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Sample records for yersinia enterocolitica heat-stable

  1. Yersinia enterocolitica

    Science.gov (United States)

    The detection of plasmid-bearing (pYV) human pathogenic strains of Yersinia enterocolitica depends on the expression of various pYV-associated virulence characteristics. However, diagnostic techniques based on pYV encoded phenotypes have limited reliability due to the unstable nature of pYV. Two r...

  2. Yersinia enterocolitica organism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This picture shows the organism Yersinia enterocolitica . Yersinia organisms cause a wide range of disease but are most often associated with diarrhea or gastrointestinal symptoms. Yersinia infection is ...

  3. Yersinia enterocolitica Monographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Tirziu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Germs from Yersinia genus have a vast ecologic niche, being met at different domestic and wild animal species, but also in food, water and soil. The majority of yersinis live in the digestive tract of human and numerous animal species, especially rodents, but also in soil, plant debris, waters etc. Numerous species of Yersinia genus could produce characteristic infections in human, the main source of infections is represented by rodents and hematophagous insects or, more frequently, by water or contaminated food. In a 1999 study, Mead and coauthors established that the Yersinia enterocolitica prevalence in food, in USA, is around 90%. Foods of animal origin more frequently contaminated with Yersinia enterocolitica are: pork, poultry, beef and lamb meat, milk, ice-cream, sea fruits etc., among them pork meat and milk represents the sources of the most numerous toxi-infection outbreaks in human, in different world regions. Bacteria determine infections which interest the digestive tract in numerous animal species and human, with diarrhea, lymphadenitis, pneumonia and abortion are the most important symptoms. Yersinia enterocolitica enter the human body regularly by oral ingestion, and localize itself with predilection in the distal portion of the ileum and at the ileocaecal appendix and proximal colon level, were determine a terminal ileitis with lymphadenitis, acute enterocolitis, and secondary accompanied with nodosum erythema, poliartritis that could be complicated with septicemia, sometimes leading to death.

  4. Yersinia enterocolitica in fermented sausages

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    Mitrović, R.; Janković, V.; Baltić, B.; Ivanović, J.

    2017-09-01

    Different types of food, among them meat, can be the cause of food-borne diseases, and infections are commonly caused by Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica, verotoxic Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. All these bacteria, depending on a number of factors, including animal species, geographical origin, climatic factors, methods of animal breeding and meat production, could cause disease. Here, we summarise results on production of different groups of sausages produced with or without added starter culture, and contaminated with Y.enterocolitica (control sausages were not contaminated). During the ripening, changes in the microbiological status of the fermented sausages and their physical and chemical properties were monitored. For all tests, standard methods were used. In these fermented sausages, the number of Y. enterocolitica decreased during ripening. The number of Y. enterocolitica was statistically significantly lower in sausages with added starter culture on all days of the study Zoonotic pathogens in meat should be controlled through the complete production chain, from the farms to consumers, in order to reduce the probability of disease in humans. However, the necessary controls in the production chain are not the same for all bacteria.

  5. Reactive Arthritis Caused by Yersinia enterocolitica Enteritis.

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    Honda, Kazuya; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Izumi, Yasumori; Tsuji, Yoshika; Kawahara, Chieko; Michitsuji, Toru; Higashi, Shuntaro; Kawakami, Atsushi; Migita, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of reactive arthritis (ReA) triggered by Yersinia enterocolitica enteritis. A 24-year-old Japanese man developed polyarthritis in the lower limbs. Two weeks prior to these symptoms, he noted diarrhea, right lower abdominal pain and a fever. Y. enterocolitica was not isolated from a stool culture; however, he was diagnosed with ReA based on the colonoscopic findings of a high anti-Y. enterocolitica antibody titer and HLA-B27 antigen positivity. Following treatment with methotrexate and steroids, his arthritis improved. This is the first reported Japanese case of ReA in the English literature after a gastrointestinal infection caused by Y. enterocolitica.

  6. Behavior of Yersinia enterocolitica in Foods

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    Md. Latiful Bari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia enterocolitica are ubiquitous, being isolated frequently from soil, water, animals, and a variety of foods. They comprise a biochemically heterogeneous group that can survive and grow at refrigeration temperatures. The ability to propagate at refrigeration temperatures is of considerable significance in food hygiene. Virulent strains of Yersinia invade mammalian cells such as HeLa cells in tissue culture. Two chromosomal genes, inv and ail, were identified for cell invasion of mammalian. The pathogen can cause diarrhoea, appendicitis and post-infection arthritis may occur in a small proportion of cases. The most common transmission route of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica is thought to be fecal-oral via contaminated food. Direct person-to-person contact is rare. Occasionally, pathogenic Y. enterocolitica has been detected in vegetables and environmental water; thus, vegetables and untreated water are also potential sources of human yersiniosis. However, the isolation rates of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica have been low, which may be due to the limited sensitivity of the detection methods. To identify other possible transmission vehicles, different food items should be studied more extensively. Many factors related to the epidemiology of Y. enterocolitica, such as sources, transmission routes, and predominating genotypes remain obscure because of the low sensitivity of detection methods.

  7. Behavior of Yersinia enterocolitica in Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md. Latiful; Hossain, M. Anwar; Isshiki, Kenji; Ukuku, Dike

    2011-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica are ubiquitous, being isolated frequently from soil, water, animals, and a variety of foods. They comprise a biochemically heterogeneous group that can survive and grow at refrigeration temperatures. The ability to propagate at refrigeration temperatures is of considerable significance in food hygiene. Virulent strains of Yersinia invade mammalian cells such as HeLa cells in tissue culture. Two chromosomal genes, inv and ail, were identified for cell invasion of mammalian. The pathogen can cause diarrhoea, appendicitis and post-infection arthritis may occur in a small proportion of cases. The most common transmission route of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica is thought to be fecal-oral via contaminated food. Direct person-to-person contact is rare. Occasionally, pathogenic Y. enterocolitica has been detected in vegetables and environmental water; thus, vegetables and untreated water are also potential sources of human yersiniosis. However, the isolation rates of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica have been low, which may be due to the limited sensitivity of the detection methods. To identify other possible transmission vehicles, different food items should be studied more extensively. Many factors related to the epidemiology of Y. enterocolitica, such as sources, transmission routes, and predominating genotypes remain obscure because of the low sensitivity of detection methods. PMID:22567332

  8. Radiation sensitivity of certain egyptian isolates of yersinia enterocolitica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zzawahry, Y.A.; Youssef, Y.A.; Awny; El-Sherif, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    An irradiation dose of 2 KGy was sufficient to destroy the cells of the six tested isolates of pathogenic yersinia enterocolitica and reduce the population of two isolates by log cycles, while the irradiation dose of reduced the number of cells by about 4 to 5 log cycles. Dose response curves of yersinia enterocolitica indicate that radio-sterile ground beef used as suspending medium was more protective for the tested isolates against the damaging effect of radiation than sterile nutrient broth. The cells of yersinia enterocolitica suspended in radio-sterile ground beef with few exception were more injured in presence of either 3% NaCl or 1% Nano 2 in the recovery medium than those suspended in a sterile nutrient broth. It has been found that, in general, irradiated cells of all isolates of yersinia enterocolitica were more sensitive to 3% Na No 2 in the recovery medium. The results indicated that there was no viable counts obtained for the three tested local isolates of yersinia enterocolitica at the lethal dose of 2.5 KGy during a storage period of 1 week up to 5 weeks at 4 degree C for both media, sterile nutrient broth and radio-sterile gound beef. Furthermore, significant effect of different increasing doses of gamma irradiation was obtained on the different chemical constituents of yersinia enterocolitica

  9. Radiation resistance and injury of Yersinia enterocolitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Rowley, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    The D values of Yersinia enterocolitica strains IP134, IP107, and WA, irradiated at 25/sup 0/C in Trypticase soy broth, ranged from 9.7 to 11.8 krad. When irradiated in ground beef at 25 and -30/sup 0/C, the D value of strain IP107 and 19.5 and 38.8 krad, respectively. Cells suspended in Trypticase soy broth were more sensitive to storage at -20/sup 0/C than those mixed in ground beef. The percentages of inactivation and of injury (inability to form colonies in the presence of 3.0% NaCl) of cells stored in ground beef for 10 days at -20/sup 0/C were 70 and 23%, respectively. Prior irradiation did not alter the cell's sensitivity to storage at -20/sup 0/C, nor did storage at -20/sup 0/C alter the cell's resistance to irradiation at 25/sup 0/C. Added NaCl concentrations of up to 4.0% in Trypticase soy agar (TSA) (which contains 0.5% NaCl) had little effect on colony formation at 36/sup 0/C of unirradiated Y. enterocolitica. With added 4.0% NaCl, 79% of the cells formed colonies at 36/sup 0/C; with 5.0% NaCl added, no colonies were formed. Although 2.5% NaCl added to ground beef did not sensitize Y. enterocolitica cells to irradiation, when added to TSA it reduced the number of apparent radiation survivors. Cells uninjured by irradiation formed colonies on TSA when incubated at either 36 or 5/sup 0/C. More survivors of an exposure to 60 krad were capable of recovery and forming colonies on TSA when incubated at 36/sup 0/C for 1 day than at 5/sup 0/C for 14 days. This difference in count was considered a manifestation of injury to certain survivors of irradiation.

  10. Radiation resistance and injury of Yersinia enterocolitica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Rowley, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    The D values of Yersinia enterocolitica strains IP134, IP107, and WA, irradiated at 25 0 C in Trypticase soy broth, ranged from 9.7 to 11.8 krad. When irradiated in ground beef at 25 and -30 0 C, the D value of strain IP107 and 19.5 and 38.8 krad, respectively. Cells suspended in Trypticase soy broth were more sensitive to storage at -20 0 C than those mixed in ground beef. The percentages of inactivation and of injury (inability to form colonies in the presence of 3.0% NaCl) of cells stored in ground beef for 10 days at -20 0 C were 70 and 23%, respectively. Prior irradiation did not alter the cell's sensitivity to storage at -20 0 C, nor did storage at -20 0 C alter the cell's resistance to irradiation at 25 0 C. Added NaCl concentrations of up to 4.0% in Trypticase soy agar (TSA) (which contains 0.5% NaCl) had little effect on colony formation at 36 0 C of unirradiated Y. enterocolitica. With added 4.0% NaCl, 79% of the cells formed colonies at 36 0 C; with 5.0% NaCl added, no colonies were formed. Although 2.5% NaCl added to ground beef did not sensitize Y. enterocolitica cells to irradiation, when added to TSA it reduced the number of apparent radiation survivors. Cells uninjured by irradiation formed colonies on TSA when incubated at either 36 or 5 0 C. More survivors of an exposure to 60 krad were capable of recovery and forming colonies on TSA when incubated at 36 0 C for 1 day than at 5 0 C for 14 days. This difference in count was considered a manifestation of injury to certain survivors of irradiation

  11. Yersinia enterocolitica: Mode of Transmission, Molecular Insights of Virulence, and Pathogenesis of Infection

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    Yeasmin Sabina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Yersinia enterocolitica is usually transmitted through contaminated food and untreated water, occasional transmission such as human-to-human, animal-to-human and blood transfusion associated transmission have also identified in human disease. Of the six Y. enterocolitica biotypes, the virulence of the pathogenic biotypes, namely, 1B and 2–5 is attributed to the presence of a highly conserved 70-kb virulence plasmid, termed pYV/pCD and certain chromosomal genes. Some biotype 1A strains, despite lacking virulence plasmid (pYV and traditional chromosomal virulence genes, are isolated frequently from humans with gastrointestinal diseases similar to that produced by isolates belonging known pathogenic biotypes. Y. enterocolitica pathogenic biotypes have evolved two major properties: the ability to penetrate the intestinal wall, which is thought to be controlled by plasmid genes, and the production of heat-stable enterotoxin, which is controlled by chromosomal genes.

  12. Detection of Yersinia enterocolitica in Retail Chicken Meat, Mashhad, Iran

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    Khadigeh Sirghani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat is one of the most important sources of infection of Yersinia spp. for humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of Yersinia enterocolitica in chicken meat by using culture method on selective medium and confirmation by PCR assay. Also, biochemical methods were used for biotyping. A total of 100 chicken thigh meat samples were collected randomly from retail outlets in Mashhad, Iran. Samples were enriched in Peptone-Sorbitol-Bile (PSB broth and then cultured on Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin (CIN agar containing antibiotics supplement. The DNA was extracted from suspected colonies of Yersinia spp. and then PCR test using specific primers for 16S rRNA gene of Yersinia enterocolitica was performed. In this study, 30% of chicken meat was contaminated with Yersinia spp. by culture method and 25% of chicken meat was contaminated with Yersinia enterocolitica. Biotyping of isolated colonies showed that all of the isolates belonged to biotype 1A. Culture and detection of Yersinia spp. from food samples traditionally take 4 days. Due to high accuracy and speed of PCR assay, it is a good alternative method for microbiological techniques. In conclusion, poultry meat can act as a source of Y. enterocolitica and could be considered as a public health hazard.

  13. Yersinia enterocolitica Isolates from Wild Boars Hunted in Lower Saxony, Germany.

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    von Altrock, Alexandra; Seinige, Diana; Kehrenberg, Corinna

    2015-07-01

    Yersiniosis is strongly associated with the consumption of pork contaminated with enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, which is harbored by domestic pigs without showing clinical signs of disease. In contrast to data on Y. enterocolitica isolated from conventionally reared swine, investigations into the occurrence of Y. enterocolitica in wild boars in Germany are rare. The objectives of the study were to get knowledge about these bacteria and their occurrence in wild boars hunted in northern Germany by isolation of the bacteria from the tonsils, identification of the bioserotypes, determination of selected virulence factors, macrorestriction analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and testing of antimicrobial susceptibility. Altogether, tonsils from 17.1% of 111 tested wild boars were positive for Y. enterocolitica by culture methods. All but two isolates belonged to biotype (BT) 1A, with the majority of isolates bearing a ystB nucleotide sequence which was revealed to have 85% identity to internal regions of Y. enterocolitica heat-stable enterotoxin type B genes. The remaining Y. enterocolitica isolates were identified to be BT 1B and did not carry the virulence plasmid. However, two BT 1A isolates carried the ail gene. Macrorestriction analysis and results from MLST showed a high degree of genetic diversity of the isolates, although the region where the samples were taken was restricted to Lower Saxony, Germany, and wild boars were shot during one hunting season. In conclusion, most Y. enterocolitica isolates from wild boars investigated in this study belonged to biotype 1A. Enteropathogenic Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9, usually harbored by commercially raised pigs in Europe, could not be identified. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica by nitrite and nitrate in food.

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    de Giusti, M; de Vito, E

    1992-01-01

    The antimicrobial effects of sodium nitrite and sodium and potassium nitrate against Yersinia enterocolitica were investigated in solution and in treated pork meat. Potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate showed only feeble antimicrobial activity in cultures; no antimicrobial activity was detected with sodium nitrite. Conversely, all three salts displayed apparent antimicrobial activity in pork meat, possibly due to selective effects on competitive flora.

  15. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica among patients in Jos and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on the prevalence and antibiogram of Yersinia enterocolitica among patients in Jos and Environs was conducted. A total of 150 stool samples collected from three hospitals namely: Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Vom Christian Hospital and National Veterinary Research Institute Diagnostic ...

  16. Yersinia enterocolitica in the Western Cape | Finlayson | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yersinia enterocolitica, serotype 3, phage type 9a, has been isolated for the first time in the Western Cape. Sera from 59 abattoir workers were investigated for the presence of 0 and H agglutinins. These were present in one sample, suggesting a past infection. Sera from 115 Nama-speaking adults of the Kuboes area ...

  17. Yersinia enterocolitica : Genes involved in cold-adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.L.J.

    1999-01-01

    It is known from the literature that: -The application of chilling as a means of food preservation has frequently resulted in food borne infections with psychrotrophic micro-organisms, such as Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila; - The injurious effect on

  18. High prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in pig cheeks.

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    Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Maijala, Riitta; Korkeala, Hannu

    2014-10-01

    Samples from pork cuts for minced meat and cheeks from processing plants and a slaughterhouse, and modified atmosphere (MA) packaged pork from retail were studied to estimate the prevalence of pathogenic, i.e. virulence plasmid bearing, Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pork, as well as to quantify pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in pork cuts. Pathogenic (virF-positive) Y. enterocolitica was isolated from 17 pig cheeks (23%) but not from any of the MA-packaged 54 retail pork samples and only from one of the 155 pork cut (0.6%). Most (16/17) of the cheek samples were contaminated with pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 and one with bioserotype 2/O:9. No Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated. The prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was clearly higher (39%) in 155 pork cuts when studied with nested PCR targeting yadA on the virulence plasmid pYV although the contamination level was low varying between 0.1 and 1.6 MPN/g. Raw pork cuts and especially pig cheeks may serve as possible sources for yersiniosis caused by pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica to UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, R.C.; Lund, V.; Carlson, D.A.

    1987-02-01

    Two enteric pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup O:3, together with Escherichia coli, were investigated for susceptibility to UV radiation at 254 nm. The UV dose required for a 3-log reduction (99.9% inactivation) of C. jejuni, Y. enterocolitica, and E. coli was 1.8, 2.7, and 5.0 mWs/cm2, respectively. Using E. coli as the basis for comparison, it appears that C. jejuni and Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:3 are more sensitive to UV than many of the pathogens associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and can be easily inactivated in most commercially available UV reactors. No association was found between the sensitivity of Y. enterocolitica to UV and the presence of a 40- to 50-megadalton virulence plasmid.

  20. Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica to UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, R.C.; Lund, V.; Carlson, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Two enteric pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup O:3, together with Escherichia coli, were investigated for susceptibility to UV radiation at 254 nm. The UV dose required for a 3-log reduction (99.9% inactivation) of C. jejuni, Y. enterocolitica, and E. coli was 1.8, 2.7, and 5.0 mWs/cm2, respectively. Using E. coli as the basis for comparison, it appears that C. jejuni and Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:3 are more sensitive to UV than many of the pathogens associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and can be easily inactivated in most commercially available UV reactors. No association was found between the sensitivity of Y. enterocolitica to UV and the presence of a 40- to 50-megadalton virulence plasmid

  1. Prevalence of Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in Finnish Slaughter Pigs.

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    Rahikainen Ibañez, T; Laukkanen-Ninios, R; Hakkinen, M; Johansson, T; Vilar, M; Korkeala, H

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was determined in tonsil and intestinal content samples from 388 healthy fattening pigs at the four biggest Finnish slaughterhouses. These slaughterhouses process 73% of pigs in Finland. Tonsil samples were tested by PCR targeted for yadA, and intestinal samples were cultured. All pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates represented bioserotype 4/O:3. The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil samples was 60% (95% confidence limit, 55.4 to 65.1%), and its prevalence in intestinal samples was 26% (95% confidence limit, 22.1 to 31.2%). The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil and intestinal samples varied between the four slaughterhouses. The tonsil prevalence of Y. enterocolitica was higher in slaughterhouse B, and the prevalence in intestinal content was higher in slaughterhouse C. There were more positive results in both tonsil and intestinal samples in pigs coming from fattening farms than in pigs coming from farrowing-and-fattening farms. A seasonal variation was observed in the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in intestinal samples, with the highest prevalence during July and August, but no seasonal variation was detected in tonsil samples.

  2. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in wild boars in the Basque Country, northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrausi-Subiza, Maialen; Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Alvarez, Vega; Ibabe, Jose Carlos; Barral, Marta

    2016-01-20

    Yersiniosis is a zoonosis widely distributed in Europe and swine carry different serotypes of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in wild boars in northern Spain. The blood of wild boars (n = 505) was sampled between 2001 and 2012. Seroprevalence was determined in 490 serum samples with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seventy-two of the animals were also examined for the presence of Y. enterocolitica or Y. pseudotuberculosis in the tonsils with real-time polymerase chain reaction. All the tonsils were analysed twice, directly and after cold enrichment in phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 1 % mannitol and 0.15 % bile salts. Antibodies directed against Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis were detected in 52.5 % of the animals. Yersinia enterocolitica was detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction in 33.3 % of the wild boars and Y. pseudotuberculosis in 25 %. Significant differences were observed according to the sampling year, and the highest prevalence was during winter and spring. The highest antibody levels and Y. enterocolitica prevalence were observed in mountainous areas at altitudes higher than 600 m, with very cold winters, and with the highest annual rainfall for each dominant climate. Areas with low and medium livestock populations were associated with the highest seroprevalence of Yersinia spp. in wild boars, whereas areas with high ovine populations had the highest prevalence of Y. enterocolitica. This study shows that Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are highly prevalent among wild boars in the Basque country, with Y. enterocolitica most prevalent. The risk of infection among wild boars is influenced by the season and the area in which they live.

  3. Inactive Doses and Protein Concentration of Gamma Irradiated Yersinia Enterocolitica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irawan Sugoro; Sandra Hermanto

    2009-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is one of bacteria which cause coliform mastitis in dairy cows. The bacteria could be inactivated by gamma irradiation as inactivated vaccine candidate. The experiment has been conducted to determine the inactive doses and the protein concentration of Yersinia enterocolitica Y3 which has been irradiated by gamma rays. The cells cultures were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1.000 and 1.500 Gy (doses rate was 1089,59 Gy/hours). The inactive dose was determined by the drop test method and the protein concentration of cells were determined by Lowry method. The results showed that the inactive doses occurred on 800 – 1500 Gy. The different irradiation doses of cell cultures showed the effect of gamma irradiation on the protein concentration that was random and has a significant effect on the protein concentration. (author)

  4. Averting Behavior Framework for Perceived Risk of Yersinia enterocolitica Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Sonia N; Aziz, Khwaja M S

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this research is to present a theoretical model of averting actions that households take to avoid exposure to Yersinia enterocolitica in contaminated food. The cost of illness approach only takes into account the value of a cure, while the averting behavior approach can estimate the value of preventing the illness. The household, rather than the individual, is the unit of analysis in this model, where one household member is primarily responsible for procuring uncontaminated food for their family. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, the designated household head makes the choices that are investigated in this paper. This model uses constrained optimization to characterize activities that may offer protection from exposure to Yersinia enterocolitica contaminated food. A representative household decision maker is assumed to allocate family resources to maximize utility of an altruistic parent, an assumption used in most research involving economics of the family.

  5. Averting Behavior Framework for Perceived Risk of Yersinia enterocolitica Infections

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    Sonia N. Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research is to present a theoretical model of averting actions that households take to avoid exposure to Yersinia enterocolitica in contaminated food. The cost of illness approach only takes into account the value of a cure, while the averting behavior approach can estimate the value of preventing the illness. The household, rather than the individual, is the unit of analysis in this model, where one household member is primarily responsible for procuring uncontaminated food for their family. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, the designated household head makes the choices that are investigated in this paper. This model uses constrained optimization to characterize activities that may offer protection from exposure to Yersinia enterocolitica contaminated food. A representative household decision maker is assumed to allocate family resources to maximize utility of an altruistic parent, an assumption used in most research involving economics of the family.

  6. Sepsis and siderosis, Yersinia enterocolitica and hereditary haemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaites, Phoebe A; Woods, Marion L

    2017-01-04

    A 60-year-old woman was admitted with sepsis, relative bradycardia, CT evidence of numerous small liver abscesses and 'skin bronzing' consistent with hereditary haemochromatosis (HH). Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 infection was confirmed by serology specimens taken 10 days apart. Iron overload was detected, and homozygous C282Y gene mutation confirmed HH. Liver biopsy revealed grade IV siderosis with micronodular cirrhosis. Haemochromatosis is a common, inherited disorder leading to iron overload that can produce end-organ damage from excess iron deposition. Haemochromatosis diagnosis allowed aggressive medical management with phlebotomy achieving normalisation of iron stores. Screening for complications of cirrhosis was started that included hepatoma surveillance. Iron overload states are known to increase patient susceptibility to infections caused by lower virulence bacteria lacking sophisticated iron metabolism pathways, for example, Yersinia enterocolitica Although these serious disseminated infections are rare, they may serve as markers for occult iron overload and should prompt haemochromatosis screening. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in Pigs Slaughtered in Chinese Abattoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junrong; Wang, Xin; Xiao, Yuchun; Cui, Zhigang; Xia, Shengli; Hao, Qiong; Yang, Jinchuan; Luo, Longze; Wang, Shukun; Li, Kewei; Yang, Haoshu; Gu, Wenpeng; Xu, Jianguo; Kan, Biao

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of Yersinia enterocolitica in slaughtered pigs in China was studied. A total of 8,773 samples were collected and examined from different pig abattoirs in 11 provinces from 2009 to 2011. Of these, 4,495 were oral-pharyngeal swab (tonsils) samples from pigs, 1,239 were from intestinal contents, and 3,039 were feces samples from abattoirs or local pigpens. The data showed that 1,132 strains were obtained, from which the isolation rate for Yersinia enterocolitica was 19.53% (878/4,495) from the tonsil samples, 7.51% (93/1,239) from intestinal contents, and 5.30% (161/3,039) from feces. Of the 850 pathogenic Yersinia strains, except for three of bioserotype 2/O:9 and three of bioserotype 4/O:3, most (844/850) were of bioserotype 3/O:3. Interestingly, pathogenic Y. enterocolitica accounted for the majority of the isolated strains from most provinces (85.17% to 100%), whereas from Heilongjiang, 96.52% (111/115) were classified as nonpathogenic biotype 1A with various serotypes, and only 3.48% of the strains (4/115) were pathogenic 3/O:3. All of the pathogenic strains were analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and 49 patterns were obtained for the O:3 pathogenic strains; most of them were K6GN11C30021 (53.13%: 450/847) and K6GN11C30012 (21.37%: 181/847). Several strains from diarrhea patient samples revealed PFGE patterns identical to that from samples of local pigs, suggesting a possible link between porcine isolates and human infection. The results above suggested that Yersinia enterocolitica in slaughtered pigs from Chinese abattoirs was characterized by region-specific PFGE patterns and confirmed that strains isolated from pigs are closely related to those from human infections. PMID:22327599

  8. Prevention of Yersinia enterocolitica growth in red-blood-cell concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietersz, R. N.; Reesink, H. W.; Pauw, W.; Dekker, W. J.; Buisman, L.

    1992-01-01

    In response to concern about Yersinia enterocolitica contamination of blood products, we have studied the effects on Y enterocolitica growth of holding whole blood at 22 degrees C for 20 h and then removing leucocytes. Thirty pools of three bags of blood were inoculated with Y enterocolitica (2 x

  9. Detection of Yersinia enterocolitica in food: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V; Gulati, P; Bhagat, N; Dhar, M S; Virdi, J S

    2015-04-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a gastrointestinal pathogen which causes yersiniosis, an illness characterized by diarrhea, ileitis, and mesenteric lymphadenitis. Y. enterocolitica is transmitted via the feco-oral route by the consumption of contaminated food or water. Several phenotypic and genotypic methods have been developed to reliably detect Y. enterocolitica in food. However, the source of infection of many recently reported foodborne outbreaks remains obscure. The detection of this pathogen in food is a challenging task, since it shares similarities with other enteric bacteria. The presence of other microorganisms in the food samples makes it even more difficult to identify this slow-growing pathogen. Therefore, the present-day emphasis is on the development of sensitive, easily automated methods suitable for in-situ detection, allowing quick and cost-effective characterization of food samples. This review summarizes and compares the currently available cultural, immunological, and molecular methods, particularly in relation to their specific merits or demerits when implemented for the detection of Y. enterocolitica in food.

  10. Homology analysis and cross-immunogenicity of OmpA from pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhuang; Duan, Ran; Li, Xu; Li, Kewei; Liang, Junrong; Liu, Chang; Qiu, Haiyan; Xiao, Yuchun; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    The outer membrane protein A (OmpA) is one of the intra-species conserved proteins with immunogenicity widely found in the family of Enterobacteriaceae. Here we first confirmed OmpA is conserved in the three pathogenic Yersinia: Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, with high homology at the nucleotide level and at the amino acid sequence level. The identity of ompA sequences for 262 Y. pestis strains, 134 Y. pseudotuberculosis strains and 219 pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains are 100%, 98.8% and 97.7% similar. The main pattern of OmpA of pathogenic Yersinia are 86.2% and 88.8% identical at the nucleotide and amino acid sequence levels, respectively. Immunological analysis showed the immunogenicity of each OmpA and cross-immunogenicity of OmpA for pathogenic Yersinia where OmpA may be a vaccine candidate for Y. pestis and other pathogenic Yersinia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Yersinia enterocolitica : a review of its role in food hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, G K; Feeley, J C

    1976-01-01

    Since Yersinia enterocolitica, now classified as a member of the Enterobacteriaceae, was recognized as a distinct species in 1964 it has been isolated with increasing frequency from man and animals (including dogs and pigs) and from some human foods. Y. enterocolitica infections are now seen as a cause for some concern in both human and veterinary medicine. The organism is commonly found in specimens from swine slaughterhouses and has been isolated from samples of market meat, vacuum-packed beef, mussels, oysters, and ice-cream. It has also been found in nonchlorinated well water used for drinking purposes. Infections in man therefore probably have an alimentary origin. Only 23 human infections were recorded in 1966 but the number increased to over 4000 in 1974. However, reported incidence is affected by growing awareness about the role of the organism in human and animal disease and by intensive laboratory analyses. While knowledge about the geographical distribution of Y. enterocolitica is still fragmentary it is clear that infections are very frequent in some parts of the world and probably common but unrecognized in many countries. The most common symptoms of Y. enterocolitica infections in man are fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhoea. In the USA most isolations in human infections were made from blood and mesenteric lymph node samples. The pathogenic mechanism is not known. In one experiment involving a human volunteer subject a dose of 3.5 x 10(9) organisms was required to produce an infection. Only recently has some success been obtained in establishing experimental infections in mice, guinea-pigs, rats, and rabbits. Laboratory cultivation techniques for Y. enterocolitica are described together with a table of minimal tests for characterizing the organism and two biotyping schema. Little is known about methods for controlling this disease, but environmental hygiene and sanitation with regard to food and water should apply.

  12. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Virulent Yersinia enterocolitica Strains Unable To Ferment Sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiyoule, Annie; Guinet, Françoise; Martin, Liliane; Benoit, Catherine; Desplaces, Nicole; Carniel, Elisabeth

    1998-01-01

    Several atypical sucrose-negative Yersinia strains, isolated from clinical samples and sometimes associated with symptoms, proved to have full virulence potential in in vitro and in vivo testings. DNA-relatedness studies revealed that they were authentic Yersinia enterocolitica strains. Therefore, atypical sucrose-negative Yersinia isolates should be analyzed for their virulence potential. PMID:9705424

  13. Structure of a pectin methylesterase from Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraston, Alisdair B; Abbott, D Wade

    2012-02-01

    Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are family 8 carbohydrate esterases (CE8s) which remove the methyl group from methylesterified galacturonic acid (GalA) residues within pectin. Although the role of pectinases such as PMEs within dedicated phytopathogens has been well established, the significance of homologous enzymes found within the genomes of human enteropathogens remains to be determined. Presented here is the low-resolution (3.5 Å) structure of the CE8 from Yersinia enterocolitica (YeCE8). The high degree of structural conservation in the topology of the active-site cleft and catalytic apparatus that is shared with a characterized PME from a bacterial phytopathogen (i) indicates that YeCE8 is active on methylated pectin and (ii) highlights a more prominent role for pectin utilization in Yersinia than in other enteropathogenic species.

  14. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are crucial in Bifidobacterium adolescentis-mediated inhibition of Yersinia enterocolitica infection.

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    Alexandra Wittmann

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries bacterial intestinal infections are commonly caused by enteropathogenic Enterobacteriaceae. The interaction of the microbiota with the host immune system determines the adequacy of an appropriate response against pathogens. In this study we addressed whether the probiotic Bifidobacterium adolescentis is protective during intestinal Yersinia enterocolitica infection. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed with B. adolescentis, infected with Yersinia enterocolitica, or B. adolescentis fed and subsequently infected with Yersinia enterocolitica. B. adolescentis fed and Yersinia infected mice were protected from Yersinia infection as indicated by a significantly reduced weight loss and splenic Yersinia load when compared to Yersinia infected mice. Moreover, protection from infection was associated with increased intestinal plasmacytoid dendritic cell and regulatory T-cell frequencies. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell function was investigated using depletion experiments by injecting B. adolescentis fed, Yersinia infected C57BL/6 mice with anti-mouse PDCA-1 antibody, to deplete plasmacytoid dendritic cells, or respective isotype control. The B. adolescentis-mediated protection from Yersinia dissemination to the spleen was abrogated after plasmacytoid dendritic cell depletion indicating a crucial function for pDC in control of intestinal Yersinia infection. We suggest that feeding of B. adolescentis modulates the intestinal immune system in terms of increased plasmacytoid dendritic cell and regulatory T-cell frequencies, which might account for the B. adolescentis-mediated protection from Yersinia enterocolitica infection.

  15. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are crucial in Bifidobacterium adolescentis-mediated inhibition of Yersinia enterocolitica infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Alexandra; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Frick, Julia-Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    In industrialized countries bacterial intestinal infections are commonly caused by enteropathogenic Enterobacteriaceae. The interaction of the microbiota with the host immune system determines the adequacy of an appropriate response against pathogens. In this study we addressed whether the probiotic Bifidobacterium adolescentis is protective during intestinal Yersinia enterocolitica infection. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed with B. adolescentis, infected with Yersinia enterocolitica, or B. adolescentis fed and subsequently infected with Yersinia enterocolitica. B. adolescentis fed and Yersinia infected mice were protected from Yersinia infection as indicated by a significantly reduced weight loss and splenic Yersinia load when compared to Yersinia infected mice. Moreover, protection from infection was associated with increased intestinal plasmacytoid dendritic cell and regulatory T-cell frequencies. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell function was investigated using depletion experiments by injecting B. adolescentis fed, Yersinia infected C57BL/6 mice with anti-mouse PDCA-1 antibody, to deplete plasmacytoid dendritic cells, or respective isotype control. The B. adolescentis-mediated protection from Yersinia dissemination to the spleen was abrogated after plasmacytoid dendritic cell depletion indicating a crucial function for pDC in control of intestinal Yersinia infection. We suggest that feeding of B. adolescentis modulates the intestinal immune system in terms of increased plasmacytoid dendritic cell and regulatory T-cell frequencies, which might account for the B. adolescentis-mediated protection from Yersinia enterocolitica infection.

  16. Comparative Genomic Hybridization Analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Identifies Genetic Traits to Elucidate Their Different Ecologies

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    Kaisa Jaakkola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are both etiological agents for intestinal infection known as yersiniosis, but their epidemiology and ecology bear many differences. Swine are the only known reservoir for Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains, which are the most common cause of human disease, while Y. pseudotuberculosis has been isolated from a variety of sources, including vegetables and wild animals. Infections caused by Y. enterocolitica mainly originate from swine, but fresh produce has been the source for widespread Y. pseudotuberculosis outbreaks within recent decades. A comparative genomic hybridization analysis with a DNA microarray based on three Yersinia enterocolitica and four Yersinia pseudotuberculosis genomes was conducted to shed light on the genomic differences between enteropathogenic Yersinia. The hybridization results identified Y. pseudotuberculosis strains to carry operons linked with the uptake and utilization of substances not found in living animal tissues but present in soil, plants, and rotting flesh. Y. pseudotuberculosis also harbors a selection of type VI secretion systems targeting other bacteria and eukaryotic cells. These genetic traits are not found in Y. enterocolitica, and it appears that while Y. pseudotuberculosis has many tools beneficial for survival in varied environments, the Y. enterocolitica genome is more streamlined and adapted to their preferred animal reservoir.

  17. Application of fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism for comparison of human and animal isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fearnley, C.; On, S.L.W.; Kokotovic, Branko

    2005-01-01

    An amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method, developed to genotype Yersinia enterocolitica, has been used to investigate 70 representative strains isolated from humans, pigs, sheep, and cattle in the United Kingdom. AFLP primarily distinguished Y enterocolitica strains according...

  18. Clonality and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Yersinia enterocolitica Isolated From U.S. Market Weight Hogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs are the only known animal reservoir of Yersinia enterocolitica pathogenic to humans. In this study 106 ail-positive pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates, previously recovered from 2,793 swine fecal samples (3.8%) collected during National Animal Health Monitoring System’s Swine 2000 study, wer...

  19. Differentiation of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A from pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica biotypes by detection of β-glucosidase activity: comparison of two chromogenic culture media and Vitek2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhukorpi, Jari; Päivänurmi, Marjut

    2014-01-01

    Aesculin hydrolysis (ESC) is one of the key reactions in differentiating pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica biotypes 1B, 2, 3, 4 and 5 from the less-pathogenic biotype 1A. Because the ESC reaction is caused by β-glucosidase (βGLU) activity of the bacteria, we studied whether two commonly used methods (BBL CHROMagar Orientation and Vitek2 Gram-negative identification card) could be used in assessing βGLU activity of 74 Yersinia strains. Both methods were sensitive (100 % and 97 %) and specific (100 % and 100 %) in differentiating βGLU-positive YE BT1A from βGLU-negative Y. enterocolitica biotypes. For a subset of strains (n = 69), a new selective CHROMagar Yersinia showed excellent agreement with the strains' βGLU activity. Thus all the methods evaluated in this study may be used to differentiate between YE BT1A and other Y. enterocolitica biotypes.

  20. Deciphering the acylation pattern of Yersinia enterocolitica lipid A.

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    Mar Reinés

    Full Text Available Pathogenic bacteria may modify their surface to evade the host innate immune response. Yersinia enterocolitica modulates its lipopolysaccharide (LPS lipid A structure, and the key regulatory signal is temperature. At 21°C, lipid A is hexa-acylated and may be modified with aminoarabinose or palmitate. At 37°C, Y. enterocolitica expresses a tetra-acylated lipid A consistent with the 3'-O-deacylation of the molecule. In this work, by combining genetic and mass spectrometric analysis, we establish that Y. enterocolitica encodes a lipid A deacylase, LpxR, responsible for the lipid A structure observed at 37°C. Western blot analyses indicate that LpxR exhibits latency at 21°C, deacylation of lipid A is not observed despite the expression of LpxR in the membrane. Aminoarabinose-modified lipid A is involved in the latency. 3-D modelling, docking and site-directed mutagenesis experiments showed that LpxR D31 reduces the active site cavity volume so that aminoarabinose containing Kdo(2-lipid A cannot be accommodated and, therefore, not deacylated. Our data revealed that the expression of lpxR is negatively controlled by RovA and PhoPQ which are necessary for the lipid A modification with aminoarabinose. Next, we investigated the role of lipid A structural plasticity conferred by LpxR on the expression/function of Y. enterocolitica virulence factors. We present evidence that motility and invasion of eukaryotic cells were reduced in the lpxR mutant grown at 21°C. Mechanistically, our data revealed that the expressions of flhDC and rovA, regulators controlling the flagellar regulon and invasin respectively, were down-regulated in the mutant. In contrast, the levels of the virulence plasmid (pYV-encoded virulence factors Yops and YadA were not affected in the lpxR mutant. Finally, we establish that the low inflammatory response associated to Y. enterocolitica infections is the sum of the anti-inflammatory action exerted by pYV-encoded YopP and the

  1. Deciphering the acylation pattern of Yersinia enterocolitica lipid A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinés, Mar; Llobet, Enrique; Dahlström, Käthe M; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Camino; Llompart, Catalina M; Torrecabota, Nuria; Salminen, Tiina A; Bengoechea, José A

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria may modify their surface to evade the host innate immune response. Yersinia enterocolitica modulates its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lipid A structure, and the key regulatory signal is temperature. At 21°C, lipid A is hexa-acylated and may be modified with aminoarabinose or palmitate. At 37°C, Y. enterocolitica expresses a tetra-acylated lipid A consistent with the 3'-O-deacylation of the molecule. In this work, by combining genetic and mass spectrometric analysis, we establish that Y. enterocolitica encodes a lipid A deacylase, LpxR, responsible for the lipid A structure observed at 37°C. Western blot analyses indicate that LpxR exhibits latency at 21°C, deacylation of lipid A is not observed despite the expression of LpxR in the membrane. Aminoarabinose-modified lipid A is involved in the latency. 3-D modelling, docking and site-directed mutagenesis experiments showed that LpxR D31 reduces the active site cavity volume so that aminoarabinose containing Kdo(2)-lipid A cannot be accommodated and, therefore, not deacylated. Our data revealed that the expression of lpxR is negatively controlled by RovA and PhoPQ which are necessary for the lipid A modification with aminoarabinose. Next, we investigated the role of lipid A structural plasticity conferred by LpxR on the expression/function of Y. enterocolitica virulence factors. We present evidence that motility and invasion of eukaryotic cells were reduced in the lpxR mutant grown at 21°C. Mechanistically, our data revealed that the expressions of flhDC and rovA, regulators controlling the flagellar regulon and invasin respectively, were down-regulated in the mutant. In contrast, the levels of the virulence plasmid (pYV)-encoded virulence factors Yops and YadA were not affected in the lpxR mutant. Finally, we establish that the low inflammatory response associated to Y. enterocolitica infections is the sum of the anti-inflammatory action exerted by pYV-encoded YopP and the reduced activation of

  2. Yersinia enterocolitica Infection Simulating Lymphoproliferative Disease, after Liver Transplant

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    E. Jakobovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 14-year-old girl, who was 13 y after liver transplantation for biliary atresia with an unremarkable postoperative course. She presented with fever of up to 40°C, extreme fatigue, malaise, anorexia, and occasional vomiting. On physical examination the only finding was splenomegaly. Lab results showed hyperglobulinemia and an elevated sedimentation rate. Liver function tests were normal except for mild elevation of γGTP. Abdominal U/S and CT demonstrated an enlarged spleen with retroperitoneal and mesenteric lymph nodes enlargement. An exhaustive evaluation for infectious causes, autoimmune conditions, and malignancy was negative. A full recovery after 5 months prompted testing for self-limited infectious etiologies. Yersinia enterocolitica infection was diagnosed.

  3. Rapid species specific identification and subtyping of Yersinia enterocolitica by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Roger; Cernela, Nicole; Ziegler, Dominik; Pflüger, Valentin; Tonolla, Mauro; Ravasi, Damiana; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Hächler, Herbert

    2011-11-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica are Gram-negative pathogens and known as important causes of foodborne infections. Rapid and reliable identification of strains of the species Y. enterocolitica within the genus Yersinia and the differentiation of the pathogenic from the non-pathogenic biotypes has become increasingly important. We evaluated here the application of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for rapid species identification and subtyping of Y. enterocolitica. To this end, we developed a reference MS database library including 19 Y. enterocolitica (non-pathogenic biotype 1A and pathogenic biotypes 2 and 4) as well as 24 non-Y. enterocolitica strains, belonging to eleven different other Yersinia spp. The strains provided reproducible and unique mass spectra profiles covering a wide molecular mass range (2000 to 30,000 Da). Species-specific and biotype-specific biomarker protein mass patterns were determined for Y. enterocolitica. The defined biomarker mass patterns (SARAMIS SuperSpectrum™) were validated using 117 strains from various Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes in a blind-test. All strains were correctly identified and for all strains the mass spectrometry-based identification scheme yielded identical results compared to a characterization by a combination of biotyping and serotyping. Our study demonstrates that MALDI-TOF-MS is a reliable and powerful tool for the rapid identification of Y. enterocolitica strains to the species level and allows subtyping of strains to the biotype level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bacteriophages reduce Yersinia enterocolitica contamination of food and kitchenware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jin Woo; Park, Se Chang; Wicklund, Anu; Skurnik, Mikael

    2018-04-20

    Yersinia enterocolitica, the primary cause of yersiniosis, is one of the most important foodborne pathogens globally and is associated with the consumption of raw contaminated pork. In the current study, four virulent bacteriophages (phages), one of Podoviridae (fHe-Yen3-01) and three of Myoviridae (fHe-Yen9-01, fHe-Yen9-02, and fHe-Yen9-03), capable of infecting Y. enterocolitica were isolated and characterized. fHe-Yen9-01 had the broadest host range (61.3% of strains, 65/106). It demonstrated a latent period of 35 min and a burst size of 33 plaque-forming units/cell, and was found to have a genome of 167,773 bp with 34.79% GC content. To evaluate the effectiveness of phage fHe-Yen9-01 against Y. enterocolitica O:9 strain Ruokola/71, we designed an experimental model of the food market environment. Phage treatment after bacterial inoculation of food samples, including raw pork (4 °C, 72 h), ready-to-eat pork (26 °C, 12 h), and milk (4 °C, 72 h), prevented bacterial growth throughout the experiments, with counts decreasing by 1-3 logs from the original levels of 2-4 × 10 3  CFU/g or ml. Similarly, when artificially contaminated kitchen utensils, such as wooden and plastic cutting boards and knives, and artificial hands, were treated with phages for 2 h, bacterial growth was effectively inhibited, with counts decreasing by 1-2 logs from the original levels of ca 10 4  CFU/cm 2 or ml. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful application of phages for the control of Y. enterocolitica growth in food and on kitchen utensils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The complete genome sequence and comparative genome analysis of the high pathogenicity Yersinia enterocolitica strain 8081.

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    Nicholas R Thomson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The human enteropathogen, Yersinia enterocolitica, is a significant link in the range of Yersinia pathologies extending from mild gastroenteritis to bubonic plague. Comparison at the genomic level is a key step in our understanding of the genetic basis for this pathogenicity spectrum. Here we report the genome of Y. enterocolitica strain 8081 (serotype 0:8; biotype 1B and extensive microarray data relating to the genetic diversity of the Y. enterocolitica species. Our analysis reveals that the genome of Y. enterocolitica strain 8081 is a patchwork of horizontally acquired genetic loci, including a plasticity zone of 199 kb containing an extraordinarily high density of virulence genes. Microarray analysis has provided insights into species-specific Y. enterocolitica gene functions and the intraspecies differences between the high, low, and nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica biotypes. Through comparative genome sequence analysis we provide new information on the evolution of the Yersinia. We identify numerous loci that represent ancestral clusters of genes potentially important in enteric survival and pathogenesis, which have been lost or are in the process of being lost, in the other sequenced Yersinia lineages. Our analysis also highlights large metabolic operons in Y. enterocolitica that are absent in the related enteropathogen, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, indicating major differences in niche and nutrients used within the mammalian gut. These include clusters directing, the production of hydrogenases, tetrathionate respiration, cobalamin synthesis, and propanediol utilisation. Along with ancestral gene clusters, the genome of Y. enterocolitica has revealed species-specific and enteropathogen-specific loci. This has provided important insights into the pathology of this bacterium and, more broadly, into the evolution of the genus. Moreover, wider investigations looking at the patterns of gene loss and gain in the Yersinia have highlighted common

  6. Genomic Insights and Its Comparative Analysis with Yersinia enterocolitica Reveals the Potential Virulence Determinants and Further Pathogenicity for Foodborne Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekaran, Gopalsamy; Na, Eun Jung; Chung, Han Young; Kim, Suyeon; Kim, You-Tae; Kwak, Woori; Kim, Heebal; Ryu, Sangryeol; Choi, Sang Ho; Lee, Ju-Hoon

    2017-02-28

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a well-known foodborne pathogen causing gastrointestinal infections worldwide. The strain Y. enterocolitica FORC_002 was isolated from the gill of flatfish (plaice) and its genome was sequenced. The genomic DNA consists of 4,837,317 bp with a GC content of 47.1%, and is predicted to contain 4,221 open reading frames, 81 tRNA genes, and 26 rRNA genes. Interestingly, genomic analysis revealed pathogenesis and host immune evasion-associated genes encoding guanylate cyclase (Yst), invasin (Ail and Inv), outer membrane protein (Yops), autotransporter adhesin A (YadA), RTX-like toxins, and a type III secretion system. In particular, guanylate cyclase is a heat-stable enterotoxin causing Yersinia -associated diarrhea, and RTX-like toxins are responsible for attachment to integrin on the target cell for cytotoxic action. This genome can be used to identify virulence factors that can be applied for the development of novel biomarkers for the rapid detection of this pathogen in foods.

  7. Yersinia enterocolitica bacteremia and enterocolitis in a previously healthy 20-month-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takao; Suzuki, Teruaki; Kawase, Jun; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Nanao, Kenji

    2012-10-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a gram-negative bacillus that can cause illness ranging from a self-limiting enterocolitis to life-threatening bacteremia. Y. enterocolitica biotype 1B, serotype O:8 (1B/O:8), is the most pathogenic of the Yersinia species because of the presence of the high-pathogenicity island and the Yersinia virulence plasmid (pYV). Here, we report a pediatric case of Y. enterocolitica 1B/O:8 bacteremia and enterocolitis. A 20-month-old girl was admitted to hospital with fever,pharyngitis, and abdominal pain on day 2. Blood culture on admission was positive for Y. enterocolitica 1B/O:8. Stool culture on day 5 after cefotaxime treatment was also positive for Y. enterocolitica 1B/O:8, but only after cold enrichment at 4°C for 3 weeks. PCR assays identified the pYV only in stool specimens, indicating that strains from routine blood culture at 37°C lacked the pYV. The present case showed the usefulness of stool culture with cold enrichment and agglutination test for the diagnosis of Y. enterocolitica infection. We would therefore like to emphasize the importance of collection and preservation of stool specimens for the identification of pYV. To our knowledge, this is the first reported pediatric case of Y. enterocolitica 1B/O:8 bacteremia.

  8. Yersinia enterocolitica in sheep - a high frequency of biotype 1A

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    Söderqvist Karin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigs are regarded as the main reservoir for human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, which is dominated by bioserotype 4/O:3. Other animals, including sheep, have occasionally been reported as carriers of pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. To our knowledge, this is the first study performed in the Nordic countries in which the presence of Y. enterocolitica in sheep is investigated. Methods Tonsils and faecal samples collected from sheep slaughtered on the island Gotland (Sweden from September 2010 through January 2011 were analysed for presence of Y. enterocolitica. In an attempt to maximize recovery, several cultural strategies were applied. Various non-selective media were used and different temperatures and durations of the enrichment were applied before subculturing on Cefsulodin Irgasan Novobiocin (CIN agar. Presumptive Y. enterocolitica colonies were subjected to urease, API 20E and agglutination test. Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were biotyped, serotyped, and tested for pathogenicity using a TaqMan PCR directed towards the ail-gene that is associated with human pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. Results The samples collected from 99 sheep yielded 567 presumptive Y. enterocolitica colonies. Eighty urease positive isolates, from 35 sheep, were identified as Y. enterocolitica by API 20E. Thirty-four of 35 further subtyped Y. enterocolitica isolates, all from faecal samples, belonged to biotype 1A serotype O:5, O:6. O:13,7 and O:10. One strain was Yersinia mollaretii serotype O:62. No human pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica were found in the investigated sheep. Other species identified were Y. kristensenii (n = 4, Y. frederiksenii/intermedia (n = 3, Providencia rettgeri (n = 2, Serratia marcescens (n = 1 and Raoultella ornithinolytica (n = 1. Conclusions This study does not support the hypothesis that sheep play an important role in transmission of the known human pathogenic Y

  9. Yersinia enterocolitica in sheep--a high frequency of biotype 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderqvist, Karin; Boqvist, Sofia; Wauters, Georges; Vågsholm, Ivar; Thisted-Lambertz, Susanne

    2012-06-29

    Pigs are regarded as the main reservoir for human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, which is dominated by bioserotype 4/O:3. Other animals, including sheep, have occasionally been reported as carriers of pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. To our knowledge, this is the first study performed in the Nordic countries in which the presence of Y. enterocolitica in sheep is investigated. Tonsils and faecal samples collected from sheep slaughtered on the island Gotland (Sweden) from September 2010 through January 2011 were analysed for presence of Y. enterocolitica. In an attempt to maximize recovery, several cultural strategies were applied. Various non-selective media were used and different temperatures and durations of the enrichment were applied before subculturing on Cefsulodin Irgasan Novobiocin (CIN) agar. Presumptive Y. enterocolitica colonies were subjected to urease, API 20E and agglutination test. Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were biotyped, serotyped, and tested for pathogenicity using a TaqMan PCR directed towards the ail-gene that is associated with human pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. The samples collected from 99 sheep yielded 567 presumptive Y. enterocolitica colonies. Eighty urease positive isolates, from 35 sheep, were identified as Y. enterocolitica by API 20E. Thirty-four of 35 further subtyped Y. enterocolitica isolates, all from faecal samples, belonged to biotype 1A serotype O:5, O:6. O:13,7 and O:10. One strain was Yersinia mollaretii serotype O:62. No human pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica were found in the investigated sheep. Other species identified were Y. kristensenii (n = 4), Y. frederiksenii/intermedia (n = 3), Providencia rettgeri (n = 2), Serratia marcescens (n = 1) and Raoultella ornithinolytica (n = 1). This study does not support the hypothesis that sheep play an important role in transmission of the known human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in the studied geographical region. However

  10. Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 isolated from a hunted wild alpine ibex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsen, S; Sarno, E; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M; Cernela, N; Stephan, R

    2013-03-01

    Occurrence of Yersinia spp. in wild ruminants was studied and the strains were characterized to get more information on the epidemiology of enteropathogenic Yersinia in the wildlife. In total, faecal samples of 77 red deer, 60 chamois, 55 roe deer and 27 alpine ibex were collected during 3 months of the hunting season in 2011. The most frequently identified species was Y. enterocolitica found in 13%, 10%, 4% and 2% of roe deer, red deer, alpine ibex and chamois, respectively. Interestingly, one Y. enterocolitica O:3 strain, isolated from an alpine ibex, carried the important virulence genes located on the virulence plasmid (yadA and virF) and in the chromosome (ail, hreP, myfA and ystA). Most of the Y. enterocolitica strains belonged to biotype 1A of which 14 were ystB positive. Further studies are needed to clarify the importance of alpine ibex as a reservoir of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica.

  11. Multiple hepatic abscesses due to Yersinia enterocolitica infection secondary to primary haemochromatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, T K; Vinding, K; Hey, H

    2001-01-01

    A case of hepatic abscesses due to Yersinia enterocolitica in an immunocompetent male is presented. Re-examination after 3 months showed that the patient had primary haemochromatosis. Treatment with repeated phlebotomies was instituted. Two years after the patient was first admitted to hospital. 17...... showed that prior to this case only 45 cases of hepatic abscess secondary to Yersinia enterocolitica have been registered. Of the 45 reported cases, 64% had underlying haemochromatosis and 29% had diabetes mellitus. The overall mortality was 31%. Mortality before 1987 was 60% (n = 20) and since 1987...

  12. Management practices associated with the carriage of Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at farm level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, María J; Virtanen, Sonja; Heinonen, Mari; Korkeala, Hannu

    2013-07-01

    Pigs are the most important reservoir of Yersinia enterocolitica infections in humans. Knowledge of farm management practices that contribute to the transmission of this bacterial species in pigs is essential to understand how to control this foodborne pathogen in food production. The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica, and other results obtained from an age trend analysis were used to estimate the on-farm risk of transmission of specific management practices for this pathogen in 30 pig farms in Finland. Log-linear analysis revealed that rearing pigs in pens without or with sparse amounts of bedding and buying piglets from more than one farm were the variables that contribute most to the occurrence of Y. enterocolitica. The study also found that using an all-in/all-out management system and supplying water of municipal origin were factors that might reduce the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica, and therefore the risk of transmission of Y. enterocolitica in pig farms.

  13. Detection of Yersinia enterocolitica in milk powders by cross-priming amplification combined with immunoblotting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongwei; Feng, Shaolong; Zhao, Yulong; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Xiaonan

    2015-12-02

    Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica) is frequently isolated from a wide variety of foods and can cause human yersiniosis. Biochemical and culture-based assays are common detection methods, but require a long incubation time and easily misidentify Y. enterocolitica as other non-pathogenic Yersinia species. Alternatively, cross-priming amplification (CPA) under isothermal conditions combined with immunoblotting analysis enables a more sensitive detection in a relatively short time period. A set of specific displacement primers, cross primers and testing primers was designed on the basis of six specific sequences in Y. enterocolitica 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer. Under isothermal condition, amplification and hybridization were conducted simultaneously at 63°C for 60 min. The specificity of CPA was tested for 96 different bacterial strains and 165 commercial milk powder samples. Two red lines were developed on BioHelix Express strip for all of the Y. enterocolitica strains, and one red line was shown for non-Y. enterocolitica strains. The limit of detection of CPA was 10(0)fg for genomic DNA (1000 times more sensitive than PCR assay), 10(1) CFU/ml for pure bacterial culture, and 10(0) CFU per 100 g milk powder with pre-enrichment at 37°C for 24 h. CPA combined with immunoblotting analysis can achieve highly specific and sensitive detection of Y. enterocolitica in milk powder in 90 min after pre-enrichment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Seasonality of Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 1B/O:8 infections in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastawicki, W; Szych, J; Rokosz, N; Zacharczuk, K; Gierczyński, R

    2013-10-01

    Both serological and bacteriological investigations revealed a cyclic, seasonal pattern of Yersinia enterocolitica 1B/O8 infections in Poland during the years 2008–2011. A large increase in incidence was observed in the second quarter and a decrease in the third quarter of each year. Such seasonal changes were not seen in the case of infections caused by the other enteropathogenic Yersinia bioserotypes.

  15. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy in patient with Yersinia enterocolitica infection. A differential diagnosis to abdominal lymphoma; Mesenteriale Lymphadenopathie bei Infektion mit Yersinia enterocolitica. Eine Differentialdiagnose zum abdominalen Lymphom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trommer, G.; Koesling, S. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Bewer, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Allgemein-, Thorax- und onkologische Chirurgie

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of previously undiagnosed Yersinia enterocolitica infection in a 46-year old woman. She consulted her physician because of continual weight loss and physical lassitude. A leucocytosis was found. Sonography revealed an excessive enlargement of abdominal lymph nodes. A malignant lymphoma was suspected and the patient underwent a staging by CT. There the disease was limited on mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Bone marrow biopsy and CT-guided lymph node biopsy did not confirm a systemic lymphatic disease. The patient did not undergo a special therapy. After six months, CT showed a clear regression of enlarged lymph nodes. Finally, a previous Yersinia enterocolitica infection of immunotype 03 could be proved serologically. At this time, the patient had no complaints. Diagnostic and differential diagnosis of benign abdominal lymph node enlargement are discussed based on literature. (orig.) [Deutsch] Berichtet wird der Fall einer klinisch inapperenten Yersinia-enterocolitica-Infektion bei einer 46jaehrigen Patientin, die aufgrund stetigen Gewichtsverlustes und koerperlicher Abgeschlagenheit den Hausarzt konsultierte. Dieser diagnostizierte eine Leukozytose. Die daraufhin durchgefuehrte Sonographie ergab eine massive abdominale Lymphknotenvergroesserung. Unter dem Verdacht eines malignen Lymphoms erfolgte eine computertomographische Ausbreitungsdiagnostik, die die Erkrankung auf mesenteriale und retroperitoneale Lymphknoten beschraenkt zeigte. Knochenmarkbiopsie und CT-gestuetzte Lymphknotenpunktion ergaben keinen Hinweis auf eine lymphatische Systemerkrankung. Ohne Therapie zeigte eine CT-Kontrolle nach 6 Monaten eine deutliche Regredienz der Lymphknotenschwellung. Bei der Erregersuche konnte serologisch eine zurueckliegende Infektion mit Yersinia enterocolitica, Serotyp 03, nachgewiesen werden. Zu diesem Zeitpunkt war die Patientin beschwerdefrei. Anhand der Literatur werden Diagnostik und Differentialdiagnose benigner abdominaler

  16. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from pigs and humans in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Kudirkienė, Eglė; Marcinkutė, Audronė; Bajoriūnienė, Almina; Korkeala, Hannu; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2013-06-01

    Yersiniosis is one of the three leading foodborne zoonoses in Lithuania, and the incidence of 12.86 per 100,000 population was the highest among EU member states in 2010. Contaminated pig carcasses and subsequently undercooked pig meat are considered to be the primary transmission vehicle of enteropathogenic Y. enterocolitica to consumers. With the aim of evaluating pigs as a possible source of human yersiniosis in Lithuania, this study investigated the genetic diversity of Y. enterocolitica isolated from pigs and human cases of yersiniosis. In addition, the antimicrobial resistance of selected isolates from both sources was compared. In total, 83 Y. enterocolitica strains were characterised using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Overall, 68% of Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 pulsotypes found in human clinical samples were identical to 81% of pulsotypes found in the pig production chain. Yersinia enterocolitica pulsotype II was confirmed as the dominant pulsotype in the pig production chain and was identical to nine of 19 Y. enterocolitica strains found in humans. All tested Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains were resistant to ampicillin and erythromycin and sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Of the strains studied, 5% were resistant to tetracycline and streptomycin. This study showed that pigs may be the main source of human yersiniosis in Lithuania. In addition, Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains isolated from the pig production chain and from yersiniosis patients shared similar resistance to different antimicrobials. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Pathogenesis of post-irradiation infection. 2. Role of neutrophils in the defence of irradiated rats against Yersinia enterocolitica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazin, Herve; Platteau, Bernadette; Bakour, Rabah; Janssens, Michele; Wauters, Georges

    1982-01-01

    Wistar R inbred rats showed a substantial mortality when they were given Yersinia enterocolitica eight days after a 6.5 Gy total body irradiation. The possibility to abolish the high susceptibility of these irradiated rats to Yersinia enterocolitica by intravenous injections of isogenic neutrophils is presented: irradiated rats injected with 7 to 10.10 7 isogenic neutrophils, by the intravenous route, just before or after the administration of Yersinia enterocolitica, were not susceptible. On the contrary, control irradiated rats, not transfused, were killed by the same bacterial challenge [fr

  18. Pathogenesis of post-irradiation infection. 2. Role of neutrophils in the defence of irradiated rats against Yersinia enterocolitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazin, H.; Platteau, B.; Bakour, R.; Janssens, M.; Wauters, G. (Universite de Louvain, Bruxelles (Belgium))

    1982-07-01

    Wistar R inbred rats showed a substantial mortality when they were given Yersinia enterocolitica eight days after a 6.5 Gy total body irradiation. The possibility to abolish the high susceptibility of these irradiated rats to Yersinia enterocolitica by intravenous injections of isogenic neutrophils is presented: irradiated rats injected with 7 to 10.10/sup 7/ isogenic neutrophils, by the intravenous route, just before or after the administration of Yersinia enterocolitica, were not susceptible. On the contrary, control irradiated rats, not transfused, were killed by the same bacterial challenge.

  19. Too early to dismiss Yersinia enterocolitica infection in the aetiology of Graves' disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas H; Hansen, Pia S; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Yersinia enterocolitica (YE) infection has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease (GD). The association between YE and GD could, however, also be due to common genetic or environmental factors affecting the development of both YE infection and GD. This potential...

  20. Yersinia enterocolitica YopP inhibits MAP kinase-mediated antigen uptake in dendritic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Autenrieth, S. E.; Adkins, Irena; Rösemann, R.; Gunst, D.; Zahir, N.; Kracht, M.; Ruckdeschel, K.; Wagner, H.; Borgmann, S.; Autenrieth, I. B.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2007), s. 425-437 ISSN 1462-5814 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : yersinia enterocolitica * dendritic cell s * immunity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 5.293, year: 2007

  1. Isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. intermedia from fatal cases of diarrhoeal illness in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, T.; Islam, M.; Islam, M. R.; Azad, A. K.; Huq, M. I.; Speelman, P.; Roy, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    From three fatal cases of diarrhoeal illness in Bangladesh, Yersinia species were isolated from tissues at post-mortem examination. One patient was infected with Y. enterocolitica serotype 0:7, 8 and two patients were infected with Y. intermedia. These patients were infected also with other enteric

  2. Co-expression of the C-terminal domain of Yersinia enterocolitica ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 40; Issue 1. Co-expression of the C-terminal domain of Yersinia enterocolitica invasin enhances the efficacy of classical swine-fever-vectored vaccine based on human adenovirus. Helin Li Pengbo Ning Zhi Lin Wulong Liang Kai Kang Lei He Yanming Zhang. Articles Volume ...

  3. Yersinia enterocolitica outbreak associated with ready-to-eat salad mix, Norway, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Emily; Heier, Berit Tafjord; Nygård, Karin; Stalheim, Torunn; Cudjoe, Kofitsyo S; Skjerdal, Taran; Wester, Astrid Louise; Lindstedt, Bjørn-Arne; Stavnes, Trine-Lise; Vold, Line

    2012-09-01

    In 2011, an outbreak of illness caused by Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 in Norway was linked to ready-to-eat salad mix, an unusual vehicle for this pathogen. The outbreak illustrates the need to characterize isolates of this organism, and reinforces the need for international traceback mechanisms for fresh produce.

  4. Combined detection and strain typing of Yersinia enterocolitica directly from pork and poultry enrichments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Yersinia enterocolitica is responsible for an estimated 98,000 cases of foodborne illness per year in the U.S. causing both intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. Its prevalence in retail pork and poultry, believed to the primary sources of these infections, ranges widely from 0 to 6...

  5. Prevalence, serotype, virulence characteristics, clonality and antibiotic susceptibility of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from swine feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Swine are the only known animal reservoir of Yersinia enterocolitica (YE), a human pathogen. Since YE is a fecal organism of swine, the primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, serotype, virulence plasmid (pYV)-associated characteristics, clonality, and antibiotic su...

  6. Analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Yersinia enterocolitica-infected HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alugubelly, Navatha; Hercik, Kamil; Kibler, Peter; Nanduri, Bindu; Edelmann, Mariola J

    2016-05-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a facultative intracellular pathogen and a causative agent of yersiniosis, which can be contracted by ingestion of contaminated food. Yersinia secretes virulence factors to subvert critical pathways in the host cell. In this study we utilized shotgun label-free proteomics to study differential protein expression in epithelial cells infected with Y.enterocolitica. We identified a total of 551 proteins, amongst which 42 were downregulated (including Prostaglandin E Synthase 3, POH-1 and Karyopherin alpha) and 22 were upregulated (including Rab1 and RhoA) in infected cells. We validated some of these results by western blot analysis of proteins extracted from Caco-2 and HeLa cells. The proteomic dataset was used to identify host canonical pathways and molecular functions modulated by this infection in the host cells. This study constitutes a proteome of Yersinia-infected cells and can support new discoveries in the area of host-pathogen interactions. We describe a proteome of Yersinia enterocolitica-infected HeLa cells, including a description of specific proteins differentially expressed upon infection, molecular functions as well as pathways altered during infection. This proteomic study can lead to a better understanding of Y. enterocolitica pathogenesis in human epithelial cells. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. No causal relationship between Yersinia enterocolitica infection and autoimmune thyroid disease: evidence from a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effraimidis, G.; Tijssen, J. G. P.; Strieder, T. G. A.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2011-01-01

    P>The objective of this study was to evaluate prospectively the relationship between Yersinia enterocolitica (YE) infection and the development of overt autoimmune hypo- or hyperthyroidism (study A) and the de novo occurrence of thyroid antibodies (study B). This was a prospective cohort study of

  8. Yersinia enterocolitica: an unlikely cause of positive brucellosis tests in greater yellowstone ecosystem bison (Bison bison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Wade; Edwards, William H; Dauwalter, Stacey; Almendra, Claudia; Kardos, Martin D; Lowell, Jennifer L; Wallen, Rick; Cain, Steven L; Holben, William E; Luikart, Gordon

    2012-07-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 has identical O-antigens to those of Brucella abortus and has apparently caused false-positive reactions in numerous brucellosis serologic tests in elk (Cervus canadensis) from southwest Montana. We investigated whether a similar phenomenon was occurring in brucellosis antibody-positive bison (Bison bison) using Y. enterocolitica culturing techniques and multiplex PCR of four diagnostic loci. Feces from 53 Yellowstone bison culled from the population and 113 free-roaming bison from throughout the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) were tested. Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 was not detected in any of 53 the bison samples collected at slaughter facilities or in any of the 113 fecal samples from free-ranging bison. One other Y. enterocolitica serotype was isolated; however, it is not known to cause cross-reaction on B. abortus serologic assays because it lacks the perosamine synthetase gene and thus the O-antigens. These findings suggest that Y. enterocolitica O:9 cross-reactivity with B. abortus antigens is unlikely to have been a cause of false-positive serology tests in GYE bison and that Y. enterocolitica prevalence was low in bison in the GYE during this study.

  9. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available The predominant bioserotypes of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in China are 2/O: 9 and 3/O: 3; no pathogenic O: 8 strains have been found to date. Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis (MLVA based on seven loci was able to distinguish 104 genotypes among 218 pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates in China and from abroad, showing a high resolution. The major pathogenic serogroups in China, O: 3 and O: 9, were divided into two clusters based on MLVA genotyping. The different distribution of Y. enterocolitica MLVA genotypes maybe due to the recent dissemination of specific clones of 2/O: 9 and 3/O: 3 strains in China. MLVA was a helpful tool for bacterial pathogen surveillance and investigation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica outbreaks.

  10. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica Bioserotype 3/O:3 among Children with Diarrhea, China, 2010–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ran; Liang, Junrong; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Yuhuang; Tong, Jing; Guo, Bangcheng; Hu, Wanfu; Wang, Mingliu; Zhao, Jiayong; Liu, Chang; Hao, Huijing

    2017-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is thought to not significantly contribute to diarrheal disease in China, but evidence substantiating this claim is limited. We determined the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica infection and strain types present among children enterocolitica infection and should be used as an indication for microbiological diagnostic testing, rather than for the diagnosis of bacillary dysentery. In contrast with Y. enterocolitica isolates from adults, which were primarily biotype 1A, isolates from children were primarily bioserotype 3/O:3. Most pathogenic isolates from children shared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns with isolates from pigs and dogs, suggesting a possible link between isolates from animals and infections in children. Our findings underscore the need for improved diagnostics for this underestimated pathogen. PMID:28820132

  11. Genotyping of human and porcine Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia intertmedia, and Yersinia bercovieri strains from Switzerland by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehni-Boghenbor, Kathrin; On, Stephen L.W.; Kokotovic, Branko

    2006-01-01

    In this study, 231 strains of Yersinia enterocolitica, 25 strains of Y. intermedia, and 10 strains of Y. bercovieri from human and porcine sources (including reference strains) were analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), a whole-genome fingerprinting method for subtyping...

