WorldWideScience

Sample records for yerba mate ilex

  1. Azadirachtin on Oligonychus yothersi in yerba mate Ilex paraguariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Francisco Angeli Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The red mite Oligonychus yothersi is one of the main pests of yerba mate in Brazil The damage this mite causes leads to leaf drop and decreased production. There are no registered acaricides for use in yerba mate; thus, laboratory and field experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of azadirachtin (Azamax(r, 250mL 100L-1 for the control of the red mite in yerba mate. In the laboratory, azadirachtin was applied to yerba mate leaf disks before (residual contact and after (direct contact infestation with 15 newly emerged red mite adult females. The effect of azadirachtin on mite behavior was evaluated in arenas with treated and untreated yerba mate leaves, and the number of mites in both areas was recorded. Ovicidal action was evaluated by applying azadirachtin to eggs and recording egg hatching. In the field, two applications of the product were performed (1L spray liquid plant-1 with a 7-day interval. The numbers of living mites were evaluated at 7, 14 and 21 days following the first application on randomly collected leaves. It was observed 86.6 and 91.4% of mortality following 24h of residual and direct contact, respectively. Repellent (62% of individuals leaving the treated area and ovicidal (98.9% decrease in egg hatching effects were also observed. The mite population in the yerba mate crop field had decreased by 59.6% at 14 days after the first application of azadirachtin. The results show the potential of azadirachtin for the control of O. yothersi in yerba mate in Brazil.

  2. Yerba Mate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high cholesterol who are also taking statin drugs. Obesity. Early research shows that taking yerba mate by mouth might cause weight loss when used in combination with guarana and damiana. Osteoporosis. Drinking a traditional yerba mate tea daily might ...

  3. Effect of potassium fertilization on yield and nutrition of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmar Santin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis is a tree species native to the subtropical regions of South America, and is found in Brazil predominantly in the southern region. Despite the historical importance in this region, so far, studies on crop nutrition to improve yields are scarce. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of potassium rates on K soil availability, and the yield and nutritional status of yerba mate. The experiment was conducted in São Mateus do Sul, State of Paraná, on a Humox soil, where K2O rates of 0, 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 kg ha-1 were tested on 7-year-old plantations. The experiment was harvested 24 months after installation by removing approximately 95 % of the canopy that had sprouted from the previous harvest. The soil was evaluated for K availability in the layers 0-10, 0-20, 10-20, and 20-40 cm. The plant parts leaf fresh matter (LM, twigs (TW, thick branches (BR and commercial yerba mate (COYM, i.e., LM+TW, were analyzed. In addition, the relationship between fresh matter/dry matter (FM/DM and K concentration in LM, AG and BR were evaluated. The fertilization increased K availability in all evaluated soil layers, indicating good mobility of the nutrient even at low rates. Yerba mate responded positively to increasing K2O rates with higher yields of all harvested components. The crop proved K-demanding, with a maximum COYM yield of 28.5 t ha-1, when 72 mg dm-3 K was available in the 0-20 cm layer. Yerba mate in the plant production stage requires soil K availability at medium to high level; in clayey soil with low K availability, a rate of 300 kg ha-1 K2O should be applied at 24 month intervals to obtain high yields. A leaf K concentration of 16.0 g ha-1 is suitable for yerba mate in the growth stage.

  4. Development and evaluation of tablets from spray dried extract of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Roman

    Full Text Available Introduction: yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil A is a South American plant species of Aquifoliaceae family. The presence of methylxanhtines and clorogenic acids was reported in this species. These compounds have antioxidant activity and could be included in tablets, a pharmaceutical form presently unavailable in the market. Objective: to develop tablets containing yerba mate spray dried extract. Methods: the tablets were produced by direct compression with yerba mate dried extract. The dried extract was evaluated for yield, repose angle, compressibility index, residual moisture and caffeine content. The tablets were evaluated in the following parameters: external appearance, weight, hardness, friability, disintegration and caffeine content. Results: the tablets complied with the general pharmacopoeial specifications. Conclusions: this method is effective to produce tablets containing spray dried extract from yerba mate.

  5. Genetic diversity of wild germplasm of "yerba mate" (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascales, Jimena; Bracco, Mariana; Poggio, Lidia; Gottlieb, Alexandra Marina

    2014-12-01

    The "yerba mate" tree, Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., is a crop native to subtropical South America, marketed for the elaboration of the highly popular "mate" beverage. The Uruguayan germplasm occupies the southernmost area of the species distribution range and carries adaptations to environments that considerably differ from the current production area. We characterized the genetic variability of the germplasm from this unexplored area by jointly analyzing individuals from the diversification center (ABP, Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay) with 19 nuclear and 11 plastidic microsatellite markers. For the Uruguayan germplasm, we registered 55 alleles (18 % private), and 80 genotypes (44 % exclusive), whereas 63 alleles (28.6 % private) and 81 genotypes (42 % exclusive) were recorded for individuals from ABP. Only two plastidic haplotypes were detected. Distance-based and multilocus genotype analyses showed that individuals from ABP intermingle and that the Uruguayan germplasm is differentiated in three gene-pools. Significant positive correlations between genetic and geographic distances were detected. Our results concur in that ABP individuals harbor greater genetic variation than those from the tail of the distribution, as to the number of alleles (1.15-fold), He (1.19-fold), Rs (1.39-fold), and the between-group genetic distances (1.16-fold). Also the shape of the genetic landscape interpolation analysis suggests that the genetic variation decays southward towards the Uruguayan territory. We showed that Uruguayan germplasm hosts a combination of nuclear alleles not present in the central region, constituting a valuable breeding resource. Future conservation efforts should concentrate in collecting numerous individuals of "yerba mate" per site to gather the existent variation.

  6. Exploring the genes of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. by NGS and de novo transcriptome assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto J Debat

    Full Text Available Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. is an important subtropical tree crop cultivated on 326,000 ha in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay, with a total yield production of more than 1,000,000 t. Yerba mate presents a strong limitation regarding sequence information. The NCBI GenBank lacks an EST database of yerba mate and depicts only 80 DNA sequences, mostly uncharacterized. In this scenario, in order to elucidate the yerba mate gene landscape by means of NGS, we explored and discovered a vast collection of I. paraguariensis transcripts. Total RNA from I. paraguariensis was sequenced by Illumina HiSeq-2000 obtaining 72,031,388 pair-end 100 bp sequences. High quality reads were de novo assembled into 44,907 transcripts encompassing 40 million bases with an estimated coverage of 180X. Multiple sequence analysis allowed us to predict that yerba mate contains ∼ 32,355 genes and 12,551 gene variants or isoforms. We identified and categorized members of more than 100 metabolic pathways. Overall, we have identified ∼ 1,000 putative transcription factors, genes involved in heat and oxidative stress, pathogen response, as well as disease resistance and hormone response. We have also identified, based in sequence homology searches, novel transcripts related to osmotic, drought, salinity and cold stress, senescence and early flowering. We have also pinpointed several members of the gene silencing pathway, and characterized the silencing effector Argonaute1. We predicted a diverse supply of putative microRNA precursors involved in developmental processes. We present here the first draft of the transcribed genomes of the yerba mate chloroplast and mitochondrion. The putative sequence and predicted structure of the caffeine synthase of yerba mate is presented. Moreover, we provide a collection of over 10,800 SSR accessible to the scientific community interested in yerba mate genetic improvement. This contribution broadly expands the limited knowledge

  7. Exploring the Genes of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.) by NGS and De Novo Transcriptome Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Patricia M.; Bubillo, Rosana E.; Otegui, Mónica B.; Ducasse, Daniel A.; Zapata, Pedro D.; Marti, Dardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.) is an important subtropical tree crop cultivated on 326,000 ha in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay, with a total yield production of more than 1,000,000 t. Yerba mate presents a strong limitation regarding sequence information. The NCBI GenBank lacks an EST database of yerba mate and depicts only 80 DNA sequences, mostly uncharacterized. In this scenario, in order to elucidate the yerba mate gene landscape by means of NGS, we explored and discovered a vast collection of I. paraguariensis transcripts. Total RNA from I. paraguariensis was sequenced by Illumina HiSeq-2000 obtaining 72,031,388 pair-end 100 bp sequences. High quality reads were de novo assembled into 44,907 transcripts encompassing 40 million bases with an estimated coverage of 180X. Multiple sequence analysis allowed us to predict that yerba mate contains ∼32,355 genes and 12,551 gene variants or isoforms. We identified and categorized members of more than 100 metabolic pathways. Overall, we have identified ∼1,000 putative transcription factors, genes involved in heat and oxidative stress, pathogen response, as well as disease resistance and hormone response. We have also identified, based in sequence homology searches, novel transcripts related to osmotic, drought, salinity and cold stress, senescence and early flowering. We have also pinpointed several members of the gene silencing pathway, and characterized the silencing effector Argonaute1. We predicted a diverse supply of putative microRNA precursors involved in developmental processes. We present here the first draft of the transcribed genomes of the yerba mate chloroplast and mitochondrion. The putative sequence and predicted structure of the caffeine synthase of yerba mate is presented. Moreover, we provide a collection of over 10,800 SSR accessible to the scientific community interested in yerba mate genetic improvement. This contribution broadly expands the limited knowledge of yerba mate genes

  8. Primer registro para la flora argentina de Ilex affinis (Aquifoliaceae, sustituto de la "yerba mate" First report for Argentina of Ilex affinis (Aquifoliaceae, a "mate" substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Keller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El hallazgo de Ilex affinis Gardner (Aquifoliaceae en los paredones rocosos y áreas pantanosas del paraje Teyú Cuaré, Misiones, Argentina, permite elevar a siete el número de especies de este género para nuestro país y desplaza al sur el límite austral de dispersión de esta especie. Se describe la especie sobre la base de los ejemplares hallados, y se la ilustra mediante fotografías. Además se presentan consideraciones sobre su distribución, observaciones ecológicas y su relación con la yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil..The finding of Ilex affinis Gardner (Aquifoliaceae in the rocky cliffs and swampy places of Teyú Cuaré, Misiones Province, Argentina, raises to seven the number of species of this genus for our country and moves southward the distribution limits of the species. The species is described on the basis of the specimens collected, and it is illustrated by photographies. Moreover, considerations about distribution, ecology and relationships with maté (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. are given.

  9. Composition and Bioactive Properties of Yerba Mate (llex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.: A Review Composición y Propiedades Bioactivas de la Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.: Una Revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellie P Burris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Yerba Mate is a popular tea beverage produced and consumed in the South American countries of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay, and is processed from the leaves and stems of Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., a perennial shrub from the Aquifoliaceae family. Production occurs in six stages: harvesting older leaves and small stems, roasting by direct fire, drying under hot air, milling to specified size, aging to acquire optimal sensory attributes, and final packaging. While grown and consumed for centuries in South America, its popularity is increasing in the United States because of demand by consumers for healthier, more natural foods, its filling a niche for a different type of tea beverage, and for Yerba Mate's potential health benefits - antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiobesity, anti-diabetic, digestive improvement, stimulant, and cardiovascular properties. Cultivation, production and processing may cause a variation in bioactive compounds biosynthesis and degradation. Recent research has been expanded to its potential use as an antimicrobial, protecting crops and foods against foodborne, human and plant pathogens. Promising results for the use of this botanical in human and animal health has prompted this review. This review focuses on the known chemical composition of Yerba Mate, the effect of cultivation, production and processing may have on composition, along with a specific discussion of those compounds found in Yerba Mate that have antimicrobial properties.Yerba mate es una infusión popular producida y consumida en Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay. Se procesa a partir de hojas y tallos de Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., un arbusto perenne de la familia Aquifoliaceae. El procesamiento ocurre en seis etapas: recolección de hojas maduras y tallos pequenos, tostado por fuego directo, secado por aire caliente, molienda, envejecimiento (dependiendo de los atributos sensoriales requeridos, y embalaje final. Si bien

  10. Anticonvulsant, neuroprotective and behavioral effects of organic and conventional yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Cátia Dos Santos; Scola, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Adriana Dalpicolli; Cesio, Verónica; Laprovitera, Mariajosé; Heinzen, Horacio; Dos Santos, Maitê Telles; Fank, Bruna; de Freitas, Suzana Cesa Vieira; Coitinho, Adriana Simon; Salvador, Mirian

    2013-03-01

    Epilepsy, which is one of the most common neurological disorders, involves the occurrence of spontaneous and recurrent seizures that alter the performance of the brain and affect several sensory and behavioral functions. Oxidative damage has been associated with post-seizure neuronal injury, thereby increasing an individual's susceptibility to the occurrence of neurodegenerative disorders. The present study investigated the possible anticonvulsive and neuroprotective effects of organic and conventional yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a plant rich in polyphenols, on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in Wistar rats. The behavioral and polyphenolic profiles of the yerba mate samples were also evaluated. Infusions of yerba mate (50mg/kg) or distilled water were given to rats for fifteen days by oral gavage. On the 15th day the animals were subjected to open field test, and exploratory behavior was assessed. Subsequently, 60mg/kg PTZ (i.p.) was administered, and animals were observed for the appearance of convulsions for 30min. Latency for the first seizure, tonic-clonic and generalized seizures time, frequency of seizures and mortality induced by PTZ were recorded. The animals were then sacrificed, and the cerebellum, cerebral cortex and hippocampus were quickly removed and frozen to study the neuroprotective effects of yerba mate. The oxidative damage in lipids and proteins, nitric oxide levels, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (Sod) and catalase (Cat) and non-enzymatic cellular defense (sulfhydryl protein) were quantified in all the tissues. The results showed that organic and conventional yerba mate infusions were able to reduce the frequency of seizures when compared to the PTZ group. Besides, organic yerba mate infusion decreases the tonic-clonic seizures time in relation to the PTZ group. It was also shown that organic and conventional yerba mate infusions reduced the oxidative damage in lipids and proteins and nitric oxide

  11. ESTUDIOS EMBRIOLOGICOS Y CITOLOGICOS EN LA YERBA MATE ILEX PARAGUARIENSIS (AQUIFOLIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Otto Niklas

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available El recuento cromosómico de Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. confirmó el número 2n = 40 para todo el material estudiado. En el análisis de la meiosis se comprobó que tiene un comportamiento normal, presentando 20 II. El polen analizado presentó cerca de 100% de fertilidad. Se estableció que el saco embrionario es del tipo Polygonum. Cuando la fruta está madura, los embriones se encuentran en diferentes etapas: globulares 2,6%, corazón 70,24%, post corazón 23,3%; torpedo 2,62% y maduros 0,96%. Estos embriones seguen creciendo cuando la semilla está en condiciones para germinar, esta es la razón del lento desarrollo observado en la germinación.

  12. Nota científica: perfil bioquímico de ratos alimentados com iogurte contendo extrato de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil Scientific Note: biochemical profile of rats fed yogurt containing yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Taís Ril

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do iogurte contendo extrato de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis e com/sem culturas probióticas sobre o perfil lipídico, glicêmico, hepático e renal de ratos alimentados com esses tipos de iogurtes. Ratos da linhagem Wistar (42 foram divididos em três grupos (n=14, e receberam iogurte sem extrato de erva-mate, iogurte com extrato de erva-mate 0,1% e iogurte com extrato de erva-mate 0,1% e culturas probióticas, durante 30 dias. Não foi observado no presente estudo efeito significativo do extrato de erva-mate sobre os níveis de colesterol total, colesterol HDL, triglicerídeos, uréia, ácido úrico, creatinina, glicose e na atividade das enzimas fosfatase alcalina, aspartato aminotransferase e alanina aminotransferase. O extrato de erva-mate, 0,1% no iogurte, não interfere no metabolismo de ratos alimentados por 30 dias.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of yoghurt containing yerba-mate extract (Ilex paraguariensis, with and without probiotic cultures, on the lipidic, glycemic, hepatic and kidney profiles of rats fed these types of yoghurt. Wistar rats (42 were divided into three groups (n=14 and for 30 days were fed yoghurt without yerba-mate extract, yoghurt with 0.1% yerba-mate extract and yoghurt with 0.1% yerba-mate extract and probiotic cultures. No significant effect of the yerba mate extract on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, uric acid, creatinine, glucose and the activity of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase was observed in the present study. The addition of 0.1% yerba mate extract to the yoghurt did not interfere with the metabolism of the rats during 30 days.

  13. Atividade antibacteriana de extratos de erva mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil. Antibacterial activity of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Girolometto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Através de testes de diluição, em sistema de tubos múltiplos, determinou-se a intensidade de atividade de inibição bacteriana (IINIB e intensidade de atividade de inativação bacteriana (IINAB de extratos hídricos (decocto, etanólicos (alcoolatura e hidroalcoolatura de cambitos e de folhas de Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.(Aquifoliaceae sobre as bactérias Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25.923, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 19.433, Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11.076 e Escherichia coli (ATCC 11.229. Todas as formas de extração apresentaram capacidade de inativação e/ou inibição seletivas sobre as bactérias avaliadas, porém os extratos originados por destilação etanólica apresentaram os melhores resultados. Salmonella enteritidis demonstrou maior sensibilidade, seguida por Enterococcus faecalis. Posteriormente, estes dois agentes foram submetidos a testes de suspensão, no mesmo sistema, na presença e ausência de matéria orgânica (soro bovino, sob controle do fator tempo. A presença de matéria orgânica diminuiu, enquanto o tempo de exposição aumentou a sensibilidade de Salmonella enteritidis e de Enterococus faecalis aos diferentes extratos de Ilex testados.Dilution tests in multiple tube system were employed to evaluate the intensity of bacterial inhibition activity (IINIB and bacterial inactivation activity (IINAB of aqueous extracts (decoctions and ethanolic extracts (alcoholic and hydroalcoholic extracts from "cambitos" of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. (Aquifoliaceae leaf on the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25.923, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 19.433, Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11.076, and Escherichia coli (ATCC 11.229. All extraction procedures presented selective inactivation and/or inhibition capacity on the evaluated bacteria; however, extracts from ethanolic distillation yielded the best results. Salmonella enteritidis had the highest sensitivity, followed by Enterococus faecalis. Later, such agents were

  14. Recent advances in the bioactive properties of yerba mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Helena Ferreira Cuelho

    Full Text Available Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. is a perennial shrub of Aquifoliaceae family that grows naturally in South America and is cultivated in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay. The aim of this review is to summarize concisely recent advances published in the last 4 years on the antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and antimutagenic activities of yerba mate. For this, a search was made in some of the databases on the web as PubMed, Google Scholar and Medline. There are several studies in the literature reporting the effects of yerba mate in the metabolic profile related to diabetes and obesity. Among the findings of the researches are the reduction of body weight, liver triglycerides and white adipose tissue. It also increases the levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 and leptin, reduces blood glucose and insulin resistance and contributes to a lower rate of growth of adipose tissue. Regarding the antioxidant properties, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rutin are the compounds that contribute to the antioxidant activity. The aqueous extract also protects the red cells of hemolysis induced by hydrogen peroxide. In mutagenesis, researches suggest that dicaffeoylquinic acids in yerba mate could be potential anti-cancer agents. Saponins in leaves of yerba mate prevent the in?ammation and colon cancer in vitro. Already in skin cancer, oral and topic treatment of rats exposed at ultraviolet radiation with mate tea prevented the lipid peroxidation and DNA damage.

  15. Phytochemical profile of morphologically selected yerba-mate progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Teresa Valduga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yerba-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil is a native South American species. Plant progenies are populations that differ in terms of their productivity, morphology and phytochemical profile. This study aimed to determine the concentration of primary and secondary metabolites, such as antioxidants, in leaves, of yerba-mate progenies selected based on morphological characteristics. We evaluated the centesimal composition of secondary metabolites in the leaves of five yerba-mate plants. Methylxanthines and phenolic compounds were determined by UPLC-PDA, and antioxidant activity by measuring DPPH scavenging. Significant differences were found in centesimal composition and the contents of caffeine, theobromine, rutin and chlorogenic acid, as well as antioxidant activities, in selected progenies. The IC50 values were correlated with the chlorogenic acid levels (r2 = 0.5242 and soluble content (r2 = 0.7686. The morphological characteristics observed in yerba-mate leaves can be used as a tool for plant selection, to obtain matrices with different phytochemical profiles as a genetic material source.

  16. Drinking yerba mate infusion: a potential risk factor for invasive fungal diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, N O; Peres, A; Aquino, V R; Pasqualotto, A C

    2010-12-01

    Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) infusion is a very popular drink in South America. Although several studies have evaluated the potential for fungal contamination in foodstuff, very few investigations have been conducted with yerba mate samples. In order to evaluate for the presence of potentially pathogenic fungi, here we studied 8 brands of yerba mate commercially available in Southern Brazil. Fungal survival in adverse conditions such as gastric pH was determined by incubating samples at pH 1.5. Because hot water is generally used to prepare yerba mate infusion, the effect of several temperatures on fungal growth was also investigated. All but 1 yerba mate brand showed substantial fungal growth, in the range of <10–4900 colony-forming units per gram. Some of these fungi were able to survive extreme variations in pH and temperature. Because of the potential for yerba mate to carry pathogenic fungi, immunocompromised patients may be at risk of acquiring invasive fungal diseases by drinking yerba mate infusion.

  17. Contributions to the quality control of two crops of economic importance : hops and yerba mate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erica Georgina

    2012-01-01

    Quality control of plants is essential and at the same time very challenging.In this thesis, studies involving quality issues of two plants used in the production of two popular beverages, hops (in beer) and Ilex paraguariensis (yerba mate) were undertaken. Hops are used as bittering agents and to

  18. Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Carolina Batista Machado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.

  19. Novel Beverages of Yerba-Mate and Soy: Bioactive Compounds and Functional Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Nara Tobaldini Frizon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two high-nutrition commodities that are produced in great amounts in Brazil were joined in a single functional product. Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis is rich in bioactive compounds, while soybean is a high-quality protein source. The objective of this paper was to assess the psychochemical characteristics of two yerba-mate progenies (planted–PL and native–NT leaves and then confirm whether the functional and nutritional properties of the main ingredients were conveyed to the beverage produced. The main raw material, yerba-mate leaves, and the drinks were assessed for bioactive compounds, antioxidant capacity, physicochemical properties, and nutritional value. Planted leaves showed higher concentration of 5-CQA, caffeic acid and rutin than the native plant, whereas caffeine and theobromine were detected in larger amounts in native leaves. The nutritional profile of the drinks was compared to commercial beverages–either yerba-mate-based or soy-based. They indeed provide more protein, fiber, and fats than traditional yerba-mate beverages (chimarrão, tererê, and mate tea. Soy drinks currently marketed, for their turn, have similar caloric value and higher contents of lipid and protein as compared to our product, but are poor in fibers. NT drink (DPPH—IC50 92.83 and ABTS—8.18 μM Trolox/mL had higher antioxidant activity than PL (IC50 147.06 and 5.63 μM Trolox/mL due to the greater volume fraction of yerba-mate extract. NT beverage has more 5-CQA and caffeine in the same intake of tererê and traditional mate tea. This healthy beverage contributes to an increasing income to the food industry and yerba-mate producers, and environmental gains that are related to the exploration of natural resources.

  20. Yerba mate enhances probiotic bacteria growth in vitro but as a feed additive does not reduce Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gil, Francisco; Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; Pendleton, Sean; Andino, Ana; Zhang, Nan; Yard, Carrie; Crilly, Nate; Harte, Federico; Hanning, Irene

    2014-02-01

    Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a tea known to have beneficial effects on human health and antimicrobial activity against some foodborne pathogens. Thus, the application of yerba mate as a feed additive for broiler chickens to reduce Salmonella colonization was evaluated. The first in vitro evaluation was conducted by suspending Salmonella Enteritidis and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in yerba mate extract. The in vivo evaluations were conducted using preventative and horizontal transmission experiments. In all experiments, day-of-hatch chicks were treated with one of the following 1) no treatment (control); 2) ground yerba mate in feed; 3) probiotic treatment (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pediococcus; 9:1 administered once on day of hatch by gavage); or 4) both yerba mate and probiotic treatments. At d 3, all chicks were challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis (preventative experiment) or 5 of 20 chicks (horizontal transmission experiment). At d 10, all birds were euthanized, weighed, and cecal contents enumerated for Salmonella. For the in vitro evaluation, antimicrobial activity was observed against Salmonella and the same treatment enhanced growth of LAB. For in vivo evaluations, none of the yerba mate treatments significantly reduced Salmonella Enteritidis colonization, whereas the probiotic treatment significantly reduced Salmonella colonization in the horizontal transmission experiment. Yerba mate decreased chicken BW and decreased the performance of the probiotic treatment when used in combination. In conclusion, yerba mate had antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and enhanced the growth of LAB in vitro, but in vivo yerba mate did not decrease Salmonella Enteritidis colonization.

  1. Dataset of the first transcriptome assembly of the tree crop “yerba mate” (Ilex paraguariensis and systematic characterization of protein coding genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M. Aguilera

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution contains data associated to the research article entitled “Exploring the genes of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. by NGS and de novo transcriptome assembly” (Debat et al., 2014 [1]. By means of a bioinformatic approach involving extensive NGS data analyses, we provide a resource encompassing the full transcriptome assembly of yerba mate, the first available reference for the Ilex L. genus. This dataset (Supplementary files 1 and 2 consolidates the transcriptome-wide assembled sequences of I. paraguariensis with further comprehensive annotation of the protein coding genes of yerba mate via the integration of Arabidopsis thaliana databases. The generated data is pivotal for the characterization of agronomical relevant genes in the tree crop yerba mate -a non-model species- and related taxa in Ilex. The raw sequencing data dissected here is available at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank (NCBI Resource Coordinators, 2016 [2] Sequence Read Archive (SRA under the accession SRP043293 and the assembled sequences have been deposited at the Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly Sequence Database (TSA under the accession GFHV00000000.

  2. Mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire) saponins induce caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponins are naturally occurring metabolites present in Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), and other plant sources which have been associated with several health benefits. Mate saponins were extracted with methanol from dry leaves, partially purified and quantified. UV-HPLC analysis showed that the m...

  3. Protective effect of yerba mate intake on the cardiovascular system: a post hoc analysis study in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    da Veiga, D.T.A.; Bringhenti, R.; Copes, R.; Tatsch, E.; Moresco, R.N.; Comim, F.V.; Premaor, M.O.

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases is increased in postmenopausal women, which contributes to the burden of illnesses in this period of life. Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a native bush from Southern South America. Its leaves are rich in phenolic components, which may have antioxidant, vasodilating, hypocholesterolemic, and hypoglycemic proprieties. This post hoc analysis of the case-control study nested in the Obesity and Bone Fracture Cohort evaluated the consumpt...

  4. Protective effect of yerba mate intake on the cardiovascular system: a post hoc analysis study in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Veiga, D T A; Bringhenti, R; Copes, R; Tatsch, E; Moresco, R N; Comim, F V; Premaor, M O

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases is increased in postmenopausal women, which contributes to the burden of illnesses in this period of life. Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a native bush from Southern South America. Its leaves are rich in phenolic components, which may have antioxidant, vasodilating, hypocholesterolemic, and hypoglycemic proprieties. This post hoc analysis of the case-control study nested in the Obesity and Bone Fracture Cohort evaluated the consumption of yerba mate and the prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and coronary diseases in postmenopausal women. Ninety-five postmenopausal women were included in this analysis. A questionnaire was applied to evaluate the risk factors and diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases and consumption of yerba mate infusion. Student's t-test and chi-square test were used to assess significant differences between groups. The group that consumed more than 1 L/day of mate infusion had significantly fewer diagnoses of coronary disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension (P<0.049, P<0.048, and P<0.016, respectively). Furthermore, the serum levels of glucose were lower in the group with a higher consumption of yerba mate infusion (P<0.013). The serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides were similar between the groups. This pragmatic study points out the benefits of yerba mate consumption for the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. The ingestion of more than 1 L/day of mate infusion was associated with fewer self-reported cardiovascular diseases and lower serum levels of glucose. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the association between yerba mate infusion and reduction of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women.

  5. Arsenic, cadmium and lead concentrations in Yerba mate commercialized in Southern Brazil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisia Maria Gobbo dos Santos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: “Mate” or “Yerba Mate” (Ilex paraguariensis is a native South American plant, commonly consumed in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and southern Brazil. Recent research has detected the presence of many vitamins and metals in this plant. Theses metals are also part of yerba mate’s mineral composition, due to soil and water contamination by pesticides and fertilizers, coal and oil combustion, vehicle emissions, mining, smelting, refining and the incineration of urban and industrial waste. Regardless of their origin, some inorganic elements, such as arsenic, cadmium and lead, are considered toxic, since they accumulate in all plant tissues and are, thus, introduced into the food chain. In this context, the aim of the present study was to determine and compare arsenic, cadmium, lead concentrations in 104 samples of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis marketed, and consumed in three southern Brazilian States, namely Paraná (PR, Santa Catarina (SC and Rio Grande do Sul (RS. Each element was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, on a Nexion 300D equipment (Perkin Elmer. As, Cd and Pb concentrations in yerba mate leaves ranged from 0.015 to 0.15mg kg-1, 0.18 to 1.25mg kg-1 and 0.1 to 1.20mg kg-1, respectively. Regarding Cd, 84% of the samples from RS, 63% from PR and 75% from SC showed higher concentrations than the maximum permissible limit of 0.4mg kg-1 established by the Brazilian National Sanitary Surveillance Agency (ANVISA, while 7% of the samples from RS and 5% from PR were unsatisfactory for Pb. Concentrations were below the established ANVISA limit of 0.6mg kg-1 for all samples.

  6. Intensity of bitterness of processed yerba mate leaves originated in two contrasted light environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Rakocevic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The bitterness intensity of beverage prepared from the leaves produced on the males and females of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, grown in the forest understory and monoculture, was evaluated. The leaves were grouped by their position (in the crown and on the branch tips and by the leaf age. The leaf gas exchange, leaf temperature and photosynthetic photon flux density were observed. Inter and intra-specific competition for light and self-shading showed the same effect on yerba mate beverage taste. All the shading types resulted in bitterer taste of the processed yerba mate leaves compared to the leaves originated under the direct sun exposure. The leaves from the plants grown in the monoculture showed less bitterness than those grown in the forest understory. This conclusion was completely opposite to the conventionally accepted paradigm of the yerba mate industries. The leaves from the tips (younger leaves of the plants grown in the monoculture resulted a beverage of softer taste; the males produced less bitter leaves in any light environment (forest understory or in the crown in monoculture. The taste was related to the photosynthetic and transpiration rate, and leaf temperature. Stronger bitterness of the leaves provided from the shade conditions was related to the decreased leaf temperature and transpiration in the diurnal scale.Mediu-se a intensidade de amargor da bebida preparada a partir de folhas da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis de diversas idades, situadas em duas posições na copa (interior e ponteiras, produzidas por plantas masculinas e femininas cultivadas na floresta antropizada e em monocultura. As trocas gasosas foliares, a temperatura de folhas e a densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossinteticamente ativos também foram medidas. Com isso verificou-se que a idéia corrente de que o sombreamento está diretamente relacionado ao sabor suave do chimarrão é completamente equivocada, já que as competições inter- e intra

  7. Inverse association between yerba mate consumption and idiopathic Parkinson's disease. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Emilia Mabel; Melcon, Carlos; Parisi, Virginia L; Bartoloni, Leonardo; Gonzalez, Claudio D

    2015-09-15

    Yerba mate tea is a very common beverage in some countries of South America. We conducted a case-control study on an individual basis using hospital records to investigate the association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and yerba mate intake. A case was defined as an age of ≥ 40 years with ≥ 1 year of PD. Each case was individually matched by two controls. Exposure was measured by yerba mate consumption, coffee, tea, and alcohol intake and smoking status. The sample consisted of 223 PD patients (mean age 68 years and mean disease duration 7.3 years) and 406 controls. There was an inverse association between yerba mate "bombilla" consumption and PD (OR 0.64, 95% CI: 0.54-0.76, p=0.00001). A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression adjusted by sex, alcohol intake and smoking provided the following results: yerba mate (OR 0.63, 95% CI: 0.53-0.76), tea (OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.86), coffee (OR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.35-0.73). We found an inverse association between yerba mate consumption and PD. These results led us to hypothesize that yerba mate may have a potential protective role in the development of PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioactive compounds content of chimarrão infusions related to the moisture of yerba maté (Ilex Paraguariensis leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah H. M. Bastos

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the processing stages of yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis on the moisture content of the leaves and the efficiency of the aqueous extraction of some bioactive substances. Samples of yerba maté were analyzed for caffeine, phenolic acids (caffeic acid, 5-caffeoilquinic acid and flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin by HPLC equipped with a diode array detector. Processing widely influenced the caffeine and 5-caffeoilquinic acid content of the aqueous extract (p A erva mate (Ilex paraguariensis é a matéria prima para três tipos de bebidas largamente consumidas na América do Sul. Substâncias bioativas presentes neste produto como a cafeína e os ácidos clorogênicos têm recebido especial atenção da comunidade científica. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito do processamento da erva mate no teor de umidade das folhas e a eficiência da extração aquosa de algumas substâncias bioativas. Amostras de erva mate coletadas no Paraná, Brasil foram objeto deste estudo. Cafeína, ácidos fenólicos (ácido cafeico e ácido 5-cafeoilquinico e flavonóides (quercitina, miricetina e caempferol foram analisados por HPLC equipado com detector de arranjo de diodos. Os teores de ácido 5-cafeoilquinico e cafeína do extrato aquoso variam em função da etapa do processamento (p0,9. O ácido cafeico foi determinado em 45% das infusões obtidas das folhas secas e quercitina, miricetina e caempferol não foram detectados nesses extratos.

  9. Efeito do consumo de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis sobre o ganho de peso e a glicemia de jejum em ratos alimentados com uma dieta hiperlipídica = Effect of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis consumption on weight gain and fasting glucose in rats fed with a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado, Alisson Diego

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito do consumo de erva-mate sobre o ganho de peso e a glicemia de jejum em ratos alimentados com uma dieta hiperlipídica. Materiais e Métodos: Foram utilizados 14 ratos divididos em três grupos. O primeiro grupo (n=4 foi alimentado com ração comercial para ratos, o segundo (n=5 recebeu dieta hiperlipídica e o terceiro (n=5 foi alimentado com dieta hiperlipídica acrescida de infusão de erva-mate, durante 24 dias. Durante o estudo foram monitorados o peso e o índice de Lee e ao final a glicemia de jejum. Resultados: Os ratos alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica contendo infusão de erva-mate apresentaram menor ganho de peso em relação aos que consumiram apenas a ração hiperlipídica, nos três períodos experimentais analisados (p=0,048, p=0,016 e p=0,048, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa em relação ao índice de Lee entre os grupos. O consumo da erva-mate promoveu tendência a menores níveis de glicemia de jejum em relação ao grupo alimentado com dieta comercial (p=0,056 e ao grupo que recebeu dieta hiperlipídica (p=0,075. Conclusão: O consumo de erva-mate proporcionou menor ganho de peso em relação aos ratos que foram alimentados apenas com ração hiperlipídica e tendência a menores níveis de glicemia de jejum

  10. 137Cs contamination in tea and yerba mate in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Gregorio, D.E.; Huck, H.; Aristegui, R.; De Lazzari, G.; Jech, A.

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectra from more than 50 samples of food products available in stores of Buenos Aires city were measured using a germanium detector. Activity concentrations of 137 Cs up to 10 Bq/kg were found in tea and yerba mate manufactured in Apostoles, Argentina. Further measurements of tea leaves, yerba mate leaves and soils, all coming from a cultivated area in that region, also show the presence of 137 Cs contamination. The results suggest that the area was fertilized with a product that originated in a region affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident

  11. Content of Selected Minerals and Active Ingredients in Teas Containing Yerba Mate and Rooibos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinek-Prystupa, Elżbieta; Marzec, Zbigniew; Sembratowicz, Iwona; Samolińska, Wioletta; Kiczorowska, Bożena; Kwiecień, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    The study aimed to determine the content of selected elements: sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese and active ingredients such as phenolic acids and tannins in teas containing Yerba Mate and Rooibos cultivated in various areas. The study material comprised six samples of Yerba Mate teas and of Rooibos teas, both tea bags and leaves, purchased in Puławy and online via Allegro. In total, 24 samples were tested. Yerba Mate was particularly abundant in Mn and Fe. The richest source of these elements was Yerba Mate Yer-Vita (2261.3 mg · kg(-1) d.m.) and (691.6 mg · kg(-1) d.m.). The highest content of zinc was determined in Yerba Mate Amanda with lime (106.0 mg · kg(-1) d.m.), while copper was most abundant in Yerba Mate Big-Active cocoa and vanilla (14.05 mg · kg(-1) d.m.). In Rooibos, the content of sodium was several times higher than in Yerba Mate. A clear difference was observed in the content of minerals in dry weight of the examined products, which could be a result of both the taxonomic distinctness and the origin of the raw material. Leaf teas turned out to be a better source of tannins; on the other hand, tea bags contained substantially more phenolic acids. The richest source of phenolic acids was Yer-Vita in bags (1.8 %), and the highest amount of tannins was recorded in the leaf tea Green Goucho caramel and dark chocolate (9.04 g · 100 g(-1) d.m.). In Rooibos products, the highest content of phenolic acids was recorded in tea bags (Savannah with honey and vanilla 0.96 %), and tannins in (Lord Nelson with strawberry and cream 7.99 g · 100 g (-1) d.m.).

  12. Effect of Chocolate and Yerba Mate Phenolic Compounds on Inflammatory and Oxidative Biomarkers in HIV/AIDS Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Petrilli, Aline A.; Souza, Suelen J.; Teixeira, Andrea M.; Pontilho, Patricia M.; Souza, Jos? M. P.; Luzia, Liania A.; Rond?, Patricia H. C.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids in cocoa and yerba mate have a beneficial role on inflammation and oxidative disorders. Their effect on HIV individuals has not been studied yet, despite the high cardiovascular risk of this population. This study investigated the role of cocoa and yerba mate consumption on oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers in HIV+ individuals. A cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 92 individuals on antiretroviral therapy for at least six mon...

  13. Yerba Mat? (Ilex paraguariensis) Metabolic, Satiety, and Mood State Effects at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Atcheson, Roisin

    2017-01-01

    Yerba Mat? (YM), has become a popular herb ingested for enhancing metabolic health and weight-loss outcomes. No studies have tested the combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects of YM during exercise. We tested whether YM ingestion affects fatty acid oxidation (FAO), profile of mood state score (POMS), and subjective appetite scale (VAS), during prolonged moderate exercise. Twelve healthy active females were randomized to ingest either 2 g of YM or placebo (PLC) in a repeated-measu...

  14. The yerba mate intake has a neutral effect on bone: A case-control study in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Veiga, Denise T A; Bringhenti, Raísa; Bolignon, Aline A; Tatsh, Etiane; Moresco, Rafael N; Comim, Fabio V; Premaor, Melissa O

    2018-01-01

    Nutritional factors have been associated with osteoporosis and fractures. The intake of coffee may increase the risk of fracture whereas the intake of black and green tea is associated with its reduction. Recently, consumption of yerba mate was associated with increased bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Nonetheless, its influence on fracture is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of yerba mate tea intake on fractures, bone markers, calcium homeostasis, and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women. A case-control study was carried out in South Brazil, 46 women with fractures and 49 controls completed the study. There was no significant difference between the frequency of fractures in women who drank mate tea and women who did not (48.3% vs. 48.5%, p = .99). Moreover, there was no significant difference concerning the serum levels of total calcium, phosphorus, PTH, vitamin D, P1NP, and CTX in the subjects with the history of yerba mate use when compared to controls. Higher serum levels of NOx were found in women who drank the yerba mate infusion. In conclusion, the yerba mate intake is not associated with fracture, and it appears to have a neutral effect on the bone metabolism. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. La yerba no es basura : lombricultura y producción de Vermicompost a partir de residuos de yerba mate en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Torrendel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En Uruguay el consumo anual de yerba mate genera unas 125 toneladas de residuos orgánicos. La lombricultura es una delas formas de obtener materia orgánica a partir del reciclado de residuos domiciliarios orgánicos. Los desechos de yerbamate tienen un gran potencial de reciclado si son utilizados como sustrato en la lombricultura. Utilizando distintos sustratos,tiempos de compostaje y volúmenes de yerba, se determinaron algunas de las condiciones necesarias para la utilización de dichos residuos como sustrato para la lombriz Eisenia fetida. Se estudiaron las condiciones de pH que el desecho debería alcanzar para ser tolerado y mejor aprovechado por las lombrices, y el período de tiempo que la yerba demora en alcanzar estas condiciones. Se observó que el período de tiempo mínimo de precompostado para el mejor aprovechamiento de la yerba por parte de las lombrices es de cuatro semanas. Se analizaron también las características del vermicompost obtenido, en cuanto a parámetros de materia orgánica, nitrógeno, fósforo y metales. El valor de nitrógeno (1 % y de materia orgánica, que ronda el 30 %, son similares a los encontrados en otros humus que se obtienen por métodos semejantes. Sin embargo, para el Fósforo los valores resultaron por debajo de lo encontrado en los análisis realizados por el CUI (Laboratorio Ambiental Echotech, octubre 2006.AbstractThe annual consumption of “yerba mate” (mate herb infusion in Uruguay generates about 125 metric tons of organic waste. Vermicomposting is one way to obtain organic matter by recycling organic household waste. The waste of “yerba mate” has a great potential for recycling if it is used as a substrate in vermicomposting. Using different substrates, composting times andvolumes of “yerba mate” we determined some of the necessary conditions for the use of yerba mate waste as a substrate for the Eisenia fetida earthworm. We studied the optimal pH conditions that the waste

  16. Effect of Chocolate and Yerba Mate Phenolic Compounds on Inflammatory and Oxidative Biomarkers in HIV/AIDS Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Aline A; Souza, Suelen J; Teixeira, Andrea M; Pontilho, Patricia M; Souza, José M P; Luzia, Liania A; Rondó, Patricia H C

    2016-05-23

    Flavonoids in cocoa and yerba mate have a beneficial role on inflammation and oxidative disorders. Their effect on HIV individuals has not been studied yet, despite the high cardiovascular risk of this population. This study investigated the role of cocoa and yerba mate consumption on oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers in HIV+ individuals. A cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 92 individuals on antiretroviral therapy for at least six months and at viral suppression. Participants were randomized to receive either 65 g of chocolate or chocolate-placebo or 3 g of yerba mate or mate-placebo for 15 days each, alternating by a washout period of 15 days. At baseline, and at the end of each intervention regimen, data regarding anthropometry, inflammatory, oxidative and immunological parameters were collected. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, lipid profile, white blood cell profile and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were assessed. There was a difference between mean concentrations of HDL-c (ANOVA; p ≤ 0.05) among the different regimens: dark chocolate, chocolate-placebo, yerba mate and mate-placebo. When a paired Student t-test was used for comparisons between mean HDL-c at baseline and after each regimen, the mean concentration of HDL-c was higher after supplementation with dark chocolate (p = 0.008).

  17. Effect of Chocolate and Yerba Mate Phenolic Compounds on Inflammatory and Oxidative Biomarkers in HIV/AIDS Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline A. Petrilli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids in cocoa and yerba mate have a beneficial role on inflammation and oxidative disorders. Their effect on HIV individuals has not been studied yet, despite the high cardiovascular risk of this population. This study investigated the role of cocoa and yerba mate consumption on oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers in HIV+ individuals. A cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 92 individuals on antiretroviral therapy for at least six months and at viral suppression. Participants were randomized to receive either 65 g of chocolate or chocolate-placebo or 3 g of yerba mate or mate-placebo for 15 days each, alternating by a washout period of 15 days. At baseline, and at the end of each intervention regimen, data regarding anthropometry, inflammatory, oxidative and immunological parameters were collected. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, lipid profile, white blood cell profile and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were assessed. There was a difference between mean concentrations of HDL-c (ANOVA; p ≤ 0.05 among the different regimens: dark chocolate, chocolate-placebo, yerba mate and mate-placebo. When a paired Student t-test was used for comparisons between mean HDL-c at baseline and after each regimen, the mean concentration of HDL-c was higher after supplementation with dark chocolate (p = 0.008.

  18. Effect of 60Co radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furgeri, Camilo

    2009-01-01

    The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60 Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10 kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10 kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and

  19. Effect of 60CO radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furgeri, Camilo

    2009-01-01

    The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60 Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and

  20. Evaluación del germoplasma de Ilex paraguariensis e Ilex dumosa (Aquifoliaceae Ilex paraguariensis and Ilex dumosa (Aquifoliaceae germplasm evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Marina Gottlieb

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ilex paraguariensis e I. dumosa constituyen dos especies de gran relevancia económica para nuestro país. Estas comparten muchas características de su biología, aunque se diferencian en composición fitoquímica y resistencia a factores bióticos y abióticos. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la estructura de la diversidad genética de plantas mantenidas en el Banco de Germoplasma de Yerba Mate y Té de la Estación Experimental del INTA en Cerro Azul (Misiones y de materiales comerciales de yerba mate, mediante el re-análisis de datos AFLP, así como caracterizar las secuencias nucleotídicas de bandas potencialmente diagnósticas de especie. En I. dumosa se detectó, respecto de I. paraguariensis, un nivel de variación molecular dos veces mayor, aunque una menor proporción de bandas privadas. Las secuencias caracterizadas con herramientas bioinformáticas resultan ser nuevas regiones genómicas descriptas para Ilex. Los resultados indican que los materiales estudiados de I. dumosa constituyen un reservorio de variabilidad genética apropiado para el fitomejoramiento de materiales de yerba mate potencialmente comerciales. Asimismo, nuestros resultados apoyan la renovación de estrategias de conservación tendientes a ampliar el acervo genético almacenado, particularmente de yerba mate.Ilex paraguariensis and I. dumosa are species with great economic relevance in Argentina. Both species share several features of their biology, though they differ in phytochemical composition and in their resistance to biotic and abiotic factors. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the structure of the genetic diversity of the plants kept at the Germplasm Bank of Yerba Mate (EEINTACA and also of commercial materials of yerba mate, through a re-analysis of AFLP data and a characterization of the nucleotide sequences of selected AFLP bands. For I. dumosa we have detected a molecular variation level two times higher than the value obtained

  1. Long-Term Dietary Supplementation with Yerba Mate Ameliorates Diet-Induced Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in Mice by Regulating Energy Expenditure and Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myung-Sook; Park, Hyo Jin; Kim, Sang Ryong; Kim, Do Yeon; Jung, Un Ju

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated whether long-term supplementation with dietary yerba mate has beneficial effects on adiposity and its related metabolic dysfunctions in diet-induced obese mice. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks as follows: (1) control group fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and (2) mate group fed with HFD plus yerba mate. Dietary yerba mate increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene mRNA expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) and decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA expression in WAT, which may be linked to observed decreases in body weight, WAT weight, epididymal adipocyte size, and plasma leptin level. Yerba mate also decreased levels of plasma lipids (free fatty acids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol) and liver aminotransferase enzymes, as well as the accumulation of hepatic lipid droplets and lipid content by inhibiting the activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes, such as FAS and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, and increasing fecal lipid excretion. Moreover, yerba mate decreased the levels of plasma insulin as well as the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and improved glucose tolerance. Circulating levels of gastric inhibitory polypeptide and resistin were also decreased in the mate group. These findings suggest that long-term supplementation of dietary yerba mate may be beneficial for improving diet-induced adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis.

  2. Methylxanthines accumulation in Ilex species - caffeine and theobromine in erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis and other Ilex species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginatto F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Ilex paraguariensis St.Hil. is an important crop used commonly at the meridional South America as a source of a stimulant beverage, called maté, prepared by infusion of its processed leaves and twigs. We describe herein the methylxanthines analyses in the leaves of I. paraguariensis and other Ilex species reported as maté adulterants. The methylxanthines content determined by HPLC were 0.65% for caffeine and 0.12% for theobromine from I. paraguariensis var. paraguariensis, and 0.003% for caffeine and 0.22% (estimated for theobromine from I. paraguariensis var. vestita. It was not detected any methylxanthines from I. brevicuspis, I. dumosa and I. microdonta. Considering the results, simultaneous caffeine and theobromine accumulation seems hitherto to be a particular characteristic of I. paraguariensis. In addition to taxonomical significance, these data suggest that it should be possible to trace adulterations of the genuine I. paraguariensis using the methodology described herein.

  3. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons throughout the processing stages of erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Manoela Alano; Maraschin, Marcelo; Rovaris, Angela Angeloni; Amboni, Renata Dias de Mello Castanho; Pagliosa, Cristiane Manfé; Xavier, José Júnior Mendonca; Amante, Edna Regina

    2010-06-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is believed to be due to the degradation of mate compounds and the burning of wood during the "sapeco" (rapid drying process) and the final drying steps, which are the most important processing stages in mate production. Due to the high toxicity of these compounds, studies on their presence in mate are extremely important. The aim of this study was to evaluate PAH levels in mate throughout the processing stages of its production. The PAHs were measured in samples collected at different stages of mate processing. Total PAHs content ranged widely (443-9001 microg/kg) in the samples, with the highest PAHs levels recorded during the mate drying step. The results indicate that the processing method currently used in mate production may lead to an increase in PAHs levels in the final product.

  4. LC-MSn study of the chemical transformations of hydroxycinnamates during yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis) tea brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Marius Febi; Jaiswal, Rakesh; Patras, Maria A; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2016-12-01

    Yerba maté is one of the most popular beverages in South American countries and its consumption is associated with a wide array of health effects. In this study, we used advanced HPLC-ESI-MS n and HPLC-ESI-HRMS methods for the identification and characterization of hydroxycinnamates and their derivatives formed during the brewing process of yerba maté. We report on the hydroxylation of the hydroxycinnamates cinnamoyl substituent by conjugate addition of water to form 3-hydroxy-dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives using a series of model compounds, including caffeoylglucoses, dicaffeoylquinic acids, methyl caffeoylquinate and mono caffeoylquinic acids. The regiochemistry of conjugate addition was determined by targeted tandem MS experiments performed on authentic standards. It was interesting to note that hydroxylation of hydroxycinnamates produced cis and acyl-migration isomers, which is in line with previously reported data. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Nutritional and phytochemical study of Ilex paraguariensis fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Cogoi, Laura Carolina; Giacomino, M. Silvia; Pellegrino, Nestor; Anesini, Claudia Alejandra; Filip, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Yerba mate is defined as the product constituted by the dried, slightly roasted, and milled leaves of Ilex paraguariensis. However, the fruits of this species are often found in the commercial product. Nowadays the fruits are considered a byproduct. The objective of this work was to obtain the preliminary data of minerals, lipids, methylxanthines and polyphenols in the ripe fruits of I. paraguariensis. The results showed a considerable amount of total dietary fiber ( g/100 g) and nutritionall...

  6. Determinação de compostos fenólicos por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência isocrática durante estacionamento da erva-mate Determination of phenolic compounds by isocratic high performance liquid chromatografic method during storage of yerba-mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana L. Goularte Dutra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Different phenolic compound, 5- caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA, caffeic acid (AC and rutin (Ru contents of yerba-mate (Ilex paraguariensis Brazilian samples of 06 different regions of São Mateus - Paraná, during natural and accelerated industrial storage, were evaluated. For quantification, a reverse phase HPLC isocratic method was developed and validated using methanol:water (35:65 v/v acidified with 0.5% acetic acid as mobile phase and a photodiode array detector. The six sample global average contents were (34.90 and 36.10 mg g-1 for 5-CQA, (0.18 mg g-1 and 0.23 mg g-1 for AC and (7.12 and 7.18 mg g-1 for Ru, respectively, for the natural and accelerated storage systems. The results showed that the 5-CQA and Ru content are kept constant during the storage while AC content increase only during accelerated storage.

  7. Yerba mate tea and mate saponins prevented azoxymethane-induced inflammation of rat colon through suppression of NF-kB p65ser(311) signaling via IkB-a and GSK-3ß reduced phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerba mate tea (YMT) has a chemopreventive role in a variety of inflammatory diseases. The objective was to determine the capability of YMT and mate saponins to prevent azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic inflammation in rats. YMT (2% dry leaves, w/v, as a source of drinking fluid) (n = 15) and mat...

  8. Estudo da composição elementar da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Giulian

    2005-01-01

    O presente trabalho baseia-se no estudo da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) através das técnicas PIXE, RBS e ERDA, com o intuito de avaliar a concentração dos elementos constituintes dessa planta quando ela é submetida a diferentes condições. Com a análise de 20 marcas distintas de erva-mate produzidas no estado do Rio Grande do Sul e disponíveis no comércio de Porto Alegre, buscou-se a determinação da concentração média dos metais presentes na erva-mate. As mesmas amostras foram também analis...

  9. Evaluation of sensorial analysis in mate (Ilex Paraguariensis) processed by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furgeri, Camilo; Sabundjian, Ingrid T.; Silva, Priscila V.; Salum, Debora C.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: camilo.furgeri@gmail.com; Bastos, Deborah H.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo USP, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Saude Publica. Dept. de Nutricao Experimental]. E-mail: dmbastos@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a native species from South America which is widely consumed as chimarrao (made white hot water) and terere (made white could water) beverages. One of the basic questions for the food area is the relation between the quality observed by the consumers and the presence of compounds responsible for its flavor and aroma, essential parameters of the food quality. The radiation food processing has been demonstrating great effectiveness in the combat of pathogenic agents while little compromising nutritional value and sensorial properties of foods. This boarding affects directly the food industry, which represent quality and aggregate product value. (author)

  10. Evaluation of sensorial analysis in mate (Ilex Paraguariensis) processed by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furgeri, Camilo; Sabundjian, Ingrid T.; Silva, Priscila V.; Salum, Debora C.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Bastos, Deborah H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a native species from South America which is widely consumed as chimarrao (made white hot water) and terere (made white could water) beverages. One of the basic questions for the food area is the relation between the quality observed by the consumers and the presence of compounds responsible for its flavor and aroma, essential parameters of the food quality. The radiation food processing has been demonstrating great effectiveness in the combat of pathogenic agents while little compromising nutritional value and sensorial properties of foods. This boarding affects directly the food industry, which represent quality and aggregate product value. (author)

  11. Yerba Maté (Ilex paraguariensis) Metabolic, Satiety, and Mood State Effects at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Atcheson, Roisin

    2017-08-15

    Yerba Maté (YM), has become a popular herb ingested for enhancing metabolic health and weight-loss outcomes. No studies have tested the combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects of YM during exercise. We tested whether YM ingestion affects fatty acid oxidation (FAO), profile of mood state score (POMS), and subjective appetite scale (VAS), during prolonged moderate exercise. Twelve healthy active females were randomized to ingest either 2 g of YM or placebo (PLC) in a repeated-measures design. Participants rested for 120 min before performing a 30-min cycling exercise corresponding to individuals' crossover point intensity (COP). FAO, determined using indirect calorimetry, was significantly higher during the 30-min exercise in YM vs. PLC (0.21 ± 0.07 vs. 0.17 ± 0.06 g/min, p exercise at targeted "fat-loss"' intensities augments FAO and improves measures of satiety and mood state. Such positive combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects may provide an important role for designing future fat and weight-loss lifestyle interventions.

  12. Efeito antimutagênico, antigenotóxico, antiobesidade e antioxidante da Ilex paraguariensis (erva-mate)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea da Rocha Kaezer

    2013-01-01

    O extrato aquoso de erva-mate, obtido a partir de folhas secas de Ilex paraguariensis, é uma bebida amplamente consumida na América do Sul. Inicialmente, nosso objetivo foi caracterizar os compostos presentes nas amostras de erva-mate disponíveis no mercado brasileiro (CH: chimarrão; T: chá mate torrado; G: chá mate torrado, comercialmente acondicionado em garrafas ou C: em copos; TS: chá mate torrado solúvel A mutagenicidade, citotoxicidade e antimutagenicidade de todas as amostras também fo...

  13. COMPORTAMENTO DA ERVA-MATE (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. EM CONSÓRCIO SILVICULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilson dos Santos Oliveira

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado no Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria e teve por objetivo determinar o comportamento da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. cultivada em sistemas de consórcio silvicultural. A metodologia adotada constituiu-se da implantação de três tratamentos, cortes aos sistemas de consórcio erva-mate x Pinus sp., erva-mate x bracatinga e erva-mate x capoeira. A análise dos resultados levou às setes conclusões: os melhores resultados de desenvolvimento de erva-mate são obdos nos consórcios com bracatinga e Pinus sp. e, o pior, na capoeira; as vazes extremas dos fatores do meio são amenizadas pelas outras espécies do consórcio; índices elevados de luminosidade não promovem maior produção de matéria seca, nem os índices muito baixos.

  14. Effect of {sup 60}CO radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis); Efeito do processamento por radiacao de {sup 60}CO na erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furgeri, Camilo

    2009-07-01

    The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative

  15. Influence of agronomic variables on the macronutrient and micronutrient contents and thermal behavior of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Rosângela A; Arruda, Eduardo J; de Oliveira, Lincoln C S; de Oliveira, Ana P; Dariva, Cláudio; de Oliveira, J Vladimir; Caramão, Elina B

    2007-09-05

    The influence of agronomic variables (light intensity, age of leaves, and fertilization type) on the content of macronutrients and micronutrients (potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, and copper) of tea leaves was assessed by acid digestion, followed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The thermal behavior of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis) was also studied in this work. Samples of mate (Ilex paraguariensis) were collected in an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Erva-Mate Barão Commerce and Industry LTD (Brazil). The results showed that the mineral content in mate is affected by the agronomic variables investigated. In general, the content of mineral compounds analyzed is higher for younger leaves and for plants cultivated in shadow. Thermal analysis of samples indicated a similar behavior, with three typical steps of decomposition: loss of water, degradation of low-molecular weight compounds, and degradation of residual materials.

  16. Comportamento da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. em consórcio silvicultural.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisilvio Pes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O presente trabalho foi realizado no Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria e teve por objetivo determinar o comportamento da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. cultivada em sistema de consórcio silvicultural. A metodologia adotada constituiu-se da implantação de três tratamentos, correspondentes aos sistemas de consórcio erva-mata x Pinus sp., erva-mate x bracatinga e erva-mate x capoeira. A análise dos resultados levou às seguintes conclusões: os melhores resultados de desenvolvimento da erva-mate são obtidos nos consórcios com bracatinga e Pins sp. e, o pior, na caopeira; as variações externas dos fatores do meio são amenizadas pelas outras espécies do consórcio; índices elevados de luminosidade não promovem maior produção de matéria seca, nem os índices muito baixos.

  17. DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF Ilex paraguariensis BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto,Rodrigo M. C.; Lemes,Bruna M.; Zielinski,Acácio A. F.; Klein,Traudi; Paula,Fernado de; Kist,Airton; Marques,Anna S. F.; Nogueira,Alessandro; Demiate,Ivo M.; Beltrame,Flávio L.

    2015-01-01

    Ilex paraguariensis (yerba-mate) is used as a beverage, and its extract requires adequate quality control methods in order to guarantee quality and safe use. Strategies to develop and optimize a chromatographic method to quantify theobromine, caffeine, and chlorogenic acid in I. paraguariensis extracts were evaluated by applying a quality by design (QbD) model and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). The presence of these three phytochemical markers in the extracts was evalua...

  18. Evaluation of fungi contamination and xanthine and phenolic compounds content in irradiated mate (Ilex paraguariensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furgeri, Camilo; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Koike, Amanda C.R.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Bastos, Deborah H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is consumed mainly as beverage, either in a hot (chimarrao) as in cold (terere) infusion. An important concern is its fungal contamination responsible to affect the physical and nutritional qualities. The radiation processing is effective to reduce the microbiological contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation from 60 Co at doses of 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10 kGy in fungal contamination as well as in the nutritional and sensorial characteristics of Ilex paraguariensis as chimarrao and terere beverage. The results show that the dose of 7 kGy decreases the fungal contamination to a safety levels, however decrease the antioxidant activity in chimarrao and promote a change in color characteristic in both beverages. Besides these effects, the dose of 7 kGy is still indicated once the antioxidant activity loss was minimal although the sensorial attributes changed were not percept by consumers. (author)

  19. Evaluation of phenolic compounds in mate (Ilex paraguariensis) processed by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furgeri, C.; Nunes, T.C.F.; Fanaro, G.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes-Laboratory de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Souza, M.F.F.; Bastos, D.H.M. [Faculdade de Saude Publica, FSP/USP, Departamento de Nutricao-Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 715, CEP: 01246-904 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes-Laboratory de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2009-07-15

    The radiation food processing has been demonstrating great effectiveness in the attack of pathogenic agents, while little compromising nutritional value and sensorial properties of foods. The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), widely consumed product in South America, generally in the form of infusions with hot or cold water, calls of chimarrao or terere, it is cited in literature as one of the best sources phenolic compounds. The antioxidants action of these constituent has been related to the protection of the organism against the free radicals, generated in alive, currently responsible for the sprouting of some degenerative illness as cancer, arteriosclerosis, rheumatic arthritis and cardiovascular clutters among others. The objective of that work was to evaluate the action of the processing for gamma radiation in phenolic compounds of terere beverage in the doses of 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. The observed results do not demonstrate significant alterations in phenolic compounds of terere beverage processed by gamma radiation.

