weeks of age. Weight of half carcass was also collected together with growth rate. A multipoint variance component linkage approach was used to identify QTLs for the body weight traits. Two significant QTLs for growth were identified on chicken chromosome 3 (GGA3 for growth 16 to18 weeks (logarithm of the odds [LOD] = 3.24, Nominal p value = 0.0001 and GGA4 for growth 6 to 8 weeks (LOD = 2.88, Nominal p value = 0.0003. Additionally, one significant QTL and three suggestive QTLs were detected for body weight traits in KNC; significant QTL for body weight at 4 weeks (LOD = 2.52, nominal p value = 0.0007 and suggestive QTL for 8 weeks (LOD = 1.96, Nominal p value = 0.0027 were detected on GGA4; QTLs were also detected for two different body weight traits: body weight at 16 weeks on GGA3 and body weight at 18 weeks on GGA19. Additionally, two suggestive QTLs for carcass weight were detected at 0 and 70 cM on GGA19. In conclusion, the current study identified several significant and suggestive QTLs that affect growth related traits in a unique resource pedigree in purebred KNC. This information will contribute to improving the body weight traits in native chicken breeds, especially for the Asian native chicken breeds.

  18. QTL analyses on genotype-specific component traits in a crop simulation model for capsicum annuum L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Dieleman, J.A.; Magan, J.J.; Palloix, A.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: QTL for a complex trait like yield tend to be unstable across environments and show QTL by environment interaction. Direct improvement of complex traits by selecting on QTL is therefore difficult. For improvement of complex traits, crop growth models can be useful, as such models can

  19. Genetic Factors Affecting Performance Traits of Sahiwal Cattle in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Rehman*§ and M. S. Khan1

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on 23925 lactations of 5897 Sahiwal cows in five Government herds of Punjab province were collected to estimate the genetic control and genetic correlations among performance traits. A repeatability animal model having herd-year-season and parity was used for this purpose. The repeatability estimates for 305-d milk yield, total milk yield, lactation length, dry period, calving interval and service period were 0.40±0.015, 0.40±0.016, 0.33±0.013, 0.14±0.005, 0.15±0.004, and 0.14±0.005 respectively. The heritability estimates for these traits were 0.10±0.016, 0.09±0.016, 0.06±0.013, 0.14±0.009, 0.15±0.010, and 0.14±0.010, respectively. The phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlation of 305-d milk yield with lactation length was 0.71, 0.48 and 0.70, respectively, with dry period was -0.31, -0.43 and -0.22, respectively while with calving interval and service period exhibited similar pattern (0.08, 0.25 and 0.08, respectively. The estimated breeding values ranged from -447 to 1254 kg, -442 to 1265 kg, -24 to 38, -78 to 116, -84 to 107 and -81 to 91, days for 305-day milk yield, total milk yield, lactation length, dry period, calving interval and service period, respectively. No specific genetic trend was observed for performance traits during the period under study. Cows have not improved in their ability to perform in various economic traits. Accurate recording of pedigree and performance is necessary for improving the performance traits of Sahiwal. Due to high repeatability estimates of yield traits selection or culling may be practised from first few records.

  20. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  1. Measurements of fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, H.O.

    2000-01-01

    After some historical introductory remarks on the discovery of nuclear fission and early fission yield determinations, the present status of knowledge on fission yields is briefly reviewed. Practical and fundamental reasons motivating the pursuit of fission yield measurements in the coming century are pointed out. Recent results and novel techniques are described that promise to provide new interesting insights into the fission process during the next century. (author)

  2. Fission product yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenta, V.; Hep, J.

    1978-01-01

    Data are summed up necessary for determining the yields of individual fission products from different fissionable nuclides. Fractional independent yields, cumulative and isobaric yields are presented here for the thermal fission of 235 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu and for fast fission (approximately 1 MeV) of 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu; these values are included into the 5th version of the YIELDS library, supplementing the BIBFP library. A comparison is made of experimental data and possible improvements of calculational methods are suggested. (author)

  3. Assessment of Genetic Parameters of Agronomic Traits in Bread Wheat using Generation Means Analysis under water-limited Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dorrani-Nejad

    2017-10-01

    -parameter model including m, [d], [h], [i] and [l] explained genetic variation for plant height, awn length, grain number per plant, 1000-grains weight, biology and grain yield. While, a four parameter model including m, [h], [i] and [l] were explained genetic diversity of grain filling period and a four-parameter model including m, [d], [h], and [l] was valid for explaining genetic variation of number of spike per plant and harvest index. A three parameter model including m, [d], [i] made the significant contributions to the inheritance of spike length. The additive genetic variance was detected as the most important genetic effect in controlling grain yield, biologic yield, harvest index, 1000-grian weight, awn length, spike length and grain filling period. Therefore, selection in early generations is effective for these traits. High narrow sense heritability of these traits proposes that the most part of genetic variance could be fixed in segregating generations. Broad and narrow sense heritability of studied traits in the present population were 0.46 to 0.96 and 0.16 to 0.93, respectively. 1000-grian weight, grain yield, biologic yield, grain filling period and harvest index had the highest narrow sense heritability, respectively. Therefore in the present population, selection based on these traits could result in good genetic gain. While, dominant effect was more important for plant height, number of spike per plant and grain number per plant. Significant differences between broad and narrow sense heritability of these traits has confirmed the fact that the dominance effect is very important. Therefore, selection should be made in later generations until desirable genes are fixed. Low narrow sense heritability was observed for number of spike per plant (0.16. Therefore, selection based on this trait can not have good genetic gain in present population. In this study, environmental variation was less than additive and dominance variance that show accuracy of the estimations

  4. Effects of mulch practices on fresh ear yield and yield components of sweet corn

    OpenAIRE

    KARA, Burhan; ATAR, Bekir

    2013-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in the vegetation seasons of 2010 and 2011. The main purpose of the study was to determine the effects of mulch practices (a control-unmulched treatment, a plastic mulch treatment, and a straw mulch treatment) on fresh ear yield and some yield-related traits of sweet corn according to 3 sowing dates: 1 April, 15 April, and 1 May, respectively. The main effects of sowing dates were significant for the harvest period, the emerging rate from soil, the fresh ear yie...

  5. correlation and path coefficient analysis of yield characters of bambara

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finance DAC

    1Adamawa State College of Agriculture, Ganye, Nigeria. ... seed yield (39.872%) followed by number of pods/plant which contributed 12.809%. ... Therefore, the most important yield determinants of bambara groundnut which should be.

  6. Cause and effect relationship for some biometric traits in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheema, M.N.; Mian, A.M.; Ihsan, M.; Tariq, A.M.; Rabbani, G.; Mahmood, A.