  12. Prevalence, characterization, and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia species and Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from raw milk in farm bulk tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Hossein; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Radmehr, Behrad; Ismail, Salmah

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and to characterize and determine the antibiotic resistance of Yersinia spp. isolates from raw milk. From September 2008 to August 2010, 446 raw milk samples were obtained from farm bulk milk tanks in Varamin, Iran. Yersinia spp. were detected in 29 (6.5%) samples, out of which 23 (79.3%), 5 (17.2%), and 1 (3.4%) were isolated from cow, sheep, and goat raw milk, respectively. The most common species isolated was Yersinia enterocolitica (65.5%), followed by Yersinia frederiksenii (31%), and Yersinia kristensenii (3.4%). Of the 19 Y. enterocolitica isolates, 14 (73.7%) were grouped into bioserotype 1A/O:9, 4 (21.1%) belonged to bioserotype 1B:O8, 1 (5.3%) belonged to bioserotype 4/O:3, and 1 isolate (biotype 1A) was not typable. All the isolates of biotypes 1B and 4harbored both the ystA and ail genes. However, all the isolates of biotype 1A were only positive for the ystB gene. The tested Yersinia spp. showed the highest percentages of resistance to tetracycline (48.3%), followed by ciprofloxacin and cephalothin (each 17.2%), ampicillin (13.8%), streptomycin (6.9%), and amoxicillin and nalidixic acid (each 3.4%). All of the tested isolates demonstrated significant sensitivity to gentamicin and chloramphenicol. Recovery of potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from raw milk indicates high risks of yersiniosis associated with consumption of raw milk. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Two Outbreaks of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 Infections in Tokyo and the Characterization of Isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Noriko; Ishitsuka, Rie; Yokoyama, Keiko; Saiki, Dai; Akase, Satoru; Monma, Chie; Hirai, Akihiko; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

    2016-01-01

    Although the number of outbreaks caused by Yersinia enterocolitica has been very small in Japan, 4 outbreaks were occurred during the 2 years between 2012 and 2013. We describe herein 2 outbreaks which were examined in Tokyo in the present study. Outbreak 1: A total of 39 people (37 high school students and 2 staff) stayed at a hotel in mountain area in Japan had experienced abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever in August, 2012. The Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:8 was isolated from 18 (64.3%) out of 28 fecal specimens of 28 patients. The infection roots could not be revealed because Y. enterocolitica was not detected from any meals at the hotel or its environment. Outbreak 2: A total of 52 students at a dormitory had diarrhea and fever in April, 2013. The results of the bacteriological and virological examinations of fecal specimens of patients showed that the Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:8 was isolated from 24 fecal specimens of 21 patients and 3 kitchen staff. We performed bacteriological and virological examination of the stored and preserved foods at the kitchen of the dormitory to reveal the suspect food. For the detection of Y. enterocolitica, food samples. together with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were incubated at 4 degrees C for 21 days. Then, a screening test for Y. enterocolitica using realtime-PCR targeting the ail gene was performed against the PBS culture. One sample (fresh vegetable salad) tested was positive on realtime-PCR. No Y. enterocolitica was isolated on CIN agar from the PBS culture because many bacteria colonies other than Y. enterocolitica appeared on the CIN agar. After the alkaline-treatments of the culture broth or the immunomagnetic beads concentration method using anti-Y. enterocolitica O:8 antibodies, Y. enterocolitica O:8 which was the same serogroup as the patients' isolates was successfully isolated from the PBS culture. The fresh vegetable salad was confirmed as the incrimination food of this outbreak.

  14. Isolation of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains from different sources in Izmir region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozcal, Elif; Uzel, Atac; Aydemir, Sohret; Skurnik, Mikael

    2015-11-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a foodborne pathogen that is very rarely encountered in Turkey. In this work, several human, porcine, and environmental samples collected from Izmir region in Turkey were examined for the presence of Y. enterocolitica using different cultivation and enrichment methods. A total of nine pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated; five strains from pig stool and manure samples and four strains from waste water samples. On the other hand, no Y. enterocolitica was isolated from human diarrheal stool samples (n = 102) and from 12 gulf, canal, municipal pool, and well water samples. Biochemical and serological characterization of the nine Y. enterocolitica strains revealed that they belonged to three different bioserotypes: 4/O:3, 2/O:9, and 2/O:5,27. All the strains were deemed pathogenic based on virulence factor-specific PCR analysis. Detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains from the pig and waste water samples from the Izmir region indicates that Y. enterocolitica is a potential risk for public health.

  15. Literatuuronderzoek naar gegevens betreffende de betekenis van een aantal verwekkers van zoonosen in verband met de vleesconsumptie. VI: Yersinia enterocolitica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos; J.M.; Engel; H.W.B.; Groothuis; D.G.; Knapen; F.van; Oosterom; J.; Weiss; J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica kan bij de mens aanleiding geven tot verschillende ziektebeelden. Het meest wordt de acute enterocolitis beschreven, vooral bij zeer jonge kinderen, maar daarnaast zijn ook de acute mesenteriale lymfadenitis en terminale ileitis (pseudoappendicitis) bekend. Dragerschap

  16. Prevalence of Aeromonas Hydrophila and Yersinia Enterocolitica in Children with Acute Diarrhea Attending Health Centers in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diarrhea is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups, especially children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Various studies have been reported regarding the relationship between the children acute diarrhea and Aeromonashydrophila and Yersinia enterocolitica. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of the bacteria and their sensitivity to common antibiotics and the prevalence of virulence genes in the bacteria in Hamadan, Iran. Materials & Methods: In this study, 120 stool samples collected from children less than 10 years of age with acute diarrhea were examined for Aeromonashydrophila and Yersinia enterocolitica. Identification of the bacteria was performed by biochemical reactions and PCR using 16S rRNA genes. Moreover, the prevalence of virulence genes earA and hyl of Aeromonashydrophila and ail and ystB genes of Yersinia enterocolitica were investigated using PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria was performed by disk diffusion method. Results: Out of 120 stool samples, 2 (1.7 % Aeromonashydrophila and 3 (2.5% Yersinia enterocolitica were isolated. All isolates of Aeromonashydrophila were sensitive to the chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole, gentamicin, meropenem, amikacin and 50% of isolates were sensitive to the ceftriaxone and azithromycin. All Aeromonashydrophila isolates were resistant to erythromycin. All isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica were sensitive to the chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole and meropenem. The 33.3% of the isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and amikacin and 66.6% of them were susceptible to ceftriaxone. However, all of Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were resistant to erythromycin and azithromycin. The prevalence aerA and hyl genes in Aeromonashydrophila were reported 100% and 50%, respectively. The prevalence of ail and ystB genes in Yersinia enterocolitica was reported as 66.6%. Conclusions: Identification and analysis of

  17. Tracing genomic variations in two highly virulent Yersinia enterocolitica strains with unequal ability to compete for host colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Garzetti, Debora; Bouabe, Hicham; Heesemann, Juergen; Rakin, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Yersinia enterocolitica is a gastrointestinal foodborne pathogen found worldwide and which especially affects infants and young children. While different bioserotypes have been associated with varying pathogenicity, research on Y. enterocolitica is mainly conducted on the highly virulent mouse-lethal strains of biotype 1B and serotype O:8. We demonstrate here that two Y. enterocolitica bioserotype 1B/O:8 strains, 8081 and WA-314, display different virulence and fitness pro...

  18. Stress responses in pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica with reference to the stability of the virulence plasmid in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yersinia enterocolitica has been associated with food-borne illness, most often due the ingestion of pork products. The pathogenic effects induced by a Y. enterocolitica infection are caused by the interplay of chromosomal genes and a virulence plasmid, pYV. Generally, the plasmid is lost during g...

  19. Characterization and biological role of the O-polysaccharide gene cluster of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O : 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skurnik, Mikael; Biedzka-Sarek, Marta; Lubeck, Peter S.

    2007-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 is a gram-negative enteropathogen that infects animals and humans. The role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Y. enterocolitica O:9 pathogenesis, however, remains unclear. The O:9 LPS consists of lipid A to which is linked the inner core oligosaccharide, serving...

  20. Conventional and molecular methods used in the detection and subtyping of Yersinia enterocolitica in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsios, Stefanos; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Sakkas, Hercules; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2016-11-21

    Yersinia enterocolitica is an important foodborne pathogen, but the prevalence in food is underestimated due to drawbacks in the detection methods. Problems arise from the low concentration of pathogenic strains present in food samples, similarities with other Enterobacteriaceae and Y. enterocolitica-like species and the heterogeneity of Y. enterocolitica as it comprises both pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates. New rapid, cost-effective and more sensitive culture media and molecular techniques have been developed to overcome the drawbacks of conventional culture methods. Recent molecular subtyping methods have been applied to Y. enterocolitica strains to track infection sources and to investigate phylogenetic relationships between different Yersinia strains. Further application of modern subtyping tools such as WGS in a variety of bioserotypes, and comparison with other members of the genus will help to better understanding of the virulence determinants of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, its mechanisms to cope in the host environments, and can contribute to the development of more specific detection and typing strategies.

  1. The limitations of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, B J; Robson, B; Lin, S; Hudson, J A; Weaver, L; Dufour, M; Strydom, H

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the analysis of 432 isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PFGE had a high level of discrimination with biotype 1A isolates (Simpson's Diversity Index 0.997), but with the clinically important biotypes 2, 3 and 4, the discriminatory ability of PFGE was so low as to severely limit its usefulness (DI enterocolitica biotypes 2, 3 and 4, and inferences based on finding indistinguishable PFGE profiles among cases or between cases and sources need to be substantiated using alternative typing tools, or strong epidemiological evidence. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Monitoring of Yersinia enterocolitica strains from free-living animals using different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syczyło, K; Platt-Samoraj, A; Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Lipczyńska, K; Jabłoński, A; Procajło, Z; Szweda, W

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to monitor Y. enterocolitica strains from free-living animals captured during 2011-2014 hunting seasons in Poland using warm (ITC) and cold (PSB) enrichment and molecular examination. Over 1600 samples have been cultured. After ITC/PSB enrichment 237 strains presenting features characteristic for Y. enterocolitica were isolated. Molecular examination using multiplex PCR revealed 140 isolates from PSB and 78 from ITC. The concentration of pathogenic Yersinia in asymptomatic carriers is low and the PCR detection should be preceded by bacteriological examination.

  3. Galectin-1-Driven Tolerogenic Programs Aggravate Yersinia enterocolitica Infection by Repressing Antibacterial Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davicino, Roberto C; Méndez-Huergo, Santiago P; Eliçabe, Ricardo J; Stupirski, Juan C; Autenrieth, Ingo; Di Genaro, María S; Rabinovich, Gabriel A

    2017-08-15

    Yersinia enterocolitica is an enteropathogenic bacterium that causes gastrointestinal disorders, as well as extraintestinal manifestations. To subvert the host's immune response, Y. enterocolitica uses a type III secretion system consisting of an injectisome and effector proteins, called Yersinia outer proteins (Yops), that modulate activation, signaling, and survival of immune cells. In this article, we show that galectin-1 (Gal-1), an immunoregulatory lectin widely expressed in mucosal tissues, contributes to Y. enterocolitica pathogenicity by undermining protective antibacterial responses. We found higher expression of Gal-1 in the spleen and Peyer's patches of mice infected orogastrically with Y. enterocolitica serotype O:8 compared with noninfected hosts. This effect was prevented when mice were infected with Y. enterocolitica lacking YopP or YopH, two critical effectors involved in bacterial immune evasion. Consistent with a regulatory role for this lectin during Y. enterocolitica pathogenesis, mice lacking Gal-1 showed increased weight and survival, lower bacterial load, and attenuated intestinal pathology compared with wild-type mice. These protective effects involved modulation of NF-κB activation, TNF production, and NO synthesis in mucosal tissue and macrophages, as well as systemic dysregulation of IL-17 and IFN-γ responses. In vivo neutralization of these proinflammatory cytokines impaired bacterial clearance and eliminated host protection conferred by Gal-1 deficiency. Finally, supplementation of recombinant Gal-1 in mice lacking Gal-1 or treatment of wild-type mice with a neutralizing anti-Gal-1 mAb confirmed the immune inhibitory role of this endogenous lectin during Y. enterocolitica infection. Thus, targeting Gal-1-glycan interactions may contribute to reinforce antibacterial responses by reprogramming innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Yersinia enterocolitica, a Neglected Cause of Human Enteric Infections in Côte d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraka, Daniel; Savin, Cyril; Kouassi, Stephane; Cissé, Bakary; Koffi, Eugène; Cabanel, Nicolas; Brémont, Sylvie; Faye-Kette, Hortense; Dosso, Mireille; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Background Enteropathogenic Yersinia circulate in the pig reservoir and are the third bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal infections in Europe. In West Africa, reports of human yersiniosis are rare. This study was conducted to determine whether pathogenic Yersinia are circulating in pig farms and are responsible for human infections in the Abidjan District. Methodology/Principal findings From June 2012 to December 2013, pig feces were collected monthly in 41 swine farms of the Abidjan district. Of the 781 samples collected, 19 Yersinia strains were isolated in 3 farms: 7 non-pathogenic Yersinia intermedia and 12 pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3. Farm animals other than pigs and wild animals were not found infected. Furthermore, 2 Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains were isolated from 426 fecal samples of patients with digestive disorders. All 14 Y. enterocolitica strains shared the same PFGE and MLVA profile, indicating their close genetic relationship. However, while 6 of them displayed the usual phage type VIII, the other 8 had the highly infrequent phage type XI. Whole genome sequencing and SNP analysis of individual colonies revealed that phage type XI strains had unusually high rates of mutations. These strains displayed a hypermutator phenotype that was attributable to a large deletion in the mutS gene involved in DNA mismatch repair. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that pathogenic Y. enterocolitica circulate in the pig reservoir in Côte d'Ivoire and cause human infections with a prevalence comparable to that of many developed countries. The paucity of reports of yersiniosis in West Africa is most likely attributable to a lack of active detection rather than to an absence of the microorganism. The identification of hypermutator strains in pigs and humans is of concern as these strains can rapidly acquire selective advantages that may increase their fitness, pathogenicity or resistance to commonly used treatments. PMID

  5. Yersinia enterocolitica, a Neglected Cause of Human Enteric Infections in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraka, Daniel; Savin, Cyril; Kouassi, Stephane; Cissé, Bakary; Koffi, Eugène; Cabanel, Nicolas; Brémont, Sylvie; Faye-Kette, Hortense; Dosso, Mireille; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia circulate in the pig reservoir and are the third bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal infections in Europe. In West Africa, reports of human yersiniosis are rare. This study was conducted to determine whether pathogenic Yersinia are circulating in pig farms and are responsible for human infections in the Abidjan District. From June 2012 to December 2013, pig feces were collected monthly in 41 swine farms of the Abidjan district. Of the 781 samples collected, 19 Yersinia strains were isolated in 3 farms: 7 non-pathogenic Yersinia intermedia and 12 pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3. Farm animals other than pigs and wild animals were not found infected. Furthermore, 2 Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains were isolated from 426 fecal samples of patients with digestive disorders. All 14 Y. enterocolitica strains shared the same PFGE and MLVA profile, indicating their close genetic relationship. However, while 6 of them displayed the usual phage type VIII, the other 8 had the highly infrequent phage type XI. Whole genome sequencing and SNP analysis of individual colonies revealed that phage type XI strains had unusually high rates of mutations. These strains displayed a hypermutator phenotype that was attributable to a large deletion in the mutS gene involved in DNA mismatch repair. This study demonstrates that pathogenic Y. enterocolitica circulate in the pig reservoir in Côte d'Ivoire and cause human infections with a prevalence comparable to that of many developed countries. The paucity of reports of yersiniosis in West Africa is most likely attributable to a lack of active detection rather than to an absence of the microorganism. The identification of hypermutator strains in pigs and humans is of concern as these strains can rapidly acquire selective advantages that may increase their fitness, pathogenicity or resistance to commonly used treatments.

  6. Evaluation of isolation methods for pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from pig intestinal content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, R; Hakkinen, M; Lundén, J; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M; Johansson, T; Korkeala, H

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of four isolation methods for the detection of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from pig intestinal content. The four methods comprised of 15 isolation steps using selective enrichments (irgasan-ticarcillin-potassium chlorate and modified Rappaport broth) and mildly selective enrichments at 4 or 25 degrees C. Salmonella-Shigella-desoxycholate-calcium chloride agar, cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin agar were used as plating media. The most sensitive method detected 78% (53/68) of the positive samples. Individual isolation steps using cold enrichment as the only enrichment or as a pre-enrichment step with further selective enrichment showed the highest sensitivities (55-66%). All isolation methods resulted in high numbers of suspected colonies not confirmed as pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. Cold enrichment should be used in the detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from pig intestinal contents. In addition, more than one parallel isolation step is needed. The study shows that depending on the isolation method used for Y. enterocolitica, the detected prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in pig intestinal contents varies greatly. More selective and sensitive isolation methods need to be developed for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica.

  7. Yersinia enterocolitica strains associated with human infections in Switzerland 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M; Cernela, N; Hächler, H; Stephan, R

    2012-07-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica infections are common in humans. However, very scarce data are available on the different biotypes and virulence factors of human strains, which has proved to be problematic to assess the clinical significance of the isolated strains. In this study, the presence of the ail gene and distribution of different bio- and serotypes among human Y. enterocolitica strains and their possible relation to the genotype and antimicrobial resistance were studied. In total, 128 Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from human clinical samples in Switzerland during 2001-2010 were characterised. Most (75 out of 128) of the Y. enterocolitica strains belonged to biotypes 2, 3 or 4 and carried the ail gene. One of the 51 strains that belonged to biotype 1A was also ail positive. Most of the ail-positive strains belonged to bioserotype 4/O:3 (47 out of 76) followed by 2/O:9 (22 out of 76). Strains of bioserotype 4/O:3 were dominant among patients between 20 and 40 years old and strains of biotype 1A dominate in patients over 40 years. Strains belonging to biotypes 2, 3 and 4, which all carried the ail gene, exhibited a high homogeneity with PFGE typing. Y. enterocolitica 2/O:5,27 and 2/O:9 strains showed resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefoxitin, but Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains did not.

  8. Yersinia enterocolitica YopH-Deficient Strain Activates Neutrophil Recruitment to Peyer's Patches and Promotes Clearance of the Virulent Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Mabel N; Silva, Juan E; Eliçabe, Ricardo J; Jeréz, María B; Filippa, Verónica P; Gorlino, Carolina V; Autenrieth, Stella; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Di Genaro, María S

    2016-11-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica evades the immune response by injecting Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into the cytosol of host cells. YopH is a tyrosine phosphatase critical for Yersinia virulence. However, the mucosal immune mechanisms subverted by YopH during in vivo orogastric infection with Y. enterocolitica remain elusive. The results of this study revealed neutrophil recruitment to Peyer's patches (PP) after infection with a YopH-deficient mutant strain (Y. enterocolitica ΔyopH). While the Y. enterocolitica wild-type (WT) strain in PP induced the major neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL1 mRNA and protein levels, infection with the Y. enterocolitica ΔyopH mutant strain exhibited a higher expression of the CXCL1 receptor, CXCR2, in blood neutrophils, leading to efficient neutrophil recruitment to the PP. In contrast, migration of neutrophils into PP was impaired upon infection with Y. enterocolitica WT strain. In vitro infection of blood neutrophils revealed the involvement of YopH in CXCR2 expression. Depletion of neutrophils during Y. enterocolitica ΔyopH infection raised the bacterial load in PP. Moreover, the clearance of WT Y. enterocolitica was improved when an equal mixture of Y. enterocolitica WT and Y. enterocolitica ΔyopH strains was used in infecting the mice. This study indicates that Y. enterocolitica prevents early neutrophil recruitment in the intestine and that the effector protein YopH plays an important role in the immune evasion mechanism. The findings highlight the potential use of the Y. enterocolitica YopH-deficient strain as an oral vaccine carrier. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. All Yersinia enterocolitica are pathogenic: virulence of phylogroup 1 Y. enterocolitica in a Galleria mellonella infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenizi, Dhahi; Ringwood, Tamara; Redhwan, Alya; Bouraha, Bouchra; Wren, Brendan W; Prentice, Michael; McNally, Alan

    2016-08-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a zoonotic pathogen and a common cause of gastroenteritis in humans. The species is composed of six diverse phylogroups, of which strains of phylogroup 1 are considered non-pathogenic to mammals due to the lack of the major virulence plasmid pYV, and their lack of virulence in a mouse infection model. In the present report we present data examining the pathogenicity of strains of Y. enterocolitica across all six phylogroups in a Galleria mellonellla model. We have demonstrated that in this model strains of phylogroup 1 exhibit severe pathogenesis with a lethal dose of as low as 10 c.f.u., that this virulence is an active process and that flagella play a major role in the virulence phenotype. We have also demonstrated that the complete lack of virulence in Galleria of the mammalian pathogenic phylogroups is not due to carriage of the pYV virulence plasmid. Our data suggest that all Y. enterocolitica can be pathogenic, which may be a reflection of the true natural habitat of the species, and that we may need to reconsider the eco-evo perspective of this important bacterial species.

  10. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy in patient with Yersinia enterocolitica infection. A differential diagnosis to abdominal lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trommer, G.; Koesling, S.; Bewer, A.

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of previously undiagnosed Yersinia enterocolitica infection in a 46-year old woman. She consulted her physician because of continual weight loss and physical lassitude. A leucocytosis was found. Sonography revealed an excessive enlargement of abdominal lymph nodes. A malignant lymphoma was suspected and the patient underwent a staging by CT. There the disease was limited on mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Bone marrow biopsy and CT-guided lymph node biopsy did not confirm a systemic lymphatic disease. The patient did not undergo a special therapy. After six months, CT showed a clear regression of enlarged lymph nodes. Finally, a previous Yersinia enterocolitica infection of immunotype 03 could be proved serologically. At this time, the patient had no complaints. Diagnostic and differential diagnosis of benign abdominal lymph node enlargement are discussed based on literature. (orig.) [de

  11. Isolation of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica 1B/O:8 from Apodemus mice in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Shinya; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sato, Shingo; Shimonagane, Ai; Inoue, Kai; Hayashidani, Hideki; Takada, Nobuhiro; Fujita, Hiromi; Kawabata, Hiroki; Maruyama, Soichi

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica was isolated from 15.7% (88/560) of wild rodents captured in 15 prefectures in Japan. Prevalences by rodent species were 18.0% (70/388) in Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus), 20% (14/71) in small Japanese field mice (Apodemus argenteus), and 11% (4/38) in gray red-backed vole (Myodes rufocanus bedfordiae), suggesting that these rodent species are important reservoirs of Y. enterocolitica. Although most of the isolates were identified as biotype 1A, the pathogenic bioserotype 1B/O:8 was detected in one of the A. speciosus and in three of the A. argenteus captured in Aomori Prefecture. It is suggested that Apodemus mice may be an important reservoir of Y. enterocolitica, and that there are foci of the pathogenic bioserotype 1B/O:8 in Aomori Prefecture, because human sporadic cases by the serotype have been reported in this prefecture.

  12. A molecular scheme for Yersinia enterocolitica patho-serotyping derived from genome-wide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzetti, Debora; Susen, Rosa; Fruth, Angelika; Tietze, Erhard; Heesemann, Jürgen; Rakin, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a food-borne, gastro-intestinal pathogen with world-wide distribution. Only 11 serotypes have been isolated from patients, with O:3, O:9, O:8 and O:5,27 being the serotypes most commonly associated with human yersiniosis. Serotype is an important characteristic of Y. enterocolitica strains, allowing differentiation for epidemiology, diagnosis and phylogeny studies. Conventional serotyping, performed by slide agglutination, is a tedious and laborious procedure whose interpretation tends to be subjective, leading to poor reproducibility. Here we present a PCR-based typing scheme for molecular identification and patho-serotyping of Y. enterocolitica. Genome-wide comparison of Y. enterocolitica sequences allowed analysis of the O-antigen gene clusters of different serotypes, uncovering their formerly unknown genomic locations, and selection of targets for serotype-specific amplification. Two multiplex PCRs and one additional PCR were designed and tested on various reference strains and isolates from different origins. Our genotypic assay proved to be highly specific for identification of Y. enterocolitica species, discrimination between virulent and non-virulent strains, distinguishing the main human-related serotypes, and typing of conventionally untypeable strains. This genotyping scheme could be applied in microbiology laboratories as an alternative or complementary method to the traditional phenotypic assays, providing data for epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Transcriptional activation of the tad type IVb pilus operon by PypB in Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Jennifer; Wagner, Karin; Seekircher, Stephanie; Greune, Lilo; Humberg, Verena; Schmidt, M Alexander; Heusipp, Gerhard

    2010-07-01

    Type IV pili are virulence factors in various bacteria and mediate, among other functions, the colonization of diverse surfaces. Various subclasses of type IV pili have been identified, but information on pilus expression, biogenesis, and the associated phenotypes is sparse for the genus Yersinia. We recently described the identification of PypB as a transcriptional regulator in Yersinia enterocolitica. Here we show that the pypB gene is associated with the tad locus, a genomic island that is widespread among bacterial and archaeal species. The genetic linkage of pypB with the tad locus is conserved throughout the yersiniae but is not found among other bacteria carrying the tad locus. We show that the genes of the tad locus form an operon in Y. enterocolitica that is controlled by PypB and that pypB is part of this operon. The tad genes encode functions necessary for the biogenesis of the Flp subfamily of type IVb pili initially described for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans to mediate a tight-adherence phenotype. In Y. enterocolitica, the Flp pilin protein shows some peculiarities in its amino acid sequence that imply similarities as well as differences compared to typical motifs found in the Flp subtype of type IVb pili. Flp is expressed and processed after PypB overproduction, resulting in microcolony formation but not in increased adherence to biotic or abiotic surfaces. Our data describe the transcriptional regulation of the tad type IVb pilus operon by PypB in Y. enterocolitica but fail to show most previously described phenotypes associated with this type of pilus in other bacteria.

  14. Yersinia enterocolitica of porcine origin: carriage of virulence genes and genotypic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Daniel A; Bahnson, Peter B; Funk, Julie A; Morrow, W E Morgan; Abley, Melanie J; Ponte, Valeria A; Thakur, Siddhartha; Wittum, Thomas; DeGraves, Fred J; Rajala-Schultz, Paivi J; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is an important foodborne pathogen, and pigs are recognized as a major reservoir and potential source of pathogenic strains to humans. A total of 172 Y. enterocolitica recovered from conventional and antimicrobial-free pig production systems from different geographic regions (North Carolina, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Iowa) were investigated to determine their pathogenic significance to humans. Phenotypic and genotypic diversity of the isolates was assessed using antibiogram, serogrouping, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Carriage of chromosomal and plasmid-borne virulence genes were investigated using polymerase chain reaction. A total of 12 antimicrobial resistance patterns were identified. More than two-thirds (67.4%) of Y. enterocolitica were pan-susceptible, and 27.9% were resistant against β-lactams. The most predominant serogroup was O:3 (43%), followed by O:5 (25.6%) and O:9 (4.1%). Twenty-two of 172 (12.8%) isolates were found to carry Yersinia adhesion A (yadA), a virulence gene encoded on the Yersinia virulence plasmid. Sixty-nine (40.1%) isolates were found to carry ail gene. The ystA and ystB genes were detected in 77% and 26.2% of the strains, respectively. AFLP genotyping of isolates showed wide genotypic diversity and were grouped into nine clades with an overall genotypic similarity of 66.8-99.3%. AFLP analysis revealed that isolates from the same production system showed clonal relatedness, while more than one genotype of Y. enterocolitica circulates within a farm.

  15. Characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica strains potentially virulent for humans and animals in river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terech-Majewska, E; Pajdak, J; Platt-Samoraj, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Grabowska, K

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify potentially pathogenic strains of Yersinia enterocolitica in water samples collected from the upstream section of the Drwęca River in Poland. Thirty-nine water samples were collected. Strains were isolated, identified with the use of the API(®) 20E test kit (Biomerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) at 37°C, serotyped and subjected to a molecular analysis. Multiplex PCR was carried out to amplify three virulence genes: ail, ystA and ystB. Fragments of ail and ystA genes were not identified in the genetic material of the analysed strains. The ystB gene was identified in four strains. Yersinia enterocolitica strains of biotype 1A, which contain the ystB gene, may cause gastrointestinal problems. In our study, Y. enterocolitica strains of biotype 1A/ystB with serotypes 0 : 3, 0 : 5 and 0 : 8 were identified in samples collected from the Drwęca River which flows through the areas protected by Natura 2000, one of the largest networks of nature conservation areas in the European Union. The presence of Y. enterocolitica in the Drwęca River indicates that the analysed bacteria colonize natural water bodies. Most research focuses on food or sewage as a source of Y. enterocolitica infections. Little is known about the occurrence of this pathogen in natural waters. Our results show that natural waters are also a potential threat to human and animal health. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Characterization of European Yersinia enterocolitica 1A strains using restriction fragment length polymorphism and multilocus sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murros, A; Säde, E; Johansson, P; Korkeala, H; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M; Björkroth, J

    2016-10-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is currently divided into two subspecies: subsp. enterocolitica including highly pathogenic strains of biotype 1B and subsp. palearctica including nonpathogenic strains of biotype 1A and moderately pathogenic strains of biotypes 2-5. In this work, we characterized 162 Y. enterocolitica strains of biotype 1A and 50 strains of biotypes 2-4 isolated from human, animal and food samples by restriction fragment length polymorphism using the HindIII restriction enzyme. Phylogenetic relatedness of 20 representative Y. enterocolitica strains including 15 biotype 1A strains was further studied by the multilocus sequence analysis of four housekeeping genes (glnA, gyrB, recA and HSP60). In all the analyses, biotype 1A strains formed a separate genomic group, which differed from Y. enterocolitica subsp. enterocolitica and from the strains of biotypes 2-4 of Y. enterocolitica subsp. palearctica. Based on these results, biotype 1A strains considered nonpathogenic should not be included in subspecies palearctica containing pathogenic strains of biotypes 2-5. Yersinia enterocolitica strains are currently divided into six biotypes and two subspecies. Strains of biotype 1A, which are phenotypically and genotypically very heterogeneous, are classified as subspecies palearctica. In this study, European Y. enterocolitica 1A strains isolated from both human and nonhuman sources were characterized using restriction fragment length polymorphism and multilocus sequence analysis. The European biotype 1A strains formed a separate group, which differed from strains belonging to subspecies enterocolitica and palearctica. This may indicate that the current division between the two subspecies is not sufficient considering the strain diversity within Y. enterocolitica. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Ambiguous Role of Interleukin-12 in Yersinia enterocolitica Infection in Susceptible and Resistant Mouse Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Erwin; Schmitt, Edgar; Bielfeldt, Claudia; Noll, Annette; Schulte, Ralf; Autenrieth, Ingo B.

    1998-01-01

    Endogenous interleukin-12 (IL-12) mediates protection against Yersinia enterocolitica in C57BL/6 mice by triggering gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production in NK and CD4+ T cells. Administration of exogenous IL-12 confers protection against yersiniae in Yersinia-susceptible BALB/c mice but exacerbates yersiniosis in resistant C57BL/6 mice. Therefore, we wanted to dissect the different mechanisms exerted by IL-12 during Yersinia infections by using different models of Yersinia-resistant and -susceptible mice, including resistant C57BL/6 mice, susceptible BALB/c mice, intermediate-susceptible wild-type 129/Sv mice, 129/Sv IFN-γ-receptor-deficient (IFN-γR−/−) mice and C57BL/6 tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor p55 chain-deficient (TNFR p55−/−) mice. IFN-γR−/− mice turned out to be highly susceptible to infection by Y. enterocolitica compared with IFN-γR+/+ mice. Administration of IL-12 was protective in IFN-γR+/+ mice but not in IFN-γR−/− mice, suggesting that IFN-γR-induced mechanisms are essential for IL-12-induced resistance against yersiniae. BALB/c mice could be rendered Yersinia resistant by administration of anti-CD4 antibodies or by administration of IL-12. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice could be rendered more resistant by administration of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). Furthermore, IL-12-triggered toxic effects in C57BL/6 mice were abrogated by coadministration of TGF-β. While administration of IL-12 alone increased TNF-α levels, administration of TGF-β or TGF-β plus IL-12 decreased both TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in Yersinia-infected C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, IL-12 did not induce toxicity in Yersinia-infected TNFR p55−/− mice, suggesting that TNF-α accounts for IL-12-induced toxicity. Taken together, IL-12 may induce different effector mechanisms in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice resulting either in protection or exacerbation. These results are important for understanding the critical balance of proinflammatory and regulatory

  18. Hypoxia Decreases Invasin-Mediated Yersinia enterocolitica Internalization into Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitouni, Nathalie E; Dersch, Petra; Naim, Hassan Y; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a major cause of human yersiniosis, with enterocolitis being a typical manifestation. These bacteria can cross the intestinal mucosa, and invade eukaryotic cells by binding to host β1 integrins, a process mediated by the bacterial effector protein invasin. This study examines the role of hypoxia on the internalization of Y. enterocolitica into intestinal epithelial cells, since the gastrointestinal tract has been shown to be physiologically deficient in oxygen levels (hypoxic), especially in cases of infection and inflammation. We show that hypoxic pre-incubation of Caco-2 cells resulted in significantly decreased bacterial internalization compared to cells grown under normoxia. This phenotype was absent after functionally blocking host β1 integrins as well as upon infection with an invasin-deficient Y. enterocolitica strain. Furthermore, downstream phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase was also reduced under hypoxia after infection. In good correlation to these data, cells grown under hypoxia showed decreased protein levels of β1 integrins at the apical cell surface whereas the total protein level of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1) alpha was elevated. Furthermore, treatment of cells with the HIF-1 α stabilizer dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) also reduced invasion and decreased β1 integrin protein levels compared to control cells, indicating a potential role for HIF-1α in this process. These results suggest that hypoxia decreases invasin-integrin-mediated internalization of Y. enterocolitica into intestinal epithelial cells by reducing cell surface localization of host β1 integrins.

  19. The Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica Species in the Flow of Butchering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciceronis Cumpanasoiu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available During the experimental stages, the researches aimed to establish the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica bacteria on swine, in the butchering flow. The experiments developed on a large number of test specimens (800, sampled starting with the moment of animals receiving and until the final product was obtained. For isolation and identification there were used a modified method, proposed by The International Organization for Standardization, and CIN and SSDC isolating cultures as well. Following the effectuated researches, in accordance with the international ones, we can conclude that, in the present, the butchering process allows the strict observance of the hygiene and disinfection conditions with the purpose of limiting the dispersion of Yersinia enterocolitica, which favors the phenomenon of inter-contamination.

  20. Thirty years of human infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica in northern Spain: 1985-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimon, J M; Figueroa, R; Idigoras, P; Gomariz, M; Alkorta, M; Cilla, G; Pérez-Trallero, E

    2017-08-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica infection is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution, gastroenteritis being by far the most common clinical manifestation of human infection. In Gipuzkoa, northern Spain, human Y. enterocolitica infections increased from the mid-1980s to the beginning of the 21st century (from 7·9 to 23·2 annual episodes per 100 000 population) to decrease to 7·2 annual episodes per 100 000 population in the last years of the study. The hospital admission rate due to yersiniosis during the last 15 years of the study was 7·3%. More than 99% of isolates were serotype O:3. Infection affected mainly children under 5 years of age (average rate: 140 episodes per 100 000 population). The incidence in adults was low but hospitalisation increased with age, exceeding 50% in people over 64 years old.

  1. Four Sporadic Pediatric Cases of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 Infection in a Rural Area of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Kisei; Yasuda, Ryu; Terakawa, Runa; Koike, Yumi; Takeuchi, Koichi; Higuchi, Tsukasa; Horiuchi, Ayaka; Kubota, Noriko; Hidaka, Eiko; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2017-03-24

    In the spring of 2015, we experienced a cluster of 4 sporadic cases of yersiniosis in children in Nagano prefecture, a rural area of Japan. Two patients developed appendicitis-like episodes; one had acute gastroenteritis, and the other had bacteremia associated with liver abscess. The causative agent of these infections was Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup O:8. None of the patients had an underlying illness, and all have recovered completely. The patients were neither socially nor geographically related to each other. These 4 consecutive cases suggest that Y. enterocolitica O:8 has spread substantially in the middle part of Japan, and that this virulent strain might be more common than previously reported in our country.

  2. Yersinia enterocolitica infections associated with improperly pasteurized milk products: southwest Pennsylvania, March-August, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenberger, A H; Gronostaj, M P; Yee, G Y; Johnson, L M; Lando, J F; Voorhees, R E; Waller, K; Weltman, A C; Moll, M; Lyss, S B; Cadwell, B L; Gladney, L M; Ostroff, S M

    2014-08-01

    In July 2011, a cluster of Yersinia enterocolitica infections was detected in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA. We investigated the outbreak's source and scope in order to prevent further transmission. Twenty-two persons were diagnosed with yersiniosis; 16 of whom reported consuming pasteurized dairy products from dairy A. Pasteurized milk and food samples were collected from this dairy. Y. enterocolitica was isolated from two products. Isolates from both food samples and available clinical isolates from nine dairy A consumers were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Environmental and microbiological investigations were performed at dairy A and pasteurization deficiencies were noted. Because consumption of pasteurized milk is common and outbreaks have the potential to become large, public health interventions such as consumer advisories or closure of the dairy must be implemented quickly to prevent additional cases if epidemiological or laboratory evidence implicates pasteurized milk as the outbreak source.

  3. Detection, seroprevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pig tonsils in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, S; Bruini, I; D'Incau, M; Van Damme, I; Carniel, E; Brémont, S; Cavallini, P; Tagliabue, S; Brindani, F

    2016-10-17

    Yersiniosis is the third most common reported zoonoses in Europe, with Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis responsible for 98.66% and 0.94% of the confirmed human cases in 2013. From June 2013 to October 2014, 201 pigs at slaughter belonging to 67 batches were tested for Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in tonsils. Diaphragm muscle samples were tested for antibodies against Yersinia by a commercially available ELISA test. Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 was detected in 55/201 pig tonsils (27.4%; 95% CI 23.1-37.1). The positive pigs came from 38/67 batches (56.7%) and were reared in 36/61 farms (59.0%). There was no statistical difference between farrow-to-finish and finishing farms. The mean count of Y. enterocolitica was 3.56±0.85log10CFU/g with a minimum of 2.0log10CFU/g and a maximum of 4.78log10CFU/g. Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 4/201 pig tonsils (2.0%; 95% CI 0.0-4.5). Three isolates belonged to serotype O:3 and one to serotype O:1. The positive pigs belonged to 4/67 batches (6.0%) and came from finishing farms only. Y. pseudotuberculosis could be enumerated in one sample only (4.27log10CFU/g). The ELISA test demonstrated that 56.1% of the meat juice samples were positive for Yersinia antibodies. Serological positivity was found in 67.9% (36/53) of the Y. enterocolitica- and 75.0% (3/4) of the Y. pseudotuberculosis positive pigs. A significant association was found between serological results and the presence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsils (OR=1.97, p=0.044). All the Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin, ceftazidime, ertapenem and meropenem, 94.5% to cefotaxime, 89.1% to kanamycin and 78.2% to tetracycline. The highest resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (100%), sulphonamides (98.2%) and streptomycin (78.2%). Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested, i.e. amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, azithromycin, cephalothin, cefoxitin

  4. Effect of sampling and short isolation methodologies on the recovery of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from pig tonsils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Inge; Berkvens, Dirk; De Zutter, Lieven

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sampling (swab samples compared to destructive samples) on isolation rates of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from pig tonsils. Moreover, the relative efficiency of different rapid, routinely applicable isolation methods was evaluated. Therefore, swab and destructive samples from tonsils of 120 pigs at slaughter were analyzed in parallel using direct plating and different enrichment methods. Salmonella-Shigella-desoxycholate-calcium chloride (SSDC) agar, cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar, and Yersinia enterocolitica chromogenic medium (YeCM) were used as selective agar media. For enrichment, irgasan-ticarcillin-potassium chlorate (ITC) broth and peptone-sorbitol-bile (PSB) broth were incubated at 25°C for 48 h. Overall, 55 tonsils (45.8%) were positive for Y. enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3. Recovery was significantly higher using the destructive method compared to the swabbing method. Direct plating resulted in 47 and 28 Y. enterocolitica-positive destructive and swab samples, respectively. Alkali treatment of PSB and ITC enrichment broths significantly increased recovery of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from destructive tonsil samples. The performance of YeCM for qualitative and quantitative isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from pig tonsils was equal to SSDC and CIN. In conclusion, direct plating and ISO 10273: 2003 with minor modifications are suitable and rapid methods for isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from destructive tonsil samples.

  5. Evaluation of Immunogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 Oligopolysaccaride-DiphtheriaeToxoide Conjugate in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Rezavian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Yersiniosis is created by Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 and causes problems in the world especialy in cold and mild countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the immunogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 oligopolysaccaride (OPS conjugate to diphtheria toxoid (DT as a vaccine candidate.   Methods : After cultivation of bacteria, the LPS were isolated by modified hot phenol method. Then dialysis and concentration were done and the OPS were extracted by acetic acid 2%. To conjugate with diphtheria toxoid, ADH was used as a spacer molecule and EDAC as a linker. Conjugate was purified by gel filtration. Then 4 groups of female BALB/c mice were selected (15 mice in each group. Injection was performed intraperitoneally in three doses with two weeks interval. Then serum samples were collected and antibody response against OPS was measured by indirect ELISA method for detection of total IgG, IgA, IgM, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3.   Results: After second and third doses, OPS-DT recieved group showed significant increase in all types of antibodies titer in anti-OPS in comparison to group that recived nonconjugated OPS. The increase in titer of antibodies was as: OPS-DT>OPS>DT. A remarkable increase was shown in total IgG and IgM titers (with total amount of 3204 and 670, respectively. In IgG1 subclass the amount was 920 and in other subclasses of IgG (IgG3, IgG2a and IgG2b the amounts were 910, 110, and 99, respectively.   Conclusion: The results shows that OPS of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 increases the anti-OPS antibodies in the form of conjugate with diphtheria toxoid and could be considered as an appropriate vaccine candidate.

  6. Yersinia enterocolitica septicaemia from transfusion of red cell concentrate stored for 16 days.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, B L; Saw, M H; Hanson, M F; Mackie, M J; Scott, J; Murphy, W G

    1993-01-01

    Two cases of transfusion transmitted Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 3, serotype 09 infection occurred in south east Scotland within four months of each other. In one case, a 79 year old man died the day after receiving a unit of red cell concentrate that had been stored for 29 days after donation. In the second case a 78 year old man died three days after transfusion of a unit of red cell concentrate that had been collected 16 days before transfusion. The donors of both units had no symptoms...

  7. A rare case of enteric and systemic Yersinia enterocolitica infection in a chronic, not iron-overloaded dialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Intra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We present herein a case of bacterial gastroenteritis due to Yersinia enterocolitica, occurred in a young woman undergoing haemodialysis with a previous history positive for prolonged (20 years immunosuppressive therapy for glomerulonephritis before and for kidney transplant later. The patient’s outcome was favourable after a third-generation cephalosporin treatment without complications. The possible pathophysiological association between patient clinical condition and Yersinia bacteraemia is discussed, along with the review of literature.

  8. [Molecular-biological characteristic of Yersinia enterocolitica circulating in various regions of Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimova, T V; Bogumil'chik, E A; Voskresenskaia, E A; Klimov, V T; Tseneva, G Ia; Chesnokova, M V; Ivanov, L I; Poutonen, T B; Vasil'eva, A V; Gromova, T V

    2012-01-01

    Complex characteristic by phenotype signs and main virulence genes of Yersinia enterocolitica strains circulating in various regions of Russian Federation. 46 strains of Y. enterocolitica of 2 - 4 biotypes and 401 strains of Y. enterocolitica IA biotype isolated in 15 administrative territories of Russian Federation (Siberian, Far Eastern, Northwestern, Urals Federal Districts) from infected people, rodents, agricultural animals, birds, the environment were studied. Phagotyping was performed in the reference laboratory of the Pasteur Institute (Paris). All the Y. enterocolitica cultures were studied for the presence of ail, ystB and ystA genes by PCR method. Presence of virulence plasmid pYVwas determined by gel electrophoresis by T. Kieser method. 447 strains of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A and 2 - 4 were studied. Most of the strains belonged to serotypes O:3; O:9; O: 5; O: 6,30; O:6,31; O:7,8. Phagotyping was performed for part of the strains. Phagotypes Xz and Xo were determined in biotype 1A strains. 2 - 4 biotype strains circulating in Siberia and the Far East were characterized by phagotype VIII, X3 that are present in other countries, and phagotype Xz that is spread only in Russia. Phagotypes IXa, IXb, II that are characteristic for strains from Canada, South Africa, Japan were not detected in Russian Federation. All the strains of 2 - 4 biotypes had ail and ystA genes. Most of the recently isolated strains had pYV. The only pathogenicity factor detected in 81.3% of biotype 1A strains including 14 strains from patients was ystB gene. These infections were accompanied by an expressed clinical symptomatology of enteritis and enterocolitis. Isolation of 1A biotype strains from patients necessitates execution of diagnostic studies of intestinal yersiniosis in patients with diagnosis "acute intestinal infection of undetermined etiology".

  9. Increased prevalence of antibodies to enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica virulence proteins in relatives of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strieder, T. G. A.; Wenzel, B. E.; Prummel, M. F.; Tijssen, J. G. P.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2003-01-01

    Infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of autoimmune diseases, and Yersinia enterocolitica (YE) might play a role in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Clinical evidence in support of this hypothesis has been inconclusive. We reasoned that looking earlier

  10. Genetic diversity, virulotyping and antimicrobial resistance susceptibility of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from pigs and porcine products in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Kwai Lin; Tan, Lai Kuan; Ooi, Peck Toung

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the antimicrobial resistance, virulotypes and genetic diversity of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from uncooked porcine food and live pigs in Malaysia. Thirty-two non-repeat Y. enterocolitica strains of three bioserotypes (3 variant/O:3, n = 27; 1B/O:8, n = 3; 1A/O:5, n = 2) were analysed. Approximately 90% of strains were multidrug-resistant with a multiple antibiotic resistance index Yersinia enterocolitica could be distinguished distinctly into three clusters by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with each belonging to a particular bioserotype. Strains of 3 variant/O:3 were more heterogeneous than others. Eleven of the 15 virulence genes tested (hreP, virF, rfbC, myfA, sat, inv, ail, ymoA, ystA, tccC, yadA) and pYV virulence plasmid were present in all the bioserotpe 3 variant/03 strains. The occurrence of virulent strains of Y. enterocolitica in pigs and porcine products reiterated that pigs are important reservoirs for Y. enterocolitica. The increasing trend of multidrug resistant strains is a public health concern. This is the first report on the occurrence of potential pathogenic and resistant strains of Y. enterocolitica in pigs in Malaysia. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica in/on tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes of slaughtered pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdolec, Nevijo; Dobranić, Vesna; Filipović, Ivana

    2015-03-01

    A total of 156 tonsils and 156 mandibular lymph nodes from fattening pigs originating from 13 farms were sampled in Croatian slaughterhouses and examined for Salmonella spp. (n=78 per organ) and Yersinia enterocolitica (n=78 per organ) by cultural methods. Salmonella was isolated from two tonsils only, both originated from animals from the same farm (5.12%), while Y. enterocolitica were recovered from 26 tonsils (33.33%) which could be traced back to 10 farms. Salmonella was absent in mandibular lymph nodes, and Y. enterocolitica was isolated from eight lymph nodes (10.25%) which originated from six farms. Y. enterocolitica was present inside the lymph nodes of two pigs. The high prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in/on pig tonsils could be the result of cross-contamination during splitting the carcasses with head. This procedure may result in higher prevalence of Y. enterocolitica on surface of mandibular lymph nodes than in their depth. Traditional veterinary postmortem examination of pig halves will not necessarily contribute to cross-contamination with Salmonella or Yersinia under conditions of present slaughter practice.

  12. GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA ISOLATED FROM SEWAGE, RAW MILK AND PACKED FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmuga Priya Seshadhri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 90 isolates (40 from sewage, 30 from raw milk and 20 from packed foods collected to study the incidence of Yersinia enterocolitica. It was observed that 61 isolates (32 from sewage, 19 from raw milk and 10 from packed foods were found contaminated with the bacterium. All the isolated strains were confirmed to Yersinia enterocolitica, by using 16S rRNA PCR. Of 61 strains, only five strains (two from sewage and two from packed foods and one from raw milk were found to be the producers of haemolysin at 37 oC, while among the five strains only two strains from packed foods produced haemolysin at 28 oC. All the isolates showed resistance to amoxicillin and found sensitive to chloramphenicol. Seven strains were producer of High molecular weight proteins (HMWP. 53 strains have produced rough LPS, while the smooth LPS has been observed for 8 isolates. Eleven and six different profiles observed in outermembrane proteins and lipopolysaccaride respectively. Combined primer 1 and 2 RAPD-PCR dendogram shows eight different genotypic patterns.

  13. Increased susceptibility to Yersinia enterocolitica Infection of Tff2 deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aftab A; Mihalj, Martina; Ratkay, Ivana; Lubka-Pathak, Maria; Balogh, Peter; Klingel, Karin; Bohn, Erwin; Blin, Nikolaus; Baus-Loncar, Mirela

    2012-01-01

    TFF2 is one of the members of the trefoil factor family, known for its role in protection of gastrointestinal epithelia upon injury; however, recent studies suggest that TFF2 could also play an important role in the immune system. In the present study Tff2 deficient and wild type mice were infected by Y. enterocolitica which resulted in a lethal outcome in all Tff2 deficient mice, but not in WT animals. Yersinia invaded Peyer's patches more efficiently as shown by high bacterial titers in the KO mice while wild type mice displayed lower titers and a visible bacterial accumulation in the intestine. Bacterial accumulation in Peyer's patches of Tff2 deficient mice was accompanied by increased recruitment of macrophages. While an increased level of MAC-1 positive cells was observed in the spleens of both Tff2 deficient and WT mice at third day post infection, bacterial dissemination to liver, lung and kidneys was observed only in Tff2 knock-out mice. Analysis of the cellular composition of spleen did not reveal any substantial alteration to WT animals, suggesting possible disregulation of hemopoietic cells involved in immune response to Y. enterocolitica. These new data indicate that Tff2 plays an important role in immune response by protecting the organism from consequences of infection and that Tff2 knock-out mice react adversely to bacterial infections, in this case specifically to Y. enterocolitica. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Spondylodiscitis of the lumbar spine in a non-immunocompromised host caused by Yersinia enterocolitica O:9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenrieder, Martin; Zautner, Andreas E; Podbielski, Andreas; Bader, Rainer; Mittelmeier, Wolfram

    2010-04-01

    Here presented is an extremely rare case of a spinal osteomyelitis (L5-S1) with epidural empyema in a non-immunocompromised 62-year-old man caused by Yersinia enterocolitica O:9. The infection occurred acutely and required immediate surgical treatment. Y. enterocolitica was cultured from the empyema fluid, wound swabs of the intervertebral disc L5-S1 and stool cultures. Following the surgical decompression and antibiotic treatment, the patient recovered completely, without neurological deficits. A review of the literature revealed only sparse cases of spondylodiscitis due to other Y. enterocolitica serogroups. To our knowledge, we report here the first case of a spondylodiscitis of the lumbar spine caused by Y. enterocolitica serovar O:9 in a non-immunocompromised patient.

  15. Introduction of infected animals to herds is an important route for the spread of Yersinia enterocolitica infection between pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, S; Nikunen, S; Korkeala, H

    2014-01-01

    Altogether, 369 pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica isolates from 1,118 fecal samples collected from 22 pig farms of different production types were characterized by biotyping, serotyping, and genotyping using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis. We investigated the distribution of the different genotypes at the farm level and their association with different farm conditions. Pigs were found to carry and transmit Y. enterocolitica between farms, because the same genotypes were found on farms that had previously transported the pigs between them. The purchase of new animals for the farms associated significantly with the number of different multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis types of Y. enterocolitica found within a farm. Some genotypes seemed to persist on farms for years. The results of this study show that pigs purchased from infected herds transmit Y. enterocolitica infection between farms. Certain pig farms may act as long-term sources of infection.

  16. Yersinia enterocolitica in slaughter pig tonsils: enumeration and detection by enrichment versus direct plating culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Inge; Habib, Ihab; De Zutter, Lieven

    2010-02-01

    Tonsil samples from 139 slaughter pigs were examined for the presence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica by enrichment procedures based on the standard method ISO 10273:2003. In addition, samples were tested by direct plating method to evaluate its efficiency compared to the enrichment culture methods and to quantify the level of contamination in porcine tonsils. In total, 52 samples (37.4%) were positive for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, all belonging to bioserotype 4/O:3. Fifty out of the 52 positive samples (96.2%) were detected by direct plating. Enumeration showed an average concentration of 4.5 log(10) CFU g(-1) and 4.4 log(10) CFU g(-1) tonsil on Salmonella-Shigella-desoxycholate-calcium chloride (SSDC) and cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar plates, respectively. The enrichment procedures recommended by the ISO 10273:2003 method were not optimal for the isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from pig tonsils: two days enrichment in irgasan-ticarcillin-potassium chlorate (ITC) broth resulted in an isolation rate of 84.6%, while 5 days enrichment in peptone-sorbitol-bile (PSB) broth recovered only 59.6% of positive samples. Reducing the enrichment time in PSB from 5 to 2 days resulted in a significantly higher recovery rate (94.2%) and might serve as an appropriate enrichment protocol for the isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from pig tonsils. Compared to enrichment culture methods, results based on direct plating can be obtained in a shorter time course and provide quantitative data that might be needed for further risk assessment studies.

  17. YaxAB, a Yersinia enterocolitica Pore-Forming Toxin Regulated by RovA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Nikki J.; Lin, Carolina P.; Borst, Luke B.

    2013-01-01

    The transcriptional regulator RovA positively regulates transcription of the Yersinia enterocolitica virulence gene inv. Invasin, encoded by inv, is important for establishment of Y. enterocolitica infection. However, a rovA mutant is more attenuated for virulence than an inv mutant, implying that RovA regulates additional virulence genes. When the Y. enterocolitica RovA regulon was defined by microarray analysis, YE1984 and YE1985 were among the genes identified as being upregulated by RovA. Since these genes are homologous to Xenorhabdus nematophila cytotoxin genes xaxA and xaxB, we named them yaxA and yaxB, respectively. In this work, we demonstrate the effects of YaxAB on the course of infection in the murine model. While a yaxAB mutant (ΔyaxAB) is capable of colonizing mice at the same level as the wild type, it slightly delays the course of infection and results in differing pathology in the spleen. Further, we found that yaxAB encode a probable cytotoxin capable of lysing mammalian cells, that both YaxA and YaxB are required for cytotoxic activity, and that the two proteins associate. YaxAB-mediated cell death occurs via osmotic lysis through the formation of distinct membrane pores. In silico tertiary structural analysis identified predicted structural homology between YaxA and proteins in pore-forming toxin complexes from Bacillus cereus (HBL-B) and Escherichia coli (HlyE). Thus, it appears that YaxAB function as virulence factors by inducing cell lysis through the formation of pores in the host cell membrane. This characterization of YaxAB supports the hypothesis that RovA regulates expression of multiple virulence factors in Y. enterocolitica. PMID:24002058

  18. Ecology and geographic distribution of Yersinia enterocolitica among livestock and wildlife in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junrong; Duan, Ran; Xia, Shengli; Hao, Qiong; Yang, Jinchuan; Xiao, Yuchun; Qiu, Haiyan; Shi, Guoxiang; Wang, Shukun; Gu, Wenpeng; Wang, Chunxiang; Wang, Mingliu; Tian, Kecheng; Luo, Longze; Yang, Meng; Tian, Huaiyu; Wang, Jiazheng; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2015-07-09

    The results in this study show the prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica varies in different animal species and regions of China. The highest prevalence is among pigs (12.91%), followed by dogs (9.80%), Ochotona curzoniae (plateau pica) (6.76%), chickens (4.50%), rodents (3.40%), cattle (2.78%) and sheep (0.89%). Pathogenic isolates comprised the majority of the Y. enterocolitica recovered from pigs (73.50%) and dogs (59.44%); whereas the nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica made up most of poultry and wildlife recovered strains. A correlation analysis comparing the prevalence and geographic factors showed the isolation rate of Y. enterocolitica in pigs and dogs was negatively correlated with elevation (r=-0.50, Penterocolitica carried ail and ystB virulence genes, and one biotype 1A nonpathogenic strain positive with ail, ystB and ystA genes were isolated from Microtus fuscus (Qinghai vole) on plague foci of the Qinghai-Xizang plateau. The PFGE pattern K6GN11C30021 was predominant in pigs (44.25%) and patients (41.18%); K6GN11C30068 was predominant in dogs (40.16%). Animal isolates from the same region shared the same pattern (K6GN11C30021 and K6GN11C30012), indicating they may be from the same clone and arose through cross infection. Moreover, the identical PFGE pattern among local animals and diarrhea patients suggested that the animals may be the source of infections in these areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The first pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 strain isolated from a hunted wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Platt-Samoraj, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Syczyło, K; Szweda, W

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the bioserotypes and virulence markers of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from wild boars in Poland. Bacteriological examination of 302 rectal swabs from 151 wild boars resulted in the isolation of 40 Y. enterocolitica strains. The majority of the examined strains (n = 30), belonged to bioserotype 1A/NI. The presence of individual Y. enterocolitica strains belonging to bioserotypes 1B/NI (3), 1A/O:8 (2), 1A/O:27 (2), 2/NI (1), 2/O:9 (1) and 4/O:3 (1) was also demonstrated. Amplicons corresponding to ail and ystA genes were observed only in one Y. enterocolitica strain--bioserotype 4/O:3. The ail and ystB gene amplicons were noted in 11 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains, although single amplicons of ystB gene were found in 28 of the tested samples. In four out of eight cases when two Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from the same animal, the strains differed in biotype, serotype or virulence markers. The European population of wild boars continues to grow and spread to new areas, therefore, wild boars harbouring potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains pose a challenge to public health.

  20. Purification and characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pestis LcrV-cholera toxin A(2)/B chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Juliette K; Davis, Chadwick T; Arlian, Britni M

    2010-11-01

    Yersinia pestis is a virulent human pathogen and potential biological weapon. Despite a long history of research on this organism, there is no licensed vaccine to protect against pneumonic forms of Y. pestis disease. In the present study, plasmids were constructed to express cholera toxin A(2)/B chimeric molecules containing the LcrV protective antigen from Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pestis. These chimeras were expressed and purified to high yields from the supernatant of transformed Escherichia coli. Western and GM(1) ELISA assays were used to characterize the composition, receptor-binding and relative stability of the LcrV-CTA(2)/B chimera in comparison to cholera toxin. In addition, we investigated the ability of the Y. pestis LcrV-CTA(2)/B chimera to bind to and internalize into cultured epithelial cells and macrophages by confocal microscopy. These studies indicate that the uptake and trafficking of the LcrV antigen from the chimera is comparable to the trafficking of native toxin. Together these findings report that stable, receptor-binding, non-toxic LcrV-cholera toxin A(2)/B chimeras can be expressed at high levels in E. coli and purified from the supernatant. In addition, the internalization of antigen in vitro reported here supports the development of these molecules as novel mucosal vaccine candidates. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of salt and acidic pH on the stability of virulence plasmid (pYV) in Yersinia enterocolitica and expression of virulence-associated characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stability of the Yersinia enterocolitica virulence plasmid (pYV) under different NaCl concentrations and under acidic pH conditions was investigated. Exposure of five strains representing five serotypes of pYV-bearing virulent Y. enterocolitica to 0.5, 2 and 5% NaCl and under conditions of pH 4...

  2. A recombinant bivalent fusion protein rVE confers active and passive protection against Yersinia enterocolitica infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Kingston, Joseph Jeyabalaji; Murali, Harishchandra Sripathy; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2014-03-05

    In the present study, a bivalent chimeric protein rVE comprising immunologically active domains of Yersinia pestis LcrV and YopE was assessed for its prophylactic abilities against Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 infection in murine model. Mice immunized with rVE elicited significantly higher antibody titers with substantial contribution from the rV component (3:1 ratio). Robust and significant resistance to Y. enterocolitica infection with 100% survival (Penterocolitica O:8 against the 75%, 60% and 75% survival seen in mice immunized with rV, rE, rV+rE, respectively. Macrophage monolayer supplemented with anti-rVE polysera illustrated efficient protection (89.41% survival) against challenge of Y. enterocolitica O:8. In contrast to sera from sham-immunized mice, immunization with anti-rVE polysera provided complete protection to BALB/c mice against I.P. challenge with 10(8)CFU of Y. enterocolitica O:8 and developed no conspicuous signs of infection in necropsy. The histopathological analysis of microtome sections confirmed significantly reduced lesion size or no lesion in liver and intestine upon infection in anti-rVE immunized mice. The findings from this study demonstrated the fusion protein rVE as a potential candidate subunit vaccine and showed the functional role of antibodies in protection against Y. enterocolitica infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Virulence-associated gene pattern of porcine and human Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 4 isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, M; Brodard, I; Overesch, G

    2015-04-02

    Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 is the most important human pathogenic bioserotype in Europe and the predominant pathogenic bioserotype in slaughter pigs. Although many studies on the virulence of Y. enterocolitica strains have showed a broad spectrum of detectable factors in pigs and humans, an analysis based on a strict comparative approach and serving to verify the virulence capability of porcine Y. enterocolitica as a source for human yersiniosis is lacking. Therefore, in the present study, strains of biotype (BT) 4 isolated from Swiss slaughter pig tonsils and feces and isolates from human clinical cases were compared in terms of their spectrum of virulence-associated genes (yadA, virF, ail, inv, rovA, ymoA, ystA, ystB and myfA). An analysis of the associated antimicrobial susceptibility pattern completed the characterization. All analyzed BT 4 strains showed a nearly similar pattern, comprising the known fundamental virulence-associated genes yadA, virF, ail, inv, rovA, ymoA, ystA and myfA. Only ystB was not detectable among all analyzed isolates. Importantly, neither the source of the isolates (porcine tonsils and feces, humans) nor the serotype (ST) had any influence on the gene pattern. From these findings, it can be concluded that the presence of the full complement of virulence genes necessary for human infection is common among porcine BT 4 strains. Swiss porcine BT 4 strains not only showed antimicrobial susceptibility to chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, colistin, florfenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim but also showed 100% antibiotic resistance to ampicillin. The human BT 4 strains revealed comparable results. However, in addition to 100% antibiotic resistance to ampicillin, 2 strains were resistant to chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid. Additionally, 1 of these strains was resistant to sulfamethoxazole. The results demonstrated that Y. enterocolitica BT 4

  4. Yersinia enterocolitica-associated generalized microinfarctions of bone and spleen in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Wolfgang; Schille, Regine; Beer, Joerg

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of unusual extraintestinal yersiniosis in a 16-year-old girl with generalized microinfarctions of the bone and spleen. For the past 2 years she had been repeatedly admitted to our hospital with reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and iridocyclitis of unknown aetiology. Ultrasound showed multiple round hypoechoic lesions in the spleen that were shown to have low T2 signal on MRI. MRI also showed disseminated nodular lesions of the skeleton that were low T1 and high T2 signal and demonstrated inhomogeneous contrast enhancement. The patient is currently in good health on low-dose nonsteroidal immunosuppressive therapy. This is a unique case of microinfarctions of the skeleton and spleen caused by a severe postinfectious autoimmune reaction following extraintestinal Yersinia enterocolitica infection. (orig.)

  5. Yersinia enterocolitica-associated generalized microinfarctions of bone and spleen in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Wolfgang [University Hospital Leipzig, Paediatric Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Schille, Regine [University Hospital Leipzig, Paediatric Department, Leipzig (Germany); Beer, Joerg [University of Leipzig, Institute for Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    We report a case of unusual extraintestinal yersiniosis in a 16-year-old girl with generalized microinfarctions of the bone and spleen. For the past 2 years she had been repeatedly admitted to our hospital with reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and iridocyclitis of unknown aetiology. Ultrasound showed multiple round hypoechoic lesions in the spleen that were shown to have low T2 signal on MRI. MRI also showed disseminated nodular lesions of the skeleton that were low T1 and high T2 signal and demonstrated inhomogeneous contrast enhancement. The patient is currently in good health on low-dose nonsteroidal immunosuppressive therapy. This is a unique case of microinfarctions of the skeleton and spleen caused by a severe postinfectious autoimmune reaction following extraintestinal Yersinia enterocolitica infection. (orig.)

  6. Effect of radiation and freezing on (/sup 3/H)DNA of Yersinia enterocolitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecz, N.; El-zawahry, Y.A.

    1984-05-01

    Freezing of the enteropathogenic bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica to -18 and -75/sup 0/C caused 7 and 42% cell death, respectively, and 0.329 and 0.588 single-strand breaks per 10/sup 8/ daltons of DNA, respectively, while radiation to one D/sub 10/ dose (10% cell survival) combined with freezing to 2 to 0, -18 and -75/sup 0/C induces 0.05, 0.75, and 5.04 single-strand breaks, respectively. The increase in the effectiveness of radiation with respect to the yield of single-strand breaks at -18 to -75/sup 0/C is contrary to expectation and seems to be due to arrest of repair of single-strand breaks by these low temperatures. 27 references.

  7. Effect of radiation and freezing on [3H]DNA of Yersinia enterocolitica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecz, N.; El-zawahry, Y.A.

    1984-01-01

    Freezing of the enteropathogenic bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica to -18 and -75 0 C caused 7 and 42% cell death, respectively, and 0.329 and 0.588 single-strand breaks per 10 8 daltons of DNA, respectively, while radiation to one D 10 dose (10% cell survival) combined with freezing to 2 to 0, -18 and -75 0 C induces 0.05, 0.75, and 5.04 single-strand breaks, respectively. The increase in the effectiveness of radiation with respect to the yield of single-strand breaks at -18 to -75 0 C is contrary to expectation and seems to be due to arrest of repair of single-strand breaks by these low temperatures. 27 references

  8. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of bio-serotypes of Yersinia enterocolitica from various sources in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusak, Leonardo Alves; dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura Falavina; Barbosa, André Victor; Santos, André Felipe Mercês; Paixão, Renata; Hofer, Ernesto; Vallim, Deyse Christina; Asensi, Marise Dutra

    2014-12-15

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a well-known foodborne pathogen widely distributed in nature with high public health relevance, especially in Europe. This study aimed to analyze the pathogenic potential of Y. enterocolitica isolated strains from human, animal, food, and environmental sources and from different regions of Brazil by detecting virulence genes inv, ail, ystA, and virF through polymerase chain reaction (PCR), phenotypic tests, and antimicrobial susceptibility analysis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used for the assessment of phylogenetic diversity. All virulence genes were detected in 11/60 (18%) strains of serotype O:3, biotype 4 isolated from human and animal sources. Ten human strains (4/O:3) presented three chromosomal virulence genes, and nine strains of biotype 1A presented the inv gene. Six (10%) strains were resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, seven (12%) to tetracycline, and one (2%) to amikacin, all of which are used to treat yersiniosis. AMP-CEF-SXT was the predominant resistance profile. PFGE analysis revealed 36 unique pulsotypes, grouped into nine clusters (A to I) with similarity ≥ 85%, generating a diversity discriminatory index of 0.957. Cluster A comprised all bio-serotype 4/O:3 strains isolated from animal and humans sources. This study shows the existence of strains with the same genotypic profiles, bearing all virulence genes, from human and animal sources, circulating among several Brazilian states. This supports the hypothesis that swine is likely to serve as a main element in Y. enterocolitica transmission to humans in Brazil, and it could become a potential threat to public health as in Europe.

  9. Murine Neonates Infected with Yersinia enterocolitica Develop Rapid and Robust Proinflammatory Responses in Intestinal Lymphoid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefker, David T.; Echeverry, Andrea; Brambilla, Roberta; Fukata, Masayuki; Schesser, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal animals are generally very susceptible to infection with bacterial pathogens. However, we recently reported that neonatal mice are highly resistant to orogastric infection with Yersinia enterocolitica. Here, we show that proinflammatory responses greatly exceeding those in adults arise very rapidly in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of neonates. High-level induction of proinflammatory gene expression occurred in the neonatal MLN as early as 18 h postinfection. Marked innate phagocyte recruitment was subsequently detected at 24 h postinfection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) analyses indicated that enhanced inflammation in neonatal MLN is contributed to, in part, by an increased frequency of proinflammatory cytokine-secreting cells. Moreover, both CD11b+ and CD11b− cell populations appeared to play a role in proinflammatory gene expression. The level of inflammation in neonatal MLN was also dependent on key bacterial components. Y. enterocolitica lacking the virulence plasmid failed to induce innate phagocyte recruitment. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) protein expression and neutrophil recruitment were strikingly higher in neonatal MLN after infection with a yopP-deficient strain than with wild-type Y. enterocolitica, whereas only modest increases occurred in adults. This hyperinflammatory response was associated with greater colonization of the spleen and higher mortality in neonates, while there was no difference in mortality among adults. This model highlights the dynamic levels of inflammation in the intestinal lymphoid tissues and reveals the protective (wild-type strain) versus harmful (yopP-deficient strain) consequences of inflammation in neonates. Moreover, these results reveal that the neonatal intestinal lymphoid tissues have great potential to rapidly mobilize innate components in response to infection with bacterial enteropathogens. PMID:24478090

  10. Comparison of cytokine immune responses to Brucella abortus and Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 infections in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenpeng; Wang, Xin; Qiu, Haiyan; Cui, Buyun; Zhao, Shiwen; Zheng, Han; Xiao, Yuchun; Liang, Junrong; Duan, Ran; Jing, Huaiqi

    2013-12-01

    Brucella abortus and Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 serologically cross-react in the immune response with the host; therefore, our aim was to compare the immune responses to these two pathogens. We selected typical B. abortus and Y. enterocolitica O:9 strains to study the cytokine immune response and the histopathological changes in livers and spleens of BALB/c mice. The data showed the cytokine responses to the two strains of pathogens were different, where the average levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were higher with B. abortus infections than with Y. enterocolitica O:9 infections, especially for IFN-γ, while the IL-10 level was lower and the levels of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6 were similar. The histopathological effects in the livers and spleens of the BALB/c mice with B. abortus and Y. enterocolitica O:9 infections were similar; however, the pathological changes in the liver were greater with B. abortus infections, while damage in the spleen was greater with Y. enterocolitica O:9 infections. These observations show that different cytokine responses and histopathological changes occur with B. abortus and Y. enterocolitica O:9 infections.

