Sample records for yhdistelmaekoneen kehittaeminen pienpuun

  1. Development of a machine combination for harvesting of small wood and first thinnings; Yhdistelmaekoneen kehittaeminen pienpuun korjuuseen sekae ensiharvennukseen

    Nevalainen, P.; Kinnunen, K. [Outokummun Metalli Oy, Outokumpu (Finland)


    The objective of the research was to develop a machine combination for harvesting of small wood, which carries out both the harvesting and forest haulage. The development was started in September 1995. The first prototype of the machine is ready. A Lokomo 910 forest tractor was acquired for the tests. The prototype has been mounted on the tractor, and the tests have been started in the beginning of March 1996. The reconstruction of the device will be made after the tests, as well as the description of different working praxis. Time consumption study and the analysis of it will be made after the equipment tests. The device consists of a grapple equipped with a guillotine cutting device mounted on the tractor. The actual felling is made stem by stem in the test phase. The stem can be forwarded directly into the load or it can be left aside, and new stems can be brought beside it and then all the stems can be taken together into load. The harvested stems can be processed easiest during the forwarding in the upward position, and they will be `felled` into the load space. Hence the space requirement is small so the damaging of the remaining trees can be minimized. The logging road is made driving backwards by felling the trees from the road to the sides of the road and by collecting the stems into load space while returning. The harvested stems will be transported undelimbed to the storage site there they can be processed with multi-function machine or chipped, after the thinning has been completed. The cutting device can be turned aside when using the loading grapple so the operation is similar to operation of an ordinary timber loader

  2. Development of a machine combination for harvesting of small wood first thinnings; Yhdistelmaekoneen kehittaeminen pienpuun korjuuseen sekae ensi- harvennukseen

    Nevalainen, P. [Outokummun Metalli Oy, Outokumpu (Finland)


    The aim of the project is to build combined machine for the harvesting of the first thinning, which makes both harvesting and forwarding. Original purpose has been extended to concern also the harvesting head itself, which is connected to the base machine and which is able to perform cutting, delimbing and transportation. This method is only meant to be used to harvest energy wood. It should be developed the crown cutting method for this device. The basic idea of this harvesting head is usable, but technical solutions of functions should be reconstructed. The `guillotine-cutting` is usable. The diameter of cut stem should be 250-300 mm. In the future we will try to develop a device, which is able to make also delimbing if needed. This head is proper for first thinning harvesting. (orig.)

  3. A combimachine for harvesting of small sized trees; Pienpuun keraeilykaatoon perustuvan harvennuskoneen kehittaeminen

    Lilleberg, R. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)


    The goal of the project was to develop a combimachine suitable for the harvesting of small sized trees in first thinning. The use of such a machine could considerably decrease harvesting costs in first thinning. The basic idea with the combimachine is, that the same machine both fells the trees and transports the timber to roadside storages. A forwarder was equipped with a lightweight felling device, which also can do the crosscutting and loading. When harvesting undelimbed timber the forwarder could be equipped with a load-compressing device. During the spring 1995 a trial was made with a combimachine in a first thinning stand of pine. An ordinary forwarder was equipped with the `Naarva-grapple` a device for felling, crosscutting and loading. The aim was to test how the felling device is working, to examine time expenditure for two different working methods and to collect data for the further development of the machine. The trial showed a need to add a delimbing feature to the Naarva-grapple. The need for delimbing is based on the fact, obtained during the trial, that productivity in transport of delimbed timber was over 30 % higher than in transport of undelimbed pieces. A device capable of delimbing was designed, and it was ready for a prototype test in December 1995. The idea worked, but also showed a lot of details which have to be redesigned, before the device is ready for manufacturing and marketing

  4. Bundling harvester; Harvennuspuun automaattisen nippukorjausharvesterin kehittaeminen

    Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)


    The starting point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automating of the harvester, and automated loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilisation of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilised without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilisation of wood-energy. (orig.)

  5. Development of stoker-burning technology; Stokeripolton kehittaeminen

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Nojonen, O. [Finntech Oy, Espoo (Finland)


    The present horizontal stoker burners are based on downstream combustion principle, which means that the fuel and the flue gases flow into same direction. It is known that the propagation of the ignition front restricts the power in this kind of combustion while using moist fuels. The heat formed in pyrolysis and char burn out zones flows away from drying and ignition zones. VTT Energy has an idea, by which it is possible to alter the horizontal stoker burner to operate so, that the heat formed in combustion of fuel flows towards the ignition and drying zones, hence the drying of the moist fuel and ignition of it are intensified remarkably. (orig.)

  6. Development of wood fuel delivery logistics; Puupolttoaineiden hankintalogistiikan kehittaeminen

    Laitinen, H.


