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Sample records for yellow stripe-like3 reveal

  1. Mutations in Arabidopsis Yellow Stripe-Like1 and Yellow Stripe-Like3 Reveal Their Roles in Metal Ion Homeostasis and Loading of Metal Ions in Seeds1

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    Waters, Brian M.; Chu, Heng-Hsuan; DiDonato, Raymond J.; Roberts, Louis A.; Eisley, Robynn B.; Lahner, Brett; Salt, David E.; Walker, Elsbeth L.

    2006-01-01

    Here, we describe two members of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Yellow Stripe-Like (YSL) family, AtYSL1 and AtYSL3. The YSL1 and YSL3 proteins are members of the oligopeptide transporter family and are predicted to be integral membrane proteins. YSL1 and YSL3 are similar to the maize (Zea mays) YS1 phytosiderophore transporter (ZmYS1) and the AtYSL2 iron (Fe)-nicotianamine transporter, and are predicted to transport metal-nicotianamine complexes into cells. YSL1 and YSL3 mRNAs are expressed in both root and shoot tissues, and both are regulated in response to the Fe status of the plant. β-Glucuronidase reporter expression, driven by YSL1 and YSL3 promoters, reveals expression patterns of the genes in roots, leaves, and flowers. Expression was highest in senescing rosette leaves and cauline leaves. Whereas the single mutants ysl1 and ysl3 had no visible phenotypes, the ysl1ysl3 double mutant exhibited Fe deficiency symptoms, such as interveinal chlorosis. Leaf Fe concentrations are decreased in the double mutant, whereas manganese, zinc, and especially copper concentrations are elevated. In seeds of double-mutant plants, the concentrations of Fe, zinc, and copper are low. Mobilization of metals from leaves during senescence is impaired in the double mutant. In addition, the double mutant has reduced fertility due to defective anther and embryo development. The proposed physiological roles for YSL1 and YSL3 are in delivery of metal micronutrients to and from vascular tissues. PMID:16815956

  2. The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses.

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    Krueger, Elizabeth N; Beckett, Randy J; Gray, Stewart M; Miller, W Allen

    2013-01-01

    The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs) of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs) and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV) of genus Polerovirus. All of these viruses are obligately aphid transmitted and phloem-limited. The first described YDVs (initially all called BYDV) were classified by their most efficient vector. One of these viruses, BYDV-RMV, is transmitted most efficiently by the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis. Here we report the complete 5612 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of a Montana isolate of BYDV-RMV (isolate RMV MTFE87, Genbank accession no. KC921392). The sequence revealed that BYDV-RMV is a polerovirus, but it is quite distantly related to the CYDVs or WYDV, which are very closely related to each other. Nor is BYDV-RMV closely related to any other particular polerovirus. Depending on the gene that is compared, different poleroviruses (none of them a YDV) share the most sequence similarity to BYDV-RMV. Because of its distant relationship to other YDVs, and because it commonly infects maize via its vector, R. maidis, we propose that BYDV-RMV be renamed Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV (MYDV-RMV).

  3. The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses

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    Elizabeth N. Krueger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV of genus Polerovirus. All of these viruses are obligately aphid transmitted and phloem-limited. The first described YDVs (initially all called BYDV were classified by their most efficient vector. One of these viruses, BYDV-RMV, is transmitted most efficiently by the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis. Here we report the complete 5612 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of a Montana isolate of BYDV-RMV (isolate RMV MTFE87, Genbank accession no. KC921392. The sequence revealed that BYDV-RMV is a polerovirus, but it is quite distantly related to the CYDVs or WYDV, which are very closely related to each other. Nor is BYDV-RMV closely related to any other particular polerovirus. Depending on the gene that is compared, different poleroviruses (none of them a YDV share the most sequence similarity to BYDV-RMV. Because of its distant relationship to other YDVs, and because it commonly infects maize via its vector, R. maidis, we propose that BYDV-RMV be renamed Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV (MYDV-RMV.

  4. Coral transcriptome and bacterial community profiles reveal distinct Yellow Band Disease states in Orbicella faveolata

    KAUST Repository

    Closek, Collin J.

    2014-06-20

    Coral diseases impact reefs globally. Although we continue to describe diseases, little is known about the etiology or progression of even the most common cases. To examine a spectrum of coral health and determine factors of disease progression we examined Orbicella faveolata exhibiting signs of Yellow Band Disease (YBD), a widespread condition in the Caribbean. We used a novel combined approach to assess three members of the coral holobiont: the coral-host, associated Symbiodinium algae, and bacteria. We profiled three conditions: (1) healthy-appearing colonies (HH), (2) healthy-appearing tissue on diseased colonies (HD), and (3) diseased lesion (DD). Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed health state-specific diversity in Symbiodinium clade associations. 16S ribosomal RNA gene microarrays (PhyloChips) and O. faveolata complimentary DNA microarrays revealed the bacterial community structure and host transcriptional response, respectively. A distinct bacterial community structure marked each health state. Diseased samples were associated with two to three times more bacterial diversity. HD samples had the highest bacterial richness, which included components associated with HH and DD, as well as additional unique families. The host transcriptome under YBD revealed a reduced cellular expression of defense- and metabolism-related processes, while the neighboring HD condition exhibited an intermediate expression profile. Although HD tissue appeared visibly healthy, the microbial communities and gene expression profiles were distinct. HD should be regarded as an additional (intermediate) state of disease, which is important for understanding the progression of YBD. © 2014 International Society for Microbial Ecology. All rights reserved.

  5. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV genome reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs) of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs) and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV) of genus Polerovirus. All ...

  6. Initial steps of signal generation in photoactive yellow protein revealed with femtosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.L.; van Wilderen, L.; Larsen, D.S.; Horst, M.A.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; van Grondelle, R.

    2003-01-01

    Photoactive yellow protein (PYP) is a bacterial blue light sensor that induces Halorhodospira halophila to swim away from intense blue light. Light absorption by PYP's intrinsic chromophore, p-coumaric acid, leads to the initiation of a photocycle that comprises several distinct intermediates. Here

  7. Analysis of Yellow Striped Mutants of Zea mays Reveals Novel Loci Contributing to Iron Deficiency Chlorosis

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    David Chan-Rodriguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The micronutrient iron (Fe is essential for photosynthesis, respiration, and many other processes, but it is only sparingly soluble in aqueous solution, making adequate acquisition by plants a serious challenge. Fe is a limiting factor for plant growth on approximately 30% of the world’s arable lands. Moreover, Fe deficiency in humans is a global health issue, affecting 1.62 billion people, or about 25% of the world’s population. It is imperative that we gain a better understanding of the mechanisms that plants use to regulate iron homeostasis, since these will be important targets for future biofortification and crop improvement strategies. Grasses and non-grasses have evolved independent mechanisms for primary iron uptake from the soil. The grasses, which include most of the world’s staple grains, have evolved a distinct ‘chelation’ mechanism to acquire iron from the soil. Strong iron chelators called phytosiderophores (PSs are synthesized by grasses and secreted into the rhizosphere where they bind and solubilize Fe(III. The Fe(III-PS complex is then taken up into root cells via transporters specific for the Fe(III-PS complex. In this study, 31 novel, uncharacterized striped maize mutants available through the Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center (MGCSC were analyzed to determine whether their mutant phenotypes are caused by decreased iron. Many of these proved to be either pale yellow or white striped mutants. Complementation tests were performed by crossing the MGCSC mutants to ys1 and ys3 reference mutants. This allowed assignment of 10 ys1 alleles and 4 ys3 alleles among the novel mutants. In addition, four ys∗ mutant lines were identified that are not allelic to either ys1 or ys3. Three of these were characterized as being non-allelic to each other and as having low iron in leaves. These represent new genes involved in iron acquisition by maize, and future cloning of these genes may reveal novel aspects of the grass iron

  8. Genome characterization of sugarcane yellow leaf virus from China reveals a novel recombinant genotype.

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    Lin, Yi-Hua; Gao, San-Ji; Damaj, Mona B; Fu, Hua-Ying; Chen, Ru-Kai; Mirkov, T Erik

    2014-06-01

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) is a recombinant virus associated with yellow leaf disease, a serious threat to sugarcane in China and worldwide. Among the nine known SCYLV genotypes existing worldwide, COL, HAW, REU, IND, CHN1, CHN2, BRA, CUB and PER, the last five have been reported in China. In this study, the complete genome sequences (5,880 nt) of GZ-GZ18 and HN-CP502 isolates from the Chinese provinces of Guizhou and Hainan, respectively, were cloned, sequenced and characterized. Phylogenetic analysis showed that, among 29 SCYLV isolates described worldwide, the two Chinese isolates clustered together into an independent clade based on the near-complete genome nucleotide (ORF0-ORF5) or amino acid sequences of individual genes, except for the MP protein (ORF4). We propose that the two isolates represent a novel genotype, CHN3, diverging from other genotypes by 1.7-13.6 % nucleotide differences in ORF0-ORF5, and 2.7-28.1 %, 1.8-20.4 %, 0.5-5.1 % and 2.7-15.9 % amino acid differences in P0 (ORF0), RdRp (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) (ORF1+2), CP (coat protein) (ORF3) and RT (readthrough protein) (ORF3+5), respectively. CHN3 was closely related to the BRA, HAW and PER genotypes, differing by 1.7-3.8 % in the near-complete genome nucleotide sequence. Recombination analysis further identified CHN3 as a new recombinant strain, arising from the major parent CHN-HN1 and the minor parent CHN-GD-WY19. Recombination breakpoints were distributed mostly within the RdRp region in CHN3 and the four significant recombinant genotypes, IND, REU, CUB and BRA. Recombination is considered to contribute significantly to the evolution and emergence of such new SCYLV variants.

  9. Genome analysis of yellow fever virus of the ongoing outbreak in Brazil reveals polymorphisms

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    Myrna C Bonaldo

    Full Text Available The current yellow fever outbreak in Brazil is the most severe one in the country in recent times. It has rapidly spread to areas where YF virus (YFV activity has not been observed for more than 70 years and vaccine coverage is almost null. Here, we sequenced the whole YFV genome of two naturally infected howler-monkeys (Alouatta clamitans obtained from the Municipality of Domingos Martins, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These two ongoing-outbreak genome sequences are identical. They clustered in the 1E sub-clade (South America genotype I along with the Brazilian and Venezuelan strains recently characterised from infections in humans and non-human primates that have been described in the last 20 years. However, we detected eight unique amino acid changes in the viral proteins, including the structural capsid protein (one change, and the components of the viral replicase complex, the NS3 (two changes and NS5 (five changes proteins, that could impact the capacity of viral infection in vertebrate and/or invertebrate hosts and spreading of the ongoing outbreak.

  10. Multimodal stimulation of Colorado potato beetle reveals modulation of pheromone response by yellow light.

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    Fernando Otálora-Luna

    Full Text Available Orientation of insects to host plants and conspecifics is the result of detection and integration of chemical and physical cues present in the environment. Sensory organs have evolved to be sensitive to important signals, providing neural input for higher order multimodal processing and behavioral output. Here we report experiments to determine decisions made by Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, in response to isolated stimuli and multimodal combinations of signals on a locomotion compensator. Our results show that in complete darkness and in the absence of other stimuli, pheromonal stimulation increases attraction behavior of CPB as measured in oriented displacement and walking speed. However, orientation to the pheromone is abolished when presented with the alternative stimulation of a low intensity yellow light in a dark environment. The ability of the pheromone to stimulate these diurnal beetles in the dark in the absence of other stimuli is an unexpected but interesting observation. The predominance of the phototactic response over that to pheromone when low intensity lights were offered as choices seems to confirm the diurnal nature of the insect. The biological significance of the response to pheromone in the dark is unclear. The phototactic response will play a key role in elucidating multimodal stimulation in the host-finding process of CPB, and perhaps other insects. Such information might be exploited in the design of applications to attract and trap CPB for survey or control purposes and other insect pests using similar orientation mechanisms.

  11. Yellow Fever

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    ... Testing Vaccine Information Testing for Vaccine Adverse Events Yellow fever Vaccine Continuing Education Course Yellow Fever Home Prevention Vaccine Vaccine Recommendations Reactions to Yellow Fever Vacine Yellow Fever Vaccine, Pregnancy, & ... Transmission Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment Maps Africa ...

  12. Genomic and proteomic analysis of Schizaphis graminum reveals cyclophilin proteins are involved in the transmission of cereal yellow dwarf virus.

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    Cecilia Tamborindeguy

    Full Text Available Yellow dwarf viruses cause the most economically important virus diseases of cereal crops worldwide and are transmitted by aphid vectors. The identification of aphid genes and proteins mediating virus transmission is critical to develop agriculturally sustainable virus management practices and to understand viral strategies for circulative movement in all insect vectors. Two cyclophilin B proteins, S28 and S29, were identified previously in populations of Schizaphisgraminum that differed in their ability to transmit the RPV strain of Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV. The presence of S29 was correlated with F2 genotypes that were efficient virus transmitters. The present study revealed the two proteins were isoforms, and a single amino acid change distinguished S28 and S29. The distribution of the two alleles was determined in 12 F2 genotypes segregating for CYDV-RPV transmission capacity and in 11 genetically independent, field-collected S. graminum biotypes. Transmission efficiency for CYDV-RPV was determined in all genotypes and biotypes. The S29 isoform was present in all genotypes or biotypes that efficiently transmit CYDV-RPV and more specifically in genotypes that efficiently transport virus across the hindgut. We confirmed a direct interaction between CYDV-RPV and both S28 and S29 using purified virus and bacterially expressed, his-tagged S28 and S29 proteins. Importantly, S29 failed to interact with a closely related virus that is transported across the aphid midgut. We tested for in vivo interactions using an aphid-virus co-immunoprecipitation strategy coupled with a bottom-up LC-MS/MS analysis using a Q Exactive mass spectrometer. This analysis enabled us to identify a third cyclophilin protein, cyclophilin A, interacting directly or in complex with purified CYDV-RPV. Taken together, these data provide evidence that both cyclophilin A and B interact with CYDV-RPV, and these interactions may be important but not sufficient to mediate

  13. Analysis of an RNA-seq Strand-Specific Library from an East Timorese Cucumber Sample Reveals a Complete Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus Genome.

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    Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R; de Almeida, Luis; Ximenes, Abel; Jones, Roger A C

    2017-05-11

    Analysis of an RNA-seq library from cucumber leaf RNA extracted from a fast technology for analysis of nucleic acids (FTA) card revealed the first complete genome of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) from East Timor. We compare it with 35 complete CABYV genomes from other world regions. It most resembled the genome of the South Korean isolate HD118. Copyright © 2017 Maina et al.

  14. Locked chromophore analogs reveal that photoactive yellow protein regulates biofilm formation in the deep sea bacterium Idiomarina loihiensis

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    van der Horst, M.A.; Stalcup, T.P.; Kaledhonkar, S.; Kumauchi, M.; Hara, M.; Xie, A.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; Hoff, W.D.

    2009-01-01

    Idiomarina loihiensis is a heterotrophic deep sea bacterium with no known photobiology. We show that light suppresses biofilm formation in this organism. The genome of I. loihiensis encodes a single photoreceptor protein: a homologue of photoactive yellow protein (PYP), a blue light receptor with

  15. Transcript Quantification by RNA-Seq Reveals Differentially Expressed Genes in the Red and Yellow Fruits of Fragaria vesca.

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    Yuchao Zhang

    Full Text Available Fragaria vesca (2n = 2x = 14, the woodland strawberry, is a perennial herbaceous plant with a small sequenced genome (240 Mb. It is commonly used as a genetic model plant for the Fragaria genus and the Rosaceae family. Fruit skin color is one of the most important traits for both the commercial and esthetic value of strawberry. Anthocyanins are the most prominent pigments in strawberry that bring red, pink, white, and yellow hues to the fruits in which they accumulate. In this study, we conducted a de novo assembly of the fruit transcriptome of woodland strawberry and compared the gene expression profiles with yellow (Yellow Wonder, YW and red (Ruegen, RG fruits. De novo assembly yielded 75,426 unigenes, 21.3% of which were longer than 1,000 bp. Among the high-quality unique sequences, 45,387 (60.2% had at least one significant match to an existing gene model. A total of 595 genes, representing 0.79% of total unigenes, were differentially expressed in YW and RG. Among them, 224 genes were up-regulated and 371 genes were down-regulated in the fruit of YW. Particularly, some flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes, including C4H, CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR and ANS, as well as some transcription factors (TFs, including MYB (putative MYB86 and MYB39, WDR and MADS, were down-regulated in YW fruit, concurrent with a reduction in anthocyanin accumulation in the yellow pigment phenotype, whereas a putative transcription repressor MYB1R was up-regulated in YW fruit. The altered expression levels of the genes encoding flavonoid biosynthetic enzymes and TFs were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Our study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the yellow pigment phenotype in F. vesca.

  16. Analysis of sequences from field samples reveals the presence of the recently described pepper vein yellows virus (genus Polerovirus) in six additional countries.

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    Knierim, Dennis; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Kenyon, Lawrence

    2013-06-01

    Polerovirus infection was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 29 pepper plants (Capsicum spp.) and one black nightshade plant (Solanum nigrum) sample collected from fields in India, Indonesia, Mali, Philippines, Thailand and Taiwan. At least two representative samples for each country were selected to generate a general polerovirus RT-PCR product of 1.4 kb length for sequencing. Sequence analysis of the partial genome sequences revealed the presence of pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV) in all 13 samples. A 1990 Australian herbarium sample of pepper described by serological means as infected with capsicum yellows virus (CYV) was identified by sequence analysis of a partial CP sequence as probably infected with a potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) isolate.

  17. Yellow fever

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    ... to thrive. Blood tests can confirm the diagnosis. Treatment There is no specific treatment for yellow fever. ... SJ, Endy TP, Rothman AL, Barrett AD. Flaviviruses (dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis, St. ...

  18. Transcriptome Analysis on Single Small Yellow Follicles Reveals That Wnt4 Is Involved in Chicken Follicle Selection

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    Yiya Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian follicle selection is an important process impacting the laying performance and fecundity of hens, and is regulated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH through binding to its receptor [follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR]. In laying hens, the small yellow follicle (6–8 mm in diameter with the highest expression of FSHR will be recruited into the preovulatory hierarchy during ovarian follicle development. The study of molecular mechanism of chicken follicle selection is helpful for the identification of genes underlying egg-laying traits in chicken and other poultry species. Herein, the transcriptomes of chicken small yellow follicles differing in the mRNA expression of FSHR were compared, and a total of 17,993 genes were identified in 3 pairs of small yellow follicles. The Wnt signaling pathway was significantly enriched in the follicles with the greatest fold change in FSHR expression. In this pathway, the expression level of Wnt4 mRNA was significantly upregulated with a log2(fold change of 2.12. We further investigated the expression, function, and regulation of Wnt4 during chicken follicle selection and found that Wnt4 mRNA reached its peak in small yellow follicles; Wnt4 stimulated the proliferation of follicular granulosa cells (GCs, increased the expression of StAR and CYP11A1 mRNA in prehierarchical and hierarchical follicles, increased the expression of FSHR mRNA, and decreased the expression of anti-Müllerian hormone and OCLN mRNA. Treatment with FSH significantly increased Wnt4 expression in GCs. Moreover, Wnt4 facilitated the effects of FSH on the production of progesterone (P4 and the mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzyme genes in the GCs of hierarchical follicles, but inhibited the effects of FSH in the GCs of prehierarchical follicles. Collectively, these data suggest that Wnt4 plays an important role in chicken follicle selection by stimulating GC proliferation and steroidogenesis. This study provides a

  19. SSU rDNA sequence diversity and seasonally differentiated distribution of nanoplanktonic ciliates in neritic Bohai and Yellow Seas as revealed by T-RFLP.

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    Jun Dong

    Full Text Available Nanociliates have been frequently found to be important players in the marine microbial loop, however, little is known about their diversity and distribution in coastal ecosystems. We investigated the molecular diversity and distribution patterns of nanoplanktonic oligotrich and choreotrich (OC ciliates in surface water of three neritic basins of northern China, the South Yellow Sea (SYS, North Yellow Sea (NYS, and Bohai Sea (BS in June and November 2011. SSU rRNA gene clone libraries generated from three summertime samples (sites B38, B4 and H8 were analyzed and revealed a large novel ribotype diversity, of which many were low-abundant phylotypes belonging to the subclass Oligotrichia, but divergent from described morphospecies. Based on the data of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis of all 35 samples, we found that the T-RF richness was generally higher in the SYS than in the BS, and negatively correlated with the molar ratio of P to Si. Overall, multidimensional scaling and permutational multivariate analysis of variance of the community turnover demonstrated a distinct seasonal pattern but no basin-to-basin differentiation across all samples. Nevertheless, significant community differences among basins were recognized in the winter dataset. Mantel tests showed that the environmental factors, P:Si ratio, water temperature and concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO, determined the community across all samples. However, both biogeographic distance and environment shaped the community in winter, with DO being the most important physicochemical factor. Our results indicate that the stoichiometric ratio of P:Si is a key factor, through which the phytoplankton community may be shaped, resulting in a cascade effect on the diversity and community composition of OC nanociliates in the N-rich, Si-limited coastal surface waters, and that the Yellow Sea Warm Current drives the nanociliate community, and possibly the

  20. SSU rDNA sequence diversity and seasonally differentiated distribution of nanoplanktonic ciliates in neritic Bohai and Yellow Seas as revealed by T-RFLP.

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    Dong, Jun; Shi, Fei; Li, Han; Zhang, Xiaoming; Hu, Xiaozhong; Gong, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Nanociliates have been frequently found to be important players in the marine microbial loop, however, little is known about their diversity and distribution in coastal ecosystems. We investigated the molecular diversity and distribution patterns of nanoplanktonic oligotrich and choreotrich (OC) ciliates in surface water of three neritic basins of northern China, the South Yellow Sea (SYS), North Yellow Sea (NYS), and Bohai Sea (BS) in June and November 2011. SSU rRNA gene clone libraries generated from three summertime samples (sites B38, B4 and H8) were analyzed and revealed a large novel ribotype diversity, of which many were low-abundant phylotypes belonging to the subclass Oligotrichia, but divergent from described morphospecies. Based on the data of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of all 35 samples, we found that the T-RF richness was generally higher in the SYS than in the BS, and negatively correlated with the molar ratio of P to Si. Overall, multidimensional scaling and permutational multivariate analysis of variance of the community turnover demonstrated a distinct seasonal pattern but no basin-to-basin differentiation across all samples. Nevertheless, significant community differences among basins were recognized in the winter dataset. Mantel tests showed that the environmental factors, P:Si ratio, water temperature and concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO), determined the community across all samples. However, both biogeographic distance and environment shaped the community in winter, with DO being the most important physicochemical factor. Our results indicate that the stoichiometric ratio of P:Si is a key factor, through which the phytoplankton community may be shaped, resulting in a cascade effect on the diversity and community composition of OC nanociliates in the N-rich, Si-limited coastal surface waters, and that the Yellow Sea Warm Current drives the nanociliate community, and possibly the microbial food webs

  1. A Systematic, Integrated Study on the Neuroprotective Effects of Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Revealed by H1 NMR-Based Metabonomics and the NF-κB Pathway

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    Yuanyan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA is the main active component of the Chinese herb Carthamus tinctorius L.. Purified HSYA is used as a neuroprotective agent to prevent cerebral ischemia. Injectable safflor yellow (50 mg, containing 35 mg HSYA is widely used to treat patients with ischemic cardiocerebrovascular disease. However, it is unknown how HSYA exerts a protective effect on cerebral ischemia at the molecular level. A systematical integrated study, including histopathological examination, neurological evaluation, blood-brain barrier (BBB, metabonomics, and the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB pathway, was applied to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of HSYA neuroprotection at the molecular level. HSYA could travel across the BBB, significantly reducing the infarct volume and improving the neurological functions of rats with ischemia. Treatment with HSYA could lead to relative corrections of the impaired metabolic pathways through energy metabolism disruption, excitatory amino acid toxicity, oxidative stress, and membrane disruption revealed by 1H NMR-based metabonomics. Meanwhile, HSYA treatment inhibits the NF-κB pathway via suppressing proinflammatory cytokine expression and p65 translocation and binding activity while upregulating an anti-inflammatory cytokine.

  2. [Genetic variability and differentiation of three Russian populations of yellow potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis as revealed by nuclear markers].

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    Khrisanfova, G G; Kharchevnikov, D A; Popov, I O; Zinov'eva, S V; Semenova, S K

    2008-05-01

    Genetic variability of yellow potato cyst nematode G. rostochiensis from three Russian populations (Karelia, Vladimir oblast, and Moscow oblast) was investigated using two types of nuclear markers. Using RAPD markers identified with the help of six random primers (P-29, OPA-10, OPT-14, OPA-11, OPB-11, and OPH-20), it was possible to distinguish Karelian population from the group consisting of the populations from two adjacent regions (Moscow oblast and Vladimir oblast). Based on the combined matrix, containing 294 RAPD fragments, dendrogram of genetic differences was constructed, and the indices of genetic divergence and partition (P, H, and G(st)), as well as the gene flow indices N(m) between the nematode samples examined, were calculated. The dendrogram structure, genetic diversity indices, and variations of genetic distances between single individuals in each population from Karelia and Central Russia pointed to genetic isolation and higher genetic diversity of the nematodes from Karelia. Based on polymorphism of rDNA first intergenic spacer ITS1, attribution of all populations examined to the species G. rostochiensis was proved. Small variations of the ITS1 sequence in different geographic populations of nematodes from different regions of the species world range did not allow isolation of separate groups within the species. Possible factors (including interregional transportations of seed potato) affecting nematode population structure in Russia are discussed.

  3. A Systems Vaccinology Approach Reveals Temporal Transcriptomic Changes of Immune Responses to the Yellow Fever 17D Vaccine.

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    Hou, Jue; Wang, Shuhui; Jia, Manxue; Li, Dan; Liu, Ying; Li, Zhengpeng; Zhu, Hong; Xu, Huifang; Sun, Meiping; Lu, Li; Zhou, Zhinan; Peng, Hong; Zhang, Qichen; Fu, Shihong; Liang, Guodong; Yao, Lena; Yu, Xuesong; Carpp, Lindsay N; Huang, Yunda; McElrath, Julie; Self, Steve; Shao, Yiming

    2017-08-15

    In this study, we used a systems vaccinology approach to identify temporal changes in immune response signatures to the yellow fever (YF)-17D vaccine, with the aim of comprehensively characterizing immune responses associated with protective immunity. We conducted a cohort study in which 21 healthy subjects in China were administered one dose of the YF-17D vaccine; PBMCs were collected at 0 h and then at 4 h and days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28, 84, and 168 postvaccination, and analyzed by transcriptional profiling and immunological assays. At 4 h postvaccination, genes associated with innate cell differentiation and cytokine pathways were dramatically downregulated, whereas receptor genes were upregulated, compared with their baseline levels at 0 h. Immune response pathways were primarily upregulated on days 5 and 7, accompanied by the upregulation of the transcriptional factors JUP, STAT1, and EIF2AK2. We also observed robust activation of innate immunity within 2 d postvaccination and a durable adaptive response, as assessed by transcriptional profiling. Coexpression network analysis indicated that lysosome activity and lymphocyte proliferation were associated with dendritic cell (DC) and CD4 + T cell responses; FGL2, NFAM1, CCR1, and TNFSF13B were involved in these associations. Moreover, individuals who were baseline-seropositive for Abs against another flavivirus exhibited significantly impaired DC, NK cell, and T cell function in response to YF-17D vaccination. Overall, our findings indicate that YF-17D vaccination induces a prompt innate immune response and DC activation, a robust Ag-specific T cell response, and a persistent B cell/memory B cell response. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. The genome of the yellow potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, reveals insights into the basis of parasitism and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Laetsch, Dominik R; Thorpe, Peter; Lilley, Catherine J; Danchin, Etienne G J; Da Rocha, Martine; Rancurel, Corinne; Holroyd, Nancy E; Cotton, James A; Szitenberg, Amir; Grenier, Eric; Montarry, Josselin; Mimee, Benjamin; Duceppe, Marc-Olivier; Boyes, Ian; Marvin, Jessica M C; Jones, Laura M; Yusup, Hazijah B; Lafond-Lapalme, Joël; Esquibet, Magali; Sabeh, Michael; Rott, Michael; Overmars, Hein; Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Smant, Geert; Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Blok, Vivian; Mantelin, Sophie; Cock, Peter J A; Phillips, Wendy; Henrissat, Bernard; Urwin, Peter E; Blaxter, Mark; Jones, John T

    2016-06-10

    The yellow potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, is a devastating plant pathogen of global economic importance. This biotrophic parasite secretes effectors from pharyngeal glands, some of which were acquired by horizontal gene transfer, to manipulate host processes and promote parasitism. G. rostochiensis is classified into pathotypes with different plant resistance-breaking phenotypes. We generate a high quality genome assembly for G. rostochiensis pathotype Ro1, identify putative effectors and horizontal gene transfer events, map gene expression through the life cycle focusing on key parasitic transitions and sequence the genomes of eight populations including four additional pathotypes to identify variation. Horizontal gene transfer contributes 3.5 % of the predicted genes, of which approximately 8.5 % are deployed as effectors. Over one-third of all effector genes are clustered in 21 putative 'effector islands' in the genome. We identify a dorsal gland promoter element motif (termed DOG Box) present upstream in representatives from 26 out of 28 dorsal gland effector families, and predict a putative effector superset associated with this motif. We validate gland cell expression in two novel genes by in situ hybridisation and catalogue dorsal gland promoter element-containing effectors from available cyst nematode genomes. Comparison of effector diversity between pathotypes highlights correlation with plant resistance-breaking. These G. rostochiensis genome resources will facilitate major advances in understanding nematode plant-parasitism. Dorsal gland promoter element-containing effectors are at the front line of the evolutionary arms race between plant and parasite and the ability to predict gland cell expression a priori promises rapid advances in understanding their roles and mechanisms of action.

  5. Virus surveys of Capsicum spp. in the Republic of Benin reveal the prevalence of pepper vein yellows virus and the identification of a previously uncharacterised polerovirus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afouda, Leonard; Kone, Daouda; Zinsou, Valerien; Dossou, Laurence; Kenyon, Lawrence; Winter, Stephan; Knierim, Dennis

    2017-06-01

    Surveys were conducted in 2014 and 2015 in Southern and Northern Benin, respectively, to identify the viruses infecting peppers (Capsicum spp.). The samples were screened by ELISA for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV), potato virus Y (PVY) and tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). A generic reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was used to test for the presence of poleroviruses. ELISA tests confirmed the prevalence of all viruses, while the RT-PCR detected pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV) which is reported for the first time in Benin. A further, divergent polerovirus isolate was detected from a single pepper sample originating from southern Benin. Screening of samples collected from solanaceous plants during virus surveys in Mali (conducted in 2009) also detected this divergent polerovirus isolate in two samples from African eggplants. The complete genome sequence was obtained from the Mali isolate using transcriptome sequencing and by conventional Sanger sequencing of overlapping RT-PCR products. Based on the sequence characteristics of this isolate we propose a new polerovirus species, African eggplant yellowing virus (AeYV).

  6. Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Nóbrega Litvoc

    Full Text Available Summary The yellow fever (YF virus is a Flavivirus, transmitted by Haemagogus, Sabethes or Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The disease is endemic in forest areas in Africa and Latin America leading to epizootics in monkeys that constitute the reservoir of the disease. There are two forms of YF: sylvatic, transmitted accidentally when approaching the forests, and urban, which can be perpetuated by Aedes aegypti. In Brazil, the last case of urban YF occurred in 1942. Since then, there has been an expansion of transmission areas from the North and Midwest regions to the South and Southeast. In 2017, the country faced an important outbreak of the disease mainly in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. In 2018, its reach extended from Minas Gerais toward São Paulo. Yellow fever has an incubation period of 3 to 6 days and sudden onset of symptoms with high fever, myalgia, headache, nausea/vomiting and increased transaminases. The disease ranges from asymptomatic to severe forms. The most serious forms occur in around 15% of those infected, with high lethality rates. These forms lead to renal, hepatic and neurological impairment, and bleeding episodes. Treatment of mild and moderate forms is symptomatic, while severe and malignant forms depend on intensive care. Prevention is achieved by administering the vaccine, which is an effective (immunogenicity at 90-98% and safe (0.4 severe events per 100,000 doses measure. In 2018, the first transplants in the world due to YF were performed. There is also an attempt to evaluate the use of active drugs against the virus in order to reduce disease severity.

  7. First full-length genome sequence of the polerovirus luffa aphid-borne yellows virus (LABYV) reveals the presence of at least two consensus sequences in an isolate from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, Dennis; Maiss, Edgar; Kenyon, Lawrence; Winter, Stephan; Menzel, Wulf

    2015-10-01

    Luffa aphid-borne yellows virus (LABYV) was proposed as the name for a previously undescribed polerovirus based on partial genome sequences obtained from samples of cucurbit plants collected in Thailand between 2008 and 2013. In this study, we determined the first full-length genome sequence of LABYV. Based on phylogenetic analysis and genome properties, it is clear that this virus represents a distinct species in the genus Polerovirus. Analysis of sequences from sample TH24, which was collected in 2010 from a luffa plant in Thailand, reveals the presence of two different full-length genome consensus sequences.

  8. Stable isotopes in yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) fossils reveal environmental stability in the late Quaternary of the Colorado Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Linda M.; Meltzer, David J.; Emslie, Steven D.; Tuross, Noreen

    2015-03-01

    High elevation plant and animal communities are considered extremely sensitive to environmental change. We investigated an exceptional fossil record of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) specimens that was recovered from Cement Creek Cave (elev. 2860 m) and ranged in age from radiocarbon background circa 49.8 cal ka BP to ~ 1 cal ka BP. We coupled isotopic and radiocarbon measurements (δ18O, δD, δ15N, δ13C, and 14C) of bone collagen from individually-AMS dated specimens of marmots to assess ecological responses by this species to environmental change over time in a high elevation basin in the Rocky Mountains of southwestern Colorado, USA. We find little change in all four isotope ratios over time, demonstrating considerable environmental stability during periods when the marmots were present. The stable ecology and the apparent persistence of the small mammal community in the cave fauna throughout the late Quaternary are in marked contrast to the changes that occurred in the large mammal community, including local extirpation and extinction, at the end of the Pleistocene.

  9. Yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit Ramakant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of yellow nail syndrome is described in a forty year old male patient who presented with classical triad of this syndrome i.e. deformed yellow nails, lymph-edema and chronic recurrent pleural effusion. The practical problems in the di-agnosis are also briefly discussed with emphasis on awareness of this rare clinical entity.

  10. Yellow fever: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, T P

    2001-08-01

    Yellow fever, the original viral haemorrhagic fever, was one of the most feared lethal diseases before the development of an effective vaccine. Today the disease still affects as many as 200,000 persons annually in tropical regions of Africa and South America, and poses a significant hazard to unvaccinated travellers to these areas. Yellow fever is transmitted in a cycle involving monkeys and mosquitoes, but human beings can also serve as the viraemic host for mosquito infection. Recent increases in the density and distribution of the urban mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, as well as the rise in air travel increase the risk of introduction and spread of yellow fever to North and Central America, the Caribbean and Asia. Here I review the clinical features of the disease, its pathogenesis and pathophysiology. The disease mechanisms are poorly understood and have not been the subject of modern clinical research. Since there is no specific treatment, and management of patients with the disease is extremely problematic, the emphasis is on preventative vaccination. As a zoonosis, yellow fever cannot be eradicated, but reduction of the human disease burden is achievable through routine childhood vaccination in endemic countries, with a low cost for the benefits obtained. The biological characteristics, safety, and efficacy of live attenuated, yellow fever 17D vaccine are reviewed. New applications of yellow fever 17D virus as a vector for foreign genes hold considerable promise as a means of developing new vaccines against other viruses, and possibly against cancers.

  11. Yellow fever: epidemiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2007-03-15

    Yellow fever continues to occur in regions of Africa and South America, despite the availability of effective vaccines. Recently, some cases of severe neurologic disease and multiorgan system disease have been described in individuals who received yellow fever vaccine. These events have focused attention on the need to define criteria for judicious use of yellow fever vaccine and to describe the spectrum of adverse events that may be associated with yellow fever vaccine. Describing host factors that would increase risk of these events and identifying potential treatment modalities for yellow fever and yellow fever vaccine-associated adverse events are subjects of intense investigation.

  12. Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How can I prevent yellow fever? Yellow fever vaccine Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow fever. Yellow fever vaccine ... such as those containing DEET. 3 Yellow fever vaccine Yellow fever vaccine is a live, weakened virus. It is ...

  13. Yellow substance (gelbstoff)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, A.

    1988-04-01

    The different values of the mean slope (S) of the absorption coefficient a(λ) of gelbstoff (yellow substance) for each region under the same hydrological conditions and the correlation between the quantity of absorption (CA) of gelbstoff and sea water parameter is discussed. 12 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Introducing the Yellow Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2018-01-01

    The author has acquired a yellow laser with the specific wavelength of 589 nm. Because this is the first time such a laser has been discussed in this journal, I feel it is appropriate to provide a discussion of its function and capabilities. Normal laser safety should be employed, such as not pointing it into eyes or at people, and using eye…

  15. Introducing the yellow laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2018-02-01

    The author has acquired a yellow laser with the specific wavelength of 589 nm. Because this is the first time such a laser has been discussed in this journal, I feel it is appropriate to provide a discussion of its function and capabilities. Normal laser safety should be employed, such as not pointing it into eyes or at people, and using eye protection for the young and inexperienced. It is important to note that 589 nm is the same wavelength as the Sodium-D line (doublet). This allows for the laser to serve as a replacement for sodium lamps, and, considering its rather high price, this added value should be balanced against its cost. What follows is a list of activities that showcase the yellow laser's unique promise as an engaging piece of technology that can be used in the teaching of physics.

  16. Pilot experience yellow tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassanti, W.A.; Esteves Junior, L.

    1990-01-01

    In the search for alternatives to reduce the probability of a electric energy shortage, the National Electric Sector decided to apply Real Cost Supply Tariff. The implementation of this tariff method to consumers supplied on low tension, Group B (lower than 2300 Volts), demands a better knowledge of measurement equipment, tariff values and consumers receptivity for energy modulation and/or conservation, all objects of this Yellow Tariff Experience. (author)

  17. Yellow cake product practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosina, B.

    1980-01-01

    The flow sheets of uranium ore processing plants at present operating throughout the world terminate with the production of yellow cake. The demands of the refineries on the quality of this commodity have become more stringent with time. The impurity content of yellow cake depends to a considerable extent on the nature of the technical operations preceding precipitation. As a rule the purity of the final product is greater when the uranium is precipitated from re-extractants or regenerators consisting of weakly basic resins. An analysis of 80 uranium precipitation flow sheets demonstrates the advantages of using ammonia, while to some extent use is made of caustic soda, magnesium oxide, hydrogen peroxide or calcium oxide; precipitation is carried out in one or two stages at high temperature. Use of a particular chemical is governed by its availability, price, effect on the environment, degree of filtrate utilization, etc. It may be anticipated that the perfecting of precipitation flow sheets will be directed towards achieving maximum concentration of uranium in the solutions before precipitation, reduction in the volume of liquid flows through the equipment, an improvement in the filtration qualities of the precipitate, etc. The paper gives the flow sheet for precipitation of uranium by means of gaseous ammonia from sulphate-carbonate solutions. For drying yellow cake use has been made of spray driers. The dry product is easily sampled and transported. (author)

  18. Febre amarela Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A febre amarela é doenca infecciosa não-contagiosa causada por um arbovírus mantido em ciclos silvestres em que macacos atuam como hospedeiros amplificadores e mosquitos dos gêneros Aedes na África, e Haemagogus e Sabethes na América, são os transmissores. Cerca de 90% dos casos da doença apresentam-se com formas clínicas benignas que evoluem para a cura, enquanto 10% desenvolvem quadros dramáticos com mortalidade em torno de 50%. O problema mostra-se mais grave em África onde ainda há casos urbanos. Nas Américas, no período de 1970-2001, descreveram-se 4.543 casos. Os países que mais diagnosticaram a doença foram o Peru (51,5%, a Bolívia (20,1% e o Brasil (18,7%. Os métodos diagnósticos utilizados incluem a sorologia (IgM, isolamento viral, imunohistoquímica e RT-PCR. A zoonose não pode ser erradicada, mas, a doença humana é prevenível mediante a vacinação com a amostra 17D do vírus amarílico. A OMS recomenda nova vacinação a cada 10 anos. Neste artigo são revistos os principais conceitos da doença e os casos de mortes associados à vacina.Yellow fever is an infectious and non-contagious disease caused by an arbovirus, the yellow fever virus. The agent is maintained in jungle cycles among primates as vertebrate hosts and mosquitoes, especially Aedes in Africa, and Haemagogus and Sabethes in America. Approximately 90% of the infections are mild or asymptomatic, while 10% course to a severe clinical picture with 50% case-fatality rate. Yellow fever is largely distributed in Africa where urban epidemics are still reported. In South America, between 1970-2001, 4,543 cases were reported, mostly from Peru (51.5%, Bolivia (20.1% and Brazil (18.7%. The disease is diagnosed by serology (detection of IgM, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Yellow fever is a zoonosis and cannot be eradicated, but it is preventable in man by using the 17D vaccine. A single dose is enough to protect an individual for at least

  19. Need yellow fever vaccine? Plan ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Need yellow fever vaccine? Plan ahead. Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... none were from the United States). What is yellow fever? Yellow fever is caused by a virus that ...

  20. Phylogeny of Yellow Fever Virus, Uganda, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Holly R; Kayiwa, John; Mossel, Eric C; Lutwama, Julius; Staples, J Erin; Lambert, Amy J

    2018-08-17

    In April 2016, a yellow fever outbreak was detected in Uganda. Removal of contaminating ribosomal RNA in a clinical sample improved the sensitivity of next-generation sequencing. Molecular analyses determined the Uganda yellow fever outbreak was distinct from the concurrent yellow fever outbreak in Angola, improving our understanding of yellow fever epidemiology.

  1. 'Yellow lens' eyes of a stomiatoid deep-sea fish, Malacosteus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somiya, H

    1982-07-22

    Bright yellow lenses were found in the eyes of the stomiatoid deep-sea fish, Malacosteus niger Ayres. The optical properties of the yellow lens and the retinal specializations in the eyes were examined. Absorption spectra of the yellow lens revealed two peaks at wavelengths 425 and 460 nm. The photoreceptors were all rods and were arranged in two superimposed layers. An astaxanthin-type retinal tapetum was observed in the pigment epithelium. Some chemical evidence is presented showing that the tapetal material is an astaxanthin ester. The ecological significance of the yellow lens is discussed in connection with that of Malacosteus' orbital light organ which has a reddish filter.

  2. Smog Yellows Taj Mahal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Built as a monument to the favorite wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the Taj Mahal has watched over the city of Agra, India, since the mid-seventeenth century with its pillars of gleaming white marble. By the spring of 2007, however, one of the world's most visited landmarks was turning yellow, and a panel of India's parliament had little trouble identifying the culprit: pollution. The panel blamed particles of soot and dirt suspended high in the atmosphere for the Taj Mahal's dinginess. The Taj Mahal's home, Agra, sits not far from the base of the Himalaya, and smog regularly collects along the southern side of the mountain range. On May 16, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around Agra, India. The closeup image shows the immediate vicinity of the Taj Majal. The larger image shows the surrounding area. In both pictures, dingy, gray-beige haze obscures the satellite's view of the land surface. India had tried to minimize the adverse impact of air pollution on the famous landmark. According to the BBC, in the late 1990s, India's Supreme Court ordered the closure of thousands of iron foundries and kilns that had belched smoke near the monument. Many of the 3 million tourists who visited the Taj Majal each year approached the monument on horse-drawn carriages or battery-operated buses as fossil-fuel-powered vehicles could not drive within 2 kilometers (1.5 miles). Since those efforts have failed to save the Taj Majal's complexion, Indian officials have considered applying a cleansing mud pack to the monument's surface to draw out the dirt. As India industrializes, smog results, and the Taj Mahal's gleaming whiteness is only one casualty. Pollution has been blamed for a decrease in Indian rice harvests, which had soared during the 'Green Revolution' of the 1960s and 1970s. Haze and dust also appear to bring on the region's monsoon rains earlier than normal.

  3. 17DD yellow fever vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Reinaldo M.; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S.; Farias, Roberto Henrique G.; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Almeida, Luiz Fernando C.; Lima, Sheila Maria B.; Nogueira, Rita Maria R.; Sá, Gloria Regina S.; Hokama, Darcy A.; de Carvalho, Ricardo; Freire, Ricardo Aguiar V.; Filho, Edson Pereira; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To verify if the Bio-Manguinhos 17DD yellow fever vaccine (17DD-YFV) used in lower doses is as immunogenic and safe as the current formulation. Results: Doses from 27,476 IU to 587 IU induced similar seroconversion rates and neutralizing antibodies geometric mean titers (GMTs). Immunity of those who seroconverted to YF was maintained for 10 mo. Reactogenicity was low for all groups. Methods: Young and healthy adult males (n = 900) were recruited and randomized into 6 groups, to receive de-escalating doses of 17DD-YFV, from 27,476 IU to 31 IU. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (for neutralization tests to yellow fever, serology for dengue and clinical chemistry), 3 to 7 d after vaccination (for viremia and clinical chemistry) and 30 d after vaccination (for new yellow fever serology and clinical chemistry). Adverse events diaries were filled out by volunteers during 10 d after vaccination. Volunteers were retested for yellow fever and dengue antibodies 10 mo later. Seropositivity for dengue was found in 87.6% of volunteers before vaccination, but this had no significant influence on conclusions. Conclusion: In young healthy adults Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz yellow fever vaccine can be used in much lower doses than usual. International Register ISRCTN 38082350. PMID:23364472

  4. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic classification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ntushk

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Review. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic ... lethal yellowing-type phytoplasma disease was recorded on a number of palm species of mainly ..... Immunodominant membrane protein (imp) Gene.

  5. The half-yellow man

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The half-yellow man. BJ Merwitza* and FJ Raala. aFaculty of Health Sciences, Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Research Unit, University of the Witswaterand, Johannesburg, South Africa. *Corresponding author, emails: bmerwitz@hotmail.com, brad.merwitz@gmail.com. Keywords: diffuse normolipaemic planar ...

  6. Plant Guide: Yellow beeplant (Cleome lutea Hook)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Tilley; Jim Cane; Loren St. John; Dan Ogle; Nancy Shaw

    2012-01-01

    Yellow beeplant is a valuable native forage species for bees wasps and butterflies. Over 140 species of native bees have been observed foraging for nectar or pollen on yellow beeplant in southern Utah (Cane, 2008). Yellow beeplant is an annual forb which could provide food to insects in the first growing season of a range seeding (Ogle and others, 2011a). This...

  7. New poleroviruses associated with yellowing symptoms in different vegetable crops in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotos, L; Maliogka, V I; Katis, N I

    2016-02-01

    Four poleroviral isolates from Greece, two from lettuce, one from spinach and one from watermelon showing yellowing symptoms, were molecularly characterized by analyzing the sequence of a large part of the genome spanning from the 3'-terminal part of the RdRp to the end of the CP gene. The sequences were analyzed for their similarity and phylogenetic relationships to other members of the genus Polerovirus as well as for evidence of recombination events. The results revealed the existence of two putatively new viruses: one from lettuce and one from spinach, provisionally named "lettuce yellows virus" and "spinach yellows virus", respectively. Also, a new recombinant virus infecting lettuce, herein named "lettuce mild yellows virus", and a watermelon isolate of pepo aphid-borne yellows virus (PABYV) were identified. Our study highlights the existence of high genetic diversity within the genus Polerovirus, which could be associated with the emergence of new viral diseases in various crops worldwide.

  8. Application of isostatic gravity anomaly in the Yellow Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z.; Qin, J.; Huang, W.; Wu, X.

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the deep crustal structure of the Yellow Sea area, we used the Airy-Heiskanen model to calculate the isostatic gravity anomaly of this area. Based on the Bouguer gravity anomaly and water depth data of this area, we chose the calculating parameters as standard crustal thickness 30 km, crust-mantle density difference 0.6g/cm3and grid spacing 0.1°×0.1°. This study reveals that there are six faults and four isostatic negative anomalies in the study area. The isostatic anomalies in much of Yellow Sea areas give priority to those with positive anomalies. The isostatic anomalies in North Yellow Sea are higher than South Yellow Sea with Jiashan-Xiangshui fault as the boundary. In the north of the study area, isostatic anomalies are characterized by large areas of positive anomaly. The change is relatively slow, and the trends give priority to the trend NE or NEE. In the middle of the north Yellow Sea basin, there is a local negative anomaly, arranged as a string of beads in NE to discontinuous distribution. Negative anomaly range is small, basically corresponds to the region's former Cenozoic sedimentary basin position. To the south of Jiashan-Xiangshui fault and west of Yellow Sea eastern margin fault, including most of the south Yellow Sea and Jiangsu province, the isostatic anomalies are lower. And the positive and negative anomalies are alternative distribution, and negative anomaly trap in extensive development. The trends give priority to NE, NEE, both to the NW. On the basis of the characteristics of isostatic gravity anomalies, it is concluded that the Yellow Sea belongs to continental crustal isostatic area whose isostatic anomalies is smooth and slow. ReferencesHeiskanen, W. A., F. A. V. Meinesz, and S. A. Korff (1958), The Earth and Its Gravity Field, McGraw-Hill, New York. Meng, X. J., X. H. Zhang, and J. Y. Yang (2014), Geophysical survey in eastern China seas and the characteristics of gravity and magnetic fields, Marine Geoglogy

  9. Influence of yellow rust infection on /sup 32/P transport in detached barley leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, J. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Aschersleben. Inst. fuer Phytopathologie)

    1982-01-01

    Several barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) were tested for relationships between changes of /sup 32/P transport in detached leaves and resistance to yellow rust disease. Investigation carried out with detached second leaves from plants infected at their first leaf revealed a matter transport in these leaves changed by the infection. Transport was also influenced by inoculation with yellow rust uredospores. In that case rust infection influenced the basipetal transport less strongly in resistent plants than in susceptible ones. Connected with the findings the influence of fungal substances on transport processes is discussed in general.

  10. Influence of yellow rust infextion on 32P transport in detached barley leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.

    1982-01-01

    Several barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) were tested for relationships between changes of 32 P transport in detached leaves and resistance to yellow rust disease. Investigation carried out with detached second leaves from plants infected at their first leaf revealed a matter transport in these leaves changed by the infection. Transport was also influenced by inoculation with yellow rust uredospores. In that case rust infection influenced the basipetal transport less strongly in resistent plants than in susceptible ones. Connected with the findings the influence of fungal substances on transport processes is discussed in general. (author)

  11. [Respiratory manifestations of yellow nail syndrome: report of two cases and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Huang, H; Xu, K; Xu, Z J

    2018-03-12

    Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of respiratory manifestations of yellow nail syndrome. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 2 patients with respiratory diseases associated with yellow nail syndrome. Their clinical and chest radiological data were collected. We searched PubMed, Wanfang and CNKI databases with the keywords "yellow nail syndrome, yellow nail and lung" in Chinese and English. And the relevant literatures, including 6 articles in Chinese and 81 articles in English, were reviewed. Results: Our 2 patients were male, one 60 years old and the other 76. Typical yellow nails were present in their fingers, and one of them also showed toe yellow nails. One patient was admitted for refractory respiratory infection and he was diagnosed with diffuse bronchiectasis. The respiratory symptoms could be relieved with antibiotics according to the results of sputum microbiological analysis. The other patient was admitted for cough and exertional dyspnea, and refractory pleural effusions were revealed bilaterally. He received repeated effusion drainage by thoracentesis, and Octreotide was tried recently. A total of 373 cases were reviewed in Chinese and English literatures. Pleural effusions (152 cases) and diffuse bronchiectasis (121 cases) were the most common reported respiratory manifestations. Lymphoedema was present in almost all cases with pleural effusion associated with yellow nail syndrome, and the effusion was usually exudative and lymphocyte predominant. Pleurodesis and decortication were effective for them. But, somatostatin analogues had been tried effectively for these patients recently. On the other hand, literatures showed that diffuse bronchiectasis in yellow nail syndrome was less severe than idiopathic diffuse bronchiectasis, and might benefit from long-term macrolide antibiotics. Conclusions: Yellow nail syndrome is a very rare disorder. Besides yellow nail, respiratory manifestations are the main clinical

  12. Geographic patterns and environmental factors associated with human yellow fever presence in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Patricia Najera; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Machado, Gustavo; Leonel, Deise Galan; Vilca, Luz Maria; Uriona, Sonia; Schneider, Maria Cristina

    2017-09-01

    In the Americas, yellow fever virus transmission is a latent threat due to the proximity between urban and wild environments. Although yellow fever has nearly vanished from North and Central America, there are still 13 countries in the Americas considered endemic by the World Health Organization. Human cases usually occur as a result of the exposure to sylvatic yellow fever in tropical forested environments; but urban outbreaks reported during the last decade demonstrate that the risk in this environment still exists. The objective of this study was to identify spatial patterns and the relationship between key geographic and environmental factors with the distribution of yellow fever human cases in the Americas. An ecological study was carried out to analyze yellow fever human cases reported to the Pan American Health Organization from 2000 to 2014, aggregated by second administrative level subdivisions (counties). Presence of yellow fever by county was used as the outcome variable and eight geo-environmental factors were used as independent variables. Spatial analysis was performed to identify and examine natural settings per county. Subsequently, a multivariable logistic regression model was built. During the study period, 1,164 cases were reported in eight out of the 13 endemic countries. Nearly 83.8% of these cases were concentrated in three countries: Peru (37.4%), Brazil (28.1%) and Colombia (18.4%); and distributed in 57 states/provinces, specifically in 286 counties (3.4% of total counties). Yellow fever presence was significantly associated with altitude, rain, diversity of non-human primate hosts and temperature. A positive spatial autocorrelation revealed a clustered geographic pattern in 138/286 yellow fever positive counties (48.3%). A clustered geographic pattern of yellow fever was identified mostly along the Andes eastern foothills. This risk map could support health policies in endemic countries. Geo-environmental factors associated with presence

  13. Perinatal Yellow Fever: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Lilian Martins Oliveira; Romanelli, Roberta Maia Castro; de Carvalho, Andréa Lucchesi; Teixeira, Daniela Caldas; de Carvalho, Luis Fernando Andrade; Cury, Verônica Ferreira; Filho, Marcelo Pereira Lima; Perígolo, Graciele; Heringer, Tiago Pires

    2018-04-09

    An outbreak of yellow fever in Brazil made it possible to assess different presentations of disease such as perinatal transmission. A pregnant woman was admitted to hospital with yellow fever symptoms. She was submitted to cesarean section and died due to fulminant hepatitis. On the 6th day the newborn developed liver failure and died 13 days later. Yellow fever PCR was positive for both.

  14. AHP 47: YELLOW-HEAD HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangs rgyas bkra shis སངས་རྒྱས་བཀྲ་ཤིས།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available My family had a stallion we called Rta mgo ser 'Yellow-Head Horse'. Father and two of his brothers occasionally rode it. Father said that Yellow-Head was very wild when it was taken to join local horseraces. I didn't believe that because Yellow-Head was very gentle when Mother rode it to the local monastery and also when I rode it.

  15. Titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ataya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unclear etiology. We describe a patient who develops yellow nail syndrome, with primary nail and sinus manifestations, shortly after amalgam dental implants. A study of the patient's nail shedding showed elevated nail titanium levels. The patient had her dental implants removed and had complete resolution of her sinus symptoms with no change in her nail findings. Since the patient's nail findings did not resolve we do not believe titanium exposure is a cause of her yellow nail syndrome but perhaps a possible relationship exists between titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome that requires further studies.

  16. Yellow fever vaccine-associated neurological disease, a suspicious case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirão, Pedro; Pereira, Patrícia; Nunes, Andreia; Antunes, Pedro

    2017-03-02

    A 70-year-old man with known cardiovascular risk factors, presented with acute onset expression aphasia, agraphia, dyscalculia, right-left disorientation and finger agnosia, without fever or meningeal signs. Stroke was thought to be the cause, but cerebrovascular disease investigation was negative. Interviewing the family revealed he had undergone yellow fever vaccination 18 days before. Lumbar puncture revealed mild protein elevation. Cultural examinations, Coxiella burnetti, and neurotropic virus serologies were negative. Regarding the yellow fever virus, IgG was identified in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with negative IgM and virus PCR in CSF. EEG showed an encephalopathic pattern. The patient improved gradually and a week after discharge was his usual self. Only criteria for suspect neurotropic disease were met, but it's possible the time spent between symptom onset and lumbar puncture prevented a definite diagnosis of yellow fever vaccine-associated neurological disease. This gap would have been smaller if the vaccination history had been collected earlier. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. Dimension yields from yellow-poplar lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. Gilmore; J. D. Danielson

    1984-01-01

    The available supply of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), its potential for new uses, and its continuing importance to the furniture industry have created a need to accumulate additional information about this species. As an aid to better utilization of this species, charts for determining cutting stock yields from yellow poplar lumber are presented for each...

  18. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm yellows phytoplasmas have been a subject of debate because of two recent outbreaks. Firstly, a lethal yellowing-type phytoplasma disease was recorded on a number of palm species of mainly the genus Phoenix in Florida in 2008. Shortly afterwards, Sabal palmetto which has never been threatened by a ...

  19. Yellow nail syndrome and bronchiectasis | Adegboye | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Yellow Nail Syndrome includes slow growing, opaque yellow nails with exaggerated lateral curvature, associated with lymphoedema and chronic respiratory disorders. The nail changes may precede the lymphoedema by a number of years. Bronchiectasis may be the only chronic respiratory disorder; others include ...

  20. Serological changes induced by blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine in swiss albino rat, rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effect of blend of some food colors on Swiss albino rats. A blend (1:1:1) of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine showed additive effects on serological parameters which indicate that addition of these dye together in food stuff may give rise to more toxic effects than are produced by each dye individually. Animals were divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV). First group was treated as control and respective group of animals received 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of food colors by gavaging up to 30 days. The serological study showed a decrease in total protein and albumin and an increase in alkaline phosphatase, SGPT and total bilirubin. The results revealed that oral administration of these blend did not affect the body weight gain. The prolonged consumption of the blend may cause adverse effect on human health.

  1. Hippocrates, cardiology, Confucius and the Yellow Emperor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T O

    2001-12-01

    Although Hippocrates (460-c.375 BC) has been traditionally recognized as the Father of Medicine, the fact that he was seminal in the development of cardiology is much less well known. Evidence is presented to support the notion that Hippocrates could also be considered the Father of Cardiology. Hippocrates also had many of the teachings and practices in common with Confucius (c.551-c.479 BC) and the Yellow Emperor of China (2695-2589 BC). Whereas Confucius was not a physician, the Yellow Emperor was an ancient Chinese physician whose Huang Di Neijing, the Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Medicine, is the oldest known treatise of medicine in existence.

  2. Thermal quenching of the yellow luminescence in GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshchikov, M. A.; Albarakati, N. M.; Monavarian, M.; Avrutin, V.; Morkoç, H.