  11. THE STUDY OF ENTEROTOXIGENICITY OF THE BIOTYPE 1A YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Bogumilchik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The representatives of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1А which are considered as nonpathogenic microorganisms were tested for production of the thermostable enterotoxin YST B (Yersinia Stable Toxin. This toxin is characterized by strong toxic action and it can bring on diarrhea in human and animals. The chromosome gene of thermostable enterotoxin ystB was detected by PCR in 87.1% out of 116 studied strains of different origin and territorial isolation. To determine toxin production in vitro the studied strains cultivated in various conditions: in 26°C and 37°С in usual culture medium and in 37°С in the medium corresponded to the content of intestine. In part of the studied strains the toxin production was revealed on the model of newborn mice in both temperature regimes of cultivation 26°С and 37°С. The study of toxin production in representatives of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1А showed their possible role as etiological agents of diarrhea.

  12. Survival and virulence of copper- and chlorine-stressed Yersinia enterocolitica in Experimentally infected mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; McFeters, G.A.

    1987-08-01

    The effect of gastric pH on the viability and virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica 0:8 after exposure to sublethal concentrations of copper and chlorine was determined in mice. Viability and injury were assessed with a nonselective TLY agar and two selective media, TLYD agar and CIN agar. Both copper and chlorine caused injury which was manifested by the inability of the cells to grow on selective media. CIN agar was more restrictive to the growth of injured cells than TLYD agar. Injury of the exposed cells was further enhanced in the gastric environment of mice. Besides injury, the low gastric pH caused extensive loss of viability in copper-exposed cells. Lethality in the chlorine-exposed cells was less extensive, and a portion of the inoculum reached the small intestine 5 min postinoculation. No adverse effect on the injured cells was apparent in the small intestine, and a substantial revival of the injury occurred in 3 to 4 h after intraluminal inoculation. The virulence of chlorine-stressed Y. enterocolitica in orally inoculated mice was similar to that of the control culture, but copper-stressed cells showed reduced virulence. Virulence was partly restored by oral administration of sodium bicarbonate before the inoculation of copper-exposed cells. Neutralization of gastric acidity had no effect on the virulence of the control of chlorine-stressed cells.

  13. Oral vaccination with LcrV from Yersinia pestis KIM delivered by live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium elicits a protective immune response against challenge with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branger, Christine G; Torres-Escobar, Ascención; Sun, Wei; Perry, Robert; Fetherston, Jacqueline; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy

    2009-08-27

    The use of live recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines (RASV) synthesizing Yersinia proteins is a promising approach for controlling infection by Yersinia species. In this study, we constructed attenuated Salmonella strains which synthesize a truncated form of LcrV, LcrV196 and evaluated the immune response and protective efficacy elicited by these strains in mice against two other major species of Yersinia: Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica. Surprisingly, we found that the RASV strain alone was sufficient to afford nearly full protection against challenge with Y. pseudotuberculosis, indicating the likelihood that Salmonella produces immunogenic cross-protective antigens. In contrast, lcrV196 expression was required for protection against challenge with Y. enterocolitica strain 8081, but was not sufficient to achieve significant protection against challenge with Y. enterocolitica strain WA, which expressed a divergent form of lcrV. Nevertheless, we are encouraged by these findings to continue pursuing our long-term goal of developing a single vaccine to protect against all three human pathogenic species of Yersinia.

  14. Adding to Yersinia enterocolitica Gene Pool Diversity: Two Cryptic Plasmids from a Biotype 1A Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lepka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the nucleotide sequence of two novel cryptic plasmids (4357 and 14 662 base pairs carried by a Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strain isolated from pork. As distinguished from most biotype 1A strains, this isolate, designated 07-04449, exhibited adherence to eukaryotic cells. The smaller plasmid pYe4449-1 carries five attributable open reading frames (ORFs encoding the first CcdA/CcdB-like antitoxin/toxin system described for a Yersinia plasmid, a RepA-like replication initiation protein, and mobilizing factors MobA and MobC. The deduced amino acid sequences showed highest similarity to proteins described in Salmonella (CcdA/B, Klebsiella (RepA, and Plesiomonas (MobA/C indicating genomic fluidity among members of the Enterobacteriaceae. One additional ORF with unknown function, termed ORF5, was identified with an ancestry distinct from the rest of the plasmid. While the C+G content of ORF5 is 38.3%, the rest of pYe4449-1 shows a C+G content of 55.7%. The C+G content of the larger plasmid pYe4449-2 (54.9% was similar to that of pYe4449-1 (53.7% and differed from that of the Y. enterocolitica genome (47.3%. Of the 14 ORFs identified on pYe4449-2, only six ORFs showed significant similarity to database entries. For three of these ORFs likely functions could be ascribed: a TnpR-like resolvase and a phage replication protein, localized each on a low C+G island, and DNA primase TraC. Two ORFs of pYe4449-2, ORF3 and ORF7, seem to encode secretable proteins. Epitope-tagging of ORF3 revealed protein expression at 4°C but not at or above 27°C suggesting adaptation to a habitat outside swine. The hypothetical protein encoded by ORF7 is the member of a novel repeat protein family sharing the DxxGN(xnDxxGN motif. Our findings illustrate the exceptional gene pool diversity within the species Y. enterocolitica driven by horizontal gene transfer events.

  15. Yersinia enterocolitica serum resistance proteins YadA and ail bind the complement regulator C4b-binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Kirjavainen

    Full Text Available Many pathogens are equipped with factors providing resistance against the bactericidal action of complement. Yersinia enterocolitica, a Gram-negative enteric pathogen with invasive properties, efficiently resists the deleterious action of human complement. The major Y. enterocolitica serum resistance determinants include outer membrane proteins YadA and Ail. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS O-antigen (O-ag and outer core (OC do not contribute directly to complement resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze a possible mechanism whereby Y. enterocolitica could inhibit the antibody-mediated classical pathway of complement activation. We show that Y. enterocolitica serotypes O:3, O:8, and O:9 bind C4b-binding protein (C4bp, an inhibitor of both the classical and lectin pathways of complement. To identify the C4bp receptors on Y. enterocolitica serotype O:3 surface, a set of mutants expressing YadA, Ail, O-ag, and OC in different combinations was tested for the ability to bind C4bp. The studies showed that both YadA and Ail acted as C4bp receptors. Ail-mediated C4bp binding, however, was blocked by the O-ag and OC, and could be observed only with mutants lacking these LPS structures. C4bp bound to Y. enterocolitica was functionally active and participated in the factor I-mediated degradation of C4b. These findings show that Y. enterocolitica uses two proteins, YadA and Ail, to bind C4bp. Binding of C4bp could help Y. enterocolitica to evade complement-mediated clearance in the human host.

  16. Presence of ail and ystB genes in Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A isolates from game animals in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt-Samoraj, A; Syczyło, K; Szczerba-Turek, A; Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Jabłoński, A; Łabuć, S; Pajdak, J; Oshakbaeva, N; Szweda, W

    2017-03-01

    The pathogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica is associated with the presence of plasmid and chromosomal virulence genes. Strains belonging to biotype 1A do not possess pYV plasmids, often harbour the ystB gene and usually lack the ail gene, which is the main virulence marker for Y. enterocolitica. The simultaneous presence of ail and ystB is uncommon. In this study, 21/218 (9.6%) biotype 1A Y. enterocolitica isolates from rectal swabs of wild boar (Sus scrofa; n = 18), red deer (Cervus elaphus; n = 2) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus; n = 1) in Poland harboured both ail and ystB genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiology of reported Yersinia enterocolitica infections in Germany, 2001-2008

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    Werber Dirk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersiniosis is the third most common zoonotic bacterial disease in Germany and the European Union. Sequelae of Yersinia enterocolitica infections, such as reactive arthritis, have been reported. Consumption of pork and its products, especially eaten raw or undercooked, is an important risk factor of yersiniosis. Infection with Y. enterocolitica is notifiable through the national surveillance system for infectious diseases in Germany and several thousands of cases are being reported each year. We present recent data on the epidemiology of reported yersiniosis in Germany. Methods Surveillance data on yersiniosis, accessed through the national level database (SurvNet, were analyzed with regard to time trends, demographical and geographical distribution, serotypes, and hospitalization, for the time period 2001-2008. Results A total of 47,627 cases of yersiniosis were reported. The mean annual incidence of yersiniosis was 7.2/100,000 population. A downward trend in the number of reportable cases has occurred since 2002. Almost all Y. enterocolitica infections were reported as single cases, i.e., with no apparent links to other cases. The number of reported infections showed substantially less seasonal variation than in other zoonotic enteric diseases. The incidence was highest in children under five years (58/100,000 population, in particular in one-year-old children (108/100,000 population. Almost 97% of infections were acquired domestically. High incidences occurred in the eastern German federal states Thuringia, Saxony, and Saxony-Anhalt. Differences in incidences across federal states were driven primarily by incidence differences in children under five years. Hospitalization was reported for 17% of cases, the proportion being highest among teenagers. Almost 90% of Y. enterocolitica strains were diagnosed as serotype O:3, which is the serotype most frequently isolated from pigs. Conclusions Yersiniosis is a zoonotic foodborne

  18. Ileocecal resection for massive rectal bleeding due to Yersinia enterocolitica: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azghari, Ilham; Bargach, Aicha; Billah, Nabil Moatassim; Essaoudi, Mohamed Amine; Jahid, Ahmed; Kabbaj, Nawal

    2016-01-19

    Massive gastrointestinal bleeding is an emergency that can sometimes require immediate surgery. We report the first case, to the best of our knowledge, of massive rectal bleeding due to Yersinia enterocolitica, requiring ileocecal resection. A 41-year-old North African woman was admitted to our emergency department for massive rectal bleeding. She had a history of an iron deficiency anemia of unknown cause, and diarrhea 2 months before the admission. On admission to our emergency unit, she was in a state of hemodynamic collapse. An examination showed discolored conjunctivas, massive rectal bleeding with clots and no abdominal pain. The first medical treatment included the use of noradrenaline. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed and did not show any lesions. Computed tomography of her abdomen showed significant and hypervascular wall thickening of her terminal ileum suggestive of a tumor. Because her massive rectal bleeding worsened and her collapse persisted, an exploratory laparotomy and ileocecal resection were immediately performed on the patient. Histopathological analysis showed enteritis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. Her outcome was favorable. Enteritis due to Yersinia enterocolitica can take a pseudotumoral form and mislead the diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  19. Detection and characterisation of Yersinia enterocolitica strains in cold-stored carcasses of large game animals in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz-Kisiel, Agata; Socha, Piotr; Szweda, Wojciech

    2016-02-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is an important foodborne pathogen. The aim of the present study was to identify the bioserotypes and virulence markers of Y.enterocolitica strains isolated from three different anatomical regions of cold-stored carcasses of large game animals intended for human consumption. Y.enterocolitica strains were found in 12/20 (60%) of the roe deer carcasses examined, 7/16 (43.8%) of red deer carcasses and 11/20 (55%) of wild boar carcasses. Of the 52 Y.enterocolitica strains, 19 were isolated from the perineum, followed by 17 strains from the peritoneum of the longissimus dorsi muscle and 16 from the tonsils. Only one strain was isolated from warm culture. Bioserotype 1A/NI was the most commonly found and was detected in 29/52 isolates. All isolates contained amplicons corresponding to ystB gene fragments. The relatively high degree of carcass contamination with Y.enterocolitica is of concern due to the growing popularity of game meat with consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Within-batch prevalence and quantification of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in tonsils of pigs at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Van Damme, Inge; De Zutter, Lieven; Houf, Kurt

    2014-03-14

    Yersiniosis is a common bacterial zoonosis in Europe and healthy pigs are known to be the primary reservoir of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. However, little information is available about the prevalence of these pathogens within pig batches at time of slaughter. The tonsils of 7047 fattening pigs, belonging to 100 farms, were aseptically collected immediately after evisceration in two Belgian slaughterhouses. The batch size varied between 70 and 930 pigs. On average, 70 pigs were sampled per batch. The tonsils were examined by direct plating on cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar plates and the number of suspect Yersinia colonies was counted. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica serotype O:3 were found in tonsils of 2009 pigs (28.5%), originating from 85 farms. The within-batch prevalence in positive farms ranged from 5.1 to 64.4%. The number of Y. enterocolitica in positive pigs varied between 2.01 and 5.98 log10 CFU g(-1) tonsil, with an average of 4.00 log10 CFU g(-1) tonsil. Y. pseudotuberculosis was found in seven farms, for which the within-batch prevalence varied from 2 to 10%. In five of these farms, both Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis were simultaneously present. Human pathogenic Yersinia spp. are widespread in slaughter pig batches in Belgium as 87% of the tested batches were infected with these pathogens at the time of slaughter. The large variation of the prevalence between batches may lead to different levels of contamination of carcasses and risks for public health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Yersinia enterocolitica and Photorhabdus asymbiotica β-lactamases BlaA are exported by the twin-arginine translocation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriefer, Eva-Maria; Hoffmann-Thoms, Stephanie; Schmid, Franz X; Schmid, Annika; Heesemann, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    In general, β-lactamases of medically important Gram-negative bacteria are Sec-dependently translocated into the periplasm. In contrast, β-lactamases of Mycobacteria spp. (BlaC, BlaS) and the Gram-negative environmental bacteria Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (L2) and Xanthomonas campestris (Bla(XCC-1)) have been reported to be secreted by the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system. Yersinia enterocolitica carries 2 distinct β-lactamase genes (blaA and blaB) encoding BlaA(Ye) and the AmpC-like β-lactamase BlaB, respectively. By using the software PRED-TAT for prediction and discrimination of Sec from Tat signal peptides, we identified a functional Tat signal sequence for Yersinia BlaA(Ye). The Tat-dependent translocation of BlaA(Ye) could be clearly demonstrated by using a Y. enterocolitica tatC-mutant and cell fractionation. Moreover, we could demonstrate a unique unusual temperature-dependent activity profile of BlaA(Ye) ranging from 15 to 60 °C and a high 'melting temperature' (T(M)=44.3°) in comparison to the related Sec-dependent β-lactamase TEM-1 (20-50°C, T(M)=34.9 °C). Strikingly, the blaA gene of Y. enterocolitica is present in diverse environmental Yersinia spp. and a blaA homolog gene could be identified in the closely related Photorhabdus asymbiotica (BlaA(Pa); 69% identity to BlaA(Ye)). For BlaA(Pa) of P. asymbiotica, we could also demonstrate Tat-dependent secretion. These results suggest that Yersinia BlaA-related β-lactamases may be the prototype of a large Tat-dependent β-lactamase family, which originated from environmental bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Designing a time-effective TaqMan probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction protocol for the identification of Yersinia enterocolitica in raw pork meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Alicja Stachelska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design a time-effective method comprising a short pre-enrichment step in a non-selective broth in combination with the TaqMan probe applied in the real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect Yersinia enterocolitica strains in raw pork meat. The method enabled to detect 1 colony forming unit per 25 mg of Yersinia enterocolitica in pork meat. The specificity and reliability of the method was not diminished by the company of microflora naturally present in meat. The method was found successful to detect pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains in pork meat. It is advised to be used for assessing the microbial risk and for controlling the microbial quality of meat and meat products.

  3. Susceptibility of chemostat-grown Yersinia enterocolitica and Klebsiella pneumoniae to chlorine dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, M S; Berg, J D; Hoff, J C; Matin, A

    1985-01-01

    The resistance of bacteria to antimicrobial agents could be influenced by growth environment. The susceptibility of two enteric bacteria, Yersinia enterocolitica and Klebsiella pneumoniae, to chlorine dioxide was investigated. These organisms were grown in a defined medium in a chemostat and the influence of growth rate, temperature, and cell density on the susceptibility was studied. All inactivation experiments were conducted with a dose of 0.25 mg of chlorine dioxide per liter in phosphate-buffered saline at pH 7.0 and 23 degrees C. The results indicated that populations grown under conditions that more closely approximate natural aquatic environments, e.g., low temperatures and growth at submaximal rates caused by nutrient limitation, were most resistant. The conclusion from this study is that antecedent growth conditions have a profound effect on the susceptibility of bacteria to disinfectants, and it is more appropriate to use the chemostat-grown bacteria as test organisms to evaluate the efficacy of a certain disinfectant.

  4. Bursa'da Tüketime Sunulan Bazı Gıdalarda Yersinia enterocolitica 'nın Varlığının Araştırılması

    OpenAIRE

    Evrensel, Süreyya Saltan; Yüksek, Nur; Temelli, Seran

    2006-01-01

    A toal of 100 samples composed of various cheese types (white pickled cheese, kashar, tulum, mihalic, processed and curd cheese) and meat products (ground beef, meat balls, fermented-pasteurized sausage and sausage) purchased from supermarkets in Bursa, were examined for the presence of Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica). Six out of 100 of these samples were found to be Y. enterocolitica positive. Y. enterocolitica was identified in 2 of the white pickled cheese, 2 of the ground beef...

  5. Sheep carrying pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 5/O:3 in the feces at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsen, Suvi; Eklund, Kirsi-Maria; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Stephan, Roger; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria

    2016-12-25

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a heterogeneous species including non-pathogenic strains belonging to biotype 1A and pathogenic strains belonging to biotypes 1B and 2-5. Pathogenic strains of biotypes 2-4 carrying the ail virulence gene have frequently been isolated from domestic pigs at slaughter. In sheep, mostly non-pathogenic biotype 1A strains have been reported. In our study, the prevalence of ail-positive Y. enterocolitica was studied by PCR and culturing in 406 young sheep (enterocolitica belonging to bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 5/O:3, carrying both chromosomal and plasmid-borne virulence genes, were isolated from the fecal samples of 10 (2%) and 23 (4%) sheep, respectively. All isolates of bioserotypes 2/O:9 (19 isolates) and 5/O:3 (53 isolates) carried the chromosomal virulence genes ail, inv, ystA, and myfA, and almost all isolates (71/72) also carried the virulence genes virF and yadA located on the virulence plasmid. The isolates showed high susceptibility to tested antimicrobials and low genetic diversity by PFGE. Y. enterocolitica bioserotype 5/O:3 is a very rare bioserotype, and has earlier only sporadically been reported in European wildlife and in sheep in Australia and New Zealand. Bioserotype 2/O:9 is a common bioserotype found in humans with yersiniosis, and has sporadically been isolated in wild and domestic animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Unique virulence properties of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3--an emerging zoonotic pathogen using pigs as preferred reservoir host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Heesemann, Jürgen; Dersch, Petra

    2014-10-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 are the most frequent cause of human yersiniosis worldwide with symptoms ranging from mild diarrhea to severe complications of mesenteric lymphadenitis, liver abscesses and postinfectious extraintestinal sequelae. The main reservoir host of 4/O:3 strains are pigs, which represent a substantial disease-causing potential for humans, as they are usually asymptomatic carriers. Y. enterocolitica O:3 initiates infections by tight attachment to the intestinal mucosa. Colonization of the digestive tract is frequently followed by invasion of the intestinal layer primarily at the follicle-associated epithelium, allowing the bacteria to propagate in the lamina propria and disseminate into deeper tissues. Molecular characterization of Y. enterocolitica O:3 isolates led to the identification of (i) alternative virulence and fitness factors and (ii) small genetic variations which cause profound changes in their virulence gene expression pattern (e.g. constitutive expression of the primary invasion factor InvA). These changes provoke a major difference in the virulence properties, i.e. reduced colonization of intestinal tissues in mice, but improved long-term colonization in the pig intestine. Y. enterocolitica O:3 strains cause also a considerably lower level of proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 and higher levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in porcine primary macrophages, as compared to murine macrophages, which could contribute to limiting inflammation, immunopathology and severity of the infection in pigs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Essential Role of Invasin for Colonization and Persistence of Yersinia enterocolitica in Its Natural Reservoir Host, the Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaake, Julia; Drees, Anna; Grüning, Petra; Uliczka, Frank; Pisano, Fabio; Thiermann, Tanja; von Altrock, Alexandra; Seehusen, Frauke

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an oral minipig infection model was established to investigate the pathogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3. O:3 strains are highly prevalent in pigs, which are usually symptomless carriers, and they represent the most common cause of human yersiniosis. To assess the pathogenic potential of the O:3 serotype, we compared the colonization properties of Y. enterocolitica O:3 with O:8, a highly mouse-virulent Y. enterocolitica serotype, in minipigs and mice. We found that O:3 is a significantly better colonizer of swine than is O:8. Coinfection studies with O:3 mutant strains demonstrated that small variations within the O:3 genome leading to higher amounts of the primary adhesion factor invasin (InvA) improved colonization and/or survival of this serotype in swine but had only a minor effect on the colonization of mice. We further demonstrated that a deletion of the invA gene abolished long-term colonization in the pigs. Our results indicate a primary role for invasin in naturally occurring Y. enterocolitica O:3 infections in pigs and reveal a higher adaptation of O:3 than O:8 strains to their natural pig reservoir host. PMID:24343656

  8. Isolation and survival of Yersinia enterocolitica in ice cream at different pH values, stored at -18°c

    OpenAIRE

    Pederiva,Norma B. Barbini de; Guzmán,Ana M. Stefanini de

    2000-01-01

    The presence of Yersinia enterocolitica was investigated in 203 samples of industrial (123) and non-industrial ice cream (80). Two Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from non-industrial ice cream, which suggests the possibility of post-manufacturing contamination. One strain was typed as B:1A, O: 3,50,51; lis Xz, while the other one was biotyped as: B:1A but not serologically typed. Survival of Y. enterocolitica was investigated by inoculating nine samples of industrially manufactured ic...

  9. Prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in slaughter-aged pigs during a one-year survey, 2010-2011, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondrevez, M; Minvielle, B; Labbé, A; Houdayer, C; Rose, N; Esnault, E; Denis, M

    2014-03-17

    The prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in French slaughter-aged pigs was estimated by sampling 3120 pigs from 96 batches in 16 slaughterhouses from January 2010 to February 2011. Respectively, 36 batches (20 pigs/batch) and 60 batches (40 pigs/batch) were considered during the cold period and the warm period. Tonsils were swabbed before the chilling step. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was detected after enrichment in ITC and streaking on CIN and YeCM media. Typical isolates were confirmed as Y. enterocolitica and biotyped by biochemical tests as described in the ISO 10273:2003 method. Of the tested pigs, 13.7% (CI95% [10.1-17.3]) were found positive for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and 74.3% (CI95% [64.8-83.8]) of the pig batches contained at least one positive pig. The percentage of positive pigs per batch was generally low; 60.3% of positive batches contained fewer than 5 positive pigs. The prevalence of the pathogen at the batch level remained unchanged throughout this one-year study, but the prevalence in pigs was significantly higher during the warm period than during the cold period. Biotype 4 was the most prevalent biotype among the 827 isolated strains (91.9% of the isolates), followed by biotype 3 (7.25% of the isolates). Six isolates were of biotype 5 and one of biotype 2. Biotype 4 was found in all the 16 participating slaughterhouses, biotype 3 in ten slaughterhouses and biotype 5 in four. This study provides valuable recent figures for the prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in French pigs. It also highlights the seasonal aspect of the carriage of this pathogen by pigs, a pattern which differs from those in other countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A case-control study of Yersinia enterocolitica infections in Auckland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, P; Pritchard, K; Floyd, D; Law, B

    1999-10-01

    To identify major risk factors for Yersinia enterocolitica (YE) and identify measures to reduce YE infections. A prospective case control study, group age matched, using 186 cases of YE identified by community pathology laboratories and 379 randomly selected controls. Conducted between April 1995 and June 1996 in Auckland, New Zealand. Face-to-face interviews used a standardised questionnaire examining exposures to factors potentially associated with YE infections including untreated water, unreticulated sewerage, consumption of selected foods, selected food handling practices and socio-demographic factors. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios for the potential risk factors. Population attributable risk (PAR) was calculated for significant exposures. Having more than two people living in the home was more common among cases than controls (OR = 2.2). Town supply water (OR = 0.2), reticulated sewerage (OR = 0.34) and looking after a young child (OR = 0.51) were significantly less common. Of the meats, only pork (OR = 1.34) had a higher consumption rate, while bacon (OR = 0.75) and smallgoods (OR = 0.73) were consumed less frequently by cases than controls. Eating food from a sandwich bar was more frequent among cases (OR = 1.18). Fruit and vegetable consumption was marginally less (OR = 0.98). The population attributable risk of these factors was 0.89, implying that 89% of YE would be eliminated if adverse exposures were removed. The risk of YE illness is increased by contact with untreated water, unreticulated sewerage and consumption of pork. Investigation of non-town water supply, informal sewerage systems and methods of preparation and consumption of pork are recommended to determine how YE enters the human food chain.

  11. Mononuclear phagocytes contribute to intestinal invasion and dissemination of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler-Hake, Doreen; Alamir, Hanin; Hahn, Julia; Günter, Manina; Wagner, Samuel; Schütz, Monika; Bohn, Erwin; Schenke-Layland, Katja; Pisano, Fabio; Dersch, Petra; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Autenrieth, Stella E

    2016-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye) enters the host via contaminated food. After colonisation of the small intestine Ye invades the Peyer's patches (PPs) via M cells and disseminates to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), spleen and liver. Whether Ye uses other invasion routes and which pathogenicity factors are required remains elusive. Oral infection of lymphotoxin-β-receptor deficient mice lacking PPs and MLNs with Ye revealed similar bacterial load in the spleen 1h post infection as wild-type mice, demonstrating a PP-independent dissemination route for Ye. Immunohistological analysis of the small intestine revealed Ye in close contact with mononuclear phagocytes (MPs), specifically CX3CR1(+) monocyte-derived cells (MCs) as well as CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs). This finding was confirmed by flow cytometry and imaging flow cytometry analysis of lamina propria (LP) leukocytes showing CD103(+) DCs and MCs with intracellular Ye. Uptake of Ye by LP CD103(+) DCs and MCs was dependent on the pathogenicity factor invasin, whereas the adhesin YadA was dispensable as demonstrated by Ye deletion mutants. Furthermore, Ye were found exclusively associated with CD103(+) DCs in the MLNs from wild-type mice, but not from CCR7(-/-) mice, demonstrating a CCR7 dependent transport of Ye by CD103(+) DCs from LP to the MLNs. In contrast, dissemination of Ye to the spleen was dependent on MCs as significantly less Ye could be recovered from the spleen of CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) mice compared to wild-type mice. Altogether, MCs and CD103(+) DCs contribute to immediate invasion and dissemination of Ye. This together with data from other bacteria suggests MPs as general pathogenic entry site in the intestine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Primary cellulitis and cutaneous abscess caused by Yersinia enterocolitica in an immunocompetent host: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Shugo; Sekiya, Noritaka

    2016-06-01

    Primary extraintestinal complications caused by Yersinia enterocolitica are extremely rare, especially in the form of skin and soft-tissue manifestations, and little is known about their clinical characteristics and treatments. We presented our case and reviewed past cases of primary skin and soft-tissue infections caused by Y enterocolitica. We report a case of primary cellulitis and cutaneous abscess caused by Y enterocolitica in an immunocompetent 70-year-old woman with keratodermia tylodes palmaris progressiva. She presented to an outpatient clinic with redness, swelling, and pain of the left ring finger and left upper arm without fever or gastrointestinal symptoms 3 days before admission. One day later, ulceration of the skin with exposed bone of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left ring finger developed, and cefditoren pivoxil was described. However, she was admitted to our hospital due to deterioration of symptoms involving the left finger and upper arm. Cefazolin was initiated on admission, then changed to sulbactam/ampicillin and vancomycin with debridement of the left ring finger and drainage of the left upper arm abscess. Wound culture grew Y enterocolitica serotype O:8 and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Blood cultures were negative and osteomyelitis was ruled out. Vancomycin was switched to ciprofloxacin, then skin and soft-tissue manifestations showed clear improvement within a few days. The patient received 14 days of ciprofloxacin and oral amoxicillin/clavulanate and has since shown no recurrence. We reviewed 12 cases of primary skin and soft-tissue infections caused by Y enterocolitica from the literature. In several past cases, portal entry involved failure of the skin barrier on distal body parts. Thereafter, infection might have spread to the regional lymph nodes from the ruptured skin. Y enterocolitica is typically resistant to aminopenicillins and narrow-spectrum cephalosporins. In most cases, these inefficient

  13. Detection and prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in refrigerated and frozen dairy products by duplex PCR and dot hybridization targeting the virF and ail genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y W; Ling, N; Han, Y J; Wu, Q P

    2014-11-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica is involved in yersiniosis through expression of chromosome-borne or plasmid-borne virulence factors. Yersinia enterocolitica is a cold-tolerant pathogen frequently isolated from refrigerated or frozen foods. However, little attention has been focused on the prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in refrigerated or frozen dairy samples in China. In this study, we developed a new duplex PCR targeting the plasmid-borne virF gene and chromosome-borne ail gene for detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates. We established a detection limit for the duplex PCR of 6.5 × 10(2)cfu/mL in artificially contaminated dairy samples. In addition, the duplex PCR could detect directly 4.5 to 5.7 cfu of Y. enterocolitica in 5 mL of brain heart infusion broth after 6 h of enrichment at 28 °C. A newly developed dot hybridization assay further confirmed specificity of the duplex PCR for detection of virulent Y. enterocolitica. Furthermore, 13 Y. enterocolitica and 5 pathogenic strains, from 88 commercial frozen or refrigerated dairy products, were detected successfully by the China National Standard method (GB/T4789.8-2008) and the duplex PCR, respectively. Finally, biotypes and serotypes of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains were further characterized. The duplex PCR developed here is reliable for large-scale screening, routine monitoring, and risk assessment of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in refrigerated or frozen dairy products. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Absence of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Results in Delayed Yersinia enterocolitica YopP-Induced Cell Death of Dendritic Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gröbner, S.; Schulz, S.; Adkins, Irena; Gunst, D. S. J.; Waibel, M.; Wesselborg, S.; Borgmann, S.; Autenrieth, I. B.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 1 (2007), s. 512-517 ISSN 0019-9567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : yersinia enterocolitica * toll-like receptor 4 * dendritic cell s Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.996, year: 2007

  15. Change in attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Listeria monocytogenes to pork skin and muscle after hot water and lactic acid decontamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morild, Rikke K.; Olsen, John E.; Aabo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The attachment of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Listeria monocytogenes to pig skin and muscle tissue decontaminated with 80°C water or 55°C, 1% lactic acid for 5 and 15s was investigated. Attachment properties differed between skin and muscle...

  16. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay To Differentiate the Antibody Responses of Animals Infected with Brucella Species from Those of Animals Infected with Yersinia enterocolitica O9

    OpenAIRE

    Erdenebaatar, Janchivdorj; Bayarsaikhan, Balgan; Watarai, Masahisa; Makino, Sou-ichi; Shirahata, Toshikazu

    2003-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using antigens extracted from Brucella abortus with n-lauroylsarcosine differentiated natural Brucella-infected animals from Brucella-vaccinated or Yersinia enterocolitica O9-infected animals. A field trial in Mongolia showed cattle, sheep, goat, reindeer, camel, and human sera without infection could be distinguished from Brucella-infected animals by conventional serological tests.

  17. Application of Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism for Comparison of Human and Animal Isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Catherine; On, Stephen L. W.; Kokotovic, Branko; Manning, Georgina; Cheasty, Tom; Newell, Diane G.

    2005-01-01

    An amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method, developed to genotype Yersinia enterocolitica, has been used to investigate 70 representative strains isolated from humans, pigs, sheep, and cattle in the United Kingdom. AFLP primarily distinguished Y. enterocolitica strains according to their biotype, with strains dividing into two distinct clusters: cluster A, comprising largely the putatively pathogenic biotypes (BT2 to -4), and cluster B, comprising the putatively nonpathogenic biotype 1A strains and a single BT1B isolate. Within these two clusters, subclusters formed largely on the basis of serotype. However, AFLP profiles also allowed differentiation of strains within these serotype-related subclusters, indicating the high discriminatory power of the technique for Y. enterocolitica. Investigation of the relationship between strain AFLP profile and host confirmed that pigs are, and provides further proof that sheep may be, potential sources of human infection with putatively pathogenic strains. However, the results suggest that some strains causing human disease do not come from veterinary sources identifiable at this time. The distribution of some BT1A isolates within cluster A raises questions about the relationship between virulence potential and biotype. PMID:16151073

  18. Modulation of inv gene expression by the OmpR two-component response regulator protein of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczkowska, A; Brzóstkowska, M; Kwiatek, A; Bielecki, J; Brzostek, K

    2011-07-01

    To elucidate the physiological meaning of OmpR-dependent expression of invasin gene (inv) inhibition in Yersinia enterocolitica, the function of the EnvZ/OmpR regulatory pathway in osmoregulation of inv expression was analyzed in detail. The osmoregulation of inv expression was found to be a multifaceted process involving both OmpR-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Analysis of inv transcription in strains lacking OmpR or EnvZ proteins indicated that kinase EnvZ is not the only regulator of OmpR phosphorylation. Using the transcriptional inv::lacZ fusion in a heterologous system (Escherichia coli) we tried to clarify the role of OmpR in the inv regulatory circuit composed of negative (H-NS) and positive (RovA) regulators of inv gene transcription. We were able to show a significant increase in inv expression in E. coli ompR background under H-NS( Ecoli )-repressed condition. Moreover, H-NS-mediated inv repression was relieved when RovA of Y. enterocolitica was expressed from a plasmid. Furthermore, we showed that RovA may activate inv expression irrespective on the presence of H-NS protein. Using this strategy we showed that OmpR of Y. enterocolitica decrease RovA-mediated inv activation.

  19. A preliminary study on prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in beef, lamb and poultry at retails of Shahrekord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shakerian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia enterocolitica is a pathogenic organism that has recently emerged world-wide and its incidence is increasing. Human infection with Y.enterocolitica could cause diarrhea, abdominal pains, appendicitis like syndrome, vomiting, fever and septicemia. The main sources of human illness include pork, beef, milk vegetables, water and wild and domestic animals. This study was carried out on  300 meat samples including 100 beef, 100 lamb and 100 poultry samples at retail of Shahre-kord. The samples were transferred to PBS containing sorbitol. After 21 days of incubation at 40C, samples were cultured on CIN agar supplemented with CIN antibiotics. Putative colonies were confirmed by biochemical tests. Results showed that, 42 (14% of samples including 4(4% beef, 4(4% lamb and 34(34% poultry samples were contaminated with Y.enterocolitica. According to results of  this study, intensive hygienic measures should be considered during slaughtering, storage and distribution of different kinds of meat.

  20. An outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica in a captive colony of African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Griffin, Matt; Verma, Ashutosh; Castillo-Alcala, Fernanda; Beierschmitt, Amy; Beeler-Marfisi, Janet; Arauz, Maziel; Illanes, Oscar

    2013-10-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a zoonotic gram-negative pathogen that causes mesenteric lymphadenitis, terminal ileitis, acute gastroenteritis, and septicemia in domestic animals and primates. In 2012, 46 captive African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) died during an outbreak of acutely fatal enteric disease over a period of 1 mo on the island of St Kitts. The affected monkeys presented with a history of mucohemorrhagic diarrhea, marked dehydration, and depression. Fifteen bacterial isolates were recovered from the spleen, liver, and lungs of affected monkeys. All isolates were identified as Y. enterocolitica by biochemical analysis and sequence comparison of the 16S rRNA gene. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of the recovered isolates revealed homogeneity among the recovered bacteria, and all isolates gave a random amplified polymorphic DNA pattern resembling that given by genotype D under serotypes O:7,8. This outbreak represents the first isolation and characterization of Y. enterocolitica as the causative agent of fatal enteric disease in primates in the Caribbean.

  1. Modelling Yersinia enterocolitica inactivation in coculture experiments with Lactobacillus sakei as based on pH and lactic acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, M; Geeraerd, A H; Logist, F; De Visscher, Y; Vereecken, K M; Debevere, J; Devlieghere, F; Van Impe, J F

    2006-08-15

    In food processing and preservation technology, models describing microbial proliferation in food products are a helpful tool to predict the microbial food safety and shelf life. In general, the available models consider microorganisms in pure culture. Thus, microbial interactions are ignored, which may lead to a discrepancy between model predictions and the actual microbial evolution, particularly for fermented and minimally processed food products in which a background flora is often present. In this study, the lactic acid mediated negative microbial interaction between the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus sakei and the psychrotrophic food pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica was examined. A model describing the lactic acid induced inhibition (i.e., early induction of the stationary phase) of the pathogen [Vereecken, K.M., Devlieghere, F., Bockstaele, A., Debevere, J., Van Impe, J.F., 2003. A model for lactic acid induced inhibition of Yersinia enterocolitica in mono- and coculture with Lactobacillus sakei. Food Microbiology 20, 701-713.] was extended to describe the subsequent inactivation (i.e., decrease of the cell concentration to values below the detection limit). In the development of a suitable model structure to describe the inactivation process, critical points in the variation of the specific evolution rate mu [1/h] with the dynamic (time-varying) pH and undissociated lactic acid profiles were taken into account. Thus, biological knowledge, namely, both pH and undissociated lactic acid have an influence on the microbial evolution, was incorporated. The extended model was carefully validated on new data. As a result, the newly developed model is able to accurately predict the growth, inhibition and subsequent inactivation of Y. enterocolitica in coculture as based on the dynamic pH and lactic acid profiles of the medium.

  2. Prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in minced meat, pig tongues and hearts at the retail level in the Czech Republic detected by real time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Lorencova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yersiniosis is the third most frequently reported zoonosis in the European Union and Yersinia enterocolitica is the most common species causing human infections. Pigs are assumed to be the main reservoir of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica with the presence of bacteria mainly in the tonsils and intestinal content. Undercooked pork and pork products have been suggested as the primary source of human yersiniosis. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in foodstuffs including pork products are very limited. A molecular based method (real time PCR targeting the ompF gene (detection of Yersinia genus and the ail gene (a chromosomally located virulence marker of Y. enterocolitica was used to determine the prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in minced meat and edible pork offal at the retail level in the Czech Republic. A total of 50 pig tongues, 50 pig hearts, and 93 samples of minced meat containing pork were purchased at nine retail outlets in Brno. High detection rates of Yersinia spp. were found in all types of samples (pig tongues, 80.0%; pig hearts, 40.0%; and minced meat, 55.9%. The highest prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was found in pig tongues (40.0%, followed by pig hearts (18.0% and minced meat samples (17.2%. Although from the point of view of food safety the merely molecular detection of DNA of the pathogenic bacteria could represent a false positive result, our results indicate the presence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in raw pork products at the retail level in the Czech Republic, which may pose a risk of consumer infection. Sufficient heat treatment and prevention of cross-contamination during preparation of food in the kitchen should be recommended.

  3. Vitronectin Binds to a Specific Stretch within the Head Region of Yersinia Adhesin A and Thereby Modulates Yersinia enterocolitica Host Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlenkamp, Melanie C; Hallström, Teresia; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Bohn, Erwin; Linke, Dirk; Rinker, Janina; Riesbeck, Kristian; Singh, Birendra; Leo, Jack C; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Zipfel, Peter F; Schütz, Monika S

    2017-01-01

    Complement resistance is an important virulence trait of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye). The predominant virulence factor expressed by Ye is Yersinia adhesin A (YadA), which enables bacterial attachment to host cells and extracellular matrix and additionally allows the acquisition of soluble serum factors. The serum glycoprotein vitronectin (Vn) acts as an inhibitory regulator of the terminal complement complex by inhibiting the lytic pore formation. Here, we show YadA-mediated direct interaction of Ye with Vn and investigated the role of this Vn binding during mouse infection in vivo. Using different Yersinia strains, we identified a short stretch in the YadA head domain of Ye O:9 E40, similar to the 'uptake region' of Y. pseudotuberculosis YPIII YadA, as crucial for efficient Vn binding. Using recombinant fragments of Vn, we found the C-terminal part of Vn, including heparin-binding domain 3, to be responsible for binding to YadA. Moreover, we found that Vn bound to the bacterial surface is still functionally active and thus inhibits C5b-9 formation. In a mouse infection model, we demonstrate that Vn reduces complement-mediated killing of Ye O:9 E40 and, thus, improved bacterial survival. Taken together, these findings show that YadA-mediated Vn binding influences Ye pathogenesis. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Symptoms and sources of Yersinia enterocolitica-infection: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siitonen Anja

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia enterocolitica (YE is the causative agent of yersiniosis. YE encompass strains of diverse pathogenicity: YE biotypes 1B and 2-5 are considered pathogenic, whereas biotype 1A is in general considered nonvirulent. Also YE-like species, which can sometimes be misidentified as YE, are considered nonvirulent. Methods In order to study differences in clinical picture caused by different YE types and their possible sources a case-control study was conducted in 2006. In this case-control study, 295 case-patients with YE or YE-like finding and their 758 controls responded to the questionnaire about symptoms and possible sources of infection. Results Strains of pathogenic YE bio/serotypes 3-4/O:3 or 2/O:9 were found in 18%, YE biotype 1A in 65% and YE -like strains of 17% of the patients. Patients infected with the strains of pathogenic YE bio/serotypes were younger and had fever more often than those with BT 1A who suffered more from vomiting. Symptoms of reactive arthritis were reported by 10% of pathogenic YE infections, 3% of YE BT 1A, and 0.3% of the controls. Eating or tasting raw or medium done pork was a significant risk factor for pathogenic YE bio/serotype infection (OR 6.6; 95% CI 1.7-24.9 as well as eating in a canteen (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.6-7.9. Imported fruits and berries were associated with increased risk of YE BT 1A finding. Conclusions The symptoms of the patients with YE BT 1A differed from yersiniosis caused by the classic pathogenic YE bio/serotypes. In addition, the patients with YE BT 1A had more protracted gastrointestinal disorders and unspecific complaints. Small children were overrepresented in classic pathogenic bio/serotypes while in BT 1A or YE-like species were not found among children younger than two years. This suggests the lacking virulence of the BT 1A strains. We can not, however, rule out the possibility that some strains of genetically heterogeneous group of BT 1A may cause an illness.

  5. Characterisation of Yersinia Secretion Apparatus--Pathogenicity Island (Ysa-PI) of Yersinia enterocolitica 1B/O8 in Poland: an Idle Ysa is a Specific Hallmark of the Epidemic Sensu Stricto Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołkowicz, Tomasz; Zacharczuk, Katarzyna; Rokosz-Chudziak, Natalia; Rastawicki, Waldemar; Gierczyński, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia secretion apparatus (Ysa), the chromosomal type three secretion system (T3SS) is considered to contribute to virulence of high-pathogenicity Yersina enterocolitica biovar 1B. DNA-sequence of Ysa pathogenicity island was determined for clinical isolate DM0110 of Y enterocolitica 1B/08 with origin in Poland. We found a premature stop-codon in the regulatory gene ysrR (mutation at position 269). Altered ysrR was detected in all tested 78 isolates of Y enterocolitica 1B/O8 collected from clinical samples in Poland from 2004 to 2013. Since aberrations in YsrR are considered to inactivate Ysa, our findings may suggest Ysa is not indispensable for Y enterocolitica 1B/O8 to infect humans.

  6. Yersinia enterocolitica in Diagnostic Fecal Samples from European Dogs and Cats: Identification by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Stamm, Ivonne; Hailer, Mandy; Depner, Barbara; Kopp, Peter A.; Rau, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is the main cause of yersiniosis in Europe, one of the five main bacterial gastrointestinal diseases of humans. Beside pigs, companion animals, especially dogs and cats, were repeatedly discussed in the past as a possible source of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. To investigate the presence and types of Y. enterocolitica in companion animals, a total of 4,325 diagnostic fecal samples from dogs and 2,624 samples from cats were tested. The isolates obtained were differenti...

  7. Comparative analysis of the Photorhabdus luminescens and the Yersinia enterocolitica genomes: uncovering candidate genes involved in insect pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs Thilo M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photorhabdus luminescens and Yersinia enterocolitica are both enteric bacteria which are associated with insects. P. luminescens lives in symbiosis with soil nematodes and is highly pathogenic towards insects but not to humans. In contrast, Y. enterocolitica is widely found in the environment and mainly known to cause gastroenteritis in men, but has only recently been shown to be also toxic for insects. It is expected that both pathogens share an overlap of genetic determinants that play a role within the insect host. Results A selective genome comparison was applied. Proteins belonging to the class of two-component regulatory systems, quorum sensing, universal stress proteins, and c-di-GMP signalling have been analysed. The interorganismic synopsis of selected regulatory systems uncovered common and distinct signalling mechanisms of both pathogens used for perception of signals within the insect host. Particularly, a new class of LuxR-like regulators was identified, which might be involved in detecting insect-specific molecules. In addition, the genetic overlap unravelled a two-component system that is unique for the genera Photorhabdus and Yersinia and is therefore suggested to play a major role in the pathogen-insect relationship. Our analysis also highlights factors of both pathogens that are expressed at low temperatures as encountered in insects in contrast to higher (body temperature, providing evidence that temperature is a yet under-investigated environmental signal for bacterial adaptation to various hosts. Common degradative metabolic pathways are described that might be used to explore nutrients within the insect gut or hemolymph, thus enabling the proliferation of P. luminescens and Y. enterocolitica in their invertebrate hosts. A strikingly higher number of genes encoding insecticidal toxins and other virulence factors in P. luminescens compared to Y. enterocolitica correlates with the higher virulence of P

  8. The genus Yersinia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prpic, J.K.; Davey, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the Fourth International symposium on Yersinia. The topics covered include: Cloning and use of Vwa plasmid DNA as gene probes for virulent Yersiniae; Studies on the role of virulence determinants of Yersinia enterocolitica in gnotobiotic piglets; and significance of specific IgA antibodies in infections due to Yersinia enterocolitica and their complications.

  9. Development of an LPS-based ELISA for diagnosis of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 infections in Danish patients: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Tine; Rasmussen, Eva; Schiellerup, Peter; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki

    2017-05-25

    The bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica causes gastroenteritis in humans. The study aimed to develop a diagnostic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 LPS antibodies in sera from Danish patients with suspected Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 gastrointestinal infection. As a part of this, antibody decay profiles after culture confirmed Yersinia enteritis were studied. An ELISA using Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 LPS as the coating antigen was developed for measuring IgA, IgG and IgM specific antibodies. A longitudinal collection of 220 sera drawn between 20 and 1053 days after onset of symptoms from 85 adult Danish patients with verified Yersinia enteritis were examined. A control group of 100 sera from healthy Danish blood-donors were analysed in order to determine the cut-off for interpretation of results. Serum samples from 62 out of 81 patients who delivered either the first or the second sample were found positive for specific antibodies against Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 LPS (77%). For samples collected within 60 days after onset of symptoms (n = 48) sensitivities of 58%, 42% and 79% for IgA, IgG and IgM antibodies were found. A sensitivity of 81% was found for these samples when using the definition of a positive result in either IgA, IgG or IgM as a combined positive. All samples received up to 36 days after onset of symptoms (n = 10) were found to be positive using this definition. For the period 61 to 90 days after onset of symptoms (n = 32), a combined sensitivity of 63% was found. The antibody levels as well as decay profiles for the three different immunoglobulin classes for the individual patients exhibited a large degree of variation. Using a definition of positive as a positive result for either IgA, IgG or IgM antibodies, a diagnostic sensitivity of 81% was achieved for samples received within 60 days after onset of symptoms. In particular, the levels of specific IgM antibodies were elevated. In

  10. Determining the prevalence of inv-positive and ail-positive Yersinia enterocolitica in pig tonsils using PCR and culture methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelska, Milena Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Yersiniosis is believed to be the third most common intestinal zoonosis in the European Union, after campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis. Yersinia enterocolitica is the most common species responsible for human infections. Pigs are regarded as the biggest reservoir of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, which are mainly isolated from pig tonsils. The aim of this paper is to examine the prevalence of inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica in pigs which were slaughtered in a Polish abattoir. Real-time PCR and culture methods were used to assess the prevalence of patho- genic Y. enterocolitica strains in pig tonsils. Real-time PCR was applied to detect inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica. Y. enterocolitica was also isolated by applying direct plating, unselective (tryptic soy broth) and selective (irgasan-ticarcillin-potassium chlorate bouillon) enrichment. A total of 180 pigs were studied, of which 85% and 32% respectively were found to be infected with inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica. The 92 inv-positive and ail-positive isolates, from 57 culture- positive tonsils, underwent bio- and serotyping. The most common was bioserotype 4/O:3, which was found in 53 (93%) out of 57 culture-positive tonsils. Strains of bioserotypes 2/O:5, 2/O:9 and 2/O:5.27 occurred in significantly lower numbers. The prevalence of inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica was found to be high in the ton- sils of slaughtered pigs, using real-time PCR. The real-time PCR method for the detection and identification of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica is sensitive and specific, which has been verified by specificity and sensitivity tests using the pure cultures. Serotypes were distinguished from each other using PCR serotyping. The PCR method was essential in forming our conclusions.

  11. Serological discrimination by indirect enzyme immunoassay between the antibody response to Brucella sp and Yersinia enterocolitica O : 9 in cattle and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.; Smith, P.; Yu, W.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid, inexpensive and rugged serological test that distinguishes cattle and swine infected with Brucella sp. or Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 is described. The test protocol, which is an indirect enzyme immunoassay uses a high concentration of divalent cation chelating agents to minimize binding...... with Brucella sp. Sera from 58 cattle and 38 swine exposed to Y. enterocolitica O:9 were negative while only 20 sera from 121 'false positive' reactors of unspecified origin gave low level positive reactions, eliminating 84% of the false positive reactions. Crown...

  12. Cell-mediated immune responses differentiate infections with Brucella suis from Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O : 9 in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Jungersen, Gregers

    2007-01-01

    Due to almost identical lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigens, infections with Yersinia enterocolitica serotype 0:9 (YeO:9) cause false positive serological reactions (FPSR) in tests for Brucella and thus cause problems in National Brucella surveillance programs. As LPS are strong inducers...... of antibody responses it was hypothesized that cell-mediated immune responses to non-LPS antigens of the two bacteria can be used to separate immune responses to these two biologically very different infections. Following subclinical experimental infections with Brucella suis biovar 2, high interferon......-gamma (IFN-gamma) assay responses with a commercial Brucella melitensis antigen preparation (Brucellergene OCB) preceded the development of antibodies. High IFN-gamma responses in the seven B. suis inoculated pigs with serological evidence of infection were consistent throughout a 20-week postinoculation...

  13. Secondary focal form of yersinia enterocolitica infection with prolonged polyarthritis in young caucasian male: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydorchuk, Aniuta S; Holyar, Oksana I; Randiuk, Yurii O; Sorokhan, Vasyl D; Sydorchuk, Leonid I; Bohachyk, Nonna A; Venglovska, Yadviga V; Sokol, Andrii M

    Current issue deals with an interesting clinical case of a rare infectious disease in a Caucasian young male patient, caused by Yersinia enterocоlitica. Infection proceeded in the development of secondary focal form, which was accompanied by prolonged polyarthritis. We described a clinical case of secondary focal form with prolonged polyarthritis caused by Y. enterocolitica O:3 serogroup in young patient with the purpose of focusing on the early clinical and laboratory diagnosistics of Yersiniosis that would minimize the role of medical errors in diagnostics made by general practitioners. This case deserves the attention of internal medicine specialists, physicians of the specialty ≪general practitioners≫, rheumatologists, infectious disease specialists taking into consideration the clinics and immunopathogenesis, as well as a high evidence of a prolonged clinical course and chronicity of this disease. It has accented on the feasibility of early serological diagnostics and etiotropic antibiotic therapy of the disease.

  14. Role of Host Type IA Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Pathway Components in Invasin-Mediated Internalization of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Georgina C; Bhalla, Manmeet; Kean, Bernard; Thomas, Rowan; Ireton, Keith

    2016-06-01

    Many bacterial pathogens subvert mammalian type IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in order to induce their internalization into host cells. How PI3K promotes internalization is not well understood. Also unclear is whether type IA PI3K affects different pathogens through similar or distinct mechanisms. Here, we performed an RNA interference (RNAi)-based screen to identify components of the type IA PI3K pathway involved in invasin-mediated entry of Yersinia enterocolitica, an enteropathogen that causes enteritis and lymphadenitis. The 69 genes targeted encode known upstream regulators or downstream effectors of PI3K. A similar RNAi screen was previously performed with the food-borne bacterium Listeria monocytogenes The results of the screen with Y. enterocolitica indicate that at least nine members of the PI3K pathway are needed for invasin-mediated entry. Several of these proteins, including centaurin-α1, Dock180, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Grp1, LL5α, LL5β, and PLD2 (phospholipase D2), were recruited to sites of entry. In addition, centaurin-α1, FAK, PLD2, and mTOR were required for remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton during entry. Six of the human proteins affecting invasin-dependent internalization also promote InlB-mediated entry of L. monocytogenes Our results identify several host proteins that mediate invasin-induced effects on the actin cytoskeleton and indicate that a subset of PI3K pathway components promote internalization of both Y. enterocolitica and L. monocytogenes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Unique Cell Adhesion and Invasion Properties of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3, the Most Frequent Cause of Human Yersiniosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliczka, Frank; Pisano, Fabio; Schaake, Julia; Stolz, Tatjana; Rohde, Manfred; Fruth, Angelika; Strauch, Eckhard; Skurnik, Mikael; Batzilla, Julia; Rakin, Alexander; Heesemann, Jürgen; Dersch, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Many enteric pathogens are equipped with multiple cell adhesion factors which are important for host tissue colonization and virulence. Y. enterocolitica, a common food-borne pathogen with invasive properties, uses the surface proteins invasin and YadA for host cell binding and entry. In this study, we demonstrate unique cell adhesion and invasion properties of Y. enterocolitica serotype O:3 strains, the most frequent cause of human yersiniosis, and show that these differences are mainly attributable to variations affecting the function and expression of invasin in response to temperature. In contrast to other enteric Yersinia strains, invasin production in O:3 strains is constitutive and largely enhanced compared to other Y. enterocolitica serotypes, in which invA expression is temperature-regulated and significantly reduced at 37°C. Increase of invasin levels is caused by (i) an IS1667 insertion into the invA promoter region, which includes an additional promoter and RovA and H-NS binding sites, and (ii) a P98S substitution in the invA activator protein RovA rendering the regulator less susceptible to proteolysis. Both variations were shown to influence bacterial colonization in a murine infection model. Furthermore, we found that co-expression of YadA and down-regulation of the O-antigen at 37°C is required to allow efficient internalization by the InvA protein. We conclude that even small variations in the expression of virulence factors can provoke a major difference in the virulence properties of closely related pathogens which may confer better survival or a higher pathogenic potential in a certain host or host environment. PMID:21750675

  16. Human and Animal Isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica Show Significant Serotype-Specific Colonization and Host-Specific Immune Defense Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaake, Julia; Kronshage, Malte; Uliczka, Frank; Rohde, Manfred; Knuuti, Tobias; Strauch, Eckhard; Fruth, Angelika; Wos-Oxley, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a human pathogen that is ubiquitous in livestock, especially pigs. The bacteria are able to colonize the intestinal tract of a variety of mammalian hosts, but the severity of induced gut-associated diseases (yersiniosis) differs significantly between hosts. To gain more information about the individual virulence determinants that contribute to colonization and induction of immune responses in different hosts, we analyzed and compared the interactions of different human- and animal-derived isolates of serotypes O:3, O:5,27, O:8, and O:9 with murine, porcine, and human intestinal cells and macrophages. The examined strains exhibited significant serotype-specific cell binding and entry characteristics, but adhesion and uptake into different host cells were not host specific and were independent of the source of the isolate. In contrast, survival and replication within macrophages and the induced proinflammatory response differed between murine, porcine, and human macrophages, suggesting a host-specific immune response. In fact, similar levels of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) were secreted by murine bone marrow-derived macrophages with all tested isolates, but the equivalent interleukin-8 (IL-8) response of porcine bone marrow-derived macrophages was strongly serotype specific and considerably lower in O:3 than in O:8 strains. In addition, all tested Y. enterocolitica strains caused a considerably higher level of secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by porcine than by murine macrophages. This could contribute to limiting the severity of the infection (in particular of serotype O:3 strains) in pigs, which are the primary reservoir of Y. enterocolitica strains pathogenic to humans. PMID:23959720

  17. Sensitive in situ monitoring of a recombinant bioluminescent Yersinia enterocolitica reporter mutant in real time on Camembert cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Ariel; Mayr, Ralf; Bresolin, Geraldine; Neuhaus, Klaus; Francis, Kevin P; Scherer, Siegfried

    2002-11-01

    Bioluminescent mutants of Yersinia enterocolitica were generated by transposon mutagenesis using a promoterless, complete lux operon (luxCDABE) derived from Photorhabdus luminescens, and their production of light in the cheese environment was monitored. Mutant B94, which had the lux cassette inserted into an open reading frame of unknown function was used for direct monitoring of Y. enterocolitica cells on cheeses stored at 10 degrees C by quantifying bioluminescence using a photon-counting, intensified charge-coupled device camera. The detection limit on cheese was 200 CFU/cm(2). Bioluminescence of the reporter mutant was significantly regulated by its environment (NaCl, temperature, and cheese), as well as by growth phase, via the promoter the lux operon had acquired upon transposition. At low temperatures, mutant B94 did not exhibit the often-reported decrease of photon emission in older cells. It was not necessary to include either antibiotics or aldehyde in the food matrix in order to gain quantitative, reproducible bioluminescence data. As far as we know, this is the first time a pathogen has been monitored in situ, in real time, in a "real-product" status, and at a low temperature.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the haem-binding protein HemS from Yersinia enterocolitica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Sabine; Paoli, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    The haem binding protein HemS from Y. enterocolitica has been crystallized in complex with its ligand. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.6 Å in-house. Bacteria have evolved strategies to acquire iron from their environment. Pathogenic microbes rely on specialized proteins to ‘steal’ haem from their host and use it as an iron source. HemS is the ultimate recipient of a molecular-relay system for haem uptake in Gram-negative species, functioning as the cytosolic carrier of haem. Soluble expression and high-quality diffraction crystals were obtained for HemS from Yersinia enterocolitica. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.86, b = 77.45, c = 114.09 Å, and diffract X-rays to 2.6 Å spacing in-house. Determination of the structure of the haem–HemS complex will reveal the molecular basis of haem binding

  19. Genotyping of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains from clinical and nonclinical origins by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campioni, Fábio; Falcão, Juliana P

    2014-06-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A (B1A) strains are considered mainly nonpathogenic. However, some studies considered strains of this biotype to be the causal agents of infections in humans and animals. In South America, there are no studies that have compared clinical and nonclinical strains of B1A typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and none that have compared the capability of different enzymes on typing these strains. This study typed 51 Y. enterocolitica B1A strains isolated in Brazil and Chile by PFGE, testing the enzymes XbaI, NotI, and XhoI. The resulting dendrograms discriminated the strains in 47, 40, and 49 pulsotypes generated by the cleavage with the enzymes XbaI, NotI, and XhoI, respectively. The majority of the strains were grouped independently of their clinical or nonclinical origins. The high discriminatory power of PFGE confirmed the heterogeneity of B1A strains but could not divide the strains studied into clusters that differed in the frequency of some virulence genes as observed in studies using other methodologies.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the haem-binding protein HemS from Yersinia enterocolitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Sabine; Paoli, Massimo, E-mail: max.paoli@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Pharmacy and Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    The haem binding protein HemS from Y. enterocolitica has been crystallized in complex with its ligand. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.6 Å in-house. Bacteria have evolved strategies to acquire iron from their environment. Pathogenic microbes rely on specialized proteins to ‘steal’ haem from their host and use it as an iron source. HemS is the ultimate recipient of a molecular-relay system for haem uptake in Gram-negative species, functioning as the cytosolic carrier of haem. Soluble expression and high-quality diffraction crystals were obtained for HemS from Yersinia enterocolitica. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.86, b = 77.45, c = 114.09 Å, and diffract X-rays to 2.6 Å spacing in-house. Determination of the structure of the haem–HemS complex will reveal the molecular basis of haem binding.

  1. Prevalence, characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica and Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at slaughter in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, Silvia; Bassi, Luca; Brindani, Franco; D'Incau, Mario; Barco, Lisa; Carra, Elena; Pongolini, Stefano

    2013-05-15

    In 2005-2008, 1152 samples (451 faecal samples, 451 carcass swabs and 250 tonsils) were collected from 451 finishing pigs slaughtered in three abattoirs of northern Italy. In two abattoirs, 34 scalding water samples were collected. The aim of this study was to investigate the faecal and palatine tonsil carriage rate of Salmonella enterica and Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at slaughter and the degree of carcass contamination by these bacteria. Typing of the isolates, virulence characterization and antimicrobial testing were also performed. S. enterica was isolated from 21.5% of the faecal samples, 10.9% of the carcasses and 10.4% of the tonsils, but not from scalding water. Nineteen different serovars were identified among 172 S. enterica isolates. The prevalent serovars were Derby (41.3%), Rissen (12.2%), Typhimurium (11%), 4,[5],12:i:- (8.7%) and Give (4.1%). S. enterica ser. Typhimurium and S. enterica ser. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates were phage-typed and PT DT120 was the most common (23.5%). Y. enterocolitica was detected in 17.1% of the faecal samples, 2.4% of the carcasses, 10.8% of the tonsils and 11.8% of the scalding water samples. A total of 119 isolates were found, four of them in water. Of the 115 Y. enterocolitica isolates of pig origin, 24 (20.9%) were 4/O:3 and 4 (3.5%) were 2/O:9. Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 represented 85.7% of the pathogenic isolates found in all types of samples and 100% of those found in tonsils. In 4/O:3 isolates the most common virulence-associated genes were ystA (100%), inv (95.8%), ail (87.5%) and yadA (54.2%). In 2/O:9 isolates the prevalent genes were ail (100%), inv (100%) and ystA (100%), followed by ystB (25.0%). The majority (75.7%) of Y. enterocolitica isolates was biotype 1A, belonging to 13 serotypes (O:3; O:5; O:4,32-4,33; O:6,30-6,31; O:7,8-8; O:7,8-8-8,19; O:7,13; O:8; O:9; O:13; O:16-16,29; O:41,42-41,43; O:52). The most common virulence genes in 1A isolates were inv (95.4%) and ystB (72.4%). The antimicrobial

  2. Detection, enumeration and characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 in pig tonsils at slaughter in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, Silvia; Alpigiani, Irene; Pongolini, Stefano; Morganti, Marina; Tagliabue, Silvia; Bacci, Cristina; Brindani, Franco

    2014-05-02

    Tonsils from 150 pigs slaughtered at 270 days or older were tested for Yersinia enterocolitica with different cultural methods. Samples were collected in three different abattoirs of Northern Italy between April and November 2012 and were analysed by direct plating on cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar and by enrichment procedures following the ISO 10273:2003 reference method. Twenty-three (15.3%) samples were positive: 22 tonsils (14.7%) were positive for human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 4/O:3 and one tonsil (0.7%) for Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 1A/7,8-8,8,19. Seventeen samples out of 23 (73.9%) were positive by direct plating method. Among the enrichment procedures, the best recovery rate (8 positives out of 23; 34.8%) was obtained by the two-day enrichment in peptone-sorbitol-bile (PSB) broth followed by plating on CIN agar plates. The two-day enrichment in PSB followed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) treatment before plating onto CIN agar gave 7 positives out of 23 (30.4%), decreasing to 3 positives (13.0%) without KOH treatment. The worst results were obtained by prolonged (five days) enrichment in PSB, with or without KOH treatment, followed by plating on CIN agar: 4.3% (1 out of 23) and 0.0% recovery rates, respectively. The mean concentration was 1.9 × 10(4)CFU/g, with a minimum of 1.0 × 10(2)CFU/g and a maximum of 5.8 × 10(4)CFU/g, thus demonstrating that tonsils may play an important role in contamination of pluck sets, carcasses, and slaughterhouse environment. Prevalence of virulence genes among the Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates was as follows: 12/22 (54.5%) for yadA, 21/22 (95.5%) for ail, 21/22 (95.5%) for inv and 22/22 (100%) for ystA. All Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime and resistant to ampicillin and cephalotin. High proportions of 4/O:3 isolates (95%) were sensitive to cefotaxime, gentamicin, kanamicin and nalidixic acid. High levels of

  3. Ausência de Yersinia enterocolitica em alimentos, e reservatórios animais, em áreas do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Tereza Cristina Arcanjo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Através das análises efetuadas, em 96 amostras de hortaliças cruas, coletadas em 5 restaurantes da cidade do Recife, que servem almoço no peso, não foram encontradas Yersinia enterocolitica nem outras enterobactérias patogênicas. As análises realizadas a partir dos "swabs" orais e retais, obtidos em 15 suínos aparentemente sadios do município de Bonito, no Estado de Pernambuco, também não evidenciaram a presença de Y. enterocolitica. Foram obtidas amostras para análises em 22 roedores e um espécimen de marsupial, entre os quais também não foram encontrados nem Y. enterocolitica nem outros enteropatógenos.

  4. THE ROLE OF PIGS AS PHARYNGEAL CARRIERS OF HUMAN PATHOGENIC YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D’Incau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available From March 2007 to January 2008, a total of 170 pigs at slaughter were tested for Y. enterocolitica contamination in tonsils tissue. The animals came from 125 different farms located in four regions of Northern Italy. Y. enterocolitica was isolated from 19 out of 170 (11.2% tonsils samples. The prevalent bio-serotype (68.4% was 4/O:3, followed by bioserotypes 1A/O:8 (15.8%, 1A/O:5 (10.5% and 4/O:8 (5.2%. Among bio-serotype 4/O:3, several strains possessed yadA, ail and ystA virulence genes.

  5. Fontes de contaminação de Yersinia enterocolitica durante a produção de leite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Tavares

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivou-se determinar as possíveis fontes de contaminação de Yersinia enterocolitica em diferentes pontos do processo de ordenha de vacas leiteiras em oito propriedades da região de Pelotas, RS, ao longo de um ano. Foram analisadas amostras de leite cru de conjunto logo após a ordenha, água de estábulo leiteiro, mão de ordenhador, balde de recolhimento do leite e insuflador de teteiras. As amostras de leite cru e água foram coletadas em frascos estéreis, e as amostras de mão, balde e teteiras com zaragatoas estéreis. As amostras de leite cru foram submetidas a um pré-enriquecimento em água peptonada, sendo posteriormente incubadas em caldo PSTA, adicionado de ampicilina. As amostras de água foram filtradas em membrana de éster de celulose e incubadas em caldo TSB. As amostras de leite após incubação em PSTA, as membranas utilizadas na filtragem da água incubadas em TSB, bem como o material de mãos, balde e teteiras coletadas nas zaragatoas, foram semeados em ágar MacConkey e incubados para a obtenção de colônias. Colônias características foram analisadas por meio de duplex PCR para confirmação da espécie. Os perfis moleculares dos isolados de Y. enterocolitica foram comparados utilizando-se a técnica de rep-PCR. Y. enterocolitica foi isolada de 9,37% das amostras de leite, 6,25% das amostras de água e 12,5% das amostras de mão. Não houve similaridade no perfil de bandas dos isolados encontrados, entretanto foi identificada a presença de cepas diferentes na mesma amostra, demonstrando uma variedade grande de cepas distribuídas no ambiente. A presença de Y. enterocolitica em leite cru no Brasil é preocupante, já que uma quantidade considerável do produto ainda é comercializada de forma clandestina, expondo o consumidor ao risco de infecção pela bactéria, ao consumi-lo sem tratamento térmico adequado.

  6. The Yersinia enterocolitica type three secretion chaperone SycO is integrated into the Yop regulatory network and binds to the Yop secretion protein YscM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heesemann Jürgen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogenic yersiniae (Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica share a virulence plasmid encoding a type three secretion system (T3SS. This T3SS comprises more than 40 constituents. Among these are the transport substrates called Yops (Yersinia outer proteins, the specific Yop chaperones (Sycs, and the Ysc (Yop secretion proteins which form the transport machinery. The effectors YopO and YopP are encoded on an operon together with SycO, the chaperone of YopO. The characterization of SycO is the focus of this study. Results We have established the large-scale production of recombinant SycO in its outright form. We confirm that Y. enterocolitica SycO forms homodimers which is typical for Syc chaperones. SycO overproduction in Y. enterocolitica decreases secretion of Yops into the culture supernatant suggesting a regulatory role of SycO in type III secretion. We demonstrate that in vitro SycO interacts with YscM1, a negative regulator of Yop expression in Y. enterocolitica. However, the SycO overproduction phenotype was not mediated by YscM1, YscM2, YopO or YopP as revealed by analysis of isogenic deletion mutants. Conclusion We present evidence that SycO is integrated into the regulatory network of the Yersinia T3SS. Our picture of the Yersinia T3SS interactome is supplemented by identification of the SycO/YscM1 interaction. Further, our results suggest that at least one additional interaction partner of SycO has to be identified.

  7. Role of β1 integrins and bacterial adhesins for Yop injection into leukocytes in Yersinia enterocolitica systemic mouse infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuschle, Eva; Keller, Birgit; Siegfried, Alexandra; Manncke, Birgit; Spaeth, Tanja; Köberle, Martin; Drechsler-Hake, Doreen; Reber, Julia; Böttcher, Ralph T; Autenrieth, Stella E; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Bohn, Erwin; Schütz, Monika

    2016-02-01

    Injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into host cells by a type III secretion system is an important immune evasion mechanism of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye). In this process Ye invasin (Inv) binds directly while Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) binds indirectly via extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to β1 integrins on host cells. Although leukocytes turned out to be an important target of Yop injection by Ye, it was unclear which Ye adhesins and which leukocyte receptors are required for Yop injection. To explain this, we investigated the role of YadA, Inv and β1 integrins for Yop injection into leukocytes and their impact on the course of systemic Ye infection in mice. Ex vivo infection experiments revealed that adhesion of Ye via Inv or YadA is sufficient to promote Yop injection into leukocytes as revealed by a β-lactamase reporter assay. Serum factors inhibit YadA- but not Inv-mediated Yop injection into B and T cells, shifting YadA-mediated Yop injection in the direction of neutrophils and other myeloid cells. Systemic Ye mouse infection experiments demonstrated that YadA is essential for Ye virulence and Yop injection into leukocytes, while Inv is dispensable for virulence and plays only a transient and minor role for Yop injection in the early phase of infection. Ye infection of mice with β1 integrin-depleted leukocytes demonstrated that β1 integrins are dispensable for YadA-mediated Yop injection into leukocytes, but contribute to Inv-mediated Yop injection. Despite reduced Yop injection into leukocytes, β1 integrin-deficient mice exhibited an increased susceptibility for Ye infection, suggesting an important role of β1 integrins in immune defense against Ye. This study demonstrates that Yop injection into leukocytes by Ye is largely mediated by YadA exploiting, as yet unknown, leukocyte receptors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Ileitis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica - X-ray differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingg, G.; Hering, L.; Tanneberger, D.

