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Sample records for yellow pea flour

  1. Functional properties of processed pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Germination increased water absorption capacity, bulk density, oil absorption capacity, foaming capacity, foaming stability, emulsion activity, nitrogen solubility and decreased gelatin and wetability of the pigeon pea flour. Germinated pigeon pea flour has great potentials in food prperations that require hydration to improve ...

  2. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is used...

  3. Rheological and qualitative characteristics of pea flour incorporated cracker biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of pea flour for cracker biscuits production was investigated in this study. Pea flour was characterised by high protein (21.46 % and ash (3.11 % content and exhibited relatively high emulsifying (37.50 ml/100 ml and foaming (53.50 ml/100 ml capacity. The effect of pea flour incorporation to wheat dough (substitution levels 0, 10, 20 and 30 % on the rheological properties, physical characteristics and sensory parameters of cracker biscuits were also evaluated. Farinographic measurements showed that pea flour addition resulted in increasing of water absorption (from 58.90 to 61.80 % and dough development time (from 3.55 to 4.50 min, whereas dough stability was decreased (from 6.69 to 3.50 min. It was also found that incorporation of pea flour to cracker biscuits modified physical properties of final products by different ways (decreasing of volume index, width and spread ratio, increasing of thickness. From the sensory evaluation revealed that cracker biscuits prepared from blend flour contained 10 % pea flour showed no significant differences from wheat cracker biscuits. Higher levels of pea flour in the products adversely affected the odour, taste, firmness, colour and overall acceptance of final products.

  4. Optimization of mold wheat bread fortified with soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erben, Melina; Osella, Carlos A

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of replacing a selected wheat flour for defatted soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate on both dough rheological characteristics and the performance and nutritional quality of bread. A mixture design was used to analyze the combination of the ingredients. The optimization process suggested that a mixture containing 88.8% of wheat flour, 8.2% of defatted soy flour, 0.0% of pea flour and 3.0% of whey protein concentrate could be a good combination to achieve the best fortified-bread nutritional quality. The fortified bread resulted in high protein concentration, with an increase in dietary fiber content and higher calcium levels compared with those of control (wheat flour 100%). Regarding protein quality, available lysine content was significantly higher, thus contributing with the essential amino acid requirement.

  5. Effect of Processing on the in Vitro and in Vivo Protein Quality of Yellow and Green Split Peas (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosworthy, Matthew G; Franczyk, Adam J; Medina, Gerardo; Neufeld, Jason; Appah, Paulyn; Utioh, Alphonsus; Frohlich, Peter; House, James D

    2017-09-06

    In order to determine the effect of extrusion, baking, and cooking on the protein quality of yellow and green split peas, a rodent bioassay was conducted and compared to an in vitro method of protein quality determination. The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) of green split peas (71.4%) was higher than that of yellow split peas (67.8%), on average. Similarly, the average Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) of green split peas (69%) was higher than that of yellow split peas (67%). Cooked green pea flour had lower PDCAAS and DIAAS values (69.19% and 67%) than either extruded (73.61%, 70%) or baked (75.22%, 70%). Conversely, cooked yellow split peas had the highest PDCCAS value (69.19%), while extruded yellow split peas had the highest DIAAS value (67%). Interestingly, a strong correlation was found between in vivo and in vitro analysis of protein quality (R 2 = 0.9745). This work highlights the differences between processing methods on pea protein quality and suggests that in vitro measurements of protein digestibility could be used as a surrogate for in vivo analysis.

  6. Nutritional Combined Greenhouse Gas Life Cycle Analysis for Incorporating Canadian Yellow Pea into Cereal-Based Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Christopher P. F.; Tremorin, Denis

    2018-01-01

    Incorporating low cost pulses, such as yellow peas, that are rich in nutrients and low in fertilizer requirements, into daily food items, can improve the nutritional and sustainability profile of national diets. This paper systematically characterized the effect of using Canadian grown whole yellow pea and refined wheat flours on nutritional density and carbon footprint in cereal-based food products. Canada-specific production data and the levels of 27 macro- and micronutrients were used to calculate the carbon footprint and nutrient balance score (NBS), respectively, for traditional and reformulated pan bread, breakfast cereal, and pasta. Results showed that partial replacement of refined wheat flour with yellow pea flour increased the NBS of pan bread, breakfast cereal, and pasta by 11%, 70%, and 18%, and decreased the life cycle carbon footprint (kg CO2 eq/kg) by 4%, 11%, and 13%, respectively. The cultivation stage of wheat and yellow peas, and the electricity used during the manufacturing stage of food production, were the hotspots in the life cycle. The nutritional and greenhouse gas (GHG) data were combined as the nutrition carbon footprint score (NCFS) (NBS/g CO2 per serving), a novel indicator that reflects product-level nutritional quality per unit environmental impact. Results showed that yellow pea flour increased the NCFS by 15% for pan bread, 90% for breakfast cereal, and 35% for pasta. The results and framework of this study are relevant for food industry, consumers, as well as global and national policy-makers evaluating the effect of dietary change and food reformulation on nutritional and climate change targets. PMID:29659497

  7. Nutritional Combined Greenhouse Gas Life Cycle Analysis for Incorporating Canadian Yellow Pea into Cereal-Based Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Chaudhary

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating low cost pulses, such as yellow peas, that are rich in nutrients and low in fertilizer requirements, into daily food items, can improve the nutritional and sustainability profile of national diets. This paper systematically characterized the effect of using Canadian grown whole yellow pea and refined wheat flours on nutritional density and carbon footprint in cereal-based food products. Canada-specific production data and the levels of 27 macro- and micronutrients were used to calculate the carbon footprint and nutrient balance score (NBS, respectively, for traditional and reformulated pan bread, breakfast cereal, and pasta. Results showed that partial replacement of refined wheat flour with yellow pea flour increased the NBS of pan bread, breakfast cereal, and pasta by 11%, 70%, and 18%, and decreased the life cycle carbon footprint (kg CO2 eq/kg by 4%, 11%, and 13%, respectively. The cultivation stage of wheat and yellow peas, and the electricity used during the manufacturing stage of food production, were the hotspots in the life cycle. The nutritional and greenhouse gas (GHG data were combined as the nutrition carbon footprint score (NCFS (NBS/g CO2 per serving, a novel indicator that reflects product-level nutritional quality per unit environmental impact. Results showed that yellow pea flour increased the NCFS by 15% for pan bread, 90% for breakfast cereal, and 35% for pasta. The results and framework of this study are relevant for food industry, consumers, as well as global and national policy-makers evaluating the effect of dietary change and food reformulation on nutritional and climate change targets.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of stored pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Akanbi, Charles T

    2013-09-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation at various doses (5, 10, 15, 20 kGy) was observed on pigeon pea flour stored for 3 months on proximate composition, functional properties, and peroxide value. Sensory evaluation was also carried out on bean cake (moinmoin) made from nonirradiated and irradiated pigeon pea flour. The results showed that stored gamma-irradiated samples had significantly lower (P flours showed slight increase in water absorption capacity, swelling capacity and bulk density. The peroxide value of crude oil increased significantly with dose increases for the period of storage. The sensory evaluation of moinmoin samples prepared from irradiated pigeon pea flour showed no significant difference from the moinmoin sample prepared from nonirradiated flour. It can be concluded that gamma irradiation can extend the shelf life of pigeon pea flour.

  9. Quality evaluation of cassava-pigeon pea composite flour and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava flour (CF) and pigeon pea flours (PF) were respectively produced and blended in the ratios of 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20. The flour blends were subjected to proximate, functional and anti-nutrient analysis after which they were used to produce cookies. The sensory and physical characteristics were ...

  10. Nutrient composition, functional, and pasting properties of unripe cooking banana, pigeon pea, and sweetpotato flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohizua, Ehimen R; Adeola, Abiodun A; Idowu, Micheal A; Sobukola, Olajide P; Afolabi, T Adeniyi; Ishola, Raphael O; Ayansina, Simeon O; Oyekale, Tolulope O; Falomo, Ayorinde

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated some quality attributes of unripe cooking banana (UBF), pigeon pea (PPF), and sweetpotato (SPF) flour blends. Simplex centroid mixture design was used to obtain 17 blends from the flours. The nutrient composition, color, and functional properties of the blends were evaluated using standard methods. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and treatment means were compared using Duncan's multiple range test at 5% probability level. There were significant ( p  pigeon pea-sweetpotato flour blends are desirable for alleviating malnutrition in Nigeria and developing new food formulations.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of stored pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) flour

    OpenAIRE

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Akanbi, Charles T

    2013-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation at various doses (5, 10, 15, 20 kGy) was observed on pigeon pea flour stored for 3 months on proximate composition, functional properties, and peroxide value. Sensory evaluation was also carried out on bean cake (moinmoin) made from nonirradiated and irradiated pigeon pea flour. The results showed that stored gamma-irradiated samples had significantly lower (P < 0.05) value of protein and little or no effect on moisture content. There were slight decreases in c...

  12. Protein nativity explains emulsifying properties of aqueous extracted protein components from yellow pea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Marlies E.J.; Nikiforidis, Constantinos V.; Goot, van der Atze Jan; Padt, van der Albert

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the emulsifying properties of a protein-enriched fraction from pea are unravelled. The emulsifying properties of mildly fractionated protein fractions from yellow pea and compared to those of commercial pea protein isolate. The emulsion stability of an oil-in-water emulsions were

  13. Development of cookies made with cocoyam, fermented sorghum and germinated pigeon pea flour blends using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Laura C; Okoli, Eric C

    2014-10-01

    Cookies were produced from blends of cocoyam, fermented sorghum and germinated pigeon pea flours. The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of varying the proportions of these components on the sensory and protein quality of the cookies. The sensory attributes studied were colour, taste, texture, crispness and general acceptability while the protein quality indices were biological value (BV) and net protein utilization (NPU). Mixture response surface methodology was used to model the sensory and protein quality with single, binary and ternary combinations of germinated pigeon pea, fermented sorghum and cocoyam flours. Results showed that BV and NPU of most of the cookies were above minimum acceptable levels. With the exception of cookies containing high levels of pigeon pea flour, cookies had acceptable sensory scores. Increase in pigeon pea flour resulted in increase in the BV and NPU. Regression equations suggested that the ternary blends produced the highest increase in all the sensory attributes (with the exception of colour).

  14. Effect of pigeon pea flour addition on the chemical, antinunutrional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gurundi is a popular snack among the school-age children in Oyo town and it is produced by mixing wheat flour with coconut water, grated coconut and sugar. However, gurundi is a carbohydrate food which will be more beneficial to the consumers if its protein content is improved with locally available and ...

  15. Analyses of pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus-encoded proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenz, Björn; Schießl, Ingrid; Greiner, Eva; Krapp, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV) is a multipartite, circular, single-stranded DNA plant virus. PNYDV encodes eight proteins and the function of three of which remains unknown-U1, U2, and U4. PNYDV proteins cellular localization was analyzed by GFP tagging and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) studies. The interactions of all eight PNYDV proteins were tested pairwise in planta (36 combinations in total). Seven interactions were identified and two (M-Rep with CP and MP with U4) were characterized further. MP and U4 complexes appeared as vesicle-like spots and were localized at the nuclear envelope and cell periphery. These vesicle-like spots were associated with the endoplasmatic reticulum. In addition, a nuclear localization signal (NLS) was mapped for U1, and a mutated U1 with NLS disrupted localized at plasmodesmata and therefore might also have a role in movement. Taken together, this study provides evidence for previously undescribed nanovirus protein-protein interactions and their cellular localization with novel findings not only for those proteins with unknown function, but also for characterized proteins such as the CP.

  16. Functional analysis of mildly refined fractions from yellow pea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2015-01-01

    Dry fractionation offers an attractive route to sustainably produce protein-enriched plant-based ingredients. For example, fine milling of peas followed by air classification separates starch granules from the protein matrix. Unlike conventional wet isolates, dry-enriched pea fractions consist of a

  17. Biscuit-making potential of millet/pigeon pea flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneche, E H

    1999-01-01

    Biscuits were produced from millet flour (MF) and pigeon pea flour (PPF) blends. The various ratios of MF to PPF used were 100:0, 75:25, 65:35, and 50:50. The biscuits were analyzed for their nutritional composition. They all contained high proportions of protein (7.5-15.2%), fat (17.1-18.1%) and digestible carbohydrate (60.2-66.5%). The moisture content was in the range 5.0 to 6.6%, ash 1.5-2.3% and crude fiber 0-0.1%. Sensory evaluation results indicated that all the biscuits had high sensory ratings for all the selected attributes evaluated. The recipe with the 65% MF/35% PPF blend resulted in the highest scores for flavor, texture and general acceptability. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between all the biscuits and the familiar Nasco short cake biscuit (reference) in flavor, color, texture and general acceptability.