  20. Evaluation of phenolic compounds in mate (Ilex paraguariensis) processed by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furgeri, C.; Nunes, T.C.F.; Fanaro, G.B.; Souza, M.F.F.; Bastos, D.H.M.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    The radiation food processing has been demonstrating great effectiveness in the attack of pathogenic agents, while little compromising nutritional value and sensorial properties of foods. The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), widely consumed product in South America, generally in the form of infusions with hot or cold water, calls of chimarrao or terere, it is cited in literature as one of the best sources phenolic compounds. The antioxidants action of these constituent has been related to the protection of the organism against the free radicals, generated in alive, currently responsible for the sprouting of some degenerative illness as cancer, arteriosclerosis, rheumatic arthritis and cardiovascular clutters among others. The objective of that work was to evaluate the action of the processing for gamma radiation in phenolic compounds of terere beverage in the doses of 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. The observed results do not demonstrate significant alterations in phenolic compounds of terere beverage processed by gamma radiation.

  1. of polyphenolic compounds in Ilex Sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwyrzykowska Anna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural compounds are an important source of desired biological activity which help to improve nutritional status, enhance productivity and bring many health benefits. The leaves of the Ilex paraguariensis (Aquifoliaceae are used for preparing a beverage known as yerba mate and represent a proven source of natural polyphenols which are known to foster biological activity with the emphasis on antioxidant properties. In present work we focused on the polyphenolic content of air-dried leaves of Ilex aquifolium L., Ilex aquifolium ‘Argentea Mariginata’, Ilex meserveae ‘Blue Angel’, and a commercially available mate as the reference product. Liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (HPLC and LC-MS and thin layer chromatography (TLC, were used to establish polyphenolic substances content in aqueous methanolic extracts obtained from the biological matter. Up to 20 polyphenolic compounds were identified in the extracts, including rutin, quinic acid and its caffeoyl esters, i.e. chlorogenic acid and its isomers as well as dicaffeoyl derivatives. We took chlorogenic acid and rutin as reference compounds to quantify their levels in the extracts. It was determined that in all tested plants, high levels of these antioxidants were present. This led us to the conclusion that their leaves might serve as valuable food additives.

  2. Yerba mate, coffee and tobacco: their possible neuroprotecting role in Uruguayan patients suffering from Parkinson Disease, Montevideo, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Amestoy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diversos reportes internacionales han demostrado que existen factores genéticos y ambientales que podrían predisponer al desarrollo de la Enfermedad de Parkinson (EP. Dichos estudios muestran la existencia de una relación inversa entre el consumo de tabaco y café y la EP, viéndose una relación dependiente de la dosis. La Yerba Mate (YM también ha mostrado, a nivel regional, dicha relación entre el riesgo de desarrollar EP y el consumo de YM. El objetivo es evaluar la posible asociación neuroprotectora entre el hábito de consumo prolongado y sostenido de la yerba mate y/o café y/o tabaco y el riesgo de desarrollar la EP. Para ello se realizó un estudio caso-control entre individuos con EP y controles sin EP. La exposición se midió el consumo e intensidad de YM, café y de tabaco. Se obtuvieron sus respectivos Odds Ratio (OR y su análisis en conjunto mediante regresión logística. Se analizaron los resultados de 128 casos y 256 controles. Tanto el consumo de YM como de tabaco, evidenció una relación inversa entre su consumo y el riesgo de desarrollar EP, OR: 0.56 (IC 95%, 0.33-0.95; p= 0.032 y OR: 0.46 (IC 95%, 0.25-0.85; p=0.013, respectivamente. El consumo de café se mostró como factor de riesgo para EP: OR: 2.04 (IC 95%, 1.21-3.44; p=0.007. El análisis multivariado muestra que la única variable que se mantiene como factor de riesgo fue el café. Concluimos que este trabajo, confirma en general buena parte de los datos ya reportados regional y mundialmente en cuanto a factores neuroprotectores ambientales de la EP.

  3. Appetite Suppression and Antiobesity Effect of a Botanical Composition Composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601. Appetite suppression activity was tested in acute feed intake rat model. Efficacy was evaluated in C57BL/6J mouse models treated with oral doses of 1.3 g/kg/day for 7 weeks. Orlistat at 40 mg/kg/day was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. ELISA was done for insulin, leptin, and ghrelin level quantitation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH scoring was conducted. Results. Marked acute hypophagia with 81.8, 75.3, 43.9, and 30.9% reductions in food intake at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours were observed for UP601. Decreases in body weight gain (21.5% compared to the HFD at weeks 7 and 8.2% compared to baseline and calorie intake (40.5% for the first week were observed. 75.9% and 46.8% reductions in insulin and leptin, respectively, 4.2-fold increase in ghrelin level, and reductions of 18.6% in cholesterol and 59% in low-density lipoprotein were documented. A percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 30.4% was found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP601, respectively. 59.3% less mesenteric fat pad and improved NASH scores were observed for UP601. Conclusion. UP601, a standardized botanical composition from Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis could be used as a natural alternative for appetite suppression, maintaining healthy body weight and metabolism management.

  4. Appetite Suppression and Antiobesity Effect of a Botanical Composition Composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Tae-Woo; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background . Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba , Yerba mate , and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method . Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601. Appetite suppression activity was tested in acute feed intake rat model. Efficacy was evaluated in C57BL/6J mouse models treated with oral doses of 1.3 g/kg/day for 7 weeks. Orlistat at 40 mg/kg/day was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). ELISA was done for insulin, leptin, and ghrelin level quantitation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) scoring was conducted. Results . Marked acute hypophagia with 81.8, 75.3, 43.9, and 30.9% reductions in food intake at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours were observed for UP601. Decreases in body weight gain (21.5% compared to the HFD at weeks 7 and 8.2% compared to baseline) and calorie intake (40.5% for the first week) were observed. 75.9% and 46.8% reductions in insulin and leptin, respectively, 4.2-fold increase in ghrelin level, and reductions of 18.6% in cholesterol and 59% in low-density lipoprotein were documented. A percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 30.4% was found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP601, respectively. 59.3% less mesenteric fat pad and improved NASH scores were observed for UP601. Conclusion . UP601, a standardized botanical composition from Morus alba , Yerba mate , and Magnolia officinalis could be used as a natural alternative for appetite suppression, maintaining healthy body weight and metabolism management.

  5. UP601, a standardized botanical composition composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate and Magnolia officinalis for weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2017-02-16

    The prevalence of obesity is surging in an alarming rate all over the world. Pharmaceutical drugs are considered potential adjunctive therapy to lifestyle modification. However, for most, besides being too expensive, their long term usages are hindered by their severe adverse effects. Here we describe the effect of UP601, a standardized blend of extracts from Morus alba, Yerba mate and Magnolia officinalis, in modulating a number of obesity-related phenotypic and biochemical markers in a high-fat high-fructose (HFF)-induced C57BL/6J mouse model of obesity. Adipogenesis activity of the composition was assessed in 3T3-L1 cells in vitro. Effects of UP601 on body weight and metabolic markers were evaluated. It was administered at oral doses of 300 mg/kg, 450 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg for 7 weeks. Orlistat (40 mg/kg/day) was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Serum biomarkers were measured for liver function and lipid profiling. Relative organ weights were determined. Histopathological analysis was performed for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) scoring. UP601 at 250 μg/ml resulted in 1.8-fold increase in lipolysis. Statistically significant changes in body weight (decreased by 9.1, 19.6 and 25.6% compared to the HFF group at week-7) were observed for mice treated with UP601 at 300, 450 and 600 mg/kg, respectively. Reductions of 9.1, 16.9, and 18.6% in total cholesterol; 45.0, 55.0, 63.6% in triglyceride; 34.8, 37.1 and 41.6% in LDL; 3.2, 21.6 (P = 0.03) and 33.7% (P = 0.005) in serum glucose were observed for UP601 at 300, 450 and 600 mg/kg, respectively. Body fat distribution was found reduced by 31.6 and 17.2% for the 450 mg/kg UP601 and orlistat, respectively, from the DEXA scan analysis. Up to an 89.1% reduction in mesenteric fat deposit was observed for UP601 in relative organ weight. Statistically significant improvements in NASH scores were observed for mice treated

  6. Chemical composition of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis): a study of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis Jacques, Rosângela; dos Santos Freitas, Lisiane; Flores Peres, Valéria; Dariva, Cláudio; de Oliveira, José Vladimir; Bastos Caramão, Elina

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the extraction of Ilex paraguariensis leaves by means of three extraction techniques: pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, also called accelerated solvent extraction--ASE), maceration, and sonication. Samples of mate tea leaves were collected from an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Indfistria e Comércio de Erva-Mate Barão LTDA, Brazil. Six solvents with increasing polarities (n-hexane, toluene, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol) were used in this investigation. Chemical analysis of the extracts was performed by GC coupled with a mass spectrometer detector. The identification and quantification were accomplished by coinjections of certified standards. The results showed that no significant differences in the qualities of the extracts were noticed regarding the extraction methods. On the other hand, the PLE technique was found to be more effective for the extractions of caffeine, phytol, palmitic, and stearic acid. The use of PLE led to a significant decrease in the total extraction time, amount of solvent consumption, and manipulation of samples compared to maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods.

  7. Foam-forming properties of Ilex paraguariensis (mate saponin: foamability and foam lifetime analysis by Weibull equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Treter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are natural soaplike foam-forming compounds widely used in foods, cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations. In this work foamability and foam lifetime of foams obtained from Ilex paraguariensis unripe fruits were analyzed. Polysorbate 80 and sodium dodecyl sulfate were used as reference surfactants. Aiming a better data understanding a linearized 4-parameters Weibull function was proposed. The mate hydroethanolic extract (ME and a mate saponin enriched fraction (MSF afforded foamability and foam lifetime comparable to the synthetic surfactants. The linearization of the Weibull equation allowed the statistical comparison of foam decay curves, improving former mathematical approaches.

  8. Nota científica: perfil bioquímico de ratos alimentados com iogurte contendo extrato de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil)

    OpenAIRE

    Ril,Franciele Taís; Loch,Camila Ronsoni; Valduga,Alice Teresa; Macedo,Sandra Manoela Dias; Cichoski,Alexandre José

    2011-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do iogurte contendo extrato de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) e com/sem culturas probióticas sobre o perfil lipídico, glicêmico, hepático e renal de ratos alimentados com esses tipos de iogurtes. Ratos da linhagem Wistar (42) foram divididos em três grupos (n=14), e receberam iogurte sem extrato de erva-mate, iogurte com extrato de erva-mate 0,1% e iogurte com extrato de erva-mate 0,1% e culturas probióticas, durante 30 dias. Não foi observado ...

  9. The Effect of Mg2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ pre-treatment on the color of yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Patricia Scipioni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of alkaline blanching followed by an immersion in salt solutions of Mg2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ on color preservation of Yerba Maté leaves. The concentration of NaOH in the alkaline solution influenced all of the color parameters. Ion concentration and dipped time influenced only some color parameters. The color parameters of the product obtained with different treatments were different from the control sample (blanched with boiling water instead of alkaline blanching and from the product obtained via industrial processing. The green color in the pre-treated and control samples was more intense (greater values of -a and darker (low values of L and b. Ionic and ash content in the leaves increased with the treatments.

  10. Chemical characterization of candy made of Erva-Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil.) residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Manoela A; Rovaris, Angela A; Maraschin, Marcelo; De Simas, Karina N; Pagliosa, Cristiane M; Podestá, Rossana; Amboni, Renata D M C; Barreto, Pedro L M; Amante, Edna R

    2008-06-25

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemical properties of the residues from erva-mate processing and also to determine the candy-making performance with addition of residues from erva-mate on consumers' acceptance and purchase intent of this new product. The candies containing different amounts of mate powder were evaluated through overall acceptability test and purchase intent. Mate powder showed high contents of dietary fiber, total ash, and total polyphenols. The total dietary fiber content of the mate candies ranged from 5.7 to 6.29% on a dry matter basis. Supplementation with mate powder caused significant increases in polyphenol and mineral contents of mate candies. The incorporation of mate powder increased the hardness of the candies and produced desirable results in their nutritional characteristics. The sensory tests indicated that mate candies were acceptable and approved in relation to purchase intent.

  11. Marcadores moleculares em estudos de caracterização de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St.Hil.: o sabor Molecular markers in erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis araguariensis St.Hil. characterization studies: the taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Angelo Vidor

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A Epagri (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina S.A possui uma das maiores coleções brasileiras de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St.Hil.. A partir de ensaios agronômicos preliminares, apresentaram destaque as procedências Barão de Cotegipe e Água Doce. Dentre essas, verificaram-se diferentes sabores (mais amargo e menos amargo, aparentemente, em função do tipo de folha (CL - curta e larga; LE - longa e estreita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de tentar associar os padrões obtidos mediante marcadores moleculares, com as procedências ou acessos e características fenotípicas desejáveis - altura de planta, diâmetro de copa, densidade folhar, sobrevivência das plantas e comportamento de rebrota -, dentro do caráter sabor em erva-mate. Para isto, utilizaram-se marcadores moleculares que amplificam DNA, do tipo RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Os resultados indicaram não ser possível, com o número de iniciadores utlizados como marcadores moleculares, definir geneticamente o caráter sabor, ainda que os mesmos tenham indicado tendência para tal.The Santa Catarina State Agricultural Research and Extensios Organization - Epagri SA, owns one of the largest Brazilian colletions or erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St.Hil.. Preliminary agronomic trials identified two promissing erva-mate materials named Barão de Cotegipe and Água Doce. Different tastes within each material were also identified, i.e. tastes with different grades of bitterness, apparently associated with the shape of leaves (CL - short and wide; LE - long and narrow. This study aimed to associate this plant patterns using molecular markers with plant origins and desirable fenotipic characteristics such as plant height, crown diameter, leaf density, plant survival, regrowth behaviour, within each taste group. For this molecular markers which amplify DNA of RAPD type (Random Amplified Polimorphic DNA was used. The results did not allow

  12. Effects of acute administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis) in animal models of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Rui D S; Fernandes, Marcelo S; Rial, Daniel; Wopereis, Sandro; Pereira, Vitor S; Bosse, Tamara S; Da Silva, Camila B; Carradore, Renata S; Machado, Marina S; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Costa-Campos, Luciane

    2008-12-08

    Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire (Aquifoliaceae) is a plant widely cultivated in South America that is used to prepare a tea-like beverage with a reputation to improve cognitive function, a response that has been attributed to the constituents of the leaves, especially caffeine. Our previous study indicated that the hydroalcoholic extract of Ilex paraguariensis presents an antiparkinsonian profile in reserpine- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP)-treated rodents. In the present study, the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Ilex paraguariensis on the short- and long-term learning and memory of rats were assessed with the social recognition, Morris water maze, and step-down inhibitory avoidance tasks. A preliminary HPLC fingerprint of the plant extract confirmed the presence of caffeine (the major compound), rutin and kaemperol, and revealed the absence of detectable concentrations of caffeic acid, quercetin and ursolic acid. Acute pre-training intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral administration of the extract of Ilex paraguariensis improved the short-term social memory in a specific manner as well as facilitated the step-down inhibitory avoidance short-term memory evaluated 1.5h after training. Moreover, a synergistic response was observed following the co-administration of 'non-effective' doses of caffeine and Ilex paraguariensis in the social memory. In contrast, pre-training administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Ilex paraguariensis did not alter the step-down inhibitory avoidance long-term memory evaluated 24h after training, while the highest dose tested (250 mg/kg, i.p.) disrupted the animals' performance in a cued version of the Morris water maze. These results partly substantiate the traditional use of mate tea for improvement of cognition indicating that acute administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Ilex paraguariensis differentially modulates short- and long-term learning and memory in rats probably through its

  13. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence applied to the chemical elements analysis of the mate tea infusion (Ilex-paraguariensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Fabio; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Cunha, Richard M. da Silva e; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do

    2002-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate simultaneously the chemical element concentrations from K to Sr (19≤Z≤38) range in six samples of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) infusion, commercially available in Paraguay and South of Brazil. The chemical analysis of this beverage has a great nutritional importance for the native people of these areas, due to their large daily consumption. For the determination of these elements the dry-ashing and total reflection X-rays fluorescence (TXRF) were used. The methodology showed limits of detection among 81 ng.mL-1 for K to 10 ng.mL -1 for Zn. Six infusion samples were prepared in triplicate, and the concentration was 3,8 to 10,2 μg.mL -1 for K, Ca and Mn, 0,21 to 1,07 μg. mL -1 for Fe and Zn and 0.03 to 0,17 μg.mL -1 for Ni, Cu, Br, Rb and Sr. The Mn and Ni concentrations are above the maximum permissible values for drinking water established by World Health Organization and Brazilian legislation (these organisms do not regulate the maximum permissible values for chemical elements in mate tea infusion). (author)

  14. Enraizamento de estacas de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hill. provenientes de brotações rejuvenescidas Rooting of "erva-mate" (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hill. cuttings from rejuvenated sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bitencourt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hill. é espécie nativa da América do Sul, de grande importância econômica devido a seu consumo na forma de chás e também vem sendo amplamente estudada nas áreas de farmacologia e biotecnologia. No entanto, tem baixo capacidade de propagação, seja ela sexuada ou assexuada. Um dos principais efeitos da maturação é a perda da capacidade de enraizamento, desta forma, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos observar a influência do rejuvenescimento e aplicação de ácido indol butírico (IBA no enraizamento de estacas caulinares de erva-mate. Foram confeccionadas estacas a partir de brotações do ano de árvores de 13 anos, assim como de brotos rejuvenescidos, obtidos da decepa de árvores com 17 anos. As estacas foram tratadas com IBA em solução nas seguintes concentrações: 0, 1500, 3000, 4500 e 6000 mg L-1, resultando em 5 tratamentos para cada tipo de estaca. O plantio foi realizado em caixas plásticas preenchidas com vermiculita e casca-de-arroz carbonizada na proporção de 1:1 e após 90 dias em casa-de-vegetação, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, número de raízes/estaca, comprimento das 3 maiores raízes/estaca, porcentagem de estacas vivas, com calos e mortas. A análise estatística mostrou que o material rejuvenescido apresentou os melhores resultados quanto à porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, assim como de número e comprimento de raízes. Já a aplicação da auxina sintética não influenciou no enraizamento das estacas de nenhum dos dois tipos, de modo que os tratamentos com IBA não diferiram entre si estatisticamente."Erva-mate" (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hill. is native to South America and has great economic importance due to its consumption as tea; it has also been studied in pharmacology and biotechnology. However, this species has low propagation ability, either sexually or not. One of the main effects of maturation is

  15. Effect of {sup 60}Co radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis); Efeito do processamento por radiacao de {sup 60}Co na erva-mate (llex paraguariensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furgeri, Camilo

    2009-07-01

    The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10 kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10 kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative

  16. Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) improves bone formation in the alveolar socket healing after tooth extraction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasilino, Matheus da Silva; Stringhetta-Garcia, Camila Tami; Pereira, Camila Scacco; Pereira, Ariana Aparecida Ferreira; Stringhetta, Karina; Leopoldino, Andréia Machado; Crivelini, Marcelo Macedo; Ervolino, Edilson; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati; de Melo Stevanato Nakamune, Ana Cláudia; Chaves-Neto, Antonio Hernandes

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mate tea (MT) [Ilex paraguariensis] on alveolar socket healing after tooth extraction. Sixteen male rats were divided into MT and control groups. MT was administered by intragastric gavage at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 28 days before and 28 days after right maxillary incisor extraction. The control group received an equal volume of water. Histopathological and histometric analysis of the neoformed bone area and osteocyte density were performed, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of osteocalcin (OCN), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the alveolar socket. Calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in plasma, whereas TRAP activity was determined in serum. Histometry evidenced an increase in bone area (P alveolar socket healing on day 28 after tooth extraction. Regular MT ingestion improves the antioxidant defenses and bone formation, which is beneficial for alveolar socket bone healing after tooth extraction.

  17. Phytochemical profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) fruit using compressed propane and supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ciro E F; Scapinello, Jaqueline; Bohn, Aline; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Magro, Jacir Dall; Palliga, Marshall; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Tres, Marcus V

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, Ilex paraguariensis leaves are consumed in tea form or as typical drinks like mate and terere, while the fruits are discarded processing and has no commercial value. The aim of this work to evaluate phytochemical properties, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Ilex paraguariensis fruits obtained from supercritical CO 2 and compressed propane extraction. The extraction with compressed propane yielded 2.72 wt%, whereas with supercritical CO 2 1.51 wt% was obtained. The compound extracted in larger amount by the two extraction solvents was caffeine, 163.28 and 54.17 mg/g by supercritical CO 2 and pressurized propane, respectively. The antioxidant activity was more pronounced for the supercritical CO 2 extract, with no difference found in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration for Staphylococcus aureus for the two extracts and better results observed for Escherichia coli when using supercritical CO 2 .

  18. A novel procedure to measure the antioxidant capacity of Yerba maté extracts Procedimento padronizado para avaliar a capacidade antioxidante dos extratos de erva-mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Graciela Hartwig

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yerba maté extracts have in vitro antioxidant capacity attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acids and dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives. DPPH is one of the most used assays to measure the antioxidant capacity of pure compounds and plant extracts. It is difficult to compare the results between studies because this assay is applied in too many different conditions by the different research groups. Thus, in order to assess the antioxidant capacity of yerba maté extracts, the following procedure is proposed: 100 µL of an aqueous dilution of the extracts is mixed in duplicate with 3.0 mL of a DPPH 'work solution in absolute methanol (100 µM.L-1, with an incubation time of 120 minutes in darkness at 37 ± 1 °C, and then absorbance is read at 517 nm against absolute methanol. The results should be expressed as ascorbic acid equivalents or Trolox equivalents in mass percentage (g% dm, dry matter in order to facilitate comparisons. The AOC of the ethanolic extracts ranged between 12.8 and 23.1 g TE % dm and from 9.1 to 16.4 g AAE % dm. The AOC determined by the DPPH assay proposed in the present study can be related to the total polyphenolic content determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay.Extratos de erva-mate têm a sua capacidade antioxidante in vitro atribuída à presença de compostos polifenólicos, principalmente ácidos clorogênicos e derivados do ácido dicafeoilquínico. Embora DPPH seja um dos ensaios mais utilizados para avaliar a capacidade antioxidante dos compostos puros e extratos de plantas, o fato de que há uma padronização pobre na sua aplicação torna as comparações entre os diferentes extratos muito difíceis. Visando conseguir uma técnica padronizada para medir a capacidade antioxidante de extratos de erva-mate, propomos o seguinte procedimento: 100 µL de uma diluição do extrato aquoso são misturados em duplicata, com 3,0 mL de uma solução de trabalho de DPPH em metanol absoluto

  19. Determination of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in Mate beer and Mate soft drinks by high-performance thin-layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellig, Claudia; Schunck, Jacob; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2018-01-19

    Mate beer and Mate soft drinks are beverages produced from the dried leaves of Ilex paraguariensis (Yerba Mate). In Yerba Mate, the xanthine derivatives caffeine, theobromine and theophylline, also known as methylxanthines, are important active components. The presented method for the determination of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in Mate beer and Mate soft drinks by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPTLC-UV) offers a fully automated and sensitive determination of the three methylxanthines. Filtration of the samples was followed by degassing, dilution with acetonitrile in the case of Mate beers for protein precipitation, and centrifugation before the extracts were analyzed by HPTLC-UV on LiChrospher silica gel plates with fluorescence indicator and acetone/toluene/chloroform (4:3:3, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. For quantitation, the absorbance was scanned at 274nm. Limits of detection and quantitation were 1 and 4ng/zone, respectively, for caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. With recoveries close to 100% and low standard deviations reliable results were guaranteed. Experimental Mate beers as well as Mate beers and Mate soft drinks from the market were analyzed for their concentrations of methylxanthines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Entomopathogenic fungi isolates to control the borer of yerba mate (Hedypathes betulinus Kluger (Coleoptera; CerambycidaeIsolados de fungos entomopatogênicos visando ao controle da broca da erva-mate (Hedypathes betulinus Kluger (Coleoptera; Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Pereira Fanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yerba mate is an important crop of southern Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, with socio-economic and environmental importance. Due the lack of native herbals, yerba mate has become a monoculture, and as a consequence, insects have become pests, and the borer, Hedypathes betulinus, one of the most important. In order to improve biological control in the crop, this work aims to select in laboratory the most virulent, of 32 isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and 18 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. Initially, isolates virolence was evaluated by immersing the adults borers in a fungal suspension, containing 1×108 conidia mL-1, and after, those caused highest confirmed mortality were selected for the second step, wherein it was evaluated the virulence, vegetative growth and conidia production in culture medium, rice and borer bodies. Three isolates of B. bassiana (UNIOESTE 4, UNIOESTE 52 and UNIOESTE 64 and one of M. anisopliae (IBCB 352 reached confirmed mortality equal or superior to 90%, these isolates were selected for the second step, together with the standard isolated GC 716 (B. bassiana. The isolated IBCB 352 of M. anisopliae, despite being the only of this species to be selected for the second step, promoted the high confirmed mortality and conidiogenesis in adults borer, indicating a high inoculums production i, being nominated for field evaluations. A erva-mate é uma cultura importante da região sul do Brasil, Argentina e Paraguai, tendo grande importância sócio-econômica e ambiental. Com a escassez de ervais nativos, a cultura da erva-mate passou a ser cultivada em sistema de monocultivo e como consequência, alguns insetos tornaram-se pragas, sendo a broca, Hedypathes betulinus, muito importante. A fim de incrementar o controle biológico na cultura, o objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar em laboratório os isolados mais virulentos de 32 isolados do fungo entomopatog

  1. A produção da erva mate (ilex paraguariensis) no contexto da agricultura familiar no município de Cruz Machado-PR

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderlei Marinheski

    2017-01-01

    A pesquisa teve como objetivo geral avaliar participação da erva mate (Ilex paraguariensis) no contexto econômico do Município de Cruz Machado no estado do Paraná, suas perspectivas de desenvolvimento local e geração de renda no sistema de agricultura familiar. A metodologia utilizada foi a pesquisa bibliográfica e consulta on line nos principais órgão e secretárias, mais o trabalho de campo com a averiguação de algumas propriedades rurais do município de Cruz Machado. Nos sistemas de agricul...

  2. Atividade anticonvulsivante e antioxidante de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis, St. Hil.) orgânica e convencional e seu efeito sobre o comportamento de ratos wistar

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, Catia dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    A epilepsia é uma das mais comuns e sérias desordens neurológicas. Caracteriza-se pela ocorrência de crises convulsivas, as quais podem aumentar a geração de espécies reativas, desequilibrando o metabolismo redox dos pacientes epiléticos e aumentando a incidência de doenças associadas ao estresse oxidativo. Estudos têm mostrado que alguns polifenóis podem apresentar atividade anticonvulsivante em modelo animal de epilepsia. A erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) é uma planta rica em...

  3. Efeitos da erva-mate (Ilex paraguaiensis) sobre o metabolismo de aminoácidos e de lipídios em ratos Wistar

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel D'Agostini Silva

    2013-01-01

    A erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul, muito utilizada no preparo de bebidas estimulantes. As folhas e ramos utilizados no preparo destas bebidas não são consumidos na sua forma in natura ou bruta, ao contrário, eles passam por uma série de processamentos industriais como o sapeco, secagem, moagem e envelhecimento. As condições de processamento podem modificar as características sensoriais assim como podem influenciar diretamente a quantidade fina...

  4. Determination of Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids, and Xanthines in Mate Tea (Ilex paraguariensis St.-Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Bojić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Raw material, different formulations of foods, and dietary supplements of mate demands control of the content of bioactive substances for which high performance thin layer chromatography (TLC, described here, presents simple and rapid approach for detections as well as quantification. Using TLC densitometry, the following bioactive compounds were identified and quantified: chlorogenic acid (2.1 mg/g, caffeic acid (1.5 mg/g, rutin (5.2 mg/g, quercetin (2.2 mg/g, and kaempferol (4.5 mg/g. The results obtained with TLC densitometry for caffeine (5.4 mg/g and theobromine (2.7 mg/g show no statistical difference to the content of total xanthines (7.6 mg/g obtained by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Thus, TLC remains a technique of choice for simple and rapid analysis of great number of samples as well as a primary screening technique in plant analysis.

  5. Diversity of endophytic fungal and bacterial communities in Ilex paraguariensis grown under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María Laura; Collavino, Mónica Mariana; Sansberro, Pedro Alfonso; Mroginski, Luis Amado; Galdeano, Ernestina

    2016-04-01

    The composition and diversity of the endophytic community associated with yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) was investigated using culture-depending methods. Fungi were identified based on their micromorphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence analysis; for bacteria 16S rDNA sequence analysis was used. Fungal and bacterial diversity did not show significant differences between organ age. The highest fungal diversity was registered during fall season and the lowest in winter. Bacterial diversity was higher in stems and increased from summer to winter, in contrast with leaves, which decreased. The most frequently isolated fungus was Fusarium, followed by Colletotrichum; they were both present in all the sampling seasons and organ types assayed. Actinobacteria represented 57.5 % of all bacterial isolates. The most dominant bacterial taxa were Curtobacterium and Microbacterium. Other bacteria frequently found were Methylobacterium, Sphingomonas, Herbiconiux and Bacillus. Nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization activity, ACC deaminase production and antagonism against plant fungal pathogens were assayed in endophytic bacterial strains. In the case of fungi, strains of Trichoderma, Penicillium and Aspergillus were assayed for antagonism against pathogenic Fusarium sp. All microbial isolates assayed showed at least one growth promoting activity. Strains of Bacillus, Pantoea, Curtobacterium, Methylobacterium, Brevundimonas and Paenibacillus had at least two growth-promoting activities, and Bacillus, Paenibacillus and the three endophytic fungi showed high antagonistic activity against Fusarium sp. In this work we have made a wide study of the culturable endophytic community within yerba mate plants and found that several microbial isolates could be considered as potential inoculants useful for improving yerba mate production.

  6. BIOMASSA E ACÚMULO DE NUTRIENTES EM Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Otomar Caron

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available They are still few the information on the influence of the brightness in the production of biomass as well as in the concentration of some nutritious in leaves of Ilex paraguariensis . This work aimed to evaluate the production of dry matter of the aerial part of the Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. (branches and leaves and the concentration of nitrogen, potassium, magnesium and iron in leaves produced in two systems of cultivations, intercropping with Pinus elliottii Engel. and single, along the seasons in the municipality of FredericoWestphalen, Rio Grande do Sul state. The results showed that the production of biomass of the Ilex paraguariensis (leaves + branches is larger in the single cultivation when compared to the intercropping. However, when comparing the two cropping systems with respect to phosphorus, but especially calcium and magnesium, there was a small variation for different periods of the year, which indicates a more constant metabolic activity of the plant yerba mate in a more shaded condition, which makes it an important factor in the final quality of the product.

  7. BIOMASS AND ACCUMULATION OF NUTRIENTS IN Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Otomar Caron

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814565They are still few the information on the influence of the brightness in the production of biomass as well as in the concentration of some nutritious in leaves of Ilex paraguariensis. This work aimed to evaluate the production of dry matter of the aerial part of the Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. (branches and leaves and the concentration of nitrogen, potassium, magnesium and iron in leaves produced in two systems of cultivations, intercropping with Pinus elliottii Engel. and single, along the seasons in the municipality of FredericoWestphalen, Rio Grande do Sul state. The results showed that the production of biomass of the Ilex paraguariensis (leaves + branches is larger in the single cultivation when compared to the intercropping. However, when comparing the two cropping systems with respect to phosphorus, but especially calcium and magnesium, there was a small variation for different periods of the year, which indicates a more constant metabolic activity of the plant yerba mate in a more shaded condition, which makes it an important factor in the final quality of the product.

  8. SOBREVIVÊNCIA E VIGOR VEGETATIVO DE PLANTAS DE ERVA-MATE (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.- Hil. ENXERTADAS DIRETAMENTE A CAMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Martin Domingos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a sobrevivência e o vigor vegetativo de material genético adulto selecionado de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill enxertado diretamente a campo. A enxertia foi realizada em plantas de aproximadamente 3 anos de idade, sendo o material vegetativo enxertado coletado do terço inferior ou próximo da base de duas árvores selecionadas com a idade estimada em torno de 70 anos. O método de enxertia utilizado foi o de garfagem em fenda cheia, onde foram enxertadas 48 plantas com material de cada uma das duas matrizes. Os dados de sobrevivência foram obtidos aos 60 e 90 dias após a enxertia, e de crescimento (quantidade e comprimento total de brotos por enxerto vivo aos 90 e 120 dias da enxertia. Pôde-se concluir sobre a enxertia da erva-mate realizada diretamente a campo que: é viável tecnicamente, havendo um decréscimo na sobrevivência das plantas enxertadas em função do número de dias após a enxertia; as matrizes utilizadas apresentaram comportamentos distintos na porcentagem de sobrevivência e; os enxertos sobreviventes demonstraram um bom vigor de crescimento.

  9. A produção da erva mate (ilex paraguariensis no contexto da agricultura familiar no município de Cruz Machado-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei Marinheski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo geral avaliar participação da erva mate (Ilex paraguariensis no contexto econômico do Município de Cruz Machado no estado do Paraná, suas perspectivas de desenvolvimento local e geração de renda no sistema de agricultura familiar. A metodologia utilizada foi a pesquisa bibliográfica e consulta on line nos principais órgão e secretárias, mais o trabalho de campo com a averiguação de algumas propriedades rurais do município de Cruz Machado. Nos sistemas de agricultura familiar a logística das ocupações do relevo está associada às características geomorfológicas e ao tamanho das propriedades agropecuárias. Em Cruz Machado predomina o sistema de agricultura familiar, e a erva mate sempre foi uma alternativa extra na complementação da renda dos produtores, e no ano de 2013 contribuiu em mais de 15% do PIB anual do município. E hoje a produção da erva mate representa uma complementação na renda das famílias do município de Cruz Machado, mas que poderá ter uma maximização de produção aliada a características geoecológicas da região e contribuir para o desenvolvimento local.       

  10. Características físico-químicas de extratos de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil no estado de Santa Catarina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorli Mário Da Croce

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar as características físico-químicas de extratos de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil, como a umidade e substâncias voláteis a 105°C % (p/p, resíduo mineral fixo, % (p/p resíduo mineral fixo insolúvel em solução de HCL a 10%, v/v, % (p/p, extrato aquoso, % (p/p e cafeína, % (p/p. Os resultados obtidos nas análises amostradas foram comparados com as normas estabelecidas pela portaria 234 de 25 de março de 1998, da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVS, Ministério da Saúde. As amostras foram coletadas em quatro grandes regiões de ocorrência de erva-mate no estado de Santa Catarina, apresentando condições específicas de solo e clima. Os resultados obtidos indicam que, na época de maior crescimento vegetativo, compreendido entre os meses de setembro a dezembro, poucas amostras atingiram os índices de cafeína estabelecidos na portaria. Nas avaliações feitas em janeiro, fevereiro, março, junho e julho, a maioria das amostras atingiram o índice mínimo de cafeína estabelecido em 0,5g/100g de erva-mate. As demais características analisadas então de acordo com os índices estabelecidos na legislação.

  11. Saponinas dos frutos de ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. (mate) : desenvolvimento de metodologia analítica, estudos físico-químico e biológico

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Paula Garofo Peixoto

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo a avaliação físico-química e biológica de uma fração de saponinas enriquecida, obtida a partir de frutos verdes de Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil (mate). A espécie apresenta grande importância econômica para vários países sul-americanos, dentre eles o Brasil. Os frutos verdes da espécie acumulam significativa quantidade de saponinas, entretanto, são considerados subproduto da indústria do beneficiamento das folhas de mate. O extrato liofilizado dos frutos...

  12. Exigência nutricional de mudas de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. à adubação fosfatada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Ester Ceconi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a exigência nutricional de mudas de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. à adubação fosfatada, foi instalado um experimento no Centro Tecnológico de Silvicultura pertencente ao Departamento de Ciências Florestais/CCR/UFSM. Vasos com capacidade de 2 dm3 foram preenchidos com 2 kg de solo do tipo Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo coletado na camada superficial (0-20 cm, o qual foi destorroado, homogeneizado, seco ao ar, passado em peneira de 5 mm e posteriormente analisado quimicamente. Como adubação complementar, foram adicionados 64 mg kg-1 de N e 38 mg kg-1 de K, as fontes utilizadas foram CH4N2O e KCl, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com oito tratamentos e seis repetições, distribuídos da seguinte forma: T1-testemunha (solo sem adição de P, T2-90 mg kg-1, T3-180 mg kg-1, T4-270 mg kg-1, T5-360 mg kg-1, T6-450 mg kg-1, T7-540 mg kg-1 e T8-630 mg kg-1 de P respectivamente, a fonte de P foi CaHPO4. Decorridos 10 meses da repicagem foram realizadas as medições das variáveis: altura da parte aérea, diâmetro do colo, biomassa acima do solo, biomassa radicular e biomassa total. O melhor desenvolvimento das mudas de erva-mate foi observado nas doses de 360 e 450 mg kg-1 de P.

  13. EXIGÊNCIA NUTRICIONAL DE MUDAS DE ERVA-MATE (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. À ADUBAÇÃO FOSFATADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a exigência nutricional de mudas de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. à adubação fosfatada, foi instalado um experimento no Centro Tecnológico de Silvicultura pertencente ao Departamento de Ciências Florestais/CCR/UFSM. Vasos com capacidade de 2 dm3 foram preenchidos com 2 kg de solo do tipo Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo coletado na camada superficial (0-20 cm, o qual foi destorroado, homogeneizado, seco ao ar, passado em peneira de 5 mm e posteriormente analisado quimicamente. Como adubação complementar, foram adicionados 64 mg kg-1 de N e 38 mg kg-1 de K, as fontes utilizadas foram CH4N2O e KCl, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com oito tratamentos e seis repetições, distribuídos da seguinte forma: T1-testemunha (solo sem adição de P, T2-90 mg kg-1, T3-180 mg kg-1, T4-270 mg kg-1, T5-360 mg kg-1, T6-450 mg kg-1, T7-540 mg kg-1 e T8-630 mg kg-1 de P respectivamente, a fonte de P foi CaHPO4. Decorridos 10 meses da repicagem foram realizadas as medições das variáveis: altura da parte aérea, diâmetro do colo, biomassa acima do solo, biomassa radicular e biomassa total. O melhor desenvolvimento das mudas de erva-mate foi observado nas doses de 360 e 450 mg kg-1 de P.

  14. Composição mineral do produto comercial da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. Mineral composition of a commercial product from mate-herb (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reges Heinrichs

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de quantificar e avaliar a concentração mineral na matéria seca e na infusão de erva-mate tipo chimarrão, selecionaram-se três amostras comerciais, com ampla aceitação pelo consumidor, as quais foram amostradas com quatro repetições. Na industrialização da erva-mate tipo chimarrão, são utilizadas folhas, pecíolos e ramos finos, tendo uma composição aproximada de 30% ramos e 70% folhas, que são beneficiados para posterior comercialização. O preparo das amostras e as análises foram efetuadas no Laboratório de Nutrição Mineral de Plantas do Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP. Para determinação da composição mineral da matéria seca, as amostras foram moídas em moinho "tipo Willey", com posterior digestão e determinação dos teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Na e Pb. Para determinação dos elementos na infusão, utilizaram-se 70g de erva-mate para um litro de água desionizada a 80ºC, simulando-se a temperatura para chimarrão, mantendo-se até esfriar e posteriormente coando-se. Os elementos analisados na infusão foram os determinados na matéria seca e, além destes, Mo, Ba, Si e Sr, exceto Co. As leituras das concentrações foram realizadas através da espectrometria de emissão atômica com plasma de argônio. Na matéria seca, os elementos que apresentaram maior destaque é a concentração são Mg e Mn. As maiores concentrações na infusão da erva-mate, em ordem decrescente, foram: K; Mg; S; Ca e P. Quanto à solubilidade do elemento, em relação a sua concentração na matéria seca foi a seguinte: B > S-SO4 > Zn > K > P > Mg =Mn > Cu > Cr, os demais apresentaram valores menores que 30%. A infusão da erva-mate apresenta altas concentrações de K, Mg e Mn (por ser um micronutriente, intermediárias de S, Ca e P, baixa de Al e zero de Cd e Pb.The mineral composition of three commercial mate products and of the infusions thereof were

  15. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence applied to the chemical elements analysis of the mate tea infusion (Ilex-paraguariensis); Fluorescencia de raios-X por reflexao total aplicada a analise de elementos quimicos em cha de erva-mate (Ilex-paraguariensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Fabio; Appoloni, Carlos R. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada; Cunha, Richard M. da Silva e; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    The purpose was to evaluate simultaneously the chemical element concentrations from K to Sr (19{<=}Z{<=}38) range in six samples of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) infusion, commercially available in Paraguay and South of Brazil. The chemical analysis of this beverage has a great nutritional importance for the native people of these areas, due to their large daily consumption. For the determination of these elements the dry-ashing and total reflection X-rays fluorescence (TXRF) were used. The methodology showed limits of detection among 81 ng.mL-1 for K to 10 ng.mL{sup -1} for Zn. Six infusion samples were prepared in triplicate, and the concentration was 3,8 to 10,2 {mu}g.mL{sup -1} for K, Ca and Mn, 0,21 to 1,07 {mu}g. mL{sup -1} for Fe and Zn and 0.03 to 0,17 {mu}g.mL{sup -1} for Ni, Cu, Br, Rb and Sr. The Mn and Ni concentrations are above the maximum permissible values for drinking water established by World Health Organization and Brazilian legislation (these organisms do not regulate the maximum permissible values for chemical elements in mate tea infusion). (author)

  16. Desenvolvimento e avaliação da eficácia de filmes biodegradáveis de amido de mandioca com nanocelulose como reforço e com extrato de erva-mate como aditivo antioxidante Development and evaluation of the effectiveness of biodegradable films of cassava starch with nanocelulose as reinforcement and yerba mate extract as an additive antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Aparecida Souza Machado

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver uma embalagem biodegradável utilizando como matriz polimérica o amido de mandioca plastificada com glicerol e reforçada com a incorporação de nanocelulose da fibra de coco, bem como, avaliar o efeito da adição de um aditivo natural (erva-mate nas formulações de nanobiocompósitos com ação antioxidante. Os nanocristais de celulose (L/D=39 foram obtidos por hidrólise ácida com H2SO4 a 65%. Os filmes foram preparados por casting contendo 4,5 e 6,0% de amido, 0,5 e 1,5% de glicerol, 0,3% de nanocelulose e 20% de extrato de erva-mate. O armazenamento do azeite de dendê embalado com os filmes contendo o aditivo foi monitorado por 40 dias sob condições de oxidação acelerada (63%UR/30°C. Constatou-se que, à medida que aumentam as perdas de Polifenóis Totais nos filmes, ocorre um menor aumento do Índice de Peróxidos do produto embalado, demonstrando, assim, que, ao invés do produto, os compostos da embalagem é quem estão sofrendo oxidação. A incorporação de extrato de erva-mate não alterou as propriedades mecânicas e de barreira desses filmes.The objective was to develop biodegradable packaging using a polymer matrix as the cassava starch plasticized with glycerol and reinforced with the incorporation of nanocelulose of coconut fiber, as well as to evaluate the effect of the addition of an additive nature (yerba mate in nanobiocompósitos formulations with antioxidant action. The nanocrystal cellulose (L/D=39 were obtained by acid hydrolysis with 65% H2SO4. The films were prepared by casting containing 4.5 and 6.0% starch, 0.5 and 1.5% glycerol, 0.3% nanocelulose and 20% extract of yerba mate. The palm oil storage packed with films containing the additive was monitored for 40 days under conditions of accelerated oxidation (63%UR/30°C. It was found that as the losses increase polyphenol films, there is a smaller increase of the peroxide value of the packaged product, thus

  17. COMPOSIÇÃO NUTRICIONAL DE PROCEDÊNCIAS E PROGÊNIES DE ERVA-MATE (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. CULTIVADAS EM LATOSSOLO VERMELHO DISTRÓFICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Vivian Oliva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. is a forest species of great socioeconomic importance for the southern states of Brazil. This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of provenances (Ivaí, in Paraná state and Barão de Cotegipe, in Rio Grande do Sul state and their progenies in a soil in the municipality of Ivaí, PR state. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications, taking as treatment two distinct provenances and five progenies. When analyzed, the macronutrients, micronutrients, Al and Na. Foliar N, P, K, Ca and Mg were considered satisfactory, and the N, P, Ca and Mg showed significant differences for both analyzed provenances. Within provenances, progenies of Ivaí highlighted significant differences for the nutrients N, P, K, Ca and Mg. But for the progenies of Barão de Cotegipe, a significant difference was found only for Ca and Mg. For both provenances, foliar Fe, Cu and Mn were considered satisfactory. The concentration of Zn was considered low and B high. Aluminum contents were considered normal for the species. In regard to Na, there was no significant difference among provenances. The contents of Zn, Fe, Cu and Al and Na differed among the progenies of Barão de Cotegipe and Ivaí. The provenance of Ivaí showed higher levels of both, macro and micronutrients, compared to Barão de Cotegipe, indicating that a breeding program could significantly improve the quality of mate for human nutrition purposes. Comparing the average weight of green mass of the provenances, there is a significant gain in the crown of Barão de Cotegipe provenance which is not accompanied by the dry weight of 100 leaves.

  18. INFLUÊNCIA DO POTENCIAL ANTIOXIDANTE DE EXTRATO DE ERVA-MATE (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil EM FRANGO ASSADO, ARMAZENADO E REAQUECIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marineusa CAMEL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial antioxidante do extrato de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis em carne de frango. As sobrecoxas de frango foram submetidas a diferentes tratamentos (sem condimentos; com sal, sal e sálvia, sal, sálvia e extrato (0,125%; sal e extrato (0,125%, sal, sálvia e extrato (0,25% e sal e extrato (0,25% e analisadas na forma crua, assada, após armazenamento sob refrigeração e após reaquecimento. A atividade antioxidante in vitro do extrato foi determinada pelo teste de DPPH (difenilpicrilhidrazina. As amostras dos diferentes tratamentos foram submetidas às análises de oxidação de lipídios (TBARS, pH, potencial de oxiredução (mV, cor objetiva (L, a, b e análise sensorial. O teste DPPH mostrou correlação entre a atividade antioxidante (% e concentração de extrato fornecendo IC50 de 255μg/mL. Em relação à oxidação de lipídios, as amostras sem condimentos e somente com adição de sal diferiram das demais (p<0,05 quando armazenadas e após reaquecimento. A amostra com 0,125% de extrato de erva-mate diferiu das amostras contendo 0,25% de extrato na condição armazenado, mostrando o efeito do aumento da concentração de extrato contra a oxidação lipídica das sobrecoxas. Não houve diferença significativa entre os diferentes tratamentos e condições em relação ao pH e potencial de oxi-redução. A adição dos extratos alterou significativamente (p<0,05 a cor b nas amostras reaquecidas e a cor L nas amostras armazenadas e reaquecidas. Os atributos sensoriais de aceitação geral dos diferentes tratamentos não apresentaram diferença significativa entre as amostras testadas.

  19. Effect of erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae) on serum cholesterol, triacylglycerides and glucose in Wistar rats fed a diet supplemented with fat and sugar Efeito da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae) sobre o colesterol, triacilglicerídeos e glucose em ratos Wistar com dieta alimentar suplementada com lipídeos e glicídeos

    OpenAIRE

    Franciele Przygodda; Zenilde N. Martins; Ana Paula A. Castaldelli; Thais V. Minella; Luciana P. Vieira; Kathia Cantelli; Jordana Fronza; Maristela J. Padoin

    2010-01-01

    Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae, is a species native to the subtropical and temperate regions of South America, used in beverages prepared by infusion such as teas, chimarrão and tererê. To investigate the physiological effects of I. paraguariensis on the metabolism of fats and sugars in Wistar rats, following the ingestion of erva-mate tea, four experimental groups were constructed: Lipid Control Group (receiving water and high-fat diet); Lipid Tea Group (extract of I. paragua...

  20. Influence of drying methods and agronomic variables on the chemical composition of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil) obtained from high-pressure CO2 extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Krause, Laiza Canielas; Freitas, Lisiane dos Santos; Dariva, Cláudio; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Caramão, Elina Bastos

    2007-12-12

    The main objective of this work is to assess the influence of two drying methods (microwave and vacuum oven) and some agronomic variables (plant fertilization conditions and sunlight intensity) on the characteristics of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) leaves extracts obtained from high-pressure carbon dioxide extractions performed in the temperature range from 20 to 40 degrees C and from 100 to 250 bar. Samples of mate were collected in an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Ervateira Barão LTDA, Brazil. Chemical distribution of the extracts was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer detector (GC/MS). In addition to extraction variables, results showed that both sample drying methods and agronomic conditions exert a pronounced influence on the extraction yield and on the chemical distribution of the extracts.

  1. COMPOSIÇÃO NUTRICIONAL DE PROCEDÊNCIAS E PROGÊNIES DE ERVA-MATE (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. CULTIVADAS EM LATOSSOLO VERMELHO DISTRÓFICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Vivian Oliva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. é uma espécie florestal de grande importância socioeconômica para os estados sulinos do Brasil. Objetivou-se com a presente pesquisa, avaliar o estado nutricional de procedências (Ivaí-PR e Barão de Cotegipe-RS e suas respectivas progênies em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, no município de Ivaí – PR. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, tendo como tratamento duas procedências e cinco progênies. Analisaram-se os macronutrientes, micronutrientes, Al e Na. Os teores foliares de N, P, K, Ca e Mg foram considerados satisfatórios, sendo que os nutrientes N, P, Ca e Mg apresentaram diferença significativa para ambas as procedências analisadas. Dentro das procedências, as progênies de Ivaí, destacaram diferença significativa para os nutrientes N, P, K, Ca e Mg. Porém, para as progênies de Barão de Cotegipe, constatou-se diferença significativa apenas para os teores de Ca e Mg. Para as duas procedências, os teores foliares de Fe, Cu e Mn foram considerados satisfatórios. A concentração de Zn foi considerada baixa e a de B elevada. Os teores de Al foram considerados normais para a espécie. Quanto ao Na, não se observou diferença significativa entre procedências. Os teores de Zn, Fe, Cu, bem como de Al e Na, diferiram estatisticamente entre as progênies de Barão de Cotegipe e Ivaí. A procedência de Ivaí apresentou teores mais elevados tanto de macro como de micronutrientes, comparativamente à procedência de Barão de Cotegipe, indicando que um programa de melhoramento genético poderá refletir significativamente na melhoria da qualidade da erva-mate com fins de qualidade nutricional humana. Comparando as médias do peso da massa verde das procedências, há ganho significativo da copa da procedência de Barão de Cotegipe, o que não é acompanhado pelo peso da massa seca de 100 folhas.

  2. Triterpenoids from Brazilian Ilex species and their in vitro antitrypanosomal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketa, Alexandre T C; Gnoatto, Simone C B; Gosmann, Grace; Pires, Viviane S; Schenkel, Eloir P; Guillaume, Dominique

    2004-10-01

    From the leaves of Ilex affinis and Ilex buxifolia, two adulterant species of "erva mate" (Ilex paraguariensis), three new triterpenoid glycosides were isolated. Affinoside 1 (3beta-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[2-O-acetyl-(1-->2

  3. Extração rápida de compostos solúveis de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) por ciclos de compressão de descompressão hidrostática

    OpenAIRE

    Kotovicz, Valesca

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: O principal objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a cinética de extração sólido-líquido de matéria solúvel das folhas de Ilex paraguariensis assistido por pressão hidrostática pulsada (1:600) e por ondas de ultrassom (47kHz). Um grande conjunto de experimentos foi realizado envolvendo uma mistura de água destilada e folhas de erva-mate trituradas, alimentados em um extrator e mantidos a cerca de 16,7 ºC ± 2,0 ºC. A influência da pressão sobre as concentrações de soluto no equilíbrio e ...

  4. Resposta da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. à adubação mineral e orgânica em um latossolo vermelho aluminoférrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Pandolfo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of information on mate plants (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. and the necessity to better understand its nutritional aspects stimulated the conduction of this study. The objectives were to verify the response of mate to mineral N, P and K and to organic fertilization supplied by poultry manure, and also to estimate nutrient rate which allow higher yield of mate plants, cultivated in a HAPLORTHOX. The experiment was carried out in Marechal Bormann, Chapecó country, SC, Brazil. The treatments consisted of annual applications of 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 g of N; 0, 25, 75, 100 and 125 g of P2O5 and K2O per plant and 0, 1,5, 3,0 and 4,5 kg of poultry manure (dry matter per plant. When different rates of N, P and K were applied, the other two nutrients rate were 50 g per plant. It was evaluated the content of leaves macro and micronutrients, mate yield in five economic pruning and content of soil P and K. The content of macro and micronutrients in leaves were inside of a normal range for these plants. There was no significant response to added P; however, there was a strong indication that the best rate is below 25 g P2O5 per plant. There was a significant response to nitrogen fertilization and the maximum technical efficiency was 80,5 g of N per plant per year. The response for poultry manure was linear with higher yield when 4,5 kg per plant was added and mate response to K application was dependent of soil K level.

  5. DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF Ilex paraguariensis BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. C. Pinto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ilex paraguariensis (yerba-mate is used as a beverage, and its extract requires adequate quality control methods in order to guarantee quality and safe use. Strategies to develop and optimize a chromatographic method to quantify theobromine, caffeine, and chlorogenic acid in I. paraguariensis extracts were evaluated by applying a quality by design (QbD model and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC. The presence of these three phytochemical markers in the extracts was evaluated using UHPLC-MS and was confirmed by the chromatographic bands in the total ion current traces (m/z of 181.1 [M+H]+, 195.0 [M+H]+, and 353.0 [M−H]−, respectively. The developed method was then transferred to a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC platform, and the three phytochemical markers were used as external standards in the validation of a method for analyses of these compounds in extracts using a diode array detector (DAD. The validated method was applied to quantify the chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and theobromine in the samples. HPLC-DAD chromatographic fingerprinting was also used in a multivariate approach to process the entire data and to separate the I. paraguariensis extracts into two groups. The developed method is very useful for qualifying and quantifying I. paraguariensis extracts.

  6. EFEITO DA ERVA-MATE (ILEX PARAGUARIENSIS A. ST. HIL. SOBRE O PERFIL METABÓLICO EM RATOS ALIMENTADOS COM DIETAS HIPERLIPÍDICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. MELO

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito da infusão de erva-mate sobre o perfil metabólico em ratos alimentados com dietas hiperlipídicas. Foram estudados 36 ratos, linhagem Wistar, machos adultos, divididos em seis grupos (n=6: controle água; controle mate; hipercolesterolêmico água + banha; hipercolesterolêmico mate + banha; hipercolesterolêmico água + gordura vegetal hidrogenada e hipercolesterolêmico mate + gordura vegetal hidrogenada. Os animais foram acomodados individualmente em gaiolas metabólicas de aço inoxidável, com temperatura ambiente de 22ºC + 2ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas (claro/escuro. Durante as 5 semanas do estudo, os grupos hipercolesterolêmicos receberam 1% de colesterol sintético e 10% de gordura vegetal hidrogenada ou saturada adicionados à dieta controle. Na 3ª semana iniciou-se o tratamento com a infusão de erva mate. Não se observou no presente estudo efeito signifi cativo e abrangente da erva-mate sobre todos os parâmetros avaliados. Entretanto, verifi cou-se tendência de menor ganho de peso e redução dos parâmetros de glicemia, peso de fígado e transaminases, além de aumento de HDL-colesterol na presença de dieta com gordura saturada nos animais tratados com erva mate. Tais resultados são promissores e sugerem que novos estudos investiguem o possível efeito protetor da Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. sobre o perfil metabólico.

  7. Effect of erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae on serum cholesterol, triacylglycerides and glucose in Wistar rats fed a diet supplemented with fat and sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Przygodda

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae, is a species native to the subtropical and temperate regions of South America, used in beverages prepared by infusion such as teas, chimarrão and tererê. To investigate the physiological effects of I. paraguariensis on the metabolism of fats and sugars in Wistar rats, following the ingestion of erva-mate tea, four experimental groups were constructed: Lipid Control Group (receiving water and high-fat diet; Lipid Tea Group (extract of I. paraguariensis and high-fat diet; the Sugar Control Group (water and high-sugar diet; and Sugar Tea Group (extract of I. paraguariensis and high-sugar diet. The animals received their particular diet for 60 days, and were weighed weekly. After this period, the plasma concentrations of cholesterol, glucose and triacylglycerides were determined, together with the weight of visceral fat. The data were subjected to statistical analysis with a significance level of p<0.05. The results show that the ingestion of erva-mate affected body weight, visceral fat and plasma glucose, cholesterol and triacylglyceride levels.

  8. ZONEAMENTO E IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE Fusarium spp. CAUSADORES DE PODRIDÃO DE RAÍZES EM PLANTIOS DE ERVA-MATE (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. NA REGIÃO DO VALE DO TAQUARÍ, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Blume

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Em 2004, foram constatados sintomas da doença podridão-de-raízes em ervais nos municípios da região alta do Vale do Taquari, RS. Com o auxílio de técnicos da EMATER, fez-se um levantamento dos municípios que possuíam ervais com sintomas. Em 10% dos ervais afetados, coletaram-se amostras de raízes que foram enviadas para análise no Laboratório de Fitopatologia pertencente ao Departamento de Defesa Sanitária/CCR/UFSM. Foram isoladas e identificadas cinco diferentes espécies do fungo Fusarium associadas à doença: Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium decemcellulare, Fusarium tabacinum e Fusarium tricinctum. Todas as espécies se mostraram patogênicas quando inoculadas em plantas de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.. No momento da coleta das amostras, levantaram-se informações sobre o manejo do erval e discutiu-se a similaridade entre os sintomas apresentados na erva-mate e em culturas agronômicas bem como hipóteses sobre a origem do inóculo de Fusarium spp. que proporcionou a contaminação dos ervais.

  9. Effect of erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae on serum cholesterol, triacylglycerides and glucose in Wistar rats fed a diet supplemented with fat and sugar Efeito da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae sobre o colesterol, triacilglicerídeos e glucose em ratos Wistar com dieta alimentar suplementada com lipídeos e glicídeos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Przygodda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae, is a species native to the subtropical and temperate regions of South America, used in beverages prepared by infusion such as teas, chimarrão and tererê. To investigate the physiological effects of I. paraguariensis on the metabolism of fats and sugars in Wistar rats, following the ingestion of erva-mate tea, four experimental groups were constructed: Lipid Control Group (receiving water and high-fat diet; Lipid Tea Group (extract of I. paraguariensis and high-fat diet; the Sugar Control Group (water and high-sugar diet; and Sugar Tea Group (extract of I. paraguariensis and high-sugar diet. The animals received their particular diet for 60 days, and were weighed weekly. After this period, the plasma concentrations of cholesterol, glucose and triacylglycerides were determined, together with the weight of visceral fat. The data were subjected to statistical analysis with a significance level of pIlex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae, é uma espécie nativa das regiões subtropicais e temperadas da América do Sul, usada em bebidas por infusão como chá, chimarrão e tererê. Para verificar os efeitos fisiológicos que a I. paraguariensis pode causar sobre o metabolismo de lipídeos e glicídeos em ratos Wistar, após a ingestão de chá de erva-mate, analisou-se quatro grupos experimentais: Grupo Lipídeo Controle (receberam água e dieta hiperlipídica; Grupo Lipídeo Ingestão (extrato de I. paraguariensis e dieta hiperlipídica; Grupo Glicídeo Controle (receberam água e dieta hiperglicídica; e Grupo Glicídeo Ingestão (extrato de I. paraguariensis e dieta hiperglicídica. Os animais receberam a dieta por 60 dias, de acordo com o grupo que pertenciam, sendo pesados semanalmente. Após esse período, foram avaliadas as concentrações de colesterol, glicose e triacilglicerídeos sanguíneos, e ainda, peso da gordura visceral. Os dados foram analisados estatísticamente. O nível de

  10. Zoneamento e identificação de Fusarium spp. causadores de podridão de raízes em plantios de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. na região do vale do Taquarí, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Poletto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, symptoms of root rot disease were observed in erva-mate plantings in high areas of Region Taquari Valley, RS. With the help of EMATER, the municipal districts presenting plantings with symptoms were surveyed. In 10% of the affected plantings, root samples were collected and sent for analysis at the Plant Disease Laboratory at the Department of Plant Protection/CCR/UFSM. Five different species of at fungus Fusarium associated with the disease were isolated and identified: Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium decemcellulare, Fusarium tabacinum and Fusarium tricinctum. All species were pathogenic when inoculated in erva-mate plants (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.. At the moment of sampling, information about the management of the erva-mate plantings was obtained and the similarity between the symptoms presented in erva-mate and in agronomic crops discussed, as well as hypotheses on the origin of the inoculum of Fusarium spp. that infected the erva-mate plantings.