    2005-01-01

    Genotypic and phenotypic correlations and path coefficient analysis were conducted for grains yield and some biometric traits in 25 cross-combinations of break wheat under the rain fed conditions. Significant positive genotypic and phenotypic association was observed between grain yield per plant, and the yield components, such as productive tillers per plant, spike-length, spike lets per spike, grains per spike and 1000-grain weight. The path coefficient analysis revealed that the number of grains per spike and 1000-grain weight had the maximum direct effect on grain yield. These traits may be considered as the selection criteria for developing highly yielding wheat genotypes for rain fed areas. (author)

  7. Sequential Path Analysis for Determination of Relationship Between Yield and Yield Components in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtasham MOHAMMADI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate 295 wheat genotypes in Alpha-Lattice design with two replications. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation of grain yield was 2706 and 950 (kg/ha,respectively. The results of correlation coefficients indicated that grain yield had significant and positive association with plant height, spike length, early growth vigor and agronomic score. Whereas there were negative correlation coefficients between grain yield and days to physiological maturity and canopy temperature before and during anthesis. Path analysis indicated agronomic score and plant height had high positive direct effects on grain yield, while canopy temperature before and during anthesis, and days to maturity, wes another trait having negative direct effect on grain yield. The results of sequential path analysis showed the traits that accounted as a criteria variable for high grain yield were agronomic score, plant height, canopy temperature, spike length, chlorophyll content and early growth vigor, which were determined as first, second and third order variables and had strong effects on grain yield via one or more paths. More important, as canopy temperature, agronomic score and early growth vigor can be evaluated quickly and easily, these traits may be used for evaluation of large populations.

  8. Genome-wide association study identifies candidate genes for male fertility traits in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosova, Gülüm; Scott, Nicole M; Niederberger, Craig; Prins, Gail S; Ober, Carole

    2012-06-08

    Despite the fact that hundreds of genes are known to affect fertility in animal models, relatively little is known about genes that influence natural fertility in humans. To broadly survey genes contributing to variation in male fertility, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of two fertility traits (family size and birth rate) in 269 married men who are members of a founder population of European descent that proscribes contraception and has large family sizes. Associations between ∼250,000 autosomal SNPs and the fertility traits were examined. A total of 41 SNPs with p ≤ 1 × 10(-4) for either trait were taken forward to a validation study of 123 ethnically diverse men from Chicago who had previously undergone semen analyses. Nine (22%) of the SNPs associated with reduced fertility in the GWAS were also associated with one or more of the ten measures of reduced sperm quantity and/or function, yielding 27 associations with p values LRRC32, which encodes a latent transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor on regulatory T cells. We suggest that mutations in these genes that are more severe may account for some of the unexplained infertility (or subfertility) in the general population. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Carcass and meat quality traits in Nellore and F1 Nellore-Araguaia crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N V; Aboujaoude, C; Vieira, G S; Paiva, V V; Moraes Neto, R A; Gondim, V S; Alves, L R; Torres, M C L; Antunes, R C

    2015-05-22

    We evaluated and compared carcass traits and meat quality in Nellore cattle and F1 crosses between Nellore and Araguaia, where 17 individuals were from the Nellore group and 19 were ½ Nellore and ½ Araguaia crosses. All animals belonged to the same birth season and were raised in pasture systems under the same nutritional, environmental, and management conditions. When the animals reached slaughter weight, they were taken to an industrial slaughterhouse where food was not provided for 24 h (free access to water); they were then stunned, bled, the leather was removed, and they were eviscerated. The carcasses were weighed (hot weight), kept in chilled storage for approximately 24 h at 4°C, and weighed again to obtain the chilled carcass weight. Carcass yield, carcass length, carcass width, leg length, thigh perimeter, loin eye area (LEA), retail cuts, cooling loss, pH, fat depth, marbling rate, intramuscular fat, color, and shear force were analyzed and sensory analysis of the meat was conducted. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed for the following variables: slaughter weight, hot and chilled carcass weights, carcass and leg lengths, thigh perimeter, LEA, retail cuts, and lightness (L*), where the ½ Nellore ½ Araguaia individuals showed higher means for all of these traits, except leg length and L*. Therefore, crossbreeding between Nellore and Araguaia did not affect the meat's sensory characteristics, but contributed to an improvement in carcass traits, providing an alternative for farmers that aim for good meat quality, with a higher meat percentage.

  10. The sheep growth hormone gene polymorphism and its effects on milk traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettori, Maria Luisa; Pazzola, Michele; Pira, Emanuela; Paschino, Pietro; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo

    2015-05-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is encoded by the GH gene, which may be single copy or duplicate in sheep. The two copies of the sheep GH gene (GH1/GH2-N and GH2-Z) were entirely sequenced in one 106 ewes of Sarda breed, in order to highlight sequence polymorphisms and investigate possible association between genetic variants and milk traits. Milk traits included milk yield, fat, protein, casein and lactose percentage. We evidenced 75 nucleotide changes. Transcription factor binding site prediction revealed two sequences potentially recognised by the pituitary-specific transcription factor POU1FI at the GH1/GH2-N gene, which were lost at the promoter of GH2-Z, which might explain the different tissues of expression of GH1/GH2-N (pituitary) and GH2-Z (placenta). Significant differences in milk traits were observed among genotypes at polymorphic loci only for the GH2-Z gene. Sheep with homozygote genotype ss748770547 CC had higher fat percentage (P < 0.01) than TT. SNP ss748770547 was part of a potential transcription factor binding site for C/EBP alpha (CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein), which is involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and adipoblast differentiation. SNP ss748770547, located in the GH2-Z gene 5' flanking region, may be a causal mutation affecting milk fat content. These findings might contribute to the knowledge of the sheep GH locus and might be useful in selection processes in sheep.

  11. Quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping for growth traits on bovine chromosome 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Miyata

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping in livestock allows the identification of genes that determine the genetic variation affecting traits of economic interest. We analyzed the birth weight and weight at 60 days QTL segregating on bovine chromosome BTA14 in a F2 resource population using genotypes produced from seven microsatellite markers. Phenotypes were derived from 346 F2 progeny produced from crossing Bos indicus Gyr x Holstein Bos taurus F1 parents. Interval analysis to detect QTL for birth weight revealed the presence of a QTL (p < 0.05 at 1 centimorgan (cM from the centromere with an additive effect of 1.210 ± 0.438 kg. Interval analysis for weight at 60 days revealed the presence of a QTL (p < 0.05 at 0 cM from the centromere with an additive effect of 2.122 ± 0.735 kg. The region to which the QTL were assigned is described in the literature as responsible for some growth traits, milk yield, milk composition, fat deposition and has also been related to reproductive traits such as daughter pregnancy rate and ovulation rate. The effects of the QTL described on other traits were not investigated.

  12. Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Calving Traits in Danish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, J R; Guldbrandtsen, B; Sørensen, P

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting direct and maternal calving traits at first calving in the Danish Holstein population, 2) to distinguish between pleiotropic and linked QTL for chromosome regions affecting more than one trait, and 3) to detect...

  13. Quantitative trait loci for behavioural traits in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, A.J.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Siwek, M.Z.; Cornelissen, S.J.B.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Koene, P.; Bovenhuis, H.; Poel, van der J.J.