  18. Evaluation of colour in white and yellow trifoliate yam flours in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colour is one of the important sensory properties that determine the acceptability of food products. Therefore, this work determines the colour in white and yellow trifoliate yam flours in relation to harvesting periods and pre-processing methods. Freshly harvested trifoliate yam tubers were prepared into flour using four ...

  19. Formulation and Evaluation of Cookies Containing Germinated Pigeon Pea, Fermented Sorghum and Cocoyam Flour Blends using Mixture Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Laura C. Okpala; Eric C. Okoli

    2011-01-01

    Cookies were produced from blends of germinated pigeon pea, fermented sorghum and cocoyam flours. The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of varying the proportions of these components on the sensory and protein quality of the cookies. The sensory attributes studied were colour, taste, texture, crispiness and general acceptability while the protein quality indices were Biological Value (BV) and Net Protein Utilization (NPU). Mixture response surface methodology was used to model the...

  20. Effect of banana pulp and peel flour on physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of yellow alkaline noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Saifullah; Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Shin Yong, Yeoh; Min-Tze, Liong; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes the utilization of banana--Cavendish (Musa acuminata L., cv cavendshii) and Dream (Musa acuminata colla. AAA, cv 'Berangan')--pulp and peel flours as functional ingredients in yellow alkaline noodles. Noodles were prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with ripe banana pulp or peel flours. In most cases, the starch hydrolysis index, predicted glycaemic index (pGI) and physicochemical properties of cooked noodles were affected by banana flour addition. In general, the pGI values of cooked noodles were in the order; banana peel noodles banana pulp noodles peel flour was higher in total dietary fibre but lower in resistant starch contents than the pulp flour, the low pGI of banana peel noodles was mainly due to its high dietary fibre content. In conclusion, banana pulp and peel flour could be useful for controlling starch hydrolysis of yellow noodles, even though some physicochemical properties of the noodles were altered.

  1. Gluten-Free Precooked Rice-Yellow Pea Pasta: Effect of Extrusion-Cooking Conditions on Phenolic Acids Composition, Selected Properties and Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouasla, Abdallah; Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Zidoune, Mohammed Nasereddine; Olech, Marta; Nowak, Renata; Mitrus, Marcin; Oniszczuk, Anna

    2016-05-01

    Rice/yellow pea flour blend (2/1 ratio) was used to produce gluten-free precooked pasta using a single-screw modified extrusion-cooker TS-45. The effect of moisture content (28%, 30%, and 32%) and screw speed (60, 80, and 100 rpm) on some quality parameters was assessed. The phenolic acids profile and selected pasta properties were tested, like pasting properties, water absorption capacity, cooking loss, texture characteristics, microstructure, and sensory overall acceptability. Results indicated that dough moisture content influenced all tested quality parameters of precooked pasta except firmness. Screw speed showed an effect only on some quality parameters. The extrusion-cooking process at 30% of dough moisture with 80 rpm is appropriate to obtain rice-yellow pea precooked pasta with high content of phenolics and adequate quality. These pasta products exhibited firm texture, low stickiness, and regular and compact interne structure confirmed by high score in sensory overall acceptability. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Yellow sweet potato flour: use in sweet bread processing to increase β-carotene content and improve quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMANDA C. NOGUEIRA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yellow sweet potato is mostly produced by small farmers, and may be a source of energy and carotenoids in the human diet, but it is a highly perishable crop. To increase its industrial application, yellow sweet potato flour has been produced for use in bakery products. This study aimed to evaluate the technological quality and the carotenoids content in sweet breads produced with the replacement of wheat flour by 0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow sweet potato flour. Breads were characterized by technological parameters and β-carotene levels during nine days of storage. Tukey’s test (p<0.05 was used for comparison between means. The increase in yellow sweet potato flour concentrations in bread led to a decrease of specific volume and firmness, and an increase in water activity, moisture, orange coloring, and carotenoids. During storage, the most significant changes were observed after the fifth day, with a decrease in intensity of the orange color. The β-carotene content was 0.1656 to 0.4715 µg/g in breads with yellow sweet potato flour. This work showed a novel use of yellow sweet potato in breads, which brings benefits to consumers’ health and for the agricultural business.

  3. Yellow sweet potato flour: use in sweet bread processing to increase β-carotene content and improve quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Amanda C; Sehn, Georgia A R; Rebellato, Ana Paula; Coutinho, Janclei P; Godoy, Helena T; Chang, Yoon K; Steel, Caroline J; Clerici, Maria Teresa P S

    2018-01-01

    Yellow sweet potato is mostly produced by small farmers, and may be a source of energy and carotenoids in the human diet, but it is a highly perishable crop. To increase its industrial application, yellow sweet potato flour has been produced for use in bakery products. This study aimed to evaluate the technological quality and the carotenoids content in sweet breads produced with the replacement of wheat flour by 0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow sweet potato flour. Breads were characterized by technological parameters and β-carotene levels during nine days of storage. Tukey's test (p<0.05) was used for comparison between means. The increase in yellow sweet potato flour concentrations in bread led to a decrease of specific volume and firmness, and an increase in water activity, moisture, orange coloring, and carotenoids. During storage, the most significant changes were observed after the fifth day, with a decrease in intensity of the orange color. The β-carotene content was 0.1656 to 0.4715 µg/g in breads with yellow sweet potato flour. This work showed a novel use of yellow sweet potato in breads, which brings benefits to consumers' health and for the agricultural business.

  4. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of an enzymatic protein hydrolysate from yellow field pea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Fatou; Vuong, Tri; Duarte, Jairo; Aluko, Rotimi E; Matar, Chantal

    2012-02-01

    Enzymatic protein hydrolysates of yellow pea seed have been shown to possess high anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activities. The aim of this work was to confirm the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating activities of an enzymatic protein hydrolysate of yellow field pea seeds. The anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of peptides from yellow field pea proteins (Pisum sativum L.) were investigated in LPS/IFN-γ-activated RAW 264.7 NO⁻ macrophages. The immunomodulating potential of pea protein hydrolysate (PPH) was then studied in a murine model. Pea protein hydrolysate, after a 12 h pre-treatment, showed significant inhibition of NO production by activated macrophages up to 20%. Moreover, PPH significantly inhibited their secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α- and IL-6, up to 35 and 80%, respectively. Oral administration of PPH in mice enhanced the phagocytic activity of their peritoneal macrophages and stimulated the gut mucosa immune response. The number of IgA+ cells was elevated in the small intestine lamina propria, accompanied by an increase in the number of IL-4+, IL-10+ and IFN-γ+ cells. This was correlated to up-regulation of IL-6 secretion by small intestine epithelial cells (IEC), probably responsible for B-cell terminal differentiation to IgA-secreting cells. Moreover, PPH might have increased IL-6 production in IECs via the stimulation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) family, especially TLR2 and TLR4 since either anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 was able to completely abolish PPH-induced IL-6 secretion. Enzymatic protein degradation confers anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating potentials to pea proteins, and the resulted peptides could be used as an alternative therapy for the prevention of inflammatory-related diseases.

  5. In vitro digestibility, protein composition and techno-functional properties of Saskatchewan grown yellow field peas (Pisum sativum L.) as affected by processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Boye, Joyce I; Hu, Xinzhong

    2017-02-01

    Saskatchewan grown yellow field pea was subjected to different processing conditions including dehulling, micronization, roasting, conventional/microwave cooking, germination, and combined germination and conventional cooking/roasting. Their nutritional and antinutritional compositions, functional properties, microstructure, thermal properties, in vitro protein and starch digestibility, and protein composition were studied. Processed field peas including conventional cooked yellow peas (CCYP), microwave cooked yellow peas (MCYP), germinated-conventional cooked yellow peas (GCCYP), and germinated-roasted yellow peas (GRYP) exhibited the significantly higher in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), which was in accordance with their significantly lower trypsin inhibitor activity and tannin content. The SDS-PAGE and size exclusion HPLC profiles of untreated pea proteins and their hydrolysates also confirmed the IVPD result that these four treatments facilitated the hydrolysis of pea proteins to a greater extent. The CCYP, MCYP, GCCYP, and GRYP also exhibited significantly higher starch digestibility which was supported by their lower onset (T o ), peak (T p ), and conclusion (T c ) temperatures obtained from DSC thermogram, their lower pasting properties and starch damage results, as well as their distinguished amorphous flakes' configuration observed on the scanning electron microscopic image. LC/ESI-MS/MS analysis following in-gel digests of SDS-PAGE separated proteins allowed detailed compositional characterization of pea proteins. The present study would provide fundamental information to help to better understand the functionality of field peas as ingredients, and particularly in regards to agri-food industry to improve the process efficiency of field peas with enhanced nutritional and techno-functional qualities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular basis of processing-induced changes in protein structure in relation to intestinal digestion in yellow and green type pea (Pisum sativum L.): A molecular spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gloria Qingyu; Warkentin, Tom; Niu, Zhiyuan; Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-12-05

    The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the protein inherent molecular structural features of green cotyledon (CDC Striker) and yellow cotyledon (CDC Meadow) pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds using molecular spectroscopic technique (FT/IR-ATR); (2) measure the denaturation of protein molecular makeup in the two types of pea during dry roasting (120°C for 60 min), autoclaving (120°C for 60 min) or microwaving (for 5 min); and (3) correlate the heat-induced changes in protein molecular makeup to the corresponding changes in protein digestibility determined using modified three-step in vitro procedure. Compared with yellow-type, the green-type peas had higher (Pprotein content. Compared with yellow-type, the green-type peas had lower (Pprotein secondary structure makeup. All processing applications increased α-helix:β-sheet ratio, with the largest (Pprotein within the green (r=-0. 86) and yellow (r=0.81) pea-types. However, across the pea types the correlation was not significant. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses on the entire spectral data from the amide region (ca. 1727-1480 cm(-1)) were able to visualize and discriminate the structural difference between pea varieties and processing treatments. This study shows that the molecular spectroscopy can be used as a rapid tool to screen the protein value of raw and heat-treated peas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. strains for control yellowing pea caused by Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Eraso Insuasty

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The yellowing of pea caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi is considered the most damaging disease of this crop. This study took place at the plant health laboratory and greenhouse of the Universidad de Nariño, and the experimental stage was conducted at the Granja experimental Botana. Its purpose was to evaluate the antagonistic ability of the fungi Trichoderma spp. to F. oxysporum. Isolation of F. oxysporum was made from diseased tissue; Trichoderma strains were obtained from the rhizosphere of healthy plants (collected in the towns of Potosi, Córdoba, Gualmatán, Ipiales and Puerres in the state of Nariño, Colombia, and a commercial strain from laboratory Perkins Ltda. In laboratory, unrestrictedly randomized design with 21 treatments (strains was used. Mycelial growth and inhibition zone were evaluated in dual plantings, which served as selection criteria for greenhouse test where plant height, root length, root dry matter and percentage of incidence were evaluated. In the field, a randomized block design was used to evaluate yield components, plant height and root length with the best strains. In the laboratory, C2 (Córdoba 2, C7 (Gualmatán 3, C14 (Puerres 2, C20 (Potosi 4 and C21 (Perkins Lab. showed antagonistic activity in the greenhouse, C7, C14 and C21 were the best; in field, significant differences between C14 and C21, compared to C7 and the control, were obtained. Strains C14 and C21 have consistent antagonistic capacity and can be used to control F. oxysporum in pea.

  8. Study on the Formulation of Squid (Loligosp) Nugget Added with Yellow Pumpkin (Curcubitamoschata) Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Nurharyati, Lisa; ', Suparmi; Sari, N Ira

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the squid nugget formulation with the addition of pumpkin flour. It was evaluated for the organoleptic value and the proximate composition. The method used was an experimental method and designed as non-factorial completely randomized design (CRD). The treatments were addition of pumpkin flour into the mix, consisting of four levels, namely: N0 (without the addition of pumpkin flour), N1 (pumpkin flour 50 g), N2 (pumpkin flour 75 g) and N3 (pumpkin flour 100 g).B...

  9. A Comparison of Carbon Footprint and Production Cost of Different Pasta Products Based on Whole Egg and Pea Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Nette

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed and food production are inter alia reasons for high greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by the replacement of animal components with plant components in processed food products, such as pasta. The main components currently used for pasta are semolina, and water, as well as additional egg. The hypothesis of this paper is that the substitution of whole egg with plant-based ingredients, for example from peas, in such a product might lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions (GHG and thus a reduced carbon footprint at economically reasonable costs. The costs and carbon footprints of two pasta types, produced with egg or pea protein, are calculated. Plant protein–based pasta products proved to cause 0.57 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq (31% per kg pasta less greenhouse gas emissions than animal-based pasta, while the cost of production increases by 10% to 3.00 €/kg pasta.