  11. AVALIAÇÃO GENÉTICA DE INDIVÍDUOS DE ERVA-MATE (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. NA REGIÃO DE CAARAPÓ, MS, PELO PROCEDIMENTO REML/BLUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner José Martins

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou estimar parâmetros e valores genéticos para os caracteres altura e diâmetro de indivíduos de erva-mate Ilex paraguariensis (St. Hil. pela metodologia de modelos mistos (procedimento REML/BLUP. As progênies de meios-irmãos foram plantadas na Reserva Indígena Kaiowá e Guarani, em Caarapó/MS, sob delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos (progênies, seis repetições e vinte plantas por parcela. Aos 9 meses de idade, foram avaliados os caracteres: altura total das mudas e diâmetro do coleto. Ganhos genéticos preditos de 4,16% foram obtidos para o caráter altura e 7,20% para o caráter diâmetro, com a seleção dos dez melhores indivíduos. Embora os ganhos genéticos não sejam elevados para a idade avaliada, estimulam a utilização desses germoplasmas e a continuidade das avaliações em idades mais avançadas, explorando-se a variabilidade dentro das progênies.

  12. Influence of agronomic variables on the composition of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis) extracts obtained from CO2 extraction at 30 degrees C and 175 bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmelindro, Angela Aquino; Girardi, Jonathan Dos Santos; Mossi, Altemir; Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Dariva, Cláudio

    2004-04-07

    The aim of this work is to assess the influence of light intensity (plants with direct sun exposure and in a controlled light intensity) and age of leaves (6-24 months) on the characteristics of the extracts of mate tea leaves obtained from carbon dioxide at high pressures. Samples of mate were collected in an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Industria e Comercio de Erva-Mate Barão LTDA, Brazil. The content of selected organic compounds of the extracts was evaluated by gas chromatography together with mass spectrometry. Quantitative analysis of caffeine, theobromine, phytol, vitamin E, squalene, and stigmasterol was performed, and the results showed that field variables exert a strong influence on the liquid yield and on the chemical distribution of the extracts.

  13. Propriedades Ecofisiológicas e Produtivas como Ferramenta para Melhoramento Genético de Erva-Mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. Ecophysiological and Productive Properties as Tool for Breeding of Maté (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Rakocevic

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho teve por objetivos estimar parâmetros genéticos para 59 progênies de meios-irmãos de erva-mate, por ocasião da poda de formação, bem como avaliar propriedades ecofisiológicas para quatro progênies (P15, P18, P41 e P47 e duas testemunhas (P61 e P62 componentes de um teste combinado de procedências e progênies em Erechim, RS. As propriedades ecofisiológicas (condutância estomática (gs – mol m-2s-1, fotossíntese liquida (A - μmol CO2 m- 2s- e transpiração (E –mmol H2O m-2s-1 foram medidas durante um ano (de setembro de 2002 a agosto de 2003 em cinco épocas. Os componentes de variâncias, parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos e valores genéticos (para dados de massa foliar coletados em poda de formação foram obtidos através do programa genético - estatístico “SELEGEN – REML/BLUP”. A análise de parâmetros ecofisiológicos mostrou a sazonalidade de respostas, tornando-a  importante na avaliação. A sazonalidade de troca gasosa acompanha a ocorrência de paradas e ondas de crescimento da erva-mate. As progênies P18 e P47, classificadas quanto ao valor genético, em quinto e 23o lugar, respectivamente, apresentaram maior A, maior economia de água (menor E com maior A e maior sobrevivência, quando comparadas com P15 e P41, que ocuparam a 23a e a 40a posição, respectivamente. Com herdabilidade individual no sentido restrito de 22,7%, é necessário recorrer a métodos de seleção que utilizem, simultaneamente, as informações do indivíduo e da média de sua família, para melhorar o peso de massa foliar em planta de erva-mate. Houve coerência entre respostas genéticas na análise de massa foliar e análise ecofisiológica, o que sugere avaliar componentes ecofisiológicos acompanhando a avaliação de massa foliar ou/e massa total, no processo de seleção e melhoramento genético da erva-mate

    The aims of this

  14. Morfometria e nervação foliar em procedências de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hill. (Aquifoliaceae = Morphometry and foliar venation in origins of maté (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hill. (Aquifoliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou analisar a morfologia foliar morfometria e nervação foliar de procedências de erva-mate coletadas no Sul do Brasil e Argentina. Analisaram-se 30 folhas de cada procedência, obtendo-se cinco medidas (comprimento total da folha, largura máxima, comprimento desde a base até a largura máxima, comprimento do pecíolo e área e calculando-se dois índices (comprimento total sobre a largura máxima e comprimento desde a base até a largura máxima sobre o comprimento total da folha. Para anervação foliar, as folhas foram clarificadas por meio da técnica de diafanização. Os maiores e menores valores morfométricos foram, respectivamente, 118 e 67 mm para comprimento da folha, 51 e 34 mm para largura máxima, 78 e 42 mm para comprimento desde a base até alargura máxima, 16 e 10 mm para comprimento do pecíolo, 2,3 e 2 mm para comprimento sobre largura máxima e 0,65 e 0,6 para comprimento desde a base até a largura máxima sobre o comprimento da folha. Quanto à nervação foliar, não foram observadas diferenças entre as folhas das distintas procedências, as quais apresentaram nervação primária penada, nervação secundária semicraspedódroma, nervuras terciárias com percurso alternado e sinuoso, nervação quaternária reticulada, constituída por polígonos regulares e nervação de 5ª ordem dicotomizante.The present research aimed to evaluate the foliar morphology(morphometry and leaf venation of origins of maté collected in southern Brazil and Argentina. For the study of the morphometry, thirty leaves/plant were analyzed, and five measurements (leaf total length, maximum width, length from the base until maximum width, area and petiole length and two indices were obtained (total leaf length on maximum width and length from basis until maximum width on total leaf length. The leaves were clarified by the clarificationtechnique and examined in stereomicroscope. The highest and lowest values of leaf

  15. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE IOGURTE LIGHT COM EXTRATO DE ERVA-MATE (ILEX PARAGUARIENSIS ST. HIL E ADIÇÃO DE PROBIÓTICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane PRECI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento no consumo de alimentos vem sofrendo mudanças signifi cativas nos últimos anos, motivado por um maior nível de consciência dos consumidores com a saúde. A preocupação de proporcionar aos consumidores produtos de qualidade requer a adoção de medidas para limitar a oxidação durante as etapas de processamento e armazenamento dos produtos, como a adição de compostos antioxidantes nos mesmos. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial do extrato de erva-mate como antioxidante em iogurte light. Também foi avaliado o comportamento dos iogurtes formulados durante a vida de prateleira. Observou-se que o percentual antioxidante atingiu 99,5% de atividade antioxidante para a concentração 750μgmL-1 e forneceu um IC50 de 254,8μgmL-1. No 60º dia de armazenamento sob refrigeração, os iogurtes com 0,1% de extrato e ambos com 0,25% de extrato de erva mate apresentaram diferença em relação às duas formulações que não receberam a adição de extrato, de forma a apresentarem os menores valores de mg de MA/kg de amostra. A presença de extrato de erva mate não infl uenciou signifi cativamente na oxidação de proteínas. Não se observou interferência do extrato de ervamate nos valores de acidez e não foi observada diferença estatística na contagem das bactérias lácticas, de maneira que o extrato de erva mate não afetou o desenvolvimento microbiológico.

  16. Produção e sobrevivência de miniestacas e minicepas de erva-mate cultivadas em sistema semi-hidropônico Production and survival of Ilex paraguariensis minicuttings and ministumps cultivated in semi-hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar Wendling

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade técnica do sistema semi-hidropônico para condução de minicepas de erva-mate e a resposta destas a soluções nutritivas de diferentes diluições nas sucessivas coletas, bem como, a sobrevivência das miniestacas produzidas neste sistema, após enraizamento. Depois de onze coletas, obteve-se 95,6% de sobrevivência das minicepas e média de 291 miniestacas m-2 de minijardim. As mudas obtidas por miniestaquia apresentaram média de 85,6% de sobrevivência, sem variação significativa entre as soluções testadas e número da coleta. O sistema adotado é tecnicamente viável, e recomenda-se a utilização de solução nutritiva menos concentrada.The objective of this study was to assess the technical viability of semi-hydroponic system for conduction of Ilex paraguariensis ministumps, and the answer of these to different nutritional solutions in the successive gatherings, as well as, the survival of the minicuttings produced in this system after rooting. After eleven gatherings, there was 95.6% of ministumps survival, and production of 291minicuttings m-2 of miniclonal garden. The minicuttings survival was 85.6%, with no significant difference between the solutions. The adopted system is technically viable, and lower concentrated solution to conduct the ministumps is recommended.

  17. Nutritional and Phytochemical Study of Ilex paraguariensis Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cogoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yerba mate is defined as the product constituted by the dried, slightly roasted, and milled leaves of Ilex paraguariensis. However, the fruits of this species are often found in the commercial product. Nowadays the fruits are considered a byproduct. The objective of this work was to obtain the preliminary data of minerals, lipids, methylxanthines and polyphenols in the ripe fruits of I. paraguariensis. The results showed a considerable amount of total dietary fiber (42.0 ± 1.6 g/100 g and nutritionally valuable minerals: potassium (1324 ± 15 mg/100 g, iron (6.4 ± 0.5 mg/100 g, magnesium (168 ± 15 mg/100 g, calcium (150 ± 12 mg/100 g, copper (1.1 ± 0.1 mg/100 g, zinc (2.3 ± 0.3 mg/100 g, and sodium (1.3 ± 0.1 mg/100 g. The lipid content was 4.5 g/100 g. Oleic acid was the predominant unsaturated fatty acid (38.74 ± 0.75 g/100 g. Linoleic acid (1.83 ± 0,01 g/100 g was also present. Methylxanthines were quantified: caffeine (0.118 ± 0.001 and theobromine (0.0125 ± 0.0002 g/100 g. The total polyphenol content was 0.717 ± 0.001 g/100 g. The results obtained in this work suggest the potential value of the fruits of I. paraguariensis for the development of novel products in the food and pharmaceutical industries. This paper aims to contribute to the scientific knowledge of a natural by-product from industry regarding the need of foods and medicines for the new millennium.

  18. A coleta da erva-mate pela população cabocla do Vale do Rio do Peixe e Oeste de Santa Catarina: apropriação privada da terra e rupturas (décadas de 1900 a 1940 / The harvest of erva mate (ilex paraguariensis by caboclo population in West and Peixe valley river of Santa Catarina States (Brazil: Breaks with the advancement of private appropriation (decades 1900 to 1940.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Brandt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyze the extraction of erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis by caboclo populations in the Western forests of Santa Catarina State, the private land appropriation processes and the disarticulation of the extractive practice of the private land appropriation processes, which becomes more intense from the First Republic decades on. In this region, a significant part of caboclo families was settled since the first decades of the nineteenth century, mostly under the ownership regime, next to the pastoral land property located in the areas of natural grassland. The primary source of income was linked to subsistence agriculture and practices related to the exploitation of forest resources, such as the extraction of erva-mate. The disintegration happens when a new social-spatial dynamics becomes present, inducing the private land appropriation, with the subsequent colonization, the fencing of land and the logging.

  19. Ilex paraguariensis Promotes Orofacial Pain Relief After Formalin Injection: Involvement of Noradrenergic Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Eudislaine Fonseca; de Oliveira, Simone Kobe; Nardi, Viviane Koepp; Gelinski, Tathiana Carla; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Maraschin, Marcelo; Nardi, Geisson Marcos

    2016-03-01

    Drinking mate or chimarrão, a hot infusion of Ilex paraguariensis (ILEX) leaves, is a common habit in Southern South America that has a social and almost ritualistic role. It has been used as a stimulant beverage in South America and analgesic in regions of Argentina for treatment of headache and others painful inflammatory conditions such as arthritis and rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological activity of I. paraguariensis infusion (ILEX) on orofacial nociception model induced by formalin, and study its mechanism of action. The analgesic effect of ILEX was assessed through writhing test, paw formalin test, paw edema induced by carrageenan, and orofacial pain induced by formalin. To study the action mechanism of ILEX, opioidergic, dopaminergic, nitrergic, and adrenergic pathways were investigated. The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of ILEX infusion revealed caffeine and theobromine. The treatment with ILEX reduced the number of writhing. However, it was effective neither in the formalin paw test nor in the paw edema induced by carrageenan. Different from formalin paw test, ILEX was able to reduce the orofacial reactivity to formalin in 31.8% (70.4 ± 2.5 s; first phase), and 20% (127.3 ± 18.9 s; second phase). The analgesic effect of ILEX results from the modulation of noradrenergic pathways since prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, 0.15 mg/kg; intraperitoneal) reversed the analgesic effect of ILEX. The present report demonstrates that analgesic effect of ILEX in orofacial formalin test is due mainly to modulation of noradrenergic pathways. Ilex paraguariensis (ILEX) has been used as a stimulant beverage in South America and analgesic in regions of Argentina for the treatment of headache and others painful inflammatory conditions such arthritis and rheumatism.The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological activity of ILEX on orofacial nociception model induced by formalin, and study its mechanism of

  20. VIGOR JUVENIL EM PROGÊNIES DE ERVA-MATE (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. NATIVAS DO ESTADO DE MATO GROSSO DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Alffonso Rodrigues Roa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou estimar parâmetros e valores genéticos para caracteres altura, diâmetro e sobrevivência de progênies de erva-mate em fase inicial de desenvolvimento, com vistas ao estabelecimento de teste de progênie em área indígena Kaiowá e Guarani, visando à seleção de materiais genéticos adaptados ao local. As sementes foram coletadas de trinta matrizes nativas de polinização aberta no município de Caarapó, MS. As progênies de meio-irmãos foram estabelecidas no viveiro da COMFLORA Reflorestadora, em Ponta Porã, MS, sob delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com trinta tratamentos (progênies, cinco repetições e dez plantas por parcela em linhas simples. Aos 8 meses de idade, foram avaliados os caracteres: altura total das mudas, diâmetro do coleto e sobrevivência. Os valores obtidos de herdabilidades individual (0,48; 0,55 e 0,79 e para média de progênies (0,74; 0,87 e 0,90 para os caracteres altura, diâmetro e sobrevivência, respectivamente, foram expressivos, sugerindo grandes chances de progresso genético na seqüência das avaliações. Ganhos genéticos preditos de 46,26% foram obtidos para o caracter altura e 38,61% para o caracter diâmetro, com a seleção dos dez melhores indivíduos. Os coeficientes de variação genética individual (CVgi% para os caracteres altura (25,24 e diâmetro (18,48 são considerados valores elevados, o que denota a ocorrência de uma expressão genética desejável para o programa de melhoramento genético. Os ganhos genéticos com seleção para a idade avaliada estimulam a utilização desse germoplasma e a continuidade das avaliações em idades mais avançadas.

  1. Seleção de progênies de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill. para a produtividade, estabilidade e adaptabilidade temporal de massa foliar Selection of Erva-mate Progenies for Leaf Weight Productivity, Temporal Stability and Adaptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Sturion

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivos selecionar progênies de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.  em Ivaí - PR, simultaneamente para estabilidade, adaptabilidade e produtividade de massa foliar,  colhidas em três safras, com base na média harmônica a performance relativa dos valores genéticos (MHPRVG, adicionalmente, comparar os resultados  com aqueles obtidos pelos métodos de Annicchiarico e  de Lin & Binns. O material genético consistiu de 25  progênies de meios-irmãos plantadas no delineamento  de blocos ao acaso, com dez repetições  e parcelas lineares de seis plantas no espaçamento de  3m x 2m. O peso de folhas foi avaliado, por árvore,  aos dois, quatro e seis anos após o plantio. Houve  uma alteração no ordenamento das progênies para a produção de massa foliar ao longo das safras. Os  métodos de Annicchiarico, Lin & Binns e MHPRVG  selecionaram, praticamente, as mesmas progênies para os três atributos considerados. Contudo, o método  HPRVG apresenta a vantagem de fornecer  resultados na própria escala e medição do caráter, os quais podem ser interpretados diretamente como  valores genéticos.
    This paper aimed to select progenies of “erva-mate” (Ilex paraguariensis St. HiI. in Ivai - PR based on leaf weight productivity, stability and adaptability across three harvests. This can be achieved by the method MHPRVG (harmonic average of relative performance of genetic values which is comparable with the methods by Annichiaricco and Lin & Binns. The genetic material was constituted by 25 half sib progenies evaluated in a complete block design with ten replicates and six plants per plot, in a 3 x 2 meters spacing. Leaf weight per tree  was evaluated at ages two, four and six years  after planting. There were some changes in progenies  ranking across harvests. The methods MHPRVG, Annichiaricco and Lin & Binns led to selection of the  same progenies, considering the three

  2. Evolução da margem de comercialização da erva mate no Rio Grande do Sul = Evolution of commercialization of the Ilex paraguariensis in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanclei Zanin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A erva-mate é um produto fortemente enraizado à cultura, à história e à tradição de parcelas importantes da população brasileira, sobretudo na região Sul. A partir dos anos 1990 o setor passou por modificações, como a desregulamentação e o aumento da competição externa. Nesse contexto, esse trabalho teve por objetivo investigar a evolução da margem de comercialização da erva-mate no mercado gaúcho, grande produtor e principal consumidor nacional, no período janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 2016. Investigou-se também o comportamento da produção, do consumo e do comércio externo. Os resultados indicaram aumento da produção cultivada, reflexo da desregulamentação, enquanto que o comércio externo teve importância marginal no total de vendas, tanto antes quanto após a desregulamentação. Os resultados indicaram também substancial estabilidade da margem, e os preços só foram alterados consideravelmente por um choque de oferta em 2013. Por se tratar de uma cultura permanente, cuja oferta é inelástica aos preços, pode-se levar tempo para retornar ao nível anterior. Por fim, destaca-se a importância de diversificar o consumo e da organização de informações setoriais como ferramentas para desenvolver o setor e as economias locais a ele vinculadas. = Ilex paraguariensis is a very traditional herb consumed by a large share of Brazilian citizens, mainly in the south region, where it is related to local culture and history. Its market passed through several changes from the 1990’s until the present, such as deregulation and an increasing international competition. Considering this scenario, this research studied this product gross margin between January 1998 and December 2016 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul—which is this herb main supplier and consumer. Production, consumption and international trade patterns were also analyzed. Results show that cultivated production increased after deregulation, meanwhile

  3. Analysis of volatile compounds of Ilex paraguariensis A. St. - Hil. and its main adulterating species Ilex theizans Mart. ex Reissek and Ilex dumosa Reissek Análise de compostos voláteis de Ilex paraguariensis A. St. - Hil. e suas principais espécies adulterantes Ilex theizans Mart. ex Reissek e Ilex dumosa Reissek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Marcos Dallago

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The adulteration of the product Ilex paraguariensis with other Ilex species is a mAjor problem for maté tea producers. In this work, three species of Ilex were evaluated for their volatile composition by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrum detector (HS-SPME/GC-MS. The adulterating species I. dumnosa and I. theizans Mart. ex Reissek presented a different profile of volatile organic compounds when compared to I. paraguariensis. Aldehydes methyl-butanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal and nonanal were detected only in the adulterating species. This result suggests that such compounds are potential chemical markers for identification of adulteration and quality analysis of products based on Ilex paraguariensis.A adulteração do produto Ilex paraguariensis com outras espécies de Ilex é um dos principais problemas dos produtores de erva-mate. Neste trabalho, três espécies de Ilex foram avaliadas quanto à sua composição volátil por microextração em fase sólida acoplada à cromatografia gasosa e detector de espectro de massas (HS-SPME/GC-MS. As espécies adulterantes I. dumnosa e I. theizans Mart. ex Reissek apresentaram um perfil diferente de compostos orgânicos voláteis, quando comparadas com a I. paraguariensis. Os aldeídos metil-butanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal e nonanal foram detectados apenas nas espécies adulterantes. Esse resultado sugere que esses compostos químicos são marcadores potenciais para a identificação de adulteração e análise da qualidade dos produtos à base de Ilex paraguariensis.

  4. Assessment of oxidation of leaves of Ilex paraguariensis (St. Hil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochele Fernanda Molin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the oxidation of leaves of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil, in a process similar to the oxidation of Camellia sinensis, with the purpose of developing new products based on yerba maté. So far, no previous systematic study about the oxidation of yerba maté has been found elsewhere. A Plackett-Burman experimental design was used for the screening of the significant parameters that affected the oxidation. The oxidation was indirectly quantified by following the changes in the product color, water activity, and pH with the time of processing. The factors that most influenced the process were the age of the leaves and the relative humidity of the oxidation chamber. The differences between the treatments were more evident after 3, 6 12 and 24 h of oxidation. The results could contribute to the developing of new products based on I. paraguariensis St. Hil, increasing the profitability of cultivation of this native species.

  5. Physicochemical characterization of different trademarks of compound Yerba Maté and their herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Patricia Scipioni

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of the main herbs used in the mixture of yerba maté with other aromatic herbs and the characterization of the trademarks of compound yerba maté. Moisture, water extract, total ash, acid-insoluble ash and caffeine concentration were determined. Results showed higher values of moisture content, total and aci-insoluble ash and lower water extracts in the herbs. Determinations were carried out in nine trademarks of compound yerba maté. In most cases they complied with the standards of the country with the exception of one trademark from Argentina.A erva-mate composta é um produto que se consome amplamente na região do MERCOSUL. Obtém-se misturando erva-mate com outras ervas aromáticas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o estudo das características físico-químicas das principais ervas usadas na mistura e a caracterização das marcas de erva-mate composta. Determinou-se a umidade, extração de água, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis ácidas e a concentração de cafeína. Encontraram-se nas ervas, valores padrões diferentes aos da erva-mate tais como valores maiores de conteúdo de umidade, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis ácidas e menores extratos de água. Fizeram-se determinações em nove marcas de erva-mate composta. Na maioria dos casos, cumpriam com as normas do país, exceto uma marca da Argentina

  6. Alemtuzumab (Millennium/ILEX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, F J

    2001-01-01

    Alemtuzumab, a lymphocyte-depleting humanized monoclonal antibody, is being developed by Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc and ILEX Oncology for the potential treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) [274580]. The utility of the compound for treating bone marrow (BM) stem cell transplantation-associated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) [372946] and for ex vivo purging of BM to remove malignant T-cells [244056] is also being investigated. Additional potential therapeutic areas for which clinical trials are planned or ongoing include vasculitis, multiple sclerosis [288762] and organ transplantation [338304]. A Biologics License Application (BLA) was filed with the FDA in December 1999 by ILEX and Millennium [351523], [351524], [373873]. The FDA accepted the application for filing in February 2000 [355775] and returned a complete response letter in June 2000 [372172]. Millennium and ILEX submitted a response to the FDA in August 2000 [379766]. Alemtuzumab has received Fast Track designation [304771] and orphan drug status from the FDA [288762], and the drug was reviewed by the FDA's Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee on 14 December, 2000 [387228]. The committee voted 14 to 1 to recommend accelerated approval of alemtuzumab for patients with CLL who have been treated with alkylating agents and who have failed fludarabine therapy [393778], [393894]. In March 2000, Millennium and ILEX also submitted a Marketing Authorization Application (MAA) for alemtuzumab to the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) [363595]. In October 2000, EMEA accepted the MAA for alemtuzumab under the agency's centralized approval procedure [387228]. Alemtuzumab was originally synthesized by Herman Waldmann and colleagues at Cambridge University and licensed to Burroughs Wellcome (BW) via the British Technology Group (BTG) [162622]. BW conducted phase I and II trials for a broad range of indications, but then discontinued development because of disappointing results

  7. HPLC method to assay total saponins in Ilex paraguariensis aqueous extract

    OpenAIRE

    Gnoatto, Simone C.B.; Schenkel, Eloir P.; Bassani, Valquiria L.

    2005-01-01

    Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire é uma espécie sul-americana da qual ramos e folhas são utilizados para o preparo de uma bebida de grande consumo em alguns países da América do Sul. A planta é conhecida como “erva-mate” em português ou “yerba-mate” em espanhol. Tendo em vista o potencial uso das saponinas como tensoativo bem como o seu potencial terapêutico, o presente trabalho propõe um método de extração e quantificação para as saponinas presentes em Ilex paraguariensis. As saponinas foram e...

  8. Influência do método de extração nos teores de metilxantinas em erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis a. St.-Hil., aquifoliaceae Influence of the extraction methodology on the methylxanthines content of maté (Ilex paraguariensis a. St.-Hil., aquifoliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone C. B. Gnoatto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Ilex paraguariensis A. St. -Hil. is a native species of southern South America. The caffeine content in Ilex paraguariensis leaves has been considered an important quality parameter for maté-derived products. In this work different extraction methods for the determination of these methylxantines are compared. The influence of the extraction conditions on the methylxanthine yields was evaluated. Extraction by decoction with acidic aqueous solution (H2SO4 4N presented the higher efficiency in the theobromine extraction. The extraction in a Soxhlet with acidic aqueous solution and decoction with acidic aqueous solution showed the highest caffeine yield. For the concomitant theobromine and caffeine quantification, the decoction with acidic aqueous solution is suggested.

  9. Zoneamento e identificação de Fusarium spp. causadores de podridão de raízes em plantios de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. na região do vale do Taquarí, RS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Poletto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Em 2004, foram constatados sintomas da doença podridão-de-raízes em ervais nos municípios da região alta do Vale do Taquari, RS. Com o auxílio de técnicos da EMATER, fez-se um levantamento dos municípios que possuíam ervais com sintomas. Em 10% dos ervais afetados, coletaram-se amostras de raízes que foram enviadas para análise no Laboratório de Fitopatologia pertencente ao Departamento de Defesa Sanitária/CCR/UFSM. Foram isoladas e identificadas cinco diferentes espécies do fungo Fusarium associadas à doença: Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium decemcellulare, Fusarium tabacinum e Fusarium tricinctum. Todas as espécies se mostraram patogênicas quando inoculadas em plantas de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.. No momento da coleta das amostras, levantaram-se informações sobre o manejo do erval e discutiu-se a similaridade entre os sintomas apresentados na erva-mate e em culturas agronômicas bem como hipóteses sobre a origem do inóculo de Fusarium spp. que proporcionou a contaminação dos ervais.

  10. Modeling heat and mass transfer in the heat treatment step of yerba maté processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Peralta

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to estimate the leaf and twig temperature and moisture content of yerba maté branches (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire during heat treatment, carried out in a rotary kiln dryer. These variables had to be estimated (modeling the heat and mass transfer due to the difficulty of experimental measurement in the dryer. For modeling, the equipment was divided into two zones: the flame or heat treatment zone and the drying zone. The model developed fit well with the experimental data when water loss took place only in leaves. In the first zone, leaf temperature increased until it reached 135°C and then it slowly decreased to 88°C at the exit, despite the gas temperature, which varied in this zone from 460°C to 120°C. Twig temperature increased in the two zones from its inlet temperature (25°C up to 75°C. A model error of about 3% was estimated based on theoretical and experimental data on leaf moisture content.

  11. Improving meat quality through cattle feed enriched with mate extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zawadzki, Andressa

    The use of plant extracts in animal feeding trials has been considered as a potential alternative to improve the redox stability of meat. Bioactive compounds from plant extracts can provide the antioxidative mechanisms required to improve animal health and welfare and, to protect meat against...... oxidation. Pharmacological properties and antioxidant effects have been associated to the extract of hops and to the extracts of yerba mate. However, the effects of hops and yerba mate as dietary supplement for animal feeding on the metabolic profile and the redox stability of meat have not been reported...... yet. Addition of extract of mate to a standard maize/soy feed at a level of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5% to the diet of feedlot for cattle resulted in an increased level of inosine monophosphate, creatine, carnosine and of conjugated linoleic acid in the fresh meat. The tendency to radical formation in meat...

  12. Non-preference of the red mite Oligonychus yothersi McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae for oviposition on leaves of Paraguay tea progenies (Ilex paraguariensis/ Não-preferência do ácaro-vermelho, Oligonychus yothersi McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae, para oviposição em folhas de progênies de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Djair Vendramim

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The oviposition preference of the red mite Oligonychus yothersi McGregor was evaluated under laboratory in 52 Paraguay tea progenies and one control collected in a local farm. The experiments were conducted on Paraguay tea leaf discs infested with one adult female mite/disc, incubated in a climate chamber (25±1ºC, 14h photophase for five days. Evaluations were performed daily, by counting the number of eggs laid in the period, the number of female escapes in the first 48 hours, as well as the number of eggs laid before the escaping. It was verified that discrimination by the mite occurred on two groups of progenies, in relation to the number of eggs: one group was different from the control (53.8% of the progenies and the other was identical to it (46.2% of the progenies. In the first group, 60.7% of progenies were less oviposited while a higher number of eggs/female than the control was verified in 39.3% of them. In 57.7% of progenies there was escape of some mites (10 to 40%, and in 10 of these progenies no eggs were laid. The data provide evidences that in some of the progenies evaluated there is resistance by non-preference to oviposition of the Paraguay tea red mite.A preferência para oviposição do ácaro-vermelho, Oligonychus yothersi McGregor, foi avaliada em condições de laboratório em 52 progênies de erva-mate e uma testemunha coletada em uma propriedade da região. Os experimentos foram realizados em discos foliares de erva-mate (2 cm de diâmetro, infestados com uma fêmea adulta do ácaro, e incubados a 25±1ºC e 14h de fotofase, durante cinco dias. As avaliações foram realizadas diariamente, contando-se o número de ovos depositados no período, número de fêmeas que fugiram nas primeiras 48 horas e número de ovos depositados antes da fuga. Verificou-se que houve discriminação do ácaro em dois grupos de progênies, em relação ao número de ovos, um que diferiu em relação à testemunha (53,8% de progênies e

  13. Aporte de Minerales del mate cocido a la dieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Francini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo surgió como la continuación del trabajo "YERBA MATE... ¿SIMPLEMENTE UN HABITO O UN BUEN ALIMENTO?" en el cual se analizó el contenido total de: K, Mn, Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, Na, Cu y Ni en once yerbas comercializadas en Uruguay.En la región comprendida por Argentina, Uruguay, Brasil y Paraguay la yerba mate se consume mayoritariamente como mate (extracción en caliente, tereré (extracción en frío y mate cocido (infusión caliente. A los efectos de conocer el aporte de minerales de la yerba a la dieta diaria, se analizó el contenido de K, Mn, Mg, Fe y Zn (por ser los presentes en mayor cantidad en la yerba mate en una simulación de mate cocido, con lo que se determinó que porcentaje de estos es extraído en dicha infusión.Para realizar la simulación de mate cocido, se colocaron 50g de yerba mate en 1L de agua desionizada y se calentó en plancha con agitación hasta alcanzar una temperatura de 99°C. La solución sobrenadante fue filtrada en caliente en filtro de papel de 640W y luego en frío a través de filtro de membrana de 0,45 µm. Los minerales antes mencionados fueron determinados por espectroscopía de emisión óptica (PERKIN ELMER OPTIMA 2100. Obteniéndose como resultado Zn= 2,9mg/L, Fe= 0,36mg/L, Mn= 57mg/L, K= 848mg/L en el extracto preparado como se mencionó anteriormente. Representando una extracción del contenido total de la yerba mate cercano al 100% para potasio y cinc, del 70% para el manganeso y del 2% para el hierro.De los resultados obtenidos se concluye que de consumirse un litro de mate cocido diario preparado en forma similar a la de este trabajo, se cubrirían ampliamente los requerimientos diarios de manganeso, se cubriría el 50% de los requerimientos diarios de magnesio, el 20% de los de potasio y cinc y el 6% de los de hierro.La yerba mate es un alimento ampliamente difundido y en los estratos sociales más bajos llega a sustituir una o más comidas diarias, lo que convierte a la I

  14. Crescimento inicial de mudas de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. em três classes de solos, na região central do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Luiz Saidelles Fleig

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were installed in three sites with different soil classes but with similar climatic conditions using different fertilization treatment to study initial plant growth of "Erva-mate". The sites were located on an Entisol and two Alfisols and plantation was perfomed using organic compost, no fertilizer, one half and full dosage of N-P-K recommended. The initial growth was evaluated measuring absolute increment in plant height, total plant leaf area and plant leaf number at four times during the first year. The experiments were installed in September of 1998 and in February 1, 1999 plant survival was measured. Chemical fertilization reduced the final survival, whereas, the use of 1 kg of organic compost and nofertilization at planting induced higher plant stand and initial growth as measured by absolute increment in total plant leaf area and height. There was a significant effect of soil type, where, the higher increment in total leaf area and leaf number was observed at the site with shallow and naturally most fertile soil, the Entisol.

  15. Avaliação genética em erva-mate pelo procedimento BLUP individual multivariado sob interação genótipo x ambiente Genetic evaluation in Ilex paraguariensis by the multivariate individual BLUP procedure with genotype-environment interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Maria Simeão

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos e realizar a predição de valores genéticos de matrizes e procedências de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis. Foram avaliadas 164 progênies de oito procedências, em três locais (Ivaí, PR, Guarapuava, PR e Rio Azul, PR, em relação ao caráter produção de massa foliar (PMF. Os componentes de variância, parâmetros genéticos e valores genéticos foram estimados pelo procedimento REML/BLUP individual (máxima verossimilhança restrita/melhor predição linear não viciada, realizando a análise multivariada para os três locais. Os coeficientes de herdabilidade individual, no sentido restrito, para o caráter PMF foram 0,15 em Ivaí, 0,62 em Guarapuava e 0,23 em Rio Azul. A baixa magnitude desses coeficientes em Ivaí e Rio Azul demanda a utilização de métodos de seleção que utilizem todos os efeitos aleatórios do modelo estatístico. O efeito de procedências foi significativo em Ivaí e Rio Azul, com correlação fenotípica intraclasse de 0,13 em Ivaí e de 0,09 em Rio Azul. As procedências apresentaram correlação genética de 0,95 entre os locais Ivaí e Rio Azul. Nesses locais, as procedências foram mais estáveis nos diferentes ambientes do que as progênies. Foram preditos os valores genéticos em relação a todas as procedências e matrizes em todos os locais quanto ao caráter avaliado. As melhores procedências são Barão de Cotegipe, Quedas do Iguaçu, Cascavel e Ivaí.The objectives of this paper were to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters and to predict breeding values for parents and provenances of Ilex paraguariensis. Eight provenances with 164 progenies were evaluated on three sites (Ivaí, PR, Guarapuava, PR and Rio Azul, PR for the trait leaf weight (LW. All the variance components, parameters and breeding values were obtained by REML/BLUP (restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction procedure at the

  16. CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE MUDAS DE ERVA-MATE (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. EM TRÊS CLASSES DE SOLOS, NA REGIÃO CENTRAL DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Luiz Salet

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado em três sítios, com condições climáticas semelhantes e com diferentes classes de solos. Foram usados diferentes tratamentos de adubação para o plantio das mudas de erva-mate, visando ao estudo de efeito destes sobre o seu crescimento inicial. Os sítios apresentam solos classificados como Plintossolo Argilúvico, Alissolo Cromico e Neossolo Litólico, sendo que os tratamentos foram: vermicomposto, tratamento sem fertilizante, ½ dose recomendada de N-P-K e a dose recomendada de N-P-K. O crescimento inicial foi avaliado medindo-se o incremento absoluto em altura, área foliar total e número de folhas da planta, em quatro períodos, durante o primeiro ano. Também, foi avaliado o percentual de plantas sobreviventes cinco meses após o plantio das mudas. A fertilização química reduziu o número de plantas sobreviventes, enquanto que, o uso de vermicomposto e o tratamento sem fertilizantes no plantio induziram maior sobrevivência e maior altura das plantas. Não houve diferença na área foliar e número de folhas para as formas de adubação no plantio. O maior incremento na área foliar total e no número de folhas foi observado no sítio com solo raso e com maior fertilidade natural, o Neossolo Litólico.

  17. Crescimento inicial de mudas de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. em três classes de solos, na região central do Rio Grande do Sul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Luiz Fleig Saidelles

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado em três sítios, com condições climáticas semelhantes e com diferentes classes de solos. Foram usados diferentes tratamentos de adubação para o plantio das mudas de erva-mate, visando ao estudo de efeito destes sobre o seu crescimento inicial. Os sítios apresentam solos classificados como Plintossolo Argilúvico, Alissolo Cromico e Neossolo Litólico, sendo que os tratamentos foram: vermicomposto, tratamento sem fertilizante, ½ dose recomendada de N-P-K e a dose recomendada de N-P-K. O crescimento inicial foi avaliado medindo-se o incremento absoluto em altura, área foliar total e número de folhas da planta, em quatro períodos, durante o primeiro ano. Também, foi avaliado o percentual de plantas sobreviventes cinco meses após o plantio das mudas. A fertilização química reduziu o número de plantas sobreviventes, enquanto que, o uso de vermicomposto e o tratamento sem fertilizantes no plantio induziram maior sobrevivência e maior altura das plantas. Não houve diferença na área foliar e número de folhas para as formas de adubação no plantio. O maior incremento na área foliar total e no número de folhas foi observado no sítio com solo raso e com maior fertilidade natural, o Neossolo Litólico.

  18. Survey of natural radioactivity levels in Ilex paraguariensis (St. Hil.) by gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibel, Viviane; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis - St. Hil.) is a beverage broadly cultivated and consumed in Brazil. The radioactive traces present in three trademarks of toasted mate tea produced at the south of Brazil were analyzed. Measurements were carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry. The average value for the 40 K activity measured for marks A, B and C was 1216 ± 8, 1047 ± 14 and 666 ± 13 Bq.kg -1 , respectively. The 137 Cs activity was lower than the limit of detection. (author)

  19. Storage of yerba maté in controlled atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Lemos Cogo Prestes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of controlled atmosphere in the change of color, chlorophyll degradation and phenolic compounds concentration in yerba maté thickly ground (“cancheada” and thinly milled (“socada”. Yerba maté samples from the towns of Arvorezinha (RS - Brazil and São Mateus do Sul (PR - Brazil were stored in four levels of oxygen (1, 3, 6 and 20.9kPa of O2 and four levels of carbon dioxide (0, 3, 6 and 18kPa of CO2 and then were analyzed, after nine months of storage. According to the results, the O2 partial pressure reduction decreased the loss of green coloration, kept a higher content of chlorophylls and of total phenolic compounds. In relation to the different levels of CO2, a response as remarkable as O2 was not observed. The yerba maté that was thickly ground (“cancheada” presented a better storage potential than the one thinly milled (“socada” in the storage with O2 and with CO2. The 1kPa of O2 condition kept the yerba maté greener and with a higher content of chlorophylls and of total phenolic compounds after nine months of storage. The CO2 partial pressure kept the yerba maté coloration greener and with a higher content of chlorophylls and of total phenolic compounds, regardless of the level used, in the maté from both cultivation areas.

  20. Extraction optimization of soluble compounds of yerba maté

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Sambiassi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was the extraction optimization of water soluble compounds of yerba maté. Measures variables were extract concentration and weight of leaves and twigs. Controlled variables were time and temperature of extraction and water/solid relation. A surface response method of three variables was used as experimental design, with 20 experiences in each case. The range of each variable, defined in the experimental design, was: extraction time, 13.2 to 46.8 minutes; temperature, 48.2 to 81.8°C and water solid relation, 4.64 to 11.36 g water/100 g of dry solid. Extract weight varied from 13.14 to 29.56 g in leaves and 8.98 to 16.32 g in twigs (each one per 100 g of dry solid. Extract concentration varied between 2.17 and 3.43 g/100 ml in leaves and between 1.32 and 2.31 g/100 ml in twigs. The results were fit to a linear equation in each case.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi a otimização da extração aquosa da erva mate. As variáveis medidas foram a concentração do extrato e a massa das folhas e ramos. As variáveis controladas foram: o tempo e a temperatura de extração e a relação água/sólido. Como desenho experimental foi utilizado o método de resposta superficial de três variáveis, com vinte experiências em cada caso. A faixa de variação definida para as variáveis no desenho experimental foram: tempo de extração, de 13,2 a 46,8 minutos; temperatura, de 48,2 a 81,8 °C; relação água/sólido, de 4,64 a 11,36 gramas de água por gramas de sólido seco. A massa do extrato variou de 13,14 a 29,56 gramas para as folhas desramificadas e de 8,98 a 16,32 para os ramos (cada por 100 gramas de sólido seco. A concentração de extrato variou entre 2,17 a 3,43 g/ 100 ml nas folhas e entre 1,32 e 2,31 g/ 100 ml nos ramos. Os resultados foram, em ambos casos, ajustados para uma equação linear.

  1. Color change in acrylic resin processed in three ways after immersion in water, cola, coffee, mate and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldemarin, Renato Fa; Terra, Priscila C; Pinto, Luciana R; Faot, Fernanda; Camacho, Guilherme B

    2013-01-01

    Denture bases may undergo color change over time induced by pigment accumulation within their body; however there is a lack of information regarding the role of yerba mate tea in this process. This work evaluated the effect of five common beverages, including yerba mate tea, on color changes of acrylic denture base resins processed in three different ways. Three different processing techniques were used (P1--microwave irradiation/microwave activated resin; P2--heat polymerization/conventional heat activated resin and P3--microwave irradiation/conventional heat polymerized resin) to make twenty five resin discs each (3.0 mm thick x 20 mm diameter), totaling seventy-five resin discs. The discs made with each technique were randomly divided into five groups (n = 5) and placed in the following solutions: G1-water; G2-cola; G3-coffee; G4-yerba mate tea; G5-red wine, for 30 days at 37 degrees C. The solutions were renewed every 3 days. Color change on the CIE-L*a*b* scale was measured with a Konica-Minolta CR-10 colorimeter and compared with original L* a* and b* values of each specimen prior to immersion. Data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA, and showed no difference among techniques and significant statistical differences among solutions (p < 0.05). Tukey's post-hoc test showed that the lowest color changes were for water and cola, which were undistinguishable from each other; coffee produced the second lowest color change; yerba mate tea produced second greatest color change, while the greatest color change was produced by red wine. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that almost all the solutions used can change color in acrylic resin, especially yerba mate tea, considered distinguishable by professionals, and red wine, considered distinguishable by patients and clinically unacceptable.

  2. INDIRECT AND EXPEDITE ASSESSMENT OF Ilex paraguariensis COMMERCIAL YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar Wendling

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercial biomass production is one of the main indicators for selecting erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis progenies and clones. Traditional techniques to obtain such information depend on the harvesting of trees and there are some limitations involved, such as high cost and reduced convenience. Thus, in our research we evaluated the efficiency of indirect methods through commercial biomass estimation and score of productivity according to the different provenances, gender and morphotypes. In a provenances and progenies trial installed in 1997, two methodologies of visual analysis were evaluated in August 2015 (two years after the last harvest. For that reason, five expert evaluators determined, for each plant, an estimate of the commercial biomass (kg, and a grade, based on a score of productivity (0-10. In order to assess the productivity using traditional techniques, all plants were pruned and their commercial biomass (leaves and fine branches smaller than 7 mm diameter were harvested and weighed (kg.plant-1. The evaluations were performed in a randomized-block experiment with five repetitions, seven different provenances and 126 progenies, totaling 5,292 evaluated plants. The methods utilized were effective to estimate the commercial biomass. The evaluators showed accuracy, expressing efficiently the largest productivity obtained when comparing the means of provenances, plants gender and morphotypes. The highest correlations were observed in the general analysis of the means, and the estimation of commercial biomass was considered the best methodology for estimating the commercial biomass assessed in adult erva-mate plants.

  3. Ilex paraguariensis and its main component chlorogenic acid inhibit fructose formation of advanced glycation endproducts with amino acids at conditions compatible with those in the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Yasmin; Gugliucci, Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    We have previously shown that Ilex paraguariensis extracts have potent antiglycation actions. Associations of excess free fructose consumption with inflammatory diseases have been proposed to be mediated through in situ enteral formation of fructose AGEs, which, after being absorbed may contribute to inflammatory diseases via engagement of RAGE. In this proof of principle investigation we show fluorescent AGE formation between amino acids (Arg, Lys, Gly at 10-50mM) and fructose (10-50mM) under time, temperature, pH and concentrations compatible with the digestive system lumen and its inhibition by Ilex paraguariensis extracts. Incubation of amino acids with fructose (but not glucose) leads to a time dependent formation of AGE fluorescence, already apparent after just 1h incubation, a time frame well compatible with the digestive process. Ilex paraguariensis (mate tea) inhibited AGE formation by 83% at 50μl/ml (pfructose and amino acids at times and concentrations plausibly found in the intestines. The reaction is inhibited by mate tea and its individual phenolics (caffeic acid and chlorogenic acids). The study provides the first evidence for the proposed mechanism to explain epidemiological correlations between excess fructose consumption and inflammatory diseases. Enteral fructose-AGE formation would be inhibited by co-intake of Ilex paraguariensis, and potentially other beverages, fruits and vegetables that contain comparable concentrations of phenolics as in IP (mate tea). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mate extract as feed additive for improvement of beef quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zawadzki, Andressa; Arrivetti, Leandro de O.R.; Vidal, Marília P.

    2017-01-01

    Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) is generally recognized as safe (GRAS status) and has a high content of alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic acids. Addition of mate extract to broilers feed has been shown to increase the oxidative stability of chicken meat, however, its effect on beef quality...... from animals supplemented with mate extract has not been investigated so far. Addition of extract of mate to a standard maize/soy feed at a level of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5% w/w to the diet of feedlot for cattle resulted in increased levels of inosine monophosphate, creatine and carnosine in the fresh meat....... The content of total conjugated linoleic acid increased in the meat as mate extract concentration was increased in the feed. The tendency to radical formation in meat slurries as quantified by EPR spin-trapping decreased as increasing mate extract addition to feed, especially after storage of the meat...

  5. MATE standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, R. E.

    1982-11-01

    The MATE (Modular Automatic Test Equipment) program was developed to combat the proliferation of unique, expensive ATE within the Air Force. MATE incorporates a standard management approach and a standard architecture designed to implement a cradle-to-grave approach to the acquisition of ATE and to significantly reduce the life cycle cost of weapons systems support. These standards are detailed in the MATE Guides. The MATE Guides assist both the Air Force and Industry in implementing the MATE concept, and provide the necessary tools and guidance required for successful acquisition of ATE. The guides also provide the necessary specifications for industry to build MATE-qualifiable equipment. The MATE architecture provides standards for all key interfaces of an ATE system. The MATE approach to the acquisition and management of ATE has been jointly endorsed by the commanders of Air Force Systems Command and Air Force Logistics Command as the way of doing business in the future.

  6. Physicochemical characterization of different trademarks of compound Yerba Maté and their herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Scipioni,Griselda Patricia; Ferreyra,Darío Jorge; Schmalko,Miguel Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of the main herbs used in the mixture of yerba maté with other aromatic herbs and the characterization of the trademarks of compound yerba maté. Moisture, water extract, total ash, acid-insoluble ash and caffeine concentration were determined. Results showed higher values of moisture content, total and aci-insoluble ash and lower water extracts in the herbs. Determinations were carried out in nine trademarks of ...

  7. Air pollution effects on Quercus Ilex plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavone, P.; Salmeri, C.; Spampinato, G.; Fallico, R.; Ferrante, M.

    1996-01-01

    To test air pollution effects on natural forest vegetation, the soil chemistry and the floristic composition of two Quercus ilex L. woods in the Hyblean region (S-E Sicily), unequally exposed to air pollutants are compared. Acidification phenomena are investigated by the soil chemical changes between the trunk base areas, affected by stem flow water, and the surrounding soil, only influenced by canopy drip. Soil chemical changes, floristic poorness and direct damage to the Q. ilex leaves are only detected in the Climiti Mountains holm-oak woods, located near the Siracusa petrochemical complex, while they do not appear at Cava d'Ispica, sited far from any industry and seldom exposed to winds carrying pollutants

  8. Efeito do Extrato Aquoso de ilex paraguariensis Sobre o Metabolismo de Ratos Machos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lima Pedroso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Vários estudos têm apontado Ilex paraguariensis (erva-mate como coadjuvante no manejo da obesidade. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar ingestão alimentar, peso corporal, volume da diurese, quantidade de gordura abdominal, triglicérides e colesterol total plasmáticos de ratos Wistar machos tratados com extrato aquoso de Ilex paraguariensis. MÉTODOS: Formaram-se dois grupos de seis animais cada, um controle e outro tratado. O tratado recebia extrato de Ilex paraguariensis e o controle, água para hidratação. Todos receberam ração padrão. Para o preparo do extrato da erva, misturava-se 1 L de água aquecida à 80 ºC e 70 g de erva-mate. Em 15 minutos, essa mistura era coada. Após 8 semanas, os animais foram colocados em gaiolas metabólicas para avaliar a ingestão alimentar e hídrica e o volume de diurese e fezes. Nesse período, foi aferido o peso, foram coletadas amostras de sangue para quantificar triglicérides e colesterol e a gordura abdominal foi dissecada após a morte dos animais. Na análise estatística, foi utilizado o teste t de Student para o tratamento de todos os resultados, e P < 0,05 foi considerado significativo. RESULTADOS: Ingestão alimentar e hídrica, diurese, fezes e peso dos animais não apresentaram qualquer diferença significativa, assim como os níveis de triglicérides. A quantidade de gordura abdominal, assim como os níveis de colesterol, foi significativamente menor nos animais tratados. CONCLUSÃO: O extrato da erva-mate parece ter influência sobre o metabolismo dos lipídios sem interferir no peso corporal nem na ingestão alimentar e hídrica.

  9. Phylogeographic study of Apodemus ilex (Rodentia: Muridae in Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mountains of southwest China have complex river systems and a profoundly complex topography and are among the most important biodiversity hotspots in the world. However, only a few studies have shed light on how the mountains and river valleys promote genetic diversity. Apodemus ilex is a fine model for investigating this subject. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess the genetic diversity and biogeographic patterns of Apodemus ilex, the complete cytochrome b gene sequences (1,140 bp were determined from 203 samples of A. draco/ilex that were collected from southwest China. The results obtained suggested that A. ilex and A. draco are sistergroups and diverged from each other approximately 2.25 million years ago. A. ilex could be divided into Eastern and Western phylogroups, each containing two sub-groups and being widespread in different geographical regions of the southern Hengduan Mountains and the western Yunnan - Guizhou Plateau. The population expansions of A. ilex were roughly from 0.089 Mya to 0.023 Mya. CONCLUSIONS: Our result suggested that A. ilex is a valid species rather than synonym of A. draco. As a middle-high elevation inhabitant, the phylogenetic pattern of A. ilex was strongly related to the complex geographical structures in southwest China, particularly the existence of deep river valley systems, such as the Mekong and Salween rivers. Also, it appears that the evolutionary history of A. ilex, such as lineage divergences and population expansions were strongly affected by climate fluctuation in the Late Pleistocene.

  10. POTÊNCIA EDULCORANTE, DOÇURA EQUIVALENTE E ACEITAÇÃO DE DIFERENTES EDULCORANTES EM BEBIDA PREPARADA COM ERVA-MATE (Ilex paraguariensis ST. HIL. EM PÓ SOLÚVEL, QUANDO SERVIDA QUENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA MARIA PORTO CARDOSO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    A bebida preparada pela infusão da erva-mate torrada, mais conhecida como chá-mate, é amplamente conhecida e consumida por diferentes faixas etárias e sócio-econômicas por todo o Brasil. É habitualmente consumida quente em diferentes regiões, adoçada com sacarose ou adoçante dietético de mesa. Uma vez que a literatura cita que a potência de um edulcorante pode variar em função da temperatura, entre outros fatores, foi objetivo do presente estudo determinar a doçura equivalente e potência edulcorante de diferentes edulcorantes em relação à sacarose em chá-mate em pó solúvel, preparado e servido quente (45±2o C aplicando-se estimação de magnitude, e avaliar a aceitação da bebida quando adoçada com os mesmos edulcorantes na concentração determinada como ideal. Entre os edulcorantes estudados (aspartame, mistura ciclamato/sacarina 2:1, estévia e sucralose, a sucralose apresentou o maior poder edulcorante em chá-mate quente, sendo 679 vezes mais doce que a sacarose em doçura equivalente a 8,15%. As amostras adoçadas com sacarose, sucralose, aspartame e ciclamato/sacarina 2:1 não diferiram entre si na aceitação em relação ao sabor, enquanto a amostra adoçada com estévia obteve aceitação significativamente inferior (p 0,05. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Infusão de erva- mate; estimação de magnitude; estévia, aspartame, sucralose.

  11. Genetic variation of phytochemical compounds in progenies of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Lara Cardozo Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil contains phytochemical compounds capable of preventing a number of healthproblems. Knowledge on the genetic contribution to the variability in these compounds can help to obtain mate progenies withhigher levels thereof in breeding programs. The composition of triterpene saponins, methylxanthines, chlorogenic acid andthe antioxidant activity of eight mate progenies were evaluated. Significant differences among progenies were verified incontents of triterpene saponins (0.003-0.080%, caffeine (0.226-1.377%, theobromine (0.176-0.831%, and chlorogenicacid (1.344-2.031% and in antioxidant activity (31.251-51.406%. The contents of theobromine were found to be negativelycorrelated with saponins and caffeine, and caffeine with chlorogenic acid, while theobromine was positively correlated withchlorogenic acid. The heritability values for saponins (75.09%, caffeine (75.19%, theobromine (66.87%, chlorogenic acid(52.86% and antioxidant activity (67.75% indicate the possibility of genetic gain in selection for these traits.

  12. Chlorophyll stability in yerba maté leaves in controlled atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén O. Morawicki

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate the stability of chlorophyll in yerba maté leaves in controlled atmospheres of CO2/air mixtures and different water activities at 25°C.Two levels of water activity were selected corresponding to saturated salt solutions of LiCl (a w=0.113 and MgCl2(a w=0.330 and three levels of CO2/air mixtures (0/100,20/80 and 40/60. The chlorophyll content was evaluated using a liquid chromatography HPLC technique. Experimental values varied between 2.16 and 0.61 mg/g of dry matter. For each sample, 5 determination were made during 58 days. Experimental values were fitted to an equation describing a first order reaction. In all cases, the agreement was good with PO objetivo deste trabalho foi pesquisar a estabilidade da clorofila em folhas de erva mate em misturas atmosféricas controladas de CO2/ar e diferentes atividades de vapor de água a 25ºC. Dois níveis de atividade de vapor de água foram selecionadas, correspondendo a soluçoes saturadas de LiCl (a w=0.113 e MgCl2 (a w=0.330 e três níveis de misturas CO2/ar (0/100,20/80 e 40/60. O conteúdo de clorofila foi avaliado usando a técnica de cromatografia líqüida HPLC. Os valores experimentais variaram entre 2.16 e 0.61 mg/g de matéria seca. Para cada amostra foram realizadas 5 determinaçoes durante 58 dias. Os valores experimentais foram ajustados para uma eqüação descrevendo uma reação de primeiro ordem. Em todos os casos houve boa concordância P < 3 10-3. A concentração inicial de clorofila ficou reduzida em média um 30.5% depois de 58 dias. Porém, depois da comparação das constantes de velocidade, não foram achadas diferenças entre elas.

  13. Caracterização morfológica de espécies de Hemerobius Linnaeus, 1758 (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae associadas a cultivos de café (Coffea arabica L., milho (Zea mays L. e erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Rogéria Inês Rosa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The predators were collected in mate crop in Cascavel and São Mateus do Sul, Paraná, Brazil and some other additional specimens in coffee and maize crops in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Illustrations obtained by SEM are given by the first time to the principal structures. Three species of Hemerobius were identified: H. bolivari Banks, 1910; H. domingensis Banks, 1941 and H. gaitoi Monserrat, 1996. H. domingensis is recorded for the first time to Brazil.

  14. [Chemical constituents from stems of Ilex pubescens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xian-dong; Zhang, Qian; Feng, Feng; Liu, Wen-yuan

    2012-09-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the stems of Ilex pubescens Hook. et Am. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by various column chromatographic methods with diatomite, silica gel, ODS and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were identified on physical properties and spectroscopic methods. Nine compounds were isolated and determined as luteolin(1), quercetin(2), hyperoside(3), rutin(4), 1, 5-dihydroxy-3-methyl-anthraquinone(5),3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid-1-O-beta-D-glucoside(6), hexadecanoic acid(7), stearic acid(8), n-tetratriacontanol(9), respectively. All the compounds are isolated from this plant for the first time, and compounds 5 and 6 are isolated from this genus for the first time.

  15. Semi-volatile compounds variation among Brazilian populations of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Luis Cansian

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of compressed carbon towards extracting semi-volatile compounds present in maté leaves (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. is due to the growing interest in mate constituents to develop new products in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The objective of this work was to assess the chemical distribution of semi-volatile compounds in 20 native populations of maté collected all over Brazil. The extracts of bulk samples (30 plants of each population were obtained by the high-pressure carbon dioxide extraction technique, and analyzed by GC/MSD. The quantification of compounds (caffeine, theobromine, phytol, squalene, vitamin E, eicosane, pentatriacontane, and stigmasterol showed significant variations within the different populations and compounds analyzed, which are not related to geographical origin or macroclimate characteristics. The results pointed out to the importance of genetic and local environmental factors on the chemical composition of this species.A extração empregando dióxido de carbono a altas pressões em erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., tem sido justificada pelo crescente interesse desta matriz vegetal ou de parte de seus constituintes na formulação de novos produtos, tais como cosméticos e medicamentos, entre outros. Neste contexto, o objetivo do presente trabalho é avaliar a distribuição química de compostos semi-voláteis em 20 populações de erva-mate coletadas em toda área de distribuição desta espécie no Brasil. 30 plantas foram selecionadas para produzir a amostra de cada população. Os extratos de cada amostra foram obtidos por extração com dióxido de carbono a alta pressão e, posteriormente, foram analisados por CG/EM. A quantificação de alguns compostos semi-voláteis presentes nos extratos (cafeína, teobromina, fitol, esqualeno, vitamina E, eicosano, pentatriacontano e stigmasterol, apresentaram variações significativas entre as concentrações dos diferentes compostos

  16. Chemical composition of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. under different management conditions in seven localities of Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bruno Reissmann

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. (erva-mate, the mate tea, is a forest tree whose natural distribution in the Brazilian territory embraces the States of Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. Its economical importance is moreover related to tea production. The purpose of this study is to characterize the leaf chemical composition in relation to different plantation and management conditions. Chemical analysis were performed on plants of different ages,in naturally occurring areas, planted stands, and seedbeds. The most remarkable elements observed in the study were P with average values ranging from 0,5 - 3,2 g kg-1 D.W., Mn values from 346 - 3.330 mg kg-1 D.W., and Al values from 167 - 1.235 mg kg-1 D.W.A erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., no Brasil, distribui-se nos Estados do Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná, Santa Catarina e Rio Grande do Sul. Sua importância econômica refere-se basicamente à produção do chá e chimarrão. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a composição química foliar de acordo com diferentes sistemas de plantio e manejo. A análise química foi efetuada em plantas de diversas idades e sob condições distintas de manejo, ou seja, ocorrência natural, plantios e viveiros. Os elementos que mais chamaram a atenção, neste estudo, foram o P, cujos teores variaram de 0,5 - 3,2 g kg-1 M.S.; Mn de 346-3330 mg kg-1 M.S. e Al de 167-1235 mg kg-1 M.S.

  17. Triterpenes and new saponins from Ilex chamaedryfolia: chemotaxonomic tool to Ilex species differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lencina, Claiton L.; Cardoso, Mariana C. de; Zancanaro, Ivomar; Gosmann, Grace; Pires, Viviane S.; Sonnet, Pascal; Guillaume, Dominique; Schenkel, Eloir P.

    2010-01-01

    Three saponins were isolated from leaves of Ilex chamaedryfolia. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data as the new saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-20(S)-19alpha- hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, the new saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-20(S)-19alpha- hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester and the known saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-20(R)-19alpha-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester. Ursolic acid and α-amyrin were also isolated. (author)

  18. Triterpenes and new saponins from Ilex chamaedryfolia: chemotaxonomic tool to Ilex species differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lencina, Claiton L.; Cardoso, Mariana C. de; Zancanaro, Ivomar; Gosmann, Grace, E-mail: grace.gosmann@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (FF/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia; Pires, Viviane S.; Sonnet, Pascal; Guillaume, Dominique [UMR-CNRS, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens (France). Faculte de Pharmacie. Lab. des Glucides; Schenkel, Eloir P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (CCS/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude

    2010-07-01

    Three saponins were isolated from leaves of Ilex chamaedryfolia. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data as the new saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-20(S)-19alpha- hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, the new saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-20(S)-19alpha- hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester and the known saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-20(R)-19alpha-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester. Ursolic acid and {alpha}-amyrin were also isolated. (author)

  19. METODOLOGIA PARA A POLINIZAÇÃO CONTROLADA EM Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. - Aquifoliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderês Aparecida de Sousa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. é uma espécie nativa brasileira de grande interesse econômico. Programas de melhoramento genético dessa espécie têm visado ao aumento da produtividade de biomassa e qualidade. A polinização controlada permite a combinação de características desejáveis da espécie. Para isso, técnicas adequadas de polinização controlada devem ser disponibilizadas. Este trabalho teve por objetivo definir uma metodologia para a polinização controlada de erva-mate. Para isso, utilizou-se um teste clonal de 15 anos de idade na Embrapa Florestas-Colombo-PR com nove tratamentos em flores de três árvores (repetições. As flores foram polinizadas em novembro de 2010 e os frutos, coletados em março de 2011. Os frutos e sementes produzidos foram quantificados e a viabilidade dos embriões, avaliada pelo teste de tetrazólio. Os dados foram analisados com base no procedimento GLM do programa R. Maior quantidade de frutos e sementes foi observada na polinização controlada comparativamente à polinização livre. Conclui-se que a polinização controlada após a antese dessa espécie deve ser realizada em dois dias consecutivos, para assegurar boa produção de sementes em erva-mate.