    1981-01-01

    The article gives a brief description of the characteristic features of the clinical and roentgenological course and the various stages of enteritis caused by Yersinia. Basing on three cases of ileitis caused by Yersinia, the far-reaching similarity with the early changes and even the advanced stages of Crohn's diseases are demonstrated. Attention is drawn to the possibilities of differentiating between the two disease patterns. (orig.) [de

  9. Ileitis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica - X-ray differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingg, G.; Hering, L.; Tanneberger, D.

    1981-12-01

    The article gives a brief description of the characteristic features of the clinical and roentgenological course and the various stages of enteritis caused by Yersinia. Basing on three cases of ileitis caused by Yersinia, the far-reaching similarity with the early changes and even the advanced stages of Crohn's diseases are demonstrated. Attention is drawn to the possibilities of differentiating between the two disease patterns.

  10. Detection of biofilm production of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from infected children and comparative antimicrobial susceptibility of biofilm versus planktonic forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, A; Kyratsa, A; Ioannidou, V; Bersimis, S; Chatzipanagiotou, S

    2014-06-01

    The ability of Yersinia species to produce biofilms has not been hitherto systematically studied, although there is evidence, that Y. enterocolitica is able to form biofilms on inanimate surfaces. The present study aimed to detect the production of biofilms by 60 clinical strains of Y. enterocolitica and to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility of planktonic versus biofilm-forming bacteria. Y. enterocolitica strains were collected from stool and blood cultures collected from β-thalassaemic children, with gastroenteritis and/or septicemia. The isolated bacterial strains were grouped by biotyping and serotyping and the antimicrobial susceptibility of the planktonic forms was investigated by MIC determination. Biofilm formation was detected by the use of silicone disks and for the biofilm forming strains the minimum inhibitory concentration for bacterial regrowth (MICBR) of 11 clinically important antimicrobials was determined. The presence of the waaE, a gene reported to be related with biofilm formation was investigated in all the strains. All of 60 strains were positive for biofilm production by the use of silicone disks. The great majority of the biofilm forms were resistant to all the antimicrobials. In antimicrobial concentrations far higher than the CLSI breakpoints, bacterial regrowth from the biofilms was still possible. None of the strains bore the waaE gene. These results, indicate that biofilm formation by Y. enterocolitica might be an inherent feature. The presence of biofilms increased dramatically the MICBR in all antimicrobials. The way in which biofilms could contribute to Y. enterocolitica pathogenicity in humans is a matter needing further investigation.

  11. MARCADORES DE PATOGENICIDADE EM Yersinia enterocolitica O: 3 ISOLADAS DE SUÍNOS DO RIO DE JANEIRO Genetic markers of pathogenicity in Yersinia enterocolitica O: 3 isolated from healthy pigs from Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C. A. Leal

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada a caracterização genotípica e fenotípica de fatores de patogenicidade em 16 amostras de Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 isoladas de suínos sadios do Rio de Janeiro. Foi observado que apenas 6 cepas possuíam o plasmídio de virulência, pYV (+ 70 kb e apresentavam dependência ao cálcio no meio MOX a 37C. Um plasmídio críptico de cerca de 8,6 kb foi encontrado em uma cepa. Doze cepas revelaram sensibilidade à pesticina enquanto que apenas três se revelaram capazes de hidrolisar a esculina. Através de PCR com "primers" específicos, foi constatada a presença dos genes ail em 14 cepas, irp2, em 1 cepa e a ausência de psaA em todas as cepas analisadas. Quanto aos quimioterápicos, a quase totalidade das cepas mostrou-se ao mesmo tempo resistente à ampicilina e carbenicilina e sensível ao sulfazotrin e à cefoxitina. As respostas foram variadas frente ao cloranfenicol, tetraciclina, kanamicina, gentamicina e ácido nalidíxo.Sixteen Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3 strains, isolated from pigs from Rio de Janeiro, have been analyzed for genetic and phenotypic markers of pathogenicity. It was observed that only 6 strains harbored the pYV (+70 kb plasmid and one strain harbored a small cryptic plasmid of about 8.6 kb. Accordingly only strains harboring pYV were calcium dependent in the MOX medium at 370C. Twelve strains showed pesticin sensitivity and the esculin reaction was negative in 13 strains. PCR analysis of pathogenicity genes using specific primers showed the presence of the ail gene in 14 strains, the irp2 gene in one and the psaA in none. Most of the strains were resistant to ampicillin and carbenicillin, although they were susceptible to sulfazotrin and cefoxitin. For chloramphenicol, tetracycline, kanamycin, gentamicin and nalidixic acid the results varied among the strains.

  12. Detection of Yersinia Enterocolitica Species in Pig Tonsils and Raw Pork Meat by the Real-Time Pcr and Culture Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelska, M A

    2017-09-26

    The aim of the present study was to establish a rapid and accurate real-time PCR method to detect pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in pork. Yersinia enterocolitica is considered to be a crucial zoonosis, which can provoke diseases both in humans and animals. The classical culture methods designated to detect Y. enterocolitica species in food matrices are often very time-consuming. The chromosomal locus _tag CH49_3099 gene, that appears in pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, was applied as DNA target for the 5' nuclease PCR protocol. The probe was labelled at the 5' end with the fluorescent reporter dye (FAM) and at the 3' end with the quencher dye (TAMRA). The real-time PCR cycling parameters included 41 cycles. A Ct value which reached a value higher than 40 constituted a negative result. The developed for the needs of this study qualitative real-time PCR method appeared to give very specific and reliable results. The detection rate of locus _tag CH49_3099 - positive Y. enterocolitica in 150 pig tonsils was 85 % and 32 % with PCR and culture methods, respectively. Both the Real-time PCR results and culture method results were obtained from material that was enriched during overnight incubation. The subject of the study were also raw pork meat samples. Among 80 samples examined, 7 ones were positive when real-time PCR was applied, and 6 ones were positive when classical culture method was applied. The application of molecular techniques based on the analysis of DNA sequences such as the Real-time PCR enables to detect this pathogenic bacteria very rapidly and with higher specificity, sensitivity and reliability in comparison to classical culture methods.

  13. Pathogenic strains of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) belonging to farmers are of the same subtype as pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from humans and may be a source of human infection in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cui, Zhigang; Wang, Hua; Tang, Liuying; Yang, Jinchuan; Gu, Ling; Jin, Dong; Luo, Longze; Qiu, Haiyan; Xiao, Yuchun; Xiong, Haiping; Kan, Biao; Xu, Jianguo; Jing, Huaiqi

    2010-05-01

    We isolated 326 Yersinia enterocolitica strains from 5,919 specimens from patients with diarrhea at outpatient clinics, livestock, poultry, wild animals, insect vectors, food, and the environment in the cities of Nantong and Xuzhou in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2004 to 2008. The results showed that the 12 pathogenic strains were of the O:3 serotype. Six strains were isolated from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) belonging to farmers and were found to be the primary carriers of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, especially in Xuzhou. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the pathogenic strains from dogs belonging to farmers showed that they shared the same patterns as strains from diarrhea patients isolated in 1994. This indicates that the strains from domestic dogs have a close correlation with the strains causing human infections.

  14. Role of IFN-gamma and IL-6 in a protective immune response to Yersinia enterocolitica in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autenrieth Ingo B

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia outer protein (Yop H is a secreted virulence factor of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye, which inhibits phagocytosis of Ye and contributes to the virulence of Ye in mice. The aim of this study was to address whether and how YopH affects the innate immune response to Ye in mice. Results For this purpose, mice were infected with wild type Ye (pYV+ or a YopH-deficient Ye mutant strain (ΔyopH. CD11b+ cells were isolated from the infected spleen and subjected to gene expression analysis using microarrays. Despite the attenuation of ΔyopH in vivo, by variation of infection doses we were able to achieve conditions that allow comparison of gene expression in pYV+ and ΔyopH infection, using either comparable infection courses or splenic bacterial burden. Gene expression analysis provided evidence that expression levels of several immune response genes, including IFN-γ and IL-6, are high after pYV+ infection but low after sublethal ΔyopH infection. In line with these findings, infection of IFN-γR-/- and IL-6-/- mice with pYV+ or ΔyopH revealed that these cytokines are not necessarily required for control of ΔyopH, but are essential for defense against infection with the more virulent pYV+. Consistently, IFN-γ pretreatment of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM strongly enhanced their ability in killing intracellular Ye bacteria. Conclusion In conclusion, this data suggests that IFN-γ-mediated effector mechanisms can partially compensate virulence exerted by YopH. These results shed new light on the protective role of IFN-γ in Ye wild type infections.

  15. Yersinia enterocolitica targets cells of the innate and adaptive immune system by injection of Yops in a mouse infection model.

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    Martin Köberle

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye evades the immune system of the host by injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops via a type three secretion system into host cells. In this study, a reporter system comprising a YopE-beta-lactamase hybrid protein and a fluorescent staining sensitive to beta-lactamase cleavage was used to track Yop injection in cell culture and in an experimental Ye mouse infection model. Experiments with GD25, GD25-beta1A, and HeLa cells demonstrated that beta1-integrins and RhoGTPases play a role for Yop injection. As demonstrated by infection of splenocyte suspensions in vitro, injection of Yops appears to occur randomly into all types of leukocytes. In contrast, upon infection of mice, Yop injection was detected in 13% of F4/80(+, 11% of CD11c(+, 7% of CD49b(+, 5% of Gr1(+ cells, 2.3% of CD19(+, and 2.6% of CD3(+ cells. Taking the different abundance of these cell types in the spleen into account, the highest total number of Yop-injected cells represents B cells, particularly CD19(+CD21(+CD23(+ follicular B cells, followed by neutrophils, dendritic cells, and macrophages, suggesting a distinct cellular tropism of Ye. Yop-injected B cells displayed a significantly increased expression of CD69 compared to non-Yop-injected B cells, indicating activation of these cells by Ye. Infection of IFN-gammaR (receptor- and TNFRp55-deficient mice resulted in increased numbers of Yop-injected spleen cells for yet unknown reasons. The YopE-beta-lactamase hybrid protein reporter system provides new insights into the modulation of host cell and immune responses by Ye Yops.

  16. RAPD-PCR typing of Yersinia enterocolitica (Enterobacteriaceae O:3 serotype strains isolated from pigs and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina A. Leal

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen strains of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3, isolated from apparently healthy pigs collected in Rio de Janeiro, and four human strains of serotypes O:4, O:5, O:6 and O:13 were analyzed by RAPD-PCR. The strains were grouped into five genotypic profiles according to the amplification patterns obtained with three random primers. Fifteen of the 16 pig strains had identical amplification patterns, which was named genotypic profile 1. The one different profile was named genotypic profile 2. Genotypic profile 1 was also exhibited by the O:6 human serotype strain. The O:4 and O:13 human serotype strains showed similar amplification profiles with two primers. However, the third primer induced a distinct profile in each strain. Therefore, these two strains were placed into genotypic profile 3 and 4, respectively. Each primer produced a completely different amplification profile in the O:5 human serotype strain; therefore, it was named genotypic profile 5. The presence or absence of plasmids in the strains studied did not affect the amplification results. These results show that genetic variations can exist within a serotype, and strains of different serotypes can exhibit the same amplification profile when compared using other primers.Foram utilizados três "primers" aleatórios para caracterizar pela técnica RAPD-PCR 16 cepas de Yersinia enterocolitica do sorotipo O:3, isoladas de suínos sadios do Rio de Janeiro. Pelos resultados dos padrões de amplificação, as 16 cepas dos suínos e as 4 cepas humanas usadas como referência (sorotipos O:4, O:5, O:6 e O:13 foram agrupadas em 5 perfis genotípicos. Quinze cepas de suínos apresentaram um padrão de amplificação idêntico (perfil genotípico 1 e somente uma apresentou um perfil de amplificação diferente (perfil genotípico 2. O mesmo padrão de amplificação do perfil genotípico 1 foi também observado em uma cepa humana do sorotipo O:6. As cepas humanas dos sorotipos O:4 e O:13

  17. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and quality changes after irradiation of beef steaks and ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, A.H.; Sebranek, J.G.; Murano, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Beef steaks and ground beef were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, or Escherichia coli O157:H7. Samples were packaged in air or under vacuum and irradiated at low (0.60 to 0.80 kGy) or medium (1.5 to 2.0 kGy) doses, with each dose delivered at either a low (2.8 M/min conveyor speed) or high (6.9 M/min) dose rate. Medium-dose irradiation accompanied by 7 degrees C storage resulted in no Y. enterocolitica or E. coli O157:H7 survivors being detected. There was no effect on survival of the pathogens by dose rate or storage atmosphere. No difference (P0.05) was observed in meat pH or color, but TBA values increased after 7 days storage

  18. In vitro susceptibility testing of Yersinia species to eight plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... wild honey, processed honey (Laser brand) and processed coffee (Nescafe) on Yersinia pesudotuberculosis, Yersinia enterocolitica 0:3, Yersinia enterocolitica 0:8, Yersinia Kristensenii 0:11, 23, Yersinia intermidia 0:52, 53, and Yersinia intermidia-like bacteria were evaluated. In this study, only processed honey did not ...

  19. The RNA chaperone Hfq impacts growth, metabolism and production of virulence factors in Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Kakoschke

    Full Text Available To adapt to changes in environmental conditions, bacteria regulate their gene expression at the transcriptional but also at the post-transcriptional level, e.g. by small RNAs (sRNAs which modulate mRNA stability and translation. The conserved RNA chaperone Hfq mediates the interaction of many sRNAs with their target mRNAs, thereby playing a global role in fine-tuning protein production. In this study, we investigated the significance of Hfq for the enteropathogen Yersina enterocolitica serotype O:8. Hfq facilitated optimal growth in complex and minimal media. Our comparative protein analysis of parental and hfq-negative strains suggested that Hfq promotes lipid metabolism and transport, cell redox homeostasis, mRNA translation and ATP synthesis, and negatively affects carbon and nitrogen metabolism, transport of siderophore and peptides and tRNA synthesis. Accordingly, biochemical tests indicated that Hfq represses ornithine decarboxylase activity, indole production and utilization of glucose, mannitol, inositol and 1,2-propanediol. Moreover, Hfq repressed production of the siderophore yersiniabactin and its outer membrane receptor FyuA. In contrast, hfq mutants exhibited reduced urease production. Finally, strains lacking hfq were more susceptible to acidic pH and oxidative stress. Unlike previous reports in other Gram-negative bacteria, Hfq was dispensable for type III secretion encoded by the virulence plasmid. Using a chromosomally encoded FLAG-tagged Hfq, we observed increased production of Hfq-FLAG in late exponential and stationary phases. Overall, Hfq has a profound effect on metabolism, resistance to stress and modulates the production of two virulence factors in Y. enterocolitica, namely urease and yersiniabactin.

  20. Multilocular Hepatic Abscess Formation and Sepsis due to Yersinia enterocolitica in a Patient with Hereditary Hemochromatosis and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Matthias Sauter

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Yersinia enterocolitica (YE typically presents with mild gastroenteritis without systemic infection. However, systemic YE infection has been described in states of iron overload. We present the case of a patient with sepsis with hepatic abscesses due to YE infection. Workup revealed a past diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and hemochromatosis which had been untreated for the previous 5 years due to patient refusal. This case highlights risk factors for systemic infection with YE. A high degree of suspicion for YE infection is warranted in patients with iron overload, diabetes mellitus, or immunosuppression.

  1. Comparison of Growth and the Cytokines Induced by Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica Bio-Serotypes 3/O: 3 and 2/O: 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haoshu; Gu, Wenpeng; Qiu, Haiyan; Sun, Guixiang; Liang, Junrong; Li, Kewei; Xiao, Yuchun; Duan, Ran; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica is widely distributed in China where the primary bio-serotypes are 3/O: 3 and 2/O: 9. Recently, the distribution of 2/O: 9 strains are being gradually replaced by 3/O: 3 strains where presently 3/O: 3 strains are the major pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in China. To identify the growth conditions and cytokines induced by Y. enterocolitica and providing some clues for this shift, we performed competitive growth in vitro and in vivo for these two bio-serotype strains; and we also compared the cytokines induced by them in infected BALB/C mice. We found 2/O: 9 strains grew more in vitro , while 3/O: 3 strains grew more in vivo regardless of using single cultures or mixed cultures. The cytokines induced by the two strains were similar: interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-9, IL-13, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), chemokines (KC), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammation protein-1α (MIP-1α), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and RANTES were statistically up-regulated upon activation of normal T cells compared to the control. The cytokine values were higher in mixed infections than in single infections except for IL-6, G-CSF, and KC. The data illustrated the different growth of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 3/O: 3 and 2/O: 9 in vitro and in vivo , and the cytokine changes induced by the two strains in infected BALB/C mice. The growth comparisons of two strains maybe reflect the higher pathogenic ability or resistance to host immune response for Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 3/O: 3 and maybe it as one of the reason for bacteria shift.

  2. Comparison of Growth and the Cytokines Induced by Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica Bio-Serotypes 3/O: 3 and 2/O: 9

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    Haoshu Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica is widely distributed in China where the primary bio-serotypes are 3/O: 3 and 2/O: 9. Recently, the distribution of 2/O: 9 strains are being gradually replaced by 3/O: 3 strains where presently 3/O: 3 strains are the major pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in China. To identify the growth conditions and cytokines induced by Y. enterocolitica and providing some clues for this shift, we performed competitive growth in vitro and in vivo for these two bio-serotype strains; and we also compared the cytokines induced by them in infected BALB/C mice. We found 2/O: 9 strains grew more in vitro, while 3/O: 3 strains grew more in vivo regardless of using single cultures or mixed cultures. The cytokines induced by the two strains were similar: interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-9, IL-13, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, chemokines (KC, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1, macrophage inflammation protein-1α (MIP-1α, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and RANTES were statistically up-regulated upon activation of normal T cells compared to the control. The cytokine values were higher in mixed infections than in single infections except for IL-6, G-CSF, and KC. The data illustrated the different growth of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 3/O: 3 and 2/O: 9 in vitro and in vivo, and the cytokine changes induced by the two strains in infected BALB/C mice. The growth comparisons of two strains maybe reflect the higher pathogenic ability or resistance to host immune response for Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 3/O: 3 and maybe it as one of the reason for bacteria shift.

  3. National outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica infections in military and civilian populations associated with consumption of mixed salad, Norway, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Emily; Einöder-Moreno, Margot; Borgen, Katrine; Thorstensen Brandal, Lin; Diab, Lore; Fossli, Øivind; Guzman Herrador, Bernardo; Hassan, Ammar Ali; Johannessen, Gro S; Johansen, Eva Jeanette; Jørgensen Kimo, Roger; Lier, Tore; Paulsen, Bjørn Leif; Popescu, Rodica; Tokle Schytte, Charlotte; Sæbø Pettersen, Kristin; Vold, Line; Ørmen, Øyvind; Wester, Astrid Louise; Wiklund, Marit; Nygård, Karin

    2016-08-25

    In May 2014, a cluster of Yersinia enterocolitica (YE) O9 infections was reported from a military base in northern Norway. Concurrently, an increase in YE infections in civilians was observed in the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases. We investigated to ascertain the extent of the outbreak and identify the source in order to implement control measures. A case was defined as a person with laboratory-confirmed YE O9 infection with the outbreak multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA)-profile (5-6-9-8-9-9). We conducted a case-control study in the military setting and calculated odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression. Traceback investigations were conducted to identify common suppliers and products in commercial kitchens frequented by cases. By 28 May, we identified 133 cases, of which 117 were linked to four military bases and 16 were civilians from geographically dispersed counties. Among foods consumed by cases, multivariable analysis pointed to mixed salad as a potential source of illness (OR 10.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-123.57). The four military bases and cafeterias visited by 14/16 civilian cases received iceberg lettuce or radicchio rosso from the same supplier. Secondary transmission cannot be eliminated as a source of infection in the military camps. The most likely source of the outbreak was salad mix containing imported radicchio rosso, due to its long shelf life. This outbreak is a reminder that fresh produce should not be discounted as a vehicle in prolonged outbreaks and that improvements are still required in the production and processing of fresh salad products. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  4. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium in meat and meat products using multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Latha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to investigate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium in meat and meat products using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. Materials and Methods: The assay combined an enrichment step in tryptic soy broth with yeast extract formulated for the simultaneous growth of target pathogens, DNA isolation and multiplex PCR. A total of 1134 samples including beef (n=349, chicken (n=325, pork (n=310, chevon (n=50, and meat products (n=100 were collected from different parts of Kerala, India. All the samples were subjected to multiplex PCR analysis and culture-based detection for the four pathogens in parallel. Results: Overall occurrence of L. monocytogenes was 0.08 % by cultural method. However, no L. monocytogenes was obtained by multiplex PCR method. Yersinia enterocolitica was obtained from beef and pork samples. A high prevalence of S. aureus (46.7% was found in all types of meat samples tested. None of the samples was positive for S. Typhimurium. Conclusion: Multiplex PCR assay used in this study can detect more than one pathogen simultaneously by amplifying more than one target gene in a single reaction, which can save time and labor cost.

  5. Antagonistic effect of chosen lactic acid bacteria strains on Yersinia enterocolitica species in model set-ups, meat and fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomółka-Pawlicka, M; Uradziński, J

    2003-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the influence of 15 strains of lactic acid bacteria on the growth of 8 Yersinia enterocolitica strains in model set-ups, and in meat and ageing fermented sausages. The investigations were performed within the framework of three alternate stages which differed in respect to the products studied, the number of Lactobacillus sp. strains and, partly, methodological approach. The ratio between lactic acid bacteria and Yersinia enterocolitica strains studied was, depending on the variant of experiment, 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1, respectively. The study also considered water activity (aw) and pH of the products investigated. The results suggest that all the lactic acid bacteria strains used within the framework of the model set-ups had antagonistic effect on all the Salmonella sp. strains. However, this ability was not observed with respect to of tested lactic acid bacteria strains in meat and fermented sausage. This ability was possessed by one of the strains investigated--Lactobacillus helveticus T 78. The temperature and time of the incubation of sausages, but not aw and pH, were found to have a distinct influence on the antagonistic interaction between the bacteria tested.

  6. Absence of YbeY RNase compromises the growth and enhances the virulence plasmid gene expression of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskinen, Katarzyna; Varjosalo, Markku; Skurnik, Mikael

    2015-02-01

    YbeY was recently recognized as an endoribonuclease playing a role in ribosome biosynthesis. In Escherichia coli it functions as a single-strand-specific RNase that processes the 3' end of the 16S rRNA and is crucial for the late-stage 70S ribosome quality control system. Here we report that YbeY is not essential in Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3, yet its absence strongly compromised the bacterium. The lack of YbeY resulted in misprocessing of 16S rRNA and a severe decrease of growth rate with complete growth arrest observed at elevated temperatures. Moreover, a ybeY mutation severely disturbed regulation of the Yersinia virulence plasmid (pYV) genes and affected the expression of regulatory small RNA species. Transcription of the pYV genes was upregulated in the ybeY mutant at 22 °C; the same genes were repressed in the wild-type bacterium. Furthermore, ybeY inactivation impaired many virulence-related features, such as resistance to elevated temperature and acid, and hindered utilization of different carbohydrates. In addition, the ybeY mutant strain showed decreased infectivity in a tissue culture infection model, especially at the stage of cell adhesion. Taken together, this study demonstrates the crucial role of YbeY in Y. enterocolitica O:3 physiology and pathogenicity. © 2015 The Authors.

  7. Effects of essential oils of oregano and nutmeg on growth and survival of Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes in barbecued chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzi, R; Shekarforoush, S S; Nazer, A H K; Borumand, Z; Jooyandeh, A R

    2007-11-01

    The in vitro effects of plant essential oils (EOs) against pathogenic bacteria are well known, yet few studies have addressed the effects of these compounds against pathogens associated with ready-to-cook foods. Experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of oregano and nutmeg EOs on the growth and survival of Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes in broth culture and in Iranian barbecued chicken. Ready-to-cook Iranian barbecued chicken was prepared according to the common practice with 1, 2, and 3 microl/g of oregano and nutmeg EOs. The test and control (without EOs) samples were inoculated with Y. enterocolitica and L. monocytogenes to a final concentration of 6 to 7 log CFU/g and stored at 3, 8, and 20 degrees C. Microorganisms were counted just before and at 24, 48, and 72 h after storage based on growth on Yersinia selective agar supplemented with cefsulodine, igrasan, and novobiocin and on Listeria selective agar supplemented with nalidixic acid and acriflavin. In the broth culture system, the nutmeg EO had a greater effect on L. monocytogenes (MIC = 0.20 nicrol/ml) than did the oregano EO (MIC = 0.26 microl/ml). However, the oregano EO had a greater effect on Y. enterocolitica (MIC = 0.16 microl/ml) than did the nutmeg EO (MIC = 0.25 microl/ml). In ready-to-cook Iranian barbecued chicken, the log CFU per gram of both bacteria after up to 72 h of incubation was not decreased significantly by various combinations of oregano and nutmeg EOs (1, 2, and 3 microl/g) and storage temperatures (3, 8, and 20 degrees C) when compared with control samples (without EOs). Although examination of spices in culture media can yield accurate microbiological data, without complementary tests in foods these data are of limited value for assessing food safety.

  8. Clinical aspects and self-reported symptoms of sequelae of Yersinia enterocolitica infections in a population-based study, Germany 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Bettina M; Werber, Dirk; Höhle, Michael; Stark, Klaus

    2013-05-23

    Foodborne Yersinia enterocolitica infections continue to be a public health problem in many countries. Consumption of raw or undercooked pork is the main risk factor for yersiniosis in Germany. Small children are most frequently affected by yersiniosis. In older children and young adults, symptoms of disease may resemble those of appendicitis and may lead to hospitalization and potentially unnecessary appendectomies. Y. enterocolitica infections may also cause sequelae such as reactive arthritis (ReA), erythema nodosum (EN), and conjunctivitis. We studied clinical aspects of yersiniosis, antimicrobial use, and self-reported occurrence of appendectomies, reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and conjunctivitis. To assess post-infectious sequelae participants of a large population-based case-control study on laboratory-confirmed Y. enterocolitica infections conducted in Germany in 2009-2010 were followed for 4 weeks. Diarrhea occurred most frequently in children ≤4 years (95%); abdominal pain in the lower right quadrant was most common in children 5-14 years of age (63%). Twenty-seven per cent of patients were hospitalized, 37% were treated with antimicrobials. In 6% of yersiniosis patients ≥5 years of age, appendectomies were performed. Self-reported symptoms consistent with ReA were reported by 12% of yersiniosis patients compared to 5% in a reference group not exposed to yersiniosis. Symptoms consistent with EN were reported by 3% of yersiniosis patients compared to 0.1% in the reference group. Symptoms of conjunctivitis occurred with the same frequency in yersiniosis patients and the reference group. Acute Y. enterocolitica infections cause considerable burden of illness with symptoms lasting for about 10 days and hospitalizations in more than a quarter of patients. The proportion of yersiniosis patients treated with antimicrobial drugs appears to be relatively high despite guidelines recommending their use only in severe cases. Appendectomies and post

  9. Clinical aspects and self-reported symptoms of sequelae of Yersinia enterocolitica infections in a population-based study, Germany 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Foodborne Yersinia enterocolitica infections continue to be a public health problem in many countries. Consumption of raw or undercooked pork is the main risk factor for yersiniosis in Germany. Small children are most frequently affected by yersiniosis. In older children and young adults, symptoms of disease may resemble those of appendicitis and may lead to hospitalization and potentially unnecessary appendectomies. Y. enterocolitica infections may also cause sequelae such as reactive arthritis (ReA), erythema nodosum (EN), and conjunctivitis. Methods We studied clinical aspects of yersiniosis, antimicrobial use, and self-reported occurrence of appendectomies, reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and conjunctivitis. To assess post-infectious sequelae participants of a large population-based case–control study on laboratory-confirmed Y. enterocolitica infections conducted in Germany in 2009–2010 were followed for 4 weeks. Results Diarrhea occurred most frequently in children ≤4 years (95%); abdominal pain in the lower right quadrant was most common in children 5–14 years of age (63%). Twenty-seven per cent of patients were hospitalized, 37% were treated with antimicrobials. In 6% of yersiniosis patients ≥5 years of age, appendectomies were performed. Self-reported symptoms consistent with ReA were reported by 12% of yersiniosis patients compared to 5% in a reference group not exposed to yersiniosis. Symptoms consistent with EN were reported by 3% of yersiniosis patients compared to 0.1% in the reference group. Symptoms of conjunctivitis occurred with the same frequency in yersiniosis patients and the reference group. Conclusions Acute Y. enterocolitica infections cause considerable burden of illness with symptoms lasting for about 10 days and hospitalizations in more than a quarter of patients. The proportion of yersiniosis patients treated with antimicrobial drugs appears to be relatively high despite guidelines recommending their use only in

  10. Isolation and survival of Yersinia enterocolitica in ice cream at different pH values, stored at -18°c Isolamento e sobrevivência de Yersinia enterocolitica em sorvetes de distintos pH, armazenados a -18°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma B. Barbini de Pederiva

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Yersinia enterocolitica was investigated in 203 samples of industrial (123 and non-industrial ice cream (80. Two Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from non-industrial ice cream, which suggests the possibility of post-manufacturing contamination. One strain was typed as B:1A, O: 3,50,51; lis Xz, while the other one was biotyped as: B:1A but not serologically typed. Survival of Y. enterocolitica was investigated by inoculating nine samples of industrially manufactured ice cream to contain 20 CFU/ml of Y. enterocolitica and stored at -18°C for 480 days. The inoculated samples were classified into three different groups according to their pH (Group 1: pH 4-5; Group 2: pH 5-6 and Group 3: pH 6-7. Viability was determined by a combination of direct plating and enrichment. In Group 1, Y. enterocolitica was not detected after 150 days of storage, while in Groups 2 and 3, this microorganism was isolated until day 480 of storage. These findings suggest that the survival time of Y. enterocolitica in ice cream stored at -18°C is significantly (p Neste estudo pesquisou-se a presença de Yersinia enterocolitica em 203 amostras de sorvetes, sendo 123 de fabricação industrial e 80 de fabricação artesanal. Isolaram-se 2 cepas a partir de sorvetes artesanais, uma das quais foi caracterizada como B:1A, O:3,50, 51; lis Xz e a outra se tipificou como Y. enterocolitica B:1A mas não se tipificou sorologicamente, o que sugere uma contaminação pós processo. Em 9 dos sorvetes de fabricação industrial de distintos pH, estudou-se a sobrevivência desse microrganismo, inoculando-os com 20 UFC/ml de Y. enterocolitica, quando armazenados durante 480 dias a -18°C. Esses sorvetes, segundo seu pH, agruparam-se em: Grupo 1: pH: 4-5, Grupo 2: pH 5-6 e Grupo 3: pH: 6-7. Determinou-se a viabilidade pelas curvas de morte usando semeadura direta e enriquecimento. Nos sorvetes do grupo 1, Y. enterocolitica só foi detectada até o 150° dia de

  11. Molecular modeling and simulation studies of recombinant laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica suggests significant role in the biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Deepti; Rawat, Surender [Laboratory of Enzymology and Recombinant DNA Technology, Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India); Waseem, Mohd; Gupta, Sunita; Lynn, Andrew [School of Computational & Integrative Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Nitin, Mukesh; Ramchiary, Nirala [School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sharma, Krishna Kant, E-mail: kekulsharma@gmail.com [Laboratory of Enzymology and Recombinant DNA Technology, Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India)

    2016-01-08

    The YacK gene from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7, cloned in pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), showed laccase activity when oxidized with 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and guaiacol. The recombinant laccase protein was purified and characterized biochemically with a molecular mass of ≈58 KDa on SDS-PAGE and showed positive zymogram with ABTS. The protein was highly robust with optimum pH 9.0 and stable at 70 °C upto 12 h with residual activity of 70%. Kinetic constants, K{sub m} values, for ABTS and guaiacol were 675 μM and 2070 μM, respectively, with corresponding Vmax values of 0.125 μmol/ml/min and 6500 μmol/ml/min. It also possess antioxidative property against BSA and Cu{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} model system. Constant pH MD simulation studies at different protonation states of the system showed ABTS to be most stable at acidic pH, whereas, diclofenac at neutral pH. Interestingly, aspirin drifted out of the binding pocket at acidic and neutral pH, but showed stable binding at alkaline pH. The biotransformation of diclofenac and aspirin by laccase also corroborated the in silico results. This is the first report on biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) using recombinant laccase from gut bacteria, supported by in silico simulation studies. - Highlights: • Laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). • Recombinant laccase was found to be thermostable and alkali tolerant. • The in silico and experimental studied proves the biotransformation of NSAIDs. • Laccase binds to ligands differentially under different protonation state. • Laccase also possesses free radical scavenging property.

  12. Molecular modeling and simulation studies of recombinant laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica suggests significant role in the biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Deepti; Rawat, Surender; Waseem, Mohd; Gupta, Sunita; Lynn, Andrew; Nitin, Mukesh; Ramchiary, Nirala; Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-01-01

    The YacK gene from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7, cloned in pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), showed laccase activity when oxidized with 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and guaiacol. The recombinant laccase protein was purified and characterized biochemically with a molecular mass of ≈58 KDa on SDS-PAGE and showed positive zymogram with ABTS. The protein was highly robust with optimum pH 9.0 and stable at 70 °C upto 12 h with residual activity of 70%. Kinetic constants, K m values, for ABTS and guaiacol were 675 μM and 2070 μM, respectively, with corresponding Vmax values of 0.125 μmol/ml/min and 6500 μmol/ml/min. It also possess antioxidative property against BSA and Cu 2+ /H 2 O 2 model system. Constant pH MD simulation studies at different protonation states of the system showed ABTS to be most stable at acidic pH, whereas, diclofenac at neutral pH. Interestingly, aspirin drifted out of the binding pocket at acidic and neutral pH, but showed stable binding at alkaline pH. The biotransformation of diclofenac and aspirin by laccase also corroborated the in silico results. This is the first report on biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) using recombinant laccase from gut bacteria, supported by in silico simulation studies. - Highlights: • Laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). • Recombinant laccase was found to be thermostable and alkali tolerant. • The in silico and experimental studied proves the biotransformation of NSAIDs. • Laccase binds to ligands differentially under different protonation state. • Laccase also possesses free radical scavenging property.

  13. Structural Variabilities in β-Lactamase (blaA of Different Biovars of Yersinia enterocolitica: Implications for β-Lactam Antibiotic and β-Lactamase Inhibitor Susceptibilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelja Singhal

    Full Text Available Yersiniosis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica has been reported from all continents. The bacterial species is divided into more than fifty serovars and six biovars viz. 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4 and 5 which differ in geographical distribution, ecological niches and pathogenicity. Most Y.enterocolitica strains harbor chromosomal genes for two β-lactamases, blaA an Ambler class A penicillinase and blaB an Ambler class C inducible cephalosporinase. In the present study, susceptibility to b-lactam antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitor was studied for Y. enterocolitica strains of biovars 1A, 1B, 2 and 4. We observed that β-lactamases were expressed differentially among strains of different biovars. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying such differential expression, the sequences of genes and promoters of blaA were compared. Also, the variants of blaA present in different biovars were modeled and docked with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The mRNA secondary structures of blaA variants were also predicted in-silico. Our findings indicated that neither variations in the promoter regions, nor the secondary structures of mRNA contributed to higher/lower expression of blaA in different biovars. Analysis of H-bonding residues of blaA variants with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid revealed that if amino acid residues of a β-lactamase interacting with amoxicillin and the clavulanic acid were similar, clavulanic acid was effective in engaging the enzyme, accounting for a significant reduction in MIC of amoxicillin-clavulanate. This finding might aid in designing better β-lactamase inhibitors with improved efficiencies in future.

  14. Effectiveness of chlorine, organic acids and UV treatments in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica on apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, M E; Velázquez, L; Favier, G; de Guzmán, A M

    2003-06-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of 200 and 500 ppm of chlorine and organic acids (0.5% lactic acid and 0.5% citric acid) in wash solutions, and UV radiation for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica on apples contaminated by two different methods. Residual levels of these pathogens after different treatments were compared. On dip inoculated apples, Y. enterocolitica reductions of 2.66 and 2.77 logs were obtained with 200 and 500 ppm chlorine combined with 0.5% lactic acid, respectively. The E. coli O157:H7 population decreased 3.35 log with 0.5% lactic acid wash solution, and 2.72 and 2.62 logs after 500 ppm chlorine and 500 ppm chlorine plus 0.5% lactic acid treatments, respectively. Similar reductions were obtained with UV radiation. On spot inoculated apples, significant (p acid treatment as compared with the control. In sectioned apples, microorganisms infiltrated in inner core region and pulp were not significantly (p apples. Reductions such as those obtained with 500 ppm chlorine plus 0.5% lactic acid solution were very proximal to the 5-log score required by FDA for apple disinfection.

  15. Several Hfq-dependent alterations in physiology of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 are mediated by derepression of the transcriptional regulator RovM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskinen, Katarzyna; Pajunen, Maria I; Varjosalo, Markku; Fernández-Carrasco, Helena; Bengoechea, José A; Skurnik, Mikael

    2017-03-01

    In bacteria, the RNA chaperone Hfq enables pairing of small regulatory RNAs with their target mRNAs and therefore is a key player of post-transcriptional regulation network. As a global regulator, Hfq is engaged in the adaptation to external environment, regulation of metabolism and bacterial virulence. In this study we used RNA-sequencing and quantitative proteomics (LC-MS/MS) to elucidate the role of this chaperone in the physiology and virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3. This global approach revealed the profound impact of Hfq on gene and protein expression. Furthermore, the role of Hfq in the cell morphology, metabolism, cell wall integrity, resistance to external stresses and pathogenicity was evaluated. Importantly, our results revealed that several alterations typical for the hfq-negative phenotype were due to derepression of the transcriptional factor RovM. The overexpression of RovM caused by the loss of Hfq chaperone resulted in extended growth defect, alterations in the lipid A structure, motility and biofilm formation defects, as well as changes in mannitol utilization. Furthermore, in Y. enterocolitica RovM only in the presence of Hfq affected the abundance of RpoS. Finally, the impact of hfq and rovM mutations on the virulence was assessed in the mouse infection model. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Analysis of iron acquisition and storage-related genes in clinical and non-clinical strains of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaujia, Pawan Kumar; Bajaj, Priyanka; Virdi, Jugsharan Singh

    2015-10-01

    Possession of mechanisms for iron acquisition and its storage enhances the ability of the bacteria to survive in the iron-limiting environment of the host. In this study, 81 strains of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A isolated from various clinical (n = 51) and non-clinical (n = 30) sources were investigated for the presence of the genes related to iron acquisition and storage. Important genes which were present in more than 85% of the strains included hasA, foxA, bfr, bfd, ftnA, and hmsT as well as the fhuCDB, fepBDGCfesfepA, feoAB, yfuABCD, hemPRSTUV, and hmsHFRS gene clusters. Majority of these genes is being reported for the first time in biovar 1A strains and showed significant homology with genes present in the known pathogenic biovars of Y. enterocolitica. However, no significant difference was observed in the distribution of iron acquisition and storage-related genes among clinical and non-clinical biovar 1A strains. Thus, it may be suggested that the presence of iron acquisition and storage-related genes per se might not be responsible for the supposedly better ability of clinical biovar 1A strains to cause infections in humans. However, in the backdrop of this data, the need to undertake functional studies are highly recommended. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Control of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in minced meat: Comparative analysis of different interventions using a risk assessment approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Damme, I.; De Zutter, L.; Jacxsens, L.

    2017-01-01

    enterocolitica in minced meat produced in industrial meat processing plants. The model described the production of minced pork starting from the contamination of pig carcasses with pathogenic Y. enterocolitica just before chilling. The endpoints of the assessment were (i) the proportion of 0.5 kg minced meat packages...... contamination and different decontamination procedures of carcasses have an important effect on the proportion of highly contaminated minced meat packages at the end of storage. The addition of pork cheeks and minimal quantities of tonsillar tissue into minced meat also had a large effect on the endpoint......This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different processing scenarios along the farm-to-fork chain on the contamination of minced pork with human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. A modular process risk model (MPRM) was used to perform the assessment of the concentrations of pathogenic Y...

  18. Virulence-related genes, adhesion and invasion of some Yersinia enterocolitica-like strains suggests its pathogenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imori, Priscilla F M; Passaglia, Jaqueline; Souza, Roberto A; Rocha, Lenaldo B; Falcão, Juliana P

    2017-03-01

    Yersina enterocolitica-like species have not been extensively studied regarding its pathogenic potential. This work aimed to assess the pathogenic potential of some Y. enterocolitica-like strains by evaluating the presence of virulence-related genes by PCR and their ability to adhere to and invade Caco-2 and HEp-2 cells. A total of 50 Y. frederiksenii, 55 Y. intermedia and 13 Y. kristensenii strains were studied. The strains contained the following genes: Y. frederiksenii, fepA(44%), fes(44%) and ystB(18%); Y. intermedia, ail(53%), fepA (35%), fepD(2%), fes(97%), hreP(2%), ystB(2%) and tccC(35%); Y. kristensenii, ail(62%), ystB(23%), fepA(77%), fepD(54%), fes(54%) and hreP(77%). Generally, the Y. enterocolitica-like strains had a reduced ability to adhere to and invade mammalian cells compared to the highly pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 8081. However, Y. kristensenii FCF410 and Y. frederiksenii FCF461 presented high invasion potentials in Caco-2 cells after five days of pre-incubation increased by 45- and 7.2-fold compared to Y. enterocolitica 8081, respectively; but, the ail gene was not detected in these strains. The presence of virulence-related genes in some of the Y. enterocolitica-like strains indicated their possible pathogenic potential. Moreover, the results suggest the existence of alternative virulence mechanisms and that the pathogenicity of Y. kristensenii and Y. frederiksenii may be strain-dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Lactobacillus plantarum strain isolated from kefir protects against intestinal infection with Yersinia enterocolitica O9 and modulates immunity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Montijo-Prieto, Soumi; Moreno, Encarnación; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Lasserrot, Agustín; Ruiz-López, María-Dolores; Ruiz-Bravo, Alfonso; Jiménez-Valera, María

    2015-10-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum C4, previously isolated from kefir and characterized as a potential probiotic strain, was tested for its protective and immunomodulatory capacity in a murine model of yersiniosis. The inoculation of BALB/c mice with a low pathogenicity serotype O9 strain of Yersinia enterocolitica results in a prolonged intestinal infection with colonization of Peyer's patches. Pretreatment with C4 was without effect on fecal excretion of yersiniae, but shortened the colonization of Peyer's patches. This protective effect was associated with pro-inflammatory status in the intestinal mucosa (TNF-α production in infected mice was increased by C4) and an increase in total IgA secretion. At a systemic level, C4 did not promote a pro-inflammatory response, although production of the immunoregulatory cytokine IFN-γ was enhanced. These findings suggest that L. plantarum C4 can increase resistance to intestinal infections through its immunomodulatory activity. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. A STUDY OF IMMUNOGENIC AND PROTECTIVE PROPERTIES OF THE HEAT-STABLE LETHAL TOXIN OF YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS AND ITS EFFECTS UPON HEMATOLOGICAL AND BLOOD CYTOKINE PARAMETERS OF LABORATORY MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tsybulsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some data concerning antigenic and immunogenic properties of the lethal heat-stable toxin (HST from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, a protein with molecular weight of 45 kDa. The mice,following double immunization with HST at a dose of 0.1 mg per mouse, displayed higher antibody production, in comparison with a dose of 0.01 mg/mouse. The appropriate differences were revealed with regard ofleukocyte responses, i.e., development of leukopenia, neutropenia, lymphopenia upon immunization with the 0.01 mg of HST per mouse, whereas leukocytosis, and increase in lymphocytes and monocytes was detected after a dose of 0.1 mg/mouse. We detected some doseependent differences in cytokine-modulating activity. I.e., at HST dose of 0.01 mg per mouse, we detected mostly proinflammatory, acutehase responses, whereas a dose of 0.1 mg/mice caused induction of . IFNγ and cytokines promoting lymphocyte proliferation and antibody production by day +17. Upon double immunization of mice, the toxin showed protective properties when injecting them with lethal dose of Y. pseudotuberculosis. A lagging activation of antibody producers duringHST response suggests a need for searching effective adjuvant tools of enhancement and acceleration of specific humoral immune reactions against this antigen.

  1. Yersinia enterocolitica in Diagnostic Fecal Samples from European Dogs and Cats: Identification by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Ivonne; Hailer, Mandy; Depner, Barbara; Kopp, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is the main cause of yersiniosis in Europe, one of the five main bacterial gastrointestinal diseases of humans. Beside pigs, companion animals, especially dogs and cats, were repeatedly discussed in the past as a possible source of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. To investigate the presence and types of Y. enterocolitica in companion animals, a total of 4,325 diagnostic fecal samples from dogs and 2,624 samples from cats were tested. The isolates obtained were differentiated by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Isolated Y. enterocolitica strains were bioserotyped. The detection of the ail gene by PCR and confirmation by FT-IR were used as a pathogenicity marker. Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from 198 (4.6%) of the dog and 8 (0.3%) of the cat fecal samples investigated. One hundred seventy-nine isolates from dogs were analyzed in detail. The virulence factor Ail was detected in 91.6% of isolates. Isolates of biotype 4 (54.7%) and, to a lesser extent, biotypes 2 (23.5%), 3 (11.2%), and 5 (2.2%) were detected. The remaining 8.4% of strains belonged to the ail-negative biotype 1A. All 7 isolates from cats that were investigated in detail were ail positive. These results indicate that companion animals could be a relevant reservoir for a broad range of presumptively human-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica types. MALDI-TOF MS and FT-IR proved to be valuable methods for the rapid identification of Y. enterocolitica, especially in regard to the large number of samples that were investigated in a short time frame. PMID:23284028

  2. Yersinia enterocolitica in diagnostic fecal samples from European dogs and cats: identification by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Ivonne; Hailer, Mandy; Depner, Barbara; Kopp, Peter A; Rau, Jörg

    2013-03-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is the main cause of yersiniosis in Europe, one of the five main bacterial gastrointestinal diseases of humans. Beside pigs, companion animals, especially dogs and cats, were repeatedly discussed in the past as a possible source of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. To investigate the presence and types of Y. enterocolitica in companion animals, a total of 4,325 diagnostic fecal samples from dogs and 2,624 samples from cats were tested. The isolates obtained were differentiated by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Isolated Y. enterocolitica strains were bioserotyped. The detection of the ail gene by PCR and confirmation by FT-IR were used as a pathogenicity marker. Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from 198 (4.6%) of the dog and 8 (0.3%) of the cat fecal samples investigated. One hundred seventy-nine isolates from dogs were analyzed in detail. The virulence factor Ail was detected in 91.6% of isolates. Isolates of biotype 4 (54.7%) and, to a lesser extent, biotypes 2 (23.5%), 3 (11.2%), and 5 (2.2%) were detected. The remaining 8.4% of strains belonged to the ail-negative biotype 1A. All 7 isolates from cats that were investigated in detail were ail positive. These results indicate that companion animals could be a relevant reservoir for a broad range of presumptively human-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica types. MALDI-TOF MS and FT-IR proved to be valuable methods for the rapid identification of Y. enterocolitica, especially in regard to the large number of samples that were investigated in a short time frame.

  3. Usefulness of in-house obtained recombinant proteins Yop of Yersinia enterocolitica as highly specific antigens in ELISA and recom-dot performed in the serodiagnosis of yersiniosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastawicki, Waldemar; Smietafiska, Karolina; Chrost, Anna; Wolkowicz, Tomasz; Rokosz-Chudziak, Natalia

    Proper analysis of the human immune response is crucial in the laboratory diagnosis of many bacterial infections-The current serological diagnosis of yersiniosis often is carried out using ELISA with native antigens. However, recombinant proteins increase the specificity of the serological assays, particularly in patients with chronic, non- specific infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of in-house obtained recombinant proteins Yop of Yersinia enterocolitica as highly specific antigens in ELISA and recom-dot performed in the serodiagnosis of yersiniosis. Recombinant YopD, YopB, YopE and V-Ag proteins of Y enterocolitica were expressing in E. coli BL21 (DE3) using the pET-30 Ek/LIC expression vector (Novagen). Purification was accomplished by immobilized metal (Ni2) affinity column chromatography (His-trap). The proteins were used as antigens in standard ELISA and recom-dot assay, which was performed on nitrocellulose strips. The study population, used for characterization of the humoral immune response to the recombinant proteins, consisted of 74 patients suspected for Y enterocolitica infection and 41 clinically healthy blood donors. Some of the results obtained by ELISA and recom-dot were compared with results obtained by commercial western-blot Yersinia (Virotech). In the group of patients suspected for yersiniosis in clinical investigation the most positive results were obtained in ELISA with the recombinant protein YopD (IgA respectively 25 (42.4%), IgG 41 (69.5%), IgM 24 (40.7%). The percentage ofpositive results in the group of blood donors did not exceed 10.0% in IgG and 5.0% in IgA/IgM classes of immunoglobulin. The results obtained in the recom-dot assay showed that among 74 tested serum samples obtained from individuals suspected of yersiniosis the most common IgA, IgG and IgM antibodies were found for recombinant protein YopD (respectively IgG in 60.8%, IgA in 37.8% and IgM in 33.8% of serum samples). IgG antibodies to

  4. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica colonies under modified atmospheres at 4 and 8 degrees C using a model food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, W A; Peters, A C; Fielding, L M

    2000-01-01

    The growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica colonies was studied on solid media at 4 and 8 degrees C under modified atmospheres (MAs) of 5% O2: 10% CO2: 85% N2 (MA1), 30% CO2: 70% N2 (MA2) and air (control). Colony radius, determined using computer image analysis, allowed specific growth rates (mu) and the time taken to detect bacterial colonies to be estimated, after colonies became visible. At 4 degrees C both MAs decreased the growth rates of L. monocytogenes by 1.5- and 3.0-fold under MA1 (mu = 0.02 h(-1)) and MA2 (mu = 0.01 h(-1)), respectively, as compared with the control (mu = 0.03 h(-1)). The time to detection of bacterial colonies was increased from 15 d (control) to 24 (MA1) and 29 d (MA2). At 8 degrees C MA2 decreased the growth rate by 1.5-fold (mu = 0.04 h(-1)) as compared with the control (mu = 0.06 h(-1)) and detection of colonies increased from 7 (control) to 9 d (MA2). At 4 degrees C both MAs decreased the growth rates of Y. enterocolitica by 1.5- and 2.5-fold under MA1 (mu = 0.03 h(-1)) and MA2 (mu = 0.02 h(-1)), respectively, as compared with the control (mu = 0.05 h(-1)). At 8 degrees C identical growth rates were obtained under MA1 and the control (mu = 0.07 h(-1)) whilst a decrease in the growth rate was obtained under MA2 (mu = 0.04 h(-1)). The detection of colonies varied from 6 (8 degrees C, aerobic) to 19 d (4 degrees C, MA2). Refrigerated modified atmosphere packaged foods should be maintained at 4 degrees C and below to ensure product safety.

  5. Evaluation of culture methods for rapid screening of swine faecal samples for Yersinia enterocolitica O : 3 biotype 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Holmvig, C.B.F.

    1999-01-01

    In two studies, seven different culture protocols were compared to test naturally contaminated faecal samples from pigs for isolation of Y. enterocolitica serotype O; 3/biotype 4( n = 70 and n = 79). Four of the protocols were based on the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL protocols), while...... indicate possibilities of shortening the culture methods by replacing most of the biochemical tests with an agglutination test based on a monoclonal antibody....

  6. Regulatory protein OmpR influences the serum resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 by modifying the structure of the outer membrane.

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    Karolina Skorek

    Full Text Available The EnvZ/OmpR two-component system constitutes a regulatory pathway involved in bacterial adaptive responses to environmental cues. Our previous findings indicated that the OmpR regulator in Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 positively regulates the expression of FlhDC, the master flagellar activator, which influences adhesion/invasion properties and biofilm formation. Here we show that a strain lacking OmpR grown at 37°C exhibits extremely high resistance to the bactericidal activity of normal human serum (NHS compared with the wild-type strain. Analysis of OMP expression in the ompR mutant revealed that OmpR reciprocally regulates Ail and OmpX, two homologous OMPs of Y. enterocolitica, without causing significant changes in the level of YadA, the major serum resistance factor. Analysis of mutants in individual genes belonging to the OmpR regulon (ail, ompX, ompC and flhDC and strains lacking plasmid pYV, expressing YadA, demonstrated the contribution of the respective proteins to serum resistance. We show that Ail and OmpC act in an opposite way to the OmpX protein to confer serum resistance to the wild-type strain, but are not responsible for the high resistance of the ompR mutant. The serum resistance phenotype of ompR seems to be multifactorial and mainly attributable to alterations that potentiate the function of YadA. Our results indicate that a decreased level of FlhDC in the ompR mutant cells is partly responsible for the serum resistance and this effect can be suppressed by overexpression of flhDC in trans. The observation that the loss of FlhDC enhances the survival of wild-type cells in NHS supports the involvement of FlhDC regulator in this phenotype. In addition, the ompR mutant exhibited a lower level of LPS, but this was not correlated with changes in the level of FlhDC. We propose that OmpR might alter the susceptibility of Y. enterocolitica O:9 to complement-mediated killing through remodeling of the outer membrane.

  7. The Role of OmpR in the Expression of Genes of the KdgR Regulon Involved in the Uptake and Depolymerization of Oligogalacturonides in Yersinia enterocolitica

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    Marta Nieckarz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Oligogalacturonide (OGA-specific porins of the KdgM family have previously been identified and characterized in enterobacterial plant pathogens. We found that deletion of the gene encoding response regulator OmpR causes the porin KdgM2 to become one of the most abundant proteins in the outer membrane of the human enteropathogen Yersinia enterocolitica. Reporter gene fusion and real-time PCR analysis confirmed that the expression of kdgM2 is repressed by OmpR. We also found that kdgM2 expression is subject to negative regulation by KdgR, a specific repressor of genes involved in the uptake and metabolism of pectin derivatives in plant pathogens. The additive effect of kdgR and ompR mutations suggested that KdgR and OmpR regulate kdgM2 expression independently. We confirmed that kdgM2 occurs in an operon with the pelP gene, encoding the periplasmic pectate lyase PelP. A pectinolytic assay showed strong upregulation of PelP production/activity in a Y. enterocolitica strain lacking OmpR and KdgR, which corroborates the repression exerted by these regulators on kdgM2. In addition, our data showed that OmpR is responsible for up regulation of the kdgM1 gene encoding the second specific oligogalacturonide porin KdgM1. This indicates the involvement of OmpR in the reciprocal regulation of both KdgM1 and KdgM2. Moreover, we demonstrated the negative impact of OmpR on kdgR transcription, which might positively affect the expression of genes of the KdgR regulon. Binding of OmpR to the promoter regions of the kdgM2-pelP-sghX operon, and kdgM1 and kdgR genes was confirmed using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, suggesting that OmpR can directly regulate their transcription. We also found that the overexpression of porin KdgM2 increases outer membrane permeability. Thus, OmpR-mediated regulation of the KdgM porins may contribute to the fitness of Y. enterocolitica in particular local environments.

  8. Clinical isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica Biotype 1A represent two phylogenetic lineages with differing pathogenicity-related properties

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    Sihvonen Leila M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Y. enterocolitica biotype (BT 1A strains are often isolated from human clinical samples but their contribution to disease has remained a controversial topic. Variation and the population structure among the clinical Y. enterocolitica BT 1A isolates have been poorly characterized. We used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, PCR for ystA and ystB, lipopolysaccharide analysis, phage typing, human serum complement killing assay and analysis of the symptoms of the patients to characterize 298 clinical Y. enterocolitica BT 1A isolates in order to evaluate their relatedness and pathogenic potential. Results A subset of 71 BT 1A strains, selected based on their varying LPS patterns, were subjected to detailed genetic analyses. The MLST on seven house-keeping genes (adk, argA, aroA, glnA, gyrB, thrA, trpE conducted on 43 of the strains discriminated them into 39 MLST-types. By Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS the strains clustered conclusively into two distinct lineages, i.e. Genetic groups 1 and 2. The strains of Genetic group 1 were more closely related (97% similarity to the pathogenic bio/serotype 4/O:3 strains than Genetic group 2 strains (95% similarity. Further comparison of the 16S rRNA genes of the BT 1A strains indicated that altogether 17 of the 71 strains belong to Genetic group 2. On the 16S rRNA analysis, these 17 strains were only 98% similar to the previously identified subspecies of Y. enterocolitica. The strains of Genetic group 2 were uniform in their pathogenecity-related properties: they lacked the ystB gene, belonged to the same LPS subtype or were of rough type, were all resistant to the five tested yersiniophages, were largely resistant to serum complement and did not ferment fucose. The 54 strains in Genetic group 1 showed much more variation in these properties. The most commonly detected LPS types were similar to the LPS types of reference strains with serotypes O

  9. Detection of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 in the faeces of cattle with false positive reactions in serological tests for brucellosis in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Don; Kenny, Kevin; Power, Seamus; Egan, John; Ryan, Fergus

    2016-10-01

    Intestinal infection by Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 (YeO9) in cattle has been linked to false positive serological reactivity (FPSR) in diagnostic tests for brucellosis. Although eradicated in Ireland, brucellosis monitoring still identifies seropositive animals, usually one or two (termed singletons) per herd, which are classed as FPSR. To investigate a link between FPSR and YeO9, faeces and blood were collected from singleton FPSR cattle, and from companion animals, in eight selected herds with more than one FPSR animal, for YeO9 culture and Brucella serology. YeO9 was isolated from 76/474 (16%) FPSR singletons in 309 herds, but not from any of 621 animals in 122 control non-FPSR herds. In the FPSR herds 52/187 (27.8%) animals were culture positive, and 17% of the isolates were from seronegative animals. Seropositive animals were more likely to have a rising antibody titre when culture positive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Large Diversity of Porcine Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 in Eight European Countries Assessed by Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakurtti, Sini; Keto-Timonen, Riikka; Virtanen, Sonja; Martínez, Pilar Ortiz; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Korkeala, Hannu

    2016-06-01

    A total of 253 multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) types among 634 isolates were discovered while studying the genetic diversity of porcine Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates from eight different European countries. Six variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci V2A, V4, V5, V6, V7, and V9 were used to study the isolates from 82 farms in Belgium (n = 93, 7 farms), England (n = 41, 8 farms), Estonia (n = 106, 12 farms), Finland (n = 70, 13 farms), Italy (n = 111, 20 farms), Latvia (n = 66, 3 farms), Russia (n = 60, 10 farms), and Spain (n = 87, 9 farms). Cluster analysis revealed mainly country-specific clusters, and only one MLVA type consisting of two isolates was found from two countries: Russia and Italy. Also, farm-specific clusters were discovered, but same MLVA types could also be found from different farms. Analysis of multiple isolates originating either from the same tonsils (n = 4) or from the same farm, but 6 months apart, revealed both identical and different MLVA types. MLVA showed a very good discriminatory ability with a Simpson's discriminatory index (DI) of 0.989. DIs for VNTR loci V2A, V4, V5, V6, V7, and V9 were 0.916, 0.791, 0.901, 0.877, 0.912, and 0.785, respectively, when studying all isolates together, but variation was evident between isolates originating from different countries. Locus V4 in the Spanish isolates and locus V9 in the Latvian isolates did not differentiate (DI 0.000), and locus V9 in the English isolates showed very low discriminatory power (DI 0.049). The porcine Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were diverse, but the variation in DI demonstrates that the well discriminating loci V2A, V5, V6, and V7 should be included in MLVA protocol when maximal discriminatory power is needed.

  11. Pathogenic Strains of Yersinia enterocolitica Isolated from Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) Belonging to Farmers Are of the Same Subtype as Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica Strains Isolated from Humans and May Be a Source of Human Infection in Jiangsu Province, China ▿ ‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cui, Zhigang; Wang, Hua; Tang, Liuying; Yang, Jinchuan; Gu, Ling; Jin, Dong; Luo, Longze; Qiu, Haiyan; Xiao, Yuchun; Xiong, Haiping; Kan, Biao; Xu, Jianguo; Jing, Huaiqi

    2010-01-01

    We isolated 326 Yersinia enterocolitica strains from 5,919 specimens from patients with diarrhea at outpatient clinics, livestock, poultry, wild animals, insect vectors, food, and the environment in the cities of Nantong and Xuzhou in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2004 to 2008. The results showed that the 12 pathogenic strains were of the O:3 serotype. Six strains were isolated from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) belonging to farmers and were found to be the primary carriers of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, especially in Xuzhou. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the pathogenic strains from dogs belonging to farmers showed that they shared the same patterns as strains from diarrhea patients isolated in 1994. This indicates that the strains from domestic dogs have a close correlation with the strains causing human infections. PMID:20181899

  12. Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns in Discrimination of Sporadic and Outbreak-Related Strains of Yersinia enterocolitica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skurnik Mikael

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed the potential of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for discriminating 104 sporadic and outbreak-related Yersinia enterocolitica (YE bio/serotype 3-4/O:3 and 2/O:9 isolates. MLVA using six VNTR markers was performed in two separate multiplex PCRs, and the fluorescently labeled PCR products were accurately sized on an automated DNA sequencer. Results MLVA discriminated 82 sporadic YE 3-4/O:3 and 2/O:9 strains into 77 types, whereas PFGE with the restriction enzyme NotI discriminated the strains into 23 different PFGE pulsotypes. The discriminatory index for a sporadic strain was 0.862 for PFGE and 0.999 for MLVA. MLVA confirmed that a foodborne outbreak in the city of Kotka, Finland in 2003 had been caused by a multiresistant YE 4/O:3 strain that was distinctly different from those of epidemiologically unrelated strains with an identical PFGE pulsotype. The multiresistance of Y. enterocolitica strains (19% of the sporadic strains correlated significantly (p = 0.002 with travel abroad. All of the multiresistant Y. enterocolitica strains belonged to four PFGE pulsotypes that did not contain any susceptible strains. Resistance to nalidixic acid was related to changes in codons 83 or 87 that stemmed from mutations in the gyrA gene. The conjugation experiments demonstrated that resistance to CHL, STR, and SUL was carried by a conjugative plasmid. Conclusions MLVA using six loci had better discriminatory power than PFGE with the NotI enzyme. MLVA was also a less labor-intensive method than PFGE and the results were easier to analyze. The conjugation experiments demonstrated that a resistance plasmid can easily be transferred between Y. enterocolitica strains. Antimicrobial multiresistance of Y. enterocolitica strains was significantly associated with travel abroad.

  13. Definition of a Standard Protocol to Determine the Growth Potential of Listeria Monotgenes and Yersinia Enterocolitica in Pork Sausage Produced in Abruzzo Region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandii, Anna Franca; Neri, Diana; Romantini, Romina; Santarelli, Gino Angelo; Prencipe, Vincenza

    2015-11-02

    Pork meat products consumed raw or after a short period of fermentation can be considered at risk for food safety. Sausages (fresh sausage made from pork meat) are produced in several Italian regions, with variation in ingredients. In some Italian Regions, including Abruzzo, these products are frequently consumed raw or undercooked, after a variable period of fermentation. The European Community food regulation promotes the use of challenge tests to determine safety levels. This study is aimed to ensure safety of Abruzzo's sausages, compared with growth potential (δ) of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica , and also aims to define an experimental standard protocol document to carry out challenge tests. Guidelines classify ready-to-eat foods in categories that are able to support (δ>0.5 log 10 ufc/g) and not support (δ≤0.5 log 10 ufc/g) the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. The products were manufactured according to traditional recipes and were contaminated in laboratory. Results from the experiment yielded information useful to assess the ability of these products to support the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The batches of sausages were stored at 8, 12, 18 and 20°C to get statistical evaluation. The results showed that, despite the conditioning of the storage temperature and the level of water activity, both organisms remain in the product in concentrations similar to those leading or being able to increase its charge. In particular, the period of greatest consumption of this product (7/8 days of preparation) corresponds to the period of greatest growth of pathogenic microorganisms studied, except for those stored at a temperature of 8°C, which are safer for the consumer.

  14. The effect of waaL genes deletion from Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 genome on bacteria LPS’ phenotype

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    Shevchenko J. I.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate WaaL ligase contribution in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS phenotype profile formation of Y. enterocolitica O:3 (YeO3 bacteria. Methods. The waaL-knock-out mutants were created by an allelic exchange strategy. The LPS phenotypes of created mutants were visualized by silver-stained DOC-PAGE and immunoblotting with specific outer core (core oligosaccharide, hexasaccharide, OC and O-polysaccharide (OPS or O-Ag monoclonal antibodies. Results. Deletion of waaLOS gene from YeO3 genome has a marked effect on OC ligation in either single or double mutants. The waaLPS deletion has an opposite effect on the OPS ligation – barely detected increasing of OPS bands. Conclusions. The LPS ligases of YeO3 exhibit relaxed donor substrate specificity. Under given conditions the effect of WaaLOS ligase is more significant for OC and OPS ligation onto lipid A than that of WaaLPS.

  15. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and its relation to virulence-related factors in Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A

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    N Singhal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported that the virulence factors (VFs were detected more frequently in amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC susceptible clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Here, we have evaluated the relationship between VFs and AMC-resistance phenotype in clinical isolates of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A. The presence/absence of VFs was compared with their minimum inhibitory concentrations for AMC in strains of two serovars. We observed that the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 showed a similar relationship between the number of VFs and resistance to clavulanic acid as in E. coli but not of serovar O: 6, 30. Variations in the promoters/complete coding sequences (CCDSs of β-lactamase gene (bla A or the serological characteristics could not account for unusual susceptibility to AMC displayed by the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30. Therefore, we speculate that since the clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 originated from the environment they were less exposed to antibiotics compared to clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30. Thus, AMC susceptibility seems to be influenced by factors other than serotypes or promoters/CCDS of β-lactamase genes.

  16. Comparison of the cytokine immune response to pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 1B/O:8 and 2/O:9 in susceptible BALB/C and resistant C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Gu, Wenpeng; Qiu, Haiyan; Xia, Shengli; Zheng, Han; Xiao, Yuchun; Liang, Junrong; Jing, Huaiqi

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the lethality of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotypes 1B/O:8 and 2/O:9 in susceptible BALB/C and resistant C57BL/6 mice; the cytokine alterations and histopathological changes were observed comparing the two strains in BALB/C mice. The data showed the 50% lethal dose (LD50) for the pathogenic Y. enterocolitica bioserotype 1B/O:8 was 10³ cfu in both BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice; while the LD50 for the 2/O:9 was 10⁸ cfu in BALB/C mice and 10⁹ cfu in C57BL/6 mice, a large difference. After infection with the two strains in BALB/C mice, GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), IFN-γ (interferon-γ), IL-1β (interleukin-1β), IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) appeared as a cytokine storm in a short period, reached peak values, and then quickly decreased. This appeared important for the immune response and cytokine immunopathogenesis in pathogenic Y. enterocolitica infections. In the initial infection stage, GM-CSF, IL-6, and TNF-α of 2/O:9 were higher than 1B/O:8; and subsequently the status was reversed. However, levels of IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12 following infection with 1B/O:8 were always higher than with 2/O:9. The histopathological changes in the liver and spleen in BALB/C mice infected with the two strains were similar at different times and doses. These observations show the different immunological effects and changes for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 1B/O:8 and 2/O:9 infections using the mouse model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The YsrS Paralog DygS Has the Capacity To Activate Expression of the Yersinia enterocolitica Ysa Type III Secretion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kimberly A; Griggs, Lauren A; Obrist, Markus; Bode, Addys; Summers, R Patrick; Miller, Virginia L

    2016-06-15

    The Yersinia enterocolitica Ysa type III secretion system (T3SS) is associated with intracellular survival, and, like other characterized T3SSs, it is tightly controlled. Expression of the ysa genes is only detected following growth at low temperatures (26°C) and in high concentrations of sodium chloride (290 mM) in the medium. The YsrSTR phosphorelay (PR) system is required for ysa expression and likely responds to NaCl. During our investigations into the Ysr PR system, we discovered that genes YE3578 and YE3579 are remarkably similar to ysrR and ysrS, respectively, and are probably a consequence of a gene duplication event. The amino acid differences between YE3578 and ysrR are primarily clustered into two short regions. The differences between YE3579 and ysrS are nearly all located in the periplasmic sensing domain; the cytoplasmic domains are 98% identical. We investigated whether these paralogs were capable of activating ysa gene expression. We found that the sensor paralog, named DygS, is capable of compensating for loss of ysrS, but the response regulator paralog, DygR, cannot complement a ysrR gene deletion. In addition, YsrR, but not DygR, interacts with the histidine phosphorelay protein YsrT. Thus, DygS likely activates ysa gene expression in response to a signal other than NaCl and provides an example of a phosphorelay system in which two sensor kinases feed into the same regulatory pathway. All organisms need mechanisms to promote survival in changing environments. Prokaryotic phosphorelay systems are minimally comprised of a histidine kinase (HK) that senses an extracellular stimulus and a response regulator (RR) but can contain three or more proteins. Through gene duplication, a unique hybrid HK was created. We show that, while the hybrid appears to retain all of the phosphorelay functions, it responds to a different signal than the original. Both HKs transmit the signal to the same RR, which activates a promoter that transcribes a set of genes

  18. Yersinia enterocolitica-Specific Infection by Bacteriophages TG1 and ϕR1-RT Is Dependent on Temperature-Regulated Expression of the Phage Host Receptor OmpF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Velarde, Carlos G; Happonen, Lotta; Pajunen, Maria; Leskinen, Katarzyna; Kropinski, Andrew M; Mattinen, Laura; Rajtor, Monika; Zur, Joanna; Smith, Darren; Chen, Shu; Nawaz, Ayesha; Johnson, Roger P; Odumeru, Joseph A; Griffiths, Mansel W; Skurnik, Mikael

    2016-09-01

    Bacteriophages present huge potential both as a resource for developing novel tools for bacterial diagnostics and for use in phage therapy. This potential is also valid for bacteriophages specific for Yersinia enterocolitica To increase our knowledge of Y. enterocolitica-specific phages, we characterized two novel yersiniophages. The genomes of the bacteriophages vB_YenM_TG1 (TG1) and vB_YenM_ϕR1-RT (ϕR1-RT), isolated from pig manure in Canada and from sewage in Finland, consist of linear double-stranded DNA of 162,101 and 168,809 bp, respectively. Their genomes comprise 262 putative coding sequences and 4 tRNA genes and share 91% overall nucleotide identity. Based on phylogenetic analyses of their whole-genome sequences and large terminase subunit protein sequences, a genus named Tg1virus within the family Myoviridae is proposed, with TG1 and ϕR1-RT (R1RT in the ICTV database) as member species. These bacteriophages exhibit a host range restricted to Y. enterocolitica and display lytic activity against the epidemiologically significant serotypes O:3, O:5,27, and O:9 at and below 25°C. Adsorption analyses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and OmpF mutants demonstrate that these phages use both the LPS inner core heptosyl residues and the outer membrane protein OmpF as phage receptors. Based on RNA sequencing and quantitative proteomics, we also demonstrate that temperature-dependent infection is due to strong repression of OmpF at 37°C. In addition, ϕR1-RT was shown to be able to enter into a pseudolysogenic state. Together, this work provides further insight into phage-host cell interactions by highlighting the importance of understanding underlying factors which may affect the abundance of phage host receptors on the cell surface. Only a small number of bacteriophages infecting Y. enterocolitica, the predominant causative agent of yersiniosis, have been previously described. Here, two newly isolated Y. enterocolitica phages were studied in detail, with the aim of

  19. Rare Infections: Yersinia Enterocolitica and Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or inadequately cooked pork products, and drinking unpasteurized milk. They might also be contracted by touching an ... infection may have stools that contain blood and mucus. These symptoms may last for 1 to 3 ...