  10. A Comparison of Carbon Footprint and Production Cost of Different Pasta Products Based on Whole Egg and Pea Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nette, Antonia; Wolf, Patricia; Schlüter, Oliver; Meyer-Aurich, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Feed and food production are inter alia reasons for high greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by the replacement of animal components with plant components in processed food products, such as pasta. The main components currently used for pasta are semolina, and water, as well as additional egg. The hypothesis of this paper is that the substitution of whole egg with plant-based ingredients, for example from peas, in such a product might lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and thus a reduced carbon footprint at economically reasonable costs. The costs and carbon footprints of two pasta types, produced with egg or pea protein, are calculated. Plant protein–based pasta products proved to cause 0.57 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq) (31%) per kg pasta less greenhouse gas emissions than animal-based pasta, while the cost of production increases by 10% to 3.00 €/kg pasta. PMID:28231112

  11. A Comparison of Carbon Footprint and Production Cost of Different Pasta Products Based on Whole Egg and Pea Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nette, Antonia; Wolf, Patricia; Schlüter, Oliver; Meyer-Aurich, Andreas

    2016-03-04

    Feed and food production are inter alia reasons for high greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by the replacement of animal components with plant components in processed food products, such as pasta. The main components currently used for pasta are semolina, and water, as well as additional egg. The hypothesis of this paper is that the substitution of whole egg with plant-based ingredients, for example from peas, in such a product might lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and thus a reduced carbon footprint at economically reasonable costs. The costs and carbon footprints of two pasta types, produced with egg or pea protein, are calculated. Plant protein-based pasta products proved to cause 0.57 kg CO₂ equivalents (CO₂eq) (31%) per kg pasta less greenhouse gas emissions than animal-based pasta, while the cost of production increases by 10% to 3.00 €/kg pasta.

  12. Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector as Vaccine for the Prevention and Treatment of Mosaic Diseases in Pea, Broad Bean, and Eustoma Plants by Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Satoh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases.

  13. The impact of extrusion on the nutritional composition, dietary fiber and in vitro digestibility of gluten-free snacks based on rice, pea and carob flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, C; Cabellos, B; Sánchez, C; Cuadrado, C; Guillamón, E; Pedrosa, M M

    2017-10-18

    Consumers and the food industry are demanding healthier products. Expanded snacks with a high nutritional value were developed from different rice, pea and carob flour blends. The proximate composition, starch (total and resistant), amylose and amylopectin, dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) contents, and the in vitro protein digestibility of different rice-legume formulations, were evaluated before and after the extrusion process. Compared with the corresponding non-extruded blends (control), the extrusion treatment did not change the total protein content, however, it reduced the soluble protein (61-86%), the fat (69-92%) and the resistant starch contents (100%). The total starch content of all studied blends increased (2-19%) after extrusion. The processing increased the in vitro protein digestibility, reaching values around 88-95% after extrusion. Total dietary fiber was reduced around 30%, and the insoluble fraction was affected to a larger extent than the soluble fraction by the extrusion process. Because of its balanced nutritional composition, high dietary fiber content, as well as low energy density, these novel gluten-free snack-like foods could be considered as functional foods and a healthier alternative to commercially available gluten-containing or gluten-free and low nutritional value snacks.

  14. Quantitative and Qualitative Involvement of P3N-PIPO in Overcoming Recessive Resistance against Clover Yellow Vein Virus in Pea Carrying the cyv1 Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun Hee; Hagiwara-Komoda, Yuka; Atsumi, Go; Shimada, Ryoko; Hisa, Yusuke; Naito, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    In pea carrying cyv1, a recessive gene for resistance to Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV), ClYVV isolate Cl-no30 was restricted to the initially infected cells, whereas isolate 90-1 Br2 overcame this resistance. We mapped the region responsible for breaking of cyv1-mediated resistance by examining infection of cyv1 pea with chimeric viruses constructed from parts of Cl-no30 and 90-1 Br2. The breaking of resistance was attributed to the P3 cistron, which is known to produce two proteins: P3, from the main open reading frame (ORF), and P3N-PIPO, which has the N-terminal part of P3 fused to amino acids encoded by a small open reading frame (ORF) called PIPO in the +2 reading frame. We introduced point mutations that were synonymous with respect to the P3 protein but nonsynonymous with respect to the P3N-PIPO protein, and vice versa, into the chimeric viruses. Infection of plants with these mutant viruses revealed that both P3 and P3N-PIPO were involved in overcoming cyv1-mediated resistance. Moreover, P3N-PIPO quantitatively affected the virulence of Cl-no30 in cyv1 pea. Additional expression in trans of the P3N-PIPO derived from Cl-no30, using White clover mosaic virus as a vector, enabled Cl-no30 to move to systemic leaves in cyv1 pea. Susceptible pea plants infected with chimeric ClYVV possessing the P3 cistron of 90-1 Br2, and which were therefore virulent toward cyv1 pea, accumulated more P3N-PIPO than did those infected with Cl-no30, suggesting that the higher level of P3N-PIPO in infected cells contributed to the breaking of resistance by 90-1 Br2. This is the first report showing that P3N-PIPO is a virulence determinant in plants resistant to a potyvirus. PMID:23616656

  15. The effect of flour from the rind of the yellow passion fruit on glycemic control of people with diabetes mellitus type 2: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura; Veras, Vivian Saraiva; de Freitas, Roberto Wagner Júnior Freire; de Paula, Maria do Livramento; de Araújo, Thiago Moura; Uchôa, Lilian Raquel Alexandre; Gaspar, Maria Wendiane Gueiros; Cunha, Maria da Conceição do Santos Oliveira; Serra, Maria Aparecida Alves de Oliveira; Carvalho, Carolina Maria de Lima; Costa, Edmara Chaves; Damasceno, Marta Maria Coelho

    2017-01-01

    The single or combined use of herbal and dietary products with medications has shown benefits in the metabolic modulation of carbohydrates, in the restoring of the function of pancreatic beta cells, and in insulin resistance. To analyze the effect of the use of flour made from the rind of the yellow passion fruit on the glycemic control of people with diabetes mellitus type 2. An open, prospective, randomized clinical trial was undertaken with 54 participants over an eight-week period. The participants from the case group were advised to ingest 12 g of the flour, three times daily; before breakfast, lunch and dinner. After eight weeks of use of the flour made from the rind of the yellow passion fruit, we did not identify significant statistical differences in the values for capillary blood glucose ( p  = 0.562), fasting blood glucose ( p  = 0.268) or glycated hemoglobin ( p  = 0.229) between the study groups. In the case group, we identified an increase (29.6%-37%) of the people with normal HbA1 c ; however, this did not have statistical relevance ( p  = 0.274). Based in our findings, we believe it is important to extend the time of exposure to the intervention and increase the rigor in the monitoring of adherence in future studies on this topic. Only in this way will we be able to make confident inferences in relation to the use of flour made from the rind of theyellow passion fruit as a therapeutic tool for glycemic and/or metabolic control in persons with DM 2. In the sample in question, the use of the flour made from the rind of the yellow passion fruit, over an eight-week period, did not improve the glycemic control of people with type 2 diabetes. Trial registration: U1111.1187.3616. Registered 6 September, retrospectively registered, in the Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry.

  16. P3N-PIPO, a Frameshift Product from the P3 Gene, Pleiotropically Determines the Virulence of Clover Yellow Vein Virus in both Resistant and Susceptible Peas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Haruka; Miyashita, Yuri; Choi, Sun Hee; Hisa, Yusuke; Rihei, Shunsuke; Shimada, Ryoko; Jeon, Eun Jin; Abe, Junya; Uyeda, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Peas carrying the cyv1 recessive resistance gene are resistant to clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) isolates No.30 (Cl-No.30) and 90-1 (Cl-90-1) but can be infected by a derivative of Cl-90-1 (Cl-90-1 Br2). The main determinant for the breaking of cyv1 resistance by Cl-90-1 Br2 is P3N-PIPO produced from the P3 gene via transcriptional slippage, and the higher level of P3N-PIPO produced by Cl-90-1 Br2 than by Cl-No.30 contributes to the breaking of resistance. Here we show that P3N-PIPO is also a major virulence determinant in susceptible peas that possess another resistance gene, Cyn1, which does not inhibit systemic infection with ClYVV but causes hypersensitive reaction-like lethal systemic cell death. We previously assumed that the susceptible pea cultivar PI 226564 has a weak allele of Cyn1. Cl-No.30 did not induce cell death, but Cl-90-1 Br2 killed the plants. Our results suggest that P3N-PIPO is recognized by Cyn1 and induces cell death. Unexpectedly, heterologously strongly expressed P3N-PIPO of Cl-No.30 appears to be recognized by Cyn1 in PI 226564. The level of P3N-PIPO accumulation from the P3 gene of Cl-No.30 was significantly lower than that of Cl-90-1 Br2 in a Nicotiana benthamiana transient assay. Therefore, Cyn1-mediated cell death also appears to be determined by the level of P3N-PIPO. The more efficiently a ClYVV isolate broke cyv1 resistance, the more it induced cell death systemically (resulting in a loss of the environment for virus accumulation) in susceptible peas carrying Cyn1, suggesting that antagonistic pleiotropy of P3N-PIPO controls the resistance breaking of ClYVV. IMPORTANCE Control of plant viral disease has relied on the use of resistant cultivars; however, emerging mutant viruses have broken many types of resistance. Recently, we revealed that Cl-90-1 Br2 breaks the recessive resistance conferred by cyv1, mainly by accumulating a higher level of P3N-PIPO than that of the nonbreaking isolate Cl-No.30. Here we show that a

  17. Immunofluorescence detection of pea protein in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrášová, Michaela; Pospiech, Matej; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Javůrková, Zdeňka

    2016-08-01

    In this study we developed an immunofluorescence method to detect pea protein in meat products. Pea protein has a high nutritional value but in sensitive individuals it may be responsible for causing allergic reactions. We produced model meat products with various additions of pea protein and flour; the detection limit (LOD) of the method for pea flour was 0.5% addition, and for pea protein it was 0.001% addition. The repeatabilities and reproducibilities for samples both positive and negative for pea protein were all 100%. In a blind test with model products and commercial samples, there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between the declared concentrations of pea protein and flour and the immunofluorescence method results. Sensitivity was 1.06 and specificity was 1.00. These results show that the immunofluorescence method is suitable for the detection of pea protein in meat products.

  18. Evaluation of the effect of yellow konjac flour-κ-carrageenan mixed gels and red koji rice extracts on the properties of restructured meat using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjanarko, Simon Bambang; Amalia, Qory; Hermanto, Mochamad Bagus; Mubarok, Ahmad Zaki

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, the effect of two independent variables, yellow konjac flour-κ-carrageenan (KFC) mixed gels and red koji rice (RKR) extracts for the development of restructured meat product, was investigated using central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). The assessed physical characteristics were hardness, water holding capacity (WHC), and color (° hue ) of the restructured meat products. The second order regression models with high R 2 value were significantly fitted to predict the changes in hardness, WHC and color. The results showed that the predicted optimum formula of restructured meat were the addition of KFC mixed gels at 10.21% and RKR extracts at 6.11%. The experiments results validate these optimum formula and found to be not statistically different at 5% level. Thus, the RSM was successfully employed and can be used to optimize the formulation of restructured meat.

  19. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... which may be added include flours of other cereals, fat, malt flour, soya flour, ... but its protein is of lower nutritional quality than milk, soy, pea and lupin proteins as its ... improvers from local raw materials. It is thought that the.

  20. Genotoxicological Evaluation of NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Aouatif, Chentouf; Looten, Ph.; Parvathi, M. V. S.; Raja Ganesh, S.; Paranthaman, V.

    2013-01-01

    NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate, a protein supplement, is a high-quality source of protein which is primarily emulsifying functional protein. We evaluated the genotoxic potential of NUTRALYS isolated from dry yellow pea, using three established genotoxicity tests (AMES test in vitro chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test) employing OECD guidelines under GLP conditions. In the bacterial reverse mutation test, NUTRALYS did not show positive responses in strains detecting point ...