    2018-04-01

    We observed varying thermal quenching behavior of the yellow luminescence band near 2.2 eV in different GaN samples. In spite of the different behavior, the yellow band in all the samples is caused by the same defect—the YL1 center. In conductive n-type GaN, the YL1 band quenches with exponential law, and the Arrhenius plot reveals an ionization energy of ˜0.9 eV for the YL1 center. In semi-insulating GaN, an abrupt and tunable quenching of the YL1 band is observed, where the apparent activation energy in the Arrhenius plot is not related to the ionization energy of the defect. In this case, the ionization energy can be found by analyzing the shift of the characteristic temperature of PL quenching with excitation intensity. We conclude that only one defect, namely, the YL1 center, is responsible for the yellow band in undoped and doped GaN samples grown by different techniques.

  3. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  4. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is used...

  5. A “Yellow Submarine” in Dermoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Satolli

    2018-01-01

    CONCLUSION: HS is usually diagnosed at an already advanced clinical stage and it has a high mortality rate even today. Dermoscopy, showing a yellow and distributed homogeneously colour, can facilitate its hard diagnosis.

  6. Yellow phosphorus-induced Brugada phenocopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharanipradab, Mayakrishnan; Viswanathan, Stalin; Kumar, Gokula Raman; Krishnamurthy, Vijayalatchumy; Stanley, Daphene Divya

    Metallic phosphides (of aluminum and phosphide) and yellow phosphorus are commonly used rodenticide compounds in developing countries. Toxicity of yellow phosphorus mostly pertains to the liver, kidney, heart, pancreas and the brain. Cardiotoxicity with associated Brugada ECG pattern has been reported only in poisoning with metallic phosphides. Brugada phenocopy and hepatic dysfunction were observed in a 29-year-old male following yellow phosphorus consumption. He had both type 1 (day1) and type 2 (day2) Brugada patterns in the electrocardiogram, which resolved spontaneously by the third day without hemodynamic compromise. Toxins such as aluminum and zinc phosphide have been reported to induce Brugada ECG patterns due to the generation of phosphine. We report the first case of yellow phosphorus-related Brugada phenocopy, without hemodynamic compromise or malignant arrhythmia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mineralogical characterization of uranium yellow cake concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausen, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    Uranium yellow cake concentrates have been analyzed and characterized mineralogically by means of differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectra and wet chemical methods. On the basis of mineralogical methods of characterization, the following four major structural types of yellow cake may be classified: Uranyl Hydroxide Hydrate, UO 2 (OH) 2 nH 2 O; Basic Uranyl Sulfate Hydrate, (UO 2 ) x (SO 4 ) y (OH) s(x-y ).nH 2 O; Sodium Para-Uranate, Na 5 U 7 O 24 and Uranyl Peroxide Hydrate, UO 4 .nH 2 O. In this paper conditions of yellow cake preparation and characterization are described, along with discussion of significance of structural types to the physical and chemical properties of yellow cake production

  8. STUDIES ON SOUTH AMERICAN YELLOW FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nelson C.; Shannon, Raymond C.

    1929-01-01

    Yellow fever virus from M. rhesus has been inoculated into a South American monkey (Cebus macrocephalus) by blood injection and by bites of infected mosquitoes. The Cebus does not develop the clinical or pathological signs of yellow fever. Nevertheless, the virus persists in the Cebus for a time as shown by the typical symptoms and lesions which develop when the susceptible M. rhesus is inoculated from a Cebus by direct transfer of blood or by mosquito (A. aegypti) transmission. PMID:19869607

  9. Silvical characteristics of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian M. Gilbert

    1960-01-01

    Of the birches in the Northeast, the yellow birch is the elite species, by far the most valuable as a timber tree. More than that, it is one of the largest deciduous trees of northeastern America. It may reach 100 feet in height and more than 3 feet in diameter, and may live to 300 years of age. Pioneers told tales of the gigantic yellow birches they saw.

  10. Extraction and purification of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation has reviewed current studies on production and purification of yellow cake from uranium ores by both acid and alkaline leaching processes. It comprises three chapters, the first one deal with uranium minerals, uranium deposits, geology of uranium and uranium isotopes. The second chapter covers mining and milling methods, uranium leaching chemistry, precipitation, and purification of uranium concentrate by solvent extraction and possible impurities that commonly interfered with yellow cake. The last chapter presented ongoing literature review.(Author)

  11. Molecular and Ultrastructural Mechanisms Underlying Yellow Dwarf Symptom Formation in Wheat after Infection of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Wei; Wang, Xindong; Wang, Xifeng; Massart, Sebastien; Zhang, Zengyan

    2018-04-13

    Wheat ( Tritium aestivum L.) production is essential for global food security. Infection of barley yellow dwarf virus-GAV (BYDV-GAV) results in wheat showing leaf yellowing and plant dwarfism symptom. To explore the molecular and ultrastructural mechanisms underlying yellow dwarf symptom formation in BYDV-GAV-infected wheat, we investigated the chloroplast ultrastructure via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), examined the contents of the virus, H₂O₂, and chlorophyll in Zhong8601, and studied the comparative transcriptome through microarray analyses in the susceptible wheat line Zhong8601 after virus infection. TEM images indicated that chloroplasts in BYDV-GAV-infected Zhong8601 leaf cells were fragmentized. Where thylakoids were not well developed, starch granules and plastoglobules were rare. Compared with mock-inoculated Zhong8601, chlorophyll content was markedly reduced, but the virus and H₂O₂ contents were significantly higher in BYDV-GAV-infected Zhong8601. The transcriptomic analyses revealed that chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast related transcripts, encoding chlorophyll a/b binding protein, glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator 2, and glutamyl-tRNA reductase 1, were down-regulated in BYDV-GAV-infected Zhong8601. Some phytohormone signaling-related transcripts, including abscisic acid (ABA) signaling factors (phospholipase D alpha 1 and calcineurin B-like protein 9) and nine ethylene response factors, were up-regulated. Additionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes were transcriptionally regulated in BYDV-GAV infected Zhong8601, including three up-regulated transcripts encoding germin-like proteins (promoting ROS accumulation) and four down-regulated transcripts encoding peroxides (scavenging ROS). These results clearly suggest that the yellow dwarf symptom formation is mainly attributed to reduced chlorophyll content and fragmentized chloroplasts caused by down-regulation of the chlorophyll and chloroplast biosynthesis

  12. Beet western yellows virus infects the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sissi; Biteau, Flore; Mignard, Benoit; Marais, Armelle; Candresse, Thierry; Theil, Sébastien; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Hehn, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Although poleroviruses are known to infect a broad range of higher plants, carnivorous plants have not yet been reported as hosts. Here, we describe the first polerovirus naturally infecting the pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The virus was identified through bioinformatic analysis of NGS transcriptome data. The complete viral genome sequence was assembled from overlapping PCR fragments and shown to share 91.1 % nucleotide sequence identity with the US isolate of beet western yellows virus (BWYV). Further analysis of other N. mirabilis plants revealed the presence of additional BWYV isolates differing by several insertion/deletion mutations in ORF5.

  13. Pepper yellow mosaic virus, a new potyvirus in sweet-pepper. Archives of Virology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inoue-Nagata, A.K.; Fonseca, M.E.N.; Resende, de R.O.; Boiteux, L.S.; Monte, D.C.; Dusi, A.N.; Ávila, de A.C.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    A potyvirus was found causing yellow mosaic and veinal banding in sweetpepper in Central and Southeast Brazil. The sequence analysis of the 3' terminal region of the viral RNA revealed a coat protein of 278 amino acids, followed by 275 nucleotides in the 3'-untranslated region preceding a

  14. Structural Evolution in Photoactive Yellow Protein Studied by Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshizawa M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast structural evolution in photoactive yellow protein (PYP is studied by femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy. A comparison between wild-type PYP and E46Q mutant reveals that the hydrogen-bonding network surrounding the chromophore of PYP is immediately rearranged in the electronic excited state.

  15. GRACE-based estimates of water discharge over the Yellow River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As critical component of hydrologic cycle, basin discharge is a key issue for understanding the hydrological and climatologic related to water and energy cycles. Combining GRACE gravity field models with ET from GLDAS models and precipitation from GPCP, discharge of the Yellow River basin are estimated from the water balance equation. While comparing the results with discharge from GLDAS model and in situ measurements, the results reveal that discharge from Mosaic and CLM GLDAS model can partially represent the river discharge and the discharge estimation from water balance equation could reflect the discharge from precipitation over the Yellow River basin.

  16. Water security evaluation in Yellow River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guiqin; He, Liyuan; Jing, Juan

    2018-03-01

    Water security is an important basis for making water security protection strategy, which concerns regional economic and social sustainable development. In this paper, watershed water security evaluation index system including 3 levels of 5 criterion layers (water resources security, water ecological security and water environment security, water disasters prevention and control security and social economic security) and 24 indicators were constructed. The entropy weight method was used to determine the weights of the indexes in the system. The water security index of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 in Yellow River basin were calculated by linear weighting method based on the relative data. Results show that the water security conditions continue to improve in Yellow River basin but still in a basic security state. There is still a long way to enhance the water security in Yellow River basin, especially the water prevention and control security, the water ecological security and water environment security need to be promoted vigorously.

  17. Effect of aspherical and yellow tinted intraocular lens on blue-on-yellow perimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo França de Espíndola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the possible effect of aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens (IOL on contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry. METHODS: This prospective randomized bilateral double-masked clinical study included 52 patients with visually significant bilateral cataracts divided in two groups; 25 patients (50 eyes received aspherical intraocular lens in one eye and spherical intraocular lens in the fellow eye; and 27 patients (54 eyes received ultraviolet and blue light filter (yellow tinted IOL implantation in one eye and acrylic ultraviolet filter IOL in the fellow eye. The primary outcome measures were contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry values (mean deviation [MD] and pattern standard deviation [PSD] investigated two years after surgery. The results were compared intra-individually. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant between-group (aspherical and spherical intraocular lens difference in contrast sensitivity under photopic conditions at 12 cycles per degree and under mesopic conditions at all spatial frequencies. There were no between-group significant differences (yellow tinted and clear intraocular lens under photopic or mesopic conditions. There was no statistically significant difference between all intraocular lens in MD or PSD. CONCLUSION: Contrast sensitivity was better under mesopic conditions with aspherical intraocular lens. Blue-on-yellow perimetry did not appear to be affected by aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens. Further studies with a larger sample should be carried out to confirm or not that hypotheses.

  18. [The fourth horseman: The yellow fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos-Parás, Alfonso; Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus three, Chikunguya and Zika have entered the national territory through the south of the country. Cases and outbreaks of yellow fever have now been identified in the Americas where it threatens to expand. Although Mexico has a robust epidemiological surveillance system for vector-borne diseases, our country must be alert in case of its possible introduction into the national territory. This paper presents theoretical assumptions based on factual data on the behavior of yellow fever in the Americas, as well as reflections on the epidemiological surveillance of vector-borne diseases.

  19. Yellow Nail Syndrome - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paravina Mirjana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is clinically characterized by a triad of yellow nails, lymphedema at one or more sites, and chronic respiratory disease (bronchitis, bronchiectasis and rhinosinusitis. All nails may be affected, but some may be spared. The nail plates are yellowish green, thickened, occasionally with transverse ridging and onycholysis, with increased longitudinal and transversal over-curvature, with partial or complete separation of the nail plate from the nail bed, without lunula and cuticle and slow nail growth rate. The lymphedema is usually peripheral, affecting the lower limbs, or in the form of pleural effusion.

  20. [Macular thickness measured by optical coherence tomography in pseudoaphakic eyes with clear vs yellow implant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, E; Bonnin-Arias, C; Pérez-Carrasco, M J; Alvarez-Rementería, L; Villa-Collar, C; Armadá-Maresca, F; Sánchez-Ramos, C

    2014-04-01

    To study the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT), for measuring the macular thickness variations produced over time in elderly pseudophakic subjects implanted with a clear intraocular lens (IOL) in one eye, and a yellow IOL in the other eye. Macular thickness measurements were obtained in the 36 eyes of 18 subjects over 65 years, with cataracts surgically removed from both eyes and implanted with different absorbance (clear and yellow) IOLs in 2 separate surgeries. Stratus-OCT was used to determine the macular thickness in 2 sessions with 5 years of difference. After 5 years of follow-up, the eyes implanted with clear IOLs revealed a significant decrease in macular thickness. However, in eyes implanted with yellow IOLs the macular thickness remained stable. The mean overall decrease in macular thickness in eyes implanted with clear IOLs was 5 ± 8 μm (P=.02), and foveal thickness reduction was 10 ± 17 μm (P=.02). The macular thickness changes produced in eyes implanted with a yellow IOL differ from those with a clear IOL. These observation point to a possible protective effect of yellow IOL against the harmful effects of light in elderly pseudophakic subjects. However, studies with a longer follow-up are still needed to confirm that the protection provided by this IOL model is clinically significant. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Insights Into the Etiology of Polerovirus-Induced Pepper Yellows Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotos, Leonidas; Olmos, Antonio; Orfanidou, Chrysoula; Efthimiou, Konstantinos; Avgelis, Apostolos; Katis, Nikolaos I; Maliogka, Varvara I

    2017-12-01

    The study of an emerging yellows disease of pepper crops (pepper yellows disease [PYD]) in Greece led to the identification of a polerovirus closely related to Pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV). Recovery of its full genome sequence by next-generation sequencing of small interfering RNAs allowed its characterization as a new poleroviruses, which was provisionally named Pepper yellows virus (PeYV). Transmission experiments revealed its association with the disease. Sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis highlighted the common ancestry of the three poleroviruses (PeVYV, PeYV, and Pepper yellow leaf curl virus [PYLCV]) currently reported to be associated with PYD, even though significant genetic differences were identified among them, especially in the C-terminal region of P5 and the 3' noncoding region. Most of the differences observed can be attributed to a modular type of evolution, which produces mosaic-like variants giving rise to these different poleroviruses Overall, similar to other polerovirus-related diseases, PYD is caused by at least three species (PeVYV, PeYV, and PYLCV) belonging to this group of closely related pepper-infecting viruses.

  2. Comparison of worm development and host immune responses in natural hosts of schistosoma japonicum, yellow cattle and water buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jianmei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yellow cattle and water buffalo are two of the most important natural hosts for Schistosoma japonicum in China. Previous observation has revealed that yellow cattle are more suited to the development of S. japonicum than water buffalo. Understanding more about the molecular mechanisms involved in worm development, as well as the pathological and immunological differences between yellow cattle and water buffalo post infection with S japonicum will provide useful information for the vaccine design and its delivery procedure. Results The worm length (p p p + T cells was higher in yellow cattle, while the percentage of CD8+ T cells was higher in water buffalo from pre-infection to 7 w post infection. The CD4/CD8 ratios were decreased in both species after challenge with schistosomes. Comparing with water buffalo, the IFN-γ level was higher and decreased significantly, while the IL-4 level was lower and increased gradually in yellow cattle from pre-infection to 7 w post infection. Conclusions In this study, we confirmed that yellow cattle were more suited to the development of S. japonicum than water buffalo, and more serious pathological damage was observed in infected yellow cattle. Immunological analysis suggested that CD4+ T cells might be an integral component of the immune response and might associate with worm development in yellow cattle. A shift from Th1 to Th2 type polarized immunity was only shown clearly in schistosome-infected yellow cattle, but no shift in water buffalo. The results provide valuable information for increased understanding of host-schistosome interactions, and for control of schistosomiasis.

  3. potential for biological control of rice yellow mottle virus vectors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Insect pests and disease infestations are the primary constraints in rice (Oryza sativa) production .... Asia. Of all the rice diseases, the one caused by the rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), first reported ..... yellow mottle virus in Central Africa.

  4. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  5. Yellow-Poplar: Characteristics and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald E. Beck; Lino Della-Bianca

    1981-01-01

    This reference tool and field guide for foresters and other landmanagers includes a synthesis of information on the characteristics of yellow-poplar with guidelines for managing the species. It is based on research conducted by many individuals in State and Federal forestry organizations and in universities throughout the Eastern United States. This handbook...

  6. Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

  7. Making the yellow cake go round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    'Yellow cake' is the name given to uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ) by the mining profession. Ore containing about a million tons of it and capable of processing at reasonable cost has to be found by 1980 if reserves are to be kept in balance. Many areas of the world are favourable for exploration and experts are confident that additional resources exist. (author)

  8. Gravimetric Analysis of Uranium in Yellow Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Jantha, Suwat

    2007-08-01

    Full text: The gravimetric analysis of uranium in yellow cake is composed of several stages. The analysis takes a long time, which is the disadvantage of this method. However, this gravimetric method provides accurate result for determining the major content of sample. Uranium is the main composition of yellow cake, while Thorium, rare earths and other elements are minor and trace elements. In this work, anion exchange resin was used to separate uranium from other elements to yield highly pure uranium suitable for precipitation. This pure uranium was burnt to U3O8, a form that is stable enough to be weighed. From the optimal condition, the recovery of U3O8 after separating uranium from rare earths and iron is 99.85 ± 0.21%. The application of anion exchange separation was used to analyze uranium in yellow cake obtained from monazite digestion process. It was found that U3O8 in yellow cake is 78.85 ± 2.03%

  9. Molecular detection and characterisation of Horsegram Yellow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specific sets of primers (HYMV-A1500F & HYMV-A1500R and D-HYMV-B2200F & D-HYMV-B2200R) for the amplification of the complete DNA-A and DNA-B components of lima bean isolate of Horsegram yellow mosaic virus (HgYMV-Lb).

  10. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  11. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] ...

  12. Yellow Rust Resistance in Advanced Lines and Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to characterize seedling yellow rust resistance in 21 advanced bread wheat lines and 20 cultivars from Ethiopia. Yellow rust infection types (ITs) produced on test wheat lines and cultivars from nine yellow rust races were compared with ITs produced on standard differential lines that differed ...

  13. Barley yellow dwarf virus: Luteoviridae or Tombusviridae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W Allen; Liu, Sijun; Beckett, Randy

    2002-07-01

    Summary Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), the most economically important virus of small grains, features highly specialised relationships with its aphid vectors, a plethora of novel translation mechanisms mediated by long-distance RNA interactions, and an ambiguous taxonomic status. The structural and movement proteins of BYDV that confer aphid transmission and phloem-limitation properties resemble those of the Luteoviridae, the family in which BYDV is classified. In contrast, many genes and cis-acting signals involved in replication and gene expression most closely resemble those of the Tombusviridae. BYDV is in genus Luteovirus, family Luteoviridae. BYDV includes at least two serotypes or viruses: BYDV-PAV and BYDV-MAV. The former BYDV-RPV is now Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV). CYDV is in genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Genus Luteovirus shares many features with family Tombusviridae. Physical properties: approximately 25 nm icosahedral (T = 3) virions. One major (22 kDa) and one minor (50-55 kDa) coat protein. 5.6-5.8 kb positive sense RNA genome with no 5'-cap and no poly(A) tail. Most grasses. Most important in oats, barley and wheat. Also infects maize and rice. Yellowing and dwarfing in barley, stunting in wheat; reddening, yellowing and blasting in oats. Some isolates cause leaf notching and curling. Key attractions: Model for the study of circulative transmission of aphid-transmitted viruses. Plethora of unusual translation mechanisms. Evidence of recombination in recent evolutionary history creates taxonomic ambiguity. Economically important virus of wheat, barley and oats, worldwide. Useful websites/meetings: International symposium: 'Barley Yellow Dwarf Disease: Recent Advances and Future Strategies', CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 1-5 September 2002, http://www.cimmyt.cgiar.org/Research/wheat/Conf_BYD_02/invitation.htm http://www.cimmyt.org/Research/wheat/BYDVNEWS/htm/BYDVNEWS.htm Aphid transmission animation: http://www.ppws.vt.edu/~sforza/tmv/bydv_aph.html.

  14. Flavonoids in white and yellow perianths and yellow anthers of tulips (Tulipa gesneriana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of flavonoids in white and yellow perianths and yellow anthers of a few tulip cultivars were determined at the stage of full flowering. To analyses of flavonols a HPLC method was used. In anthers (yellow of all analyzed cultivars (Oscar, Pax, Profesor Wóycicki, Biała Dama, White Virgin, Calypso, Diana high content of quercetin (2,35 - 6,01 mg·g-1 F.W., kaempferol (1,09 - 9,47 mg·g-1 F.W. and apigenin (1,34 - 8,24 mg·g-1 F.W. was found. In analyzed white perianth of cvs. Oscar and White Virgin also high content of quercetin (1,3 - 1,80 mg·g-1 F.W. and kaempferol (1,90 mg·g-1 F.W. was documented and only traces of apigenin was found. In the yellow perianth of cv. Profesor Wóycicki the level of quercetin and kaempferol was much lower than in perianth of cvs. Oscar and White Virgin, and apigenin was absent. Thus, yellow anthers and white and yellow perianth of tulip cultivars are a rich source of flavonols.

  15. Defeating the Warrior: genetic architecture of triticale resistance against a novel aggressive yellow rust race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losert, Dominik; Maurer, Hans Peter; Leiser, Willmar L; Würschum, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Genome-wide association mapping of resistance against the novel, aggressive 'Warrior' race of yellow rust in triticale revealed a genetic architecture with some medium-effect QTL and a quantitative component, which in combination confer high levels of resistance on both leaves and ears. Yellow rust is an important destructive fungal disease in small grain cereals and the exotic 'Warrior' race has recently conquered Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of yellow rust resistance in hexaploid winter triticale as the basis for a successful resistance breeding. To this end, a diverse panel of 919 genotypes was evaluated for yellow rust infection on leaves and ears in multi-location field trials and genotyped by genotyping-by-sequencing as well as for known Yr resistance loci. Genome-wide association mapping identified ten quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yellow rust resistance on the leaves and seven of these also for ear resistance. The total genotypic variance explained by the QTL amounted to 44.0% for leaf and 26.0% for ear resistance. The same three medium-effect QTL were identified for both traits on chromosomes 1B, 2B, and 7B. Interestingly, plants pyramiding the resistance allele of all three medium-effect QTL were generally most resistant, but constitute less than 5% of the investigated triticale breeding material. Nevertheless, a genome-wide prediction yielded a higher predictive ability than prediction based on these three QTL. Taken together, our results show that yellow rust resistance in winter triticale is genetically complex, including both medium-effect QTL as well as a quantitative resistance component. Resistance to the novel 'Warrior' race of this fungal pathogen is consequently best achieved by recurrent selection in the field based on identified resistant lines and can potentially be assisted by genomic approaches.

  16. Enhanced production of natural yellow pigments from Monascus purpureus by liquid culture: The relationship between fermentation conditions and mycelial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jun; Zhang, Bo-Bo; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Chan; Chen, Lei; Xu, Gan-Rong; Cheung, Peter Chi Keung

    2017-10-01

    Natural yellow pigments produced by submerged fermentation of Monascus purpureus have potential economic value and application in the food industry. In the present study, the relationships among fermentation conditions (in terms of pH and shaking/agitation speed), mycelial morphology and the production of Monascus yellow pigments were investigated in both shake-flask and scale-up bioreactor experiments. In the shake-flask fermentation, the highest yield of the Monascus yellow pigments was obtained at pH 5.0 and a shaking speed of 180 rpm. Microscopic images revealed that these results were associated with the formation of freely dispersed small mycelial pellets with shorter, thicker and multi-branched hyphae. Further investigation indicated that the hyphal diameter was highly correlated with the biosynthesis of the Monascus yellow pigments. In a scaled-up fermentation experiment, the yield of yellow pigments (401 U) was obtained in a 200-L bioreactor, which is the highest yield to the best of our knowledge. The present findings can advance our knowledge on the conditions used for enhancing the production of Monascus yellow pigments in submerged fermentation and facilitate large-scale production of these natural pigments. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Demographic expansion of two Tamarix species along the Yellow River caused by geological events and climate change in the Pleistocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hong-Yan; Feng, Zhi-Pei; Pei, Bing; Li, Yong; Yang, Xi-Tian

    2018-01-08

    The geological events and climatic fluctuations during the Pleistocene played important roles in shaping patterns of species distribution. However, few studies have evaluated the patterns of species distribution that were influenced by the Yellow River. The present work analyzed the demography of two endemic tree species that are widely distributed along the Yellow River, Tamarix austromongolica and Tamarix chinensis, to understand the role of the Yellow River and Pleistocene climate in shaping their distribution patterns. The most common chlorotype, chlorotype 1, was found in all populations, and its divergence time could be dated back to 0.19 million years ago (Ma). This dating coincides well with the formation of the modern Yellow River and the timing of Marine Isotope Stages 5e-6 (MIS 5e-6). Bayesian reconstructions along with models of paleodistribution revealed that these two species experienced a demographic expansion in population size during the Quaternary period. Approximate Bayesian computation analyses supported a scenario of expansion approximately from the upper to lower reaches of the Yellow River. Our results provide support for the roles of the Yellow River and the Pleistocene climate in driving demographic expansion of the populations of T. austromongolica and T. chinensis. These findings are useful for understanding the effects of geological events and past climatic fluctuations on species distribution patterns.

  18. Monitored results from the Yellow House

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, O.B.; Nielsen, L.T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the monitoring program for The Yellow House, which consists of a four-storey high building with eight apartments. The monitoring started after the completion of the renovation in December 1996 and will continue until July 2000. Not all components have been measured during the whole period. The monitoring contains data for each apartment for space heating, electricity, cold water, hot water and gas. Also long-term measurements of the relative air humidity and room temperatures in two apartments have been made together with short-term measurements of daylight levels. For The Yellow House data has been registered for the PV-panels and solar collectors and also the climatic data have been measured. A questionnaire has been evaluated and a user survey will be carried out during summer 2000. (au)

  19. A Novel Benzodiazepine Compound Inhibits Yellow Fever Virus Infection by Specifically Targeting NS4B Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Wu, Shuo; Julander, Justin; Ma, Julia; Zhang, Xuexiang; Kulp, John; Cuconati, Andrea; Block, Timothy M; Du, Yanming; Guo, Ju-Tao; Chang, Jinhong

    2016-09-21

    Although a highly effective vaccine is available, the number of yellow fever cases has increased over the past two decades, which highlights the pressing need for antiviral therapeutics. In a high throughput screening campaign, we identified an acetic acid benzodiazepine (BDAA) compound, which potently inhibits yellow fever virus (YFV). Interestingly, while treatment of YFV infected cultures with 2 μM of BDAA reduced the virion production by greater than 2 logs, the compound is not active against 21 other viruses from 14 different viral families. Selection and genetic analysis of drug resistant viruses revealed that substitution of proline at amino acid 219 (P219) of the nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) with serine, threonine or alanine confers YFV resistance to BDAA without apparent loss of replication fitness in cultured mammalian cells. However, substitution of P219 with glycine confers BDAA resistance with significant loss of replication ability. Bioinformatics analysis predicts that the P219 localizes at the endoplasmic reticulum lumen side of the fifth putative trans-membrane domain of NS4B and the mutation may render the viral protein incapable of interacting with BDAA. Our studies thus revealed important role and structural basis for NS4B protein in supporting YFV replication. Moreover, in YFV-infected hamsters, oral administration of BDAA protected 90% of the animals from death, significantly reduced viral load by greater than 2 logs and attenuated viral infection-induced liver injury and body weight loss. The encouraging preclinical results thus warrant further development of BDAA or its derivatives as antiviral agents to treat yellow fever. Yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease which threatens approximately one billion people living in tropical areas of Africa and Latin America. Although a highly effective yellow fever vaccine has been available for more than seven decades, the low vaccination rate fails to prevent outbreaks in at

  20. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2011-11-01

    Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids.

  1. Present status of yellow fever: Memorandum from a PAHO Meeting

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    An international seminar on the treatment and laboratory diagnosis of yellow fever, sponsored by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and held in 1984, differed from previous meetings on yellow fever because of its emphasis on the care and management of patients and because the participants included specialists from several branches of medicine, such as hepatology, haematology, cardiology, infectious diseases, pathology and nephrology. The meeting reviewed the current status of yellow ...

  2. The research on new production technique of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaoguo; Lin Cirong; Pan Haichun; Wang Haita

    2001-01-01

    As a new production technique of yellow cake, resorption with loaded resin-elution with acid ammonium nitrate-precipitation in two steps is studied. The results show that the produced yellow cake by the new production technique has better performance of settlement, filtration and dehydration. Each index of yellow cake accords with the first grade level issued by CNNC without washing, uranium and water content are 70% and 25%, respectively

  3. The Yellow Fever Vaccine: A History

    OpenAIRE

    Frierson, J. Gordon

    2010-01-01

    After failed attempts at producing bacteria-based vaccines, the discovery of a viral agent causing yellow fever and its isolation in monkeys opened new avenues of research. Subsequent advances were the attenuation of the virus in mice and later in tissue culture; the creation of the seed lot system to avoid spontaneous mutations; the ability to produce the vaccine on a large scale in eggs; and the removal of dangerous contaminants. An important person in the story is Max Theiler, who was Prof...

  4. Gamma Radiation Effect on Titan Yellow Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Banna, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the radiation induced color bleaching of Titan yellow dye (TY) in different solvents has been studied. The color bleaching of the dye solutions upon irradiation was followed spectrophotometrically. The % color bleaching of the dyes in different solvent systems was plotted against different gamma irradiation doses used and was determined and the obtained relationships were found to be linear in most cases. These relationships were used as calibration curves to determine the unknown irradiation dose. The results obtained were reproducible and showed differences from calculated values ranging from 10 % to 15 %

  5. Differential Expression of , , and Genes in Various Adipose Tissues and Muscle from Yanbian Yellow Cattle and Yan Yellow Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between cattle breeds and deposit of adipose tissues in different positions and the gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, fatty acid synthase (FASN, and Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADM, which are associated with lipid metabolism and are valuable for understanding the physiology in fat depot and meat quality. Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle reared under the same conditions display different fat proportions in the carcass. To understand this difference, the expression of PPARγ, FASN, and ACADM in different adipose tissues and longissimus dorsi muscle (LD in these two breeds were analyzed using the Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method (qRT-PCR. The result showed that PPARγ gene expression was significantly higher in adipose tissue than in LD in both breeds. PPARγ expression was also higher in abdominal fat, in perirenal fat than in the subcutaneous fat (p<0.05 in Yanbian yellow cattle, and was significantly higher in subcutaneous fat in Yan yellow cattle than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. On the other hand, FASN mRNA expression levels in subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat in Yan yellow cattle were significantly higher than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. Interestingly, ACADM gene shows greater fold changes in LD than in adipose tissues in Yan yellow cattle. Furthermore, the expressions of these three genes in lung, colon, kidney, liver and heart of Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle were also investigated. The results showed that the highest expression levels of PPARγ and FASN genes were detected in the lung in both breeds. The expression of ACADM gene in kidney and liver were higher than that in other organs in Yanbian yellow cattle, the comparison was not statistically significant in Yan yellow cattle.

  6. Influence of the Yellow Sea Warm Current on phytoplankton community in the central Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Chiang, Kuo-Ping; Liu, Su-Mei; Wei, Hao; Zhao, Yuan; Huang, Bang-Qin

    2015-12-01

    In early spring, a hydrological front emerges in the central Yellow Sea, resulting from the intrusion of the high temperature and salinity Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC). The present study, applying phytoplankton pigments and flow cytometry measurements in March of 2007 and 2009, focuses on the biogeochemical effects of the YSWC. The nutrients fronts were coincident with the hydrological front, and a positive linear relationship between nitrate and salinity was found in the frontal area. This contrast with the common situation of coastal waters where high salinity values usually correlate with poor nutrients. We suggested nutrient concentrations of the YSWC waters might have been enhanced by mixing with the local nutrient-rich waters when it invaded the Yellow Sea from the north of the Changjiang estuary. In addition, our results indicate that the relative abundance of diatoms ranged from 26% to 90%, showing a higher value in the YSCC than in YSWC waters. Similar distributions were found between diatoms and dinoflagellates, however the cyanobacteria and prasinophytes showed an opposite distribution pattern. Good correlations were found between the pigments and flow cytometry observations on the picophytoplankton groups. Prasinophytes might be the major contributor to pico-eukaryotes in the central Yellow Sea as similar distributional patterns and significant correlations between them. It seems that the front separates the YSWC from the coastal water, and different phytoplankton groups are transported in these water masses and follow their movement. These results imply that the YSWC plays important roles in the distribution of nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and also in the community structure of the central Yellow Sea.

  7. Silk fibroin film from golden-yellow Bombyx mori is a biocomposite that contains lutein and promotes axonal growth of primary neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, Assunta; Sagnella, Anna; Chieco, Camilla; Bertazza, Gianpaolo; Varchi, Greta; Formaggio, Francesco; Posati, Tamara; Saracino, Emanuela; Caprini, Marco; Bonetti, Simone; Toffanin, Stefano; Di Virgilio, Nicola; Muccini, Michele; Rossi, Federica; Ruani, Giampiero; Zamboni, Roberto; Benfenati, Valentina

    2016-05-01

    The use of doped silk fibroin (SF) films and substrates from Bombyx mori cocoons for green nanotechnology and biomedical applications has been recently highlighted. Cocoons from coloured strains of B. mori, such as Golden-Yellow, contain high levels of pigments that could have a huge potential for the fabrication of SF based biomaterials targeted to photonics, optoelectronics and neuroregenerative medicine. However, the features of extracted and regenerated SF from cocoons of B. mori Golden-Yellow strain have never been reported. Here we provide a chemophysical characterization of regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) fibers, solution, and films obtained from cocoons of a Golden-Yellow strain of B. mori, by SEM, (1) H-NMR, HPLC, FT-IR, Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopy. We found that the extracted solution and films from B. mori Golden-Yellow fibroin displayed typical Raman spectroscopic and optical features of carotenoids. HPLC-analyses revealed that lutein was the carotenoid contained in the fiber and RSF biopolymer from yellow cocoons. Notably, primary neurons cultured on yellow SF displayed a threefold higher neurite length than those grown of white SF films. The results we report pave the way to expand the potential use of yellow SF in the field of neuroregenerative medicine and provide green chemistry approaches in biomedicine. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Effects of Long-term Implementation of the Flow-Sediment Regulation Scheme on Grain and Clay Compositions of Inshore Sediments in the Yellow River Estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao-miao; Sun, Zhi-gao; Lu, Xiao-ning; Wang, Wei; Wang, Chuan-yuan

    2015-04-01

    Based on the laser particle size and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, 28 sediment samples collected from the inshore region of the Yellow River estuary in October 2013 were determined to discuss the influence of long-term implementation of the flow-sediment regulation scheme (FSRS, initiated in 2002) on the distributions of grain size and clay components (smectite, illite, kaolinite and chlorite) in sediments. Results showed that, after the FSRS was implemented for more than 10 years, although the proportion of sand in inshore sediments of the Yellow River estuary was higher (average value, 23.5%) than those in sediments of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow River, silt was predominated (average value, 59.1%) and clay components were relatively low (average value, 17.4%). The clay components in sediments of the inshore region in the Yellow River estuary were close with those in the Yellow River. The situation was greatly changed due to the implementation of FSRS since 2002, and the clay components were in the order of illite > smectite > chlorite > kaolinite. This study also indicated that, compared to large-scale investigation in Bohai Sea, the local study on the inshore region of the Yellow River estuary was more favorable for revealing the effects of long-term implementation of the FSRS on sedimentation environment of the Yellow River estuary.

  9. Longitudinal myelitis associated with yellow fever vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, M; Riccio, P; Patrucco, L; Rojas, J I; Cristiano, E

    2009-07-01

    Severe adverse reaction to yellow fever (YF) vaccine includes the yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease. This terminology includes postvaccinal encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The objective of this communication is to report a patient who received a YF vaccine in Argentina and subsequently developed longitudinal myelitis with a symptom that had previously gone unreported in the literature. A 56-year-old man began with progressive paraparesia, urinary retention, and constipation 48 h previous to admission. The patient received YF vaccine 45 days prior to the onset of the symptoms. There was no history of other immunization or relevant condition. MR of the spine showed longitudinal intramedullary hyperintense signal (D5-12) without gadolinium enhancement. A high concentration of YFV-specific IgM vaccine antibody was found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Serological tests for other flavivirus were negative. A diagnosis of longitudinal myelitis without encephalitis associated with YF vaccine was performed and symptoms improved 5 days later. This is the first report dealing with longitudinal myelitis as a serious adverse event associated with YF vaccination in which confirmation of the presence of antibodies in CSF was found. To date, it is also the first report with serological confirmation in Argentina and in South America. We consider that the present investigation will raise awareness in the region in the reporting of adverse events related to YF vaccine and improve our knowledge of adverse reactions to the vaccine.

  10. The thermal stability of yellow fever vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ishak

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of yellow fever vaccine thermostability both in lyophilized form and after reconstitution were analyzed. Two commercial yellow fever vaccines were assayed for their thermal stability. Vaccines were exposed to test temperatures in the range of 8 (graus C to 45 (graus C. Residual infectivity was measured by a plaque assay using Vero cells. The titre values were used in an accelerated degradation test that follows the Arrhenius equation and the minimum immunizing dose was assumed to be 10 (ao cubo particles forming unit (pfu/dose. Some of the most relevant results include that (i regular culture medium show the same degradation pattern of a reconstituted 17D-204 vaccine; (ii reconstituted YF-17D-204 showed a predictable half life of more than six days if kept at 0 (graus C; (iii there are differences in thermostability between different products that are probably due to both presence of stabilizers in the preparation and the modernization in the vaccine production; (iv it is important to establish a proper correlation between the mouse infectivity test and the plaque assay since the last appears to be more simple, economical, and practical for small laboratories to assess the potency of the vaccine, and (v the accelerated degradation test appears to be the best procedure to quantify the thermostability of biological products.

  11. Uranium Yellow Cake accident - Wichita, Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchert, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    A tractor and semi trailer containing Uranium Yellow Cake, had overturned on I-235, Wichita, Kansas on Thursday, March 22, 1979. The truck driver and passenger were transported, with unknown injuries, to the hospital by ambulance. The shipment consisted of 54 drums of Uranium Ore Concentrate Powder. Half of the drums were damaged or had their lids off. Since it was raining at the time of the accident, plastic was used to cover the barrels and spilled material in an attempt to contain the yellow cake. A bulldozer was used to construct a series of dams in the median and the ditch to contain the run-off water from the contaminated area. Adverse and diverse weather conditions hampered the clean up operations over the next several days. The contaminated water and soil were shipped back to the mine for reintroduction into the milling process. The equipment was decontaminated prior to being released from the site. The clean up personnel wore protective clothing and respiratory protection equipment, if necessary. All individuals were surveyed and decontaminated prior to exiting the area

  12. Shine red and yellow photoluminescence in GdAlO3−δ powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhahri, Kh.; Bejar, M.; Dhahri, E.; Soares, M.J.; Sousa, M.; Valente, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • GdAlO 3−δ (δ = 0.0, 0.1 and 0.2) powders were synthesized using the conventional solid-state method. • The PL study has revealed the apparition of intense red and yellow photoluminescence (PL) emissions at room temperature. • The red emission was directly related to the singly ionized oxygen vacancy V O · . • The green emission was directly related the doubly ionized oxygen vacancy V O ·· . • The presence of the singly ionized oxygen vacancy was confirmed from the EPR study. - Abstract: GdAlO 3−δ (δ = 0.0, 0.1 and 0.2) compounds were prepared by the conventional solid-state method. XRD patterns revealed that all samples present a major orthorhombic structure. An intense red and a yellow photoluminescence (PL) emissions were observed at room temperature for δ = 0.0 and δ ≠ 0.0 samples, respectively. The red emission was related to the singly ionized oxygen vacancies V O · . The production of doubly ionized oxygen vacancies V O ·· lead to the appearance of a yellow color observed directly from δ = 0.1 and 0.2 samples. The presence of singly and doubly ionized clusters was found to play an important role in the formation of hole–electron pairs and to give rise to the PL emission. The presence of singly ionized oxygen vacancies was confirmed by the EPR study

  13. Traveling Abroad: Latest Yellow Fever Vaccine Update | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier this month, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released its list of clinics that are administering the yellow fever vaccine Stamaril, which has been made available to address the total depletion of the United States’ primary yellow fever vaccine, YF-VAX. These clinics will provide the vaccine to individuals preparing for international travel,

  14. Fatal Yellow Fever in Travelers to Brazil, 2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Davidson H; Angelo, Kristina; Caumes, Eric; van Genderen, Perry J J; Florescu, Simin A; Popescu, Corneliu P; Perret, Cecilia; McBride, Angela; Checkley, Anna; Ryan, Jenny; Cetron, Martin; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2018-03-23

    Yellow fever virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes yellow fever, an acute infectious disease that occurs in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. Most patients with yellow fever are asymptomatic, but among the 15% who develop severe illness, the case fatality rate is 20%-60%. Effective live-attenuated virus vaccines are available that protect against yellow fever (1). An outbreak of yellow fever began in Brazil in December 2016; since July 2017, cases in both humans and nonhuman primates have been reported from the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro, including cases occurring near large urban centers in these states (2). On January 16, 2018, the World Health Organization updated yellow fever vaccination recommendations for Brazil to include all persons traveling to or living in Espírito Santo, São Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro states, and certain cities in Bahia state, in addition to areas where vaccination had been recommended before the recent outbreak (3). Since January 2018, 10 travel-related cases of yellow fever, including four deaths, have been reported in international travelers returning from Brazil. None of the 10 travelers had received yellow fever vaccination.

  15. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] below color grade cotton ...

  16. Determining the Feasibility of Yellow Corn Production in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Maria; Peel, Derrell S.

    2009-01-01

    Mexico produces large quantities of white corn for human consumption. Yellow corn production, mostly used for feed, has increased lately. Driving factors include higher domestic demand (growing livestock industry) and greater international demand (ethanol industry). This study uses enterprise budgeting to determine the feasibility of producing yellow corn in Mexico.

  17. Cytotoxicity of yellow sand in lung epithelial cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    effect of yellow sand with that of silica and titanium dioxide (TiO2) in a ... [Ca2+]i was measured using the method previously des- cribed by Yang et ... particle activity as a Fenton catalyst). The capability of a particle to support transitional metal- dependent .... TNF-α production was increased in silica-treated cells and yellow ...

  18. 33 CFR 117.225 - Yellow Mill Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yellow Mill Channel. 117.225 Section 117.225 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.225 Yellow Mill Channel. The...

  19. The Size And Localisation Of Yellow Pigmented Lipid Cells 6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The size and distribution of the main pungent principle (6-gingerol) in two ginger varieties “ Tafin giwa” (the yellow variety) and “Yatsum biri” (the dark variety) at 4, 5, 6, and 8 months stages of maturity at harvest were studied empirically by the determination of the mean number of yellow pigmented lipid cells per unit area ...

  20. Enhancement of yellow pigment production by intraspecific protoplast fusion of Monascus spp. yellow mutant (ade(-)) and white mutant (prototroph).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinsupa, Worawan; Phansiri, Salak; Thongpradis, Panida; Yongsmith, Busaba; Pothiratana, Chetsada

    2016-01-10

    To breed industrially useful strains of a slow-growing, yellow pigment producing strain of Monascus sp., protoplasts of Monascus purpureus yellow mutant (ade(-)) and rapid-growing M. purpureus white mutant (prototroph) were fused and fusants were selected on minimal medium (MM). Preliminary conventional protoplast fusion of the two strains was performed and the result showed that only white colonies were detected on MM. It was not able to differentiate the fusants from the white parental prototroph. To solve this problem, the white parental prototroph was thus pretreated with 20mM iodoacetamide (IOA) for cytoplasm inactivation and subsequently taken into protoplast fusion with slow-growing Monascus yellow mutant. Under this development technique, only the fusants, with viable cytoplasm from Monascus yellow mutant (ade(-)), could thus grow on MM, whereas neither IOA pretreated white parental prototroph nor yellow auxotroph (ade(-)) could survive. Fifty-three fusants isolated from yellow colonies obtained through this developed technique were subsequently inoculated on complete medium (MY agar). Fifteen distinguished yellow colonies from their parental yellow mutant were then selected for biochemical, morphological and fermentative properties in cassava starch and soybean flour (SS) broth. Finally, three most stable fusants (F7, F10 and F43) were then selected and compared in rice solid culture. Enhancement of yellow pigment production over the parental yellow auxotroph was found in F7 and F10, while enhanced glucoamylase activity was found in F43. The formation of fusants was further confirmed by monacolin K content, which was intermediate between the two parents (monacolin K-producing yellow auxotroph and non-monacolin K producing white prototroph). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. In Vitro UV-Visible Spectroscopy Study of Yellow Laser Irradiation on Human Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuad, Siti Sakinah Mohd; Suardi, N.; Mustafa, I. S.

    2018-04-01

    This experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of low level yellow laser of 589nm wavelength with various laser irradiation time. Human blood samples with random diseases are irradiated with yellow laser of power density of 450mW/cm2 from 10 minutes to 60 minutes at 10 minutes intervals. The morphology of the red blood cell were also observed for different irradiation time. The result shows that there is a significant different in the absorption of light with varying laser irradiation time (p<0.01). The maximum absorption recorded at 40 minutes of irradiation at 340nm peak. Blood smear of the samples reveals that there are observable changes in the morphology of the red blood cell at 40 minutes and 60 minutes of irradiation.

  2. What a rheumatologist needs to know about yellow fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Cristina Vanderley; Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz Dos; Tauil, Pedro Luiz

    2013-04-01

    Patients with rheumatic diseases are more susceptible to infection, due to the underlying disease itself or to its treatment. The rheumatologist should prevent infections in those patients, vaccination being one preventive measure to be adopted. Yellow fever is one of such infectious diseases that can be avoided.The yellow fever vaccine is safe and effective for the general population, but, being an attenuated live virus vaccine, it should be avoided whenever possible in rheumatic patients on immunosuppressive drugs. Considering that yellow fever is endemic in a large area of Brazil, and that vaccination against that disease is indicated for those living in such area or travelling there, rheumatologists need to know that disease, as well as the indications for the yellow fever vaccine and contraindications to it. Our paper was aimed at highlighting the major aspects rheumatologists need to know about the yellow fever vaccine to decide about its indication or contraindication in specific situations. 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Yellow Fever Outbreaks in Unvaccinated Populations, Brazil, 2008–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alessandro Pecego Martins; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Jayme, Valéria de Sá; de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Vettorello, Kátia Campomar; Mascheretti, Melissa; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered) and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered). Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever. PMID:24625634

  4. Viscerotropic disease following yellow fever vaccination in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittembury, Alvaro; Ramirez, Gladys; Hernández, Herminio; Ropero, Alba Maria; Waterman, Steve; Ticona, María; Brinton, Margo; Uchuya, Jorge; Gershman, Mark; Toledo, Washington; Staples, Erin; Campos, Clarense; Martínez, Mario; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Cabezas, Cesar; Lanciotti, Robert; Zaki, Sherif; Montgomery, Joel M; Monath, Thomas; Hayes, Edward

    2009-10-09

    Five suspected cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) clustered in space and time following a vaccination campaign in Ica, Peru in 2007. All five people received the same lot of 17DD live attenuated yellow fever vaccine before their illness; four of the five died of confirmed YEL-AVD. The surviving case was classified as probable YEL-AVD. Intensive investigation yielded no abnormalities of the implicated vaccine lot and no common risk factors. This is the first described space-time cluster of yellow fever viscerotropic disease involving more than two cases. Mass yellow fever vaccination should be avoided in areas that present extremely low risk of yellow fever.

  5. First report of the cucurbit yellow vine disease caused by Serratia marcescens in watermelon and yellow squash in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms typical of cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD) were first observed in a 2 ha watermelon field in Crawford, Russell County, Alabama on 8 June 2010. Watermelon plants, cv. 'Jubilee,' exhibited a yellow or chlorotic appearance and some plants were completely wilted. On 24 June plant samples ...

  6. Effects of diet on growth and survival of rats fed toxic levels of tartrazine (FD & C Yellow No. 5) and sunset yellow FCF (FD & C Yellow No. 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershoff, B H

    1977-05-01

    Tests were conducted on the effects of diet on the response of immature male rats to massive doses of tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No.5) and Sunset Yellow FCF (FD&C Yellow No. 6). When incorporated at a 5% level in a stock diet, tartrazine and Sunset Yellow FCF had no grossly observable toxic effects. When fed with a purified diet, however, both tartrazine and Sunset Yellow FCF at 5% level in the diet resulted in a marked retardation in growth, an unthrifty appearance of the fur and death of 50% or more of the rats within an experimental period of 14 days. The toxic effects obtained by feeding the latter diets were counteracted by the concurrent feeding of blond psyllium seed powder, carrot root powder, alfalfa leaf meal and wheat bran. Supplements of the known nutrients had little if any protective effect. Supplements of purified cellulose were without protective effect for the rats fed tartrazine but had a moderate protective effect for those fed Sunset Yellow FCF.

  7. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Sean; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Lim, Poh Lian

    2016-07-01

    There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivirus dengue and are widely infested by Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of urban yellow fever transmission. The combination of sustained introduction of viraemic travellers, an ecology conducive to local transmission, and an unimmunized population raises the possibility of a yellow fever epidemic in Asia. This represents a major global health threat, particularly in the context of a depleted emergency vaccine stockpile and untested surveillance systems in the region. In this review, the potential for a yellow fever outbreak in Asia is discussed with reference to the ecological and historical forces that have shaped global yellow fever epidemiology. The limitations of surveillance and vector control in the region are highlighted, and priorities for outbreak preparedness and response are suggested. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel yellow colored flame compositions with superior spectral performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Sadek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of colored flames is the primary purpose of military signaling, projectile tracing, and illuminating devices. Certain elements and compounds when heated to high temperature have the unique property of emitting lines or narrow bands in the visible region (380–780 nm. This study, reports on the development of novel yellow colored flame compositions with enhanced spectral performance in terms of luminous intensity, and color quality to standard Russian yellow tracer. The light intensity and the imprint spectra of developed yellow flares were measured using digital luxmeter and UV–Vis. spectrometer respectively. The main giving of this study is that the light intensity, and color quality of Russian yellow tracer were improved by 287%, and 170% respectively. This was accomplished by means of optimizing the ratio of novel binder to color source using aluminum metal fuel. Aluminum-based formulations were found to maximize the formation of yellow reactive emitting specimens, and to eliminate any interfering incandescent emission resulted from MgO. Quantification of yellow color emitting specimens in the combustion gaseous products was achieved using chemical equilibrium thermodynamic code named ICT (Institute of Chemical Technology in Germany, Virgin 2008; in an attempt to judge the light quality. This improvement in yellow flare performance established the rule that the emission intensity increases as the reaction temperature increases. In the meantime upper limit of temperature was avoided to maximize the color quality.

  9. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Wasserman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivirus dengue and are widely infested by Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of urban yellow fever transmission. The combination of sustained introduction of viraemic travellers, an ecology conducive to local transmission, and an unimmunized population raises the possibility of a yellow fever epidemic in Asia. This represents a major global health threat, particularly in the context of a depleted emergency vaccine stockpile and untested surveillance systems in the region. In this review, the potential for a yellow fever outbreak in Asia is discussed with reference to the ecological and historical forces that have shaped global yellow fever epidemiology. The limitations of surveillance and vector control in the region are highlighted, and priorities for outbreak preparedness and response are suggested.

  10. Biocatalysis with thermostable enzymes: structure and properties of a thermophilic 'ene'-reductase related to old yellow enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalbjörnsson, Björn V; Toogood, Helen S; Fryszkowska, Anna; Pudney, Christopher R; Jowitt, Thomas A; Leys, David; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2010-01-25

    We report the crystal structure of a thermophilic "ene" reductase (TOYE) isolated from Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus E39. The crystal structure reveals a tetrameric enzyme and an active site that is relatively large compared to most other structurally determined and related Old Yellow Enzymes. The enzyme adopts higher order oligomeric states (octamers and dodecamers) in solution, as revealed by sedimentation velocity and multiangle laser light scattering. Bead modelling indicates that the solution structure is consistent with the basic tetrameric structure observed in crystallographic studies and electron microscopy. TOYE is stable at high temperatures (T(m)>70 degrees C) and shows increased resistance to denaturation in water-miscible organic solvents compared to the mesophilic Old Yellow Enzyme family member, pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase. TOYE has typical ene-reductase properties of the Old Yellow Enzyme family. There is currently major interest in using Old Yellow Enzyme family members in the preparative biocatalysis of a number of activated alkenes. The increased stability of TOYE in organic solvents is advantageous for biotransformations in which water-miscible organic solvents and biphasic reaction conditions are required to both deliver novel substrates and minimize product racemisation.

  11. Molecular analysis of yellow fever virus 17DD vaccine strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R. Post

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The Oswaldo Cruz Foundation produces most of the yellow fever (YF vaccine prepared world wide. As part of a broader approach to determine the genetic variability in YF l7D seeds and vaccines and its relevance to viral attenuation the 17DD virus was purifed directly from chick embryo homogenates which is the source of virus used for vaccination of millions of people in Brazil and other countries for half a century. Neutralization and hemagglutination tests showed that the purified virus is similar to the original stock. Furthermore, radioimmune precipitation of 35S-methionine-labeled viral proteins using mouse hyperimmune ascitic fluid revealed identical patterns for the purified 17DD virus and the YF l7D-204 strain except for the 17DD E protein which migrated slower on SDS-PAGE. This difference is likely to be due to N-linked glycosylation. Finally, comparison by northern blot nybridization of virion RNAs of purified 17DD with two other strains of YF virus only fenome-sized molecules for all three viruses. These observations suggest that vaccine phenotype is primarily associated with the accumulation of mutations.

  12. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. The most abundant sinalbin degradation product in yellow mustard paste was 4-(hydroxymethylphenol. Other compounds identified in this sample were: 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, 4-(2-hydroxyethylphenol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl ethanoic acid.

  13. First report of the complete sequence of Sida golden yellow vein virus from Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Cheryl S; Kon, Tatsuya; Gilbertson, Robert L; Roye, Marcia E

    2011-08-01

    Begomoviruses are phytopathogens that threaten food security [18]. Sida spp. are ubiquitous weed species found in Jamaica. Sida samples were collected island-wide, DNA was extracted via a modified Dellaporta method, and the viral genome was amplified using degenerate and sequence-specific primers [2, 11]. The amplicons were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed that a DNA-A molecule isolated from a plant in Liguanea, St. Andrew, was 90.9% similar to Sida golden yellow vein virus-[United States of America:Homestead:A11], making it a strain of SiGYVV. It was named Sida golden yellow vein virus-[Jamaica:Liguanea 2:2008] (SiGYVV-[JM:Lig2:08]). The cognate DNA-B, previously unreported, was successfully cloned and was most similar to that of Malvastrum yellow mosaic Jamaica virus (MaYMJV). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that this virus was most closely related to begomoviruses that infect malvaceous hosts in Jamaica, Cuba and Florida in the United States.

  14. The yellow Fever epidemic in Western mali, september-november 1987: why did epidemiological surveillance fail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, X

    1990-03-01

    Recent yellow fever epidemics in West Africa have underlined the discrepancy between the official number of cases and deaths and those estimated by a retrospective epidemiological investigation. During the yellow fever epidemic that broke out in western Mali in September 1987, a total of 305 cases and 145 deaths were officially notified, but estimates revealed true figures abut five times higher. This paper attempts to discuss the factors that hindered early case detection and more complete reporting. They were, first, the insufficient training on the clinical diagnosis, the blood sampling method for laboratory confirmation, and the curative treatment of patients (resulting in low utilization of services); second, the lack of an action plan to prepare in advance a quick response to the epidemic, affecting reporting procedures at the peripheral level and active case-finding during the outbreak; and third, the lack of laboratory facilities for a quick confirmation of the disease. The difficulties experienced during the yellow fever epidemic in Mali demonstrated the importance of a preparedness strategy for epidemic control, based on an integrated approach of epidemiological surveillance within basic health service activities. The need for regional collaboration and for institutionalized funds in the donor community that could be mobilized for epidemic preparedness activities is also emphasized.

  15. Distributions and sources of volatile chlorocarbons and bromocarbons in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Bin; Yang, Gui-Peng; Lu, Xiao-Lan; Li, Li; He, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Concentrations of the six VHOC were determined in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. • VHOC distributions were affected by anthropogenic, biologic and hydrographic factors. • Diurnal variations of the six VHOC were observed. • Relationships between VHOC and related parameters were discussed. • Sources of the six VHOC were identified by principal component analysis. - Abstract: Six volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOC), namely, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, were studied in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea from April to May, 2009. The spatial variability of these VHOC was influenced by various factors, including anthropogenic inputs, biogenic production and complicated hydrographic features such as Changjiang Diluted Water, Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass, and Kuroshio Current. Diurnal study results showed that factors such as solar irradiation, biological activity, and tide affected the abundance of these VHOC. Correlation analyses revealed that bromodichloromethane was positively correlated with chlorophyll a in surface seawater. Principal component analysis suggested that chlorinated compounds like carbon tetrachloride originated from anthropogenic sources whereas brominated compounds such as bromodichloromethane originated from biogenic sources. Sources of other chlorinated and brominated compounds may not be governed by biological processes in the marine environment

  16. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... safe, potent, and pure yellow fever vaccine. Medical facilities of Federal agencies are authorized to obtain yellow fever vaccine without being designated as a yellow fever vaccination center by the Director..., storage, and administration of yellow fever vaccine. If a designated center fails to comply with such...

  17. Identification of three genotypes of sugarcane yellow leaf virus causing yellow leaf disease from India and their molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, R; Balamuralikrishnan, M; Karuppaiah, R

    2008-12-01

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) that causes yellow leaf disease (YLD) in sugarcane (recently reported in India) belongs to Polerovirus. Detailed studies were conducted to characterize the virus based on partial open reading frames (ORFs) 1 and 2 and complete ORFs 3 and 4 sequences in their genome. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed on 48 sugarcane leaf samples to detect the virus using a specific set of primers. Of the 48 samples, 36 samples (field samples with and without foliar symptoms) including 10 meristem culture derived plants were found to be positive to SCYLV infection. Additionally, an aphid colony collected from symptomatic sugarcane in the field was also found to be SCYLV positive. The amplicons from 22 samples were cloned, sequenced and acronymed as SCYLV-CB isolates. The nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequence comparison showed a significant variation between SCYLV-CB and the database sequences at nt (3.7-5.1%) and aa (3.2-5.3%) sequence level in the CP coding region. However, the database sequences comprising isolates of three reported genotypes, viz., BRA, PER and REU, were observed with least nt and aa sequence dissimilarities (0.0-1.6%). The phylogenetic analyses of the overlapping ORFs (ORF 3 and ORF 4) of SCYLV encoding CP and MP determined in this study and additional sequences of 26 other isolates including an Indian isolate (SCYLV-IND) available from GenBank were distributed in four phylogenetic clusters. The SCYLV-CB isolates from this study lineated in two clusters (C1 and C2) and all the other isolates from the worldwide locations into another two clusters (C3 and C4). The sequence variation of the isolates in this study with the database isolates, even in the least variable region of the SCYLV genome, showed that the population existing in India is significantly different from rest of the world. Further, comparison of partial sequences encoding for ORFs 1 and 2 revealed that YLD in sugarcane in

  18. Volatile components from the anal glands of the yellow mongoose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-12-01

    Dec 1, 1988 ... sampling, gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrome- try. The odour volatiles were ... tube and over the secretion at a flow rate of 15 cm3 min-1 .... behaviour of the yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata. (G. Cuvier).