  20. YersiniaBase: a genomic resource and analysis platform for comparative analysis of Yersinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shi Yang; Dutta, Avirup; Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Ang, Mia Yang; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Mutha, Naresh Vr; Heydari, Hamed; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah; Choo, Siew Woh

    2015-01-16

    Yersinia is a Gram-negative bacteria that includes serious pathogens such as the Yersinia pestis, which causes plague, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Yersinia enterocolitica. The remaining species are generally considered non-pathogenic to humans, although there is evidence that at least some of these species can cause occasional infections using distinct mechanisms from the more pathogenic species. With the advances in sequencing technologies, many genomes of Yersinia have been sequenced. However, there is currently no specialized platform to hold the rapidly-growing Yersinia genomic data and to provide analysis tools particularly for comparative analyses, which are required to provide improved insights into their biology, evolution and pathogenicity. To facilitate the ongoing and future research of Yersinia, especially those generally considered non-pathogenic species, a well-defined repository and analysis platform is needed to hold the Yersinia genomic data and analysis tools for the Yersinia research community. Hence, we have developed the YersiniaBase, a robust and user-friendly Yersinia resource and analysis platform for the analysis of Yersinia genomic data. YersiniaBase has a total of twelve species and 232 genome sequences, of which the majority are Yersinia pestis. In order to smooth the process of searching genomic data in a large database, we implemented an Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX)-based real-time searching system in YersiniaBase. Besides incorporating existing tools, which include JavaScript-based genome browser (JBrowse) and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), YersiniaBase also has in-house developed tools: (1) Pairwise Genome Comparison tool (PGC) for comparing two user-selected genomes; (2) Pathogenomics Profiling Tool (PathoProT) for comparative pathogenomics analysis of Yersinia genomes; (3) YersiniaTree for constructing phylogenetic tree of Yersinia. We ran analyses based on the tools and genomic data in YersiniaBase and the

  1. A study of single nucleotide polymorphism in the ystB gene of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from various wild animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz-Kisiel, Agata; Szczerba-Turek, Anna; Platt-Samoraj, Aleksandra; Michalczyk, Maria; Szweda, Wojciech

    2017-03-01

    Y. enterocolitica is the causative agent of yersiniosis. The objective of the article was a study of single nucleotide polymorphism in the ystB gene of Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from various wild animal species. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was applied to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of ystB gene fragments of 88 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from wild boar, roe deer, red deer and wild ducks. HRM analysis revealed 14 different melting profiles - 4 of them were defined as regular genotypes (G1, G2, G3, G4), whereas 10 as variations. 24 of the examined Y. enterocolitica strains were classified as G1, 18 strains as a G2, 21 strains as a G3, and 15 strains as a G4. Nucleotide sequences classified as G1 revealed 100% similarity with the Y. enterocolitica D88145.1 sequence (NCBI). Analysis of G2 revealed one point mutation - transition T111A. One mutation was also found in G3, but SNP was placed in a different gene region - transition G193A. Two SNPs - transitions G92C and T111A - were identified in G4. Direct sequencing of 10 variations revealed 5 new variants of the ystB nucleotide sequence: V1 - transition G129A (3 strains); V2 - transitions T111A and G193A (2 strains); V3 - transitions C118T and G193A (1 strain); V4 - transitions C141A and G193A (2 strains); and V5 characterized by 19 SNPs: G83A, T93A, A109G, G114T, C116T, A123G, T134C, T142G, T144C, A150C, G162A, T165G, T170G, T174A, T177G, G178A, A179G, A184G and G193A (2 strains). The predominant genotype in isolates from wild ducks was G1; in red deer G2; in wild boar G3; in roe deer G1 and G4. The proposed HRM method could be used to analyze Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from different sources, including humans.

  2. Expression of the AcrAB Components of the AcrAB-TolC Multidrug Efflux Pump of Yersinia enterocolitica Is Subject to Dual Regulation by OmpR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Raczkowska

    Full Text Available OmpR is a transcriptional regulator implicated in the control of various cellular processes and functions in Enterobacteriaceae. This study was undertaken to identify genes comprising the OmpR regulon in the human gastrointestinal pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica. Derivatives of an ompR-negative strain with random transposon insertions creating transcriptional fusions with the reporter gene lacZ were isolated. These were supplied with the wild-type ompR allele in trans and then screened for OmpR-dependent changes in β-galactosidase activity. Using this strategy, five insertions in genes/operons positively regulated by OmpR and two insertions in genes negatively regulated by this protein were identified. Genetic analysis of one of these fusion strains revealed that the gene acrR, encoding transcriptional repressor AcrR is negatively regulated by OmpR. Differential analysis of membrane proteins by SDS-PAGE followed by mass spectrometry identified the protein AcrB, a component of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump, as being positively regulated by OmpR. Analysis of the activity of the acrR and acrAB promoters using gfp fusions confirmed their OmpR-dependent repression and activation, respectively. The identification of putative OmpR-binding sites and electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that this regulator binds specifically to both promoter regions with different affinity. Examination of the activity of the acrR and acrAB promoters after the exposure of cells to different chemicals showed that bile salts can act as an OmpR-independent inducer. Taken together, our findings suggest that OmpR positively controls the expression of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump involved in the adaptive response of Y. enterocolitica O:9 to different chemical stressors, thus conferring an advantage in particular ecological niches.

  3. Genetic relationships between clinical and non-clinical strains of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A as revealed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and multilocus restriction typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virdi Jugsharan S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic relationships among 81 strains of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A isolated from clinical and non-clinical sources were discerned by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE and multilocus restriction typing (MLRT using six loci each. Such studies may reveal associations between the genotypes of the strains and their sources of isolation. Results All loci were polymorphic and generated 62 electrophoretic types (ETs and 12 restriction types (RTs. The mean genetic diversity (H of the strains by MLEE and MLRT was 0.566 and 0.441 respectively. MLEE (DI = 0.98 was more discriminatory and clustered Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A strains into four groups, while MLRT (DI = 0.77 identified two distinct groups. BURST (Based Upon Related Sequence Types analysis of the MLRT data suggested aquatic serotype O:6,30-6,31 isolates to be the ancestral strains from which, clinical O:6,30-6,31 strains might have originated by host adaptation and genetic change. Conclusion MLEE revealed greater genetic diversity among strains of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A and clustered strains in four groups, while MLRT grouped the strains into two groups. BURST analysis of MLRT data nevertheless provided newer insights into the probable evolution of clinical strains from aquatic strains.

  4. 40 CFR 725.421 - Introduced genetic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fever toxins, pyrogenic exotoxins) Yersinia enterocolitica Heat-stable enterotoxins (ST) ... Neurotoxin Staphylococcus aureus Alpha toxin (alpha lysin) Yersinia pestis Murine toxin Snake toxins Bungarus...

  5. Contribution of trimeric autotransporter C-terminal domains of oligomeric coiled-coil adhesin (Oca) family members YadA, UspA1, EibA, and Hia to translocation of the YadA passenger domain and virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Nikolaus; Tiller, Maximilian; Anding, Gisela; Roggenkamp, Andreas; Heesemann, Jürgen

    2008-07-01

    The Oca family is a novel class of autotransporter-adhesins with highest structural similarity in their C-terminal transmembrane region, which supposedly builds a beta-barrel pore in the outer membrane (OM). The prototype of the Oca family is YadA, an adhesin of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. YadA forms a homotrimeric lollipop-like structure on the bacterial surface. The C-terminal regions of three YadA monomers form a barrel in the OM and translocate the trimeric N-terminal passenger domain, consisting of stalk, neck, and head region to the exterior. To elucidate the structural and functional role of the C-terminal translocator domain (TLD) and to assess its promiscuous capability with respect to transport of related passenger domains, we constructed chimeric YadA proteins, which consist of the N-terminal YadA passenger domain and C-terminal TLDs of Oca family members UspA1 (Moraxella catarrhalis), EibA (Escherichia coli), and Hia (Haemophilus influenzae). These constructs were expressed in Y. enterocolitica and compared for OM localization, surface exposure, oligomerization, adhesion properties, serum resistance, and mouse virulence. We demonstrate that all chimeric YadA proteins translocated the YadA passenger domain across the OM. Y. enterocolitica strains producing YadA chimeras or wild-type YadA showed comparable binding to collagen and epithelial cells. However, strains producing YadA chimeras were attenuated in serum resistance and mouse virulence. These results demonstrate for the first time that TLDs of Oca proteins of different origin are efficient translocators of the YadA passenger domain and that the cognate TLD of YadA is essential for bacterial survival in human serum and mouse virulence.

  6. Rapid and specific identification of Yersinia pestis by using a nested polymerase chain reaction procedure.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, J; Lowe, J; Walz, S; Ezzell, J

    1993-01-01

    We developed a 4-h nested polymerase chain reaction assay that detected a region of the plasminogen activator gene of Yersinia pestis in 100% of 43 Y. pestis strains isolated from humans, rats, and fleas yet was unreactive with the closely related species Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

  7. Short Communication Occurrence of pathogenic yersinia species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three (3) samples of Yersinia species were isolated indicating a 1% occurrence rate. Only Yersinia enterocolitica was implicated in this study. Serotyping revealed that all strains were of serotype 0:9 which is one of the two most common serotypes representing the most virulent worldwide causes of yersiniosis. The results of ...

  8. Low prevalence of human enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus in Flanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieze Oscar Rouffaer

    Full Text Available Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus have been identified as potential carriers of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis, the etiological agents of yersiniosis, the third most reported bacterial zoonosis in Europe. Enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. are most often isolated from rats during yersiniosis cases in animals and humans, and from rats inhabiting farms and slaughterhouses. Information is however lacking regarding the extent to which rats act as carriers of these Yersinia spp.. In 2013, 1088 brown rats across Flanders, Belgium, were tested for the presence of Yersinia species by isolation method. Identification was performed using MALDI-TOF MS, PCR on chromosomal- and plasmid-borne virulence genes, biotyping and serotyping. Yersinia spp. were isolated from 38.4% of the rats. Of these, 53.4% were designated Y. enterocolitica, 0.7% Y. pseudotuberculosis and 49.0% other Yersinia species. Two Y. enterocolitica possessing the virF-, ail- and ystA-gene were isolated. Additionally, the ystB-gene was identified in 94.1% of the other Y. enterocolitica isolates, suggestive for biotype 1A. Three of these latter isolates simultaneously possessed the ail-virulence gene. Significantly more Y. enterocolitica were isolated during winter and spring compared to summer. Based on our findings we can conclude that brown rats are frequent carriers for various Yersinia spp., including Y. pseudotuberculosis and (human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica which are more often isolated during winter and spring.

  9. The prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty (150) stool samples from diarrhoeic children and adults seeking for medical attention (including hospitalized patients) in Vom Christain ... and cold enrichment method using phosphate buffered saline prior to subculture onto selective solid culture media (Cefsulodin Irgasan Novobiocin [CIN] agar).

  10. The prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-16

    Apr 16, 2007 ... attention (including hospitalized patients) in Vom Christain Hospital (VCH), ... phosphate buffered saline prior to subculture onto selective solid culture media ... young children and has been known as the major cause.

  11. Pathogenesis of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in Human Yersiniosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Cristi L.; Rosenzweig, Jason A.; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2011-01-01

    Yersiniosis is a food-borne illness that has become more prevalent in recent years due to human transmission via the fecal-oral route and prevalence in farm animals. Yersiniosis is primarily caused by Yersinia enterocolitica and less frequently by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Infection is usually characterized by a self-limiting acute infection beginning in the intestine and spreading to the mesenteric lymph nodes. However, more serious infections and chronic conditions can also occur, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are both heterogeneous organisms that vary considerably in their degrees of pathogenicity, although some generalizations can be ascribed to pathogenic variants. Adhesion molecules and a type III secretion system are critical for the establishment and progression of infection. Additionally, host innate and adaptive immune responses are both required for yersiniae clearance. Despite the ubiquity of enteric Yersinia species and their association as important causes of food poisoning world-wide, few national enteric pathogen surveillance programs include the yersiniae as notifiable pathogens. Moreover, no standard exists whereby identification and reporting systems can be effectively compared and global trends developed. This review discusses yersinial virulence factors, mechanisms of infection, and host responses in addition to the current state of surveillance, detection, and prevention of yersiniosis. PMID:22567322

  12. Yersinia spp. in Wild Rodents and Shrews in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsen, Suvi; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Henttonen, Heikki; Niemimaa, Jukka; Voutilainen, Liina; Kallio, Eva R; Helle, Heikki; Korkeala, Hannu; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are important zoonotic bacteria causing human enteric yersiniosis commonly reported in Europe. All Y. pseudotuberculosis strains are considered pathogenic, while Y. enterocolitica include both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains which can be divided into six biotypes (1A, 1B, and 2-5) and about 30 serotypes. The most common types causing yersiniosis in Europe are Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9. Strains belonging to biotype 1A are considered as nonpathogenic because they are missing important virulence genes like the attachment-invasion-locus (ail) gene in the chromosome and the virulence plasmid. The role of wild small mammals as a reservoir of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. is still obscure. In this study, the presence of Yersinia spp. was examined from 1840 wild small mammals, including voles, mice, and shrews, trapped in Finland during a 7-year period. We isolated seven Yersinia species. Y. enterocolitica was the most common species, isolated from 8% of the animals; while most of these isolates represented nonpathogenic biotype 1A, human pathogenic bioserotype 2/O:9 was also isolated from a field vole. Y. pseudotuberculosis of bioserotype 1/O:2 was isolated from two shrews. The ail gene, which is typically only found in the isolates of biotypes 1B and 2-5 associated with yersiniosis, was frequently (23%) detected in the nonpathogenic isolates of biotype 1A and sporadically (6%) in Yersinia kristensenii isolates. Our results suggest that wild small mammals, especially voles, may serve as carriers for ail-positive Y. enterocolitica 1A and Y. kristensenii. We also demonstrate that voles and shrews sporadically excrete pYV-positive Y. enterocolitica 2/O:9 and Y. pseudotuberculosis 1/O:2, respectively, in their feces and, thus, can serve as a contamination source for vegetables by contaminating the soil.

  13. X-ray crystal structures of the pheromone-binding domains of two quorum-hindered transcription factors, YenR of Yersinia enterocolitica and CepR2 of Burkholderia cenocepacia: KIM et al.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngchang [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Biosciences, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Structural Biology Center, Biosciences, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Chhor, Gekleng [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Biosciences, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Tsai, Ching-Sung [Department of Microbiology, Cornell University, Ithaca New York 14853; Fox, Gabriel [Department of Microbiology, Cornell University, Ithaca New York 14853; Chen, Chia-Sui [Department of Microbiology, Cornell University, Ithaca New York 14853; Winans, Nathan J. [Department of Microbiology, Cornell University, Ithaca New York 14853; Jedrzejczak, Robert [Structural Biology Center, Biosciences, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Joachimiak, Andrzej [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Biosciences, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Structural Biology Center, Biosciences, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois 60637; Winans, Stephen C. [Department of Microbiology, Cornell University, Ithaca New York 14853

    2017-07-24

    The ability of LuxR-type proteins to regulate transcription is controlled by bacterial pheromones, N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Most LuxR-family proteins require their cognate AHLs for activity, and some of them require AHLs for folding and stability, and for protease-resistance. However, a few members of this family are able to fold, dimerize, bind DNA, and regulate transcription in the absence of AHLs; moreover, these proteins are antagonized by their cognate AHLs. One such protein is YenR of Yersinia enterocolitica, which is antagonized by N-3-oxohexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (OHHL). This pheromone is produced by the OHHL synthase, a product of the adjacent yenI gene. Another example is CepR2 of Burkholderia cenocepacia, which is antagonized by N-octanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (OHL), whose synthesis is directed by the cepI gene of the same bacterium. Here, we describe the high-resolution crystal structures of the AHL binding domains of YenR and CepR2. YenR was crystallized in the presence and absence of OHHL. While this ligand does not cause large scale changes in the YenR structure, it does alter the orientation of several highly conserved YenR residues within and near the pheromone-binding pocket, which in turn caused a significant movement of a surface-exposed loop.

  14. [Occurrence of bacteria of the Yersinia genus in surface water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogulska, B; Maleszewska, J

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the study was determination of the frequency of occurrence of Yersinia genus bacteria in surface waters polluted to various degrees with bacteria of the coliform and of fecal coli. For detection of Yersinia rods the previously elaborated medium Endo MLCe and the membrane filter method were applied. Samples of 42 surface waters were examined, including 26 from rivers and 16 from lakes, ponds and clay-pits. On the basis of sanitary bacteriological analysis 16 surface waters were classified to class I purity, 10 to class II, the remaining ones to class III or beyond classification. Yersinia rods were detected in 15 water bodies that is 35.7% of the examined waters. A total of 27 Yersinia strains were identified with dominance of Y. intermedia (14 strains) and Y. enterocolitica (10 strains). Three strains represented by the species Yersinia frederiksenii. Most of the Y. enterocolitica strains belonged to biotype 1, the particular strains being represented by various serotypes. Hence their different origin may be concluded. The pathogenic serotypes 0:3 and 0:9 of Yersinia enterocolitica were not detected.

  15. Evaluation of a modified Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin agar for isolation of Yersinia spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Kuan Tan

    Full Text Available Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are important food borne pathogens. However, the presence of competitive microbiota makes the isolation of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis from naturally contaminated foods difficult. We attempted to evaluate the performance of a modified Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin (CIN agar in the differentiation of Y. enterocolitica from non-Yersinia species, particularly the natural intestinal microbiota. The modified CIN enabled the growth of Y. enterocolitica colonies with the same efficiency as CIN and Luria-Bertani agar. The detection limits of the modified CIN for Y. enterocolitica in culture medium (10 cfu/ml and in artificially contaminated pork (10(4 cfu/ml were also comparable to those of CIN. However, the modified CIN provided a better discrimination of Yersinia colonies from other bacteria exhibiting Yersinia-like colonies on CIN (H2S-producing Citrobacter freundii, C. braakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Providencia rettgeri, and Morganella morganii. The modified CIN exhibited a higher recovery rate of Y. enterocolitica from artificially prepared bacterial cultures and naturally contaminated samples compared with CIN. Our results thus demonstrated that the use of modified CIN may be a valuable means to increase the recovery rate of food borne Yersinia from natural samples, which are usually contaminated by multiple types of bacteria.

  16. Evaluation of a Modified Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin Agar for Isolation of Yersinia spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lai Kuan; Ooi, Peck Toung; Carniel, Elisabeth; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2014-01-01

    Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are important food borne pathogens. However, the presence of competitive microbiota makes the isolation of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis from naturally contaminated foods difficult. We attempted to evaluate the performance of a modified Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin (CIN) agar in the differentiation of Y. enterocolitica from non-Yersinia species, particularly the natural intestinal microbiota. The modified CIN enabled the growth of Y. enterocolitica colonies with the same efficiency as CIN and Luria-Bertani agar. The detection limits of the modified CIN for Y. enterocolitica in culture medium (10 cfu/ml) and in artificially contaminated pork (104 cfu/ml) were also comparable to those of CIN. However, the modified CIN provided a better discrimination of Yersinia colonies from other bacteria exhibiting Yersinia-like colonies on CIN (H2S-producing Citrobacter freundii, C. braakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Providencia rettgeri, and Morganella morganii). The modified CIN exhibited a higher recovery rate of Y. enterocolitica from artificially prepared bacterial cultures and naturally contaminated samples compared with CIN. Our results thus demonstrated that the use of modified CIN may be a valuable means to increase the recovery rate of food borne Yersinia from natural samples, which are usually contaminated by multiple types of bacteria. PMID:25170941

  17. Rapid identification and typing of Yersinia pestis and other Yersinia species by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyadurai, Saravanan; Flaudrops, Christophe; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2010-11-12

    Accurate identification is necessary to discriminate harmless environmental Yersinia species from the food-borne pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and from the group A bioterrorism plague agent Yersinia pestis. In order to circumvent the limitations of current phenotypic and PCR-based identification methods, we aimed to assess the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) protein profiling for accurate and rapid identification of Yersinia species. As a first step, we built a database of 39 different Yersinia strains representing 12 different Yersinia species, including 13 Y. pestis isolates representative of the Antiqua, Medievalis and Orientalis biotypes. The organisms were deposited on the MALDI-TOF plate after appropriate ethanol-based inactivation, and a protein profile was obtained within 6 minutes for each of the Yersinia species. When compared with a 3,025-profile database, every Yersinia species yielded a unique protein profile and was unambiguously identified. In the second step of analysis, environmental and clinical isolates of Y. pestis (n = 2) and Y. enterocolitica (n = 11) were compared to the database and correctly identified. In particular, Y. pestis was unambiguously identified at the species level, and MALDI-TOF was able to successfully differentiate the three biotypes. These data indicate that MALDI-TOF can be used as a rapid and accurate first-line method for the identification of Yersinia isolates.

  18. Autologous 111In-oxine-labeled granulocytes in Yersinia infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.; Boerner, W.; Fischbach, W.

    1985-01-01

    Autologous 111 In-oxine-labeled granulocytes have proved to be valuable for the localization of inflammatory bowel diseases, especially Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Other rare inflammatory bowel diseases also yield positive 111 In scans. One case of Yersinia infection of the terminal ileum (Yersinia enterocolitica) showing an accumulation of 111 In-oxine-labeled granulocytes 0.5, 4, and 24 h after the reinjection of the labeled cells is described. The 4-day fecal excretion of 111 In-oxine granulocytes showed a slight inflammatory activity of the terminal ileum. One negative scan is reported in a cotrimoxazole-treated patient with Yersinia infection. (orig.)

  19. Gut proteases target Yersinia invasin in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freund Sandra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia enterocolitica is a common cause of food borne gastrointestinal disease. After oral uptake, yersiniae invade Peyer's patches of the distal ileum. This is accomplished by the binding of the Yersinia invasin to β1 integrins on the apical surface of M cells which overlie follicle associated lymphoid tissue. The gut represents a barrier that severely limits yersiniae from reaching deeper tissues such as Peyer's patches. We wondered if gut protease attack on invasion factors could contribute to the low number of yersiniae invading Peyer's patches. Findings Here we show that invasin is rapidly degraded in vivo by gut proteases in the mouse infection model. In vivo proteolytic degradation is due to proteolysis by several gut proteases such as trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, pancreatic elastase, and pepsin. Protease treated yersiniae are shown to be less invasive in a cell culture model. YadA, another surface adhesin is cleaved by similar concentrations of gut proteases but Myf was not cleaved, showing that not all surface proteins are equally susceptible to degradation by gut proteases. Conclusions We demonstrate that gut proteases target important Yersinia virulence factors such as invasin and YadA in vivo. Since invasin is completely degraded within 2-3 h after reaching the small intestine of mice, it is no longer available to mediate invasion of Peyer's patches.

  20. Isolation of Yersinia from raw meat (pork and chicken) and precooked meat (porcine tongues and sausages) collected from commercial establishments in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, E I; Vázquez-Salinas, C; Rodas-Suárez, O R; Pedroche, F F

    2000-04-01

    A total of 160 meat product samples were collected from commercial outlets in Mexico City to investigate the presence of different species of Yersinia by the 4 degrees C enrichment method after 1, 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation using alkaline treatment and isolating in cefsulodin-Irgasan-novobiocin and MacConkey agars with Tween 80. Overall, Yersinia spp. were isolated from 27% of the samples analyzed, whereas 40% of the raw and only 13% of the precooked samples were contaminated. Although 2,970 colonies showed Yersinia characteristics, only 706 (24%) actually corresponded to this genus: 49% were Yersinia enterocolitica, 25% Yersinia kristensenii, 15% Yersinia intermedia, 9% Yersinia frederiksenii, and 2% Yersinia aldovae; 10% corresponded to biotype 2, 2% to biotype 3, and 4% to biotype 4. The presence of Yersinia in raw and cooked meat products represents a health risk for consumers in Mexico, where further clinical studies are needed to assess the epidemiological importance of this pathogen.

  1. Fast and sensitive detection of enteropathogenic Yersinia by immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Jérôme; Savin, Cyril; Lamourette, Patricia; Devilliers, Karine; Volland, Hervé; Carniel, Elisabeth; Créminon, Christophe; Simon, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the two Yersinia species that are enteropathogenic for humans, are distributed worldwide and frequently cause diarrhea in inhabitants of temperate and cold countries. Y. enterocolitica is a major cause of foodborne disease resulting from consumption of contaminated pork meat and is further associated with substantial economic cost. However, investigation of enteropathogenic Yersinia species is infrequently performed routinely in clinical laboratories because of their specific growth characteristics, which make difficult their isolation from stool samples. Moreover, current isolation procedures are time-consuming and expensive, thus leading to underestimates of the incidence of enteric yersiniosis, inappropriate prescriptions of antibiotic treatments, and unnecessary appendectomies. The main objective of the study was to develop fast, sensitive, specific, and easy-to-use immunoassays, useful for both human and veterinary diagnosis. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 and Y. pseudotuberculosis serotypes I and III were produced. Pairs of MAbs were selected by testing their specificity and affinity for enteropathogenic Yersinia and other commonly found enterobacteria. Pairs of MAbs were selected to develop highly sensitive enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs or dipsticks) convenient for the purpose of rapid diagnosis. The limit of detection of the EIAs ranged from 3.2 × 10(3) CFU/ml to 8.8 × 10(4) CFU/ml for pathogenic serotypes I and III of Y. pseudotuberculosis and pathogenic bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 of Y. enterocolitica and for the LFIs ranged from 10(5) CFU/ml to 10(6) CFU/ml. A similar limit of detection was observed for artificially contaminated human feces. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Evaluation of a Single Procedure Allowing the Isolation of Enteropathogenic Yersinia along with Other Bacterial Enteropathogens from Human Stools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Cyril; Leclercq, Alexandre; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia are among the most frequent agents of human diarrhea in temperate and cold countries. However, the incidence of yersiniosis is largely underestimated because of the peculiar growth characteristics of pathogenic Yersinia, which make their isolation from poly-contaminated samples difficult. The use of specific procedures for Yersinia isolation is required, but is expensive and time consuming, and therefore is not systematically performed in clinical pathology laboratories. A means to circumvent this problem would be to use a single procedure for the isolation of all bacterial enteropathogens. Since the Statens Serum Institut enteric medium (SSI) has been reported to allow the growth at 37°C of most Gram-negative bacteria, including Yersinia, our study aimed at evaluating its performances for Yersinia isolation, as compared to the commonly used Yersinia-specific semi-selective Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin medium (CIN) incubated at 28°C. Our results show that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis growth was strongly inhibited on SSI at 37°C, and therefore that this medium is not suitable for the isolation of this species. All Yersinia enterocolitica strains tested grew on SSI, while some non-pathogenic Yersinia species were inhibited. The morphology of Y. enterocolitica colonies on SSI allowed their differentiation from various other Gram-negative bacteria commonly isolated from stool samples. However, in artificially contaminated human stools, the recovery of Y. enterocolitica colonies on SSI at 37°C was difficult and was 3 logs less sensitive than on CIN at 28°C. Therefore, despite its limitations, the use of a specific procedure (CIN incubated at 28°C) is still required for an efficient isolation of enteropathogenic Yersinia from stools. PMID:22911756

  3. YadA, the multifaceted Yersinia adhesin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tahir, Y; Skurnik, M

    2001-08-01

    The adhesion protein YadA is encoded by the yadA gene located in the 70-kb virulence plasmid of Yersinia (pYV) that is common to the pathogenic Yersinia species (Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica). YadA is a virulence factor of Y. enterocolitica, however, YadA seems to be dispensable for the virulence of Y. pseudotuberculosis, and in wild-type Y. pestis the yadA gene has a frameshift mutation silencing the gene. Expression of the Y. pseudotuberculosis YadA in Y. pestis reduces its virulence. YadA is a homotrimer of ca. 45-kDa subunits that are anchored to the outer membrane via their C-termini, while their N-termini form a globular head on top of a stalk; the 'lollipop'-shaped YadA structure covers the entire bacterial surface giving it hydrophobic properties. The yadA gene expression is induced at 37 degrees C by the temperature-dependent transcriptional activator LcrF. YadA is a multifaceted protein as revealed by its different biological properties. YadA+ bacteria bind to collagens, laminin, fibronectin, intestinal submucosa, mucus, and to hydrophobic surfaces like polystyrene. YadA+ bacteria autoagglutinate in stationary culture and also specifically agglutinate guinea pig red blood cells. YadA is also a potent serum resistance factor as it inhibits the classical pathway of complement. As invasin, it mediates low rate invasion to tissue culture cells. In a rat model of reactive arthritis YadA and specifically YadA-mediated collagen binding is necessary for Y. enterocolitica to induce the disease. Despite of this wealth of information or perhaps because of it, the in vivo role of YadA during infection remains still largely unresolved.

  4. Control of Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at herd level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerve, Eystein; Lium, Bjørn; Nielsen, Bent

    1998-01-01

    of slaughter pigs (OR = 0.44) also lowered the herd prevalence. The most expressed risk factor was using an own farm vehicle for transport of slaughter pigs to abattoirs (OR = 12.92). Separation between clean and unclean section in herds (OR = 2.67), daily observations of a cat with kittens on the farm (OR = 2...

  5. Yersinia enterocolitica in the Western Cape | Finlayson | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 47, No 1 (1973) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  6. The risk on contact people with different serotypes of sticks the Yersinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimfa Maria Stojek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Experts are anxious because “American serotype” Yersinia entorocolitica O:8 unexpectedly appeared in Europe in the years 2000 because of its high pathogenicity. The aim of the investigations was to determine people risk contact with different serotypes of Yersinia, based on serological investigations in the years 1997–99 in relation to current epidemiological situation. The study covered 573 sera, from 300 healthy persons and 157 suspicious of yersiniosis, and 116 suspicious of other zoonosis. Tests were performed by passive hemaglutination reaction with antigens viewed as pathogenic to humans Y. enterocolitica O:3, O:5, O:6, O:8, O:9 and Y. pseudotuberculosis group I and III. The most frequently detected antibodies were anti-Y.e. O:5 (41,2% and then anti-Y.e. O:8 (36,6%, anti-Y.e. O;3 (20,1%, anti-Y.e. O;6 (9,2%, anti-Y.e. O:9 (4,6% and anti-Y. pseudotuberculosis I i III (11,8% and 10,3%. The results of investigations show, that already in the years 1997–1999 over 30% of population had contact with Yersinia sticks, including serotypes thought as pathogenic: Y. enterocolitica O:3 (20,1 %, Y. enterocolitica O:9 (4,6 % and particularly with Y. enterocolitica O:8 (36,6 %.

  7. Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Yersinia Species Isolated From Chicken and Beef Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Aghamohammad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foodborne diseases are widespread and growing public health problem in developed and developing countries. There are many microorganisms act as etiological agents for foodborne diseases such as Campylobacter spp., Listeria, Staphylococcos, Salmonella, Bacillus, Yersinia spp. High prevalence of gastrointestinal illness, including fatal cases attributable to yersiniosis, is also observed in many developing countries. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica and other Yersinia species in meat and chicken samples in various seasons and to determine their antibiotic resistance profile. Materials and Methods: To investigate the prevalence of Yersinia spp., a total of 450 samples, including chicken (n = 226 and beef meat (n = 224 were collected from supermarkets in Tehran. All samples were transported on ice to the laboratory and microbiological analysis was carried out within 2 hours after the collection. Susceptibility testing of bacterial strains was according to CLSI guideline at 28˚C by the disk diffusion assay. Results: From a total of 450 samples, (226 chickens and 224 beef meats, 70 (15.5% samples were positive for Yersinia spp. Of these isolates, (80% 56 species were identified as Y. enterocolitica, 8 (11% as Y. frederiksenii, 5 (7% as Y. intermedia and 1 (1.4% as Y. kristensenii. The highest rate of resistance was seen against cephalotin (98%, and ampicillin (52%. However, gentamicin and chloramphenicol were the most active antibiotics against the target cultures. Considering the season of isolation, Yersinia spp. were frequently isolated in autumn (52%, followed by spring (29%. Conclusions: Y. enterocolitica was the most spp. distributed among other species. Many factors, such as isolation assay, season, and geographical location play critical role in reports of increase or decrease in the prevalence of the Yersinia spp. all over the world. Our findings demonstrate that

  8. Yersinia pestis Ail: multiple roles of a single protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejek, Anna M.; Hovde, Carolyn J.; Minnich, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is one of the most virulent bacteria identified. It is the causative agent of plague—a systemic disease that has claimed millions of human lives throughout history. Y. pestis survival in insect and mammalian host species requires fine-tuning to sense and respond to varying environmental cues. Multiple Y. pestis attributes participate in this process and contribute to its pathogenicity and highly efficient transmission between hosts. These include factors inherited from its enteric predecessors; Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis, as well as phenotypes acquired or lost during Y. pestis speciation. Representatives of a large Enterobacteriaceae Ail/OmpX/PagC/Lom family of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are found in the genomes of all pathogenic Yersiniae. This review describes the current knowledge regarding the role of Ail in Y. pestis pathogenesis and virulence. The pronounced role of Ail in the following areas are discussed (1) inhibition of the bactericidal properties of complement, (2) attachment and Yersinia outer proteins (Yop) delivery to host tissue, (3) prevention of PMNL recruitment to the lymph nodes, and (4) inhibition of the inflammatory response. Finally, Ail homologs in Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are compared to illustrate differences that may have contributed to the drastic bacterial lifestyle change that shifted Y. pestis from an enteric to a vector-born systemic pathogen. PMID:22919692

  9. Panoramic view of the occurrence of Yersinia species other than Y. pestis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Falcão

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Data on the occurrence of Yersinia species. other than Y. pestis in Brazil are presented. Over the past 40 years, 767 Yersinia strains have been identified and typed by the National Reference Center on Yersinia spp. Other than Y. pestis, using the classical biochemical tests for species characterization. The strains were further classified into biotypes, serotypes and phagetypes when pertinent. These tests led to the identification of Yersinia cultures belonging to the species Y. enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. intermedia, Y. frederiksenii and Y. kristensenii. Six isolates could not be classified in any of the known Yersinia species and for this reason were defined as Non-typable (NT. The bio-sero-phagetypes of these strains were diverse. The following species of Yersinia were not identified among the Brazilian strains by the classical phenotypic or biochemical tests: Y. aldovae, Y. rhodei, Y. mollaretti, Y. bercovieri and Y. ruckeri. The Yersinia strains were isolated from clinical material taken from sick and/or healthy humans and animals, from various types of food and from the environment, by investigators of various Institutions localized in different cities and regions of Brazil. Keywords: Yersinia spp.; occurrence; Brazil

  10. Proteomic characterization of host response to Yersinia pestis and near neighbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromy, Brett A.; Perkins, Julie; Heidbrink, Jenny L.; Gonzales, Arlene D.; Murphy, Gloria A.; Fitch, J. Patrick; McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L.

    2004-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions result in protein expression changes within both the host and the pathogen. Here, results from proteomic characterization of host response following exposure to Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, and to two near neighbors, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica, are reported. Human monocyte-like cells were chosen as a model for macrophage immune response to pathogen exposure. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry was used to identify host proteins with differential expression following exposure to these three closely related Yersinia species. This comparative proteomic characterization of host response clearly shows that host protein expression patterns are distinct for the different pathogen exposures, and contributes to further understanding of Y. pestis virulence and host defense mechanisms. This work also lays the foundation for future studies aimed at defining biomarkers for presymptomatic detection of plague

  11. Early manifestation of Yersinia colitis demonstrated by the double-contrast barium enema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspestrand, F.

    1986-11-01

    A 19-year old female with a bloody, diarrheal illness of acute onset where Crohn's disease primarly was suspected is presented. The double-contrast barium enema revealed multiple, diffusely scattered aphthous erosions of the colonic mucosa: the rectum was scarcely affected. Biopsies taken by endoscopy demonstrated nonspecific inflammatory changes of the mucous membrane. However, routinely taken stool cultures revealed an infectious colitis due to Yersinia enterocolitica. Our case demonstrates the necessity to consider Yersinia enterocolitis in the radiographic differential diagnosis when the diagnosis of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis seems obvious.

  12. The early manifestation of Yersinia colitis demonstrated by the double-contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspestrand, F.

    1986-01-01

    A 19-year old female with a bloody, diarrheal illness of acute onset where Crohn's disease primarly was suspected is presented. The double-contrast barium enema revealed multiple, diffusely scattered aphthous erosions of the colonic mucosa: the rectum was scarcely affected. Biopsies taken by endoscopy demonstrated nonspecific inflammatory changes of the mucous membrane. However, routinely taken stool cultures revealed an infectious colitis due to Yersinia enterocolitica. Our case demonstrates the necessity to consider Yersinia enterocolitis in the radiographic differential diagnosis when the diagnosis of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis seems obvious. (orig.) [de

  13. Epidemiologic investigation of a Yersinia camp outbreak linked to a food handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, D L; Shayegani, M; Gallo, R J

    1984-06-01

    In July 1981, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred at a summer diet camp. Of the 455 campers and staff, 35 per cent developed an illness characterized by abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, and/or nausea and vomiting. A total of 53 per cent experienced abdominal pain. Seven persons were hospitalized, five of whom had appendectomies. Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup 0:8 was isolated from 37 (54 per cent) of 69 persons examined, including the camp cook and three assistants. An epidemiologic investigation demonstrated that illness was associated with consumption of reconstituted powdered milk and/or chow mein . Y. enterocolitica serogroup 0:8 was subsequently isolated from milk, the milk dispenser, and leftover chow mein . Information obtained during the investigation suggested that the Yersinia had been introduced by a food handler during food-processing procedures.

  14. Yersinia type III effectors perturb host innate immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pha, Khavong; Navarro, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Innate immune cells recognize molecular patterns from the pathogen and mount a response to resolve the infection. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, phagocytosis, and induced programmed cell death are processes initiated by innate immune cells in order to combat invading pathogens. However, pathogens have evolved various virulence mechanisms to subvert these responses. One strategy utilized by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the deployment of a complex machine termed the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is composed of a syringe-like needle structure and the effector proteins that are injected directly into a target host cell to disrupt a cellular response. The three human pathogenic Yersinia spp. (Y. pestis, Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis) are Gram-negative bacteria that share in common a 70 kb virulence plasmid which encodes the T3SS. Translocation of the Yersinia effector proteins (YopE, YopH, YopT, YopM, YpkA/YopO, and YopP/J) into the target host cell results in disruption of the actin cytoskeleton to inhibit phagocytosis, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, and induction of cellular apoptosis of the target cell. Over the past 25 years, studies on the Yersinia effector proteins have unveiled tremendous knowledge of how the effectors enhance Yersinia virulence. Recently, the long awaited crystal structure of YpkA has been solved providing further insights into the activation of the YpkA kinase domain. Multisite autophosphorylation by YpkA to activate its kinase domain was also shown and postulated to serve as a mechanism to bypass regulation by host phosphatases. In addition, novel Yersinia effector protein targets, such as caspase-1, and signaling pathways including activation of the inflammasome were identified. In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries made on Yersinia

  15. Catalytically active Yersinia outer protein P induces cleavage of RIP and caspase-8 at the level of the DISC independently of death receptors in dendritic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gröbner, S.; Adkins, Irena; Schulz, S.; Richter, K.; Borgmann, S.; Wesselborg, S.; Ruckdeschel, K.; Micheau, O.; Autenrieth, I. B.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 12 (2007), s. 1813-1825 ISSN 1360-8185 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : yersinia enterocolitica * yopp * death receptors Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.043, year: 2007

  16. Yersinia Type III Secretion System Master Regulator LcrF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiesow, Leah; Lam, Hanh

    2015-01-01

    Many Gram-negative pathogens express a type III secretion (T3SS) system to enable growth and survival within a host. The three human-pathogenic Yersinia species, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica, encode the Ysc T3SS, whose expression is controlled by an AraC-like master regulator called LcrF. In this review, we discuss LcrF structure and function as well as the environmental cues and pathways known to regulate LcrF expression. Similarities and differences in binding motifs and modes of action between LcrF and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa homolog ExsA are summarized. In addition, we present a new bioinformatics analysis that identifies putative LcrF binding sites within Yersinia target gene promoters. PMID:26644429

  17. Proteomic Characterization of Host Response to Yersinia pestis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chromy, B; Perkins, J; Heidbrink, J; Gonzales, A; Murhpy, G; Fitch, J P; McCutchen-Maloney, S

    2004-05-11

    Host-pathogen interactions result in protein expression changes within both the host and the pathogen. Here, results from proteomic characterization of host response following exposure to Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, and to two near neighbors, Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica, are reported. Human monocyte-like cells were chosen as a model for macrophage immune response to pathogen exposure. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry was used to identify host proteins with differential expression following exposure to these three closely related Yersinia species. This comparative proteomic characterization of host response clearly shows that host protein expression patterns are distinct for the different pathogen exposures, and contributes to further understanding of Y. pestis virulence and host defense mechanisms. This work also lays the foundation for future studies aimed at defining biomarkers for presymptomatic detection of plague.

  18. Autologous /sup 111/In-oxine-labeled granulocytes in Yersinia infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W.; Boerner, W.; Fischbach, W.

    1985-04-01

    Autologous /sup 111/In-oxine-labeled granulocytes have proved to be valuable for the localization of inflammatory bowel diseases, especially Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Other rare inflammatory bowel diseases also yield positive /sup 111/In scans. One case of Yersinia infection of the terminal ileum (Yersinia enterocolitica) showing an accumulation of /sup 111/In-oxine-labeled granulocytes 0.5, 4, and 24 h after the reinjection of the labeled cells is described. The 4-day fecal excretion of /sup 111/In-oxine granulocytes showed a slight inflammatory activity of the terminal ileum. One negative scan is reported in a cotrimoxazole-treated patient with Yersinia infection.

  19. The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis toxin complex is active against cultured mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hares, Michelle C; Hinchliffe, Stewart J; Strong, Philippa C R; Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Dowling, Andrea J; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Waterfield, Nick

    2008-11-01

    The toxin complex (Tc) genes were first identified in the insect pathogen Photorhabdus luminescens and encode approximately 1 MDa protein complexes which are toxic to insect pests. Subsequent genome sequencing projects have revealed the presence of tc orthologues in a range of bacterial pathogens known to be associated with insects. Interestingly, members of the mammalian-pathogenic yersiniae have also been shown to encode Tc orthologues. Studies in Yersinia enterocolitica have shown that divergent tc loci either encode insect-active toxins or play a role in colonization of the gut in gastroenteritis models of rats. So far little is known about the activity of the Tc proteins in the other mammalian-pathogenic yersiniae. Here we present work to suggest that Tc proteins in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis are not insecticidal toxins but have evolved for mammalian pathogenicity. We show that Tc is secreted by Y. pseudotuberculosis strain IP32953 during growth in media at 28 degrees C and 37 degrees C. We also demonstrate that oral toxicity of strain IP32953 to Manduca sexta larvae is not due to Tc expression and that lysates of Escherichia coli BL21 expressing the Yersinia Tc proteins are not toxic to Sf9 insect cells but are toxic to cultured mammalian cell lines. Cell lysates of E. coli BL21 expressing the Y. pseudotuberculosis Tc proteins caused actin ruffles, vacuoles and multi-nucleation in cultured human gut cells (Caco-2); similar morphology was observed after application of a lysate of E. coli BL21 expressing the Y. pestis Tc proteins to mouse fibroblast NIH3T3 cells, but not Caco-2 cells. Finally, transient expression of the individual Tc proteins in Caco-2 and NIH3T3 cell lines reproduced the actin and nuclear rearrangement observed with the topical applications. Together these results add weight to the growing hypothesis that the Tc proteins in Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis have been adapted for mammalian pathogenicity. We further

  20. Insecticidal genes of Yersinia spp.: taxonomical distribution, contribution to toxicity towards Manduca sexta and Galleria mellonella, and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schachtner Joachim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxin complex (Tc proteins termed TcaABC, TcdAB, and TccABC with insecticidal activity are present in a variety of bacteria including the yersiniae. Results The tc gene sequences of thirteen Yersinia strains were compared, revealing a high degree of gene order conservation, but also remarkable differences with respect to pseudogenes, sequence variability and gene duplications. Outside the tc pathogenicity island (tc-PAIYe of Y. enterocolitica strain W22703, a pseudogene (tccC2'/3' encoding proteins with homology to TccC and similarity to tyrosine phosphatases at its C-terminus was identified. PCR analysis revealed the presence of the tc-PAIYe and of tccC2'/3'-homologues in all biotype 2–5 strains tested, and their absence in most representatives of biotypes 1A and 1B. Phylogenetic analysis of 39 TccC sequences indicates the presence of the tc-PAIYe in an ancestor of Yersinia. Oral uptake experiments with Manduca sexta revealed a higher larvae lethality of Yersinia strains harbouring the tc-PAIYe in comparison to strains lacking this island. Following subcutaneous infection of Galleria mellonella larvae with five non-human pathogenic Yersinia spp. and four Y. enterocolitica strains, we observed a remarkable variability of their insecticidal activity ranging from 20% (Y. kristensenii to 90% (Y. enterocolitica strain 2594 dead larvae after five days. Strain W22703 and its tcaA deletion mutant did not exhibit a significantly different toxicity towards G. mellonella. These data confirm a role of TcaA upon oral uptake only, and suggest the presence of further insecticidal determinants in Yersinia strains formerly unknown to kill insects. Conclusion This study investigated the tc gene distribution among yersiniae and the phylogenetic relationship between TccC proteins, thus contributing novel aspects to the current discussion about the evolution of insecticidal toxins in the genus Yersinia. The toxic potential of several Yersinia

  1. Coregulation of host-adapted metabolism and virulence by pathogenic yersiniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Dersch, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering the principles how pathogenic bacteria adapt their metabolism to a specific host microenvironment is critical for understanding bacterial pathogenesis. The enteric pathogenic Yersinia species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica and the causative agent of plague, Yersinia pestis, are able to survive in a large variety of environmental reservoirs (e.g., soil, plants, insects) as well as warm-blooded animals (e.g., rodents, pigs, humans) with a particular preference for lymphatic tissues. In order to manage rapidly changing environmental conditions and interbacterial competition, Yersinia senses the nutritional composition during the course of an infection by special molecular devices, integrates this information and adapts its metabolism accordingly. In addition, nutrient availability has an impact on expression of virulence genes in response to C-sources, demonstrating a tight link between the pathogenicity of yersiniae and utilization of nutrients. Recent studies revealed that global regulatory factors such as the cAMP receptor protein (Crp) and the carbon storage regulator (Csr) system are part of a large network of transcriptional and posttranscriptional control strategies adjusting metabolic changes and virulence in response to temperature, ion and nutrient availability. Gained knowledge about the specific metabolic requirements and the correlation between metabolic and virulence gene expression that enable efficient host colonization led to the identification of new potential antimicrobial targets. PMID:25368845

  2. Heat-stable proteins and abscisic acid action in barley aleurone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, J.V.; Shaw, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    [ 35 S]Methionine labeling experiments showed that abscisic acid (ABA) induced the synthesis of at least 25 polypeptides in mature barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone cells. The polypeptides were not secreted. Whereas most of the proteins extracted from aleurone cells were coagulated by heating to 100 degree C for 10 minutes, most of the ABA-induced polypeptides remained in solution (heat-stable). ABA had little effect on the spectrum of polypeptides that were synthesized and secreted by aleurone cells, and most of these secreted polypeptides were also heat-stable. Coomassie blue staining of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels indicated that ABA-induced polypeptides already occurred in high amounts in mature aleurone layers having accumulated during grain development. About 60% of the total protein extracted from mature aleurone was heat stable. Amino acid analyses of total preparations of heat-stable and heat-labile proteins showed that, compared to heat-labile proteins, heat-stable intracellular proteins were characterized by higher glutamic acid/glutamine (Glx) and glycine levels and lower levels of neutral amino acids. Secreted heat-stable proteins were rich in Glx and proline. The possibilities that the accumulation of the heat-stable polypeptides during grain development is controlled by ABA and that the function of these polypeptides is related to their abundance and extraordinary heat stability are considered

  3. The attenuation effect of UVc radiation doses in gram-negative bacteria (Brucella, Yersinia, Escherichia coli)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mariri, A.

    2007-01-01

    The gram-negative bacteria Yersinia enterocolitica sero group O:3 and O:9, and Brucella (Melitensis and abortus) together with Escherichia coli (O:157, DH5alpha-pEt15b), were investigated to evaluate their susceptibility to UV radiation at 254 nm. If the dose of UVc was 18.7 mW/cm2, the time required for inactivation of Y. enterocolitica and E. coli DH5alpha-pEt15b and O:157 was 240s and 360s in the dark and light respectively. Where if the dose was 19.5 mW/cm2, the time required was 60s in the dark and 120s in light respectively. The time required for inactivation of Brucella strains (melitensis and abortus) if the dose was 18.7 mW/cm2 was 240s in both dark and light, whereas it was 120s (dark) and 240s (light) respectively, when the dose was 19.5 mW/cm2. Using E. coli O:157 as control, it appears that Y. enterocolitica sero group O:3 and O:9 and vaccinal strains of Brucella (Rev. 1 and S19) are more sensitive to UV than wild Brucella strains. No relation was found between the sensitivity of Y. enterocolitica to UV and the presence or absence of a pYV+ virulence plasmid. (author)

  4. The attenuation effect of UVc radiation doses in gram-negative bacteria (Brucella, Yersinia, Escherichia coli)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mariri, A.

    2006-06-01

    The gram-negative bacteria Yersinia enterocolitica sero group O:3 and O:9, and Brucella (Melitensis and abortus) together with Escherichia coli (O:157, DH5α-pEt15b), were investigated to evaluate their susceptibility to UV radiation at 254 nm. If the dose of UVc was 18.7 mW/cm 2 , the time required for inactivation of Y. enterocolitica and E. coli DH5α-pEt15b and O:157 was 240s and 360s in the dark and light respectively; where if the dose was 19.5 mW/cm 2 , the time required was 60s in the dark and 120s in light respectively. The time required for inactivation of Brucella strains (melitensis and abortus) if the dose was 18.7 mW/cm 2 was 240s in both dark and light, whereas it was 120s(dark) and 240s (light) respectively, when the dose was 19.5 mW/cm 2 . Using E. coli O:157 as control, it appears that Y. enterocolitica sero group O:3 and O:9 and vaccinal strains of Brucella (Rev. 1 and S19) are more sensitive to UV than wild Brucella strains. No relation was found between the sensitivity of Y. enterocolitica to UV and the presence or absence of a pYV + virulence plasmid. (author)

  5. Evaluation of different enrichment methods for pathogenic Yersinia species detection by real time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Yersiniosis is a zoonotic disease reported worldwide. Culture and PCR based protocols are the most common used methods for detection of pathogenic Yersinia species in animal samples. PCR sensitivity could be increased by an initial enrichment step. This step is particularly useful in surveillance programs, where PCR is applied to samples from asymptomatic animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the improvement in pathogenic Yersinia species detection using a suitable enrichment method prior to the real time PCR (rtPCR). Nine different enrichment protocols were evaluated including six different broth mediums (CASO, ITC, PSB, PBS, PBSMSB and PBSSSB). Results The analysis of variance showed significant differences in Yersinia detection by rtPCR according to the enrichment protocol used. These differences were higher for Y. pseudotuberculosis than for Y. enterocolitica. In general, samples incubated at lower temperatures yielded the highest detection rates. The best results were obtained with PBSMSB and PBS2. Application of PBSMSB protocol to free-ranging wild board samples improved the detection of Y. enterocolitica by 21.2% when compared with direct rtPCR. Y. pseudotuberculosis detection was improved by 10.6% when results obtained by direct rtPCR and by PBSMSB enrichment before rtPCR were analyzed in combination. Conclusions The data obtained in the present study indicate a difference in Yersinia detection by rtPCR related to the enrichment protocol used, being PBSMSB enrichment during 15 days at 4°C and PBS during 7 days at 4°C the most efficient. The use of direct rtPCR in combination with PBSMSB enrichment prior to rtPCR resulted in an improvement in the detection rates of pathogenic Yersinia in wild boar and could be useful for application in other animal samples. PMID:25168886

  6. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia species isolates in ducks and geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Hossein; Radmehr, Behrad; Ismail, Salmah

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp. isolated from duck and goose intestinal contents. A total of 471 samples, including 291 duck and 180 goose intestinal contents, were purchased from wet markets between November 2008 and July 2010. Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp. were isolated from 58 (12.3%), 107 (22.7%), and 80 (17%) of the samples, respectively. It was concluded that Listeria ivanovii, Salmonella Thompson, and Yersinia enterocolitica were the predominant serovars among Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp., respectively. Moreover, resistance to tetracycline was common in Listeria (48.3%) and Salmonella spp. (63.6%), whereas 51.3% of the Yersinia spp. isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Therefore, continued surveillance of the prevalence of the pathogens and also of emerging antibiotic resistance is needed to render possible the recognition of foods that may represent risks and also ensure the effective treatment of listeriosis, salmonellosis, and yersiniosis.

  7. Hunger for iron: the alternative siderophore iron scavenging systems in highly virulent Yersinia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eRakin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Low molecular weight siderophores are used by many living organisms to scavenge scarcely available ferric iron. Presence of at least a single siderophore-based iron acquisition system is usually acknowledged as a virulence-associated trait and a prerequisite to become an efficient and successful pathogen. Currently it is assumed that yersiniabactin (Ybt is the solely functional endogenous siderophore iron uptake system in highly virulent Yersinia (Yersinia pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica biotype 1B. Genes responsible for biosynthesis, transport and regulation of the yersiniabactin (ybt production are clustered on a mobile genetic element, the High Pathogenicity Island (HPI that is responsible for broad dissemination of the ybt genes in Enterobacteriaceae. However, the ybt gene cluster is absent from nearly half of Y. pseudotuberculosis O3 isolates and epidemic Y. pseudotuberculosis O1 isolates responsible for the Far East Scarlet-like Fever. Several potential siderophore-mediated iron uptake gene clusters are documented in Yersinia genomes, however neither of them have been proven to be functional. It has been suggested that at least two siderophores alternative to Ybt may operate in the highly virulent Yersinia pestis / Y. pseudotuberculosis group, and are referred to as pseudochelin (Pch and yersiniachelin (Ych. Furthermore, most sporadic Y. pseudotuberculosis O1 strains possess gene clusters encoding all three iron scavenging systems. Thus, the Ybt system appears not to be the sole endogenous siderophore iron uptake system in the highly virulent yersiniae and may be efficiently substituted and / or supplemented by alternative iron scavenging systems.

  8. Cold Shock Proteins: a Minireview with Special Emphasis on Csp-family of Enteropathogenic Yersinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Keto-Timonen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria have evolved a number of mechanisms for coping with stress and adapting to changing environmental conditions. Many bacteria produce small cold shock proteins (Csp as a response to rapid temperature downshift (cold shock. During cold shock, the cell membrane fluidity and enzyme activity decrease, and the efficiency of transcription and translation is reduced due to stabilization of nucleic acid secondary structures. Moreover, protein folding is inefficient and ribosome function is hampered. Csps are thought to counteract these harmful effects by serving as nucleic acid chaperons that may prevent the formation of secondary structures in mRNA at low temperature and thus facilitate the initiation of translation. However, some Csps are non-cold inducible and they are reported to be involved in various cellular processes to promote normal growth and stress adaptation responses. Csps have been shown to contribute to osmotic, oxidative, starvation, pH and ethanol stress tolerance as well as to host cell invasion. Therefore, Csps seem to have a wider role in stress tolerance of bacteria than previously assumed. Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are enteropathogens that can spread through foodstuffs and cause an enteric infection called yersiniosis. Enteropathogenic Yersinia are psychrotrophs that are able to grow at temperatures close to 0ºC and thus they set great challenges for the modern food industry. To be able to efficiently control psychrotrophic Yersinia during food production and storage, it is essential to understand the functions and roles of Csps in stress response of enteropathogenic Yersinia.

  9. Yersinia pekkanenii sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murros-Kontiainen, Anna; Johansson, Per; Niskanen, Taina; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Korkeala, Hannu; Björkroth, Johanna

    2011-10-01

    The taxonomic position of three strains from water, soil and lettuce samples was studied by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strains were reported to lack the virulence-encoding genes inv and virF in a previous study. Controversially, API 20 E and some other phenotypic tests suggested that the strains belong to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which prompted this polyphasic taxonomic study. In both the phylogenetic analyses of four housekeeping genes (glnA, gyrB, recA and HSP60) and numerical analyses of HindIII and EcoRI ribopatterns, the strains formed a separate group within the genus Yersinia. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains were related to Yersinia aldovae and Yersinia mollaretii, but DNA-DNA hybridization analysis differentiated them from these species. Based on the results of the phylogenetic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses, a novel species, Yersinia pekkanenii sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is ÅYV7.1KOH2(T) ( = DSM 22769(T)  = LMG 25369(T)).

  10. Partial characterization of bacteriocin induced by irradiated and non-irradiated strain of yersinia enterocolitical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awny, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty isolates of yersinia enterocolitica were tested for the inhibition of the growth of different strains of yersinia. The screening tests revealed three possible bacteriocinogenic strains. One of them was selected for additional studies after it was shown that its inhibitory substances differed in their activity spectra. The gamma irradiated strain lost the ability to produce bacteriocin at 0.6 kGy level. Crude preparation of bacteriocin obtained from the wild strain were not affected by chloroform or other organic solvents but inactivated by trypsin and heating at 80 C for 45 min. Bacteriocin induced by irradiated strain was easily inactivated by thermal treatment. Exposure of agar fragments containing the inhibitory active component to a pH value ranging between 2 to 11 did not affect bactericidal activity.4 tab

  11. Effects of urbanization on host-pathogen interactions, using Yersinia in house sparrows as a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbe, Diederik; Teyssier, Aimeric; Salleh Hudin, Noraine; Van den Abeele, Anne-Marie; Cox, Ivo; Haesendonck, Roel; Delmée, Michel; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Lens, Luc; Martel, An

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization strongly affects biodiversity, altering natural communities and often leading to a reduced species richness. Yet, despite its increasingly recognized importance, how urbanization impacts on the health of individual animals, wildlife populations and on disease ecology remains poorly understood. To test whether, and how, urbanization-driven ecosystem alterations influence pathogen dynamics and avian health, we use house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and Yersinia spp. (pathogenic for passerines) as a case study. Sparrows are granivorous urban exploiters, whose western European populations have declined over the past decades, especially in highly urbanized areas. We sampled 329 house sparrows originating from 36 populations along an urbanization gradient across Flanders (Belgium), and used isolation combined with ‘matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization- time of flight mass spectrometry’ (MALDI-TOF MS) and PCR methods for detecting the presence of different Yersinia species. Yersinia spp. were recovered from 57.43% of the sampled house sparrows, of which 4.06%, 53.30% and 69.54% were identified as Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica and other Yersinia species, respectively. Presence of Yersinia was related to the degree of urbanization, average daily temperatures and the community of granivorous birds present at sparrow capture locations. Body condition of suburban house sparrows was found to be higher compared to urban and rural house sparrows, but no relationships between sparrows’ body condition and presence of Yersinia spp. were found. We conclude that two determinants of pathogen infection dynamics, body condition and pathogen occurrence, vary along an urbanization gradient, potentially mediating the impact of urbanization on avian health. PMID:29281672

  12. Use of Whole-Genus Genome Sequence Data To Develop a Multilocus Sequence Typing Tool That Accurately Identifies Yersinia Isolates to the Species and Subspecies Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Miquette; Chattaway, Marie A.; Reuter, Sandra; Savin, Cyril; Strauch, Eckhard; Carniel, Elisabeth; Connor, Thomas; Van Damme, Inge; Rajakaruna, Lakshani; Rajendram, Dunstan; Jenkins, Claire; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Yersinia is a large and diverse bacterial genus consisting of human-pathogenic species, a fish-pathogenic species, and a large number of environmental species. Recently, the phylogenetic and population structure of the entire genus was elucidated through the genome sequence data of 241 strains encompassing every known species in the genus. Here we report the mining of this enormous data set to create a multilocus sequence typing-based scheme that can identify Yersinia strains to the species level to a level of resolution equal to that for whole-genome sequencing. Our assay is designed to be able to accurately subtype the important human-pathogenic species Yersinia enterocolitica to whole-genome resolution levels. We also report the validation of the scheme on 386 strains from reference laboratory collections across Europe. We propose that the scheme is an important molecular typing system to allow accurate and reproducible identification of Yersinia isolates to the species level, a process often inconsistent in nonspecialist laboratories. Additionally, our assay is the most phylogenetically informative typing scheme available for Y. enterocolitica. PMID:25339391

  13. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Samonella, Shigella and Yersinia: cellular aspects of host-bacteria interactions in enteric diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Roberta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A successful infection of the human intestine by enteropathogenic bacteria depends on the ability of bacteria to attach and colonize the intestinal epithelium and, in some cases, to invade the host cell, survive intracellularly and disseminate from cell to cell. To accomplish these processes bacteria have evolved an arsenal of molecules that are mostly secreted by dedicated type III secretion systems, and that interact with the host, subverting normal cellular functions. Here we overview the most important molecular strategies developed by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Shigella flexneri, and Yersinia enterocolitica to cause enteric infections. Despite having evolved different effectors, these four microorganisms share common host cellular targets.

  14. Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, John; Frank, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia cause a well-characterized spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to hemorrhagic colitis and fatal typhoidal fever. These pathogens are responsible for millions of cases of food-borne illness in the U.S. each year, with substantial costs measured in hospitalizations and lost productivity. In the developing world, illness caused by these pathogens is not only more prevalent, but is also associated with a greater case-fatality rate. Classical methods for identification rely on selective media and serology, but newer methods based on mass spectrometry and PCR show great promise for routine clinical testing. PMID:26004640

  15. Neutrophils are resistant to Yersinia YopJ/P-induced apoptosis and are protected from ROS-mediated cell death by the type III secretion system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin L Spinner

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The human innate immune system relies on the coordinated activity of macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils or PMNs for defense against bacterial pathogens. Yersinia spp. subvert the innate immune response to cause disease in humans. In particular, the Yersinia outer protein YopJ (Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis and YopP (Y. enterocolitica rapidly induce apoptosis in murine macrophages and dendritic cells. However, the effects of Yersinia Yop J/P on neutrophil fate are not clearly defined.In this study, we utilized wild-type and mutant strains of Yersinia to test the contribution of YopJ and YopP on induction of apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM and neutrophils. Whereas YopJ and YopP similarly induced apoptosis in HMDMs, interaction of human neutrophils with virulence plasmid-containing Yersinia did not result in PMN caspase activation, release of LDH, or loss of membrane integrity greater than PMN controls. In contrast, interaction of human PMNs with the virulence plasmid-deficient Y. pestis strain KIM6 resulted in increased surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS and cell death. PMN reactive oxygen species (ROS production was inhibited in a virulence plasmid-dependent but YopJ/YopP-independent manner. Following phagocytic interaction with Y. pestis strain KIM6, inhibition of PMN ROS production with diphenyleneiodonium chloride resulted in a reduction of PMN cell death similar to that induced by the virulence plasmid-containing strain Y. pestis KIM5.Our findings showed that Yersinia YopJ and/or YopP did not induce pronounced apoptosis in human neutrophils. Furthermore, robust PMN ROS production in response to virulence plasmid-deficient Yersinia was associated with increased PMN cell death, suggesting that Yersinia inhibition of PMN ROS production plays a role in evasion of the human innate immune response in part by limiting PMN apoptosis.

  16. Coregulation of host-adapted metabolism and virulence by pathogenic yersiniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Kathrin eHeroven

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering the principles how pathogenic bacteria adapt their metabolism to a specific host microenvironment is critical for understanding bacterial pathogenesis. The enteric pathogenic Yersinia species Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica and the causative agent of plague, Y. pestis, are able to survive in a large variety of environmental reservoirs (e.g. soil, plants, insects as well as warm-blooded animals (e.g. rodents, pigs, humans with a particular preference for lymphatic tissues. In order to manage rapidly changing environmental conditions and inter-bacterial competition, Yersinia senses the nutritional composition during the course of an infection by special molecular devices, integrates this information and adapts its metabolism accordingly. In addition, nutrient availability has an impact on expression of virulence genes in response to C-sources, demonstrating a tight link between the pathogenicity of yersiniae and utilization of nutrients. Recent studies revealed that global regulatory factors such as the cAMP receptor protein (Crp and the carbon storage regulator (Csr system are part of a large network of transcriptional and posttranscriptional control strategies adjusting metabolic changes and virulence in response to temperature, ion and nutrient availability. Gained knowledge about the specific metabolic requirements and the correlation between metabolic and virulence gene expression that enable efficient host colonization led to the identification of new potential antimicrobial targets.

  17. Yersinia virulence factors - a sophisticated arsenal for combating host defences [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Atkinson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The human pathogens Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica cause enterocolitis, while Yersinia pestis is responsible for pneumonic, bubonic, and septicaemic plague. All three share an infection strategy that relies on a virulence factor arsenal to enable them to enter, adhere to, and colonise the host while evading host defences to avoid untimely clearance. Their arsenal includes a number of adhesins that allow the invading pathogens to establish a foothold in the host and to adhere to specific tissues later during infection. When the host innate immune system has been activated, all three pathogens produce a structure analogous to a hypodermic needle. In conjunction with the translocon, which forms a pore in the host membrane, the channel that is formed enables the transfer of six ‘effector’ proteins into the host cell cytoplasm. These proteins mimic host cell proteins but are more efficient than their native counterparts at modifying the host cell cytoskeleton, triggering the host cell suicide response. Such a sophisticated arsenal ensures that yersiniae maintain the upper hand despite the best efforts of the host to counteract the infecting pathogen.

  18. Heat-stable, FE-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase for aldehyde detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, James G.; Clarkson, Sonya

    2018-04-24

    The present invention relates to microorganisms and polypeptides for detoxifying aldehydes associated with industrial fermentations. In particular, a heat-stable, NADPH- and iron-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase was cloned from Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus 39E and displayed activity against a number of aldehydes including inhibitory compounds that are produced during the dilute-acid pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass before fermentation to biofuels. Methods to use the microorganisms and polypeptides of the invention for improved conversion of bio mass to biofuel are provided as well as use of the enzyme in metabolic engineering strategies for producing longer-chain alcohols from sugars using thermophilic, fermentative microorganisms.

  19. Virulence Plasmid (pYV-Associated Expression of Phenotypic Virulent Determinants in Pathogenic Yersinia Species: A Convenient Method for Monitoring the Presence of pYV under Culture Conditions and Its Application for Isolation/Detection of Yersinia pestis in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumya Bhaduri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Yersinia pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica, phenotypic expression of virulence plasmid (pYV: 70-kb-associated genetic determinants may include low-calcium response (Lcr, pinpoint colony, size = 0.36 mm, colony morphology (size = 1.13 mm, crystal violet (CV binding (dark-violet colony, Congo Red (CR uptake (red pinpoint colony, size = 0.36 mm, autoagglutination (AA = cells agglutinate, and hydrophobicity (HP = clumping of cells. Y. pseudotuberculosis is chromosomally closely related to Y. pestis; whereas, Y. enterocolitica is chromosomally more distantly related to Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis. All three species demonstrate Lcr, CV binding, and CR uptake. The colony morphology/size, AA, and HP characteristics are expressed in both Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica but not in Y. pestis. Congo red uptake in Y. pestis was demonstrated only on calcium-deficient CR magnesium oxalate tryptic soy agar (CR-MOX, whereas this phenotype was expressed on both CR-MOX and low-calcium agarose media in Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica. These phenotypes were detectable at 37°C within 24 h in Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis but did not appear until 48 h in Y. pestis due to its slower growth rate at 37°C. The pYV is unstable (i.e., easily lost under a variety of culture conditions in all three species but is more unstable in Y. pestis. The specific CR uptake by Y. pestis in CR-MOX and the delayed time interval to express Lcr and CR uptake provide a means to differentiate Y. pestis from Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. These differences in pYV expression in Y. pestis can be used for its isolation and detection in food.