  1. KAJIAN FORMULASI BISKUIT JAGUNG DALAM RANGKA SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG TERIGU [Study on Corn Biscuit Formulation to Subtitute of wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gracia C.L1*

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the formulation of substitute by corn flour. The flour used roasted corn flour and unroasted corn flour. Results showed that biscuit’s made of 80 gr corn flour and 20 gr wheat flour were accepted by panelist’s and the best formulation was 80 gr corn flour, 20 gr wheat flour, 50 gr margarine, 50 gr sugar and 10 gr yellow egg both of two corn flour. Roasting treatment of corn flour significantly affected fat content, carbohydrate content and digestibility of protein of the biskuit.

  2. Dry fractionation for production of functional pea protein concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Vissers, A.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2013-01-01

    Dry milling in combination with air classification was evaluated as an alternative to conventional wet extraction of protein from yellow field peas (Pisum sativum). Major advantages of dry fractionation are retention of native functionality of proteins and its lower energy and water use. Peas were

  3. Upgrading of shamy wheat bread quality through supplement with flour of certain gamma irradiated legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Soybean flour,chick peas flour and lupines were irradiated at 0,5 and 10 kGy and individually used to replace 5,10 or 15% of wheat flour in shamy bread. The effect of supplementation of wheat flour with these legume flours on the major, chemical composition and nutritional quality of bread was studied. Results indicated that protein, ash and fiber contents of supplemented shamy bread were higher than the control. On the other hand, the amino acids of the shamy wheat bread supplemented irradiated legumes flour, improved the quality (water retention capacity, stailing rate and bread freshness) of bread

  4. Effect of isolation techniques on the characteristics of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) protein isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Adenekan, Monilola K.; Fadimu, Gbemisola J.; Odunmbaku, Lukumon A.; Oke, Emmanuel K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the effect of different isolation techniques on the isolated proteins from pigeon pea was investigated. Water, methanol, ammonium sulfate, and acetone were used for the precipitation of proteins from pigeon pea. Proximate composition, and antinutritional and functional properties of the pigeon pea flour and the isolated proteins were measured. Data generated were statistically analyzed. The proximate composition of the water‐extracted protein isolate was moisture 8.30%...

  5. Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J; Foster, Lauren M; Tyler, Robert T

    2012-08-01

    Pulses, including peas, have long been important components of the human diet due to their content of starch, protein and other nutrients. More recently, the health benefits other than nutrition associated with pulse consumption have attracted much interest. The focus of the present review paper is the demonstrated and potential health benefits associated with the consumption of peas, Pisum sativum L., specifically green and yellow cotyledon dry peas, also known as smooth peas or field peas. These health benefits derive mainly from the concentration and properties of starch, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals in peas. Fibre from the seed coat and the cell walls of the cotyledon contributes to gastrointestinal function and health, and reduces the digestibility of starch in peas. The intermediate amylose content of pea starch also contributes to its lower glycaemic index and reduced starch digestibility. Pea protein, when hydrolysed, may yield peptides with bioactivities, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor activity and antioxidant activity. The vitamin and mineral contents of peas may play important roles in the prevention of deficiency-related diseases, specifically those related to deficiencies of Se or folate. Peas contain a variety of phytochemicals once thought of only as antinutritive factors. These include polyphenolics, in coloured seed coat types in particular, which may have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity, saponins which may exhibit hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic activity, and galactose oligosaccharides which may exert beneficial prebiotic effects in the large intestine.

  6. The stress granule component G3BP is a novel interaction partner for the nuclear shuttle proteins of the nanovirus pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus and geminivirus abutilon mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, Susanna; Greiner, Eva; Amin, Bushra; Sonnewald, Uwe; Krenz, Björn

    2017-01-02

    Stress granules (SGs) are structures within cells that regulate gene expression during stress response, e.g. viral infection. In mammalian cells assembly of SGs is dependent on the Ras-GAP SH3-domain-binding protein (G3BP). The C-terminal domain of the viral nonstructural protein 3 (nsP3) of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) forms a complex with mammalian G3BP and sequesters it into viral RNA replication complexes in a manner that inhibits the formation of SGs. The binding domain of nsP3 to HsG3BP was mapped to two tandem 'FGDF' repeat motifs close to the C-terminus of the viral proteins. It was speculated that plant viruses employ a similar strategy to inhibit SG function. This study identifies an Arabidopsis thaliana NTF2-RRM domain-containing protein as a G3BP-like protein (AtG3BP), which localizes to plant SGs. Moreover, the nuclear shuttle protein (NSP) of the begomovirus abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV), which harbors a 'FVSF'-motif at its C-terminal end, interacts with the AtG3BP-like protein, as does the 'FNGSF'-motif containing NSP of pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV), a member of the Nanoviridae family. We therefore propose that SG formation upon stress is conserved between mammalian and plant cells and that plant viruses may follow a similar strategy to inhibit plant SG function as it has been shown for their mammalian counterparts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  8. Characterization of Pea Vicilin. 1. Denoting Convicilin as the α-Subunit of the Pisum Vicilin Family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Kane, F.E.; Happe, R.P.; Vereijken, J.M.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van

    2004-01-01

    Vicilin, a major globulin protein of pea that has been described as "extremely heterogeneous in terms of its polypeptide composition", was extracted from pea flour under alkaline conditions and subsequently fractionated by salt under acid conditions. This procedure induced the separation of vicilin

  9. Acute effects of pea protein and hull fibre alone and combined on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake in healthy young men--a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Smith, Christopher; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-12-01

    Whether pulse components can be used as value-added ingredients in foods formulated for blood glucose (BG) and food intake (FI) control requires investigation. The objective of this study was to examine of the effects of pea components on FI at an ad libitum meal, as well as appetite and BG responses before and after the meal. In a repeated-measures crossover trial, men (n = 15) randomly consumed (i) pea hull fibre (7 g), (ii) pea protein (10 g), (iii) pea protein (10 g) plus hull fibre (7 g), (iv) yellow peas (406 g), and (v) control. Pea hull fibre and protein were served with tomato sauce and noodles, while yellow peas were served with tomato sauce. Control was noodles and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal (135 min). Appetite and BG were measured pre-pizza (0-135 min) and post-pizza (155-215 min). Protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower pre-pizza BG area under the curve compared with fibre and control. At 30 min, BG was lower after protein plus fibre and yellow peas compared with fibre and control, whereas at 45 and 75 min, protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p pea components as value-added ingredients in foods designed to improve glycemic control.

  10. Morphological, structural, thermal, compositional, vibrational, and pasting characterization of white, yellow, and purple Arracacha Lego-like starches and flours (Arracacia xanthorrhiza).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño-Restrepo, Sandra M; Rincón-Londoño, Natalia; Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Millan-Malo, Beatriz M; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E

    2018-07-01

    This work is focused on the chemical, structural, morphological, thermal, IR vibrational, and pasting characterization of isolated white, yellow, and purple Arracacha starches from Colombia. Inductive couple plasma showed that these starches are rich in potassium. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images show that the starch granules are formed by ovoid fully filled Lego-like starch microparticles, the circular cross-section has a diameter between 9 and 15μm and mayor axis between 20 and 30μm. Each one of these ovoids is formed by irregular wedge-shaped 6 to 10 isolated starch granules with an average size between 4 and 12μm. The amylose content ranged between 31 and 36%. Arracacha starches exhibited high viscosity values (between 20.000 and 28.000cP), which could be influenced by the high content of potassium ions, due to the C-H~K Van Der Waals interaction that was identified by using IR spectroscopy. According to the X-ray diffraction analysis, the starch patterns exhibited broad diffracted peaks which could be associated with the existence of nano-crystals and lamellae; the Differential Scanning calorimetry (DSC) result showed starches with a low gelatinization temperature of about 60°C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. seed flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... and with a nice taste, used for cooking or as lamp oil. The fatty acid ... Pra seeds were obtained from a local market in Nakhon Si Thammarat. Page 2. Table 1. Proximate composition of pra seed flour. Constituent. Percentage ...

  12. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  13. Yellow Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Vaccine Information Testing for Vaccine Adverse Events Yellow fever Vaccine Continuing Education Course Yellow Fever Home Prevention Vaccine Vaccine Recommendations Reactions to Yellow Fever Vacine Yellow Fever Vaccine, Pregnancy, & ... Transmission Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment Maps Africa ...

  14. Effect of different flours on quality of legume cakes to be baked in microwave-infrared combination oven and conventional oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkahraman, Betul Canan; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quality of legume cakes baked in microwave-infrared combination (MW-IR) oven with conventional oven. Legume cake formulations were developed by replacing 10 % wheat flour by lentil, chickpea and pea flour. As a control, wheat flour containing cakes were used. Weight loss, specific volume, texture, color, gelatinization degree, macro and micro-structure of cakes were investigated. MW-IR baked cakes had higher specific volume, weight loss and crust color change and lower hardness values than conventionally baked cakes. Larger pores were observed in MW-IR baked cakes according to scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Pea flour giving the hardest structure, lowest specific volume and gelatinization degree was determined to be the least acceptable legume flour. On the other hand, lentil and chickpea flour containing cakes had the softest structure and highest specific volume showing that lentil and chickpea flour can be used to produce functional cakes.

  15. Effect of incorporation of decorticated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) protein isolate on functional, baking and sensory characteristics of Wheat (Triticum aesitivum) biscuit

    OpenAIRE

    H. A. Hassan; A.I. Mustafa; A.R. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the objectives of using the decorticated pigeon pea protein isolate in the development of protein rich-biscuit, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea protein isolate on the sensory evaluation and quality of biscuit produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea protein Isolate (DPPI) was incorporated in wheat (Triticum aesitivum) flour (WF, extraction rate 72%), for making fortified biscuit. Ratios of DP...

  16. EVALUATION OF COLOUR IN WHITE AND YELLOW TRIFOLIATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    2010-03-20

    Mar 20, 2010 ... 2Department of Food Technology, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. ... Therefore, this work determines the colour in white and yellow trifoliate ... Freshly harvested trifoliate yam tubers were prepared into flour using four.

  17. Mutation breeding in peas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaranowski, J [Institute of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Academy of Agriculture, Poznan (Poland); Micke, A [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1985-02-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  18. Mutation breeding in peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaranowski, J.; Micke, A.

    1985-01-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  19. Soybean flour asthma: detection of allergens by immunoblotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.K.; Schroeckenstein, D.; Meier-Davis, S.; Balmes, J.; Rempel, D.

    1988-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman developed asthma 6 years after beginning work in a food-processing plant in which soybean flour was used as a protein extender. Symptoms of sneezing, coughing, and wheezing would begin within minutes of exposure to soybean flour and resolve 2 hours after exposure ceased. Skin tests were positive to a soy extract prepared from the flour. Airway hyperreactivity was confirmed by a positive bronchial challenge to methacholine. Bronchial challenge with soybean flour produced an immediate increase in specific airway resistance from 5.0 to 22.7 L. cm of H2O/L/sec. There was no response to challenge with lactose. The patient's allergic response to soy-flour extract was further characterized by several immunologic methods. IgE binding to soy-flour protein by direct RAST was 5.98 times that of a normal control serum. The soy-flour extract was separated by dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Twenty-four protein bands were detected in the crude soy-flour extract. After immunoblotting and subsequent autoradiography, nine proteins with molecular weights ranging from 54,500 to 14,875 were found. Cross-reactivity studies with other legumes demonstrated apparent immunologic identity between a component in green pea extract and a soybean protein with a molecular weight of 17,000. The clinical significance of this cross-reactivity is not known. We conclude that in this case of occupational asthma to soybean flour, multiple allergens were involved. Immunoblotting may be useful in identifying the allergens involved in occupational asthma

  20. Selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium peas and oats in selenium-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2011-06-08

    This study determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from the high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg (dry weight) for peas and oats, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1 μg Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet supplemented with 20, 30, or 40 μg Se/kg from peas or oats, respectively. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for yellow peas and oats to those for l-selenomethionine (SeMet; used as a reference) by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in Se concentrations of plasma, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and kidneys. The overall bioavailability was approximately 88% for Se from yellow peas and 92% from oats, compared to SeMet. It was concluded that Se from naturally produced high-Se yellow peas or oats is highly bioavailable in this model and that these high-Se foods may be a good dietary source of Se.