  19. Is it time for a new yellow fever vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Edward B

    2010-11-29

    An inexpensive live attenuated vaccine (the 17D vaccine) against yellow fever has been effectively used to prevent yellow fever for more than 70 years. Interest in developing new inactivated vaccines has been spurred by recognition of rare but serious, sometimes fatal adverse events following live virus vaccination. A safer inactivated yellow fever vaccine could be useful for vaccinating people at higher risk of adverse events from the live vaccine, but could also have broader global health utility by lowering the risk-benefit threshold for assuring high levels of yellow fever vaccine coverage. If ongoing trials demonstrate favorable immunogenicity and safety compared to the current vaccine, the practical global health utility of an inactivated vaccine is likely to be determined mostly by cost. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutrient and phytochemical composition of red and yellow tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Ripe fruits of tropical almond (Terminalia catappa) of red and yellow varieties were ... The nutrient compositions were determined using AOAC techniques. ... Conclusion: Moisture, fat and fibre values were similar in the samples.

  1. Yellow fever vectors' surveillance in three satellite communities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outbreaks of yellow fever have continued to occur in various parts of Nigeria. ... easily render themselves to vector and environmental management strategies. ... vectors, while locally adapted CDC (Centre for Disease Control) ovitraps were ...

  2. Study on silk yellowing induced by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Masuhiro; Aoki, Akira

    1985-01-01

    The changes in the yellow color of silk threads with total dose of irradiation applied were described and studied by a colorimetric method and by monochrome photography. The change into a yellow color of the specimen in the course of irradiation was clearly detected in photographs using filters, 2B and SC 56 under light conditions at the wavelength of 366 nm. The b/L value measured by colorimetry in undegummed and degummed silk fibers sharply increased in the early stage of irradiation. Yellow color indices (b/L) of the specimen subjected to gamma-irradiation continued to increase and the yellow color of the silk threads became more pronounced above a total dose of irradiation of 21 Mrad. The b/L value of the undegummed silk fiber which had deen irradiated was about 2 times that of the degummed silk fiber. (author)

  3. EVALUATION OF COLOUR IN WHITE AND YELLOW TRIFOLIATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    2010-03-20

    Mar 20, 2010 ... 2Department of Food Technology, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. ... Therefore, this work determines the colour in white and yellow trifoliate ... Freshly harvested trifoliate yam tubers were prepared into flour using four.

  4. Correlation between Yellow Dust and Radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AIZaabia, Mouza A [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung-Jik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In East Asia, yellow dust or Asian Dust (AD) outbreaks are among the largest contributors of wind-blown dust that carry natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and subsequently alter their concentration and distribution throughout the environment. Although the Korean Peninsula has been experiencing AD events since ancient times, the research has tended to focus on the transport routes and characteristics of AD, rather than on its impact on radionuclide activity levels. This paper examines the relationship between radionuclide concentration in the air and the frequency of dusty days in South Korea during AD intrusion events. It also investigates whether increased radionuclide concentration is a function of either more mass or more dust contamination. In this study, significant linear correlations of gamma-emitting radionuclides were found with mass of dust and occurrence frequency of AD. Regardless of the source origin of the dust, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 7}Be concentration primarily depended on dust mass in the filter. Nonetheless, the correlations were greatly distorted in 2011 and in the spring season, particularly the correlations with AD days that were far below that of the correlations obtained for the whole study period. A possible explanation of these conflicting results is that a change in the dust source could appreciably alter the concentration, deposition, and distribution of airborne radionuclides.

  5. Correlation between Yellow Dust and Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIZaabia, Mouza A; Kim, Byoung-Jik

    2015-01-01

    In East Asia, yellow dust or Asian Dust (AD) outbreaks are among the largest contributors of wind-blown dust that carry natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and subsequently alter their concentration and distribution throughout the environment. Although the Korean Peninsula has been experiencing AD events since ancient times, the research has tended to focus on the transport routes and characteristics of AD, rather than on its impact on radionuclide activity levels. This paper examines the relationship between radionuclide concentration in the air and the frequency of dusty days in South Korea during AD intrusion events. It also investigates whether increased radionuclide concentration is a function of either more mass or more dust contamination. In this study, significant linear correlations of gamma-emitting radionuclides were found with mass of dust and occurrence frequency of AD. Regardless of the source origin of the dust, 137 Cs and 7 Be concentration primarily depended on dust mass in the filter. Nonetheless, the correlations were greatly distorted in 2011 and in the spring season, particularly the correlations with AD days that were far below that of the correlations obtained for the whole study period. A possible explanation of these conflicting results is that a change in the dust source could appreciably alter the concentration, deposition, and distribution of airborne radionuclides

  6. Shortage of vaccines during a yellow fever outbreak in Guinea.

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan, N; Barry, M; Van Herp, M; Zeller, H

    2001-01-01

    A yellow fever epidemic erupted in Guinea in September, 2000. From Sept 4, 2000, to Jan 7, 2001, 688 instances of the disease and 225 deaths were reported. The diagnosis was laboratory confirmed by IgM detection in more than 40 patients. A mass vaccination campaign was limited by insufficient international stocks. After the epidemic in Guinea, the International Coordinating Group on Vaccine Provision for Epidemic Meningitis Control decided that 2 million doses of 17D yellow fever vaccine, bei...

  7. An Atypical Local Vesicular Reaction to the Yellow Fever Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Wauters, Robert H.; Hernandez, Camellia L.; Petersen, Maureen M.

    2017-01-01

    Yellow fever vaccine is a live attenuated viral inoculation indicated for patients traveling to endemic areas. The vaccine is generally well tolerated with minimal adverse effects. Typical side effects include malaise, pain at the injection site, and, albeit rarely, immediate hypersensitivity reactions. We present a case of a rare adverse reaction to yellow fever vaccine in which a patient developed vesicular lesions resulting in bullae and circumferential hyperpigmentation.

  8. An Atypical Local Vesicular Reaction to the Yellow Fever Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, Robert H; Hernandez, Camellia L; Petersen, Maureen M

    2017-09-19

    Yellow fever vaccine is a live attenuated viral inoculation indicated for patients traveling to endemic areas. The vaccine is generally well tolerated with minimal adverse effects. Typical side effects include malaise, pain at the injection site, and, albeit rarely, immediate hypersensitivity reactions. We present a case of a rare adverse reaction to yellow fever vaccine in which a patient developed vesicular lesions resulting in bullae and circumferential hyperpigmentation.

  9. Hazardous metals in yellow items used in RCAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.F.; Rankin, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    Yellow items used in Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCAs) that could contain hazardous metals were identified. X-ray fluorescence analyses indicated that thirty of the fifty-two items do contain hazardous metals. It is important to minimize the hazardous metals put into the wastes. The authors recommend that the specifications for all yellow items stocked in Stores be changed to specify that they contain no hazardous metals

  10. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    OpenAIRE

    Paunović, Dragana; Šolević-Knudsen, Tatjana; Krivokapić, Mirjana; Zlatković, Branislav; Antić, Mališa

    2012-01-01

    Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetonitrile. The most a...

  11. TREATMENT OF BIODIESEL WASTEWATER USING YELLOW MUSTARD SEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    SAVCI, Serpil

    2017-01-01

    In thisstudy, removal of original biodiesel wastewater (BOD, COD, oil&greas) by yellow mustard seeds was examined bya batch system. The effect of the adsorption time 300 minutes, adsorbent dose(1.0 g/L) and mixing rate (120 rpm) on the adsorption capacity of pollutants.The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were examined.According to the data obtained from experiments, biodiesel wastewater can betreated by adsorption using yellow mustard seeds.

  12. Bedding Improves Yellow-Poplar Growth on Fragipan Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    John K. Francis

    1979-01-01

    Yellow-poplar can be grown on soils that have a shallow fragipan--but unless such sites are bedded, growth is likely to be extremely poor. In a Tennessee study, bedding increased height of planted yellow-poplar over 5 years, but fertilizer did not. Because of the cost of bedding and the availability of nonfragipan sites, it would ordinarily be better not to plant...

  13. Pericardial Mesothelioma in a Yellow-naped Amazon Parrot (Amazona auropalliata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleery, Brynn; Jones, Michael P; Manasse, Jorden; Johns, Sara; Gompf, Rebecca E; Newman, Shelley

    2015-03-01

    A 37-year-old female yellow-naped Amazon parrot (Amazona auropalliata) was presented with a history of lethargy, inappetence, and decreased vocalizations. On examination, the coelom was moderately distended and palpated fluctuant, and the heart was muffled on auscultation. Coelomic ultrasound, coelomocentesis, and radiographs were performed and revealed an enlarged cardiac silhouette and marked coelomic effusion. Pericardial effusion was confirmed by echocardiography. A well-circumscribed, hyperechoic soft tissue density was observed at the level of the right atrium on initial echocardiography; however, a cardiac mass was not identified by computed tomography scan or repeat echocardiograms. Ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis was performed under anesthesia, and cytology results were consistent with hemorrhage; no neoplastic cells were identified. A repeat echocardiogram 4 days after pericardiocentesis revealed recurrence of the pericardial effusion. Due to the grave prognosis, the owners declined endoscopic pericardiectomy, and the patient died the following day. On postmortem examination, the pericardial surface of the heart was covered in a white to yellow, multinodular mass layer. Histologic analysis revealed a multinodular mass extending from the atria, running along the epicardium distally, and often extending into the myocardium. Neoplastic cells present in the heart mass and pericardium did not stain with a Churukian-Schenk stain, and thyroglobulin immunohistochemistry was negative. Cytokeratin and vimentin stains showed positive expression in the neoplastic cells within the mass. These results are consistent with a diagnosis of mesothelioma. This is the first report of mesothelioma in a psittacine bird.

  14. Early mixed farming of millet and rice 7800 years ago in the Middle Yellow River region, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Zhang

    Full Text Available The Peiligang Culture (9000-7000 cal. yr BP in the Middle Yellow River region, North China, has long been considered representative of millet farming. It is still unclear, however, if broomcorn millet or foxtail millet was the first species domesticated during the Peiligang Culture. Furthermore, it is also unknown whether millet was cultivated singly or together with rice at the same period. In this study, phytolith analysis of samples from the Tanghu archaeological site reveals early crop information in the Middle Yellow River region, China. Our results show that broomcorn millet was the early dry farming species in the Peiligang Culture at 7800 cal. yr BP, while rice cultivation took place from 7800 to 4500 cal. yr BP. Our data provide new evidence of broomcorn millet and rice mixed farming at 7800 cal. yr BP in the Middle Yellow River region, which has implications for understanding the domestication process of the two crops, and the formation and continuance of the Ancient Yellow River Civilization.

  15. Evaluation of the antihypertensive properties of yellow passion fruit pulp (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg.) in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konta, Eliziane Mieko; Almeida, Mara Ribeiro; do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Darin, Joana Darc Castania; de Rosso, Veridiana V; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Bianchi, Maria Lourdes Pires

    2014-01-01

    Various species of the genus Passiflora have been extensively used in traditional medicine as sedatives, anxiolytics, diuretics and analgesics. In the present study, after the identification and quantification of phytochemical compounds from yellow passion fruit pulp by liquid chromatography-photodiode array-mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS), its antihypertensive effect was investigated on spontaneously hypertensive rats. Additionally, the renal function, evaluated by kidney/body weight, serum creatinine, proteinuria, urinary flow, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and mutagenicity in bone marrow cells were assessed to evaluate the safety of passion fruit consumption. Yellow passion fruit pulp (5, 6 or 8 g/kg b.w.) was administered by gavage once a day for 5 consecutive days. HLPC-PDA-MS/MS analysis revealed that yellow passion fruit pulp contains phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and flavonoids. The highest dose of passion fruit pulp significantly reduced the systolic blood pressure, increased the GSH levels and decreased TBARS. There were no changes in renal function parameters or the frequency of micronuclei in bone marrow cells. In conclusion, the antihypertensive effect of yellow passion fruit pulp, at least in part, might be due to the enhancement of the antioxidant status. The exact mechanisms responsible by this effect need further investigation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Preservation of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) by Coagulin L1208, a novel bacteriocin produced by Bacillus coagulans L1208.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Linglin; Wang, Chong; Ruan, Xinming; Li, Gang; Zhao, Yu; Wang, Yanbo

    2018-02-02

    Large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) is a cultivated fish of great economic importance and abundant nutritional value. However, due to its high protein and water contents, it is susceptible to decomposition, leading to considerable economic loss and adverse effects on consumer health. Here, we assessed the function of the bacterial strain Bacillus coagulans L1208 (Bcoa) in preserving large yellow croaker during storage at 4°C and found that Bcoa elongates the shelf-life significantly. Further investigations showed that Bcoa prolongs the storage time mainly by suppressing the growth of spoilage bacteria. Moreover, a novel bacteriocin, designated as Coagulin L1208 and produced by Bcoa, was purified and identified by N-terminal sequencing. Finally, the activity of Coagulin L1208 for suppressing spoilage bacteria during the preservation of large yellow croaker was assessed. Our results reveal the mechanism by which Bcoa aids the preservation of large yellow croaker and identify Coagulin L1208 as a potential novel antiseptic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  18. The use of yellow fluorescent hybrids to indicate mating in Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Vanessa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trypanosoma brucei undergoes genetic exchange in its insect vector, the tsetse fly, by an unknown mechanism. The difficulties of working with this experimental system of genetic exchange have hampered investigation, particularly because the trypanosome life cycle stages involved cannot be cultured in vitro and therefore must be examined in the insect. Searching for small numbers of hybrid trypanosomes directly in the fly has become possible through the incorporation of fluorescent reporter genes, and we have previously carried out a successful cross using a reporter-repressor strategy. However, we could not be certain that all fluorescent trypanosomes observed in that cross were hybrids, due to mutations of the repressor leading to spontaneous fluorescence, and we have therefore developed an alternative strategy. Results To visualize the production of hybrids in the fly, parental trypanosome clones were transfected with a gene encoding Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP or Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP. Co-infection of flies with red and green fluorescent parental trypanosomes produced yellow fluorescent hybrids, which were easily visualized in the fly salivary glands. Yellow trypanosomes were not seen in midgut or proventricular samples and first appeared in the glands as epimastigotes as early as 13 days after fly infection. Cloned progeny originating from individual salivary glands had yellow, red, green or no fluorescence and were confirmed as hybrids by microsatellite, molecular karyotype and kinetoplast (mitochondrial DNA analyses. Hybrid clones showed biparental inheritance of both nuclear and kinetoplast genomes. While segregation and reassortment of the reporter genes and microsatellite alleles were consistent with Mendelian inheritance, flow cytometry measurement of DNA content revealed both diploid and polyploid trypanosomes among the hybrid progeny clones. Conclusion The strategy of using production of yellow hybrids

  19. Dissection of antibody specificities induced by yellow fever vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Vratskikh

    Full Text Available The live attenuated yellow fever (YF vaccine has an excellent record of efficacy and one dose provides long-lasting immunity, which in many cases may last a lifetime. Vaccination stimulates strong innate and adaptive immune responses, and neutralizing antibodies are considered to be the major effectors that correlate with protection from disease. Similar to other flaviviruses, such antibodies are primarily induced by the viral envelope protein E, which consists of three distinct domains (DI, II, and III and is presented at the surface of mature flavivirions in an icosahedral arrangement. In general, the dominance and individual variation of antibodies to different domains of viral surface proteins and their impact on neutralizing activity are aspects of humoral immunity that are not well understood. To gain insight into these phenomena, we established a platform of immunoassays using recombinant proteins and protein domains that allowed us to dissect and quantify fine specificities of the polyclonal antibody response after YF vaccination in a panel of 51 vaccinees as well as determine their contribution to virus neutralization by serum depletion analyses. Our data revealed a high degree of individual variation in antibody specificities present in post-vaccination sera and differences in the contribution of different antibody subsets to virus neutralization. Irrespective of individual variation, a substantial proportion of neutralizing activity appeared to be due to antibodies directed to complex quaternary epitopes displayed on the virion surface only but not on monomeric E. On the other hand, DIII-specific antibodies (presumed to have the highest neutralizing activity as well as broadly flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies were absent or present at very low titers. These data provide new information on the fine specificity as well as variability of antibody responses after YF vaccination that are consistent with a strong influence of individual

  20. Yellow Fever outbreaks in unvaccinated populations, Brazil, 2008-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pecego Martins Romano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43% in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39% in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered. Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever.

  1. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity.

  2. The Habitat of Yellow Mouth Turban Turbo Chrysostomus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekendarsi, E.

    2018-03-01

    In general, yellow mouth turban snail Turbo chrysostomus L. 1758 was found in intertidal and coral reef area. This animal is active at night (nocturnal) and settles the coral reef-flats area to do its activity as substrate. In doing its activity, yellow mouth turban snail can be found in the depth of 50 cm until 4 m of tidal area. The adult yellow mouth turban snails are found in great number at intertidal area’s border and at coastal area of coral reef-flats. Methodology that was used in this study is visual analysis (descriptive method), and divided into two parameters which were observed, i.e. abiotic and biotic. Abiotic components that were measured are; Oxygen (ppm), pH, Water Temperature (°C), Salinity (ppm), Ammonia (mg/L), Nitrate (mg/L), Nitrite (mg/L), and Calsium Carbonat (mg/L).Whereas, biotic components that were measured are; substrates, seaweeds, other organisms, and epilithon. The observation’s result of yellow mouth turban snail’s environmental condition showed: abiotic condition of the waters consists of oxygen 3-5 ppm, seawater pH 7-8, seawater temperature 23-26°C, and the salinity of 32-33 ppm. The Habitat of yellow mouth turban snail settled the reef-flats area that is overgrown covered by seaweed Sargassum sp. as the place to do its activity.

  3. Cow urine, Indian yellow, and art forgeries: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory Dale

    2017-07-01

    In a recent technical note in this Journal, de Faria et al., 2017 [1] reported the Raman spectrum of authentic Indian yellow artists' pigment, correcting a decades old reference spectrum that has led to the misidentification of this pigment in artworks that actually contained tartrazine yellow. The present communication provides additional information and corrects important experimental details mentioned by de Faria et al. that should lead to further identifications of the authentic pigment in artworks. Despite their claim that the analysis of this naturally fluorescent colorant is only possible with Fourier transform (FT) instruments, the ready characterization of two authentic samples of historic Indian yellow pigment is demonstrated here using commonly available visible and near-infrared excitation sources on a dispersive Raman microspectrometer. To highlight the importance of the proper identification of dyes and colorants, the authentication and art historical implications of previous literature reports that have misidentified Indian yellow on historic documents are more thoroughly discussed here from a forensic science point of view. The numerous modern pigments that are sold as imitation Indian yellow are addressed and analyzed, allowing the ready noninvasive detection of anachronistic colorants in attempted forgeries. Finally, this unusual pigment is positively identified for the first time using non-invasive dispersive Raman microspectroscopy on a historic object of uncertain date, a highly decorative manuscript from the Indian subcontinent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Coral transcriptome and bacterial community profiles reveal distinct Yellow Band Disease states in Orbicella faveolata

    KAUST Repository

    Closek, Collin J.; Sunagawa, Shinichi; DeSalvo, Michael K.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Desantis, Todd Z.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Weber, Michele X.; Voolstra, Christian R.; Andersen, Gary L.; Medina, Mó nica M.

    2014-01-01

    marked each health state. Diseased samples were associated with two to three times more bacterial diversity. HD samples had the highest bacterial richness, which included components associated with HH and DD, as well as additional unique families

  5. Yellow fever risk assessment in the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Junior, Alberto Novaes; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2015-04-01

    Yellow fever still causes high burden in several areas of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. There are few well-designed epidemiological studies and limited data about yellow fever in Africa. Staples et al., in a recently published paper in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, performed a nationwide study in the Central African Republic (CAR) assessing infection risk and the operational impact of preventive measures. The rapid assessment of human, non-human and mosquito data call attention to the potential risk of future yellow fever outbreaks in the CAR and elsewhere. The study reinforces the need for intensified applied and operational research to address problems and human capacity needs in the realm of neglected tropical diseases in the post-2015 agenda. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. measurement of high dose radiation using yellow perspex dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamrin, M Thoyib; Sofyan, Hasnel

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of high dose radiation using yellow perspex dosemeter has been carried out. Dose range used was between 0.1 to 3.0 kGy. Measurement of dose rate against Fricke dosemeter as a standard dose meter From the irradiation of Fricke dosemeter with time variation of 3,6,9,12,15 and 18 minute, it was obtained average dose rate of 955.57 Gy/hour, linear equation of dose was Y= 2.333+15.776 X with its correlation factor r = 0.9999. Measurement result using yellow perspex show that correlation between net optical density and radiation dose was not linear with its equation was ODc exp. [Bo + In(dose).Bi] Value of Bo = -0.215 and Bi=0.5020. From the experiment it was suggested that routine dosimeter (yellow perspex) should be calibrated formerly against standard dosemeters

  7. Molecular diversity of poleroviruses infecting cucurbit crops in four countries reveals the presence of members of six distinct species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, D; Tsai, W S; Maiss, E; Kenyon, L

    2014-06-01

    When 66 cucurbit samples with yellowing symptoms from fields in Mali, the Philippines, Thailand and Uzbekistan were screened by RT-PCR using universal polerovirus primers, 21 were identified as harboring polerovirus RNA. When these 21 samples were screened with specific primers for the known cucurbit-infecting poleroviruses, suakwa aphid-borne yellows virus and a recombinant strain of cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus were detected for the first time in the Philippines and Thailand. However, seven polerovirus-positive samples did not react with any of the known species-specific primers. Sequencing of 1.4-kb universal polerovirus RT-PCR products revealed the presence of two poleroviruses that had not been described previously. These viruses, from Mali and Thailand, were provisionally named pepo aphid-borne yellows virus and luffa aphid-borne yellows virus, respectively.

  8. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  9. Yellow fever vaccine: worthy friend or stealthy foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Stephen J; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2016-06-01

    Recognition that the live yellow fever vaccine may rarely be associated with viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) has diminished its safety status. However, the vaccine remains the principal tool for limiting the occurrence of yellow fever, making large portions of Africa and South America more habitable. The subject has previously been exhaustively reviewed. Novel concepts in the current report include the description of a systematic method for deciding whom to vaccinate, recommendations for obtaining data helpful in making that decision, and suggestions for additional study. The vaccine is indeed a worthy friend, but its adverse reactions need to be recognized.

  10. Is Red Heavier Than Yellow Even for Blind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilari, Marco; de Heering, Adélaïde; Crollen, Virginie; Collignon, Olivier; Bottini, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Across cultures and languages, people find similarities between the products of different senses in mysterious ways. By studying what is called cross-modal correspondences, cognitive psychologists discovered that lemons are fast rather than slow, boulders are sour, and red is heavier than yellow. Are these cross-modal correspondences established via sensory perception or can they be learned merely through language? We contribute to this debate by demonstrating that early blind people who lack the perceptual experience of color also think that red is heavier than yellow but to a lesser extent than sighted do.

  11. Effects of geological changes and climatic fluctuations on the demographic histories and low genetic diversity of Squaliobarbus curriculus in Yellow River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Song, Na; Wang, Jun; Gao, Tianxiang

    2016-09-15

    The 104 samples of Squaliobarbus curriculus were collected from four localities in Yellow River and one region in Yangtze River. Analyses of the first hypervariable region of mitochondrial DNA control region of 555bp revealed only 15 polymorphism sites and defined 19 haplotypes. Low-to-moderate levels of haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity were observed in Yellow River populations (h=0.2529-0.7510, π=0.0712%-0.2197%). In contrast, Poyang Lake population showed high haplotype diversity and lower-middle nucleotide diversity (h=0.9636, π=0.5317%). Low genetic differentiation was estimated among Yellow River populations and significant level of genetic structure was detected between two rivers. Population genetic structure between two rivers was believed to be connected with geographical barriers and paleoclimatic events. The demographic history of S. curriculus in Yellow River examined by neutrality tests, mismatch distribution analysis, and Bayesian skyline analysis suggested a sudden and spatial population expansion dating to the Holocene. Climatic warming and changes of Yellow River course may have important effects on demographic facet of S. curriculus history. The same signal was also obtained on Poyang Lake population in late Pleistocene during the last interglacial period. During the period, the pronounced climatic change and the water system variation of PYL may have an important influence on the population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifikasi Pepper vein yellows virus yang Berasosiasi dengan Penyakit Yellow Vein Banding pada Tanaman Mentimun di Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Dewa Nyoman Nyana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Yellowing vein banding disease has been reported infecting cucurbit plants in Bali since 2014. Similar vein banding symptom on chilli pepper was observed previously, and early diagnosis indicated infection of Polerovirus. The objective of this research was to confirm the presence of Polerovirus infection on cucumber plant showing yellow vein banding symptom in Bali. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction – based detection method was conducted using specific primer pairs PeVYV-CP-F-BamH1/ PeVYV-CP-R-Pst1followed by sequencing and nucleotide sequence analysis.  Specific DNA fragments of ± 650 bp was successfully amplified from field samples.  Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the sequence has the highest similarity > 95% with Pepper vein yellow virus (PeVYV infecting chili pepper from Indonesia (Bali, and Rembang, Japan, and Greece.

  13. Dynamics of organic and inorganic carbon in surface sediments of the Yellow River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z.; Wang, X.; Liu, X.; Zhang, E.; Hang, F.

    2017-12-01

    Estuarine sediment is an important carbon reservoir thus may play an important role in the global carbon cycle. However, little is known on the dynamics of organic carbon (OC) and inorganic carbon (IC) in the surface sediment of the Yellow River Estuary, a large estuary in northern China. In this study, we applied element analyses and isotopic approach to study spatial distribution and sources of OC and IC in the Yellow River Estuary. We found that TIC concentration (6.3-20.1 g kg-1) was much higher than TOC (0.2-4.4 g kg-1) in the surface sediment. There showed a large spatial variability in TOC and TIC and their stable isotopes. Both TOC and TIC were higher to the north (2.6 and 14.5 g kg-1) than to the south (1.6 and 12.2 g kg-1), except in the southern bay where TOC and TIC reached 2.7 and 15.4 g kg-1, respectively. Generally, TOC and TIC in our study area was mainly autochthonous. The lower TOC values in the south section were due to relatively higher kinetic energy level whereas the higher values in the bay was attributable to terrigenous matters accumulation and lower kinetic energy level. However, the southern bay revealed the most negative δ13Corg and δ13Ccarb, suggesting that there might exist some transfer of OC to IC in the section. Our study points out that the dynamics of sedimentary carbon in the Yellow River Estuary is influenced by multiple and complex processes, and highlights the importance of carbonate in carbon sequstration.

  14. Sedimentary architecture of the Holocene mud deposit off the southern Shandong Peninsula in the Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiandong; Liu, Jian; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Liangyong

    2018-01-01

    Newly acquired high-resolution seismic profiles reveal a nearshore and an offshore mud depocenter offthe southern Shandong Peninsula in the Yellow Sea. The nearshore depocenter is distributed in bands along the south coast of Shandong Peninsula. The offshore depocenter is part of the distal subaqueous deltaic lobe, which deposited around the southeastern tip of the Shandong Peninsula. Between the two depocenters is a linear depression. The mud deposits directly overlie the postglacial transgressive surface and can be divided into lower and upper units by the Holocene maximum flooding surface. The nearshore and offshore units display different seismic structures. The lower unit of the nearshore deposit exhibits basal onlap, whereas the upper unit is characterized by progradation. The lower and upper units of the offshore deposit display distinct acoustic features. The lower unit has low-angle aggradation with internal reflectors generally dipping seaward and truncated by the Holocene maximum flooding surface, whereas the upper unit is characterized by aggradation and progradation landward rather than seaward. Results of geochemistry analysis of QDZ03 sediments and mineral analysis of WHZK01 sediments suggest that the nearshore deposit and the lower unit of the offshore deposit are derived from the proximal coastal sediments of the Shandong Peninsula and the Huanghe (Yellow) River sediments. The upper unit of the offshore deposit is mainly Huanghe River-derived. The lower unit of the mud deposit represents a post-glacial transgressive system tract according to dates of core QDZ03, and the upper unit represents a highstand system tract from middle Holocene to the present. These results will be of great significance to further understanding of the transportation of the Huanghe River sediments into the Yellow Sea and the spatial distribution of the subaqueous delta.

  15. Effect of gallic and protocatechuic acids on the metabolism of ethyl carbamate in Chinese yellow rice wine brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wanyi; Fang, Ruosi; Chen, Qihe

    2017-10-15

    It was studied that gallic and protocatechuic acids played important roles in ethyl carbamate (EC) forming. Gallic and protocatechuic acids can reduce the arginine consumption through inhibiting the arginine deiminase enzyme. Therefore, they are generally added to regulate EC catabolism in the course of yellow rice wine leavening at the third day. In this work, gallic and protocatechuic acids made little influence on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Besides, the addition of 200mg/L gallic or protocatechuic acid could prevent the transformation from urea/citrulline to EC. Gallic acid showed better inhibiting effect that the content of EC could be reduced by 91.9% at most. Furthermore, the production of amino acids and volatile flavor compounds are not markedly affected by phenolic compounds. The discoveries reveal that EC can be reduced by supplying gallic acid or protocatechuic acid while yellow rice wine leavening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical and Pathological Findings on Intoxication by Yellow Phosphorus After Ingesting Firework Cracker: A Rare Case of Autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen Şamdanci, Emine; Çakir, Ebru; Şahin, Nurhan; Elmali, Candan; Sayin, Sadegül

    2016-01-01

    Yellow phosphorus is a toxic substance used in the production of firework cracker, fireworks, ammunition and agricultural dung. When ingested, it shows its effects mainly in the liver, the kidneys, and the brain. A four-year-old girl had died as a result of acute hepatic failure caused by ingesting a firework cracker. The case showed high levels of hepatic enzymes, along with non-specific signs such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Autopsy revealed diffuse microvesicular steatosis in the liver and disseminated degeneration in the proximal tubules of the kidneys. In cases with concomitant hepatorenal failure and cardiovascular collapse, death is inevitable. However, when only hepatic failure develops, hepatic transplantation may be lifesaving. Although intoxication from ingesting yellow phosphorus has a very high rate of mortality, forensic cases are extremely rare in the literature.

  17. A Case of Yellow Nail Syndrome Accompanying Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia; Successful Treatment with Clarithromycin, Methylprednisolone, and Alpha-Tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Yılmaz Kara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old woman presented with complaints of dyspnea, fatigue, and non-productive cough. Chest X-ray showed bilateral lung infiltrates. Nonspecific air-space consolidation on anterior segment of the right lower lobe, bilateral bronchiectasis and infiltrates, patchy ground-glass opacities, and interstitial thickening were reported on thorax computed tomography which was non-responsive to antibiotics. After tru-cut biopsy which only revealed a single granuloma in a particular area, alveolar septal thickening and fibrosis, slight chronic inflammation with findings of congestion, lung involvement was considered to be associated with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. The nails on all fingers displayed yellow discoloration with mild edema in the face and the legs. The final diagnosis was yellow nail syndrome. Short-term clarithromycin and long-term oral methylprednisolone with vitamin E treatment were successful. After 4 months, all components of the syndrome almost completely regressed.

  18. Three-dimensional visualization of cultural clusters in the 1878 yellow fever epidemic of New Orleans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Andrew J

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An epidemic may exhibit different spatial patterns with a change in geographic scale, with each scale having different conduits and impediments to disease spread. Mapping disease at each of these scales often reveals different cluster patterns. This paper will consider this change of geographic scale in an analysis of yellow fever deaths for New Orleans in 1878. Global clustering for the whole city, will be followed by a focus on the French Quarter, then clusters of that area, and finally street-level patterns of a single cluster. The three-dimensional visualization capabilities of a GIS will be used as part of a cluster creation process that incorporates physical buildings in calculating mortality-to-mortality distance. Including nativity of the deceased will also capture cultural connection. Results Twenty-two yellow fever clusters were identified for the French Quarter. These generally mirror the results of other global cluster and density surfaces created for the entire epidemic in New Orleans. However, the addition of building-distance, and disease specific time frame between deaths reveal that disease spread contains a cultural component. Same nativity mortality clusters emerge in a similar time frame irrespective of proximity. Italian nativity mortalities were far more densely grouped than any of the other cohorts. A final examination of mortalities for one of the nativity clusters reveals that further sub-division is present, and that this pattern would only be revealed at this scale (street level of investigation. Conclusion Disease spread in an epidemic is complex resulting from a combination of geographic distance, geographic distance with specific connection to the built environment, disease-specific time frame between deaths, impediments such as herd immunity, and social or cultural connection. This research has shown that the importance of cultural connection may be more important than simple proximity, which in

  19. Three-dimensional visualization of cultural clusters in the 1878 yellow fever epidemic of New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Andrew J

    2008-08-22

    An epidemic may exhibit different spatial patterns with a change in geographic scale, with each scale having different conduits and impediments to disease spread. Mapping disease at each of these scales often reveals different cluster patterns. This paper will consider this change of geographic scale in an analysis of yellow fever deaths for New Orleans in 1878. Global clustering for the whole city, will be followed by a focus on the French Quarter, then clusters of that area, and finally street-level patterns of a single cluster. The three-dimensional visualization capabilities of a GIS will be used as part of a cluster creation process that incorporates physical buildings in calculating mortality-to-mortality distance. Including nativity of the deceased will also capture cultural connection. Twenty-two yellow fever clusters were identified for the French Quarter. These generally mirror the results of other global cluster and density surfaces created for the entire epidemic in New Orleans. However, the addition of building-distance, and disease specific time frame between deaths reveal that disease spread contains a cultural component. Same nativity mortality clusters emerge in a similar time frame irrespective of proximity. Italian nativity mortalities were far more densely grouped than any of the other cohorts. A final examination of mortalities for one of the nativity clusters reveals that further sub-division is present, and that this pattern would only be revealed at this scale (street level) of investigation. Disease spread in an epidemic is complex resulting from a combination of geographic distance, geographic distance with specific connection to the built environment, disease-specific time frame between deaths, impediments such as herd immunity, and social or cultural connection. This research has shown that the importance of cultural connection may be more important than simple proximity, which in turn might mean traditional quarantine measures should be

  20. Serological Changes Induced by Blend of Sunset Yellow, Metanil Yellow and Tartrazine in Swiss Albino Rat, Rattus Norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effect of blend of some food colors on Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: A blend (1:1:1) of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine showed additive effects on serological parameters which indicate that addition of these dye together in food stuff may give rise to more toxic effects than are produced by each dye individually. Animals were divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV). First group was treated as con...

  1. Yellow fever vaccine used in a psoriatic arthritis patient treated with methotrexate: a case report:

    OpenAIRE

    Štuhec, Matej

    2014-01-01

    The yellow fever vaccines on the market are contraindicated for immunocompromised and elderly patients. A case of yellow fever vaccine used in a 27-year-old Slovenian male with psoriatic arthritis during treatment with methotrexate is described. We demonstrate a positive case, since there were noadverse effects in concurrent administration of yellow fever vaccine and methotrexate. This patient did not show severe adverse reactions and did not contract yellow fever despite potential exposure. ...

  2. Yellow fever vaccine used in a psoriatic arthritis patient treated with methotrexate

    OpenAIRE

    Štuhec, Matej

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever vaccines on the market are contraindicated for immunocompromised and elderly patients. A case of yellow fever vaccine used in a 27-year-old Slovenian male with psoriatic arthritis during treatment with methotrexate is described. We demonstrate a positive case, since there were noadverse effects in concurrent administration of yellow fever vaccine and methotrexate. This patient did not show severe adverse reactions and did not contract yellow fever despite potential exposure. ...

  3. Genetic differentiation in Japanese flounder in the Yellow Sea and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The population structure of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in the Yellow and East China Seas were analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequencing. A total of 390 reproducible bands were generated by 10 AFLP primer combinations in ...

  4. Amniogenesis in the African yellow bat, Scotophilus dinganii | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African yellow house bat, Scotophilus dinganii, was found to be seasonally monestrus, carrying a single foetus in each of the two uterine horns of the bicornuate uterus. Implantation was superficial, with amniogenesis initiated early during embryogenesis. The amnion in S. dinganii was a schizamnion, and it is deduced ...

  5. A review of United States yellow cake precipitation practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litz, J.E.; Coleman, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The various process flowsheets used to produce concentrated uranium solutions are reviewed. The choices of flowsheets are affected by ore alkalinity, uranium mineralization, and the impurities solubilized during leaching. The techniques used to precipitate yellow cake from concentrated uranium solutions are reviewed. Consideration is given to precipitation chemistry, reagent requirements, and process equipment and costs for precipitation, dewatering, drying and calcining. (author)

  6. Serious adverse events associated with yellow fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes Martins, Reinaldo; Fernandes Leal, Maria da Luz; Homma, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Yellow fever vaccine was considered one of the safest vaccines, but in recent years it was found that it could rarely cause invasive and disseminated disease in some otherwise healthy individuals, with high lethality. After extensive studies, although some risk factors have been identified, the real cause of causes of this serious adverse event are largely unknown, but findings point to individual host factors. Meningoencephalitis, once considered to happen only in children less than 6 months of age, has also been identified in older children and adults, but with good prognosis. Efforts are being made to develop a safer yellow fever vaccine, and an inactivated vaccine or a vaccine prepared with the vaccine virus envelope produced in plants are being tested. Even with serious and rare adverse events, yellow fever vaccine is the best way to avoid yellow fever, a disease of high lethality and should be used routinely in endemic areas, and on people from non-endemic areas that could be exposed, according to a careful risk-benefit analysis.

  7. How Brazil joined the quest for a yellow fever vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Brazil recently announced an agreement between its Bio-Manguinhos vaccine unit and two US companies to research and develop a new yellow fever vaccine. Claudia Jurberg and Julia D’Aloisio talk to Jaime Benchimol about the controversial history of the development of the vaccine that benefits millions of people today.

  8. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Incidence of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) on rice plants (ofada) grown in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State had been evaluated during a two year field survey. Six month old rice plants were observed for symptom expression and leaf samples collected for serological indexing. Of the 60 leaf ...

  9. Facing up to re-emergence of urban yellow fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, T P

    1999-05-08

    Transmitted from person to person by Aedes aegypti, urban yellow fever was eliminated in the first half of this century, with the eradication of its mosquito vector from most of South America. However, reinfestation began in the 1970s is now almost complete, and vector control is considerably more difficult now than before. The threat of urban yellow fever is greatest in towns such as Santa Cruz, Bolivia, near the forest, but improved transport links increase the likelihood of spread by viremic people to nonendemic areas. Van der Stuyft et al. have reported the first instance of urban transmission of yellow fever in the Americas in 44 years. Since residents of the densely populated cities and much visited areas in coastal South America have never been vaccinated, an outbreak there would facilitate widespread dissemination of the disease, even to other continents. While urban yellow fever is a significant threat, carrying a case-fatality rate of about 20%, the constrained dynamics of transmission, early recognition of the striking clinical presentation, and efforts to control the infection should limit the impact of the disease. Laboratory-based surveillance, together with the prevention and control strategies outlined by van der Stuyft et al. are the key defensive measures against the future threat of urban epidemics.

  10. Scaling Up the Production of More Nutritious Yellow Potatoes in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    English · Français ... Researchers will scale up improved yellow potato varieties that -yield 15% more than other varieties -are ... -have nearly 20% more iron and zinc than the most cultivated Colombian variety The project will deliver these ...

  11. The carbon footprint of exported Brazilian yellow melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Kroeze, C.; Potting, J.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa de Aragão, A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon footprint of food has become important for producers worldwide as consumers and retail companies increasingly base their purchase decisions on carbon footprint labels. In this context, our objectives is to assess the carbon footprint (CF) of Brazilian yellow melon exported from the Low

  12. Predicting Driver Behavior during the Yellow Interval Using Video Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At a signalized intersection, drivers must make a stop/go decision at the onset of the yellow signal. Incorrect decisions would lead to red light running (RLR violations or crashes. This study aims to predict drivers’ stop/go decisions and RLR violations during yellow intervals. Traffic data such as vehicle approaching speed, acceleration, distance to the intersection, and occurrence of RLR violations are gathered by a Vehicle Data Collection System (VDCS. An enhanced Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM is used to extract moving vehicles from target lanes, and the Kalman Filter (KF algorithm is utilized to acquire vehicle trajectories. The data collected from the VDCS are further analyzed by a sequential logit model, and the relationship between drivers’ stop/go decisions and RLR violations is identified. The results indicate that the distance of vehicles to the stop line at the onset of the yellow signal is an important predictor for both drivers’ stop/go decisions and RLR violations. In addition, vehicle approaching speed is a contributing factor for stop/go decisions. Furthermore, the accelerations of vehicles after the onset of the yellow signal are positively related to RLR violations. The findings of this study can be used to predict the probability of drivers’ RLR violations and improve traffic safety at signalized intersections.

  13. Suspected YF-AND after yellow fever vaccination in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Huhtamo, Eili; Kivioja, Reetta; Domingo, Cristina; Vene, Sirkka; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Niedrig, Matthias; Tienari, Pentti J; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-11-01

    Yellow fever (YF) vaccine is considered safe but vaccine-associated complications have also been encountered. We report neurological symptoms after YF-vaccination in a previously healthy Finnish male. Other concomitant infections or causes for the symptoms could not be identified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 38 CFR 21.9700 - Yellow Ribbon Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Yellow Ribbon Program and the student maintains satisfactory progress, conduct, and attendance according...) Based on student status (i.e. , undergraduate, graduate, doctoral), or (ii) For each subelement of the institution (i.e., college or professional school). The maximum amount specified for each subelement of the...

  15. Sugar maple and yellow birch seedling growth after simulated browsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick T. Metzger

    1977-01-01

    Simulating natural damage to leaders of forest-grown seedlings of yellow birch and sugar maple resulted in no loss of vigor but a loss in net height growth. Leader elongation depended upon seedling, shoot, and bud characteristics rather than on the extent of damage.

  16. Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, P.P.R.; Resende, de R.O.; Souza, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da

  17. Fish protein fingerprint in whole muscle samples of yellow perch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many studies have shown the impact of environmental and/or genetic factors on the growth and development of various fish species. However, the role of genes supporting the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for fish was to compare whole muscle proteomic profiles of large versus small growth yellow perch ...

  18. [A novel yellow organic light-emitting device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chen; Wang, Hua; Hao, Yu-Ying; Gao, Zhi-Xiang; Zhou, He-Feng; Xu, Bing-She

    2008-07-01

    The fabrication of a novel organic yellow-light-emitting device using Rhodamine B as dopant with double quantum-well (DQW) structure was introduced in the present article. The structure and thickness of this device is ITO/CuPc (6 nm) /NPB (20 nm) /Alq3 (3 nm)/Alq3 : Rhodamine B (3 nm) /Alq3 (3 nm) /Al q3 : Rhodamine B(3 nm) /Alq3 (30 nm) /Liq (5 nm)/Al (30 nm). With the detailed investigation of electroluminescence of the novel organic yellow-light-emitting device, the authors found that the doping concentration of Rhodamine B (RhB) had a very big influence on luminance and efficiency of the organic yellow-light-emitting device. When doping concentration of Rhodamine B (RhB) was 1.5 wt%, the organic yellow-light-emitting device was obtained with the maximum current efficiency of 1.526 cd x A(-1) and the maximum luminance of 1 309 cd x m(-2). It can be seen from the EL spectra of the devices that there existed energy transferring from Alq3 to RhB in the organic light-emitting layers. When the doping concentration of RhB increased, lambda(max) of EL spectra redshifted obviously. The phenomenon was attributed to the Stokes effect of quantum wells and self-polarization of RhB dye molecules.

  19. Response of yellow flowering magnolia varieties to powdery mildew, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow flowering varieties of Magnolia spp. hybrids were planted in April 2008 in a field plot with Waynesboro loam soil at the Otis L. Floyd Nursery Research Center in McMinnville, TN. Severity of powdery mildew was determined on 14 Jul, 21 Aug and 15 Oct using a scale of 0-100% foliage affected. ...

  20. Invisible Connections : Why Migrating Shorebirds Need the Yellow Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kam, Jan; Battley, Phil; McCaffery, Brian; Rogers, Danny; Hong, Jae-Sang; Moores, Nial; Yong-ki, Yu; Lewis, Jan; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-01-01

    Each year, invisible to the naked eye, millions of migrating shorebirds fly from Australasia towards the tidal flats of the Yellow Sea bordering China and Korea. Each flock is made up of individuals using whatever strategies they can muster to endure the flights, weather the storms and find safe

  1. Two barley yellow dwarf luteovirus serotypes associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barley yellow dwarf luteovirus (BYDV) serotypes PAV and RPV were identified from irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) samples from three provinces of Zambia by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal and monoclonal antisera. Nine wheat cultivars were surveyed in 11 wheat ...

  2. breeding Red-and-yellow Barbets Trachyphonus erythrocephalus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Table 1), but it was not possible to ascertain whether it was always the exact same pair breeding. Table 1. Breeding activity of Red-and-yellow Barbets from a single nest in south- eastern Sudan in 2005. Date. Brood No. Nesting activity. Fledging date. No. of Fledglings. Observed post-fledging. 11 Feb. 1 feeding young.

  3. Initial photoinduced dynamics of the photoactive yellow protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, D.S.; van Grondelle, R.

    2005-01-01

    The photoactive yellow protein (PYP) is the photoreceptor protein responsible for initiating the blue-light repellent response of the Halorhodospira halophila bacterium. Optical excitation of the intrinsic chromophore in PYP, p-coumaric acid, leads to the initiation of a photocycle that comprises

  4. Biology and biological control of Dalmatian and yellow toadflax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda M. Wilson; Sharlene E. Sing; Gary L. Piper; Richard W. Hansen; Rosemarie De Clerck-Floate; Daniel K. MacKinnon; Carol Bell Randall

    2005-01-01

    Dalmatian toadflax, Linaria dalmatica (L.) P. Mill. ssp. dalmatica (Fig. 1a), and yellow toadflax, Linaria vulgaris (L.) P. Mill. (Fig. 1b), are exotic [see Glossary] weeds of rangeland, forests and cropland. Although several species of weedy toadflax have been intentionally or accidentally introduced to North America, these two species are by far the most common and...

  5. Fighting Lethal Yellowing Disease for Coconut Farmers (CIFSRF ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Copra is the dried kernel of the coconut, which is used to extract coconut oil. Coconut is the main income source for the coastal region's poor farmers. Over the past 10 years, Côte d'Ivoire lethal yellowing disease has destroyed more than 350 hectares of coconut and caused losses of 12,000 tons of copra per year.

  6. The effect of a yellow bicycle jacket on cyclist accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2018-01-01

    Highlights •A randomised controlled trial with 6793 cyclists shows a reduced accident risk due to a yellow bicycle jacket. •The test group had 47% fewer multiparty accidents with personal injury. •The test group had 55% fewer multiparty accidents against motorised vehicles....

  7. Cooking and Eating Quality of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cooking and Eating Quantity of Rice Yellow Mottle 195 varieties often out compete introduced varieties on local markets; even though the former have lower yield potential. Breeding work incorporating grain quality was started in 1972 with the aim of developing varieties which combine high grain yield and grain quality ...

  8. Response of bankfull discharge of the Inner Mongolia Yellow River ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the flood and sediment transport capacity of a river channel. It is based on the ...... Eng. 39 680–687 (in Chinese). Wu B S and Zhang Y F 2007 Law of along-course chang- ... load in the Lower Yellow River; Geomorphology 100(3–4). 366–376.

  9. Proline 68 enhances photoisomerization yield in photoactive yellow protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rupenyan, A.B.; Vreede, J.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Hospes, M.; Kennis, J.T.M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; Groot, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    In proteins and enzymes, the local environment of an active cofactor plays an important role in controlling the outcome of a functional reaction. In photoactive yellow protein (PYP), it ensures photoisomerization of the chromophore, a prerequisite for formation of a signaling state. PYP is the

  10. Proline 68 Enhances Photoisomerization Yield in Photoactive Yellow Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rupenyan, A.B.; Vreede, J.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Hospes, M.; Kennis, J.T.M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; Groot, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    In proteins and enzymes, the local environment of an active cofactor plays an important role in controlling the outcome of a functional reaction. In photoactive yellow protein (PYP), it ensures photoisomerization of the chromophore, a prerequisite for formation of a signaling state. PYP is the

  11. Normal and hetero-yellow endosperm grain sorghum as substitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    housed in flat deck-type cages, 1,6 x 1 m, fitted with a self- feeder and an automatic water nipple. Temperatures in the ... adiabatic bomb calorimeter. Amino acid analyses, following acid hydrolysis in a .... the hetero-yellow endosperm type sorghum had the highest avarage daily gains (ADGs), whereas pigs fed the maize-.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1973 - Beeswax (yellow and white).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Beeswax (yellow and white). 184.1973 Section 184.1973 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE...

  13. SS 383: A NEW S-TYPE YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STAR?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B. [Observatório Nacional, Rua José Cristino 77, CEP 20921-400, São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miranda, L. F. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Vigo, E-36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    Symbiotic stars are key objects in understanding the formation and evolution of interacting binary systems, and are probably the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. However, the number of known symbiotic stars is much lower than predicted. We aim to search for new symbiotic stars, with particular emphasis on the S-type yellow symbiotic stars, in order to determine their total population, evolutionary timescales, and physical properties. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) color-color diagram has been previously used to identify new symbiotic star candidates and show that yellow symbiotics are located in a particular region of that diagram. Candidate symbiotic stars are selected on the basis of their locus in the 2MASS (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) diagram and the presence of Hα line emission in the Stephenson and Sanduleak Hα survey. This diagram separates S-type yellow symbiotic stars from the rest of the S-type symbiotic stars, allowing us to select candidate yellow symbiotics. To establish the true nature of the candidates, intermediate-resolution spectroscopy is obtained. We have identified the Hα emission line source SS 383 as an S-type yellow symbiotic candidate by its position in the 2MASS color-color diagram. The optical spectrum of SS 383 shows Balmer, He I, He II, and [O III] emission lines, in combination with TiO absorption bands that confirm its symbiotic nature. The derived electron density (≅10{sup 8-9} cm{sup –3}), He I emission line intensity ratios, and position in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ versus [O III] λ4363/Hγ diagram indicate that SS 383 is an S-type symbiotic star, with a probable spectral type of K7-M0 deduced for its cool component based on TiO indices. The spectral type and the position of SS 383 (corrected for reddening) in the 2MASS color-color diagram strongly suggest that SS 383 is an S-type yellow symbiotic. Our result points out that the 2MASS color-color diagram is a powerful tool in

  14. SS 383: A NEW S-TYPE YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STAR?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B.; Miranda, L. F.

    2013-01-01

    Symbiotic stars are key objects in understanding the formation and evolution of interacting binary systems, and are probably the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. However, the number of known symbiotic stars is much lower than predicted. We aim to search for new symbiotic stars, with particular emphasis on the S-type yellow symbiotic stars, in order to determine their total population, evolutionary timescales, and physical properties. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) (J – H) versus (H – K s ) color-color diagram has been previously used to identify new symbiotic star candidates and show that yellow symbiotics are located in a particular region of that diagram. Candidate symbiotic stars are selected on the basis of their locus in the 2MASS (J – H) versus (H – K s ) diagram and the presence of Hα line emission in the Stephenson and Sanduleak Hα survey. This diagram separates S-type yellow symbiotic stars from the rest of the S-type symbiotic stars, allowing us to select candidate yellow symbiotics. To establish the true nature of the candidates, intermediate-resolution spectroscopy is obtained. We have identified the Hα emission line source SS 383 as an S-type yellow symbiotic candidate by its position in the 2MASS color-color diagram. The optical spectrum of SS 383 shows Balmer, He I, He II, and [O III] emission lines, in combination with TiO absorption bands that confirm its symbiotic nature. The derived electron density (≅10 8-9 cm –3 ), He I emission line intensity ratios, and position in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ versus [O III] λ4363/Hγ diagram indicate that SS 383 is an S-type symbiotic star, with a probable spectral type of K7-M0 deduced for its cool component based on TiO indices. The spectral type and the position of SS 383 (corrected for reddening) in the 2MASS color-color diagram strongly suggest that SS 383 is an S-type yellow symbiotic. Our result points out that the 2MASS color-color diagram is a powerful tool in identifying new S

  15. Yellow nail syndrome – report of a rare disorder | Ikuabe | Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Yellow Nail Syndrome (YNS) is a rare disorder of unknown cause characterized by the trail of yellow and thickened nails, lymphoedema and respiratory manifestation. We have no record of any case report of yellow nail syndrome in our setting. Methods: We reviewed the records of an 80 year old woman ...

  16. Consumer willingness to pay a price premium for standing-dead Alaska yellow-cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2004-01-01

    Alaska yellow-cedar has declined in Southeast Alaska over the past 100 years, resulting in half a million acres of dead or dying trees. The natural decay resistance of Alaska yellow-cedar means that many of these trees are still merchantable. However, the topography of Southeast Alaska is such that selectively harvesting Alaska yellow-cedar may often require helicopter...

  17. 29-34 Yellow Rust Resistance in Advanced Lines and Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rust pathogen. The objective of this study was to characterize seedling yellow rust resistance in 21 advanced bread wheat lines and 20 cultivars from Ethiopia. Yellow rust infection types (ITs) produced on test wheat lines and cultivars from nine yellow rust races were compared with ITs produced on standard differential lines ...

  18. 21 CFR 74.1705 - FD&C Yellow No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... listing the color additive using the names FD&C Yellow No. 5 and tartrazine. The label shall bear a statement such as “Contains FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) as a color additive” or “Contains color additives including FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine).” The labels of certain drug products subject to this labeling...

  19. Identification of Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus infecting Vigna mungo var. silvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaal NAIMUDDIN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Yellow mosaic of Vigna mungo var.  silvestris, a wild relative of blackgram (Vigna mungo [L.] Hepper, was noticed at the Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur, India during 2008–2010, with an incidence of 100 per cent. The observed symptoms, consisting of veinal yellowing and scattered bright yellow spots, were suggestive of infection with a begomovirus. To characterize the virus, several sets of primer pairs were designed to amplify the targeted DNA fragments of the causal virus. The sequence data revealed that the coat protein (AV1 gene of the begomovirus under study contained a single open reading frame with 774 nucleotides, coding for 257 amino acids. Comparative analysis of the coat protein (AV1 gene of the virus under study (FJ821189 showed a 97 and 99% similarity with Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV-Mungbean strain at the nucleotide and the amino acid levels respectively. Sequence homology of different genes (AC1, AC2, AC3 and AC4 of the isolate under study (FJ663015 with MYMIV-Mungbean (EU523045 was 94–97% for the nucleotides and 91–99% for the amino acids sequence. Therefore, the begomovirus infecting V. mungo var. silvestris at Kanpur is to be considered a strain of MYMIV and is

  20. Yellow-green electroluminescence of samarium complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzad, Sara Karimi; Najafi, Ezzatollah [Department of Chemistry Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amini, Mostafa M., E-mail: m-pouramini@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Janghouri, Mohammad; Mohajerani, Ezeddin [Laser Research Institute Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ng, Seik Weng [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-12-15

    Four novel samarium complexes were prepared by reacting samarium(III) nitrate with 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline, and 1,10-phenanthroline and utilized as emitting materials in the electroluminescence device. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, UV–vis and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopes and the molecular structure of a representative complex, [Sm{sub 2}(Me-HQ){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}] (1), was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Utilization of a π-conjugated (phenanthroline) ligand as a second ligand in the structure of the samarium complexes resulted in red shifts in both absorption and fluorescence spectra of complexes and moderately enhanced the photoluminescence intensity and the fluorescence quantum yield. The maximum emission peaks showed that a good correlation exists between the nature of the substituent group on the 8-hydroxyquinoline and the addition of the π-conjugated ligand in the structure of samarium complexes and emission wavelength. Devices with samarium(III) complexes with structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS (90 nm)/PVK:PBD:Sm(III) complexes (75 nm)/Al (180 nm) were fabricated. In the electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the devices, a strong ligand-centered emission and narrow bands arising from the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}→{sup 6}H{sub J} transitions (J=7/2, 9/2, and 11/2) of the samarium ion were observed for the complexes. The electroluminescent spectra of the samarium complexes were red-shifted as compared with the PVK:PBD blend. We believe that the electroluminescence performance of OLED devices based on samarium complexes relies on overlaps between the absorption of the samarium compounds and the emission of PVK:PBD. This revealed that it is possible to evaluate the electroluminescence performance of the samarium compounds-doped OLED devices based on the emission of PVK:PBD and the absorption of the dopants. - Highlights: • Four novel photoluminescence samarium complexes have been synthesized.

  1. Human impacts on runoff regime of middle and lower Yellow River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-fang Sang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the 54-year (1950 to 2003 monthly runoff series from February, April, August, and November, as well as the annual runoff series, measured at both Huayuankou and Lijin hydrological stations were chosen as representative data, and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT was applied to analyze the impacts of human activities on the runoff regime of the middle and lower Yellow River. A point of change in 1970 was first determined, and the observed series before 1970 were considered natural runoff while those after 1970 were restored according to linear trends. Then, the CWT was applied to both the observed and restored runoff series to reveal their variations at multi-temporal scales, including the five temporal ranges of 1–4, 6–8, 9–12, 16–22, and 22–30 years, and the trend at the temporal scale of 54 years. These analysis results are compared and discussed in detail. In conclusion, because of the impacts of human activities, there have been significant changes in the runoff regime in the middle and lower Yellow River since 1970. The decaying tendency of annual runoff has become more pronounced, and the inner-annual distribution of runoff has changed, but human activities have had little impact on the periodic characteristics of runoff.

  2. Yellow fever virus: genetic and phenotypic diversity and implications for detection, prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, David W C; McAuley, Alexander J; Bente, Dennis A

    2015-03-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) is the prototypical hemorrhagic fever virus, yet our understanding of its phenotypic diversity and any molecular basis for observed differences in disease severity and epidemiology is lacking, when compared to other arthropod-borne and haemorrhagic fever viruses. This is, in part, due to the availability of safe and effective vaccines resulting in basic YFV research taking a back seat to those viruses for which no effective vaccine occurs. However, regular outbreaks occur in endemic areas, and the spread of the virus to new, previously unaffected, areas is possible. Analysis of isolates from endemic areas reveals a strong geographic association for major genotypes, and recent epidemics have demonstrated the emergence of novel sequence variants. This review aims to outline the current understanding of YFV genetic and phenotypic diversity and its sources, as well as the available animal models for characterizing these differences in vivo. The consequences of genetic diversity for detection and diagnosis of yellow fever and development of new vaccines and therapeutics are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Polymorph-Dependent Green, Yellow, and Red Emissions of Organic Crystals for Laser Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Zhiwei; Jin, Xue; Liao, Qing; Fu, Hongbing

    2017-12-05

    Color tuning of organic solid-state luminescent materials remains difficult and time-consuming through conventional chemical synthesis. Herein, we reported highly efficient polymorph-dependent green (P1), yellow (P2), and red (P3) emissions of organic crystals made by the same molecular building blocks of 4-(2-{4-[2-(4-diphenylamino-phenyl)-vinyl]-phenyl}-vinyl)-benzonitrile (DOPVB). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopic data reveal that all three polymorphs follow the herringbone packing motif in H-type aggregations. On the one hand, from P1, P2 to P3, the reduced pitch translation along π stacks increases the intermolecular interactions between adjacent molecules, therefore leading to gradually red-shifted emissions from 540, 570 to 614 nm. On the other hand, the edge-to-face arrangement and large roll translations avoid strong π-π overlap, making P1, P2 and P3 highly emissive with record-high solid-state fluorescence quantum yields of 0.60, 0.98, and 0.68, respectively. Furthermore, the optically allowed 0-1 transitions of herringbone H-aggregates of P1, P2 and P3 naturally provide a four-level scheme, enabling green and yellow amplified spontaneous emissions (ASE) with very low thresholds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Characterization of yellow and colorless decorative glasses from the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klysubun, Wantana; Ravel, Bruce; Klysubun, Prapong; Sombunchoo, Panidtha; Deenan, Weeraya

    2013-06-01

    Yellow and colorless ancient glasses, which were once used to decorate the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, Bangkok, Thailand, around 150 years ago, are studied to unravel the long-lost glass-making recipes and manufacturing techniques. Analyses of chemical compositions, using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SRXRF), indicate that the Thai ancient glasses are soda lime silica glasses (60 % SiO2; 10 % Na2O; 10 % CaO) bearing lead oxide between 2-16 %. Iron (1.5-9.4 % Fe2O3) and manganese (1.7 % MnO) are present in larger abundance than the other 3 d transition metals detected (0.04-0.2 %). K-edge x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) provide conclusive evidence on the oxidation states of Fe being 3+ and Mn being 2+ and on short-length tetrahedral structures around the cations. This suggests that iron is used as a yellow colorant with manganese as a decolorant. L 3-edge XANES results reveal the oxidation states of lead as 2+. The results from this work provide information crucial for replicating these decorative glasses for the future restoration of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha.