    The main aim of the project is to model the energy wood business and total logistics in a certain large region. First, wood utilisation locations inside this area are examined; the most important ones are the wood processing factories, and the heating- and power plants. After that, wood potentials in the forests of the area are evaluated in sub-areas suitable in size and sufficiently detailed for further evaluations. For that purpose, the most valuable source data are forest management plans, up to ten years forward, on which basis the wood fuel potentials can be evaluated following sustainable development. In Finland there are extensive and detailed data bases storing forest information and it is possible to collect necessary data for a data base applicable to our calculations. In logistical sense it is important to know, by which delivery chains the economically best and desired results are achieved. The software prototype based on data base is modelled and developed at VTT Energy, for facilitating these planning activities. The starting point of the planning system in delivery logistics is the implementation of an easy tool for versatile planning so that with this tool model different delivery chains can be flexiblyed, create usage scenarios, make alternative examinations, and calculate impacts of different factors on energy wood amounts yielded and delivery costs. With planning system in delivery logistics we calculate production costs and amounts delivered to different utilisation locations. The system offers tools for definitions of utilisation locations, calculation parameters, and delivery chains

  7. Development of stoker-burning technology; Stokeripolton kehittaeminen

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuels Production; Nojonen, O. [Finntech Oy, Espoo (Finland)


    Combustion Technology Research Group of VTT Energy had a project, funded by VTT and Vapo Oy, going on in 1993, the aim of which was to develop a chip/sod peat heating system for power range 50 1 00 kW, meeting the requirements of 1990s, the characteristics being high efficiency (> 85 %), low emissions (CO < 0.1 %), well operability and durability. The project has to be carried out so that the investment and operation costs are as low as possible. Hoegfors Laempoe Oy had simultaneously going on an industrial project, in which new ETNA bioenergy boiler series for the same power range was constructed. A 200 kW stoker burner prototype, suitable for wood chips and sod peat, was developed on the basis of VTT`s research. The boiler has been demonstrated later in power range 500 kW. The present stoker burners are based on downstream combustion principle, which means that the guel and the flue-gases flow into same direction. It is well known that the propagation of the ignition front restricts the power in this kind of combustion while using moist fuels. The heat formed in pyrolysis and carbonizing zone flows away from drying and ignition zone. VTT has an idea, by which it is possible to alter the stoker burner to operate so, that the heat formed in pyrolysis and carbonizing zone flow towards the ignition and drying zone, hence the drying of the moist fuel and ignition of it are intensified remarkably

  8. Development of an underdrained peat production field; Salaojitetun tuotantokentaen kehittaeminen

    Hillebrand, K.


    The objective of the study is to examine the possibilities to improve the drainage of a peat production field using a numerical groundwater model. The effects of the ditch spacing and the drainage method on the groundwater level are studied. The way of ditching for basic drainage of virgin peatland, and the calculation of possible additional ditching in peat production fields, including the shallow areas, are considered. Also, the possibility of increasing the customary ditch spacing of 20 m is examined. The objective for drainage techniques is to cut the time for peatland preparation in half, and to increase the space between open field ditches from the present 20 meters to 60 - 80 meters by making use of underdrains. In this way it is possible to reduce the peat production costs about 5%. In 1995 the numerical groundwater model has been validated at Pajusuo drainage area. According to the comparison of the groundwater level calculated with the model and measured at Pajusuo, the agreement was very satisfactory. Uncertainty in the calculations derived mainly from the difficulties of assessing the pF curve and the hydraulic conductivity of the soil, as well as the water-carrying capacity of the mole drains. In general one can predict the groundwater level with an accuracy of +- 10 cm. Also the possibility to increase the hydraulic conductivity of peat by a chemical additive was studied. Adding 3 kg chemical per 1 kg dry matter it was possible to increase the hydraulic conductivity over twenty fold. In this way it is possible to construct vertical underdrains to improve the infiltration after rainfall

  9. Economy and development of heating station enterprises managed by forest owners; Metsaenomistajien laempoeyrittaemisen talous ja kehittaeminen

    Tuomi, S. [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)


    Private heating enterprises are a new form of heat generation for municipalities in Finland. In this type the entrepreneur acquires the fuel and takes care of the operation and monitoring of the heating station. The recompense is paid on the basis of the heat amount produced to avoid problems related to i.e. the energy content and quality of the fuel. The price of heat is typically bound with that of light fuel oil. Agreements based on the price development of district heat and chips are also used. In 1996 there were 36 such heating enterprises in operation in Finland, their total efficiency being 11.5 MW. The aim of the project is to improve the feasibility of various forms of heating enterprises and to start new heating enterprises. The feasibility is studied both from the viewpoint of the entrepreneur and the municipality. The feasibility is improved by developing production chains of heating enterprises and the operability of the heating stations. Establishment of new heating enterprises is promoted by producing and disseminating information to possible entrepreneurs and municipalities. (orig.)

  10. Development of a chain limber and its measuring automatics; Karsimakoneen ja sen mittausautomatiikan kehittaeminen

    Poeytaesaari, E. [Eskon Paja, Kinnula (Finland)


    A new control system and measuring automatics are developed for a patented chain limber mountable to a farm tractor. The chain limber produces pulp wood and also limbed fuel logs. The project will be carried out in three stages: definition of the control system, development of the control system, and operational testing of the control system and the chain limber. The final stage of the project will be carried out in co-operation with the Work Efficiency Association. (orig.)