  1. Influence of grinding on the nutritive value of peas for ruminants: comparison between in vitro and in situ approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger-Reverdin, Sylvie; Maaroufi, Chiraze; Chapoutot, Patrick; Peyronnet, Corinne; Sauvant, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In ruminant nutrition, peas are characterized by high protein solubility and degradability, which impair its protein value estimated by the official in situ method. Grinding can be used as a technological treatment of pea seeds to modify their nutritional value. The aim of this study was to compare the in situ method with an in vitro method on the same pea either in a coarse pea flour form (PCF) or in a ground pea fine flour form (PFF) to understand the effect of grinding. Both forms were also reground (GPCF and GPFF). PCF presented a lower rate of in vitro degradation than PFF, and more stable fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia, soluble carbohydrates) even if gas production was higher for the PCF after 48 h of incubation. In situ dry matter and protein degradation were lower for PCF than those for PFF; these differences were more marked than with the in vitro method. Reground peas were very similar to PFF. The values for pea protein digestible in the intestine (PDI) were higher for PCF than those for PFF. This study points out the high sensitivity of the in situ method to grinding. The study needs to be validated by in vivo measurements. PMID:25473488

  2. Yellow fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to thrive. Blood tests can confirm the diagnosis. Treatment There is no specific treatment for yellow fever. ... SJ, Endy TP, Rothman AL, Barrett AD. Flaviviruses (dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis, St. ...

  3. Optimization of composite flour biscuits by mixture response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Laura C; Okoli, Eric C

    2013-08-01

    Biscuits were produced from blends of pigeon pea, sorghum and cocoyam flours. The study was carried out using mixture response surface methodology as the optimization technique. Using the simplex centroid design, 10 formulations were obtained. Protein and sensory quality of the biscuits were analyzed. The sensory attributes studied were appearance, taste, texture, crispness and general acceptability, while the protein quality indices were biological value and net protein utilization. The results showed that while the addition of pigeon pea improved the protein quality, its addition resulted in reduced sensory ratings for all the sensory attributes with the exception of appearance. Some of the biscuits had sensory ratings, which were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from biscuits made with wheat. Rat feeding experiments indicated that the biological value and net protein utilization values obtained for most of the biscuits were above minimum recommended values. Optimization suggested biscuits containing 75.30% sorghum, 0% pigeon pea and 24.70% cocoyam flours as the best proportion of these components. This sample received good scores for the sensory attributes.

  4. Effects of storage temperature on the fungal and chemical spoilage of maize grains and flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, T.; Sattar, A.; Khan, I.; Ahmed, A.

    1989-01-01

    The chemical and fungal spoilage of maize grains and flour of Sarhad White and Sarhad Yellow varieties in relation to time temperature (10 C, 15 C, 20 C and room (30-56 C) storage period at 8-12 months was studied. The results showed that total fungal counts and percent infestation markedly increased with advanced storage and increased temperature. Percentage germination generally decreased during extended storage. Peroxide values of both the grain and flour increased with increasing temperature and storage time. At the end of one year storage the total fungal counts in the grain and flour of Sarhad White and Sarhad Yellow ranged 13.6x10/sup 12/ - 20.0x10/sup 13/ and Yellow ranged 17.1x10/sup 13/ - 22.1x10/sup 14/ respectively. germination and infestation percentage of the grains of Sarhad White and Sarhad Yellow ranged 76-78% and 96-99%. The peroxide value ranged 6.6-7.0 and 6.4-6.8 meg/Kg in the grain and flour of Sarhad White respectively after one year storage. There was more fungal infestation, fungal counts and peroxidation in the grain and flour Sarhad Yellow than that of Sarhad White. (author)

  5. ( Voandze subterranean ) and pigeon pea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation and evaluation of complementary food based on bambara nut ( Voandze subterranean ) and pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... Objectives: The study formulated and evaluated complementary food made from composites of maize, bambara nut and pigeon pea. Materials ...

  6. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. red flour beetle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... 2Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Department of ... most important energy source around the globe ... T. castaneum (red flour beetle) samples were collected from rice.

  8. Quinoa flour in baked products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, K; Coulter, L

    1991-07-01

    The performance of quinoa-wheat flour blends (5/95, 10/90, 20/80, 30/70) were evaluated in breads, cakes and cookies. Breads baked with 5% and 10% quinoa flour were of good quality. Loaf volume decreased, crumb grain became more open and the texture slightly harsh at higher usage levels of quinoa flour. A bitter after taste was noted at the 30% level. Cake quality was acceptable with 5% and 10% of quinoa flour. Cake grain became more open and the texture less silky as the level of quinoa substitution increased. Cake taste improved with either 5% or 10% quinoa flour in the blend. Cookie spread and top grain scores decreased with increasing levels of quinoa flour blended with high-spread cookie flour. Flavor improved up to 20% quinoa flour in the blend. Cookie spread and cookie appearance was improved with a quinoa/low-spread flour blend by using 2% lecithin.

  9. The effect of baking temperature and buckwheat flour addition on the selected properties of wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Selimović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wholegrain buckwheat flour was used to substitute 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wheat flour to make buckwheat enriched wheat bread. Proximate composition, sensory evaluation, total phenols content and antioxidant activity of buckwheat enriched wheat breads were analysed and compared with wheat bread. Wholegrain buckwheat flour contained higher total phenols than wheat flour. The incorporation of buckwheat flour from 15 % to 40 % in bread samples increased the total phenols content from 0.25 (mg GA/g d.m. sample to 0.65 (mg GA/g d.m. sample, and antioxidant activity from 208.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract to 354.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract. Total phenols content decreased during the baking process, while the antioxidant activity increased. Bread samples with 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wholegrain buckwheat flour showed lower lightness (L and whiteness index (WI values of crust and crumb colour compared to the wheat bread. Addition of buckwheat flour increased redness (a and yellowness (b colour values for crumb. Sensory results indicating that three breads with buckwheat flour were moderately acceptable. No differences were found in overall sensory attributes between buckwheat flour enriched bread samples with 15 % and wheat bread (control sample.

  10. Study of Pea Accessions for Development of an Oilseed Pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khodapanahi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Global interest in stable energy resources coupled with growing demand for bio-oils in various conventional and arising industries has renewed the importance of vegetable oil production. To address this global interest, oilseed production has been increased in recent decades by different approaches, such as extending the cultivation area of oil crops, or breeding and growing genetically modified plants. In this study, pea (Pisum sativum L. accessions were screened for lipid content using a rapid extraction method. This method quantifies lipid concentration in pea seeds and was developed by assessing and comparing the results of existing extraction methods used for canola and soybean, the top two Canadian oilseeds. Seeds of 151 field pea accessions were grown to maturity in 2009 and 2010 at McGill University (Quebec, Canada. Overall, lipid concentration in pea seeds ranged from 0.9 to 5.0%. Among several seed characteristics, only seed shape (wrinkled verses round had a significant effect on the total lipid production in the seeds. Peas are a valuable source of protein and starch, but the lipid concentration in their seeds has been undervalued. This research supports the idea of developing a novel dual-purpose oilseed pea that emulates the protein and oil production in soybean seeds while being conveniently adapted to a colder climate.

  11. Determination of the optimum irradiation dose for shelf-life of peas and cherry tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, M. B.; Hayumbu, P.; Siwale, J.; Mutale, C.; Kabwe, L.

    1991-01-01

    Green peas (Pisum Sativum), cultivar (mangetout) and yellow cherry tomatoes (lycoperscum esculantum), cultivar (cerasiforme) were irradiated for different absorbed doses, and their physical characteristics observed under cold storage conditions, in order to extend their shelf lives. Results suggest that 580 Gy is the maximum optimum dose. At this dose the shelf life of cherry tomatoes is shown to be extended. No beneficial effect was recorded on the storage life of green peas. A good correlation was found between the degradation of chlorophill and the spread of spotting disease for this product. (author)., 19 refs., 2 tab

  12. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  13. Textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour and stiff dough 'amala'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, O A; Akinoso, R

    2015-05-01

    The use of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour for stiff dough 'amala' production is one of the ways to curb under-utilization of the tuber. The study evaluates the textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam flour and stiff dough. Freshly harvested trifoliate yam tubers were peeled, washed, sliced and blanched (60 (°)C for 10 min). The sliced yam were soaked in water for 12 h, dried and milled into flour. Pasting viscosities, functional properties, brown index and sensory attributes of the flour and stiff dough were analyzed. Peak, holding strength and final viscosities ranged from 84.09 to 213.33 RVU, 81.25 to 157.00 RVU and 127.58 to 236.17 RVU respectively. White raw flour had higher viscosity than the yellow flours. The swelling index, water absorption capacity and bulk density ranged from 1.46 to 2.28, 2.11 to 2.92 ml H2O/g and 0.71 to 0.88 g/cm(3) respectively. Blanching method employed improved the swelling index and water absorption capacity of flour. The brown index values of flour and stiff dough ranged from 6.73 to 18.36 and 14.63-46.72 respectively. Sensory evaluation revealed significant differences in the colour, odour and general acceptability of the product when compared with the stiff dough from white yam.

  14. Physicochemical, functional and pasting properties of flour produced from gamma irradiated tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocloo, Fidelis C.K.; Okyere, Abenaa A.; Asare, Isaac K.

    2014-01-01

    Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) has been recognised as one of the best nutritional crops that can be used to augment the Ghanaian diet. The application of gamma irradiation as means of preserving tiger nut could modify the characteristics of resultant flour. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, functional and pasting characteristics of flour from gamma irradiated tiger nut. The yellow and black types of tiger nut were sorted, washed and dried in an air-oven at 60 o C for 24 h. The dried tiger nut samples were irradiated at 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy and then flours produced from them. Moisture, ash, pH, titratable acidity, water and oil absorption capacities, swelling power, solubility, bulk density and pasting properties of the flours were determined using appropriate analytical methods. Results showed that irradiation did not significantly (P>0.05) affect the moisture and ash contents of the resultant flours. Gamma irradiation significantly (P≤0.05) increased titratable acidity with concomitant decrease in pH of the flours. No significant differences were observed for water and oil absorption capacities, swelling power as well as bulk density. Solubility significantly (P≤0.05) increased generally with irradiation dose. Peak viscosity, viscosities at 92 °C and 55 °C, breakdown and setback viscosities decreased significantly with irradiation dose. Flour produced from irradiated tiger nut has a potential in complementary food formulations due to its low viscosity and increased solubility values. - Highlights: • Physicochemical, functional and pasting characteristics of flour from gamma irradiated tiger nut were studied. • Irradiation did not affect the moisture and ash contents of the resultant flours. • Titratable acidity increased with decrease in pH of the flours from the irradiated tiger nut. • Solubility increased whereas peak viscosity decreased with irradiation dose. • Flour produced from irradiated tiger nut has a

  15. 21 CFR 137.290 - Self-rising yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-rising yellow corn meal. 137.290 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.290 Self-rising yellow corn meal. Self-rising yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.270 for self-rising white corn meal...

  16. Growth performance and carcass and meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets containing micronized-dehulled peas (Pisum sativum cv. Spirale) as a substitute of soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-07-01

    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of diets containing peas on productive traits, carcass yields, and fatty acid profiles (breast and drumstick meat) of broiler chickens. Hubbard strain broiler chicks, divided into 2 groups, received from 14 d to slaughtering age (49 d) a wheat middlings-based diet containing soybean (190 g/kg) or micronized-dehulled peas (400 g/kg) as the main protein source. The inclusion of peas did not significantly change the growth performance of birds. The pea level had no effect on the dressing percentage, the percentage of breast or drumstick muscles, and abdominal fat. The muscles of birds fed the pea diet had significant (P < 0.05) lower L* (lightness) and b* (yellowness, drumstick muscle) values and fat content. Instead, total collagen and water-holding capacity values were higher in the pea treatment. The polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration in breast and drumstick muscles was significantly increased with the alternative protein source inclusion, whereas the saturated fatty acid was similar among treatments. The n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio of the broiler drumstick meat decreased significantly in the pea group. Dietary pea inclusion improved the saturation index of meat without altering atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. It can be concluded that the pea treatment tested had a positive effect on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens.

  17. Quality assessment of dry noodles made from blend of mocaf flour, rice flour and corn flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifah, N.; Ratnawati, L.

    2017-12-01

    Mocaf flour, rice flour, and corn flour in different concentrations were used to produce dry noodles. The aims of this study were to investigate physicochemical properties of the flours and the quality characteristics of dry noodles made from these flours. Dry noodles were prepared by gelatinization of blending flours followed by feeding the dough to extruder and drying overnight in room temperature. Flours were analyzed for chemical and pasting properties and noodle samples were evaluated for chemical, cooking, and texture properties. The results showed there were significant differences in protein content and elongation between noodles made from blending mocaf and rice flour with that of blending mocaf, rice, and corn flour. The moisture, ash, and protein content of noodle samples ranged from 10.98 to 14.18%, 1.23 to 1.39%, and 4.09 to 5.58%, respectively. Values of noodle cooking quality were ranging from 12.0 - 13.8 minutes, 10.6 to 14.3%, and 204 to 248%, respectively for cooking time, cooking loss, and cooking weight. The elongation, hardness, and adhesiveness of noodles ranged from 276 to 374%, 3,523 to 10,478 gf, and -81.99 to -52.49 g.sec.