  20. Reproductive isolation between host races of Phytomyza glabricola on Ilex coriacea and I. glabra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie B Hebert

    Full Text Available Recently diverged taxa often show discordance in genetic divergence among genomic loci, where some loci show strong divergence and others show none at all. Genetic studies alone cannot distinguish among the possible mechanisms but experimental studies on other aspects of divergence may provide guidance in the inference of causes of observed discordances. In this study, we used no-choice mating trials to test for the presence of reproductive isolation between host races of the leaf-mining fly, Phytomyza glabricola on its two holly host species, Ilex coriacea and I. glabra. These trials inform our effort to determine the cause of significant differences in the degree of divergence of nuclear and mitochondrial loci of flies collected from the two host plants. We present evidence of reproductive isolation between host races in a controlled greenhouse setting: significantly more mate pairs consisting of flies from the same host plant species produced offspring than inter-host mate pairs, which produced no offspring. We also tested whether the presence of the natal or non-natal host plant affects reproductive success. Flies collected from I. coriacea were more likely to produce offspring when in the presence of the natal host, whereas the presence or absence of either the natal or non-natal host had no effect on flies collected from I. glabra. The results indicate discordant patterns of nuclear and mitochondrial divergence among host races of P. glabricola are likely due to incomplete lineage sorting, and the host races may be well on their way to becoming biological species.

  1. Inhibitory effects of total saponins from Ilex pubescens Hook against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the protective effects of total saponins from Ilex pubescens Hook (IPTS) against cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Benhnken Design (BBD) was carried out to optimize the extraction of IPTS. Thereafter, H9c2 cell model prepared by hydrogen ...

  2. Tecnologia da erva-mate solúvel

    OpenAIRE

    Berté, Kleber Alves dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: A erva-mate (Ilex paguariensis A. St.-Hil.) é uma árvore da família Aquifoliaceae, que ocupa uma região da América do Sul de aproximadamente 540.000 km², situada entre o noroeste Argentino, o leste do Paraguai e sul do Brasil. Os estados do Paraná, Santa Catarina e Rio Grande do Sul são os maiores produtores e consumidores de erva-mate. O chimarrão é a bebida mais apreciada e o seu consumo está vinculado às tradições e hábitos culturais predominantemente na região sul do país. O desen...

  3. EFEITO DE Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. e Coffea arabica L. SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO DE Fonsecaea pedrosoi ATCC 46428

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia Scroferneker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o efeito de extratos aquosos de Ilex paraguariensis (erva-mate e Coffea arabica (café em ágar Sabouraud dextrose no crescimento de Fonsecaea pedrosoi ATCC 46428. F. pedrosoi foi cultivada em placas de Petri contendo ágar Sabouraud dextrose suplementado com extratos aquosos derivados de 0,5; 1; 2; 3; 4 e 5g de pó de erva-mate ou de café fervidos em 100ml de água destilada por 30 min. Os diâmetros das colônias do fungo foram determinados após 7 dias. A incorporação dos extratos de erva-mate ou café no meio de crescimento não causou diferenças significativas no crescimento radial de F. pedrosoi ATCC 46428 comparado ao controle. Entretanto, estudos sobre o requerimento nutricional são importantes na sistematização do perfil bioquímico, o que pode contribuir na elucidação da bioquímica funcional do microrganismo.

  4. Strategies of Human Mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Buss

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern humans have inherited the mating strategies that led to the success of their ancestors. These strategies include long-term mating, short-term mating, extra-pair mating, mate poaching, and mate guarding. This article presents empirical evidence supporting evolution-based hypotheses about the complexities of these mating strategies. Since men and women historically confronted different adaptive problems in the mating domain, the sexes differ profoundly in evolved strategic solutions. These differences include possessing different mate preferences, different desires for short-term mating, and differences in the triggers that evoke sexual jealousy. The study of human mating is one of the “success stories” of evolutionary psychology.

  5. Características físicas e químicas de substratos para produção de mudas de Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. Physical and chemical characteristics of substrates for the production of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar Wendling

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar as propriedades físicas e químicas de diferentes materiais e suas combinações, bem como sua influência na produção de mudas de erva-mate em tubetes plásticos. O trabalho foi conduzido no viveiro da Empresa Baldo S.A., em São Mateus do Sul, PR. Utilizaram-se seis materiais: esterco bovino curtido, serragem semidecomposta, palito de erva-mate picado, terra de subsolo, substrato comercial à base de casca de pinus e húmus de minhoca, com os quais foram formulados 14 tratamentos. Os resultados indicaram que os tratamentos que continham serragem, palito de erva-mate e, principalmente, esterco bovino, além de serem mais econômicos, mostraram bons resultados na qualidade das mudas produzidas. Dentre esses tratamentos, aquele composto de 40% de esterco bovino e 60% de serragem se destacou, em vista da boa relação custo-benefício apresentada e da sua facilidade de preparo. As características químicas dos substratos não interferiram nas suas características físicas, assim como a influência das características físicas na produção de mudas de erva-mate depende da variável analisada.This work aimed to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of different materials and their compositions, as well as their efficiency in the production of Ilex paraguariensis seedlings in plastic tubes. The work was conducted at the Baldo S.A. Company nursery in São Mateus do Sul, PR, Brazil. Six materials were used to formulate 14 treatments: cattle manure, semi-decomposed sawdust, Ilex paraguariensis chopped stems, underground earth, commercial substrate based on pinus bark and earthworm humus. The results indicated that the treatments containing sawdust, Ilex paraguariensis stems and mainly cattle manure, besides being more economical, produced good quality seedlings. The treatments consisting of 40% cattle manure and 60% sawdust stood out because of the good cost-benefit ratio and the easiness of

  6. ESTUDO DA ALTERAÇÃO DA COR E DEGRADAÇÃO DA CLOROFILA DURANTE ARMAZENAGEM DE ERVA-MATE TIPO CHIMARRÃO

    OpenAIRE

    Gisela Cabral Malheiros

    2007-01-01

    A Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hill., conhecida popularmente como erva-mate, é uma espécie nativa da região subtropical da América do Sul, a qual é matéria-prima para o produto ervamate, utilizado principalmente no preparo da bebida chimarrão. Dentre os atributos sensoriais da erva-mate tipo chimarrão, a cor constitui o primeiro critério utilizado pelo consumidor para sua aceitabilidade. A cor verde da erva-mate deve-se à presença de clorofila. Ocorrem perdas expressivas de clorofila no proc...

  7. A novel procedure to measure the antioxidant capacity of Yerba maté extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Graciela Hartwig

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yerba maté extracts have in vitro antioxidant capacity attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acids and dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives. DPPH is one of the most used assays to measure the antioxidant capacity of pure compounds and plant extracts. It is difficult to compare the results between studies because this assay is applied in too many different conditions by the different research groups. Thus, in order to assess the antioxidant capacity of yerba maté extracts, the following procedure is proposed: 100 µL of an aqueous dilution of the extracts is mixed in duplicate with 3.0 mL of a DPPH 'work solution in absolute methanol (100 µM.L-1, with an incubation time of 120 minutes in darkness at 37 ± 1 °C, and then absorbance is read at 517 nm against absolute methanol. The results should be expressed as ascorbic acid equivalents or Trolox equivalents in mass percentage (g% dm, dry matter in order to facilitate comparisons. The AOC of the ethanolic extracts ranged between 12.8 and 23.1 g TE % dm and from 9.1 to 16.4 g AAE % dm. The AOC determined by the DPPH assay proposed in the present study can be related to the total polyphenolic content determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay.

  8. Compatibility of Mating Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bingol, Haluk O.; Basar, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Human mating is a complex phenomenon. Although men and women have different preferences in mate selection, there should be compatibility in these preferences since human mating requires agreement of both parties. We investigate how compatible the mating preferences of men and women are in a given property such as age, height, education and income. We use dataset of a large online dating site (N = 44, 255 users). (i) Our findings are based on the "actual behavior" of users trying to find a dat...

  9. Synthesis of the works of geophysical (electrical soundings) carried out in the region of the anomalies of Yerba Sola (Cerro Largo) Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, J.

    1983-01-01

    In this report has been studied geographical localization, geology, geophysics prospection, equipment and methods used and their results in Yerba Sola anomalies Province Cerro Largo and Fraile Muerto formation

  10. Male mating biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howell, Paul I.; Knols, Bart G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings

  11. Are both sympatric species Ilex perado and Ilex canariensis secretly hybridizing? Indication from nuclear markers collected in Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manen Jean-François

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intra-specific and intra-individual polymorphism is frequently observed in nuclear markers of Ilex (Aquifoliaceae and discrepancy between plastid and nuclear phylogenies is the rule in this genus. These observations suggest that inter-specific plastid or/and nuclear introgression played an important role in the process of evolution of Ilex. With the aim of a precise understanding of the evolution of this genus, two distantly related sympatric species collected in Tenerife (Canary Islands, I. perado and I. canariensis, were studied in detail. Introgression between these two species was previously never reported. One plastid marker (the atpB-rbcL spacer and two nuclear markers, the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS and the nuclear encoded plastid glutamine synthetase (nepGS were analyzed for 13 and 27 individuals of I. perado and I. canariensis, respectively. Results The plastid marker is intra-specifically constant and correlated with species identity. On the other hand, whereas the nuclear markers are conserved in I. perado, they are highly polymorphic in I. canariensis. The presence of pseudogenes and recombination in ITS sequences of I. canariensis explain this polymorphism. Ancestral sequence polymorphism with incomplete lineage sorting, or past or recent hybridization with an unknown species could explain this polymorphism, not resolved by concerted evolution. However, as already reported for many other plants, past or recent introgression of an alien genotype seem the most probable explanation for such a tremendous polymorphism. Conclusions Data do not allow the determination with certitude of the putative species introgressing I. canariensis, but I. perado is suspected. The introgression would be unilateral, with I. perado as the male donor, and the paternal sequences would be rapidly converted in highly divergent and consequently unidentifiable pseudogenes. At least, this study allows the establishment of

  12. Myxomycetes from the bark of the evergreen oak Quercus ilex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrigley de Basanta, Diana

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of 81 moist chamber cultures of bark from living Quercus ilex trees are reponed. A total of 37 taxa are cited, extending the number of species found on this substrate to 55. The presence of Licea deplanata on the Iberian Península is confirmed. Seven new records are included for the province of Madrid. Some data are contributed on species frequency and incubation times.Se presentan los resultados de 81 cultivos en cámara húmeda de corteza de Quercus ilex vivo. Se citan 37 táxones, que amplían a 55 el número de especies de mixomicetes encontrados sobre este sustrato. Se confirma la presencia en la Península Ibérica de Licea deplanata, y se incluyen siete nuevas citas para la provincia de Madrid. Se aportan datos sobre frecuencia de aparición y tiempos de incubación de algunas especies.

  13. Informe de personal de apoyo: Tournier, Horacio A. (2013-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Tournier, Horacio Alfio

    2014-01-01

    Proyectos de investigación en los cuales colabora: A) Evaluación de las propiedades antioxidantes, citotóxicas y farmacológicas de productos naturales. A1) Determinación de la actividad citotóxica de extractos y compuestos de plantas nativas argentinas y sudamericanas en un modelo de células en cultivo. A2) Caracterización de extractos de yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), corozo (Bactris guineensis) y curuba...

  14. Antidiabetic Effect of an Active Components Group from Ilex kudingcha and Its Chemical Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwu Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Ilex kudingcha are used as an ethnomedicine in the treatment of symptoms related with diabetes mellitus and obesity throughout the centuries in China. The present study investigated the antidiabetic activities of an active components group (ACG obtained from Ilex kudingcha in alloxan-induced type 2 diabetic mice. ACG significantly reduced the elevated levels of serum glycaemic and lipids in type 2 diabetic mice. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and glucokinase were upregulated significantly, while fatty acid synthetase, glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic enzyme was downregulated in diabetic mice after treatment of ACG. These findings clearly provided evidences regarding the antidiabetic potentials of ACG from Ilex kudingcha. Using LC-DAD/HR-ESI-TOF-MS, six major components were identified in ACG. They are three dicaffeoylquinic acids that have been reported previously, and three new triterpenoid saponins, which were the first time to be identified in Ilex kudingcha. It is reasonable to assume that antidiabetic activity of Ilex kudingcha against hyperglycemia resulted from these six major components. Also, synergistic effects among their compounds may exist in the antidiabetic activity of Ilex kudingcha.

  15. Low-impact mating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James L. (Inventor); Carroll, Monty B. (Inventor); Le, Thang D. (Inventor); Morales, Ray H. (Inventor); Robertson, Brandan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An androgynous mating system for mating two exoatmospheric space modules comprising a first mating assembly capable of mating with a second mating assembly; a second mating assembly structurally identical to said first mating assembly, said first mating assembly comprising; a load ring; a plurality of load cell subassemblies; a plurality of actuators; a base ring; a tunnel; a closed loop control system; one or more electromagnets; and one or more striker plates, wherein said one or more electomagnets on said second mating assembly are capable of mating with said one or more striker plates on said first mating assembly, and wherein said one or more striker plates is comprised of a plate of predetermined shape and a 5-DOF mechanism capable of maintaining predetermined contact requirements during said mating of said one or more electromagnets and said one or more striker plates.

  16. Molecular Evidence for the Hybrid Origin of Ilex dabieshanensis (Aquifoliaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shi

    Full Text Available Ilex, the largest genus of dioecious woody plants, is a good study system to assess the role of hybridization in speciation and evolution. Ilex dabieshanensis, a tree endemic to Dabieshan Mountains region, was initially described as a new species. Based on morphological intermediacy and sympatric distribution with its putative parental species, I. cornuta and I. latifolia, we proposed it as a natural hybrid between them. In this study, we sequenced one chloroplast intergenic spacer (trnH-psbA and two nuclear genes (gapC and nepGS in I. dabieshanensis and its putative parental species to test the hybrid origin hypothesis. Our results showed that there were one to two differentially fixed sequence differences between I. cornuta and I. latifolia at the two nuclear genes. Twelve of the 14 individuals of I. dabieshanensis exhibited additivity in chromatograms on these differentially fixed sites at both nuclear genes, and the remaining two exhibited additivity in chromatograms on the fixed site at only the nepGS gene. Except one haplotype of I. cornuta at the nepGS gene, all of the haplotypes of I. cornuta at the two nuclear genes were well separated from those of I. latifolia, and most haplotypes of I. dabieshanensis were shared with those of I. cornuta and I. latifolia. Phylogenetic analysis of these haplotypes was largely consistent with haplotype network analysis. I. cornuta and I. latifolia differed by two nucleotide substitutions in the chloroplast intergenic spacer, and 12 individuals of I. dabieshanensis had the same sequences as I. latifolia, while the remaining two were identical with I. cornuta. The molecular data provide convincing evidence for the hybrid origin of I. dabieshanensis and asymmetrical direction of hybridization. One haplotype of I. cornuta at the nepGS gene was nested with those of I. latifolia, indicating introgression to I. cornuta.

  17. Avaliação da labilidade de alumínio em infusões de erva-mate empregando voltametria adsortiva de redissolução catódica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Kauely de Campos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infusions of yerba mate obtained at different stages of industrialization were evaluated to determine the bioavailable fraction of Al. Adsorptive Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry using DASA (complexing agent was applied to determine the labile fraction of Al at pH 5.0 and pH 8.0 for the total fraction of dissolved Al. The results indicate that on average 60% of Al is complexed with organic compounds, minimizing their bioavailability; however, the labile fraction exceeds by up to 4 times the maximum weekly intake recommended by the World Health Organization.

  18. Classification of Ilex species based on metabolomic fingerprinting using nuclear magnetic resonance and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Hae; Sertic, Sarah; Kim, Hye Kyong; Wilson, Erica G; Michopoulos, Filippos; Lefeber, Alfons W M; Erkelens, Cornelis; Prat Kricun, Sergio D; Verpoorte, Robert

    2005-02-23

    The metabolomic analysis of 11 Ilex species, I. argentina, I. brasiliensis, I. brevicuspis, I. dumosavar. dumosa, I. dumosa var. guaranina, I. integerrima, I. microdonta, I. paraguariensis var. paraguariensis, I. pseudobuxus, I. taubertiana, and I. theezans, was carried out by NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. The analysis using principal component analysis and classification of the (1)H NMR spectra showed a clear discrimination of those samples based on the metabolites present in the organic and aqueous fractions. The major metabolites that contribute to the discrimination are arbutin, caffeine, phenylpropanoids, and theobromine. Among those metabolites, arbutin, which has not been reported yet as a constituent of Ilex species, was found to be a biomarker for I. argentina,I. brasiliensis, I. brevicuspis, I. integerrima, I. microdonta, I. pseudobuxus, I. taubertiana, and I. theezans. This reliable method based on the determination of a large number of metabolites makes the chemotaxonomical analysis of Ilex species possible.

  19. Mating and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Baker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The literature on sexual selection and the social brain hypothesis suggest that human cognition and communication evolved, in part, for the purpose of displaying desirable cognitive abilities to potential mates. An evolutionary approach to social cognition implies that proximate mating motives may lead people to display desirable mental traits. In signaling such traits, one can increase the likelihood of attracting a potential mate. Two experiments demonstrated that exposure to mating cues—highly attractive opposite-sex faces—led people to display enhancements in declarative memory—a process underlying a variety of abilities such as resource acquisition, intelligence, and creativity. Experiment 1 showed that men (but not women displayed enhanced memory for details of a story that was presented during exposure to highly attractive opposite-sex faces. Experiment 2 demonstrated that heightened displays of declarative memory reflect an enhancement in retrieval rather than in encoding. Findings contribute to the literatures on human mating and cognitive performance and provide novel insight into links between social processes and basic cognition.

  20. Sex roles and mutual mate choice matter during mate sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Lise Cats; de Jong, Karen; Forsgren, Elisabet; Amundsen, Trond

    2012-06-01

    The roles of females and males in mating competition and mate choice have lately proven more variable, between and within species, than previously thought. In nature, mating competition occurs during mate search and is expected to be regulated by the numbers of potential mates and same-sex competitors. Here, we present the first study to test how a temporal change in sex roles affects mating competition and mate choice during mate sampling. Our model system (the marine fish Gobiusculus flavescens) is uniquely suitable because of its change in sex roles, from conventional to reversed, over the breeding season. As predicted from sex role theory, courtship was typically initiated by males and terminated by females early in the breeding season. The opposite pattern was observed late in the season, at which time several females often simultaneously courted the same male. Mate-searching females visited more males early than late in the breeding season. Our study shows that mutual mate choice and mating competition can have profound effects on female and male behavior. Future work needs to consider the dynamic nature of mating competition and mate choice if we aim to fully understand sexual selection in the wild.

  1. SynchroMate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, M.; Vetere, F.; Bunyan, M

    2005-01-01

    ideas concerning technologies to support phatic interaction. Using the materials collected during our fieldwork as design inspirations, we developed design sketches for phatic technologies intended to support playful connection between intimates. One of these sketches – SynchroMate – is presented...

  2. Distress about mating rivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buss, DM; Shackelford, TK; Choe, J; Buunk, BP; Dijkstra, P

    This research tested the evolutionary psychological hypothesis that men and women would be most distressed about threats from rivals who surpass them on sex-linked components of mate value. Six predictions were tested in samples from three cultures, the United States (N = 208), the Netherlands (N =

  3. N sources affect growth, nutrient content, and net photosynthesis in maté (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Gaiad

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different N sources on the growth of maté (Ilex paragurariensis St.Hil. seedlings grown in greenhouse was studied. All seedlings received a base fertilization of 10 mg N.kg-1 soil as NH4NO3, 60 mg P2O5.and 40 mg K2O.kg-1 soil as KH2PO4 15 days before treatments application. Treatments were as follow: Control, with no extra N added; Urea = 100 mg N.kg-1 soil as Urea; NO3- = 100 mg N.kg-1 soil as Ca(NO32; and NH4+ = 100 mg N.kg-1 soil as (NH42SO4. It was concluded that: 1 increasing N content in leaves alone was not able to promote gain in biomass production of maté seedlings; 2 seedlings receiving N-NH4 showed a higher accumulation of P and Mg on shoot biomass; and 3 an increase in leaf area, leaf number and net photosynthesis observed at the N-NH4 treatment was coincident with an increasing absorption of P and Mg.A influência de diferentes fontes de N sobre o crescimento de mudas de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St.Hil. foi estudada, em casa de vegetação. Todas as mudas receberam uma fertilização base de 10 mg N.kg-1 de solo na forma de NH4NO3, 60 mg P2O5.kg-1 e 40 mg K2O.kg-1 de solo na forma de KH2PO4 quinze dias antes da aplicação dos tratamentos. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: Controle, sem adição extra de N; Uréia = 100 mg N.kg-1 de solo como Uréia; NO3- = 100 mg N.kg-1 de solo como Ca(NO32; e NH4+ = 100 mg N.kg-1 de solo como (NH42SO4. Concluiu-se que: 1 o aumento do conteúdo de N nas folhas, por si, não é capaz de promover ganhos na produção de biomassa em mudas de erva-mate; 2 mudas que receberam N-NH4 apresentaram maior acumulo de P e Mg na biomassa aérea; e 3 o aumento na absorção de P e Mg coincidiu com um aumento na área foliar, no número de folhas e na fotossíntese liquida na fonte N-NH4.

  4. Particulate Matter deposition on Quercus ilex leaves in an industrial city of central Italy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sgrigna, G.; Saebo, A.; Gawronski, S.; Popek, R.; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 197, FEB 2015 (2015), s. 187-194 ISSN 0269-7491 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : PM10 * PM2.5 * Leaf deposition * Quercus ilex * urban environment * atmospheric pollution Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.839, year: 2015

  5. The enigma of Calonectria species occurring on leaves of Ilex aquifolium in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lechat, C.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Species of Calonectria are common saprobes and plant pathogens on a wide range of hosts occurring in subtropical to tropical regions of the world. The aim of the present study was to resolve the status of new Calonectria collections obtained on Ilex leaves from France. Based on DNA sequence data of

  6. Female fitness optimum at intermediate mating rates under traumatic mating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolanda Lange

    Full Text Available Traumatic mating behaviors often bear signatures of sexual conflict and are then typically considered a male strategy to circumvent female choice mechanisms. In an extravagant mating ritual, the hermaphroditic sea slug Siphopteron quadrispinosum pierces the integument of their mating partners with a syringe-like penile stylet that injects prostate fluids. Traumatic injection is followed by the insertion of a spiny penis into the partner's gonopore to transfer sperm. Despite traumatic mating, field mating rates exceed those required for female fertilization insurance, possibly because costs imposed on females are balanced by direct or indirect benefits of multiple sperm receipt. To test this idea, we exposed animals to a relevant range of mating opportunity regimes and assessed the effects on mating behavior and proxies of female fitness. We find penis intromission duration to decrease with mating rates, and a female fecundity maximum at intermediate mating rates. The latter finding indicates that benefits beyond fertilization insurance can make higher mating rates also beneficial from a female perspective in this traumatically mating species.

  7. Phylogeographical variation of chloroplast DNA in holm oak (Quercus ilex L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumaret, R; Mir, C; Michaud, H; Raynal, V

    2002-11-01

    Variation in the lengths of restriction fragments (RFLPs) of the whole chloroplast DNA molecule was studied in 174 populations of Quercus ilex L. sampled over the entire distribution of this evergreen and mainly Mediterranean oak species. By using five endonucleases, 323 distinct fragments were obtained. From the 29 and 17 cpDNA changes identified as site and length mutations, respectively, 25 distinct chlorotypes were distinguished, mapped and treated cladistically with a parsimony analysis, using as an outgroup Q. alnifolia Poech, a closely related evergreen oak species endemic to Cyprus where Q. ilex does not grow. The predominant role of Q. ilex as maternal parent in hybridization with other species was reflected by the occurrence of a single very specific lineage of related chlorotypes, the most ancestral and recent ones being located in the southeastern and in the northwestern parts of the species' geographical distribution, respectively. The lineage was constituted of two clusters of chlorotypes observed in the 'ilex' morphotyped populations of the Balkan and Italian Peninsulas (including the contiguous French Riviera), respectively. A third cluster was divided into two subclusters identified in the 'rotundifolia' morphotyped populations of North Africa, and of Iberia and the adjacent French regions, respectively. Postglacial colonization probably started from three distinct southerly refugia located in each of the three European peninsulas, and a contact area between the Italian and the Iberian migration routes was identified in the Rhône valley (France). Chlorotypes identical or related to those of the Iberian cluster were identified in the populations from Catalonia and the French Languedoc region, which showed intermediate morphotypes, and in the French Atlantic populations which possessed the 'ilex' morphotype, suggesting the occurrence of adaptive morphological changes in the northern part of the species' distribution.

  8. Efeito da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) sobre o metabolismo de ratos tratados com dieta hiperlipídica

    OpenAIRE

    Luana Ferreira Gomes

    2012-01-01

    A obesidade é definida por um acúmulo excessivo de gordura na forma de tecido adiposo. É um problema crescente, resultando em significativa morbidade e mortalidade por doenças relacionadas, bem como uma redução da qualidade de vida. O acúmulo excessivo de tecido adiposo que caracteriza a obesidade está diretamente relacionado ao desenvolvimento patologias que, coletivamente, compõem a chamada síndrome metabólica. O tecido adiposo é o principal reservatório energético do organismo, mas também ...

  9. EVALUATION OF FACTORS OF THE WORKPLACES IN MATE INDUSTRY (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill. AT CENTRAL-SOUTH IN PARANA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Lopes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed in the maté process industry workplaces, located in central-south of the Parana State, Brazil, from June to August 2005. The climate conditions, noise and light level were analyzed using suitable ergonomic methods. The results showed that the climate conditions through the Wet Bulle Globe Temperature (WBGT was in accordance with NR 15 standard, with a maximum of 17.0 ºC at 15:00 p.m. in the “Barbaquá” sector. The noise levels were above allowed by legislation in the “Barbaquá” sector at finally work day. The light conditions were not in accordance with NBR 5413/92 in the majority of the workplaces evaluated, mainly after the 18:00 p.m, when the artificial illumination became necessary.

  10. Efficient Breeding by Genomic Mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Deniz; Sánchez, Julio I

    2016-01-01

    Selection in breeding programs can be done by using phenotypes (phenotypic selection), pedigree relationship (breeding value selection) or molecular markers (marker assisted selection or genomic selection). All these methods are based on truncation selection, focusing on the best performance of parents before mating. In this article we proposed an approach to breeding, named genomic mating, which focuses on mating instead of truncation selection. Genomic mating uses information in a similar fashion to genomic selection but includes information on complementation of parents to be mated. Following the efficiency frontier surface, genomic mating uses concepts of estimated breeding values, risk (usefulness) and coefficient of ancestry to optimize mating between parents. We used a genetic algorithm to find solutions to this optimization problem and the results from our simulations comparing genomic selection, phenotypic selection and the mating approach indicate that current approach for breeding complex traits is more favorable than phenotypic and genomic selection. Genomic mating is similar to genomic selection in terms of estimating marker effects, but in genomic mating the genetic information and the estimated marker effects are used to decide which genotypes should be crossed to obtain the next breeding population.

  11. Erva-mate production and conservation of Araucaria Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Signor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to characterize a native production area (native erval through silvicultural procedures, productivity and density of Ilex paraguariensis St.-Hil. (erva-mate and also the floristic, phytosociology, and diameter structure. To identify the silvicultural procedures, we used semi-structured interviews. For productivity assessment, the commercial biomass of I. paraguariensis was determined. For vegetation assessment, two permanent sample plots totaling 1.25 ha were installed, considering all individuals with circumference at 1.30 m above soil level (CBH ≥ 31.4 cm, for which it was registered CBH, botanical identification, XY coordinates in the plot, and all the individuals of I. paraguariensis composing the production system. Silvicultural procedures were characterized by mowing, canopy opening and conduct of natural regeneration, promoting I. paraguariensis, Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. Kuntze, and cattle. I. paraguariensis density was 634 trees.ha-1, with 2,030 kg.ha-1 of productivity in three-year crops. We found 22 species, with a predominance of Myrtaceae and Aquifoliaceae. The species of highest importance value and coverage was A. angustifolia. The diameter distribution showed a higher concentration of individuals in the smaller classes.

  12. Facilitated establishment of Quercus ilex in shrub-dominated communities within a Mediterranean ecosystem: do mycorrhizal partners matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Franck; Selosse, Marc-André; Gardes, Monique

    2009-04-01

    Positive plant-plant interaction is a widespread phenomenon, especially in harsh environments, which can contribute to secondary successions. Here, we investigated whether Arbutus unedo positively influences Quercus ilex establishment in shrub communities by abiotic and/or biotic interactions in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem, where we previously showed that A. unedo and Q. ilex share numerous species of mycorrhizal fungi. In a first field experiment, patterns of Q. ilex survivorship were documented. During the summer following germination, a majority of seedlings survived in A. unedo chaparral (AU), whereas most of them died in previous succession stages dominated by Erica arborea (EA). These results showed that survival of the Q. ilex seedling is succession stage dependent, probably due to the differential effects of the summer drought. In a second experiment, Q. ilex seedlings were used as bait plants to investigate the mycorrhizal inoculum in EA and AU. Morphotyping and molecular typing revealed 2.5 times higher colonization in AU than in EA, with more diverse fungi. Our results demonstrate that A. unedo facilitates mycorrhization of Q. ilex by hosting compatible ectomycorrhizal symbionts and positively influences seedling survival by buffering abiotic conditions. A comprehensive understanding of facilitation should thus include investigations of the soil biological patterns.

  13. ESTIMATION OF BIOMASS COMMERCIAL SPROUTS OF Ilex paraguariensis A.ST.-HIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Vuaden

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at developing some models that allow estimating the biomass of commercial green shoots of Ilex paraguariensis after pruning, at 10 years-old. In September 2007, 40 Ilex paraguariensis were pruned. One year after the first pruning, in 2008, they were evaluated dendrometrically and their biomass was determined from the commercial harvest of 16 individuals. To the others, the commercial biomass was estimated by the sum of the biomass of shoots.  The result obtained is that the biomass of commercial sprouts can be estimated as a function of the length of the rolls sprouting, with specific models for sprouts short, simple and compound average sprouts and long sprouts compounds. The models used to estimate the biomass of commercial sprouts using the length sum rolls and rolls of the length as independent variables underestimate the values of biomass with a margin of error of only 2.6%.

  14. Biomonitoring of PAHs by using Quercus ilex leaves: Source diagnostic and toxicity assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Flavia; Claudia, Lancellotti; MariaVittoria, Prati; Giulia, Maisto; Anna, Alfani

    2011-03-01

    Quercus ilex L. leaves were sampled at nineteen urban sites and two remote sites in order to evaluate PAH contamination degree. One-, two- and three-year-old leaves were collected and leaf lipid content was measured to investigate the influence of leaf age and lipids in PAH accumulation. Some PAH diagnostic ratios, such as Ant/Ant + Phen, Flt/Flt + Pyr, B[a]A/B[a]A + Crys and IP/IP + B[g,h,i]P, were calculated. The results suggest that Q. ilex leaves are effective biomonitors of PAH air contamination: in fact, a great PAH accumulation in leaves from the urban areas, until 30-time higher compared to those from the remote sites, has been observed. At each site, the similar total PAH concentrations in leaves of different age, probably due to a canopy effect, indicate an ability of all leaf age classes to monitor local PAH concentrations in air, remarking practical implications for air biomonitoring. The findings suggest that PAH adsorption in Q. ilex leaves does not result limited by leaf lipid content. Moreover, this study demonstrates the source-diagnostic potential of Q. ilex leaves, because, in particular, the Flt/Flt + Pyr and IP/IP + B[g,h,i]P ratios indicate vehicular traffic as the main source of PAHs in the urban areas and wood combustion in the remote areas. Moreover, to distinguish biomass combustion source, a promising tracer PAH as DB[a,h]A could be used. The high contribution of DB[a,h]A to total PAH concentrations at the remote sites determines a high carcinogenic potential in this area, similar to that calculated for the urban area where the carcinogenic PAH concentrations in absolute values are often higher.

  15. Enrichment and purification of pedunculoside and syringin from the barks of Ilex rotunda with macroporous resins

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chun; Chao, Zhimao; Sun, Wen; Wu, Xiaoyi; Ito, Yoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Jiubiying, the dried barks of Ilex rotunda Thunb. (Aquifoliaceae), has been used as herbal tea and traditional Chinese medicine for heat-clearing, detoxifying, dehumidification, and odynolysis. Pedunculoside and syringin are two main bioactive components. For the new drug development, we tried to isolate and purify several chemical constituents from Jiubiying by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The two-phase solvent system used was composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (...

  16. Complex phylogenetic placement of ilex species (aquifoliaceae): a case study of molecular phylogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, F.; Sun, L.; Xiao, P.G.; Hao, D.C.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the phylogenetic relationships among Ilex species distributed in China, we analyzed two alignments including 4,698 characters corresponding to six plastid sequences (matK, rbcL, atpB-rbcL, trnL-F, psbA-trnH, and rpl32-trnL) and 1,748 characters corresponding to two nuclear sequences (ITS and nepGS). Using different partitioning strategies and approaches (i.e., Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony) for phylogeny reconstruction, different topologies and clade supports were determined. A total of 18 Ilex species was divided into two major groups (group I and II) in both plastid and nuclear phylogenies with some incongruences. Potential hybridization events may account, in part, for those phylogenetic uncertainties. The analyses, together with previously identified sequences, indicated that all 18 species were recovered within Eurasia or Asia/North America groups based on plastid data. Meanwhile, the species in group II in the nuclear phylogeny were placed in the Aquifolium clade, as inferred from traditional classification, whereas the species in group I belonged to several other clades. The divergence time of most of the 18 Ilex species was estimated to be not more than 10 million years ago. Based on the results of this study, we concluded that paleogeographical events and past climate changes during the same period might have played important roles in these diversifications. (author)

  17. Seleção de matrizes e tipo de propágulo na enxertia de substituição de copa em Ilex paraguariensis Stock plants selection and ramet types for crown grafting in Ilex paraguariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar Wendling

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a técnica da sobreenxertia em Ilex paraguariensis, visando a substituição de copas. Para tanto, foi avaliada a influência da posição do enxerto na planta matriz, a idade e a matriz, bem como, a definição da melhor época para avaliação do pegamento e vigor dos enxertos. Árvores com 13 anos de idade localizadas em Colombo - PR, foram submetidas ao corte a 10 cm do solo para indução de brotações, sobre as quais foi realizada a enxertia por garfagem no topo em fenda cheia. Os enxertos foram coletados de sete árvores matrizes com idade de 10 anos e sete árvores com idade acima de 80 anos. Das matrizes selecionadas foram retirados enxertos observando-se a posição apical, mediana e basal dentro da planta matriz. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições e 42 tratamentos, no esquema fatorial hierárquico 2 x 7 x 3 (duas idades; 7 matrizes, para cada idade; e 3 posições de coleta. A variável resposta de interesse foi proporção de pegamentos e número e comprimento de brotos. Obteve-se um comportamento diferenciado das matrizes quando amostradas em diferentes posições de coleta. A herdabilidade individual dos efeitos genotípicos, estimada para o pegamento dos enxertos, foi superior a 74%, para todos os períodos de avaliação, cujo valor é considerado alto. O coeficiente de variação genética foi da ordem de 34%, para os períodos de acompanhamento iguais ou superiores a 90 dias, indicando boas perspectivas de ganho no melhoramento do material genético. O coeficiente de variação experimental, nesse mesmo período, ficou entre 78% e 94%. Não houve diferenças entre os parâmetros genéticos a partir dos 90 dias. Pode-se concluir que a sobreenxertia de erva-mate diretamente a campo é tecnicamente viável; melhores taxas de pegamento são obtidas em árvores mais novas e com brotações apicais; e as matrizes apresentam respostas diferenciadas quanto

  18. Short communication: Aqueous-acetone extraction improves the drawbacks of using dimethylsulfoxide as solvent for photometric pigment quantification in Quercus ilex leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Gonzalez-Cascon

    2017-10-01

    Research highlights: Oxidizing conditions and polyphenol concentrations in Q. ilex leaves generated brown colorations in the DMSO extraction procedure, interfering with the photometric measurements in the red-orange region. Aqueous-acetone extraction was free from interference. DMSO should be avoided for pigment determination in Q. ilex leaves or when comparing different tree species.

  19. ANÁLISE DE METAIS EM AMOSTRAS COMERCIAIS DE ERVA-MATE DO SUL DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula SAIDELLES

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    A erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis, St. Hill. ingerida como infusão a quente, chamada de “chimarrão”, é uma cultura com grande valor comercial para os estados do sul do Brasil. Atualmente muitos estudos tem sido desenvolvidos buscando estabelecer os benefícios terapêuticos e efeitos colaterais à saúde humana da erva-mate, que podem estar relacionados à presença de metais. Neste trabalho foram determinadas as concentrações de metais essenciais e tóxicos na composição da erva-mate comercializada e consumida nos diferentes estados do sul do Brasil. Amostras provenientes do Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná e Santa Catarina foram analisadas para a determinação da concentração de Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, Zn por espectrometria de massa com plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP-MS e espectrometria de emissão óptica com plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP-OES. Observou-se que a concentração média de todos os metais analisados nas amostras estava dentro dos limites toleráveis. Entretanto, foram observadas concentrações minerais diferenciadas entre as regiões estudadas. Desta forma, a erva-mate pode ser recomendada na utilização diária, podendo suprir necessidades básicas de ingestão desses metais essenciais sem o risco de problemas causados por elementos tóxicos.

  20. BIOECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF ERVA-MATE BORER, Hedypathes betulinus (KLUG, 1825 (COLEOPTERA: CERAMBYCIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia d´Avila

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil. has a social, cultural and economic importance in  the southern states of Brazil. The  pure stands of  this culture was responsible for the increase  of many species of insects. Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae is considered the main pest from an economic viewpoint because of its difficult control and potential for damage. The larval phase occurs inside the twings and trunks, what makes more difficult to deal with its detention and management. Cultural and mechanical management are the most indicated, such as collection of adults, prunning and burning of plant parts damaged by the insect, balanced nutrition, adequate plant density and maintenance of areas with native vegetation or also the introduction of policulture. These strategies  may increase  the  agroecossystem  balance  and  thus  a  reduction  of  the  insect-pest  to  an aceptable level. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assemble and the discuss the information on the bioecology and management of erva-mate borer.

  1. Efeito da ingestão de chocolate e erva mate no perfil lipídico e oxidativo de indivíduos com HIV/AIDS em uso de terapia antirretroviral

    OpenAIRE

    Suelen Jorge de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: Atualmente observa-se aumento das complicações cardiovasculares, como alterações no perfil lipídico e oxidativo, em indivíduos com HIV/AIDS, devido à própria infecção, bem como aos diferentes componentes da terapia antirretroviral (TARV). Vários estudos, em outras populações, mostram que os flavonóides presentes no cacau (Theobroma cacao) e erva mate (Ilex paraguariensis) podem melhorar a função cardiovascular devido às suas propriedades antioxidantes e hipolipemiantes. Objetivo: ...

  2. Biological aspects of Periga circumstans Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae with larvae reared on khaki and mate-plant leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Specht

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to investigate biological aspects of Periga circumstans Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae whose larvae were fed on leaves of khaki-plant (Diospyros khaki Linnaeus - Ebenaceae and Mate-plant (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire - Aquifoliaceae leaves. The biological parameters were obtained from specimens kept under controlled conditions: temperature of 25 ± 1 °C, relative humidity of 70 ± 10%, and photoperiod of 12 hours. For each developmental stage, morphological and ethological parameters are described. The larvae passed through six instars with a growth average rate of 1.4 for each instar. The host plants influenced significantly only the total duration of the larval phase, which was prolonged for larvae fed on khaki-plant leaves. Several aspects related to the morphology and the ethology of P. circumstans are similar to those described for Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855.

  3. Caffeine and theobromine in epicuticular wax of Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde, M L; Coelho, G C; Schenkel, E P

    2000-12-01

    Caffeine and theobromine were identified and quantified in leaf epicuticular waxes of Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. (Aquifoliaceae). The total epicuticular leaf wax content was ca. 0.5% on average of dry leaf weight. Epicuticular caffeine and theobromine contents varied from 0.16 to 127.6 microg/mg and from 0 to 9.5 microg/mg of wax, respectively. For some selected samples, the intracellular methylxanthine concentration was also determined. A positive correlation was found between inner and epicuticular caffeine contents.

  4. Male mate choice and female response in relation to mating status and time since mating

    OpenAIRE

    Douglass H. Morse

    2010-01-01

    Models of sperm allocation predict that male mating behavior will vary with a female's reproductive condition and with information about her present and likely future status available to a male. Tests across a wide taxonomic range have shown that males allocate more sperm to previously mated females than to virgins but that in a minority of instances this allocation pattern is reversed. To investigate the basis for this discrepancy I ran sequential pairings of the crab spider Misumena vatia (...

  5. The effect of winter stress on Ilex aquifolium L.previously fumigated with ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranford, Jonathan; Reiling, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    European Holly (Ilex aquifolium) received either charcoal-filtered air (CFA) or CFA with 70 nl l -1 ozone added for 7 h day -1 over a 28 day period. Plants were then transferred into cooling incubators for hardening (4 o C day/2 o C night; day length 12 h) for 7 days and then to the frosting stage (2 o C day and -5, -10 or -15 o C night) for 4 days. The plants were then placed in ambient conditions. Treatment produced significant differences in chlorophyll fluorescence data. Stomatal conductance was significantly higher for the ozone treatments though both showed a general decline over all temperature regimes. Ozone also significantly increased electrolyte leakage and reduced winter survival. These results show that ambient concentrations of ozone can reduce the tolerance of I. aquifolium to freezing stress, which may have serious implications for its establishment and survival. - Exposure to ozone decreases the winter hardening capability and markedly increases the frost sensitivity of Ilex aquifolium

  6. Morphological and physiological divergences within Quercus ilex support the existence of different ecotypes depending on climatic dryness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Barrón, Eduardo; Camarero, Julio Jesús; Vilagrosa, Alberto; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2014-08-01

    Several studies show apparently contradictory findings about the functional convergence within the Mediterranean woody flora. In this context, this study evaluates the variability of functional traits within holm oak (Quercus ilex) to elucidate whether provenances corresponding to different morphotypes represent different ecotypes locally adapted to the prevaling stress levels. Several morphological and physiological traits were measured at leaf and shoot levels in 9-year-old seedlings of seven Q. ilex provenances including all recognized morphotypes. Plants were grown in a common garden for 9 years under the same environmental conditions to avoid possible biases due to site-specific characteristics. Leaf morphometry clearly separates holm oak provenances into 'ilex' (more elongated leaves with low vein density) and 'rotundifolia' (short and rounded leaves with high vein density) morphotypes. Moreover, these morphotypes represent two consistent and very contrasting functional types in response to dry climates, mainly in terms of leaf area, major vein density, leaf specific conductivity, resistance to drought-induced cavitation and turgor loss point. The 'ilex' and 'rotundifolia' morphotypes correspond to different ecotypes as inferred from their contrasting functional traits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the combined use of morphological and physiological traits has provided support for the concept of these two holm oak morphotypes being regarded as two different species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. EFFICIENCY OF THE USE OF SOLAR RADIATION FOR PLANTS Ilex paraguariensis A. ST. HIL. CULTIVATED UNDER SHADOW AND FULL SUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Otomar Caron

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814563The efficiency of conversion of the solar radiation in biomass is a variable frequently used in models of simulation the culture growth, because the biomass production is related with the efficiency of which a plant converts radiant energy in chemistry, given by the process of the photosynthesis. The objective of this work was to determine the efficiency of conversion of the photosynthetically active and intercepted solar radiation (RFAi in Ilex paraguariensis biomass, cultivated in consortium (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. e Pinus elliottii Engelm and single. For so much, it was determined the photosynthetically active and intercepted solar radiation (RFAi, the index of leaf area and the biomass dries of the seedlings, being then, the efficiency of conversion of RFAi in biomass dries of the cultivated in consortium and single. For a same radiation value RFAi, is obtained larger efficiency of use of the radiation in the accumulation in matter dries when Ilex paraguariensis is cultivated in consortium. The conversion efficiency (εb of biomass total drought of Ilex paraguariensis plants in relation to the amount of the photosynthetically active and intercepted solar radiation (RFAi accumulated is of 0.83 g MJ-1 in the system consortium and of 0.23 g MJ-1 in the single system. In spite of that, the production of aerial biomass for plant was larger in the single system. 

  8. Comparative Drought Responses of Quercus ilex L. and Pinus sylvestris L. in a Montane Forest Undergoing a Vegetation Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aguadé

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Different functional and structural strategies to cope with water shortage exist both within and across plant communities. The current trend towards increasing drought in many regions could drive some species to their physiological limits of drought tolerance, potentially leading to mortality episodes and vegetation shifts. In this paper, we study the drought responses of Quercus ilex and Pinus sylvestris in a montane Mediterranean forest where the former species is replacing the latter in association with recent episodes of drought-induced mortality. Our aim was to compare the physiological responses to variations in soil water content (SWC and vapor pressure deficit (VPD of the two species when living together in a mixed stand or separately in pure stands, where the canopies of both species are completely exposed to high radiation and VPD. P. sylvestris showed typical isohydric behavior, with greater losses of stomatal conductance with declining SWC and greater reductions of stored non-structural carbohydrates during drought, consistent with carbon starvation being an important factor in the mortality of this species. On the other hand, Q. ilex trees showed a more anisohydric behavior, experiencing more negative water potentials and higher levels of xylem embolism under extreme drought, presumably putting them at higher risk of hydraulic failure. In addition, our results show relatively small changes in the physiological responses of Q. ilex in mixed vs. pure stands, suggesting that the current replacement of P. sylvestris by Q. ilex will continue.

  9. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2002-01-01

    A medium fidelity and low cost training device for pilots, called the Multi Aircraft Training Environment (MATE), is developed to replace other low fidelity stand-alone training devices and integrate them into a flexible environment, primarily aimed attraining pilots in checklist procedures....../models to be simulated) and with possibilities for including various forms of intelligent computer assistance. This training concept and the technology are not specific toaviation, but can be used to simulate various types of control panels in different domains. The training effectiveness of pilots' procedure training...... in the MATE prototype was compared with the effects of traditional training that included the use of realaircraft. The experimental group (EXP) trained the pre-start checklist and the engine start checklist for the Saab 340 commuter aircraft in a MATE prototype. The control group (CTR) trained the same...

  10. Dinâmica da Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze. e Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. em duas florestas de araucária no estado do Paraná, Brasil / Dynamic of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. Ktze. e Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. in two araucária forest located in the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geise de Góes Canalez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, estudaram-se o crescimento volumétrico, a mortalidade e o recrutamento das espécies Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. e Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze em duas florestas de araucária localizadas no Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados em 4 parcelas permanentes, no município de São João do Triunfo e 8 nos municípios de General Carneiro e Coronel Domingos Soares, medidas a partir de 1998, todas com 1,00 hectare cada, exceto uma com 0,5 hectare em São João do Triunfo. As espécies foram analisadas por meio de indicadores estruturais e dinâmicos: IVI, abundância, área basal, volume, distribuição diamétrica, distribuição espacial, recrutamento, mortalidade e incrementos. Os resultados demonstraram que em sete anos de dinâmica estrutural a espécie Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze, teve decréscimo acentuado na sua posição de importância na comunidade já a espécie Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., de maneira geral, manteve seu IVI nas comunidades. Observou-se na comunidade de São João do Triunfo, a espécie Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze, passa por una diminuição de densidade, porque a mortalidade está sendo maior que o recrutamento, entretanto na área de General Carneiro o quadro é inverso, está ocorrendo um aumento na densidade total para a espécie. Já para a Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., a densidade tem aumentado gradativamente. Assim, evidenciou-se que as duas florestas, com relação às duas espécies analisadas, apresentaram comportamentos diferentes em termos de recrutamento, mortalidade e crescimento volumétrico e a provável causa para isso tenha sido a diferença no histórico de exploração no passado, bem como outros fatores relacionados ao sítio. A área de General Carneiro e Coronel Domingos Soares apresentou maior crescimento para estas duas espécies que a área de São João do Triunfo, com valor incremento volumétrico periódico anual (IPA vol médio de 2

  11. BIOECOLOGIA E MANEJO DA BROCA-DA-ERVA-MATE, Hedypathes betulinus (KLUG, 1825 (COLEOPTERA: CERAMBYCIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerson V. Carús Guedes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil. apresenta grande importância social, cultural e econômica no sul do Brasil. Com a formação de povoamentos puros e o aumento da área de plantio, observou-se um aumento populacional de muitas espécies de insetos. Dentre os insetos-praga, a broca-da-erva-mate, Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, é a de maior importância econômica, em razão dos danos que causa e seu difícil controle. A fase larval ocorre no interior dos galhos e troncos das plantas, dificultando sua detecção e manejo. O manejo cultural e o mecânico são os mais indicados, como a coleta de adultos, poda e queima de partes atacadas da planta, nutrição equilibrada, densidade adequada de plantas e manutenção de áreas com vegetação nativa ou ainda a introdução do policultivo. Com essas técnicas, espera-se um maior equilibrio do agroecossistema e, com isso, a diminuição dos insetos-praga a um nível aceitável. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho é reunir e discutir as informações da bioecologia e manejo da broca-da-erva-mate.

  12. Aqueous-acetone extraction improves the drawbacks of using dimethylsulfoxide as solvent for photometric pigment quantification in Quercus ilex leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Cascon, R.; Jiménez-Fenoy, L.; Verdú-Fillola, I.; Martín, M.P.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: We evaluated the use of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for the photometric determination of chlorophyll (Chla and Chlb) and carotenoids in Quercus ilex L. leaves by comparative analysis using aqueous-acetone extraction. Area of study: a Q. ilex dehesa in Las Majadas del Tietar, Cáceres, Spain Material and methods: Q. ilex leaves were sampled during two vegetative periods. Field SPAD-502 Chlorophyll measurements and photometric chlorophyll determinations were performed. Two procedures were used: extraction of intact foliar discs at 65ºC with DMSO and fine foliar powder with cold aqueous-acetone. Main results: DMSO produced Chlb overestimation and different fitting performance for SPAD vs pigment calibrations (R2=0.64, RMSE=0.20, p<0.0001 for Chla (µg/cm2); R2=0.33, RMSE=0.23, p<0.0001 for Chlb (µg/cm2) and R2=0.50, RMSE=0.23, p<0.0001 for carotenoids (µg/cm2)). Aqueous-acetone provided more accurate predictions (R2=0.90, RMSE=0.16, p<0.0001 for Chla and R2=0.91, RMSE=0.16, p<0.0001 for Chlb, R2=0.90, RMSE=0.02, p<0.0001 for carotenoids) and mean ratio Chla/Chlb=3.6 inside the range for sun exposed leaves. Research highlights: Oxidizing conditions and polyphenol concentrations in Q. ilex leaves generated brown coloration in the DMSO extraction procedure, interfering with the photometric measurements in the red-orange region. Aqueous-acetone extraction was free from interference. DMSO should be avoided for pigment determination in Q. ilex leaves or when comparing different tree species.

  13. Aqueous-acetone extraction improves the drawbacks of using dimethylsulfoxide as solvent for photometric pigment quantification in Quercus ilex leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Cascon, R.; Jiménez-Fenoy, L.; Verdú-Fillola, I.; Martín, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: We evaluated the use of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for the photometric determination of chlorophyll (Chla and Chlb) and carotenoids in Quercus ilex L. leaves by comparative analysis using aqueous-acetone extraction. Area of study: a Q. ilex dehesa in Las Majadas del Tietar, Cáceres, Spain Material and methods: Q. ilex leaves were sampled during two vegetative periods. Field SPAD-502 Chlorophyll measurements and photometric chlorophyll determinations were performed. Two procedures were used: extraction of intact foliar discs at 65ºC with DMSO and fine foliar powder with cold aqueous-acetone. Main results: DMSO produced Chlb overestimation and different fitting performance for SPAD vs pigment calibrations (R2=0.64, RMSE=0.20, p<0.0001 for Chla (µg/cm2); R2=0.33, RMSE=0.23, p<0.0001 for Chlb (µg/cm2) and R2=0.50, RMSE=0.23, p<0.0001 for carotenoids (µg/cm2)). Aqueous-acetone provided more accurate predictions (R2=0.90, RMSE=0.16, p<0.0001 for Chla and R2=0.91, RMSE=0.16, p<0.0001 for Chlb, R2=0.90, RMSE=0.02, p<0.0001 for carotenoids) and mean ratio Chla/Chlb=3.6 inside the range for sun exposed leaves. Research highlights: Oxidizing conditions and polyphenol concentrations in Q. ilex leaves generated brown coloration in the DMSO extraction procedure, interfering with the photometric measurements in the red-orange region. Aqueous-acetone extraction was free from interference. DMSO should be avoided for pigment determination in Q. ilex leaves or when comparing different tree species.

  14. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection.

  15. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Conroy-Beam

    Full Text Available Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294 we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection.

  16. Effect of chocolate and mate tea on the lipid profile of individuals with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral therapy: A clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Suelen J; Petrilli, Aline A; Teixeira, Andrea M; Pontilho, Patricia M; Carioca, Antonio A; Luzia, Liania A; Souza, José M; Damasceno, Nágila R; Segurado, Aluisio A; Rondó, Patricia H

    HIV/AIDS is generally associated with dyslipidemia and oxidative imbalance, which are caused by the infection itself and by antiretroviral therapy (ART). The flavonoids, found in cocoa and yerba mate, have antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the consumption of dark chocolate and mate tea on the lipid profiles of individuals with HIV/AIDS who are undergoing ART. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial was conducted with 92 patients receiving ART for ≥6 mo and with viral suppression. The participants were randomized to receive either 65 g of chocolate (with 2148 mg polyphenols) or placebo chocolate (without polyphenols) or 3 g of mate tea (with 107 mg total phenols and 84.24 mg chlorogenic acid) or placebo mate (without polyphenols) for 15 d each, separated by a washout period of 15 d. The lipid profile, including determination of electronegative low-density lipoprotein, was determined after each intervention. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance using the pkcross procedure of the Stata 11.0 software. Analysis of variance revealed a significant overall difference in mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) between all supplements (P = 0.047). Using the paired t test, the effect was attributed to the consumption of dark chocolate (P = 0.046). The other parameters investigated were not improved. The consumption of dark chocolate for 15 d improved HDL-C concentrations of individuals with HIV/AIDS undergoing ART, possibly due to the presence of fatty acids (stearic acid), polyphenols, and theobromine. This fact is important for the cardiovascular protection of these individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mate choice screening in captive solitary carnivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Anistoroaei, Razvan

    2017-01-01

    Mate choice studies suggest that choosy females benefit from increased fecundity, litter size, and offspring survival. Thus, providing females with the opportunity to choose among potential mates, deemed genetically suitable based on studbook data, might improve breeding management in production ...

  18. Protecting artificial team-mates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; McGee, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on conversational, competitive, and cooperative systems suggests that people respond differently to humans and AI agents in terms of perception and evaluation of observed team-mate behavior. However, there has not been research examining the relationship between participants' pr...

  19. Diet-induced mating preference in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Eugene; Zilber-Rosenberg, Ilana; Sharon, Gil; Segal, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Diet-induced mating preference was initially observed by Dodd (1). Subsequently, we reported that diet-induced mating preference occurred in Drosophila melanogaster. Treatment of the flies with antibiotics abolished the mating preference, suggesting that fly-associated commensal bacteria were responsible for the phenomenon (2). The hypothesis was confirmed when it was shown that colonizing antibiotic-treated flies with Lactobacillus plantarum reestablished mating preference in multiple-choice...

  20. Determination of mating frequency by radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid Miah, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    Radioisotope ( 32 P) was used to study the frequency of mating of an insect. The radioactivity counts correlated positively with the number of matings. Radioactivity was also detected from the eggs and excised embryos. This work suggests that radioisotope like ( 32 P) may be conveninently used to detect virginity and mating frequency of female insects without killing them. (author)

  1. BUFO PARDALIS (ANURA: BUFONIDAE): MATING CALL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the calls of one of these species, Bufo pardalis. Hewitt, were not analysed by Tandy & Keith. (1972). Furthennore there is some confusion in the literature regarding the mating call of this species. For these reasons this mating call is here clarified. The mating call of B. pardaiis was first described by Ranger (in Hewitt 1935) as ...

  2. Females use self-referent cues to avoid mating with previous mates

    OpenAIRE

    Ivy, Tracie M; Weddle, Carie B; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2005-01-01

    Females of many species mate repeatedly throughout their lives, often with many different males (polyandry). Females can secure genetic benefits by maximizing their diversity of mating partners, and might be expected, therefore, to forego matings with previous partners in favour of novel males. Indeed, a female preference for novel mating partners has been shown in several taxa, but the mechanism by which females distinguish between novel males and previous mates remains unknown. We show that...

  3. Atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos de folhas e ramos da Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno De Biasi

    Full Text Available Para avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de Ilex paraguariensis foram utilizados seis microrganismos: Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermidis. O método utilizado foi de difusão do disco. Foram adicionados em discos de papel filtro 10 µl de extratos hidro-alcoólicos das folhas e ramos coletados de dois ambientes distintos, com e sem exposição ao sol. As placas foram incubadas a 35- 37 ºC por 24 h. Os extratos inibiram levedura, bacilos gram-negativos e cocos gram-positivos, não mostrando atividade frente à Escherichia coli.

  4. Individual differences in valuing mates' physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W; Bielser, Abby; Cassell, Ticcarra; Summers, Sarah; Witowski, Aggie

    2006-10-01

    To investigate correlates of valuing physical attractiveness in a mate, it was hypothesized that valuing physical attractiveness in a mate would correlate with sex and valuing promiscuous sex, status, personal physical attractiveness, beauty, and order. Men and women college students completed measures of the extent to which they valued physical attractiveness in a mate and other variables. Valuing physical attractiveness in a mate was correlated with sex (men valued physical attractiveness in a mate more than did women) and valuing promiscuous sex and status, and, for women, valuing personal physical attractiveness. The results were explained in terms of evolutionary theory.

  5. Self-Perceived Mate Value, Facial Attractiveness, and Mate Preferences: Do Desirable Men Want It All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnocky, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Ten years ago, Buss and Shackelford demonstrated that high mate value (i.e., physically attractive) women held more discerning mate preferences relative to lower mate value women. Since then, researchers have begun to consider the equally important role of men's sexual selectivity in human mate choice. Yet, little research has focused on whether high mate value men are similarly choosy in their mate preferences. In a sample of 139 undergraduate men, relationships between self-perceived mate value as well as female-rated facial attractiveness were examined in relation to men's expressed mate preferences. Results showed that self-perceived mate value was unrelated to men's facial attractiveness as rated by women. Men who believed they were of high mate value were more likely than lower mate value men to prefer to marry at a younger age; to have a spouse who was younger than them; and to have a partner who was sociable, ambitious, high in social status, with good financial prospects, a desire for children, health, good looks, and mutual attraction. Objective male facial attractiveness was generally unrelated to heightened mate preferences, with the exception of heightened preference for similar religious background and good physical health. Findings suggest that men who perceive themselves as high in overall mate value are selective in their mate choice in a manner similar to high mate value women.