  11. Development of remote-controlled forest machine; Kauko-ohjattavan harvennuskoneen kehittaeminen

    Kerva, J. [VTT Automation, Oulu (Finland); Vesisenaho, T. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)


    The aim of the project is to develop a forest machine for the first thinnings. The machine will be light and it will reduce damages of the ground compared to damages caused by normal forest machines. The machine will be operated by wireless remote controller and the machine will not have any cabin. Anti-slip wheel control system will be used in order to improve driving in forest. Automatic and semi-automatic operations of workboom control will be included in order to make the working with the machine more efficient and easy. Compared to normal size forest machines, the machine developed in the project will offer more economic solution for the first thinnings. (orig.)

  12. Development of remote controlled forest machine. Final report; Kauko-ohjattavan harvennuskoneen kehittaeminen. Loppuraportti

    Kerva, J.; Lippo, J. [VTT Automation, Oulu (Finland); Nousiainen, I.; Oijala, T.; Vesisenaho, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)


    The aim of the project was to develop the prototype for the forest machine for the first state thinning. The machine is light and it will reduce the damages of the ground compared to damages caused by normal forest machines. The prototype is operated by wireless remote controller and there is no cabinet. To improve driving in the forest, anti-slip wheel control system is used. To make working with the machine more efficient and easy, automatic and semiautomatic operations in workboom control are included. Compared to normal size forest machines the machine developed in the project can give more economic solution for first state thinning. (orig.)

  13. Development of the dimension and quality requirements for purchase chopwood; Ostopilkkeen mitta- ja laatuvaatimusten kehittaeminen

    Maekelae, J. [Work Efficiency Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Tuomi, S. [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)


    In total 5.6 million m{sup 3} of firewood, mainly a chopwood, was used in Finland for heating of small houses during the heating season 1992/1993. Two thirds of the firewood was acquired from own forests. The share of the purchased firewood was less than one fifth, corresponding to about 1.0 million m{sup 3}. More than a half of the small house owners, about 750 000, regards the purchase of firewood possible. Ready chopwood is the most desired form of purchase wood. The main problem in firewood trade is the lack of chopwood measurement and quality requirements. Also the chopwood volume measurement practice is inhomogeneous. These things render the development of commercial chopwood markets. This also renders the increment of firewood utilization especially in detached houses, where there are about 1.0 million underutilized fireplaces. The aim of the project is to promote the firewood trade and customer protection by making a proposal for volume measurement and the quality requirements for chopwood. The work will be carried out on the basis of data, based on field and laboratory measurements and a literature survey. The first part of this three year project was carried out in 1995

  14. Development of a feeder device for logging residue for a drum chipper; Hakkurin syoetoen kehittaeminen energiapuulle

    Leinonen, T.; Kemppainen, J.P. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    The aim of this project is to increase the productivity of a large drum chipper by developing a feeder device to be used especially when chipping logging residue. Logging residue from regeneration areas is the most important reserve of forest biomass for the production of renewable energy in Finland. It is possible ecologically and economically to use about 5 million m{sup 3} of logging residue yearly for energy purposes. Currently both large lorry based chippers and smaller forwarder based chippers are used for chipping logging residue. However even the latest versions of these chippers are not well equipped for chipping logging residue. The ball like shape of residue piles causes blockades, if too large amounts of residue are fed into the chipper. Keeping the material flow even is difficult. In this project a prototype of a feeder device will be designed and manufactured to exactly find out the problems, that occur when feeding logging residue to a chipper. The designed prototype is based on a tubular chassis, which supports a conveyor made of steel plates. Prototype also has a 2,5 m wide feeding table and a feeder roll, which is located above the conveyor just before the chipper opening. Both the conveyor and the feeder roll are powered by hydraulic motors. The maximum feeding force is 20 kN. For research purposes both hydraulic pressure and flow can be adjusted individually for both motors. During 1996 activities included designing and building the prototype feeder device. In 1997 the prototype will be tested to find out possible problems, which need to be cured. After problems are solved and other improvements are made, the feeder device will be installed to an existing chipper and then tested again to determine the productivity of the new feeder device compared to the old unit. (orig.)