  20. Bacteriophages of Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangna; Skurnik, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage play many varied roles in microbial ecology and evolution. This chapter collates a vast body of knowledge and expertise on Yersinia pestis phages, including the history of their isolation and classical methods for their isolation and identification. The genomic diversity of Y. pestis phage and bacteriophage islands in the Y. pestis genome are also discussed because all phage research represents a branch of genetics. In addition, our knowledge of the receptors that are recognized by Y. pestis phage, advances in phage therapy for Y. pestis infections, the application of phage in the detection of Y. pestis, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) sequences of Y. pestis from prophage DNA are all reviewed here.

  1. Papel das Yops secretadas por Yersinia sobre a resposta imune do hospedeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G.S. Monnazzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O gênero Yersinia compreende três espécies patogênicas para humanos: Y. pestis , Y. enterocolitica e Y. pseudotuberculosis . A patogenicidade de Yersinia está ligada à presença do plasmideo de 70-kb (pYV que é comum às três espécies e codifica um sistema de secreção do tipo III e um conjunto de proteínas de virulência, incluindo aquelas conhecidas como Yops (Yersinia outer proteins, que são exportadas por este sistema quando as células do hospedeiro são infectadas pela bactéria. Duas Yops translocadoras (YopB e YopD se inserem na membrana plasmática e funcionam no transporte de seis efetoras (YopO, YopH, YopM, YopJ e YopT para o citosol da célula do hospedeiro. As Yops efetoras funcionam interferindo em múltiplas vias de sinalização da célula infectada. Como conseqüência, a resposta imune inata e adaptativa do hospedeiro fica afetada. Este trabalho enfoca o papel das Yops na modulação da resposta imune do hospedeiro. Palavras-chave: Yersinia ; Yops, fagocitose, citocinas, anticorpos.

  2. The exoribonuclease Polynucleotide Phosphorylase influences the virulence and stress responses of yersiniae and many other pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Rosenzweig

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbes are incessantly challenged by both biotic and abiotic stressors threatening their existence. Therefore, bacterial pathogens must possess mechanisms to successfully subvert host immune defenses as well as overcome the stress associated with host-cell encounters. To achieve this, bacterial pathogens typically experience a genetic re-programming whereby anti-host/stress factors become expressed and eventually translated into effector proteins. In that vein, the bacterial host-cell induced stress-response is similar to any other abiotic stress to which bacteria respond by up-regulating specific stress-responsive genes. Following the stress encounter, bacteria must degrade unnecessary stress responsive transcripts through RNA decay mechanisms. The 3 pathogenic yersiniae (Yersinia pestis, Y. pseudo-tuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica are all psychrotropic bacteria capable of growth at 4˚C; however, cold growth is dependent on the presence of an exoribonuclease, polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase. PNPase has also been implicated as a virulence factor in several notable pathogens including the salmonellae, Helicobacter pylori, and the yersiniae (where it typically influences the type three secretion system. Further, PNPase has been shown to associate with ribonuclease E (endoribonuclease, RhlB (RNA helicase, and enolase (glycolytic enzyme in several Gram-negative bacteria forming a large, multi-protein complex known as the RNA degradosome. This review will highlight studies demonstrating the influence of PNPase on the virulence potentials and stress responses of various bacterial pathogens as well as focusing on the degradosome- dependent and -independent roles played by PNPase in yersiniae stress responses.

  3. The first imported human case of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O1 septicemia presents with acute appendicitis-like syndrome in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsu Lai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human nonplague yersiniosis occurs more commonly in temperate regions than in tropical or subtropical regions. In Taiwan, which is located in a subtropical region of Southeast Asia, only environmental isolates and human infection of Yersinia enterocolitica were reported, but a human case of Y. pseudotuberculosis infection had not been identified. We report the first person with Y. pseudotuberculosis serotype O1 septicemia who presented with acute appendicitis-like syndrome and who was probably contracted the infection via ingestion of raw foods in a barbecue restaurant in Japan.

  4. Immunology of Yersinia pestis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yujing

    2016-01-01

    As a pathogen of plague, Yersinia pestis caused three massive pandemics in history that killed hundreds of millions of people. Yersinia pestis is highly invasive, causing severe septicemia which, if untreated, is usually fatal to its host. To survive in the host and maintain a persistent infection, Yersinia pestis uses several stratagems to evade the innate and the adaptive immune responses. For example, infections with this organism are biphasic, involving an initial "noninflammatory" phase where bacterial replication occurs initially with little inflammation and following by extensive phagocyte influx, inflammatory cytokine production, and considerable tissue destruction, which is called "proinflammatory" phase. In contrast, the host also utilizes its immune system to eliminate the invading bacteria. Neutrophil and macrophage are the first defense against Yersinia pestis invading through phagocytosis and killing. Other innate immune cells also play different roles, such as dendritic cells which help to generate more T helper cells. After several days post infection, the adaptive immune response begins to provide organism-specific protection and has a long-lasting immunological memory. Thus, with the cooperation and collaboration of innate and acquired immunity, the bacterium may be eliminated from the host. The research of Yersinia pestis and host immune systems provides an important topic to understand pathogen-host interaction and consequently develop effective countermeasures.

  5. Relationship between serum heat-stable alkaline phosphatase level and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Guoxian; Xiao Weihong; Yu Huixin; Li Weiyi; Huang Xuquan

    1998-01-01

    Serum heat-stable alkaline phosphatase (HSAP) level in 649 cases of normal pregnancy and 164 cases of high-risk pregnancy is measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The results indicate that the HSAP level in normal pregnancy increased proportionally with gestation weeks (r = 0.9843). In 33 cases of pregnancy induced hypertension and 21 cases of intrauterine fetal growth retardation, the HSAP level is significantly low. In 7 cases of neonatal asphyxia and 26 cases of fetal distress, the HSAP level in the mother's serum is also low. In 53 cases of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, the HSAP level is similar to those of normal pregnancy. This study illustrates that HSAP RIA can play an important role in the evaluation of placental function and fetal prognosis for cases of high-risk pregnancy

  6. Association and dissociation of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin from rat brush border membrane receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.B.; Thompson, M.R.; Overmann, G.J.; Giannella, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) binds to receptors on rat intestinal cells and brush border membranes (BBM). We devised experiments to examine the reversibility of ST binding. We found that both 125 I-labeled ST and native ST were spontaneously dissociable from the BBM receptor. Radiolabeled ST bound to BBM was also dissociated by the addition of avid goat anti-ST antiserum. Furthermore, using a computer program for analysis of ligand binding, we calculated an apparent Ka of 10(8) liters/mol from competitive inhibition and saturation-binding data. This is significantly lower than the value previously reported by others. Our findings, of a lower Ka and a reversible ST-binding process, suggest that a therapeutic strategy of removing bound ST from its receptor or competing with the enterocyte receptor for unbound ST might be successful in terminating ST-induced secretion

  7. From Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin to mammalian endogenous guanylin hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.A.M.; Fonteles, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The isolation of heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) from Escherichia coli and cholera toxin from Vibrio cholerae has increased our knowledge of specific mechanisms of action that could be used as pharmacological tools to understand the guanylyl cyclase-C and the adenylyl cyclase enzymatic systems. These discoveries have also been instrumental in increasing our understanding of the basic mechanisms that control the electrolyte and water balance in the gut, kidney, and urinary tracts under normal conditions and in disease. Herein, we review the evolution of genes of the guanylin family and STa genes from bacteria to fish and mammals. We also describe new developments and perspectives regarding these novel bacterial compounds and peptide hormones that act in electrolyte and water balance. The available data point toward new therapeutic perspectives for pathological features such as functional gastrointestinal disorders associated with constipation, colorectal cancer, cystic fibrosis, asthma, hypertension, gastrointestinal barrier function damage associated with enteropathy, enteric infection, malnutrition, satiety, food preferences, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and effects on behavior and brain disorders such as attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia

  8. From Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin to mammalian endogenous guanylin hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, A.A.M. [Universidade Federal do Ceará, Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Escola de Medicina, Instituto de Biomedicina, Unidade de Pesquisas Clínicas, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil, Unidade de Pesquisas Clínicas, Instituto de Biomedicina, Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Escola de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Fonteles, M.C. [Universidade Federal do Ceará, Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Escola de Medicina, Instituto de Biomedicina, Unidade de Pesquisas Clínicas, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil, Unidade de Pesquisas Clínicas, Instituto de Biomedicina, Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Escola de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2014-03-03

    The isolation of heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) from Escherichia coli and cholera toxin from Vibrio cholerae has increased our knowledge of specific mechanisms of action that could be used as pharmacological tools to understand the guanylyl cyclase-C and the adenylyl cyclase enzymatic systems. These discoveries have also been instrumental in increasing our understanding of the basic mechanisms that control the electrolyte and water balance in the gut, kidney, and urinary tracts under normal conditions and in disease. Herein, we review the evolution of genes of the guanylin family and STa genes from bacteria to fish and mammals. We also describe new developments and perspectives regarding these novel bacterial compounds and peptide hormones that act in electrolyte and water balance. The available data point toward new therapeutic perspectives for pathological features such as functional gastrointestinal disorders associated with constipation, colorectal cancer, cystic fibrosis, asthma, hypertension, gastrointestinal barrier function damage associated with enteropathy, enteric infection, malnutrition, satiety, food preferences, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and effects on behavior and brain disorders such as attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia.

  9. Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type B is heat-stable in milk and not inactivated by pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M

    2010-12-08

    Foodborne botulism is caused by the ingestion of foods containing botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). To study the heat stability of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins, we needed to measure and compare the activity of botulinum neurotoxins, serotypes A and B, under various pasteurization conditions. Currently, the only accepted assay to detect active C. botulinum neurotoxin is an in vivo mouse bioassay, which raises ethical concerns with regard to the use of experimental animals. In this study, noninvasive methods were used to simultaneously detect and distinguish between active BoNT serotypes A and B in one reaction and sample. We developed an enzymatic activity assay employing internally quenched fluorogenic peptides corresponding to SNAP-25, for BoNT-A, and VAMP2, for BoNT-B, as an alternative method to the mouse bioassay. Because each peptide is labeled with different fluorophores, we were able to distinguish between these two toxins. We used this method to analyze the heat stability of BoNT-A and BoNT-B. This study reports that conventional milk pasteurization (63 °C, 30 min) inactivated BoNT serotype A; however, serotype B is heat-stable in milk and not inactivated by pasteurization. Using this activity assay, we also showed that the commonly used food processes such as acidity and pasteurization, which are known to inhibit C. botulinum growth and toxin production, are more effective in inactivating BoNT serotype A than serotype B when conventional pasteurization (63 °C, 30 min) is used.

  10. Acquisition of omptin reveals cryptic virulence function of autotransporter YapE in Yersinia pestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Jarrod; Miller, Virginia L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Autotransporters, the largest family of secreted proteins in Gram negative bacteria, perform a variety of functions, including adherence, cytotoxicity, and immune evasion. In Yersinia pestis the autotransporter YapE has adhesive properties and contributes to bubonic infection of the mouse model. Here, we demonstrate that omptin cleavage of Y. pestis YapE is required to mediate bacterial aggregation and adherence to eukaryotic cells. We demonstrate that omptin cleavage is specific for the Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis YapE orthologs but is not conserved in the Y. enterocolitica protein. We also show that cleavage of YapE occurs in Y. pestis but not in the enteric Yersinia species, and requires the omptin Pla (plasminogen activator protease), which is encoded on the Y. pestis-specific plasmid pPCP1. Together, these data show that post-translation modification of YapE appears to be specific to Y. pestis, was acquired along with the acquisition of pPCP1 during the divergence of Y. pestis from Y. pseudotuberculosis, and are the first evidence of a novel mechanism to regulate bacterial adherence. PMID:23701256

  11. Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection: a regulatory RNA perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Chavarría, Luary C.; Vadyvaloo, Viveka

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, responsible for causing fulminant plague, has evolved clonally from the enteric pathogen, Y. pseudotuberculosis, which in contrast, causes a relatively benign enteric illness. An ~97% nucleotide identity over 75% of their shared protein coding genes is maintained between these two pathogens, leaving much conjecture regarding the molecular determinants responsible for producing these vastly different disease etiologies, host preferences and transmission routes. One idea is that coordinated production of distinct factors required for host adaptation and virulence in response to specific environmental cues could contribute to the distinct pathogenicity distinguishing these two species. Small non-coding RNAs that direct posttranscriptional regulation have recently been identified as key molecules that may provide such timeous expression of appropriate disease enabling factors. Here the burgeoning field of small non-coding regulatory RNAs in Yersinia pathogenesis is reviewed from the viewpoint of adaptive colonization, virulence and divergent evolution of these pathogens. PMID:26441890

  12. Heat-killed Lactobacillus spp. cells enhance survivals of Caenorhabditis elegans against Salmonella and Yersinia infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Choe, J; Kim, J; Oh, S; Park, S; Kim, S; Kim, Y

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the effect of feeding heat-killed Lactobacillus cells on the survival of Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes after Salmonella Typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica infection. The feeding of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum 133 (LP133) and Lactobacillus fermentum 21 (LP21) cells to nematodes was shown to significantly increase the survival rate as well as stimulate the expression of pmk-1 gene that key factor for C. elegans immunity upon infection compared with control nematodes that were only fed Escherichia coli OP50 (OP50) cells. These results suggest that heat-killed LP133 and LF21 cells exert preventive or protective effects against the Gram-negative bacteria Salm. Typhimurium and Y. enterocolitica. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the LF21-mediated and LP133-mediated protection against bacterial infection in nematodes, transcriptional profiling was performed for each experimental group. These experiments showed that genes related to energy generation and ageing, regulators of insulin/IGF-1-like signalling, DAF genes, oxidation and reduction processes, the defence response and/or the innate immune response, and neurological processes were upregulated in nematodes that had been fed heat-killed Lactobacillus cells compared with nematodes that had been fed E. coli cells. In this study, the feeding of heat-killed Lactobacillus bacteria to Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes was shown to decrease infection by Gram-negative bacteria and increase the host lifespan. C. elegans has a small, well-organized genome and is an excellent in vivo model organism; thus, these results will potentially shed light on important Lactobacillus-host interactions. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Effects of subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials on gene acquisition events in Yersinia, Proteus, Shigella, and Salmonella recipient organisms in isolated ligated intestinal loops of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Matt T; Xiong, Nalee; Anderson, Kristi L; Carlson, Steve A

    2013-08-01

    To assess antimicrobial resistance and transfer of virulence genes facilitated by subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials in swine intestines. 20 anesthetized pigs experimentally inoculated with donor and recipient bacteria. 4 recipient pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella flexneri, or Proteus mirabilis) were incubated with donor bacteria in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of 1 of 16 antimicrobials in isolated ligated intestinal loops in swine. Donor Escherichia coli contained transferrable antimicrobial resistance or virulence genes. After coincubations, intestinal contents were removed and assessed for pathogens that acquired new antimicrobial resistance or virulence genes following exposure to the subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials. 3 antimicrobials (apramycin, lincomycin, and neomycin) enhanced transfer of an antimicrobial resistance plasmid from commensal E coli organisms to Yersinia and Proteus organisms, whereas 7 antimicrobials (florfenicol, hygromycin, penicillin G, roxarsone, sulfamethazine, tetracycline, and tylosin) exacerbated transfer of an integron (Salmonella genomic island 1) from Salmonella organisms to Yersinia organisms. Sulfamethazine induced the transfer of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 from pathogenic to nonpathogenic Salmonella organisms. Six antimicrobials (bacitracin, carbadox, erythromycin, sulfathiazole, tiamulin, and virginiamycin) did not mediate any transfer events. Sulfamethazine was the only antimicrobial implicated in 2 types of transfer events. 10 of 16 antimicrobials at subinhibitory or subtherapeutic concentrations augmented specific antimicrobial resistance or transfer of virulence genes into pathogenic bacteria in isolated intestinal loops in swine. Use of subtherapeutic antimicrobials in animal feed may be associated with unwanted collateral effects.

  14. MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS OF YERSINIA RUCKERI

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    Yu. Rud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The analysis of nucleotide sequences of the 16S rDNA gene of virulent strains of Yersinia ruckeri and to develop the method of molecular diagnostic of enteric redmouth disease. Methodology. By the method of CLUSTALW algorithm in MEGA software version 6.0 the nucleotide sequences of the 16S rDNA gene of virulent strains of Yersinia ruckeri were analysed. For development of molecular diagnostic of Y. ruckeri the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used. Primer selection was carried out in software VectorNTI11 and on-line-service BLAST. The PCR products were investigated by the methods of sequencing and nucleotide analysis. Findings. Based on PCR assay the method of molecular diagnostic of enteric redmouth disease agent, bacterium Y. ruckeri was developed. It was shown that specific oligonucleotide primers generated PCR products in size of 600 base pairs. PCR products were investigated by the sequencing that showed right targeting of primers in reaction. Originality. Among high-conservative gene of 16S rDNA of Y. ruckeri the fragment of DNA was determined to which the specific primers for rapid diagnostic of virulent strains were selected. Practical Value. Rapid diagnostic of yersiniosis will allow to identify an agent of this infectious disease, bacterium Y. ruckeri, and to provide the prophylactic or medical measures in the fish farming of Ukraine.

  15. Recent Advances in Molecular Technologies and Their Application in Pathogen Detection in Foods with Particular Reference to Yersinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Gui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia enterocolitica is an important zoonotic pathogen that can cause yersiniosis in humans and animals. Food has been suggested to be the main source of yersiniosis. It is critical for the researchers to be able to detect Yersinia or any other foodborne pathogen with increased sensitivity and specificity, as well as in real-time, in the case of a foodborne disease outbreak. Conventional detection methods are known to be labor intensive, time consuming, or expensive. On the other hand, more sensitive molecular-based detection methods like next generation sequencing, microarray, and many others are capable of providing faster results. DNA testing is now possible on a single molecule, and high-throughput analysis allows multiple detection reactions to be performed at once, thus allowing a range of characteristics to be rapidly and simultaneously determined. Despite better detection efficiencies, results derived using molecular biology methods can be affected by the various food matrixes. With the improvements in sample preparation, data analysis, and testing procedures, molecular detection techniques will likely continue to simplify and increase the speed of detection while simultaneously improving the sensitivity and specificity for tracking pathogens in food matrices.

  16. Microgravity Effects on Yersinia Pestis Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, A.; Abogunde, O.; Jejelowo, O.; Rosenzweig, J.-A.

    2010-04-01

    Microgravity effects on Yersinia pestis proliferation, cold growth, and type three secretion system function were evaluated in macrophage cell infections, HeLa cell infections, and cold growth plate assays.

  17. Rapid presumptive identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis-bovis complex by radiometric determination of heat stable urease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandy, J.H.; Pruden, E.L.; Cox, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    Simple and rapid Bactec methodologies for the determination of neat (unaltered) and heat stable urease activity of mycobacteria are presented. Clinical isolates (63) and stock cultures (32)--consisting of: M. tuberculosis (19), M. bovis (5), M. kansasii (15), M. marinum (4), M. simiae (3), M. scrofulaceum (16), M. gordonae (6), M. szulgai (6), M. flavescens (1), M. gastri (1), M. intracellulare (6), M. fortuitum-chelonei complex (12), and M. smegmatis (1)--were tested for neat urease activity by Bactec radiometry. Mycobacterial isolates (50-100 mg wet weight) were incubated at 35 degrees C for 30 minutes with microCi14C-urea. Urease-positive mycobacteria gave Bactec growth index (GI) values greater than 100 units, whereas urease-negative species gave values less than 10 GI units. Eighty-three isolates possessing neat urease activity were heated at 80 degrees C for 30 minutes followed by incubation at 35 degrees C for 30 minutes with 1 microCi14C-urea. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-bovis complex demonstrated heat-stable urease activity (GI more than 130 units) and could be distinguished from mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT), which gave GI values equal to or less than 40 units

  18. Yersinia infection tools—characterization of structure and function of adhesins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikula, Kornelia M.; Kolodziejczyk, Robert; Goldman, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Among the seventeen species of the Gram-negative genus Yersinia, three have been shown to be virulent and pathogenic to humans and animals—Y. enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. pestis. In order to be so, they are armoured with various factors that help them adhere to tissues and organelles, cross the cellular barrier and escape the immune system during host invasion. The group of proteins that mediate pathogen–host interactions constitute adhesins. Invasin, Ail, YadA, YadB, YadC, Pla, and pH 6 antigen belong to the most prominent and best-known Yersinia adhesins. They act at different times and stages of infection complementing each other by their ability to bind a variety of host molecules such as collagen, fibronectin, laminin, β1 integrins, and complement regulators. All the proteins are anchored in the bacterial outer membrane (OM), often forming rod-like or fimbrial-like structures that protrude to the extracellular milieu. Structural studies have shown that the anchor region forms a β-barrel composed of 8, 10, or 12 antiparallel β-strands. Depending on the protein, the extracellular part can be composed of several domains belonging to the immunoglobulin fold superfamily, or form a coiled-coil structure with globular head domain at the end, or just constitute several loops connecting individual β-strands in the β-barrel. Those extracellular regions define the activity of each adhesin. This review focuses on the structure and function of these important molecules, and their role in pathogenesis. PMID:23316485

  19. Yersinia pestis lineages in Mongolia.

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    Julia M Riehm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whole genome sequencing allowed the development of a number of high resolution sequence based typing tools for Yersinia (Y. pestis. The application of these methods on isolates from most known foci worldwide and in particular from China and the Former Soviet Union has dramatically improved our understanding of the population structure of this species. In the current view, Y. pestis including the non or moderate human pathogen Y. pestis subspecies microtus emerged from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis about 2,600 to 28,600 years ago in central Asia. The majority of central Asia natural foci have been investigated. However these investigations included only few strains from Mongolia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Prokaryotic Repeats (CRISPR analysis and Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR analysis (MLVA with 25 loci was performed on 100 Y. pestis strains, isolated from 37 sampling areas in Mongolia. The resulting data were compared with previously published data from more than 500 plague strains, 130 of which had also been previously genotyped by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis. The comparison revealed six main clusters including the three microtus biovars Ulegeica, Altaica, and Xilingolensis. The largest cluster comprises 78 isolates, with unique and new genotypes seen so far in Mongolia only. Typing of selected isolates by key SNPs was used to robustly assign the corresponding clusters to previously defined SNP branches. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that Mongolia hosts the most recent microtus clade (Ulegeica. Interestingly no representatives of the ancestral Y. pestis subspecies pestis nodes previously identified in North-western China were identified in this study. This observation suggests that the subsequent evolution steps within Y. pestis pestis did not occur in Mongolia. Rather, Mongolia was most likely re-colonized by more recent clades coming back from

  20. Differentiation between serological responses to Brucella suis and Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O : 9 after natural or experimental infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Sørensen, Vibeke; Giese, Steen Bjørck

    2006-01-01

    with responses of B. suis biovar 2-inoculated pigs. FPSR were limited to 2-9 weeks post-YeO:9 inoculation, while B. suis-infected pigs were test-positive throughout the 21-week period of investigation. Although YeO:9-inoculated pigs exhibited FPSR in Brucella tests for a limited period of time, the serological...

  1. A real-time PCR assay for the specific identification of serotype O : 9 of Yersinia enterocolitica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, N.R.; Bogdanovich, T.; Skurnik, M.

    2005-01-01

    -related bacterial strains, containing per gene homologies. The assay was specific for the Ye 0:9 tested, the detection limit was 1-10 genome copies of purified DNA and amplification efficiency was between 90.5-103%, indicating a linear regression throughout the detection window....

  2. Detection and Characterization of Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Yersinia Strains from Human, Animal, and Food Samples in San Luis, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, Gabriela Isabel; Lucero Estrada, Cecilia; Cortiñas, Teresa Inés; Escudero, María Esther

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Salmonella spp., and Yersinia species was investigated in humans, animals, and foods in San Luis, Argentina. A total of 453 samples were analyzed by culture and PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibility of all the strains was studied, the genomic relationships among isolates of the same species were determined by PFGE, and the potencial virulence of Y. enterocolitica strains was analyzed. Yersinia species showed higher prevalence (9/453, 2.0%, 95% CI, 0.7–3.3%) than STEC (4/453, 0.9%, 95% CI, 0–1.8%) and Salmonella spp. (3/453, 0.7%, 95% CI, 0–1.5%). Y. enterocolitica and Y. intermedia were isolated from chicken carcasses (6/80, 7.5%, 95% CI, 1.5–13.5%) and porcine skin and bones (3/10, 30%, 95% CI, 0–65%). One STEC strain was recovered from human feces (1/70, 1.4%, 95% CI, 0–4.2%) and STEC stx1/stx2 genes were detected in bovine stools (3/129, 2.3%, 95% CI, 0–5.0%). S. Typhimurium was isolated from human feces (1/70, 1.4%, 95% CI, 0–4.2%) while one S. Newport and two S. Gaminara strains were recovered from one wild boar (1/3, 33%, 95% CI, 0–99%). The knowledge of prevalence and characteristics of these enteropathogens in our region would allow public health services to take adequate preventive measures. PMID:25177351

  3. Putative new heat-stable cytotoxic and enterotoxic factors in culture supernatant of Escherichia coli isolated from drinking water

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    DA Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteric infections caused by the ingestion of contaminated water, especially by Escherichia coli, are important to define the virulence properties of these bacteria. Due to frequent infantile diarrhea in the city of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, the phenotypic and genotypic diarrheagenic properties of E. coli isolated from drinking water were studied. The culture supernatants of 39 (40% among a total of 97 E. coli isolates from drinking water were positive by suckling mouse assay and induced cytotoxic effects on Vero cells. The enterotoxic and cytotoxic activities were present in the fraction with less than 10 kDa and were not lost when heated up to 60°C and 100°C for 30 minutes. PCR assays showed that among these 39 Vero cytotoxigenic E. coli, four (10.2% were positive for ST II (estB and two (5% positive for αHly (hlyA. Gene amplification of SLT (stx 1, stx 2, ST I (estA, LT (eltI, eltII, EAST1 (astA, EHly (enhly and plasmid-encoded enterotoxin (pet were not observed. This heat-stable cytotoxic enterotoxin of E. coli is probably a new putative diarrheagenic virulence factor, as a toxin presenting these characteristics has not yet been described.

  4. PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR OF YERSINIA PESTIS

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    V. V. Evseeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague has been the cause of three pandemics and has led to the death of millions of people. Plague is a typical zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis that circulates in populations of wild rodents inhabiting natural plague foci on all continents except for Australia. Transmission of plague is provided by flea bites. Circulation of Y. pestis in natural plague foci is supported by a numerous of pathogenicity factors. This review explores one of them, plasminogen activator Pla. This protein is one of representatives of omptins, a family of enterobacterial outer membrane proteases that are responsible for colonization of specific organs or even infection generalization as a result of successful overcoming of the host innate immunity. The review reflects the history of its discovery and studying of its genetic control, biosynthesis, isolation and purification, physicochemical properties. Highly purified preparations of plasminogen activator are deficient in enzymatic activities but renaturation in the presence of Y. pestis lipooligosaccharide restores enzymatic properties of Pla. This pathogenicity factor is absent in representatives of the most ancient phylogenetic group of the plague pathogen, bv. caucasica, while the ancestor of other groups of Y. pestis subsp. microtus obtained in result of horizontal transfer Pla isoform with characteristics similar to properties of omptins from the less virulent enterobacteria. After that in the course of microevolution the “classic” isoform of Pla with increased protease activity was selected that is typical of all highly virulent for humans strains of Y. pestis subsp. pestis. The “classic” isoform of Pla Y. pestis is functionally similar to mammalian plasminogen activators transforming plasminogen into plasmin with the help of limited proteolysis. Pla protease activating plasminogen and also degrading the main plasmin inhibitor — α2-antiplasmin and, respectively, determining Y. pestis ability to lyse

  5. Yersinia pestis endowed with increased cytotoxicity is avirulent in a bubonic plague model and induces rapid protection against pneumonic plague.

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    Ayelet Zauberman

    Full Text Available An important virulence strategy evolved by bacterial pathogens to overcome host defenses is the modulation of host cell death. Previous observations have indicated that Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague disease, exhibits restricted capacity to induce cell death in macrophages due to ineffective translocation of the type III secretion effector YopJ, as opposed to the readily translocated YopP, the YopJ homologue of the enteropathogen Yersinia enterocolitica Oratio8. This led us to suggest that reduced cytotoxic potency may allow pathogen propagation within a shielded niche, leading to increased virulence. To test the relationship between cytotoxic potential and virulence, we replaced Y. pestis YopJ with YopP. The YopP-expressing Y. pestis strain exhibited high cytotoxic activity against macrophages in vitro. Following subcutaneous infection, this strain had reduced ability to colonize internal organs, was unable to induce septicemia and exhibited at least a 10(7-fold reduction in virulence. Yet, upon intravenous or intranasal infection, it was still as virulent as the wild-type strain. The subcutaneous administration of the cytotoxic Y. pestis strain appears to activate a rapid and potent systemic, CTL-independent, immunoprotective response, allowing the organism to overcome simultaneous coinfection with 10,000 LD(50 of virulent Y. pestis. Moreover, three days after subcutaneous administration of this strain, animals were also protected against septicemic or primary pneumonic plague. Our findings indicate that an inverse relationship exists between the cytotoxic potential of Y. pestis and its virulence following subcutaneous infection. This appears to be associated with the ability of the engineered cytotoxic Y. pestis strain to induce very rapid, effective and long-lasting protection against bubonic and pneumonic plague. These observations have novel implications for the development of vaccines/therapies against Y. pestis and shed

  6. LcrQ and SycH function together at the Ysc type III secretion system in Yersinia pestis to impose a hierarchy of secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff-Strobel, Christine R; Williams, Andrew W; Straley, Susan C

    2002-01-01

    LcrQ is a regulatory protein unique to Yersinia. Previous study in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica prompted the model in which LcrQ negatively regulates the expression of a set of virulence proteins called Yops, and its secretion upon activation of the Yop secretion (Ysc) type III secretion system permits full induction of Yops expression. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that LcrQ's effects on Yops expression might be indirect. Excess LcrQ was found to exert an inhibitory effect specifically at the level of Yops secretion, independent of production, and a normal inner Ysc gate protein LcrG was required for this activity. However, overexpression of LcrQ did not prevent YopH secretion, suggesting that LcrQ's effects at the Ysc discriminate among the Yops. We tested this idea by determining the effects of deletion or overexpression of LcrQ, YopH and their common chaperone SycH on early Yop secretion through the Ysc. Together, our findings indicated that LcrQ is not a negative regulator directly, but it acts in partnership with SycH at the Ysc gate to control the entry of a set of Ysc secretion substrates. A hierarchy of YopH secretion before YopE appears to be imposed by SycH in conjunction with both LcrQ and YopH. LcrQ and SycH in addition influenced the deployment of LcrV, a component of the Yops delivery mechanism. Accordingly, LcrQ appears to be a central player in determining the substrate specificity of the Ysc.

  7. Oral vaccination against plague using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeure, Christian E; Derbise, Anne; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is among the deadliest bacterial pathogens affecting humans, and is a potential biological weapon. Because antibiotic resistant strains of Yersinia pestis have been observed or could be engineered for evil use, vaccination against plague might become the only means to reduce mortality. Although plague is re-emerging in many countries, a vaccine with worldwide license is currently lacking. The vaccine strategy described here is based on an oral vaccination with an attenuated strain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Indeed, this species is genetically almost identical to Y. pestis, but has a much lower pathogenicity and a higher genomic stability. Gradual modifications of the wild-type Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain IP32953 were performed to generate a safe and immunogenic vaccine. Genes coding for three essential virulence factors were deleted from this strain. To increase cross-species immunogenicity, an F1-encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis strain was then generated. For this, the Y. pestis caf operon, which encodes F1, was inserted first on a plasmid, and subsequently into the chromosome. The successive steps achieved to reach maximal vaccine potential are described, and how each step affected bacterial virulence and the development of a protective immune response is discussed. The final version of the vaccine, named VTnF1, provides a highly efficient and long-lasting protection against both bubonic and pneumonic plague after a single oral vaccine dose. Since a Y. pestis strain deprived of F1 exist or could be engineered, we also analyzed the protection conferred by the vaccine against such strain and found that it also confers full protection against the two forms of plague. Thus, the properties of VTnF1 makes it one of the most efficient candidate vaccine for mass vaccination in tropical endemic areas as well as for populations exposed to bioterrorism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mastitis caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in a cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampimon, O.C.; Sol, J.; Koene, M.G.J.; Schaaf, A.; Kock, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis with a raised somatic cell count was diagnosed in a cow in her fifth lactation. It was caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which can also infect humans. This is the first time that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis has been isolated from a mastitis sample in the Netherlands.

  9. Omics strategies for revealing Yersinia pestis virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruifu; Du, Zongmin; Han, Yanping; Zhou, Lei; Song, Yajun; Zhou, Dongsheng; Cui, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    Omics has remarkably changed the way we investigate and understand life. Omics differs from traditional hypothesis-driven research because it is a discovery-driven approach. Mass datasets produced from omics-based studies require experts from different fields to reveal the salient features behind these data. In this review, we summarize omics-driven studies to reveal the virulence features of Yersinia pestis through genomics, trascriptomics, proteomics, interactomics, etc. These studies serve as foundations for further hypothesis-driven research and help us gain insight into Y. pestis pathogenesis. PMID:23248778

  10. Novel plasmids and resistance phenotypes in Yersinia pestis: unique plasmid inventory of strain Java 9 mediates high levels of arsenic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Mark; Radnedge, Lyndsay; Andersen, Gary; Vietri, Nicholas; Severson, Grant; Mou, Sherry; Ravel, Jacques; Worsham, Patricia L

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the plasmid repertoire of Yersinia pestis is not restricted to the three classical virulence plasmids. The Java 9 strain of Y. pestis is a biovar Orientalis isolate obtained from a rat in Indonesia. Although it lacks the Y. pestis-specific plasmid pMT, which encodes the F1 capsule, it retains virulence in mouse and non-human primate animal models. While comparing diverse Y. pestis strains using subtractive hybridization, we identified sequences in Java 9 that were homologous to a Y. enterocolitica strain carrying the transposon Tn2502, which is known to encode arsenic resistance. Here we demonstrate that Java 9 exhibits high levels of arsenic and arsenite resistance mediated by a novel promiscuous class II transposon, named Tn2503. Arsenic resistance was self-transmissible from Java 9 to other Y. pestis strains via conjugation. Genomic analysis of the atypical plasmid inventory of Java 9 identified pCD and pPCP plasmids of atypical size and two previously uncharacterized cryptic plasmids. Unlike the Tn2502-mediated arsenic resistance encoded on the Y. enterocolitica virulence plasmid; the resistance loci in Java 9 are found on all four indigenous plasmids, including the two novel cryptic plasmids. This unique mobilome introduces more than 105 genes into the species gene pool. The majority of these are encoded by the two entirely novel self-transmissible plasmids, which show partial homology and synteny to other enterics. In contrast to the reductive evolution in Y. pestis, this study underlines the major impact of a dynamic mobilome and lateral acquisition in the genome evolution of the plague bacterium.

  11. Novel plasmids and resistance phenotypes in Yersinia pestis: unique plasmid inventory of strain Java 9 mediates high levels of arsenic resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Eppinger

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that the plasmid repertoire of Yersinia pestis is not restricted to the three classical virulence plasmids. The Java 9 strain of Y. pestis is a biovar Orientalis isolate obtained from a rat in Indonesia. Although it lacks the Y. pestis-specific plasmid pMT, which encodes the F1 capsule, it retains virulence in mouse and non-human primate animal models. While comparing diverse Y. pestis strains using subtractive hybridization, we identified sequences in Java 9 that were homologous to a Y. enterocolitica strain carrying the transposon Tn2502, which is known to encode arsenic resistance. Here we demonstrate that Java 9 exhibits high levels of arsenic and arsenite resistance mediated by a novel promiscuous class II transposon, named Tn2503. Arsenic resistance was self-transmissible from Java 9 to other Y. pestis strains via conjugation. Genomic analysis of the atypical plasmid inventory of Java 9 identified pCD and pPCP plasmids of atypical size and two previously uncharacterized cryptic plasmids. Unlike the Tn2502-mediated arsenic resistance encoded on the Y. enterocolitica virulence plasmid; the resistance loci in Java 9 are found on all four indigenous plasmids, including the two novel cryptic plasmids. This unique mobilome introduces more than 105 genes into the species gene pool. The majority of these are encoded by the two entirely novel self-transmissible plasmids, which show partial homology and synteny to other enterics. In contrast to the reductive evolution in Y. pestis, this study underlines the major impact of a dynamic mobilome and lateral acquisition in the genome evolution of the plague bacterium.

  12. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Yersinia pseudotuberculosis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Yersinia pseudotuberculosis 名詞 一般... * * * * Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ... MeSH D015011 200906011755952514 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

  13. Characteristics of β-lactamases and their genes (blaA and blaB in Yersinia intermedia and Y. frederiksenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Sachin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of β-lactamases in Y. enterocolitica has been reported to vary with serovars, biovars and geographical origin of the isolates. An understanding of the β-lactamases in other related species is important for an overall perception of antibiotic resistance in yersiniae. The objective of this work was to study the characteristics of β-lactamases and their genes in strains of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii, isolated from clinical and non-clinical sources in India. Results The enzymes, Bla-A (a constitutive class A penicillinase and Bla-B (an inducible class C cephalosporinase were found to be present in all the clinical and non-clinical strains of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii by double disc diffusion method. The results showed differential expression of Bla-A as indicated by presence/absence of synergy whereas expression of Bla-B was quite consistent. The presence of these enzymes was also reflected in the high minimum inhibitory concentrations, MIC50 (126–1024 mg/L and MIC90 (256–1024 mg/L of β-lactam antibiotics against these species. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP revealed heterogeneity in both blaA and blaB genes of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii. The blaA gene of Y. intermedia shared significant sequence identity (87–96% with blaA of Y. enterocolitica biovars 1A, 1B and 4. The sequence identity of blaA of Y. frederiksenii with these biovars was 77–79%. The sequence identity of blaB gene of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii was more (85% with that of Y. enterocolitica biovars 1A, 1B and 2 compared to other species viz., Y. bercovieri, Y. aldovae and Y. ruckeri. Isoelectric focusing data further revealed that both Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii produced Bla-A (pI 8.7 and "Bla-B like" (pI 5.5–7.1 enzymes. Conclusion Both Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii showed presence of blaA and blaB genes and unequivocal expression of the two β-lactamases. Limited heterogeneity

  14. Epizootic of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in a wildlife park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, R D; Ely, R W; Holland, R J

    1992-07-01

    An epizootic attributable to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection was confirmed in captive ruminants in a wildlife park by microbiologic and histologic findings. An epornitic of Y pseudotuberculosis infection was identified at the same period in a vicinity near the ruminant deaths. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis can infect human beings and cause acute enteritis and mesenteric lymphadenitis. People in contact with infected animals should use extreme caution and use good sanitary precautions to preclude transmission of this agent.

  15. Evidence of an Unidentified Extracellular Heat-Stable Factor Produced by Lysobacter enzymogenes (OH11) that Degrade Fusarium graminearum PH1 Hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, Benard Omondi; Xu, Gaoge; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2017-04-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11 produces heat-stable antifungal factor (HSAF) and lytic enzymes possessing antifungal activity. This study bio-prospected for other potential antifungal factors besides those above. The cells and extracellular metabolites of L. enzymogenes OH11 and the mutants ΔchiA, ΔchiB, ΔchiC, Δclp, Δpks, and ΔpilA were examined for antifungal activity against Fusarium graminearum PH1, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB). Results evidenced that OH11 produces an unidentified extracellular heat-stable degrading metabolite (HSDM) that exhibit degrading activity on F. graminearum PH1 chitinous hyphae. Interestingly, both heat-treated and non-heat-treated extracellular metabolites of OH11 mutants exhibited hyphae-degrading activity against F. graminearum PH1. Enzyme activity detection of heat-treated metabolites ruled out the possibility of enzyme degradation activity. Remarkably, the PKS-NRPS-deficient mutant Δpks cannot produce HSAF or analogues, yet its metabolites exhibited hyphae-degrading activity. HPLC analysis confirmed no HSAF production by Δpks. Δclp lacks hyphae-degrading ability. Therefore, clp regulates HSDM and extracellular lytic enzymes production in L. enzymogenes OH11. ΔpilA had impaired surface cell motility and significantly reduced antagonistic properties. ΔchiA, ΔchiB, and ΔchiC retained hyphae-degrading ability, despite having reduced abilities to produce chitinase enzymes. Ultimately, L. enzymogenes OH11 can produce other unidentified HSDM independent of the PKS-NRPS genes. This suggests HSAF and lytic enzymes production are a fraction of the antifungal mechanisms in OH11. Characterization of HSDM, determination of its biosynthetic gene cluster and understanding its mode of action will provide new leads in the search for effective drugs for FHB management.

  16. Engineering of Yersinia Phytases to Improve Pepsin and Trypsin Resistance and Thermostability and Application Potential in the Food and Feed Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Canfang; Yang, Peilong; Luo, Huiying; Huang, Huoqing; Wang, Yaru; Yao, Bin

    2017-08-30

    Susceptibility to proteases usually limits the application of phytase. We sought to improve the pepsin and trypsin resistance of YeAPPA from Yersinia enterocolitica and YkAPPA from Y. kristensenii by optimizing amino acid polarity and charge. The predicted pepsin/trypsin cleavage sites F89/K226 in pepsin/trypsin-sensitive YeAPPA and the corresponding sites (F89/E226) in pepsin-sensitive but trypsin-resistant YkAPPA were substituted with S and H, respectively. Six variants were produced in Pichia pastoris for catalytic and biochemical characterization. F89S, E226H, and F89S/E226H elevated pepsin resistance and thermostability and K226H and F89S/K226H improved pepsin and trypsin resistance and stability at 60 °C and low pH. All the variants increased the ability of the proteins to hydrolyze phytate in corn meal by 2.6-14.9-fold in the presence of pepsin at 37 °C and low pH. This study developed a genetic manipulation strategy specific for pepsin/trypsin-sensitive phytases that can improve enzyme tolerance against proteases and heat and benefit the food and feed industry in a cost-effective way.

  17. Caspase-12 and the inflammatory response to Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferwerda, Bart; McCall, Matthew B B; de Vries, Maaike C; Hopman, Joost; Maiga, Boubacar; Dolo, Amagana; Doumbo, Ogobara; Daou, Modibo; de Jong, Dirk; Joosten, Leo A B; Tissingh, Rudi A; Reubsaet, Frans A G; Sauerwein, Robert; van der Meer, Jos W M; van der Ven, André J A M; Netea, Mihai G

    2009-09-01

    Caspase-12 functions as an antiinflammatory enzyme inhibiting caspase-1 and the NOD2/RIP2 pathways. Due to increased susceptibility to sepsis in individuals with functional caspase-12, an early-stop mutation leading to the loss of caspase-12 has replaced the ancient genotype in Eurasia and a significant proportion of individuals from African populations. In African-Americans, it has been shown that caspase-12 inhibits the pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We assessed whether similar mechanisms are present in African individuals, and whether evolutionary pressures due to plague may have led to the present caspase-12 genotype population frequencies. No difference in cytokine induction through the caspase-1 and/or NOD2/RIP2 pathways was observed in two independent African populations, among individuals with either an intact or absent caspase-12. In addition, stimulations with Yersinia pestis and two other species of Yersinia were preformed to investigate whether caspase-12 modulates the inflammatory reaction induced by Yersinia. We found that caspase-12 did not modulate cytokine production induced by Yersinia spp. Our experiments demonstrate for the first time the involvement of the NOD2/RIP2 pathway for recognition of Yersinia. However, caspase-12 does not modulate innate host defense against Y. pestis and alternative explanations for the geographical distribution of caspase-12 should be sought.

  18. Yersinia ruckeri sp. nov., the redmouth (RM) bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, W.H.; Ross, A.J.; Brenner, Don J.; Fanning, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    Cultures of the redmouth (RM) bacterium, one of the etiological agents of redmouth disease in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and certain other fishes, were characterized by means of their biochemical reactions, by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization, and by determination of guanine-plus-cytosine (G+C) ratios in DNA. The DNA relatedness studies confirmed the fact that the RM bacteria are members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and that they comprise a single species that is not closely related to any other species of Enterobacteriaceae. They are about 30% related to species of both Serratia and Yersinia. A comparison of the biochemical reactions of RM bacteria and serratiae indicated that there are many differences between these organisms and that biochemically the RM bacteria are most closely related to yersiniae. The G+C ratios of RM bacteria were approximated to be between 47.5 and 48.5% These values are similar to those of yersiniae but markedly different from those of serratiae. On the basis of their biochemical reactions and their G+C ratios, the RM bacteria are considered to be a new species of Yersinia, for which the name Yersinia ruckeri is proposed. Strain 2396-61 (= ATCC 29473) is designated the type strain of the species.

  19. The importance of the magnesium transporter MgtB for virulence of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Donna C; Joshua, George W P; Wren, Brendan W; Oyston, Petra C F

    2014-12-01

    Mg(2+) has been shown to be an important signal controlling gene regulation via the PhoPQ two-component regulatory system for a range of Gram-negative bacteria, including Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The magnesium ion transporter MgtB is part of the complex PhoPQ regulon, being upregulated in response to low Mg(2+). Despite the presence of other Mg(2+) transport systems in Yersinia, inactivation of mgtB had a significant effect on the ability of the bacteria to scavenge this crucial ion. Whereas inactivation of PhoPQ is reported to adversely affect intracellular survival, we show that Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis ΔmgtB mutants survived equally as well as the respective parent strain within macrophages, although they were more sensitive to killing in the Galleria model of infection. Surprisingly, despite MgtB being only one member of the Mg(2+) stimulon and PhoPQ controlling the expression levels of a range of genes including mgtB, the Yersinia ΔmgtB mutants were more highly attenuated than the equivalent Yersinia ΔphoP mutants in mouse models of infection. MgtB may be a suitable target for development of novel antimicrobials, and investigation of its role may help elucidate the contribution of this component of the PhoPQ regulon to pathogenesis. © 2014 British Crown Copyright 2014/DSTL.

  20. Real-time multiplex PCR assay for detection of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matero, Pirjo; Pasanen, Tanja; Laukkanen, Riikka; Tissari, Päivi; Tarkka, Eveliina; Vaara, Martti; Skurnik, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the detection of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The assay includes four primer pairs, two of which are specific for Y. pestis, one for Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis and one for bacteriophage lambda; the latter was used as an internal amplification control. The Y. pestis-specific target genes in the assay were ypo2088, a gene coding for a putative methyltransferase, and the pla gene coding for the plasminogen activator. In addition, the wzz gene was used as a target to specifically identify both Y. pestis and the closely related Y. pseudotuberculosis group. The primer and probe sets described for the different genes can be used either in single or in multiplex PCR assays because the individual probes were designed with different fluorochromes. The assays were found to be both sensitive and specific; the lower limit of the detection was 10-100 fg of extracted Y. pestis or Y. pseudotuberculosis total DNA. The sensitivity of the tetraplex assay was determined to be 1 cfu for the ypo2088 and pla probe labelled with FAM and JOE fluorescent dyes, respectively.

  1. [Yersinia pestis and plague - an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2014-12-01

    The plague of man is a severe, systemic bacterial infectious disease. Without antibacterial therapy, the disease is associated with a high case fatality rate, ranging from 40% (bubonic plague) to nearly 100% (septicemic and pneumonic plague). The disease is caused by Yersinia pestis, a non-motile, gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. In nature, Y. pestis has been found in several rodent species and some other small animals such as shrews. Within its reservoir host, Y. pestis circulates via flea bites. Transmission of Y. pestis to humans occurs by the bite of rat fleas, other flea vectors or by non vectorial routes, e. g., handling infected animals or consumption of contaminated food. Human-to-human transmission of the pathogen occurs primarily through aerosol droplets. Compared to the days when plague was a pandemic scourge, the disease is now relatively rare and limited to some rural areas of Africa. During the last ten years, however, plague outbreaks have been registered repea- tedly in some African regions. For treatment of plague, streptomycin is still considered the drug of choice. Chloramphenicol, doxycycline, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin are also promising drugs. Recombinant vaccines against plague are in clinical development.

  2. Physiological basis of the low calcium response in Yersinia pestis.

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, J M; Brubaker, R R

    1994-01-01

    It is established that duplication in vitro of that amount of Ca2+ (2.5 mM) and Mg2+ (1.5 mM) present in blood permits vegetative growth of Yersinia pestis with repression of virulence factors encoded by the Lcr plasmid (Lcr+); similar simulation of intracellular fluid (no Ca2+ and 20 mM Mg2+) promotes bacteriostasis with induction of these virulence determinants. However, proliferation of yersiniae in mice occurs primarily within necrotic focal lesions (supplied by Ca(2+)-deficient host cell...

  3. Detection of a Yersinia pestis gene homologue in rodent samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. Giles

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A homologue to a widely used genetic marker, pla, for Yersinia pestis has been identified in tissue samples of two species of rat (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus and of mice (Mus musculus and Apodemus sylvaticus using a microarray based platform to screen for zoonotic pathogens of interest. Samples were from urban locations in the UK (Liverpool and Canada (Vancouver. The results indicate the presence of an unknown bacterium that shares a homologue for the pla gene of Yersinia pestis, so caution should be taken when using this gene as a diagnostic marker.

  4. Heat Stable Enzymes from Thermophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    activity fell dramatically, as would be expected. Envirofirst is sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate produced by Solvay . It is an inorganic peroxide and was...Mix and hold at room temperature for 5 min. 2. Add 2.5 ml 20% NaCl. 3. Mix gently for 30 min at 55 °C. 4. Add 0.25 gm sodium carbonate . 5. Mix gently...from the literature 28 Carbon source 28 Nitrogen source 32 Trace elements 33 Other components 34 Fermentation temperature 38 Time course 38 Inoculation

  5. Involvement of protein kinase C in the mechanism of action of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) in a human colonic carcinoma cell line, COLO-205

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Dyuti Datta; Saha, Subhrajit; Chakrabarti, Manoj K.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the involvement of calcium-protein kinase C pathway in the mechanism of action of Escherichia coli heat stable enterotoxin (STa) apart from STa-induced activation of guanylate cyclase in human colonic carcinoma cell line COLO-205, which was used as a model cultured cell line to study the mechanism of action of E. coli STa. In response to E. coli STa, protein kinase C (PKC) activity was increased in a time-dependent manner with its physical translocation from cytosol to membrane. Inhibition of the PKC activity in membrane fraction and inhibition of its physical translocation in response to IP 3 -mediated calcium release inhibitor dantrolene suggested the involvement of intracellular store depletion in the regulation of PKC activity. Among different PKC isoforms, predominant involvement of calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKCα) was specified using isotype-specific pseudosubstrate, which showed pronounce enzyme activity. Inhibition of enzyme activity by PKCα-specific inhibitor Goe6976 and immunoblott study employing isotype-specific antibody further demonstrated the involvement of calcium-dependent isoform of PKC in the mechanism of action of E. coli STa. Moreover, inhibition of guanylate cyclase activity by PKCα-specific inhibitor Goe6976 suggested the involvement of PKCα in the regulation of guanylate cyclase activity

  6. Effects of tetrodotoxin and ion replacements on the short-circuit current induced by Escherichiacoli heat stable enterotoxin across small intestine of the gerbil (Gerbillus cheesmani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia Yaqoub Al-Balool

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mucosally added Escherichia coli heat stable enterotoxin (STa 30 ng ml-1 on the basal short-circuit current (Isc in µA cm-2 across stripped and unstripped sheets of jejuna and ilea taken from fed, starved (4 days, water ad lib and undernourished (50% control food intake for 21 days gerbil (Gerbillus cheesmani were investigated. The effect of neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX 10 µM and the effects of replacing chloride by gluconate or the effects of removing bicarbonate from bathing buffers on the maximum increase in Isc induced by STa were also investigated. The maximum increase in Isc which resulted from the addition of STa were significantly higher in jejuna and ilea taken from starved and undernourished gerbils when compared with the fed control both using stripped and unstripped sheets. In the two regions of the small intestine taken from fed and starved animals TTX reduced the maximum increase in Isc induced by STa across unstripped sheets only. Moreover in jejuna and ilea taken from undernourished gerbils TTX reduced significantly the maximum increase in Isc induced by STa across stripped and unstripped sheets. Replacing chloride by gluconate decreased the maximum increase in Isc induced by STa across jejuna and ilea taken from undernourished gerbils only. Removing bicarbonates from bathing buffer decreased the maximum increase in Isc across the jejuna and ilea taken from starved and undernourished gerbils.

  7. Single Chain Variable Fragments Produced in Escherichia coli against Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Toxins from Enterotoxigenic E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Y Ozaki

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is a prevalent pathological condition frequently associated to the colonization of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC strains, known to be endemic in developing countries. These strains can produce two enterotoxins associated with the manifestation of clinical symptoms that can be used to detect these pathogens. Although several detection tests have been developed, minimally equipped laboratories are still in need of simple and cost-effective methods. With the aim to contribute to the development of such diagnostic approaches, we describe here two mouse hybridoma-derived single chain fragment variable (scFv that were produced in E. coli against enterotoxins of ETEC strains.Recombinant scFv were developed against ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT and heat-stable toxin (ST, from previously isolated hybridoma clones. This work reports their design, construction, molecular and functional characterization against LT and ST toxins. Both antibody fragments were able to recognize the cell-interacting toxins by immunofluorescence, the purified toxins by ELISA and also LT-, ST- and LT/ST-producing ETEC strains.The developed recombinant scFvs against LT and ST constitute promising starting point for simple and cost-effective ETEC diagnosis.

  8. Identification of outer membrane proteins of Yersinia pestis through biotinylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smither, S.J.; Hill, J.; Baar, B.L.M. van; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Titball, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria contains proteins that might be good targets for vaccines, antimicrobials or detection systems. The identification of surface located proteins using traditional methods is often difficult. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, was labelled with

  9. Characterization of chromosomal regions conserved in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and lost by Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillot, Flavie; Fayolle, Corinne; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2008-10-01

    The transformation of the enteropathogenic bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis into the plague bacillus, Yersinia pestis, has been accompanied by extensive genetic loss. This study focused on chromosomal regions conserved in Y. pseudotuberculosis and lost during its transformation into Y. pestis. An extensive PCR screening of 78 strains of the two species identified five regions (R1 to R5) and four open reading frames (ORFs; orf1 to orf4) that were conserved in Y. pseudotuberculosis and absent from Y. pestis. Their conservation in Y. pseudotuberculosis suggests a positive selective pressure and a role during the life cycle of this species. Attempts to delete two ORFs (orf3 and orf4) from the chromosome of strain IP32953 were unsuccessful, indicating that they are essential for its viability. The seven remaining loci were individually deleted from the IP32953 chromosome, and the ability of each mutant to grow in vitro and to kill mice upon intragastric infection was evaluated. Four loci (orf1, R2, R4, and R5) were not required for optimal growth or virulence of Y. pseudotuberculosis. In contrast, orf2, encoding a putative pseudouridylate synthase involved in RNA stability, was necessary for the optimal growth of IP32953 at 37 degrees C in a chemically defined medium (M63S). Deletion of R1, a region predicted to encode the methionine salvage pathway, altered the mutant pathogenicity, suggesting that the availability of free methionine is severely restricted in vivo. R3, a region composed mostly of genes of unknown functions, was necessary for both optimal growth of Y. pseudotuberculosis at 37 degrees C in M63S and for virulence. Therefore, despite their loss in Y. pestis, five of the nine Y. pseudotuberculosis-specific chromosomal loci studied play a role in the survival, growth, or virulence of this species.

  10. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are inactivated by binding to glass and cellulosic surfaces, and released in active form by a heat-stable polymer from cauliflower florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, Sandra C; Nguyen-Phan, Tu C; Fry, Stephen C

    2017-11-01

    Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity, which cuts and re-joins hemicellulose chains in the plant cell wall, contributing to wall assembly and growth regulation, is the major activity of XTH proteins. During purification, XTHs often lose XET activity which, however, is restored by treatment with certain cold-water-extractable, heat-stable polymers (CHPs), e.g. from cauliflower florets. It was not known whether the XTH-activating factor (XAF) present in CHPs works by promoting (e.g. allosterically) XET activity or by re-solubilising sequestered XTH proteins. We now show that XTHs in dilute solution bind to diverse surfaces (e.g. glass and cellulose), and that CHPs can re-solubilise the bound enzyme, re-activating it. Cell walls prepared from cauliflower florets, mung bean shoots and Arabidopsis cell-suspension cultures each contained endogenous, tightly bound, inactive XTHs, which were likewise rapidly solubilised (within 0.5h) and thus activated by cauliflower XAF. We present a convenient quantitative assay for XAF acting on the native sequestered XTHs of Arabidopsis cell walls; using this assay, we show that CHPs from all plants tested possess XAF activity. The XAF activity of diverse CHPs does not correlate with their conductivity, showing that this activity is not a simple ionic effect. The XAF action of cauliflower CHPs was augmented by NaCl, although NaCl alone was much less effective than a CHP solution of similar conductivity, confirming that the cauliflower polymers did not simply exert a salt effect. We suggest that XAF is an endogenous regulator of XET action, modulating cell-wall loosening and/or assembly in vivo. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  11. Disseminated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection in a paca (Cuniculus paca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelson, Susan B; Yau, Wilson; Rissi, Daniel R

    2015-03-01

    A 2-yr-old paca (Cuniculus paca) was presented for necropsy with a history of sudden death. GrosS examination revealed multifocal, transmural, well-demarcated, white, soft nodules scattered along the length of the small intestine. The liver also had similar nodules associated with the capsular and cut surface. Histologic evaluation of several organs, including the intestine, liver, lung, kidney, adrenal gland, and lymph nodes, was consistent with disseminated yersiniosis. In addition, aerobic bacterial culture of liver and lung tissue yielded heavy growth of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-negative, enteric pathogen that can cause disease in a variety of terrestrial species including humans. Although systemic infection has been observed in rodent species, to our knowledge this is the first report of disseminated Y pseudotuberculosis in a paca.

  12. Structural Insights into Ail-Mediated Adhesion in Yersinia pestis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Lukacik, Petra; Barnard, Travis J.; Noinaj, Nicholas; Felek, Suleyman; Tsang, Tiffany M.; Krukonis, Eric S.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph; Buchanan, Susan K. (Michigan); (NIH); (Michigan-Med)

    2012-01-30

    Ail is an outer membrane protein from Yersinia pestis that is highly expressed in a rodent model of bubonic plague, making it a good candidate for vaccine development. Ail is important for attaching to host cells and evading host immune responses, facilitating rapid progression of a plague infection. Binding to host cells is important for injection of cytotoxic Yersinia outer proteins. To learn more about how Ail mediates adhesion, we solved two high-resolution crystal structures of Ail, with no ligand bound and in complex with a heparin analog called sucrose octasulfate. We identified multiple adhesion targets, including laminin and heparin, and showed that a 40 kDa domain of laminin called LG4-5 specifically binds to Ail. We also evaluated the contribution of laminin to delivery of Yops to HEp-2 cells. This work constitutes a structural description of how a bacterial outer membrane protein uses a multivalent approach to bind host cells.

  13. Distribution and Evolution of Yersinia Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yueming; Huang, He; Hui, Xinjie; Cheng, Xi; White, Aaron P.

    2016-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins are widely distributed in bacteria, playing important roles in various protein-protein interaction processes. In Yersinia, the well-characterized type III secreted effector YopM also belongs to the LRR protein family and is encoded by virulence plasmids. However, little has been known about other LRR members encoded by Yersinia genomes or their evolution. In this study, the Yersinia LRR proteins were comprehensively screened, categorized, and compared. The LRR proteins encoded by chromosomes (LRR1 proteins) appeared to be more similar to each other and different from those encoded by plasmids (LRR2 proteins) with regard to repeat-unit length, amino acid composition profile, and gene expression regulation circuits. LRR1 proteins were also different from LRR2 proteins in that the LRR1 proteins contained an E3 ligase domain (NEL domain) in the C-terminal region or an NEL domain-encoding nucleotide relic in flanking genomic sequences. The LRR1 protein-encoding genes (LRR1 genes) varied dramatically and were categorized into 4 subgroups (a to d), with the LRR1a to -c genes evolving from the same ancestor and LRR1d genes evolving from another ancestor. The consensus and ancestor repeat-unit sequences were inferred for different LRR1 protein subgroups by use of a maximum parsimony modeling strategy. Structural modeling disclosed very similar repeat-unit structures between LRR1 and LRR2 proteins despite the different unit lengths and amino acid compositions. Structural constraints may serve as the driving force to explain the observed mutations in the LRR regions. This study suggests that there may be functional variation and lays the foundation for future experiments investigating the functions of the chromosomally encoded LRR proteins of Yersinia. PMID:27217422

  14. Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in Yersinia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea A Schiano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Proper regulation of gene expression is required by bacterial pathogens to respond to continually changing environmental conditions and the host response during the infectious process. While transcriptional regulation is perhaps the most well understood form of controlling gene expression, recent studies have demonstrated the importance of post-transcriptional mechanisms of gene regulation that allow for more refined management of the bacterial response to host conditions. Yersinia species of bacteria are known to use various forms of post-transcriptional regulation for control of many virulence-associated genes. These include regulation by cis- and trans-acting small non-coding RNAs, RNA-binding proteins, RNases, and thermoswitches. The effects of these and other regulatory mechanisms on Yersinia physiology can be profound and have been shown to influence type III secretion, motility, biofilm formation, host cell invasion, intracellular survival and replication, and more. In this review, we will discuss these and other post-transcriptional mechanisms and their influence on virulence gene regulation, with a particular emphasis on how these processes influence the virulence of Yersinia in the host.

  15. Behavior of Avirulent Yersinia pestis in Liquid Whole Egg as Affected by Antimicrobials and Thermal Pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yersinia spp. is a psychrotrophic bacterium that can grow at temperatures as low as minus two degrees Celsius, and is known to contaminate shell eggs in the United States and shell eggs and liquid egg in South America. A study was performed to determine the thermal sensitivity of avirulent Yersinia...

  16. [Comparison of efficacy of tests for differentiation of typical and atypical strains of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsen'eva, T E; Lebedeva, S A; Trukhachev, A L; Vasil'eva, E A; Ivanova, V S; Bozhko, N V

    2010-01-01

    To characterize species specificity of officially recommended tests for differentiation of Yersiniapestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and propose additional tests allowing for more accurate identification. Natural, laboratory and typical strains oftwo Yersinia species were studied using microbiological, molecular and biochemical methods. For PCR species-specific primers complementary to certain fragments of chromosomal DNA of each species as well as to several plasmid genes of Y. pestis were used. It was shown that such attributes of Y. pestis as form of colonies, fermentation ofrhamnose, melibiose and urea, susceptibility to diagnostic phages, nutritional requirements could be lost in pestis bacterial species or detected in pseudotuberculosis species. Such attribute as mobility as well as positive result of CoA-reaction on fraction V antigen are more reliable. Guaranteed differentiation of typical and changed according to differential tests strains is provided only by PCR-analysis with primers vlml2for/ISrev216 and JS respectively, which are homologous to certain chromosome fragments of one of two Yersinia species.

  17. Ecology of Yersinia pestis and the Epidemiology of Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubyanskiy, Vladimir M; Yeszhanov, Aidyn B

    2016-01-01

    This chapter summarizes information about the natural foci of plague in the world. We describe the location, main hosts, and vectors of Yersinia pestis. The ecological features of the hosts and vectors of plague are listed, including predators - birds and mammals and their role in the epizootic. The epizootic process in plague and the factors affecting the dynamics of epizootic activity of natural foci of Y. pestis are described in detail. The mathematical models of the epizootic process in plague and predictive models are briefly described. The most comprehensive list of the hosts and vectors of Y. pestis in the world is presented as well.

  18. Invasin of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis activates human peripheral B cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, E; Carballeira, N; Vazquez, R; Dubinina, E; Bränden, H; Persson, H; Wolf-Watz, H

    1996-01-01

    The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis cell surface-located protein invasin was found to promote binding between the pathogen and resting peripheral B cells via beta 1 integrin receptors (CD29). B cells responded by expressing several activation markers and by growing, In contrast, T cells did not react, although these cells express CD29. An isogenic invA mutant failed to activate B cells. The mutation could be complemented by providing the invA+ gene in trans. Purified invasin alone did not activat...

  19. Yersinia pestis targets neutrophils via complement receptor 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Peter M.; Nero, Thomas; Bohman, Lesley; Felek, Suleyman; Krukonis, Eric S.; Marketon, Melanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia species display a tropism for lymphoid tissues during infection, and the bacteria select innate immune cells for delivery of cytotoxic effectors by the type III secretion system. Yet the mechanism for target cell selection remains a mystery. Here we investigate the interaction of Yersinia pestis with murine splenocytes to identify factors that participate in the targeting process. We find that interactions with primary immune cells rely on multiple factors. First, the bacterial adhesin Ail is required for efficient targeting of neutrophils in vivo. However, Ail does not appear to directly mediate binding to a specific cell type. Instead, we find that host serum factors direct Y. pestis to specific innate immune cells, particularly neutrophils. Importantly, specificity towards neutrophils was increased in the absence of bacterial adhesins due to reduced targeting of other cell types, but this phenotype was only visible in the presence of mouse serum. Addition of antibodies against complement receptor 3 and CD14 blocked target cell selection, suggesting that a combination of host factors participate in steering bacteria toward neutrophils during plague infection. PMID:25359083

  20. Typing methods for the plague pathogen, Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindler, Luther E

    2009-01-01

    Phenotypic and genotypic methodologies have been used to differentiate the etiological agent of plague, Yersinia pestis. Historically, phenotypic methods were used to place isolates into one of three biovars based on nitrate reduction and glycerol fermentation. Classification of Y. pestis into genetic subtypes is problematic due to the relative monomorphic nature of the pathogen. Resolution into groups is dependent on the number and types of loci used in the analysis. The last 5-10 years of research and analysis in the field of Y. pestis genotyping have resulted in a recognition by Western scientists that two basic types of Y. pestis exist. One type, considered to be classic strains that are able to cause human plague transmitted by the normal flea vector, is termed epidemic strains. The other type does not typically cause human infections by normal routes of infection, but is virulent for rodents and is termed endemic strains. Previous classification schemes used outside the Western hemisphere referred to these latter strains as Pestoides varieties of Y. pestis. Recent molecular analysis has definitely shown that both endemic and epidemic strains arose independently from a common Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Currently, 11 major groups of Y. pestis are defined globally.

  1. Genome rearrangements and phylogeny reconstruction in Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkareva, Olga O; Dranenko, Natalia O; Ocheredko, Elena S; Kanevsky, German M; Lozinsky, Yaroslav N; Khalaycheva, Vera A; Artamonova, Irena I; Gelfand, Mikhail S

    2018-01-01

    Genome rearrangements have played an important role in the evolution of Yersinia pestis from its progenitor Yersinia pseudotuberculosis . Traditional phylogenetic trees for Y. pestis based on sequence comparison have short internal branches and low bootstrap supports as only a small number of nucleotide substitutions have occurred. On the other hand, even a small number of genome rearrangements may resolve topological ambiguities in a phylogenetic tree. We reconstructed phylogenetic trees based on genome rearrangements using several popular approaches such as Maximum likelihood for Gene Order and the Bayesian model of genome rearrangements by inversions. We also reconciled phylogenetic trees for each of the three CRISPR loci to obtain an integrated scenario of the CRISPR cassette evolution. Analysis of contradictions between the obtained evolutionary trees yielded numerous parallel inversions and gain/loss events. Our data indicate that an integrated analysis of sequence-based and inversion-based trees enhances the resolution of phylogenetic reconstruction. In contrast, reconstructions of strain relationships based on solely CRISPR loci may not be reliable, as the history is obscured by large deletions, obliterating the order of spacer gains. Similarly, numerous parallel gene losses preclude reconstruction of phylogeny based on gene content.

  2. Differential impact of lipopolysaccharide defects caused by loss of RfaH in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jared M; Sullivan, Shea; Wu, Erin; Wilson, Eric; Erickson, David L

    2017-09-07

    RfaH enhances transcription of a select group of operons controlling bacterial surface features such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Previous studies have suggested that rfaH may be required for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis resistance to antimicrobial chemokines and survival during mouse infections. In order to further investigate the role of RfaH in LPS synthesis, resistance to host defense peptides, and virulence of Yersinia, we constructed ΔrfaH mutants of Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 and Y. pestis KIM6+. Loss of rfaH affected LPS synthesis in both species, resulting in a shorter core oligosaccharide. Susceptibility to polymyxin and the antimicrobial chemokine CCL28 was increased by loss of rfaH in Y. pseudotuberculosis but not in Y. pestis. Transcription of genes in the ddhD-wzz O-antigen gene cluster, but not core oligosaccharide genes, was reduced in ΔrfaH mutants. In addition, mutants with disruptions in specific ddhD-wzz O-antigen cluster genes produced LPS that was indistinguishable from the ΔrfaH mutant. This suggests that both Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis produce an oligosaccharide core with a single O-antigen unit attached in an RfaH-dependent fashion. Despite enhanced sensitivity to host defense peptides, the Y. pseudotuberculosis ΔrfaH strain was not attenuated in mice, suggesting that rfaH is not required for acute infection.

  3. Early Divergent Strains of Yersinia pestis in Eurasia 5,000 Years Ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Nielsen, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The bacteria Yersinia pestis is the etiological agent of plague and has caused human pandemics with millions of deaths in historic times. How and when it originated remains contentious. Here, we report the oldest direct evidence of Yersinia pestis identified by ancient DNA in human teeth from Asi...... genetic changes that lead to increased virulence and the emergence of the bubonic plague. Our results show that plague infection was endemic in the human populations of Eurasia at least 3,000 years before any historical recordings of pandemics....... and Europe dating from 2,800 to 5,000 years ago. By sequencing the genomes, we find that these ancient plague strains are basal to all known Yersinia pestis. We find the origins of the Yersinia pestis lineage to be at least two times older than previous estimates. We also identify a temporal sequence of...

  4. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor is degraded by Salmonella enterica and Yersinia pestis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valls Serón, M.; Haiko, J.; de Groot, P. G.; Korhonen, T. K.; Meijers, J. C. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pathogenic bacteria modulate the host coagulation system to evade immune responses or to facilitate dissemination through extravascular tissues. In particular, the important bacterial pathogens Salmonella enterica and Yersinia pestis intervene with the plasminogen/fibrinolytic system.