    2005-01-01

    The detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) of behavioural traits has mainly been focussed on mouse and rat. With the rapid development of molecular genetics and the statistical tools, QTL mapping for behavioural traits in farm animals is developing. In chicken, a total of 30 QTL involved in

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Natural Variations Contributing to Drought Resistance in Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Crops are often cultivated in regions where they will face environmental adversities; resulting in substantial yield loss which can ultimately lead to food and societal problems. Thus, significant efforts have been made to breed stress tolerant cultivars in an attempt to minimize these problems and to produce more stability with respect to crop yields across broad geographies. Since stress tolerance is a complex and multi-genic trait, advancements with classical breeding approaches have been challenging. On the other hand, molecular breeding, which is based on transgenics, marker-assisted selection and genome editing technologies; holds great promise to enable farmers to better cope with these challenges. However, identification of the key genetic components underlying the trait is critical and will serve as the foundation for future crop genetic improvement. Recently, genome-wide association studies have made significant contributions to facilitate the discovery of natural variation contributing to stress tolerance in crops. From these studies, the identified loci can serve as targets for genomic selection or editing to enable the molecular design of new cultivars. Here, we summarize research progress on this issue and focus on the genetic basis of drought tolerance as revealed by genome-wide association studies and quantitative trait loci mapping. Although many favorable loci have been identified, elucidation of their molecular mechanisms contributing to increased stress tolerance still remains a challenge. Thus, continuous efforts are still required to functionally dissect this complex trait through comprehensive approaches, such as system biological studies. It is expected that proper application of the acquired knowledge will enable the development of stress tolerant cultivars; allowing agricultural production to become more sustainable under dynamic environmental conditions.

  15. Assessing the Efficiency of Phenotyping Early Traits in a Greenhouse Automated Platform for Predicting Drought Tolerance of Soybean in the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirone, Laura S; Pereyra Irujo, Gustavo A; Bolton, Alejandro; Erreguerena, Ignacio; Aguirrezábal, Luis A N

    2018-01-01

    Conventional field phenotyping for drought tolerance, the most important factor limiting yield at a global scale, is labor-intensive and time-consuming. Automated greenhouse platforms can increase the precision and throughput of plant phenotyping and contribute to a faster release of drought tolerant varieties. The aim of this work was to establish a framework of analysis to identify early traits which could be efficiently measured in a greenhouse automated phenotyping platform, for predicting the drought tolerance of field grown soybean genotypes. A group of genotypes was evaluated, which showed variation in their drought susceptibility index (DSI) for final biomass and leaf area. A large number of traits were measured before and after the onset of a water deficit treatment, which were analyzed under several criteria: the significance of the regression with the DSI, phenotyping cost, earliness, and repeatability. The most efficient trait was found to be transpiration efficiency measured at 13 days after emergence. This trait was further tested in a second experiment with different water deficit intensities, and validated using a different set of genotypes against field data from a trial network in a third experiment. The framework applied in this work for assessing traits under different criteria could be helpful for selecting those most efficient for automated phenotyping.

  16. Assessing the Efficiency of Phenotyping Early Traits in a Greenhouse Automated Platform for Predicting Drought Tolerance of Soybean in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S. Peirone

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional field phenotyping for drought tolerance, the most important factor limiting yield at a global scale, is labor-intensive and time-consuming. Automated greenhouse platforms can increase the precision and throughput of plant phenotyping and contribute to a faster release of drought tolerant varieties. The aim of this work was to establish a framework of analysis to identify early traits which could be efficiently measured in a greenhouse automated phenotyping platform, for predicting the drought tolerance of field grown soybean genotypes. A group of genotypes was evaluated, which showed variation in their drought susceptibility index (DSI for final biomass and leaf area. A large number of traits were measured before and after the onset of a water deficit treatment, which were analyzed under several criteria: the significance of the regression with the DSI, phenotyping cost, earliness, and repeatability. The most efficient trait was found to be transpiration efficiency measured at 13 days after emergence. This trait was further tested in a second experiment with different water deficit intensities, and validated using a different set of genotypes against field data from a trial network in a third experiment. The framework applied in this work for assessing traits under different criteria could be helpful for selecting those most efficient for automated phenotyping.

  17. Understanding community traits - understanding public concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlodarczyk, T.

    2003-01-01

    No two communities are alike. Therefore, one should not expect that public concerns and socio-economic effects of a proposed undertaking would be the same everywhere. Public concerns and the potential for social and economic effects of nuclear waste management facilities in one community will be different from those in another because communities differ in their fundamental sociological and economic traits. Research and experience with various types of nuclear and hazardous waste management facilities, generating stations and other energy developments across Canada and the United States indicate that an analysis of only a few key community traits can yield a more thorough understanding of the ways in which a community might perceive and respond to a project, the kinds of concerns that might dominate the public agenda, and the types of socio-economic effects that will be of primary concern. (author)

  18. Plant functional traits predict green roof ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Tran, Stephanie; Gebert, Luke

    2015-02-17

    Plants make important contributions to the services provided by engineered ecosystems such as green roofs. Ecologists use plant species traits as generic predictors of geographical distribution, interactions with other species, and ecosystem functioning, but this approach has been little used to optimize engineered ecosystems. Four plant species traits (height, individual leaf area, specific leaf area, and leaf dry matter content) were evaluated as predictors of ecosystem properties and services in a modular green roof system planted with 21 species. Six indicators of ecosystem services, incorporating thermal, hydrological, water quality, and carbon sequestration functions, were predicted by the four plant traits directly or indirectly via their effects on aggregate ecosystem properties, including canopy density and albedo. Species average height and specific leaf area were the most useful traits, predicting several services via effects on canopy density or growth rate. This study demonstrates that easily measured plant traits can be used to select species to optimize green roof performance across multiple key services.

  19. Personality traits and perceived social support among depressed older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukrowicz, Kelly C; Franzese, Alexis T; Thorp, Steven R; Cheavens, Jennifer S; Lynch, Thomas R

    2008-09-01

    The contribution of personality traits and social support to mental health is well established, but to our knowledge there have been no longitudinal investigations of the relation between personality and social support in depressed older adults. In the current study, we examined a repeated measures multi-level mixed model of change in perceived social support to determine whether personality traits and depressive symptoms were associated with changes in perceived social support over the 3 year study interval in a sample of depressed older adults. Results suggest that Conscientiousness and Extraversion were personality traits that were significantly predictive of changes in perceived social support over this time interval. Based on these results it appears that, among depressed older adults, those with conscientious or extraverted personality traits are more likely to resist impulses to withdraw from relationships. In addition, these traits may lead to more satisfying interactions and greater perceived social support over time. The implications of these results are discussed.

  20. Plant trait detection with multi-scale spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, J. A.; Wang, R.

    2017-12-01

    Proximal and remote sensing using imaging spectrometry offers new opportunities for detecting plant traits, with benefits for phenotyping, productivity estimation, stress detection, and biodiversity studies. Using proximal and airborne spectrometry, we evaluated variation in plant optical properties at various spatial and spectral scales with the goal of identifying optimal scales for distinguishing plant traits related to photosynthetic function. Using directed approaches based on physiological vegetation indices, and statistical approaches based on spectral information content, we explored alternate ways of distinguishing plant traits with imaging spectrometry. With both leaf traits and canopy structure contributing to the signals, results exhibit a strong scale dependence. Our results demonstrate the benefits of multi-scale experimental approaches within a clear conceptual framework when applying remote sensing methods to plant trait detection for phenotyping, productivity, and biodiversity studies.

  1. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Siegling, Alexander B.; Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invari...