  18. Instrumental and sensory properties of pea protein-fortified extruded rice snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Claudia; Buckow, Roman; Silcock, Pat; Oey, Indrawati

    2017-12-01

    Characteristic attributes of pea-protein fortified, extruded rice snacks were evaluated by mechanical, acoustic and descriptive sensory analysis. The addition of pea protein isolate (0 to 45% (w/w)) to rice flour and extruder screw speed strongly affected the expansion behaviour and therefore, textural attributes of extruded snack products. The sensory panel described the texture of highly expanded extrudates as crisp, while low expanded extrudates were perceived as hard, crunchy and non-crisp. Results of the instrumental and sensory analysis were compared and showed a high correlation between mechanical and sensory hardness (r=0.98), as well as acoustic and sensory crispness (r=0.88). However, poor and/or negative correlations between acoustic and sensory hardness and crunchiness were observed (r=-0.35 and -0.84, respectively). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The studies on the preparation of instant noodles from wheat flour supplementing withs weet potato flour

    OpenAIRE

    Taneya, M.L.J.; Biswas, M.M.H.; Shams-Ud-Din, M.

    2014-01-01

    The study reports on the effect of composite flours consisting of wheat and sweet potato flour on the physicochemical and sensory properties of instant noodles. Sweet potato flour was incorporated into wheat flour at flour replacement levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30%. The levels of sweet potato flours increased in the formulations of instant noodle that increased ash, starch, crude fiber and total carbohydrate contents but decreased level of protein. The instant noodles with 20% sweet potato flour...

  20. Studies on the susceptibility of peas and field peas cultivars to Ascochyta pisi (Lib.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to find the plants resistant to Ascochyta pisi causing leaf and spot-pot of peas and field peas. Fourty five cultivars of peas and field peas and 6 breeding materials were tested in field in the period 1975-1978. Cultivars: Bartel, Birte, Borek, Cebeco, Finale and Paloma were to be less susceptible. In laboratory and greenhouse conditions peas and field peas cultivares were examined for susceptible to pathotypes 2 and 4 of Ascochyta pisi. The results obtained proved that cultivars: Borel, cebeco, Finale and Paloma were to be less susceptible to two pathotypes of Ascochyta pisi.

  1. Mutant genes in pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiecicki, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutations of genes Dpo (dehiscing pods) and A (anthocyanin synthesis) played a role in pea domestication. A number of other genes were important in cultivar development for 3 types of usage (dry seeds, green vegetable types, fodder), e.g. fn, fna, le, p, v, fas and af. New genes (induced and spontaneous), are important for present ideotypes and are registered by the Pisum Genetics Association (PGA). Comparison of a pea variety ideotype with the variation available in gene banks shows that breeders need 'new' features. In mutation induction experiments, genotype, mutagen and method of treatment (e.g. combined or fractionated doses) are varied for broadening the mutation spectrum and selecting more genes of agronomic value. New genes are genetically analysed. In Poland, some mutant varieties with the gene afila were registered, controlling lodging by a shorter stem and a higher number of internodes. Really non-lodging pea varieties could strongly increase seed yield. But the probability of detecting a major gene for lodging resistance is low. Therefore, mutant genes with smaller influence on plant architecture are sought, to combine their effect by crossing. Promising seem to be the genes rogue, reductus and arthritic as well as a number of mutant genes not yet genetically identified. The gene det for terminal inflorescence - similarly to Vicia faba - changes plant development. Utilisation of assimilates and ripening should be better. Improvement of harvest index should give higher seed yield. A number of genes controlling disease resistance are well known (eg. Fw, Fnw, En, mo and sbm). Important in mass screening of resistance are closely linked gene markers. Pea gene banks collect respective lines, but mutants induced in highly productive cultivars would be better. Inducing gene markers sometimes seems to be easier than transfer by crossing. Mutation induction in pea breeding is probably more important because a high number of monogenic features are

  2. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.175 Phosphated flour. Phosphated flour, phosphated white flour, and phosphated...

  3. Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Nóbrega Litvoc

    Full Text Available Summary The yellow fever (YF virus is a Flavivirus, transmitted by Haemagogus, Sabethes or Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The disease is endemic in forest areas in Africa and Latin America leading to epizootics in monkeys that constitute the reservoir of the disease. There are two forms of YF: sylvatic, transmitted accidentally when approaching the forests, and urban, which can be perpetuated by Aedes aegypti. In Brazil, the last case of urban YF occurred in 1942. Since then, there has been an expansion of transmission areas from the North and Midwest regions to the South and Southeast. In 2017, the country faced an important outbreak of the disease mainly in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. In 2018, its reach extended from Minas Gerais toward São Paulo. Yellow fever has an incubation period of 3 to 6 days and sudden onset of symptoms with high fever, myalgia, headache, nausea/vomiting and increased transaminases. The disease ranges from asymptomatic to severe forms. The most serious forms occur in around 15% of those infected, with high lethality rates. These forms lead to renal, hepatic and neurological impairment, and bleeding episodes. Treatment of mild and moderate forms is symptomatic, while severe and malignant forms depend on intensive care. Prevention is achieved by administering the vaccine, which is an effective (immunogenicity at 90-98% and safe (0.4 severe events per 100,000 doses measure. In 2018, the first transplants in the world due to YF were performed. There is also an attempt to evaluate the use of active drugs against the virus in order to reduce disease severity.

  4. Antibody expressing pea seeds as fodder for prevention of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macek Jeanette

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coccidiosis caused by protozoans of genus Eimeria is a chicken parasitic disease of great economical importance. Conventional disease control strategies depend on vaccination and prophylactic use of anticoccidial drugs. Alternative solution to prevent and treat coccidiosis could be provided by passive immunization using orally delivered neutralizing antibodies. We investigated the possibility to mitigate the parasitic infection by feeding poultry with antibody expressing transgenic crop seeds. Results Using the phage display antibody library, we generated a panel of anti-Eimeria scFv antibody fragments with high sporozoite-neutralizing activity. These antibodies were expressed either transiently in agrobacteria-infiltrated tobacco leaves or stably in seeds of transgenic pea plants. Comparison of the scFv antibodies purified either from tobacco leaves or from the pea seeds demonstrated no difference in their antigen-binding activity and molecular form compositions. Force-feeding experiments demonstrated that oral delivery of flour prepared from the transgenic pea seeds had higher parasite neutralizing activity in vivo than the purified antibody fragments isolated from tobacco. The pea seed content was found to protect antibodies against degradation by gastrointestinal proteases (>100-fold gain in stability. Ad libitum feeding of chickens demonstrated that the transgenic seeds were well consumed and not shunned. Furthermore, feeding poultry with shred prepared from the antibody expressing pea seeds led to significant mitigation of infection caused both by high and low challenge doses of Eimeria oocysts. Conclusion The results suggest that our strategy offers a general approach to control parasitic infections in production animals using cost-effective antibody expression in crop seeds affordable for the animal health market.

  5. Effect of isolation techniques on the characteristics of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) protein isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenekan, Monilola K; Fadimu, Gbemisola J; Odunmbaku, Lukumon A; Oke, Emmanuel K

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the effect of different isolation techniques on the isolated proteins from pigeon pea was investigated. Water, methanol, ammonium sulfate, and acetone were used for the precipitation of proteins from pigeon pea. Proximate composition, and antinutritional and functional properties of the pigeon pea flour and the isolated proteins were measured. Data generated were statistically analyzed. The proximate composition of the water-extracted protein isolate was moisture 8.30%, protein 91.83%, fat 0.25%, ash 0.05%, and crude fiber 0.05%. The methanol-extracted protein isolate composition was moisture 7.87%, protein 91.83%, fat 0.17%, and ash 0.13%, while crude fiber and carbohydrates were not detected. The composition of the ammonium sulfate-extracted protein isolate was moisture 7.73%, protein 91.73%, fat 0.36, ash 0.13%, and crude fiber 0.67%. The acetone-extracted protein isolate composition was moisture 8.03%, protein 91.50%, ash 0.67%, and fat 0.30%, but crude fiber and carbohydrates were not detected. The isolate precipitated with ammonium sulfate displayed the highest foaming capacity (37.63%) and foaming stability (55.75%). Isolates precipitated with methanol and acetone had the highest water absorption capacity (160%). Pigeon pea protein isolates extracted with methanol and ammonium sulfate had the highest oil absorption capacity of 145%. Protein isolates recovered through acetone and methanol had the highest emulsifying capacity of 2.23% and emulsifying stability of 91.47%, respectively. The proximate composition of the recovered protein isolates were of high purity. This shows the efficiency of the extraction techniques. The isolates had desirable solubility index. All the isolation techniques brought significant impact on the characteristics of the isolated pigeon pea protein.

  6. Significance of thermal transitions on starch digestibility and firming kinetics of restricted water mixed flour bread matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, Concha; Jiménez, Teresa; Conte, Paola; Piga, Antonio

    2015-05-20

    The impact of wheat (WT) flour replacement up to 45% (weight basis) by incorporation of ternary blends of teff (T), green pea (GP) and buckwheat (BW) flours on the thermal profiles of quaternary blended dough matrices have been investigated by simulating baking, cooling, and storage in differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) pans. Endothermal transitions related to suitable patterns for low and slow starch hydrolysis, softer crumb and retarded firming kinetics in blended breads include delayed temperatures for starch gelatinization, and for the dissociation of amylose-lipid complex. In addition, (a) higher stability for the amylose-lipid inclusion complex, (b) lower energy for starch gelatinization, (c) lower limiting melting enthalpy and (d) slower rate for amylopectin retrogradation meet thermal requirements for achieving suitable textural and starch digestibility features in blended breads, fulfilled by adding T/GP/BW to replace 45% of WT flour in blended dough formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Method of Converting Wheat Flour Quantity into Rice Flour Quantity in Cookies (Part-1)

    OpenAIRE

    村田,美穂子; 髙橋,由加

    2016-01-01

    A method of converting the wheat flour quantity of a recipe of wheat-flour cookies into the rice flour quantity of a recipe of rice-flour cookies used domestically for wheat-allergic children was studied. The proportion of the water content with respect to the flour content (the wheat or rice flour content) in cut cookies prepared according to a commercially available recipe was obtained. Next, four types of rice-flour cookies were prepared according to a recipe for wheat-flour cookies using ...

  8. Studies on antioxidative enzymes induced by cadmium in pea plants (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nalini; Singh, Gaurav Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Swati) exposed to different concentration of cadmium (50,100, 200 microM Cd) under controlled glass house conditions were quantified for different physiological parameters and antioxidative enzymes. In pea plants, Cd produced a significant inhibition of growth and induced chlorosis, marginal yellowing and necrosis in young leaves, the effect being most pronounced at 200 microM Cd supply. An alteration in the activated oxygen metabolism of pea plants were also detected as evidenced by an increase in concentration of H2O2 and TBARS along with decrease in the chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration in leaves. Cadmium toxicity induced an increase in non-protein thiol, ascorbate, proline and cysteine concentration. A significant increment in the activity of SOD, APX and GR, and a decrease in CAT was observed as a result of Cd treatment. The enhanced activity of SOD and inhibition of CAT and POD produces a high build up of H2O2 which appears to be the main cause of oxidative stress due to Cd toxicity in pea plants.

  9. 21 CFR 137.200 - Whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat flour. 137.200 Section 137.200 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.200 Whole wheat flour. (a) Whole wheat flour, graham flour, entire wheat flour is the food prepared by so grinding cleaned wheat, other than durum wheat and red durum...

  10. Relationships between yield and some yield components in Pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... canned food. Sugar rate of pea grains is high. Dry pea grains are broken and used to make soup. On the other hand, the pea grains are used in animal feed. Some pea varieties are used for the purpose of green forage production, dry forage and green manure produc- tion. These varieties are called 'feed ...

  11. Development of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Chickpea (Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research objectives were: to evaluate the quality of a pea snack prepared using four different methods of cooking, namely, frying, baking, steaming and microwave; to determine the effect of blending dried green pea with chickpea dhal on the quality of a fried pea snack. Green pea and chickpea snacks were prepared ...