  5. Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Wolff Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8% number of disease cases were present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Methods Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%, were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. Results We found a high (97.6% frequency of protective titers (>1:10 of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.

  6. Yellow fever vaccine used in a psoriatic arthritis patient treated with methotrexate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhec, Matej

    2014-01-01

    The yellow fever vaccines on the market are contraindicated for immunocompromised and elderly patients. A case of yellow fever vaccine used in a 27-year-old Slovenian male with psoriatic arthritis during treatment with methotrexate is described. We demonstrate a positive case, since there were no adverse effects in concurrent administration of yellow fever vaccine and methotrexate. This patient did not show severe adverse reactions and did not contract yellow fever despite potential exposure. More research is needed on possible adverse effects of concurrent administration of yellow fever vaccine and methotrexate to determine the potential of this method for more frequent use.

  7. Chemical composition, at consuming ripeness level of tomatoes irradiated at mature green and greenish yellow stages of maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wandawi, H. K.; Abdul-Rahman, M. H.; Al-Shaickley, K. A.

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L.,var.Monte carlo) have been Y-irradiated (100-400Krad) and left to ripen to consuming ripeness. The results revealed that in fruits irradiated with 100,200 and 300 krad at mature-green, 48 hour after harvesting and at greenish yellow stages of maturity, 24 hours after harvesting, the levels of ascorbic acid were accounted to 62, 51, 27% and 84, 59, 34% of control samples respectively. In fruits irradiated with 200 krad at mature-green stage and 48 hours after harvesting and in fruits irradiated with 400 krad at greenish yellow stage and 48 hours after harvesting, the levels of lycopene were 279 and 246% of that of control samples; while the lowest levels of lycopene were in fruits irradiated with 400 krad and at mature-green and greenish yellow stages and 48 hours after harvesting where lycopene accounted to 11 and 24% respectively when compared to control samples . on the other hand, radiation had no significant effect on PH, titrable acidity and °Brix of tomatoes.

  8. Chemical composition, at consuming ripeness level of tomatoes irradiated at mature green and greenish yellow stages of maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Wandawi, H.K.; Abdul-Rahman, M.H.; Al-Shaickley, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L., var. Monte Carlo) have been γ-irradiated (100 to 400 krad) and left to ripen to consuming ripeness. The results revealed that in fruits irradiated with 100, 200 and 300 krad at mature-green, 48 hours after harvesting and at greenish yellow stages of maturity, 24 hours after harvesting, the levels of ascorbic acid were accounted to 62, 51, 27% and 84, 59, 34% of control samples respectively. In fruits irradiated with 200 krad at mature-green stage and 48 hours after harvesting and in fruits irradiated with 400 krad at greenish yellow stage and 48 hours after harvesting, the levels of lycopene were 279 and 246% of that of control samples; while the lowest levels of lycopene were in fruits irradiated with 400 krad and at mature-green and greenish yellow stages and 48 hours after harvesting where lycopene accounted to 11 and 24% respectively when compared to control samples. On the other hand, radiation had no significant effect on PH, titrable acidity and deg Brix of tomatoes. (author)

  9. Chemical composition, at consuming ripeness level of tomatoes irradiated at mature green and greenish yellow stages of maturity. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Wandawi, H.K.; Abdul-Rahman, M.H.; Al-Shaickley, K.A. (Iraq Atomic Energy Commission, Baghdad. Nuclear Research Inst.)

    1983-01-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L., var. Monte Carlo) have been ..gamma..-irradiated (100 to 400 krad) and left to ripen to consuming ripeness. The results revealed that in fruits irradiated with 100, 200 and 300 krad at mature-green, 48 hours after harvesting and at greenish yellow stages of maturity, 24 hours after harvesting, the levels of ascorbic acid were accounted to 62, 51, 27% and 84, 59, 34% of control samples respectively. In fruits irradiated with 200 krad at mature-green stage and 48 hours after harvesting and in fruits irradiated with 400 krad at greenish yellow stage and 48 hours after harvesting, the levels of lycopene were 279 and 246% of that of control samples; while the lowest levels of lycopene were in fruits irradiated with 400 krad and at mature-green and greenish yellow stages and 48 hours after harvesting where lycopene accounted to 11 and 24% respectively when compared to control samples. On the other hand, radiation had no significant effect on PH, titrable acidity and deg Brix of tomatoes.

  10. Molecular Characterization of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus in Korea and the Construction of an Infectious Clone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Choon Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several tomato production regions in Korea were surveyed for tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD. Tomato leaf samples showing TYLCD-like symptoms were collected from Tongyeong (To, Geoje (Gi, and Gimhae (Gh cities of the southern part of Korea. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV was detected and the full-length genomes of the isolates were sequenced. The TYLCV isolates found in Korea shared high sequence identity (> 99% with TYLCV-IL [JR:Omu:Ng] (AB110217. Phylogenetic relationship analysis revealed that they formed two groups (with little genetic variability, and the To, Gj, and Gh isolates belonged to the TYLCV-IL group. An infectious clone of TYLCV-To (JQ013089 was constructed and agroinoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi, Petunia hybrida, Capsicum annuum, and Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Hausumomotaro. Agroinfection with a dimeric infectious clone of TYLCV-To induced severe leaf curling and stunting symptoms in these plants, excluding C. annuum. Tomato plants then developed typical yellow leaf curl symptoms.

  11. Sex-biased miRNAs in gonad and their potential roles for testis development in yellow catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jing; Wu, Junjie; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Shuting; Ma, Wenge; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Weimin; Gui, Jian-Fang; Mei, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Recently, YY super-male yellow catfish had been created by hormonal-induced sex reversal and sex-linked markers, which provides a promising research model for fish sex differentiation and gonad development, especially for testis development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been revealed to play crucial roles in the gene regulation and gonad development in vertebrates. In this study, three small RNA libraries constructed from gonad tissues of XX female, XY male and YY super-male yellow catfish were sequenced. The sequencing data generated a total of 384 conserved miRNAs and 113 potential novel miRNAs, among which 23, 30 and 14 miRNAs were specifically detected in XX ovary, XY testis, and YY testis, respectively. We observed relative lower expression of several miR-200 family members, including miR-141 and miR-429 in YY testis compared with XY testis. Histological analysis indicated a higher degree of testis maturity in YY super-males compared with XY males, as shown by larger spermatogenic cyst, more spermatids and fewer spermatocytes in the spermatogenic cyst. Moreover, five miR-200 family members were significantly up-regulated in testis when treated by 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), high dose of which will impair testis development and cell proliferation. The down-regulation of miR-141 and 429 coincides with the progression of testis development in both yellow catfish and human. At last, the expression pattern of nine arbitrarily selected miRNAs detected by quantitative RT-PCR was consistent with the Solexa sequencing results. Our study provides a comprehensive miRNA transcriptome analysis for gonad of yellow catfish with different sex genotypes, and identifies a number of sex-biased miRNAs, some of that are potentially involved in testis development and spermatogenesis.

  12. Structure of the C-terminal domain of lettuce necrotic yellows virus phosphoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Nicolas; Ribeiro, Euripedes A; Leyrat, Cédric; Tarbouriech, Nicolas; Ruigrok, Rob W H; Jamin, Marc

    2013-09-01

    Lettuce necrotic yellows virus (LNYV) is a prototype of the plant-adapted cytorhabdoviruses. Through a meta-prediction of disorder, we localized a folded C-terminal domain in the amino acid sequence of its phosphoprotein. This domain consists of an autonomous folding unit that is monomeric in solution. Its structure, solved by X-ray crystallography, reveals a lollipop-shaped structure comprising five helices. The structure is different from that of the corresponding domains of other Rhabdoviridae, Filoviridae, and Paramyxovirinae; only the overall topology of the polypeptide chain seems to be conserved, suggesting that this domain evolved under weak selective pressure and varied in size by the acquisition or loss of functional modules.

  13. Structure of the C-Terminal Domain of Lettuce Necrotic Yellows Virus Phosphoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Nicolas; Ribeiro, Euripedes A.; Leyrat, Cédric; Tarbouriech, Nicolas; Ruigrok, Rob W. H.

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce necrotic yellows virus (LNYV) is a prototype of the plant-adapted cytorhabdoviruses. Through a meta-prediction of disorder, we localized a folded C-terminal domain in the amino acid sequence of its phosphoprotein. This domain consists of an autonomous folding unit that is monomeric in solution. Its structure, solved by X-ray crystallography, reveals a lollipop-shaped structure comprising five helices. The structure is different from that of the corresponding domains of other Rhabdoviridae, Filoviridae, and Paramyxovirinae; only the overall topology of the polypeptide chain seems to be conserved, suggesting that this domain evolved under weak selective pressure and varied in size by the acquisition or loss of functional modules. PMID:23785215

  14. Detection and molecular characterization of tomato yellow leaf curl virus naturally infecting Lycopersicon esculentum in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, M; Ratti, C; Abdel Aleem, E; Fattouh, F

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infections of tomato crops in Egypt were widely spread in 2014. Infected symptomatic tomato plants from different governorates were sampled. TYLCV strains Israel and Mild (TYLCV-IL, TYLCV-Mild) were identified by multiplex and real-time PCR. In addition, nucleotide sequence analysis of the V1 and V2 protein genes, revealed ten TYLCV Egyptian isolates (TYLCV from TY1 to 10). Phylogenetic analysis showed their high degree of relatedness with TYLCV-IL Jordan isolate (98%). Here we have showed the complete nucleotide sequence of the TYLCV Egyptian isolate TY10, sampled from El Beheira. A high degree of similarity to other previously reported Egyptian isolates and isolates from Jordan and Japan reflect the importance of phylogenetic analysis in monitoring virus genetic diversity and possibilities for divergence of more virulent strains or genotypes.

  15. Genetic structure and evidence of putative Darwinian diversifying selection in the Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Chaves-Bedoya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The population structure and genetic variation of Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV were estimated by analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the coat protein of 69 isolates, reported in GenBank, from Solanum tuberosum (ST and Solanum phureja (SP hosts from different regions; predominantly Cundinamarca, Antioquia and Nariño, located in central and southwestern Colombia. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that despite the wide geographic distribution of different hosts and different collecting years, PYVV maintains a genetic similarity between 97.1 to 100.0%, indicating high spatial and temporal genetic stability of the major coat protein. No recombination events were found, but evidence was seen for the first time that this protein could be undergoing Darwinian diversifying selection

  16. Line scan micro XRF analysis of engobe of whiteware painted with red, green and yellow patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yimin; Wang Lihua; Zhu Jian; Wang Changsui; Yan Yan; Chen Dongliang; He Wei; Huang Yuying; Hua Wei; Xu Wei

    2008-01-01

    Whiteware painted with red, green and yellow patterns play an important role in China's development in glaze decoration. In this paper, cross-sections of the porcelain samples were scanned from glaze to body by synchrotron radiation and element contents of the samples were analyzed by SRXRF. The results revealed a transition between the glaze and engobe, and the engobe and body. In the transition area, elemental content changes were related to the raw material to form the glaze, engobe and body, and diffusing ability of the elements depended on thickness of the glaze and the elemental contents of each layer. The engobe had lower Fe and Ti concentrations than the body, hence improving the whiteness and quality of the porcelain. According to petrography, engobe was rich in mica minerals, leading to enhanced reflection effect of the white porcelain. This has not been reported before and further studies are underway. (authors)

  17. Poetics of Space in Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s Story ‘Yellow Wallpaper’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina S. Berezhnaya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the poetics of space, system of images including the image of the yellow wallpaper in the story written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman. The story became an unconventional example and innovative writing approach of using an artistic ‘optics’ for describing women’s role and position within patriarchal society at the turn of XIX-XX centuries. The space of the room can be perceived as some disciplinary practice (panopticon endowed with peculiar units of control and suppression (bars, wallpaper pattern, nailed bed, etc. as opposed to images, retrieved from out of the depth of the protagonist’s unconsciousness. The interrelatedness of material outward environment and individual mind reveals the evolution of deeply buried and hidden imagery. Though artistic categories such as smell, color, shape (pattern Gilman render an invaluable insight into reception and interpretation of the key image of the novel.

  18. Research on Driver Behavior in Yellow Interval at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaosheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles are often caught in dilemma zone when they approach signalized intersections in yellow interval. The existence of dilemma zone which is significantly influenced by driver behavior seriously affects the efficiency and safety of intersections. This paper proposes the driver behavior models in yellow interval by logistic regression and fuzzy decision tree modeling, respectively, based on camera image data. Vehicle’s speed and distance to stop line are considered in logistic regression model, which also brings in a dummy variable to describe installation of countdown timer display. Fuzzy decision tree model is generated by FID3 algorithm whose heuristic information is fuzzy information entropy based on membership functions. This paper concludes that fuzzy decision tree is more accurate to describe driver behavior at signalized intersection than logistic regression model.

  19. Yellow and orange in cutaneous lesions: clinical and dermoscopic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuls, J; Arribas, P; Berbegal, L; DeLeón, F J; Francés, L; Zaballos, P

    2015-12-01

    Colour of the lesions is clue for the clinical and dermoscopic diagnosis. Nevertheless, we have detected in the literature an uneven relevance of the colours as a diagnostic criterion. Thus, while red, brown and blue have taken important role in dermoscopic descriptions, other like yellow and orange have been given much less importance. This article reviews those lesions in which the yellow and orange colours have been considered constitutive or essential for diagnosis, and on the other hand it emphasizes the entities in which may appear these colours and are not well reflected in the literature. We believe that organize all this information will help us in a better understanding of these pathologies. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. Preliminary results on epidemiology of Coconut Lethal Yellowing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnot François

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies are of major importance in understanding the determinants of plant diseases in order to control the risks of their spreading. A research programme on the epidemiology of coconut lethal yellowing, or Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD, in Ghana was launched in March 2007. The objective was to characterize the distribution and spread of the disease in space and time at various scales, and their relation with the environment. This article presents the general strategy used to evaluate the incidence of CSPWD along with the environmental, ecological and agronomical variables at regional level. A survey was undertaken on 1,166 plots of Coconut Sector Development Project (CSDP planted with Malayan Yellow Dwarf (MYD × Vanuatu Tall (VTT hybrids in Western Region and Central Region. Preliminary results on the distribution of CSPWD and outside variables at regional scale, along with their relations, are given.

  1. Activitie of polyphenoloxidase in yellow and purple onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeliton Alves Calado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The high perishability of the onion may limit the shelf life of the bulbs, mainly by the biochemical transformations. The objective of this work is to determine and compare polyphenoloxidase activity (PPO in yellow and purple onions and their functional body. The raw material was purchased in the local market , where they were transported to the Food Analysis Laboratory of the, Center for Agro-Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Campina Grande, Campus Pombal, being selected, cleaned, sorted, peeled processed and carried out chemical and physico- chemical analysis and determination of the enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO. The statistical design was completely randomized with two treatments (purple and yellow onion with six repetitions. The purple onion presented levels of soluble solids, flavonoids and anthocyanins, more significant than the white onion. Both onions showed enzymatic activity, without significant differences.

  2. Empowering the child and caregiver: yellow zone Asthma Action Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakar, Chitra; Portnoy, Jay M

    2014-11-01

    Current guidelines, both national and international, elegantly describe evidence-based measures to attain and maintain long-term control of asthma. These strategies, typically discussed between the provider and patient, are provided in the form of written (or electronic) instructions as part of the green zone of the color-coded Asthma Action Plan. The red zone of the Asthma Action Plan has directives on when to use systemic corticosteroids and seek medical attention. The transition zone between the green zone of good control and the red zone of asthma exacerbation is the yellow zone. This zone guides the patient on self-management of exacerbations outside a medical setting. Unfortunately, the only recommendation currently available to patients per the current asthma guidelines is the repetitive use of reliever bronchodilators. This approach, while providing modest symptom relief, does not reliably prevent progression to the red zone. In this document, we present new, evidence-based, yellow zone intervention options.

  3. ETIOLOGY OF YELLOW FEVER : VII. DEMONSTRATION OF LEPTOSPIRA ICTEROIDES IN THE BLOOD, TISSUES, AND URINE OF YELLOW FEVER PATIENTS AND OF ANIMALS EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH THE ORGANISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, H

    1919-08-01

    Examinations of fresh blood from yellow fever patients by means of the dark-field microscope, made in more than twenty-seven cases, revealed in three cases the presence of Leptospira icteroides. In no instance was a large number of organisms found, a long search being required before one was encountered. The injection of the blood into guinea pigs from two of the three positive cases induced in the animals a fatal infection, while the blood from the third positive case failed to infect the guinea pigs fatally. Careful but by no means exhaustive dark-field searches for the leptospira with fresh specimens of blood from the remaining cases of yellow fever ended without positive findings, although four of the specimens, when injected into guinea pigs, caused a fatal leptospira infection. Stained blood film preparations from the corresponding cases were also examined, but the percentage showing the leptospira in the blood was no greater than that found by examination in the fresh state with the dark-field microscope. In fact, owing to the defective stains that were available at the time of the investigation a great many slides did not take the proper coloration with Giemsa's or Wright's stain and could not be relied upon. Regarding the presence of Leptospira icteroides in various organs both dark-field and stained films were examined. In only one instance so far a few organisms were detected in the emulsion of liver taken shortly after death from a case dying on the 4th day of yellow fever. This part of the work will be reported later upon completion. Examinations of the urine from different cases of yellow fever were made both by dark-field microscope and by inoculation into guinea pigs. The results were totally negative in thirteen cases, including many convalescents, but in one case one of the guinea pigs inoculated with 10 cc. of the urine came down on the 15th day with suggestive symptoms (suspicion of jaundice, and some hemorrhagic and parenchymatous lesions of

  4. Designing Yellow Intervals for Rainy and Wet Roadway Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper quantifies and models the impact of wet pavement surface and rainy weather conditions on driver perception-reaction times (PRTs, deceleration levels, and traffic signal change interval durations. A total of 648 stop-run records were collected as part of the research effort for a 72 km/h (45 mi/h approach speed where participant drivers encountered a yellow indication initiation at different distances from the intersection. The participant drivers were randomly selected in different age groups (under 40 years old, 40 to 59 years old, and 60 years of age or older and genders (female and male. Using the gathered data, statistical models for driver PRT and deceleration levels were developed, considering roadway surface and environmental parameters, driver attributes (age and gender, roadway grade, approaching speed, and time and distance to the intersection at the onset of yellow. Inclement weather yellow timings were then developed and summarized in lookup tables as a function of different factors (driver age/gender, roadway grade, speed limit, precipitation level, and roadway surface condition to provide practical guidelines for the design of yellow signal timings in wet and rainy weather conditions. The results indicate that wet roadway surface conditions require a 5 percent increase in the change interval and that rainy conditions require a 10 percent or more increase in the duration of the change interval. These recommended change durations can also be integrated within the Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII initiative to provide customizable driver warnings prior to a transition to a red indication.

  5. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Roger E

    2016-01-01

    Roger E Thomas Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Research Office, G012, Health Sciences Centre, Calgary, AB, Canada Purpose: To assess those published cases of yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease that meet the Brighton Collaboration criteria and to assess the safety of YF vaccine with respect to viscerotropic disease. Literature search: Ten electronic databases were searched with no restriction of date or language and r...

  6. Refining of yellow cake by solvent extraction. Pakistan status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunus, M.; Muzaffar, A.; Qureshi, M.T.; Qazi, N.K.; Khan, J.R.; Chughtai, N.A.; Zaidi, S.M.H.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the pilot-plant studies made at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Rawalpindi, on refining yellow cake. The process units mainly consist of digestion and filtration, solvent extraction, precipitation and filtration, and calcining and reduction. Extraction parameters, such as free acidity in terms of nitrate ion concentration, throughputs and AF index, have been studied in some detail. Product of satisfactory chemical purity, as confirmed by spectrochemical analysis, was produced by this method. (author)

  7. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Yellow-headed blackbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences of the yellow-headed blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available infomration on the species-habitat requirements of the species. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of an HSI model, designed for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  8. The phylogeny of yellow fever virus 17D vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Nina K; Boschetti, Nicola; Herzog, Christian; Appelhans, Marc S; Niedrig, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    In recent years the safety of the yellow fever live vaccine 17D came under scrutiny. The focus was on serious adverse events after vaccinations that resemble a wild type infection with yellow fever and whose reasons are still not known. Also the exact mechanism of attenuation of the vaccine remains unknown to this day. In this context, the standards of safety and surveillance in vaccine production and administration have been discussed. Therein embodied was the demand for improved documentation of the derivation of the seed virus used for yellow fever vaccine production. So far, there was just a historical genealogy available that is based on source area and passage level. However, there is a need for a documentation based on molecular information to get better insights into the mechanisms of pathology. In this work we sequenced the whole genome of different passages of the YFV-17D strain used by Crucell Switzerland AG for vaccine production. Using all other publically available 17D full genome sequences we compared the sequence variance of all vaccine strains and oppose a phylogenetic tree based on full genome sequences to the historical genealogy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Vázquez-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Johansson, Daniel P.; Landberg, Rikard; Langton, Maud

    2016-01-01

    A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE). These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications. PMID:26840533

  10. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhao

    Full Text Available A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE. These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications.

  11. Narcolepsy following yellow fever vaccination: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ewald Rosch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a rare, but important differential diagnosis for daytime sleepiness and atonic paroxysms in an adolescent. A recent increase in incidence in the paediatric age-group probably linked to the use of the Pandremix influenza vaccine in 2009, has increased awareness that different environmental factors can ‘trigger’ narcolepsy with cataplexy in a genetically susceptible population.Here we describe the case of a 13 year-old boy with narcolepsy following yellow-fever vaccination. He carries the HLA DQB1*0602 haplotype strongly associated with narcolepsy and cataplexy. Polysomnography showed rapid sleep onset with rapid eye movement (REM latency of 47 minutes, significant sleep fragmentation and a mean sleep latency of 1.6 minutes with sleep onset REM in 4 out of 4 nap periods. Together with the clinical history, these findings are diagnostic of narcolepsy type 1. The envelope protein E of the yellow fever vaccine strain 17D has significant amino acid sequence overlap with both hypocretin and the hypocretin receptor 2 receptors in protein regions that are predicted to act as epitopes for antibody production. These findings raise the question whether the yellow fever vaccine strain may, through a potential molecular mimicry mechanism, be another infectious trigger for this neuro-immunological disorder.

  12. Comparative analysis of pigments in red and yellow banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiumin; Cheng, Sihua; Liao, Yinyin; Huang, Bingzhi; Du, Bing; Zeng, Wei; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu; Yang, Ziyin

    2018-01-15

    Color is an important characteristic determining the fruit value. Although ripe bananas usually have yellow peels, several banana cultivars have red peels. As details of the pigments in banana fruits are unknown, we investigated these pigments contents and compositions in the peel and pulp of red cultivar 'Hongjiaowang' and yellow cultivar 'Baxijiao' by UPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS and HPLC-PDA techniques. The 'Hongjiaowang' peel color was mainly determined by the presence of anthocyanin-containing epidermal cells. Rutinoside derivatives of cyanidin, peonidin, petunidin, and malvidin were unique to the red peel, and possibly responsible for the red color. 'Hongjiaowang' contained higher total content of carotenoids than 'Baxijiao' in both pulp and peel. Lutein, α-carotene, and β-carotene were main carotenoids, which might play a more important role than flavonoids in producing the yellow banana color owing to the properties and distribution in the fruit. The information will help us understand a complete profile of pigments in banana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Glycosylated yellow laccases of the basidiomycete Stropharia aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroch, Maurycy; Houghton, Catharine A; Moore, Jonathan K; Wilkinson, Mark C; Carnell, Andrew J; Bates, Andrew D; Iwanejko, Lesley A

    2014-05-10

    Here we describe the identification, purification and characterisation of glycosylated yellow laccase proteins from the basidiomycete fungus Stropharia aeruginosa. Biochemical characterisation of two yellow laccases, Yel1p and Yel3p, show that they are both secreted, monomeric, N-glycosylated proteins of molecular weight around 55kDa with substrate specificities typical of laccases, but lacking the absorption band at 612nm typical of the blue laccase proteins. Low coverage, high throughput 454 transcriptome sequencing in combination with inverse-PCR was used to identify cDNA sequences. One of the cDNA sequences has been assigned to the Yel1p protein on the basis of identity between the translated protein sequence and the peptide data from the purified protein, and the full length gene sequence has been obtained. Biochemical properties, substrate specificities and protein sequence data have been used to discuss the unusual spectroscopic properties of S. aeruginosa proteins in the context of recent theories about the differences between yellow and blue laccases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Seasonal differences in freezing tolerance of yellow-cedar and western hemlock trees at a site affected by yellow-cedar decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Paul E. Hennon; Amore, David V. D; Gary J. Hawley; Catherine H. Borer; Catherine H. Borer

    2005-01-01

    To assess whether inadequate cold hardiness could be a contributor to yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) decline, we measured the freezing tolerance of foliage from yellow-cedar trees in closed-canopy (nondeclining) and open-canopy (declining at elevations below 130 m) stands at three sites along an elevational gradient in the heart of the decline...

  15. Removal of remazol yellow with modified clays with iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Gomez T, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Clays have the ability to absorb water and to retain in its structure both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances, therefore, it is possible to use them in the sorption of dyes from waste water, in order to avoid affecting water bodies or storm drains when they are discharged. In this paper the montmorillonite KSF and a sodium bentonite from the Morelos State, Mexico were studied for the sorption of an azo dye used in textiles knows as remazol yellow. These clays were modified with iron, the dye sorption behaviors and their regeneration processes for their reuse were determined. It was difficult to separate the sodium bentonite after being in contact with aqueous solutions; therefore it was nor a candidate dor the removal of remazol yellow from aqueous solutions. The montmorillonite KSF was characterized before and after the iron modification, and after its regeneration by scanning electron microscopy (elemental analysis), infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and the specific areas of the materials were determined by Bet analysis. The adsorption equilibrium time and the adsorption rate for remazol yellow were determined from the fitting of the experimental results to mathematical models for the unmodified and iron modified montmorillonite KSF. The adsorption capacity was determined from the adsorption isotherms and mathematical models. The influence of the ph in the sorption processes was determined as well, and it was found that, ph values between 2 and 12 do not have any influence on the adsorption processes for iron modified montmorillonite KSF. The montmorillonite KSF and the iron modified montmorillonite KSF are adequate adsorbents for the removal of remazol yellow from aqueous solutions. Although, the sorption capacity for the unmodified montmorillonite KSF is higher (about 10%) than the capacity for the iron modified montmorillonite KSF and the stability of the last one increased. The saturated clays with remazol yellow were treated with Fenton reactive

  16. Optimization of Replacing Pork Meat with Yellow Worm (Tenebrio molitor L.) for Frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2017-01-01

    The effects of replacing pork meat with yellow mealworms on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of frankfurters were investigated in this study. The control (50% pork ham), T1 (45% pork ham + 5% yellow mealworm), T2 (40% pork ham + 10% yellow mealworm), T3 (35% pork ham + 15% yellow mealworm), T4 (30% pork ham + 20% yellow mealworm), T5 (25% pork ham + 25% yellow mealworm), and T6 (20% pork ham + 30% yellow mealworm) were prepared, replacing lean pork meat with yellow mealworm. The moisture content, lightness, sarcoplasmic protein solubility, hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters with yellow mealworm were lower than those of the control (pmealworm were higher than those of the control (pmealworm concentrations (pmealworm concentrations had lower color, flavor, off-flavor, and juiciness scores. The overall acceptability was not significantly different in the control, T1, and T2 (p>0.05). Thus, the results of this study showed that replacing lean pork meat with up to 10% yellow mealworm successfully maintained the quality of frankfurters at a level similar to that of the regular control frankfurters. PMID:29147084

  17. Multiple yellow plaques assessed by angioscopy with quantitative colorimetry in patients with myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Shigenobu; Ishibashi, Fumiyuki; Waxman, Sergio; Okamatsu, Kentaro; Seimiya, Koji; Takano, Masamichi; Uemura, Ryota; Sano, Junko; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2008-03-01

    Multiple angioscopic yellow plaques are associated with diffuse atherosclerotic plaque, and may be prevalent in patients with myocardial infarction (MI), so in the present study the yellow plaques in the coronary arteries of patients with MI was evaluated using quantitative colorimetry, and compared with those of patients with stable angina (SA). In the recorded angioscopic images of 3 coronary vessels in 29 patients (15 patients with MI, 14 with SA), yellow plaques were determined as visually yellow regions with b* value >0 (yellow color intensity) measured by the quantitative colorimetric method. A total of 90 yellow plaques were identified (b* =19.35+/-8.3, 3.05-45.35). Yellow plaques were significantly more prevalent in 14 (93%) of 15 culprit lesions of MI as compared with 8 (57%) of 14 of SA (p=0.03). In non-culprit segments, yellow plaques were similarly prevalent in 13 (87%) patients with MI and 11 (79%) with SA (p=0.65). Overall, multiple (> or =2) yellow plaques were prevalent in 13 (87%) patients with MI, similar to the 10 (71%) with SA (p=0.38). The number of yellow plaques was significantly higher in patients with MI (3.8+/-1.9) than in those with SA (2.4+/-1.6, p=0.03). The present study suggests that patients with MI tend to have diffuse atherosclerotic plaque in their coronary arteries.

  18. Influence of Background Genome on Enzymatic Characteristics of Yellow (Ay/-, Avy/-) Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, George L.; Pitot, Henry C.

    1973-01-01

    Identification of the fundamental polypeptide difference between yellow (Ay/-, Avy/-) and non-yellow mice is important for biomedical research because of the influence of the yellow genotype on normal and neoplastic growth and obesity. The complexity of the "yellow mouse syndrome" makes attainment of this objective dependent on the separation of those pleiotropic enzyme differences which are secondary, and depend on the background genome, from those which are primary, and depend primarily on the agouti locus genotype.—Four of nine hepatic enzyme activities assayed simultaneously differed between eight-week-old yellow (Ay/-, Avy/-) and non-yellow (A/-, a/a) male inbred and F1 hybrid mice. Among these four, only cytoplasmic malic enzyme activity was elevated in all yellow mice, as compared with the non-yellow sibs, regardless of background genome. Glucokinase, serine dehydratase, and tyrosine α-ketoglutarate transaminase activities were also changed in yellow mice, but these alterations depended on the background genome.—The ratio of malic enzyme activity to citrate-cleavage enzyme activity, possibly related to the altered fat metabolism of yellow mice, was influenced by background genome as well as by the yellow genotype.——Significant deviations of enzyme activities from mid-parent values among F1 hybrids were associated with particular background genomes; the number of such deviations was larger among yellow mice than among non-yellows and this difference was greater among C3H F1 hybrids than among C57BL/6 F1 hybrids. PMID:4405752

  19. Red-yellow electroluminescence, yellow-green photoluminescence of novel N, O donor ligands-chelated zirconium (IV) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahroosvand, Hashem, E-mail: shahroos@znu.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, University of Zanjan, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasouti, Fahimeh [Chemistry Department, University of Zanjan, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Khabbazi, Amir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    In this paper, eight new zirconium complexes with 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (H{sub 4}btec), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen), were prepared and used as light emitting material in fabricated OLEDs. The structures of these complexes were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR spectroscopy, {sup 1}H-NMR, CHN and ICP-AES. A yellow-green photoluminescence (PL) emission with a red shift compared to the PVK:PBD blend was observed. Devices with Zr complexes with the structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK:PBD/zirconium complex/Al emitted a yellow-red light originating from the Zr complexes. We believe that electroplex occurring at PVK-Zr complex interface is responsible for the red emission in the EL of the device. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel photoluminescence zirconium (IV) complexes with hole transport ligands are synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yellow-green photoluminescence emission is shown red shift rather than PVK:PBD blend. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The control of the emission properties of OLED devices is explored by adding of {pi}-extended ligands such as Bphen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer El spectra are shown a red shift of the emission bands in respond to the addition of {Pi}-conjugated ligands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electroplex emission at PVK-Zr complex is proposed.

  20. Enhanced production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) copolymer and antimicrobial yellow pigmentation from Cupriavidus sp. USMAHM13 with antibiofilm capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Iszatty; Gurusamy, Tana Poorani; Ramachandran, Hema; Al-Ashraf Amirul, Abdullah

    2017-04-21

    Antibiofilm polymers have the ability to inhibit bacterial biofilm formation, which is known to occur ubiquitously in the environment and pose risks of infection. In this study, production of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer and antimicrobial yellow pigment from Cupriavidus sp. USMAHM13 are enhanced through medium optimization. Before the improvement of yellow pigment production, screening for the best additional supplement was performed resulting in high-yield yellow pigmentation using yeast extract with optimum concentration of 2 g/L. Effects of different concentrations of 1,4-butanediol, ammonium acetate, and yeast extract were studied using central composite design. Under optimal conditions, 53 wt% of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) content, 0.35 g/L of pigment concentration, and 5.87 g/L of residual biomass were achieved at 0.56 wt% C of 1,4-butanediol, 1.14 g/L of ammonium acetate, and 2 g/L of yeast extract. Antibiofilm tests revealed that the yellow pigment coated on P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer had significant effect on the inhibition of bacteria proliferation and colonization from 6 hr onward reaching 100% inhibition by 12 hr, hence effectively inhibiting the biofilm formation.

  1. HPLC-DAD-MS Profiling of Polyphenols Responsible for the Yellow-Orange Color in Apple Juices of Different French Cider Apple Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Deun, Erell; Van der Werf, Remmelt; Le Bail, Gildas; Le Quéré, Jean-Michel; Guyot, Sylvain

    2015-09-09

    The pigments responsible for the yellow-orange coloration of apple juices have remained largely unknown up to now. Four French cider apple juices were produced in conditions similar to those used in the cider-making industry. The oxidized juices, characterized using the CIE L a b parameters, displayed various colors depending on the apple variety and native phenolic composition. HPLC-DAD-MS revealed contrasting pigment profiles related to oxidized tanning and nontanning molecules. The latter were divided into two groups according to their polarity and their visible spectra. With regard to phenolic classes, flavanol monomers and hydroxycinnamic acids played an essential role in the formation of oxidation products. Interestingly, dihydrochalcones appeared to include precursors of some yellow compounds. Indeed, the yellow pigment phloretin xyloglucoside oxidation product (PXGOPj), derived from phloretin xyloglucoside, was clearly identified in apple juices as a xyloglucose analogue of the yellow pigment phloridzin oxidation product (POPj), previously characterized in a model solution by Le Guernevé et al. (Tetrahedron Lett. 2004, 45 (35), 6673-6677).

  2. UV photoreceptors and UV-yellow wing pigments in Heliconius butterflies allow a color signal to serve both mimicry and intraspecific communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Seth M; Yuan, Furong; Ramstetter, Monica D; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge; Reed, Robert D; Osorio, Daniel; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2012-01-01

    Mimetic wing coloration evolves in butterflies in the context of predator confusion. Unless butterfly eyes have adaptations for discriminating mimetic color variation, mimicry also carries a risk of confusion for the butterflies themselves. Heliconius butterfly eyes, which express recently duplicated ultraviolet (UV) opsins, have such an adaptation. To examine bird and butterfly color vision as sources of selection on butterfly coloration, we studied yellow wing pigmentation in the tribe Heliconiini. We confirmed, using reflectance and mass spectrometry, that only Heliconius use 3-hydroxy-DL-kynurenine (3-OHK), which looks yellow to humans but reflects both UV- and long-wavelength light, whereas butterflies in related genera have chemically unknown yellow pigments mostly lacking UV reflectance. Modeling of these color signals reveals that the two UV photoreceptors of Heliconius are better suited to separating 3-OHK from non-3-OHK spectra compared with the photoreceptors of related genera or birds. The co-occurrence of potentially enhanced UV vision and a UV-reflecting yellow wing pigment could allow unpalatable Heliconius private intraspecific communication in the presence of mimics. Our results are the best available evidence for the correlated evolution of a color signal and color vision. They also suggest that predator visual systems are error prone in the context of mimicry. © 2011 by The University of Chicago.

  3. Yellow Fever Vaccine Booster Doses: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, J Erin; Bocchini, Joseph A; Rubin, Lorry; Fischer, Marc

    2015-06-19

    On February 26, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted that a single primary dose of yellow fever vaccine provides long-lasting protection and is adequate for most travelers. ACIP also approved recommendations for at-risk laboratory personnel and certain travelers to receive additional doses of yellow fever vaccine (Box). The ACIP Japanese Encephalitis and Yellow Fever Vaccines Workgroup evaluated published and unpublished data on yellow fever vaccine immunogenicity and safety. The evidence for benefits and risks associated with yellow fever vaccine booster doses was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. This report summarizes the evidence considered by ACIP and provides the updated recommendations for yellow fever vaccine booster doses.

  4. Distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments in the Yellow Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xin; Teng, Ankang; Xu, Wenzhe; Liu, Xiaoshou

    2014-06-15

    Heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments at 56 stations during two cruises in the Yellow Sea in summer and winter, 2011 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The pollution status was assessed via the Geoaccumulation index and Hankanson potential ecological risk index. Higher concentrations of heavy metals (except for Mn) were found in the central Southern Yellow Sea and the western Northern Yellow Sea. The higher contents of Mn were much closer to Shandong Peninsula. Correlation analyses indicated that Pb, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Co probably had the same origin and were controlled by grain size and total organic carbon. Pollution assessment showed that most areas of the Yellow Sea were not or lowly contaminated with the exception of the northwest and south parts of the Southern Yellow Sea showing Cd-contamination. The pollution status of the Yellow Sea in summer was worse than that in winter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. THE SECOND BLIND SPOT: SMALL RETINAL VESSEL VASCULOPATHY AFTER VACCINATION AGAINST NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS AND YELLOW FEVER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysidis, Stavros N; Koulisis, Nicole; Patel, Vivek R; Kashani, Amir H; Rao, Narsing A; Humayun, Mark S; Rodger, Damien C

    2017-01-01

    To describe a case of small retinal vessel vasculopathy postvaccination. We report the case of a 41-year-old white man who presented with a "second blind spot," describing a nasal scotoma in the right eye that started 4 days after vaccinations against Neisseria meningitidis and the yellow fever virus, and after a 2-month period of high stress and decreased sleep. Clinical examination, Humphrey visual field testing, and multimodal imaging with fundus photographs, autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography and angiography were performed. Clinical examination revealed a well-circumscribed, triangular area of retinal graying of about 1-disk diameter in size, located at the border of the temporal macula. This corresponded to a deep scotoma similar in size to the physiologic blind spot on Humphrey visual field 24-2 testing. There was mild hypoautofluoresence of this lesion on autofluorescence, hypofluorescence on fluorescein angiography, and focal attenuation of a small artery just distal to the bifurcation of an artery supplying the involved area. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography through the lesion conveyed hyperreflectivity most prominent in the inner and outer plexiform layers, with extension of the hyperreflectivity into the ganglion cell and inner nuclear layers. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography demonstrated arteriolar and capillary dropout, more pronounced in the superficial retinal layer compared to the deeper retinal layer. At 1-month follow-up, his scotoma improved with monitoring, with reduction from -32 dB to -7 dB on Humphrey visual field testing. There was clinical resolution of the area of graying and decreased hyperreflectivity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography, with atrophy of the inner retina. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography showed progression of arteriolar and capillary dropout, more so in the superficial than in the deep capillary

  6. 21 CFR 137.290 - Self-rising yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-rising yellow corn meal. 137.290 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.290 Self-rising yellow corn meal. Self-rising yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.270 for self-rising white corn meal...

  7. Mechanical properties of salvaged dead yellow-cedar in southeast Alaska : Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. A. McDonald; P. E. Hennon; J. H. Stevens; D. W. Green

    An intensive decline and mortality problem is affecting yellow-cedar trees in southeast Alaska. Yellow-cedar snags (dead trees) could be important to the economy in southeast Alaska, if some high-value uses for the snags could be established. Due to the high decay resistance of yellow-cedar, the rate of deterioration is so slow that snags may remain standing for a...

  8. Dengue-yellow fever sera cross-reactivity; challenges for diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Houghton-Triviño, Natalia; Montaña, Diana; Castellanos, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Objective The Flavivirus genera share epitopes inducing cross-reactive antibodies leading to great difficulty in differentially diagnosing flaviviral infections. This work was aimed at evaluating the complexity of dengue and yellow fever serological differential diagnosis. Material and methods Dengue antibody capture ELISA and a yellow fever neutralisation test were carried out on 13 serum samples obtained from yellow fever patients, 20 acute serum samples from dengue patients and 19 voluntan...

  9. Existing and potential infection risk zones of yellow fever worldwide: a modelling analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, Freya M; Longbottom, Joshua; Browne, Annie J; Pigott, David M; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Marinho, Fatima; Yactayo, Sergio; de Araújo, Valdelaine E M; da Nóbrega, Aglaêr A; Fullman, Nancy; Ray, Sarah E; Mosser, Jonathan F; Stanaway, Jeffrey D; Lim, Stephen S

    2018-01-01

    Summary: Background: Yellow fever cases are under-reported and the exact distribution of the disease is unknown. An effective vaccine is available but more information is needed about which populations within risk zones should be targeted to implement interventions. Substantial outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Brazil, coupled with the global expansion of the range of its main urban vector, Aedes aegypti, suggest that yellow fever has the propensity t...

  10. Investigation of a possible yellow fever epidemic and serosurvey for flavivirus infections in northern Cameroon, 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, T. F.; Lazuick, J. S.; Ngah, R. W.; Mafiamba, P. C.; Quincke, G.; Monath, T. P.

    1987-01-01

    A cluster of fatal hepatitis cases in northern Cameroon in 1984 stimulated a field investigation to rule out an epidemic of yellow fever. A serosurvey of villages in the extreme north of the country, in a Sudan savanna (SS) phytogeographical zone, disclosed no evidence of recent yellow fever infection. However, further south, in a Guinea savanna (GS) phytogeographical zone, serological evidence was found of endemic yellow fever virus transmission. The results indicate a potential for epidemic...

  11. [Culicidae insect fauna from rural zone in Amazonas State with incidence of sylvatic yellow fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Barbosa Md, Maria das Graças Vale; Fé, Flávio Augusto Andrade; Guerra, Marcus Vinitius de Farias; Alecrim, Wilson Duarte

    2003-01-01

    After the occurrence of 14 sylvatic yellow fever cases in 10 cities in the State of Amazonas during 1996, an investigation into the presence of sylvatic yellow fever vectors was carried out. The material of larvae and adult insects was collected around residences and canopy trees within forests, using a light trap (CDC) and human bait. A total of 424 insects was collected. Thirty seven species were identified, some of which were sylvatic yellow fever vectors: Haemagogus janthinomys, Ha. leucocelaenus, Aedes fulvus.

  12. Yellow pages advertising by physicians. Are doctors providing the information consumers want most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D D; Abernethy, A M

    1996-01-01

    Yellow pages listing are the most widely used form of physician advertising. Every month, approximately 21.6 million adults in the United States refer to the yellow pages before obtaining medical care. Mobile consumers--approximately 17% of the U.S. population who move each year--are heavy users of yellow pages. Consumers desire information on a physician's experience, but it is included in less than 1% of all physician display ads.

  13. Breeding of new variety Yangfumai 4 with high resistance to wheat yellow mosaic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhentian; Chen Xiulan; Zhang Rong; Wang Jianhua; Wang Jinrong; Liu Jian

    2011-01-01

    To control the infection of wheat yellow mosaic disease,new wheat variety with high-yield, disease-resistant was selected. Ningmai 9, which carries yellow mosaic disease resistant genes, was used as original material. Combination of conventional breeding technique and radiation methods, a new wheat variety Yangfumai 4 was developed during 1996-2007, and registered in 2008. The new wheat variety with high yield and resistance to yellow mosaic disease is suitable to plant in the Yangtze River region. (authors)

  14. Distribution of microbial populations and their relationship with environmental variables in the North Yellow Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaoge; Wang, Min; Liang, Yantao; Zhang, Zhifeng; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Xuejiao

    2012-03-01

    In order to understand the large-scale spatial distribution characteristics of picoplankton, nanophytoplankton and virioplankton and their relationship with environmental variables in coastal and offshore waters, flow cytometry (FCM) was used to analyze microbial abundance of samples collected in summer from four depths at 36 stations in the North Yellow Sea (NYS). The data revealed spatial heterogeneity in microbial populations in the offshore and near-shore waters of the NYS during the summer. For the surface layer, picoeukaryotes were abundant in the near-shore waters, Synechococcus was abundant in the offshore areas, and bacterial and viral abundances were high in the near-shore waters around the Liaodong peninsula. In the near-shore waters, no significant vertical variation of picophytoplankton (0.2-2μm) abundance was found. However, the nanophytoplankton abundance was higher in the upper layers (from the surface to 10 m depth) than in the bottom layer. For the offshore waters, both pico- and nanophytoplankton (2-20μm) abundance decreased sharply with depth in the North Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (NYSCWM). But, for the vertical distribution of virus and bacteria abundance, no significant variation was observed in both near-shore and offshore waters. Autotrophic microbes were more sensitive to environmental change than heterotrophic microbes and viruses. Viruses showed a positive correlation with bacterial abundance, suggesting that the bacteriophage might be prominent for virioplankton (about 0.45μm) in summer in the NYS and that viral abundance might play an important role in microbial loop functions.

  15. Microbial Community Structure and Function Indicate the Severity of Chromium Contamination of the Yellow River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxin Pei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yellow River is the most important water resource in northern China. In the recent past, heavy metal contamination has become severe due to industrial processes and other anthropogenic activities. In this study, riparian soil samples with varying levels of chromium (Cr pollution severity were collected along the Gansu industrial reach of the Yellow River, including samples from uncontaminated sites (XC, XGU, slightly contaminated sites (LJX, XGD, and heavily contaminated sites (CG, XG. The Cr concentrations of these samples varied from 83.83 mg⋅kg-1 (XGU to 506.58 mg⋅kg-1 (XG. The chromate [Cr (VI] reducing ability in the soils collected in this study followed the sequence of the heavily contaminated > slightly contaminated > the un-contaminated. Common Cr remediation genes chrA and yieF were detected in the XG and CG samples. qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of chrA was up-regulated four and threefold in XG and CG samples, respectively, whereas the expression of yieF was up-regulated 66- and 7-fold in the same samples after 30 min treatment with Cr (VI. The copy numbers of chrA and yieF didn’t change after 35 days incubation with Cr (VI. The microbial communities in the Cr contaminated sampling sites were different from those in the uncontaminated samples. Especially, the relative abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were higher while Actinobacteria was lower in the contaminated group than uncontaminated group. Further, potential indicator species, related to Cr such as Cr-remediation genera (Geobacter, PSB-M-3, Flavobacterium, and Methanosarcina; the Cr-sensitive genera (Skermanella, Iamia, Arthrobacter, and Candidatus Nitrososphaera were also identified. These data revealed that Cr shifted microbial composition and function. Further, Cr (VI reducing ability could be related with the expression of Cr remediation genes.

  16. Impacts of sea cucumber farming on biogeochemical characteristics in the Yellow River estuary, Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Yokoyama, Hisashi; Cui, Baoshan; Zhou, Jin; Yan, Jiaguo; Ma, Xu; Shibata, Shozo

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the potential environmental effects of pond farming for Apostichopus japonicas in Yellow River estuary, we examined discrepancies of distance-based typical pollution indicators (TOC, TN, NO3-, NH4+, NO2- and PO43-) and biochemical tracers (δ13C and δ15N) in water column and sediment, as well as dietary characteristics of dominant macrobenthos between farming and non-farming areas. The results revealed that studied variables in water column showed no uniform spatial differences. Meanwhile, those in sediment displayed similar decrease tendencies from farming pond to the adjacent tidal flat, which was considered to represent the environmental effects of farming. Biochemical tracers (δ13C and δ15N) in both water column and sediment confirmed the origin of organic matters from the aquaculture waste. The detectable dispersion distance of aquaculture waste was restricted to an area within 50 m distance as determined by most variables in sediment (TOC, TN, NO3- and NH4+), particularly by C:N ratio and δ13C with which origins of the wastes were traced. Bayesian mixing models indicated that in the farming area BMA had a larger contribution, while POM(marine) showed a smaller contribution to the diets of Helice tridens and Macrophthalmus abbreviates compared to those in the non-farming area. The overall results showed that pond farming for Apostichopus japonicus in the Yellow River estuary altered the local environment to a certain extent. For methodological consideration, sediment biogeochemical characteristics as a historical recorder much more effectively reflected aquaculture waste accumulation, and stable isotope approaches are efficient in tracing the origin and extent of various allogenous sources.

  17. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Du

    Full Text Available Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng, we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant

  18. Investigation of a possible yellow fever epidemic and serosurvey for flavivirus infections in northern Cameroon, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, T F; Lazuick, J S; Ngah, R W; Mafiamba, P C; Quincke, G; Monath, T P

    1987-01-01

    A cluster of fatal hepatitis cases in northern Cameroon in 1984 stimulated a field investigation to rule out an epidemic of yellow fever. A serosurvey of villages in the extreme north of the country, in a Sudan savanna (SS) phytogeographical zone, disclosed no evidence of recent yellow fever infection. However, further south, in a Guinea savanna (GS) phytogeographical zone, serological evidence was found of endemic yellow fever virus transmission. The results indicate a potential for epidemic spread of yellow fever virus from the southern GS zone to the nothern SS zone of Cameroon, where immunity in the population was low.

  19. Identification and analysis of YELLOW protein family genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yong-Zhu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major royal jelly proteins/yellow (MRJP/YELLOW family possesses several physiological and chemical functions in the development of Apis mellifera and Drosophila melanogaster. Each protein of the family has a conserved domain named MRJP. However, there is no report of MRJP/YELLOW family proteins in the Lepidoptera. Results Using the YELLOW protein sequence in Drosophila melanogaster to BLAST silkworm EST database, we found a gene family composed of seven members with a conserved MRJP domain each and named it YELLOW protein family of Bombyx mori. We completed the cDNA sequences with RACE method. The protein of each member possesses a MRJP domain and a putative cleavable signal peptide consisting of a hydrophobic sequence. In view of genetic evolution, the whole Bm YELLOW protein family composes a monophyletic group, which is distinctly separate from Drosophila melanogaster and Apis mellifera. We then showed the tissue expression profiles of Bm YELLOW protein family genes by RT-PCR. Conclusion A Bombyx mori YELLOW protein family is found to be composed of at least seven members. The low homogeneity and unique pattern of gene expression by each member among the family ensure us to prophesy that the members of Bm YELLOW protein family would play some important physiological functions in silkworm development.

  20. Gamma irradiation of yellow and blue colorants in polystyrene packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komolprasert, V.; Diel, Todd; Sadler, G.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of 10- and 20-kGy gamma irradiation was studied on chromophtal yellow 2RLTS (Yellow 110-2, 3, 4, 5-tetrachloro-6-cyanobenzoic acid) and Irgalite Blue GBP (copper (II) phthalocyanine blue) colorants, which were added to polystyrene (PS) material used to package food prior to irradiation. Analytical results obtained suggest that irradiation did not generate any new chemicals in the PS polymer containing either yellow or blue colorant at a concentration of up to 1% (w/w). Both yellow and blue colorants are relatively stable to gamma irradiation

  1. An inactivated cell-culture vaccine against yellow fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, Thomas P; Fowler, Elizabeth; Johnson, Casey T; Balser, John; Morin, Merribeth J; Sisti, Maggie; Trent, Dennis W

    2011-04-07

    Yellow fever is a lethal viral hemorrhagic fever occurring in Africa and South America. A highly effective live vaccine (17D) is widely used for travelers to and residents of areas in which yellow fever is endemic, but the vaccine can cause serious adverse events, including viscerotropic disease, which is associated with a high rate of death. A safer, nonreplicating vaccine is needed. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation, phase 1 study of 60 healthy subjects between 18 and 49 years of age, we investigated the safety and immunogenicity of XRX-001 purified whole-virus, β-propiolactone-inactivated yellow fever vaccine produced in Vero cell cultures and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide (alum) adjuvant. On two visits 21 days apart, subjects received intramuscular injections of vaccine that contained 0.48 μg or 4.8 μg of antigen. Levels of neutralizing antibodies were measured at baseline and on days 21, 31, and 42. The vaccine induced the development of neutralizing antibodies in 100% of subjects receiving 4.8 μg of antigen in each injection and in 88% of subjects receiving 0.48 μg of antigen in each injection. Antibody levels increased by day 10 after the second injection, at which time levels were significantly higher with the 4.8-μg formulation than with the 0.48-μg formulation (geometric mean titer, 146 vs. 39; Pvaccine groups than in the placebo group: mild pain, tenderness, and (much less frequently) itching at the injection site. One case of urticaria was observed on day 3 after the second dose of 4.8 μg of vaccine. A two-dose regimen of the XRX-001 vaccine, containing inactivated yellow fever antigen with an alum adjuvant, induced neutralizing antibodies in a high percentage of subjects. XRX-001 has the potential to be a safer alternative to live attenuated 17D vaccine. (Funded by Xcellerex; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00995865.).

  2. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  3. Crystallization Kinetics of Precipitating Calcium from Yellow Phosphorus Slag Lixivium

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    Li, G. -B.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization dynamic parameters of calcium sulphate were determined in the course of the precipitation conversion process of calcium in lixivium. The crystallization dynamic equations of calcium sulphate were achieved by multiple linear regression. The study results indicate that CaSO4 · 2 H2O crystal nucleation-growth kinetics equation in nitric acid leaching liquid of yellow phosphorus slag at room temperature is expressed by B0 = 2.904 · 1011 · G0.83 · MT 0.167.

  4. Hereditary dwarfism in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L

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    Tadeusz Kazimierski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A dwarf plant was found in the F4 generation of a hybrid between two yellow lupin subspecies. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the dwarf grwoth is conditioned by one recessive factor which was named nanus. This factor acts pleiotroipically since it reduces the height, changes the morphological structure and some anatomical traits and reduces fertility in the dwarf plants. It is believed that in the chromosome with translocation a gene block arose in the F4, plant. These genes acting as a compact system cause dwarfism, changes in the anatomical structure and reduce fertility.

  5. Modification of Yellow River Sediment Based Stabilized Earth Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxia Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the microstructure and performance of stabilized earth bricks prepared from the Yellow River sediment. The sediment is modified by inorganic cementitious material, polymer bonding agent, and jute fibre. The results show that the sediment is preliminarily consolidated when the mixture ratio of activated sediment/cementitious binder/sand is 65/25/10. Compressive strength and softening coefficient of stabilized earth bricks is further improved by polymer bonding agent and jute fibre. SEM images and EDS spectral analysis indicate that there is indeed synergy among inorganic hydration products, polymer network and jute fibre to strengthen the sediment.

  6. Parasitic mycobiota of yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Snežana Đ.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycopopulation of yellow gentian growing in plantations was studied in 2008 and 2009. Fourteen species of fungi were registered at seed, out of which five were pathogenic. The most common species was Alternaria alternata (72-74 %. Species of the genus Fusarium (F. oxysporum, F. solani and F. equiseti were present in a small percentage (2-6 %. These species, as well as F. verticillioides, were isolated from root, and Fusarium sp. was isolated from the flowers. Alternaria alternate, Epicoccum purpurescens, Phoma sp. and Alternaria sp. were regularly present on the leaves and stems.

  7. Minions: Empathetic Lessons From Small Yellow Creatures Serving the Despicable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerning, Halfdan; Vilsgaard, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Reviews the film Minions (2015) directed by Kyle Balda and Pierre Coffin (2015). Minions are fictional computer-animated yellow pill-shaped creatures who speak their own language. They live to serve the most despicable master they can find. The film tells the evolutionary story of the minions and......, their facial expressions, their display of character strengths, and their need for a purpose in life, we identify reasons why we are able to understand the minions as we understand ourselves. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)...

  8. Linear mixed-effects models to describe length-weight relationships for yellow croaker (Larimichthys Polyactis) along the north coast of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiuyun; Jiao, Yan; Ren, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    In this study, length-weight relationships and relative condition factors were analyzed for Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) along the north coast of China. Data covered six regions from north to south: Yellow River Estuary, Coastal Waters of Northern Shandong, Jiaozhou Bay, Coastal Waters of Qingdao, Haizhou Bay, and South Yellow Sea. In total 3,275 individuals were collected during six years (2008, 2011-2015). One generalized linear model, two simply linear models and nine linear mixed effect models that applied the effects from regions and/or years to coefficient a and/or the exponent b were studied and compared. Among these twelve models, the linear mixed effect model with random effects from both regions and years fit the data best, with lowest Akaike information criterion value and mean absolute error. In this model, the estimated a was 0.0192, with 95% confidence interval 0.0178~0.0308, and the estimated exponent b was 2.917 with 95% confidence interval 2.731~2.945. Estimates for a and b with the random effects in intercept and coefficient from Region and Year, ranged from 0.013 to 0.023 and from 2.835 to 3.017, respectively. Both regions and years had effects on parameters a and b, while the effects from years were shown to be much larger than those from regions. Except for Coastal Waters of Northern Shandong, a decreased from north to south. Condition factors relative to reference years of 1960, 1986, 2005, 2007, 2008~2009 and 2010 revealed that the body shape of Yellow Croaker became thinner in recent years. Furthermore relative condition factors varied among months, years, regions and length. The values of a and relative condition factors decreased, when the environmental pollution became worse, therefore, length-weight relationships could be an indicator for the environment quality. Results from this study provided basic description of current condition of Yellow Croaker along the north coast of China.