  2. Covariance functions across herd production levels for test day records on milk, fat, and protein yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Goddard, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    Multiple-trait BLUP evaluations of test day records require a large number of genetic parameters. This study estimated covariances with a reduced model that included covariance functions in two dimensions (stage of lactation and herd production level) and all three yield traits. Records came from

  3. Genetic association among root morphology, root quality and root yield in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Ramesh R.; Reddy Anjaneya Prasanna L.; Subbaiah Chinna J.; Kumar Niranjana A.; Prasad Nagendra H.N.; Bhukya Balakishan

    2011-01-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a dryland medicinal crop and roots are used as valuable drug in traditional systems of medicine. Morphological variants (morphotypes) and the parental populations were evaluated for root - morphometric, quality and yield traits to study genetic association among them. Root morphometric traits (root length, root diameter, number of secondary roots/ plant) and crude fiber content exhibited strong association among them and ...

  4. Prediction of industrial tomato hybrids from agronomic traits and ISSR molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, A S T; Resende, J T V; Faria, M V; Da-Silva, P R; Fagundes, B S; Morales, R G F

    2016-05-13

    Heterosis is a highly relevant phenomenon in plant breeding. This condition is usually established in hybrids derived from crosses of highly divergent parents. The success of a breeder in obtaining heterosis is directly related to the correct identification of genetically contrasting parents. Currently, the diallel cross is the most commonly used methodology to detect contrasting parents; however, it is a time- and cost-consuming procedure. Therefore, new tools capable of performing this task quickly and accurately are required. Thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic divergence in industrial tomato lines, based on agronomic traits, and to compare with estimates obtained using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. The genetic divergence among 10 industrial tomato lines, based on nine morphological characters and 12 ISSR primers was analyzed. For data analysis, Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between the genetic dissimilarity measures estimated by Mahalanobis distance and Jaccard's coefficient of genetic dissimilarity from the heterosis estimates, combining ability, and means of important traits of industrial tomato. The ISSR markers efficiently detected contrasting parents for hybrid production in tomato. Parent RVTD-08 was indicated as the most divergent, both by molecular and morphological markers, that positively contributed to increased heterosis and by the specific combining ability in the crosses in which it participated. The genetic dissimilarity estimated by ISSR molecular markers aided the identification of the best hybrids of the experiment in terms of total fruit yield, pulp yield, and soluble solids content.

  5. Studies on seed yield potential of some selected kenaf ( Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kenaf seed yield depends on morpho-physiological traits between varieties, and the interaction between genotype and the environment. Studies were conducted in Ibadan, Ilora and Kisi stations of the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IAR&T), Obafemi Awolowo University, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Oyo State, ...

  6. Evaluation of high yielding soybean germplasm under water limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Silvas J; Murphy, Mackensie; Mutava, Raymond N; Zhang, Zhengzhi; Nguyen, Na; Kim, Yoon Ha; Pathan, Safiullah M; Shannon, Grover J; Valliyodan, Babu; Nguyen, Henry T

    2016-05-01

    Limited information is available for soybean root traits and their plasticity under drought stress. To date, no studies have focused on examining diverse soybean germplasm for regulation of shoot and root response under water limited conditions across varying soil types. In this study, 17 genetically diverse soybean germplasm lines were selected to study root response to water limited conditions in clay (trial 1) and sandy soil (trial 2) in two target environments. Physiological data on shoot traits was measured at multiple crop stages ranging from early vegetative to pod filling. The phenotypic root traits, and biomass accumulation data are collected at pod filling stage. In trial 1, the number of lateral roots and forks were positively correlated with plot yield under water limitation and in trial 2, lateral root thickness was positively correlated with the hill plot yield. Plant Introduction (PI) 578477A and 088444 were found to have higher later root number and forks in clay soil with higher yield under water limitation. In sandy soil, PI458020 was found to have a thicker lateral root system and higher yield under water limitation. The genotypes identified in this study could be used to enhance drought tolerance of elite soybean cultivars through improved root traits specific to target environments. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed

  8. The Trait Lady Speaks Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culham, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    The acknowledged expert on the 6+1 traits of writing explains what the traits are and what they are not: The traits are not a curriculum; they are part and parcel of the writing process; they are a model, not a program; they are not a prepackaged replacement for teaching writing; and they are the language of the writing workshop. The author…

  9. Genetic parameters for lactose and its correlation with other milk production traits and fitness traits in pasture-based production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2017-05-01

    Lactose is a major component of milk (typically around 5% of composition) that is not usually directly considered in national genetic improvement programs of dairy cattle. Daily test-day lactose yields and percentage data from pasture-based seasonal calving herds in Australia were analyzed to assess if lactose content can be used for predicting fitness traits and if an additional benefit is achieved by including lactose yield in selecting for milk yield traits. Data on lactose percentage collected from 2007 to 2014, from about 600 herds, were used to estimated genetic parameters for lactose percentage and lactose yield and correlations with other milk yield traits, somatic cell count (SCC), calving interval (CIV), and survival. Daily test-day data were analyzed using bivariate random regression models. In addition, multi-trait models were also performed mainly to assess the value of lactose to predict fitness traits. The heritability of lactose percentage (0.25 to 0.37) was higher than lactose yield (0.11 to 0.20) in the first parity. Genetically, the correlation of lactose percentage with protein percentage varied from 0.3 at the beginning of lactation to -0.24 at the end of the lactation in the first parity. Similar patterns in genetic correlations were also observed in the second and third parity. At all levels (i.e., genetic, permanent environmental, and residual), the correlation between milk yield and lactose yield was close to 1. The genetic and permanent environmental correlations between lactose percentage and SCC were stronger in the second and third parity and toward the end of the lactation (-0.35 to -0.50) when SCC levels are at their maximum. The genetic correlation between lactose percentage in the first 120 d and CIV (-0.23) was similar to correlation of CIV with protein percentage (-0.28), another component trait with the potential to predict fertility. Furthermore, the correlations of estimated breeding values of lactose percentage and estimated

  10. Soviet test yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergino, Eileen S.

    Soviet seismologists have published descriptions of 96 nuclear explosions conducted from 1961 through 1972 at the Semipalatinsk test site, in Kazakhstan, central Asia [Bocharov et al., 1989]. With the exception of releasing news about some of their peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) the Soviets have never before published such a body of information.To estimate the seismic yield of a nuclear explosion it is necessary to obtain a calibrated magnitude-yield relationship based on events with known yields and with a consistent set of seismic magnitudes. U.S. estimation of Soviet test yields has been done through application of relationships to the Soviet sites based on the U.S. experience at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), making some correction for differences due to attenuation and near-source coupling of seismic waves.