  12. Assaying total carotenoids in flours of corn and sweet potato flours by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Kijak, K.; Grbesa, D.; Martinez, E.; Spruijt, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the application of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for quantification of total carotenoids (TC) in corn flours and sweetpotato flours. Overall, thirty-three different corn flours and nine sweetpotato flours were investigated. All PAS measurements were performed at

  13. Enhancement of yellow pigment production by intraspecific protoplast fusion of Monascus spp. yellow mutant (ade(-)) and white mutant (prototroph).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinsupa, Worawan; Phansiri, Salak; Thongpradis, Panida; Yongsmith, Busaba; Pothiratana, Chetsada

    2016-01-10

    To breed industrially useful strains of a slow-growing, yellow pigment producing strain of Monascus sp., protoplasts of Monascus purpureus yellow mutant (ade(-)) and rapid-growing M. purpureus white mutant (prototroph) were fused and fusants were selected on minimal medium (MM). Preliminary conventional protoplast fusion of the two strains was performed and the result showed that only white colonies were detected on MM. It was not able to differentiate the fusants from the white parental prototroph. To solve this problem, the white parental prototroph was thus pretreated with 20mM iodoacetamide (IOA) for cytoplasm inactivation and subsequently taken into protoplast fusion with slow-growing Monascus yellow mutant. Under this development technique, only the fusants, with viable cytoplasm from Monascus yellow mutant (ade(-)), could thus grow on MM, whereas neither IOA pretreated white parental prototroph nor yellow auxotroph (ade(-)) could survive. Fifty-three fusants isolated from yellow colonies obtained through this developed technique were subsequently inoculated on complete medium (MY agar). Fifteen distinguished yellow colonies from their parental yellow mutant were then selected for biochemical, morphological and fermentative properties in cassava starch and soybean flour (SS) broth. Finally, three most stable fusants (F7, F10 and F43) were then selected and compared in rice solid culture. Enhancement of yellow pigment production over the parental yellow auxotroph was found in F7 and F10, while enhanced glucoamylase activity was found in F43. The formation of fusants was further confirmed by monacolin K content, which was intermediate between the two parents (monacolin K-producing yellow auxotroph and non-monacolin K producing white prototroph). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and Characterization of Carob Flour Based Functional Spread for Increasing Use as Nutritious Snack for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Aydın

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carob flour enriched functional spread was developed and textural, sensory, colour, and some nutritional properties of the product were investigated. Spread samples were prepared with major ingredients for optimisation and minor ingredients for improving texture and aroma. Major ingredients were carob flour and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO and minor ingredients were commercial skim milk powder, soya flour, lecithin, and hazelnut puree. The ratio of major ingredients was optimised using sensory scores and instrumental texture values to produce a carob spread that most closely resembles commercial chocolate spread (control, in both spreadability and overall acceptability. The amounts of minor ingredients (milk powder, 10%; soybean flour, 5%; lecithin, 1%; hazelnut puree, 4% were kept in constant ratio (20%. Addition of hydrogenated palm oil (HPO decreased the hardness and hardness work done (HWD values in contrast to carob flour. Higher rates of carob flour were linked to lower lightness, greenness, and yellowness values. Spread was optimised at 38 g carob flour/100 g spread and 42 g hydrogenated palm oil/100 g spread level and the formulation tended to receive the highest sensory scores compared to other spreads and presented closer instrumental spreadability values to control samples. This indicates a strong market potential for optimised carob spreads.

  15. Physical and chemical characterization of composite flour from canna flour (Canna edulis) and lima bean flour (Phaseolus lunatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, Danar; Tryas, Anisha Ayuning; Affandi, Dian Rachmawanti; Atmaka, Windi; Ariyantoro, Achmad Ridwan; Minardi, Slamet

    2018-02-01

    The diversity of Indonesian local food sources has potential to be developed for supporting food security based development of local food diversification. Canna tubers (Canna edulis) and lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) are two local commodities in Indonesia which under is utilization and has limited assessment to its characteristics. This study aimed at determining the best formula of composite flour based on physical and chemical properties of composite flour produced. There were three formulas, F1 for 85% of canna flour and 15%of lima beans flour, F2 for 70% of canna flour and 30% of lima beans flour and F3 for 55% of canna flour and 45% of lima beans flour. Physical and chemical analyses were conducted and completely randomized design was used. De Garmo analysis was then used to determine the highest effectiveness index from the three formulas developed in this study and F3 demonstrated the highest effectiveness index (0.545) among three formulas evaluated. Thus, formula (F3) was selected as the best composite of the flour developed from canna flour and lima beans flour.

  16. Thermal Properties of Wood-Plastic Composites Prepared from Hemicellulose-extracted Wood Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Enayati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemicellulose of Southern Yellow Pine wood spices was extracted by pressurized hot water at three different temperatures: 140°C, 155°C and 170°C. Compounding with PP (polypropylene was performed by extrusion after preparing wood flour and sieving to determine its mesh size. The ratio of wood to polymer was 50:50 based on oven-dry weight of wood flour. All extraction treatments and control samples were compounded under two sets of conditions, without and with 2% MAPP as coupling agent. Injection molding was used to make tensile test samples (dogbone from the pellets made by extrusion. Thermal properties of wood-plastic composites were studied by TGA and DSC while the thermal stability of pretreated wood flours, PP and MAPP were studied by TGA as well. The greater weight loss of wood materials was an indication that higher treatment temperature increases the extractability of hemicellulose. The removal of hemicellulose by extraction improves thermal stability of wood flour, especially for extraction at 170°C. Wood-plastic composites made from extracted fibers at 170°C showed the highest thermal stability. Coupling agent did not have a significant effect on thermal stability but it improved the degree of crystallinity of the composites.Surface roughness of wood fiber increased after treatment. Extraction of hemicellulose increased the degree of crystallinity but it was not significant except for samples from treated wood flour at 170°C and with MAPP.

  17. MOLECULAR MARKERS FOR VEGETABLE PEA SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Anokhina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research on the presence in genomes of pea hybrid materials of the DNA regions complementary to the primers that are associated with the biochemical characteristics and resistance to powdery mildew.

  18. Characteristics of Analog Rice From Potato Flour (Solanum Tuberosom L.) Corn Flour (Zea Mays L.) and Sago Flour (Arenga Microcarpa Beccari)

    OpenAIRE

    Korompis, Olga S; Mamuaja, Christine F; Mandey, Lucia C

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), corn (Zea mays L.) and sago (Arenga microcarpa Beccari) are crops containing high carbohydrate, as source of calory food, and those can be made into rice analog. This study aimed: (1) to determine the formulations by organoleptic test in manufacture analog rice from potato flour, corn flour and sago flour, and (2) to analyze the physical properties, chemical properties of rice analog from potato flour with the addition of corn flour and sago flour. The research ...

  19. 78 FR 63160 - United States Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils under the Agriculture Marketing Act (AMA) of 1946. To... meeting the needs in today's marketing environment. DATES: GIPSA will consider comments received by..., DC, 20250-3604. Email comments to: [email protected] Fax: (202) 690-2173. Internet: Go to http...

  20. Effects of a concentrate of pea antinutritional factors on pea protein digestibility in piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guen, M.P. Le; Huisman, J.; Guéguen, J.; Beelen, G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1995-01-01

    Four experiments were designed to investigate the apparent ileal digestibility of raw pea (Pisum sativum) and two of its components - an isolate of its proteins and a concentrate of its proteinaceous antinutritional factors (ANFs). Three varieties of peas were used: spring varieties Finale and

  1. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat flour... of ingredients, prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that potassium bromate is added...

  2. Correlation of concentration of modified cassava flour for banana fritter flour using simple linear regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herminiati, A.; Rahman, T.; Turmala, E.; Fitriany, C. G.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of different concentrations of modified cassava flour that was processed for banana fritter flour. The research method consists of two stages: (1) to determine the different types of flour: cassava flour, modified cassava flour-A (using the method of the lactid acid bacteria), and modified cassava flour-B (using the method of the autoclaving cooling cycle), then conducted on organoleptic test and physicochemical analysis; (2) to determine the correlation of concentration of modified cassava flour for banana fritter flour, by design was used simple linear regression. The factors were used different concentrations of modified cassava flour-B (y1) 40%, (y2) 50%, and (y3) 60%. The response in the study includes physical analysis (whiteness of flour, water holding capacity-WHC, oil holding capacity-OHC), chemical analysis (moisture content, ash content, crude fiber content, starch content), and organoleptic (color, aroma, taste, texture). The results showed that the type of flour selected from the organoleptic test was modified cassava flour-B. Analysis results of modified cassava flour-B component containing whiteness of flour 60.42%; WHC 41.17%; OHC 21.15%; moisture content 4.4%; ash content 1.75%; crude fiber content 1.86%; starch content 67.31%. The different concentrations of modified cassava flour-B with the results of the analysis provides correlation to the whiteness of flour, WHC, OHC, moisture content, ash content, crude fiber content, and starch content. The different concentrations of modified cassava flour-B does not affect the color, aroma, taste, and texture.

  3. Effect of Pigeon pea and Cow pea on the performance and gut immunity of broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagoub, Yagoub Magboul

    1998-03-01

    two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of pigeon pea and cow pea on the performance and gut immunity of broiler chicks. In experiment 1, 3 experimental diets were formulated containing graded levels of cow pea were maintained. Diets were prepared containing 18.21, 18.25 and 18.25% crude protein and 3076.41, 3062 Kel/Kg metabolizable energy for experiment 1, while diets of experiment 11 were prepared containing 18.21, 18.22, and 18.22% crude protein and 3076.41, 3080.5 and 3055.89 KEl/Kg metabolized energy. 120 Loghmann broiler chicks were equally allocated into 15 pens (8 chicks/pen). Then the experimental diets were randomly assigned to the pens. feed and water were provided ad libitum in both experiments. In experiment 1, the results showed no significant difference were found in chick performance at day 45. The feed conversation ratio increased with the level of pigeon pea used. The pancreas mass was increased as the level of pigeon pea increase. In experiment 2 the results showed significant decrease in the body weight and feed intake at day 45, while the pancreas mass tend to increase with increasing level of cow pea in the diet. Histological examination of small intestine slides showed no histopathological differences between the control and chicks fed cow pea and/or pigeon pea. Immunological test of the serum and mucous samples using ELISA techniques revealed no significant difference between the control and chicks given cow pea and / or pigeon pea

  4. Physico-chemical properties, rheology and degree of esterification of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) peel flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Emanuela M; de Azevêdo, Luciana C; Viana, Arão C; Ramos, Ingrid G; Gomes, Raquel G; Lima, Marcos Dos S; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo A

    2018-01-01

    The peel of yellow passion fruit is as an agro-industrial waste of great environmental impact, representing more than 50% of the total weight of the fruit. For this reason, and also considering its importance as a source of functional components such as pectin, this organic waste is increasingly attracting the attention of researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical composition and physical properties of this material, which may be of interest to the food industry. We obtained two samples of passion fruit peel flour applying different processes: flour without treatment (FWOT) and flour with treatment by maceration (FWT). It was found that the flour samples contain, respectively, 372.4 g kg -1 and 246.7 kg -1 of soluble fiber and, according to the FTIR analysis, this material corresponds to high and low methoxyl pectins, respectively. The flour obtained by maceration (FWT) offers greater benefits for industrial use, with 60% fewer tannins and greater thermal stability. In addition, this sample does not reabsorb moisture as easily, although FWOT also shows potential for use in dietary products. Considering the pseudoplastic properties of the flours, the application of both samples could be expanded to many industrial sectors. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Flour production from shrimp by-products and sensory evaluation of flour-based products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Mendes Fernandes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production of flour using by-products (cephalothorax obtained from the shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei industry, and to perform a sensory analysis of shrimp flour-based products. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses on fresh cephalothorax and on manufactured flour were performed, as well as the determination of cholesterol content of this flour, and the sensorial evaluation of soup and pastry made with this flour. By the microbiological analyses, no pathogenic microorganism was detected in the samples. Physicochemical analyses of flour showed high levels of protein (50.05% and minerals (20.97%. Shrimp cephalothorax flour showed high levels of cholesterol. The sensory evaluation indicated a good acceptance of the products, with satisfactory acceptability index (81% for soup, and 83% for pastry, which indicates that shrimp cephalothorax in the form of flour has a potential for developing new products.

  6. Protein methylation in pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, K.J.; Adler, J.; Selman, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    The methylation of chloroplast proteins has been investigated by incubating intact pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts with [ 3 H-methyl]-S-adenosylmethionine. Incubation in the light increases the amount of methylation in both the thylakoid and stromal fractions. Numerous thylakoid proteins serve as substrates for the methyltransfer reactions. Three of these thylakoid proteins are methylated to a significantly greater extent in the light than in the dark. The primary stromal polypeptide methylated is the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. One other stromal polypeptide is also methylated much more in the light than in the dark. Two distinct types of protein methylation occur. One methylinkage is stable to basic conditions whereas a second type is base labile. The base-stable linkage is indicative of N-methylation of amino acid residues while base-lability is suggestive of carboxymethylation of amino acid residues. Labeling in the light increases the percentage of methylation that is base labile in the thylakoid fraction while no difference is observed in the amount of base-labile methylations in light-labeled and dark-labeled stromal proteins. Also suggestive of carboxymethylation is the detection of volatile [ 3 H]methyl radioactivity which increases during the labeling period and is greater in chloroplasts labeled in the light as opposed to being labeled in the dark; this implies in vivo turnover of the [ 3 H]methyl group

  7. faba bean and field pea seed proportion for intercropping system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    reduced with increase in the seeding rate of field pea. ... productivity of the Faba bean/field pea was obtained from intercropping system. Growing Faba bean both as a ..... Management: Proceedings of the First and ... Population, time and crop.