  5. Early Divergent Strains of Yersinia pestis in Eurasia 5,000 Years Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Simon; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Nielsen, Kasper; Orlando, Ludovic; Sikora, Martin; Sjögren, Karl-Göran; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Schubert, Mikkel; Van Dam, Alex; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Brunak, Søren; Avetisyan, Pavel; Epimakhov, Andrey; Khalyapin, Mikhail Viktorovich; Gnuni, Artak; Kriiska, Aivar; Lasak, Irena; Metspalu, Mait; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Gromov, Andrei; Pokutta, Dalia; Saag, Lehti; Varul, Liivi; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Foley, Robert A.; Lahr, Marta Mirazón; Nielsen, Rasmus; Kristiansen, Kristian; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-01

    Summary The bacteria Yersinia pestis is the etiological agent of plague and has caused human pandemics with millions of deaths in historic times. How and when it originated remains contentious. Here, we report the oldest direct evidence of Yersinia pestis identified by ancient DNA in human teeth from Asia and Europe dating from 2,800 to 5,000 years ago. By sequencing the genomes, we find that these ancient plague strains are basal to all known Yersinia pestis. We find the origins of the Yersinia pestis lineage to be at least two times older than previous estimates. We also identify a temporal sequence of genetic changes that lead to increased virulence and the emergence of the bubonic plague. Our results show that plague infection was endemic in the human populations of Eurasia at least 3,000 years before any historical recordings of pandemics. PMID:26496604

  6. Early divergent strains of Yersinia pestis in Eurasia 5,000 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Simon; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Nielsen, Kasper; Orlando, Ludovic; Sikora, Martin; Sjögren, Karl-Göran; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Schubert, Mikkel; Van Dam, Alex; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Brunak, Søren; Avetisyan, Pavel; Epimakhov, Andrey; Khalyapin, Mikhail Viktorovich; Gnuni, Artak; Kriiska, Aivar; Lasak, Irena; Metspalu, Mait; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Gromov, Andrei; Pokutta, Dalia; Saag, Lehti; Varul, Liivi; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta Mirazón; Nielsen, Rasmus; Kristiansen, Kristian; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-10-22

    The bacteria Yersinia pestis is the etiological agent of plague and has caused human pandemics with millions of deaths in historic times. How and when it originated remains contentious. Here, we report the oldest direct evidence of Yersinia pestis identified by ancient DNA in human teeth from Asia and Europe dating from 2,800 to 5,000 years ago. By sequencing the genomes, we find that these ancient plague strains are basal to all known Yersinia pestis. We find the origins of the Yersinia pestis lineage to be at least two times older than previous estimates. We also identify a temporal sequence of genetic changes that lead to increased virulence and the emergence of the bubonic plague. Our results show that plague infection was endemic in the human populations of Eurasia at least 3,000 years before any historical recordings of pandemics. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the Micro-ID system for the identification of Yersinia pestis.

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, D N; Williams, J E

    1985-01-01

    One hundred isolates of Yersinia pestis identified by conventional means were tested by the Micro-ID system to assess its reliability for distinguishing Y. pestis from other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The Micro-ID system gave Y. pestis as a choice for the identification of 89 of these cultures, although not always as the first choice. Most nitrate-negative strains of Y. pestis keyed out with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as first choice and Y. pestis as second or fourth choice.

  8. Nod2 mediates susceptibility to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Meinzer

    Full Text Available Nucleotide oligomerisation domain 2 (NOD2 is a component of the innate immunity known to be involved in the homeostasis of Peyer patches (PPs in mice. However, little is known about its role during gut infection in vivo. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an enteropathogen causing gastroenteritis, adenolymphitis and septicaemia which is able to invade its host through PPs. We investigated the role of Nod2 during Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. Death was delayed in Nod2 deleted and Crohn's disease associated Nod2 mutated mice orogastrically inoculated with Y. pseudotuberculosis. In PPs, the local immune response was characterized by a higher KC level and a more intense infiltration by neutrophils and macrophages. The apoptotic and bacterial cell counts were decreased. Finally, Nod2 deleted mice had a lower systemic bacterial dissemination and less damage of the haematopoeitic organs. This resistance phenotype was lost in case of intraperitoneal infection. We concluded that Nod2 contributes to the susceptibility to Y. pseudotuberculosis in mice.

  9. Pneumonic Plague: The Darker Side of Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechous, Roger D; Sivaraman, Vijay; Stasulli, Nikolas M; Goldman, William E

    2016-03-01

    Inhalation of the bacterium Yersinia pestis results in primary pneumonic plague. Pneumonic plague is the most severe manifestation of plague, with mortality rates approaching 100% in the absence of treatment. Its rapid disease progression, lethality, and ability to be transmitted via aerosol have compounded fears of the intentional release of Y. pestis as a biological weapon. Importantly, recent epidemics of plague have highlighted a significant role for pneumonic plague during outbreaks of Y. pestis infections. In this review we describe the characteristics of pneumonic plague, focusing on its disease progression and pathogenesis. The rapid time-course, severity, and difficulty of treating pneumonic plague highlight how differences in the route of disease transmission can enhance the lethality of an already deadly pathogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Early emergence of Yersinia pestis as a severe respiratory pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbler, Daniel L; Schroeder, Jay A; Eddy, Justin L; Lathem, Wyndham W

    2015-06-30

    Yersinia pestis causes the fatal respiratory disease pneumonic plague. Y. pestis recently evolved from the gastrointestinal pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis; however, it is not known at what point Y. pestis gained the ability to induce a fulminant pneumonia. Here we show that the acquisition of a single gene encoding the protease Pla was sufficient for the most ancestral, deeply rooted strains of Y. pestis to cause pneumonic plague, indicating that Y. pestis was primed to infect the lungs at a very early stage in its evolution. As Y. pestis further evolved, modern strains acquired a single amino-acid modification within Pla that optimizes protease activity. While this modification is unnecessary to cause pneumonic plague, the substitution is instead needed to efficiently induce the invasive infection associated with bubonic plague. These findings indicate that Y. pestis was capable of causing pneumonic plague before it evolved to optimally cause invasive infections in mammals.

  11. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis septicemia in a beaver from Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Joseph K; Zabek, Erin; Raverty, Stephen

    2009-10-01

    An emaciated, free-ranging, sub-adult, male beaver (Castor canadensis) was found dead and was necropsied. Microscopically, the beaver had acute necrotizing hepatitis and splenitis with florid lobulated colonies of extracellular coccobacilli. Intravascular septic emboli were identified in lung, small intestine, and kidney, and discrete ulcers with scattered superficial extracellular accumulation of coccobacilli were noted on tail margins and plantar surfaces of the hind feet. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was cultured on Columbia blood and MacConkey agar and identified by API 20E. Based on the pathology and acute mortality described in this case, as well as historical reports of Y. pseudotuberculosis related mortality in other beavers, this species could serve as a public health sentinel for localized occurrences of this bacterium.

  12. A bibliography of literature pertaining to plague (Yersinia pestis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Laura E.; Frank, Megan K. Eberhardt

    2011-01-01

    Plague is an acute and often fatal zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Y. pestis mainly cycles between small mammals and their fleas; however, it has the potential to infect humans and frequently causes fatalities if left untreated. It is often considered a disease of the past; however, since the late 1800s, plagueis geographic range has expanded greatly, posing new threats in previously unaffected regions of the world, including the Western United States. A literature search was conducted using Internet resources and databases. The keywords chosen for the searches included plague, Yersinia pestis, management, control, wildlife, prairie dogs, fleas, North America, and mammals. Keywords were used alone or in combination with the other terms. Although this search pertains mostly to North America, citations were included from the international research community, as well. Databases and search engines used included Google (http://www.google.com), Google Scholar (http://scholar.google.com), SciVerse Scopus (http://www.scopus.com), ISI Web of Knowledge (http://apps.isiknowledge.com), and the USGS Library's Digital Desktop (http://library.usgs.gov). The literature-cited sections of manuscripts obtained from keyword searches were cross-referenced to identify additional citations or gray literature that was missed by the Internet search engines. This Open-File Report, published as an Internet-accessible bibliography, is intended to be periodically updated with new citations or older references that may have been missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the audience (users) think need to be included.

  13. Investigating the ?Trojan Horse? Mechanism of Yersinia pestis Virulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Fitch, J P

    2005-02-08

    Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, is a Gram-negative, highly communicable, enteric bacterium that has been responsible for three historic plague pandemics. Currently, several thousand cases of plague are reported worldwide annually, and Y. pestis remains a considerable threat from a biodefense perspective. Y. pestis infection can manifest in three forms: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague. Of these three forms, pneumonic plague has the highest fatality rate ({approx}100% if left untreated), the shortest intervention time ({approx}24 hours), and is highly contagious. Currently, there are no rapid, widely available vaccines for plague and though plague may be treated with antibiotics, the emergence of both naturally occurring and potentially engineered antibiotic resistant strains makes the search for more effective therapies and vaccines for plague of pressing concern. The virulence mechanism of this deadly bacterium involves induction of a Type III secretion system, a syringe-like apparatus that facilitates the injection of virulence factors, termed Yersinia outer membrane proteins (Yops), into the host cell. These virulence factors inhibit phagocytosis and cytokine secretion, and trigger apoptosis of the host cell. Y. pestis virulence factors and the Type III secretion system are induced thermally, when the bacterium enters the mammalian host from the flea vector, and through host cell contact (or conditions of low Ca{sup 2+} in vitro). Apart from the temperature increase from 26 C to 37 C and host cell contact (or low Ca{sup 2+} conditions), other molecular mechanisms that influence virulence induction in Y. pestis are largely uncharacterized. This project focused on characterizing two novel mechanisms that regulate virulence factor induction in Y. pestis, immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding and quorum sensing, using a real-time reporter system to monitor induction of virulence. Incorporating a better understanding of the mechanisms of virulence

  14. Attenuated enzootic (pestoides) isolates of Yersinia pestis express active aspartase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Scott W; Sexton, Christopher; Pare, Joshua; Fowler, Janet M; Arvidson, Cindy G; Yerman, Lyudmyla; Viola, Ronald E; Brubaker, Robert R

    2009-01-01

    It is established that Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague, recently evolved from enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis by undergoing chromosomal degeneration while acquiring two unique plasmids that facilitate tissue invasion (pPCP) and dissemination by fleabite (pMT). Thereafter, plague bacilli spread from central Asia to sylvatic foci throughout the world. These epidemic isolates exhibit a broad host range including man as opposed to enzootic (pestoides) variants that remain in ancient reservoirs where infection is limited to muroid rodents. Cells of Y. pseudotuberculosis are known to express glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Zwf) and aspartase (AspA); these activities are not detectable in epidemic Y. pestis due to missense mutations (substitution of proline for serine at amino position 155 of Zwf and leucine for valine at position 363 of AspA). In this study, functional Zwf was found in pestoides strains E, F and G but not seven other enzootic isolates; enzymic activity was associated with retention of serine at amino acid position 155. Essentially, full AspA activity occurred in pestoides isolates where valine (pestoides A, B, C and D) or serine (pestoides E, F, G and I) occupied position 363. Reduced activity occurred in strains Angola and A16, which contained phenylalanine at this position. The kcat but not Km of purified AspA from strain Angola was significantly reduced. In this context, aspA of the recently described attenuated enzootic microtus biovar encodes active valine at position 363, further indicating that functional AspA is a biomarker for avirulence of Y. pestis in man.

  15. [Standard algorithm of molecular typing of Yersinia pestis strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroshenko, G A; Odinokov, G N; Kukleva, L M; Pavlova, A I; Krasnov, Ia M; Shavina, N Iu; Guseva, N P; Vinogradova, N A; Kutyrev, V V

    2012-01-01

    Development of the standard algorithm of molecular typing of Yersinia pestis that ensures establishing of subspecies, biovar and focus membership of the studied isolate. Determination of the characteristic strain genotypes of plague infectious agent of main and nonmain subspecies from various natural foci of plague of the Russian Federation and the near abroad. Genotyping of 192 natural Y. pestis strains of main and nonmain subspecies was performed by using PCR methods, multilocus sequencing and multilocus analysis of variable tandem repeat number. A standard algorithm of molecular typing of plague infectious agent including several stages of Yersinia pestis differentiation by membership: in main and nonmain subspecies, various biovars of the main subspecies, specific subspecies; natural foci and geographic territories was developed. The algorithm is based on 3 typing methods--PCR, multilocus sequence typing and multilocus analysis of variable tandem repeat number using standard DNA targets--life support genes (terC, ilvN, inv, glpD, napA, rhaS and araC) and 7 loci of variable tandem repeats (ms01, ms04, ms06, ms07, ms46, ms62, ms70). The effectiveness of the developed algorithm is shown on the large number of natural Y. pestis strains. Characteristic sequence types of Y. pestis strains of various subspecies and biovars as well as MLVA7 genotypes of strains from natural foci of plague of the Russian Federation and the near abroad were established. The application of the developed algorithm will increase the effectiveness of epidemiologic monitoring of plague infectious agent, and analysis of epidemics and outbreaks of plague with establishing the source of origin of the strain and routes of introduction of the infection.

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Yersinia pseudotuberculosis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Yersinia pseudotuberculosis 名詞 一般...シーユーエルオーエスアイエス Thesaurus2015 200906011755952514 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

  17. Early Divergent Strains of Yersinia pestis in Eurasia 5,000 Years Ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Nielsen, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The bacteria Yersinia pestis is the etiological agent of plague and has caused human pandemics with millions of deaths in historic times. How and when it originated remains contentious. Here, we report the oldest direct evidence of Yersinia pestis identified by ancient DNA in human teeth from Asi...

  18. Delineation and analysis of chromosomal regions specifying Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbise, Anne; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Huon, Christèle; Fayolle, Corinne; Demeure, Christian E; Chane-Woon-Ming, Béatrice; Médigue, Claudine; Hinnebusch, B Joseph; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2010-09-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, has recently diverged from the less virulent enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Its emergence has been characterized by massive genetic loss and inactivation and limited gene acquisition. The acquired genes include two plasmids, a filamentous phage, and a few chromosomal loci. The aim of this study was to characterize the chromosomal regions acquired by Y. pestis. Following in silico comparative analysis and PCR screening of 98 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis, we found that eight chromosomal loci (six regions [R1pe to R6pe] and two coding sequences [CDS1pe and CDS2pe]) specified Y. pestis. Signatures of integration by site specific or homologous recombination were identified for most of them. These acquisitions and the loss of ancestral DNA sequences were concentrated in a chromosomal region opposite to the origin of replication. The specific regions were acquired very early during Y. pestis evolution and were retained during its microevolution, suggesting that they might bring some selective advantages. Only one region (R3pe), predicted to carry a lambdoid prophage, is most likely no longer functional because of mutations. With the exception of R1pe and R2pe, which have the potential to encode a restriction/modification and a sugar transport system, respectively, no functions could be predicted for the other Y. pestis-specific loci. To determine the role of the eight chromosomal loci in the physiology and pathogenicity of the plague bacillus, each of them was individually deleted from the bacterial chromosome. None of the deletants exhibited defects during growth in vitro. Using the Xenopsylla cheopis flea model, all deletants retained the capacity to produce a stable and persistent infection and to block fleas. Similarly, none of the deletants caused any acute flea toxicity. In the mouse model of infection, all deletants were fully virulent upon subcutaneous or aerosol infections. Therefore

  19. Characterization of the Na⁺/H⁺ antiporter from Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganoth, Assaf; Alhadeff, Raphael; Kohen, Dovrat; Arkin, Isaiah T

    2011-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that historically accounts for the Black Death epidemics, has nowadays gained new attention as a possible biological warfare agent. In this study, its Na⁺/H⁺ antiporter is investigated for the first time, by a combination of experimental and computational methodologies. We determined the protein's substrate specificity and pH dependence by fluorescence measurements in everted membrane vesicles. Subsequently, we constructed a model of the protein's structure and validated the model using molecular dynamics simulations. Taken together, better understanding of the Yersinia pestis Na⁺/H⁺ antiporter's structure-function relationship may assist in studies on ion transport, mechanism of action and designing specific blockers of Na⁺/H⁺ antiporter to help in fighting Yersinia pestis -associated infections. We hope that our model will prove useful both from mechanistic and pharmaceutical perspectives.

  20. Genome sequence of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhill, J; Wren, B W; Thomson, N R; Titball, R W; Holden, M T; Prentice, M B; Sebaihia, M; James, K D; Churcher, C; Mungall, K L; Baker, S; Basham, D; Bentley, S D; Brooks, K; Cerdeño-Tárraga, A M; Chillingworth, T; Cronin, A; Davies, R M; Davis, P; Dougan, G; Feltwell, T; Hamlin, N; Holroyd, S; Jagels, K; Karlyshev, A V; Leather, S; Moule, S; Oyston, P C; Quail, M; Rutherford, K; Simmonds, M; Skelton, J; Stevens, K; Whitehead, S; Barrell, B G

    2001-10-04

    The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the systemic invasive infectious disease classically referred to as plague, and has been responsible for three human pandemics: the Justinian plague (sixth to eighth centuries), the Black Death (fourteenth to nineteenth centuries) and modern plague (nineteenth century to the present day). The recent identification of strains resistant to multiple drugs and the potential use of Y. pestis as an agent of biological warfare mean that plague still poses a threat to human health. Here we report the complete genome sequence of Y. pestis strain CO92, consisting of a 4.65-megabase (Mb) chromosome and three plasmids of 96.2 kilobases (kb), 70.3 kb and 9.6 kb. The genome is unusually rich in insertion sequences and displays anomalies in GC base-composition bias, indicating frequent intragenomic recombination. Many genes seem to have been acquired from other bacteria and viruses (including adhesins, secretion systems and insecticidal toxins). The genome contains around 150 pseudogenes, many of which are remnants of a redundant enteropathogenic lifestyle. The evidence of ongoing genome fluidity, expansion and decay suggests Y. pestis is a pathogen that has undergone large-scale genetic flux and provides a unique insight into the ways in which new and highly virulent pathogens evolve.

  1. Crystallization of the class IV adenylyl cyclase from Yersinia pestis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Natasha; Kim, Sook-Kyung; Reddy, Prasad T.; Gallagher, D. Travis

    2006-01-01

    The class IV adenylyl cyclase from Y. pestis has been crystallized in an orthorhombic form suitable for structure determination. The class IV adenylyl cyclase from Yersinia pestis has been cloned and crystallized in both a triclinic and an orthorhombic form. An amino-terminal His-tagged construct, from which the tag was removed by thrombin, crystallized in a triclinic form diffracting to 1.9 Å, with one dimer per asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = 33.5, b = 35.5, c = 71.8 Å, α = 88.7, β = 82.5, γ = 65.5°. Several mutants of this construct crystallized but diffracted poorly. A non-His-tagged native construct (179 amino acids, MW = 20.5 kDa) was purified by conventional chromatography and crystallized in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 . These crystals have unit-cell parameters a = 56.8, b = 118.6, c = 144.5 Å, diffract to 3 Å and probably have two dimers per asymmetric unit and V M = 3.0 Å 3 Da −1 . Both crystal forms appear to require pH below 5, complicating attempts to incorporate nucleotide ligands into the structure. The native construct has been produced as a selenomethionine derivative and crystallized for phasing and structure determination

  2. Fibrinolytic and procoagulant activities of Yersinia pestis and Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, T K

    2015-06-01

    Pla of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis and PgtE of the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica are surface-exposed, transmembrane β-barrel proteases of the omptin family that exhibit a complex array of interactions with the hemostatic systems in vitro, and both proteases are established virulence factors. Pla favors fibrinolysis by direct activation of plasminogen, inactivation of the serpins plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and α2-antiplasmin, inactivation of the thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor, and activation of single-chain urokinase. PgtE is structurally very similar but exhibits partially different functions and differ in expression control. PgtE proteolysis targets control aspects of fibrinolysis, and mimicry of matrix metalloproteinases enhances cell migration that should favor the intracellular spread of the bacterium. Enzymatic activity of both proteases is strongly influenced by the environment-induced variations in lipopolysaccharide that binds to the β-barrel. Both proteases cleave the tissue factor pathway inhibitor and thus also express procoagulant activity. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  3. Na+/H+ antiport is essential for Yersinia pestis virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Yusuke; Ghosh, Amit; Faulkner, Wyatt J; Lind, Erin J; Schesser Bartra, Sara; Plano, Gregory V; Jarrett, Clayton O; Hinnebusch, B Joseph; Winogrodzki, Judith; Dibrov, Pavel; Häse, Claudia C

    2013-09-01

    Na(+)/H(+) antiporters are ubiquitous membrane proteins that play a central role in the ion homeostasis of cells. In this study, we examined the possible role of Na(+)/H(+) antiport in Yersinia pestis virulence and found that Y. pestis strains lacking the major Na(+)/H(+) antiporters, NhaA and NhaB, are completely attenuated in an in vivo model of plague. The Y. pestis derivative strain lacking the nhaA and nhaB genes showed markedly decreased survival in blood and blood serum ex vivo. Complementation of either nhaA or nhaB in trans restored the survival of the Y. pestis nhaA nhaB double deletion mutant in blood. The nhaA nhaB double deletion mutant also showed inhibited growth in an artificial serum medium, Opti-MEM, and a rich LB-based medium with Na(+) levels and pH values similar to those for blood. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that intact Na(+)/H(+) antiport is indispensable for the survival of Y. pestis in the bloodstreams of infected animals and thus might be regarded as a promising noncanonical drug target for infections caused by Y. pestis and possibly for those caused by other blood-borne bacterial pathogens.

  4. Cra negatively regulates acid survival in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yangbo; Lu, Pei; Zhang, Yong; Li, Yunlong; Li, Lamei; Huang, Li; Chen, Shiyun

    2011-04-01

    Survival in acidic environments is important for successful infection of gastrointestinal pathogens. Many bacteria have evolved elaborate mechanisms by inducing or repressing gene expression, which subsequently provide pH homeostasis and enable acid survival. In this study, we employed comparative proteomic analysis to identify the acid-responsive proteins of a food-borne enteric bacterium, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The expression level of eight proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism was up- or downregulated over twofold at pH 4.5 compared with pH 7.0. The role of a global transcriptional regulator catabolite repressor/activator Cra was further studied in this acid survival process. lacZ-fusion analysis showed that expression of cra was repressed under acidic pH. Deletion of the cra gene increased acid survival by 10-fold, whereas complementation restored the wild-type phenotype. These results lead us to propose that, in response to acidic pH, the expression of cra gene is downregulated to increase acid survival. This is the first study to demonstrate the regulatory role of Cra in acid survival in an enteric bacterium. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Transcriptome Changes Associated with Anaerobic Growth in Yersinia intermedia (ATCC29909)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiley, Patricia J.; Glasner, Jeremy D.; Perna, Nicole T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The yersiniae (Enterobacteriaceae) occupy a variety of niches, including some in human and flea hosts. Metabolic adaptations of the yersiniae, which contribute to their success in these specialized environments, remain largely unknown. We report results of an investigation of the transcriptome under aerobic and anaerobic conditions for Y. intermedia, a non-pathogenic member of the genus that has been used as a research surrogate for Y. pestis. Y. intermedia shares characteristics of pathogenic yersiniae, but is not known to cause disease in humans. Oxygen restriction is an important environmental stimulus experienced by many bacteria during their life-cycles and greatly influences their survival in specific environments. How oxygen availability affects physiology in the yersiniae is of importance in their life cycles but has not been extensively characterized. Methodology/Principal Findings Tiled oligonucleotide arrays based on a draft genome sequence of Y. intermedia were used in transcript profiling experiments to identify genes that change expression in response to oxygen availability during growth in minimal media with glucose. The expression of more than 400 genes, constituting about 10% of the genome, was significantly altered due to oxygen-limitation in early log phase under these conditions. Broad functional categorization indicated that, in addition to genes involved in central metabolism, genes involved in adaptation to stress and genes likely involved with host interactions were affected by oxygen-availability. Notable among these, were genes encoding functions for motility, chemotaxis and biosynthesis of cobalamin, which were up-regulated and those for iron/heme utilization, methionine metabolism and urease, which were down-regulated. Conclusions/Significance This is the first transcriptome analysis of a non-pathogenic Yersinia spp. and one of few elucidating the global response to oxygen limitation for any of the yersiniae. Thus this study

  6. Rapid identification of Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis by chip-based continuous flow PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzsch, Michael; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Melzer, Falk; Tomaso, Herbert; Gärtner, Claudia; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2012-06-01

    To combat the threat of biological agents like Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis in bioterroristic scenarios requires fast, easy-to-use and safe identification systems. In this study we describe a system for rapid amplification of specific genetic markers for the identification of Yersinia pestis and Brucella melitensis. Using chip based PCR and continuous flow technology we were able to amplify the targets simultaneously with a 2-step reaction profile within 20 minutes. The subsequent analysis of amplified fragments by standard gel electrophoresis requires another 45 minutes. We were able to detect both pathogens within 75 minutes being much faster than most other nucleic acid amplification technologies.

  7. Fur is a repressor of biofilm formation in Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengjun Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis synthesizes the attached biofilms in the flea proventriculus, which is important for the transmission of this pathogen by fleas. The hmsHFRS operons is responsible for the synthesis of exopolysaccharide (the major component of biofilm matrix, which is activated by the signaling molecule 3', 5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP synthesized by the only two diguanylate cyclases HmsT, and YPO0449 (located in a putative operonYPO0450-0448. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The phenotypic assays indicated that the transcriptional regulator Fur inhibited the Y. pestis biofilm production in vitro and on nematode. Two distinct Fur box-like sequences were predicted within the promoter-proximal region of hmsT, suggesting that hmsT might be a direct Fur target. The subsequent primer extension, LacZ fusion, electrophoretic mobility shift, and DNase I footprinting assays disclosed that Fur specifically bound to the hmsT promoter-proximal region for repressing the hmsT transcription. In contrast, Fur had no regulatory effect on hmsHFRS and YPO0450-0448 at the transcriptional level. The detection of intracellular c-di-GMP levels revealed that Fur inhibited the c-di-GMP production. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Y. pestis Fur inhibits the c-di-GMP production through directly repressing the transcription of hmsT, and thus it acts as a repressor of biofilm formation. Since the relevant genetic contents for fur, hmsT, hmsHFRS, and YPO0450-0448 are extremely conserved between Y. pestis and typical Y. pseudotuberculosis, the above regulatory mechanisms can be applied to Y. pseudotuberculosis.

  8. A Precise Temperature-Responsive Bistable Switch Controlling Yersinia Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Aaron Mischa; Schuster, Franziska; Roselius, Louisa; Klein, Johannes; Bücker, René; Herbst, Katharina; Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Pisano, Fabio; Wittmann, Christoph; Münch, Richard; Müller, Johannes; Jahn, Dieter; Dersch, Petra

    2016-12-01

    Different biomolecules have been identified in bacterial pathogens that sense changes in temperature and trigger expression of virulence programs upon host entry. However, the dynamics and quantitative outcome of this response in individual cells of a population, and how this influences pathogenicity are unknown. Here, we address these questions using a thermosensing virulence regulator of an intestinal pathogen (RovA of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis) as a model. We reveal that this regulator is part of a novel thermoresponsive bistable switch, which leads to high- and low-invasive subpopulations within a narrow temperature range. The temperature range in which bistability is observed is defined by the degradation and synthesis rate of the regulator, and is further adjustable via a nutrient-responsive regulator. The thermoresponsive switch is also characterized by a hysteretic behavior in which activation and deactivation occurred on vastly different time scales. Mathematical modeling accurately mirrored the experimental behavior and predicted that the thermoresponsiveness of this sophisticated bistable switch is mainly determined by the thermo-triggered increase of RovA proteolysis. We further observed RovA ON and OFF subpopulations of Y. pseudotuberculosis in the Peyer's patches and caecum of infected mice, and that changes in the RovA ON/OFF cell ratio reduce tissue colonization and overall virulence. This points to a bet-hedging strategy in which the thermoresponsive bistable switch plays a key role in adapting the bacteria to the fluctuating conditions encountered as they pass through the host's intestinal epithelium and suggests novel strategies for the development of antimicrobial therapies.

  9. A Precise Temperature-Responsive Bistable Switch Controlling Yersinia Virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Mischa Nuss

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Different biomolecules have been identified in bacterial pathogens that sense changes in temperature and trigger expression of virulence programs upon host entry. However, the dynamics and quantitative outcome of this response in individual cells of a population, and how this influences pathogenicity are unknown. Here, we address these questions using a thermosensing virulence regulator of an intestinal pathogen (RovA of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model. We reveal that this regulator is part of a novel thermoresponsive bistable switch, which leads to high- and low-invasive subpopulations within a narrow temperature range. The temperature range in which bistability is observed is defined by the degradation and synthesis rate of the regulator, and is further adjustable via a nutrient-responsive regulator. The thermoresponsive switch is also characterized by a hysteretic behavior in which activation and deactivation occurred on vastly different time scales. Mathematical modeling accurately mirrored the experimental behavior and predicted that the thermoresponsiveness of this sophisticated bistable switch is mainly determined by the thermo-triggered increase of RovA proteolysis. We further observed RovA ON and OFF subpopulations of Y. pseudotuberculosis in the Peyer's patches and caecum of infected mice, and that changes in the RovA ON/OFF cell ratio reduce tissue colonization and overall virulence. This points to a bet-hedging strategy in which the thermoresponsive bistable switch plays a key role in adapting the bacteria to the fluctuating conditions encountered as they pass through the host's intestinal epithelium and suggests novel strategies for the development of antimicrobial therapies.

  10. Immune response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae to Yersinia ruckeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Kania, Per Walter; Raida, Martin Kristian

    exposed 17 days post hatch (dph) larvae (avg. wt. 70 mg) to the bacterial pathogen, Yersinia ruckeri at the concentration of 1.0 X 108 cfu/ml for 4 h. Samples were taken at 1, 4, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post infection for qPCR and immunohistochemical studies. In the same experimental trial, another group...

  11. Inactivation of avirulent Yersinia pestis on food and food contact surfaces by ultraviolet light and freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, can occasionally be contracted as a naso-pharangeal or gastrointestinal illness through consumption of contaminated meat. In this study, the use of 254 nm ultraviolet light (UV-C) to inactivate a multi-isolate cocktail of avirulent Y. pestis on food an...

  12. Inactivation of avirulent pgm+ and delta pgm Yersinia pestis by ultraviolet light (UV-C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of bubonic plague. Though not considered a foodborne pathogen, Y. pestis can survive, and even grow, in some foods, and the foodborne route of transmission is not without precedent. As such, concerns exist over the possible intentional contamination of foods wi...

  13. Inactivation of avirulent Yersinia pestis in beef bologna by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yersinia pestis, a psychrotrophic pathogen capable of growth at refrigeration temperatures, can cause pharyngeal and gastrointestinal plague in humans as a result of eating contaminated foods. Because Y. pestis is listed as a select agent for food safety and defense, evaluation of food safety interv...

  14. Gr1(+) Cells Control Growth of YopM-Negative Yersinia pestis during Systemic Plague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, Z.; Kerschen, E.J.; Cohen, D.; Kaplan, A.M.; Rooijen, van N.; Straley, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    YopM, a protein toxin of Yersinia pestis, is necessary for virulence in a mouse model of systemic plague. We previously reported YopM-dependent natural killer (NK) cell depletion from blood and spleen samples of infected mice. However, in this study we found that infection with Y. pestis KIM5

  15. Global 3D imaging of Yersinia ruckeri bacterin uptake in rainbow trout fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Maki; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Koppang, Erling Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM) in rainbow trout, and the first commercially available fish vaccine was an immersion vaccine against ERM consisting of Y. ruckeri bacterin. The ERM immersion vaccine has been successfully used in aquaculture farming of salm...

  16. Identification of flagellar motility genes in Yersinia ruckeri by transposon mutagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evenhuis, Jason P:; LaPatra, Scott E.; Verner-Jeffreys, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that flagellar secretion is required for production of secreted lipase activity in the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri and that neither of these activities is necessary for virulence in rainbow trout. Our results suggest a possible mechanism for the emergence of nonmotile biotype...

  17. Yersinia outer proteins E, H, P, and T differentially target the cytoskeleton and inhibit phagocytic capacity of dendritic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adkins, Irena; Köberle, M.; Gröbner, S.; Bohn, E.; Autenrieth, I. B.; Borgmann, S.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 297, - (2007), s. 235-244 ISSN 1438-4221 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : yersinia * yops * dendritic cell s Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.524, year: 2007

  18. Literature Review of DNA-Based Subspecies Analysis of Bacillus Anthracis Burkholderia Pseudomallel Burkholderia Mallei, and Yersinia Pestis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvey, Steven

    1999-01-01

    ...; Bacillus anthracis, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia mallei, and Yersinia pestis. Considerable research has been accomplished for the identification of polymorphisms from the strains B. anthracis and B. pseudomallei. The B...

  19. Toxicity and immunogenicity of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile and heat-stable toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q-LT(S63K/R192G/L211A in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxian Zhang

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death to young children. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea. Adhesins and enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. Adhesins mediate bacterial attachment and colonization, and enterotoxins including heat-labile (LT and heat-stable type Ib toxin (STa disrupt fluid homeostasis in host cells that leads to fluid hyper-secretion and diarrhea. Thus, adhesins and enterotoxins have been primarily targeted in ETEC vaccine development. A recent study reported toxoid fusions with STa toxoid (STa(P13F fused at the N- or C-terminus, or inside the A subunit of LT(R192G elicited neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and suggested application of toxoid fusions in ETEC vaccine development (Liu et al., Infect. Immun. 79:4002-4009, 2011. In this study, we generated a different STa toxoid (STa(A14Q and a triple-mutant LT toxoid (LT(S63K/R192G/L211A, tmLT, constructed a toxoid fusion (3xSTa(A14Q-tmLT that carried 3 copies of STa(A14Q for further facilitation of anti-STa immunogenicity, and assessed antigen safety and immunogenicity in a murine model to explore its potential for ETEC vaccine development. Mice immunized with this fusion antigen showed no adverse effects, and developed antitoxin antibodies particularly through the IP route. Anti-LT antibodies were detected and were shown neutralizing against CT in vitro. Anti-STa antibodies were also detected in the immunized mice, and serum from the IP immunized mice neutralized STa toxin in vitro. Data from this study indicated that toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q-tmLT is safe and can induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and provided helpful information for vaccine development against ETEC diarrhea.

  20. Characterization of Yersinia pestis Interactions with Human Neutrophils In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia C. Dudte

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is a gram-negative, zoonotic, bacterial pathogen, and the causative agent of plague. The bubonic form of plague occurs subsequent to deposition of bacteria in the skin by the bite of an infected flea. Neutrophils are recruited to the site of infection within the first few hours and interactions between neutrophils and Y. pestis have been demonstrated in vivo. In contrast to macrophages, neutrophils have been considered non-permissive to Y. pestis intracellular survival. Several studies have shown killing of the vast majority of Y. pestis ingested by human neutrophils. However, survival of 10–15% of Y. pestis after phagocytosis by neutrophils is consistently observed. Furthermore, these surviving bacteria eventually replicate within and escape from the neutrophils. We set out to further characterize the interactions between Y. pestis and human neutrophils by (1 determining the effects of known Y. pestis virulence factors on bacterial survival after uptake by neutrophils, (2 examining the mechanisms employed by the neutrophil to kill the majority of intracellular Y. pestis, (3 determining the activation phenotype of Y. pestis-infected neutrophils, and (4 characterizing the Y. pestis-containing phagosome in neutrophils. We infected human neutrophils in vitro with Y. pestis and assayed bacterial survival and uptake. Deletion of the caf1 gene responsible for F1 capsule production resulted in significantly increased uptake of Y. pestis. Surprisingly, while the two-component regulator PhoPQ system is important for survival of Y. pestis within neutrophils, pre-induction of this system prior to infection did not increase bacterial survival. We used an IPTG-inducible mCherry construct to distinguish viable from non-viable intracellular bacteria and determined the association of the Y. pestis-containing phagosome with neutrophil NADPH-oxidase and markers of primary, secondary and tertiary granules. Additionally, we show that inhibition of

  1. Evaluation of the Role of the opgGH Operon in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Its Deletion during the Emergence of Yersinia pestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintard, Kévin; Dewitte, Amélie; Reboul, Angéline; Madec, Edwige; Bontemps-Gallo, Sébastien; Dondeyne, Jacqueline; Marceau, Michaël; Simonet, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The opgGH operon encodes glucosyltransferases that synthesize osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) from UDP-glucose, using acyl carrier protein (ACP) as a cofactor. OPGs are required for motility, biofilm formation, and virulence in various bacteria. OpgH also sequesters FtsZ in order to regulate cell size according to nutrient availability. Yersinia pestis (the agent of flea-borne plague) lost the opgGH operon during its emergence from the enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. When expressed in OPG-negative strains of Escherichia coli and Dickeya dadantii, opgGH from Y. pseudotuberculosis restored OPGs synthesis, motility, and virulence. However, Y. pseudotuberculosis did not produce OPGs (i) under various growth conditions or (ii) when overexpressing its opgGH operon, its galUF operon (governing UDP-glucose), or the opgGH operon or Acp from E. coli. A ΔopgGH Y. pseudotuberculosis strain showed normal motility, biofilm formation, resistance to polymyxin and macrophages, and virulence but was smaller. Consistently, Y. pestis was smaller than Y. pseudotuberculosis when cultured at ≥37°C, except when the plague bacillus expressed opgGH. Y. pestis expressing opgGH grew normally in serum and within macrophages and was fully virulent in mice, suggesting that small cell size was not advantageous in the mammalian host. Lastly, Y. pestis expressing opgGH was able to infect Xenopsylla cheopis fleas normally. Our results suggest an evolutionary scenario whereby an ancestral Yersinia strain lost a factor required for OPG biosynthesis but kept opgGH (to regulate cell size). The opgGH operon was presumably then lost because OpgH-dependent cell size control became unnecessary. PMID:26150539

  2. Evaluation of the Role of the opgGH Operon in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Its Deletion during the Emergence of Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintard, Kévin; Dewitte, Amélie; Reboul, Angéline; Madec, Edwige; Bontemps-Gallo, Sébastien; Dondeyne, Jacqueline; Marceau, Michaël; Simonet, Michel; Lacroix, Jean-Marie; Sebbane, Florent

    2015-09-01

    The opgGH operon encodes glucosyltransferases that synthesize osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) from UDP-glucose, using acyl carrier protein (ACP) as a cofactor. OPGs are required for motility, biofilm formation, and virulence in various bacteria. OpgH also sequesters FtsZ in order to regulate cell size according to nutrient availability. Yersinia pestis (the agent of flea-borne plague) lost the opgGH operon during its emergence from the enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. When expressed in OPG-negative strains of Escherichia coli and Dickeya dadantii, opgGH from Y. pseudotuberculosis restored OPGs synthesis, motility, and virulence. However, Y. pseudotuberculosis did not produce OPGs (i) under various growth conditions or (ii) when overexpressing its opgGH operon, its galUF operon (governing UDP-glucose), or the opgGH operon or Acp from E. coli. A ΔopgGH Y. pseudotuberculosis strain showed normal motility, biofilm formation, resistance to polymyxin and macrophages, and virulence but was smaller. Consistently, Y. pestis was smaller than Y. pseudotuberculosis when cultured at ≥ 37°C, except when the plague bacillus expressed opgGH. Y. pestis expressing opgGH grew normally in serum and within macrophages and was fully virulent in mice, suggesting that small cell size was not advantageous in the mammalian host. Lastly, Y. pestis expressing opgGH was able to infect Xenopsylla cheopis fleas normally. Our results suggest an evolutionary scenario whereby an ancestral Yersinia strain lost a factor required for OPG biosynthesis but kept opgGH (to regulate cell size). The opgGH operon was presumably then lost because OpgH-dependent cell size control became unnecessary. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. [Origin of the plague microbe Yersinia pestis: structure of the process of speciation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntsov, V V

    2012-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the plague microbe Yersinia pestis are considered in the context of propositions of modern Darwinism. It was shown that the plague pathogen diverged from the pseudotuberculous microbe Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1b in the mountain steppe landscapes of Central Asia in the Sartan: 22000-15000 years ago. Speciation occurred in the tarbagan (Marmota sibirica)--flea (Oropsylla silantiewi) parasitic system. The structure of the speciation process included six stages: isolation, genetic drift, enhancement of intrapopulational polymorphism, the beginning of pesticin synthesis (genetic conflict and emergence of hiatus), specialization (stabilization of characteristics), and adaptive irradiation (transformation of the monotypic species Y. pestis tarbagani into a polytypic species). The scenario opens up wide prospects for construction of the molecular phylogeny of the plague microbe Y. pestis and for investigation of the biochemical and molecular-genetic aspects of "Darwinian" evolution of pathogens from many other nature-focal infections.

  4. Pulmonary infection by Yersinia pestis rapidly establishes a permissive environment for microbial proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Paul A; Jin, Jianping; Goldman, William E

    2012-02-21

    Disease progression of primary pneumonic plague is biphasic, consisting of a preinflammatory and a proinflammatory phase. During the long preinflammatory phase, bacteria replicate to high levels, seemingly uninhibited by normal pulmonary defenses. In a coinfection model of pneumonic plague, it appears that Yersinia pestis quickly creates a localized, dominant anti-inflammatory state that allows for the survival and rapid growth of both itself and normally avirulent organisms. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the relatively recent progenitor of Y. pestis, shows no similar trans-complementation effect, which is unprecedented among other respiratory pathogens. We demonstrate that the effectors secreted by the Ysc type III secretion system are necessary but not sufficient to mediate this apparent immunosuppression. Even an unbiased negative selection screen using a vast pool of Y. pestis mutants revealed no selection against any known virulence genes, demonstrating the transformation of the lung from a highly restrictive to a generally permissive environment during the preinflammatory phase of pneumonic plague.

  5. Role of the beta1-integrin cytoplasmic tail in mediating invasin-promoted internalization of Yersinia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Anna; Armulik, Annika; Brakebusch, Cord

    2002-01-01

    Invasin of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis binds to beta1-integrins on host cells and triggers internalization of the bacterium. To elucidate the mechanism behind the beta1-integrin-mediated internalization of Yersinia, a beta1-integrin-deficient cell line, GD25, transfected with wild-type beta1A, beta......1B or different mutants of the beta1A subunit was used. Both beta1A and beta1B bound to invasin-expressing bacteria, but only beta1A was able to mediate internalization of the bacteria. The cytoplasmic region of beta1A, differing from beta1B, contains two NPXY motifs surrounding a double threonine...... noted that cells affected in bacterial internalization exhibited reduced spreading capability when seeded onto invasin, suggesting a correlation between the internalization of invasin-expressing bacteria and invasin-induced spreading. Likewise, integrins defective in forming peripheral focal complex...

  6. Evaluation of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Solutions for Supporting Viability Retention of Yersinia Pestis Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    were not the result of residual environmental contamination . Major threat agents such as Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Burkholderia...presence of Y. pestis and B. anthracis, even though no deliberate contamination was verified (Afshinnekoo et al., 2015). In fact, as of 2015, there have...Aldrich (St. Louis, MO) or Thermo Fisher Scientific (Waltham, MA). Butterfield’s buffer was prepared according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

  7. Novel genetic tools for diaminopimelic acid selection in virulence studies of Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Bland

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular studies of bacterial virulence are enhanced by expression of recombinant DNA during infection to allow complementation of mutants and expression of reporter proteins in vivo. For highly pathogenic bacteria, such as Yersinia pestis, these studies are currently limited because deliberate introduction of antibiotic resistance is restricted to those few which are not human treatment options. In this work, we report the development of alternatives to antibiotics as tools for host-pathogen research during Yersinia pestis infections focusing on the diaminopimelic acid (DAP pathway, a requirement for cell wall synthesis in eubacteria. We generated a mutation in the dapA-nlpB(dapX operon of Yersinia pestis KIM D27 and CO92 which eliminated the expression of both genes. The resulting strains were auxotrophic for diaminopimelic acid and this phenotype was complemented in trans by expressing dapA in single and multi-copy. In vivo, we found that plasmids derived from the p15a replicon were cured without selection, while selection for DAP enhanced stability without detectable loss of any of the three resident virulence plasmids. The dapAX mutation rendered Y. pestis avirulent in mouse models of bubonic and septicemic plague which could be complemented when dapAX was inserted in single or multi-copy, restoring development of disease that was indistinguishable from the wild type parent strain. We further identified a high level, constitutive promoter in Y. pestis that could be used to drive expression of fluorescent reporters in dapAX strains that had minimal impact to virulence in mouse models while enabling sensitive detection of bacteria during infection. Thus, diaminopimelic acid selection for single or multi-copy genetic systems in Yersinia pestis offers an improved alternative to antibiotics for in vivo studies that causes minimal disruption to virulence.

  8. Novel genetic tools for diaminopimelic acid selection in virulence studies of Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, David M; Eisele, Nicholas A; Keleher, Lauren L; Anderson, Paul E; Anderson, Deborah M

    2011-03-02

    Molecular studies of bacterial virulence are enhanced by expression of recombinant DNA during infection to allow complementation of mutants and expression of reporter proteins in vivo. For highly pathogenic bacteria, such as Yersinia pestis, these studies are currently limited because deliberate introduction of antibiotic resistance is restricted to those few which are not human treatment options. In this work, we report the development of alternatives to antibiotics as tools for host-pathogen research during Yersinia pestis infections focusing on the diaminopimelic acid (DAP) pathway, a requirement for cell wall synthesis in eubacteria. We generated a mutation in the dapA-nlpB(dapX) operon of Yersinia pestis KIM D27 and CO92 which eliminated the expression of both genes. The resulting strains were auxotrophic for diaminopimelic acid and this phenotype was complemented in trans by expressing dapA in single and multi-copy. In vivo, we found that plasmids derived from the p15a replicon were cured without selection, while selection for DAP enhanced stability without detectable loss of any of the three resident virulence plasmids. The dapAX mutation rendered Y. pestis avirulent in mouse models of bubonic and septicemic plague which could be complemented when dapAX was inserted in single or multi-copy, restoring development of disease that was indistinguishable from the wild type parent strain. We further identified a high level, constitutive promoter in Y. pestis that could be used to drive expression of fluorescent reporters in dapAX strains that had minimal impact to virulence in mouse models while enabling sensitive detection of bacteria during infection. Thus, diaminopimelic acid selection for single or multi-copy genetic systems in Yersinia pestis offers an improved alternative to antibiotics for in vivo studies that causes minimal disruption to virulence.

  9. Cultural and morphological properties of the vaccine strain Yersinia pestis EV NIIEG bacteria after photodynamic inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianova, Onega V.; Lyapina, Anna M.; Khizhnyakova, Mariya A.; Laskavy, Vladislav N.; Feodorova, Valentina A.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.

    2015-03-01

    New method of photoinactivation of plague microbes (bacteria Yersinia pestis) has been suggested. Rate of growth of colonies of Y. pestis EV NIIEG at specific regimes of photo processing have been analyzed. Dependence of growth on exposure time and concentrations of photosensitizer (methylene blue) has been studied. Number of colony forming units of Y. pestis EV NIIEG bacteria as a function of intensity of light and concentration of methylene blue has been scrutinized.

  10. YERSINIA RUCKERI INFECT RAINBOW TROUT THROUGH THE GILLS DEMONSTRATED BY A THREE-DIMENSIONAL IMAGING ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Maki; Raida, Martin Kristian

    2013-01-01

    -dimensional (3D) imaging of small tissues. Rainbow trout were infected with Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 1 (1 x 109 cells/ml) for 1 hour at 18°C, and significant mortality were observed post infection. Three fish were sampled at different time points and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for OPT, or 10% formalin...... is a strong tool for 3D visualization of the bacteria infection routes in the host tissues....

  11. Characterization of Atypical Isolates of Yersinia intermedia and Definition of Two New Biotypes▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Liliane; Leclercq, Alexandre; Savin, Cyril; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The species Yersinia intermedia is a member of the genus Yersinia which belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family. This species is divided into eight biotypes, according to Brenner's biotyping scheme. This scheme relies on five tests (utilization of Simmons citrate and acid production from d-melibiose, d-raffinose, α-methyl-d-glucoside [αMG], and l-rhamnose). The collection of the French Yersinia Reference Laboratory (Institut Pasteur, Paris, France) contained 44 strains that were originally identified as Y. intermedia but whose characteristics did not fit into the biotyping scheme. These 44 strains were separated into two biochemical groups: variant 1 (positive for acid production from l-rhamnose and αMG and positive for Simmons citrate utlization) and variant 2 (positive for acid production from l-rhamnose and αMG). These atypical strains could correspond to new biotypes of Y. intermedia, to Y. frederiksenii strains having the atypical property of fermenting αMG, or to new Yersinia species. These strains did not exhibit growth or phenotypic properties different from those of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii and did not harbor any of the virulence traits usually found in pathogenic species. DNA-DNA hybridizations performed between one strain each of variants 1 and 2 and the Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii type strains demonstrated that these variants do belong to the Y. intermedia species. We thus propose that Brenner's biotyping scheme be updated by adding two new biotypes: 9 (for variant 1) and 10 (for variant 2) to the species Y. intermedia. PMID:19494062

  12. Development of In Vitro Correlate Assays of Immunity to Infection with Yersinia Pestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    cynomolgus macaques (CM) and African green (Chlorocebus aethiops) monkeys (AGM) vaccinated s.c. three times at 4-week intervals with the F1-V fusion...Yersinia pestis in African green monkeys . Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 120:156–163. 15. Faure, K., J. Fujimoto, D. W. Shimabukuro, T. Ajayi, N. Shime, K...A. Kuwae, C. Sasakawa, and S. Imajoh-Ohmi. 1999. Shigella flexneri YSH6000 induces two types of cell death, apoptosis and oncosis, in the

  13. Feeding Behavior Modulates Biofilm-Mediated Transmission of Yersinia pestis by the Cat Flea, Ctenocephalides felis

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, David M.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is prevalent worldwide, will parasitize animal reservoirs of plague, and is associated with human habitations in known plague foci. Despite its pervasiveness, limited information is available about the cat flea?s competence as a vector for Yersinia pestis. It is generally considered to be a poor vector, based on studies examining early-phase transmission during the first week after infection, but transmission potential by the biofilm-dependent p...

  14. Yersinia Virulence Depends on Mimicry of Host Rho-Family Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prehna,G.; Ivanov, M.; Blisha, J.; Stebbins, C.

    2006-01-01

    Yersinia spp. cause gastroenteritis and the plague, representing historically devastating pathogens that are currently an important biodefense and antibiotic resistance concern. A critical virulence determinant is the Yersinia protein kinase A, or YpkA, a multidomain protein that disrupts the eukaryotic actin cytoskeleton. Here we solve the crystal structure of a YpkA-Rac1 complex and find that YpkA possesses a Rac1 binding domain that mimics host guanidine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) of the Rho GTPases. YpkA inhibits nucleotide exchange in Rac1 and RhoA, and mutations that disrupt the YpkA-GTPase interface abolish this activity in vitro and impair in vivo YpkA-induced cytoskeletal disruption. In cell culture experiments, the kinase and the GDI domains of YpkA act synergistically to promote cytoskeletal disruption, and a Y. pseudotuberculosis mutant lacking YpkA GDI activity shows attenuated virulence in a mouse infection assay. We conclude that virulence in Yersinia depends strongly upon mimicry of host GDI proteins by YpkA.

  15. Yersinia pestis and host macrophages: immunodeficiency of mouse macrophages induced by YscW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yujing; Du, Zongmin; Han, Yanping; Guo, Zhaobiao; Tan, Yafang; Zhu, Ziwen; Yang, Ruifu

    2009-09-01

    The virulence of the pathogenic Yersinia species depends on a plasmid-encoded type III secretion system (T3SS) that transfers six Yersinia outer protein (Yop) effector proteins into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, leading to disruption of host defence mechanisms. It is shown in this study that Yersinia pestis YscW, a protein of the T3SS injectisome, contributes to the induction of a deficiency in phagocytosis in host macrophages and a reduction in their antigen-presenting capacity. A Y. pestis strain lacking yscW had no effect on uptake by host macrophages. In mice infected with wild-type Y. pestis, the yscW mutant or a complement strain, immunodeficiency was observed in host macrophages compared with those from uninfected mice. However, the phagocytosis and antigen presenting capacities of macrophages infected by yscW mutant strain both in vivo and in vitro were significantly higher than those by wild type strain. Consistent with this finding, when YscW was expressed in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, phagocytosis and antigen-presenting capacities were significantly lower than those of the control groups. These results indicate that Y. pestis YscW may directly induce immunodeficiency in murine macrophages by crippling their phagocytosis and antigen-presenting capacities. These data provide evidences to Y. pestis pathogenesis that some proteins in T3SS injectisome, such as YscW protein, might play independent roles in disrupting host defense apart from their known functions.

  16. Comparative efficacies of candidate antibiotics against Yersinia pestis in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Arnold; Vanscoy, Brian; Liu, Weiguo; Kulawy, Robert; Brown, David; Heine, Henry S; Drusano, George L

    2011-06-01

    Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague, is a potential agent of bioterrorism. Streptomycin is the "gold standard" for the treatment of plague infections in humans, but the drug is not available in many countries, and resistance to this antibiotic occurs naturally and has been generated in the laboratory. Other antibiotics have been shown to be active against Y. pestis in vitro and in vivo. However, the relative efficacies of clinically prescribed regimens of these antibiotics with streptomycin and with each other for the killing of Yersinia pestis are unknown. The efficacies of simulated pharmacokinetic profiles for human 10-day clinical regimens of ampicillin, meropenem, moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin were compared with the gold standard, streptomycin, for killing of Yersinia pestis in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model. Resistance amplification with therapy was also assessed. Streptomycin killed the microbe in one trial but failed due to resistance amplification in the second trial. In two trials, the other antibiotics consistently reduced the bacterial densities within the pharmacodynamic systems from 10⁸ CFU/ml to undetectable levels (pestis and deserve further evaluation.

  17. Free-Living Species of Carnivorous Mammals in Poland: Red Fox, Beech Marten, and Raccoon as a Potential Reservoir of Salmonella, Yersinia, Listeria spp. and Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Nowakiewicz

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine a population of free-living carnivorous mammals most commonly found in Poland (red fox, beech marten, and raccoon for the occurrence of bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for humans and other animal species and to determine their virulence potential (the presence of selected virulence genes. From the total pool of isolates obtained (n = 328, we selected 90 belonging to species that pose the greatest potential threat to human health: Salmonella spp. (n = 19; 4.51%, Yersinia enterocolitica (n = 10; 2.37%, Listeria monocytogenes and L. ivanovii (n = 21, and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 40; 9.5%. The Salmonella spp. isolates represented three different subspecies; S. enterica subsp. enterica accounted for a significant proportion (15/19, and most of the serotypes isolated (S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis, S. Newport and S. Enteritidis were among the 10 non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes that are most often responsible for infections in Europe, including Poland. Y. enterococlitica was detected in the smallest percentage of animals, but 60% of strains among the isolates tested possessed the ail gene, which is responsible for attachment and invasion. Potentially pathogenic Listeria species were isolated from approx. 5% of the animals. The presence of all tested virulence genes was shown in 35% of L. monocytogenes strains, while in the case of the other strains, the genes occurred in varying numbers and configurations. The presence of the inlA, inlC, hlyA, and iap genes was noted in all strains, whereas the genes encoding PI-PLC, actin, and internalin Imo2821 were present in varying percentages (from 80% to 55%. S. aureus was obtained from 40 individuals. Most isolates possessed the hla, hld (95% for each, and hlb (32.5% genes encoding hemolysins as well as the gene encoding leukotoxin lukED (70%. In a similar percentage of strains (77.5%, the presence of at least one gene encoding enterotoxin was found, with 12

  18. Free-Living Species of Carnivorous Mammals in Poland: Red Fox, Beech Marten, and Raccoon as a Potential Reservoir of Salmonella, Yersinia, Listeria spp. and Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Zięba, Przemysław; Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Gnat, Sebastian; Muszyńska, Marta; Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Majer Dziedzic, Barbara; Ulbrych, Łukasz; Trościańczyk, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine a population of free-living carnivorous mammals most commonly found in Poland (red fox, beech marten, and raccoon) for the occurrence of bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for humans and other animal species and to determine their virulence potential (the presence of selected virulence genes). From the total pool of isolates obtained (n = 328), we selected 90 belonging to species that pose the greatest potential threat to human health: Salmonella spp. (n = 19; 4.51%), Yersinia enterocolitica (n = 10; 2.37%), Listeria monocytogenes and L. ivanovii (n = 21), and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 40; 9.5%). The Salmonella spp. isolates represented three different subspecies; S. enterica subsp. enterica accounted for a significant proportion (15/19), and most of the serotypes isolated (S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis, S. Newport and S. Enteritidis) were among the 10 non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes that are most often responsible for infections in Europe, including Poland. Y. enterococlitica was detected in the smallest percentage of animals, but 60% of strains among the isolates tested possessed the ail gene, which is responsible for attachment and invasion. Potentially pathogenic Listeria species were isolated from approx. 5% of the animals. The presence of all tested virulence genes was shown in 35% of L. monocytogenes strains, while in the case of the other strains, the genes occurred in varying numbers and configurations. The presence of the inlA, inlC, hlyA, and iap genes was noted in all strains, whereas the genes encoding PI-PLC, actin, and internalin Imo2821 were present in varying percentages (from 80% to 55%). S. aureus was obtained from 40 individuals. Most isolates possessed the hla, hld (95% for each), and hlb (32.5%) genes encoding hemolysins as well as the gene encoding leukotoxin lukED (70%). In a similar percentage of strains (77.5%), the presence of at least one gene encoding enterotoxin was found, with 12

  19. [Antimicrobial susceptibility and drug-resistance genes of Yersinia spp. of retailed poultry in 4 provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z X; Zou, M Y; Xu, J; Guan, W Y; Li, Y; Liu, D R; Zhang, S S; Hao, Q; Yan, S F; Wang, W; Yu, D M; Li, F Q

    2018-04-06

    Objective: To monitor the antimicrobial resistance and drug-resistance genes of Yersinia enterocolitis , Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii recovered from retailed fresh poultry of 4 provinces of China. Methods: The susceptibility of 25 isolated Yersinia spp. to 14 classes and 25 kinds of antibiotics was determined by broth microdilution method according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute). The antibiotic resistance genes were predicted with antibiotic resistance genes database (ARDB) using whole genome sequences of Yersinia spp. Results: In all 22 Y. enterocolitis tested, 63.7% (14 isolates), 22.8% (5 isolates), 4.6% and 4.6% of 1 isolates exhibited the resistance to cefoxitin, ampicillin-sulbactam, nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, respectively. All the 25 isolates were multi-drug resistant to more than 3 antibiotics, while 64.0% of isolates were resistant to more than 4 antibiotics. A few Y. enterocolitis isolates of this study were intermediate to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. Most Yersinia spp. isolates contained antibiotic resistance genes mdtG, ksgA, bacA, blaA, rosAB and acrB , and 5 isolates recovered from fresh chicken also contained dfrA 1, catB 2 and ant 3 ia . Conclusion: The multi-drug resistant Yersinia spp. isolated from retailed fresh poultry is very serious in the 4 provinces of China, and their contained many kinds of drug-resistance genes.

  20. Effect of serotonin on the expression of antigens and DNA levels in Yersinia pestis cells with different plasmid content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueva, Svetlana N.; Korsukov, Vladimir N.; Schukovskaya, Tatyana N.; Kravtsov, Alexander L.

    2004-08-01

    Using flow cytometry (FCM) the influence of exogenous serotonin on culture growth, DNA content and fluorescence intensity of cells binding FITC-labelled plague polyclonal immunoglobulins was studied in Yersinia pestis EV (pFra+, pCad+, pPst+), Yersinia pestis KM218 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst-), Yersinia pestis KM 216 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst+). The results have been obtained by FCM showed serotonin accelerated Yersinia pestis EV (pFra+, pCad+, pPst+), Yersinia pestis KM218 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst-) culture growth during cultivation in Hottinger broth pH 7.2 at 28°C at concentration of 10-5 M. The presence of 10-5 M serotonin in nutrient broth could modulate DNA content in 37°C growing population of plague microbe independently of their plasmid content. Serotonin have been an impact on the distribution pattern of the cells according to their phenotypical characteristics, which was reflected in the levels of population heterogeneity in the intensity of specific immunofluorescence determined by FMC.

  1. Yersinia philomiragia sp. n., a new member of the Pasteurella group of bacteria, naturally pathogenic for the muskrat (Ondatra zibethica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, W.I.; Owen, C.R.; Jellison, W.L.

    1969-01-01

    A bacterium experimentally pathogenic for muskrats (Ondatra zibethica), white mice, mountain voles (Microtus montanus), and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was isolated from the tissues of a sick muskrat captured on the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge (Brigham City, Utah) and from four surface water samples collected within 15 miles of that point. In culture, the cells are chiefly coccoid, but in the tissues of muskrats and voles they resemble the bizarre forms of Yersinia pestis, except for their smaller size. The characteristics of the organism are described and the name Yersinia philomiragia sp. n. is proposed.

  2. Yersinia pestis Targets the Host Endosome Recycling Pathway during the Biogenesis of the Yersinia-Containing Vacuole To Avoid Killing by Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Michael G.; Pulsifer, Amanda R.; Ceresa, Brian K.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Yersinia pestis has evolved many strategies to evade the innate immune system. One of these strategies is the ability to survive within macrophages. Upon phagocytosis, Y. pestis prevents phagolysosome maturation and establishes a modified compartment termed the Yersinia-containing vacuole (YCV). Y. pestis actively inhibits the acidification of this compartment, and eventually, the YCV transitions from a tight-fitting vacuole into a spacious replicative vacuole. The mechanisms to generate the YCV have not been defined. However, we hypothesized that YCV biogenesis requires Y. pestis interactions with specific host factors to subvert normal vesicular trafficking. In order to identify these factors, we performed a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen to identify host factors required for Y. pestis survival in macrophages. This screen revealed that 71 host proteins are required for intracellular survival of Y. pestis. Of particular interest was the enrichment for genes involved in endosome recycling. Moreover, we demonstrated that Y. pestis actively recruits Rab4a and Rab11b to the YCV in a type three secretion system-independent manner, indicating remodeling of the YCV by Y. pestis to resemble a recycling endosome. While recruitment of Rab4a was necessary to inhibit YCV acidification and lysosomal fusion early during infection, Rab11b appeared to contribute to later stages of YCV biogenesis. We also discovered that Y. pestis disrupts global host endocytic recycling in macrophages, possibly through sequestration of Rab11b, and this process is required for bacterial replication. These data provide the first evidence that Y. pestis targets the host endocytic recycling pathway to avoid phagolysosomal maturation and generate the YCV. PMID:29463656

  3. Genome-scale reconstruction of the metabolic network in Yersinia pestis, strain 91001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navid, A; Almaas, E

    2009-01-13

    The gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis, the aetiological agent of bubonic plague, is one the deadliest pathogens known to man. Despite its historical reputation, plague is a modern disease which annually afflicts thousands of people. Public safety considerations greatly limit clinical experimentation on this organism and thus development of theoretical tools to analyze the capabilities of this pathogen is of utmost importance. Here, we report the first genome-scale metabolic model of Yersinia pestis biovar Mediaevalis based both on its recently annotated genome, and physiological and biochemical data from literature. Our model demonstrates excellent agreement with Y. pestis known metabolic needs and capabilities. Since Y. pestis is a meiotrophic organism, we have developed CryptFind, a systematic approach to identify all candidate cryptic genes responsible for known and theoretical meiotrophic phenomena. In addition to uncovering every known cryptic gene for Y. pestis, our analysis of the rhamnose fermentation pathway suggests that betB is the responsible cryptic gene. Despite all of our medical advances, we still do not have a vaccine for bubonic plague. Recent discoveries of antibiotic resistant strains of Yersinia pestis coupled with the threat of plague being used as a bioterrorism weapon compel us to develop new tools for studying the physiology of this deadly pathogen. Using our theoretical model, we can study the cell's phenotypic behavior under different circumstances and identify metabolic weaknesses which may be harnessed for the development of therapeutics. Additionally, the automatic identification of cryptic genes expands the usage of genomic data for pharmaceutical purposes.

  4. An encapsulated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a highly efficient vaccine against pneumonic plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Derbise

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plague is still a public health problem in the world and is re-emerging, but no efficient vaccine is available. We previously reported that oral inoculation of a live attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the recent ancestor of Yersinia pestis, provided protection against bubonic plague. However, the strain poorly protected against pneumonic plague, the most deadly and contagious form of the disease, and was not genetically defined. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sequenced Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 has been irreversibly attenuated by deletion of genes encoding three essential virulence factors. An encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis was generated by cloning the Y. pestis F1-encoding caf operon and expressing it in the attenuated strain. The new V674pF1 strain produced the F1 capsule in vitro and in vivo. Oral inoculation of V674pF1 allowed the colonization of the gut without lesions to Peyer's patches and the spleen. Vaccination induced both humoral and cellular components of immunity, at the systemic (IgG and Th1 cells and the mucosal levels (IgA and Th17 cells. A single oral dose conferred 100% protection against a lethal pneumonic plague challenge (33×LD(50 of the fully virulent Y. pestis CO92 strain and 94% against a high challenge dose (3,300×LD(50. Both F1 and other Yersinia antigens were recognized and V674pF1 efficiently protected against a F1-negative Y. pestis. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis V674pF1 is an efficient live oral vaccine against pneumonic plague, and could be developed for mass vaccination in tropical endemic areas to control pneumonic plague transmission and mortality.

  5. Antigenic profiling of Yersinia pestis infection in the Wyoming coyote (Canis latrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernati, G.; Edwards, W.H.; Rocke, T.E.; Little, S.F.; Andrews, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Although Yersinia pestis is classified as a "high-virulence" pathogen, some host species are variably susceptible to disease. Coyotes (Canis latrans) exhibit mild, if any, symptoms during infection, but antibody production occurs postinfection. This immune response has been reported to be against the F1 capsule, although little subsequent characterization has been conducted. To further define the nature of coyote humoral immunity to plague, qualitative serology was conducted to assess the antiplague antibody repertoire. Humoral responses to six plasmid-encoded Y. pestis virulence factors were first examined. Of 20 individual immune coyotes, 90% were reactive to at least one other antigen in the panel other than F1. The frequency of reactivity to low calcium response plasmid (pLcr)-encoded Yersinia protein kinase A (YpkA) and Yersinia outer protein D (YopD) was significantly greater than that previously observed in a murine model for plague. Additionally, both V antigen and plasminogen activator were reactive with over half of the serum samples tested. Reactivity to F1 was markedly less frequent in coyotes (35%). Twenty previously tested antibody-negative samples were also examined. While the majority were negative across the panel, 15% were positive for 1-3 non-F1 antigens. In vivo-induced antigen technology employed to identify novel chromosomal genes of Y. pestis that are up-regulated during infection resulted in the identification of five proteins, including a flagellar component (FliP) that was uniquely reactive with the coyote serum compared with immune serum from two other host species. Collectively, these data suggest that humoral immunity to pLcr-encoded antigens and the pesticin plasmid (pPst)-encoded Pla antigen may be relevant to plague resistance in coyotes. The serologic profile of Y. pestis chromosomal antigens up-regulated in vivo specific to C. latrans may provide insight into the differences in the pathogen-host responses during Y. pestis infection.

  6. Manipulation of host membranes by the bacterial pathogens Listeria, Francisella, Shigella and Yersinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Charbit, Alain; Enninga, Jost; Lafont, Frank; Cossart, Pascale

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens display an impressive arsenal of molecular mechanisms that allow survival in diverse host niches. Subversion of plasma membrane and cytoskeletal functions are common themes associated to infection by both extracellular and intracellular pathogens. Moreover, intracellular pathogens modify the structure/stability of their membrane-bound compartments and escape degradation from phagocytic or autophagic pathways. Here, we review the manipulation of host membranes by Listeria monocytogenes, Francisella tularensis, Shigella flexneri and Yersinia spp. These four bacterial model pathogens exemplify generalized strategies as well as specific features observed during bacterial infection processes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Caracterização genética de cepas de Yersinia pestis

    OpenAIRE

    BARROS, Maria Paloma Silva de

    2012-01-01

    A peste é uma doença que permanece enraizada em inúmeros focos naturais por todo o mundo. Embora o Brasil passe por um período de silenciamento epidemiológico, anticorpos antipestosos são detectados nas atividades de vigilância, sugerindo que estes focos permanecem ativos. A Yersinia pestis, agente causador da peste, apresenta uma história evolutiva recente e é considerada uma espécie, geneticamente, muito homogênea. Diante da necessidade de estudos mais aprofundados sobre a...

  8. Prophylactic effect of levamisole on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss against Yersinia ruckeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unal Ispir

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alteration in the relative percentage of survival (RPS rate of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to 5, 10 and 25µg ml-1 levamisole for 2 h against Yersinia ruckeri was investigated. The average weight of the 120 fish used in this study was 6.3g. Upon challenge with a virulent strain, the relative survival percentage of respectively 83.3%, 86.7% and 76.6% was recorded. The results suggest that the application of levamisole in fish farms could increase resistance to infection of fish and offer economic benefits.

  9. Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Yersinia antibodies and pregnancy outcome in Danish women with occupational exposure to animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantsø, Bjørn; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Mølbak, Kåre

    2014-01-01

    to occupational exposure to animals in women exposed to food producing animals. METHODS: We used data and blood samples from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Serum samples collected during the first trimester from 192 pregnant women who were occupationally exposed to domestic animals and 188 randomly selected...... unexposed pregnant women were analysed for IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies against Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Yersinia. Pregnancy outcomes of interest were identified through the Danish National Patient Register. RESULTS: Women with occupational exposure to animals had significantly higher IgG antibody...

  10. Genome-scale reconstruction of the metabolic network in Yersinia pestis CO92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navid, Ali; Almaas, Eivind

    2007-03-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of bubonic plague. Using publicly available genomic, biochemical and physiological data, we have developed a constraint-based flux balance model of metabolism in the CO92 strain (biovar Orientalis) of this organism. The metabolic reactions were appropriately compartmentalized, and the model accounts for the exchange of metabolites, as well as the import of nutrients and export of waste products. We have characterized the metabolic capabilities and phenotypes of this organism, after comparing the model predictions with available experimental observations to evaluate accuracy and completeness. We have also begun preliminary studies into how cellular metabolism affects virulence.