  9. Glycerolipid Profiling of Yellow Sarson Seeds Using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Triple Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

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    Shuning ZHENG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Yellow sarson (Brassica rapa ssp. trillocularis is an important rapeseed-mustard species of Brassica rapa due to its high seed oil content. Glycerolipids and fatty acid composition affect seed germination and determine the quality of seed oil. To date, no information is available on the composition of individual glycerolipids in this species. Therefore, in this study the glycerolipid profiling of yellow sarson seeds was performed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Triple-TOF-MS. A fast and efficient chromatographic separation of glycerolipids was accomplished based on an UPLCTM BEH C8 column within 22 min. In ESI positive ion mode, TOF-MS scan-information dependent acquisition-product ion scan was carried out to acquire both high resolution MS and MS/MS information from one injection. According to MS/MS spectra, predominant fragmentation patterns of glycerolipids were elucidated in detail. Based on retention time, accurate mass, isotopic distribution, and fragmentation patterns, the composition of 144 glycerolipids and fatty acids were finally identified in yellow sarson seeds, including 77 triacylglycerols, 32 diacylglycerols, 18 sulfoquinovosyl-diacylglycerols, 5 monogalactosyl-diaclyglycerols, and 12 digalactosyl-diacylglycerols. Of them, the most abundant glycerolipids in yellow sarson seeds were triacylglycerols, the major storage form of seed oil in plants. In addition, diacylglycerols were found as a minor component of glycerolipids. The lowest amounts of glycerolipids detected in seeds were glycosyl-acylglycerols. The results revealed the composition and relative content of glycerolipids in yellow sarson seeds, which will provide a more comprehensive assessment of the quality of seed oil and also help to select functional cultivars with higher beneficial glycerolipids. This profiling method has the advantages of high throughput, high sensitivity and good accuracy

  10. Genetic structure and phylogeography of Aedes aegypti, the dengue and yellow-fever mosquito vector in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paupy, Christophe; Le Goff, Gilbert; Brengues, Cécile; Guerra, Mabel; Revollo, Jimmy; Barja Simon, Zaïra; Hervé, Jean-Pierre; Fontenille, Didier

    2012-08-01

    Between the 16th and 18th centuries, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), a mosquito native to Africa, invaded the Americas, where it was successively responsible for the emergence of yellow fever (YF) and dengue (DEN). The species was eradicated from numerous American countries in the mid-20th century, but re-invaded them in the 1970s and 1980s. Little is known about the precise identities of Ae. aegypti populations which successively thrived in South America, or their relation with the epidemiological changes in patterns of YF and DEN. We examined these questions in Bolivia, where Ae. aegypti, eradicated in 1943, re-appeared in the 1980s. We assessed the genetic variability and population genetics of Ae. aegypti samples in order to deduce their genetic structure and likely geographic origin. Using a 21-population set covering Bolivia, we analyzed the polymorphism at nine microsatellite loci and in two mitochondrial DNA regions (COI and ND4). Microsatellite markers revealed a significant genetic structure among geographic populations (F(ST)=0.0627, PBolivia. Analysis of mtDNA sequences revealed the existence of two genetic lineages, one dominant lineage recovered throughout Bolivia, and the second restricted to rural localities in South Bolivia. Phylogenic analysis indicated that this minority lineage was related to West African Ae. aegypti specimens. In conclusion, our results suggested a temporal succession of Ae. aegypti populations in Bolivia, that potentially impacted the epidemiology of dengue and yellow fever. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of a RacGTPase up-regulated in the large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fang; Wang, Xiaoqing; Yang, Qilian; Cai, Mingyi; Wang, Zhi Yong

    2011-02-01

    The Rac proteins are members of the Rho family of small G proteins and are implicated in the regulation of several pathways, including those leading to cytoskeleton reorganization, gene expression, cell proliferation, cell adhesion and cell migration and survival. In this investigation, a Rac gene (named as LycRac gene) was obtained from the large yellow croaker and it was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Subsequently the specific antibody was raised using the purified fusion protein (GST-LycRac). Moreover, the GTP-binding assay showed that the LycRac protein had GTP-binding activity. The LycRac gene was ubiquitously transcribed and expressed in 9 tissues. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed the highest expression in gill and the weakest expression in spleen. Time-course analysis revealed that LycRac expression was obviously up-regulated in blood, spleen and liver after immunization with polyinosinic polycytidynic acid (poly I:C), formalin-inactive Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio parahemolyticus and bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). These results suggested that LycRac protein might play an important role in the immune response against microorganisms in large yellow croaker. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. What Does the Future Hold for Yellow Fever Virus? (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaëlle Klitting

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent resurgence of yellow fever virus (YFV activity in the tropical regions of Africa and South America has sparked renewed interest in this infamous arboviral disease. Yellow fever virus had been a human plague for centuries prior to the identification of its urban transmission vector, the Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus mosquito species, and the development of an efficient live-attenuated vaccine, the YF-17D strain. The combination of vector-control measures and vaccination campaigns drastically reduced YFV incidence in humans on many occasions, but the virus never ceased to circulate in the forest, through its sylvatic invertebrate vector(s and vertebrate host(s. Outbreaks recently reported in Central Africa (2015–2016 and Brazil (since late 2016, reached considerable proportions in terms of spatial distribution and total numbers of cases, with multiple exports, including to China. In turn, questions about the likeliness of occurrence of large urban YFV outbreaks in the Americas or of a successful import of YFV to Asia are currently resurfacing. This two-part review describes the current state of knowledge and gaps regarding the molecular biology and transmission dynamics of YFV, along with an overview of the tools that can be used to manage the disease at individual, local and global levels.

  13. Impact of yellow fever on the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, O

    1999-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) has remained a disease of public health importance since it was first described in the fifteenth century. At different periods in human history, YF has caused untold hardship and indescribable misery among populations in the Americas, Europe, and Africa. It brought economic disaster in its wake, constituting a stumbling block to development. Yellow fever is an arboviral infection with three epidemiological transmission cycles between monkeys, mosquitoes, and humans. It is an acute infectious disease characterized by sudden onset, with two phases of development separated by a short period of remission. The clinical spectrum of YF varies from a very mild, nonspecific, febrile illness to a fulminating, sometimes fatal disease with pathognomonic features. In severe cases, jaundice and bleeding diathesis with hepatorenal involvement are common. The fatality rate of severe YF is 50% or higher. Despite landmark achievements in the understanding of the epidemiology of YF and the availability of a safe, efficacious vaccine, YF remains a major public health problem in both Africa and South America, where annually the disease affects an estimated 200,000 persons, causing an estimated 30,000 deaths. Since the 1980s epidemics of YF in Africa have affected predominantly children under the age of 15 years. The failure to control YF arises from a misapplication of public health strategies and insufficient political commitment by governments in YF endemic areas, especially in Africa, to control the disease.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Na; Wang, Cheng-Ye

    2014-11-18

    The yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor L.) is an important resource insect typically used as animal feed additive. It is also widely used for biological research. The first complete mitochondrial genome of T. molitor was determined for the first time by long PCR and conserved primer walking approaches. The results showed that the entire mitogenome of T. molitor was 15 785 bp long, with 72.35% A+T content [deposited in GenBank with accession number KF418153]. The gene order and orientation were the same as the most common type suggested as ancestral for insects. Two protein-coding genes used atypical start codons (CTA in ND2 and AAT in COX1), and the remaining 11 protein-coding genes started with a typical insect initiation codon ATN. All tRNAs showed standard clover-leaf structure, except for tRNA(Ser) (AGN), which lacked a dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The newly added T. molitor mitogenome could provide information for future studies on yellow meal worm.

  15. Protein modeling of yellow rust disease in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, S.E.; Bano, R.; Zayed, M.E.; Elshikh, M.S.; Khan, M.H.; Chaudhry, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production in Pakistan is affected by yellow rust disease caused by a fungus Puccinia striiformis. There is a need to broaden the genetic basis of wheat by identifying new resistance genes. The present study was aimed to identify an alternate resistance gene for yellow rust disease in wheat caused by Puccinia striiformis. Genome sequence was compared with databases and similar gene was identified for disease resistance in rye plant. Structural analysis of RGA1 gene (resistance gene in wheat) was carried out using different bioinformatics tools and an alternative gene having same structure was identified on the basis of structural and sequence homology. Rye plant is the proposed plant for the alternate new resistance gene. The result of pairwise alignment of RGA1 gene in wheat and gene of rye plant is 94.2% with accession DQ494535 .The secondary structures of both the genes was compared and found similar to each other. These comparisons between the wheat resistance gene and gene from rye plant depict structural similarities between the two genes. Results of RGA1 gene's structural analysis in wheat is as follow: Helices: 59, Extended sheets: 30, Turns: 12, Coils: 13 and for alternate resistance genes in Rye is as follow: Helices: 52, Extended sheets: 30, Turns: 14, Coils: 17. As structures are similar, the alternate identified gene could be used for resistance in wheat. (author)

  16. Synthesis of new environment-friendly yellow pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Shinya; Masui, Toshiyuki; Imanaka, Nobuhito

    2006-01-01

    New inorganic pigments based on amorphous cerium tungstate, Ce 1-x M x W 2 O 8 (M = Zr or Ti, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6), were synthesized and their color properties were characterized from the viewpoint of possible ecological inorganic pigments. The Ce 1-x M x W 2 O 8 materials absorb the visible and the ultraviolet light under 500 nm efficiently, which is originated in the O 2p -Ce 4f and the O 2p -W 5d double charge transfer transitions, and, as a result, the pigments can show a brilliant yellow color. The optical absorption edge wavelength of these pigments depends on the Zr or Ti content, and the effective yellow hue was observed at x = 0.2 for both pigments. The color properties of the present pigments suggest that they have a potential to be applied as a satisfactory pigment for paints. Furthermore, these pigments can be prepared by a simple co-precipitation method. They are inert and safe and do not produce side effects in the human body because they are composed of non-toxic and safe elements

  17. Evaluasi Mutu Bunga Potong Krisan Yellow Fiji Menggunakan Pengolahan Citra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ahmad

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The domestic and export market of chrysanthemum cut-flower require a prime and consistent cuality. Meanwhile, manual grading system based on human vision resulting in quality inconsistentcy. The objective of this study was to develop computer program for quality evaluation of Yellow Fiji chysanthemum cut-flower using image processing. The cut-flowers were classified into different quality standards (AA,A.B.C based on the steam length and straightness, and flower diameter. Then results indicated a strong relationship between quality parameters extracted from the image and those obtained from direct meaurement for grade AA,A,B and C with R2=0.98, R2=0.97, R2=0.97, and R2=0.98 respectively for length of stem. Also with R2=0.90, R2=0.87, R2=88, and R2=88 respectively for diamter of flower. The validation of the computer program for the quality evaluation of Yellow Fiji chrysanthemum cut-flower performed a hight a ccuracy of 100% for AA grade, 90% for A grade, 85% for B grade, and 100% for C grade.

  18. Effect of low salinity on the yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides

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    YBM. Carvalho

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the lethal salinity (LC50 for the yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides (Bivalvia: Mesodesmatidae and identify histopathological alterations that could be used to diagnose structural changes in clam tissue. Clams in two size classes (adults and juveniles were placed in 10 L chambers and exposed to salinities of 35, 30, 25, 20, 15, 10, and 5 g/L. There were triplicate chambers with seven clams each for each salinity. The LC50 values for a 48 h exposure were 6.5 g/L and 5.7 g/L for adults and juveniles, respectively. For a 96 h exposure, the LC50 values were 10.5 g/L for adults and 8.8 g/L for juveniles. The histological examination of yellow clams exposed to 10 g/L for 96 h showed intercellular oedema and necrotic foci in the epithelium of the digestive gland and occlusion of the lumen of the digestive gland. In conclusion, M. mactroides can be characterised as a moderately euryhaline species, tolerating salinities from 35 to 15 g/L.

  19. Induced Mutation in Yellow Lotus by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puripunyavanich, Vichai; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn

    2006-01-01

    Rhizomes of American yellow lotus were irradiated at eht dosed of 0, 10, 20 and 30 Gy, 10 rhizomes per treatment. They were planted in nursery pots. Unirradiated rhizomes gave out new shoots within 3-4 days. The survival rates of the 10, 20 and 30 Gy irradiated rhizomes at one month after transplanted were 80%, 30% and 10%, respectively. The radiation dose that resulted in a 50% death rate (LD 5 0) was approximately 17 Gy. The surviving plant lets were transplanted and grown in pots as the Agricultural Occupation Promotion and Development Center in Chiangmai and Chiangrai for three years. Normally, American yellow lotus does not flower in Thailand. However, a mutant was found to bear flower in Thailand. The mutant flower appeared a little different from the wild-type flower. The tip of its petals was more rounded than the pointy wild-type tip. The mutant will be propagated for clonal production or for use as a par net in breeding crosses with Thai white and pink lotuses

  20. The yellow cake accident at the Ezeiza Airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.E.; Puntarulo, L.J.; Canibano, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    In January 1987 several drums containing yellow cake fell from about six meters during the loading operation of a Boeing 747 T-100 cargo aircraft. As a result of the accident, about 50% of the 38 drums involved lost their lids and a fraction of the radioactive content was released on an area of about 200 meters squared. Small amounts of yellow cake were dispersed down wind until about 100 meters from the accident place. The shipment was prepared for transport in standard 200 liter steel drums fulfilling the applicable Transport Regulations and the accident was the consequence of an erroneous operation during the cargo associated with a mechanical failure of the cargo lift. In order to avoid human contamination, immediate action was taken by the airport emergency team and in the meantime, the specialized groups of the National Atomic Energy Commission and the Federal Fire Brigades, were convened to take care of the decontamination and radiological evaluation problems. This paper describes the accidental sequences, the accident scenery, the countermeasures taken, the recovery and decontamination actions, and finally, as a conclusion, a brief description of the toxic and radiological aspects of the accident's mode

  1. A Matter of Contrast: Yellow Flower Colour Constrains Style Length in Crocus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Lunau

    Full Text Available Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flowers that regularly display a UV bull's eye pattern. Here we show that yellow-flowering Crocus species are a noticeable exception, since yellow-flowering Crocus species-being entirely UV-absorbing-exhibit low colour contrast between yellow reproductive organs and yellow tepals. The elongated yellow or orange-yellow style of Crocus flowers is a stamen-mimicking structure promoting cross-pollination by facilitating flower visitors' contact with the apical stigma before the flower visitors are touching the anthers. Since Crocus species possess either yellow, violet or white tepals, the colour contrast between the stamen-mimicking style and the tepals varies among species. In this study comprising 106 Crocus species, it was tested whether the style length of Crocus flowers is dependent on the corolla colour. The results show that members of the genus Crocus with yellow tepals have evolved independently up to twelve times in the genus Crocus and that yellow-flowering Crocus species possess shorter styles as compared to violet- and white-flowering ones. The manipulation of flower visitors by anther-mimicking elongated styles in Crocus flowers is discussed.

  2. International travel between global urban centres vulnerable to yellow fever transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Shannon E; Watts, Alexander; Cetron, Martin; German, Matthew; Kraemer, Moritz Ug; Bogoch, Isaac I; Brady, Oliver J; Hay, Simon I; Creatore, Maria I; Khan, Kamran

    2018-05-01

    To examine the potential for international travel to spread yellow fever virus to cities around the world. We obtained data on the international flight itineraries of travellers who departed yellow fever-endemic areas of the world in 2016 for cities either where yellow fever was endemic or which were suitable for viral transmission. Using a global ecological model of dengue virus transmission, we predicted the suitability of cities in non-endemic areas for yellow fever transmission. We obtained information on national entry requirements for yellow fever vaccination at travellers' destination cities. In 2016, 45.2 million international air travellers departed from yellow fever-endemic areas of the world. Of 11.7 million travellers with destinations in 472 cities where yellow fever was not endemic but which were suitable for virus transmission, 7.7 million (65.7%) were not required to provide proof of vaccination upon arrival. Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Peru and the United States of America had the highest volumes of travellers arriving from yellow fever-endemic areas and the largest populations living in cities suitable for yellow fever transmission. Each year millions of travellers depart from yellow fever-endemic areas of the world for cities in non-endemic areas that appear suitable for viral transmission without having to provide proof of vaccination. Rapid global changes in human mobility and urbanization make it vital for countries to re-examine their vaccination policies and practices to prevent urban yellow fever epidemics.

  3. By-product identification and phytotoxicity of biodegraded Direct Yellow 4 dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouren, Shazia; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Iqbal, Munawar; Bibi, Ismat; Kamal, Shagufta; Sadaf, Sana; Sultan, Misbah; Kausar, Abida; Safa, Yusra

    2017-02-01

    Citrus limon peroxidase mediated decolourization of Direct Yellow 4 (DY4) was investigated. The process variables (pH, temperature, incubation time, enzyme dose, H 2 O 2 amount, dye concentration, co-metal ions and surfactants) were optimized for maximum degradation of dye. Maximum dye decolourization of 89.47% was achieved at pH 5.0, temperature 50 °C, enzyme dose 24 U/mL, H 2 O 2 concentration 0.25 mM and DY4 concentration 18.75 mg/L and incubation time 10 min. The co-metal ions and surfactants did not affect the dye decolourization significantly. Response surface analysis revealed that predicted values were in agreement with experimentally determined responses. The degradation products were identified by UPLC/MS analysis and degradation pathway was proposed. Besides, phytotoxicity assay revealed a considerable detoxification in response of biodegradation of DY4 dye. C. limon showed promising efficiency for DY4 degradation and could possibly be used for the remediation of textile effluents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alterations in the Aedes aegypti transcriptome during infection with West Nile, dengue and yellow fever viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya M Colpitts

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile (WNV, dengue (DENV and yellow fever (YFV viruses are (reemerging, mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause human disease and mortality worldwide. Alterations in mosquito gene expression common and unique to individual flaviviral infections are poorly understood. Here, we present a microarray analysis of the Aedes aegypti transcriptome over time during infection with DENV, WNV or YFV. We identified 203 mosquito genes that were ≥ 5-fold differentially up-regulated (DUR and 202 genes that were ≥ 10-fold differentially down-regulated (DDR during infection with one of the three flaviviruses. Comparative analysis revealed that the expression profile of 20 DUR genes and 15 DDR genes was quite similar between the three flaviviruses on D1 of infection, indicating a potentially conserved transcriptomic signature of flaviviral infection. Bioinformatics analysis revealed changes in expression of genes from diverse cellular processes, including ion binding, transport, metabolic processes and peptidase activity. We also demonstrate that virally-regulated gene expression is tissue-specific. The overexpression of several virally down-regulated genes decreased WNV infection in mosquito cells and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Among these, a pupal cuticle protein was shown to bind WNV envelope protein, leading to inhibition of infection in vitro and the prevention of lethal WNV encephalitis in mice. This work provides an extensive list of targets for controlling flaviviral infection in mosquitoes that may also be used to develop broad preventative and therapeutic measures for multiple flaviviruses.

  5. Presence and characterization of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in watermelon in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučurović Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV in two out of seven watermelon production localities in Serbia during 2011 was investigated by analyzing leaves sampled from symptomatic and asymptomatic watermelon plants and utilizing DAS-ELISA test. In the locality of Gornji Tavankut, ZYMV was detected in 23.08% of tested plants in single infections, and in the locality of Silbas it was detected in 35.29% of tested plants in mixed infections with Cucumber mosaic virus and Alfalfa mosaic virus. ZYMV was successfully mechanically transmitted from naturally infected watermelon plants to Cucurbita pepo 'Ezra F1'. Molecular detection was performed by RT-PCR and amplification of part of the gene for nuclear inclusions, gene of coat protein and part of 3' non-coding region, which confirmed the identification of the ZYMV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed grouping of the isolate originating from watermelon with other isolates from Serbia and Central Europe within A-I subgroup. Analysis of amino acid sequences of the N terminal end of the CP gene revealed that isolate 550-11 belongs to the Central European branch.

  6. Association of an Alphasatellite with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Ageratum Yellow Vein Virus in Japan is Suggestive of a Recent Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, Muhammad Shafiq; Ikegami, Masato; Waheed, Abdul; Briddon, Rob W.; Natsuaki, Keiko T.

    2014-01-01

    Samples were collected in 2011 from tomato plants exhibiting typical tomato leaf curl disease symptoms in the vicinity of Komae, Japan. PCR mediated amplification, cloning and sequencing of all begomovirus components from two plants from different fields showed the plants to be infected by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV). Both viruses have previously been shown to be present in Japan, although this is the first identification of AYVV on mainland Jap...

  7. Observations on the activity patterns of the lesser yellow house bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lesser yellow house bat, Scotophilus viridis. F.P.D. Cotterill c/o Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town,. Cape Town. S.R. Giddings·. Department of Zoology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria,. 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received 10 June 1986; accepted 23 July 1986. The activity pattems of the lesser yellow ...

  8. Yellow Fever Virus Vaccine–associated Deaths in Young Women 1

    OpenAIRE

    Seligman, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Yellow fever vaccine–associated viscerotropic disease is a rare sequela of live-attenuated virus vaccine. Elderly persons and persons who have had thymectomies have increased susceptibility. A review of published and other data suggested a higher than expected number of deaths from yellow fever vaccine–associated viscerotropic disease among women 19–34 years of age without known immunodeficiency.

  9. Photopic spectral sensitivities of the red and the yellow field of the pigeon retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, J.F.; Wubbels, R.J.; Nuboer, J.F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The spectral sensitivities of the red field and the yellow field in the retina of the homing pigeon (Columba Livia) were determined on the basis of ERG responses. Between 450 and 550 nm the relative spectral sensitivity of the yellow field turned out to be higher than that of the red field. The

  10. Lineage-Specific Real-Time RT-PCR for Yellow Fever Virus Outbreak Surveillance, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Carlo; Torres, Maria C; Patel, Pranav; Moreira-Soto, Andres; Gould, Ernest A; Charrel, Rémi N; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Sequeira, Patricia C; Rodrigues, Cintia D S; Kümmerer, Beate M; Drosten, Christian; Landt, Olfert; Bispo de Filippis, Ana Maria; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2017-11-01

    The current yellow fever outbreak in Brazil prompted widespread yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccination campaigns, imposing a responsibility to distinguish between vaccine- and wild-type YFV-associated disease. We developed novel multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCRs that differentiate between vaccine and American wild-type YFV. We validated these highly specific and sensitive assays in an outbreak setting.

  11. Transmission of yellow fever vaccine virus through breast-feeding - Brazil, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    In April, 2009, the state health department of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, was notified by the Cachoeira do Sul municipal health department of a case of meningoencephalitis requiring hospitalization in an infant whose mother recently had received yellow fever vaccine during a postpartum visit. The Field Epidemiology Training Program of the Secretariat of Surveillance in Health of the Brazilian Ministry of Health assisted state and municipal health departments with an investigation. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which determined that the infant acquired yellow fever vaccine virus through breast-feeding. The mother reported 2 days of headache, malaise, and low fever occurring 5 days after receipt of yellow fever vaccine. The infant, who was exclusively breast-fed, was hospitalized at age 23 days with seizures requiring continuous infusion of intravenous anticonvulsants. The infant received antimicrobial and antiviral treatment for meningoencephalitis. The presence of 17DD yellow fever virus was detected by reverse transcription--polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the infant's cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); yellow fever--specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies also were present in serum and CSF. The infant recovered completely, was discharged after 24 days of hospitalization, and has had normal neurodevelopment and growth through age 6 months. The findings in this report provide documentation that yellow fever vaccine virus can be transmitted via breast-feeding. Administration of yellow fever vaccine to breast-feeding women should be avoided except in situations where exposure to yellow fever viruses cannot be avoided or postponed.

  12. Lineage-Specific Real-Time RT-PCR for Yellow Fever Virus Outbreak Surveillance, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Carlo; Torres, Maria C.; Patel, Pranav; Moreira-Soto, Andres; Gould, Ernest A.; Charrel, Rémi N.; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Sequeira, Patricia C.; Rodrigues, Cintia D.S.; Kümmerer, Beate M.; Drosten, Christian; Landt, Olfert; Bispo de Filippis, Ana Maria; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2017-01-01

    The current yellow fever outbreak in Brazil prompted widespread yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccination campaigns, imposing a responsibility to distinguish between vaccine- and wild-type YFV-associated disease. We developed novel multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCRs that differentiate between vaccine and American wild-type YFV. We validated these highly specific and sensitive assays in an outbreak setting.

  13. Development of PCR-RFP and DNA barcoding plastic markers for yellow toadflax and Dalmatian toadflax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Boswell

    2013-01-01

    Yellow toadflax and Dalmatian toadflax are problematic invasive plant species in North America. Yellow toadflax was introduced multiple times to the United States from Europe, beginning in the late 1600s. Dalmatian toadflax has similarly been repeatedly introduced to the United States, starting in 1874. Both species are known to inhabit disturbed areas, competing for...

  14. Finger jointing green southern yellow pine with a soy-based adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Roland E. Kreibicha; Petrus J. Steynberg; Richard W. Hemingway

    1998-01-01

    The authors present results of laboratory tests for a soy-based adhesive to bond southern yellow pine using the finger-jointing method. There was some reason to suspect that finger jointing of southern yellow pine (SYP) with the honeymoon system using soy-based adhesive might prove more difficult than for western species. The Wood Handbook classes western species in...

  15. Root-Crown Relations of Young Sugar Maple and Yellow Birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1977-01-01

    Young forest-grown sugar maple and yellow birch (1 to 6 inches d.b.h.) crowns were mapped and roots excavated. Crown dimensions were compared. Sugar maple roots usually terminated within a few feet of the crown perimeter. Yellow birch roots frequently terminated well outside crown perimeters and roots of birch were more irregularly distributed than those of maple....

  16. The applicability of fluoride volatility process to producing UF6 from yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Dechang

    2005-01-01

    The schematic diagrams producing UF 6 from yellow cake are showed in this paper. The characteristics and process improvements of the fluoride volatility process are explained. The applicability of the fluoride volatility process to producing UF 6 from yellow cake is discussed. (authors)

  17. Genetics and physiology of the nuclearly inherited yellow foliar mutants in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant photosynthetic pigments are important in harvesting the light energy and transfer of energy during photosynthesis. There are several yellow foliar mutants discovered in soybean and chromosomal locations for about half of them have been deduced. Viable-yellow mutants are capable of surviving wi...

  18. Numerical modelling of ice floods in the Ning-Meng reach of the Yellow River basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Ning-Meng reach of the Yellow River basin is located in the Inner Mongolia region at the Northern part of the Yellow River. Due to the special geographical conditions, the river flow direction is towards the North causing the Ning-Meng reach to freeze up every year in wintertime. Both during the

  19. Identification of insecticidal principals from cucumber seed oil against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is one of the most medically important mosquito species due to its ability to spread viruses of yellow fever, dengue fever and Zika in humans. In this study, the insecticidal activity of seventeen plant essential oils were evaluated to toxicity by topical a...

  20. Modelling the biological variance of the yellow aspect of Granny smith apple colour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Schouten, R.E.; Konopacki, P.; Hribar, J.; Simcic, M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The yellow aspect of colour is usually not considered for produce with a green-to-red or a green-to-yellow transition upon ripening. The magnitude of change is simply too small and, additionally, masked by a large variation. The colour of Granny Smith apples, harvested from three

  1. Determination of carotenoids in yellow maize, the effects of saponification and food preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzhingi, Tawanda; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Russell, Robert M; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Qin, Jian; Tang, Guangwen

    2008-05-01

    Maize is an important staple food consumed by millions of people in many countries. Yellow maize naturally contains carotenoids which not only provide provitamin A carotenoids but also xanthophylls, which are known to be important for eye health. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the effect of saponification during extraction of yellow maize carotenoids, 2) determining the major carotenoids in 36 genotypes of yellow maize by high-performance liquid chromatography with a C30 column, and 3) determining the effect of cooking on the carotenoid content of yellow maize. The major carotenoids in yellow maize were identified as all-trans lutein, cis-isomers of lutein, all-trans zeaxanthin, alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin, all-trans beta-carotene, 9-cis beta-carotene, and 13-cis beta-carotene. Our results indicated that carotenoid extraction without saponification showed a significantly higher yield than that obtained using saponification. Results of the current study indicate that yellow maize is a good source of provitamin A carotenoids and xanthophylls. Cooking by boiling yellow maize at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes increased the carotenoid concentration, while baking at 450 degrees F for 25 minutes decreased the carotenoid concentrations by almost 70% as compared to the uncooked yellow maize flour.

  2. Anamnestic immune response to dengue and decreased severity of yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo O Izurieta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A protective immunity against yellow fever, from cross-reactive dengue antibodies, has been hypothesized as an explanation for the absence of yellow fever in Southern Asia where dengue immunity is almost universal. This study evaluates the association between protective immunity from cross-reactive dengue antibodies with yellow fever infection and severity of the disease. The study population consisted of military personnel of a jungle garrison and its detachments located in the Ecuadorian Amazonian rainforest. The cross-sectional study employed interviews as well as seroepidemiological methods. Humoral immune response to yellow fever, Mayaro, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Oropouche, and dengue 2 infections was assessed by evaluating IgM and IgG specific antibodies. Log-linear regression analysis was used to evaluate age and presence of antibodies, against dengue type 2 virus, as predictors of yellow fever infection or severe disease. During the seroepidemiological survey, presence of dengue antibodies among yellow fever cases were observed in 77.3% cases from the coastal region, where dengue is endemic, 14.3% cases from the Amazon and 16.7 % cases from the Andean region. Dengue cross-reactive antibodies were not significantly associated with yellow fever infection but significantly associated with severity of the disease. The findings of this study suggest that previous exposure to dengue infection may have induced an anamnestic immune response that did not prevent yellow fever infection but greatly reduced the severity of the disease.

  3. Incoherent manipulation of the photoactive yellow protein photocycle with dispersed pump-dump-probe spectroscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, D.S.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Vengris, M.; van der Horst, M.A.; de Weerd, F.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; van Grondelle, R.

    2004-01-01

    Photoactive yellow protein is the protein responsible for initiating the ``blue-light vision¿¿ of Halorhodospira halophila. The dynamical processes responsible for triggering the photoactive yellow protein photocycle have been disentangled with the use of a novel application of dispersed ultrafast

  4. Incoherent manipulation of the photoactive yellow protein photocycle with dispersed pump-dump-probe spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, D.S.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Vengris, M.; Horst, M.A.; de Weerd, F.L.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; van Grondelle, R.

    2004-01-01

    Photoactive yellow protein is the protein responsible for initiating the "blue-light vision" of Halorhodospira halophila. The dynamical processes responsible for triggering the photoactive yellow protein photocycle have been disentangled with the use of a novel application of dispersed ultrafast

  5. Yellow-cedar decline in the North Coast Forest District of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Hennon; David V. D' Amore; Stefan Zeglan; Mike. Grainger

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of a forest decline of yellow-cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis (D. Don) Örsted) has been documented in southeast Alaska, but its occurrence in British Columbia was previously unknown. We conducted an aerial survey in the Prince Rupert area in September 2004 to determine if yellow-cedar forests in the North Coast Forest District of...

  6. Red-yellow marrow conversion: Its effect on the location of some solitary bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kricun, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The location of red marrow related bone lesions is dependent upon the distribution of red marrow. It is altered by the normal conversion of red marrow to yellow (fat) marrow and by the reconversion of yellow marrow to red marrow caused by marrow infiltrating disorders or marrow stress disorders. (orig.)

  7. Status of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus and its impact in different progenies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow leaf disease caused by Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) a Polerovirus is an important disease for sugarcane industries worldwide. High yield losses up to 50% were reported in susceptible varieties. Most of the commercial cultivars in Florida are infected with SCYLV; therefore, there is a ...

  8. First report of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus infecting Columbus Grass (Sorghum almum) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) [genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae] is the causal agent of sugarcane yellow leaf disease. SCYLV is widespread in Florida where sugarcane was the only known natural host of this virus. During spring 2015, we collected (leaves or stalks) and tested several gras...

  9. Acute neck pain caused by pseudogout attack of calcified cervical yellow ligament: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Abe, Toshiki; Abe, Eiji; Kikuchi, Kazuma; Noguchi, Hideaki; Konno, Norikazu; Shimada, Yoichi

    2016-05-30

    Calcification of the yellow ligament sometimes compresses the spinal cord and can induce myelopathy. Usually, the calcification does not induce acute neck pain. We report a case of a patient with acute neck pain caused by calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate in a calcified cervical yellow ligament. A 70-year-old Japanese woman presented with acute neck pain. She had a moderately high fever (37.5 °C), and her neck pain was so severe that she could not move her neck in any direction. Computed tomography showed a high-density area between the C5 and C6 laminae suspicious for calcification of the yellow ligament. Magnetic resonance imaging showed intermediate-signal intensity on T1-weighted imaging and high-signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging surrounding a low-signal region on both T1- and T2-weighted imaging with cord compression. There was a turbid, yellow fluid collection in the yellow ligament at the time of operation. Histologically, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals were found in the fluid, and she was diagnosed as having a pseudogout attack of the yellow ligament. Pseudogout attack of the cervical yellow ligament is rare, but this clinical entity should be added to the differential diagnosis of acute neck pain, especially when calcification of the yellow ligament exists.

  10. Crocins with high levels of sugar conjugation contribute to the yellow colours of early-spring flowering crocus tepals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Rubio Moraga

    Full Text Available Crocus sativus is the source of saffron spice, the processed stigma which accumulates glucosylated apocarotenoids known as crocins. Crocins are found in the stigmas of other Crocuses, determining the colourations observed from pale yellow to dark red. By contrast, tepals in Crocus species display a wider diversity of colours which range from purple, blue, yellow to white. In this study, we investigated whether the contribution of crocins to colour extends from stigmas to the tepals of yellow Crocus species. Tepals from seven species were analysed by UPLC-PDA and ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS revealing for the first time the presence of highly glucosylated crocins in this tissue. β-carotene was found to be the precursor of these crocins and some of them were found to contain rhamnose, never before reported. When crocin profiles from tepals were compared with those from stigmas, clear differences were found, including the presence of new apocarotenoids in stigmas. Furthermore, each species showed a characteristic profile which was not correlated with the phylogenetic relationship among species. While gene expression analysis in tepals of genes involved in carotenoid metabolism showed that phytoene synthase was a key enzyme in apocarotenoid biosynthesis in tepals. Expression of a crocetin glucosyltransferase, previously identified in saffron, was detected in all the samples. The presence of crocins in tepals is compatible with the role of chromophores to attract pollinators. The identification of tepals as new sources of crocins is of special interest given their wide range of applications in medicine, cosmetics and colouring industries.

  11. Straight line foraging in yellow-eyed penguins: new insights into cascading fisheries effects and orientation capabilities of marine predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Thomas; Ellenberg, Ursula; Houston, David M; Lamare, Miles; Davis, Lloyd S; van Heezik, Yolanda; Seddon, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging marine predators rarely search for prey along straight lines because dynamic ocean processes usually require complex search strategies. If linear movement patterns occur they are usually associated with travelling events or migratory behaviour. However, recent fine scale tracking of flying seabirds has revealed straight-line movements while birds followed fishing vessels. Unlike flying seabirds, penguins are not known to target and follow fishing vessels. Yet yellow-eyed penguins from New Zealand often exhibit directed movement patterns while searching for prey at the seafloor, a behaviour that seems to contradict common movement ecology theories. While deploying GPS dive loggers on yellow-eyed penguins from the Otago Peninsula we found that the birds frequently followed straight lines for several kilometres with little horizontal deviation. In several cases individuals swam up and down the same line, while some of the lines were followed by more than one individual. Using a remote operated vehicle (ROV) we found a highly visible furrow on the seafloor most likely caused by an otter board of a demersal fish trawl, which ran in a straight line exactly matching the trajectory of a recent line identified from penguin tracks. We noted high abundances of benthic scavengers associated with fisheries-related bottom disturbance. While our data demonstrate the acute way-finding capabilities of benthic foraging yellow-eyed penguins, they also highlight how hidden cascading effects of coastal fisheries may alter behaviour and potentially even population dynamics of marine predators, an often overlooked fact in the examination of fisheries' impacts.

  12. Straight line foraging in yellow-eyed penguins: new insights into cascading fisheries effects and orientation capabilities of marine predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mattern

    Full Text Available Free-ranging marine predators rarely search for prey along straight lines because dynamic ocean processes usually require complex search strategies. If linear movement patterns occur they are usually associated with travelling events or migratory behaviour. However, recent fine scale tracking of flying seabirds has revealed straight-line movements while birds followed fishing vessels. Unlike flying seabirds, penguins are not known to target and follow fishing vessels. Yet yellow-eyed penguins from New Zealand often exhibit directed movement patterns while searching for prey at the seafloor, a behaviour that seems to contradict common movement ecology theories. While deploying GPS dive loggers on yellow-eyed penguins from the Otago Peninsula we found that the birds frequently followed straight lines for several kilometres with little horizontal deviation. In several cases individuals swam up and down the same line, while some of the lines were followed by more than one individual. Using a remote operated vehicle (ROV we found a highly visible furrow on the seafloor most likely caused by an otter board of a demersal fish trawl, which ran in a straight line exactly matching the trajectory of a recent line identified from penguin tracks. We noted high abundances of benthic scavengers associated with fisheries-related bottom disturbance. While our data demonstrate the acute way-finding capabilities of benthic foraging yellow-eyed penguins, they also highlight how hidden cascading effects of coastal fisheries may alter behaviour and potentially even population dynamics of marine predators, an often overlooked fact in the examination of fisheries' impacts.

  13. A comparative assessment of the adrenotoxic effects of cadmium in two teleost species, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, Alexandra; Hontela, Alice

    2004-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) have a different sensitivity to cadmium (Cd) in vivo (trout O.mykiss =175.6>LC50/EC50 P.flavescens =37.7). Adrenocortical cells of trout were more sensitive than those of perch and Cd had a higher endocrine-disrupting potential and specificity in trout than in perch. However, in both species, Cd had the same effect on ACTH, dbcAMP and pregnenolone-stimulated cortisol secretion, with pregnenolone maintaining cortisol secretion until cell viability was impaired. These results confirm that for both species, Cd interferes in the signalling pathway of cortisol synthesis in a step prior to the pregnenolone formation. Data provided by the present study revealed important differences in vulnerability of adrenal steroidogenesis between rainbow trout and yellow perch

  14. 21 CFR 201.20 - Declaration of presence of FD&C Yellow No. 5 and/or FD&C Yellow No. 6 in certain drugs for human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... eye, containing FD&C Yellow No. 5 as a color additive using the names FD&C Yellow No. 5 and tartrazine... “Contains FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) as a color additive” or “Contains color additives including FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine)”. The labels of certain drug products subject to this labeling requirement that...

  15. First case of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wai Shing; Chan, Man Chun; Chik, Shiu Hong; Tsang, Tak Yin

    2016-04-01

    Yellow fever is an important and potentially fatal infection in tropical regions of Africa, South America, eastern Panama in Central America and Trinidad in the Caribbean. Yellow fever vaccination is not only crucial to reduce the disease risk and mortality in individuals travelling to these areas, but also an important public health measure to prevent the spread of the disease. Despite generally considered as a safe vaccine, yellow fever vaccine can rarely be associated with severe adverse reactions including yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD). Here, we report the first case of YEL-AVD in Hong Kong. Clinicians should alert to the possibility of YEL-AVD in vaccinees presenting with compatible symptoms after yellow fever vaccination, particularly in people at higher risk of adverse events. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Estimating the number of unvaccinated Chinese workers against yellow fever in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, A; Massad, E

    2018-04-17

    A yellow fever epidemic occurred in Angola in 2016 with 884 laboratory confirmed cases and 373 deaths. Eleven unvaccinated Chinese nationals working in Angola were also infected and imported the disease to China, thereby presenting the first importation of yellow fever into Asia. In Angola, there are about 259,000 Chinese foreign workers. The fact that 11 unvaccinated Chinese workers acquired yellow fever suggests that many more Chinese workers in Angola were not vaccinated. We applied a previously developed model to back-calculate the number of unvaccinated Chinese workers in Angola in order to determine the extent of lack of vaccine coverage. Our models suggest that none of the 259,000 Chinese had been vaccinated, although yellow fever vaccination is mandated by the International Health Regulations. Governments around the world including China need to ensure that their citizens obtain YF vaccination when traveling to countries where such vaccines are required in order to prevent the international spread of yellow fever.

  17. Electrochemical sensor for hazardous food colourant quinoline yellow based on carbon nanotube-modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Kangbing; Chen, Jianwei; Zhou, Yikai

    2011-09-15

    A novel electrochemical method using multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) film-modified electrode was developed for the detection of quinoline yellow. In pH 8 phosphate buffer, an irreversible oxidation peak at 0.71V was observed for quinoline yellow. Compared with the unmodified electrode, the MWNT film-modified electrode greatly increases the oxidation peak current of quinoline yellow, showing notable enhancement effect. The effects of pH value, amount of MWNT, accumulation potential and time were studied on the oxidation peak current of quinoline yellow. The linear range is from 0.75 to 20mgL(-1), and the limit of detection is 0.5mgL(-1). It was applied to the detection of quinoline yellow in commercial soft drinks, and the results consisted with the value that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Yellow fever vaccine: an effective vaccine for travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral communicable disease transmitted by an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus. It is primarily a zoonotic disease, especially the monkeys. Worldwide, an estimated 200,000 cases of yellow fever occurred each year, and the case-fatality rate is ~15%. Forty-five endemic countries in Africa and Latin America, with a population of close to 1 billion, are at risk. Up to 50% of severely affected persons from YF die without treatment. During 2009, 55 cases and 18 deaths were reported from Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. Brazil reported the maximum number of cases and death, i.e., 42 cases with 11 deaths. From January 2010 to March 2011, outbreaks of YF were reported to the WHO by Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Senegal, and Uganda. Cases were also reported in three northern districts of Abim, Agago, and Kitugun near the border with South Sudan. YF usually causes fever, muscle pain with prominent backache, headache, shivers, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting. Most patients improve, and their symptoms disappear after 3 to 4 d. Half of the patients who enter the toxic phase die within 10-14 d, while the rest recover without significant organ damage. Vaccination has been the single most important measure for preventing YF. The 17D-204 YF vaccine is a freeze-dried, live attenuated, highly effective vaccine. It is available in single-dose or multi-dose vials and should be stored at 2-8 °C. It is reconstituted with normal saline and should be used within 1 h of reconstitution. The 0.5 mL dose is delivered subcutaneously. Revaccination is recommended every 10 y for people at continued risk of exposure to yellow fever virus (YFV). This vaccine is available worldwide. Travelers, especially to Africa or Latin America from Asia, must have a certificate documenting YF vaccination, which is required by certain countries for entry under the International Health Regulations (IHR) of the WHO.

  19. Microsecond yellow laser for subfoveal leaks in central serous chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambiya V

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vikas Ambiya, Abhilash Goud, Annie Mathai, Padmaja Kumari Rani, Jay Chhablani Srimati Kanuri Santhamma Retina Vitreous Center, Kallam Anji Reddy Campus, L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India Purpose: To evaluate the role of navigated yellow microsecond laser in treating subfoveal leaks in nonresolving central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC. Methods: This prospective study included ten eyes of ten consecutive patients with nonresolving CSC with subfoveal leaks. All eyes were treated with 577 nm navigated yellow microsecond laser (5% duty cycle. Key inclusion criteria include a vision loss for a duration of minimum 3 months duration due to focal subfoveal leak on fluorescein angiography. Key exclusion criteria include prior treatment for CSC and any signs of chronic CSC. Comprehensive examination, in addition to low-contrast visual acuity assessment, microperimetry, autofluorescence, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and fundus fluorescein angiography, was done at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. Rescue laser was performed as per predefined criteria at 3 months. Results: The average best-corrected visual acuity improved from 73.3±16.1 letters to 75.8±14.0 (P=0.69 at 3 months and 76.9±13.0 (P=0.59 at 6 months, but was not statistically significant. Low-contrast visual acuity assessment (logMAR improved from 0.41±0.32 to 0.35±0.42 (P=0.50 at 3 months and 0.28±0.33 (P=0.18 at 6 months. Average retinal sensitivity significantly improved from baseline 18.93±7.19 dB to 22.49±6.67 dB (P=0.01 at 3 months and 21.46±8.47 dB (P=0.04 at 6 months. Rescue laser was required only in one eye at 3 months; however, laser was required in three eyes at 6 months. Conclusion: Microsecond laser is a safe and effective modality for treating cases of nonresolving CSC with subfoveal leaks. Keywords: CSC, central serous chorioretinopathy, Navilas®, navigated laser, microsecond yellow laser

  20. Preferences by Rhagoletis indifferens (Dipt., Tephritidae) and non-target flies for rectangles of various yellow colours and fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven sticky rectangle traps of various yellow colours and fluorescence made of cardboard were field tested against western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, in paired trap preference experiments in Washington state, USA. Alpha Scents (proprietary paint), Fluorescent Yellow (aerosol ...

  1. Yellow Fever Outbreak - Kongo Central Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo, August 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otshudiema, John O; Ndakala, Nestor G; Mawanda, Elande-Taty K; Tshapenda, Gaston P; Kimfuta, Jacques M; Nsibu, Loupy-Régence N; Gueye, Abdou S; Dee, Jacob; Philen, Rossanne M; Giese, Coralie; Murrill, Christopher S; Arthur, Ray R; Kebela, Benoit I

    2017-03-31

    On April 23, 2016, the Democratic Republic of the Congo's (DRC's) Ministry of Health declared a yellow fever outbreak. As of May 24, 2016, approximately 90% of suspected yellow fever cases (n = 459) and deaths (45) were reported in a single province, Kongo Central Province, that borders Angola, where a large yellow fever outbreak had begun in December 2015. Two yellow fever mass vaccination campaigns were conducted in Kongo Central Province during May 25-June 7, 2016 and August 17-28, 2016. In June 2016, the DRC Ministry of Health requested assistance from CDC to control the outbreak. As of August 18, 2016, a total of 410 suspected yellow fever cases and 42 deaths were reported in Kongo Central Province. Thirty seven of the 393 specimens tested in the laboratory were confirmed as positive for yellow fever virus (local outbreak threshold is one laboratory-confirmed case of yellow fever). Although not well-documented for this outbreak, malaria, viral hepatitis, and typhoid fever are common differential diagnoses among suspected yellow fever cases in this region. Other possible diagnoses include Zika, West Nile, or dengue viruses; however, no laboratory-confirmed cases of these viruses were reported. Thirty five of the 37 cases of yellow fever were imported from Angola. Two-thirds of confirmed cases occurred in persons who crossed the DRC-Angola border at one market city on the DRC side, where ≤40,000 travelers cross the border each week on market day. Strategies to improve coordination between health surveillance and cross-border trade activities at land borders and to enhance laboratory and case-based surveillance and health border screening capacity are needed to prevent and control future yellow fever outbreaks.

  2. Intrusion of low-salinity water into the Yellow Sea Interior in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Joon-Ho; Lee, Seok; Pang, Ig-Chan

    2014-12-01

    Abnormally low-salinity water was detected in the surface layer of the central region of the Yellow Sea in August 2012. The presence of such low-salinity water in the Yellow Sea interior has never been reported previously. To understand the origin of this low-salinity water, oceanographic and wind data were analyzed, and the circulation of the surface layer was also examined in the Yellow and East China Seas using a numerical ocean model. The results confirmed that typhoons caused the low-salinity water. Two consecutive typhoons passed from east to west across the East China Sea, around the Changjiang Bank in early August 2012. Strong easterly and southeasterly winds created by the typhoons in the Yellow and East China Seas drove the low-salinity water to the north along the coast of China and northeastward toward the central region of the Yellow Sea, respectively. Usually, the northward drifting of Changjiang Diluted Water along the coast of China ends around the Jiangsu coast, where the drifting is blocked and is turned by the offshore Eulerian residual current. Therefore, the Changjiang Diluted Water does not intrude more into the Yellow Sea interior. However, in 2012, the low-salinity water drifted up to the Shandong Peninsula along the coast of China, and formed massive low-salinity water in the Yellow Sea interior combining with the other low-salinity water extended toward the central region of the Yellow Sea directly from the Changjiang Bank. Thus, the typhoons play a key role in the appearance of abnormally low-salinity water in the Yellow Sea interior and it means that the Yellow Sea ecosystem could be significantly influenced by the Changjiang Diluted Water.

  3. Current status and future prospects of yellow fever vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrew S; Barrett, Alan D T

    2015-01-01

    Yellow fever 17D vaccine is one of the oldest live-attenuated vaccines in current use that is recognized historically for its immunogenic and safe properties. These unique properties of 17D are presently exploited in rationally designed recombinant vaccines targeting not only flaviviral antigens but also other pathogens of public health concern. Several candidate vaccines based on 17D have advanced to human trials, and a chimeric recombinant Japanese encephalitis vaccine utilizing the 17D backbone has been licensed. The mechanism(s) of attenuation for 17D are poorly understood; however, recent insights from large in silico studies have indicated particular host genetic determinants contributing to the immune response to the vaccine, which presumably influences the considerable durability of protection, now in many cases considered to be lifelong. The very rare occurrence of severe adverse events for 17D is discussed, including a recent fatal case of vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease.

  4. Wheat Rust Toolbox Related to New Initiatives on Yellow Rust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Grønbech; Lassen, Poul

    ://www.fao.org/agriculture/crops/rust/stem/rust-report/en/). The Wheat rust toolbox is one of several International research platforms hosted by Aarhus University, and it uses the same ICT framework and databases as EuroWheat (www.eurowheat.org) and EuroBlight (www.EuroBlight.net). The Wheat Rust Toolbox will also serve the Global Rust Reference Centre (GRRC) as well...... – 2009), and as soon as possible this will be expanded to cover all global yellow rust data available via the GRRC. The presentation will focus on experiences from the previous work on global databases and web based information systems, as well as propose ideas how the toolbox can be helpful regarding...

  5. Current Status and Future Prospects of Yellow Fever Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrew S.; Barrett, Alan D.T.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Yellow fever 17D vaccine is one of the oldest live-attenuated vaccines in current use that is recognized for historically immunogenic and safe properties. These unique properties of 17D are presently exploited in rationally designed recombinant vaccines targeting not only flaviviral antigens but also other pathogens of public health concern. Several candidate vaccines based on 17D have advanced to human trials, and a chimeric recombinant Japanese encephalitis vaccine utilizing the 17D backbone has been licensed. The mechanism(s) of attenuation for 17D are poorly understood; however, recent insights from large in silico studies have indicated particular host genetic determinants contributing to the immune response to the vaccine, which presumably influences the considerable durability of protection, now in many cases considered to be life-long. The very rare occurrence of severe adverse events for 17D is discussed, including a recent fatal case of vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease. PMID:26366673

  6. Production and biological activities of yellow pigments from Monascus fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs), are azaphilone compounds and one of the three main components of total Monascus pigments (MPs). Thirty-five hydrophilic or hydrophobic MYPs have been identified, with the majority being hydrophobic. Apart from screening special Monascus strains, some advanced approaches, such as extractive and high-cell-density fermentations, have been applied for developing or producing new MYPs, especially extracellular hydrophilic MYPs. The outstanding performance of MYPs in terms of resistance to photodegradation, as well as tolerance for temperature and pH, give natural MYPs reasonable prospects, compared with the orange and red MPs, for practical use in the present and future. Meanwhile, MYPs have shown promising potential for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries based on their described bioactivities. This review briefly summarizes the reports to date on chemical structures, biological activities, biosynthetic pathways, production technologies, and physicochemical performances of MYPs. The existing problems for MYPs are discussed and research prospects proposed.

  7. Nutrient and antinutrient composition of yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladejo Thomas Adepoju

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to research article titled “Effects of processing methods on nutrient and antinutrient composition of yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis products” (Adepoju et al., 2016 [1]. This article documented information on nutrient and antinutrient composition as well as nutrient retention of Dioscorea cayenensis products. Fresh Dioscorea cayenensis tubers obtained from Bodija market were prepared into raw sample and local delicacies and analysed for proximate, mineral, vitamin and antinutrient composition using AOAC methods [2]. Data obtained were analysed using ANOVA, and level of significance set at p<0.05. Processing significantly improved macronutrients and energy content of yam products, and led to significant reduction in values of all antinutrient content of the products (p<0.05.

  8. A bacterial disease of yellow perch (Peres flavescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A.J.; Nordstrom, P.R.; Bailey, J.E.; Heaton, J.H.

    1960-01-01

    On May 26, 1959, two of the authors' investigated a fish kill at Dailey Lake, Park County, Montana. They observed about a half-dozen live, weakly swimming yellow perch (Perca flavescens), in addition to thousand of dead perch along the shoreline. It was learned from local residents that mortalities had begun to appear some 2 weeks earlier. At that time the time the authorities had diagnosed the condition as a winterkill, since ice had only recently disappeared from the lake. Although a number of other species inhabit Dailey Lake, including rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), brown trout (S. trutta), kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), longnose suckers (Catostomus catostomus), rainbow x cutthroat hybrids, only one other species was represented in the kill. This consisted of one black crappie.

  9. The RNA of turnip yellow mosaic virus exhibits icosahedral order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Steven B.; Lucas, Robert W.; Greenwood, Aaron; McPherson, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Difference electron density maps, based on structure factor amplitudes and experimental phases from crystals of wild-type turnip yellow mosaic virus and those of empty capsids prepared by freeze-thawing, show a large portion of the encapsidated RNA to have an icosahedral distribution. Four unique segments of base-paired, double-helical RNA, one to two turns in length, lie between 33-A and 101-A radius and are organized about either 2-fold or 5-fold icosahedral axes. In addition, single-stranded loops of RNA invade the pentameric and hexameric capsomeres where they contact the interior capsid surface. The remaining RNA, not seen in electron density maps, must serve as connecting links between these secondary structural elements and is likely icosahedrally disordered. The distribution of RNA observed crystallographically appears to be in agreement with models based on biochemical data and secondary structural analyses

  10. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas RE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Roger E Thomas Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Research Office, G012, Health Sciences Centre, Calgary, AB, Canada Purpose: To assess those published cases of yellow fever (YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease that meet the Brighton Collaboration criteria and to assess the safety of YF vaccine with respect to viscerotropic disease. Literature search: Ten electronic databases were searched with no restriction of date or language and reference lists of retrieved articles. Methods: All abstracts and titles were independently read by two reviewers and data independently entered by two reviewers. Results: All serious adverse events that met the Brighton Classification criteria were associated with first YF vaccinations. Sixty-two published cases (35 died met the Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic criteria, with 32 from the US, six from Brazil, five from Peru, three from Spain, two from the People’s Republic of China, one each from Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Ecuador, France, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Portugal, and the UK, and four with no country stated. Two cases met both the viscerotropic and YF vaccine-associated neurologic disease criteria. Seventy cases proposed by authors as viscerotropic disease did not meet any Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic level of diagnostic certainty or any YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease causality criteria (37 died. Conclusion: Viscerotropic disease is rare in the published literature and in pharmacovigilance databases. All published cases were from developing countries. Because the symptoms are usually very severe and life threatening, it is unlikely that cases would not come to medical attention (but might not be published. Because viscerotropic disease has a highly predictable pathologic course, it is likely that viscerotropic disease post-YF vaccine occurs in low-income countries with the same incidence as in developing countries. YF

  11. Grazing and metabolism of Euphausia pacifica in the Yellow Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhencheng Tao

    Full Text Available Grazing and metabolism of Euphausia pacifica in the Yellow Sea were studied from September 2006 to August 2007. Euphausia pacifica is a selective-feeding omnivore and grazing rates among different months were monitored using a Coulter Counter and batch culture feeding experiments. Euphausia pacifica mainly grazed microzooplankton in August and September, which resulted in an increase in chlorophyll a concentration. Oxygen consumption rate of E. pacifica was 38.7-42.5 μmol O2 g(-1 DW h(-1 in March, which was four times higher than the oxygen consumption rates in September and December. The vigorous metabolism of E. pacifica in March consumed 3.1% of body carbon daily, which is likely related to its high reproduction and grazing rate. Respiration and metabolism of E. pacifica in September and December were similar and were lower. O:N ratio of E. pacifica was the highest (17.3-23.8 in March when spawning activity occurred and when food was abundant. The energetic source of E. pacifica during September and December was mostly protein from eating a carnivorous diet, including such items as microzooplankton. Euphausia pacifica was found in cold water at the bottom of the Yellow Sea in summer and autumn and maintained a low consumption status. O:N ratios of E. pacifica in March, September, and December were negatively correlated with SSTs and no significant correlation was found between O:N ratios and chlorophyll a concentration. Seawater temperature is clearly the most important parameter influencing the metabolism of E. pacifica.

  12. Stereo chromatic contrast sensitivity model to blue-yellow gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiachen; Lin, Yancong; Liu, Yun

    2016-03-07

    As a fundamental metric of human visual system (HVS), contrast sensitivity function (CSF) is typically measured by sinusoidal gratings at the detection of thresholds for psychophysically defined cardinal channels: luminance, red-green, and blue-yellow. Chromatic CSF, which is a quick and valid index to measure human visual performance and various retinal diseases in two-dimensional (2D) space, can not be directly applied into the measurement of human stereo visual performance. And no existing perception model considers the influence of chromatic CSF of inclined planes on depth perception in three-dimensional (3D) space. The main aim of this research is to extend traditional chromatic contrast sensitivity characteristics to 3D space and build a model applicable in 3D space, for example, strengthening stereo quality of 3D images. This research also attempts to build a vision model or method to check human visual characteristics of stereo blindness. In this paper, CRT screen was clockwise and anti-clockwise rotated respectively to form the inclined planes. Four inclined planes were selected to investigate human chromatic vision in 3D space and contrast threshold of each inclined plane was measured with 18 observers. Stimuli were isoluminant blue-yellow sinusoidal gratings. Horizontal spatial frequencies ranged from 0.05 to 5 c/d. Contrast sensitivity was calculated as the inverse function of the pooled cone contrast threshold. According to the relationship between spatial frequency of inclined plane and horizontal spatial frequency, the chromatic contrast sensitivity characteristics in 3D space have been modeled based on the experimental data. The results show that the proposed model can well predicted human chromatic contrast sensitivity characteristics in 3D space.

  13. Interim Canadian recommendations for the use of a fractional dose of yellow fever vaccine during a vaccine shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Summary This statement outlines interim recommendations intended for use during yellow fever vaccine shortages only. The recommendations differ from the standard recommendations for yellow fever vaccination in the Canadian Immunization Guide and in the Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT) Statement for Travellers and Yellow Fever. PMID:29770023

  14. Towards muscle-specific meat color stability of Chinese Luxi yellow cattle: A proteomic insight into post-mortem storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Yu, Qian-Qian; Fu, Yu; Tian, Xiao-Jing; Jia, Fei; Li, Xing-Min; Dai, Rui-Tong

    2016-09-16

    Searching for potential predictors of meat color is a challenging task for the meat industry. In this study, the relationship between meat color parameters and the sarcoplasmic proteome of M. longissimuss lumborum (LL) and M. psoas major (PM) from Chinese Luxi yellow cattle during post-mortem storage (0, 5, 10 and 15days) were explored with the aid of the integrated proteomics and bioinformatics approaches. Meat color attributes revealed that LL displayed better color stability than PM during storage. Furthermore, sarcoplasmic proteins of these two muscles were compared between days 5, 10, 15 and day 0. Several proteins were closely correlated with meat color attributes and they were muscle-specific and responsible for the meat color stability at different storage periods. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A isoform, glycogen phosphorylase, peroxiredoxin-2, phosphoglucomutase-1, superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], heat shock cognate protein (71kDa) might serve as the candidate predictors of meat color stability during post-mortem storage. In addition, bioinformatics analyses indicated that more proteins were involved in glycolytic metabolism of LL, which contributed to better meat color stability of LL than PM. The present results could provide a proteomic insight into muscle-specific meat color stability of Chinese Luxi yellow cattle during post-mortem storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Complete nucleotide sequences of a new bipartite begomovirus from Malvastrum sp. plants with bright yellow mosaic symptoms in South Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Villegas, Cecilia; Gregg, Lori; Murray, K Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Two isolates of a novel bipartite begomovirus, tentatively named malvastrum bright yellow mosaic virus (MaBYMV), were molecularly characterized from naturally infected plants of the genus Malvastrum showing bright yellow mosaic disease symptoms in South Texas. Six complete DNA-A and five DNA-B genome sequences of MaBYMV obtained from the isolates ranged in length from 2,608 to 2,609 nucleotides (nt) and 2,578 to 2,605 nt, respectively. Both genome segments shared a 178- to 180-nt common region. In pairwise comparisons, the complete DNA-A and DNA-B sequences of MaBYMV were most similar (87-88 % and 79-81 % identity, respectively) and phylogenetically related to the corresponding sequences of sida mosaic Sinaloa virus-[MX-Gua-06]. Further analysis revealed that MaBYMV is a putative recombinant virus, thus supporting the notion that malvaceous hosts may be influencing the evolution of several begomoviruses. The design of new diagnostic primers enabled the detection of MaBYMV in cohorts of Bemisia tabaci collected from symptomatic Malvastrum sp. plants, thus implicating whiteflies as potential vectors of the virus.