  6. Mate Value Discrepancy and Mate Retention Behaviors of Self and Partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Yael; Mogilski, Justin K; Shackelford, Todd K; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Fink, Bernhard

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between perceived mate value discrepancy (i.e., the difference between an individual's mate value and their partner's mate value) and perceived frequency of mate retention performed by an individual relative to his or her partner. In two studies, participants in long-term, exclusive, sexual, heterosexual relationships reported their own, and their partner's, mate value and mate retention. Samples included 899 community members (Study 1) and 941 students and community members (Study 2). In Study 1, we documented that individuals with higher self-perceived short-term mate value, and who perceive their partner to have lower (vs. higher) short-term mate value, perform less frequent Benefit-Provisioning mate retention, controlling for the partner's Benefit-Provisioning mate retention. In Study 2, we documented that individuals who perceive that they could less easily replace their partner, and who perceive their partner could more (vs. less) easily replace them, perform more frequent mate retention (Benefit-Provisioning and Cost-Inflicting), controlling for the partner's mate retention. These results highlight the importance of assessing perceived discrepancies in mate value (notably, regarding the replaceability of self and partner with another long-term mate) and perceived mate retention behaviors of self, relative to partner, between men and women in long-term relationships. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mate attraction, retention and expulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Emily J; Shackelford, Todd K

    2010-02-01

    Sexual selection theory and parental investment theory have guided much of the evolutionary psychological research on human mating. Based on these theories, researchers have predicted and found sex differences in mating preferences and behaviors. Men generally prefer that their long-term partners are youthful and physically attractive. Women generally prefer that their long-term partners have existing resources or clear potential for securing resources and display a willingness to invest those resources in children the relationship might produce. Both men and women, however, desire long-term partners who are kind and intelligent. Once a partner is obtained, men and women act in sex-specific ways to ensure the continuation and exclusivity of the relationship. Men, in particular, engage in behaviors designed to prevent, correct, and anticipate their partner's sexual infidelity. Relationships dissolve for evolutionarily-relevant reasons: infidelity, childlessness, and infertility. The discussion addresses directions for future research.

  8. Females use self-referent cues to avoid mating with previous mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Tracie M; Weddle, Carie B; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2005-12-07

    Females of many species mate repeatedly throughout their lives, often with many different males (polyandry). Females can secure genetic benefits by maximizing their diversity of mating partners, and might be expected, therefore, to forego matings with previous partners in favour of novel males. Indeed, a female preference for novel mating partners has been shown in several taxa, but the mechanism by which females distinguish between novel males and previous mates remains unknown. We show that female crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) mark males with their own unique chemical signatures during mating, enabling females to recognize prior mates in subsequent encounters and to avoid remating with them. Because self-referent chemosensory cues provide females with a simple, but reliable mechanism of identifying individuals with whom they have mated without requiring any special cognitive ability, they may be a widespread means by which females across a broad range of animal mating systems maximize the genetic benefits of polyandry.

  9. Comparative oesophageal cancer risk assessment of hot beverage consumption (coffee, mate and tea): the margin of exposure of PAH vs very hot temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaru, Alex O; Rullmann, Anke; Farah, Adriana; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira; Stern, Mariana C; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2018-03-01

    Consumption of very hot (> 65 °C) beverages is probably associated with increased risk of oesophageal cancer. First associations were reported for yerba mate and it was initially believed that high content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) might explain the risk. Later research on other beverage groups such as tea and coffee, which are also consumed very hot, found associations with increased risk of oesophageal cancer as well. The risk may therefore not be inherent in any compound contained in mate, but due to temperature. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the risk of PAH in comparison with the risk of the temperature effect using the margin of exposure (MOE) methodology. The human dietary benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene) exposure through consumption of coffee, mate, and tea was estimated. The oesophageal cancer risk assessment for both PAH and temperature was conducted using the MOE approach. Considering differences in the transfer of the PAH from the leaves of mate and tea or from the ground coffee to the infusion, and considering the different preparation methods, exposures may vary considerably. The average individual exposure in μg/kg bw/day arising from consumption of 1 cup (0.2 L) of infusion was highest for mate (2.85E-04 BaP and 7.22E-04 PAH4). The average per capita exposure in μg/kg bw/day was as follows: coffee (4.21E-04 BaP, 4.15E-03 PAH4), mate (4.26E-03 BaP, 2.45E-02 PAH4), and tea (8.03E-04 BaP, 4.98E-03 PAH4). For all individual and population-based exposure scenarios, the average MOE for BaP and PAH4 was > 100,000 independent of beverage type. MOE values in this magnitude are considered as a very low risk. On the contrary, the MOE for the temperature effect was estimated as PAH exposure may pose an oesophageal cancer risk. Consumer education on risks associated with consumption of 'very hot' beverages and policy measures to threshold

  10. Ant parasite queens revert to mating singly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Seirian; Hughes, William Owen Hamar; Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2004-01-01

    quantified and they tend to be similar in related species. Here we compare the mating strategies of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior and its recently derived social parasite Acromyrmex insinuator, which is also its closest relative 2 (see Fig. 1 ). We find that although the host queens mate with up......A parasitic ant has abandoned the multiple mating habit of the queens of its related host. Multiple mating (polyandry) is widespread among animal groups, particularly insects 1 . But the factors that maintain it and underlie its evolution are hard to verify because benefits and costs are not easily...... to a dozen different males, the social parasite mates only singly. This rapid and surprising reversion to single mating in a socially parasitic ant indicates that the costs of polyandry are probably specific to a free-living lifestyle....

  11. Avaliação nutricional de plantas de erva-mate atacadas e não atacadas pelo Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geedre Adriano Borsoi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed at evaluating and comparing the nutritional levels of erva mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., plants which were attacked by Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825 (Col.: Cerambycidae, and plants of the same specie, which were not attacked by this insect. This objective was established in order to identify possible nutritional instabilities in the soil and in the leaves of these erva mate plants. The area where the investigation was conducted is localized in Catanduvas (SC. The plantation of erva mate, which had density of 2100 plants/ha, was eight years old and it was homogeneous. The samples of the plants and the soil were collected between February and April in 1999. They also were submitted to chemical analysis on Soil Analysis Laboratory. In this place, it was interpreted the levels of each chemical element and it was applied the tests of comparisons means “t” and “f” and test of homogeneity of variances, of erva mate plants. Soil showed levels adequate of N and P, low levels of K, Ca and Mg and right to S, B, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Na, Al, Al+H, ph and SMP. In the tissue analysis, plants presented levels adequate of K, Ca, B, Zn and Na low levels of P, Mn and S and right to N, Mg, Fe and Cu. The test “t” demonstrated expressive difference for the P of the soil and leaves. The test “f” demonstrated Fe of soil as chemical variables with significant differences. P and Fe of the soil and K, S and Mn of the leaves were the chemical elements that showed expressive heterogeneity of variances. Comparing the two varieties of erva mate plants, the ones, which were attacked by the insect, revealed more variation beween the means.

  12. Allochronic separation versus mate choice: nonrandom patterns of mating between fall armyworm host strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schöfl, G.; Dill, A.; Heckel, D.G.; Groot, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    Assortative mating may result from intrinsic individual mating preferences or from assortment traits not requiring expression of preferences. Assortment traits are phenotypes expressed in both sexes that enhance the probability of encountering individuals possessing similar trait values. In the

  13. Honey bee queens do not count mates to assess their mating success

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mating system of honey bees (genus Apis) is extremely polyandrous, where reproductive females (queens) typically mate with 12 or more males (drones) during their mating flight(s). The evolutionary implications for hyperpolyandry have been subject to considerable debate and empirical testing beca...

  14. Mate preferences do predict attraction and choices in the early stages of mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Norman P; Yong, Jose C; Tov, William; Sng, Oliver; Fletcher, Garth J O; Valentine, Katherine A; Jiang, Yun F; Balliet, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Although mate preference research has firmly established that men value physical attractiveness more than women do and women value social status more than men do, recent speed-dating studies have indicated mixed evidence (at best) for whether people's sex-differentiated mate preferences predict actual mate choices. According to an evolutionary, mate preference priority model (Li, Bailey, Kenrick, & Linsenmeier, 2002; Li & Kenrick, 2006; Li, Valentine, & Patel, 2011), the sexes are largely similar in what they ideally like, but for long-term mates, they should differ on what they most want to avoid in early selection contexts. Following this model, we conducted experiments using online messaging and modified speed-dating platforms. Results indicate that when a mating pool includes people at the low end of social status and physical attractiveness, mate choice criteria are sex-differentiated: Men, more than women, chose mates based on physical attractiveness, whereas women, more than men, chose mates based on social status. In addition, individuals who more greatly valued social status or physical attractiveness on paper valued these traits more in their actual choices. In particular, mate choices were sex-differentiated when considering long-term relationships but not short-term ones, where both sexes shunned partners with low physical attractiveness. The findings validate a large body of mate preferences research and an evolutionary perspective on mating, and they have implications for research using speed-dating and other interactive contexts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Drought changes the dynamics of trace element accumulation in a Mediterranean Quercus ilex forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardans, J. [Unitat d' Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, CREAF - Centre de Recerca Ecologica d' Aplicacions Forestals, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: j.sardans@creaf.uab.cat; Penuelas, J. [Unitat d' Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, CREAF, Centre de Recerca Ecologica d' Aplicacions Forestals, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    We conducted a field drought manipulation experiment in an evergreen oak Mediterranean forest from 1999 to 2005 to investigate the effects of the increased drought predicted for the next decades on the accumulation of trace elements that can be toxic for animals, in stand biomass, litter and soil. Drought increased concentrations of As, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cr in roots of the dominant tree species, Quercus ilex, and leaf Cd concentrations in Arbutus unedo and of Phillyrea latifolia codominant shrubs. The increased concentration of As and Cd can aggravate the toxic capacity of those two elements, which are already next or within the levels that have been shown to be toxic for herbivores. The study also showed a great reduction in Pb biomass content (100-135 g ha{sup -1}) during the studied period (1999-2005) showing the effectiveness of the law that prohibited leaded fuel after 2001. The results also indicate that drought increases the exportation of some trace elements to continental waters. - Drought increased biomass concentrations of As and Cd and favors exportation of some trace elements to continental waters in a Mediterranean forest.

  16. Drought changes the dynamics of trace element accumulation in a Mediterranean Quercus ilex forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardans, J.; Penuelas, J.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a field drought manipulation experiment in an evergreen oak Mediterranean forest from 1999 to 2005 to investigate the effects of the increased drought predicted for the next decades on the accumulation of trace elements that can be toxic for animals, in stand biomass, litter and soil. Drought increased concentrations of As, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cr in roots of the dominant tree species, Quercus ilex, and leaf Cd concentrations in Arbutus unedo and of Phillyrea latifolia codominant shrubs. The increased concentration of As and Cd can aggravate the toxic capacity of those two elements, which are already next or within the levels that have been shown to be toxic for herbivores. The study also showed a great reduction in Pb biomass content (100-135 g ha -1 ) during the studied period (1999-2005) showing the effectiveness of the law that prohibited leaded fuel after 2001. The results also indicate that drought increases the exportation of some trace elements to continental waters. - Drought increased biomass concentrations of As and Cd and favors exportation of some trace elements to continental waters in a Mediterranean forest

  17. [In vitro anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of flavans from Ilex centrochinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu-jun; Yu, Li-juan; Li, Yan-ci; Liu, Meng-yuan; Wu, Zheng-zhi

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of flavans from flex centrochinensis S. Y. Hu in vitro and their structure-activity relationship. LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage was used as inflammatory model. MTT assay for cell availability, Griess reaction for nitric oxide (NO) production, the content of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and PGE, were detected with ELISA kits; DPPH, superoxide anion and hydroxyl free radicals scavenging activities were also investigated. According to the result, all flavans tested exhibited anti-inflammatory effect in different levels. Among them, compounds 1, 3, 4 and 6 showed potent anti-inflammatory effect through the inhibition of NO, TNF-alpha, IL-lp and IL-6, of which 1 was the most effective inhibitor, however, 2 and 5 were relatively weak or inactive. The order of free radical scavenging activities was similar to that of anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, these results suggest that 3, 4 and 6, especially of 1, were,in part responsible for the anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activity of Ilex centrochinensis. Hydroxyl group at 4'-position of B-ring plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging capacities.

  18. Two new triterpene saponins from the anti-inflammatory saponin fraction of Ilex pubescens root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Rong; Zhou, Hua; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Liang

    2008-07-01

    The saponin fraction from the ethanolic extracts of the root of Ilex pubescens Hook. et Arn. (Ilexaceae) was found to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Two novel triterpene saponins, pubescenosides C and D (1 and 2, resp.), together with five known saponins were isolated from this saponin fraction. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated as (20beta)-3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl]ursa-12,18-dien-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, and (20beta)-3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl]ursa- 12,18-dien-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, respectively, on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic data. Five known saponins isolated from the saponin fraction were identified as ilexsaponin B(1), B(2), B(3), A(1), and chikusetsusaponin IV(a).

  19. SURVIVAL AND VEGETATIVE VIGOR OF Ilex paraguariensis A. St.- Hil. PLANTS GRAFTED DIRECTLY IN THE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Martin Domingos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the survival and the vegetative vigor of adult selected genetic material of Ilex paraguariensis A.St.- Hil. grafted directly in the field. The grafting was accomplished in approximately 3 year-old understocks, and the material collected was close to the base of two selected trees with around 70 years old. The grafting method used was the top cleft, in which 48 plants were grafted with material of each one of the two plus trees. The survival data were obtained at 60 and 90 days after the grafting, and of growth (amount and total length of sprouts at 90 and 120 days after the grafting. It could be concluded that: there was a decrease in the survival of the grafts in function of the number of days after the grafting; the used plus trees presented different behaviors in the survival percentage; the surviving grafts plants demonstrated a good growth vigor. It is presupposed that the low percentile of success (about of 40% is linked to the high physiologic age of the plus trees, besides less favorable environmental conditions when compared with the grafting in the nursery.

  20. Enrichment and purification of pedunculoside and syringin from the barks of Ilex rotunda with macroporous resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Chao, Zhimao; Sun, Wen; Wu, Xiaoyi; Ito, Yoichiro

    2014-02-01

    Jiubiying, the dried barks of Ilex rotunda Thunb. (Aquifoliaceae), has been used as herbal tea and traditional Chinese medicine for heat-clearing, detoxifying, dehumidification, and odynolysis. Pedunculoside and syringin are two main bioactive components. For the new drug development, we tried to isolate and purify several chemical constituents from Jiubiying by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The two-phase solvent system used was composed of ethyl acetate- n -butanol-water (1:6:7, v/v/v). From 1.0 g of Jiubiying extracts syringaresinol 4',4″ -bis-O-β- D- glucopyranoside ( I , 20.2 mg), syringin ( II , 56.8 mg), sinapaldehyde glucoside ( III , 26.2 mg), syringaresinol 4'- O - β -D-glucopyranoside ( IV , 20.4 mg), and pedunculoside ( V , 45.1 mg) were obtained by one run of TBE-1000A HSCCC machine with 1000 mL of column volume. Their structures were identified by IR, MS, and extensive NMR studies. Syringaresinol 4',4″ -bis-O-β- D-glucopyranoside ( I ) was isolated from this plant for the first time.

  1. Previous experiences shape adaptive mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fawcett, Tim W.; Bleay, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Existing models of mate choice assume that individuals have perfect knowledge of their own ability to attract a mate and can adjust their preferences accordingly. However, real animals will typically be uncertain of their own attractiveness. A potentially useful source of information on this is the

  2. New directions for mating disruption in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mating Disruption (MD) is an alternative to insecticide for control of three major pests -Sparganthois fruitworm, Cranberry fruitworm and Blackheaded fireworm. MD functions by sending out false plumes of the insect's sex pheromones – this interferes with the insect’s ability to find a mate, preempti...

  3. Drought stress does not protect Quercus ilex L. from ozone effects: results from a comparative study of two subspecies differing in ozone sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, R; Elvira, S; González-Fernández, I; Calvete, H; García-Gómez, H; Bermejo, V

    2014-03-01

    Long-term effects of ozone (O3) exposure and drought stress were assessed on two subspecies of Quercus ilex: ssp. ilex and ssp. ballota. Two-year-old seedlings were continuously exposed for 26 months in open-top chambers to three O3 treatments: charcoal filtered air, non-filtered air and non-filtered air supplemented with 40 nl · l(-1) O3. Additionally, two irrigation regimes were adopted: half of the plants were well-watered and the others received half of the water supplied to control plants. Growth, shoot water potential and gas exchange rates were assessed seasonally, and biomass accumulation was determined at the end of the experiment. Drought stress caused higher reductions of gas exchange, growth and biomass accumulation than O3 exposure in both subspecies. The combination of O3 and drought stress caused further decreases of accumulated aboveground biomass but no additive effects were observed on gas exchange rates or root biomass. Thus, drought stress did not protect Q. ilex from O3 effects on biomass when the response of the whole plant was considered. Q. ilex ssp. ballota was more sensitive to O3 and ssp. ilex was more affected by drought stress. The different O3 sensitivity was not only related to pollutant uptake but also to the ability of plants for resource acquisition and allocation. Based on biomass dose-response functions, Q. ilex is more resistant to O3 than other European evergreen tree species, however, O3 represents an additional stress factor that might be impairing plant ability to withstand current and future climate change. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Age Variation in Mating Strategies and Mate Preferences: Beliefs versus Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Bleske-Rechek

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted three studies to (1 investigate individuals' beliefs about change in mating desires over the course of emerging adulthood and (2 determine whether those beliefs reflect actual variation in mating desires among emerging adults of varied ages (late teens through twenties. In Study 1, 103 men and women gave their thoughts on how college students change, if at all, in what they most desire in a relationship and relationship partner as they move from being incoming freshmen to graduating seniors. In Studies 2 and 3, using a college sample and then an internet sample (n s = 288 and 307, men and women between the ages of 18 and 26 completed mating strategies inventories and allotted a limited number of “mate dollars” to 10 mate characteristics. Findings suggest that although emerging adults believe that their peers' mating desires change systematically over time, emerging adults' self-reported mating desires vary little with age.

  5. Computational mate choice: theory and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Sergio; Cadeddu, Giorgia; Cermelli, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The present review is based on the thesis that mate choice results from information-processing mechanisms governed by computational rules and that, to understand how females choose their mates, we should identify which are the sources of information and how they are used to make decisions. We describe mate choice as a three-step computational process and for each step we present theories and review empirical evidence. The first step is a perceptual process. It describes the acquisition of evidence, that is, how females use multiple cues and signals to assign an attractiveness value to prospective mates (the preference function hypothesis). The second step is a decisional process. It describes the construction of the decision variable (DV), which integrates evidence (private information by direct assessment), priors (public information), and value (perceived utility) of prospective mates into a quantity that is used by a decision rule (DR) to produce a choice. We make the assumption that females are optimal Bayesian decision makers and we derive a formal model of DV that can explain the effects of preference functions, mate copying, social context, and females' state and condition on the patterns of mate choice. The third step of mating decision is a deliberative process that depends on the DRs. We identify two main categories of DRs (absolute and comparative rules), and review the normative models of mate sampling tactics associated to them. We highlight the limits of the normative approach and present a class of computational models (sequential-sampling models) that are based on the assumption that DVs accumulate noisy evidence over time until a decision threshold is reached. These models force us to rethink the dichotomy between comparative and absolute decision rules, between discrimination and recognition, and even between rational and irrational choice. Since they have a robust biological basis, we think they may represent a useful theoretical tool for

  6. The mating behavior of Iguana iguana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Over a 19 month period I observed the social behaviors of individually recognized green iguanas, Iguana iguana, at three sites in the llanos of Venezuela. The behavior of iguanas outside the mating season differed from that seen during the mating season in three major ways: (1) during normal waking hours outside the breeding season, adult iguanas spent the majority of time immobile, apparently resting; (2) their interactions involved fewer high intensity displays; and (3) their day to day movements were often nomadic. During the mating season, one site was watched continuously during daylight hours (iguanas sleep throughout the night), allowing a complete count of all copulation attempts (N = 250) and territorial interactions. At all sites, dominant males controlled access to small mating territories. Within the territories there did not appear to be any resources needed by females or their offspring. Thus, females could choose mates directly on the basis of male phenotype. Females aggregated in the mating territories of the largest males and mated preferentially with them. Territorial males copulated only once per day, although on several occasions more than one resident female was receptive on the same day. A few small nonterritorial males exhibited pseudofemale behavior (i.e., they abstained from sexual competition), but most nonterritorial males stayed on the periphery of mating territories and attempted to force copulations on unguarded females (peripheral male behavior). Uncooperative females were mounted by as many as three males simultaneously. Females resisted 95% of the 200 observed mating attempts by peripheral males, but only 56% of the attempts by territorial males (N = 43). The selectivity of the females probably increased the genetic representation of the territorial males in the next generation. During the mating season females maintained a dominance hierarchy among themselves. Low ranked females tended to be excluded from preferred

  7. Large-scale patterns of Quercus ilex, Quercus suber, and Quercus pyrenaica regeneration in central-western Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Rolo, Víctor; Moreno, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    In Central-Western Spain, forests and woodlands composed of Quercus sp. support outstanding levels of biodiversity, but there is increasing concern about their long-term persistence due to a lack of regeneration. We hypothesize that this regenerative lack is operating on a large geographic scale....... Regeneration was positively correlated with tree cover and density, especially of small and medium-sized trees, and negatively correlated with the presence of large trees, indicating that regeneration failure is mostly associated with more open, uniform, and/or aged woodlands. Regeneration densities of Q. ilex...

  8. ISOLATION OF GLYCOSIDES FROM THE BARKS OF ILEX ROTUNDA BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTER-CURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chun; Chao, Zhimao; Sun, Wen; Wu, Xiaoyi; Ito, Yoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Semi-preparative and preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) were successfully used for isolation of glycosides from 50% ethanol extract of the dried barks of Ilex rotunda Thunb. (Aquifoliaceae) by using a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:6:7, v/v/v). From 1.0 g of the extract, syringaresinol 4',4"-di-o-β-d-glucopyranoside (I, 20.2 mg),, syringin (II, 56.8 mg), sinapaldehyde glucoside (III, 26.2 mg),, syringaresinol 4'-o-β-d-glucopyra...

  9. Firefly Mating Algorithm for Continuous Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarita Ritthipakdee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a swarm intelligence algorithm, called firefly mating algorithm (FMA, for solving continuous optimization problems. FMA uses genetic algorithm as the core of the algorithm. The main feature of the algorithm is a novel mating pair selection method which is inspired by the following 2 mating behaviors of fireflies in nature: (i the mutual attraction between males and females causes them to mate and (ii fireflies of both sexes are of the multiple-mating type, mating with multiple opposite sex partners. A female continues mating until her spermatheca becomes full, and, in the same vein, a male can provide sperms for several females until his sperm reservoir is depleted. This new feature enhances the global convergence capability of the algorithm. The performance of FMA was tested with 20 benchmark functions (sixteen 30-dimensional functions and four 2-dimensional ones against FA, ALC-PSO, COA, MCPSO, LWGSODE, MPSODDS, DFOA, SHPSOS, LSA, MPDPGA, DE, and GABC algorithms. The experimental results showed that the success rates of our proposed algorithm with these functions were higher than those of other algorithms and the proposed algorithm also required fewer numbers of iterations to reach the global optima.

  10. Mate-sampling costs and sexy sons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, H; Booksmythe, I; Jennions, M D

    2015-01-01

    Costly female mating preferences for purely Fisherian male traits (i.e. sexual ornaments that are genetically uncorrelated with inherent viability) are not expected to persist at equilibrium. The indirect benefit of producing 'sexy sons' (Fisher process) disappears: in some models, the male trait becomes fixed; in others, a range of male trait values persist, but a larger trait confers no net fitness advantage because it lowers survival. Insufficient indirect selection to counter the direct cost of producing fewer offspring means that preferences are lost. The only well-cited exception assumes biased mutation on male traits. The above findings generally assume constant direct selection against female preferences (i.e. fixed costs). We show that if mate-sampling costs are instead derived based on an explicit account of how females acquire mates, an initially costly mating preference can coevolve with a male trait so that both persist in the presence or absence of biased mutation. Our models predict that empirically detecting selection at equilibrium will be difficult, even if selection was responsible for the location of the current equilibrium. In general, it appears useful to integrate mate sampling theory with models of genetic consequences of mating preferences: being explicit about the process by which individuals select mates can alter equilibria. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. How drought severity constrains GPP and its partitioning among carbon pools in a Quercus ilex coppice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambal, S.; Lempereur, M.; Limousin, J. M.; Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Ourcival, J. M.; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, J.

    2014-06-01

    The partitioning of photosynthates toward biomass compartments has a crucial role in the carbon sink function of forests. Few studies have examined how carbon is allocated toward plant compartments in drought prone forests. We analyzed the fate of GPP in relation to yearly water deficit in an old evergreen Mediterranean Quercus ilex coppice severely affected by water limitations. Gross and net carbon fluxes between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were measured with an eddy-covariance flux tower running continuously since 2001. Discrete measurements of litterfall, stem growth and fAPAR allowed us to derive annual productions of leaves, wood, flowers and acorns and an isometric relationship between stem and belowground biomass has been used to estimate perennial belowground growth. By combining eddy-covariance fluxes with annual productions we managed to close a C budget and derive values of autotrophic and heterotrophic respirations, NPP and carbon use efficiency (CUE, the ratio between NPP and GPP). Average values of yearly NEP, GPP and Reco were 282, 1259 and 977 g C m-2. The corresponding ANPP components were 142.5, 26.4 and 69.6 g C m-2 for leaves, reproductive effort (flowers and fruits) and stems. Gross and net carbon exchange between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were affected by annual water deficit. Partitioning to the different plant compartments was also impacted by drought, with a hierarchy of responses going from the most affected, the stem growth, to the least affected, the leaf production. The average CUE was 0.40, which is well in the range for Mediterranean-type forest ecosystems. CUE tended to decrease more slightly in response to drought than GPP and NPP, probably due to drought-acclimation of autotrophic respiration. Overall, our results provide a baseline for modeling the inter-annual variations of carbon fluxes and allocation in this widespread Mediterranean ecosystem and highlight the value of maintaining continuous experimental

  12. Status and Mating Success Amongst Visual Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Helen; Nettle, Daniel; Miell, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Geoffrey Miller has hypothesized that producing artwork functions as a mating display. Here we investigate the relationship between mating success and artistic success in a sample of 236 visual artists. Initially, we derived a measure of artistic success that covered a broad range of artistic behaviors and beliefs. As predicted by Miller’s evolutionary theory, more successful male artists had more sexual partners than less successful artists but this did not hold for female artists. Also, male artists with greater artistic success had a mating strategy based on longer term relationships. Overall the results provide partial support for the sexual selection hypothesis for the function of visual art. PMID:22059085

  13. Height, Relationship Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Mate Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Male height is associated with high mate value. In particular, tall men are perceived as more attractive, dominant and of a higher status than shorter rivals, resulting in a greater lifetime reproductive success. Female infidelity and relationship dissolution may therefore present a greater risk to short men. It was predicted that tall men would report greater relationship satisfaction and lower jealousy and mate retention behavior than short men. Ninety eight heterosexual men in a current romantic relationship completed a questionnaire. Both linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and relationship satisfaction, cognitive and behavioral jealousy. Tall men reported greater relationship satisfaction and lower levels of cognitive or behavioral jealousy than short men. In addition, linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and a number of mate retention behaviors. Tall and short men engaged in different mate retention behaviors. These findings are consistent with previous research conducted in this area detailing the greater attractiveness of tall men.

  14. Different sources of reduced carbon contribute to form three classes of terpenoid emitted by Quercus ilex L. leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loreto, F.; Ciccioli, P.; Brancaleoni, E.; Cecinato, A.; Frattoni, M.; Sharkey, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Quercus ilex L. leaves emit terpenes but do not have specialized structures for terpene storage. We exploited this unique feature to investigate terpene biosynthesis in intact leaves of Q. ilex. Light induction allowed us to distinguish three classes of terpenes: (i) a rapidly induced class including alpha-pinene; (ii) a more slowly induced class, including cis-beta-ocimene; and (iii) the most slowly induced class, including 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol. Using 13C, we found that alpha-pinene and cis-beta-ocimene were labeled quickly and almost completely while there was a delay before label appeared in linalool and 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol. The acetyl group of 3-methyl-3-buten-1-yl acetate was labeled quickly but label was limited to 20% of the moiety. It is suggested that the ocimene class of monoterpenes is made from one or more terpenes of the alpha-pinene class and that both classes are made entirely from reduced carbon pools inside the chloroplasts. Linalool and 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol are made from a different pool of reduced carbon, possibly in nonphotosynthetic plastids. The acetyl group of the 3-methyl-3-buten-1-yl acetate is derived mostly from carbon that does not participate in photosynthetic reactions. Low humidity and prolonged exposure to light favored ocimenes emission and induced linalool emission. This may indicate conversion between terpene classes

  15. Intersectional gene flow between insular endemics of Ilex (Aquifoliaceae) on the Bonin Islands and the Ryukyu Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoguchi, H; Watanabe, I

    2000-06-01

    Hybridization and introgression play important roles in plant evolution, and their occurrence on the oceanic islands provides good examples of plant speciation and diversification. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and trnL (UAA) 3'exon-trnF (GAA) intergenic spacer (IGS) sequences of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), and the sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA were examined to investigate the occurrence of gene transfer in Ilex species on the Bonin Islands and the Ryukyu Islands in Japan. A gene phylogeny for the plastid genome is in agreement with the morphologically based taxonomy, whereas the nuclear genome phylogeny clusters putatively unrelated endemics both on the Bonin and the Ryukyu Islands. Intersectional hybridization and nuclear gene flow were independently observed in insular endemics of Ilex on both sets of islands without evidence of plastid introgression. Gene flow observed in these island systems can be explained by ecological features of insular endemics, i.e., limits of distribution range or sympatric distribution in a small land area.

  16. Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Héctor; Aguillaume, Laura; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Valiño, Fernando; Àvila, Anna; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Alastuey, Andrés; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement. Well-designed monitoring programs are needed to further investigate air quality improvement by peri-urban ecosystems while assessing the threat that air pollution can pose to vegetation.

  17. Ozone induced leaf loss and decreased leaf production of European Holly (Ilex aquifolium L.) over multiple seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranford, Jonathan; Reiling, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    European Holly (Ilex aquifolium L.) was used to study the impact of one short (28 day) ozone fumigation episode on leaf production, leaf loss and stomatal conductance (g s ), in order to explore potential longer term effects over 3 growing seasons. Young I. aquifolium plants received an episode of either charcoal-filtered air or charcoal-filtered air with 70 nl l -1 O 3 added for 7 h d -1 over a 28 day period from June 15th 1996, then placed into ambient environment, Stoke-on-Trent, U.K. Data were collected per leaf cohort over the next three growing seasons. Ozone exposure significantly increased leaf loss and stomatal conductance and reduced leaf production over all subsequent seasons. Impact of the initial ozone stress was still detected in leaves that had no direct experimental ozone exposure. This study has shown the potential of ozone to introduce long-term phenological perturbations into ecosystems by influencing productivity over a number of seasons. - Ozone significantly alters Ilex aquifolium leaf production and loss over multiple seasons

  18. Experimental drought reduced acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and increased organic extractable P in soil in a Quercus ilex Mediterranean forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardans, J.; Penuelas, J.; Ogaya, R.

    2008-01-01

    A six-year (1999-2005) experiment of drought manipulation was conducted in a Quercus ilex Mediterranean forest (Southern Catalonia) to simulate predicted climatic conditions projected for the decades to come. The aim was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of drought conditions on acid

  19. Leaf gas exchange and fluorescence of Phillyrea latifolia, Pistacia lentiscus and Quercus ilex saplings in severe drought and high temperature conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filella, I.; Llusià, J.; Pinol, J.; Peñuelas, J.

    1998-01-01

    Saplings of Phillyrea latifolia, Pistacia lentiscus and Quercus ilex were withheld watering for 7 days, followed by reirrigation. Incident photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), leaf temperature, net photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, and photochemical efficiency of the photosystem II (ΔF/F'm) were measured three times during the day. The watered plants had higher photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductances, ΔF/F'm and ETR than non-watered plants. However, watered plants were mildly water stressed as shown by low ratio of variable to maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and high non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (qN). Their ΔF/F′m was low in the morning and increased in the evening, following the variations in PPFD. Watered plants of Q. ilex had lower photosynthetic activity, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic radiation use efficiency than Ph. latifolia and P. lentiscus, and, conversely, reached the highest ΔF/F′m and ETR. This seems to indicate a different relationship between photosynthetic activity and electron transport rate in Q. ilex compared to the other two species. Ph. latifolia and P. lentiscus appeared to be better adapted to severe drought than Q. ilex. (author)

  20. Associations between body morphology, mating success and mate preferences among Slovak males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Fedor, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Human body morphology is thought to be correlated with sexual behaviour and sociosexuality (defined as an increased willingness to engage in sex without commitment) influences the perception of certain cues of physical attractiveness. Based on a sample of Slovak university students, we investigated relationships between 1) male and female mating success and reported body morphology (body mass index, BMI and waist-to-hip ratio, WHR) and 2) mate preference characteristics and mating success. Both males and females reported a similar number of long-term sexual partners and frequency of engaging in extra-pair copulation (EPC). The mating success of both sexes was positively mediated by self-perceived attractiveness. However, female BMI was inversely associated with mating success whereas increasing BMI was positively associated with male mating success (the total number of lifetime sexual partners) as well as with the likelihood of engaging in EPC. Unrestricted sociosexuality positively correlated with direct and indirect benefits from mating and negatively with the religious/political background of a potential mate and with the desire for a home/ children. These results confirm the hypothesis that human body morphology is associated with sexual behaviour and that cues of direct/indirect benefits in a potential mate positively correlate with sociosexuality.

  1. INFLUÊNCIA DA LUMINOSIDADE E FERTILIZANTES NOS TEORES DE METILXANTINAS E COMPOSTOS FENÓLICOS EM FOLHAS DE ERVA-MATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Überson Boaretto Rossa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mate Tea (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. is a climax species adapted to low light, and that is why is more cultivated in consortium with other species of woods and more intensively that their traditional exploration. To maintain adequate levels of productivity, it is necessary the use of a fertilizer that gives nutritional intake to plants. The levels of substances of plant secondary metabolism as methylxanthines and phenolic compounds may be affected by this type of intensive management since the shading and fertilization influence the physiology of the plant. Aiming the determination of the levels of totals methylxanthines and phenolic compounds, produced under relative brightness of 30, 45 and 60%, and conventional fertilization (N, P 2 O 5 and K 2 O 15-05-30 and slow release (N, P 2 O 5 and K 2 O 15-08-12, this study was proposed for two growing seasons 2011 e 2012. The fertilization of mate tea associated with the apparent brightness levels did not promote increased levels of totals methylxanthines and phenolic compounds. The apparent brightness of 30% established the best indicator to obtain methylxanthines, and the conventional fertilization had the highest fertilization production of methylxanthine, when subjected to the apparent brightness of 30 and 45 %. There was an increase of the content of phenolic compounds of the growing season 2011 to 2012 promoted by the fertilization treatment with FLL and FC under the apparent brightness of 30% and 60%.

  2. Antioxidant activity of polyphenols from green and toasted mate tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coentrão, Patricia de Abreu Marques; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira

    2011-05-01

    The production and distribution of toasted mate tea in Brazil has increased, which has resulted in its greater consumption. Mate tea is obtained by roasting non-fermented erva-mate in order to produce toasted erva-mate or toasted mate tea. However, although the product is much appreciated, studies of its chemical composition and the concentration of polyphenols, particularly flavonols present in toasted mate tea, are few and often controversial. This paper elucidates some misunderstandings involving the nomenclature of erva-mate and toasted mate, and mainly provides an overview of the composition of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of toasted mate tea and its raw material, erva-mate, in comparison with other teas, the compositions of which were found in the literature.

  3. INFLUÊNCIA DA AMÔNIA E OXIGÊNIO DA ÁGUA IN VIVO E DA ERVA-MATE EX VIVO SOBRE A ESTABILIDADE LIPÍDICA DE FILÉS DE DOURADO

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula de Lima Veeck

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da exposição in vivo a concentrações estressantes de amônia e oxigênio na água e do tratamento com extrato de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) post mortem sobre a estabilidade lipídica de filés de dourado (Salminus brasiliensis). Foi avaliada a influência de diferentes níveis de amônia e oxigênio sobre a composição centesimal, composição de ácidos graxos e a peroxidação lipídica de filés de dourado, assim como a estabilidade desses filés d...

  4. A Botanical Composition from Morus alba, Ilex paraguariensis, and Rosmarinus officinalis for Body Weight Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2017-11-01

    Obesity is the largest and fastest growing public health catastrophe in the world affecting both adults and children with a prevalence impacting more than one-third of United States (US) adult population. Although the long-term solution lies in lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercise, intervention is required for those who are already obese. Unfortunately, treatment options remain quite limited due to associated side effects of conventional therapeutics. As a natural alternative, in this study we describe the beneficial effect of a standardized composition (UP603) comprised of extracts from Morus alba, Ilex paraguariensis, and Rosmarinus officinalis in improving metabolic disorders in high fat diet (HFD) and high fat & high fructose diet (HFFD) induced obese C57BL/6J mice. Mice treated with UP603 showed dose-correlated decrease in body weight gains compared to vehicle treated HFFD group. Following 7 weeks of treatment, the changes in body weight gains from baseline were found as 6.4%, 27.3%, 2.0%, 3.1%, 0.4%, and -2.9% for normal control diet, HFFD, Orlistat, 450, 650, and 850 mg/kg UP603 treated animals, respectively. Reductions of 7.9-21.1% in total cholesterol, 25.4-44.6% in triglyceride, and 22.5-38.2% in low-density lipoprotein were observed for mice treated with 450-850 mg/kg of UP603. In a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 40.4% were found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP603, respectively. Reductions of 65.5% and 16.4% in insulin and leptin, respectively, and 2.1-fold increase in ghrelin level were also observed for the UP603 group. Statistically significant improvements in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis scores were also observed from liver histology for mice treated with UP603. Hence, UP603, a standardized botanical composition from M. alba, I. paraguariensis, and R. officinalis could potentially be considered as a natural alternative to maintain healthy body

  5. Good mates retain us right: investigating the relationship between mate retention strategies, mate value, and relationship satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkicevic, Svjetlana; Stanic, Ajana L; Grabovac, Masa T

    2014-12-07

    Mate retention strategies are an important tool in keeping a partner, and their use is determined by the mate value (MV) of the partner one is trying to keep. The type of strategy used is also dependent on one's own MV: mates of lower MV are more prone to exhibiting strategies that are cost-inflicting for their partners, whereas partner-benefiting strategies are used by mates of higher value. The type of strategies used affects relationship satisfaction (RS), and is also affected by the perceived difference in MVs. However, it is unclear how someone's perception of their partner's MV is related to that partner's behavior and their own RS. To this aim, we investigated the relationship between these variables on a sample of 178 couples. Our results showed that benefit-inducing strategies were used more by--and towards--partners of higher MV, and were positively connected with RS. Cost-inflicting strategies were more used by--and towards--partners of lower MV, and were negatively connected with RS. Less MV difference was positively correlated with RS and benefiting strategies, and negatively correlated with cost-inflicting strategies. It seems that good mates use strategies that benefit their partners, which, in turn, make them more valuable and, consequently, their partner more satisfied.

  6. Last mated male sperm precedence in doubly mated females is not ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Issue 2. Last mated male sperm precedence in doubly mated females is not ubiquitous: evidence from sperm competition in laboratory populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and Drosophila nasuta albomicans. B. Shruthi S. R. Ramesh. Research Note Volume 92 Issue 2 ...

  7. Male choice of mates and mating resources in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Casalini, M.; Reichard, Martin; Phillips, A.; Smith, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2013), s. 1199-1204 ISSN 1045-2249 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : body size * fecundity * male mate choice * mating system * oviposition * sperm competition * territoriality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.157, year: 2013

  8. Evaluation of mating behaviour and mating compatibility methods for the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H. Wardhana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique program (SIT to eradicate pest insects relies on the success of mating competitiveness between irradiated male flies and wild type males for the wild type females. It has been successfully applied for the New World screwworm fly (NWSF, Cochliomyia hominivorax but remains unproven for the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF, Chrysomya bezziana. The aim of the study was to develop methods for investigating mating behaviour and mating compatibility of C. bezziana under laboratory conditions. Two methods were used for studying mating: individual mating (method 1 and group mating (method 2. The flies used in this study were 5-7 days old. Twenty four hours after emergence, adult flies were sexed and placed into different cages until studied. The female : male ratio in the group mating was 1 : 5 and the males were marked by painting a dot on the thorax using different oil colours. Observation of mating behaviour was investigated every 30 minutes through 10-20 replications for all methods depending on the availability of flies. Data were analysed using ANOVA and the Student’s t-test, with significance demonstrated at the 95% confidence level. The results demonstrated that the frequency of contacts between males and females at different ages was a significantly different (p 0.05 and method 2 (p > 0.05. Copulation was only initiated following longer periods of contact, mainly in the range of 270-449 seconds. The highest frequency of copulation occurred between 7-8 days, but the duration of mating was similar between 5-8 days old. The study demonstrated that the methods developed were suitable for a mating compatibility study of C. bezziana.

  9. Mate-Choice Copying in Single and Coupled Women: The Influence of Mate Acceptance and Mate Rejection Decisions of other Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of humans and non-human animals indicate that females tend to change the likelihood of choosing a potential mate based on the decisions of other females; this is known as mate-choice copying. In a sample of both single and coupled women, we examined the influence of other women's (model mate-choice decisions, including mate acceptance and mate rejection, on participants' attractiveness ratings of men (target and willingness of mate selection. We also examined whether different types of relationships between the target men and the model women affected mate-choice copying. We found that both the single and coupled women showed mate-choice copying, but their response patterns differed. The significant effects for single women were dependent on a decrease in attractiveness ratings when they perceived the models' mate rejection. However, the significant findings for coupled women relied on an increase in attractiveness ratings when they observed the models' mate acceptance. Furthermore, the relationship status between the target men and the model women affected the magnitude of mate-choice copying effects for the single women. Specifically, they showed less mate-choice copying when the targets and models were in a committed romantic relationship than when in a temporary relationship.

  10. A New Adaptive Hungarian Mating Scheme in Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanju Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In genetic algorithms, selection or mating scheme is one of the important operations. In this paper, we suggest an adaptive mating scheme using previously suggested Hungarian mating schemes. Hungarian mating schemes consist of maximizing the sum of mating distances, minimizing the sum, and random matching. We propose an algorithm to elect one of these Hungarian mating schemes. Every mated pair of solutions has to vote for the next generation mating scheme. The distance between parents and the distance between parent and offspring are considered when they vote. Well-known combinatorial optimization problems, the traveling salesperson problem, and the graph bisection problem are used for the test bed of our method. Our adaptive strategy showed better results than not only pure and previous hybrid schemes but also existing distance-based mating schemes.

  11. Not Only Single Mating in Stingless Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Robert J.; Weißschuh, Nicole; Engels, Wolf; Hartfelder, Klaus; Quezada-Euan, J. Javier G.

    Queens of the large, pantropical and fully eusocial taxon Meliponinae (stingless bees) are generally considered to be singly mated. We indirectly estimated queen mating frequency in two meliponids, Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona postica, by examining genotypes of workers at microsatellite DNA loci. Microsatellites were highly variable, providing suitable markers with which to assign patrilinial origin of workers within colonies headed by single queens. Queen mating frequency varied between 1 and 3 (M. beecheii) and 1 and 6 (S. postica), representing the first clear documentation of polyandry in the Meliponinae. Effective paternity frequency, me, was lower, although above 2 for S. postica. Stingless bees may provide suitable subjects for the testing of recent inclusive fitness arguments describing intracolony kin conflict in social Hymenoptera.

  12. Social wasps are a Saccharomyces mating nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Berná, Luisa; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2016-02-23

    The reproductive ecology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is still largely unknown. Recent evidence of interspecific hybridization, high levels of strain heterozygosity, and prion transmission suggest that outbreeding occurs frequently in yeasts. Nevertheless, the place where yeasts mate and recombine in the wild has not been identified. We found that the intestine of social wasps hosts highly outbred S. cerevisiae strains as well as a rare S. cerevisiae×S. paradoxus hybrid. We show that the intestine of Polistes dominula social wasps favors the mating of S. cerevisiae strains among themselves and with S. paradoxus cells by providing a succession of environmental conditions prompting cell sporulation and spores germination. In addition, we prove that heterospecific mating is the only option for European S. paradoxus strains to survive in the gut. Taken together, these findings unveil the best hidden secret of yeast ecology, introducing the insect gut as an environmental alcove in which crosses occur, maintaining and generating the diversity of the ascomycetes.

  13. ISOLATION OF GLYCOSIDES FROM THE BARKS OF ILEX ROTUNDA BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTER-CURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Chao, Zhimao; Sun, Wen; Wu, Xiaoyi; Ito, Yoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Semi-preparative and preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) were successfully used for isolation of glycosides from 50% ethanol extract of the dried barks of Ilex rotunda Thunb. (Aquifoliaceae) by using a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:6:7, v/v/v). From 1.0 g of the extract, syringaresinol 4',4"-di-o-β-d-glucopyranoside (I, 20.2 mg),, syringin (II, 56.8 mg), sinapaldehyde glucoside (III, 26.2 mg),, syringaresinol 4'-o-β-d-glucopyranoside (IV, 20.4 mg), and pedunculoside (V, 45.1 mg) were obtained by one run of TBE-1000A HSCCC instrument with 1000 mL of column volume. Their structures were identified by IR, MS, and 1H and 13C NMR studies. Glycoside I was isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:25132792

  14. Optimization of the Extraction of Antioxidants and Caffeine from Maté (Ilex paraguariensis Leaves by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Graciela Hartwig

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimal conditions for the industrial extraction of total polyphenols from maté (Ilex paraguariensis were determined using response surface methodology, with two independent variables: ethanol percentage of the extraction solution and liquid to solid ratio. Response variables were total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, concentration of total polyphenols and caffeine content. The optimal conditions found were a liquid to solid ratio from 8 - 9 w w-1 and ethanol percentage of the extraction solution from 30 -50 % w w-1. Under these conditions the main predicted values corresponding to leaf extracts were 40 μg chlorogenic acid equivalents mL-1 of original extract, 13 g chlorogenic acid equivalents per 100 g dry matter for total polyphenol content, 22 g Trolox equivalents and 15.5 g ascorbic acid equivalents per 100 g dry matter for antioxidant capacity. The total polyphenol content of twig extracts was 36% lower than that in the leaf extracts.

  15. ISOLATION OF GLYCOSIDES FROM THE BARKS OF ILEX ROTUNDA BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTER-CURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Chao, Zhimao; Sun, Wen; Wu, Xiaoyi; Ito, Yoichiro

    2014-04-01

    Semi-preparative and preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) were successfully used for isolation of glycosides from 50% ethanol extract of the dried barks of Ilex rotunda Thunb. (Aquifoliaceae) by using a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:6:7, v/v/v). From 1.0 g of the extract, syringaresinol 4',4"-di-o-β-d-glucopyranoside ( I , 20.2 mg),, syringin ( II , 56.8 mg), sinapaldehyde glucoside ( III , 26.2 mg),, syringaresinol 4'-o-β-d-glucopyranoside ( IV , 20.4 mg), and pedunculoside ( V , 45.1 mg) were obtained by one run of TBE-1000A HSCCC instrument with 1000 mL of column volume. Their structures were identified by IR, MS, and 1 H and 13 C NMR studies. Glycoside I was isolated from this plant for the first time.

  16. Disrupting Mating Behavior of Diaphorina citri (Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujo, S; Hartman, E; Norton, K; Pregmon, E A; Rohde, B B; Mankin, R W

    2016-12-01

    Severe economic damage from citrus greening disease, caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' bacteria, has stimulated development of methods to reduce mating and reproduction in populations of its insect vector, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Male D. citri find mating partners by walking on host plants, intermittently producing vibrational calls that stimulate duetting replies by receptive females. The replies provide orientational feedback, assisting the search process. To test a hypothesis that D. citri mating can be disrupted using vibrational signals that compete with and/or mask female replies, courtship bioassays were conducted in citrus trees with or without interference from female reply mimics produced by a vibrating buzzer. Statistically significant reductions occurred in the rates and proportions of mating when the buzzer produced reply mimics within 0.4 s after male courtship calls compared with undisturbed controls. Observations of courtship behaviors in the two bioassays revealed activity patterns that likely contributed to the reductions. In both disruption and control tests, males reciprocated frequently between structural bifurcations and other transition points where signal amplitudes changed. Males in the disruption bioassay had to select among vibrational signals combined from the buzzer and the female at each transition point. They often turned towards the buzzer instead of the female. There was a statistically significant reduction in the proportion of males mating if they contacted the buzzer, possibly due to its higher vibration amplitude and duration in comparison with female replies. Potential applications of D. citri mating disruption technology in citrus groves are discussed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Losing the Warning Signal: Drought Compromises the Cross-Talk of Signaling Molecules in Quercus ilex Exposed to Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Cotrozzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the interactions between drought and acute ozone (O3 stress in terms of signaling molecules and cell death would improve the predictions of plant responses to climate change. The aim was to investigate whether drought stress influences the responses of plants to acute episodes of O3 exposure. In this study, the behavior of 84 Mediterranean evergreen Quercus ilex plants was evaluated in terms of cross-talk responses among signaling molecules. Half of the sample was subjected to drought (20% of the effective daily evapotranspiration, for 15 days and was later exposed to an acute O3 exposure (200 nL L-1 for 5 h. First, our results indicate that in well-water conditions, O3 induced a signaling pathway specific to O3-sensitive behavior. Second, different trends and consequently different roles of phytohormones and signaling molecules (ethylene, ET; abscisic acid, ABA; salycilic acid, SA and jasmonic acid, JA were observed in relation to water stress and O3. A spatial and functional correlation between these signaling molecules was observed in modulating O3-induced responses in well-watered plants. In contrast, in drought-stressed plants, these compounds were not involved either in O3-induced signaling mechanisms or in leaf senescence (a response observed in water-stressed plants before the O3-exposure. Third, these differences were ascribable to the fact that in drought conditions, most defense processes induced by O3 were compromised and/or altered. Our results highlight how Q. ilex plants suffering from water deprivation respond differently to an acute O3 episode compared to well-watered plants, and suggest new effect to be considered in plant responses to environmental changes. This poses the serious question as to whether or not multiple high-magnitude O3 events (as predicted can change these cross-talk responses, thus opening it up possible further investigations.

  18. Drought-induced photosynthetic inhibition and autumn recovery in two Mediterranean oak species (Quercus ilex and Quercus suber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, M; Pereira, J S; Gazarini, L C; David, T S; David, J S; Rodrigues, A; Maroco, J; Chaves, M M

    2010-08-01

    Responses of leaf water relations and photosynthesis to summer drought and autumn rewetting were studied in two evergreen Mediterranean oak species, Quercus ilex spp. rotundifolia and Quercus suber. The predawn leaf water potential (Ψ(lPD)), stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic rate (A) at ambient conditions were measured seasonally over a 3-year period. We also measured the photosynthetic response to light and to intercellular CO₂ (A/PPFD and A/C(i) response curves) under water stress (summer) and after recovery due to autumn rainfall. Photosynthetic parameters, Vc(max), J(max) and triose phosphate utilization (TPU) rate, were estimated using the Farquhar model. RuBisCo activity, leaf chlorophyll, leaf nitrogen concentration and leaf carbohydrate concentration were also measured. All measurements were performed in the spring leaves of the current year. In both species, the predawn leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate peaked in spring, progressively declined throughout the summer and recovered upon autumn rainfall. During the drought period, Q. ilex maintained a higher predawn leaf water potential and stomatal conductance than Q. suber. During this period, we found that photosynthesis was not only limited by stomatal closure, but was also downregulated as a consequence of a decrease in the maximum carboxylation rate (Vc(max)) and the light-saturated rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J(max)) in both species. The Vc(max) and J(max) increased after the first autumnal rains and this increase was related to RuBisCo activity, leaf nitrogen concentration and chlorophyll concentration. In addition, an increase in the TPU rate and in soluble leaf sugar concentration was observed in this period. The results obtained indicate a high resilience of the photosynthetic apparatus to summer drought as well as good recovery in the following autumn rains of these evergreen oak species.

  19. Holm Oak (Quercus ilex L.) canopy as interceptor of airborne trace elements and their accumulation in the litter and topsoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantozzi, Federica; Monaci, Fabrizio; Blanusa, Tijana; Bargagli, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of urban Holm Oak (Quercus ilex L.) trees as an airborne metal accumulators and metals' environmental fate. Analyses confirmed Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn as a main contaminants in Siena's urban environment; only Pb concentrations decreased significantly compared to earlier surveys. Additionally, we determined chemical composition of tree leaves, litter and topsoil (underneath/outside tree crown) in urban and extra-urban oak stands. Most notably, litter in urban samples collected outside the canopy had significantly lower concentrations of organic matter and higher concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn than litter collected underneath the canopy. There was a greater metals' accumulation in topsoil, in samples collected under the tree canopy and especially near the trunk (‘stemflow area’). Thus, in urban ecosystems the Holm Oak stands likely increase the soil capability to bind metals. -- Highlights: ► Of the main metal contaminants only leaf Pb concentrations decreased in the period 1994–2011. ► Leaf Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were higher in urban than in extra urban park. ► In urban park litter, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations were higher outside than underneath the tree crown. ► Conversely, in urban park soil, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations were lower outside the crown. ► Soil therefore behaves as a sink for metal contaminants such as Cu, Pb and Cd. -- Quercus ilex leaves are efficient interceptors of airborne trace elements in urban environments and we found an increased accumulation of metals in topsoil under the tree canopy

  20. A quantitative and molecular examination of Tuber melanosporum mycorrhizal in Quercus ilex seedlings from different suppliers in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvaro, P.; Manjon, J. L.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of study: The aim of the work was to determine the degree of mycorrhization of Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp. by the black truffle fungus T. melanosporum Vittad. by quantitative and molecular analyses. Area of study: seedlings inoculated by different Spanish suppliers. Material and methods: The internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of mycorrhizae from different plants were amplified by nested PCR involving fluorescently-labelled primers, and the amplicons either directly sized by ARISA or analysed by TRFLP following their digestion with restriction endonucleases. TRFLP analysis distinguished between mycorrhizae of T. melanosporum, T. indicum Cooke and Massee and T. borchii Vittad., as suggested possible by virtual (in silico) TRFLP analysis and real TRFLP analysis of the ascomata of these species. Main results: Significant differences between suppliers were detected in terms of the mean number of mycorrhizae established per plant and percentage mycorrhization. These results allowed the following quality standards for 2 yearold plants to be proposed: a) good quality: > 3,000 mycorrhizae/plant, > 40% mycorrhization, b) medium (acceptable): > 3,000 mycorrhizae/plant, > 30% mycorrhization, c) low quality: < 3,000 mycorrhizae/plant or <30% mycorrhization, always supposing the mycorrhizae counted represent the species of interest as confirmed by the presence of its DNA and the absence of DNA belonging to contaminating species. Finally, a new microsatellite allelic map obtained from the analysis of several T. melanosporum populations across Spain was used to provide a tool capable of determining the geographic origin of the fungi used to inoculate plants. Research highlights: The proposed quality standards can be useful for the evaluation and certification of commercialized Q. ilex plants mycorrhized with T. melanosporum. (Author)

  1. Mate (chimarrão é consumido em alta temperatura por população sob risco para o carcinoma epidermóide de esôfago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARROS Sérgio Gabriel Silva de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução -- O mate, ou chimarrão, uma infusão popular de uma erva (Ilex paraguayensis bebida em grandes volumes, é um conhecido fator de risco para carcinoma epidermóide de esôfago e há suspeitas de que a água quente utilizada para o consumo possa ser fator importante na carcinogênese. Métodos - Pesquisou-se a temperatura em que a infusão é ingerida por uma amostragem da população sob risco para carcinoma epidermóide de esôfago. Realizaram-se entrevistas com indivíduos consumidores de mate na área urbana de Taquara, RS, com relação aos hábitos de ingestão de mate, e a temperatura do mate foi medida através de termômetros de precisão. A percepção da temperatura, estimada pelos usuários, foi também registrada. Resultados - Em 36 residências, 107 pessoas estavam ingerindo mate. A maioria bebia a infusão diariamente (97,2% e o consumo médio diário foi de 1.265 mL por usuário (desvio padrão de 1.132 mL, variando de 250 a 6.000 mL. A temperatura medida era igual ou superior a 60 º C em 72% das residências, com média de 63,4 º C (51-78 º C e mediana de 64,4 º C. Conclusão - Neste estudo foi possível evidenciar que o mate é consumido em grandes volumes e alta temperatura e que os usuários não foram capazes de estimar corretamente a temperatura do mate consumido. A temperatura elevada do mate consumido nessa população pode estar contribuindo à carcinogênese esofágica.

  2. Parent-Offspring Conflict over Mating: The Case of Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelaos Apostolou

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In pre-industrial societies parents exercise a strong influence over the mating decisions of their offspring. As modern pre-industrial societies approximate the way of life in ancestral human societies, human mating behavior should be seen as the outcome of a co-evolutionary process between parental and offspring's mating choice. Both parents and offspring have evolved mating preferences, which enable them to select those mates and in-laws who maximize their inclusive fitness. Following Trivers' (1974 theory of parent-offspring conflict, it is hypothesized that in-law and mating preferences substantially overlap, but also differ with respect to the beauty trait of a mating candidate. This hypothesis is tested on a sample of 292 parents. It is found that the two sets of preferences are strongly correlated, while beauty is preferred significantly more in a mating partner than in an in-law.

  3. Heterozygosity-based assortative mating in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus): implications for the evolution of mate choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Navas, Vicente; Ortego, Joaquín; Sanz, Juan José

    2009-01-01

    The general hypothesis of mate choice based on non-additive genetic traits suggests that individuals would gain important benefits by choosing genetically dissimilar mates (compatible mate hypothesis) and/or more heterozygous mates (heterozygous mate hypothesis). In this study, we test these hypotheses in a socially monogamous bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We found no evidence for a relatedness-based mating pattern, but heterozygosity was positively correlated between social mates, suggesting that blue tits may base their mating preferences on partner's heterozygosity. We found evidence that the observed heterozygosity-based assortative mating could be maintained by both direct and indirect benefits. Heterozygosity reflected individual quality in both sexes: egg production and quality increased with female heterozygosity while more heterozygous males showed higher feeding rates during the brood-rearing period. Further, estimated offspring heterozygosity correlated with both paternal and maternal heterozygosity, suggesting that mating with heterozygous individuals can increase offspring genetic quality. Finally, plumage crown coloration was associated with male heterozygosity, and this could explain unanimous mate preferences for highly heterozygous and more ornamented individuals. Overall, this study suggests that non-additive genetic traits may play an important role in the evolution of mating preferences and offers empirical support to the resolution of the lek paradox from the perspective of the heterozygous mate hypothesis. PMID:19474042

  4. Using probability modelling and genetic parentage assignment to test the role of local mate availability in mating system variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyton, Michaela D J; Banks, Sam C; Peakall, Rod; Lindenmayer, David B

    2012-02-01

    The formal testing of mating system theories with empirical data is important for evaluating the relative importance of different processes in shaping mating systems in wild populations. Here, we present a generally applicable probability modelling framework to test the role of local mate availability in determining a population's level of genetic monogamy. We provide a significance test for detecting departures in observed mating patterns from model expectations based on mate availability alone, allowing the presence and direction of behavioural effects to be inferred. The assessment of mate availability can be flexible and in this study it was based on population density, sex ratio and spatial arrangement. This approach provides a useful tool for (1) isolating the effect of mate availability in variable mating systems and (2) in combination with genetic parentage analyses, gaining insights into the nature of mating behaviours in elusive species. To illustrate this modelling approach, we have applied it to investigate the variable mating system of the mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus cunninghami) and compared the model expectations with the outcomes of genetic parentage analysis over an 18-year study. The observed level of monogamy was higher than predicted under the model. Thus, behavioural traits, such as mate guarding or selective mate choice, may increase the population level of monogamy. We show that combining genetic parentage data with probability modelling can facilitate an improved understanding of the complex interactions between behavioural adaptations and demographic dynamics in driving mating system variation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Inversion of the chromosomal region between two mating type loci switches the mating type in Hansenula polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Hiromi; Kaneko, Yoshinobu

    2014-11-01

    Yeast mating type is determined by the genotype at the mating type locus (MAT). In homothallic (self-fertile) Saccharomycotina such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluveromyces lactis, high-efficiency switching between a and α mating types enables mating. Two silent mating type cassettes, in addition to an active MAT locus, are essential components of the mating type switching mechanism. In this study, we investigated the structure and functions of mating type genes in H. polymorpha (also designated as Ogataea polymorpha). The H. polymorpha genome was found to harbor two MAT loci, MAT1 and MAT2, that are ∼18 kb apart on the same chromosome. MAT1-encoded α1 specifies α cell identity, whereas none of the mating type genes were required for a identity and mating. MAT1-encoded α2 and MAT2-encoded a1 were, however, essential for meiosis. When present in the location next to SLA2 and SUI1 genes, MAT1 or MAT2 was transcriptionally active, while the other was repressed. An inversion of the MAT intervening region was induced by nutrient limitation, resulting in the swapping of the chromosomal locations of two MAT loci, and hence switching of mating type identity. Inversion-deficient mutants exhibited severe defects only in mating with each other, suggesting that this inversion is the mechanism of mating type switching and homothallism. This chromosomal inversion-based mechanism represents a novel form of mating type switching that requires only two MAT loci.