  11. MarA-like regulator of multidrug resistance in Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Rupa A; Levy, Stuart B

    2006-09-01

    MarA47(Yp) from Yersinia pestis, showing 47% identity to Escherichia coli MarA in its N terminus, caused resistance to antibiotics and to organic solvents when expressed in both E. coli and Y. pestis. Resistance was linked to increased expression of the AcrAB multidrug efflux pump. In four of five spontaneous multidrug-resistant mutants of Y. pestis independently selected by growth on tetracycline, the marA47(Yp) gene was overexpressed. The findings suggest that marA47(Yp) is a marA ortholog in Y. pestis.

  12. A comprehensive study on the role of the Yersinia pestis virulence markers in an animal model of pneumonic plague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaman, W.E.; Hawkey, S.; Kleij, D. van der; Broekhuijsen, M.P.; Silman, N.J.; Bikker, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    We determined the role of Yersinia pestis virulence markers in an animal model of pneumonic plague. Eleven strains of Y. pestis were characterized using PCR assays to detect the presence of known virulence genes both encoded by the three plasmids as well as chromosomal markers. The virulence of all

  13. A comprehensive study on the role of the Yersinia pestis virulence markers in an animal model of pneumonic plague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaman, W.E.; Hawkey, S.; van der Kleij, D.; Broekhuijsen, M.P.; Silman, N.J.; Bikker, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the Gram-negative bacterial agent of plague, is a zoonotic pathogen that primarily infects wild rodents and is transmitted by fleas. Y. pestis is one of the most invasive and virulent bacterial pathogens and has caused devastating pandemics, including the Black Death of 14th century

  14. A comprehensive study on the role of the Yersinia pestis virulence markers in an animal model of pneumonic plague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.E. Kaman (Wendy); S. Hawkey; D. van der Kleij (Desiree); M.P. Broekhuijsen; N.J. Silman; F.J. Bikker (Floris)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe determined the role of Yersinia pestis virulence markers in an animal model of pneumonic plague. Eleven strains of Y. pestis were characterized using PCR assays to detect the presence of known virulence genes both encoded by the three plasmids as well as chromosomal markers. The

  15. Growth of a plasmid-bearing (pYV) Yersinia pestis KIM5 in retail raw ground pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yersinia pestis can cause oro-pharyngeal plague as a result of consumption or handling of meat from infected animals. Thus, food naturally or intentionally contaminated can have a role in the dissemination of human plague. The growth of a conditionally virulent plasmid (pYV)-bearing rifampicin-res...

  16. Preliminary validation of real-time PCR assays for the identification of Yersinia pestis (Authors' personal document)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaso, H.; Jacobs, D.; Eickhoff, M.; Scholz, H.C.; Dahouk, S.al; Kattar, M.M.; Reischl, U.; Plicka, H.; Strand Olsen, J.; Nikkari, S.; Matero, P.; Beuret, C.; Ciammaruconi, A.; Lista, F.; Gala, J.-L.; Broll, H.; Appel, B.; Sellek Cano, R.E.; Ybarra de Villavicencio, M.d.C.; Broekhuijsen, M.P.; Indra, A.; Petersen, R.; Neubauer, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) is a zoonotic bacterium mainly circulating among rodents and their fleas. Transmission to humans can cause bubonic, pneumonic or septicemic plague with a high case-fatality rate. Therefore, rapid and reliable diagnostic tools are crucial. The objective of this

  17. A procedure for maintenance of the virulence plasmid (pYV) in Yersinia pestis under culture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pathogenicity of Yersinia pestis depends on the presence of a virulence plasmid (pYV). The unstable nature of pYV in Y. pestis leads to the eventual outgrowth of pYV less cells due to its higher growth rate. Thus, it was necessary to develop procedures to monitor the presence of the plasmid du...

  18. A procedure for monitoring the presence of the virulence plasmid (pYV) in Yersinia pestis under culture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pathogenicity of Yersinia pestis depends on the presence of a virulence plasmid (pYV). The unstable nature of pYV in Y. pestis leads to the eventual outgrowth of pYV less cells due its higher growth rate. Thus, it was necessary to develop procedures to monitor the presence of the plasmid durin...

  19. Effect of fat in ground beef on the growth and virulence plasmid (pYV) stability in Yersinia pestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of the behavior of Yersinia pestis in food may be useful in the event Y. pestis is used in a bioterrorism attack on the food supply. However, there are no reports on the growth of plasmid-bearing (pYV) virulent Y. pestis in food. The growth of a conditionally virulent pYV-bearing Yersini...

  20. Oil adjuvant elevates protection of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus my-kiss) following injection vaccination against Yersinia ruckeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, Rzgar M.; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Enteric redmouth disease (ERM) caused by the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri is a major threat to freshwater production of rainbow trout throughout all life stages. Injection vaccination of rainbow trout against Y. ruckeri infection has been shown to confer better protection compared to the tradit...

  1. MICROBIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF YERSINIA AS THE BASIS OF SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVELLANCE OF YERSINIOSIS IN ORGANIZED GROUРS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Panin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Practical decision of infectology problem depends on the correct assessment of the main concepts of epidemiology and microbiology. The feasibility of attracting the attention of specialists in related disciplines to the problem of microbiological monitoring is discussed. In connection with the capabilities of highly sensitive molecular methods and mathematical modeling on the example of microbiological monitoring of Yersinia was made attempt to analyse mod- ern opportunities of bacteriology and to enter a predictive component as an important element of purposeful activity into monitoring definition. Yersiniosis are one of the most urgent infectious diseases. A variety of biological properties of Yersinia, their various epidemiological importance (Yersinia spp. enter into I, III and the IV groups of virulence, group incidence of Yersiniosis in the organized groups, mobility of genes of a virulence and change of pathogenic properties of Yersinia from strain to strain cause need of carrying out microbiological monitoring with a predictive component in new social and biological conditions. 

  2. Kinetic analysis of Yersinia pestis DNA adenine methyltransferase activity using a hemimethylated molecular break light oligonucleotide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Wood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA adenine methylation plays an important role in several critical bacterial processes including mismatch repair, the timing of DNA replication and the transcriptional control of gene expression. The dependence of bacterial virulence on DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam has led to the proposal that selective Dam inhibitors might function as broad spectrum antibiotics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein we report the expression and purification of Yersinia pestis Dam and the development of a continuous fluorescence based assay for DNA adenine methyltransferase activity that is suitable for determining the kinetic parameters of the enzyme and for high throughput screening against potential Dam inhibitors. The assay utilised a hemimethylated break light oligonucleotide substrate containing a GATC methylation site. When this substrate was fully methylated by Dam, it became a substrate for the restriction enzyme DpnI, resulting in separation of fluorophore (fluorescein and quencher (dabcyl and therefore an increase in fluorescence. The assays were monitored in real time using a fluorescence microplate reader in 96 well format and were used for the kinetic characterisation of Yersinia pestis Dam, its substrates and the known Dam inhibitor, S-adenosylhomocysteine. The assay has been validated for high throughput screening, giving a Z-factor of 0.71+/-0.07 indicating that it is a sensitive assay for the identification of inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The assay is therefore suitable for high throughput screening for inhibitors of DNA adenine methyltransferases and the kinetic characterisation of the inhibition.

  3. Retracing the evolutionary path that led to flea-borne transmission of Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi-Cheng; Jarrett, Clayton O; Bosio, Christopher F; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2014-05-14

    Yersinia pestis is an arthropod-borne bacterial pathogen that evolved recently from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, an enteric pathogen transmitted via the fecal-oral route. This radical ecological transition can be attributed to a few discrete genetic changes from a still-extant recent ancestor, thus providing a tractable case study in pathogen evolution and emergence. Here, we determined the genetic and mechanistic basis of the evolutionary adaptation of Y. pestis to flea-borne transmission. Remarkably, only four minor changes in the bacterial progenitor, representing one gene gain and three gene losses, enabled transmission by flea vectors. All three loss-of-function mutations enhanced cyclic-di-GMP-mediated bacterial biofilm formation in the flea foregut, which greatly increased transmissibility. Our results suggest a step-wise evolutionary model in which Y. pestis emerged as a flea-borne clone, with each genetic change incrementally reinforcing the transmission cycle. The model conforms well to the ecological theory of adaptive radiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Yersinia pestis Requires Host Rab1b for Survival in Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Connor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the disease known as plague. During infection of macrophages Y. pestis actively evades the normal phagosomal maturation pathway to establish a replicative niche within the cell. However, the mechanisms used by Y. pestis to subvert killing by the macrophage are unknown. Host Rab GTPases are central mediators of vesicular trafficking and are commonly targeted by bacterial pathogens to alter phagosome maturation and killing by macrophages. Here we demonstrate for the first time that host Rab1b is required for Y. pestis to effectively evade killing by macrophages. We also show that Rab1b is specifically recruited to the Yersinia containing vacuole (YCV and that Y. pestis is unable to subvert YCV acidification when Rab1b expression is knocked down in macrophages. Furthermore, Rab1b knockdown also altered the frequency of association between the YCV with the lysosomal marker Lamp1, suggesting that Rab1b recruitment to the YCV directly inhibits phagosome maturation. Finally, we show that Rab1b knockdown also impacts the pH of the Legionella pneumophila containing vacuole, another pathogen that recruits Rab1b to its vacuole. Together these data identify a novel role for Rab1b in the subversion of phagosome maturation by intracellular pathogens and suggest that recruitment of Rab1b to the pathogen containing vacuole may be a conserved mechanism to control vacuole pH.

  5. [Susceptibility to azithromycin and other antibiotics in recent isolates of Salmonella, Shigella and Yersinia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pozo, Angeles; Arana, David M; Fuentes, Miriam; Alós, Juan-Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Azithromycin represents an alternative option to treat bacterial diarrhea when the antibiotic therapy is indicated. Little is known regarding the susceptibility to azithromycin in enteropathogens in Spain. The MICs of azithromycin were determined by E-test against Salmonella non-typhi (SNT), Shigella and Yersinia isolates collected over the last three years (2010-2012). In addition, the susceptibility to other antibiotics usually used to treat gastrointestinal diseases was determined in these isolates by using a microdilution method. A total of 139 strains of SNT, Shigella and Yersinia were studied. All of them, except one strain, had a MIC≤16mg/L of azithromycin. In the adult population, 14.7% and 40.6% of SNT and Shigella isolates, respectively, were resistant to at least 2 of following antibiotics: amoxicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin. In the pediatric population, 10% of SNT clinical isolates and 28.6% (2/7) of Shigella isolates were resistant to amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In our experience, azithromycin would be a useful antibiotic alternative to treat bacterial diarrhea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. Misidentification of Yersinia pestis by automated systems, resulting in delayed diagnoses of human plague infections--Oregon and New Mexico, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourdjman, Mathieu; Ibraheem, Mam; Brett, Meghan; Debess, Emilio; Progulske, Barbara; Ettestad, Paul; McGivern, Teresa; Petersen, Jeannine; Mead, Paul

    2012-10-01

    One human plague case was reported in Oregon in September 2010 and another in New Mexico in May 2011. Misidentification of Yersinia pestis by automated identification systems contributed to delayed diagnoses for both cases.

  7. Application of the flow cytometry for determination of the amount of DNA in Yersinia pestis cells under the influence of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsukov, Vladimir N.; Shchukovskaya, Tatyana N.; Kravtsov, Alexander L.; Popov, Youri A.

    2002-07-01

    Using flow cytometry a low DNA content in inoculated Yersinia pestis EV cells have been shown at the beginning of culture in Hottinger broth pH 7.2. The dependence serotonin action of its concentration on DNA content have been demonstrated. Serotonin accelerated Yersinia pestis culture growth during cultivation in Hottinger broth pH 7.2 both at 28 degrees C and 37 degrees C at concentration of 10-5 M.

  8. Early host cell targets of Yersinia pestis during primary pneumonic plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D Pechous

    Full Text Available Inhalation of Yersinia pestis causes primary pneumonic plague, a highly lethal syndrome with mortality rates approaching 100%. Pneumonic plague progression is biphasic, with an initial pre-inflammatory phase facilitating bacterial growth in the absence of host inflammation, followed by a pro-inflammatory phase marked by extensive neutrophil influx, an inflammatory cytokine storm, and severe tissue destruction. Using a FRET-based probe to quantitate injection of effector proteins by the Y. pestis type III secretion system, we show that these bacteria target alveolar macrophages early during infection of mice, followed by a switch in host cell preference to neutrophils. We also demonstrate that neutrophil influx is unable to limit bacterial growth in the lung and is ultimately responsible for the severe inflammation during the lethal pro-inflammatory phase.

  9. Seroprevalence of hantavirus and Yersinia pestis antibodies in professionals from the Plague Control Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika de Cassia Vieira da Costa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Professionals who handle rodents in the field and in the laboratory are at risk of infection by the microorganisms harbored by these animals. Methods Serum samples from professionals involved in rodent and Yersinia pestis handling in field or laboratory work were analyzed to determine hantavirus and plague seroprevalence and to establish a relationship between these activities and reports of illnesses. Results Two individuals had antibodies against hantavirus, and two harbored antibodies against the plague; none of the individuals had experienced an illness related to their duties. Conclusions These results confirm the risks of hantavirus- and plague-related field and laboratory activities and the importance of protective measures for such work.

  10. Further development of raccoon poxvirus-vectored vaccines against plague (Yersinia pestis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Iams, Keith P.; Dawe, S.; Smith, Susan; Williamson, Judy L.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2009-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated protection against plague in mice and prairie dogs using a raccoon pox (RCN) virus-vectored vaccine that expressed the F1 capsular antigen of Yersinia pestis. In order to improve vaccine efficacy, we have now constructed additional RCN-plague vaccines containing two different forms of the lcrV (V) gene, including full-length (Vfull) and a truncated form (V307). Mouse challenge studies with Y. pestis strain CO92 showed that vaccination with a combination of RCN-F1 and the truncated V construct (RCN-V307) provided the greatest improvement (P = 0.01) in protection against plague over vaccination with RCN-F1 alone. This effect was mediated primarily by anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies and both contributed independently to increased survival of vaccinated mice.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of acyl-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing regulation in Yersinia pestis [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N LaRock

    Full Text Available The etiologic agent of bubonic plague, Yersinia pestis, senses self-produced, secreted chemical signals in a process named quorum sensing. Though the closely related enteric pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis uses quorum sensing system to regulate motility, the role of quorum sensing in Y. pestis has been unclear. In this study we performed transcriptional profiling experiments to identify Y. pestis quorum sensing regulated functions. Our analysis revealed that acyl-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing controls the expression of several metabolic functions. Maltose fermentation and the glyoxylate bypass are induced by acyl-homoserine lactone signaling. This effect was observed at 30°C, indicating a potential role for quorum sensing regulation of metabolism at temperatures below the normal mammalian temperature. It is proposed that utilization of alternative carbon sources may enhance growth and/or survival during prolonged periods in natural habitats with limited nutrient sources, contributing to maintenance of plague in nature.

  12. Differences in the stability of the plasmids of Yersinia pestis cultures in vitro: impact on virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TC Leal-Balbino

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Plasmid and chromosomal genes encode determinants of virulence for Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. However, in vitro, Y. pestis genome is very plastic and several changes have been described. To evaluate the alterations in the plasmid content of the cultures in vitro and the impact of the alterations to their pathogenicity, three Y. pestis isolates were submitted to serial subculture, analysis of the plasmid content, and testing for the presence of characteristic genes in each plasmid of colonies selected after subculture. Different results were obtained with each strain. The plasmid content of one of them was shown to be stable; no apparent alteration was produced through 32 subcultures. In the other two strains, several alterations were observed. LD50 in mice of the parental strains and the derived cultures with different plasmid content were compared. No changes in the virulence plasmid content could be specifically correlated with changes in the LD50.

  13. Growth inhibition of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinelt, Thomas; Phan, T.; Behrens, S.

    2015-01-01

    contribute to sustainable aquaculture. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of 6 commercial PAA products with different molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios to reduce bacterial growth of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri and to determine effective concentrations and exposure times. All...... products reduced colony-forming units (CFUs) of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri. Products with higher molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios inhibited growth better than products with lower molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios at the same PAA concentration; this indicates that H2O2 is not the driving force in the reduction of A....... salmonicida and Y. ruckeri growth by PAA in vitro. The practical application of the products with high molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios should be prioritized if these pathogens are diagnosed...

  14. Pathogenicity of a strain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolated from a pig with porcine colitis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, N A; Lysons, R J

    1994-07-16

    A strain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (NCTC 12718), isolated from a seven-week-old pig suffering from an ulcerative typhlocolitis, was inoculated orally into 16 growing pigs in two separate experiments. At necropsy 10 days later, typhlocolitis was present in nine of the pigs, and it was accompanied by diarrhoea in four cases. In both the original case and in the experimental pigs, the typhlocolitis was characterised by microabscesses of the lamina propria, frequently involving ulceration or erosion of the surface epithelium. The organism was of serotype IIa, which has not been isolated previously from pigs in the United Kingdom. Y pseudotuberculosis may be the aetiological agent responsible in some cases of porcine colitis syndrome.

  15. Effects of adjuvant Montanide™ ISA 763 A VG in rainbow trout injection vaccinated against Yersinia ruckeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, Rzgar M; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Enteric redmouth disease (ERM) caused by the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri is a major threat to freshwater production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) throughout all life stages. Injection vaccination of rainbow trout against Y. ruckeri infection has been shown to confer better protection...... fish (NonVac), 2) fish injected with a commercial vaccine (AquaVac(®) Relera™) (ComVac), 3) fish injected with an experimental vaccine (ExpVac), 4) fish injected with an experimental vaccine + adjuvant (ExpVacAdj) and 5) fish injected with adjuvant alone (Adj). Injection of the experimental vaccine...... of the adjuvant as the challenge produced 100% mortality in the NonVac group, 60% mortality in both of ComVac and Adj groups and only 13 and 2.5% mortalities in the ExpVac and the ExpVacAdj groups, respectively....

  16. Human anti-plague monoclonal antibodies protect mice from Yersinia pestis in a bubonic plague model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Xiao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is the etiologic agent of plague that has killed more than 200 million people throughout the recorded history of mankind. Antibiotics may provide little immediate relief to patients who have a high bacteremia or to patients infected with an antibiotic resistant strain of plague. Two virulent factors of Y. pestis are the capsid F1 protein and the low-calcium response (Lcr V-protein or V-antigen that have been proven to be the targets for both active and passive immunization. There are mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against the F1- and V-antigens that can passively protect mice in a murine model of plague; however, there are no anti-Yersinia pestis monoclonal antibodies available for prophylactic or therapeutic treatment in humans. We identified one anti-F1-specific human mAb (m252 and two anti-V-specific human mAb (m253, m254 by panning a naïve phage-displayed Fab library against the F1- and V-antigens. The Fabs were converted to IgG1s and their binding and protective activities were evaluated. M252 bound weakly to peptides located at the F1 N-terminus where a protective mouse anti-F1 mAb also binds. M253 bound strongly to a V-antigen peptide indicating a linear epitope; m254 did not bind to any peptide from a panel of 53 peptides suggesting that its epitope may be conformational. M252 showed better protection than m253 and m254 against a Y, pestis challenge in a plague mouse model. A synergistic effect was observed when the three antibodies were combined. Incomplete to complete protection was achieved when m252 was given at different times post-challenge. These antibodies can be further studied to determine their potential as therapeutics or prophylactics in Y. pestis infection in humans.

  17. Yersinia pestis intracellular parasitism of macrophages from hosts exhibiting high and low severity of plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Ponnusamy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis causes severe disease in natural rodent hosts, but mild to inapparent disease in certain rodent predators such as dogs. Y. pestis initiates infection in susceptible hosts by parasitizing and multiplying intracellularly in local macrophages prior to systemic dissemination. Thus, we hypothesize that Y. pestis disease severity may depend on the degree to which intracellular Y. pestis overcomes the initial host macrophage imposed stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this hypothesis, the progression of in vitro infection by Y. pestis KIM62053.1+ of mouse splenic and RAW264.7 tissue culture macrophages and dog peripheral blood-derived and DH82 tissue culture macrophages was studied using microscopy and various parameters of infection. The study showed that during the early stage of infection, intracellular Y. pestis assumed filamentous cellular morphology with multiple copies of the genome per bacterium in both mouse and dog macrophages. Later, in mouse macrophages, the infection elicited spacious vacuolar extension of Yersinia containing vacuoles (YCV, and the filamentous Y. pestis reverted to coccobacillary morphology with genomic equivalents approximately equaling colony forming units. In contrast, Y. pestis infected dog macrophages did not show noticeable extension of YCV, and intracellular Y. pestis retained the filamentous cellular morphology for the entire experiment in DH82 cells or were killed by blood-derived macrophages. In addition, during the later stage of infection, Y. pestis infected mouse macrophages exhibited cell lysis whereas dog macrophages did not. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, these results support our hypothesis that Y. pestis in mouse macrophages can overcome the initial intracellular stress necessary for subsequent systemic infection. However, in dogs, failure of Y. pestis to overcome macrophage imposed stress may result in mild or in apparent disease in dogs.

  18. The Effects of Low-Shear Mechanical Stress on Yersinia pestis Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Abidat; Jejelowo, Olufisayo A.; Rosenzweig, Jason A.

    2010-11-01

    Manned space exploration has created a need to evaluate the effects of spacelike stress on pathogenic and opportunistic microbes astronauts could carry with them to the International Space Station and beyond. Yersinia pestis (YP) causes bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague and is capable of killing infected patients within 3-7 days. In this study, low-shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG), a spacelike stress, was used to physically stress YP; and its effects on proliferation, cold growth, and type III secretion system (T3SS) function were evaluated. YP was grown to saturation in either LSMMG or normal gravity (NG) conditions prior to being used for RAW 246.7 cell infections, HeLa cell infections, and Yop secretion assays. A mutant strain of YP (ΔyopB) that lacks the ability to inject Yersinia outer membrane proteins (Yops) into the host cell was used as a negative control in cell infection experiments. Our experimental results indicate that YP cultivated under LSMMG resulted in reduced YopM production and secretion compared to its NG-grown counterpart. Similarly, NG-grown YP induced more cell rounding in HeLa cells than did the LSMMG-grown YP, which suggests that LSMMG somehow impairs T3SS optimum function. Also, LSMMG-grown YP used to infect cultured RAW 246.7 cells showed a similar pattern of dysfunction in that it proliferated less than did its NG-grown counterpart during an 8-hour infection period. This study suggests that LSMMG can attenuate bacterial virulence contrary to previously published data that have demonstrated LSMMG-induced hypervirulence of other Gram-negative enterics.

  19. Defective innate cell response and lymph node infiltration specify Yersinia pestis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinet, Françoise; Avé, Patrick; Jones, Louis; Huerre, Michel; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2008-02-27

    Since its recent emergence from the enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Y. pestis, the plague agent, has acquired an intradermal (id) route of entry and an extreme virulence. To identify pathophysiological events associated with the Y. pestis high degree of pathogenicity, we compared disease progression and evolution in mice after id inoculation of the two Yersinia species. Mortality studies showed that the id portal was not in itself sufficient to provide Y. pseudotuberculosis with the high virulence power of its descendant. Surprisingly, Y. pseudotuberculosis multiplied even more efficiently than Y. pestis in the dermis, and generated comparable histological lesions. Likewise, Y. pseudotuberculosis translocated to the draining lymph node (DLN) and similar numbers of the two bacterial species were found at 24 h post infection (pi) in this organ. However, on day 2 pi, bacterial loads were higher in Y. pestis-infected than in Y. pseudotuberculosis-infected DLNs. Clustering and multiple correspondence analyses showed that the DLN pathologies induced by the two species were statistically significantly different and identified the most discriminating elementary lesions. Y. pseudotuberculosis infection was accompanied by abscess-type polymorphonuclear cell infiltrates containing the infection, while Y. pestis-infected DLNs exhibited an altered tissue density and a vascular congestion, and were typified by an invasion of the tissue by free floating bacteria. Therefore, Y. pestis exceptional virulence is not due to its recently acquired portal of entry into the host, but is associated with a distinct ability to massively infiltrate the DLN, without inducing in this organ an organized polymorphonuclear cell reaction. These results shed light on pathophysiological processes that draw the line between a virulent and a hypervirulent pathogen.

  20. Effects of host cell sterol composition upon internalization of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and clustered β1 integrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JiHyun; Fukuto, Hana S; Brown, Deborah A; Bliska, James B; London, Erwin

    2018-01-26

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes acute gastrointestinal illness, but its mechanisms of infection are incompletely described. We examined how host cell sterol composition affected Y. pseudotuberculosis uptake. To do this, we depleted or substituted cholesterol in human MDA-MB-231 epithelial cells with various alternative sterols. Decreasing host cell cholesterol significantly reduced pathogen internalization. When host cell cholesterol was substituted with various sterols, only desmosterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol supported internalization. This specificity was not due to sterol dependence of bacterial attachment to host cells, which was similar with all sterols studied. Because a key step in Y. pseudotuberculosis internalization is interaction of the bacterial adhesins invasin and YadA with host cell β1 integrin, we compared the sterol dependence of wildtype Y. pseudotuberculosis internalization with that of Δ inv , Δ yadA , and Δ inv Δ yadA mutant strains. YadA deletion decreased bacterial adherence to host cells, whereas invasin deletion had no effect. Nevertheless, host cell sterol substitution had a similar effect on internalization of these bacterial deletion strains as on the wildtype bacteria. The Δ inv Δ yadA double mutant adhered least to cells and so was not significantly internalized. The sterol structure dependence of Y. pseudotuberculosis internalization differed from that of endocytosis, as monitored using antibody-clustered β1 integrin and previous studies on other proteins, which had a more permissive sterol dependence. This study suggests that agents could be designed to interfere with internalization of Yersinia without disturbing endocytosis. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Yersinia outer protein YopE affects the actin cytoskeleton in Dictyostelium discoideum through targeting of multiple Rho family GTPases

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vlahou, Georgia

    2009-07-14

    Abstract Background All human pathogenic Yersinia species share a virulence-associated type III secretion system that translocates Yersinia effector proteins into host cells to counteract infection-induced signaling responses and prevent phagocytosis. Dictyostelium discoideum has been recently used to study the effects of bacterial virulence factors produced by internalized pathogens. In this study we explored the potential of Dictyostelium as model organism for analyzing the effects of ectopically expressed Yersinia outer proteins (Yops). Results The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis virulence factors YopE, YopH, YopM and YopJ were expressed de novo within Dictyostelium and their effects on growth in axenic medium and on bacterial lawns were analyzed. No severe effect was observed for YopH, YopJ and YopM, but expression of YopE, which is a GTPase activating protein for Rho GTPases, was found to be highly detrimental. GFP-tagged YopE expressing cells had less conspicuous cortical actin accumulation and decreased amounts of F-actin. The actin polymerization response upon cAMP stimulation was impaired, although chemotaxis was unaffected. YopE also caused reduced uptake of yeast particles. These alterations are probably due to impaired Rac1 activation. We also found that YopE predominantly associates with intracellular membranes including the Golgi apparatus and inhibits the function of moderately overexpressed RacH. Conclusion The phenotype elicited by YopE in Dictyostelium can be explained, at least in part, by inactivation of one or more Rho family GTPases. It further demonstrates that the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum can be used as an efficient and easy-to-handle model organism in order to analyze the function of a translocated GAP protein of a human pathogen.

  2. Antigen Uptake during Different Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Using a GFP-Tagged Yersinia ruckeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korbut, Rozalia; Mehrdana, Foojan; Kania, Per Walter

    2016-01-01

    Immersion-vaccines (bacterins) are routinely used for aquacultured rainbow trout to protect against Yersinia ruckeri (Yr). During immersion vaccination, rainbow trout take up and process the antigens, which induce protection. The zebrafish was used as a model organism to study uptake mechanisms...... the gut was consistently a major uptake site. Zebrafish and rainbow trout tend to have similar uptake mechanisms following immersion or bath vaccination, which points towards zebrafish as a suitable model organism for this aquacultured species....

  3. Hijacking of the pleiotropic cytokine interferon-γ by the type III secretion system of Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Gendrin

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague, employs its type III secretion system to inject toxins into target cells, a crucial step in infection establishment. LcrV is an essential component of the T3SS of Yersinia spp, and is able to associate at the tip of the secretion needle and take part in the translocation of anti-host effector proteins into the eukaryotic cell cytoplasm. Upon cell contact, LcrV is also released into the surrounding medium where it has been shown to block the normal inflammatory response, although details of this mechanism have remained elusive. In this work, we reveal a key aspect of the immunomodulatory function of LcrV by showing that it interacts directly and with nanomolar affinity with the inflammatory cytokine IFNγ. In addition, we generate specific IFNγ mutants that show decreased interaction capabilities towards LcrV, enabling us to map the interaction region to two basic C-terminal clusters of IFNγ. Lastly, we show that the LcrV-IFNγ interaction can be disrupted by a number of inhibitors, some of which display nanomolar affinity. This study thus not only identifies novel potential inhibitors that could be developed for the control of Yersinia-induced infection, but also highlights the diversity of the strategies used by Y. pestis to evade the immune system, with the hijacking of pleiotropic cytokines being a long-range mechanism that potentially plays a key role in the severity of plague.

  4. Silencing urease: a key evolutionary step that facilitated the adaptation of Yersinia pestis to the flea-borne transmission route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouikha, Iman; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2014-12-30

    The arthropod-borne transmission route of Yersinia pestis, the bacterial agent of plague, is a recent evolutionary adaptation. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the closely related food-and water-borne enteric species from which Y. pestis diverged less than 6,400 y ago, exhibits significant oral toxicity to the flea vectors of plague, whereas Y. pestis does not. In this study, we identify the Yersinia urease enzyme as the responsible oral toxin. All Y. pestis strains, including those phylogenetically closest to the Y. pseudotuberculosis progenitor, contain a mutated ureD allele that eliminated urease activity. Restoration of a functional ureD was sufficient to make Y. pestis orally toxic to fleas. Conversely, deletion of the urease operon in Y. pseudotuberculosis rendered it nontoxic. Enzymatic activity was required for toxicity. Because urease-related mortality eliminates 30-40% of infective flea vectors, ureD mutation early in the evolution of Y. pestis was likely subject to strong positive selection because it significantly increased transmission potential.

  5. Silencing urease: A key evolutionary step that facilitated the adaptation of Yersinia pestis to the flea-borne transmission route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouikha, Iman; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The arthropod-borne transmission route of Yersinia pestis, the bacterial agent of plague, is a recent evolutionary adaptation. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the closely related food-and water-borne enteric species from which Y. pestis diverged less than 6,400 y ago, exhibits significant oral toxicity to the flea vectors of plague, whereas Y. pestis does not. In this study, we identify the Yersinia urease enzyme as the responsible oral toxin. All Y. pestis strains, including those phylogenetically closest to the Y. pseudotuberculosis progenitor, contain a mutated ureD allele that eliminated urease activity. Restoration of a functional ureD was sufficient to make Y. pestis orally toxic to fleas. Conversely, deletion of the urease operon in Y. pseudotuberculosis rendered it nontoxic. Enzymatic activity was required for toxicity. Because urease-related mortality eliminates 30–40% of infective flea vectors, ureD mutation early in the evolution of Y. pestis was likely subject to strong positive selection because it significantly increased transmission potential. PMID:25453069

  6. CHAPTER ONE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    sugar/electrolyte powder to treat every episode of diarrhoea in all young ... isolates using the modified agar disc and agar well-diffusion methods. ..... detection of virulence genes in Yersinia enterocolitica and ... to pasteurized milk. Journal of ...

  7. Isolation and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Shigella and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... species, Vibrio cholera, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Aeromonas species), enteroparasites (Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium species and Entamoeba histolytica), and viruses (adenovirus, Norwalk virus, and rotavirus) (5). Among the bacterial causative agents,. Salmonella and Shigella remain the major.

  8. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Vibrio cholerae. CDC V 12 El Tor, Vibrio cholerae INDRE 206, Vibrio cholerae (clinical case), Enterobacter aerogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli ATCC 53218, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterobacter cloacae.

  9. Glutathionylation of Yersinia pestis LcrV and Its Effects on Plague Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Anthony; Tam, Christina; Elli, Derek; Charlton, Thomas; Osei-Owusu, Patrick; Fazlollahi, Farbod; Faull, Kym F; Schneewind, Olaf

    2017-05-16

    Glutathionylation, the formation of reversible mixed disulfides between glutathione and protein cysteine residues, is a posttranslational modification previously observed for intracellular proteins of bacteria. Here we show that Yersinia pestis LcrV, a secreted protein capping the type III secretion machine, is glutathionylated at Cys 273 and that this modification promotes association with host ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), moderates Y. pestis type III effector transport and killing of macrophages, and enhances bubonic plague pathogenesis in mice and rats. Secreted LcrV was purified and analyzed by mass spectrometry to reveal glutathionylation, a modification that is abolished by the codon substitution Cys 273 Ala in lcrV Moreover, the lcrV C273A mutation enhanced the survival of animals in models of bubonic plague. Investigating the molecular mechanism responsible for these virulence attributes, we identified macrophage RPS3 as a ligand of LcrV, an association that is perturbed by the Cys 273 Ala substitution. Furthermore, macrophages infected by the lcrV C273A variant displayed accelerated apoptotic death and diminished proinflammatory cytokine release. Deletion of gshB , which encodes glutathione synthetase of Y. pestis , resulted in undetectable levels of intracellular glutathione, and we used a Y. pestis Δ gshB mutant to characterize the biochemical pathway of LcrV glutathionylation, establishing that LcrV is modified after its transport to the type III needle via disulfide bond formation with extracellular oxidized glutathione. IMPORTANCE Yersinia pestis , the causative agent of plague, has killed large segments of the human population; however, the molecular bases for the extraordinary virulence attributes of this pathogen are not well understood. We show here that LcrV, the cap protein of bacterial type III secretion needles, is modified by host glutathione and that this modification contributes to the high virulence of Y. pestis in mouse and rat

  10. Yersinia pestis subverts the dermal neutrophil response in a mouse model of bubonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Jeffrey G; Hasenkrug, Aaron M; Dorward, David W; Nair, Vinod; Carmody, Aaron B; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2013-08-27

    The majority of human Yersinia pestis infections result from introduction of bacteria into the skin by the bite of an infected flea. Once in the dermis, Y. pestis can evade the host's innate immune response and subsequently disseminate to the draining lymph node (dLN). There, the pathogen replicates to large numbers, causing the pathognomonic bubo of bubonic plague. In this study, several cytometric and microscopic techniques were used to characterize the early host response to intradermal (i.d.) Y. pestis infection. Mice were infected i.d. with fully virulent or attenuated strains of dsRed-expressing Y. pestis, and tissues were analyzed by flow cytometry. By 4 h postinfection, there were large numbers of neutrophils in the infected dermis and the majority of cell-associated bacteria were associated with neutrophils. We observed a significant effect of the virulence plasmid (pCD1) on bacterial survival and neutrophil activation in the dermis. Intravital microscopy of i.d. Y. pestis infection revealed dynamic interactions between recruited neutrophils and bacteria. In contrast, very few bacteria interacted with dendritic cells (DCs), indicating that this cell type may not play a major role early in Y. pestis infection. Experiments using neutrophil depletion and a CCR7 knockout mouse suggest that dissemination of Y. pestis from the dermis to the dLN is not dependent on neutrophils or DCs. Taken together, the results of this study show a very rapid, robust neutrophil response to Y. pestis in the dermis and that the virulence plasmid pCD1 is important for the evasion of this response. Yersinia pestis remains a public health concern today because of sporadic plague outbreaks that occur throughout the world and the potential for its illegitimate use as a bioterrorism weapon. Since bubonic plague pathogenesis is initiated by the introduction of Y. pestis into the skin, we sought to characterize the response of the host's innate immune cells to bacteria early after

  11. Detection of Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Fleas (Siphonaptera) from Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leulmi, Hamza; Socolovschi, Cristina; Laudisoit, Anne; Houemenou, Gualbert; Davoust, Bernard; Bitam, Idir; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the presence/absence and prevalence of Rickettsia spp, Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis in domestic and urban flea populations in tropical and subtropical African countries. Fleas collected in Benin, the United Republic of Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo were investigated for the presence and identity of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis using two qPCR systems or qPCR and standard PCR. In Xenopsylla cheopis fleas collected from Cotonou (Benin), Rickettsia typhi was detected in 1% (2/199), and an uncultured Bartonella sp. was detected in 34.7% (69/199). In the Lushoto district (United Republic of Tanzania), R. typhi DNA was detected in 10% (2/20) of Xenopsylla brasiliensis, and Rickettsia felis was detected in 65% (13/20) of Ctenocephalides felis strongylus, 71.4% (5/7) of Ctenocephalides canis and 25% (5/20) of Ctenophthalmus calceatus calceatus. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, R. felis was detected in 56.5% (13/23) of Ct. f. felis from Kinshasa, in 26.3% (10/38) of Ct. f. felis and 9% (1/11) of Leptopsylla aethiopica aethiopica from Ituri district and in 19.2% (5/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 4.7% (1/21) of Echidnophaga gallinacea. Bartonella sp. was also detected in 36.3% (4/11) of L. a. aethiopica. Finally, in Ituri, Y. pestis DNA was detected in 3.8% (1/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 10% (3/30) of Pulex irritans from the villages of Wanyale and Zaa. Most flea-borne infections are neglected diseases which should be monitored systematically in domestic rural and urban human populations to assess their epidemiological and clinical relevance. Finally, the presence of Y. pestis DNA in fleas captured in households was unexpected and raises a series of questions regarding the role of free fleas in the transmission of plague in rural Africa, especially in remote areas where the flea density in houses is high.

  12. Environmental drivers of Yersinia pestis - a holistic perspective on Medieval Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buentgen, U.

    2009-09-01

    Recent studies have indicated some evidence for a link between climate variability and plague (Yersinia pestis) dynamics in Central Asia and during most of the 20th century. An intensification of plague outbreaks via population peaks in its host-species, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) and its fleas (Xenopsylla spp) has been found to occur during periods of warmer spring and wetter summer climate. This is important, as human epidemics of plague ultimately originate in its wildlife reservoirs. Given the fact that Medieval Europe was strongly devastated by the Black Death - the second pandemic after the Justinian plague ~540AD, and that the worldwide highest quality and quantity of climate proxy data exist for Europe, we here present, for the first time, a holistic approach to enhance understanding of the mid-14th century Black Death. This is of primary importance not only for medical/epidemiological research, but also for other scientific communities, because the Black Death disease had a sustainable impact on the socio-economic development, culture, art, and religion of Medieval Europe. Palaeoclimatic records of annually resolved European temperature and drought variability are compiled, a high-resolution time-series of anthropogenic deforestation is utilized, documentary archives of socio-economic relevance are considered, and the animal-born plague bacterium is placed in the ecological web. Considering the European/North Atlantic sector and the last millennium, periods of high solar radiation and reduced volcanic activity shift the North Atlantic Oscillation into a generally positive mode, yielding towards warmer temperatures and an intensification of the hydrological cycle. We now argue that increased internal circulation resulted in an overall wetter and warmer climate ~1350AD, which most likely was able to promote the prevalence of existing and widespread Yersinia pestis bacillus. Resulting outbreaks of bubonic plague could have been also supported by the

  13. Behavior of Yersinian enteriocolitica in foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yersinia enterocolitica, a zoonotic pathogen that causes yersiniosis in humans and animals, is discussed. The prevalence in foods and infection of this pathogen to humans and animals was investigated, and most of the biochemical tests used to biogroup Y. enterocolitica stated. In this study, the pos...

  14. Modulation of innate immune responses by Yersinia type III secretion system translocators and effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliska, James B; Wang, Xiaoying; Viboud, Gloria I; Brodsky, Igor E

    2013-10-01

    The innate immune system of mammals responds to microbial infection through detection of conserved molecular determinants called 'pathogen-associated molecular patterns' (PAMPs). Pathogens use virulence factors to counteract PAMP-directed responses. The innate immune system can in turn recognize signals generated by virulence factors, allowing for a heightened response to dangerous pathogens. Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens encode type III secretion systems (T3SSs) that translocate effector proteins, subvert PAMP-directed responses and are critical for infection. A plasmid-encoded T3SS in the human-pathogenic Yersinia species translocates seven effectors into infected host cells. Delivery of effectors by the T3SS requires plasma membrane insertion of two translocators, which are thought to form a channel called a translocon. Studies of the Yersinia T3SS have provided key advances in our understanding of how innate immune responses are generated by perturbations in plasma membrane and other signals that result from translocon insertion. Additionally, studies in this system revealed that effectors function to inhibit innateimmune responses resulting from insertion of translocons into plasma membrane. Here, we review these advances with the goal of providing insight into how a T3SS can activate and inhibit innate immune responses, allowing a virulent pathogen to bypass host defences. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Inactivation of avirulent Yersinia pestis on food and food contact surfaces by ultraviolet light and freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Christopher H; Sheen, Shiowshuh

    2015-09-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, can occasionally be contracted as a naso-pharyngeal or gastrointestinal illness through consumption of contaminated meat. In this study, the use of 254 nm ultraviolet light (UV-C) to inactivate a multi-isolate cocktail of avirulent Y. pestis on food and food contact surfaces was investigated. When a commercial UV-C conveyor was used (5 mW/cm(2)/s) 0.5 J/cm(2) inactivated >7 log of the Y. pestis cocktail on agar plates. At 0.5 J/cm(2), UV-C inactivated ca. 4 log of Y. pestis in beef, chicken, and catfish, exudates inoculated onto high density polypropylene or polyethylene, and stainless steel coupons, and >6 log was eliminated at 1 J/cm(2). Approximately 1 log was inactivated on chicken breast, beef steak, and catfish fillet surfaces at a UV-C dose of 1 J/cm(2). UV-C treatment prior to freezing of the foods did not increase the inactivation of Y. pestis over freezing alone. These results indicate that routine use of UV-C during food processing would provide workers and consumers some protection against Y. pestis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Resistance to Innate Immunity Contributes to Colonization of the Insect Gut by Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun C Earl

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic and pneumonic plague, is typically a zoonotic vector-borne disease of wild rodents. Bacterial biofilm formation in the proventriculus of the flea contributes to chronic infection of fleas and facilitates efficient disease transmission. However prior to biofilm formation, ingested bacteria must survive within the flea midgut, and yet little is known about vector-pathogen interactions that are required for flea gut colonization. Here we establish a Drosophila melanogaster model system to gain insight into Y. pestis colonization of the insect vector. We show that Y. pestis establishes a stable infection in the anterior midgut of fly larvae, and we used this model system to study the roles of genes involved in biofilm production and/or resistance to gut immunity stressors. We find that PhoP and GmhA both contribute to colonization and resistance to antimicrobial peptides in flies, and furthermore, the data suggest biofilm formation may afford protection against antimicrobial peptides. Production of reactive oxygen species in the fly gut, as in fleas, also serves to limit bacterial infection, and OxyR mediates Y. pestis survival in both insect models. Overall, our data establish the fruit fly as an informative model to elucidate the relationship between Y. pestis and its flea vector.

  17. Crystallization of the acyl-CoA thioesterase TesB from Yersinia pestis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swarbrick, Crystall M. D.; Patterson, Edward I.; Forwood, Jade K.

    2013-01-01

    The expression, purification, crystallization and diffraction of the acyl-CoA thioesterase TesB from Y. pestis are reported. X-ray crystallographic diffraction data to 2.0 Å resolution were collected at the Australian Synchrotron. Yersinia pestis is a highly virulent human pathogen and is the causative agent of bubonic plague. Spread through the bite of infected fleas, plague epidemics have marked important events in history, including the Justinian plague (6th century), the Black Death (14th century) which decimated nearly one quarter of the European population, and more recently the Orientalis plague (1894). To date, deaths are still being reported and, without treatment, the disease kills most people within 4 days. One of the thioesterases from Y. pestis, TesB, is a broad-range acyl-CoA thioesterase and is highly conserved within prokaryotes and throughout evolution, sharing sequence similarity with the HIV Nef binding protein ACOT8. Here the expression, purification, crystallization and diffraction of TesB are reported. TesB has been recombinantly expressed and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion hanging-drop technique at pH 7.0 and 290 K. After optimization, crystals diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution at the Australian Synchrotron and belong to the space group P12 1 1 (a = 73.55, b = 170.82, c = 101.98 Å), with eight molecules likely to be present in the asymmetric unit

  18. Detections of Yersinia pestis East of the Known Distribution of Active Plague in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mize, Erica L; Britten, Hugh B

    2016-02-01

    We examined fleas collected from black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) burrows from 2009 through 2011 in five national park units east of the known distribution of active plague across the northern Great Plains for the presence of Yersinia pestis. Across all national park units, Oropsylla tuberculata and Oropsylla hirsuta were the most common fleas collected from prairie dog burrows, 42.4% and 56.9%, respectively, of the 3964 fleas collected from burrow swabbing. Using a nested PCR assay, we detected 200 Y. pestis-positive fleas from 3117 assays. In total, 6.4% of assayed fleas were Y. pestis positive and 13.9% of prairie dog burrows swabbed contained Y. pestis-positive fleas. Evidence of the presence of Y. pestis was observed at all national park units except Devils Tower National Monument in Wyoming. We detected the presence of Y. pestis without large die-offs, i.e., enzootic sylvatic plague, east of the known distribution of active plague and near the eastern edge of the present distribution of black-tailed prairie dogs. This study, in combination with previous work suggests that sylvatic plague likely occurs across the range of black-tailed prairie dogs and should now be treated as endemic across this range.

  19. Diverse Genotypes of Yersinia pestis Caused Plague in Madagascar in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehm, Julia M; Projahn, Michaela; Vogler, Amy J; Rajerison, Minoaerisoa; Andersen, Genevieve; Hall, Carina M; Zimmermann, Thomas; Soanandrasana, Rahelinirina; Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Nottingham, Roxanne; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Scholz, Holger C

    2015-06-01

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of human plague and is endemic in various African, Asian and American countries. In Madagascar, the disease represents a significant public health problem with hundreds of human cases a year. Unfortunately, poor infrastructure makes outbreak investigations challenging. DNA was extracted directly from 93 clinical samples from patients with a clinical diagnosis of plague in Madagascar in 2007. The extracted DNAs were then genotyped using three molecular genotyping methods, including, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing, multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) analysis. These methods provided increasing resolution, respectively. The results of these analyses revealed that, in 2007, ten molecular groups, two newly described here and eight previously identified, were responsible for causing human plague in geographically distinct areas of Madagascar. Plague in Madagascar is caused by numerous distinct types of Y. pestis. Genotyping method choice should be based upon the discriminatory power needed, expense, and available data for any desired comparisons. We conclude that genotyping should be a standard tool used in epidemiological investigations of plague outbreaks.

  20. A High-Coverage Yersinia pestis Genome from a Sixth-Century Justinianic Plague Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Michal; Harbeck, Michaela; Keller, Marcel; Spyrou, Maria A; Rott, Andreas; Trautmann, Bernd; Scholz, Holger C; Päffgen, Bernd; Peters, Joris; McCormick, Michael; Bos, Kirsten; Herbig, Alexander; Krause, Johannes

    2016-11-01

    The Justinianic Plague, which started in the sixth century and lasted to the mid eighth century, is thought to be the first of three historically documented plague pandemics causing massive casualties. Historical accounts and molecular data suggest the bacterium Yersinia pestis as its etiological agent. Here we present a new high-coverage (17.9-fold) Y. pestis genome obtained from a sixth-century skeleton recovered from a southern German burial site close to Munich. The reconstructed genome enabled the detection of 30 unique substitutions as well as structural differences that have not been previously described. We report indels affecting a lacl family transcription regulator gene as well as nonsynonymous substitutions in the nrdE, fadJ, and pcp genes, that have been suggested as plague virulence determinants or have been shown to be upregulated in different models of plague infection. In addition, we identify 19 false positive substitutions in a previously published lower-coverage Y. pestis genome from another archaeological site of the same time period and geographical region that is otherwise genetically identical to the high-coverage genome sequence reported here, suggesting low-genetic diversity of the plague during the sixth century in rural southern Germany. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. The complete genome sequence and proteomics of Yersinia pestis phage Yep-phi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangna; Wu, Weili; Qi, Zhizhen; Cui, Yujun; Yan, Yanfeng; Guo, Zhaobiao; Wang, Zuyun; Wang, Hu; Deng, Haijun; Xue, Yan; Chen, Weijun; Wang, Xiaoyi; Yang, Ruifu

    2011-01-01

    Yep-phi, a lytic phage of Yersinia pestis, was isolated in China and is routinely used as a diagnostic phage for the identification of the plague pathogen. Yep-phi has an isometric hexagonal head containing dsDNA and a short non-contractile conical tail. In this study, we sequenced the Yep-phi genome (GenBank accession no. HQ333270) and performed proteomics analysis. The genome consists of 38 ,616 bp of DNA, including direct terminal repeats of 222 bp, and is predicted to contain 45 ORFs. Most structural proteins were identified by proteomics analysis. Compared with the three available genome sequences of lytic phages for Y. pestis, the phages could be divided into two subgroups. Yep-phi displays marked homology to the bacteriophages Berlin (GenBank accession no. AM183667) and Yepe2 (GenBank accession no. EU734170), and these comprise one subgroup. The other subgroup is represented by bacteriophage ΦA1122 (GenBank accession no. AY247822). Potential recombination was detected among the Yep-phi subgroup.

  2. [First case of lung abscess due to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshinori; Sasabe, Jun; Maeda, Hikaru; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Yuda, Hisamichi; Yoshida, Masamichi; Taguchi, Osamu

    2014-07-01

    A 63-year-old previously healthy man was admitted to our hospital with diarrhea that had lasted for about 4 weeks, high fever and dyspnea. Chest computed tomography showed consolidation with a low-density area in the right middle lobe and small nodules with feeding vessels in the right upper lobe. On Day 8, a cavity was observed in the consolidation, and the lymph nodes in the mediastinum became necrotic. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (serotype 4b) was cultured from blood, bronchial washing fluid, and lung tissue specimens. We diagnosed the lung lesions as septic pulmonary embolism caused by enterocolitis. We started treatment with tazobactam/piperacillin. It has been reported that high-dose ceftriaxone (CTRX) is effective, but CTRX at normal doses and other beta-lactams are less effective or even ineffective. Therefore, we changed to CTRX (4g/day) on Day 5, CTRX (2g/day) on Day 8, and oral cefditoren pivoxil (600 mg/day; a third-generation cephalosporin) on Day 18. Antibiotic therapy resulted in a favorable response. The patient was discharged from our hospital on day 25 in good health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a lung abscess caused by Y. pseudotuberculosis reported in Japan.

  3. Potential wildlife sources of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis for farmed deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, C G; Henderson, T

    1984-12-01

    During 1982 and 1983 15 serotype I, 6 serotype II, 1 serotype III and 3 untyped strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were isolated from 675 apparently normal small mammals and birds from the Invermay farm and nearby rubbish tip with the following prevalence rates: feral cats 27.8%, Norway rats 8.6%, mice 5.5%, hares 3.8% rabbits 1.9% ducks 5.3%, sparrows 2.3%, seagulls 2.3% and starlings 1.7%. For rabbits a significantly higher prevalence of infection was found in the autumn/winter period (4.8%) than the spring/summer period (0%). Insufficient numbers of other mammals were obtained to demonstrate any seasonal difference in prevalence. All bird isolations were obtained between March and July (8/158) compared with none from August to October (0/144). It appears that a number of free-living species of small mammal and birds may be reservoir hosts for Y. pseudotuberculosis and potential sources of infection for red deer on the Invermay farm.

  4. The human-bacterial pathogen protein interaction networks of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Dyer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis are bacterial pathogens that can cause anthrax, lethal acute pneumonic disease, and bubonic plague, respectively, and are listed as NIAID Category A priority pathogens for possible use as biological weapons. However, the interactions between human proteins and proteins in these bacteria remain poorly characterized leading to an incomplete understanding of their pathogenesis and mechanisms of immune evasion.In this study, we used a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid assay to identify physical interactions between human proteins and proteins from each of these three pathogens. From more than 250,000 screens performed, we identified 3,073 human-B. anthracis, 1,383 human-F. tularensis, and 4,059 human-Y. pestis protein-protein interactions including interactions involving 304 B. anthracis, 52 F. tularensis, and 330 Y. pestis proteins that are uncharacterized. Computational analysis revealed that pathogen proteins preferentially interact with human proteins that are hubs and bottlenecks in the human PPI network. In addition, we computed modules of human-pathogen PPIs that are conserved amongst the three networks. Functionally, such conserved modules reveal commonalities between how the different pathogens interact with crucial host pathways involved in inflammation and immunity.These data constitute the first extensive protein interaction networks constructed for bacterial pathogens and their human hosts. This study provides novel insights into host-pathogen interactions.

  5. Glutathionylation of Yersinia pestis LcrV and Its Effects on Plague Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Mitchell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Glutathionylation, the formation of reversible mixed disulfides between glutathione and protein cysteine residues, is a posttranslational modification previously observed for intracellular proteins of bacteria. Here we show that Yersinia pestis LcrV, a secreted protein capping the type III secretion machine, is glutathionylated at Cys273 and that this modification promotes association with host ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3, moderates Y. pestis type III effector transport and killing of macrophages, and enhances bubonic plague pathogenesis in mice and rats. Secreted LcrV was purified and analyzed by mass spectrometry to reveal glutathionylation, a modification that is abolished by the codon substitution Cys273Ala in lcrV. Moreover, the lcrVC273A mutation enhanced the survival of animals in models of bubonic plague. Investigating the molecular mechanism responsible for these virulence attributes, we identified macrophage RPS3 as a ligand of LcrV, an association that is perturbed by the Cys273Ala substitution. Furthermore, macrophages infected by the lcrVC273A variant displayed accelerated apoptotic death and diminished proinflammatory cytokine release. Deletion of gshB, which encodes glutathione synthetase of Y. pestis, resulted in undetectable levels of intracellular glutathione, and we used a Y. pestis ΔgshB mutant to characterize the biochemical pathway of LcrV glutathionylation, establishing that LcrV is modified after its transport to the type III needle via disulfide bond formation with extracellular oxidized glutathione.

  6. Growth inhibition of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinelt, Thomas; Phan, Thy-My; Behrens, Sascha; Wienke, Andreas; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Liu, Dibo; Straus, David L

    2015-04-08

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a therapeutic agent used for disinfection in aquaculture, but it must be investigated thoroughly in order to mitigate diseases without harming the fish. Successful disinfectants (like PAA) should not leave dangerous residues in the environment in order to successfully contribute to sustainable aquaculture. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of 6 commercial PAA products with different molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios to reduce bacterial growth of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri and to determine effective concentrations and exposure times. All products reduced colony-forming units (CFUs) of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri. Products with higher molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios inhibited growth better than products with lower molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios at the same PAA concentration; this indicates that H2O2 is not the driving force in the reduction of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri growth by PAA in vitro. The practical application of the products with high molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios should be prioritized if these pathogens are diagnosed.

  7. LcrG secretion is not required for blocking of Yops secretion in Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matson Jyl S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LcrG, a negative regulator of the Yersinia type III secretion apparatus has been shown to be primarily a cytoplasmic protein, but is secreted at least in Y. pestis. LcrG secretion has not been functionally analyzed and the relevance of LcrG secretion on LcrG function is unknown. Results An LcrG-GAL4AD chimera, originally constructed for two-hybrid analyses to analyze LcrG protein interactions, appeared to be not secreted but the LcrG-GAL4AD chimera retained the ability to regulate Yops secretion. This result led to further investigation to determine the significance of LcrG secretion on LcrG function. Additional analyses including deletion and substitution mutations of amino acids 2–6 in the N-terminus of LcrG were constructed to analyze LcrG secretion and LcrG's ability to control secretion. Some changes to the N-terminus of LcrG were found to not affect LcrG's secretion or LcrG's secretion-controlling activity. However, substitution of poly-isoleucine in the N-terminus of LcrG did eliminate LcrG secretion but did not affect LcrG's secretion controlling activity. Conclusion These results indicate that secretion of LcrG, while observable and T3SS mediated, is not relevant for LcrG's ability to control secretion.

  8. Regulation and expression of Lcr plasmid-mediated peptides in pesticinogenic Yersinia pestis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sample, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown in this thesis that cells of Lcr + , Pst - Y. pestis KIM are able to express Yops at levels comparable to that of Lcr + Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Pulse-chase radiolabeling with 35 S-methionine was used to demonstrate that Lcr + , Pst + Y. pestis synthesized at least 11 distinct peptides during the low calcium response and that seven of the labeled peptides were rapidly degraded. These seven peptides were stably expressed in Lcr + , Pst - Y. pestis and were of identical molecular weights as the Yops expressed by that strain. Radiolabeled fragments of low molecular weight accumulated in the extracellular medium of Pst + cultures and were assumed to be stable degradation fragments derived from Yops. It was also shown that the set of stable peptides, including V antigen, were made during restriction by both Pst + and Pst - Y. pestis KIM and were located primarily within the cytoplasm. Those radiolabeled peptides which underwent proteolytic degradation in Pst + Y. pestis were localized to the outer membrane and extracellular medium in the Pst - strain. It is concluded that the failure of Lcr + , Pst + Y. pestis to express Yops is the result of post-translational degradation and is not a block in the synthesis of Yops

  9. HmsC Controls Yersinia pestis Biofilm Formation in Response to Redox Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Xian Ren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis biofilm formation, controlled by intracellular levels of the second messenger molecule cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP, is important for blockage-dependent plague transmission from fleas to mammals. HmsCDE is a tripartite signaling system that modulates intracellular c-di-GMP levels to regulate biofilm formation in Y. pestis. Previously, we found that Y. pestis biofilm formation is stimulated in reducing environments in an hmsCDE-dependent manner. However, the mechanism by which HmsCDE senses the redox state remains elusive. Using a dsbA mutant and the addition of Cu2+ to simulate reducing and oxidizing periplasmic environments, we found that HmsC protein levels are decreased and the HmsC-HmsD protein-protein interaction is weakened in a reducing environment. In addition, we revealed that intraprotein disulphide bonds are critical for HmsC since breakage lowers protein stability and diminishes the interaction with HmsD. Our results suggest that HmsC might play a major role in sensing the environmental changes.

  10. Analysis of temperature-dependent changes in the metabolism of Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navid, Ali; Almaas, Eivind

    2008-03-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the aetiological agent of bubonic plague, a zoonotic infection that occurs through the bite of a flea. It has long been known that Y. pestis has different metabolic needs upon transition from the flea gut environment (26 C) to that of a mammalian host (37 C). To study this and other outstanding questions about metabolic function of Y. pestis, we used the available genomic, biochemical and physiological data to develop a constraint-based flux balance model of metabolism in the avirulent 91001 strain (biovar Mediaevalis) of this organism. Utilizing two sets of whole-genome DNA microarray expression data, we examined the system level changes that occur when Y. pestis acclimatizes to temperature shifts. Our results point to fundamental changes in its oxidative metabolism of sugars and use of amino acids, in particular that of arginine. This behavior is indicative of an inefficient metabolism that could be caused by adaptation to life in a nutrient rich environment.

  11. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor is degraded by Salmonella enterica and Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls Serón, M; Haiko, J; DE Groot, P G; Korhonen, T K; Meijers, J C M

    2010-10-01

     Pathogenic bacteria modulate the host coagulation system to evade immune responses or to facilitate dissemination through extravascular tissues. In particular, the important bacterial pathogens Salmonella enterica and Yersinia pestis intervene with the plasminogen/fibrinolytic system. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) has anti-fibrinolytic properties as the active enzyme (TAFIa) removes C-terminal lysine residues from fibrin, thereby attenuating accelerated plasmin formation.  Here, we demonstrate inactivation and cleavage of TAFI by homologous surface proteases, the omptins Pla of Y. pestis and PgtE of S. enterica. We show that omptin-expressing bacteria decrease TAFI activatability by thrombin-thrombomodulin and that the anti-fibrinolytic potential of TAFIa was reduced by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Pla or PgtE. The functional impairment resulted from C-terminal cleavage of TAFI by the omptins.  Our results indicate that TAFI is degraded directly by the omptins PgtE of S. enterica and Pla of Y. pestis. This may contribute to the ability of PgtE and Pla to damage tissue barriers, such as fibrin, and thereby to enhance spread of S. enterica and Y. pestis during infection. © 2010 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  12. Yersinia pestis detection by loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with magnetic bead capture of DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Feng

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for the detection of Y. pestis by targeting the 3a sequence on chromosome. All 11 species of the genus Yersinia were used to evaluate the specificity of LAMP and PCR, demonstrating that the primers had a high level of specificity. The sensitivity of LAMP or PCR was 2.3 or 23 CFU for pure culture, whereas 2.3 × 104 or 2.3 × 106 CFU for simulated spleen and lung samples. For simulated liver samples, the sensitivity of LAMP was 2.3 × 106 CFU, but PCR was negative at the level of 2.3 × 107 CFU. After simulated spleen and lung samples were treated with magnetic beads, the sensitivity of LAMP or PCR was 2.3 × 103 or 2.3 × 106 CFU, whereas 2.3 × 105 or 2.3 × 107 CFU for magnetic bead-treated liver samples. These results indicated that some components in the tissues could inhibit LAMP and PCR, and liver tissue samples had a stronger inhibition to LAMP and PCR than spleen and lung tissue samples. LAMP has a higher sensitivity than PCR, and magnetic bead capture of DNAs could remarkably increase the sensitivity of LAMP. LAMP is a simple, rapid and sensitive assay suitable for application in the field or poverty areas.

  13. A draft genome of Yersinia pestis from victims of the Black Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Kirsten I; Schuenemann, Verena J; Golding, G Brian; Burbano, Hernán A; Waglechner, Nicholas; Coombes, Brian K; McPhee, Joseph B; DeWitte, Sharon N; Meyer, Matthias; Schmedes, Sarah; Wood, James; Earn, David J D; Herring, D Ann; Bauer, Peter; Poinar, Hendrik N; Krause, Johannes

    2011-10-12

    Technological advances in DNA recovery and sequencing have drastically expanded the scope of genetic analyses of ancient specimens to the extent that full genomic investigations are now feasible and are quickly becoming standard. This trend has important implications for infectious disease research because genomic data from ancient microbes may help to elucidate mechanisms of pathogen evolution and adaptation for emerging and re-emerging infections. Here we report a reconstructed ancient genome of Yersinia pestis at 30-fold average coverage from Black Death victims securely dated to episodes of pestilence-associated mortality in London, England, 1348-1350. Genetic architecture and phylogenetic analysis indicate that the ancient organism is ancestral to most extant strains and sits very close to the ancestral node of all Y. pestis commonly associated with human infection. Temporal estimates suggest that the Black Death of 1347-1351 was the main historical event responsible for the introduction and widespread dissemination of the ancestor to all currently circulating Y. pestis strains pathogenic to humans, and further indicates that contemporary Y. pestis epidemics have their origins in the medieval era. Comparisons against modern genomes reveal no unique derived positions in the medieval organism, indicating that the perceived increased virulence of the disease during the Black Death may not have been due to bacterial phenotype. These findings support the notion that factors other than microbial genetics, such as environment, vector dynamics and host susceptibility, should be at the forefront of epidemiological discussions regarding emerging Y. pestis infections.

  14. [Determination of genetic bases of auxotrophy in Yersinia pestis ssp. caucasica strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinokov, G N; Eroshenko, G A; Kukleva, L M; Shavina, N Iu; Krasnov, Ia M; Kutyrev, V V

    2012-04-01

    Based on the results of computer analysis of nucleotide sequences in strains Yersinia pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis recorded in the files of NCBI GenBank database, differences between genes argA, aroG, aroF, thiH, and thiG of strain Pestoides F (subspecies caucasica) were found, compared to other strains of plaque agent and pseudotuberculosis microbe. Using PCR with calculated primers and the method of sequence analysis, the structure of variable regions of these genes was studied in 96 natural Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. It was shown that all examined strains of subspecies caucasica, unlike strains of plague-causing agent of other subspecies and pseudotubercolosis microbe, had identical mutations in genes argA (integration of the insertion sequence IS100), aroG (insertion of ten nucleotides), aroF (inserion of IS100), thiH (insertion of nucleotide T), and thiG (deletion of 13 nucleotides). These mutations are the reason for the absence in strains belonging to this subspecies of the ability to synthesize arginine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and vitamin B1 (thiamine), and cause their auxotrophy for these growth factors.

  15. Vulnerabilities in Yersinia pestis caf operon are unveiled by a Salmonella vector.

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    Cao, Ling; Lim, Timothy; Jun, SangMu; Thornburg, Theresa; Avci, Recep; Yang, Xinghong

    2012-01-01

    During infection, Yersinia pestis uses its F1 capsule to enhance survival and cause virulence to mammalian host. Since F1 is produced in large quantities and secreted into the host tissues, it also serves as a major immune target. To hold this detrimental effect under proper control, Y. pestis expresses the caf operon (encoding the F1 capsule) in a temperature-dependent manner. However, additional properties of the caf operon limit its expression. By overexpressing the caf operon in wild-type Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium under a potent promoter, virulence of Salmonella was greatly attenuated both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, expression of the caf operon under the regulation of its native promoter exhibited negligible impairment of Salmonellae virulence. In-depth investigation revealed all individual genes in the caf operon attenuated Salmonella when overexpressed. The deleterious effects of caf operon and the caf individual genes were further confirmed when they were overexpressed in Y. pestis KIM6+. This study suggests that by using a weak inducible promoter, the detrimental effects of the caf operon are minimally manifested in Y. pestis. Thus, through tight regulation of the caf operon, Y. pestis precisely balances its capsular anti-phagocytic properties with the detrimental effects of caf during interaction with mammalian host.

  16. YpfΦ : a filamentous phage acquired by Yersinia pestis

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    Anne eDerbise

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis, the plague bacillus, has an exceptional pathogenicity for humans. The plague bacillus emerged very recently (≈3,000 years ago from the enteropathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis. Early after its emergence, Y. pestis became infected by a filamentous phage named YpfΦ. During the microevolution of the plague bacillus, the phage remained in the various lineages as an unstable extrachromosomal element. However, in the sub branch that caused the third plague pandemic, YpfΦ integrated itself into the bacterial chromosome to become a stable prophage. The genome of this phage has the same genetic organization as that of other filamentous phages such as the V. cholerae CTXΦ phage, and shares high sequence identity with the CUS-1 filamentous phage of a high-virulence E. coli K1 clone. In addition to genes involved in phage physiology, YpfΦ carries at each extremity of its genome two open reading frames with no predicted functions. This filamentous phage confers some selective properties to Y. pestis during the infectious process, which may explain why it was conserved during Y. pestis microevolution, despite its instability as an extrachromosomal element in most branches.

  17. Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia

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    Hang'ombe Bernard M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.

  18. EVALUATION in vitro OF THE ACTION OF Lactobacillus plantarum WITH PROBIOTIC CHARACTERISTICS ON Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

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    Henry Jurado-Gámez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to check the potential probiotic of Lactobacillus plantarum on one of themost frequent diseases in guinea pig (Cavia porcellus caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, tests were conducted of inhibition and comparisonin front of antibiotics, showing favorable results, the inhibitt othe pathogenic bacterium. It valued by HPLC the possible peptides produced by L. plantarum, characterizing an presence of two peptides. Tests were performed for the selection of lactic bacteria which showed the following profile: catalase-negative, not producer of gas, resistant to bile salts (0, 5%, 1%, 2% and 3%, pH (2,5, 3,5 and 7,6 and temperature of 38 at 45°C. Also determined the characteristics of the kinetics of fermentation, using two mediums, where it is evaluated CFU/ mL, pH, consumption of total sugars (mg/L and production of lactic acid (%; Lactobacillus plantarum reached the exponential phase of growth in the mediums MRS and Pro, at the 12 and 14:24 hours, with values of 7,0x1011 UFC/mL and 5,0x1013 UFC/mL, respectively. A design of blocks was applied at random with two treatments and eleven blocks, the result allowed to determine that it doesn’t exist significant statistical differences (P>0,05 between the proposed means, but if between the hours of evaluation (P <0,05.

  19. Transit through the flea vector induces a pretransmission innate immunity resistance phenotype in Yersinia pestis.

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    Viveka Vadyvaloo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is transmitted to mammals by infected fleas. Y. pestis exhibits a distinct life stage in the flea, where it grows in the form of a cohesive biofilm that promotes transmission. After transmission, the temperature shift to 37 degrees C induces many known virulence factors of Y. pestis that confer resistance to innate immunity. These factors are not produced in the low-temperature environment of the flea, however, suggesting that Y. pestis is vulnerable to the initial encounter with innate immune cells at the flea bite site. In this study, we used whole-genome microarrays to compare the Y. pestis in vivo transcriptome in infective fleas to in vitro transcriptomes in temperature-matched biofilm and planktonic cultures, and to the previously characterized in vivo gene expression profile in the rat bubo. In addition to genes involved in metabolic adaptation to the flea gut and biofilm formation, several genes with known or predicted roles in resistance to innate immunity and pathogenicity in the mammal were upregulated in the flea. Y. pestis from infected fleas were more resistant to phagocytosis by macrophages than in vitro-grown bacteria, in part attributable to a cluster of insecticidal-like toxin genes that were highly expressed only in the flea. Our results suggest that transit through the flea vector induces a phenotype that enhances survival and dissemination of Y. pestis after transmission to the mammalian host.

  20. The Pla Protease of Yersinia pestis Degrades Fas Ligand to Manipulate Host Cell Death and Inflammation

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    Caulfield, Adam J.; Walker, Margaret E.; Gielda, Lindsay M.; Lathem, Wyndham W.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Pneumonic plague is a deadly respiratory disease caused by Yersinia pestis. The bacterial protease Pla contributes to disease progression and manipulation of host immunity, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are largely unknown. Here we show that Pla degrades the apoptotic signaling molecule Fas ligand (FasL) to prevent host cell apoptosis and inflammation. Wild-type Y. pestis, but not a Pla mutant (Δpla), degrades FasL, which results in decreased downstream caspase-3/7 activation and reduced apoptosis. Similarly, lungs of mice challenged with wild-type Y. pestis show reduced levels of FasL and activated caspase-3/7 compared to Δpla infection. Consistent with a role for FasL in regulating immune responses, Δpla infection results in aberrant pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. The loss of FasL or inhibition of caspase activity alters host inflammatory responses and enables enhanced Y. pestis outgrowth in the lungs. Thus, by degrading FasL, Y. pestis manipulates host cell death pathways to facilitate infection. PMID:24721