  11. Integrated physiological, biochemical and molecular analysis identifies important traits and mechanisms associated with differential response of rice genotypes to elevated temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghireddy eSailaja

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In changing climate, heat stress caused by high temperature poses a serious threat to rice cultivation. A multiple organizational analysis at physiological, biochemical and molecular level is required to fully understand the impact of elevated temperature in rice. This study was aimed at deciphering the elevated temperature response in eleven popular and mega rice cultivars widely grown in India. Physiological and biochemical traits specifically membrane thermostability (MTS, antioxidants, and photosynthesis were studied at vegetative and reproductive phases which were used to establish a correlation with grain yield under stress. Several useful traits in different genotypes were identified which will be important resource to develop high temperature tolerant rice cultivars. Interestingly, Nagina22 emerged as best performer in terms of yield as well as expression of physiological and biochemical traits at elevated temperature. It showed lesser relative injury, lesser reduction in chlorophyll content, increased super oxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activity, lesser reduction in net photosynthetic rate (PN, high transpiration rate (E and other photosynthetic/ fluorescence parameters contributing to least reduction in spikelet fertility and grain yield at elevated temperature. Further, expression of 14 genes including heat shock transcription factors and heat shock proteins was analyzed in Nagina22 (tolerant and Vandana (susceptible at flowering phase, strengthening the fact that N22 performs better at molecular level also during elevated temperature. This study shows that elevated temperature response is complex and involves multiple biological processes which are needed to be characterized to address the challenges of future climate extreme conditions.

  12. Quantitative trait loci mapping of calving and conformation traits on Bos taurus autosome 18 in the German Holstein population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, B; Baes, C; Mayer, M; Reinsch, N; Seidenspinner, T; Thaller, G; Kühn, Ch

    2010-03-01

    region previously reported to harbor QTL for somatic cell score indicated that effects of QTL for udder type traits might be correlated with effects of QTL for udder health traits on BTA18. Our results suggest that loci in the middle to telomeric region on BTA18 with effect on conformation traits may also contribute to the genetic variance of calving and udder health traits. Further analyses are required to identify the causal mutations affecting conformation and calving traits and to investigate the correlation of effects for loci associated with conformation, calving, and udder health traits.

  13. Effect of Drought Stress onYield and Yield Components of Sesame cultivars under Kerman conditions (Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Farahbakhsh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate effects of drought stress on yield and yield components of sesame in Kerman region a split-plot experiment based onn compelet randomised block design with three replications was carried out in 1388. Irrigation levels (Normal irrigation in all growth stages, witholding water after 50% flowering, witholding water after 50% pod setting and differen t sesame landraces (Jiroft, Shiraz, Ardestan, Dezful, Shahr babak, Gorgan, Sirjan, Markazi, Birjand and Orzueieh were considered as main plots and sub-plots respectively. Plant height, the biggest pod length, noumber of grain per pod, noumber of pod per plant, grain weight per plant, thousand grain weight and grain yield were the measured traits. Results showed all the measured traits were significantly affected by the irrigation treatments. The effects of different landraces on all traits except noumber of grain per plant were significant. Irrigation × landraces interaction affected all measured traits except the biggest pod length significantly. The highest grain yield was recorde for Markezi landrace (845.2 kg –ha under normal irrigation and the lowest one was obtained from Jiroft landrace (104.8 kg –ha with witholding irrigation after 50% flowering.

  14. Use of biological priors enhances understanding of genetic architecture and genomic prediction of complex traits within and between dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lingzhao; Sahana, Goutam; Ma, Peipei; Su, Guosheng; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Shengli; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sørensen, Peter

    2017-08-10

    A better understanding of the genetic architecture underlying complex traits (e.g., the distribution of causal variants and their effects) may aid in the genomic prediction. Here, we hypothesized that the genomic variants of complex traits might be enriched in a subset of genomic regions defined by genes grouped on the basis of "Gene Ontology" (GO), and that incorporating this independent biological information into genomic prediction models might improve their predictive ability. Four complex traits (i.e., milk, fat and protein yields, and mastitis) together with imputed sequence variants in Holstein (HOL) and Jersey (JER) cattle were analysed. We first carried out a post-GWAS analysis in a HOL training population to assess the degree of enrichment of the association signals in the gene regions defined by each GO term. We then extended the genomic best linear unbiased prediction model (GBLUP) to a genomic feature BLUP (GFBLUP) model, including an additional genomic effect quantifying the joint effect of a group of variants located in a genomic feature. The GBLUP model using a single random effect assumes that all genomic variants contribute to the genomic relationship equally, whereas GFBLUP attributes different weights to the individual genomic relationships in the prediction equation based on the estimated genomic parameters. Our results demonstrate that the immune-relevant GO terms were more associated with mastitis than milk production, and several biologically meaningful GO terms improved the prediction accuracy with GFBLUP for the four traits, as compared with GBLUP. The improvement of the genomic prediction between breeds (the average increase across the four traits was 0.161) was more apparent than that it was within the HOL (the average increase across the four traits was 0.020). Our genomic feature modelling approaches provide a framework to simultaneously explore the genetic architecture and genomic prediction of complex traits by taking advantage of

  15. Associations between variants of the HAL gene and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifei; Jiang, Li; Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Shengli; Yin, Zongjun; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jian-Feng

    2014-11-25

    The histidine ammonia-lyse gene (HAL) encodes the histidine ammonia-lyase, which catalyzes the first reaction of histidine catabolism. In our previous genome-wide association study in Chinese Holstein cows to identify genetic variants affecting milk production traits, a SNP (rs41647754) located 357 bp upstream of HAL, was found to be significantly associated with milk yield and milk protein yield. In addition, the HAL gene resides within the reported QTLs for milk production traits. The aims of this study were to identify genetic variants in HAL and to test the association between these variants and milk production traits. Fifteen SNPs were identified within the regions under study of the HAL gene, including three coding mutations, seven intronic mutations, one promoter region mutation, and four 3'UTR mutations. Nine of these identified SNPs were chosen for subsequent genotyping and association analyses. Our results showed that five SNP markers (ss974768522, ss974768525, ss974768531, ss974768533 and ss974768534) were significantly associated with one or more milk production traits. Haplotype analysis showed that two haplotype blocks were significantly associated with milk yield and milk protein yield, providing additional support for the association between HAL variants and milk production traits in dairy cows (P HAL gene and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows, indicating the potential role of HAL variants in these traits. These identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers used in genomic selection schemes to accelerate the genetic gains of milk production traits in dairy cattle.

  16. Locational variation in green fodder yield, dry matter yield, and forage quality of sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Khan, S.; Mohammad, D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to find out the variations in for- age yield and quality of sorghum as affected by different environments. The three agroecological zones viz., Agricultural Research Institute (ARI), Sariab, Quetta, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI), Faisalabad and National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad were selected on the basis of different physiography, geology, temperature, and climate and water availability. Crude protein contents, varied from 6.98 to 8.02 percent, crude fibre contents from 30.84 to 31.68 percent, green fodder yield from 38.91 to 50.64 t/ha and dry matter yield from 8.92 to 10.17 t/ha at the three diverse locations. Maximum crude protein and crude fibre contents were obtained at NARC, Islamabad and AARI, Faisalabad. Maximum green fodder and dry matter yields were also observed at NARC, Islamabad and AARI, Faisalabad. It was also noted that the same genotypes showed differential response when planted under the diverse environments for green fodder yield, dry matter yield, crude protein and crude fibre contents. Therefore, it was concluded that these differences in forage yield and quality traits under diverse environments were due to differences in soil types, soil fertility, temperature, rain- fall and other climatic conditions. (author)

  17. Contribution of backscattered electrons to the total electron yield ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a better fit to the experiment compared to the power-law. Keywords ... is based on many different mechanisms, for example, ion-induced secondary elec- ... modified these theories using a Lindhard power potential formalism to describe SE ..... principle. The constant-loss indicates the importance of straggling of the primaries.