  16. Phylodynamics of Yellow Fever Virus in the Americas: new insights into the origin of the 2017 Brazilian outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Daiana; Delatorre, Edson; Bonaldo, Myrna; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Vicente, Ana Carolina; Bello, Gonzalo

    2017-08-07

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) strains circulating in the Americas belong to two distinct genotypes (I and II) that have diversified into several concurrent enzootic lineages. Since 1999, YFV genotype I has spread outside endemic regions and its recent (2017) reemergence in non-endemic Southeastern Brazilian states fuels one of the largest epizootic of jungle Yellow Fever registered in the country. To better understand this phenomenon, we reconstructed the phylodynamics of YFV American genotypes using sequences from nine countries sampled along 60 years, including strains from Brazilian 2017 outbreak. Our analyses reveals that YFV genotypes I and II follow roughly similar evolutionary and demographic dynamics until the early 1990s, when a dramatic change in the diversification process of the genotype I occurred associated with the emergence and dissemination of a new lineage (here called modern). Trinidad and Tobago was the most likely source of the YFV modern-lineage that spread to Brazil and Venezuela around the late 1980s, where it replaced all lineages previously circulating. The modern-lineage caused all major YFV outbreaks detected in non-endemic South American regions since 2000, including the 2017 Brazilian outbreak, and its dissemination was coupled to the accumulation of several amino acid substitutions particularly within non-structural viral proteins.

  17. Highly pure yellow light emission of perovskite CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 quantum dots and their application for yellow light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuandan; Gong, Jinhui; Zhu, Yiyuan; Feng, Xingcan; Peng, Hong; Wang, Wei; He, Haiyang; Liu, Hu; Wang, Li

    2018-06-01

    High-quality all-inorganic perovskite CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 quantum dots (QDs) with quantum yield of 50% were systematically studied as yellow light convertor for light emitting diodes (LEDs). A novel heat insulation structure was designed for the QD-converted yellow LEDs. In this structure, a silicone layer was set on top of the GaN LED chip to prevent directly heating of the QDs by the LED chip. Then the CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 QDs were filled in the bowl-shaped silicone layer after ultrasonic dispersion treatment. Finally, an Al2O3 passivation layer was grown on the QDs layer by Atomic Layer Disposition at 40 °C. When x = 0.55, highly pure yellow LEDs with an emission peak at ∼570 nm and a full width at half maximum of 25 nm were achieved. The chromaticity coordinates of the QD-converted yellow LEDs (0.4920 ± 0.0017, 0.4988 ± 0.0053) showed almost no variation under driving current from 5 mA to 150 mA. During an operation period of 60 min, the emission wavelength of the yellow LEDs showed no distinct shift. Moreover, the luminous efficiency of the QD-converted yellow LEDs achieved 13.51 l m/W at 6 mA. These results demonstrated that CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 QDs and the heat insulation structure are promising candidate for high purity yellow LEDs.

  18. Mineral compositions and sources of the riverbed sediment in the desert channel of Yellow River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haibing

    2011-02-01

    The Yellow River flows through an extensive, aeolian desert area and extends from Xiaheyan, Ningxia Province, to Toudaoguai, Inner Mongolia Province, with a total length of 1,000 km. Due to the construction and operation of large reservoirs in the upstream of the Yellow River, most water and sediment from upstream were stored in these reservoirs, which leads to the declining flow in the desert channel that has no capability to scour large amount of input of desert sands from the desert regions. By analyzing and comparing the spatial distribution of weight percent of mineral compositions between sediment sources and riverbed sediment of the main tributaries and the desert channel of the Yellow River, we concluded that the coarse sediment deposited in the desert channel of the Yellow River were mostly controlled by the local sediment sources. The analyzed results of the Quartz-Feldspar-Mica (QFM) triangular diagram and the R-factor models of the coarse sediment in the Gansu reach and the desert channel of the Yellow River further confirm that the Ningxia Hedong desert and the Inner Mongolian Wulanbuhe and Kubuqi deserts are the main provenances of the coarse sediment in the desert channel of the Yellow River. Due to the higher fluidity of the fine sediment, they are mainly contributed by the local sediment sources and the tributaries that originated from the loess area of the upper reach of the Yellow River.

  19. Bees’ Honey Attenuation of Metanil-Yellow-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman L. Al-Malki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of bees’ honey against metanil-yellow-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into 7 groups: control group; three groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg metanil yellow, and three groups treated with metanil yellow plus 2.5 mg·kg-1·day-1 bees’ honey for 8 weeks. The obtained data showed that the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory activity of bees’ honey reduced the oxidative stress in the liver tissue and downregulated the inflammatory markers. In addition, the elevated levels of AGE and the activated NF-κB in the metanil-yellow-treated animals were significantly attenuated. Moreover, the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly attenuated as a result of bees’ honey administration. Furthermore, the histopathological examination of the liver showed that bees’ honey reduced fatty degeneration, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and necrosis in metanil-yellow-treated rats. In conclusion, the obtained data suggest that bees’ honey has hepatoprotective effect on acute liver injuries induced by metanil-yellow in vivo, and the results suggested that the effect of bees’ honey against metanil yellow-induced liver damage is related to its antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties which attenuate the activation of NF-κB and its controlled genes like TNF-α and IL-1β.

  20. Identification of Yellow Pigmentation Genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Using Br300 Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jeong Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The yellow color of inner leaves in Chinese cabbage depends on its lutein and carotene content. To identify responsible genes for yellow pigmentation in leaves, the transcriptome profiles of white (Kenshin and yellow leaves (Wheessen were examined using the Br300K oligomeric chip in Chinese cabbage. In yellow leaves, genes involved in carotene synthesis (BrPSY, BrPDS, BrCRTISO, and BrLCYE, lutein, and zeaxanthin synthesis (BrCYP97A3 and BrHYDB were upregulated, while those associated with carotene degradation (BrNCED3, BrNCED4, and BrNCED6 were downregulated. These expression patterns might support that the content of both lutein and total carotenoid was much higher in the yellow leaves than that in the white leaves. These results indicate that the yellow leaves accumulate high levels of both lutein and β-carotene due to stimulation of synthesis and that the degradation rate is inhibited. A large number of responsible genes as novel genes were specifically expressed in yellow inner leaves, suggesting the possible involvement in pigment synthesis. Finally, we identified three transcription factors (BrA20/AN1-like, BrBIM1, and BrZFP8 that are specifically expressed and confirmed their relatedness in carotenoid synthesis from Arabidopsis plants.

  1. Yellow flag scores in a compensable New Zealand cohort suffering acute low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Grimmer-Somers

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Karen Grimmer-Somers1, Mathew Prior1, Jim Robertson21Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, City East Campus, North Tce, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; 2New Zealand Accident Compensation Corporation, Auckland, New ZealandBackground: Despite its high prevalence, most acute low back pain (ALBP is nonspecific, self-limiting with no definable pathology. Recurrence is prevalent, as is resultant chronicity. Psychosocial factors (yellow flags comprising depression and anxiety, negative pain beliefs, job dissatisfaction are associated with the development of chronic LBP.Methods: A national insurer (Accident Compensation Corporation, New Zealand [NZ], in conjunction with a NZ primary health organization, piloted a strategy for more effective management of patients with ALBP, by following the NZ ALBP Guideline. The guidelines recommend the use of a psychosocial screening instrument (Yellow Flags Screening Instrument, a derivative of Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire. This instrument was recommended for administration on the second visit to a general medical practitioner (GP. This paper tests whether published cut-points of yellow flag scores to predict LBP claims length and costs were valid in this cohort.Results: Data was available for 902 claimants appropriately enrolled into the pilot. 25% claimants consulted the GP once only, and thus were not requested to provide a yellow flag score. Yellow flag scores were provided by 48% claimants who consumed two or more GP services. Approximately 60% LBP presentations resolved within five GP visits. Yellow flag scores were significantly and positively associated with treatment costs and service use, although the association was nonlinear. Claimants with moderate yellow flag scores were similarly likely to incur lengthy claims as claimants with at-risk scores.Discussion: Capturing data on psychosocial factors for compensable patients with ALBP has merit in predicting

  2. Identification of a monopartite begomovirus associated with yellow vein mosaic of Mentha longifolia in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Daur, Ihsanullah

    2018-02-01

    Mentha is a very important crop grown and used extensively for many purposes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Begomoviruses are whitefly-transmitted viruses causing serious disease in many important plants exhibiting variable symptoms with significant economic loss globally. During farmers' field survey, yellow vein mosaic disease was observed in Mentha longifolia plants growing near tomato fields in Saudi Arabia. The causative agent was identified in 11 out of 19 samples using begomovirus-specific primers and the association of begomovirus with yellow vein mosaic disease in M. longifolia was confirmed. The full-length viral genome and betasatellite were amplified, cloned, and sequenced bidirectionally. The full DNA-A genome was found to have 2785 nucleotides with 1365 bp-associated betasatellite molecule. An attempt was made to amplify DNA-B, but none of the samples produced any positive amplicon of expected size which indicated the presence of monopartite begomovirus. The sequence identity matrix and phylogenetic analysis, based on full genome showed the highest identity (99.6%) with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and in phylogenetic analysis it formed a closed cluster with Tomato leaf curl virus infecting tomato and Corchorus crop in Saudi Arabia. The sequence analysis results of betasatellites showed the highest identity (98.9%) with Tomato yellow leaf curl betasatellites infecting tomato and phylogenetic analysis using betasatellites formed a close cluster with Tomato yellow leaf curl betasatellites infecting tomato and Corchorus crops, which has already been reported to cause yellow vein mosaic and leaf curl disease in many cultivated and weed crops growing in Saudi Arabia. The identified begomovirus associated with yellow vein mosaic disease in mentha could be a mutated strain of TYLCV and tentatively designated as TYLCV-Mentha isolate. Based on published data and latest information, this is the first report of identification of Tomato yellow leaf

  3. THE YELLOW SUPERGIANT PROGENITOR OF THE TYPE II SUPERNOVA 2011dh IN M51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maund, J. R.; Fraser, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Kotak, R.; Magill, L.; Ergon, M.; Sollerman, J.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Botticella, M.-T.; Valenti, S.; Bufano, F.; Danziger, I. J.; Stephens, A. W.

    2011-01-01

    We present the detection of the putative progenitor of the Type IIb SN 2011dh in archival pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope images. Using post-explosion Adaptive Optics imaging with Gemini NIRI+ALTAIR, the position of the supernova (SN) in the pre-explosion images was determined to within 23 mas. The progenitor candidate is consistent with an F8 supergiant star (logL/L sun = 4.92 ± 0.20 and T eff = 6000 ± 280 K). Through comparison with stellar evolution tracks, this corresponds to a single star at the end of core C-burning with an initial mass of M ZAMS = 13 ± 3 M sun . The possibility of the progenitor source being a cluster is rejected, on the basis of: (1) the source not being spatially extended, (2) the absence of excess Hα emission, and (3) the poor fit to synthetic cluster spectral energy distributions (SEDs). It is unclear if a binary companion is contributing to the observed SED, although given the excellent correspondence of the observed photometry to a single star SED we suggest that the companion does not contribute significantly. Early photometric and spectroscopic observations show fast evolution similar to the transitional Type IIb SN 2008ax and suggest that a large amount of the progenitor's hydrogen envelope was removed before explosion. Late-time observations will reveal if the yellow supergiant or the putative companion star were responsible for this SN explosion.

  4. D-Pinitol in Fabaceae: an Oviposition Stimulant for the Common Grass Yellow Butterfly, Eurema mandarina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukae, Shin-Ya; Ohashi, Toshiki; Matsumoto, Yuika; Ohta, Shinji; Ômura, Hisashi

    2016-11-01

    The common grass yellow butterfly, Eurema mandarina (formerly Eurema hecabe mandarina) (Lepidoptera, Pieridae), recently has been separated taxonomically from a subtropical population of Eurema hecabe in Japan. This species is widely distributed in the temperate region of Japan, and feeds mainly on various ligneous plants within the Fabaceae. We attempted to identify an oviposition stimulant for E. mandarina from its primary hosts, Albizia julibrissin and Lespedeza cuneata. In both hosts, crude extract and an aqueous fraction elicited oviposition responses from gravid females. A polar subfraction of the aqueous fraction also stimulated high oviposition-stimulatory activity, comparable to the original aqueous fraction, suggesting that E. mandarina females use water-soluble compounds for host recognition. Subsequent activity-directed fractionation by ion exchange chromatography indicated that one of the key substances was contained in the neutral/amphoteric fraction. Chemical analyses revealed that the active fractions of both hosts contained D-(+)-pinitol as the major component. We examined female responses to authentic D-pinitol and found that it induced oviposition responses at concentrations greater than 0.1 %. Since this cyclitol is omnipresent in Fabaceae, we conclude that D-pinitol plays a role in mediating oviposition of E. mandarina on fabaceous plants.

  5. Smoke suppression properties of ferrite yellow on flame retardant thermoplastic polyurethane based on ammonium polyphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xilei; Jiang, Yufeng; Jiao, Chuanmei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Smoke suppression of FeOOH on flame retardant TPU composites has been investigated. • FeOOH has excellent smoke suppression abilities for flame retardant TPU composites. • FeOOH has good ability of char formation, hence improved smoke suppression property. -- Abstract: This article mainly studies smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of ferrite yellow (FeOOH) on flame retardant thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites using ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as a flame retardant agent. Smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of FeOOH on flame retardant TPU composites were intensively investigated by smoke density test (SDT), cone calorimeter test (CCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Remarkably, the SDT results show that FeOOH can effectively decrease the amount of smoke production with or without flame. On the other hand, the CCT data reveal that the addition of FeOOH can apparently reduce heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR), and total smoke release (TSR), etc. Here, FeOOH is considered to be an effective smoke suppression agent and a good synergism with APP in flame retardant TPU composites, which can greatly improve the structure of char residue realized by TGA and SEM results

  6. CD8+ T cells complement antibodies in protecting against yellow fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Maria R; Kongsgaard, Michael; Steffensen, Maria A; Fenger, Christina; Rasmussen, Michael; Skjødt, Karsten; Finsen, Bente; Stryhn, Anette; Buus, Søren; Christensen, Jan P; Thomsen, Allan R

    2015-02-01

    The attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine (YF-17D) was developed in the 1930s, yet little is known about the protective mechanisms underlying its efficiency. In this study, we analyzed the relative contribution of cell-mediated and humoral immunity to the vaccine-induced protection in a murine model of YF-17D infection. Using different strains of knockout mice, we found that CD4(+) T cells, B cells, and Abs are required for full clinical protection of vaccinated mice, whereas CD8(+) T cells are dispensable for long-term survival after intracerebral challenge. However, by analyzing the immune response inside the infected CNS, we observed an accelerated T cell influx into the brain after intracerebral challenge of vaccinated mice, and this T cell recruitment correlated with improved virus control in the brain. Using mice deficient in B cells we found that, in the absence of Abs, YF vaccination can still induce some antiviral protection, and in vivo depletion of CD8(+) T cells from these animals revealed a pivotal role for CD8(+) T cells in controlling virus replication in the absence of a humoral response. Finally, we demonstrated that effector CD8(+) T cells also contribute to viral control in the presence of circulating YF-specific Abs. To our knowledge, this is the first time that YF-specific CD8(+) T cells have been demonstrated to possess antiviral activity in vivo. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. A fatal yellow fever virus infection in China: description and lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihai; Liu, Lin; Lv, Yanning; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jiandong; Zhang, Yi; Di, Tian; Zhang, Shuo; Liu, Jingyuan; Li, Jie; Qu, Jing; Hua, Wenhao; Li, Chuan; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Quanfu; Xu, Yanli; Jiang, Rongmeng; Wang, Qin; Chen, Lijuan; Wang, Shiwen; Pang, Xinghuo; Liang, Mifang; Ma, Xuejun; Li, Xingwang; Wang, Quanyi; Zhang, Fujie; Li, Dexin

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is a viral disease endemic to the tropical regions of Africa and South America. An outbreak of YF has been occurring in Angola, since the beginning of 2016. In March 2016, a 32-year-old Chinese man who returned from Angola was hospitalized and diagnosed with the first case of imported YF in China. Clinical observations, blood viral RNA detection, serological testing and treatments for the patient were performed daily. The virus was isolated in Vero cells, and the complete viral genome was sequenced and analyzed using the next-generation genomic sequencing platform. The patient presented with hemorrhagic fever, jaundice and oliguria at day 3 after onset, which rapidly progressed to multisystem organ failure with extremely elevated liver, pancreatic and myocardial enzymes. The patient died despite the intensive supportive treatments that were performed. A liver biopsy showed severe and multilobular necrosis. Viral RNA was detectable throughout the clinical course of the disease. Whole-genomic sequence analysis revealed that the virus belongs to the Angola71 genotype. Although the virus has been circulating in Angola for 45 years, only 14 amino-acid substitutions and no amino-acid changes were observed in the membrane and envelope proteins compared with the virus collected in 1971. The presence of this imported YF case in China indicated that with the increase in business travel among countries, YF outbreaks in Africa can lead to the international spread of the disease. The production and use of YF vaccines is, therefore, an urgent issue. PMID:27406389

  8. Biological and phylogenetic characteristics of yellow fever virus lineages from West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Nina K; Laraway, Hewád; Faye, Ousmane; Diallo, Mawlouth; Niedrig, Matthias; Sall, Amadou A

    2013-03-01

    The yellow fever virus (YFV), the first proven human-pathogenic virus, although isolated in 1927, is still a major public health problem, especially in West Africa where it causes outbreaks every year. Nevertheless, little is known about its genetic diversity and evolutionary dynamics, mainly due to a limited number of genomic sequences from wild virus isolates. In this study, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of 24 full-length genomes from YFV strains isolated between 1973 and 2005 in a sylvatic context of West Africa, including 14 isolates that had previously not been sequenced. By this, we confirmed genetic variability within one genotype by the identification of various YF lineages circulating in West Africa. Further analyses of the biological properties of these lineages revealed differential growth behavior in human liver and insect cells, correlating with the source of isolation and suggesting host adaptation. For one lineage, repeatedly isolated in a context of vertical transmission, specific characteristics in the growth behavior and unique mutations of the viral genome were observed and deserve further investigation to gain insight into mechanisms involved in YFV emergence and maintenance in nature.

  9. Epidemiological and laboratory characterization of a yellow fever outbreak in northern Uganda, October 2010-January 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamala, Joseph F; Malimbo, Mugagga; Okot, Charles L; Atai-Omoruto, Ann D; Tenywa, Emmanuel; Miller, Jeffrey R; Balinandi, Stephen; Shoemaker, Trevor; Oyoo, Charles; Omony, Emmanuel O; Kagirita, Atek; Musenero, Monica M; Makumbi, Issa; Nanyunja, Miriam; Lutwama, Julius J; Downing, Robert; Mbonye, Anthony K

    2012-07-01

    In November 2010, following reports of an outbreak of a fatal, febrile, hemorrhagic illness in northern Uganda, the Uganda Ministry of Health established multisector teams to respond to the outbreak. This was a case-series investigation in which the response teams conducted epidemiological and laboratory investigations on suspect cases. The cases identified were line-listed and a data analysis was undertaken regularly to guide the outbreak response. Overall, 181 cases met the yellow fever (YF) suspected case definition; there were 45 deaths (case fatality rate 24.9%). Only 13 (7.5%) of the suspected YF cases were laboratory confirmed, and molecular sequencing revealed 92% homology to the YF virus strain Couma (Ethiopia), East African genotype. Suspected YF cases had fever (100%) and unexplained bleeding (97.8%), but jaundice was rare (11.6%). The overall attack rate was 13 cases/100000 population, and the attack rate was higher for males than females and increased with age. The index clusters were linked to economic activities undertaken by males around forests. This was the largest YF outbreak ever reported in Uganda. The wide geographical case dispersion as well as the male and older age preponderance suggests transmission during the outbreak was largely sylvatic and related to occupational activities around forests. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular Epidemiology of Yellow Fever in Bolivia from 1999 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronti, Cécile; Goitia, Norma Janeth Velasquez; Cook, Shelley; Roca, Yelin; Revollo, Jimmy; Flores, Jorge Vargas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Yellow fever (YF) is a serious public health problem in Bolivia since at least the 19th century. Surprisingly, very limited information has been made available to date regarding the genetic characterisation and epidemiology of Bolivian YF virus (YFV) strains. Here, we conducted the genetic characterization of 12 human isolates of YFV collected in Bolivia between 1999 and 2008, by sequencing and analysis of two regions of the viral genome: a fragment encoding structural proteins “PrM” (premembrane and envelope) and a distal region “EMF,” spanning the end of the virus genome. Our study reveals a high genetic diversity of YFV strains circulating in Bolivia during the last decade: we identified not only “Peruvian-like” genotype II viruses (related to previously characterized Bolivian strains), but also, for the fist time, “Brazilian-like” genotype I viruses. During the complete period of the study, only cases of “jungle” YF were detected (i.e., circulation of YFV via a sylvatic cycle) with no cluster of urban cases. However, the very significant spread of the Aedes aegypti mosquito across Bolivian cities threatens the country with the reappearance of an urban YFV transmission cycle and thus is required a sustained epidemiological surveillance. PMID:20925524

  11. Dimorphic sperm and the unlikely route to fertilisation in the yellow seahorse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Look, Katrien J W; Dzyuba, Borys; Cliffe, Alex; Koldewey, Heather J; Holt, William V

    2007-02-01

    Uniquely among vertebrates, seahorses and pipefishes (Family Syngnathidae) incubate their eggs within a male brood pouch. This has contributed to a widespread, but poorly founded belief, that the eggs are fertilised using spermatozoa that are deposited directly into the brood pouch via an internal sperm duct. Anatomical dissections showed, however, not only that direct sperm deposition into the pouch is physically impossible, but that spermatozoa must somehow travel a significant distance (>4 mm) outside the body of the male, to reach and fertilise eggs in the pouch. Observations of courtship and mating behaviour also revealed that the pouch closes immediately after mating, and that sperm transfer must occur within a time window of no more than 6 s. In addition to this, the yellow seahorse produces extraordinarily low quantities of dimorphic spermatozoa, but is nevertheless highly fertile and can produce broods that exceed 100 embryos. The entire fertilisation process in seahorses is therefore uniquely efficient among vertebrates, yet paradoxically involves several steps that would seem to complicate, and even appear to prevent, the interaction of the gametes. Although we are still unable to describe the exact fertilisation mechanism, we speculate that spermatozoa are ejaculated into a mixture of ovarian fluid and eggs, while the male and female are in close contact. Thereafter, this mixture must enter the pouch, whereupon the spermatozoa encounter seawater. These observations also support the view, indirectly inferred in previous publications, that sperm competition in seahorses is not only non-existent but impossible.

  12. Single stage batch adsorber design for efficient Eosin yellow removal by polyaniline coated ligno-cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Sushanta; Ballav, Niladri; Maity, Arjun; Pillay, Kriveshini

    2015-01-01

    Polyaniline-coated lignin-based adsorbent (PLC) was synthesized and used for uptake of reactive dye eosin yellow (EY) from aqueous solution. The adsorption capability of the adsorbent was found to be more effective than the unmodified adsorbent (LC). In particular, the adsorption capability of the PLC was effective over a wider pH range. This could be owing to its higher point of zero charge, which is more favorable for the uptake of the anionic dye. Adsorption isotherm models suggested a monolayer adsorption was predominant. The mean free energy of adsorption (E(DR)) was found to have values between 8 and 16 kJ mol(-1) which suggests that an electrostatic mechanism of adsorption predominated over other underlying mechanisms. The adsorption process was also found to be spontaneous, with increasing negative free energy values observed at higher temperatures. Chemisorption process was supported by the changes in enthalpy above 40 kJ mol(-1) and by the results of desorption studies. This new adsorbent was also reusable and regenerable over four successive adsorption-desorption cycles. The single stage adsorber design revealed that PLC can be applicable as an effective biosorbent for the treatment of industrial effluents containing EY dye. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The nucleotide sequence of parsnip yellow fleck virus: a plant picorna-like virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull-Ross, A D; Reavy, B; Mayo, M A; Murant, A F

    1992-12-01

    The complete sequence of 9871 nucleotides (nts) of parsnip yellow fleck virus (PYFV; isolate P-121) was determined from cDNA clones and by direct sequencing of viral RNA. The RNA contains a large open reading frame between nts 279 and 9362 which encodes a polyprotein of 3027 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 336212 (336K). A PYFV polyclonal antiserum reacted with the proteins expressed from phage carrying cDNA clones from the 5' half of the PYFV genome. Comparison of the polyprotein sequence of PYFV with other viral polyprotein sequences reveals similarities to the putative NTP-binding and RNA polymerase domains of cowpea mosaic comovirus, tomato black ring nepovirus and several animal picornaviruses. The 3' untranslated region of PYFV RNA is 509 nts long and does not have a poly(A) tail. The 3'-terminal 121 nts may form a stem-loop structure which resembles that formed in the genomic RNA of mosquito-borne flaviviruses.

  14. Hydroxysafflor Yellow A protects spinal cords from ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Le-qun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydroxysafflor Yellow A (HSYA, which is one of the most important active ingredients of the Chinese herb Carthamus tinctorius L, is widely used in the treatment of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. However, the potential protective effect of HSYA in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is still unknown. Methods Thirty-nine rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: sham group, I/R group and HSYA group. All animals were sacrificed after neurological evaluation with modified Tarlov criteria at the 48th hour after reperfusion, and the spinal cord segments (L4-6 were harvested for histopathological examination, biochemical analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL staining. Results Neurological outcomes in HSYA group were slightly improved compared with those in I/R group. Histopathological analysis revealed that HSYA treatment attenuated I/R induced necrosis in spinal cords. Similarly, alleviated oxidative stress was indicated by decreased malondialdehyde (MDA level and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD activity after HSYA treatment. Moreover, as seen from TUNEL results, HSYA also protected neurons from I/R-induced apoptosis in rabbits. Conclusions These findings suggest that HSYA may protect spinal cords from I/R injury by alleviating oxidative stress and reducing neuronal apoptosis in rabbits.

  15. He 2-467 = LT Del - the yellow symbiotic star with a period about 500 days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipova, V.P.; Noskova, R.I.

    1988-01-01

    By means of broad and narrow-band photometry in UBV spectral region the variability of the object He 2-467 earlier classified as peculiar cenral star of planetary nebyla has been revealed. The brightness amplitude significantly decreases with the wavelength from 1 m .9 in u-band to 0 m .3 in V. The brightness variations were found to be periodic, with P=488 days. The observations of He2-467 were interpreted using the model of binary consisting of very hot subdwarf and G511-giant. The parameters of both components have been derived. The hot star is probably the evolved low mass nucleus of planetary nebula already dissipated. The periodic variations in U-band may be the result of the reflection effect due to the presence of hot extended region on the side of cold star facing the subdwarf. The subdwarf UV-flux can heat and ionize the upper atmosphere of the giant giving birth to the emission lines and Balmer continuum. The yellow symbiotics to which He 2-467 belong may be predecessors of red symbiotics with M giants

  16. Hydrocephalus in a yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Krista A; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Muthuswamy, Anantharaman; Forrest, Lisa J; Steinberg, Howard; Sladky, Kurt; Petersen, Sophie

    2011-09-01

    A 37-year-old female yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix) was presented after a 4-month-period behavior change and intermittent episodes of obtunded mentation. Clinical findings on physical examination included ataxia, a weak grasp, and reluctance to move. Results of magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with severe hydrocephalus without evidence of cerebrospinal fluid obstruction. The bird was treated with tapering dosages of prednisolone over a 4-month period, during which time the episodes did not occur. Discontinuation of treatment was attempted several times but resulted in relapse. After 3.5 years of maintenance treatment with prednisolone, the bird was presented subsequent to a 5-hour episode of obtunded mentation and worsening neurologic signs. Despite increasing the dose of prednisolone and providing additional supportive care, the bird's condition worsened, and euthanasia was elected. Necropsy findings included severe hydrocephalus with significant loss of right cerebral parenchyma and no evidence of cerebrospinal fluid obstruction. Histologic examination of the remaining cerebral parenchyma revealed a moderate, multifocal, cellular infiltrate; encephalomalacia; fibrosis; and hemosiderosis in tissue adjacent to the distended ventricles. Other findings included hepatic vacuolar degeneration. Diagnostic imaging and postmortem findings were consistent with a diagnosis of hydrocephalus ex vacuo. To our knowledge, this is the first report of hydrocephalus in an Amazon parrot as well as the first report of hydrocephalus in any avian species associated with long-term follow-up and prolonged corticosteroid treatment.

  17. Assessment of the genetic diversity of tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, H J; Yuan, W; Wang, R Q; Ye, Q J; Ruan, M Y; Li, Z M; Zhou, G Z; Yao, Z P; Yang, Y J

    2015-01-26

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the genetic diversity of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Representative TYLCV sequences were searched in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. Comprehensive analysis of TYLCV was performed using bioinformatics by examining gene structure, sequence alignments, phylogeny, GC content, and homology. Forty-eight representative TYLCV sequences were selected from 48 regions in 29 countries. The results showed that all TYLCV sequences were 2752-2794 nucleotides in length, which encoded 6 open reading frames (AV1, AV2, AC1, AC2, AC3, and AC4). GC content ranged from 0.41-0.42. Sequence alignment showed a number of insertions and deletions within these TYLCV sequences. Phylogenetic tree results revealed that the sequences were divided into 10 classes; homology of the sequences ranged from 72.8 to 98.6%. All 48 sequences contained the typical structure of TYLCV, including open reading frames and intergenic regions. These results provide a theoretical basis for the identification and evolution of the virus in the future.

  18. Simultaneous determination of Sunset yellow and Tartrazine in soft drinks using gold nanoparticles carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Sayed Mehdi; Behpour, Mohsen; Golestaneh, Mahshid

    2012-05-01

    The monitoring of synthetic dyes in foods is very important due to their potential harmfulness to human beings. Herein, a carbon-paste electrode (CPE) that is chemically modified with gold nanoparticles (nAu) was fabricated and used for the determination of Sunset yellow (SY) and Tartrazine (Tz). Cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry (CV and DPV) results revealed two well-resolved anodic peaks for SY and Tz with remarkably increase in oxidation signals of these colourants. Based on this, a novel electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of SY and Tz. High sensitivity and selectivity, sub-micromolar detection limit, high reproducibility and regeneration of the electrode surface by simple polishing make the nAu-CPE electrode very suitable for the determination of SY and Tz in commercially available soft drinks. The detection limits was 3.0×10(-8) and 2.0×10(-9)moll(-1) for SY and Tz, respectively, which are remarkably lower than those reported previously for SY and Tz using other modified electrodes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of IDDM and attenuated response of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase to yellow fever vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnevie-Nielsen, V; Larsen, M L; Frifelt, J J

    1989-01-01

    Basal and yellow fever vaccination-induced 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (2',5'A) activity was determined in blood mononuclear cells (peripheral blood lymphocytes [PBLs]) from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and matched control subjects. The live attenuated yellow fever vaccine...... represented a primary stimulus in all subjects. First, basal 2',5'A activity increased severalfold in response to yellow fever vaccination. In IDDM subjects, this increase was significantly lower (P = .025). Second, the 2',5'A activity increased proportionately to the higher basal 2',5'A activity in IDDM...

  20. Bees' Honey Attenuation of Metanil-Yellow-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; Sayed, Ahmed Amir Radwan

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of bees' honey against metanil-yellow-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into 7 groups: control group; three groups treated with 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg metanil yellow, and three groups treated with metanil yellow plus 2.5?mg ? kg?1 ? day?1 bees' honey for 8 weeks. The obtained data showed that the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory activity of bees' honey reduced the oxidative stress in the liver tissue and downregulated th...

  1. Improvements on heap leaching process for a refractory uranium ore and yellow cake precipitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jianke

    2013-01-01

    Some problems such as formed harden matrix, ore heap compaction, poor permeability, and agglomeration of absorption resin occur during extracting uranium from a refractory uranium ore by heap leaching process. After some measures were taken, i.e. spraying a new ore heap by low concentration acid, two or more ore heaps in series leaching, turning ores in ore heap, the permeability was improved, acid consumption was reduced. Through precipitate circulation and aging, the yellow cake slurry in amorphous or microlite form was transformed to crystal precipitate, thus uranium content in yellow cake was improved, and water content in yellow cake was lowered with good economic benefits. (author)

  2. A review of the green tides in the Yellow Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangqing; Wang, Zongling; Zhang, Xuelei

    2016-08-01

    The recurrent green tide of Ulva prolifera caused serious ecological problems in the Yellow Sea and attached substantial scientific study. The bloom originated in the Subei Shoal area and drifted to the coast of Shandong Province during the period from May to July, driven by a series of physical processes. Here we reviewed advances in the understanding of green tides in the Yellow Sea and elucidate the developmental model of this phenomenon. This knowledge will help resource managers to take reasonable measures to mitigate the impacts to the Yellow Sea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Yellow and purple nutsedges survey in the southeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyherabide Juan José

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 79 fields was conducted between December 1993 and January 1994, to determine the distribution and relative importance of species of the genus Cyperus, to justify developing management strategies in the southeastern of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Yellow and purple nutsedge were found in 43% and 9% respectively of the surveyed fields. Thirty eight per cent of the surveyed area showed a heavy infestation of yellow nutsedge, and in 90% of cases yellow nutsedge was invading fields cultivated with summer crops and associated with one or more of other seven perennial weeds, mainly bermudagrass.

  4. A new technique for production of yellow cake with double precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianhua; Zeng Yijun; Li Shangyuan; Kong Guiying

    1997-01-01

    The author presents a new technique for production of yellow cake with double precipitation, thus solving a series of problems for precipitating uranium with traditional double precipitation. The new technique can not only remove ferric ions and sulfate radicals but also make solid-liquid separation easy, utilize effectively the sulfuric acid produced in ferric ions precipitation process, and increase uranium concentration of leaching liquor. To take it as producing yellow cake will save investment, simplify operation, and cut down the consumption of raw materials and energies. It is more competitive than ion-exchange or solvent extraction in the process of extracting-purifying and preparing yellow cake

  5. Yellow nail syndrome, pincer nails, colon cancer and polyps in a 76 year-old-woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorino Modesto dos Santos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The yellow nail syndrome is a scarcely described condition characterized by dystrophic yellowish nails, respiratory disturbances and lymphedema; while the pincer nail deformity is characterized by thickening and excessive transverse curvature of the nail plate. The objective of this case study is to report a 76-year-old Japanese descent woman with yellow nail syndrome and pincer nails, intestinal polyps, and sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma. Both the yellow nail syndrome and pincer nails may develop in association with malignancies, either by chance or by some etiopathogenic mechanism not well-known.

  6. Congenital yellow nail syndrome: a case report and its relationship to nonimmune fetal hydrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Arti; Al-Essa, Fahad H; El-Shafei, Wael M; Alsaleh, Qasem A

    2010-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is an uncommon disorder characterized by a triad of nail dystrophy, lymphedema, and pleural effusion. It is rare in children and congenital occurrence of YNS has been very rarely described. We report a 2-year-old Arab boy having congenital yellow nail syndrome with mild facial dysmorphism and bilateral conjunctival pigmentation born to consanguineous parents. One of his older siblings had died of nonimmune fetal hydrops (NIFH). The case supports the genetic basis of yellow nail syndrome with a possible relationship to nonimmune fetal hydrops. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Evaluation of Yellow vs. Blue Color Contrast Sensitivity pre and Post LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heydarian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: contrast sensitivity is one of the most important psychophysical tests that may be used for the evaluation of refractive state of eye and retinal image quality. Yellow vs. blue color contrast sensitivity may be more suitable in this regard. Materials and Methods: thirty myopic eyes were considered in this study. Yellow vs. blue color contrast sensitivity was evaluated under the same environment and conditions in these individuals pre and post LASIK. Results: The comparison of yellow vs. blue color contrast sensitivity with glasses pr e and post LASIK shows a significant improvement (p

  8. Yellowing and bleaching of grey hair caused by photo and thermal degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richena, M; Silveira, M; Rezende, C A; Joekes, I

    2014-09-05

    Yellowing is an undesirable phenomenon that is common in people with white and grey hair. Because white hair has no melanin, the pigment responsible for hair colour, the effects of photodegradation are more visible in this type of hair. The origin of yellowing and its relation to photodegradation processes are not properly established, and many questions remain open in this field. In this work, the photodegradation of grey hair was investigated as a function of the wavelength of incident radiation, and its ultrastructure was determined, always comparing the results obtained for the white and black fibres present in grey hair with the results of white wool. The results presented herein indicate that the photobehaviour of grey hair irradiated with a mercury lamp or with solar radiation is dependent on the wavelength range of the incident radiation and on the initial shade of yellow in the sample. Two types of grey hair were used: (1) blended grey hair (more yellow) and (2) grey hair from a single-donor (less yellow). After exposure to a full-spectrum mercury lamp for 200 h, the blended white hair turned less yellow (the yellow-blue difference, Db(*) becomes negative, Db(*)=-6), whereas the white hair from the single-donor turned slightly yellower (Db(*)=2). In contrast, VIS+IR irradiation resulted in bleaching in both types of hair, whereas a thermal treatment (at 81 °C) caused yellowing of both types of hair, resulting in a Db(*)=3 for blended white hair and Db(*)=9 for single-donor hair. The identity of the yellow chromophores was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results obtained with this technique were contradictory, however, and it was not possible to obtain a simple correlation between the sample shade of yellow and the absorption spectra. In addition, the results are discussed in terms of the morphology differences between the pigmented and non-pigmented parts of grey hair, the yellowing and bleaching effects of grey hair, and the occurrence of dark

  9. Ulva and Enteromorpha (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) from two sides of the Yellow Sea: analysis of nuclear rDNA ITS and plastid rbcL sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Nan; Jiang, Peng; Boo, Sung Min; Lee, Wook Jae; Cui, Yulin; Lin, Hanzhi; Zhao, Jin; Liu, Zhengyi; Qin, Song

    2010-07-01

    Ulvacean green seaweeds are common worldwide; they formed massive green tides in the Yellow Sea in recent years, which caused marine ecological problems as well as a social issue. We investigated two major genera of the Ulvaceae, Ulva and Enteromorpha, and collected the plastid rbcL and nuclear ITS sequences of specimens of the genera in two sides of the Yellow Sea and analyzed them. Phylogenetic trees of rbcL data show the occurrence of five species of Enteromorpha ( E. compressa, E. flexuosa, E. intestinalis, E. linza and E. prolifera) and three species of Ulva ( U. pertusa, U. rigida and U. ohnoi). However, we found U. ohnoi, which is known as a subtropical to tropical species, at two sites on Jeju Island, Korea. Four ribotypes in partial sequences of 5.8S rDNA and ITS2 from E. compressa were also found. Ribotype network analysis revealed that the common ribotype, occurring in China, Korea and Europe, is connected with ribotypes from Europe and China/Japan. Although samples of the same species were collected from both sides of the Yellow Sea, intraspecific genetic polymorphism of each species was low among samples collected worldwide.

  10. A Further Analysis of the Relationship between Yellow Ripe-Fruit Color and the Capsanthin-Capsorubin Synthase Gene in Pepper (Capsicum sp.) Indicated a New Mutant Variant in C. annuum and a Tandem Repeat Structure in Promoter Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Xiao-Ling; Chang, Xiao-Bei; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Mature pepper (Capsicum sp.) fruits come in a variety of colors, including red, orange, yellow, brown, and white. To better understand the genetic and regulatory relationships between the yellow fruit phenotype and the capsanthin-capsorubin synthase gene (Ccs), we examined 156 Capsicum varieties, most of which were collected from Northwest Chinese landraces. A new ccs variant was identified in the yellow fruit cultivar CK7. Cluster analysis revealed that CK7, which belongs to the C. annuum species, has low genetic similarity to other yellow C. annuum varieties. In the coding sequence of this ccs allele, we detected a premature stop codon derived from a C to G change, as well as a downstream frame-shift caused by a 1-bp nucleotide deletion. In addition, the expression of the gene was detected in mature CK7 fruit. Furthermore, the promoter sequences of Ccs from some pepper varieties were examined, and we detected a 176-bp tandem repeat sequence in the promoter region. In all C. annuum varieties examined in this study, the repeat number was three, compared with four in two C. chinense accessions. The sequence similarity ranged from 84.8% to 97.7% among the four types of repeats, and some putative cis-elements were also found in every repeat. This suggests that the transcriptional regulation of Ccs expression is complex. Based on the analysis of the novel C. annuum mutation reported here, along with the studies of three mutation types in yellow C. annuum and C. chinense accessions, we suggest that the mechanism leading to the production of yellow color fruit may be not as complex as that leading to orange fruit production. PMID:23637942

  11. Branchial cadmium and copper binding and intestinal cadmium uptake in wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from clean and metal-contaminated lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinck, J.S.; Green, W.W.; Mirza, R.S.; Nadella, S.R.; Chowdhury, M.J.; Wood, C.M.; Pyle, G.G.

    2007-01-01

    Branchial binding kinetics and gastro-intestinal uptake of copper and cadmium where examined in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from a metal-contaminated lake (Hannah Lake, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada) and an uncontaminated lake (James Lake, North Bay, Ontario, Canada). An in vivo approach was taken for gill binding comparisons while an in vitro gut binding assay was employed for gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) uptake analysis. By investigating metal uptake at the gill and the gut we cover the two main routes of metal entry into fish. Comparisons of water and sediment chemistries, metal burdens in benthic invertebrate, and metal burdens in the livers of perch from the two study lakes clearly show that yellow perch from Hannah L. are chronically exposed to a highly metal-contaminated environment compared to a reference lake. We found that metal-contaminated yellow perch showed no significant difference in gill Cd binding compared to reference fish, but they did show significant decreases in new Cd binding and absorption in their GITs. The results show that gill Cd binding may involve low-capacity, high-affinity binding sites, while gastro-intestinal Cd uptake involves binding sites that are high-capacity, low-affinity. From this we infer that Cd may be more critically controlled at the gut rather than gills. Significant differences in branchial Cu binding (increased binding) were observed in metal-contaminated yellow perch. We suggest that chronic waterborne exposure to Cu (and/or other metals) may be the dominant influence in gill Cu binding rather than chronic exposure to high Cu diets. We give supporting evidence that Cd is taken up in the GIT, at least in part, by a similar pathway as Ca 2+ , principally that elevated dietary Ca 2+ reduces Cd binding and uptake. Overall our study reveals that metal pre-exposure via water and diet can alter uptake kinetics of Cu and Cd at the gill and/or the gut

  12. Branchial cadmium and copper binding and intestinal cadmium uptake in wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from clean and metal-contaminated lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinck, J.S. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont. L8S 4K1 (Canada)], E-mail: klinckjs@mcmaster.ca; Green, W.W.; Mirza, R.S. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont. L8S 4K1 (Canada); Department of Biology, Nipissing University, North Bay, Ont. P1B 8L7 (Canada); Nadella, S.R.; Chowdhury, M.J.; Wood, C.M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont. L8S 4K1 (Canada); Pyle, G.G. [Department of Biology, Nipissing University, North Bay, Ont. P1B 8L7 (Canada)

    2007-08-30

    Branchial binding kinetics and gastro-intestinal uptake of copper and cadmium where examined in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from a metal-contaminated lake (Hannah Lake, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada) and an uncontaminated lake (James Lake, North Bay, Ontario, Canada). An in vivo approach was taken for gill binding comparisons while an in vitro gut binding assay was employed for gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) uptake analysis. By investigating metal uptake at the gill and the gut we cover the two main routes of metal entry into fish. Comparisons of water and sediment chemistries, metal burdens in benthic invertebrate, and metal burdens in the livers of perch from the two study lakes clearly show that yellow perch from Hannah L. are chronically exposed to a highly metal-contaminated environment compared to a reference lake. We found that metal-contaminated yellow perch showed no significant difference in gill Cd binding compared to reference fish, but they did show significant decreases in new Cd binding and absorption in their GITs. The results show that gill Cd binding may involve low-capacity, high-affinity binding sites, while gastro-intestinal Cd uptake involves binding sites that are high-capacity, low-affinity. From this we infer that Cd may be more critically controlled at the gut rather than gills. Significant differences in branchial Cu binding (increased binding) were observed in metal-contaminated yellow perch. We suggest that chronic waterborne exposure to Cu (and/or other metals) may be the dominant influence in gill Cu binding rather than chronic exposure to high Cu diets. We give supporting evidence that Cd is taken up in the GIT, at least in part, by a similar pathway as Ca{sup 2+}, principally that elevated dietary Ca{sup 2+} reduces Cd binding and uptake. Overall our study reveals that metal pre-exposure via water and diet can alter uptake kinetics of Cu and Cd at the gill and/or the gut.

  13. Characterization of yellow -, red-, and purple- kernel maize (zea mays L.) accessions in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansah, G.

    2013-07-01

    Twenty yellow-, red-, and purple-kernel maize accessions were collected from three regions in Ghana for the study. The objectives were to characterize the yellow-, red- and purple-kernel maize accessions in Ghana using phenotypic traits in order to determine their identity, using molecular traits for confirmation of their identity and to determine the presence of the opaque-2 gene and β-carotene content of the grains as a way of assessing nutritional quality. A replicated field experiment was conducted to evaluate and characterize the accessions based on 16 quantitative and eleven qualitative traits. The same accessions were characterized based on 16 SSR markers. Variability in β-carotene content was determined by HPLC while presence of opaque 2-gene was determined by a light box. The results revealed that accessions GH4055 and GH4863 are extra early maturing and therefore can be very useful for urban farmers producing fresh maize and for cultivation in the coastal savanna ecological zone. However, they produce smaller cobs (Cob weight = 58.24g) as compared to other accessions. Significant variability in morphological traits was observed among the accessions with cob weight, number of kernels per row, plant height and 1000 seed weight having coefficient of variation of 42.7544, 20.5828, 11.4634, 13.0634 and 26.76 respectively. Few traits contributed to the variations observed as revealed by the principal components analysis and these include days to 50% anthesis, days to 50% of leaf senescence, plant height and cob weight. A dendrogram generated from morphological traits clustered the accessions based on kernel colour, physical structure of the plant and geographical location. Two duplicates were identified among the accessions and widest genetic distance was observe between NYRI and GH4055. Strong correlation exist between most of the morphological traits measured (r= 0.9193) but negative correlation was observed between most important yield parameters and

  14. Defining risk groups to yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease in the absence of denominator data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Stephen J; Cohen, Joel E; Itan, Yuval; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Pezzullo, John C

    2014-02-01

    Several risk groups are known for the rare but serious, frequently fatal, viscerotropic reactions following live yellow fever virus vaccine (YEL-AVD). Establishing additional risk groups is hampered by ignorance of the numbers of vaccinees in factor-specific risk groups thus preventing their use as denominators in odds ratios (ORs). Here, we use an equation to calculate ORs using the prevalence of the factor-specific risk group in the population who remain well. The 95% confidence limits and P values can also be calculated. Moreover, if the estimate of the prevalence is imprecise, discrimination analysis can indicate the prevalence at which the confidence interval results in an OR of ∼1 revealing if the prevalence might be higher without yielding a non-significant result. These methods confirm some potential risk groups for YEL-AVD and cast doubt on another. They should prove useful in situations in which factor-specific risk group denominator data are not available.

  15. Yellow-bellied or white-bellied? Identity of Arabian house bats (Vespertilionidae: Scotophilus) revealed from mitochondrial DNA and morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vallo, Peter; Benda, P.; Reiter, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2011), s. 350-361 ISSN 1562-7020 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/09/P624 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : cytochrome b * phylogeny * cranial morphometrics * Scotophilus dinganii * Scotophilus leucogaster Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.900, year: 2011

  16. Multifocal choroiditis following simultaneous hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escott S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Escott, Ahmad B Tarabishy, Frederick H DavidorfHavener Eye Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: The paper describes the first reported case of multifocal choroiditis following simultaneous hepatitis-A, typhoid, and yellow fever vaccinations. A 33-year-old male developed sudden onset of flashing lights and floaters in his right eye 3 weeks following hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever vaccinations. Fundus examination and angiography confirmed the presence of multiple peripheral chorioretinal lesions. These lesions demonstrated characteristic morphologic changes over a period of 8 weeks which were consistent with a diagnosis of self-resolving multifocal choroiditis. Vaccine-induced intraocular inflammation has been described infrequently. We demonstrate the first case of self-resolving multifocal choroiditis following simultaneous administration of hepatitis A, yellow fever, and typhoid immunizations.Keywords: multifocal choroiditis, vaccination, hepatitis A, typhoid, yellow fever

  17. 78 FR 24471 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Sierra Nevada Yellow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... patterned with dark spots (Jennings and Hayes 1994, p. 74; Stebbins 2003, p. 233). These spots may be large...). Mountain yellow-legged frogs have smoother skin, generally with heavier spotting and mottling dorsally...

  18. Reducing the impact of irrigated crops on freshwater availability: the case of Brazilian yellow melons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Kroeze, C.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa, de J.A.; Souza de Aragão, F.A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Potting, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study quantifies freshwater consumption throughout the life cycle of Brazilian exported yellow melons and assesses the resulting impact on freshwater availability. Results are used to identify improvement options. Moreover, the study explores the further impact of variations in

  19. Yellow fever vaccination during treatment with infliximab in a patient with ulcerative colitis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüddel, J; Schleenvoigt, B T; Schüler, E; Schmidt, C; Pletz, M W; Stallmach, A

    2016-09-01

    We report the case of a 59-year-old patient who accidentally underwent live vaccination against yellow fever during continuous treatment with the TNF-α-antibody (AB) infliximab for ulcerative colitis. The clinical course showed fever of short duration and elevation of liver enzymes without further clinical complications. Yellow fever viremia was not detectable and protective antibodies were developed. A primary vaccination against yellow fever under infliximab has not been reported in the literature before, although vaccination is an important topic in IBD. Live vaccinations, like Stamaril(®) against yellow fever, are contraindicated during TNF-α-AB treatment. Treatment regimens containing TNF-α-AB are of growing importance, not only in gastroenterology, but also in rheumatology and dermatology. We discuss this topic by presenting our case and reviewing the current literature. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Breeding habitat use by sympatric and allopatric populations of Wilson's Warblers and Yellow Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, J.M.; Stanley, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    We studied Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) and Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia) habitat use in allopatric and sympatric populations in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado and southeastern Wyoming in order to better understand the different habitat needs and interactions of these two species. Foraging Wilson's Warblers and Yellow Warblers used very similar habitat, both selecting larger, more open shrubs. In spite of similar foraging habitat, comparisons of habitat use by the two species at the sympatric sites yielded no evidence of foraging habitat partitioning or exclusion. There was evidence of nesting habitat partitioning. Wilson's Warblers nested on the ground, with some evidence that they used smaller, more densely stemmed shrubs under which to nest. Yellow Warblers are shrub nesters and selected larger, more open shrubs in which to nest. Results provide no evidence that Yellow Warblers can be blamed for population declines in Wilson's Warblers.

  1. Water Quality Evaluation of the Yellow River Basin Based on Gray Clustering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X. Q.; Zou, Z. H.

    2018-03-01

    Evaluating the water quality of 12 monitoring sections in the Yellow River Basin comprehensively by grey clustering method based on the water quality monitoring data from the Ministry of environmental protection of China in May 2016 and the environmental quality standard of surface water. The results can reflect the water quality of the Yellow River Basin objectively. Furthermore, the evaluation results are basically the same when compared with the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The results also show that the overall water quality of the Yellow River Basin is good and coincident with the actual situation of the Yellow River basin. Overall, gray clustering method for water quality evaluation is reasonable and feasible and it is also convenient to calculate.

  2. Protective and immunological behavior of chimeric yellow fever dengue vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Scott B; Russell, Philip K

    2016-03-29

    Clinical observations from the third year of the Sanofi Pasteur chimeric yellow fever dengue tetravalent vaccine (CYD) trials document both protection and vaccination-enhanced dengue disease among vaccine recipients. Children who were 5 years-old or younger when vaccinated experienced a DENV disease resulting in hospitalization at 5 times the rate of controls. On closer inspection, hospitalized cases among vaccinated seropositives, those at highest risk to hospitalized disease accompanying a dengue virus (DENV) infection, were greatly reduced by vaccination. But, seronegative individuals of all ages after being vaccinated were only modestly protected from mild to moderate disease throughout the entire observation period despite developing neutralizing antibodies at high rates. Applying a simple epidemiological model to the data, vaccinated seronegative individuals of all ages were at increased risk of developing hospitalized disease during a subsequent wild type DENV infection. The etiology of disease in placebo and vaccinated children resulting in hospitalization during a DENV infection, while clinically similar are of different origin. The implications of the observed mixture of DENV protection and enhanced disease in CYD vaccinees are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Yellow fever vaccination status and safety in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facincani, Tila; Guimarães, Maia Nogueira Crown; De Sousa Dos Santos, Sigrid

    2016-07-01

    The adverse effects of yellow fever (YF) vaccine in dialysis patients are not well known. There is concern about the risks and benefits of the vaccine in immunocompromised patients living in endemic areas, particularly given the risk of resurgence of urban YF with the spread of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The purpose of this study was to assess the coverage and safety of YF vaccine in chronic dialysis patients. A cross-sectional study of 130 chronic dialysis patients was performed. Data were collected on clinical characteristics and YF vaccine status. Patients not vaccinated against YF or without a booster vaccination within the last 10 years were referred to receive the vaccine, and adverse effects were monitored. Previous vaccination was verified in 44 patients within the last 10 years and in 26 patients at more than 10 years ago, with no mention of adverse effects. Thirty-six patients had never been vaccinated and 24 had an unknown vaccination status. Of the total 86 patients referred for immunization, 45 actually received the YF vaccine, with 24.4% experiencing mild local adverse effects and 4.4% experiencing fever. No serious adverse effects attributable to YF vaccine were observed (anaphylaxis, neurological or viscerotropic disease). YF vaccine coverage among hemodialysis patients is low, and the vaccine appeared to be safe in this population with a small sample size. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Yellow fever risk assessment in the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, J Erin; Diallo, Mawlouth; Janusz, Kristen B; Manengu, Casimir; Lewis, Rosamund F; Perea, William; Yactayo, Sergio; Sall, Amadou A

    2014-10-01

    Starting in 2008, the Central African Republic (CAR) experienced an unprecedented number of reported yellow fever (YF) cases. A risk assessment of YF virus (YFV) activity was conducted to estimate potential disease risk and vaccine needs. A multistage cluster sampling design was used to sample humans, non-human primates, and mosquitoes in distinct ecologic zones. Humans and non-human primates were tested for YFV-specific antibodies; mosquitoes were tested for YFV RNA. Overall, 13.3% (125/938) of humans were found to have naturally-acquired YFV antibodies. Antibody levels were higher in zones in the southern and south central regions of CAR. All sampled non-human primates (n=56) were known YFV reservoirs; one tested positive for YFV antibodies. Several known YF vectors were identified including Aedes africanus, Ae. aegypti, Ae. luteocephalus, and Ae. simpsoni. Several more urban locations were found to have elevated Breateau and Container indices for Ae. aegypti. A country-wide assessment of YF risk found YFV to be endemic in CAR. The potential for future YF cases and outbreaks, however, varied by ecologic zone. Improved vaccination coverage through mass campaign and childhood immunization was recommended to mitigate the YF risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Importation of yellow fever into China: assessing travel patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Leong, W Y

    2017-07-01

    Rapid increase in trade and a growing air passenger market encourages high travel volume between the regions associated with increasing risks of such importations including China. Eleven Chinese workers infected during the 2016 yellow fever (YF) outbreak in Angola imported YF into China highlighting the potential for spread into Asia. Using outbound and inbound travel data, we assessed travel patterns from and to YF endemic countries in relation to China. Among YF endemic countries, Angola has the second highest number of travellers into China and also receives the second highest number of Chinese visitors. We estimated that China needs around half a million YF vaccine doses to cover their population travelling to YF endemic countries. The recent importation cases into China also unmasked the low YF vaccination coverage among Chinese travellers and workers to Angola, indicating the need to ensure better adherence to the International Health Regulations. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017.. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON YELLOW FEVER IN NORTHERN PERU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, H; Kligler, I J

    1921-01-31

    Fourteen typical cases of yellow fever were studied in northern Peru during an epidemic occurring in 1920, nine in Payta in March and April, and five in Morropon and Piura in April and May. The method of investigation was similar to that previously employed, but as the laboratory facilities were very meager certain changes were required. Although in Payta the work was handicapped by the lack of electric light, the scarcity of water and animal food, the unsuitability of the guinea pigs for inoculation, and the changes in culture media due to age, the results obtained under these adverse conditions were by no means negative. While in no instance was there a typical infection produced in animals, either by direct inoculation of blood or with culture materials, yet certain guinea pigs in each series showed temporary febrile reactions or definite hemorrhagic lesions of the lungs indicative of a mild leptospira infection. Direct search for Leptospira icteroides in the blood of patients or in culture materials was not made because the dark-field microscope could not be used. Subsequently, at Piura, the laboratory facilities were vastly, improved, the use of the dark-field microscope was made possible by means of a storage battery, and a fresh stock of young healthy guinea pigs was received from New York, and fresh rabbit serum obtained in Piura. In the study of the materials obtained from five cases of yellow fever in Morropon all these added facilities were taken advantage of, with the result that the outcome was positive and convincing. Cultures from the five cases were examined after 11, 12, and 13 days, and in those from three cases living leptospiras were found. By inoculation into suitable guinea pigs of culture material from these five cases, irrespective of whether or not leptospiras were detected under the dark-field microscope, a typical Leptospira icteroides infection was produced from four of the five cases. In one of these no leptospira had been detected in

  7. Gas phase absorption studies of photoactive yellow protein chromophore derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Rinza, Toms; Christiansen, Ove; Rajput, Jyoti; Gopalan, Aravind; Rahbek, Dennis B; Andersen, Lars H; Bochenkova, Anastasia V; Granovsky, Alexander A; Bravaya, Ksenia B; Nemukhin, Alexander V; Christiansen, Kasper Lincke; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2009-08-27

    Photoabsorption spectra of deprotonated trans p-coumaric acid and two of its methyl substituted derivatives have been studied in gas phase both experimentally and theoretically. We have focused on the spectroscopic effect of the location of the two possible deprotonation sites on the trans p-coumaric acid which originate to either a phenoxide or a carboxylate. Surprisingly, the three chromophores were found to have the same absorption maximum at 430 nm, in spite of having different deprotonation positions. However, the absorption of the chromophore in polar solution is substantially different for the distinct deprotonation locations. We also report on the time scales and pathways of relaxation after photoexcitation for the three photoactive yellow protein chromophore derivatives. As a result of these experiments, we could detect the phenoxide isomer within the deprotonated trans p-coumaric acid in gas phase; however, the occurrence of the carboxylate is uncertain. Several computational methods were used simultaneously to provide insights and assistance in the interpretation of our experimental results. The calculated excitation energies S(0)-S(1) are in good agreement with experiment for those systems having a negative charge on a phenoxide moiety. Although our augmented multiconfigurational quasidegenerate perturbation theory calculations agree with experiment in the description of the absorption spectrum of anions with a carboxylate functional group, there are some puzzling disagreements between experiment and some calculational methods in the description of these systems.