  15. Development of a feeding device for solid material; Kiinteaen materiaalin syoettoelaitteen kehittaeminen

    Heinonen, O.; Tiihonen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland). R and D Section


    Feeding of solid fuel into high pressure is an essential part of the pressurized power plant processes. A pilot scale fuel feeder meeting the requirements of these processes has been designed and built by Imatran Voima Oy (IVO). The fuel feeder is capable of feeding both relatively dry and wet solid material into high pressure. The object of this project was to develop the pilot scale fuel feeder to commercial level. The project was financed by IVO and Bioenergia -research programme. The project included testing of the previously built pilot-feeder at real operating conditions using peat and wood biomass as feedstocks. The testing consisted of short term and long term runs, which provided information about the operation and durability of the feeder with different materials. The tests were carried out partly in IVO`s laboratory, and partly in Jyvaeskylae at the pressurized steam drying pilot plant owned by IVO and VTT. The pilot-feeder operated well and reliably during the feeding tests. The feeder was dissembled and the parts were inspected between and after the test periods. No sign of excessive wear of the parts was noticed. Based on the good experiences from the pilot scale testing a commercial feeder with the capacity of 50 m{sup 3}/h was designed

  16. Development of wood-fueled fireplace systems; Puuta kaeyttaevien tulisijajaerjestelmien kehittaeminen

    Oravainen, H.


    The objective of the project was to reduce the emissions of fireplaces by developing and using catalysts to promote the oxidation of incompletely combusted gases of the flue-gases. The project started in 1993. The research in 1995 was concentrated on investigation of the combustion phenomena in a heat-accumulating fireplace. Measurements, by which it has been tried to clarify the fundamental factors of clean combustion in batch-combustion, such as the temperature, the mixing of the combustion air, and the retention time, have been made using accumulating fireplaces. Series of tests have been made using different ways of feeding the secondary air

  17. A numerical model for a room fire; Huonetilan numeerisen palomallin kehittaeminen

    Huhtanen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Engineering Lab.


    A simple room fire experiment has been used as a development case for numerical fire simulation based on computational fluid dynamics. Experimental values (Steckler et al. 1982) are used to verify simulation. A limited method to use a flee flow boundary condition has been described (flow is assumed to be oblique to the boundary). Description of buoyancy terms, atmospheric pressure and additional terms of turbulence due to buoyancy are also given. Fire source is described as a predefined heat source. Comparison to the experiments shows that flow velocity at the room door, which is the only opening to the room, can be predicted with a good and temperature with a moderate accuracy. (au) (3 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.).

  18. Development of safety assessment of nuclear power plants using indicators; Ydinvoimalaitosten turvallisuuden arvioinnin kehittaeminen tunnuslukujen avulla

    Tiippana, P.


    The study is based on an indicator system which is under development at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). The goal of this study was to define and develop both PSA-based indicators and indicators from failure statistics. As PSA-based indicators the possibility was studied to define and express the risk importance of exemptions from the Technical Specifications, failures, preventive maintenance and other disconnections of devices covered by the Technical Specifications, operating events covered by Guide YVL 1.5 and plant modifications. In this piece of research the applicability of plant specific living PSA-models used for calculation of indicators was examined. The research included both Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants in Finland. 47 refs.

  19. TARKKATURVE - Peat production on shallow fields; TARKKATURVE - mataloituvien soiden tuotantomenetelmien ja laitteiden kehittaeminen

    Nurminen, T. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Aho, V.J.; Tiihonen, I. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)


    It is important to produce the peat of the bogs under production as completely as possible when improving the efficiency and economy of milled peat production. Hence the service life of bog areas is being extended, and the investment costs per produced peat mass are decreased. Research, in which new planning, production and ditching methods, as well as production machines for production from shallowing fields, has been carried out in order to obtain the targets. Data obtained from charting of the bog, by which it is possible to take the regional differences of the production areas into account while planning and making of the production strips and ditching, is used in planning of the production fields. Stones are removed from the strips on the mineral soil areas during preparation of the fields, and peat is conveyed from the depleted areas into production strips, hence it is possible to make ditching with open ditches excavated into mineral soil. The new milled peat production machines are lighter than the older ones, and non-sparkling materials, e.g. plastics, are used in the construction of them in every phase of the production. The new machines are able to operate on strips of varying width and on the fields of poor load carrying capacity. Brushing technology is used in collection of peat. By this method it is possible to improve in addition to the fire safety, also the collecting accuracy, and hence the efficiency of the production. The new methods and equipment developed in the researches are now in wide utilization in Finnish peat production

  20. Development of fluidized bed combustion of biomass; Leijupolttoprosessin kehittaeminen vaikeille biopolttoaineille soveltuvaksi

    Hiltunen, M.; Vaehaenen-Koivuluoma, T. [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Karhula (Finland)


    Some commercial BFB boilers burning biofuels, or biofuels and industrial wood wastes have suffered serious problems in bed material sintering. In worst cases the cumulation of reactive alkali compounds has caused total sintering of bed material even during a few days` operation. This presentation reports the results obtained from three separate cases, where sintering problems occurred. Boiler A burned biofuel with quartz sand and limestone addition. Boiler B burned softwood bark and industrial wood waste with sand addition. Boiler C burned softwood bark and sludge with sand addition. Due to the fuel used, bed sintering occurred in all boilers. Obviously, sintering was also influenced by some technical problems. Bed material samples have been analyzed with XRF and SEM-EDS techniques. According to these analyses, the main reason for sintering in boiler A is the cumulation of reactive potassium in bed material. In boiler B, the main reason is the fuel change from a mixture of softwood bark and industrial wood waste to pure industrial wood waste. The extra load of reactive sodium exceeded the critical concentration of alkali compounds in bed material. Also in boiler C, the fuel change from a mixture of softwood bark and sludge to pure softwood bark seems to be one of the reasons for bed sintering. After the fuel change the bed saturated with reactive potassium and the bed sintered. (orig.)