  6. Air pollution effects on quercus ilex plants; Effetti dell`inquinamento atmosferico sulle leccete dei monti Climiti (Sicilia sud-Orientale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavone, P.; Salmeri, C. [Catania Univ. (Italy), Dip. di Botanica; Spampinato, G. [Reggio Calabria Univ. (Italy), Dip. di Agrochimica e Agrobiologia; Fallico, R.; Ferrante, M. [Catania Univ. (Italy), Ist. di Igiene e Medicina Preventiva

    1996-07-01

    To test air pollution effects on natural forest vegetation, the soil chemistry and the floristic composition of two Quercus ilex L. woods in the Hyblean region (S-E Sicily), unequally exposed to air pollutants are compared. Acidification phenomena are investigated by the soil chemical changes between the trunk base areas, affected by stem flow water, and the surrounding soil, only influenced by canopy drip. Soil chemical changes, floristic poorness and direct damage to the Q. ilex leaves are only detected in the Climiti Mountains holm-oak woods, located near the Siracusa petrochemical complex, while they do not appear at Cava d`Ispica, sited far from any industry and seldom exposed to winds carrying pollutants.

  7. Husband's Esteem Predicts his Mate Retention Tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Holden

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available delity or prevent their defection from the relationship. These tactics include low-risk acts that render the current relationship more attractive by bestowing benefits on the woman, as well as cost-inflicting acts that render defection from the relationship risky or dangerous for her. Previous research has linked men's mate retention behavior with men's mate value (value as a current or potential partner using women's reports. The current research addresses limitations of that research using self-reports and cross-spousal reports from 107 married couples concerning their self-esteem and their esteem for their partner. The results indicate that the level of esteem that wives have for their husbands is positively associated with their perception of their husband's use of positive inducements and negatively associated with their husband's self-reported use of cost-inflicting mate retention behaviors (i.e., Direct Guarding, Intersexual Negative Inducements, and Intrasexual Negative Inducements. The level of self-esteem reported by men was negatively associated with their self-reported direct guarding behavior. Discussion explores the possibility that esteem—both self-esteem and esteem from one's partner—functions as an internal gauge of relative mate value.

  8. AA, mating of BST magnet halves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The AA had 2 types of bending magnets: BLG (window-frame,long and narrow) and BST (H-type, short and wide). The BST had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the mating of two BST halves.

  9. The evolution of postpairing male mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Nan; Servedio, Maria R; Lloyd, Huw; Sun, Yue-Hua

    2017-06-01

    An increasing number of empirical studies in animals have demonstrated male mate choice. However, little is known about the evolution of postpairing male choice, specifically which occurs by differential allocation of male parental care in response to female signals. We use a population genetic model to examine whether such postpairing male mate choice can evolve when males face a trade-off between parental care and extra-pair copulations (EPCs). Specifically, we assume that males allocate more effort to providing parental care when mated to preferred (signaling) females, but they are then unable to allocate additional effort to seek EPCs. We find that both male preference and female signaling can evolve in this situation, under certain conditions. First, this evolution requires a relatively large difference in parental investment between males mated to preferred versus nonpreferred females. Second, whether male choice and female signaling alleles become fixed in a population versus cycle in their frequencies depends on the additional fecundity benefits from EPCs that are gained by choosy males. Third, less costly female signals enable both signaling and choice alleles to evolve under more relaxed conditions. Our results also provide a new insight into the evolution of sexual conflict over parental care. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. The mating behaviour and reproduction performance in a multi-sire mating system for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2008-01-01

    . The observations revealed numerous poor quality matings, a huge variation in the number of times sows are mated, and overworked boars. Only 35% of all copulations lasted 2 min or more and 63% of all copulations were disrupted, mainly by competitor boars. The higher social status of the boar, the more copulations...... did it disrupt (p performance was observed, indicating scope for improvements...

  11. Signal transduction during mating and meiosis in S. pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Nielsen, Olaf

    1993-01-01

    When starved, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe responds by producing mating factors or pheromones that signal to cells of the opposite sex to initiate mating. Like its distant relative Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells of the two mating types of S. pombe each produce a distinct pheromone...

  12. Size and competitive mating success in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Greig, Duncan

    2014-03-01

    In unicellular organisms like yeast, mating with the right partner is critical to future fitness because each individual can only mate once. Because cell size is important for viability, mating with a partner of the right size could be a significant advantage. To investigate this idea, we manipulated the size of unmated yeast cells and showed that their viability depended on environmental conditions; large cells do better on rich medium and small cells do better on poor medium. We also found that the fitness of offspring is determined by the size of their parents. Finally, we demonstrated that when a focal cell of one mating type was placed with a large and a small cell of the opposite mating type, it was more likely to mate with the cell that was closer to the optimum size for growth in a given environment. This pattern was not generated by differences in passive mating efficiency of large and small cells across environments but by competitive mating behavior, mate preference, or both. We conclude that the most likely mechanism underlying this interesting behavior is that yeast cells compete for mates by producing pheromone signals advertising their viability, and cells with the opportunity to choose prefer to mate with stronger signalers because such matings produce more viable offspring.

  13. Mate choice in the face of costly competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fawcett, TW; Johnstone, RA

    2003-01-01

    Studies of mate choice commonly ignore variation in preferences and assume that all individuals should favor the highest-quality mate available. However, individuals may differ in their mate preferences according to their own age, experience, size, or genotype. In the present study, we highlight

  14. Body size and mating success in Drosophila willistoni are ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mating activity and wing length were investigated in the F1 progeny of Drosophila willistoni females collected in the field to examine any possible relationship between body size and mating success. The flies were observed in a mating chamber under laboratory conditions. No significant differences in wing length were ...

  15. Evidence for mate guarding behavior in the Taylor's checkerspot butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria J. Bennett; Winston P. Smith; Matthew G. Betts

    2011-01-01

    Discerning the intricacies of mating systems in butterflies can be difficult, particularly when multiple mating strategies are employed and are cryptic and not exclusive. We observed the behavior and habitat use of 113 male Taylor's checkerspot butterflies (Euphydryas editha taylori). We confirmed that two distinct mating strategies were...

  16. Cultural Variation in Parental Influence on Mate Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Duncan, Lesley A.

    Contrary to assumptions underlying current psychological theories of human mating, throughout much of human history parents often controlled the mating behavior of their children. In the present research, the authors tested the hypothesis that the level of parental influence on mating is associated

  17. Mating choice of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of male ageing on mating success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Neto, Alberto M. da; Dias, Vanessa S.; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of male ageing on male pheromone release and mating success of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The effects of male ageing on mating were evaluated on fi ve and 21 d-old males by assessing their mating success (males chosen by a female for copulation) and the amount of males releasing the sex pheromone. The mating success was evaluated by using several ratios of young to older males by increasing the number of older males:young males from 1:1 to 5:1. The mating success of the 1:1 ratio was also evaluated in fi eld cages. The evaluation of the mating success (in the 1:1 ratio) showed a clear preference of the females for young males. Sex pheromone emission was much more common on young than older males. Even in cases were older males were more abundant (ratios 2:1 and 3:1), females still chose the young males. However, females could not distinguish young from older males in ratios of 4:1 or 5:1. Our data indicate that the ageing of C. capitata males has a considerable negative effect on their reproductive success, especially if they are found in a proportion any lower than 3:1. (author)

  18. Age-dependent male mating investment in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Dhole

    Full Text Available Male mating investment can strongly influence fitness gained from a mating. Yet, male mating investment often changes with age. Life history theory predicts that mating investment should increase with age, and males should become less discriminatory about their mate as they age. Understanding age-dependent changes in male behavior and their effects on fitness is important for understanding how selection acts in age-structured populations. Although the independent effects of male or female age have been studied in many species, how these interact to influence male mating investment and fitness is less well understood. We mated Drosophila pseudoobscura males of five different age classes (4-, 8-, 11-, 15-, 19-day old to either young (4-day or old (11-day females, and measured copulation duration and early post-mating fecundity. Along with their independent effects, we found a strong interaction between the effects of male and female ages on male mating investment and fitness from individual matings. Male mating investment increased with male age, but this increase was more prominent in matings with young females. Male D. pseudoobscura made smaller investments when mating with old females. The level of such discrimination based on female age, however, also changed with male age. Intermediate aged males were most discriminatory, while the youngest and the oldest males did not discriminate between females of different ages. We also found that larger male mating investments resulted in higher fitness payoffs. Our results show that male and female ages interact to form a complex pattern of age-specific male mating investment and fitness.

  19. Reduction in oxidative stress levels in the colonic mucosa without fecal stream after the application of enemas containing aqueous Ilex paraguariensis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Fernando Lorenzetti da; Silva, Camila Morais Gonçalves da; Almeida, Marcos Gonçalves de; Lameiro, Thais Miguel do Monte; Marques, Letícia Helena Souza; Margarido, Nelson Fontana; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the antioxidant effects of enemas containing aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis, comparing segments with and without fecal stream and correlating the segments with the duration of intervention. Twenty-six Wistar rats were subjected to a diversion of the fecal stream in the left colon by a proximal colostomy and distal mucosal fistula. The rats were distributed randomly into two experimental groups of 13 animals each based on the time of sacrifice after surgical procedure (two or four weeks). Each group was then divided into two experimental subgroups that received either second daily enemas containing 0.9% saline solution or aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis at 0.2g/100g. Colitis was diagnosed by histopathological analysis and the detection of oxidative tissue damage by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the tissue levels of malondialdehyde between colon segments with and without fecal stream in each experimental group, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to verify the variance between the levels of oxidative stress according the duration of the irrigation; both tests determined significance at 5% (pirrigation were 0.05±0.006 and 0.06±0.006, and 0.05± 0.03 and 0.08 ±0.02, respectively. The malondialdehyde levels in the animals irrigated with Ilex paraguariensis with and without fecal stream after two and four weeks of irrigation were 0.010±0.002 and 0.02±0.004, and 0.03±0.007 and 0.04±0.01, respectively. After two and four weeks of intervention, the levels of malondialdehyde were lower in the animals irrigated with Ilex paraguariensis regardless of the time of irrigation (p=0.0001 and p=0.002, respectively). The daily rectal application of enemas containing aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis decreases oxidative tissue damage in the colon without fecal stream regardless of the time of irrigation.

  20. You can't always get what you want: size assortative mating by mutual mate choice as a resolution of sexual conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thünken Timo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assortative mating patterns for mate quality traits like body size are often observed in nature. However, the underlying mechanisms that cause assortative mating patterns are less well known. Sexual selection is one important explanation for assortment, suggesting that i one (usually the female or both sexes could show preferences for mates of similar size or ii mutual mate choice could resolve sexual conflict over quality traits into assortment. We tested these hypotheses experimentally in the socially monogamous cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus, in which mate choice is mutual. Results In mate choice experiments, both sexes preferred large mates irrespective of own body size suggesting mating preferences are not size-assortative. Especially males were highly selective for large females, probably because female body size signals direct fitness benefits. However, when potential mates were able to interact and assess each other mutually they showed size-assortative mating patterns, i.e. the likelihood to mate was higher in pairs with low size differences between mates. Conclusion Due to variation in body size, general preferences for large mating partners result in a sexual conflict: small, lower quality individuals who prefer themselves large partners are unacceptable for larger individuals. Relative size mismatches between mates translate into a lower likelihood to mate, suggesting that the threshold to accept mates depends on own body size. These results suggest that the underlying mechanism of assortment in P. taeniatus is mutual mate choice resolving the sexual conflict over mates, rather than preference for mates of similar size.

  1. Negative-assortative mating for color in wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Smith, Douglas W; Stahler, Daniel R

    2016-04-01

    There is strong negative-assortative mating for gray and black pelage color in the iconic wolves in Yellowstone National Park. This is the first documented case of significant negative-assortative mating in mammals and one of only a very few cases in vertebrates. Of 261 matings documented from 1995 to 2015, 63.6% were between gray and black wolves and the correlation between mates for color was -0.266. There was a similar excess of matings of both gray males × black females and black males × gray females. Using the observed frequency of negative-assortative mating in a model with both random and negative-assortative mating, the estimated proportion of negative-assortative mating was 0.430. The estimated frequency of black wolves in the population from 1996 to 2014 was 0.452 and these frequencies appear stable over this 19-year period. Using the estimated level of negative-assortative mating, the predicted equilibrium frequency of the dominant allele was 0.278, very close to the mean value of 0.253 observed. In addition, the patterns of genotype frequencies, that is, the observed proportion of black homozygotes and the observed excess of black heterozygotes, are consistent with negative-assortative mating. Importantly these results demonstrate that negative-assortative mating could be entirely responsible for the maintenance of this well-known color polymorphism. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Variation in male mate choice in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic A Edward

    Full Text Available Male mate choice has been reported in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, even though males of this species were previously thought to maximise their fitness by mating with all available females. To understand the evolution of male mate choice it is important to understand variation in male mating preferences. Two studies, using different stock populations and different methods, have reported contrasting patterns of variation in male mate choice in D. melanogaster. Two possible explanations are that there are evolved differences in each stock population or that the methods used to measure choice could have biased the results. We investigated these hypotheses here by repeating the methods used in one study in which variable male mate choice was found, using the stock population from the other study in which choice was not variable. The results showed a significant resource-independent male preference for less fecund, smaller females, which contrasts with previous observations of male mate choice. This indicates that different selection pressures between populations have resulted in evolved differences in the expression of male mate choice. It also reveals phenotypic plasticity in male mate choice in response to cues encountered in each choice environment. The results highlight the importance of variation in male mate choice, and of identifying mechanisms in order to understand the evolution of mate choice under varying ecological conditions.

  3. Adolescents and Young Adults Mates Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martina Casullo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to identify the relation between gender and age on mate pre- ferences using an intentional sample drawn in Buenos Aires city and its suburban area. A questionnaire adapted from a previous study developed by D.Buss (1990 requested subjects to rank each of 19 characteristics on its desirability in a mate. Subjects for this study were 900 adolescents and young adults aging 13 to 30 years old. Means and standard deviations were calculated as well as Spearman ́s Rho coefficients. High correlations between gender, age, and ordering were found. Mutual attraction and love, kindness and understanding and trust are cho- sen as the most important criteria. Phisically attractive is important for younger males. Similar political and religious background as well as chastity are conside- red among the less important criteria. 

  4. Socioeconomic Development and Shifts in Mate Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Stone

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Mate preferences shift according to contexts such as temporal duration of mateship sought and ecological prevalence of parasites. One important cross-cultural context that has not been explored is a country's socioeconomic development. Because individuals in less developed countries are generally less healthy and possess fewer resources than those in more developed countries, displays of health and resources in a prospective long-term partner were hypothesized to be valued more in populations in which they are rare than in populations in which they are more common. We also predicted negative correlations between development and preferences for similar religious background and a desire for children. We found strong support for the health hypothesis and modest support for the resource acquisition potential hypothesis. We also found an unpredicted positive correlation between development and importance ratings for love. Discussion addresses limitations of the current research and highlights directions for future cross-cultural research on mating psychology.

  5. Sport participation influences perceptions of mate characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I; Eys, Mark A; Emond, Michael; Buzdon, Michael

    2012-02-22

    Sport provides a context in which mate choice can be facilitated by the display of athletic prowess. Previous work has shown that, for females, team sport athletes are more desirable as mates than individual sport athletes and non-participants. In the present study, the perceptions of males and females were examined regarding potential mates based on sport participation. It was predicted that team sport athletes would be more positively perceived than individual sport athletes and non-participants by both males and females. A questionnaire, a photograph, and manipulated descriptions were used to gauge perceptual differences with respect to team sport athletes, individual sport athletes, and extra-curricular club participants for 125 females and 119 males from a Canadian university. Both team and individual sport athletes were perceived as being less lazy, more competitive, and healthier than non-participants by both males and females. Interestingly, females perceived male athletes as more promiscuous than non-athletes, which upholds predictions based on previous research indicating (a) athletes have more sexual partners than non-athletes, and (b) females find athletes more desirable as partners than non-participants. Surprisingly, only males perceived female team sport athletes as more dependable than non-participants, and both team and individual sport athletes as more ambitious. This raises questions regarding the initial hypothesis that male team athletes would be perceived positively by females because of qualities such as the ability to cooperate, likeability, and the acceptance of responsibilities necessary for group functioning. Future studies should examine similar questions with a larger sample size that encompasses multiple contexts, taking into account the role of the social profile of sport in relation to mate choice and perception.

  6. Estrogens can disrupt amphibian mating behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Hoffmann

    Full Text Available The main component of classical contraceptives, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2, has high estrogenic activity even at environmentally relevant concentrations. Although estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds are assumed to contribute to the worldwide decline of amphibian populations by adverse effects on sexual differentiation, evidence for EE2 affecting amphibian mating behaviour is lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that EE2 exposure at five different concentrations (0.296 ng/L, 2.96 ng/L, 29.64 ng/L, 2.96 µg/L and 296.4 µg/L can disrupt the mating behavior of adult male Xenopus laevis. EE2 exposure at all concentrations lowered male sexual arousal, indicated by decreased proportions of advertisement calls and increased proportions of the call type rasping, which characterizes a sexually unaroused state of a male. Additionally, EE2 at all tested concentrations affected temporal and spectral parameters of the advertisement calls, respectively. The classical and highly sensitive biomarker vitellogenin, on the other hand, was only induced at concentrations equal or higher than 2.96 µg/L. If kept under control conditions after a 96 h EE2 exposure (2.96 µg/L, alterations of male advertisement calls vanish gradually within 6 weeks and result in a lower sexual attractiveness of EE2 exposed males toward females as demonstrated by female choice experiments. These findings indicate that exposure to environmentally relevant EE2 concentrations can directly disrupt male mate calling behavior of X. laevis and can indirectly affect the mating behavior of females. The results suggest the possibility that EE2 exposure could reduce the reproductive success of EE2 exposed animals and these effects might contribute to the global problem of amphibian decline.

  7. Importance of water quality on plant abundance and diversity in high-alpine meadows of the Yerba Loca Natural Sanctuary at the Andes of north-central Chile Importancia de la calidad del agua sobre la abundancia y diversidad vegetal en vegas altoandinas del Santuario Natural Yerba Loca en los Andes de Chile centro-norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSANNA GINOCCHIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Porphyry Cu-Mo deposits have influenced surface water quality in high-Andes of north-central Chile since the Miocene. Water anomalies may reduce species abundance and diversity in alpine meadows as acidic and metal-rich waters are highly toxic to plants The study assessed the importance of surface water quality on plant abundance and diversity in high-alpine meadows at the Yerba Loca Natural Santuary (YLNS, central Chile (33°15' S, 70°18' W. Hydrochemical and plant prospecting were carried out on Piedra Carvajal, Chorrillos del Plomo and La Lata meadows the growing seasons of 2006 and 2007. Direct gradient analysis was performed through canonical correspondence analysis (CCA to look for relationships among water chemistry and plant factors. High variability in water chemistry was found inside and among meadows, particularly for pH, sulphate, electric conductivity, hardness, and total dissolved Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Fe. Data on species abundance and water chemical factors suggests that pH and total dissolved Cu are very important factor determining changes in plant abundance and diversity in study meadows. For instance, Festuca purpurascens, Colobanthus quitensis, and Arenaria rivularis are abundant in habitals with Cu-rich waters while Festuca magellanica, Patosia clandestina, Plantago barbata, Werneria pygmea, and Erigeron andícola are abundant in habitals with dilute waters.Los megadepósitos de pórfidos de Cu-Mo han influido sobre la calidad de las aguas superficiales en las zonas altoandinas del centro-norte de Chile desde el Mioceno. Estas alteraciones en la calidad de las aguas podrían afectar negativamente a la vegetación presente en las vegas altoandinas, ya que las aguas acidas y ricas en metales son altamente tóxicas para las plantas. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la calidad de las aguas en la abundancia y diversidad florística de las vegas altoandinas del Santuario de la Naturaleza Yerba Loca (SNYL, en Chile central (33

  8. Mating type genes in the genus Neofusicoccum: Mating strategies and usefulness in species delimitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Anabela; Phillips, Alan J L; Alves, Artur

    2017-04-01

    The genus Neofusicoccum includes species with wide geographical and plant host distribution, some of them of economic importance. The genus currently comprises 27 species that are difficult to identify based on morphological features alone. Thus, species differentiation is based on phylogenetic species recognition using multigene genealogies. In this study, we characterised the mating type genes of Neofusicoccum species. Specific primers were designed to amplify and sequence MAT genes in several species and a PCR-based mating type diagnostic assay was developed. Homothallism was the predominant mating strategy among the species tested. Furthermore, the potential of mating type gene sequences for species delimitation was evaluated. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on both MAT genes and compared with multigene genealogies using sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region, translation elongation factor 1-alpha and beta-tubulin. Phylogenies based on mating type genes could discriminate between the species analysed and are in concordance with the results obtained with the more conventional multilocus phylogenetic analysis approach. Thus, MAT genes represent a powerful tool to delimit cryptic species in the genus Neofusicoccum. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mate choice and human stature: homogamy as a unified framework for understanding mating preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Raymond, Michel; Godelle, Bernard; Ferdy, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-08-01

    Assortative mating for human height has long attracted interest in evolutionary biology, and the phenomenon has been demonstrated in numerous human populations. It is often argued that mating preferences generate this pattern, but other processes can also induce trait correlations between mates. Here, we present a methodology tailored to quantify continuous preferences based on choice experiments between pairs of stimuli. In particular, it is possible to explore determinants of interindividual variations in preferences, such as the height of the chooser. We collected data from a sample of 200 individuals from France. Measurements obtained show that the perception of attractiveness depends on both the height of the stimuli and the stature of the individual who judged them. Therefore, this study demonstrates that homogamy is present at the level of preferences for both sexes. We also show that measurements of the function describing this homogamy are concordant with several distinct mating rules proposed in the literature. In addition, the quantitative approach introduced here fulfills metrics that can be used to compare groups of individuals. In particular, our results reveal an important disagreement between sexes regarding height preferences in the context of mutual mate choice. Finally, both women and men prefer individuals who are significantly taller than average. All major findings are confirmed by a reanalysis of previously published data.

  10. Estudio hidrogeológico y de calidad de agua en el sector oriental de la Sierra de San Javier entre las localidades de Yerba Buena y el Manantial. Provincia de Tucuman, Republica Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Urso, C. H.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located in the center west of the county of Tucumán, in the NW of Argentina. It extends from the oriental border of San Javier’s mountain between the towns of Yerba Buena and Manantial. In the piedmont zone and plain, have settled down diverse urban, agricultural centers and an important industrial complex that are supplied by underground water. The objective of this paper is to define the different geologic factors that impact in the behavior of the underground water and to define areas with appropriate hydrogeological characteristics for its use. The investigation determined that the water contained in the aquifers is of good quality and due to the high permeability, important flows can be obtained, that guarantee the supply to the population, agriculture and industry.La zona de estudio está ubicada en el centro oeste de la provincia de Tucumán, en el noroeste de Argentina. Se extiende desde el borde oriental de la sierra de San Javier entre las localidades de Yerba Buena y el Manantial. En el piedemonte y llanura se han establecido diversos centros urbanos, agrícolas y un importante complejo industrial que se abastecen de agua subterránea. El objetivo del trabajo es delimitar los distintos factores geológicos que inciden en el comportamiento del agua subterránea y tratar de definir zonas con características hidrogeológicas apropiadas para su aprovechamiento. De esta investigación se determinó que el agua que contienen los acuíferos es de buena calidad y debido a la elevada permeabilidad de los mismos, se pueden obtener importantes caudales, con lo que se garantiza el abastecimiento a la población, agricultura e industria.

  11. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eZHANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals’ social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies towards potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection.

  12. Photosynthetic responses to elevated CO2 and O3 in Quercus ilex leaves at a natural CO2 spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoletti, E.; Seufert, G.; Della Rocca, G.; Thomsen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Photosynthetic stimulation and stomatal conductance (Gs) depression in Quercus ilex leaves at a CO 2 spring suggested no down-regulation. The insensitivity of Gs to a CO 2 increase (from ambient 1500 to 2000 μmol mol -1 ) suggested stomatal acclimation. Both responses are likely adaptations to the special environment of CO 2 springs. At the CO 2 -enriched site, not at the control site, photosynthesis decreased 9% in leaves exposed to 2x ambient O 3 concentrations in branch enclosures, compared to controls in charcoal-filtered air. The stomatal density reduction at high CO 2 was one-third lower than the concomitant Gs reduction, so that the O 3 uptake per single stoma was lower than at ambient CO 2 . No significant variation in monoterpene emission was measured. Higher trichome and mesophyll density were recorded at the CO 2 -enriched site, accounting for lower O 3 sensitivity. A long-term exposure to H 2 S, reflected by higher foliar S-content, and CO 2 might depress the antioxidant capacity of leaves close to the vent and increase their O 3 sensitivity. - Very high CO 2 concentrations did not compensate for the effects of O 3 on holm oak photosynthesis

  13. Changes in DNA methylation fingerprint of Quercus ilex trees in response to experimental field drought simulating projected climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, L; Ogaya, R; Barbeta, A; Peñuelas, J

    2014-03-01

    Rapid genetic changes in plants have been reported in response to current climate change. We assessed the capacity of trees in a natural forest to produce rapid acclimation responses based on epigenetic modifications. We analysed natural populations of Quercus ilex, the dominant tree species of Mediterranean forests, using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to assess patterns and levels of methylation in individuals from unstressed forest plots and from plots experimentally exposed to drought for 12 years at levels projected for the coming decades. The percentage of hypermethylated loci increased, and the percentage of fully methylated loci clearly decreased in plants exposed to drought. Multivariate analyses exploring the status of methylation at MSAP loci also showed clear differentiation depending on stress. The PCA scores for the MSAP profiles clearly separated the genetic from the epigenetic structure, and also significantly separated the samples within each group in response to drought. Changes in DNA methylation highlight the large capacity of plants to rapidly acclimate to changing environmental conditions, including trees with long life spans, and our results demonstrate those changes. These changes, although unable to prevent the decreased growth and higher mortality associated with this experimental drought, occurred together with a dampening in such decreases as the long-term treatment progressed. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Sampling and assessment accuracy in mate choice: a random-walk model of information processing in mating decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Sergio; Cermelli, Paolo

    2011-04-07

    Mate choice depends on mating preferences and on the manner in which mate-quality information is acquired and used to make decisions. We present a model that describes how these two components of mating decision interact with each other during a comparative evaluation of prospective mates. The model, with its well-explored precedents in psychology and neurophysiology, assumes that decisions are made by the integration over time of noisy information until a stopping-rule criterion is reached. Due to this informational approach, the model builds a coherent theoretical framework for developing an integrated view of functions and mechanisms of mating decisions. From a functional point of view, the model allows us to investigate speed-accuracy tradeoffs in mating decision at both population and individual levels. It shows that, under strong time constraints, decision makers are expected to make fast and frugal decisions and to optimally trade off population-sampling accuracy (i.e. the number of sampled males) against individual-assessment accuracy (i.e. the time spent for evaluating each mate). From the proximate-mechanism point of view, the model makes testable predictions on the interactions of mating preferences and choosiness in different contexts and it might be of compelling empirical utility for a context-independent description of mating preference strength. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies on mating competition of irradiated melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limohpasmanee, W.

    1994-01-01

    Mating competition is the key factor for fruit flies control by using sterile insect technique project. Mass rearing and irradiation can reduce the mating competition of fruit flies. This experiment has purpose to evaluate the mating competition of the irradiated melon fly. The results show that mating competition values of irradiated melon flies were 0.36 and 0.24 when they mated with normal and irradiated females. Both normal male and female can mate more frequency than irradiated flies. (Z=1.322, P<0.05; Z=1.851, P<0.05). The results show that quality of mass rearing and irradiated melon fly was lower than the normal flies. So that quality of irradiated fly must be improved and the number of released flies as less must be higher than natural flies 6 time

  16. Mate choice in fruit flies is rational and adaptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuthnott, Devin; Fedina, Tatyana Y; Pletcher, Scott D; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2017-01-17

    According to rational choice theory, beneficial preferences should lead individuals to sort available options into linear, transitive hierarchies, although the extent to which non-human animals behave rationally is unclear. Here we demonstrate that mate choice in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster results in the linear sorting of a set of diverse isogenic female lines, unambiguously demonstrating the hallmark of rational behaviour, transitivity. These rational choices are associated with direct benefits, enabling males to maximize offspring production. Furthermore, we demonstrate that female behaviours and cues act redundantly in mate detection and assessment, as rational mate choice largely persists when visual or chemical sensory modalities are impaired, but not when both are impaired. Transitivity in mate choice demonstrates that the quality of potential mates varies significantly among genotypes, and that males and females behave in such a way as to facilitate adaptive mate choice.

  17. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  18. Inline Electrical Connector Mate/Demate Pliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutko, Brian; Dininny, Michael; Moscoso, Gerand; Dokos, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Military and aerospace industries use Mil-Spec type electrical connections on bulkhead panels that require inline access for mate and demate operations. These connectors are usually in tight proximity to other connectors, or recessed within panels. The pliers described here have been designed to work in such tight spaces, and consist of a mirrored set of parallel handles, two cross links, two return springs, and replaceable polyurethane-coated end effectors. The polyurethane eliminates metal-to-metal contact and provides a high-friction surface between the jaw and the connector. Operationally, the user would slide the pliers over the connector shell until the molded polyurethane lip makes contact with the connector shell edge. Then, by squeezing the handles, the end effector jaws grip the connector shell, allowing the connector to be easily disconnected by rotating the pliers. Mating the connector occurs by reversing the prescribed procedure, except the connector shell is placed into the jaws by hand. The molded lip within the jaw allows the user to apply additional force for difficult-to-mate connectors. Handle design has been carefully examined to maximize comfort, limit weight, incorporate tether locations, and improve ergonomics. They have been designed with an off-axis offset for wiring harness clearance, while placing the connector axis of rotation close to the user s axis of wrist rotation. This was done to eliminate fatigue during multiple connector panel servicing. To limit handle opening width, with user ergonomics in mind, the pliers were designed using a parallel jaw mechanism. A cross-link mechanism was used to complete this task, while ensuring smooth operation.

  19. Sex allocation predicts mating rate in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    OpenAIRE

    Janicke, Tim; Schärer, Lukas

    2009-01-01

    Sexual selection theory for separate-sexed animals predicts that the sexes differ in the benefit they can obtain from multiple mating. Conventional sex roles assume that the relationship between the number of mates and the fitness of an individual is steeper in males compared with females. Under these conditions, males are expected to be more eager to mate, whereas females are expected to be choosier. Here we hypothesize that the sex allocation, i.e. the reproductive investment devoted to the...

  20. Modelling the evolution and consequences of mate choice

    OpenAIRE

    Tazzyman, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis considers the evolution and the consequences of mate choice across a variety of taxa, using game theoretic, population genetic, and quantitative genetic modelling techniques. Part I is about the evolution of mate choice. In chapter 2, a population genetic model shows that mate choice is even beneficial in self-fertilising species such as Saccharomyces yeast. In chapter 3, a game theoretic model shows that female choice will be strongly dependent upon whether the benefi...

  1. Mate Selection in Contemporary America: An Exchange Theory Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Margaret H.

    1989-01-01

    The use of exchange theory as it applies to human relations has escalated dramatically in the past 20 years. The present study applies exchange theory as the basis of mate selection in contemporary society. Whereas an actual barter system was used in the past and families played a major role in choosing prospective mates, participants in the mate selection process are not virtually on their own and must rely upon their own bargaining skills to present their assets on the marriage market. A...

  2. Narcissism and the Strategic Pursuit of Short-Term Mating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, David P.; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the curr...... limitations of these cross-culturally universal findings and presents suggestions for future research into revealing the precise psychological features of narcissism that facilitate the strategic pursuit of short-term mating....

  3. Mate Choice Drives Evolutionary Stability in a Hybrid Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Morgado-Santos

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that assortative mating acts as a driver of speciation by countering hybridization between two populations of the same species (pre-zygotic isolation or through mate choice among the hybrids (hybrid speciation. In both speciation types, assortative mating promotes speciation over a transient hybridization stage. We studied mate choice in a hybrid vertebrate complex, the allopolyploid fish Squalius alburnoides. This complex is composed by several genomotypes connected by an intricate reproductive dynamics. We developed a model that predicts the hybrid complex can persist when females exhibit particular mate choice patterns. Our model is able to reproduce the diversity of population dynamic outcomes found in nature, namely the dominance of the triploids and the dominance of the tetraploids, depending on female mate choice patterns and frequency of the parental species. Experimental mate choice trials showed that females exhibit the preferences predicted by the model. Thus, despite the known role of assortative mating in driving speciation, our findings suggest that certain mate choice patterns can instead hinder speciation and support the persistence of hybrids over time without speciation or extinction.

  4. Sexual Experience Enhances Drosophila melanogaster Male Mating Behavior and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Sehresh; Ruggles, Patrick H.; Abbott, Wiley K.; Carney, Ginger E.

    2014-01-01

    Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments. PMID:24805129

  5. Sexual experience enhances Drosophila melanogaster male mating behavior and success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehresh Saleem

    Full Text Available Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments.

  6. Personality and mate preferences: five factors in mate selection and marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwin, M D; Buss, D M; Shackelford, T K

    1997-03-01

    Although personality characteristics figure prominently in what people want in a mate, little is known about precisely which personality characteristics are most important, whether men and women differ in their personality preferences, whether individual women or men differ in what they want, and whether individuals actually get what they want. To explore these issues, two parallel studies were conducted, one using a sample of dating couples (N = 118) and one using a sample of married couples (N = 216). The five-factor model, operationalized in adjectival form, was used to assess personality characteristics via three data sources-self--report, partner report, and independent interviewer reports. Participants evaluated on a parallel 40-item instrument their preferences for the ideal personality characteristics of their mates. Results were consistent across both studies. Women expressed a greater preference than men for a wide array of socially desirable personality traits. Individuals differed in which characteristics they desired, preferring mates who were similar to themselves and actually obtaining mates who embodied what they desired. Finally, the personality characteristics of one's partner significantly predicted marital and sexual dissatisfaction, most notably when the partner was lower on Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Intellect-Openness than desired.

  7. Last mated male sperm precedence in doubly mated females is not ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DST Unit on Evolution and Genetics, Department of Studies in Zoology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri,. Mysore 570 006, India .... using SPSS software (ver. 16.0). Results ... Proportions of first male and second male progeny of doubly mated female and the results of paired-sample t-test carried out independently for ...

  8. Are high-quality mates always attractive? State-dependent mate preferences in birds and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riebel, Katharina; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Verhulst, Simon; Fawcett, Tim W.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual selection theory posits that females should choose mates in a way that maximizes their reproductive success. But what exactly is the optimal choice? Most empirical research is based on the assumption that females seek a male of the highest possible quality (in terms of the genes or resources

  9. Co-occurrence of mated workers and a mated queen in a colony of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arnoldi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Martin Villet *. Department of Zoology, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O.. Wits, 2050 Republic of South Africa. Received 23 March 1992; accepted 8 June 1992. A colony of Platythyrea arnold; was found to contain a functional queen and laying workers, both virgin and mated. This form ...

  10. LC-MS/MS Determination and Pharmacokinetic Study of Pedunculoside in Rat Plasma after Oral Administration of Pedunculoside and Ilex rotunda Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waiou Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ilex rotunda is widely used to treat many disorders as a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM containing 4%–5% pedunculoside (PDC. A rapid, selective, and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS was developed and validated to determine PDC in rat plasma by using 3β,19α-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (DEOG as an internal standard. The analytes were extracted by protein precipitation and eluted on a C18 chromatography column using a mobile phase of methanol–H2O (70:30, v/v delivered at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. Detection was performed using positive ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring modes. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.60 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL, with a quantification limit of 0.60 ng/mL. Intra-day and inter-day precisions (%RSD ranged from 2.12 to 9.51 for PDC, whereas the accuracy was within −7.83%~9.40%. The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of PDC in rat plasma after oral administration of pure PDC and Ilex rotunda extract (IRE. Pharmacokinetic parameters of PDC in IRE, such as Cmax, AUC0–t, AUC0–∞, t1/2z, and CLz/F, statistically differed from those of the pure monomer (p < 0.01. However, Tmax and MRT showed no significant differences between the two groups. Results suggested that other coexisting components in IRE may decrease the absorption of PDC. Compound-compound interactions between PDC and other herbal extract components can alter the pharmacokinetic behavior of PDC. The study will be helpful in providing references for understanding the action mechanism and clinical application of Ilex rotunda.

  11. Assortative mating and differential male mating success in an ash hybrid zone population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frascaria-Lacoste Nathalie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure and evolution of hybrid zones depend mainly on the relative importance of dispersal and local adaptation, and on the strength of assortative mating. Here, we study the influence of dispersal, temporal isolation, variability in phenotypic traits and parasite attacks on the male mating success of two parental species and hybrids by real-time pollen flow analysis. We focus on a hybrid zone population between the two closely related ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. (common ash and F. angustifolia Vahl (narrow-leaved ash, which is composed of individuals of the two species and several hybrid types. This population is structured by flowering time: the F. excelsior individuals flower later than the F. angustifolia individuals, and the hybrid types flower in-between. Hybrids are scattered throughout the population, suggesting favorable conditions for their local adaptation. We estimate jointly the best-fitting dispersal kernel, the differences in male fecundity due to variation in phenotypic traits and level of parasite attack, and the strength of assortative mating due to differences in flowering phenology. In addition, we assess the effect of accounting for genotyping error on these estimations. Results We detected a very high pollen immigration rate and a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, counter-balanced by slight phenological assortative mating and short-distance pollen dispersal. Early intermediate flowering hybrids, which had the highest male mating success, showed optimal sex allocation and increased selfing rates. We detected asymmetry of gene flow, with early flowering trees participating more as pollen donors than late flowering trees. Conclusion This study provides striking evidence that long-distance gene flow alone is not sufficient to counter-act the effects of assortative mating and selfing. Phenological assortative mating and short-distance dispersal can create temporal and spatial structuring that appears

  12. Efeito da luminosidade e da adição de nitrogênio no crescimento de plantas de Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. Effect of light and nitrogen on the growth of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Zbigniew Mazuchowski

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, buscou-se identificar o efeito de diferentes níveis de luminosidade e da adição de adubo nitrogenado sobre o crescimento das plantas de erva-mate, no primeiro ano de crescimento. No experimento, usou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, em quatro tratamentos e dois subtratamentos, tendo 16 parcelas por bloco. O esquema adotado foi o fatorial, tendo como variável constante a luminosidade em quatro intensidades (100, 70, 50 e 30% e o nitrogênio como variável interveniente sobre as parcelas. As leituras foram efetuadas a cada 45 dias, em três horários diários por três dias consecutivos, durante um ano. Verificou-se que a condição mais adequada para o crescimento das plantas foi com luminosidades de 50 e 30%. A adição de nitrogênio não mostrou influência relevante no crescimento da erva-mate, especialmente nas luminosidades de 100 e 70%, enquanto o aumento da luminosidade tendeu a reduzir o crescimento das plantas. Contudo, as plantas adubadas (1N tiveram maior rebrota que aquelas não-adubadas. A adição de nitrogênio mineral, em dosagens elevadas, foi danosa para as plantas de erva-mate, acarretando a mortalidade nas parcelas com tratamentos de maior luminosidade.This paper aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of luminosity and nitrogen addition on the height of mate plants in the first year of growth. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks, with three replicates, in four treatments and two sub-treatments, in a total of 16 plots per block, in a factorial design, with the luminosity in four different intensities (100%, 70%, 50% and 30% and the nitrogen application as the intervening variable on the plots. Data were collected every 45 days, in three daily schedules during three consecutive days, over one year. It was found that the best conditions to plant growth were 50% and 30% luminosity. The nitrogen addition have no relevant influence in plant growth, particularly

  13. Desenvolupament d'una tècnica d'empelt de surera ("Quercus suber L.") sobre alzina ("Quercus ilex L.")

    OpenAIRE

    PERIS RODRIGO, JOSEP ENRIC

    2013-01-01

    El Trabajo Final de Carrera trata principalmente de buscar la técnica de injerto que más se ajuste para realizar injertos de alcornoque (Quercus suber L.) sobre encina (Quercus ilex L.). Para ello se han probado diferentes técnicas de injerto realizadas en diferentes épocas del año, en condiciones ambientales de exterior y en condiciones de invernadero, utilizando material vegetal de alcornoque adulto y juvenil. Con ello se persigue determinar qué técnica de injerto ofrece mejores resultados ...

  14. Assortative Mating by Ethnicity in Longevous Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sebastiani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent work shows strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation of the Framingham Heart Study. Here, we extend this analysis to two studies of human longevity: the Long Life Family Study (LLFS, and the New England Centenarian Study (NECS. In the LLFS, we identified 890 spouse pairs spanning two generations, while in the NECS we used data from 102 spouse pairs including offspring of centenarians. We used principal components of genome-wide genotype data to demonstrate strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation and also confirm the decreasing trend of endogamy in more recent generations. These findings in studies of human longevity suggest that spouses marrying into longevous families may not be powerful controls for genetic association studies, and that there may be important ethnicity-specific, genetic influences and/or gene–environment interactions that influence extreme survival in old generations. In addition, the decreasing trend of genetic similarity of more recent generations might have ramifications for the incidence of homozygous rare variants necessary for survival to the most extreme ages.

  15. Assortative Mating by Ethnicity in Longevous Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, Paola; Gurinovich, Anastasia; Bae, Harold; Andersen, Stacy L; Perls, Thomas T

    2017-01-01

    Recent work shows strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation of the Framingham Heart Study. Here, we extend this analysis to two studies of human longevity: the Long Life Family Study (LLFS), and the New England Centenarian Study (NECS). In the LLFS, we identified 890 spouse pairs spanning two generations, while in the NECS we used data from 102 spouse pairs including offspring of centenarians. We used principal components of genome-wide genotype data to demonstrate strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation and also confirm the decreasing trend of endogamy in more recent generations. These findings in studies of human longevity suggest that spouses marrying into longevous families may not be powerful controls for genetic association studies, and that there may be important ethnicity-specific, genetic influences and/or gene-environment interactions that influence extreme survival in old generations. In addition, the decreasing trend of genetic similarity of more recent generations might have ramifications for the incidence of homozygous rare variants necessary for survival to the most extreme ages.

  16. How drought severity constrains gross primary production(GPP) and its partitioning among carbon pools in a Quercus ilex coppice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambal, S.; Lempereur, M.; Limousin, J. M.; Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Ourcival, J. M.; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, J.

    2014-12-01

    The partitioning of photosynthates toward biomass compartments plays a crucial role in the carbon (C) sink function of forests. Few studies have examined how carbon is allocated toward plant compartments in drought-prone forests. We analyzed the fate of gross primary production (GPP) in relation to yearly water deficit in an old evergreen Mediterranean Quercus ilex coppice severely affected by water limitations. Carbon fluxes between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were measured with an eddy covariance flux tower running continuously since 2001. Discrete measurements of litterfall, stem growth and fAPAR allowed us to derive annual productions of leaves, wood, flowers and acorns, and an isometric relationship between stem and belowground biomass has been used to estimate perennial belowground growth. By combining eddy covariance fluxes with annual net primary productions (NPP), we managed to close a C budget and derive values of autotrophic, heterotrophic respirations and carbon-use efficiency (CUE; the ratio between NPP and GPP). Average values of yearly net ecosystem production (NEP), GPP and Reco were 282, 1259 and 977 g C m-2. The corresponding aboveground net primary production (ANPP) components were 142.5, 26.4 and 69.6 g C m-2 for leaves, reproductive effort (flowers and fruits) and stems, respectively. NEP, GPP and Reco were affected by annual water deficit. Partitioning to the different plant compartments was also impacted by drought, with a hierarchy of responses going from the most affected - the stem growth - to the least affected - the leaf production. The average CUE was 0.40, which is well in the range for Mediterranean-type forest ecosystems. CUE tended to decrease less drastically in response to drought than GPP and NPP did, probably due to drought acclimation of autotrophic respiration. Overall, our results provide a baseline for modeling the inter-annual variations of carbon fluxes and allocation in this widespread Mediterranean ecosystem, and

  17. Functional adjustments of xylem anatomy to climatic variability: insights from long-term Ilex aquifolium tree-ring series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Angelo; Cherubini, Paolo; Leonardi, Stefano; Todaro, Luigi; Borghetti, Marco

    2015-08-01

    The present study assessed the effects of climatic conditions on radial growth and functional anatomical traits, including ring width, vessel size, vessel frequency and derived variables, i.e., potential hydraulic conductivity and xylem vulnerability to cavitation in Ilex aquifolium L. trees using long-term tree-ring time series obtained at two climatically contrasting sites, one mesic site in Switzerland (CH) and one drought-prone site in Italy (ITA). Relationships were explored by examining different xylem traits, and point pattern analysis was applied to investigate vessel clustering. We also used generalized additive models and bootstrap correlation functions to describe temperature and precipitation effects. Results indicated modified radial growth and xylem anatomy in trees over the last century; in particular, vessel frequency increased markedly at both sites in recent years, and all xylem traits examined, with the exception of xylem cavitation vulnerability, were higher at the CH mesic compared with the ITA drought site. A significant vessel clustering was observed at the ITA site, which could contribute to an enhanced tolerance to drought-induced embolism. Flat and negative relationships between vessel size and ring width were observed, suggesting carbon was not allocated to radial growth under conditions which favored stem water conduction. Finally, in most cases results indicated that climatic conditions influenced functional anatomical traits more substantially than tree radial growth, suggesting a crucial role of functional xylem anatomy in plant acclimation to future climatic conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Mercury Distribution and Seasonal and Inter annual Variation of Mercury in Oak (Quercus ilex L.) in Almadenejos (Ciudad Real, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Alonso, J.; Sierra, M. J.; Millan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Plants that are exposed to environmental pollutants are able to accumulate them in their organs depending on plant species, type of organ or age among others. Evergreen plants can hold stems and leaves of the different age over the same branch. Thus, the amount of contaminants of these former organs could vary with its age because the contamination exposure time is different. The aim of this study is to know in a tree species, the mercury (Hg) distribution in it and the variation of Hg concentration in leaves and stems between consecutive years and along the same year. In order to carry this objective out, three different trees of Quercus ilex L. were selected and two branches were taken from each of them. Such trees are located in Almadenejos, a village from the Almaden mining district (Ciudad Real, Spain), an area well known due to the developed Hg mining activities for centuries. Considering each branch and each year, on average the results show that leaves had higher Hg concentration than stems. Furthermore, the lowest Hg concentration was measured in fruit (acorn). With regard to ageing effect on Hg concentration and taking into account each branch separately, the results show that the older leaves had higher Hg concentration than younger ones. Nevertheless, the oldest stems had not always higher Hg concentration than youngest ones. A seasonal variation in Hg content appeared both in leaves and in stems in 2010, increasing in 6.2 times on average, in about six months. This result suggests that this kind of organs should be analyzed in winter months. Finally, the results show a very high positive correlation between the Hg of the bark and the Hg of the wood in the sampled branches. Such result suggests that if bark is sampled and its Hg content is analyzed, we could know the Hg content in the big branches or in the trunk, avoiding the cutting of the branches or the whole tree. (Author)

  19. Do Quercus ilex woodlands undergo abrupt non-linear functional changes in response to human disturbance along a climatic gradient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochet, Esther; García-Fayos, Patricio; José Molina, Maria; Moreno de las Heras, Mariano; Espigares, Tíscar; Nicolau, Jose Manuel; Monleon, Vicente

    2017-04-01

    Theoretical models predict that drylands are particularly prone to suffer critical transitions with abrupt non-linear changes in their structure and functions as a result of the existing complex interactions between climatic fluctuations and human disturbances. However, so far, few studies provide empirical data to validate these models. We aim at determining how holm oak (Quercus ilex) woodlands undergo changes in their functions in response to human disturbance along an aridity gradient (from semi-arid to sub-humid conditions), in eastern Spain. For that purpose, we used (a) remote-sensing estimations of precipitation-use-efficiency (PUE) from enhanced vegetation index (EVI) observations performed in 231x231 m plots of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS); (b) biological and chemical soil parameter determinations (extracellular soil enzyme activity, soil respiration, nutrient cycling processes) from soil sampled in the same plots; (c) vegetation parameter determinations (ratio of functional groups) from vegetation surveys performed in the same plots. We analyzed and compared the shape of the functional change (in terms of PUE and soil and vegetation parameters) in response to human disturbance intensity for our holm oak sites along the aridity gradient. Overall, our results evidenced important differences in the shape of the functional change in response to human disturbance between climatic conditions. Semi-arid areas experienced a more accelerated non-linear decrease with an increasing disturbance intensity than sub-humid ones. The proportion of functional groups (herbaceous vs. woody cover) played a relevant role in the shape of the functional response of the holm oak sites to human disturbance.

  20. The evolution of parent-offspring conflict over mate choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Pieter; Fawcett, Tim W.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Weissing, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    In human societies, parents often have a strong influence on the mate choice of their offspring. Moreover, empirical studies show that conflict over mate choice between parents and offspring is widespread across human cultures. Here we provide the first theoretical investigation into this conflict,

  1. Genetic incompatibility drives mate choice in a parasitic wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiel, A.; Weeda, A.C.; Boer, de J.G.; Hoffmeister, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Allelic incompatibility between individuals of the same species should select for mate choice based on the genetic make-up of both partners at loci that influence offspring fitness. As a consequence, mate choice may be an important driver of allelic diversity. A complementary sex

  2. Assortative mating for human height : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Simons, Mirre J. P.; Grasman, Sara; Pollet, Thomas V.

    ObjectivesThe study of assortative mating for height has a rich history in human biology. Although the positive correlation between the stature of spouses has often been noted in western populations, recent papers suggest that mating patterns for stature are not universal. The objective of this

  3. Plant Mating Systems Often Vary Widely Among Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Whitehead

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Most flowering plants are hermaphroditic, yet the proportion of seeds fertilized by self and outcross pollen varies widely among species, ranging from predominant self-fertilization to exclusive outcrossing. A population's rate of outcrossing has important evolutionary outcomes as it influences genetic structure, effective population size, and offspring fitness. Because most mating system studies have quantified outcrossing rates for just one or two populations, past reviews of mating system diversity have not been able to characterize the extent of variation among populations. Here we present a new database of more than 30 years of mating system studies that report outcrossing rates for three or more populations per species. This survey, which includes 741 populations from 105 species, illustrates substantial and prevalent among-population variation in the mating system. Intermediate outcrossing rates (mixed mating are common; 63% of species had at least one mixed mating population. The variance among populations and within species was not significantly correlated with pollination mode or phylogeny. Our review underscores the need for studies exploring variation in the relative influence of ecological and genetic factors on the mating system, and how this varies among populations. We conclude that estimates of outcrossing rates from single populations are often highly unreliable indicators of the mating system of an entire species.

  4. Mating system of the filamentous ascomycete, Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisar, C R; TeBeest, D O

    1999-03-01

    Mating in heterothallic filamentous ascomycetes is typically controlled by a single mating-type locus with two alternate alleles or idiomorphs. In this study, five self-sterile strains of Glomerella cingulata from pecan were crossed in all possible combinations. Four of the five strains could be placed into two mating-type groups, but the fifth strain was sexually compatible with all of the other strains. Single ascospore progeny were isolated from each of the successful crosses, tested for self-fertility, and backcrossed with both parents. In addition, subsets of F1 isolates were crossed with all five of the original strains from pecan and in all possible combinations with each other. Results from the crosses showed that the ascospore progeny had stably inherited the mating pattern of one of the parental strains and that the mating type had segregated 1:1 among the F1 isolates. Furthermore, the five strains from pecan were sexually compatible with five additional heterothallic strains in all but one combination. Data from these experiments are consistent with a mating system composed of a single mating-type locus with multiple alternate alleles. We believe that this is the first report of this type of mating system for an ascomycete species.

  5. Gunner's Mate G 3 and 2; Rate Training Manual. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The rate training manual has been prepared for men of the regular Navy and of the Naval Reserve for the purpose of advancement to increase knowledge in the various aspects of the Gunner's Mate rating (G 3 and 2). Chapters 1 through 14 deal with the following topics: the requirements of the Gunner's Mate G Rating, explosives and pyrotechnics,…

  6. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones ( Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee ( Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen’s visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  7. Educational and social class assortative mating in fertile British couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżanowska, Monika; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Positive assortative mating for education and social position has been widely reported in a number of countries, but very few studies have tested whether or not educational or social class homogamy is related to differential fertility. This study examined the relationship between educational and social class assortative mating and fertility in a British national cohort. The analyses were based on 7452 husband-wife pairs from the British National Child Development Study (NCDS). The mean fertility was 3.22 children per couple; the number of children significantly increased from higher to lower social classes and from the more educated to the less educated. The extent of assortative mating for social class and educational level was related to fertility; as educational assortative mating decreased so did the average number of children, whereas the opposite trend was observed for social class. When assortative mating for education and social class were considered together, educational assortative mating was the more significant predictor of the number of children and educationally homogamous couples had higher fertility independent of their social class assortative mating. The relationship between assortative mating and fertility for education and social class appeared to be acting in the opposite direction.

  8. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen's visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  9. Mutual mate choice for olorful traits in King Penguins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolan, Paul M.; Dobson, F. Stephen; Nicolaus, Marion; Karels, Tim J.; McGraw, Kevin J.; Jouventin, Pierre

    While studies of mate choice based on male color pattern are ubiquitous, studies of mate choice based on ornamental color traits in sexually monomorphic species are less common. We conducted manipulative field experiments on two color ornaments of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), the size of

  10. Mating duration and sperm precedence in the spider Linyphia triangularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldingh, Ditte L.; Toft, Søren; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2011-01-01

    , especially the males, are able to influence the outcome of mating for their own benefit. We studied the linyphiid spider Linyphia triangularis in which mating follows a strict sequence during which the male inducts two droplets of sperm and transfers them to the female. We performed sperm competition...

  11. Direct fitness benefits explain mate preference, but not choice, for similarity in heterozygosity levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandberg, Elizabeth Christina; Gort, G.; van Oers, K.; Hinde, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Under sexual selection, mate preferences can evolve for traits advertising fitness benefits. Observed mating patterns (mate choice) are often assumed to represent preference, even though they result from the interaction between preference, sampling strategy and environmental factors. Correlating

  12. Direct fitness benefits explain mate preference, but not choice, for similarity in heterozygosity levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandberg, Lies; Gort, Gerrit; Oers, van Kees; Hinde, Camilla A.

    2017-01-01

    Under sexual selection, mate preferences can evolve for traits advertising fitness benefits. Observed mating patterns (mate choice) are often assumed to represent preference, even though they result from the interaction between preference, sampling strategy and environmental factors. Correlating

  13. Sex-specific conditional mating preferences in a cichlid fish : Implications for sexual conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldauf, Sebastian A.; Engqvist, Leif; Ottenheym, Tobias; Bakker, Theo C. M.; Thuenken, Timo

    Conditional mating strategies enable individuals to modulate their mating behaviour depending on 'individual status' to maximise fitness. Theory predicts that variation in individual quality can lead to differences in mating preferences. However, empirical evidence is scarce particular in terms of

  14. SLE as a Mating of Trees in Euclidean Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Nina; Sun, Xin

    2018-05-01

    The mating of trees approach to Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE) in the random geometry of Liouville quantum gravity (LQG) has been recently developed by Duplantier et al. (Liouville quantum gravity as a mating of trees, 2014. arXiv:1409.7055). In this paper we consider the mating of trees approach to SLE in Euclidean geometry. Let {η} be a whole-plane space-filling SLE with parameter {κ > 4} , parameterized by Lebesgue measure. The main observable in the mating of trees approach is the contour function, a two-dimensional continuous process describing the evolution of the Minkowski content of the left and right frontier of {η} . We prove regularity properties of the contour function and show that (as in the LQG case) it encodes all the information about the curve {η} . We also prove that the uniform spanning tree on {Z^2} converges to SLE8 in the natural topology associated with the mating of trees approach.

  15. Women's Fertility Status Alters Other Women's Jealousy and Mate Guarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Ashalee C; Alquist, Jessica L; Puts, David A

    2017-02-01

    Across three studies, we tested the hypothesis that women exhibit greater jealousy and mate guarding toward women who are in the high (vs. low) fertility phase of their cycle. Women who imagined their partner with a woman pictured at high fertility reported more jealousy than women who imagined their partner with a woman pictured at low fertility (Studies 1 and 2). A meta-analysis across studies manipulating fertility status of the pictured woman found a significant effect of fertility status on both jealousy and mate guarding. Women with attractive partners viewed fertile-phase women as less trustworthy, which led to increased mate guarding (Study 2). In Study 3, the closer women were to peak fertility, the more instances they reported of other women acting jealously and mate guarding toward them. These studies provide evidence that women selectively exhibit jealousy and mate guarding toward women who are near peak fertility.

  16. ModelMate - A graphical user interface for model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Edward R.

    2011-01-01

    ModelMate is a graphical user interface designed to facilitate use of model-analysis programs with models. This initial version of ModelMate supports one model-analysis program, UCODE_2005, and one model software program, MODFLOW-2005. ModelMate can be used to prepare input files for UCODE_2005, run UCODE_2005, and display analysis results. A link to the GW_Chart graphing program facilitates visual interpretation of results. ModelMate includes capabilities for organizing directories used with the parallel-processing capabilities of UCODE_2005 and for maintaining files in those directories to be identical to a set of files in a master directory. ModelMate can be used on its own or in conjunction with ModelMuse, a graphical user interface for MODFLOW-2005 and PHAST.

  17. Mechanical seal having a double-tier mating ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Somanchi, Anoop K.

    2005-09-13

    An apparatus and method to enhance the overall performance of mechanical seals in one of the following ways: by reducing seal face wear, by reducing the contact surface temperature, or by increasing the life span of mechanical seals. The apparatus is a mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) comprising a rotating ring and a double-tier mating ring. In a preferred embodiment, the double-tier mating ring comprises a first and a second stationary ring that together form an agitation-inducing, guided flow channel to allow for the removal of heat generated at the seal face of the mating ring by channeling a coolant entering the mating ring to a position adjacent to and in close proximity with the interior surface area of the seal face of the mating ring.

  18. Interspecific variation in functional traits of oak seedlings (Quercus ilex, Quercus trojana, Quercus virgiliana) grown under artificial drought and fire conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiatante, D; Tognetti, R; Scippa, G S; Congiu, T; Baesso, B; Terzaghi, M; Montagnoli, A

    2015-07-01

    To face summer drought and wildfire in Mediterranean-type ecosystems, plants adopt different strategies that involve considerable rearrangements of biomass allocation and physiological activity. This paper analyses morphological and physiological traits in seedlings of three oak species (Quercus ilex, Quercus trojana and Quercus virgiliana) co-occurring under natural conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate species-specific characteristics and the response of these oak seedlings to drought stress and fire treatment. Seedlings were kept in a growth chamber that mimicked natural environmental conditions. All three species showed a good degree of tolerance to drought and fire treatments. Differences in specific biomass allocation patterns and physiological traits resulted in phenotypic differences between species. In Q. ilex, drought tolerance depended upon adjustment of the allocation pattern. Q. trojana seedlings undergoing mild to severe drought presented a higher photosystem II (PSII) efficiency than control seedlings. Moreover, Q. trojana showed a very large root system, which corresponded to higher soil area exploitation, and bigger leaf midrib vascular bundles than the other two species. Morphological and physiological performances indicated Q. trojana as the most tolerant to drought and fire. These characteristics contribute to a high recruitment potential of Q. trojana seedlings, which might be the reason for the dominance of this species under natural conditions. Drought increase as a result of climate change is expected to favour Q. trojana, leading to an increase in its spatial distribution.

  19. Simultaneous determination of flavonoids, isochlorogenic acids and triterpenoids in Ilex hainanensis Using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and evaporative light scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Zhao, Jing; Huang, Wei-Hua; Hu, De-Jun; Liu, Hua-Gang; Li, Shao-Ping

    2013-03-04

    A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-DAD-ELSD) method for simultaneous determination of eight major bioactive compounds including two flavonoids (rutin and eriodictyol-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside), two isochlorogenic acids (isochlorogenic acid A and isochlorogenic acid C) and four triterpenoids (ilexhainanoside D, ilexsaponin A1, ilexgenin A and ursolic acid) in Ilex hainanensis has been developed for the first time. The 283 nm wavelength was chosen for determination of two flavonoids and two isochlorogenic acids. ELSD was applied to determine four triterpenoids. The analysis was performed on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm) with gradient elution of 0.2% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. The method was validated for linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, repeatability and accuracy. The proposed method has been successfully applied for simultaneous quantification of the analytes in four samples of Ilex hainanensis, which is helpful for quality control of this plant.