  8. Analyses of pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus-encoded proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenz, Björn; Schießl, Ingrid; Greiner, Eva; Krapp, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV) is a multipartite, circular, single-stranded DNA plant virus. PNYDV encodes eight proteins and the function of three of which remains unknown-U1, U2, and U4. PNYDV proteins cellular localization was analyzed by GFP tagging and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) studies. The interactions of all eight PNYDV proteins were tested pairwise in planta (36 combinations in total). Seven interactions were identified and two (M-Rep with CP and MP with U4) were characterized further. MP and U4 complexes appeared as vesicle-like spots and were localized at the nuclear envelope and cell periphery. These vesicle-like spots were associated with the endoplasmatic reticulum. In addition, a nuclear localization signal (NLS) was mapped for U1, and a mutated U1 with NLS disrupted localized at plasmodesmata and therefore might also have a role in movement. Taken together, this study provides evidence for previously undescribed nanovirus protein-protein interactions and their cellular localization with novel findings not only for those proteins with unknown function, but also for characterized proteins such as the CP.

  9. Conservation period extension of sweet yellow maize by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescano, G.; Narvaiz, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with fresh sweet yellow maize which was peeled and wrapped in PVC ('resinite'). Two lots were irradiated in the semi-industrial 60 Co facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Center, with doses of 0.5 and 1.2kGy, respectively. A non irradiated lot was kept as control. Samples were stored at 3±2 deg C and 94±5%RH for 30 days. Microbiological, chemical and sensory analysis were performed. Fungal and bacterial load were reduced in one half and one decades, respectively, with the application of 0.5 and 1.2kGy. The reduction obtained was slightly increased along storage. Insects were already inactivated with the dose of 0.5 kGy. Weight loss increased linearly with storage time, being always less than 2%, without significant differences between control and irradiated samples. Carotene and reducing sugar contents diminished along storage, practically without differences between control and irradiated samples. Irradiation almost duplicated the time during which commercial quality was very good, without deleterious effects on the evaluated organoleptic attributes: external appearance and manual texture, in raw state, and flavour and chewing texture, in cooked state. (Author)

  10. Neurobehavioral and Antioxidant Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Yellow Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Cristina Sousa de Menezes da Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a resin produced by bees from raw material collected from plants, salivary secretions, and beeswax. New therapeutic properties for the Central Nervous System have emerged. We explored the neurobehavioral and antioxidant effects of an ethanolic extract of yellow propolis (EEYP rich in triterpenoids, primarily lupeol and β-amyrin. Male Wistar rats, 3 months old, were intraperitoneally treated with Tween 5% (control, EEYP (1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg, or diazepam, fluoxetine, and caffeine (positive controls 30 min before the assays. Animals were submitted to open field, elevated plus maze, forced swimming, and inhibitory avoidance tests. After behavioral tasks, blood samples were collected through intracardiac pathway, to evaluate the oxidative balance. The results obtained in the open field and in the elevated plus maze assay showed spontaneous locomotion preserved and anxiolytic-like activity. In the forced swimming test, EEYP demonstrated antidepressant-like activity. In the inhibitory avoidance test, EEYP showed mnemonic activity at 30 mg/kg. In the evaluation of oxidative biochemistry, the extract reduced the production of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde without changing level of total antioxidant, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, induced by behavioral stress. Our results highlight that EEYP emerges as a promising anxiolytic, antidepressant, mnemonic, and antioxidant natural product.

  11. Polyamine biosynthesis and the replication of turnip yellow mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) contains large amounts of nonexchangeable spermidine and induces an accumulation of spermidine in infected Chinese cabbage. By seven days after inoculation, a majority of protoplasts isolated from newly-emerging leaves stain with fluorescent antibody to the virus. These protoplasts contain 1-2 x 10 6 virions per cell and continue to produce virus in culture for at least 48 hours. [ 14 C]-Spermidine (10 μM) was taken up by these cells in amounts comparable to the original endogenous pool within 24 hours. However, the spermidine content of the cell was only marginally affected, implying considerable regulation of the endogenous pool(s). Putrescine and spermine were major products of the metabolism of exogenous spermidine. Radioactivity from exogenous [ 14 C]-spermidine was also readily incorporated into the nucleic acid-containing component of the virus, where it appeared as both spermidine and spermine. Thus, newly-formed virions contained predominantly newly-synthesized spermidine and spermine. However, inhibition of spermidine synthesis by dicyclohexylamine (DCHA) led to incorporation of pre-existing spermidine and increased amounts of spermine into newly-formed virions. The latter results were tested and confirmed in a second cellular system, consisting of health protoplasts infected with TYMC in vitro

  12. Multiple paternity in the cultured yellow pond turtles (Mauremys mutica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Cheng; Zhao, Jian; Li, Wei; Wei, Cheng-Qing; Zhu, Xin-Ping

    2017-08-01

    As a result of hunting and habitat loss, wild populations of the yellow pond turtle, Mauremys mutica, are decreasing. The International Union for Conservation of Nature considers M. mutica to be an endangered species. All studied freshwater turtles have polyandrous mating with multiple paternity. To survey the mating strategies of M. mutica, 1year's genetic data of parents and all offspring in an artificially captive population were analyzed. Two groups of multiplex PCR containing 16 microsatellite loci were used to analyze the paternity of 302 hatchlings from 132 parents and from 159 clutches. The genetic data indicated that multiple paternity is rare in M. mutica, occurring in only seven of 138 clutches. Although the frequency of multiple paternity was only 5.07%, results of the present research indicate that M. mutica has a polyandrous mating system. In the breeding season, the successive clutches of 34 females each had the same paternity as the previous clutches. It was observed that four males (f85, f58, f87, and f76) had more than 20 offspring each, totaling 99 and representing 32.78% of all offspring. This finding implies that paternity is competitive in this artificially captive population and might bias the genetic diversity of the offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Equilibrium Analysis of a Yellow Fever Dynamical Model with Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Martorano Raimundo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an equilibrium analysis of a dynamical model of yellow fever transmission in the presence of a vaccine. The model considers both human and vector populations. We found thresholds parameters that affect the development of the disease and the infectious status of the human population in the presence of a vaccine whose protection may wane over time. In particular, we derived a threshold vaccination rate, above which the disease would be eradicated from the human population. We show that if the mortality rate of the mosquitoes is greater than a given threshold, then the disease is naturally (without intervention eradicated from the population. In contrast, if the mortality rate of the mosquitoes is less than that threshold, then the disease is eradicated from the populations only when the growing rate of humans is less than another threshold; otherwise, the disease is eradicated only if the reproduction number of the infection after vaccination is less than 1. When this reproduction number is greater than 1, the disease will be eradicated from the human population if the vaccination rate is greater than a given threshold; otherwise, the disease will establish itself among humans, reaching a stable endemic equilibrium. The analysis presented in this paper can be useful, both to the better understanding of the disease dynamics and also for the planning of vaccination strategies.

  14. Síndrome da unha amarela Yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Maciel

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome da unha amarela é uma entidade clínica rara caracterizada por três achados principais: alterações distróficas e de coloração das unhas, linfedema e derrame pleural. Bronquiectasias e rinossinusite crônica têm sido freqüentemente associadas. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com os achados completos da síndrome, com derrame pleural bilateral e que estava em tratamento de tuberculose pulmonar havia nove meses. Na sua história familiar havia a descrição de dois casos semelhantes, em irmã e irmão.Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by three main features: discoloration of the nails, together with dystrophic alterations; lymphedema; and pleural effusion. It is often accompanied by bronchiectasis and chronic rhinosinusitis. Herein, we report a case of the complete syndrome with bilateral pleural effusion in a patient under treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis for nine months. There was a family history of two similar cases in siblings.

  15. Glycine Insertion Makes Yellow Fluorescent Protein Sensitive to Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Imada, Katsumi; Yoshizawa, Keiko; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kato, Chiaki; Abe, Fumiyoshi; Morikawa, Takamitsu J.; Kinoshita, Miki; Fujita, Hideaki; Yanagida, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent protein-based indicators for intracellular environment conditions such as pH and ion concentrations are commonly used to study the status and dynamics of living cells. Despite being an important factor in many biological processes, the development of an indicator for the physicochemical state of water, such as pressure, viscosity and temperature, however, has been neglected. We here found a novel mutation that dramatically enhances the pressure dependency of the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) by inserting several glycines into it. The crystal structure of the mutant showed that the tyrosine near the chromophore flipped toward the outside of the β-can structure, resulting in the entry of a few water molecules near the chromophore. In response to changes in hydrostatic pressure, a spectrum shift and an intensity change of the fluorescence were observed. By measuring the fluorescence of the YFP mutant, we succeeded in measuring the intracellular pressure change in living cell. This study shows a new strategy of design to engineer fluorescent protein indicators to sense hydrostatic pressure. PMID:24014139

  16. Removal of Acid Yellow 17 Dye by Fenton Oxidation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jehangeer; Sayed, Murtaza; Ali, Fayaz; Khan, Hasan Mahmood

    2018-05-01

    In the present research work the degradation of acid yellow 17 (AY 17) by H2O2/Fe2+ was investigated. The effect of various conditions such as pH value, temperature, conc. of H2O2, Fe2+, conc. of AY 17 were studied. Additionally the scavenging effects of various anions such as Cl-, SO42-, CO32- and HCO3-, on percent degradation of AY 17 were examined. It was found that these anions decrease percent degradation as well as rate of degradation reaction. The optimum conditions were determined as [AY 17]=[Fe2+]=0.06 mM [H2O2]=0.9 mM, and pH 3.0 for 60 min of reaction time. It was found that at optimum conditions 89% degradation of AY17 was achieved. The degradation kinetics of AY17 followed pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. Thermodynamic studies under natural conditions showed positive value of ΔH (enthalpy) which indicates the degradation process is endothermic.

  17. Differential binding of colors to objects in memory: red and yellow stick better than blue and green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Spitzer, Bernhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Both evolutionary considerations and recent research suggest that the color red serves as a signal indicating an object's importance. However, until now, there is no evidence that this signaling function of red is also reflected in human memory. To examine the effect of red on memory, we conducted four experiments in which we presented objects colored in four different colors (red, green, blue, and yellow) and measured later memory for the presence of an object and for the color of an object. Across experiments, we varied the type of objects (words vs. pictures), task complexity (single objects vs. multiple objects in visual scenes), and intentionality of encoding (intentional vs. incidental learning). Memory for the presence of an object was not influenced by color. However, in all four experiments, memory for the color of an object depended on color type and was particularly high for red and yellow-colored objects and particularly low for green-colored objects, indicating that the binding of colors into object memory representations varies as a function of color type. Analyzing the observers' confidence in their color memories revealed that color not only influenced objective memory performance but also subjective confidence. Subjective confidence judgments differentiated well between correct and incorrect color memories for red-colored objects, but poorly for green-colored objects. Our findings reveal a previously unknown color effect which may be of considerable interest for both basic color research and applied settings like eyewitness testimony in which memory for color features is relevant. Furthermore, our results indicate that feature binding in memory is not a uniform process by which any attended feature is automatically bound into unitary memory representations. Rather, memory binding seems to vary across different subtypes of features, a finding that supports recent research showing that object features are stored in memory rather independently from

  18. Differential Binding of Colors to Objects in Memory: Red and Yellow Stick Better Than Blue and Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof eKuhbandner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Both evolutionary considerations and recent research suggest that the color red serves as a signal indicating an object’s importance. However, until now, there is no evidence that this signaling function of red is also reflected in human memory. To examine the effect of red on memory, we conducted four experiments in which we presented objects colored in four different colors (red, green, blue, and yellow and measured later memory for the presence of an object and for the color of an object. Across experiments, we varied the type of objects (words versus pictures, task complexity (single objects versus multiple objects in visual scenes, and intentionality of encoding (intentional versus incidental learning. Memory for the presence of an object was not influenced by color. However, in all four experiments, memory for the color of an object depended on type of color and was particularly high for red and yellow-colored objects and particularly low for green-colored objects, indicating that the binding of colors into object memory representations varies as a function of color type. Analyzing the observers’ confidence in their color memories revealed that color not only influenced objective memory performance but also subjective confidence. Subjective confidence judgments differentiated well between correct and incorrect color memories for red-colored objects, but poorly for green-colored objects. Our findings reveal a previously unknown color effect which may be of considerable interest for both basic color research and applied settings like eyewitness testimony in which memory for color features is relevant. Furthermore, our results indicate that feature binding in memory is not a purely automatic process by which any attended feature is automatically bound into a unitary memory representation. Rather, binding in memory seems to vary across different subtypes of features, a finding that supports recent research showing that features of objects

  19. Differential binding of colors to objects in memory: red and yellow stick better than blue and green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Spitzer, Bernhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Both evolutionary considerations and recent research suggest that the color red serves as a signal indicating an object’s importance. However, until now, there is no evidence that this signaling function of red is also reflected in human memory. To examine the effect of red on memory, we conducted four experiments in which we presented objects colored in four different colors (red, green, blue, and yellow) and measured later memory for the presence of an object and for the color of an object. Across experiments, we varied the type of objects (words vs. pictures), task complexity (single objects vs. multiple objects in visual scenes), and intentionality of encoding (intentional vs. incidental learning). Memory for the presence of an object was not influenced by color. However, in all four experiments, memory for the color of an object depended on color type and was particularly high for red and yellow-colored objects and particularly low for green-colored objects, indicating that the binding of colors into object memory representations varies as a function of color type. Analyzing the observers’ confidence in their color memories revealed that color not only influenced objective memory performance but also subjective confidence. Subjective confidence judgments differentiated well between correct and incorrect color memories for red-colored objects, but poorly for green-colored objects. Our findings reveal a previously unknown color effect which may be of considerable interest for both basic color research and applied settings like eyewitness testimony in which memory for color features is relevant. Furthermore, our results indicate that feature binding in memory is not a uniform process by which any attended feature is automatically bound into unitary memory representations. Rather, memory binding seems to vary across different subtypes of features, a finding that supports recent research showing that object features are stored in memory rather independently

  20. Effect of human activities on overall trend of sedimentation in the lower Yellow River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiongxin, Xu

    2004-05-01

    The Yellow River has been intensively affected by human activities, particularly in the past 50 years, including soil-water conservation in the upper and middle drainage basin, flood protection in the lower reaches, and flow regulation and water diversion in the whole drainage basin. All these changes may impact sedimentation process of the lower Yellow River in different ways. Assessing these impacts comprehensively is important for more effective environmental management of the drainage basin. Based on the data of annual river flow, sediment load, and channel sedimentation in the lower Yellow River between 1950 and 1997, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the overall trend of channel sedimentation rate at a time scale of 50 years, and its formative cause. It was found in this study that erosion control measures and water diversion have counteractive impacts on sedimentation rate in the lower Yellow River. Although both annual river flow and sediment decreased, there was no change in channel sedimentation rate. A regression analysis indicated that the sedimentation in the lower Yellow River decreased with the sediment input to the lower Yellow River but increased with the river flow input. In the past 30-40 years, the basin-wide practice of erosion and sediment control measures resulted in a decline in sediment supply to the Yellow River; at the same time, the human development of water resources that required river flow regulation and water diversion caused great reduction in river flow. The former may reduce the sedimentation in the lower Yellow River, but the reduction of river flow increased the sedimentation. When their effects counterbalanced each other, the overall trend of channel sedimentation in the lower Yellow River remained unchanged. This fact may help us to better understand the positive and negative effects of human activities in the Yellow River basin and to pay more attention to the negative effect of the development of water resources. The

  1. Tocopherol synthesis from homogentisate in Capsicum anuum L. (yellow pepper) chromoplast membranes: evidence for tocopherol cyclase.

    OpenAIRE

    Arango, Y; Heise, K P

    1998-01-01

    The present study shows for the first time appreciable tocopherol cyclase activities in plastidial membrane preparations of Capsicum annuum L. (yellow pepper) fruits. When chromoplast membranes from yellow peppers were incubated with [3H]homogentisate and phytyl pyrophosphate under strictly reducing conditions, all biosynthesis precursors were labelled. The main labelling was found in gamma-tocopherol. These observations contradict the hypothesis that assigns a rate-limiting function to tocop...

  2. Global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 to 2016: an adjusted retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, FM; Moyes, CL; Pigott, DM; Marinho, F; Deshpande, A; Longbottom, J; Browne, AJ; Kraemer, MUG; O’Reilly, KM; Hombach, J; Yactayo, S; de Araújo, VEM; da Nόbrega, AA; Mosser, JF; Stanaway, JD

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background: Substantial outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola and Brazil in the past 2 years, combined with global shortages in vaccine stockpiles, highlight a pressing need to assess present control strategies. The aims of this study were to estimate global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 through to 2016 at high spatial resolution and to calculate the number of individuals still requiring vaccination to reach population coverage thresholds for outbreak prevention. Methods: ...

  3. Yellow fever control in Cameroon: Where are we now and where are we going?

    OpenAIRE

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Nomo, Emmanuel; Mawo, Jeanne; Ofal, James; Mimbouga, Julienne; Ticha, Johnson; Ndumbe, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Cameroon is one of 12 African countries that bear most of the global burden of yellow fever. In 2002 the country developed a five-year strategic plan for yellow fever control, which included strategies for prevention as well as rapid detection and response to outbreaks when they occur. We have used data collected by the national Expanded Programme on Immunisation to assess the progress made and challenges faced during the first four years of implementing the plan. Methods ...

  4. Effect of calcium cyanamide on growth and nutrition of plan fed yellow-poplar seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.R. Auchmoody; G.W. Wendel; G.W. Wendel

    1973-01-01

    Calcium cyanamide, a nitrogenous fertilizer that also acts as an herbicide, was evaluated over a 3-year period for use in establishing planted yellow-poplar on an old-field site. Results of this study show that first and second year growth of yellow-poplar can be increased by nbroadcasting CaCN2 around the seedlings. When applied at rates of 400 to 500 pounds of...

  5. The processing of used cooking oil (yellow grease) using combination of adsorption and ultrafiltration membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnelly, C. M.; Sofyana; Amalia, D.; Sarah, S.

    2018-03-01

    Yellow grease is used cooking oil whose quality has degraded due to the oxidation, polymerization, or hydrolysis process. In previous studies, yellow grease refining had been conducted either by adsorption or by using membrane. In this study, adsorption process using adsorbent from bagasse activated with H3PO4 12.5%, and ultrafiltration using Polyethersulfone (PES) membrane were combined. In adsorption stage, several variation of bagasse mass was fed into 200 ml of yellow grease and stirred for 60 minutes at 60 rpm. Yellow grease produced from adsorption with best condition was then processed using ultrafiltration membran that is PES membran with concentration by 15 wt % with transmembrane pressure variation by 0.5; 1; 1.5; 2; and 2.5 Bar. Analysis of yellow grease characteristics before refined showed its acid number, peroxide number, iodine number, and water content respectively by 2.68 mgKOH/Kg; 5.97 Meq/Kg; 51,48; and 1.29%. Characteristics of yellow grease after adsorption at its best condition on the parameters of acid number, peroxide number, iodine number, and water content are respectively by 2.55 mgKOH/Kg; 4.19 Meq/Kg; 40,02; and 0.27%. Characteristics of yellow grease after ultrafiltration at its best condition on the parameters of acid number, peroxide number, iodine number, and water content are respectively by 1.12 mgKOH/Kg; 1.8 Meq/Kg; 41,36; and 0.02%. Combination of adsorption and ultrafiltration processes for yellow grease processing showed decreasing value on the parameters of acid number, peroxide number, and water content that conforms to the SNI quality standard, but has not been able to increase the iodine number.

  6. Yellow fever in a traveller returning from Suriname to the Netherlands, March 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Knoester, Marjolein; van den Berg, Aad P; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H; Koopmans, Marion Pg; Van Leer-Buter, Coretta; Oude Velthuis, Bob; Pas, Suzan D; Ruijs, Wilhelmina Lm; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Vreden, Stephen Gs; van der Werf, Tjip S; Reusken, Chantal Bem; Bierman, Wouter Fw

    2017-03-16

    A Dutch traveller returning from Suriname in early March 2017, presented with fever and severe acute liver injury. Yellow fever was diagnosed by (q)RT-PCR and sequencing. During hospital stay, the patient's condition deteriorated and she developed hepatic encephalopathy requiring transfer to the intensive care. Although yellow fever has not been reported in the last four decades in Suriname, vaccination is recommended by the World Health Organization for visitors to this country. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  7. Persistent seropositivity for yellow fever in a previously vaccinated autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Kayoko; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Tsunemine, Hiroko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Mawatari, Momoko; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Kei; Ohmagari, Norio; Kato, Yasuyuki

    2015-08-01

    The duration of a protective level of yellow fever antibodies after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a previously vaccinated person is unclear. The case of a patient who had previously been vaccinated for yellow fever and who remained seropositive for 22 months after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for malignant lymphoma is described herein. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Relating Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis) occupancy to habitat and landscape features in the context of fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jane E.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    The Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis) is a focal species of concern associated with shallowly flooded emergent wetlands, most commonly sedge (Carex spp.) meadows. Their populations are believed to be limited by loss or degradation of wetland habitat due to drainage, altered hydrology, and fire suppression, factors that have often resulted in encroachment of shrubs into sedge meadows and change in vegetative cover. Nocturnal call-playback surveys for Yellow Rails were conducted over 3 years at Seney National Wildlife Refuge in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Effects of habitat structure and landscape variables on the probability of use by Yellow Rails were assessed at two scales, representing a range of home range sizes, using generalized linear mixed models. At the 163-m (8-ha) scale, year with quadratic models of maximum and mean water depths best explained the data. At the 300-m (28-ha) scale, the best model contained year and time since last fire (≤ 1, 2–5, and > 10 years). The probability of use by Yellow Rails was 0.285 ± 0.132 (SE) for points burned 2-5 years ago, 0.253 ± 0.097 for points burned ≤ 1 year ago, and 0.028 ± 0.019 for points burned > 10 years ago. Habitat differences relative to fire history and comparisons between sites with and without Yellow Rails indicated that Yellow Rails used areas with the deepest litter and highest ground cover, and relatively low shrub cover and heights, as well as landscapes having greater sedge-grass cover and less lowland woody or upland cover types. Burning every 2-5 years appears to provide the litter, ground-level cover, and woody conditions attractive to Yellow Rails. Managers seeking to restore and sustain these wetland systems would benefit from further investigations into how flooding and fire create habitat conditions attractive to breeding Yellow Rails

  9. Study of the behaviour of the yellow cake dissolution in simulated lung fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Mansur, E. de.

    1988-01-01

    An in vitro study was performed to determine the solubility of the yellow cake produced in a Brazilian uranium mill to permit classification of the inhaled material and to aid bioassay interpretation. The powder was taken from 6 different lots of yellow cake produced during 10 weeks mill operation period. Dissolution fractions and half-times were obtained using simulated lung fluid in a shaker bath at 37 0 C for 30 days. Uranium concentration were determined by neutron activation analysis. (author)

  10. Changes in tree density do not influence epicormic branching of yellow-poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1977-01-01

    Epicormic branching was studied in a West Virginia yellow-poplar stand thinned to various tree density levels. Study trees in the 55- to 60-year-old second-growth stand were primarily codominant in crown class with 32 to 48 feet of log height. Eight-year study results indicated that yellow-poplar trees in this age class and locale could be thinned without serious loss...

  11. Incoherent Manipulation of the Photoactive Yellow Protein Photocycle with Dispersed Pump-Dump-Probe Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Delmar S.; van Stokkum, Ivo H. M.; Vengris, Mikas; van der Horst, Michael A.; de Weerd, Frank L.; Hellingwerf, Klaas J.; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2004-01-01

    Photoactive yellow protein is the protein responsible for initiating the ``blue-light vision¿¿ of Halorhodospira halophila. The dynamical processes responsible for triggering the photoactive yellow protein photocycle have been disentangled with the use of a novel application of dispersed ultrafast pump-dump-probe spectroscopy, where the photocycle can be started and interrupted with appropriately tuned and timed laser pulses. This ``incoherent¿¿ manipulation of the photocycle allows for the d...

  12. Susceptibility of Koi and Yellow Perch to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus by experimental exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Alexander D.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a novirhabdoviral pathogen that originated in western North America among anadromous Pacific salmonids. Severe disease epidemics in the late 1970s resulting from IHNV's invasion into farmed Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in North America, Asia, and Europe emphasized IHNV's ability to adapt to new hosts under varying rearing conditions. Yellow Perch Perca flavescens and Koi Carp Cyprinus carpio (hereafter, “Koi”) are aquaculture-reared fish that are highly valued in sport fisheries and the ornamental fish trade, respectively, but it is unknown whether these fish species are vulnerable to IHNV infection. In this study, we exposed Yellow Perch, Koi, and steelhead (anadromous Rainbow Trout) to IHNV by intraperitoneal injection (106 PFU/fish) and by immersion (5.7×105 PFU/mL) for 7 h, and monitored fish for 28 d. The extended immersion exposure and high virus concentrations used in the challenges were to determine if the tested fish had any level of susceptibility. After experimental exposure, Yellow Perch and Koi experienced low mortality (35%). Virus was found in dead fish of all species tested and in surviving Yellow Perch by plaque assay and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), with a higher prevalence in Yellow Perch than Koi. Infectious virus was also detected in Yellow Perch out to 5 d after bath challenge. These findings indicate that Yellow Perch and Koi are highly resistant to IHNV disease under the conditions tested, but Yellow Perch are susceptible to infection and may serve as possible virus carriers.

  13. Sources of resistance to yellow rust and stem rust in wheat-alien introgressions

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmatov, Mahbubjon

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is the staple food and the main source of caloric intake in most developing countries, and thereby an important source in order to maintain food security for the growing populations in those countries. Stem rust Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, and yellow rust P. striiformis f. sp. tritici of wheat continues to cause severe damage locally and globally, thereby contributing to food insecurity. In this paper biology and taxonomy of stem rust and yellow rust, breeding for resistance, util...

  14. Intrathecal antibody production in two cases of yellow fever vaccine associated neurotropic disease in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires-Marczeski, Fanny Clara; Martinez, Valeria Paula; Nemirovsky, Corina; Padula, Paula Julieta

    2011-12-01

    During the period 2007-2008 several epizootics of Yellow fever with dead of monkeys occurred in southeastern Brasil, Paraguay, and northeastern Argentina. In 2008 after a Yellow fever outbreak an exhaustive prevention campaign took place in Argentina using 17D live attenuated Yellow fever vaccine. This vaccine is considered one of the safest live virus vaccines, although serious adverse reactions may occur after vaccination, and vaccine-associated neurotropic disease are reported rarely. The aim of this study was to confirm two serious adverse events associated to Yellow fever vaccine in Argentina, and to describe the analysis performed to assess the origin of specific IgM against Yellow fever virus (YFV) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both cases coincided with the Yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease case definition, being clinical diagnosis longitudinal myelitis (case 1) and meningoencephalitis (case 2). Specific YFV antibodies were detected in CSF and serum samples in both cases by IgM antibody-capture ELISA. No other cause of neurological disease was identified. In order to obtain a conclusive diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infection the IgM antibody index (AI(IgM) ) was calculated. High AI(IgM) values were found in both cases indicating intrathecal production of antibodies and, therefore, CNS post-vaccinal YFV infection could be definitively associated to YFV vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Detection of metanil yellow contamination in turmeric using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon; Schmidt, Walter; Chan, Dian

    2016-05-01

    Turmeric is well known for its medicinal value and is often used in Asian cuisine. Economically motivated contamination of turmeric by chemicals such as metanil yellow has been repeatedly reported. Although traditional technologies can detect such contaminants in food, high operational costs and operational complexities have limited their use to the laboratory. This study used Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform - Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric powder. Mixtures of metanil yellow in turmeric were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1% and 0.01% (w/w). The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectral signal of pure turmeric powder, pure metanil yellow powder and the 8 sample mixtures were obtained and analyzed independently to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric. The results show that FT-Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy can detect metanil yellow mixed with turmeric at concentrations as low as 1% and 5%, respectively, and may be useful for non-destructive detection of adulterated turmeric powder.

  16. Betalains in red and yellow varieties of the Andean tuber crop ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenson, Johan; Smallfield, Bruce M; Joyce, Nigel I; Sansom, Catherine E; Perry, Nigel B

    2008-09-10

    The betalain pigments in ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus), a tuberous crop native to the Andes, have been investigated for the first time using LC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS(2) analyses. Five red, yellow, and red-spotted accessions introduced into New Zealand as a new food crop plus two red tetraploid lines were investigated. Thirty-two different betalains were identified. Both the yellow and red tubers were rich in yellow betaxanthins, and the most prominent among the 20 identified were histidine-betaxanthin, arginine-betaxanthin and glutamine-betaxanthin. Arginine-betaxanthin has been reported to occur naturally only once before and was found in yellow ulluco but not in the red tubers. Twelve betacyanins were found in red tubers, with roughly 50% of this content being betanin/isobetanin. Betacyanin levels were up to 70 microg/g fresh weight in red tubers, but were below quantifiable levels in yellow tubers. Betaxanthin levels were up to 50 microg/g fresh weight in yellow tubers. Interference by betacyanins in measuring levels of betaxanthins by visible spectrophotometry is discussed. Low concentrations of betalains were detected in leaves, whereas stems contained total levels similar to the tubers, with dopamine-betaxanthin and betanin being the major pigments. This is the first report describing both the betacyanin and betaxanthin patterns in a plant from the Basellaceae family.

  17. Magnetic and structural properties of yellow europium oxide compound and Eu(OH)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongwook; Seo, Jiwon; Valladares, Luis de los Santos; Avalos Quispe, O.; Barnes, Crispin H.W.

    2015-01-01

    A new material based on a yellow europium oxide compound was prepared from europium oxide in a high vacuum environment. The structural and magnetic properties of the material were investigated. Owing to the absence of a crystal structure, the material exhibited a disordered magnetic behavior. In a reaction with deionized (DI) water without applied heat, the compound assumed a white color as soon as the DI water reached the powder, and the structure became polycrystalline Eu(OH) 3 . The magnetic properties, such as the thermal hysteresis, disappeared after the reaction with DI water, and the magnetic susceptibility of the yellow oxide compound weakened. The magnetic properties of Eu(OH) 3 were also examined. Although Eu 3+ is present in Eu(OH) 3 , a high magnetic moment due to the crystal field effect was observed. - Graphical abstract: (top left) Optical image of the yellow europium oxide compound. (top right) Optical image of the product of DI water and yellow europium oxide. (bottom) Magnetization curves as a function of temperature measured in various magnetic field. - Highlights: • We prepared a new material based on a yellow europium oxide compound from europium oxide. • We characterized the magnetic properties of the material which exhibits a disordered magnetic behavior such as thermal hysteresis. • The compound turned white (Eu(OH) 3 ) as soon as the DI water reached the powder. • The thermal hysteresis disappeared after the reaction with DI water and the magnetic susceptibility of the yellow oxide compound weakened

  18. Origin of the yellow brine and the black brine in Sichuan Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongsheng

    1988-01-01

    The spring water, geothermal water and Cretaceous brine in the outer zone of the Sichuan Basin has the Craig relationship, and they are cycling waters. The brine in the inner zone is mainly metasedimentary water. A basic feature of them is poor in 2 H, but rich in 18 O. The δD-values of the yellow brine in Jurassic and Upper Triassic aquifer of continental facies varies from -62.25 to -22.4, and the δ 18 O-values are -6.72 - +6.02. The δD-values of the black brine in marine aquifer (T 2 ,T 1 ,P,C,O and so on) varies from -49 to -25.1, and the 18 O values are +3.89 - +6.14. The δD of yellow brine is similar to that of meteoric water, and the δD of the black brine is around that of crystallization water expelled from gypsum by anhydritization. Increases of salinity in Jurassic yellow brine result primarily from the evapotranspiration process. The salinity in Upper Triassic yellow brine in Aa sub-area originated from underlying rock salt which was leached by paleometeoric water. Triassic black brine derived from the mixing of the crystallization water leached from rock salt with the residual sea water after salt crystallization. In Zhigong, the composition of yellow brine has mainly been changed by the mixing of the yellow brine with the black brine. (author). 2 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  19. The use of colour name yellow in English and Serbian phraseologisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Jelena R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work shows in what ways the colour name yellow is associated with extra-linguistic reality in the English language. In Serbian translations, we can see many similarities, but also the absolute impossibility of finding either formal or partial correspondents considering metaphorical phraseologisms, or pure idioms, such as for example, those in which this colour is associated with jealousy (He wears yellow stockings or cowardice (He's yellow. The most similar comparisons are those with the sunshine and gold, but there are those that, when translated into Serbian, sound strange, such as yellow as marigold or yellow as a crow's foot. Similarly, it would be strange to use this colour name describing a face (or a whole person looking unhealthy, where in Serbian we use comparison 'yellow as wax'. Metonymically, the colour transfers and labels the whole group of people who supposedly have such a colour, as can be seen from examples high yellow, yellow peril, yellow line. In the Serbian language, people from Asia are also sometimes called the 'yellow', and in Serbian, as well as in the English language, this term has derogatory meaning, but the English language is a bit richer in these phraseologisms, perhaps because people from this continent started to settle in the territory of English-speaking countries earlier than in our country. In the English language, people are qualified by the phraseologisms yellow admiral and yellow dog as well, and those are also pure idioms: it is only possible to translate them into the Serbian language by semantic correspondents - nickname for those who were promoted from captain to admiral and smuggler of alcoholic beverages (or, in another sememe 'the one who is in opposition to the Union of merchants or trade unions'. Common to both languages is the use of this colour name for descriptions of old things (or people, as can be seen from the phraseologisms 'the sere and yellow leaf', 'the paper yellowed with age' and

  20. SEARCHING FOR NEW YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STARS: POSITIVE IDENTIFICATION OF StHα63

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baella, N. O. [Unidad de Astronomía, Instituto Geofísico del Perú, Lima, Per (Peru); Pereira, C. B.; Alvarez-Candal, A. [Observatório Nacional/MCTI, Rua Gen. José Cristino, 77, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miranda, L. F., E-mail: nobar.baella@gmail.com, E-mail: claudio@on.br, E-mail: alvarez@on.br, E-mail: lfm@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía- CSIC, C/Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    Yellow symbiotic stars are useful targets for probing whether mass transfer has happened in their binary systems. However, the number of known yellow symbiotic stars is very scarce. We report spectroscopic observations of five candidate yellow symbiotic stars that were selected by their positions in the 2MASS (J − H) versus (H − K{sub s}) diagram and which were included in some emission-line catalogs. Among the five candidates, only StHα63 is identified as a new yellow symbiotic star because of its spectrum and its position in the [TiO]{sub 1}–[TiO]{sub 2} diagram, which indicates a K4–K6 spectral type. In addition, the derived electron density (∼10{sup 8.4} cm{sup −3}) and several emission-line intensity ratios provide further support for that classification. The other four candidates are rejected as symbiotic stars because three of them actually do not show emission lines and the fourth one only Balmer emission lines. We also found that the WISE W3–W4 index clearly separates normal K-giants from yellow symbiotic stars and therefore can be used as an additional tool for selecting candidate yellow symbiotic stars.

  1. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E

    2016-01-01

    To assess those published cases of yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease that meet the Brighton Collaboration criteria and to assess the safety of YF vaccine with respect to viscerotropic disease. Ten electronic databases were searched with no restriction of date or language and reference lists of retrieved articles. All abstracts and titles were independently read by two reviewers and data independently entered by two reviewers. All serious adverse events that met the Brighton Classification criteria were associated with first YF vaccinations. Sixty-two published cases (35 died) met the Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic criteria, with 32 from the US, six from Brazil, five from Peru, three from Spain, two from the People's Republic of China, one each from Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Ecuador, France, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Portugal, and the UK, and four with no country stated. Two cases met both the viscerotropic and YF vaccine-associated neurologic disease criteria. Seventy cases proposed by authors as viscerotropic disease did not meet any Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic level of diagnostic certainty or any YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease causality criteria (37 died). Viscerotropic disease is rare in the published literature and in pharmacovigilance databases. All published cases were from developing countries. Because the symptoms are usually very severe and life threatening, it is unlikely that cases would not come to medical attention (but might not be published). Because viscerotropic disease has a highly predictable pathologic course, it is likely that viscerotropic disease post-YF vaccine occurs in low-income countries with the same incidence as in developing countries. YF vaccine is a very safe vaccine that likely confers lifelong immunity.

  2. Adverse event reports following yellow fever vaccination, 2007-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Nicole P; Rabe, Ingrid B; Miller, Elaine R; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin

    2016-05-01

    Yellow fever (YF) vaccines have been available since the 1930s and are generally considered safe and effective. However, rare reports of serious adverse events (SAE) following vaccination have prompted the Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices to periodically expand the list of conditions considered contraindications and precautions to vaccination. We describe adverse events following YF vaccination reported to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from 2007 through 2013 and calculate age- and sex-specific reporting rates of all SAE, anaphylaxis, YF vaccine-associated neurologic disease (YEL-AND) and YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD). There were 938 adverse events following YF vaccination reported to VAERS from 2007 through 2013. Of these, 84 (9%) were classified as SAEs for a rate of 3.8 per 100 000 doses distributed. Reporting rates of SAEs increased with increasing age with a rate of 6.5 per 100 000 in persons aged 60-69 years and 10.3 for ≥70 years. The reporting rate for anaphylaxis was 1.3 per 100 000 doses distributed and was highest in persons ≤18 years (2.7 per 100 000). Reporting rates of YEL-AND and YEL-AVD were 0.8 and 0.3 per 100 000 doses distributed, respectively; both rates increased with increasing age. These findings reinforce the generally acceptable safety profile of YF vaccine, but highlight the importance of continued physician and traveller education regarding the risks and benefits of YF vaccination, particularly for older travellers. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  3. A DNA vaccine against yellow fever virus: development and evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Maciel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated yellow fever (YF virus 17D/17DD vaccines are the only available protection from YF infection, which remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the tropical areas of the world. The attenuated YF virus vaccine, which is used worldwide, generates both long-lasting neutralizing antibodies and strong T-cell responses. However, on rare occasions, this vaccine has toxic side effects that can be fatal. This study presents the design of two non-viral DNA-based antigen formulations and the characterization of their expression and immunological properties. The two antigen formulations consist of DNA encoding the full-length envelope protein (p/YFE or the full-length envelope protein fused to the lysosomal-associated membrane protein signal, LAMP-1 (pL/YFE, aimed at diverting antigen processing/presentation through the major histocompatibility complex II precursor compartments. The immune responses triggered by these formulations were evaluated in H2b and H2d backgrounds, corresponding to the C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice strains, respectively. Both DNA constructs were able to induce very strong T-cell responses of similar magnitude against almost all epitopes that are also generated by the YF 17DD vaccine. The pL/YFE formulation performed best overall. In addition to the T-cell response, it was also able to stimulate high titers of anti-YF neutralizing antibodies comparable to the levels elicited by the 17DD vaccine. More importantly, the pL/YFE vaccine conferred 100% protection against the YF virus in intracerebrally challenged mice. These results indicate that pL/YFE DNA is an excellent vaccine candidate and should be considered for further developmental studies.

  4. A DNA vaccine against yellow fever virus: development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Milton; Cruz, Fábia da Silva Pereira; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; da Motta, Márcia Archer; Cassemiro, Klécia Marília Soares de Melo; Maia, Rita de Cássia Carvalho; de Figueiredo, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz; Galler, Ricardo; Freire, Marcos da Silva; August, Joseph Thomas; Marques, Ernesto T A; Dhalia, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Attenuated yellow fever (YF) virus 17D/17DD vaccines are the only available protection from YF infection, which remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the tropical areas of the world. The attenuated YF virus vaccine, which is used worldwide, generates both long-lasting neutralizing antibodies and strong T-cell responses. However, on rare occasions, this vaccine has toxic side effects that can be fatal. This study presents the design of two non-viral DNA-based antigen formulations and the characterization of their expression and immunological properties. The two antigen formulations consist of DNA encoding the full-length envelope protein (p/YFE) or the full-length envelope protein fused to the lysosomal-associated membrane protein signal, LAMP-1 (pL/YFE), aimed at diverting antigen processing/presentation through the major histocompatibility complex II precursor compartments. The immune responses triggered by these formulations were evaluated in H2b and H2d backgrounds, corresponding to the C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice strains, respectively. Both DNA constructs were able to induce very strong T-cell responses of similar magnitude against almost all epitopes that are also generated by the YF 17DD vaccine. The pL/YFE formulation performed best overall. In addition to the T-cell response, it was also able to stimulate high titers of anti-YF neutralizing antibodies comparable to the levels elicited by the 17DD vaccine. More importantly, the pL/YFE vaccine conferred 100% protection against the YF virus in intracerebrally challenged mice. These results indicate that pL/YFE DNA is an excellent vaccine candidate and should be considered for further developmental studies.

  5. Molecular characterization of the 17D-204 yellow fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmona, Maud; Gazaignes, Sandrine; Mercier-Delarue, Severine; Garnier, Fabienne; Korimbocus, Jehanara; Colin de Verdière, Nathalie; LeGoff, Jerome; Roques, Pierre; Simon, François

    2015-10-05

    The worldwide use of yellow fever (YF) live attenuated vaccines came recently under close scrutiny as rare but serious adverse events have been reported. The population identified at major risk for these safety issues were extreme ages and immunocompromised subjects. Study NCT01426243 conducted by the French National Agency for AIDS research is an ongoing interventional study to evaluate the safety of the vaccine and the specific immune responses in HIV-infected patients following 17D-204 vaccination. As a preliminary study, we characterized the molecular diversity from E gene of the single 17D-204 vaccine batch used in this clinical study. Eight vials of lyophilized 17D-204 vaccine (Stamaril, Sanofi-Pasteur, Lyon, France) of the E5499 batch were reconstituted for viral quantification, cloning and sequencing of C/prM/E region. The average rate of virions per vial was 8.68 ± 0.07 log₁₀ genome equivalents with a low coefficient of variation (0.81%). 246 sequences of the C/prM/E region (29-33 per vials) were generated and analyzed for the eight vials, 25 (10%) being defective and excluded from analyses. 95% of sequences had at least one nucleotide mutation. The mutations were observed on 662 variant sites distributed through all over the 1995 nucleotides sequence and were mainly non-synonymous (66%). Genome variability between vaccine vials was highly homogeneous with a nucleotide distance ranging from 0.29% to 0.41%. Average p-distances observed for each vial were also homogeneous, ranging from 0.15% to 0.31%. This study showed a homogenous YF virus RNA quantity in vaccine vials within a single lot and a low clonal diversity inter and intra vaccine vials. These results are consistent with a recent study showing that the main mechanism of attenuation resulted in the loss of diversity in the YF virus quasi-species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess those published cases of yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease that meet the Brighton Collaboration criteria and to assess the safety of YF vaccine with respect to viscerotropic disease. Literature search Ten electronic databases were searched with no restriction of date or language and reference lists of retrieved articles. Methods All abstracts and titles were independently read by two reviewers and data independently entered by two reviewers. Results All serious adverse events that met the Brighton Classification criteria were associated with first YF vaccinations. Sixty-two published cases (35 died) met the Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic criteria, with 32 from the US, six from Brazil, five from Peru, three from Spain, two from the People’s Republic of China, one each from Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Ecuador, France, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Portugal, and the UK, and four with no country stated. Two cases met both the viscerotropic and YF vaccine-associated neurologic disease criteria. Seventy cases proposed by authors as viscerotropic disease did not meet any Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic level of diagnostic certainty or any YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease causality criteria (37 died). Conclusion Viscerotropic disease is rare in the published literature and in pharmacovigilance databases. All published cases were from developing countries. Because the symptoms are usually very severe and life threatening, it is unlikely that cases would not come to medical attention (but might not be published). Because viscerotropic disease has a highly predictable pathologic course, it is likely that viscerotropic disease post-YF vaccine occurs in low-income countries with the same incidence as in developing countries. YF vaccine is a very safe vaccine that likely confers lifelong immunity. PMID:27784992

  7. A DNA Vaccine against Yellow Fever Virus: Development and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Milton; Cruz, Fábia da Silva Pereira; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; da Motta, Márcia Archer; Cassemiro, Klécia Marília Soares de Melo; Maia, Rita de Cássia Carvalho; de Figueiredo, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz; Galler, Ricardo; Freire, Marcos da Silva; August, Joseph Thomas; Marques, Ernesto T. A.; Dhalia, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Attenuated yellow fever (YF) virus 17D/17DD vaccines are the only available protection from YF infection, which remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the tropical areas of the world. The attenuated YF virus vaccine, which is used worldwide, generates both long-lasting neutralizing antibodies and strong T-cell responses. However, on rare occasions, this vaccine has toxic side effects that can be fatal. This study presents the design of two non-viral DNA-based antigen formulations and the characterization of their expression and immunological properties. The two antigen formulations consist of DNA encoding the full-length envelope protein (p/YFE) or the full-length envelope protein fused to the lysosomal-associated membrane protein signal, LAMP-1 (pL/YFE), aimed at diverting antigen processing/presentation through the major histocompatibility complex II precursor compartments. The immune responses triggered by these formulations were evaluated in H2b and H2d backgrounds, corresponding to the C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice strains, respectively. Both DNA constructs were able to induce very strong T-cell responses of similar magnitude against almost all epitopes that are also generated by the YF 17DD vaccine. The pL/YFE formulation performed best overall. In addition to the T-cell response, it was also able to stimulate high titers of anti-YF neutralizing antibodies comparable to the levels elicited by the 17DD vaccine. More importantly, the pL/YFE vaccine conferred 100% protection against the YF virus in intracerebrally challenged mice. These results indicate that pL/YFE DNA is an excellent vaccine candidate and should be considered for further developmental studies. PMID:25875109

  8. Functional requirements of the yellow fever virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patkar, Chinmay G; Jones, Christopher T; Chang, Yu-hsuan; Warrier, Ranjit; Kuhn, Richard J

    2007-06-01

    Although it is known that the flavivirus capsid protein is essential for genome packaging and formation of infectious particles, the minimal requirements of the dimeric capsid protein for virus assembly/disassembly have not been characterized. By use of a trans-packaging system that involved packaging a yellow fever virus (YFV) replicon into pseudo-infectious particles by supplying the YFV structural proteins using a Sindbis virus helper construct, the functional elements within the YFV capsid protein (YFC) were characterized. Various N- and C-terminal truncations, internal deletions, and point mutations of YFC were analyzed for their ability to package the YFV replicon. Consistent with previous reports on the tick-borne encephalitis virus capsid protein, YFC demonstrates remarkable functional flexibility. Nearly 40 residues of YFC could be removed from the N terminus while the ability to package replicon RNA was retained. Additionally, YFC containing a deletion of approximately 27 residues of the C terminus, including a complete deletion of C-terminal helix 4, was functional. Internal deletions encompassing the internal hydrophobic sequence in YFC were, in general, tolerated to a lesser extent. Site-directed mutagenesis of helix 4 residues predicted to be involved in intermonomeric interactions were also analyzed, and although single mutations did not affect packaging, a YFC with the double mutation of leucine 81 and valine 88 was nonfunctional. The effects of mutations in YFC on the viability of YFV infection were also analyzed, and these results were similar to those obtained using the replicon packaging system, thus underscoring the flexibility of YFC with respect to the requirements for its functioning.

  9. A Runaway Yellow Supergiant Star in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugent, Kathryn F.; Massey, Philip; Morrell, Nidia I.; Skiff, Brian; Georgy, Cyril

    2018-05-01

    We recently discovered a yellow supergiant (YSG) in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) with a heliocentric radial velocity of ∼300 km s‑1, which is much larger than expected for a star at its location in the SMC. This is the first runaway YSG ever discovered and only the second evolved runaway star discovered in a galaxy other than the Milky Way. We classify the star as G5-8 I and use de-reddened broad-band colors with model atmospheres to determine an effective temperature of 4700 ± 250 K, consistent with what is expected from its spectral type. The star’s luminosity is then log L/L ⊙ ∼ 4.2 ± 0.1, consistent with it being a ∼30 Myr 9 M ⊙ star according to the Geneva evolution models. The star is currently located in the outer portion of the SMC’s body, but if the star’s transverse peculiar velocity is similar to its peculiar radial velocity, in 10 Myr the star would have moved 1.°6 across the disk of the SMC and could easily have been born in one of the SMC’s star-forming regions. Based on its large radial velocity, we suggest it originated in a binary system where the primary exploded as a supernovae, thus flinging the runaway star out into space. Such stars may provide an important mechanism for the dispersal of heavier elements in galaxies given the large percentage of massive stars that are runaways. In the future, we hope to look into additional evolved runaway stars that were discovered as part of our other past surveys. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  10. Production of yellow-green fluorescent pigment by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildo Almeida da Silva

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A medium was prepared from brewery waste yeast with and without mineral salts to study growth and yellow-green fluorescent pigment production (YGFP by Pseudomonas fluorescens. The King's medium used for detection of siderophore production were expressively weaker inductors of YGFP formation when compared to FYE medium. Although FYE and CYE could be used for growth of P. fluorescens, only FYE was an attractive medium for detection of YGFP strain producers.Diversos microrganismos secretam substâncias com alta afinidade por ferro. Estas moléculas, sideróforos, transportam ferro para o interior das células. Como a produção destas moléculas depende da composição do meio, foi avaliada a influência do extrato de levedura (FYE, proveniente de resíduo de cervejaria, com e sem adição de sais minerais, sobre o crescimento de Pseudomonas fluorescens e sobre a formação de pigmento fluorescente verde-amarelado (YGFP. Observou-se que (i FYE com sacarose (G7 e o extrato de levedura comercial (CYE possuem um pico bem definido próximo a 260 nm; (ii FYE, mas não CYE, promove alta formação de YGFP. Os meios de King's, usados para detectar a formação de sideróforo, se comportaram como indutores expressivamente mais fracos de YGFP que o meio FYE. Embora FYE e CYE possam ser usados para o crescimento de P. fluorescens, apenas FYE pode ser usado como meio para a detecção de linhagens formadoras de YGFP.

  11. A Single 17D Yellow Fever Vaccination Provides Lifelong Immunity; Characterization of Yellow-Fever-Specific Neutralizing Antibody and T-Cell Responses after Vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieten, Rosanne W.; Jonker, Emile F. F.; van Leeuwen, Ester M. M.; Remmerswaal, Ester B. M.; ten Berge, Ineke J. M.; de Visser, Adriëtte W.; van Genderen, Perry J. J.; Goorhuis, Abraham; Visser, Leo G.; Grobusch, Martin P.; de Bree, Godelieve J.

    2016-01-01

    Prompted by recent amendments of Yellow Fever (YF) vaccination guidelines from boost to single vaccination strategy and the paucity of clinical data to support this adjustment, we used the profile of the YF-specific CD8+ T-cell subset profiles after primary vaccination and neutralizing antibodies as

  12. [Spatial heterogeneity in body condition of small yellow croaker in Yellow Sea and East China Sea based on mixed-effects model and quantile regression analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zun-Lei; Yuan, Xing-Wei; Yan, Li-Ping; Yang, Lin-Lin; Cheng, Jia-Hua

    2013-09-01

    By using the 2008-2010 investigation data about the body condition of small yellow croaker in the offshore waters of southern Yellow Sea (SYS), open waters of northern East China Sea (NECS), and offshore waters of middle East China Sea (MECS), this paper analyzed the spatial heterogeneity of body length-body mass of juvenile and adult small yellow croakers by the statistical approaches of mean regression model and quantile regression model. The results showed that the residual standard errors from the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and the linear mixed-effects model were similar, and those from the simple linear regression were the highest. For the juvenile small yellow croakers, their mean body mass in SYS and NECS estimated by the mixed-effects mean regression model was higher than the overall average mass across the three regions, while the mean body mass in MECS was below the overall average. For the adult small yellow croakers, their mean body mass in NECS was higher than the overall average, while the mean body mass in SYS and MECS was below the overall average. The results from quantile regression indicated the substantial differences in the allometric relationships of juvenile small yellow croakers between SYS, NECS, and MECS, with the estimated mean exponent of the allometric relationship in SYS being 2.85, and the interquartile range being from 2.63 to 2.96, which indicated the heterogeneity of body form. The results from ANCOVA showed that the allometric body length-body mass relationships were significantly different between the 25th and 75th percentile exponent values (F=6.38, df=1737, P<0.01) and the 25th percentile and median exponent values (F=2.35, df=1737, P=0.039). The relationship was marginally different between the median and 75th percentile exponent values (F=2.21, df=1737, P=0.051). The estimated body length-body mass exponent of adult small yellow croakers in SYS was 3.01 (10th and 95th percentiles = 2.77 and 3.1, respectively). The

  13. Evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of yellow fever vaccines: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas RE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Roger E Thomas Department of Family Medicine, G012 Health Sciences Center, University of Calgary Medical School, Calgary, AB, Canada Purpose: To review the safety and immunogenicity of yellow fever vaccines. Literature search: The Cochrane Library (including the Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the NHS Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects; MEDLINE; EMBASE; BIOSIS Previews; Global Health; CAB Abstracts; and the Lilacs Database of Latin American and Caribbean literature were searched for individual studies and systematic reviews through January 1, 2015. Results: Six yellow fever vaccines are currently produced, and they are effective against all seven yellow fever virus strains. There is a 99.2% homology of the genome sequences of the six current vaccines. Four systematic reviews identified very small numbers of serious adverse events. A systematic review (updated of all published cases identified 133 serious adverse events that met the Brighton Collaboration criteria: 32 anaphylactic, 42 neurologic (one death, 57 viscerotropic (25 deaths, and two of both neurologic and viscerotropic SAEs. The Sanofi Pasteur Global Pharmacovigilance database reported 276 million doses of Stamaril™ distributed worldwide and identified 12 reports of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD, 24 of yellow fever vaccine-associated neurologic disease (YEL-AND, and 33 reports of anaphylaxis (many already published. The Biomanguinhos manufacturer's database reported 110 million doses distributed worldwide between 1999 and 2009, and the rate of YEL-AND was estimated at 0.084/100,000 doses distributed and YEL-AVD at 0.02/100,000 doses distributed. Conclusion: Reports of serious adverse events are mostly from travelers from developed countries, and there is likely serious underreporting for developing countries. On the basis of the published reports, the yellow fever vaccines are

  14. Advice on malaria and yellow fever prevention provided at travel agencies in Cuzco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Meyer, Pablo G; Garcia-Jasso, Carlos A; Springer, Chelsea A; Lane, Jenna K; Su, Bonny S; Hidalgo, Idania S; Goodrich, Mary R; Deichsel, Emily L; White, A C; Cabada, Miguel M

    2015-01-01

    Travelers receive medical advice from a variety of sources, including travel agencies. The aim of this study is to describe the quality of pre-travel advice provided by travel agencies in Cuzco to travelers interested in visiting malaria and yellow fever endemic areas. Trained medical students posed as tourists and visited travel agencies in Cuzco requesting travel advice for a trip to the southern Amazon of Peru, recording advice regarding risk and prevention of malaria and yellow fever. A total of 163 registered travel agencies were included in the study. The mean proposed tour duration was 6.8 days (±1.4 days) with a median time to departure of 3 days and a median tour cost of 805 US dollars (USD) [interquartile range (IQR) 580-1,095]. Overall, 45% employees failed to mention the risk for any illness. Eighteen percent of the employees acknowledged risk of malaria and 53% risk of yellow fever. However, 36% denied malaria risk and 2% denied risk of yellow fever in the region. The price of tours from travel agencies that did not mention any health risk was significantly lower [1,009.6 ± 500.5 vs 783.9 ± 402 USD, t (152) = 3, p yellow fever (100%) were able to provide at least one recommendation for prevention. However, advice was not always accurate or spontaneously volunteered. Only 7% of the employees provided both correct scheduling and location information for administration of the yellow fever vaccine. The majority of registered travel agencies in Cuzco did not provide sufficient and accurate information regarding risk and prevention of malaria and yellow fever to travelers inquiring about trips to the southern Amazon of Peru. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  15. Production of yellow cake from rock phosphate deposits and its characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumrawi, N. S.

    2002-05-01

    This study was carried out mainly to produce uranium trioxide (UO 3 ), with the standard of commercial specifications from rock phosphate deposits in eastern part of Nuba mountains, south Kurdufan state. A simplified hydrometallurgical procedure has been adopted for production of yellow cake from the ore. Elemental analysis has shown that the ore is rich in Ca and deficient in elements of potential interest such as Fe, Cu and Zn. Uranium content in ore, phosphoric acid and purified yellow cake (UO 3 ) obtained with different precipitants was analyzed using alpha-spectrometry. On the average, the activity concentration of uranium in ore corresponds to 82 ± 24 ppm (0.10%). From the data of pregnant liquor, it was observed that the addition of KCIO 3 as an oxidant improves the dissolution of uranium from the ore by almost 20%. Data has also indicated that the yellow cake purified by hydrogen peroxide has higher concentration of uranium by 44.5% over the one purified by TBP extraction. Undesirable impurities in yellow cake as dictated by the function to which it is intended for were analyzed and compared with international standard specifications set for commercial products. Uranium as U 3 O 8 was found to be 53% in yellow cake initially obtained as ammonium diuranate and purified by hydrogen peroxide and 38% in one, which is purified by TBP extraction. With the exception of Cr concentration, the values of the other critical impurities ( V, Mn, Co, Cu, Sr, Zr, Pb, Fe, Cl, Br, I) in UO 3 precipitated by hydrogen peroxide are either typical or lower than those internationally specified as standards for commercial products. Among the impurities considered Cd, Th and Mo were undetectable. The most salient point to be mentioned here regarding impurities is that Cd, which is most undesirable in yellow cake because of its high neutron absorption cross section, was undetectable in both types of yellow cakes ( i.e. purified by TBP extraction and by hydrogen peroxide). (Author)

  16. Changing oxidoreduction potential to improve water-soluble yellow pigment production with Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Tan, Hailing; Lu, Fangju; Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-11-21

    Monascus pigments are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries due to their safety to human health. Our previous study found that glucose concentration induced extracellular oxidoreduction potential (ORP) changes could influence extracellular water-soluble yellow pigment production by Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910 in submerged fermentation. In this study, H 2 O 2 and dithiothreitol (DTT) were used to change the oxidoreduction potential for investigating the effects of oxidative or reductive substances on Monascus yellow pigment production by Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910. The extracellular ORP could be controlled by H 2 O 2 and DTT. Both cell growth and extracellular water-soluble yellow pigment production were enhanced under H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative (HIO) conditions and were inhibited under dithiothreitol-induced reductive conditions. By optimizing the amount of H 2 O 2 added and the timing of the addition, the yield of extracellular water-soluble yellow pigments significantly increased and reached a maximum of 209 AU, when 10 mM H 2 O 2 was added on the 3rd day of fermentation with M. ruber CGMCC 10910. Under HIO conditions, the ratio of NADH/NAD+ was much lower than that in the control group, and the expression levels of relative pigment biosynthesis genes were up-regulated; moreover, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was increased while 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity was inhibited. Oxidative conditions induced by H 2 O 2 increased water-soluble yellow pigment accumulation via up-regulation of the expression levels of relative genes and by increasing the precursors of pigment biosynthesis through redirection of metabolic flux. In contrast, reductive conditions induced by dithiothreitol inhibited yellow pigment accumulation. This experiment provides a potential strategy for improving the production of Monascus yellow pigments.