  1. Development of newly designed wood burning systems with low emissions and high efficiency; Tehokkaan ja vaehaepaeaestoeisen puulaemmitysjaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Hyytiaeinen, H. [Tulisydaen Oy, Vantaa (Finland)


    The investigations in the project will focus on the combustion behaviour of wood burning systems of untreated wood fuels with batch-wise and quasi-continuous mechanical feeding. The objectives will be to minimise the pollutant release of these combustion systems during the different operational phases by a consequent optimisation of the fuel burning technique and to reduce the CO release by increasing the efficiency of the combustion. To reduce the pollutant release during the operation phases and to increase the efficiency, products of incomplete combustion i.e. carbon monoxide, toxic organic compounds like benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot have to be minimised in a further extent. For that the following goals will be attained: improvement of the mixing process of combustion gases in the reaction zones, averaging the residence time spectrum in the burnout zone reduction, of emissions during initial and burnout phase in firings with batch-wise feeding reduction of emissions under partial-load conditions in firings with quasi-continuous feeding, higher combustion stability even in case of changing fuel qualities, defining guidelines for the design of stoves and boilers with low emissions and high efficiency. By the foreseen reduction of the pollutant release and improved efficiency the environmental acceptance of wood combustion firings can be increased and for instance local restrictions can be removed. The project is funded in part by The European Commission in the framework of The Non Nuclear Energy Programme. (orig.)

  2. TAKE, development of the refractive index measurement technology for industrial needs; TAKE, taitekerroinmittaustekniikan kehittaeminen teollisuuden tarpeisiin - MPKT 12

    Raety, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)


    Refractive index is one of the basic physical phenomena of materials. Traditional refractive index measurement has been widely used e.g. In research, in quality inspection of products and raw materials. It is also used for follow up of the different industrial processes. A measuring and research environment, by which it is possible to determine the complex refractive index of liquid samples, was developed in 1996 at the Measuring Instrument laboratory of the University of Oulu. This equipment, based on the reflectance of light measures both the refractive index and absorption factor of liquids simultaneously. While the commercial refractometers are best suitable for research of clear liquids, by the developed equipment it is possible to investigate by the side of clear fluids also dark strongly light absorbing samples. The measuring wave length can be chosen continuously inside the UV-Visual range. The knowing of the wave-length dependence of the complex refractive index gives additional information on the state of the fluid under inspection. The main objective of the task is to solve measuring problems of biotechnology, food industry and forest industry by a new type of refractometric method. This means the simultaneous measurement of refractive index and absorption, and the utilisation of this knowledge in wide spectral region. A refractometer, based on the technology, suitable for applied research of new measuring targets will be designed and constructed in the research. The above mentioned goals also require the survey of the present situation of the refractometry. This one and a half year project will be started in spring 1998. (orig.)

  3. Development of sampling systems and special analyses for pressurized gasification processes; Paineistettujen kaasutusprosessien naeytteenottomenetelmien ja erityisanalytiikan kehittaeminen

    Staahlberg, P.; Oesch, P.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Moilanen, A.; Nieminen, M.; Korhonen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)


    The reliability of sampling methods used for measuring impurities contained in gasification gas were studied, and new methods were developed for sampling and sample analyses. The aim of the method development was to improve the representativeness of the samples and to speed up the analysis of gas composition. The study focused on tar, nitrogen and sulphur compounds contained in the gasification gas. In the study of the sampling reliability, the effects of probe and sampling line materials suitable for high temperatures and of the solids deposited in the sampling devices on gas samples drawn from the process were studied. Measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 250 - 850 deg C both in real conditions and in conditions simulating gasification gas. The durability of samples during storage was also studied. The other main aim of the study was to increase the amount of quick-measurable gas components by developing on-line analytical methods based on GC, FTIR and FI (flow injection) techniques for the measurements of nitrogen and sulphur compounds in gasification gas. As these methods are suitable only for the gases that do not contain condensing gas components disturbing the operation of analysers (heavy tar compounds, water), a sampling system operating in dilution principle was developed. The system operates at high pressures and temperatures and is suitable for gasification gases containing heavy tar compounds. The capabilities of analysing heavy tar compounds (mole weight >200 g mol) was improved by adding the amount of compounds identified and calibrated by model substances and by developing analytical methods based on the high-temperature-GC analysis and the thermogravimetric method. (author)

  4. Development of firewood harvesting in first thinnings made by forest owners; Polttopuun korjuun kehittaeminen metsaenomistajien tekemissae ensiharvennuksissa