  20. Proyecto de reforestación de tierras agrarias con encina (Quercus ilex L ballota Samp) para la producción de trufa (Tuber melanosporum Vitt.), en el término municipal de Peralveche, Guadalajara

    OpenAIRE

    RUIPÉREZ MARTÍNEZ, DIEGO

    2010-01-01

    Ruipérez Martínez, D. (2010). Proyecto de reforestación de tierras agrarias con encina (Quercus ilex L ballota Samp) para la producción de trufa (Tuber melanosporum Vitt.), en el término municipal de Peralveche, Guadalajara. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/8975. Archivo delegado

  1. Proyecto de forestación con carrasca (Quercus ilex ssp. Rotundifolia) micorrizada con trufa negra (Tuber melanosporum Vitt.) en el término municipal de San Agustín

    OpenAIRE

    MAYO SANZ, ELOY

    2012-01-01

    Mayo Sanz, E. (2011). Proyecto de forestación con carrasca (Quercus ilex ssp. Rotundifolia) micorrizada con trufa negra (Tuber melanosporum Vitt.) en el término municipal de San Agustín. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/14231. Archivo delegado

  2. Male Mating Signaling in Social Dilemma Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm

    2013-01-01

    According to sexual selection theory and costly signaling theory, men benefit from signaling costly mate qualities to attractive women. To date, several studies have investigated whether men use conspicuous altruism to attract women, but the findings are mixed. This study investigated whether men...... being observed by an attractive woman engage in competitive economic altruism in three social dilemma games — the Dictator Game, Trust Game (2nd mover), and Public Goods Game — in comparison to men being observed by a non-attractive woman. Results showed that altruistic contributions in the games were...... not significantly larger in the attractive observer group than in the non-attractive observer group. Exploratory analyses did reveal, however, that amongst participants with an attractive observer only, dispositional generosity had a strongly positive effect on altruism while dispositional dominance had a negative...

  3. Stochasticity in the yeast mating pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Li, Wang; Zheng-Ping, Fu; Xin-Hang, Xu; Qi, Ouyang

    2009-01-01

    We report stochastic simulations of the yeast mating signal transduction pathway. The effects of intrinsic and external noise, the influence of cell-to-cell difference in the pathway capacity, and noise propagation in the pathway have been examined. The stochastic temporal behaviour of the pathway is found to be robust to the influence of inherent fluctuations, and intrinsic noise propagates in the pathway in a uniform pattern when the yeasts are treated with pheromones of different stimulus strengths and of varied fluctuations. In agreement with recent experimental findings, extrinsic noise is found to play a more prominent role than intrinsic noise in the variability of proteins. The occurrence frequency for the reactions in the pathway are also examined and a more compact network is obtained by dropping most of the reactions of least occurrence

  4. Soul mate: exploring the concept of soul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Joan M

    2011-09-01

    This article describes an "advanced practice" registered nurse's skill in using multiple theoretical frameworks to make meaning of her severely developmentally disabled son's untimely death. Aspects of religion, spirituality, and philosophy are presented plus how related practices, such as used within Alcoholics Anonymous, are incorporated into everyday life are referenced. Creating unique rituals and ceremonies demonstrates the power of the mind as a partner in the healing process when grief seems insurmountable. This article, titled "Soul Mate" discusses how individuals create their own healing narratives when confronted with grief and tragedy. Nursing interventions, sensitive to this process, support and promote the grief process. Eliciting, recognizing, and accepting a patient's unique self-made rituals and ceremonies as they cope with a beloved's death and dying enhances their nursing interventions. © 2011 The Author(s)

  5. Optimal mate choice patterns in pelagic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Eliassen, Sigrun; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The importance of sexual selection for the evolution, dynamics and adaptation of organisms is well known for many species. However, the topic is rarely studied in marine plankton, the basis of the marine food web. Copepods show behaviors that suggest the existence of sexually selected traits......, and recent laboratory experiments identified some selected morphological traits. Here, we use a ‘life history-based’ model of sex roles to determine the optimal choosiness behavior of male and female copepods for important copepod traits. Copepod females are predicted to be choosy at population densities...... typically occurring during the main breeding season, whereas males are not. The main drivers of this pattern are population density and the difference in non-receptive periods between males and females. This suggests that male reproductive traits have evolved mainly due to mate competition. The model can...

  6. Synergistic selection between ecological niche and mate preference primes diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughman, Janette W; Svanbäck, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The ecological niche and mate preferences have independently been shown to be important for the process of speciation. Here, we articulate a novel mechanism by which ecological niche use and mate preference can be linked to promote speciation. The degree to which individual niches are narrow and clustered affects the strength of divergent natural selection and population splitting. Similarly, the degree to which individual mate preferences are narrow and clustered affects the strength of divergent sexual selection and assortative mating between diverging forms. This novel perspective is inspired by the literature on ecological niches; it also explores mate preferences and how they may contribute to speciation. Unlike much comparative work, we do not search for evolutionary patterns using proxies for adaptation and sexual selection, but rather we elucidate how ideas from niche theory relate to mate preference, and how this relationship can foster speciation. Recognizing that individual and population niches are conceptually and ecologically linked to individual and population mate preference functions will significantly increase our understanding of rapid evolutionary diversification in nature. It has potential to help solve the difficult challenge of testing the role of sexual selection in the speciation process. We also identify ecological factors that are likely to affect individual niche and individual mate preference in synergistic ways and as a consequence to promote speciation. The ecological niche an individual occupies can directly affect its mate preference. Clusters of individuals with narrow, differentiated niches are likely to have narrow, differentiated mate preference functions. Our approach integrates ecological and sexual selection research to further our understanding of diversification processes. Such integration may be necessary for progress because these processes seem inextricably linked in the natural world. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution

  7. Site fidelity, mate fidelity, and breeding dispersal in American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, K.; Peterson, B.E.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed mate fidelity, nest-box fidelity, and breeding dispersal distances of American Kestrels (falco sparverius) nesting in boxes in southwestern Idaho from 1990 through 2006. Seventy-seven percent of boxes had different males and 87% had different females where nest-box occupants were identified in consecutive years. High turnover rates were partly a result of box-switching. Forty-eight percent of males and 58% of females that nested within the study area in successive years used different boxes. The probability of changing boxes was unrelated to gender, nesting success in the prior year, or years of nesting experience. Breeding dispersal distances for birds that moved to different boxes averaged 2.2 km for males (max = 22 km) and 3.2 km for females (max = 32 km). Approximately 70% of birds that nested in consecutive years on the study area had a different mate in the second year. Mate fidelity was related to box fidelity but not to prior nesting success or years of nesting experience. Mate changes occurred 32% of the time when the previous mate was known to be alive and nesting in the area. Kestrels that switched mates and boxes did not improve or decrease their subsequent nesting success. Kestrels usually switched to mates with less experience and lower lifetime productivity than their previous mates. The costs of switching boxes and mates were low, and there were no obvious benefits to fidelity. The cost of "waiting" for a previous mate that might have died could be high in species with high annual mortality.

  8. The cost of mating: influences of life history traits and mating strategies on lifespan in two closely related Yponomeuta species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.C.; Campos Louçã, J.; Roessingh, P.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that in monandrous butterfly species males should not invest in a long lifespan because receptive females quickly disappear from the mating population. In polyandrous species, however, it pays for males to invest in longevity, which increases the number of mating opportunities and

  9. How universal are human mate choices? Size does not matter when Hadza foragers are choosing a mate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sear, Rebecca; Marlowe, Frank W.

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that size matters on the human mate market: both stated preferences and mate choices have been found to be non-random with respect to height and weight. But how universal are these patterns? Most of the literature on human mating patterns is based on post-industrial societies. Much less is known about mating behaviour in more traditional societies. Here we investigate mate choice by analysing whether there is any evidence for non-random mating with respect to size and strength in a forager community, the Hadza of Tanzania. We test whether couples assort for height, weight, body mass index (BMI), per cent fat and grip strength. We test whether there is a male-taller norm. Finally, we test for an association between anthropometric variables and number of marriages. Our results show no evidence for assortative mating for height, weight, BMI or per cent fat; no evidence for a male-taller norm and no evidence that number of marriages is associated with our size variables. Hadza couples may assort positively for grip strength, but grip strength does not affect the number of marriages. Overall we conclude that, in contrast to post-industrial societies, mating appears to be random with respect to size in the Hadza. PMID:19570778

  10. Polygyny, mate-guarding, and posthumous fertilization as alternative male mating strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, K R; Sinervo, B

    2000-12-19

    Alternative male mating strategies within populations are thought to be evolutionarily stable because different behaviors allow each male type to successfully gain access to females. Although alternative male strategies are widespread among animals, quantitative evidence for the success of discrete male strategies is available for only a few systems. We use nuclear microsatellites to estimate the paternity rates of three male lizard strategies previously modeled as a rock-paper-scissors game. Each strategy has strengths that allow it to outcompete one morph, and weaknesses that leave it vulnerable to the strategy of another. Blue-throated males mate-guard their females and avoid cuckoldry by yellow-throated "sneaker" males, but mate-guarding is ineffective against aggressive orange-throated neighbors. The ultradominant orange-throated males are highly polygynous and maintain large territories; they overpower blue-throated neighbors and cosire offspring with their females, but are often cuckolded by yellow-throated males. Finally, yellow-throated sneaker males sire offspring via secretive copulations and often share paternity of offspring within a female's clutch. Sneaker males sire more offspring posthumously, indicating that sperm competition may be an important component of their strategy.

  11. MATESOFT: a program for deducing parental genotypes and estimating mating system statistics in haplodiploid species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moilanen, A.; Sundström, L.; Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2004-01-01

    breeding system, mating system, parentage analysis, paternity assignment, polyandry, social insects......breeding system, mating system, parentage analysis, paternity assignment, polyandry, social insects...

  12. Avaliação nutricional de plantas de erva-mate atacadas e não-atacadas pelo Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geedre Adriano Borsoi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar e comparar os teores nutricionais de plantas de erva-      -mate, Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., atacadas e não-atacadas pela broca-da-erva-mate Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825 (Col.: Cerambycidae, para identificar possíveis desequilíbrios nutricionais no solo e nas folhas. A área amostrada está localizada no município de Catanduvas, SC. O erval estudado é homogêneo, com idade de 8 anos e densidade de 2.100 plantas/ha. As amostragens de folhas e de solo foram realizadas nos meses de fevereiro e abril de 1999. As amostras foram submetidas à análise química, em Laboratório de Análise Química. Foram interpretados os teores para cada elemento químico,  realizaram-se os testes de comparações de médias "t" e "f" e  o teste de homogeneidade de variâncias.  Observou-se que o solo apresenta teores considerados adequados de N e P, teores baixos de K, Ca e Mg e altos para S, B, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Na, Al, Al+H, Ph e SMP, para a erva-mate. Já na análise foliar, as plantas apresentam teores considerados adequados de K, Ca, B, Zn e Na, teores baixos de P, Mn e S e altos de N, Mg, Fe, e Cu. Nessa análise, chamou a atenção, as altas concentrações de N e os baixos níveis de S no tecido foliar. O teste "t" registrou diferença significativa para o P do solo e de folhas e o teste "f", revelou o ferro do solo, como elemento químico com diferença significativa entre as médias das duas condições de plantas. O P e o Fe do solo e ainda, o K, S e Mn de folhas foram os elementos químicos que registraram heterogeneidade significativa de variâncias. Das variáveis estudadas, as plantas atacadas foram as que revelaram maior variação entre as médias.

  13. Influência da inoculação de Fusarium spp. e níveis de sombreamento no crescimento e desenvolvimento da erva-mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Poletto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. é uma espécie amplamente cultivada no sul do Brasil e países vizinhos. Suas folhas e galhos finos, preparados segundo método apropriado, fornecem o mate ou chimarrão, o mais popular chá consumido no Brasil e exportado para todo o mundo. Com o aumento da área plantada, sobretudo na última década, os problemas fitossanitários causados por pragas e doenças aumentaram e, dentre estes, a podridão-de-raízes vem se tornando um dos principais. A doença é causada por Fusarium spp. e provoca sérios danos decorrentes da destruição do sistema radicular, ocasionando, nos casos mais graves, morte da planta. A erva-mate é uma espécie que habita o sub-bosque da mata e o cultivo de forma homogênea a pleno sol pode ser um fator estressante ocasionando menor crescimento e desenvolvimento e também torná-la mais susceptível à podridão-de-raízes. Assim, foram instalados experimentos na área do Viveiro Florestal pertencente ao Departamento de Ciências Florestais da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria com o objetivo de confirmar tais hipóteses. O experimento foi desenvolvido em um esquema fatorial (2 x 5, composto pela inoculação de Fusarium spp. e por níveis de sombreamento. Foi observado que plantas submetidas aos menores níveis de sombreamento ou a pleno sol tiveram seu desenvolvimento prejudicado e ficaram mais suscetíveis à doença. As plantas inoculadas com Fusarium spp. tiveram menor desenvolvimento em comparação com as não inoculadas, especialmente nos menores níveis de sombreamento.

  14. Comportamento de Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825 em erva-mate em campo Behavior of Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825 on the Paraguay tea plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerson Vanderlei Carús Guedes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o comportamento de cópula, postura, alimentação e deslocamento da broca da erva-mate, Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825, na área experimental da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Essas características da broca foram avaliadas por um período de quatro dias através de observações visuais (de hora em hora, em duas gaiolas teladas colocadas sobre um ramo da planta, e contendo dois casais do inseto/gaiola. Observou-se que o macho, quando acompanhado de uma fêmea, tenta copular imediatamente, realizando cópulas durante todos os perí odos do dia, principalmente entre 14 e 18h, e em toda a extensão do ramo. A postura ocorreu nos ramos de 15-20mm de diâmetro. A maior intensidade de alimentação ocorreu no período compreendido entre 10 e 18h, sendo preferencialmente realizada em ramos de 30-40mm de diâmetro. O inseto apresentou comportamento sedentário e de fácil localizaç ;ão em função de sua limitada e lenta movimentação. Esses resultados são importantes para localização, amostragem, catação manual e manejo da praga.A trial was carried out in the experimental area of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria to study the behaviour of mating, egg-laying, feeding and movement of Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825 in the Paraguay tea (Ilex paraguariensis. These characteristics were monitored during four days (hourly in two screen cages, each envolving a branch of a plant and containing two adult couples of H. betulinus. When approaching a female, the male tried to copulate immediately and usually mated several times during the day mainly between 2:00 and 6:00pm and on along the branch. Egg-laying was more frequent on branches between 15 and 20mm in diameter. Feeding ocorred more intensivel y fron 10:00am to 6:00p.m preferently on branches between 30 and 4mm in diameter The adults showed limited movement and sedentary behaviour.

  15. Changes in soil organic matter under different land management in misiones province (Argentina Mudanças na matéria orgânica edafica sob diferentes manejos de solo na província de misiones (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Agustín Piccolo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly weathered tropical soils rapidly loose soil organic matter (SOM and may be affected by water erosion and soil compaction after deforestation and intensive cultivation. With the main objective to estimate the SOM balances in a subtropical soil we determined the dynamics of SOM in a degraded yerba mate (Ilex paraguaiensis Saint Hil. plantation introduced after deforestation and with elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum L. as a cover crop. The study site was in Misiones, Argentina, and we use the natural 13C abundance methodology and a descriptive model. The study was conducted on three contiguous 50 x 100 m plots of a typic Kandihumult soil with: (i native forest, (ii 50 years of continuous yerba mate monoculture with intensive tillage, and (iii yerba mate associated with elephant grass as a cover crop and no tillage. We determined bulk density, carbon (C, nitrogen (N and 13C content of the soil (0 - 0.05, 0.05 - 0.15 m layers and the grass biomass. Yerba mate monoculture reduced soil C and N content as well as porosity at 0 - 0.15 m depth by 43 and 23%, respectively, as compared to the native forest. After ten years of yerba mate - elephant grass association soil C and N contents at the same depth increased by 19 and 12%, respectively, compared to the yerba mate monoculture, while soil porosity remained similar. Total C input,13C, and soil organic C were incorporated into a three compartment model to evaluate elephant grass C dynamics. Through the natural 13C abundance methodology we tracked the elephant grass C incorporation and the "old" soil C loss, and determined the model parameters - humification (k1 and mineralization (k coefficients and stable C (Cs- unambiguously. The high k1 and k predicted by the model are probably explained by elephant grass root system incorporation under no tillage and humid subtropical climate, respectively. In soil under yerba mate monoculture, Cs was counted as 91% of the total soil organic C.Os solos

  16. Mate preference of female blue tits varies with experimental photoperiod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B Reparaz

    Full Text Available Organisms use environmental cues to time their life-cycles and among these cues, photoperiod is the main trigger of reproductive behaviours such as territory defence or song activity. Whether photoperiod is also important for another behaviour closely associated with reproduction, mate choice, is unknown. In many bird species, mate choice occurs at two different times during the annual cycle that strongly differ in daylength: in late winter when photoperiod is short and social mates are chosen, and again around egg-laying when photoperiod is longer and extra-pair mates are chosen. This duality makes the role that photoperiod plays on mate choice behaviours intriguing. We investigated the effect of photoperiod on mate choice using three experimental photoperiodic treatments (9 L:15 D, 14 L:10 D, 18 L:6 D, using blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus as a biological model. We show that female choice was stronger under long photoperiods. In addition, female blue tits spent significantly more time near males with long tarsi and long wings. This latter preference was only expressed under long photoperiods, suggesting that some indices of male quality only become significant to females when they are strongly photostimulated, and therefore that females could select their social and extra-pair mates based on different phenotypic traits. These results shed light on the roles that photoperiod may play in stimulating pair-bonding and in refining female selectivity for male traits.

  17. Mating with stressed males increases the fitness of ant queens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schrempf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to sexual conflict theory, males can increase their own fitness by transferring substances during copulation that increase the short-term fecundity of their mating partners at the cost of the future life expectancy and re-mating capability of the latter. In contrast, sexual cooperation is expected in social insects. Mating indeed positively affects life span and fecundity of young queens of the male-polymorphic ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, even though males neither provide nuptial gifts nor any other care but leave their mates immediately after copulation and die shortly thereafter. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that mating with winged disperser males has a significantly stronger impact on life span and reproductive success of young queens of C. obscurior than mating with wingless fighter males. CONCLUSIONS: Winged males are reared mostly under stressful environmental conditions, which force young queens to disperse and found their own societies independently. In contrast, queens that mate with wingless males under favourable conditions usually start reproducing in the safety of the established maternal nest. Our study suggests that males of C. obscurior have evolved mechanisms to posthumously assist young queens during colony founding under adverse ecological conditions.

  18. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Evans

    Full Text Available In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated, most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness. Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies.

  19. Cloning of the Lentinula edodes B mating-type locus and identification of the genetic structure controlling B mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin; van Peer, Arend; Song, Wenhua; Wang, Hong; Chen, Mingjie; Tan, Qi; Song, Chunyan; Zhang, Meiyan; Bao, Dapeng

    2013-12-01

    During the life cycle of heterothallic tetrapolar Agaricomycetes such as Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler, the mating type system, composed of unlinked A and B loci, plays a vital role in controlling sexual development and resulting formation of the fruit body. L. edodes is produced worldwide for consumption and medicinal purposes, and understanding its sexual development is therefore of great importance. A considerable amount of mating type factors has been indicated over the past decades but few genes have actually been identified, and no complete genetic structures of L. edodes B mating-type loci are available. In this study, we cloned the matB regions from two mating compatible L. edodes strains, 939P26 and 939P42. Four pheromone receptors were identified on each new matB region, together with three and four pheromone precursor genes in the respective strains. Gene polymorphism, phylogenetic analysis and distribution of pheromone receptors and pheromone precursors clearly indicate a bipartite matB locus, each sublocus containing a pheromone receptor and one or two pheromone precursors. Detailed sequence comparisons of genetic structures between the matB regions of strains 939P42, 939P26 and a previously reported strain SUP2 further supported this model and allowed identification of the B mating type subloci borders. Mating studies confirmed the control of B mating by the identified pheromone receptors and pheromones in L. edodes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Micropropagación de Ilex kunthiana Triana & Planchon (Aquifoliaceae, una especie de gran importancia en programas de revegetalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alonso Pedroza–Manrique

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evalúo el cultivo de tejidos vegetales in vitro como una alternativa en la propagación y preservación de Ilex kunthiana, especie endémica de gran interés en programas de revegetalización. Se determinó que el efecto del Benlate® a 0,5% durante 12 horas y el hipoclorito de sodio al 0,5% por 1 min., como agentes desinfectantes de las semillas, permiten obtener el 100% de explantes adaptados a condiciones in vitro. Las semillas son cultivadas en medio MS con Ácido Giberélico (AG3 (0,0, 0,5, 1,0 mg/L. Cuando las plántulas germinaron, se aislaron los nudos con yemas axilares y se cultivaron en medio MS enriquecido con la Auxina Ácido Indol Butírico (AIB (0,0, 0,5, 1,0 mg/L y la citoquinina 6-bencilaminopurina (BAP (0,0, 0,5, 1,0 mg/L. A fin de inducir su enraizamiento, posteriormente los brotes regenerados se cultivaron con las Auxinas Ácido Indol Butírico (AIB (0,0, 0,5, 1,0 mg/L y Ácido Naftalén Acético (ANA (0,0; 0,5; 1,0 mg/L. Se estableció que 0,5 mg/L de AG3 favoreció la 100% de germinación de las semillas que fueron la fuente de los nudos. El mejor índice de formación de brotes se logró cuando los nudos se cultivaron con 0,5 mg/L del BAP y 0,5 mg/L del AIB que posteriormente fueron exitosamente enraizados con 0,5 mg/L de AIB, estableciendo las condiciones mas adecuadas para la propagación in vitro de Ilex kunthiana. Palabras clave: Ilex kunthiana; micropropagación; plantas en vías de extinción; AIB; BAP; micropropagatio; endangered plant.

  1. Male aggression and mating opportunity in a poeciliid fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male aggression and mating opportunity in a poeciliid fish. ... the strength of which can be assessed using repeatability of aggressive behaviour. ... A surprising finding highlighted by this study was the contradictory results for consistency in ...

  2. The role of ego-identity status in mating preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Curtis S; Papini, Dennis R

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the role ego-identity plays in the mating preferences of late adolescents. In addition to examining the variance in mating preferences explained by ego-identity status, it was hoped that the results could assist in testing the competing Sexual Strategies (Buss & Schmitt, 1993) and Social Role (Eagly & Wood, 1999) theories. Ego-identity and the sex of the participant accounted for a significant amount of variance in the number of sexual partners desired and the penchant for short-term mating. The sex of the participant was the lone predictor of the importance placed on the mate characteristics of physical attractiveness and earning capacity with females placing more emphasis on the former and males placing more emphasis on the latter characteristic.

  3. Sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS), jealousy and mate retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gayle; Riley, Charlene

    2010-10-02

    Previous research has investigated the manner in which absolute height impacts on jealousy and mate retention. Although relative height is also important, little information exists about the potential influence of sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS) within established relationships. The current study investigated the relationship between SDS and the satisfaction, jealousy and mate retention behaviors reported by men and women. Heterosexual men (n = 98) and women (n = 102) completed a questionnaire. Men in high SDS relationships reported the lowest levels of cognitive and behavioral jealousy, although the impact of SDS on relationship satisfaction was less clear. SDS was not associated with the overall use of mate retention strategies; SDS did however affect the use of three specific strategies (vigilance, monopolization of time, love and care). SDS did not affect women's relationship satisfaction, jealousy (cognitive, behavioral, or emotional) or the use of mate retention strategies (with the exception of resource display).

  4. Sexual selection and physical attractiveness : Implications for mating dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangestad, S W

    1993-09-01

    Sexual selection processes have received much attention in recent years, attention reflected in interest in human mate preferences. Among these mate preferences are preferences for physical attractiveness. Preferences in and of themselves, however, do not fully explain the nature of the relationships that individuals attain. A tacit negotiation process underlies relationship formation and maintenance. The notion that preferences for physical attractiveness evolved under parasite-driven "good genes" sexual selection leads to predictions about the nature of trade-offs that individuals make between mates' physical attractiveness and investment potential. These predictions and relevant data are explored, with a primary emphasis on women's preferences for men's qualities. In addition, further implications of trade-offs are examined, most notably (a) the impact of environmental variations on the nature of mating and (b) some effects of trade-offs on infidelity and male attempts to control women.

  5. Mating with large males decreases the immune defence of females ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, BCVK Campus, ... observed results are very likely due to qualitative/quantitative differences in the .... Materials and methods .... that mated with the three types of males within each block.

  6. Social inclusion facilitates risky mating behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Donald F; Brown, Christina M; Young, Steven G; Bernstein, Michael J; Hugenberg, Kurt

    2011-07-01

    Although past research has reliably established unique effects of social exclusion on human cognition and behavior, the current research focuses on the unique effects of social inclusion. Recent evidence indicates that social inclusion leads to enhanced prioritization of reproductive interests. The current study extends these findings by showing that the pursuit of these inclusion-induced reproductive goals occurs in sex-specific ways. Across three experiments, social inclusion led men, but not women, to endorse riskier, more aggressive mating strategies compared to control and socially excluded participants. Specifically, included men were more likely to endorse sexual aggression (Experiment 1), high-risk mate poaching behaviors (Experiment 2), and high-risk mate retention tactics (Experiment 3). These results demonstrate that the experience of social inclusion can affect sex-differentiated preferences for risky mating strategies. © 2011 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc

  7. Ecological mechanisms for the coevolution of mating systems and defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart A

    2015-02-01

    The diversity of flowering plants is evident in two seemingly unrelated aspects of life history: sexual reproduction, exemplified by the stunning variation in flower form and function, and defence, often in the form of an impressive arsenal of secondary chemistry. Researchers are beginning to appreciate that plant defence and reproduction do not evolve independently, but, instead, may have reciprocal and interactive (coevolutionary) effects on each other. Understanding the mechanisms for mating-defence interactions promises to broaden our understanding of how ecological processes can generate these two rich sources of angiosperm diversity. Here, I review current research on the role of herbivory as a driver of mating system evolution, and the role of mating systems in the evolution of defence strategies. I outline different ecological mechanisms and processes that could generate these coevolutionary patterns, and summarize theoretical and empirical support for each. I provide a conceptual framework for linking plant defence with mating system theory to better integrate these two research fields.

  8. Parent-Offspring Conflict over Short-Term Mating Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyroulla Georgiou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals engage in short-term mating strategies that enable them to obtain fitness benefits from casual relationships. These benefits, however, count for less and cost more to their parents. On this basis three hypotheses are tested. First, parents and offspring are likely to disagree over short-term mating strategies, with the former considering these as less acceptable than the latter. Second, parents are more likely to disapprove of the short-term mating strategies of their daughters than of their sons. Finally, mothers and fathers are expected to agree on how much they disagree over the short-term mating strategies of their children. Evidence from a sample of 148 Greek-Cypriot families (140 mothers, 105 fathers, 119 daughters, 77 sons provides support for the first two hypotheses and partial support for the third hypothesis. The implications of these findings for understanding family dynamics are further discussed.

  9. Genetic determinants of mate recognition in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Terry W; Shearer, Tonya L; Smith, Hilary A; Kubanek, Julia; Gribble, Kristin E; Welch, David B Mark

    2009-09-09

    Mate choice is of central importance to most animals, influencing population structure, speciation, and ultimately the survival of a species. Mating behavior of male brachionid rotifers is triggered by the product of a chemosensory gene, a glycoprotein on the body surface of females called the mate recognition pheromone. The mate recognition pheromone has been biochemically characterized, but little was known about the gene(s). We describe the isolation and characterization of the mate recognition pheromone gene through protein purification, N-terminal amino acid sequence determination, identification of the mate recognition pheromone gene from a cDNA library, sequencing, and RNAi knockdown to confirm the functional role of the mate recognition pheromone gene in rotifer mating. A 29 kD protein capable of eliciting rotifer male circling was isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Two transcript types containing the N-terminal sequence were identified in a cDNA library; further characterization by screening a genomic library and by polymerase chain reaction revealed two genes belonging to each type. Each gene begins with a signal peptide region followed by nearly perfect repeats of an 87 to 92 codon motif with no codons between repeats and the final motif prematurely terminated by the stop codon. The two Type A genes contain four and seven repeats and the two Type B genes contain three and five repeats, respectively. Only the Type B gene with three repeats encodes a peptide with a molecular weight of 29 kD. Each repeat of the Type B gene products contains three asparagines as potential sites for N-glycosylation; there are no asparagines in the Type A genes. RNAi with Type A double-stranded RNA did not result in less circling than in the phosphate-buffered saline control, but transfection with Type B double-stranded RNA significantly reduced male circling by 17%. The very low divergence between repeat units, even at synonymous positions, suggests that the

  10. Are human mating preferences with respect to height reflected in actual pairings?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.; Nettle, Daniel; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Pair formation, acquiring a mate to form a reproductive unit, is a complex process. Mating preferences are a step in this process. However, due to constraining factors such as availability of mates, rival competition, and mutual mate choice, preferred characteristics may not be realised in the

  11. Are Human Mating Preferences with Respect to Height Reflected in Actual Pairings?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, G.; Buunk, A.P.; Pollet, T.V.; Nettle, D.; Verhulst, S.

    2013-01-01

    Pair formation, acquiring a mate to form a reproductive unit, is a complex process. Mating preferences are a step in this process. However, due to constraining factors such as availability of mates, rival competition, and mutual mate choice, preferred characteristics may not be realised in the

  12. Thanatosis as an adaptive male mating strategy in the nuptial gift-giving spider Pisaura mirabilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line S.; Gonzalez, Sofía F.; Toft, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Males and females often experience different optima in mating rate, which may cause evolution of female resistance to matings and male counter adaptations to increase mating rate. Males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis display a spectacular mating behavior involving a nuptial gift and thanatosis...

  13. REINFORCEMENT OF STICKLEBACK MATE PREFERENCES: SYMPATRY BREEDS CONTEMPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, Howard D; Schluter, Dolph

    1998-02-01

    Detailed studies of reproductive isolation and how it varies among populations can provide valuable insight into the mechanisms of speciation. Here we investigate how the strength of premating isolation varies between sympatric and allopatric populations of threespine sticklebacks to test a prediction of the hypothesis of reinforcement: that interspecific mate discrimination should be stronger in sympatry than in allopatry. In conducting such tests, it is important to control for ecological character displacement between sympatric species because ecological character divergence may strengthen prezygotic isolation as a by-product. We control for ecological character displacement by comparing mate preferences of females from a sympatric population (benthics) with mate preferences of females from two allopatric populations that most closely resemble the sympatric benthic females in ecology and morphology. No-choice mating trials indicate that sympatric benthic females mate less readily with heterospecific (limnetic) than conspecific (benthic) males, whereas two different populations of allopatric females resembling benthics show no such discrimination. These differences demonstrate reproductive character displacement of benthic female mate choice. Previous studies have established that hybridization between sympatric species occurred in the past in the wild and that hybrid offspring have lower fitness than either parental species, thus providing conditions under which natural selection would favor individuals that do not hybridize. Results are therefore consistent with the hypothesis that female mate preferences have evolved as a response to reduced hybrid fitness (reinforcement), although direct effects of sympatry or a biased extinction process could also produce the pattern. Males of the other sympatric species (limnetics) showed a preference for smaller females, in contrast to the inferred ancestral preference for larger females, suggesting reproductive character

  14. Stress responsiveness predicts individual variation in mate selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Maren N; Romero, L Michael

    2013-06-15

    Steroid hormones, including glucocorticoids, mediate a variety of behavioral and physiological processes. Circulating hormone concentrations vary substantially within populations, and although hormone titers predict reproductive success in several species, little is known about how individual variation in circulating hormone concentrations is linked with most reproductive behaviors in free-living organisms. Mate choice is an important and often costly component of reproduction that also varies substantially within populations. We examined whether energetically costly mate selection behavior in female Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) was associated with individual variation in the concentrations of hormones previously shown to differ between reproductive and non-reproductive females during the breeding season (corticosterone and testosterone). Stress-induced corticosterone levels - which are suppressed in female marine iguanas during reproduction - were individually repeatable throughout the seven-week breeding period. Mate selectivity was strongly predicted by individual variation in stress-induced corticosterone: reproductive females that secreted less corticosterone in response to a standardized stressor assessed more displaying males. Neither baseline corticosterone nor testosterone predicted variation in mate selectivity. Scaled body mass was not significantly associated with mate selectivity, but females that began the breeding period in lower body condition showed a trend towards being less selective about potential mates. These results provide the first evidence that individual variation in the corticosterone stress response is associated with how selective females are in their choice of a mate, an important contributor to fitness in many species. Future research is needed to determine the functional basis of this association, and whether transient acute increases in circulating corticosterone directly mediate mate choice behaviors

  15. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate's initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens' Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The present

  16. Obp56h Modulates Mating Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Shorter, John R.; Dembeck, Lauren M.; Everett, Logan J.; Morozova, Tatiana V.; Arya, Gunjan H.; Turlapati, Lavanya; St. Armour, Genevieve E.; Schal, Coby; Mackay, Trudy F. C.; Anholt, Robert R. H.

    2016-01-01

    Social interactions in insects are driven by conspecific chemical signals that are detected via olfactory and gustatory neurons. Odorant binding proteins (Obps) transport volatile odorants to chemosensory receptors, but their effects on behaviors remain poorly characterized. Here, we report that RNAi knockdown of Obp56h gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster enhances mating behavior by reducing courtship latency. The change in mating behavior that results from inhibition of Obp56h express...

  17. An Automated Safe-to-Mate (ASTM) Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc; Scott, Michelle; Leung, Alan; Lin, Michael; Johnson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Safe-to-mate testing is a common hardware safety practice where impedance measurements are made on unpowered hardware to verify isolation, continuity, or impedance between pins of an interface connector. A computer-based instrumentation solution has been developed to resolve issues. The ASTM is connected to the circuit under test, and can then quickly, safely, and reliably safe-to-mate the entire connector, or even multiple connectors, at the same time.

  18. Social structure affects mating competition in a damselfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Sebastian; Ness, Miriam Horstad; Östlund-Nilsson, Sara; Amundsen, Trond

    2017-12-01

    The strength of mating competition and sexual selection varies over space and time in many animals. Such variation is typically driven by ecological and demographic factors, including adult sex ratio and consequent availability of mates. The spatial scale at which demographic factors affect mating competition and sexual selection may vary but is not often investigated. Here, we analyse variation in size and sex ratio of social groups, and how group structure affects mating competition, in the site-attached damselfish Chrysiptera cyanea. Site-attached reef fishes are known to show extensive intraspecific variation in social structure. Previous work has focused on species for which the size and dynamics of social groups are constrained by habitat, whereas species with group structure unconstrained by habitat have received little attention. Chrysiptera cyanea is such a species, with individuals occurring in spatial clusters that varied widely in size and sex ratio. Typically, only one male defended a nest in multi-male groups. Nest-holding males were frequently visited by mate-searching females, with more visits in groups with more females, suggesting that courtship and mating mostly occur within groups and that male mating success depends on the number of females in the group. Male-male aggression was frequent in multi-male groups but absent in single-male groups. These findings demonstrate that groups are distinct social units. In consequence, the dynamics of mating and reproduction are mainly a result of group structure, largely unaffected short term by overall population demography which would be important in open social systems. Future studies of the C. cyanea model system should analyse longer-term dynamics, including how groups are formed, how they vary in relation to density and time of season and how social structure affects sexual selection.

  19. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate’s initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens’ Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The

  20. Friendship as a Relationship Infiltration Tactic during Human Mate Poaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin K. Mogilski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has characterized human mate poaching as a prevalent alternative mating strategy that entails risks and costs typically not present during general romantic courtship and attraction. This study is the first to experimentally investigate friendship between a poacher and his/her target as a risk mitigation tactic. Participants (N = 382 read a vignette that differed by whether the poacher was male/female and whether the poacher and poached were friends/acquaintances. Participants assessed the likelihood of the poacher being successful and incurring costs. They also rated the poacher and poached on several personality and mate characteristics. Results revealed that friendship increased the perceived likelihood of success of a mate poaching attempt and decreased the perceived likelihood of several risks typically associated with mate poaching. However, friend-poachers were rated less favorably than acquaintance-poachers across measures of warmth, nurturance, and friendliness. These findings are interpreted using an evolutionary perspective. This study complements and builds upon previous findings and is the first experimental investigation of tactics poachers may use to mitigate risks inherent in mate poaching.

  1. Mating Competitiveness of Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) Irradiated as Parental Pupae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, S.E.M.; Ibrahim, S.M.; El-Shall, S.S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory studied were carried out to evaluate the mating competitiveness of P 1 and F 1 generations of Agrotis ipsilon when irradiated as full grown pupae with 75 and 150 Gy of gamma irradiation. The mating competitiveness values showed that either males or females of P 1 or F 1 generation were full competitive after treatment with 75 or 150 Gy at all released ratios. Mating competitiveness of both irradiated males and females was also studied to avoid problems concerning mass sexing. The results revealed that confining both sexes together gave an excellent results for population suppression in both P 1 and F 1 in both tested doses and ratios. The addition of irradiated females to the release ratio make these females encountered in mating with untreated females, and possessed 78% of all matings occurred in parent generation in the two tested doses at 5:5:1 ratio and increased to reach 88% by F 1 females 75 Gy while it was reduced to only 31% at 150 Gy, but still act in mating

  2. Food Tourism in Indigenous Settings as a Strategy of Sustainable Development: The Case of Ilex guayusa Loes. in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Laura Sidali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to contribute to the discussion on how to enhance food tourism in emerging, tropical countries characterized by a large number of indigenous groups and a high biodiversity. A sacred plant for the Kichwa indigenous communities labelled Ilex guayusa Loes. (Aquifoliceae is used as a case study. Twelve recorded interviews with different stakeholders of the Amazon region of Napo in Ecuador were analysed. The results of this qualitative research show that the Western-based theory on niche tourism based on experiential and intimacy theory is compatible with four principles which are related to the cosmovision (worldview of Kichwa indigenous groups, namely: mutual learning, empowerment, regulated access to intellectual property and community legislation. The framework proposed seems suitable to understand food tourism in an indigenous setting. Furthermore, the integration of Western-based food tourism with an indigenous cosmovision might contribute to a more sustainable land use and more equitable social development.

  3. Aplicaciones de la embriogénesis somática para la propagación y mejora de Quercus ilex L. y Pinus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco Carlos, Miquel

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesis está enfocada a la aplicación de la embriogénesis somática para la conservación y mejora de Quercus ilex L., Pinus pinaster Aiton y Pinus pinea L., especies forestales representativas de los bosques de la Península Ibérica. La propagación clonal mediante embriogénesis somática (ES) es la herramienta más adecuada para la propagación de genotipos de élite y para la implementación de la llamada silvicultura multivarietal. Además los cultivos embriogénicos son explantos adecuados para ...

  4. Mate-choice copying, social information processing, and the roles of oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaliers, Martin; Matta, Richard; Choleris, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Social and sexual behaviors, including that of mate choice, are dependent on social information. Mate choice can be modified by prior and ongoing social factors and experience. The mate choice decisions of one individual can be influenced by either the actual or potential mate choice of another female or male. Such non-independent mate choice, where individuals gain social information and socially learn about and recognizes potential mates by observing the choices of another female or male, has been termed "mate-choice copying". Here we first briefly review how, why, and under what circumstances individuals engage in mate-choice copying. Secondly, we review the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mate-choice copying. In particular, we consider the roles of the nonapeptide, oxytocin, in the processing of social information and the expression of mate-choice copying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. UMA BREVE HISTÓRIA (INDÍGENA DA ERVA-MATE NA REGIÃO PLATINA: DA PROVÍNCIA DO GUAIRÁ AO ANTIGO SUL DE MATO GROSSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eremites de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, os autores analisam a exploração da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis na bacia platina. O estudo se estende desde a Província do Guairá, no período colonial, até a incorporação do antigo sul de Mato Grosso, atual Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, ao território brasileiro. Esta última situação ocorreu no século XIX, após o fim da guerra entre o Paraguai e a Tríplice Aliança (1864-1870 e com a implantação, na década de 1880, da Companhia Matte Larangeira na região. A empresa explorou durante décadas os ervais nativos, o território e o trabalho de comunidades guarani e kaiowá. Também explorou a mão de obra de trabalhadores não índios de origem paraguaia e brasileira, dentre outros. A economia ervateira é, pois, o fio condutor para uma análise mais ampla sobre um longo processo histórico e sociocultural.

  6. The smell of virgins: mating status of females affects male swimming behaviour in Oithona davisae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    in the presence of virgin when compared with mated females and that the cue is waterborne. The ability to distinguish between virgin and mated females may reduce male mortality during mate search and the cost related to mating behaviour (precopula) in both sexes. We estimate that at realistic population densities...... the ability of males to distinguish between virgin and mated females saves them several hours per day of dangerous and energetically expensive fast female tracking...

  7. Inibição da formação de produtos da reação de Maillard por extrato de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) em sistemas modelo alimento

    OpenAIRE

    Érica de Lemos Ferreira Monaro

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A reação de Maillard ocorre em alimentos termicamente processados e também em sistemas biológicos, em que é chamada de glicação. Esta reação ocorre entre grupos carbonilas e grupamentos aminas e tem especial importância em alimentos, pois promovem alterações sensoriais importantes ao sabor, aroma, aparência e textura. Em sistemas biológicos, entretanto, podem acarretar mudanças em estruturas moleculares que favorecem o estresse oxidativo e participam da patogenia de complicações m...

  8. Sexual conflict arising from extrapair matings in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaine, Alexis S; Montgomerie, Robert; Lyon, Bruce E

    2015-01-20

    The discovery that extrapair copulation (EPC) and extrapair paternity (EPP) are common in birds led to a paradigm shift in our understanding of the evolution of mating systems. The prevalence of extrapair matings in pair-bonded species sets the stage for sexual conflict, and a recent focus has been to consider how this conflict can shape variation in extrapair mating rates. Here, we invert the causal arrow and consider the consequences of extrapair matings for sexual conflict. Extrapair matings shift sexual conflict from a simple two-player (male vs. female) game to a game with three or more players, the nature of which we illustrate with simple diagrams that highlight the net costs and benefits of extrapair matings to each player. This approach helps identify the sorts of traits that might be under selection because of sexual conflict. Whether EPP is driven primarily by the extrapair male or the within-pair female profoundly influences which players are in conflict, but the overall pattern of conflict varies little among different mating systems. Different aspects of conflict are manifest at different stages of the breeding cycle and can be profitably considered as distinct episodes of selection caused by conflict. This perspective is illuminating both because conflict between specific players can change across episodes and because the traits that evolve to mediate conflict likely differ between episodes. Although EPP clearly leads to sexual conflict, we suggest that the link between sexual conflict and multiple paternity might be usefully understood by examining how deviations from lifetime sexual monogamy influence sexual conflict. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  9. Chemical and visual communication during mate searching in rock shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Eliecer R; Thiel, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Mate searching in crustaceans depends on different communicational cues, of which chemical and visual cues are most important. Herein we examined the role of chemical and visual communication during mate searching and assessment in the rock shrimp Rhynchocinetes typus. Adult male rock shrimp experience major ontogenetic changes. The terminal molt stages (named "robustus") are dominant and capable of monopolizing females during the mating process. Previous studies had shown that most females preferably mate with robustus males, but how these dominant males and receptive females find each other is uncertain, and is the question we examined herein. In a Y-maze designed to test for the importance of waterborne chemical cues, we observed that females approached the robustus male significantly more often than the typus male. Robustus males, however, were unable to locate receptive females via chemical signals. Using an experimental set-up that allowed testing for the importance of visual cues, we demonstrated that receptive females do not use visual cues to select robustus males, but robustus males use visual cues to find receptive females. Visual cues used by the robustus males were the tumults created by agitated aggregations of subordinate typus males around the receptive females. These results indicate a strong link between sexual communication and the mating system of rock shrimp in which dominant males monopolize receptive females. We found that females and males use different (sex-specific) communicational cues during mate searching and assessment, and that the sexual communication of rock shrimp is similar to that of the American lobster, where females are first attracted to the dominant males by chemical cues emitted by these males. A brief comparison between these two species shows that female behaviors during sexual communication contribute strongly to the outcome of mate searching and assessment.

  10. Life history changes in Trogoderma variabile and T. inclusum due to mating delay with implications for mating disruption as a management tactic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling postharvest pest species is a costly process with insecticide resistance and species specific control requiring multiple tactics. Mating disruption can be used to both decrease a female’s access to males and delay timing of mating and decreases overall mating success in a population and ...

  11. Optimal numbers of matings: the conditional balance between benefits and costs of mating for females of a nuptial gift-giving spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, S; Albo, M J

    2015-02-01

    In species where females gain a nutritious nuptial gift during mating, the balance between benefits and costs of mating may depend on access to food. This means that there is not one optimal number of matings for the female but a range of optimal mating numbers. With increasing food availability, the optimal number of matings for a female should vary from the number necessary only for fertilization of her eggs to the number needed also for producing these eggs. In three experimental series, the average number of matings for females of the nuptial gift-giving spider Pisaura mirabilis before egg sac construction varied from 2 to 16 with food-limited females generally accepting more matings than well-fed females. Minimal level of optimal mating number for females at satiation feeding conditions was predicted to be 2-3; in an experimental test, the median number was 2 (range 0-4). Multiple mating gave benefits in terms of increased fecundity and increased egg hatching success up to the third mating, and it had costs in terms of reduced fecundity, reduced egg hatching success after the third mating, and lower offspring size. The level of polyandry seems to vary with the female optimum, regulated by a satiation-dependent resistance to mating, potentially leaving satiated females in lifelong virginity. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. The Long and the Short of Mate Attraction in a Psylloid: do Semiochemicals Mediate Mating in Aacanthocnema dobsoni Froggatt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubanga, Umar K; Drijfhout, Falko P; Farnier, Kevin; Steinbauer, Martin J

    2016-02-01

    Mating is preceded by a series of interdependent events that can be broadly categorized into searching and courtship. Long-range signals convey species- and sex-specific information during searching, while short-range signals provide information specific to individuals during courtship. Studies have shown that cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) can be used for mate recognition in addition to protecting insects from desiccation. In Psylloidea, four species rely on semiochemicals for long-range mate attraction. Psyllid mating research has focused on long-range mate attraction and has largely ignored the potential use of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) as mate recognition cues. This study investigated whether CHCs of Aacanthocnema dobsoni have semiochemical activity for long- and short-range communication prior to mating. Using a solid sampler for solvent-less injection of whole psyllids into coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we found quantitative, sex- and age-related differences in CHC profiles. Males had higher proportions of 2-MeC28, 11,15-diMeC29, and n-C33 alkanes, while females had higher proportions of 5-MeC27, 3-MeC27, 5,15-diMeC27, n-C29 and n-C30 alkanes. In males and females, 84 and 68 % of CHCs varied with age, respectively. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays provided no evidence that males or females responded to odors emanating from groups of conspecifics of the opposite sex. Tests of male and female psyllids for attraction to branchlets previously occupied by conspecifics showed no evidence of attraction to possible semiochemical residues. Our short-range chemoreception bioassay showed that males were as indifferent to freshly killed individuals of either sex with intact CHC profiles as to those treated with hexane (to remove CHCs). Aacanthocnema dobsoni utilizes substrate-borne vibrations (SBVs) for communication. Therefore, our results indicate that SBVs are probably more important than semiochemicals for long-range mate attraction. Furthermore

  13. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarsha Yap

    Full Text Available Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation of previous aging in female Queensland fruit flies. Flies were provided one of three diets: 'sugar', 'essential', or 'yeast-sugar'. Essential diet contained sugar and micronutrients found in yeast but lacked maturation-enabling protein. At days 20 and 30, a subset of flies on the sugar diet were switched to essential or yeast-sugar diet, and some yeast-sugar fed flies were mated 10 days later. Complete mitigation of actuarial aging was only observed in flies that were switched to a yeast-sugar diet and mated, indicating that mating is key. Identifying the physiological processes associated with mating promise novel insights into repair mechanisms for aging.

  14. The evolution of sex roles in mate searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Jennions, Michael; Kokko, Hanna

    2016-03-01

    Searching for mates is a critical stage in the life cycle of most internally, and many externally, fertilizing species. Males usually invest more in this costly activity than females, but the reasons for this are poorly understood. Previous models have shown that female-biased parental investment, including anisogamy, does not by itself select for male-biased mate searching, so it requires additional explanations. Here, we correct and expand upon earlier models, and present two novel hypotheses that might explain the evolution of male-biased mate searching. The "carry-over hypothesis" states that females benefit less from searching if the associated costs affect other stages of the life cycle, rather than arising only while searching. It is relevant to the evolution of morphological traits that improve searching efficiency but are also expressed in other contexts. The "mating window hypothesis" states that females benefit less from searching if their life cycle includes intervals during which the exact timing of mating does not matter for the appropriate timing of reproduction (e.g., due to sperm storage or delayed embryo implantation). Such intervals are more likely to exist for females given the general pattern of greater female parental investment. Our models shed new light on classic arguments about sex role evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Personality may confound common measures of mate-choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan David

    Full Text Available The measurement of female mating preferences is central to the study of the evolution of male ornaments. Although several different methods have been developed to assess sexual preference in some standardized way, the most commonly used procedure consists of recording female spatial association with different males presented simultaneously. Sexual preference is then inferred from time spent in front of each male. However, the extent to which the measurement of female mate-choice is related to exploration tendencies has not been addressed so far. In the present study we assessed the influence of variation in exploration tendencies, a trait closely associated to global personality, on the measurement of female mating preference in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata using the widely used four-chamber choice-apparatus. The number of movements performed within both exploration and mate-choice apparatus was consistent within and across the two contexts. In addition, personality explained variation in selectivity, preference strength and consistency. High-exploratory females showed lower selectivity, lower preference scores and displayed more consistent preference scores. Our results suggest that variation in personality may affect the measurement of female mating preference and may contribute to explain existing inconsistencies across studies.

  16. Human Nonindependent Mate Choice: Is Model Female Attractiveness Everything?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Vakirtzis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Following two decades of research on non-human animals, there has recently been increased interest in human nonindependent mate choice, namely the ways in which choosing women incorporate information about a man's past or present romantic partners (‘model females’ into their own assessment of the male. Experimental studies using static facial images have generally found that men receive higher desirability ratings from female raters when presented with attractive (compared to unattractive model females. This phenomenon has a straightforward evolutionary explanation: the fact that female mate value is more dependent on physical attractiveness compared to male mate value. Furthermore, due to assortative mating for attractiveness, men who are paired with attractive women are more likely to be of high mate value themselves. Here, we also examine the possible relevance of model female cues other than attractiveness (personality and behavioral traits by presenting video recordings of model females to a set of female raters. The results confirm that the model female's attractiveness is the primary cue. Contrary to some earlier findings in the human and nonhuman literature, we found no evidence that female raters prefer partners of slightly older model females. We conclude by suggesting some promising variations on the present experimental design.

  17. Floral to green: mating switches moth olfactory coding and preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveer, Ahmed M; Kromann, Sophie H; Birgersson, Göran; Bengtsson, Marie; Lindblom, Tobias; Balkenius, Anna; Hansson, Bill S; Witzgall, Peter; Becher, Paul G; Ignell, Rickard

    2012-06-22

    Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) are strongly attracted to lilac flowers (Syringa vulgaris). After mating, attraction to floral odour is abolished and the females fly instead to green-leaf odour of the larval host plant cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. This behavioural switch is owing to a marked change in the olfactory representation of floral and green odours in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). Calcium imaging, using authentic and synthetic odours, shows that the ensemble of AL glomeruli dedicated to either lilac or cotton odour is selectively up- and downregulated in response to mating. A clear-cut behavioural modulation as a function of mating is a useful substrate for studies of the neural mechanisms underlying behavioural decisions. Modulation of odour-driven behaviour through concerted regulation of odour maps contributes to our understanding of state-dependent choice and host shifts in insect herbivores.

  18. Genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebar, Darren; Rodríguez, Rafael L.

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of phenotypic variation arise in part from plasticity owing to social interactions, and these patterns contribute, in turn, to the form of selection that shapes the variation we observe in natural populations. This proximate–ultimate dynamic brings genetic variation in social environments to the forefront of evolutionary theory. However, the extent of this variation remains largely unknown. Here, we use a member of the Enchenopa binotata species complex of treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) to assess how mate preferences are influenced by genetic variation in the social environment. We used full-sibling split-families as ‘treatment’ social environments, and reared focal females alongside each treatment family, describing the mate preferences of the focal females. With this method, we detected substantial genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences. The mate preferences of focal females varied according to the treatment families along with which they grew up. We discuss the evolutionary implications of the presence of such genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences, including potential contributions to the maintenance of genetic variation, the promotion of divergence, and the adaptive evolution of social effects on fitness-related traits. PMID:23698010

  19. Do assortative preferences contribute to assortative mating for adiposity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Claire I; Fincher, Corey L; Hahn, Amanda C; Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-01-01

    Assortative mating for adiposity, whereby levels of adiposity in romantic partners tend to be positively correlated, has implications for population health due to the combined effects of partners' levels of adiposity on fertility and/or offspring health. Although assortative preferences for cues of adiposity, whereby leaner people are inherently more attracted to leaner individuals, have been proposed as a factor in assortative mating for adiposity, there have been no direct tests of this issue. Because of this, and because of recent work suggesting that facial cues of adiposity convey information about others' health that may be particularly important for mate preferences, we tested the contribution of assortative preferences for facial cues of adiposity to assortative mating for adiposity (assessed from body mass index, BMI) in a sample of romantic couples. Romantic partners' BMIs were positively correlated and this correlation was not due to the effects of age or relationship duration. However, although men and women with leaner partners showed stronger preferences for cues of low levels of adiposity, controlling for these preferences did not weaken the correlation between partners' BMIs. Indeed, own BMI and preferences were uncorrelated. These results suggest that assortative preferences for facial cues of adiposity contribute little (if at all) to assortative mating for adiposity. PMID:24168811

  20. Beyond magic traits: Multimodal mating cues in Heliconius butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérot, Claire; Frérot, Brigitte; Leppik, Ene; Joron, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    Species coexistence involves the evolution of reproductive barriers opposing gene flow. Heliconius butterflies display colorful patterns affecting mate choice and survival through warning signaling and mimicry. These patterns are called "magic traits" for speciation because divergent natural selection may promote mimicry shifts in pattern whose role as mating cue facilitates reproductive isolation. By contrast, between comimetic species, natural selection promotes pattern convergence. We addressed whether visual convergence interferes with reproductive isolation by testing for sexual isolation between two closely related species with similar patterns, H. timareta thelxinoe and H. melpomene amaryllis. Experiments with models confirmed visual attraction based on wing phenotype, leading to indiscriminate approach. Nevertheless, mate choice experiments showed assortative mating. Monitoring male behavior toward live females revealed asymmetry in male preference, H. melpomene males courting both species equally while H. timareta males strongly preferred conspecifics. Experiments with hybrid males suggested an important genetic component for such asymmetry. Behavioral observations support a key role for short-distance cues in determining male choice in H. timareta. Scents extracts from wings and genitalia revealed interspecific divergence in chemical signatures, and hybrid female scent composition was significantly associated with courtship intensity by H. timareta males, providing candidate chemical mating cues involved in sexual isolation. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. The role of male contest competition over mates in speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna QVARNSTRÖM, Niclas VALLIN, Andreas RUDH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on the role of sexual selection in the speciation process largely focuses on the diversifying role of mate choice. In particular, much attention has been drawn to the fact that population divergence in mate choice and in the male traits subject to choice directly can lead to assortative mating. However, male contest competition over mates also constitutes an important mechanism of sexual selection. We review recent empirical studies and argue that sexual selection through male contest competition can affect speciation in ways other than mate choice. For example, biases in aggression towards similar competitors can lead to disruptive and negative frequency-dependent selection on the traits used in contest competition in a similar way as competition for other types of limited resources. Moreover, male contest abilities often trade-off against other abilities such as parasite resistance, protection against predators and general stress tolerance. Populations experiencing different ecological conditions should therefore quickly diverge non-randomly in a number of traits including male contest abilities. In resource based breeding systems, a feedback loop between competitive ability and habitat use may lead to further population divergence. We discuss how population divergence in traits used in male contest competition can lead to the build up of reproductive isolation through a number of different pathways. Our main conclusion is that the role of male contest competition in speciation remains largely scientifically unexplored [Current Zoology 58 (3: 490–506, 2012].

  2. Identification and expression analysis of MATE genes involved in flavonoid transport in blueberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Liu, Yushan; Liu, Hongdi; Kang, Limin; Geng, Jinman; Gai, Yuzhuo; Ding, Yunlong; Sun, Haiyue; Li, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins are the most recently identified family of multidrug transporters. In plants, this family is remarkably large compared to the human and bacteria counterpart, highlighting the importance of MATE proteins in this kingdom. Here 33 Unigenes annotated as MATE transporters were found in the blueberry fruit transcriptome, of which eight full-length cDNA sequences were identified and cloned. These proteins are composed of 477-517 residues, with molecular masses ~54 kDa, and theoretical isoelectric points from 5.35 to 8.41. Bioinformatics analysis predicted 10-12 putative transmembrane segments for VcMATEs, and localization to the plasma membrane without an N-terminal signal peptide. All blueberry MATE proteins shared 32.1-84.4% identity, among which VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8, and VcMATE9 were more similar to the MATE-type flavonoid transporters. Phylogenetic analysis showed VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8 and VcMATE9 clustered with MATE-type flavonoid transporters, indicating that they might be involved in flavonoid transport. VcMATE1 and VcMATE4 may be involved in the transport of secondary metabolites, the detoxification of xenobiotics, or the export of toxic cations. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that the expression profile of the eight VcMATE genes varied spatially and temporally. Analysis of expression and anthocyanin accumulation indicated that there were some correlation between the expression profile and the accumulation of anthocyanins. These results showed VcMATEs might be involved in diverse physiological functions, and anthocyanins across the membranes might be mutually maintained by MATE-type flavonoid transporters and other mechanisms. This study will enrich the MATE-based transport mechanisms of secondary metabolite, and provide a new biotechonology strategy to develop better nutritional blueberry cultivars.

  3. Direct fitness benefits explain mate preference, but not choice, for similarity in heterozygosity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandberg, Lies; Gort, Gerrit; van Oers, Kees; Hinde, Camilla A

    2017-10-01

    Under sexual selection, mate preferences can evolve for traits advertising fitness benefits. Observed mating patterns (mate choice) are often assumed to represent preference, even though they result from the interaction between preference, sampling strategy and environmental factors. Correlating fitness with mate choice instead of preference will therefore lead to confounded conclusions about the role of preference in sexual selection. Here we show that direct fitness benefits underlie mate preferences for genetic characteristics in a unique experiment on wild great tits. In repeated mate preference tests, both sexes preferred mates that had similar heterozygosity levels to themselves, and not those with which they would optimise offspring heterozygosity. In a subsequent field experiment where we cross fostered offspring, foster parents with more similar heterozygosity levels had higher reproductive success, despite the absence of assortative mating patterns. These results support the idea that selection for preference persists despite constraints on mate choice. © 2017 The Authors Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. What Do Women's Advertised Mate Preferences Reveal? An Analysis of Video Dating Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari D. Goetz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined women's video dating profiles to determine what their advertised mate preferences revealed about their mate value and relationship interests. Women created a one-minute long video dating profile for a hypothetical dating website. The videos were content analyzed into four categories of stated mate preferences: 1 “good genes” indicators 2 good resource investment potential indicators 3 good parenting indicators and 4 good partner indicators. Long-term mating interest was positively correlated with describing good partner indicators and self-perceived mate value was positively correlated with describing good genes indicators. Short-term mating interest was negatively correlated with describing any mate preferences while attractiveness was positively correlated with doing so. Results suggest that women's advertised mate preferences provide clues to their underlying relationship interests and mate value.

  5. Selecting one of several mating types through gene segment joining and deletion in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella D Cervantes

    Full Text Available The unicellular eukaryote Tetrahymena thermophila has seven mating types. Cells can mate only when they recognize cells of a different mating type as non-self. As a ciliate, Tetrahymena separates its germline and soma into two nuclei. During growth the somatic nucleus is responsible for all gene transcription while the germline nucleus remains silent. During mating, a new somatic nucleus is differentiated from a germline nucleus and mating type is decided by a stochastic process. We report here that the somatic mating type locus contains a pair of genes arranged head-to-head. Each gene encodes a mating type-specific segment and a transmembrane domain that is shared by all mating types. Somatic gene knockouts showed both genes are required for efficient non-self recognition and successful mating, as assessed by pair formation and progeny production. The germline mating type locus consists of a tandem array of incomplete gene pairs representing each potential mating type. During mating, a complete new gene pair is assembled at the somatic mating type locus; the incomplete genes of one gene pair are completed by joining to gene segments at each end of germline array. All other germline gene pairs are deleted in the process. These programmed DNA rearrangements make this a fascinating system of mating type determination.