  17. Identifying western yellow-billed cuckoo breeding habitat with a dual modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew J.; Hatten, James R.; Holmes, Jennifer A.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2017-01-01

    The western population of the yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) was recently listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act. Yellow-billed cuckoo conservation efforts require the identification of features and area requirements associated with high quality, riparian forest habitat at spatial scales that range from nest microhabitat to landscape, as well as lower-suitability areas that can be enhanced or restored. Spatially explicit models inform conservation efforts by increasing ecological understanding of a target species, especially at landscape scales. Previous yellow-billed cuckoo modelling efforts derived plant-community maps from aerial photography, an expensive and oftentimes inconsistent approach. Satellite models can remotely map vegetation features (e.g., vegetation density, heterogeneity in vegetation density or structure) across large areas with near perfect repeatability, but they usually cannot identify plant communities. We used aerial photos and satellite imagery, and a hierarchical spatial scale approach, to identify yellow-billed cuckoo breeding habitat along the Lower Colorado River and its tributaries. Aerial-photo and satellite models identified several key features associated with yellow-billed cuckoo breeding locations: (1) a 4.5 ha core area of dense cottonwood-willow vegetation, (2) a large native, heterogeneously dense forest (72 ha) around the core area, and (3) moderately rough topography. The odds of yellow-billed cuckoo occurrence decreased rapidly as the amount of tamarisk cover increased or when cottonwood-willow vegetation was limited. We achieved model accuracies of 75–80% in the project area the following year after updating the imagery and location data. The two model types had very similar probability maps, largely predicting the same areas as high quality habitat. While each model provided unique information, a dual-modelling approach provided a more complete picture of yellow-billed cuckoo habitat

  18. Antibody response to 17D yellow fever vaccine in Ghanaian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei-Kwasi, M; Dunyo, S K; Koram, K A; Afari, E A; Odoom, J K; Nkrumah, F K

    2001-01-01

    To assess the seroresponses to yellow fever vaccination at 6 and 9 months of age; assess any possible adverse effects of immunization with the 17D yellow fever vaccine in infants, particularly at 6 months of age. Four hundred and twenty infants who had completed BCG, OPV and DPT immunizations were randomized to receive yellow fever immunization at either 6 or 9 months. A single dose of 0.5 ml of the reconstituted vaccine was administered to each infant by subcutaneous injection. To determine the yellow fever antibody levels of the infants, each donated 1 ml whole blood prior to immunization and 3 months post-immunization. Each serum sample was titred on Vero cells against the vaccine virus. The most common adverse reactions reported were fever, cough, diarrhoea and mild reactions at the inoculation site. The incidences of adverse reactions were not statistically different in both groups. None of the pre-immunization sera in both age groups had detectable yellow fever antibodies. Infants immunized at 6 months recorded seroconversion of 98.6% and those immunized at 9 months recorded 98% seroconversion. The GMT of their antibodies were 158.5 and 129.8, respectively. The results indicate that seroresponses to yellow fever immunization at 6 and 9 months as determined by seroconversion and GMTs of antibodies are similar. The findings of good seroresponses at 6 months without significant adverse effects would suggest that the 17D yellow fever vaccine could be recommended for use in children at 6 months in outbreak situations or in high risk endemic areas.

  19. Evaluation of ecological instream flow considering hydrological alterations in the Yellow River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Zongjiao; Shi, Peijun; Singh, Vijay P.; Gu, Xihui

    2018-01-01

    The Yellow River is the second largest river in China and is the important source for water supply in the northwestern and northern China. It is often regarded as the mother river of China. Owing to climatic change and intensifying human activities, such as increasing withdrawal of water for meeting growing agricultural irrigation needs since 1986, the flow of Yellow River has decreased, with serious impacts on the ecological environment. Using multiple hydrological indicators and Flow Duration Curve (DFC)-based ecodeficit and ecosurplus, this study investigates the impact of hydrological alterations, such as the impact of water reservoirs or dams, on downstream ecological instream flow. Results indicate that: (1) due to the impoundment and hydrological regulations of water reservoirs, occurrence rates and magnitudes of high flow regimes have decreased and the decrease is also found in the magnitudes of low flow events. These changes tend to be more evident from the upper to the lower Yellow River basin; (2) human activities tend to enhance the instream flow variability, particularly after the 1980s;(3) the ecological environment in different parts of the Yellow River basin is under different degrees of ecological risk. In general, lower to higher ecological risk can be detected due to hydrological alterations from the upper to the lower Yellow River basin. This shows that conservation of ecological environment and river health is facing a serious challenge in the lower Yellow River basin; (4) ecological instream flow indices, such as ecodeficit and ecosurplus, and IHA32 hydrological indicators are in strong relationships, suggesting that ecodeficit and ecosurplus can be regarded as appropriate ecological indicators for developing measures for mitigating the adverse impact of human activities on the conservation of ecological environment in the Yellow River basin.

  20. [Effect of long-term application of NPK fertilizer on maize yield and yellow soil nutrients sustainability in Guizhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan Ling; Li, Yu; Zhang, Ya Rong; Huang, Xing Cheng; Zhang, Wen An; Jiang, Tai Ming

    2017-11-01

    A long-term fertilization field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilizer on maize relative yield, yield-increasing effect and the changes of nutrients in yellow soil in Guizhou Province. Five fertilizer combinations were evaluated, including balanced fertilization (NPK) and nutrient deficiency treatments (N, NK, NP, and PK). The maize relative yield, contribution efficiency of N, P, K fertilizer application, sustainability index of soil N, P, K nutrients, and other indicators were measured. The results revealed that the balanced fertilization (NPK) significantly increased maize yield, and the average yield under each treatment ranked as: NPK>NP>NK>PK>CK. The contribution efficiency and agronomic efficiency of N, P, K fertilizer application was N>P>K. The fertilization dependence was ranked as: combined application of N, P and K>N>P>K. But in the lack of P treatment (NK), the maize relative yield significantly decreased at a speed of 1.4% per year, with the contribution efficiency and fertilization dependence of applied P significantly increasing at a speed of 2.3% per year and 1.4% per year, respectively. Over time, the effect of P fertilizer on maize yield gradually became equal to that of N fertilizer. The pH and soil organic matter content were the lowest in the P-lack treatment (NK), while they were higher in the N-lack treatment (PK). The application of chemical P significantly improved the sustainability index of soil P, but the application of chemical N and K did not significantly change the sustainability index of soil N and K nutrients compared to the N- and K-lack treatments, respectively. In summary, the use of balanced fertilizer application is critical for achieving high maize yield in typical yellow soil regions in Guizhou Province. P and N fertilizers are equally important for improving maize yield, and long-term application of unbalanced chemical fertilizer, especially the lack

  1. Bacterial Community and Spoilage Profiles Shift in Response to Packaging in Yellow-Feather Broiler, a Highly Popular Meat in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huhu Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of yellow-feathered broiler has been advocated for purchasing with chilled meat rather than live broilers in Asia due to the outbreaks of animal influenza. Here, the microbial community of chilled yellow-feathered broiler response to modified-air packaging (MAP, 80% CO2/20% N2 and penetrated-air packaging (PAP, air-filling during storage was revealed by a combination of whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing and traditional isolation methods, and the volatile organic compounds and proteolytic activity of representative dominant isolates were also accessed. The results revealed that MAP prolonged shelf life from 4 to 8 days compared to PAP, when the numbers of total viable counts and lactic acid bacteria reached more than 7 log CFU/g. Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, Escherichia, and Streptococcus occupied the bacteria communities in initial broiler carcasses. MAP dramatically increased the bacteria diversity during storage compared to PAP. Clear shifts of the dominant bacteria species were obviously observed, with the top genera of Aeromonas, Lactococcus, Serratia, and Shewanella in MAP, whereas the microbial communities in PAP were largely dominated by Pseudomonas. The isolates of Pseudomonas from PAP carcasses and Aeromonas from MAP carcasses displayed strong proteolytic activities. Meanwhile, the principal component analysis based on the volatile organic compounds indicated that the metabolic profiles greatly varied between each treatment, and no link between the natural odor of spoilage meat in situ and the volatile odor of the dominant isolates incubated in standard culture was found. These data could lead to new insights into the bacteria communities of yellow-feathered broiler meat during storage and would benefit the development of novel preservative approaches.

  2. Bacterial Community and Spoilage Profiles Shift in Response to Packaging in Yellow-Feather Broiler, a Highly Popular Meat in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huhu; Zhang, Xinxiao; Wang, Guangyu; Jia, Kun; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of yellow-feathered broiler has been advocated for purchasing with chilled meat rather than live broilers in Asia due to the outbreaks of animal influenza. Here, the microbial community of chilled yellow-feathered broiler response to modified-air packaging (MAP, 80% CO2/20% N2) and penetrated-air packaging (PAP, air-filling) during storage was revealed by a combination of whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing and traditional isolation methods, and the volatile organic compounds and proteolytic activity of representative dominant isolates were also accessed. The results revealed that MAP prolonged shelf life from 4 to 8 days compared to PAP, when the numbers of total viable counts and lactic acid bacteria reached more than 7 log CFU/g. Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, Escherichia, and Streptococcus occupied the bacteria communities in initial broiler carcasses. MAP dramatically increased the bacteria diversity during storage compared to PAP. Clear shifts of the dominant bacteria species were obviously observed, with the top genera of Aeromonas, Lactococcus, Serratia, and Shewanella in MAP, whereas the microbial communities in PAP were largely dominated by Pseudomonas. The isolates of Pseudomonas from PAP carcasses and Aeromonas from MAP carcasses displayed strong proteolytic activities. Meanwhile, the principal component analysis based on the volatile organic compounds indicated that the metabolic profiles greatly varied between each treatment, and no link between the natural odor of spoilage meat in situ and the volatile odor of the dominant isolates incubated in standard culture was found. These data could lead to new insights into the bacteria communities of yellow-feathered broiler meat during storage and would benefit the development of novel preservative approaches. PMID:29312261

  3. Yellow Rust Epidemics Worldwide Were Caused by Pathogen Races from Divergent Genetic Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Rodriguez-Algaba, Julian; Thach, Tine; Sørensen, Chris K.; Hansen, Jens G.; Lassen, Poul; Nazari, Kumarse; Hodson, David P.; Justesen, Annemarie F.; Hovmøller, Mogens S.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether the recent worldwide epidemics of wheat yellow rust were driven by races of few clonal lineage(s) or populations of divergent races. Race phenotyping of 887 genetically diverse Puccinia striiformis isolates sampled in 35 countries during 2009–2015 revealed that these epidemics were often driven by races from few but highly divergent genetic lineages. PstS1 was predominant in North America; PstS2 in West Asia and North Africa; and both PstS1 and PstS2 in East Africa. PstS4 was prevalent in Northern Europe on triticale; PstS5 and PstS9 were prevalent in Central Asia; whereas PstS6 was prevalent in epidemics in East Africa. PstS7, PstS8 and PstS10 represented three genetic lineages prevalent in Europe. Races from other lineages were in low frequencies. Virulence to Yr9 and Yr27 was common in epidemics in Africa and Asia, while virulence to Yr17 and Yr32 were prevalent in Europe, corresponding to widely deployed resistance genes. The highest diversity was observed in South Asian populations, where frequent recombination has been reported, and no particular race was predominant in this area. The results are discussed in light of the role of invasions in shaping pathogen population across geographical regions. The results emphasized the lack of predictability of emergence of new races with high epidemic potential, which stresses the need for additional investments in population biology and surveillance activities of pathogens on global food crops, and assessments of disease vulnerability of host varieties prior to their deployment at larger scales. PMID:28676811

  4. Reemergence of yellow fever in Ethiopia after 50 years, 2013: epidemiological and entomological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilay, Abrham; Asamene, Negga; Bekele, Abyot; Mengesha, Mesfin; Wendabeku, Milliyon; Tareke, Israel; Girmay, Abiy; Wuletaw, Yonas; Adossa, Abate; Ba, Yamar; Sall, Amadou; Jima, Daddi; Mengesha, Debritu

    2017-05-15

    Yellow Fever (YF) is a viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by aedes mosquito species. Approximately, 200,000 cases and 30,000 deaths occur worldwide every year. In Ethiopia, the last outbreak was reported in 1966 with 2200 cases and 450 deaths. A number of cases with deaths from unknown febrile illness reported from South Ari district starting from November 2012. This investigation was conducted to identify the causative agent, source of the outbreak and recommend appropriate interventions. Medical records were reviewed and Patients and clinicians involved in managing the case were interviewed. Descriptive data analysis was done by time, person and place. Serum samples were collected for serological analysis it was done using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay for initial screening and confirmatory tests were done using Plaque Reduction and Neutralization Test. Breteau and container indices were used for the entomological investigation to determine the risk of epidemic. A total of 141 Suspected YF cases with 43 deaths (CFR = 30.5%) were reported from November 2012 to October 2013 from South Omo Zone. All age groups were affected (mean 27.5, Range 1-75 Years). Of the total cases, 85.1% cases had jaundice and 56.7% cases had fever. Seven of the 21 samples were IgM positive for YF virus. Aedes bromeliae and Aedes aegypti were identified as responsible vectors of YF in affected area. The Breteau indices of Arkisha and Aykamer Kebeles were 44.4% and 33.3%, whereas the container indices were 12.9% and 22.2%, respectively. The investigation revealed that YF outbreak was reemerged after 50 years in Ethiopia. Vaccination should be given for the affected and neighboring districts and Case based surveillance should be initiated to detect every case.

  5. Attenuation of Recombinant Yellow Fever 17D Viruses Expressing Foreign Protein Epitopes at the Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaldo, Myrna C.; Garratt, Richard C.; Marchevsky, Renato S.; Coutinho, Evandro S. F.; Jabor, Alfredo V.; Almeida, Luís F. C.; Yamamura, Anna M. Y.; Duarte, Adriana S.; Oliveira, Prisciliana J.; Lizeu, Jackeline O. P.; Camacho, Luiz A. B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is a live attenuated virus. Three-dimensional (3D) homology modeling of the E protein structure from YF 17D virus and its comparison with that from tick-borne encephalitis virus revealed that it is possible to accommodate inserts of different sizes and amino acid compositions in the flavivirus E protein fg loop. This is consistent with the 3D structures of both the dimeric and trimeric forms in which the fg loop lies exposed to solvents. We demonstrate here that YF 17D viruses bearing foreign humoral (17D/8) and T-cell (17D/13) epitopes, which vary in sequence and length, displayed growth restriction. It is hypothesized that interference with the dimer-trimer transition and with the formation of a ring of such trimers in order to allow fusion compromises the capability of the E protein to induce fusion of viral and endosomal membranes, and a slower rate of fusion may delay the extent of virus production. This would account for the lower levels of replication in cultured cells and of viremia in monkeys, as well as for the more attenuated phenotype of the recombinant viruses in monkeys. Testing of both recombinant viruses (17D/8 and 17D/13) for monkey neurovirulence also suggests that insertion at the 17D E protein fg loop does not compromise the attenuated phenotype of YF 17D virus, further confirming the potential use of this site for the development of new live attenuated 17D virus-based vaccines. PMID:15956601

  6. RNAi-derived transgenic resistance to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus in cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Tanti, Bhaben; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2017-01-01

    Cowpea is an important grain legume crop of Africa, Latin America, and Southeast Asia. Leaf curl and golden mosaic diseases caused by Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) have emerged as most devastating viral diseases of cowpea in Southeast Asia. In this study, we employed RNA interference (RNAi) strategy to control cowpea-infecting MYMIV. For this, we generated transgenic cowpea plants harbouring three different intron hairpin RNAi constructs, containing the AC2, AC4 and fusion of AC2 and AC4 (AC2+AC4) of seven cowpea-infecting begomoviruses. The T0 and T1 transgenic cowpea lines of all the three constructs accumulated transgene-specific siRNAs. Transgenic plants were further assayed up to T1 generations, for resistance to MYMIV using agro-infectious clones. Nearly 100% resistance against MYMIV infection was observed in transgenic lines, expressing AC2-hp and AC2+AC4-hp RNA, when compared with untransformed controls and plants transformed with empty vectors, which developed severe viral disease symptoms within 3 weeks. The AC4-hp RNA expressing lines displayed appearance of milder symptoms after 5 weeks of MYMIV-inoculation. Northern blots revealed a positive correlation between the level of transgene-specific siRNAs accumulation and virus resistance. The MYMIV-resistant transgenic lines accumulated nearly zero or very low titres of viral DNA. The transgenic cowpea plants had normal phenotype with no yield penalty in greenhouse conditions. This is the first demonstration of RNAi-derived resistance to MYMIV in cowpea.

  7. Response of Soil Fungi Community Structure to Salt Vegetation Succession in the Yellow River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Yun; Guo, Du-Fa

    2016-10-01

    High-throughput sequencing technology was used to reveal the composition and distribution of fungal community structure in the Yellow River Delta under bare land and four kinds of halophyte vegetation (saline seepweed, Angiospermae, Imperata and Apocynum venetum [A. venetum]). The results showed that the soil quality continuously improved with the succession of salt vegetation types. The soil fungi richness of mild-salt communities (Imperata and A. venetum) was relatively higher, with Shannon index values of 5.21 and 5.84, respectively. The soil fungi richness of severe-salt-tolerant communities (saline seepweed, Angiospermae) was relatively lower, with Shannon index values of 4.64 and 4.66, respectively. The UniFrac metric values ranged from 0.48 to 0.67 when the vegetation was in different succession stages. A total of 60,174 valid sequences were obtained for the five vegetation types, and they were classified into Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, Glomeromycota and Mucoromycotina. Ascomycota had the greatest advantage among plant communities of Imperata and A. venetum, as indicated by relative abundances of 2.69 and 69.97 %, respectively. Basidiomycota had the greatest advantage among mild-salt communities of saline seepweed and Angiospermae, with relative abundances of 9.43 and 6.64 %, respectively. Soil physical and chemical properties were correlated with the distribution of the fungi, and Mucor was significantly correlated with soil moisture (r = 0.985; P Soil quality, salt vegetation and soil fungi were influenced by each other.

  8. Crystal structure of a thermostable Old Yellow Enzyme from Thermus scotoductus SA-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opperman, Diederik J.; Sewell, Bryan T.; Litthauer, Derek; Isupov, Mikhail N.; Littlechild, Jennifer A.; Heerden, Esta van

    2010-01-01

    Recent characterization of the chromate reductase (CrS) from the thermophile Thermus scotoductus SA-01 revealed this enzyme to be related to the Old Yellow Enzyme (OYE) family. Here, we report the structure of a thermostable OYE homolog in its holoform at 2.2 A as well as its complex with p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBA). The enzyme crystallized as octamers with the monomers showing a classical TIM barrel fold which upon dimerization yields the biologically active form of the protein. A sulfate ion is bound above the si-side of the non-covalently bound FMN cofactor in the oxidized solved structure but is displaced upon pHBA binding. The active-site architecture is highly conserved as with other members of this enzyme family. The pHBA in the CrS complex is positioned by hydrogen bonding to the two conserved catalytic-site histidines. The most prominent structural difference between CrS and other OYE homologs is the size of the 'capping domain'. Thermostabilization of the enzyme is achieved in part through increased proline content within loops and turns as well as increased intersubunit interactions through hydrogen bonding and complex salt bridge networks. CrS is able to reduce the C=C bonds of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with a preference towards cyclic substrates however no activity was observed towards β-substituted substrates. Mutational studies have confirmed the role of Tyr177 as the proposed proton donor although reduction could still occur at a reduced rate when this residue was mutated to phenylalanine.

  9. Yellow Rust Epidemics Worldwide Were Caused by Pathogen Races from Divergent Genetic Lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Ali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether the recent worldwide epidemics of wheat yellow rust were driven by races of few clonal lineage(s or populations of divergent races. Race phenotyping of 887 genetically diverse Puccinia striiformis isolates sampled in 35 countries during 2009–2015 revealed that these epidemics were often driven by races from few but highly divergent genetic lineages. PstS1 was predominant in North America; PstS2 in West Asia and North Africa; and both PstS1 and PstS2 in East Africa. PstS4 was prevalent in Northern Europe on triticale; PstS5 and PstS9 were prevalent in Central Asia; whereas PstS6 was prevalent in epidemics in East Africa. PstS7, PstS8 and PstS10 represented three genetic lineages prevalent in Europe. Races from other lineages were in low frequencies. Virulence to Yr9 and Yr27 was common in epidemics in Africa and Asia, while virulence to Yr17 and Yr32 were prevalent in Europe, corresponding to widely deployed resistance genes. The highest diversity was observed in South Asian populations, where frequent recombination has been reported, and no particular race was predominant in this area. The results are discussed in light of the role of invasions in shaping pathogen population across geographical regions. The results emphasized the lack of predictability of emergence of new races with high epidemic potential, which stresses the need for additional investments in population biology and surveillance activities of pathogens on global food crops, and assessments of disease vulnerability of host varieties prior to their deployment at larger scales.

  10. Flow cytometric method for measuring chromatin fragmentation in fixed sperm from yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J A; Draugelis-Dale, R O; Pinkney, A E; Iwanowicz, L R; Blazer, V S

    2015-03-15

    Declining harvests of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in urbanized watersheds of Chesapeake Bay have prompted investigations of their reproductive fitness. The purpose of this study was to establish a flow cytometric technique for DNA analysis of fixed samples sent from the field to provide reliable gamete quality measurements. Similar to the sperm chromatin structure assay, measures were made on the susceptibility of nuclear DNA to acid-induced denaturation, but used fixed rather than live or thawed cells. Nuclei were best exposed to the acid treatment for 1 minute at 37 °C followed by the addition of cold (4 °C) propidium iodide staining solution before flow cytometry. The rationale for protocol development is presented graphically through cytograms. Field results collected in 2008 and 2009 revealed DNA fragmentation up to 14.5%. In 2008, DNA fragmentation from the more urbanized watersheds was significantly greater than from reference sites (P = 0.026) and in 2009, higher percentages of haploid testicular cells were noted from the less urbanized watersheds (P = 0.032) indicating better reproductive condition at sites with less urbanization. For both years, total and progressive live sperm motilities by computer-assisted sperm motion analysis ranged from 19.1% to 76.5%, being significantly higher at the less urbanized sites (P < 0.05). This flow cytometric method takes advantage of the propensity of fragmented DNA to be denatured under standard conditions, or 1 minute at 37 °C with 10% buffered formalin-fixed cells. The study of fixed sperm makes possible the restrospective investigation of germplasm fragmentation, spermatogenic ploidy patterns, and chromatin compaction levels from samples translocated over distance and time. The protocol provides an approach that can be modified for other species across taxa. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Administration of time-expired yellow fever vaccine: public health response and results of a serological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, K W; Nguyen-Van-Tam, J S; Howells, J

    1999-06-01

    The discovery that a local travel clinic had administered 101 doses of time-expired yellow fever vaccine over a six month period prompted an immediate investigation in order to advise vaccinees about to travel to areas where yellow fever is endemic. No data were available to provide adequate reassurance about the potential efficacy of time-expired vaccine, so a rapid serological investigation was conducted, which provided evidence that the yellow fever vaccine had remained potent beyond its expiry date.

  12. Midface swelling reveals nasofrontal dermal sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houneida, Zaghouani Ben Alaya; Manel, Limeme; Latifa, Harzallah; Habib, Amara; Dejla, Bakir; Chekib, Kraiem

    2012-01-01

    Nasofrontal dermal sinuses are very rare and generally occur in children. This congenital malformation can be revealed by midface swelling, which can be complicated by local infection or neuromeningitis. Such complications make the dermal sinus a life-threatening disease. Two cases of nasofrontal dermal sinuses are reported in this work. The first case is an 11-month-old girl who presented with left orbitonasal soft tissue swelling accompanied by inflammation. Physical examination found fever, left orbitonasal thickening, and a puncture hole letting out pus. Computed tomography revealed microabscesses located at the left orbitonasal soft tissues, a frontal bone defect, and an intracranial cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the transosseous tract between the glabella and the brain and affirmed the epidermoid nature of the intracranial cyst. The second case is a 7-year-old girl who presented with a nasofrontal non-progressive mass that intermittently secreted a yellow liquid through an external orifice located at the glabella. MRI revealed a cystic mass located in the deep layer of the glabellar skin related to an epidermoid cyst with a nasofrontal dermal sinus tract. In both cases, surgical excision was performed, and pathological confirmation was made for the diagnoses of dermal sinuses. The postoperative course was favorable. Through these cases, the authors stress the role of imaging methods in confirming the diagnosis and looking for associated cysts (dermoid and epidermoid) to improve recognition of this rare disease. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentations, imaging manifestations, and most common sites of occurrence of this malformation are needed to formulate a differential diagnosis.

  13. n-Alkanes in sediments from the Yellow River Estuary, China: Occurrence, sources and historical sedimentary record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Liu, Guijian; Yuan, Zijiao; Da, Chunnian

    2018-04-15

    A total of 21 surface sediments from the Yellow River Estuary (YRE) and a sediment core from the abandoned Old Yellow River Estuary (OYRE) were analyzed for n-alkanes using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). n-Alkanes in the range C 12 -C 33 and C 13 -C 34 were identified in the surface sediments and the core, respectively. The homologous series were mainly bimodal distribution pattern without odd/even predominance in the YRE and OYRE. The total n-alkanes concentrations in the surface sediments ranged from 0.356 to 0.572mg/kg, with a mean of 0.434mg/kg on dry wt. Evaluation of n-alkanes proxies indicated that the aliphatic hydrocarbons in the surface sediments were derived mainly from a petrogenic source with a relatively low contribution of submerged/floating macrophytes, terrestrial and emergent plants. The dated core covered the time period 1925-2012 and the mean sedimentation rate was ca. 0.5cm/yr. The total n-alkanes concentrations in the core ranged from 0.0394 to 0.941mg/kg, with a mean of 0.180mg/kg. The temporal evolution of n-alkanes reflected the historical input of aliphatic hydrocarbons and was consistent with local and regional anthropogenic activity. In general, the investigation on the sediment core revealed a trend of regional environmental change and the role of anthropogenic activity in environmental change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A multi-band semi-analytical algorithm for estimating chlorophyll-a concentration in the Yellow River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Quan, Wenting; Cui, Tingwei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, two sample semi-analytical algorithms and one new unified multi-band semi-analytical algorithm (UMSA) for estimating chlorophyll-a (Chla) concentration were constructed by specifying optimal wavelengths. The three sample semi-analytical algorithms, including the three-band semi-analytical algorithm (TSA), four-band semi-analytical algorithm (FSA), and UMSA algorithm, were calibrated and validated by the dataset collected in the Yellow River Estuary between September 1 and 10, 2009. By comparing of the accuracy of assessment of TSA, FSA, and UMSA algorithms, it was found that the UMSA algorithm had a superior performance in comparison with the two other algorithms, TSA and FSA. Using the UMSA algorithm in retrieving Chla concentration in the Yellow River Estuary decreased by 25.54% NRMSE (normalized root mean square error) when compared with the FSA algorithm, and 29.66% NRMSE in comparison with the TSA algorithm. These are very significant improvements upon previous methods. Additionally, the study revealed that the TSA and FSA algorithms are merely more specific forms of the UMSA algorithm. Owing to the special form of the UMSA algorithm, if the same bands were used for both the TSA and UMSA algorithms or FSA and UMSA algorithms, the UMSA algorithm would theoretically produce superior results in comparison with the TSA and FSA algorithms. Thus, good results may also be produced if the UMSA algorithm were to be applied for predicting Chla concentration for datasets of Gitelson et al. (2008) and Le et al. (2009).

  15. Case report: probable transmission of vaccine strain of yellow fever virus to an infant via breast milk

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Susan; Twele-Montecinos, Loreto; MacDonald, Judy; Webster, Patricia; Law, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The 17D yellow fever vaccine is a live-virus vaccine that has been in use since the 1940s. The incidence of encephalitis after yellow fever vaccination among young infants is much higher than among children older than nine months of age. Until recently, avoidance of vaccination by breastfeeding women who have received yellow fever vaccine had been based on theoretical grounds only. We report the probable transmission of vaccine strain of yellow fever virus from a mother to her infant through ...

  16. Yellow fever control in Cameroon: where are we now and where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Nomo, Emmanuel; Mawo, Jeanne; Ofal, James; Mimbouga, Julienne; Ticha, Johnson; Ndumbe, Peter M

    2008-02-08

    Cameroon is one of 12 African countries that bear most of the global burden of yellow fever. In 2002 the country developed a five-year strategic plan for yellow fever control, which included strategies for prevention as well as rapid detection and response to outbreaks when they occur. We have used data collected by the national Expanded Programme on Immunisation to assess the progress made and challenges faced during the first four years of implementing the plan. In January 2003, case-based surveillance of suspected yellow fever cases was instituted in the whole country. A year later, yellow fever immunisation at nine months of age (the same age as routine measles immunisation) was introduced. Supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs), both preventive and in response to outbreaks, also formed an integral part of the yellow fever control plan. Each level of the national health system makes a synthesis of its activities and sends this to the next higher level at defined regular intervals; monthly for routine data and daily for SIAs. From 2004 to 2006 the national routine yellow fever vaccination coverage rose from 58.7% to 72.2%. In addition, the country achieved parity between yellow fever and measles vaccination coverage in 2005 and has since maintained this performance level. The number of suspected yellow fever cases in the country increased from 156 in 2003 to 859 in 2006, and the proportion of districts that reported at least one suspected yellow fever case per year increased from 31.4% to 68.2%, respectively. Blood specimens were collected from all suspected cases (within 14 days of onset of symptoms) and tested at a central laboratory for yellow fever IgM antibodies; leading to confirmation of yellow fever outbreaks in the health districts of Bafia, Méri and Ntui in 2003, Ngaoundéré Rural in 2004, Yoko in 2005 and Messamena in 2006. Owing to constraints in rapidly mobilising the necessary resources, reactive SIAs were only conducted in Bafia and M

  17. Yellow fever control in Cameroon: Where are we now and where are we going?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimbouga Julienne

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cameroon is one of 12 African countries that bear most of the global burden of yellow fever. In 2002 the country developed a five-year strategic plan for yellow fever control, which included strategies for prevention as well as rapid detection and response to outbreaks when they occur. We have used data collected by the national Expanded Programme on Immunisation to assess the progress made and challenges faced during the first four years of implementing the plan. Methods In January 2003, case-based surveillance of suspected yellow fever cases was instituted in the whole country. A year later, yellow fever immunisation at nine months of age (the same age as routine measles immunisation was introduced. Supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs, both preventive and in response to outbreaks, also formed an integral part of the yellow fever control plan. Each level of the national health system makes a synthesis of its activities and sends this to the next higher level at defined regular intervals; monthly for routine data and daily for SIAs. Results From 2004 to 2006 the national routine yellow fever vaccination coverage rose from 58.7% to 72.2%. In addition, the country achieved parity between yellow fever and measles vaccination coverage in 2005 and has since maintained this performance level. The number of suspected yellow fever cases in the country increased from 156 in 2003 to 859 in 2006, and the proportion of districts that reported at least one suspected yellow fever case per year increased from 31.4% to 68.2%, respectively. Blood specimens were collected from all suspected cases (within 14 days of onset of symptoms and tested at a central laboratory for yellow fever IgM antibodies; leading to confirmation of yellow fever outbreaks in the health districts of Bafia, Méri and Ntui in 2003, Ngaoundéré Rural in 2004, Yoko in 2005 and Messamena in 2006. Owing to constraints in rapidly mobilising the necessary resources

  18. Global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 to 2016: an adjusted retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Freya M; Moyes, Catherine L; Pigott, David M; Brady, Oliver J; Marinho, Fatima; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Longbottom, Joshua; Browne, Annie J; Kraemer, Moritz U G; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Hombach, Joachim; Yactayo, Sergio; de Araújo, Valdelaine E M; da Nóbrega, Aglaêr A; Mosser, Jonathan F; Stanaway, Jeffrey D; Lim, Stephen S; Hay, Simon I; Golding, Nick; Reiner, Robert C

    2017-11-01

    Substantial outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola and Brazil in the past 2 years, combined with global shortages in vaccine stockpiles, highlight a pressing need to assess present control strategies. The aims of this study were to estimate global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 through to 2016 at high spatial resolution and to calculate the number of individuals still requiring vaccination to reach population coverage thresholds for outbreak prevention. For this adjusted retrospective analysis, we compiled data from a range of sources (eg, WHO reports and health-service-provider registeries) reporting on yellow fever vaccination activities between May 1, 1939, and Oct 29, 2016. To account for uncertainty in how vaccine campaigns were targeted, we calculated three population coverage values to encompass alternative scenarios. We combined these data with demographic information and tracked vaccination coverage through time to estimate the proportion of the population who had ever received a yellow fever vaccine for each second level administrative division across countries at risk of yellow fever virus transmission from 1970 to 2016. Overall, substantial increases in vaccine coverage have occurred since 1970, but notable gaps still exist in contemporary coverage within yellow fever risk zones. We estimate that between 393·7 million and 472·9 million people still require vaccination in areas at risk of yellow fever virus transmission to achieve the 80% population coverage threshold recommended by WHO; this represents between 43% and 52% of the population within yellow fever risk zones, compared with between 66% and 76% of the population who would have required vaccination in 1970. Our results highlight important gaps in yellow fever vaccination coverage, can contribute to improved quantification of outbreak risk, and help to guide planning of future vaccination efforts and emergency stockpiling. The Rhodes Trust, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the

  19. New Spectral Index for Detecting Wheat Yellow Rust Using Sentinel-2 Multispectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Zheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yellow rust is one of the most destructive diseases for winter wheat and has led to a significant decrease in winter wheat quality and yield. Identifying and monitoring yellow rust is of great importance for guiding agricultural production over large areas. Compared with traditional crop disease discrimination methods, remote sensing technology has proven to be a useful tool for accomplishing such a task at large scale. This study explores the potential of the Sentinel-2 Multispectral Instrument (MSI, a newly launched satellite with refined spatial resolution and three red-edge bands, for discriminating between yellow rust infection severities (i.e., healthy, slight, and severe in winter wheat. The corresponding simulative multispectral bands for the Sentinel-2 sensor were calculated by the sensor’s relative spectral response (RSR function based on the in situ hyperspectral data acquired at the canopy level. Three Sentinel-2 spectral bands, including B4 (Red, B5 (Re1, and B7 (Re3, were found to be sensitive bands using the random forest (RF method. A new multispectral index, the Red Edge Disease Stress Index (REDSI, which consists of these sensitive bands, was proposed to detect yellow rust infection at different severity levels. The overall identification accuracy for REDSI was 84.1% and the kappa coefficient was 0.76. Moreover, REDSI performed better than other commonly used disease spectral indexes for yellow rust discrimination at the canopy scale. The optimal threshold method was adopted for mapping yellow rust infection at regional scales based on realistic Sentinel-2 multispectral image data to further assess REDSI’s ability for yellow rust detection. The overall accuracy was 85.2% and kappa coefficient was 0.67, which was found through validation against a set of field survey data. This study suggests that the Sentinel-2 MSI has the potential for yellow rust discrimination, and the newly proposed REDSI has great robustness and

  20. New Spectral Index for Detecting Wheat Yellow Rust Using Sentinel-2 Multispectral Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiong; Huang, Wenjiang; Cui, Ximin; Shi, Yue; Liu, Linyi

    2018-03-15

    Yellow rust is one of the most destructive diseases for winter wheat and has led to a significant decrease in winter wheat quality and yield. Identifying and monitoring yellow rust is of great importance for guiding agricultural production over large areas. Compared with traditional crop disease discrimination methods, remote sensing technology has proven to be a useful tool for accomplishing such a task at large scale. This study explores the potential of the Sentinel-2 Multispectral Instrument (MSI), a newly launched satellite with refined spatial resolution and three red-edge bands, for discriminating between yellow rust infection severities (i.e., healthy, slight, and severe) in winter wheat. The corresponding simulative multispectral bands for the Sentinel-2 sensor were calculated by the sensor's relative spectral response (RSR) function based on the in situ hyperspectral data acquired at the canopy level. Three Sentinel-2 spectral bands, including B4 (Red), B5 (Re1), and B7 (Re3), were found to be sensitive bands using the random forest (RF) method. A new multispectral index, the Red Edge Disease Stress Index (REDSI), which consists of these sensitive bands, was proposed to detect yellow rust infection at different severity levels. The overall identification accuracy for REDSI was 84.1% and the kappa coefficient was 0.76. Moreover, REDSI performed better than other commonly used disease spectral indexes for yellow rust discrimination at the canopy scale. The optimal threshold method was adopted for mapping yellow rust infection at regional scales based on realistic Sentinel-2 multispectral image data to further assess REDSI's ability for yellow rust detection. The overall accuracy was 85.2% and kappa coefficient was 0.67, which was found through validation against a set of field survey data. This study suggests that the Sentinel-2 MSI has the potential for yellow rust discrimination, and the newly proposed REDSI has great robustness and generalized ability

  1. Safety of the yellow Fever vaccine: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, James D; Parker, Emily D; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; Kharbanda, Elyse O; Naleway, Allison; Marcy, S Michael; Molitor, Beth; Kuckler, Leslie; Baggs, James

    2013-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) vaccine is considered safe; however, severe illness and death following vaccination have been reported. Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) and US Department of Defense (DoD) data were used to identify adverse reactions following YF vaccination. Within the VSD, YF-vaccine-exposed subjects were compared to age-, site-, and gender-matched unexposed subjects. YF-vaccine-exposed DoD subjects were studied using a risk-interval design. For both cohorts, ICD-9 codes were analyzed for allergic and local reactions, mild systemic reactions, and possible visceral and neurologic adverse events (AEs). The VSD cohort received 47,159 doses from 1991 through 2006. The DoD cohort received 1.12 million doses from 1999 through 2007. Most subjects received other vaccines simultaneously. In the VSD cohort, rates of allergic, local, and mild systemic reactions were not statistically different between YF-vaccine-exposed and -unexposed subjects. In the DoD, there was an increased risk for outpatient allergic events in the period following vaccination with YF and other vaccines rate ratios [RR 3.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.35-4.41] but with no increased risk for inpatient allergic reactions. In both cohorts, inpatient ICD-9 codes for visceral events were significantly less common following vaccination; inpatient codes for neurologic events were less common in the VSD YF-vaccine-exposed adult cohort, but did not differ between exposed and unexposed periods in the DoD. In the DoD, one fatal case of YF-vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YF-vaccine-AVD) was detected. The estimated death rate was 0.89 for 1,000,000 YF vaccine doses (95% CI 0.12-6.31/1,000,000 doses). No YF vaccine-associated deaths occurred in the VSD. In these closed cohorts we did not detect increased risk for visceral or neurologic events following YF vaccination. The death rate following YF vaccine was consistent with previous reports. These data support current recommendations for use of YF

  2. Yellow fever vaccine for patients with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barte, Hilary; Horvath, Tara H; Rutherford, George W

    2014-01-23

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease prevalent in tropical Africa and Latin America. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are 200,000 cases of YF and 30,000 deaths worldwide annually. Treatment for YF is supportive, but a live attenuated virus vaccine is effective for preventing infection. WHO recommends immunisation for all individuals > 9 months living in countries or areas at risk. However, the United States Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) advises that YF vaccine is contraindicated in individuals with HIV. Given the large populations of HIV-infected individuals living in tropical areas where YF is endemic, YF vaccine may be an important intervention for preventing YF in immunocompromised populations. To assess the risk and benefits of YF immunisation for people infected with HIV. We used standard Cochrane methods to search electronic databases and conference proceedings with relevant search terms without limits to language. Randomised controlled trials and cohort studies of individuals with HIV infection who received YF vaccine (17DD or 17D-204). Two authors screened abstracts of references identified by electronic or bibliographic searches according to inclusion and exclusion criteria as detailed in the protocol. We identified 199 references and examined 19 in detail for study eligibility. Data were abstracted independently using a standardised abstraction form. Three cohort studies were included in the review. They examined 484 patients with HIV infection who received YF immunisation. Patients with HIV infection developed significantly lower concentrations of neutralising antibodies in the first year post immunisation compared to uninfected patients, though decay patterns were similar for recipients regardless of HIV infection. No study patient with HIV infection suffered serious adverse events as a result of YF vaccination. YF vaccination can produce protective levels of neutralising antibodies in

  3. Impact of tropical cyclone Matmo on mixed zone of the Yellow and Bohai seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Ji, Diansheng; Hou, Chawei; Guo, Kai; Ji, Ling

    2017-12-01

    The Bohai Sea is a low-lying semi-enclosed sea area that is linked to the Yellow Sea via the Bohai straits (mixed zone). Its off shore seabed is shallow, which makes it vulnerable to serious marine meteorological disasters associated with the northward passage of Pacifi c tropical cyclones. Analyses on data of remote sensing and buoy of the mixed zone of the Yellow and Bohai seas indicate that all the wind speed, signifi cant wave height, and salinity (SAL) increased, sea surface temperature decreased, and wind energy density changed considerably during the passage of tropical cyclone Matmo on July 25, 2014. It was found that the SAL inversion layer in the mixed zone of the Yellow and Bohai Seas was caused by the tropical cyclone. Furthermore, it was found that the tropical cyclone transported the northern Yellow Sea cold water mass (NYSCWM) into the mixed zone of the Yellow and Bohai Seas. The NYSCWM has direct infl uence on both the aquaculture and the ecological environment of the region. Therefore, further research is needed to establish the mechanism behind the formation of the SAL inversion layer in the mixed zone, and to determine the infl uence of tropical cyclones on the NYSCWM.

  4. Persistence of yellow fever vaccine-induced antibodies after solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyplosz, B; Burdet, C; François, H; Durrbach, A; Duclos-Vallée, J C; Mamzer-Bruneel, M-F; Poujol, P; Launay, O; Samuel, D; Vittecoq, D; Consigny, P H

    2013-09-01

    Immunization using live attenuated vaccines represents a contra-indication after solid organ transplantation (SOT): consequently, transplant candidates planning to travel in countries where yellow fever is endemic should be vaccinated prior to transplantation. The persistence of yellow fever vaccine-induced antibodies after transplantation has not been studied yet. We measured yellow-fever neutralizing antibodies in 53 SOT recipients vaccinated prior to transplantation (including 29 kidney recipients and 18 liver recipients). All but one (98%) had protective titers of antibodies after a median duration of 3 years (min.: 0.8, max.: 21) after transplantation. The median antibody level was 40 U/L (interquartile range: 40-80). For the 46 patients with a known or estimated date of vaccination, yellow-fever antibodies were still detectable after a median time of 13 years (range: 2-32 years) post-immunization. Our data suggest there is long-term persistence of antibodies to yellow fever in SOT recipients who have been vaccinated prior to transplantation. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. Dengue and the risk of urban yellow fever reintroduction in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massad Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose a mathematical method for the estimation of the Basic Reproduction Number, R0, of urban yellow fever in a dengue-infested area. METHODS: The method is based on the assumption that, as the same vector (Aedes aegypti causes both infections, all the quantities related to the mosquito, estimated from the initial phase of dengue epidemic, could be applied to yellow fever dynamics. It is demonstrated that R0 for yellow fever is, on average, 43% lower than that for dengue. This difference is due to the longer dengue viremia and its shorter extrinsic incubation period. RESULTS: In this study the analysis was expanded to the epidemiological situation of dengue in São Paulo in the year 2001. The total number of dengue cases increased from 3,582 in 2000 to 51,348 in 2001. It was then calculated R0 for yellow fever for every city which have shown R0 of dengue greater than 1. It was also estimated the total number of unprotected people living in highly risky areas for urban yellow fever. CONCLUSIONS: Currently there is a great number of non-vaccinated people living in Aedes aegypti infested area in the state of São Paulo.

  6. Comparative Thermal Degradation Patterns of Natural Yellow Colorants Used in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Pedro J; Fernández-López, José A; Angosto, José M; Obón, José M

    2015-12-01

    There is a great interest in natural yellow colorants due to warnings issued about certain yellow food colorings of synthetic origin. However, no comparative studies have been reported of their thermal stability. For this reason, the thermal stabilities of six natural yellow colorants used in foods--lutein, riboflavin, curcumin, ß-carotene, gardenia yellow and Opuntia betaxanthins--were studied in simple solutions over a temperature range 30-90 °C. Spectral properties and visual color were investigated during 6 h of heat treatment. Visual color was monitored from the CIEL*a*b* parameters. The remaining absorbance at maximum wavelength and the total color difference were used to quantify color degradation. The rate of color degradation increased as the temperature rose. The results showed that the thermal degradation of the colorants followed a first-order reaction kinetics. The reaction rate constants and half-life periods were determined as being central to understanding the color degradation kinetics. The temperature-dependent degradation was adequately modeled on the Arrhenius equation. Activation energies ranged from 3.2 kJmol(-1) (lutein) to 43.7 kJmol(-1) (Opuntia betaxanthins). ß-carotene and lutein exhibited high thermal stability, while betaxanthins and riboflavin degraded rapidly as temperature increased. Gardenia yellow and curcumin were in an intermediate position.

  7. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF MANGOSTEEN FOR EXPORT THROUGH DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM AND YELLOW FLUORESCENT STICKY TRAP INSTALLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affandi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn. dubbed as “finest fruit of the world”, has potential for both domestic market and export. However, this potential is threatened by low fruit quality caused by production of yellow latex and fruit scarring. The research objective was to obtain technology to reduce yellow latex and control Scirtothrips dorsalis, a pest that causes scarring on mangosteen. A randomized block design with four treatments and 14 replications was used in this research. Significant differences among the treatments were calculated using the Honestly Significant Difference (HSD test. The results showed that treatment of drip irrigation system in combination with removing weeds under the canopy (A or removing weeds followed by minimum tillage under the canopy (B or removing weeds then covering with rice hay mulch under the canopy (C, where N, P, K, Ca, Mg fertilizer and yellow fluorescent sticky trap were applied could reduce scarring intensity and percentage of yellow latex on the fruit peel. However, the treatments did not significantly impact fruit diameter or percentage of yellow latex inside the fruit. Nevertheless, treatment C improved mangosteen quality by as much as 67.79% fulfilling export standard requirements.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of black, red and yellow nanoparticles pigments from the iron sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mufti, Nandang; Atma, T.; Fuad, A.; Sutadji, E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to synthesize nanoparticles of black pigment of Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), red pigment of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ), and yellow pigment of ghoetite (α-FeOOH) from the iron sand. The black pigment of Fe 3 O 4 and the yellow pigment α-FeOOH nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method with variation of pH. Whereas, the red pigment Fe 2 O 3 was synthesized by sintering Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles at temperature between 400 °C and 700 7°C for 1 hour. All the pigments has been characterized using X-ray diffraction and SEM. The XRD results shown that the particle size of the black pigmen Fe 3 O 4 , red pigment Fe 3 O 4 and yellow pigment α-FeOOH are around 12, 32, and 30 nm respectively. The particle size of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles increase by increasing sintering temperature from 32 nm at 400 °C to 39 nm at 700 °C. For yellow pigment of α-FeOOH, the particle size increase by increasing pH from 30,54 nm at pH 4 to 48,60 nm at pH 7. The SEM results shown that the morphologies of black, yellow and red pigments are aglomarated

  9. Yellow River Icicle Hazard Dynamic Monitoring Using UAV Aerial Remote Sensing Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H B; Wang, G H; Tang, X M; Li, C H

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the response of Yellow River icicle hazard change requires accurate and repeatable topographic surveys. A new method based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) aerial remote sensing technology is proposed for real-time data processing in Yellow River icicle hazard dynamic monitoring. The monitoring area is located in the Yellow River ice intensive care area in southern BaoTou of Inner Mongolia autonomous region. Monitoring time is from the 20th February to 30th March in 2013. Using the proposed video data processing method, automatic extraction covering area of 7.8 km 2 of video key frame image 1832 frames took 34.786 seconds. The stitching and correcting time was 122.34 seconds and the accuracy was better than 0.5 m. Through the comparison of precise processing of sequence video stitching image, the method determines the change of the Yellow River ice and locates accurate positioning of ice bar, improving the traditional visual method by more than 100 times. The results provide accurate aid decision information for the Yellow River ice prevention headquarters. Finally, the effect of dam break is repeatedly monitored and ice break five meter accuracy is calculated through accurate monitoring and evaluation analysis

  10. Morphological evolution of prussian yellow Fe[Fe(CN){sub 6}] colloidal nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Jianmin, E-mail: jmgu@ysu.edu.cn; Fu, Shaoyan; Jin, Cuihong; Liu, Xin; Gao, Yahui; Wu, Jingxiao; Bian, Zhenpan; Tian, Hua; Wang, Lin; Gao, Faming

    2016-07-15

    A simple hydrothermal system was developed for controllable morphologies of the Prussian yellow Fe[Fe(CN){sub 6}] nanostructures in the presence of organic additives. Hollow and solid nanospheres of the Prussian yellow materials were successfully synthesized with suitable experimental conditions. It is found that the amounts of organic additives CTAB could result in the formation of the spherical nanocrystals and the hydrolysis of phosphate in the solution could play a role in the final morphology of the products. A possible formation mechanism of the Prussian yellow nanostructures is proposed. - Graphical abstract: A hydrothermal process was developed for controllable fabrication of the Prussian yellow hollow and solid nanospheres with the employment of different phosphate. The hydrolysis of phosphate in the solution could play a role in the morphology of the Prussian yellow nanomaterials. The acid phosphate (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) could result in the formation of the solid nanoparticles. The alkalescent phosphate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) could result in the formation of the hollow nanoparticles. Display Omitted.

  11. Behavioural responses of the yellow emitting annelid Tomopteris helgolandica to photic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveneaux, Anaïd; Gielen, Marie-Charlotte; Mallefet, Jérôme

    2018-05-01

    In contrast to most mesopelagic bioluminescent organisms specialised in the emission and reception of blue light, the planktonic annelid Tomopteris helgolandica produces yellow light. This unusual feature has long been suggested to serve for intraspecific communication. Yet, this virtually admitted hypothesis has never been tested. In this behavioural study of spectral colour sensitivity, we first present an illustrated repertoire of the postures and action patterns described by captive specimens. Then video tracking and motion analysis are used to quantify the behavioural responses of singled out worms to photic stimuli imitating intraspecific (yellow) or interspecific (blue) bioluminescent signals. We show the ability of T. helgolandica to react and to contrast its responses to bioluminescent-like blue and yellow light signals. In particular, the attractive effect of yellow light and the variation of angular velocity observed according to the pattern of yellow stimuli (flashes versus glows) support the intraspecific communication hypothesis. However, given the behavioural patterns of T. helgolandica, including mechanically induced light emission, the possibility that bioluminescence may be part of escape/defence responses to predation, should remain an open question. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Flight feather molt in Yellow-headed Blackbirds (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Linz, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Yellow-headed Blackbirds (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) in central North Dakota undergo prebasic molt or prejuvenile molt during late summer. Nestling Yellow-headed Blackbirds initiate a complete prejuvenile molt, grow their primary and secondary regimes in about 40 days, completing molt after they leave the nest by the first week in August. Remiges are not replaced during the subsequent preformative molt, being retained until the second prebasic molt. Nonlinear (logistic) regression of primary remex growth during definitive prebasic molts of Yellow-headed Blackbirds indicated 38 days were required to complete the linear phase of growth (between 10% and 90% of total primary length). Males added 19.5 mm/d and females added 15.7 mm/d to the total length of all primaries during this linear growth phase; an average of 4–5 mm per primary remex per day. Definitive prebasic molting of primary remiges in males and females was initiated in late June, after nesting and brood rearing were completed. Molts of Yellow-headed Blackbirds were completed by early September, before birds emigrated from North Dakota during mid-September. Because of their comparatively early completion of molt and emigration from the state, as well as their more diverse diet, agricultural depredation caused by Yellow-headed Blackbirds in North Dakota is likely less than that of Red-winged Blackbirds and Common Grackles.

  13. Differentiation of strains of yellow fever virus in γ-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgeorge, R.; Bradish, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The mouse sensitized by optimal, sub-lethal γ-irradiation has been used for the differentiation of strains of yellow fever virus and for the resolution of their immunogenicity and pathogenicity as distinct characteristics. For different strains of yellow fever virus, the patterns of antibody-synthesis, regulatory immunity (pre-challenge) and protective immunity (post-challenge) are differentially sensitive to γ-irradiation. These critical differentiations of strains of yellow fever virus in γ-irradiated mice have been compared with those shown in normal athymic and immature mice in order to elucidate the range of quantifiable in vivo characteristics and the course of the virus-host interaction. This is discussed as a basis for the comparisons of the responses of model and principal hosts to vaccines and pathogens. (author)

  14. Yellow fever and Hajj: with all eyes on Zika, a familiar flavivirus remains a threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Qanta A; Memish, Ziad A

    2016-12-01

    Hajj is among the world's largest mass gatherings, drawing between 2 and 3.5 million Muslims from 183 nations annually to perform pilgrimage in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Infectious disease outbreaks can be imported both into the Hajj population and exported internationally by returning pilgrims. The domestic Saudi population can also be at risk of outbreaks traveling amid this mass migration. With yellow fever reported for the first time in China following the infection of expatriate Chinese workers in Angola and a full blown outbreak underway in wider West Africa, the prospect of yellow fever outbreaks in Asia threatens to impact Saudi Arabia, both during and beyond the Hajj season. With global focus trained on Zika, the rising threat of yellow fever cannot be overlooked. Strategies to mitigate risk to Saudi Arabia and the global population are thereby suggested.

  15. T Cell-Mediated Immunity towards Yellow Fever Virus and Useful Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan M; Klimstra, William B

    2017-04-11

    The 17D line of yellow fever virus vaccines is among the most effective vaccines ever created. The humoral and cellular immunity elicited by 17D has been well characterized in humans. Neutralizing antibodies have long been known to provide protection against challenge with a wild-type virus. However, a well characterized T cell immune response that is robust, long-lived and polyfunctional is also elicited by 17D. It remains unclear whether this arm of immunity is protective following challenge with a wild-type virus. Here we introduce the 17D line of yellow fever virus vaccines, describe the current state of knowledge regarding the immunity directed towards the vaccines in humans and conclude with a discussion of animal models that are useful for evaluating T cell-mediated immune protection to yellow fever virus.

  16. Serological reactions in Rhesus monkeys inoculated with the 17D strain of yellow fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GROOT, H

    1962-01-01

    Haemagglutination-inhibition tests, which depend on the appearance of haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies in the serum in virus infections, are in common use in the study of arthropod-borne diseases. This paper contains the results of an investigation into the appearance and pattern of haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies in the serum of rhesus monkeys inoculated intracerebrally with the 17D strain of yellow fever virus during the testing of seed lots of yellow fever vaccine. These antibodies appeared on the tenth day after inoculation, and were still demonstrable four years later. In all of the eight monkeys tested complement-fixing and neutralizing antibodies against yellow fever antigens also developed, and in six out of the eight heterologous antigens developed.

  17. T Cell-Mediated Immunity towards Yellow Fever Virus and Useful Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan M.; Klimstra, William B.

    2017-01-01

    The 17D line of yellow fever virus vaccines is among the most effective vaccines ever created. The humoral and cellular immunity elicited by 17D has been well characterized in humans. Neutralizing antibodies have long been known to provide protection against challenge with a wild-type virus. However, a well characterized T cell immune response that is robust, long-lived and polyfunctional is also elicited by 17D. It remains unclear whether this arm of immunity is protective following challenge with a wild-type virus. Here we introduce the 17D line of yellow fever virus vaccines, describe the current state of knowledge regarding the immunity directed towards the vaccines in humans and conclude with a discussion of animal models that are useful for evaluating T cell-mediated immune protection to yellow fever virus. PMID:28398253

  18. The centennial of the Yellow Fever Commission and the use of informed consent in medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güereña-Burgueño Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The year 2000 marked the centennial of the discovery of the mode of transmission of yellow fever. Informed consent was systematically used for the first time in research. This process was the result of a complex social phenomenon involving the American Public Health Association, the US and Spanish Governments, American and Cuban scientists, the media, and civilian and military volunteers. The public health and medical communities face the AIDS pandemic at the beginning of the 21st Century, as they faced the yellow fever epidemic at the beginning of the 20th Century. Current medical research dilemmas have fueled the debate about the ethical conduct of research in human subjects. The AIDS pandemic is imposing enormous new ethical challenges on the conduct of medical research, especially in the developing world. Reflecting on the yellow fever experiments of 1900, lessons can be learned and applied to the current ethical challenges faced by the international public health research community.

  19. Molecular structures and metabolic characteristics of protein in brown and yellow flaxseed with altered nutrient traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Booker, Helen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-07-16

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the chemical profiles; crude protein (CP) subfractions; ruminal CP degradation characteristics and intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein (RUP); and protein molecular structures using molecular spectroscopy of newly developed yellow-seeded flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Seeds from two yellow flaxseed breeding lines and two brown flaxseed varieties were evaluated. The yellow-seeded lines had higher (P RUP (29.2 vs 35.1% CP) than that in the brown-seeded varieties. However, the total supply of digestible RUP was not significantly different between the two seed types. Regression equations based on protein molecular structural features gave relatively good estimation for the contents of CP (R(2) = 0.87), soluble CP (R(2) = 0.92), RUP (R(2) = 0.97), and intestinal digestibility of RUP (R(2) = 0.71). In conclusion, molecular spectroscopy can be used to rapidly characterize feed protein molecular structures and predict their nutritive value.

  20. Shake flask decolourization of direct dye solar golden yellow R by pleurotus ostreatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilani, K.; Asghar, M.; Bhatti, H.N.; Mushtaq, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Different on site treatment technologies are in practice for industrial wastewaters but bioremediation using white rot fungi is the most attractive option due to complete degradation of the pollutants to non toxic end products. Three direct dyes (Solar golden yellow R, Solar brilliant red BA and Solar orange RSN) were decolourized using white rot fungus (WRF) Pleurotus ostreatus. The best decolourized dye Solar golden yellow R was selected for subsequent optimization studies for decolourization. Under optimum conditions Pleurotus ostreatus caused 90.32 % decolourization of 0.01 % Solar golden yellow R solution within two days of shake flask incubation at pH 3.5 and 30 deg. C temperature in Kirk's basal nutrient medium with added 1 % starch and 0.01 % ammonium sulphate as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Ligninolytic enzyme activities were correlated to dye decolourization and maximum laccase activity of 356.23 U/ml was also noted in the maximally decolourized medium. (author)