    Maekelae, J. [Work Efficiency Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Ryynaenen, S. [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)


    The aim of the project was to increase the forest owners` own usage and deliveries of firewood. The competitiveness of the firewood was improved by developing new machines, devices and working methods for first thinnings in cooperation with machine and device manufacturers and inventors. Field tests were made during three and a half years with 16 new firewood harvesting machines and devices. Several solutions for machine felling of small wood and chunkwood were developed to serial production level. The work studies offered basic material for compiling of a cost calculation model for small-scale production of wood chips and chunkwood. The first version of the model was prepared. Basic material was collected for development of the activities and for heating contractor guide using the follow-up studies of the heating contractor targets. Firewood procurement was analysed at two district heating plants. The results of the project were reported in the form of reports, journal articles and presentations, and in exhibitions

  5. Development of chain limbing and small-drum barking equipment; Ketjukarsinta- ja pienrumpukuorintaan perustuvan laitteiston kehittaeminen tuotantovalmiiksi

    Rieppo, K. [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hakkila, P.; Kalaja, H. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland)


    Three test series were carried out in 1996 at the chain limbing- drum barking station developed by Pertti Szepaniak Oy. The test equipment was developed during the test series. During the first experiment in February the wood used was frozen. In this test series the whipping efficiency was insignificant and consequently, the bark contents remained too large. In the second test in September the whipping efficiency was too high and was not easy to adjust, and as a consequence the wood loss was unreasonable. In the third test in November, when the wood was not yet frozen, the whipping efficiency was correct and promising results were obtained both with regard to the bark content and wood loss. Limbed pine pulpwood was used as raw material. The bark contents of the chips ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 % and the wood loss in barking from 2.8 to 3.6 %. The productivity also improved clearly during the tests. The experiments indicated that a separate station based on a combination of chain limbing- barking and drum-barking is able to produce high-grade pulp chips both from limbed and non-limbed first-thinning pine wood. (orig.)

  6. Development of a system for receiving, crushing and screening recycled fuel (REF) material; Kierraetyspolttoaineen vastaanotto-, murskaus- ja seulontajaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Nurmi, A.; Kurki, T.; Wrang, T. [BMH Wood Technology Oy, Rauma (Finland)


    The goal of this project is to develop a system to which source sorted combustible industrial, office and municipal waste material can be dumped to be handled in such way that it can be burnt in modern fluidized bed and circulating bed boilers. One drawback of present handling systems is the fact that most of them are more or less inapplicable for handling plastic materials, especially thin plastic films and sheets. Reducing plastic waste into a particle size of 50 mm required by modern fluidized bed boilers has proved to be very difficult. An essential part of this project is the development of waste material screening after primary and/or secondary crushing. The idea is to separate plastic particles larger than the maximum allowable size from the crushed material and then feed them to a separate low-capacity plastic crusher. The main stages of the project are: (1) Study and analysis on existing technology and equipment, (2) Development of system components, (3) Development of the system, (4) Building a pilot/demonstration plant, (5) Tests and analysis and (6) Decisions on further actions

  7. Development of a nanofiltration process for flotation treated paper mill waste water; Nanosuodatusprosessin kehittaeminen flotaatiokaesitellylle paperitehtaan jaetevedelle - EKT 08

    Maenttaeri, M.; Nuortila-Jokinen, J.; Nystroem, M. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Technology


    Nanofiltration was studied as a purification method of paper mill effluents so that the permeates could be used as press section shower water. The quality of ultrafiltered water was not assessed to be sufficiently high for that purpose. The low flux of nanofiltration membranes has restricted their use in the pulp and paper industry. This study showed that the performance of nanofiltration membranes can be improved by controlling the filtration conditions, like pH, flow velocity and pressure. It was demonstrated that a critical flux exists also for nanofiltration membranes. By adjusting the permeate flux below this critical value fouling should be low. The experiments with a spiral wound element showed its sensitivity to plugging by fibers and also the unsuitability of cartridge filters as safety filters for it. Better pretreatment methods are needed. A multilayer filter seemed to decrease the fouling of the nanofiltration element somewhat. However, a simple and cleanable pretreatment method still needs to be developed. Fouling experiments with model components pointed out the importance of pH and cross-flow velocity in minimizing fouling. (orig.) 8 refs. CACTUS Research Programme

  8. Development of a system for receiving, crushing and screening recycled fuel (REF) material; Kierraetyspolttoaineen vastaanotto-, murskaus- ja seulontajaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Nurmi, A. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)


    The goal of this project is to develop a system to which source sorted combustible industrial, office and municipal waste material can be taken and where it is then processed in such way that it can be burnt in modern fluidized bed and circulating bed boilers. The project started in the end of year 1995. The main stages of the project are: (1) Study and analysis of existing technology and equipment, (2) Development of system components, (3) Development of the system, (4) Building a pilot/demonstration plant, (5) Tests and results analysis and (6) Decisions on further actions. In the year 1996 the main stage was development of system components; especially crushing. Results of running slow-speed big crushers were collected, analysed and the main development details determined. Additionally, particle size distribution from different crushing methods were analyzed using also primary and secondary crushing. Development of a heavy-duty 2-rotor ECO-Crusher and a crushing screen was started. Regarding to the development of the REF-system, different alternatives have been analyzed and possible demonstration places have been searched. The first multi-crushing line will be demonstrated in Sweden. (orig.)