  18. Sexual selection and magic traits in speciation with gene flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R. SERVEDIO, Michael KOPP

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which sexual selection is involved in speciation with gene flow remains an open question and the subject of much research. Here, we propose that some insight can be gained from considering the concept of magic traits (i.e., traits involved in both reproductive isolation and ecological divergence. Both magic traits and other, “non-magic”, traits can contribute to speciation via a number of specific mechanisms. We argue that many of these mechanisms are likely to differ widely in the extent to which they involve sexual selection. Furthermore, in some cases where sexual selection is present, it may be prone to inhibit rather than drive speciation. Finally, there are a priori reasons to believe that certain categories of traits are much more effective than others in driving speciation. The combination of these points suggests a classification of traits that may shed light on the broader role of sexual selection in speciation with gene flow. In particular, we suggest that sexual selection can act as a driver of speciation in some scenarios, but may play a negligible role in potentially common categories of magic traits, and may be likely to inhibit speciation in common categories of non-magic traits [Current Zoology 58 (3: 507–513, 2012].

  19. Functional traits explain ecosystem function through opposing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadotte, Marc W

    2017-08-01

    The ability to explain why multispecies assemblages produce greater biomass compared to monocultures, has been a central goal in the quest to understand biodiversity effects on ecosystem function. Species contributions to ecosystem function can be driven by two processes: niche complementarity and a selection effect that is influenced by fitness (competitive) differences, and both can be approximated with measures of species' traits. It has been hypothesised that fitness differences are associated with few, singular traits while complementarity requires multidimensional trait measures. Here, using experimental data from plant assemblages, I show that the selection effect was strongest when trait dissimilarity was low, while complementarity was greatest with high trait dissimilarity. Selection effects were best explained by a single trait, plant height. Complementarity was correlated with dissimilarity across multiple traits, representing above and below ground processes. By identifying the relevant traits linked to ecosystem function, we obtain the ability to predict combinations of species that will maximise ecosystem function. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  20. Resistance to infectious diseases is a heritable trait in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, M; David, I; Hurtaud, J; Maupin, M; Gilbert, H; Garreau, H

    2015-12-01

    Selection for disease resistance is a powerful way to improve the health status of herds and to reduce the use of antibiotics. The objectives of this study were to estimate 1) the genetic parameters for simple visually assessed disease syndromes and for a composite trait of resistance to infectious disease including all syndromes and 2) their genetic correlations with production traits in a rabbit population. Disease symptoms were recorded in the selection herds of 2 commercial paternal rabbit lines during weighing at the end of the test (63 and 70 d of age, respectively). Causes of mortality occurring before these dates were also recorded. Seven disease traits were analyzed: 3 elementary traits visually assessed by technicians on farm (diarrhea, various digestive syndromes, and respiratory syndromes), 2 composite traits (all digestive syndromes and all infectious syndromes), and 2 mortality traits (digestive mortality and infectious mortality). Each animal was assigned only 1 disease trait, corresponding to the main syndrome ( = 153,400). Four production traits were also recorded: live weight the day before the end of test on most animals ( = 137,860) and cold carcass weight, carcass yield, and perirenal fat percentage of the carcass on a subset of slaughtered animals ( = 13,765). Records on both lines were analyzed simultaneously using bivariate linear animal models after validation of consistency with threshold models applied to logit-transformed traits. The heritabilities were low for disease traits, from 0.01 ± 0.002 for various digestive syndromes to 0.04 ± 0.004 for infectious mortality, and moderate to high for production traits. The genetic correlations between digestive syndromes were high and positive, whereas digestive and respiratory syndromes were slightly negatively correlated. The genetic correlations between the composite infectious disease trait and digestive or respiratory syndromes were moderate. Genetic correlations between disease and

  1. Breeding common bean populations for traits using selection index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristina Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A common bean (Phaseolus vulgarisL. cultivar must combine desirable genotypes for several traits in order to be accepted by producers and consumers. This study aimed to evaluate selection efficiency when segregating bean populations for traits, by means of a selection index, in order to obtain superior progenies for traits considered. A total of 16 populations from the F4 and F5generations were evaluated in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The traits evaluated were plant architecture, plant disease, grain type and yield. Using standard scores (Z, the sum of the four traits (∑Z was obtained and, based on this information, the best populations were identified. The evaluation of selection effectiveness was performed on 31 progenies from each population. The 496 progenies plus eight controls were evaluated in the F5:6and F5:7 generations for the same traits in July and November 2012, respectively. The selection, using the index based on the sum of standardized variables (∑Z, was efficient for identifying populations with superior progenies for all the traits considered.

  2. Quantitative traits and diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzJohn, Richard G

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative traits have long been hypothesized to affect speciation and extinction rates. For example, smaller body size or increased specialization may be associated with increased rates of diversification. Here, I present a phylogenetic likelihood-based method (quantitative state speciation and extinction [QuaSSE]) that can be used to test such hypotheses using extant character distributions. This approach assumes that diversification follows a birth-death process where speciation and extinction rates may vary with one or more traits that evolve under a diffusion model. Speciation and extinction rates may be arbitrary functions of the character state, allowing much flexibility in testing models of trait-dependent diversification. I test the approach using simulated phylogenies and show that a known relationship between speciation and a quantitative character could be recovered in up to 80% of the cases on large trees (500 species). Consistent with other approaches, detecting shifts in diversification due to differences in extinction rates was harder than when due to differences in speciation rates. Finally, I demonstrate the application of QuaSSE to investigate the correlation between body size and diversification in primates, concluding that clade-specific differences in diversification may be more important than size-dependent diversification in shaping the patterns of diversity within this group.

  3. Segregation of vegetative and reproductive traits associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, an F1 mapping population (AM1) of D. alata, exhibited segregation for both tuber yield- and quality- related traits when evaluated in the field for 12 agronomic characters: days to shoot emergence, number of primary vines per plant, days to flowering, flower sex, flowering intensity, days to tuber initiation, number ...

  4. Genetic Variability for Drought Adaptive Traits in A-511 Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drought causes considerable yield reduction in maize (Zea mays L.) grown in the moisture stressed areas of Ethiopia. Increased crop production through improvement is expected if the adapted local genotypes possess variability for drought adaptive traits. Randomly taken 196 S1 lines generated from Population A-511 ...

  5. Genetic diversity of gliadin pattern, morphological traits and baking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... diversity of 102 double haploids of wheat (sent from. CIMMYT) through studying gliadin protein ... biomass, yield per plant, harvest index, number of grains per spike, spike density, spike length, plant ... per spike, also 6 baking quality traits, protein content, gluten index,. SDS sedimentation, sedimentation ...