  6. Reduction in oxidative stress levels in the colonic mucosa without fecal stream after the application of enemas containing aqueous Ilex paraguariensis extract Redução dos níveis de estresse oxidativo na mucosa cólica sem trânsito intestinal após aplicação de enemas contendo extrato aquoso de Ilex paraguariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lorenzetti da Cunha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the antioxidant effects of enemas containing aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis, comparing segments with and without fecal stream and correlating the segments with the duration of intervention. METHODS: Twenty-six Wistar rats were subjected to a diversion of the fecal stream in the left colon by a proximal colostomy and distal mucosal fistula. The rats were distributed randomly into two experimental groups of 13 animals each based on the time of sacrifice after surgical procedure (two or four weeks. Each group was then divided into two experimental subgroups that received either second daily enemas containing 0.9% saline solution or aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis at 0.2g/100g. Colitis was diagnosed by histopathological analysis and the detection of oxidative tissue damage by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the tissue levels of malondialdehyde between colon segments with and without fecal stream in each experimental group, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to verify the variance between the levels of oxidative stress according the duration of the irrigation; both tests determined significance at 5% (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos antioxidantes de clisteres contendo extrato aquoso de Ilex paraguariensis comparando segmentos com e sem trânsito fecal e correlacionando com o tempo de intervenção. MÉTODOS: Vinte e seis ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos à derivação do trânsito no cólon esquerdo pela confecção de colostomia proximal e fístula mucosa distal. Foram divididos de forma randomizada em dois grupos experimentais de 13 animais, de acordo com o sacrifício ser realizado após duas ou quatro semanas do procedimento cirúrgico. Cada grupo foi dividido em dois subgrupos experimentais segundo a aplicação diária ter sido realizada com enemas diários contendo solução fisiológica a 0,9% ou extrato aquoso de Ilex paraguariensis na concentra

  7. [Experiencing familiar violence: men who commit violence against their mates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira; Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Freire, Normélia Maria

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand which elements are present on the construction of the identity of men who commit violence against their mates. This qualitative study took as theoretical reference the Social Representations. It was carried out on Calafate community, San Martin, Salvador, BA. Its population was composed by 7 men who committed violence against their mates. Semi-structured interview provided data, which was organized through Bardin's Content Analysis, specifically thematic analysis, in the axis Familiar Relation. The study enabled us to identify elements that interfere on the construction of the identity of men who commit violence against their mates. Its origin is in the familiar relationship, marked by factors as lack of dialogue and physical aggressions.

  8. Mate replacement and alloparental care in Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Shubham; Inselman, Will M.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Jensen, Kent C.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Klaver, Robert W.; Sasmal, Indrani; Grovenburg, Troy W.

    2015-01-01

    Alloparental care (i.e., care for unrelated offspring) has been documented in various avian species (Maxson 1978, Smith et al. 1996, Tella et al. 1997, Lislevand et al. 2001, Literak and Mraz 2011). A male replacement mate that encounters existing broods has options, which include alloparental care or infanticide. Infanticide may be beneficial in some species (Rohwer 1986, Kermott et al. 1990), but in long-lived avian species, like the ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis) that do not renest within a season, infanticide might be detrimental. Adoption and rearing success likely provide direct evidence of competence of replacement mates as potential parents for future seasons, a benefit that might outweigh the investment of time and effort associated with adoption and rearing (after Rohwer 1986). Anticipated mating opportunity at the cost of adoption (Gori et al. 1996, Rohwer et al. 1999) may explain step-parental benevolence and therefore, in such a scenario would enhance individual fitness through subsequent recruitment of related young.

  9. Sexual Cooperation: Mating Increases Longevity in Ant Queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrempf, Alexandra; Heinze, Jürgen; Cremer, Sylvia

    2005-01-01

    Divergent reproductive interests of males and females often cause sexual conflict [1] and [2] . Males of many species manipulate females by transferring seminal fluids that boost female short-term fecundity while decreasing their life expectancy and future reproductivity [3] and [4] . The life...... history of ants, however, is expected to reduce sexual conflict; whereas most insect females show repeated phases of mating and reproduction, ant queens mate only during a short period early in life and undergo a lifelong commitment to their mates by storing sperm [5] . Furthermore, sexual offspring can...... sterilized male lived considerably longer and started laying eggs earlier than virgin queens. Only queens that received viable sperm from fertile males showed increased fecundity. The lack of a trade-off between fecundity and longevity is unexpected, given evolutionary theories of aging [6] . Our data...

  10. Genetic and educational assortative mating among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Benjamin W; Fletcher, Jason; Conley, Dalton; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-06-03

    Understanding the social and biological mechanisms that lead to homogamy (similar individuals marrying one another) has been a long-standing issue across many fields of scientific inquiry. Using a nationally representative sample of non-Hispanic white US adults from the Health and Retirement Study and information from 1.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms, we compare genetic similarity among married couples to noncoupled pairs in the population. We provide evidence for genetic assortative mating in this population but the strength of this association is substantially smaller than the strength of educational assortative mating in the same sample. Furthermore, genetic similarity explains at most 10% of the assortative mating by education levels. Results are replicated using comparable data from the Framingham Heart Study.

  11. Does the contraceptive pill alter mate choice in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvergne, Alexandra; Lummaa, Virpi

    2010-03-01

    Female and male mate choice preferences in humans both vary according to the menstrual cycle. Women prefer more masculine, symmetrical and genetically unrelated men during ovulation compared with other phases of their cycle, and recent evidence suggests that men prefer ovulating women to others. Such monthly shifts in mate preference have been suggested to bring evolutionary benefits in terms of reproductive success. New evidence is now emerging that taking the oral contraceptive pill might significantly alter both female and male mate choice by removing the mid-cycle change in preferences. Here, we review support for such conclusions and speculate on the consequences of pill-induced choice of otherwise less-preferred partners for relationship satisfaction, durability and, ultimately, reproductive outcomes.

  12. Irradiation detection of coffee mate by electron spin resonance (ESR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozsayin, Fulya [Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Polat, Mustafa, E-mail: polat@hacettepe.edu.t [Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-06-15

    Un-irradiated coffee mate samples do not exhibit any ESR signal. However, the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiation exhibit an ESR singlet and a large unresolved ESR signal, respectively. The dose-response curves of the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiations were found to be described well by an exponential and linear functions, respectively. Variable temperature and fading studies at room temperature showed that the radiation-induced radicals in coffee mate sample are very sensitive to temperature. The discrimination between un-irradiated and irradiated coffee mate samples can be done just comparing their ESR spectra. However, determination of the radiation dose received by the sample cannot be possible because of the fast decay of signal intensity at room temperature.

  13. CheckMATE 2: From the model to the limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dercks, Daniel; Desai, Nishita; Kim, Jong Soo; Rolbiecki, Krzysztof; Tattersall, Jamie; Weber, Torsten

    2017-12-01

    We present the latest developments to the CheckMATE program that allows models of new physics to be easily tested against the recent LHC data. To achieve this goal, the core of CheckMATE now contains over 60 LHC analyses of which 12 are from the 13 TeV run. The main new feature is that CheckMATE 2 now integrates the Monte Carlo event generation via MadGraph5_aMC@NLO and Pythia 8. This allows users to go directly from a SLHA file or UFO model to the result of whether a model is allowed or not. In addition, the integration of the event generation leads to a significant increase in the speed of the program. Many other improvements have also been made, including the possibility to now combine signal regions to give a total likelihood for a model.

  14. Emergence of polymorphic mating strategies in robot colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Elfwing

    Full Text Available Polymorphism has fascinated evolutionary biologists since the time of Darwin. Biologists have observed discrete alternative mating strategies in many different species. In this study, we demonstrate that polymorphic mating strategies can emerge in a colony of hermaphrodite robots. We used a survival and reproduction task where the robots maintained their energy levels by capturing energy sources and physically exchanged genotypes for the reproduction of offspring. The reproductive success was dependent on the individuals' energy levels, which created a natural trade-off between the time invested in maintaining a high energy level and the time invested in attracting mating partners. We performed experiments in environments with different density of energy sources and observed a variety in the mating behavior when a robot could see both an energy source and a potential mating partner. The individuals could be classified into two phenotypes: 1 forager, who always chooses to capture energy sources, and 2 tracker, who keeps track of potential mating partners if its energy level is above a threshold. In four out of the seven highest fitness populations in different environments, we found subpopulations with distinct differences in genotype and in behavioral phenotype. We analyzed the fitnesses of the foragers and the trackers by sampling them from each subpopulation and mixing with different ratios in a population. The fitness curves for the two subpopulations crossed at about 25% of foragers in the population, showing the evolutionary stability of the polymorphism. In one of those polymorphic populations, the trackers were further split into two subpopulations: (strong trackers and (weak trackers. Our analyses show that the population consisting of three phenotypes also constituted several stable polymorphic evolutionarily stable states. To our knowledge, our study is the first to demonstrate the emergence of polymorphic evolutionarily stable

  15. Mating compatibility in the parasitic protist Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Lori; Ferris, Vanessa; Bailey, Mick; Gibson, Wendy

    2014-02-21

    Genetic exchange has been described in several kinetoplastid parasites, but the most well-studied mating system is that of Trypanosoma brucei, the causative organism of African sleeping sickness. Sexual reproduction takes place in the salivary glands (SG) of the tsetse vector and involves meiosis and production of haploid gametes. Few genetic crosses have been carried out to date and consequently there is little information about the mating compatibility of different trypanosomes. In other single-celled eukaryotes, mating compatibility is typically determined by a system of two or more mating types (MT). Here we investigated the MT system in T. brucei. We analysed a large series of F1, F2 and back crosses by pairwise co-transmission of red and green fluorescent cloned cell lines through experimental tsetse flies. To analyse each cross, trypanosomes were cloned from fly SG containing a mixture of both parents, and genotyped by microsatellites and molecular karyotype. To investigate mating compatibility at the level of individual cells, we directly observed the behaviour of SG-derived gametes in intra- or interclonal mixtures of red and green fluorescent trypanosomes ex vivo. Hybrid progeny were found in all F1 and F2 crosses and most of the back crosses. The success of individual crosses was highly variable as judged by the number of hybrid clones produced, suggesting a range of mating compatibilities among F1 progeny. As well as hybrids, large numbers of recombinant genotypes resulting from intraclonal mating (selfers) were found in some crosses. In ex vivo mixtures, red and green fluorescent trypanosome gametes were observed to pair up and interact via their flagella in both inter- and intraclonal combinations. While yellow hybrid trypanosomes were frequently observed in interclonal mixtures, such evidence of cytoplasmic exchange was rare in the intraclonal mixtures. The outcomes of individual crosses, particularly back crosses, were variable in numbers of both

  16. Intraclonal mating occurs during tsetse transmission of Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Vanessa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mating in Trypanosoma brucei is a non-obligatory event, triggered by the co-occurrence of different strains in the salivary glands of the vector. Recombinants that result from intra- rather than interclonal mating have been detected, but only in crosses of two different trypanosome strains. This has led to the hypothesis that when trypanosomes recognize a different strain, they release a diffusible factor or pheromone that triggers mating in any cell in the vicinity whether it is of the same or a different strain. This idea assumes that the trypanosome can recognize self and non-self, although there is as yet no evidence for the existence of mating types in T. brucei. Results We investigated intraclonal mating in T. b. brucei by crossing red and green fluorescent lines of a single strain, so that recombinant progeny can be detected in the fly by yellow fluorescence. For strain 1738, seven flies had both red and green trypanosomes in the salivary glands and, in three, yellow trypanosomes were also observed, although they could not be recovered for subsequent analysis. Nonetheless, both red and non-fluorescent clones from these flies had recombinant genotypes as judged by microsatellite and karyotype analyses, and some also had raised DNA contents, suggesting recombination or genome duplication. Strain J10 produced similar results indicative of intraclonal mating. In contrast, trypanosome clones recovered from other flies showed that genotypes can be transmitted with fidelity. When a yellow hybrid clone expressing both red and green fluorescent protein genes was transmitted, the salivary glands contained a mixture of fluorescent-coloured trypanosomes, but only yellow and red clones were recovered. While loss of the GFP gene in the red clones could have resulted from gene conversion, some of these clones showed loss of heterozygosity and raised DNA contents as in the other single strain transmissions. Our observations suggest

  17. Regulation of glycoprotein synthesis in yeast by mating pheromones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, W.

    1984-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glycosylated proteins amount to less than 2% of the cell protein. Two intensively studied examples of yeast glycoproteins are the external cell wall - associated invertase and the vacuolar carboxypeptidase Y. Recently, it was shown that the mating pheromone, alpha factor, specifically and strongly inhibits the synthesis of N-glycosylated proteins in haploid a cells, whereas O-glycosylated proteins are not affected. In this paper, the pathways of glycoprotein biosynthesis are summarized briefly, and evidence is presented that mating pheomones have a regulatory function in glycoprotein synthesis

  18. Genetic determinants of mate recognition in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubanek Julia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mate choice is of central importance to most animals, influencing population structure, speciation, and ultimately the survival of a species. Mating behavior of male brachionid rotifers is triggered by the product of a chemosensory gene, a glycoprotein on the body surface of females called the mate recognition pheromone. The mate recognition pheromone has been biochemically characterized, but little was known about the gene(s. We describe the isolation and characterization of the mate recognition pheromone gene through protein purification, N-terminal amino acid sequence determination, identification of the mate recognition pheromone gene from a cDNA library, sequencing, and RNAi knockdown to confirm the functional role of the mate recognition pheromone gene in rotifer mating. Results A 29 kD protein capable of eliciting rotifer male circling was isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Two transcript types containing the N-terminal sequence were identified in a cDNA library; further characterization by screening a genomic library and by polymerase chain reaction revealed two genes belonging to each type. Each gene begins with a signal peptide region followed by nearly perfect repeats of an 87 to 92 codon motif with no codons between repeats and the final motif prematurely terminated by the stop codon. The two Type A genes contain four and seven repeats and the two Type B genes contain three and five repeats, respectively. Only the Type B gene with three repeats encodes a peptide with a molecular weight of 29 kD. Each repeat of the Type B gene products contains three asparagines as potential sites for N-glycosylation; there are no asparagines in the Type A genes. RNAi with Type A double-stranded RNA did not result in less circling than in the phosphate-buffered saline control, but transfection with Type B double-stranded RNA significantly reduced male circling by 17%. The very low divergence between repeat units

  19. The Possible Role of the Uropygial Gland on Mate Choice in Domestic Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Hirao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In avian mating systems, male domestic fowls are polygamous and mate with a number of selected members of the opposite sex. The factors that influence mating preference are considered to be visual cues. However, several studies have indicated that chemosensory cues also affect socio-sexual behavior, including mate choice and individual recognition. The female uropygial gland appears to provide odor for mate choice, as uropygial gland secretions are specific to individual body odor. Chicken olfactory bulbs possess efferent projections to the nucleus taeniae that are involved in copulatory behavior. From various reports, it appears that the uropygial gland has the potential to act as the source of social odor cues that dictate mate choice. In this review, evidence for the possible role of the uropygial gland on mate choice in domestic chickens is presented. However, it remains unclear whether a relationship exists between the uropygial gland and major histocompatibility complex-dependent mate choice.

  20. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus mating during late June on the pack ice of northern Svalbard, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Smith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polar bears are seasonal breeders and typically mate from late March to early May. Implantation is, however, delayed until autumn, which can allow plasticity in the date of mating. As for other seasonal breeders, a rapid return to estrus after the loss of dependent offspring can be expected, even into the summer. A few earlier observations and dissections of dead animals suggest that polar bears are able to mate in summer. We report on a mating incident on 29 June 2014, the first documented mating this late in the season among wild polar bears. The female had lost her dependent cub during the period prior to the mating event. We speculate that she lost this cub late in the mating season, entered estrus and successfully mated in late June.

  1. Light wavelength dependency of mating activity in the drosophila melanogaster species subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takaomi; Tomaru, Masatoshi; Oguma, Yuzuru; Isono, Kunio; Fukatami, Akishi

    2002-01-01

    The action spectra of mating activity among the six species of the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup were compared to understand how light wavelength affects mating activity. The species fell into three groups with respect to the action spectrum of mating activity. We chose one representative species from each of the three types for detailed study: D. melanogaster, D. sechellia and D. yakuba. The mating activities were investigated under three different light intensities of three monochromatic lights stimulus. Each species showed a unique spectral and intensity response. To know the evolutionary meaning of the light wavelength dependency of mating activity, we superimposed the type of action spectrum of mating activity in these six species on a cladogram. Mating inhibition under UV was conserved in evolution among these species. Furthermore we clarified that D. melanogaster showed low mating activity under UV because males courted less under UV. (author)

  2. Do women pretend orgasm to retain a mate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaighobadi, Farnaz; Shackelford, Todd K; Weekes-Shackelford, Viviana A

    2012-10-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that women pretend orgasm as part of a broader strategy of mate retention. We obtained self-report data from 453 heterosexual women (M age, 21.8 years) in a long-term relationship (M length, 32.8 months) drawn from universities and surrounding communities in the southeastern United States. The results indicated that (1) women who perceived higher risk of partner infidelity were more likely to report pretending orgasm, (2) women who reported greater likelihood of pretending orgasm also reported performing more mate retention behaviors, and (3) women's perceptions of partner infidelity risk mediated the relationship between pretending orgasm and the performance of cost-inflicting mate retention behaviors, such as Intersexual Negative Inducements ("Flirted with someone in front of my partner") and Intrasexual Negative Inducements ("Yelled at a woman who looked at my partner"). Thus, pretending orgasm may be part of a broader strategy of mate retention performed by women who perceive higher risk of partner infidelity.

  3. Resources, attractiveness, family commitment; reproductive decisions in human mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereczkei, T; Voros, S; Gal, A; Bernath, L

    1997-08-01

    This study of reproductive decisions in human mate selection used data from "lonely hearts" advertisements to examine a series of predictions based on the mate preferences of male and females relating to age; physical appearance; financial condition and socioeconomic status; family commitment and personal traits; short- and long-term mating; and marital status and preexisting children. The sample consisted of 1000 personal advertisements (500 male) placed in two daily, national papers between February and October 1994 in Hungary. The research procedure included a pilot study of 150 advertisers (75 male) to refine the categories examined. Analysis was performed using 1) a matrix with one axis referring to offers and the other to demands of males and females separately; 2) a matrix of offers only to derive correlated traits of claims by males and females; and 3) a matrix with columns describing sex, offers, demands, advertiser's age, and required age and a row for each of the 1000 samples. It was found that men preferred younger mates, while women preferred older ones. Men were more likely to seek physical attractiveness, while women were more likely to seek financial resources (ranked 7th) and high status (ranked 6th). Women strongly preferred male domestic virtue and family commitment, and twice as many women as men demanded long-term relationships. Women more frequently declared preexisting children, and men exhibited a reluctance to accept these children. Both males and females employed "trade-off" strategies, making greater demands if they felt they had attractive offers.

  4. Book Review: Evolutionary Ecology of Birds: Life Histories, Mating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: Evolutionary Ecology of Birds: Life Histories, Mating Systems and Extinction. Book Authors: P.M. Bennett & I.P.F. Owens. Oxford University. Press. 2002. Pp. 272. Price £24.95 (paperback). ISBN 0 19 851089 6.

  5. The messenger matters: Pollinator functional group influences mating system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jennifer J

    2017-08-01

    The incredible diversity of plant mating systems has fuelled research in evolutionary biology for over a century. Currently, there is broad concern about the impact of rapidly changing pollinator communities on plant populations. Very few studies, however, examine patterns and mechanisms associated with multiple paternity from cross-pollen loads. Often, foraging pollinators collect a mixed pollen load that may result in the deposition of pollen from different sires to receptive stigmas. Coincident deposition of self- and cross-pollen leads to interesting mating system dynamics and has been investigated in numerous species. But, mixed pollen loads often consist of a diversity of cross-pollen and result in multiple sires of seeds within a fruit. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Rhodes, Fant, and Skogen () examine how pollinator identity and spatial isolation influence multiple paternity within fruits of a self-incompatible evening primrose. The authors demonstrate that pollen pool diversity varies between two pollinator types, hawkmoths and diurnal solitary bees. Further, progeny from more isolated plants were less likely to have multiple sires regardless of the pollinator type. Moving forward, studies of mating system dynamics should consider the implications of multiple paternity and move beyond the self- and cross-pollination paradigm. Rhodes et al. () demonstrate the importance of understanding the roles that functionally diverse pollinators play in mating system dynamics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Fission yeast mating-type switching: programmed damage and repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egel, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Mating-type switching in fission yeast follows similar rules as in budding yeast, but the underlying mechanisms are entirely different. Whilst the initiating double-strand cut in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires recombinational repair for survival, the initial damage in Schizosaccharomyces pombe...

  7. Sperm length, sperm storage and mating system characteristics in bumblebees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2003-01-01

    -term storage of sperm, using three bumblebee species with different mating systems as models. We show that individual males produce only one size-class of sperm, but that sperm length is highly variable among brothers, among unrelated conspecific males, and among males of different species. Males of Bombus...

  8. Gender, Gender Roles Affecting Mate Preferences in Turkish College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazioglu, A. Esra Ismen

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this study is gender and gender roles affecting mate preferences. The sample of the study consists of 300 undergraduates and master students. To identify students' gender roles the Sex Role Evaluation Inventory (Bem, 1974) is used. The Question List (Bacanli 2001; Buss et. al., 1990) is applied to the sample group to determine the…

  9. Do Women Pretend Orgasm to Retain a Mate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Todd K.; Weekes-Shackelford, Viviana A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that women pretend orgasm as part of a broader strategy of mate retention. We obtained self-report data from 453 heterosexual women (M age, 21.8 years) in a long-term relationship (M length, 32.8 months) drawn from universities and surrounding communities in the southeastern United States. The results indicated that (1) women who perceived higher risk of partner infidelity were more likely to report pretending orgasm, (2) women who reported greater likelihood of pretending orgasm also reported performing more mate retention behaviors, and (3) women’s perceptions of partner infidelity risk mediated the relationship between pretending orgasm and the performance of cost-inflicting mate retention behaviors, such as Intersexual Negative Inducements (“Flirted with some one infront of my partner”) and Intrasexual Negative Inducements (“Yelled at a woman who looked at my partner”). Thus, pretending orgasm may be part of a broader strategy of mate retention performed by women who perceive higher risk of partner infidelity. PMID:22089325

  10. Mate Preference of Female Blue Tits Varies with Experimental Photoperiod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reparaz, L.B.; Van Oers, K.; Naguib, M.; Doutrelant, C.; Visser, M.E.; Caro, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Organisms use environmental cues to time their life-cycles and among these cues, photoperiod is the main trigger of reproductive behaviours such as territory defence or song activity. Whether photoperiod is also important for another behaviour closely associated with reproduction, mate choice, is

  11. Mate preference of female blue tits varies with experimental photoperiod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reparaz, L.B.; Oers, van K.; Naguib, M.; Doutrelant, C.; Visser, M.E.; Caro, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Organisms use environmental cues to time their life-cycles and among these cues, photoperiod is the main trigger of reproductive behaviours such as territory defence or song activity. Whether photoperiod is also important for another behaviour closely associated with reproduction, mate choice, is

  12. Mating-Type Genes and MAT Switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Mating type in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by two nonhomologous alleles, MATa and MATα. These sequences encode regulators of the two different haploid mating types and of the diploids formed by their conjugation. Analysis of the MATa1, MATα1, and MATα2 alleles provided one of the earliest models of cell-type specification by transcriptional activators and repressors. Remarkably, homothallic yeast cells can switch their mating type as often as every generation by a highly choreographed, site-specific homologous recombination event that replaces one MAT allele with different DNA sequences encoding the opposite MAT allele. This replacement process involves the participation of two intact but unexpressed copies of mating-type information at the heterochromatic loci, HMLα and HMRa, which are located at opposite ends of the same chromosome-encoding MAT. The study of MAT switching has yielded important insights into the control of cell lineage, the silencing of gene expression, the formation of heterochromatin, and the regulation of accessibility of the donor sequences. Real-time analysis of MAT switching has provided the most detailed description of the molecular events that occur during the homologous recombinational repair of a programmed double-strand chromosome break. PMID:22555442

  13. High incidence of GJB2 gene mutations among assortatively mating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High incidence of GJB2 gene mutations among assortatively mating hearing impaired families in Kerala: future implications. Amritkumar Pavithra, Justin Margret Jeffrey, Jayasankaran Chandru, Arabandi Ramesh and C. R. Srikumari Srisailapathy. J. Genet. 93, 207–213. Table 1. Consolidated table of GJB2 mutation status ...

  14. Reinforcement shapes clines in female mate discrimination in Drosophila subquinaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, Emily R.; Dyer, Kelly A.

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement of species boundaries may alter mate recognition in a way that also affects patterns of mate preference among conspecific populations. In the fly Drosophila subquinaria, females sympatric with the closely related species D. recens reject mating with heterospecific males as well as with conspecific males from allopatric populations. Here, we assess geographic variation in behavioral isolation within and among populations of D. subquinaria and use cline theory to understand patterns of selection on reinforced discrimination and its consequences for sexual isolation within species. We find that selection has fixed rejection of D. recens males in sympatry, while significant genetic variation in this behavior occurs within allopatric populations. In conspecific matings sexual isolation is also asymmetric and stronger in populations that are sympatric with D. recens. The clines in behavioral discrimination within and between species are similar in shape and are maintained by strong selection in the face of gene flow, and we show that some of their genetic basis may be either shared or linked. Thus, while reinforcement can drive extremely strong phenotypic divergence, the long-term consequences for incipient speciation depend on gene flow, genetic linkage of discrimination traits, and the cost of these behaviors in allopatry. PMID:25163510

  15. Mating-type locus characterization and variation in Pyrenophora semeniperda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie Leanna Henry

    2015-01-01

    Pyrenophora semeniperda is a generalist fungal pathogen that occurs primarily on monocot seed hosts. It is in the phylum Ascomycota, which includes both self-compatible (homothallic) and self-incompatible (heterothallic) species. Homothallic fungal species contain complementary mating-type (MAT) idiomorphs in a single unikaryotic strain, while heterothallic strains...

  16. Aesthetic evolution by mate choice: Darwin's really dangerous idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prum, Richard O

    2012-08-19

    Darwin proposed an explicitly aesthetic theory of sexual selection in which he described mate preferences as a 'taste for the beautiful', an 'aesthetic capacity', etc. These statements were not merely colourful Victorian mannerisms, but explicit expressions of Darwin's hypothesis that mate preferences can evolve for arbitrarily attractive traits that do not provide any additional benefits to mate choice. In his critique of Darwin, A. R. Wallace proposed an entirely modern mechanism of mate preference evolution through the correlation of display traits with male vigour or viability, but he called this mechanism natural selection. Wallace's honest advertisement proposal was stridently anti-Darwinian and anti-aesthetic. Most modern sexual selection research relies on essentially the same Neo-Wallacean theory renamed as sexual selection. I define the process of aesthetic evolution as the evolution of a communication signal through sensory/cognitive evaluation, which is most elaborated through coevolution of the signal and its evaluation. Sensory evaluation includes the possibility that display traits do not encode information that is being assessed, but are merely preferred. A genuinely Darwinian, aesthetic theory of sexual selection requires the incorporation of the Lande-Kirkpatrick null model into sexual selection research, but also encompasses the possibility of sensory bias, good genes and direct benefits mechanisms.

  17. Sexual Dimorphism and Mating Behavior in Anomala testaceipennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sérgio Roberto; Gomes, Elias Soares; Bento, José Maurício Simões

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The beetle, Anomala testaceipennis Blanchard (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), occurs in central-western Brazil where larvae feed on the roots of plants causing damage. This research aimed to study sexual dimorphism and mating behavior of A. testaceipennis . Adults of A. testaceipennis were collected with light traps in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. Laboratory experiments were performed to describe copulation behavior and adult morphology of males and females. In males the last abdominal segment has a pronounced constriction, which is absent in females, and the male’s last segment of the first pair of legs has a ventral projection, which is poorly developed in females. The mating activities of adults begin soon after sunset, when adults leave the soil and fly. When the male encounters a female, he touches her with antennae and tarsi. If accepted, the male climbs on the female and remains on her back, and soon after the copulation begins. When the female does not accept the male for mating, she moves rapidly and can roll on the ground, and by so removing the male. In the field, adults feed and mate on bloomed trees of Oiti, Licania tomentosa Benth (Malpighiales: Chrysobalanaceae) and Louro, Cordia glabrata Martius (Boraginaceae). In trees without inflorescences no adults of this species were found. PMID:25502043

  18. Sexually transmitted infections and mate-finding Allee effects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berec, Luděk; Janoušková, E.; Theuer, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, APR 01 (2017), s. 59-69 ISSN 0040-5809 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Allee effect * mating * sexually transmitted disease Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.613, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040580916301186

  19. Service commitments and capabilities across ArchiMate architectural layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nardi, Julio Cesar; A. Almeida, João Paulo; Pereira, Maiara Candido; de Almeida Falbo, Ricardo; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    ArchiMate is a widely adopted enterprise architecture modeling language that includes the “service‿ construct as a key structuring element across its enterprise layers. A previous analysis of the use of this construct within ArchiMate’s business layer concluded that it fails to represent some

  20. Various aspects of the mating system in Mucorales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, M.A.A.; Stalpers, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Several aspects of the sexuality in Mucorales are discussed. It is stated that neither heterothallism nor homothallism are absolute conditions and that a continuum exists between zygospores and azygospores. Mating type switching as known in ascomycetous yeasts would explain several up to now

  1. Inbreeding in stochastic subdivided mating systems: the genetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... My results indicate that levels of inbreeding in parasites are impacted by demographic and/or transmission dynamics (subdivided mating, aggregated transmission dynamics and host spatial structure), and that this inbreeding is poorly estimated by 'equilibrium' levels of inbreeding calculated assuming ...

  2. Sexual overperception: power, mating motives, and biases in social judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstman, Jonathan W; Maner, Jon K

    2011-02-01

    Results from 4 experiments suggest that power motivates heightened perceptions and expectations of sexual interest from subordinates. Having power over a member of the opposite sex activated sexual concepts that persisted across a temporal delay, indicating the activation of a mating goal (Study 1). Having power increased participants' expectations of sexual interest from a subordinate (Study 2) but only when a mating goal was attainable (i.e., when the subordinate was romantically available; Study 3). In a face-to-face interaction between 2 participants, power heightened perceptions of sexual interest and sexualized behavior among participants with chronically active mating goals (i.e., sexually unrestricted individuals; Study 4). Tests of mediation demonstrated that sexual overperception mediated power's effect on sexually tinged behavior. Through its capacity to induce goal pursuit, power can activate mating goals that sexualize interactions between men and women. This research demonstrates one route through which power might lead to sexual harassment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Gender insensitivity and male bias in local advertising | Mate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender insensitivity and male bias in local advertising. Rekopantswe Mate. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/safere.v3i1.23952 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  4. Authors: T Cohen and L Matee PUBLIC SERVANTS' RIGHT TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    1996-02-18

    Feb 18, 1996 ... PUBLIC SERVANTS' RIGHT TO STRIKE IN LESOTHO, BOTSWANA AND. SOUTH AFRICA – A COMPARATIVE STUDY. T COHEN*. L MATEE**. 1. Introduction. Freedom of association and its cornerstone, the right to strike, are integral to effective labour relations and a free and democratic society.

  5. Experimental evidence for chemical mate guarding in a moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, S.A.; van Wijk, M.; Ke, G.; Goldansaz, S.H.; Schal, C.; Groot, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    In polyandrous species, males seek to maximize their reproductive output by monopolizing their mate. Often the male transfers substances to the female that suppress her sexual receptivity or antagonize the behavior of competing males; both are usually transferred in seminal fluids and represent

  6. Mating-type determination in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekwall, Karl; Thon, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe how mating-type tests are conducted in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Two methods can be employed: matings with h− and h+ tester strains and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for mat1 content.......Here we describe how mating-type tests are conducted in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Two methods can be employed: matings with h− and h+ tester strains and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for mat1 content....

  7. Are Human Mating Preferences with Respect to Height Reflected in Actual Pairings?

    OpenAIRE

    Stulp, Gert; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.; Nettle, Daniel; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Pair formation, acquiring a mate to form a reproductive unit, is a complex process. Mating preferences are a step in this process. However, due to constraining factors such as availability of mates, rival competition, and mutual mate choice, preferred characteristics may not be realised in the actual partner. People value height in their partner and we investigated to what extent preferences for height are realised in actual couples. We used data from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK) and comp...

  8. Romantic love: a mammalian brain system for mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen E; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy L

    2006-12-29

    Mammals and birds regularly express mate preferences and make mate choices. Data on mate choice among mammals suggest that this behavioural 'attraction system' is associated with dopaminergic reward pathways in the brain. It has been proposed that intense romantic love, a human cross-cultural universal, is a developed form of this attraction system. To begin to determine the neural mechanisms associated with romantic attraction in humans, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study 17 people who were intensely 'in love'. Activation specific to the beloved occurred in the brainstem right ventral tegmental area and right postero-dorsal body of the caudate nucleus. These and other results suggest that dopaminergic reward and motivation pathways contribute to aspects of romantic love. We also used fMRI to study 15 men and women who had just been rejected in love. Preliminary analysis showed activity specific to the beloved in related regions of the reward system associated with monetary gambling for uncertain large gains and losses, and in regions of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex associated with theory of mind, obsessive/compulsive behaviours and controlling anger. These data contribute to our view that romantic love is one of the three primary brain systems that evolved in avian and mammalian species to direct reproduction. The sex drive evolved to motivate individuals to seek a range of mating partners; attraction evolved to motivate individuals to prefer and pursue specific partners; and attachment evolved to motivate individuals to remain together long enough to complete species-specific parenting duties. These three behavioural repertoires appear to be based on brain systems that are largely distinct yet interrelated, and they interact in specific ways to orchestrate reproduction, using both hormones and monoamines. Romantic attraction in humans and its antecedent in other mammalian species play a primary role: this neural mechanism motivates

  9. The mating type-like loci of Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Carrillo, Patricia; Robledo-Márquez, Karina A; Ramírez-Zavaleta, Candy Y; De Las Peñas, Alejandro; Castaño, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Candida glabrata, a haploid and opportunistic fungal pathogen that has not known sexual cycle, has conserved the majority of the genes required for mating and cell type identity. The C. glabrata genome contains three mating-type-like loci called MTL1, MTL2 and MTL3. The three loci encode putative transcription factors, a1, α1 and α2 that regulate cell type identity and sexual reproduction in other fungi like the closely related Saccharomyces cerevisiae. MTL1 can contain either a or α information. MTL2, which contains a information and MTL3 with α information, are relatively close to two telomeres. MTL1 and MTL2 are transcriptionally active, while MTL3 is subject to an incomplete silencing nucleated at the telomere that depends on the silencing proteins Sir2, Sir3, Sir4, yKu70/80, Rif1, Rap1 and Sum1. C. glabrata does not seem to maintain cell type identity, as cell type-specific genes are expressed regardless of the type (or even absence) of mating information. These data highlight important differences in the control of mating and cell type identity between the non-pathogenic yeast S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata, which might explain the absence of a sexual cycle in C. glabrata. The fact that C. glabrata has conserved the vast majority of the genes involved in mating might suggest that some of these genes perhaps have been rewired to control other processes important for the survival inside the host as a commensal or as a human pathogen. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. The Mating Game: A Classroom Activity for Undergraduates that Explores the Evolutionary Basis of Sex Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dani; Holbrook, C. Tate; Meadows, Melissa G.; Taylor, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    In species that reproduce sexually, an individual's fitness depends on its ability to secure a mate (or mates). Although both males and females are selected to maximize their reproductive output, the mating strategies of the two sexes can differ dramatically. We present a classroom simulation that allows undergraduates to actively experience how…

  11. Alternative phenotypes of male mating behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sato, Y.; Sabelis, M.W.; Egas, M.; Faraji, F.

    2013-01-01

    Severe intraspecific competition for mates selects for aggressive individuals but may also lead to the evolution of alternative phenotypes that do not act aggressively, yet manage to acquire matings. The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, shows male mate-guarding behaviour and male-male

  12. Multi-year evaluation of mating disruption treatments against gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Kevin W. Thorpe; Laura M. Blackburn

    2007-01-01

    Mating disruption is the use of synthetic pheromone flakes that are aerially applied to foliage with the goal of interfering with male gypsy moths? ability to locate females and mate. Mating disruption is the primary tactic against gypsy moth used in the Gypsy Moth Slow-the-Spread Project (STS) [Tobin et al. 2004. Amer. Entomol. 50:200].

  13. Effects of maternal lines and mating systems on lamb carcass merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze the carcass composition of lambs produced from different mating systems. Materials and Methods: Lambs (n = 1,237) were produced by a multi- sire mating of three maternal lines (Katahdin (KN), Polypay (PP), and Easycare (EZ)) in two mating system...

  14. Investigating a novel pathway by which pheromone-based mating disruption may protect crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheromone-based mating disruption has been a successful, relatively new technology that growers use to reduce key insect populations. Mating disruption systems function by sending out false plumes of the insect sex pheromones – this interferes with the insect’s ability to find a mate, preempting egg...

  15. Non-random mating for selection with restricted rates of inbreeding and overlapping generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonesson, A.K.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.

    2002-01-01

    Minimum coancestry mating with a maximum of one offspring per mating pair (MC1) is compared with random mating schemes for populations with overlapping generations. Optimum contribution selection is used, whereby $\\\\\\\\Delta F$ is restricted. For schemes with $\\\\\\\\Delta F$ restricted to 0.25% per

  16. Evolutionary transition from single to multiple mating in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, P.; Gertsch, Pia J.; Frydenberg, J.

    1999-01-01

    Queens of leafcutter ants exhibit the highest known levels of multiple mating (up to 10 mates per queen) among ants. Multiple mating may have been selected to increase genetic diversity among nestmate workers, which is hypothesized to be critical in social systems with large, long-lived colonies ...

  17. Big two personality and big three mate preferences: similarity attracts, but country-level mate preferences crucially matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Jochen E; Leary, Mark R; Neberich, Wiebke

    2012-12-01

    People differ regarding their "Big Three" mate preferences of attractiveness, status, and interpersonal warmth. We explain these differences by linking them to the "Big Two" personality dimensions of agency/competence and communion/warmth. The similarity-attracts hypothesis predicts that people high in agency prefer attractiveness and status in mates, whereas those high in communion prefer warmth. However, these effects may be moderated by agentics' tendency to contrast from ambient culture, and communals' tendency to assimilate to ambient culture. Attending to such agentic-cultural-contrast and communal-cultural-assimilation crucially qualifies the similarity-attracts hypothesis. Data from 187,957 online-daters across 11 countries supported this model for each of the Big Three. For example, agentics-more so than communals-preferred attractiveness, but this similarity-attracts effect virtually vanished in attractiveness-valuing countries. This research may reconcile inconsistencies in the literature while utilizing nonhypothetical and consequential mate preference reports that, for the first time, were directly linked to mate choice.

  18. Multi-ingredients determination and fingerprint analysis of leaves from Ilex latifolia using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunlin; Deng, Jiewei; Yang, Yunyun; Liu, Junshan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Fai, Kuokchiu; Zhang, Qingwen; Ye, Wencai

    2013-10-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) method integrating multi-ingredients determination and fingerprint analysis has been established for quality assessment and control of leaves from Ilex latifolia. The method possesses the advantages of speediness, efficiency, accuracy, and allows the multi-ingredients determination and fingerprint analysis in one chromatographic run within 13min. Multi-ingredients determination was performed based on the extracted ion chromatograms of the exact pseudo-molecular ions (with a 0.01Da window), and fingerprint analysis was performed based on the base peak chromatograms, obtained by negative-ion electrospray ionization QTOF-MS. The method validation results demonstrated our developed method possessing desirable specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The method was utilized to analyze 22 I. latifolia samples from different origins. The quality assessment was achieved by using both similarity analysis (SA) and principal component analysis (PCA), and the results from SA were consistent with those from PCA. Our experimental results demonstrate that the strategy integrated multi-ingredients determination and fingerprint analysis using UPLC-QTOF-MS technique is a useful approach for rapid pharmaceutical analysis, with promising prospects for the differentiation of origin, the determination of authenticity, and the overall quality assessment of herbal medicines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of a parameterization of the stomatal component of the DO{sub 3}SE model for Quercus ilex to estimate ozone fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Rocio [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: rocio.alonso@ciemat.es; Elvira, Susana [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: susana.elvira@ciemat.es; Sanz, Maria J. [Fundacion CEAM, Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: mjose@ceam.es; Gerosa, Giacomo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy)], E-mail: giacomo.gerosa@unicatt.it; Emberson, Lisa D. [Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, York YO 10 5DD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: lde1@york.ac.uk; Bermejo, Victoria [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: victoria.bermejo@ciemat.es; Gimeno, Benjamin S. [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: benjamin.gimeno@ciemat.es

    2008-10-15

    A sensitivity analysis of a proposed parameterization of the stomatal conductance (g{sub s}) module of the European ozone deposition model (DO{sub 3}SE) for Quercus ilex was performed. The performance of the model was tested against measured g{sub s} in the field at three sites in Spain. The best fit of the model was found for those sites, or during those periods, facing no or mild stress conditions, but a worse performance was found under severe drought or temperature stress, mostly occurring at continental sites. The best performance was obtained when both f{sub phen} and f{sub SWP} were included. A local parameterization accounting for the lower temperatures recorded in winter and the higher water shortage at the continental sites resulted in a better performance of the model. The overall results indicate that two different parameterizations of the model are needed, one for marine-influenced sites and another one for continental sites. - No redundancy between phenological and water-related modifying functions was found when estimating stomatal behavior of Holm oak.

  20. Sensitivity analysis of a parameterization of the stomatal component of the DO3SE model for Quercus ilex to estimate ozone fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Rocio; Elvira, Susana; Sanz, Maria J.; Gerosa, Giacomo; Emberson, Lisa D.; Bermejo, Victoria; Gimeno, Benjamin S.

    2008-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis of a proposed parameterization of the stomatal conductance (g s ) module of the European ozone deposition model (DO 3 SE) for Quercus ilex was performed. The performance of the model was tested against measured g s in the field at three sites in Spain. The best fit of the model was found for those sites, or during those periods, facing no or mild stress conditions, but a worse performance was found under severe drought or temperature stress, mostly occurring at continental sites. The best performance was obtained when both f phen and f SWP were included. A local parameterization accounting for the lower temperatures recorded in winter and the higher water shortage at the continental sites resulted in a better performance of the model. The overall results indicate that two different parameterizations of the model are needed, one for marine-influenced sites and another one for continental sites. - No redundancy between phenological and water-related modifying functions was found when estimating stomatal behavior of Holm oak

  1. Inhibition of OCT2, MATE1 and MATE2-K as a possible mechanism of drug interaction between pazopanib and cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauzay, C; White-Koning, M; Hennebelle, I; Deluche, T; Delmas, C; Imbs, D C; Chatelut, E; Thomas, F

    2016-08-01

    We hypothesized that pazopanib is an inhibitor of cisplatin renal transporters OCT2, MATE1 and MATE2-K based on previous studies demonstrating an interaction between tyrosine kinase inhibitors and these transporters. Because several combinations of targeted therapies and cytotoxics are currently in development for cancer treatment, such an interaction is worth investigating. Experiments on HEK293 cells stably transfected to express OCT2, MATE1, MATE2-K or an empty vector (EV) were conducted. The inhibitory effect of pazopanib on these transporters was measured using the uptake of fluorescent substrate ASP+ and cisplatin in the different cell lines. The effect of pazopanib on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity was also evaluated. A decrease of ASP+ uptake was observed in OCT2-HEK, MATE1-HEK and MATE2K-HEK cell lines after addition of pazopanib at increasing concentrations. Pazopanib inhibited cisplatin specific uptake in OCT2-HEK, MATE1-HEK and MATE2K-HEK lines. Cytotoxicity experiments showed that co-incubation of cisplatin with pazopanib multiplied up to 2.7, 2.4 and 1.6 times the EC50 values of cisplatin in OCT2-HEK, MATE1-HEK and MATE2K-HEK cell lines respectively, reaching about the same values as in EV-HEK cells. To conclude, pazopanib inhibits OCT2, MATE1 and MATE2-K, which are involved in cisplatin secretion into urine. The combination of these two drugs may lead to an interaction and increase the cisplatin-induced systemic toxicity. Given the wide variability of plasma pazopanib concentrations observed in vivo, the interaction may occur in a clinical setting, particularly in overexposed patients. The existence of a drug-drug interaction should be investigated when pazopanib is associated with a substrate of these transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Narcissism Guides Mate Selection: Humans Mate Assortatively, as Revealed by Facial Resemblance, following an Algorithm of “Self Seeking Like”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Alvarez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical studies suggest that mating and pair formation is not likely to be random. Computer simulations suggested that sex among genetically complex organisms requires mate choice strategies for its evolutionary maintenance, to reduce excessive genetic variance produced by out-crossing. One strategy achieving this aim efficiently in computer simulations is assortative mating modeled as “self seeking like”. Another one is selection of “good genes”. Assortative mating increases the probability of finding a genetically similar mate, without fomenting inbreeding, achieving assortative mating without hindering the working of other mate selection strategies which aim to maximize the search for “good genes”, optimizing the working of sex in evolutionary terms. Here we present indirect evidence that in a significant proportion of human reproductive couples, the partners show much higher facial resemblances than can be expected by random pair formation, or as the outcome of “matching for attractiveness” or the outcome of competition for the most attractive partner accessible, as had been previously assumed. The data presented is compatible with the hypothesis derived from computer simulations, that human mate selection strategies achieve various aims: “self seeking like” (including matching for attractiveness and mating with the best available genes.

  3. Interactive cueing with walk-Mate for Hemiparetic Stroke Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muto Takeshi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many techniques that compensate for locomotion problems in daily life using externally controlled stimulation have recently been reported. These techniques are beneficial for effortlessly supporting patients’ locomotive functions, but the users of such devices must necessarily remain dependent on them. It is possible that some individuals with gait impairment may be prevented recovering locomotive function. From a rehabilitation viewpoint, it may therefore be supposed that ideally, devices that can be used in daily life to improve the locomotive functions of the body itself should be proposed. Methods We evaluate the effectiveness of Walk-Mate, which has been used mainly as a gait compensation device, as a gait rehabilitation training device by analyzing improvement in locomotion before, during and after rehabilitation in hemiparetic patients and comparing it with a previous gait training method. Walk-Mate generates a model walking rhythm in response to a user’s locomotion in real time, and by indicating this rhythm using auditory stimuli, provides a technology that supports walking by reducing asymmetries and fluctuations in foot contact rhythm. If patients can use the system to learn a regulated walking rhythm, then it may also be expected to fulfil the functions of a gait rehabilitation training device for daily life. Results With regard to asymmetry, significantly improvements were seen for compensatory movement during training using Walk-Mate, but improvements were not retained as rehabilitative results. Regarding fluctuations in the foot contact period, significant improvement was observed for compensatory movement during training and these significant improvements were retained as rehabilitative results. In addition, it became clear that such improvement could not be adequately obtained by the previously proposed training technique utilizing constant rhythmic auditory stimulation. Conclusions Walk-Mate effectively

  4. Aphrodisiac Pheromone and its role in mating behaviour of Gamma irradiated SPODOPTERA LITTORALIS (BOISD.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALM EL-DIN, M.M.S.; HAZAA, M.A.M.; EL-SHALL, S.S.A.

    2007-01-01

    The aphrodisiac pheromone in male moth of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis, is secreted from a scent gland that lies in the fore wings and hair pencils. The damage of the gland by gamma irradiation or elimination of the fore wings reduced mating percentage and the other related mating aspects. Multiple mating seldom was occurred in the eliminated wing males and this mean that the wing gland was effective in mating behaviour. The knowledge on pheromone glands and their role in mating behaviour have been appeared to be essential in the integrated control programmes

  5. Social network analysis of mating patterns in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennifer A; Xu, Ran; Frank, Kenneth; Draheim, Hope; Scribner, Kim T

    2015-08-01

    Nonrandom mating can structure populations and has important implications for population-level processes. Investigating how and why mating deviates from random is important for understanding evolutionary processes as well as informing conservation and management. Prior to the implementation of parentage analyses, understanding mating patterns in solitary, elusive species like bears was virtually impossible. Here, we capitalize on a long-term genetic data set collected from black bears (Ursus americanus) (N = 2422) in the Northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan, USA. We identified mated pairs using parentage analysis and applied logistic regression (selection) models that controlled for features of the social network, to quantify the effects of individual characteristics, and spatial and population demographic factors on mating dynamics. Logistic regression models revealed that black bear mating was associated with spatial proximity of mates, male age, the time a pair had coexisted, local population density and relatedness. Mated pairs were more likely to contain older males. On average, bears tended to mate with nearby individuals to whom they were related, which does not support the existence of kin recognition in black bears. Pairwise relatedness was especially high for mated pairs containing young males. Restricted dispersal and high male turnover from intensive harvest mortality of NLP black bears are probably the underlying factors associated with younger male bears mating more often with female relatives. Our findings illustrate how harvest has the potential to disrupt the social structure of game species, which warrants further attention for conservation and management. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb induced by paced mating in the female rat is opioid dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Santoyo-Zedillo

    Full Text Available The possibility to control the rate of sexual stimulation that the female rat receives during a mating encounter (pacing increases the number of newborn neurons that reach the granular layer of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB. If females mate repeatedly, the increase in the number of neurons is observed in other regions of the AOB and in the main olfactory bulb (MOB. It has also been shown that paced mating induces a reward state mediated by opioids. There is also evidence that opioids modulate neurogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated whether the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (NX could reduce the increase in neurogenesis in the AOB induced by paced mating. Ovariectomized female rats were randomly divided in 5 different groups: 1 Control (not mated treated with saline, 2 control (not mated treated with naloxone, 3 females that mated without controlling the sexual interaction (no-pacing, 4 females injected with saline before pacing the sexual interaction and 5 females injected with NX before a paced mating session. We found, as previously described, that paced mating induced a higher number of new cells in the granular layer of the AOB. The administration of NX before paced mating, blocked the increase in the number of newborn cells and prevented these cells from differentiating into neurons. These data suggest that opioid peptides play a fundamental role in the neurogenesis induced by paced mating in female rats.

  7. No detectable fertility benefit from a single additional mating in wild stalk-eyed flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Harley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple mating by female insects is widespread, and the explanation(s for repeated mating by females has been the subject of much discussion. Females may profit from mating multiply through direct material benefits that increase their own reproductive output, or indirect genetic benefits that increase offspring fitness. One particular direct benefit that has attracted significant attention is that of fertility assurance, as females often need to mate multiply to achieve high fertility. This hypothesis has never been tested in a wild insect population.Female Malaysian stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni mate repeatedly during their lifetime, and have been shown to be sperm limited under both laboratory and field conditions. Here we ask whether receiving an additional mating alleviates sperm limitation in wild females. In our experiment one group of females received a single additional mating, while a control group received an interrupted, and therefore unsuccessful, mating. Females that received an additional mating did not lay more fertilised eggs in total, nor did they lay proportionately more fertilised eggs. Female fertility declined significantly through time, demonstrating that females were sperm limited. However, receipt of an additional mating did not significantly alter the rate of this decline.Our data suggest that the fertility consequences of a single additional mating were small. We discuss this effect (or lack thereof, and suggest that it is likely to be attributed to small ejaculate size, a high proportion of failed copulations, and the presence of X-linked meiotic drive in this species.

  8. Sap flow measurements combining sap-flux density radial profiles with punctual sap-flux density measurements in oak trees (Quercus ilex and Quercus pyrenaica) - water-use implications in a water-limited savanna-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J. Leonardo; Lubczynski1, Maciek W.

    2010-05-01

    Sap flow measurement is a key aspect for understanding how plants use water and their impacts on the ecosystems. A variety of sensors have been developed to measure sap flow, each one with its unique characteristics. When the aim of a research is to have accurate tree water use calculations, with high temporal and spatial resolution (i.e. scaled), a sensor with high accuracy, high measurement efficiency, low signal-to-noise ratio and low price is ideal, but such has not been developed yet. Granier's thermal dissipation probes (TDP) have been widely used in many studies and various environmental conditions because of its simplicity, reliability, efficiency and low cost. However, it has two major flaws when is used in semi-arid environments and broad-stem tree species: it is often affected by high natural thermal gradients (NTG), which distorts the measurements, and it cannot measure the radial variability of sap-flux density in trees with sapwood thicker than two centimeters. The new, multi point heat field deformation sensor (HFD) is theoretically not affected by NTG, and it can measure the radial variability of the sap flow at different depths. However, its high cost is a serious limitation when simultaneous measurements are required in several trees (e.g. catchment-scale studies). The underlying challenge is to develop a monitoring schema in which HFD and TDP are combined to satisfy the needs of measurement efficiency and accuracy in water accounting. To assess the level of agreement between TDP and HFD methods in quantifying sap flow rates and temporal patterns on Quercus ilex (Q.i ) and Quercus pyrenaica trees (Q.p.), three measurement schemas: standard TDP, TDP-NTG-corrected and HFD were compared in dry season at the semi-arid Sardon area, near Salamanca in Spain in the period from June to September 2009. To correct TDP measurements with regard to radial sap flow variability, a radial sap flux density correction factor was applied and tested by adjusting TDP

  9. Mating with an allopatric male triggers immune response and decreases longevity of ant queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrempf, A; von Wyschetzki, K; Klein, A; Schrader, L; Oettler, J; Heinze, J

    2015-07-01

    In species with lifelong pair bonding, the reproductive interests of the mating partners are aligned, and males and females are expected to jointly maximize their reproductive success. Mating increases both longevity and fecundity of female reproductives (queens) of the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, indicating a tight co-evolution of mating partners. Here, we show that mating with a male from their own population increases lifespan and reproductive success of queens more than mating with a male from a different population, with whom they could not co-evolve. A comparison of transcriptomes revealed an increased expression of genes involved in immunity processes in queens, which mated with males from a different population. Increased immune response might be proximately associated with decreased lifespan. Our study suggests a synergistic co-evolution between the sexes and sheds light on the proximate mechanisms underlying the decreased fitness of allopatrically mated queens. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Influence of mating on ovarian follicle development in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asin

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available This works examines the influence of mating on ovarian follicle development in Triatoma infestans. The observations were carried out on both virgin and mated females, wich were killed at various times after their emergence. There was no difference in the ovarian development of both experimental groups during the first gonadotrofic cycle. By the 7th day mated females as well as virgn females showed vitellogenic oocytes. The coriogenesis and ovulation process began on the 13th day after imaginal moulting. However we could observe that egg-laying was dependent on mating. Mated females laid eggs whereas virgin females did not lay eggs. However ovarian production was significantly greater in the mated females. It is suggested that in T. infestans mating stimulates egg-laying but it does not influence the oogenesis and ovulation process.

  11. Reproductive and productive efficiencies of Etawah Grade goats under various mating managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sunadi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six Etawah Grade (PE goats were treated with three type of mating managements, i.e. mated at the first oestrous (A, mated at the second oestrous (B, and mated at the third oestrous (C after parturition, respectively . Results showed that average first estrous was 56 days (26-99 d after parturition with estrous cycle of 21 days . Conception rate at the first and second oestrous mating managements (A and B were 50 and 70%, respectively . Variability of birth weight (3,4 - 3,5 kg under three mating managements were not significantly different (P>0 .05, but the weaning weight of kids of B (16 .4 kg was higher (P<0.05 than A (11 .8 kg and C (12.9 kg, respectively. Does productivity (total weaning weight was not significantly affected by mating management, i.e. at fisrt, second or third oestrous after parturition .

  12. Big Five Traits Related to Short-Term Mating: From Personality to Promiscuity across 46 Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Schmitt

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, 13,243 participants from 46 nations responded to self-report measures of personality and mating behavior. Several traits showed consistent links with short-term mating. Extraversion positively correlated with interest in short-term mating, unrestricted sociosexuality, having engaged in short-term mate poaching attempts, having succumbed to short-term poaching attempts of others, and lacking relationship exclusivity. Low levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness also related to short-term mating, especially with extra-pair mating. Neuroticism and openness were associated with short-term mating as well, but these links were less consistent across sex and nation. Nation-level links between personality and sexuality replicated within-region findings, such as the strong association between national extraversion and national sociosexuality. Discussion focuses on the origins of personality-sexuality links and their implications across nations.

  13. Dating, mating, and motherhood: identity construction among Mexican maquila workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiano, S; Ladino, C

    1999-02-01

    The authors explore the gender identities among women factory workers in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Using data from 3 generations of women, they show that women's participation in the maquila work force is exposing them to new ideologies which challenge traditional images embodied in the marianismo ideal of Mexican womanhood. By focusing upon women's changing experiences of courtship and motherhood, the authors suggest that conventional discourses stressing parentally supervised mate selection and full-time motherhood are being challenged by alternative ones which allow young women to socialize freely with prospective mates in unsupervised contexts, and expand the meaning of responsible motherhood to encompass full-time employment. Women workers' identities are fluid processes in permanent negotiation. ¿

  14. Endocrinology of human female sexuality, mating, and reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Puts, David A

    2017-05-01

    Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior. We highlight distinctive aspects of women's sexuality such as the possession of sexual ornaments, relatively cryptic fertile windows, extended sexual behavior across the ovulatory cycle, and a period of midlife reproductive senescence-and we focus on how hormonal mechanisms were shaped by selection to produce adaptive outcomes. We conclude with suggestions for future research to elucidate how hormonal mechanisms subserve women's reproductive phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimal swimming strategies in mate searching pelagic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Male copepods must swim to find females, but swimming increases the risk of meeting predators and is expensive in terms of energy expenditure. Here I address the trade-offs between gains and risks and the question of how much and how fast to swim using simple models that optimise the number...... of lifetime mate encounters. Radically different swimming strategies are predicted for different feeding behaviours, and these predictions are tested experimentally using representative species. In general, male swimming speeds and the difference in swimming speeds between the genders are predicted...... and observed to increase with increasing conflict between mate searching and feeding. It is high in ambush feeders, where searching (swimming) and feeding are mutually exclusive and low in species, where the matured males do not feed at all. Ambush feeding males alternate between stationary ambush feeding...

  16. Experimental evolution reveals trade-offs between mating and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathryn B; Wedell, Nina; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-08-23

    Immune system maintenance and upregulation is costly. Sexual selection intensity, which increases male investment into reproductive traits, is expected to create trade-offs with immune function. We assayed phenoloxidase (PO) and lytic activity of individuals from populations of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, which had been evolving under different intensities of sexual selection. We found significant divergence among populations, with males from female-biased populations having lower PO activity than males from balanced sex ratio or male-biased populations. There was no divergence in anti-bacterial lytic activity. Our data suggest that it is the increased male mating demands in female-biased populations that trades-off against immunity, and not the increased investment in sperm transfer per mating that characterizes male-biased populations.

  17. Hydrocarbon Patterns and Mating Behaviour in Populations of Drosophila yakuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Denis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila yakuba is widespread in Africa. Here we compare the cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC profiles and mating behavior of mainland (Kounden, Cameroon and island (Mayotte, Sao-Tome, Bioko populations. The strains each had different CHC profiles: Bioko and Kounden were the most similar, while Mayotte and Sao-Tome contained significant amounts of 7-heptacosene. The CHC profile of the Sao-Tome population differed the most, with half the 7-tricosene of the other populations and more 7-heptacosene and 7-nonacosene. We also studied the characteristics of the mating behavior of the four strains: copulation duration was similar but latency times were higher in Mayotte and Sao-Tome populations. We found partial reproductive isolation between populations, especially in male-choice experiments with Sao-Tome females.

  18. Showing Off in Humans: Male Generosity as a Mating Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Iredale

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We examined people's charity contributions while in the presence of an observer of the same sex, opposite sex, or no observer. Inspired by costly signaling theory, we hypothesized that men would be more generous in the presence of a potential mate. Men and women played a number of experimental games in which they could earn money. On completion of these games participants were asked what percentage of their earned money they would be willing to donate to charity. Our results show that men contribute more to charity when observed by a member of the opposite sex than by a member of the same sex or no observer. Conversely, female charity donations did not significantly vary across the three observer conditions. Findings support the notion that men's generosity might have evolved as a mating signal.

  19. Exact Markov chains versus diffusion theory for haploid random mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyvand, Peder A; Thorvaldsen, Steinar

    2010-05-01

    Exact discrete Markov chains are applied to the Wright-Fisher model and the Moran model of haploid random mating. Selection and mutations are neglected. At each discrete value of time t there is a given number n of diploid monoecious organisms. The evolution of the population distribution is given in diffusion variables, to compare the two models of random mating with their common diffusion limit. Only the Moran model converges uniformly to the diffusion limit near the boundary. The Wright-Fisher model allows the population size to change with the generations. Diffusion theory tends to under-predict the loss of genetic information when a population enters a bottleneck. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of female status on sex differentiated mate preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Fhionna R.

    2007-01-01

    Mate preferences provide an opportunity to explore the validity of evolutionary and social role origin theories of sex differences in human behaviour. In evolutionary models, preferences are sex-specific adaptive responses to constraints to reproductive success. In social role models, sex differences arise from the allocation of men and women to different gender roles. I explored the effects of the status of women on preferences to assess the validity of the origin theories....