  9. Development and application of a high-temperature sampling probe for burning chamber conditions of fluidized-bed combustion; Korkean laempoetilan naeytteenottosondin kehittaeminen ja soveltaminen leijukerrospolton tulipesaeolosuhteisiin

    Larjava, K.; Paerkkae, M.; Jormanainen, P.; Roine, J.; Paakkinen, K. [VTT Chemistry, Espoo (Finland); Linna, V. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)


    A sampling probe for the burning chamber conditions of fluidized-bed combustion will be developed in this project. The probe will be suitable for sampling vaporous heavy and alkali metals and other condensing compounds (e.g. chlorides) as well combustion gases and alternatively also flue gas particles at high temperatures. The knowledge gained with the probe will help understanding, developing and modeling combustion processes and will thus aid the manufacturers of the boilers. (author)

  10. Development of technics for separation and sorting system of different parts of field plants; Peltokasvien eri osien erottelu- ja lajittelutekniikoiden kehittaeminen

    Lindh, T.; Kallio, E.; Taipale, R.; Leinonen, A.


    The aim of the research is to construct a segregation concept for an integrated method, by which it is possible to produce fiber fraction for pulping industry and byproduct fraction for energy production of the field plants to be processed. The starting point of the concept development was, that the method consists of the plant material processing phase, in which different plant components are segregated from each other, and a sorting phase in which the plant components are divided into different fractions on the basis of the use. Following topics were studied in the first year of this two year research: properties of spring-harvested reed canary grass and the component of it from the point of view of segregation, mechanical dry-processing methods for segregation of plant components from each other and sorting methods, by which the pulp fraction and by-product fraction are separated from each other. Chopping, crushing and milling have been studied as alternatives for processing. The particle size distribution of the produced material has been estimated. Sorting tests, based on air classification, have been made. Property analyses, such as ash content, have been made for different particle classes, by which the most suitable particle size class for sorting was determined. Processing and sorting research of chopped reed canary grass will be continued in 1996. Technical/economical analyses will be made of the costs of the separator by taking the alternatives, in which the separator unit operates at the farm or at the mill, into account. The final separation concept will be made using the results obtained in the experimental researches and cost analyses

  11. Development and application of a high-temperature sampling probe for burning chamber conditions in fluidized-bed combustion; Korkean laempoetilan naeytteenottosondin kehittaeminen ja soveltaminen leijukerrospolton tulipesaeolosuhteisiin

    Larjava, K.; Paerkkae, M. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Linna, V. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Environmental Technology


    Determination of heavy and alkali metals and other condensing compounds (e.g. chlorides) in combustion chamber conditions is limited by the poor suitability of traditional methods for sampling at high temperatures. IFRF has developed a high-temperature sampling probe for sampling HCN and NH{sub 3}, which has been tested for sampling of NH{sub 3} by Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. VTT Chemical Technology and Chalmers University of Technology have in their preliminary experiments determined contents of vaporous heavy metals in the combustion chamber of a 12 MW circulating fluidized-bed boiler using this probe. According to the results, the modified probe is suitable for heavy metal determination in combustion chamber. Based on this series of experiments, modification of the probe has been started on the own financing of VTT Chemical Technology and a field measurement was performed in November 1994 to test the present version of the probe. Based on the results of that measurement, the probe has been modified further on as a part of this LIEKKI 2 project. Similar kind of a principle has been applied in the probe which has been developed by VTT Energy during 1994. The probe is built for determination of gas composition of fluidized bed in full-scale boilers. The purpose of this project is to develop and test a sampling probe for fluidized bed combustion. The main advantage of the probe is that condensation losses in sampling due to high temperature gradients can be avoided. Thus, the probe is very suitable for sampling vaporous heavy and alkali metals and other condensing species as well as burning gases and alternatively also solids at high temperatures

  12. Open environmental data sets - prospect of co-operation between public and private sector in water quality monitoring. Final report of Water Quality Service for Lakes -project; Avoin ympaeristoetieto - yhteistyoen kehittaeminen vesistoejen seurannassa. Jaervien vedenlaatupalvelu -hankkeen loppuraportti

    Anttila, S.; Broeckl, M.; Herlevi, A. (and others)