  6. Multitrait, Random Regression, or Simple Repeatability Model in High-Throughput Phenotyping Data Improve Genomic Prediction for Wheat Grain Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin; Rutkoski, Jessica E; Poland, Jesse A; Crossa, José; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Sorrells, Mark E

    2017-07-01

    High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) platforms can be used to measure traits that are genetically correlated with wheat ( L.) grain yield across time. Incorporating such secondary traits in the multivariate pedigree and genomic prediction models would be desirable to improve indirect selection for grain yield. In this study, we evaluated three statistical models, simple repeatability (SR), multitrait (MT), and random regression (RR), for the longitudinal data of secondary traits and compared the impact of the proposed models for secondary traits on their predictive abilities for grain yield. Grain yield and secondary traits, canopy temperature (CT) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were collected in five diverse environments for 557 wheat lines with available pedigree and genomic information. A two-stage analysis was applied for pedigree and genomic selection (GS). First, secondary traits were fitted by SR, MT, or RR models, separately, within each environment. Then, best linear unbiased predictions (BLUPs) of secondary traits from the above models were used in the multivariate prediction models to compare predictive abilities for grain yield. Predictive ability was substantially improved by 70%, on average, from multivariate pedigree and genomic models when including secondary traits in both training and test populations. Additionally, (i) predictive abilities slightly varied for MT, RR, or SR models in this data set, (ii) results indicated that including BLUPs of secondary traits from the MT model was the best in severe drought, and (iii) the RR model was slightly better than SR and MT models under drought environment. Copyright © 2017 Crop Science Society of America.

  7. PERSONALITY TRAITS AND BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija TAHIROVIC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The people with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD show pathological personality traits in three of the five domains (APA 2013. In addition to diagnostic criteria for BPD, described by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, the dimensional model of personality disorder, based on five-factor model of personality, seems to gain interest as it promisses to eliminate problems associated with poor-fit, co-morbidity and unclear diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to identify the personality traits by people who are already diagnosed with BPD using the DSM-5 categorical criteria. Based on the theoretical concepts and existing research findings as well as increased interest in the dimensional personality theory, we assume that people diagnosed with BPD will show high levels of pathology on three trait domains: negative affectivity, disinhibition and antagonism. This study was conducted in Germany in psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5 was used. The findings supported the assumptions that people with BPD show some degree of anxiousness, emotional lability, hostility, impulsivity, risk taking and separation anxiety. The study also found that traits such as distractibility, withdrawal and submissiveness were also present in this participant group. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants it has provided contribution to the already existing knowledge and understanding in regards to common personality treats for people diagnosed with BPD.

  8. Analysis of heterosis and quantitative trait loci for kernel shape related traits using triple testcross population in maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jiang

    Full Text Available Kernel shape related traits (KSRTs have been shown to have important influences on grain yield. The previous studies that emphasize kernel length (KL and kernel width (KW lack a comprehensive evaluation of characters affecting kernel shape. In this study, materials of the basic generations (B73, Mo17, and B73 × Mo17, 82 intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM individuals, and the corresponding triple testcross (TTC populations were used to evaluate heterosis, investigate correlations, and characterize the quantitative trait loci (QTL for six KSRTs: KL, KW, length to width ratio (LWR, perimeter length (PL, kernel area (KA, and circularity (CS. The results showed that the mid-parent heterosis (MPH for most of the KSRTs was moderate. The performance of KL, KW, PL, and KA exhibited significant positive correlation with heterozygosity but their Pearson's R values were low. Among KSRTs, the strongest significant correlation was found between PL and KA with R values was up to 0.964. In addition, KW, PL, KA, and CS were shown to be significant positive correlation with 100-kernel weight (HKW. 28 QTLs were detected for KSRTs in which nine were augmented additive, 13 were augmented dominant, and six were dominance × additive epistatic. The contribution of a single QTL to total phenotypic variation ranged from 2.1% to 32.9%. Furthermore, 19 additive × additive digenic epistatic interactions were detected for all KSRTs with the highest total R2 for KW (78.8%, and nine dominance × dominance digenic epistatic interactions detected for KL, LWR, and CS with the highest total R2 (55.3%. Among significant digenic interactions, most occurred between genomic regions not mapped with main-effect QTLs. These findings display the complexity of the genetic basis for KSRTs and enhance our understanding on heterosis of KSRTs from the quantitative genetic perspective.

  9. Optimizing rice yields while minimizing yield-scaled global warming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittelkow, Cameron M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria A; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; Linquist, Bruce A

    2014-05-01

    To meet growing global food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly evaluated with respect to crop productivity, i.e., on a yield-scaled as opposed to area basis. Here, we compiled available field data on CH4 and N2 O emissions from rice production systems to test the hypothesis that in response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) addition, yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP) will be minimized at N rates that maximize yields. Within each study, yield N surplus was calculated to estimate deficit or excess N application rates with respect to the optimal N rate (defined as the N rate at which maximum yield was achieved). Relationships between yield N surplus and GHG emissions were assessed using linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models. Results indicate that yields increased in response to increasing N surplus when moving from deficit to optimal N rates. At N rates contributing to a yield N surplus, N2 O and yield-scaled N2 O emissions increased exponentially. In contrast, CH4 emissions were not impacted by N inputs. Accordingly, yield-scaled CH4 emissions decreased with N addition. Overall, yield-scaled GWP was minimized at optimal N rates, decreasing by 21% compared to treatments without N addition. These results are unique compared to aerobic cropping systems in which N2 O emissions are the primary contributor to GWP, meaning yield-scaled GWP may not necessarily decrease for aerobic crops when yields are optimized by N fertilizer addition. Balancing gains in agricultural productivity with climate change concerns, this work supports the concept that high rice yields can be achieved with minimal yield-scaled GWP through optimal N application rates. Moreover, additional improvements in N use efficiency may further reduce yield-scaled GWP, thereby strengthening the economic and environmental sustainability of rice systems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Seed yield components and their potential interaction in grasses - to what extend does seed weigth influence yield?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, B; Gislum, R

    2010-01-01

     In a first-year seed crop of red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) the degree of lodging was controlled by the use of Moddus (Trinexapac-ethyl). Seed weight was found to increase by the decreasing degree of lodging prior to harvest. The higher seed weights were accompanied by higher yields even though...... the number of reproductive tillers and floret site utilization (FSU) were unaffected by the treatments. Seed yield is affected by several yield components and reflects the interaction between the seed yield potential (e.g. number of reproductive tillers, number of spikelets and florets/spikelet per...... reproductive tiller), the utilization of the potential (e.g. seed set, seed weight) and the realization of the seed yield potential, defined as the number of florets forming a saleable seed. The realization of the seed yield potential is affected by seed retention, seed weight and other traits associated...

  11. Genetic Loci Governing Grain Yield and Root Development under Variable Rice Cultivation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Catolos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the major abiotic stress to rice grain yield under unpredictable changing climatic scenarios. The widely grown, high yielding but drought susceptible rice varieties need to be improved by unraveling the genomic regions controlling traits enhancing drought tolerance. The present study was conducted with the aim to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs for grain yield and root development traits under irrigated non-stress and reproductive-stage drought stress in both lowland and upland situations. A mapping population consisting of 480 lines derived from a cross between Dular (drought-tolerant and IR64-21 (drought susceptible was used. QTL analysis revealed three major consistent-effect QTLs for grain yield (qDTY1.1, qDTY1.3, and qDTY8.1 under non-stress and reproductive-stage drought stress conditions, and 2 QTLs for root traits (qRT9.1 for root-growth angle and qRT5.1 for multiple root traits, i.e., seedling-stage root length, root dry weight and crown root number. The genetic locus qDTY1.1 was identified as hotspot for grain yield and yield-related agronomic and root traits. The study identified significant positive correlations among numbers of crown roots and mesocotyl length at the seedling stage and root length and root dry weight at depth at later stages with grain yield and yield-related traits. Under reproductive stage drought stress, the grain yield advantage of the lines with QTLs ranged from 24.1 to 108.9% under upland and 3.0–22.7% under lowland conditions over the lines without QTLs. The lines with QTL combinations qDTY1.3+qDTY8.1 showed the highest mean grain yield advantage followed by lines having qDTY1.1+qDTY8.1 and qDTY1.1+qDTY8.1+qDTY1.3, across upland/lowland reproductive-stage drought stress. The identified QTLs for root traits, mesocotyl length, grain yield and yield-related traits can be immediately deployed in marker-assisted breeding to develop drought tolerant high yielding rice varieties.