    Data sets collected by the public sector are common property and should be freely available. Effective usage of this open data is anticipated to create new information and services, but also to develop welfare for humans. Insufficient usage of public and open environmental data sets in the private sector has been recognized as a problem. Reasons for this can be found from the non-commercial nature of environmental data, the way it is collected and archived, but also from the strong role of public sector in this field. In the Water Quality Service for Lakes -project (Tekes, 2009-2012), we wanted to advance the utilization of the public data sets in the private sector, as well as to promote the co-operation between these two sectors. Starting point was to develop local research infrastructure in the way that collected information would be easily accessible to private companies. This was realized by creating a data base that gathers water quality information from several data sources and provides a standardized interface for the data utilization. In addition, project provided a variety of research results including a questionnaire survey targeted to the users of water quality information, and the methods to increase the accuracy of collected data and to create forecasts from it. A concrete result from the project was also the development of 'laymans' water quality measurement device named as Secchi3000. A digital camera installed in e.g. mobile phones can be used with Secchi3000 device to measure water quality of different natural waters. This new innovation has great potential in e.g. citizen based monitoring. The challenges and opportunities to create business based on the public environmental data were revolved in two work shops. In this publication the prospects of co-operation between public and private sector are discussed based on the results of the Water Quality Service for lakes -project. (orig.)

  13. Sampling and sample preparation development for analytical and on-line measurement techniques of process liquids; Naeytteenoton ja kaesittelyn kehittaeminen prosessinesteiden analytiikan ja on-line mittaustekniikan tarpeisiin - MPKT 11

    Karttunen, K. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)


    Main goal of the research project is to develop sampling and sample handling methods and techniques for pulp and paper industry to be used for analysis and on-line purposes. The research focus specially on the research and development of the classification and separation methods and techniques needed for liquid and colloidal substances as well as in ion analysis. (orig.)

  14. Development of selective catalytic oxidation (SCO) for NH{sub 3} and HCN removal from gasification gas; Selektiivisen katalyyttisen hapetusprosessin (SCO) kehittaeminen kaasutuskaasun NH{sub 3}:n ja HCN:n poistoon

    Leppaelahti, J.; Koljonen, T.; Heiskanen, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)


    In gasification, reactive nitrogen compounds (mainly NH{sub 3} and HCN) are formed from fuel nitrogen. If the gas containing NH{sub 3} is burned, a high NO{sub x} emission may be formed. The content of nitrogen compounds of the hot gasification gas could be reduced in Selective Catalytic Oxidation (SCO) process. In this process small amounts of reactive oxidisers are injected into the gas in order to convert NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2}. The utilization of SCO process together with low NO{sub x} burners in advanced gasification power stations might offer an alternative for flue gas treatment technologies like SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction). In the earlier research, conditions were found, where oxidizers reacted selectively with ammonia in the gasification gas. Highest ammonia reduction took place in the aluminium oxide bed in the presence of NO and O{sub 2}. The aim of this study is to examine the reaction mechanism in order to be able to further evaluate the development possibilities of this kind process. The effect of composition and the amount of added oxidizer, the content of combustible gas components, space velocity, pressure and temperature will be studied. The experiments are carried out with the laboratory scale high pressure flow reactor of VTT Energy. Kinetic modelling of the experimental results is carried out in co-operation with the combustion chemistry group of Aabo Akademi. The aim of the modelling work is to bring insight to the gas-phase reactions that are important for the SCO-process. (orig.)

  15. Bionergy expertise project in Southern Ostrobothnia; Bioenergia-asiantuntijuutta kehittaemaessae Etelae-Pohjanmaalla

    Sivula, A.; Lauhanen, R.; Saarela, A.; Ahtola, T.; Pasila, A.


    The EU has set the goal for the use of renewable energy at 20 percent by the year 2020. The Finnish national goal is 38 percent. This goal has set new challenges for entrepreneurs who are working in the field of bioenergy. Bioenergy is developing all the time and because of this new information should be passed on to persons who are working in the field of bioenergy continuously. Seinajoki University of Applied Sciences (School of Forestry and Agriculture) implemented the bioenergy expertise project (Bioenergia-asiantuntijuuden kehittaeminen tyoeelaemaelaehtoeisesti) during the years 2009 - 2012 in Southern Ostrobothnia of Finland. The bioenergy expertise project developed the Learning Environment in the field of bioenergy, formed a bioenergy professionals' network, activated the bioenergy entrepreneur network, implemented the report on the future needs of bioenergy education, tested and piloted a reference model for information collection using mobile systems with the bioenergy actors, and arranged bioenergy themed events. The Learning Environment can be used to meet the needs of the University of Applied Sciences and by the entrepreneurs in the area. The bioenergy professionals' network is a group of professionals who work in the area of Southern Ostrobothnia. Bioenergy themed events attracted a lot of participants, but the most popular events were the bioenergy fairs, which were arranged in Tuomarniemi and Kurejoki. The arranged events were also useful from the entrepreneurs networking point of view. The bioenergy expertise project was overall a success and the feedback was positive. The permanent results of the project are publications, reports, the bioenergy professionals' network and the new Learning Environment. Seinajoki University of Applied Sciences is hosting the Learning Environment. The bioenergy professionals' network is continuing its activities in Jarvikilta network of professionals, which also have activities in the area of