  12. Genetic basis of some yield components in gossypium hirsutum l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, A.; Azhar, F.M.; Khan, I.A.; Rana, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    A 5 * 5 diallel analysis was conducted to study the inheritance of seed cotton yield, number of bolls and boll weight in Gossypium hirsutum L. using combining ability technique. The analysis of the data revealed that variance due to specific combining ability was significant for all the three traits signifying the importance of non additive gene action. The comparison of the parents showed that NF-801-2-37 was the best general combiner for seed cotton yield, number of bolls and boll weight followed by Acala-63-75. Best hybrid combinations identified were Acala-63-75 * NF-801-2-37 for seed cotton yield and DPL-61 * NF-801-2-37 for number of bolls and boll weight. Higher proportion of dominance variance in all three traits suggested delayed selection or use of heterosis breeding in crop improvement programs. (author)

  13. Enhancement of HHG yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrat, C.; Biegert, J.

    2011-01-01

    A static electric field periodically distributed in space controls and enhances the yield in high harmonic generation. The method is relatively simple to implement and allows tuning from the extreme-ultraviolet to soft X-ray. The radiation yield is selectively enhanced due to symmetry breaking induced by a static electric field on the interaction between the driving laser and the medium. The enhanced spectral region is tuned by varying the periodicity of the static electric field. Simulations predict an increase of more than two orders of magnitude for harmonics in the water window spectral range.

  14. A study of wild tomatoes endemic to the Galapagos Islands as a source for salinity tolerance traits

    KAUST Repository

    Pailles Galvez, Claudia Yveline

    2017-11-01

    Salinity is a major concern in agriculture since it adversely affects plant growth, development, and yield. Domestication of crops exerted strong selective pressure and reduced their genetic diversity. Meanwhile, wild species continued to adapt to their environment becoming valuable sources of genetic variation, with the potential for enhancing modern crops performance in today’s changing climate. Some wild species are found in highly saline environments; remarkable examples are the endemic wild tomatoes from the Galapagos Islands, forming the Solanum cheesmaniae and Solanum galapagense species (hereafter termed Galapagos tomatoes). These wild tomatoes adapted to thrive in the coastal regions of the Galapagos Islands. The present work includes a thorough characterization of a collection of 67 accessions of Galapagos tomatoes obtained from the Tomato Genetics Resource Center (TGRC). Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) was performed to establish the population structure and genetic distance within the germplasm collection. Both species were genetically differentiated, and a substructure was found in S. cheesmaniae dividing the accessions in two groups based on their origin: eastern and western islands. Phenotypic studies were performed at the seedling stage, subjecting seedlings to 200 mM NaCl for 10 days. Various traits were recorded and analysed for their contribution to salinity tolerance, compared to control conditions. Large natural variation was found across the collection in terms of salt stress responses and different possible salt tolerant mechanisms were identified. Six accessions were selected for further work, based on their good performance under salinity. This experiment included scoring several plant growth and yield-related traits, as well as RNA sequencing (RNAseq) at the fruit-ripening stage, under three different NaCl concentrations. Accession LA0421 showed an increased yield of almost 50% in mild salinity (150 mM NaCl) compared to control conditions

  15. Genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthy, T R; Ryan, D P; Fitzgerald, A M; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits derived from ultrasound examination of the reproductive tract and a range of performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The performance traits investigated included calving performance, milk production, somatic cell score (i.e., logarithm transformation of somatic cell count), carcass traits, and body-related linear type traits. Detailed reproductive traits included (1) resumed cyclicity at the time of examination, (2) multiple ovulations, (3) early ovulation, (4) heat detection, (5) ovarian cystic structures, (6) embryo loss, and (7) uterine score, measured on a 1 (little or no fluid with normal tone) to 4 (large quantity of fluid with a flaccid tone) scale, based on the tone of the uterine wall and the quantity of fluid present in the uterus. (Co)variance components were estimated using a repeatability animal linear mixed model. Genetic merit for greater milk, fat, and protein yield was associated with a reduced ability to resume cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlations ranged from -0.25 to -0.15). Higher genetic merit for milk yield was also associated with a greater genetic susceptibility to multiple ovulations. Genetic predisposition to elevated somatic cell score was associated with a decreased likelihood of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of -0.32) and a greater risk of both multiple ovulations (genetic correlation of 0.25) and embryo loss (genetic correlation of 0.32). Greater body condition score was genetically associated with an increased likelihood of resumption of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of 0.52). Genetically heavier, fatter carcasses with better conformation were also associated with an increased likelihood of resumed cyclicity by the time of examination (genetic correlations ranged from 0.24 to 0.41). Genetically heavier carcasses were associated with an inferior uterine score as well as a greater

  16. Development of methodics for the characterization of the composition of the ion-collision-induced secondary-particle flux by comparison of the yield contributions of photoinduced ion formation processes; Entwicklung einer Methodik zur Charakterisierung der Zusammensetzung des ionenbeschussinduzierten Sekundaerteilchenflusses durch Vergleich der Ausbeuteanteile photoinduzierter Ionenbildungsprozesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vering, Guido

    2008-10-13

    The aim of this work was to develop a method to distinguish between different ion formation processes and to determine the influence of these processes on the total number of detected monatomic ions of a certain element. A vector/matrix-formalism was developed, which describes the physical processes of sputtering, ion formation, mass separation and detection in laser-SNMS. In the framework of the method developed, based on this theoretic formalism, changes in the secondary flux contribution of the respective element were observed by comparing the detected monatomic ion yield obtained in specifically aligned (SIMS and) laser-SNMS experiments. The yields resulting from these experiments were used to calculate characteristic numbers to compare the flux composition from different surfaces. The potential of the method was demonstrated for the elements boron, iron and gadolinium by investigating the changes in the flux composition of secondary particles sputtered from metallic surfaces, as a function of the oxygen concentration at the surface. Finally, combined laser-SNMS depth profiles and images, obtained with both laser systems, were presented to demonstrate how the parallel detection of the three differently originated ion signals of the same element can be used to get additional information about the composition of the flux of secondary particles synchronously during the analysis of elemental distributions. In this respect the presented method can be a very helpful tool to prevent misleading interpretations of SIMS or laser-SNMS data. (orig.)

  17. Measures of methane production and their phenotypic relationships with dry matter intake, growth, and body composition traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, R M; Arthur, P F; Donoghue, K A; Bird, S H; Bird-Gardiner, T; Hegarty, R S

    2014-11-01

    Ruminants contribute up to 80% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock, and enteric methane