  8. Characterization and expression of dehydrins in wild Egyptian pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization and expression of dehydrins in wild Egyptian pea ( Pisum sativum L.) ... was isolated and characterized from wild Egyptian pea (Pisum sativum L.) ... DNA sequence indicated an open reading frame which predicts a protein ...

  9. The nutritional value of sorghum bicolor stem flour used for infusion drinks in nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adetuyi, A.O.; Akpambang, V.O.E.

    2006-01-01

    The black purple sheath (stem) of Sorgum bicolor, used locally as colour additive in cooked meals and infusion drinks taken as beverages, was examined for its nutritive value. The stem made into flour, was found to be rich in energy (1121.3 kJ/100 g), and in some micronutrients (mg/100 g), such as Mg (185.33), Ca (151.70), K (138.87), Na (127.61), and Fe (10.98). High Mg content of stem may be useful for overcoming Mg deficiency. The Fe content was sufficient to meet the daily-required intake (DRI) value for human beings. The presence of Cu, Zn and Mn was also observed. The content of crude fibre (32.0%) and carbohydrates (44.50%) were useful for making the stem a fodder for animal consumption. However, the protein content of the stem was low (3.20%). The functional properties observed for the stem compared favourably with those already reported for some other plants such as pigeon pea flour, African yam bean, and wheat flour. (author)

  10. Antioxidant activity of wheat and buckwheat flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedej Ivana J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidative activities of wheat flours (type 500 and wholegrain and buckwheat flours (light and wholegrain were tested using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·-scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity on Fe2+. Also, the content of the total phenolics of ethanolic extracts was estimated. Polyphenolics content (expressed as gallic acid equivalent, GAE in wheat flours varied between 37.1 and 137.2 μg GAE/g extract, while its content in buckwheat flour were at least four time higher and ranged between 476.3 and 618.9μg GAE/g extract. Ethanolic extracts of buckwheat flours exhibited higher antioxidant activities in all the assays, except for chelating activity. Regarding all the obtained results, it can be concluded that bakery products produced with buckwheat flour could be regarded as potential functional foods.

  11. Influence of mango mesocarp flour supplement to micronutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of mango mesocarp flour supplement to micronutrient, physical and organoleptic qualities of wheat-based bread. ... Mango mesocarp flour was incorporated into wheat flour at 15, 20 and 30% levels to ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  12. Development beer technology with amaranth flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Danina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, the urgent problem is the development of product range of beer and the reduction of production costs. We used amaranth flour: "protein" and "carbohydrate", is designed and experimentally obtained from seeds of amaranth and made available for research "Agros" company (Kaliningrad region. The article discusses the effects of different concentrations of flour on the process of mashing, fermentation and the quality of beer. Prepared in the ratio of light barley malt:amaranth flour 90:10 and 80:20, respectively. Experimental were chosen of mashing barley malt with the addition of flour. The mashing process started with a temperature of 40 or 500C. Cytolytic pause was 30 min, protein-25 min, malt pause was increased up to 30 min. Using 20% of flour in the total grain charge leads to the increase of first wort extract content to 12.2%. By increasing the amount of flour in the grist of grain products increases the saccharification of the mash. The time of saccharification when you make 20% of the "protein" flour and the initial temperature of mashing 500C is 26 minutes, and "carbohydrate" flour -18min., therefore, when developing technology of new beer, from the point of view of reducing the cost of production, it is advisable to use "carbohydrate" amaranth flour in the amount of 20% in the total grain products. We estimated the impact of concentrations used flour on organoleptic indicators of finished beer on a 25 point scale. The aroma of the beer was felt citrus and malt undertones. Total score of beer with 10% amaranth flour is 18 points, and 20% amaranth flour is 20 points.

  13. Characterization of cookies made from wheat flour blended with buckwheat flour and effect on antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Ulfat; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Shah, Umar; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, F A; Maqsood, Sajid; Gani, Asir; Wani, Idress Ahmed; Wani, S M

    2015-10-01

    Buckwheat flour was incorporated into wheat flour at different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 %) and the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of the blended flour were studied. This study also investigated the effect of buckwheat on the retention of antioxidant properties of cookies during baking. The results showed significant variation in physicochemical and functional properties of the blended flour. The addition of buckwheat flour into wheat flour also increased the antioxidant properties of blended flour proportionally, but metal chelating properties decreased. The incorporation of buckwheat in wheat flour helped in better retention of antioxidant potential of cookies during baking process as buckwheat cookies (100 % buckwheat) showed greater percentage increase in antioxidant properties than control (100 % wheat). Quality characteristics of cookies such as hardness and spread ratio decreased, while as non-enzymatic browning (NEB) increased significantly with increase in the proportion of buckwheat flour in wheat flour. The Overall acceptability of cookies by sensory analysis was highest at 40 % level of blending. This study concluded that addition of buckwheat in wheat flour, may not only improve the physico-chemical and functional properties of the blended flour but may also enhance the nutraceutical potential of the product prepared from it.

  14. Pea weevil damage and chemical characteristics of pea cultivars determining their resistance to Bruchus pisorum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, I

    2016-04-01

    Bruchus pisorum (L.) is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea in Europe. Development of resistant cultivars is very important to environmental protection and would solve this problem to a great extent. Therefore, the resistance of five spring pea cultivars was studied to B. pisorum: Glyans, Modus; Kamerton and Svit and Pleven 4 based on the weevil damage and chemical composition of seeds. The seeds were classified as three types: healthy seeds (type one), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (type two) and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes (type three). From visibly damaged pea seeds by pea weevil B. pisorum was isolated the parasitoid Triaspis thoracica Curtis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Modus, followed by Glyans was outlined as resistant cultivars against the pea weevil. They had the lowest total damaged seed degree, loss in weight of damaged seeds (type two and type three) and values of susceptibility coefficients. A strong negative relationship (r = -0.838) between the weight of type one seeds and the proportion of type three seeds was found. Cultivars with lower protein and phosphorus (P) content had a lower level of damage. The crude protein, crude fiber and P content in damaged seeds significantly or no significantly were increased as compared with the healthy seeds due to weevil damage. The P content had the highest significant influence on pea weevil infestation. Use of chemical markers for resistance to the creation of new pea cultivars can be effective method for defense and control against B. pisorum.

  15. Possible causes of dry pea synergy to corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry pea improves corn yield and tolerance to weed interference compared with soybean, spring wheat, or canola as preceding crops. To understand this synergy between dry pea and corn, we examined growth and nutrient concentration of corn following dry pea or soybean in sequence. Each corn plot was ...

  16. Number and Effectiveness of Pea Rhizobia in Danish Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    Most of 44 Danish soils tested contain between 1000 and 10 000 pea rhizobia (Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viceae) per gram. Pea rhizobia were not detected in acid moor and forest soils. Only one case of failed nodulation in peas in the field has been noted, in spots in a reclaimed sandy heath m...

  17. London's historic ''pea-soupers''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbinato, D.

    1994-01-01

    Americans may think smog was invented in Los Angeles. Not so. In fact, a Londoner coined the term ''smog'' in 1905 to describe the city's insidious combination of natural fog and coal smoke. By then, the phenomenon was part of London history, and dirty, acrid smoke-filled ''pea-soupers'' were as familiar to Londoners as Big Ben and Westminster Abby. Smog in London predates Shakespeare by four centuries. Until the 12th century, most Londoners burned wood for fuel. But as the city grew and the forests shrank, wood became scarce and increasingly expensive. Large deposits of ''sea-coal'' off the northeast coast provided a cheap alternative. Soon, Londoners were burning the soft, bituminous coal to heat their homes and fuel their factories. Sea-coal was plentiful, but it didn't burn efficiently. A lot of its energy was spent making smoke, not heat. Coal smoke drifting through thousands of London chimneys combined with clean natural fog to make smog. If the weather conditions were right, it would last for days. Early on, no one had the scientific tools to correlate smog with adverse health effects, but complaints about the smoky air as an annoyance date back to at least 1272, when King Edward I, on the urging of important noblemen and clerics, banned the burning of sea-coal. Anyone caught burning or selling the stuff was to be tortured or executed. The first offender caught was summarily put to death. This deterred nobody. Of necessity, citizens continued to burn sea-coal in violation of the law, which required the burning of wood few could afford

  18. Yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit Ramakant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of yellow nail syndrome is described in a forty year old male patient who presented with classical triad of this syndrome i.e. deformed yellow nails, lymph-edema and chronic recurrent pleural effusion. The practical problems in the di-agnosis are also briefly discussed with emphasis on awareness of this rare clinical entity.

  19. Pea yield and its components in different crop rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Seibutis, Vytautas; Deveikytė, Irena

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the crop rotations (2-4 course) differing in duration on the formation of pea productivity elements and the yield were investigated in stationary field experiments in Dotnuva during 1997-2004. Averaged experimental data showed that the highest pea yield (3.70 t ha-1) was recorded in the three-course crop rotation (sugar beet-spring barley-pea), in the four-course (pea-winter wheat-sugar beet-spring barley) and two-course (pea-winter wheat) crop rotations the grain yield consist...

  20. Production of a protein-rich extruded snack base using tapioca starch, sorghum flour and casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jiral R; Patel, Ashok A; Singh, Ashish K

    2016-01-01

    A protein-rich puffed snack was produced using a twin screw extruder and the effects of varying levels of tapioca starch (11 to 40 parts), rennet casein (6 to 20 parts) and sorghum flour (25 to 75 parts) on physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of the product studied. An increasing level of sorghum flour resulted in a decreasing whiteness (Hunter L* value) of the snack. Although the starch also generally tended to make the product increasingly darker, both starch and casein showed redness parameter (a* value) was not significantly influenced by the ingredients levels, the yellow hue (b* value) generally declined with the increasing sorghum level. Tapioca starch significantly increased the expansion ratio and decreased the bulk density and hardness value of the snack, whereas the opposite effects seen in case of sorghum flour. While the water solubility index was enhanced by starch, water absorption index was appreciably improved by sorghum. Incorporation of casein (up to 25 %) improved the sensory color and texture scores, and so also the overall acceptability rating of the product. Sorghum flour had an adverse impact on all the sensory attributes whereas starch only on the color score. The casein or starch level had no perceivable effect on the product's flavor score. The response surface data enabled optimization of the snack-base formulation for the desired protein level or desired sensory characteristics.

  1. Characterization of the nutritional value of air-classified protein and starch fractions of field pea and zero-tannin faba bean in grower pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, C K; Zijlstra, R T; Beltranena, E

    2010-02-01

    Most pulse (nonoilseed legume) seed flours can be fractionated rapidly and economically by air classification into protein and starch concentrates. The nutritional value of air-classified field pea and faba bean concentrates requires characterization to assess the feeding opportunity for pigs. Thus, the objectives were to characterize the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, OM, energy, starch, CP, fat, and ash; apparent ileal digestibility of CP and starch; standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA; and the SID AA, DE, and NE content of air-classified zero-tannin faba bean and field pea protein and starch concentrates in grower pigs. Pulse protein and starch concentrates were compared with soy protein concentrate and corn starch, respectively, as corresponding standards. The corn starch diet served as an N-free diet to correct for basal endogenous AA losses. In a Youden square design, 8 ileal-cannulated barrows (24.9 +/- 2.3 kg of BW) were fed 6 diets over 7 periods at 3 times the maintenance DE requirement. Periods encompassed a 5-d diet acclimation, 3-d feces collection, and 3-d ileal digesta collection. The ATTD of GE was 2% greater (P bean than soy and was intermediate for field pea protein (95.6, 93.7, and 94.9%, respectively). The ATTD of GE was 3.6% greater (P bean starch (96.2, 95.1, and 92.3%, respectively). The DE content of faba bean was 5.0% greater (P soy protein (4.47, 4.23, and 4.26 Mcal/kg, respectively). The DE content of faba bean and field pea was 1.7% greater (P bean than field pea and soy protein (3.08, 2.94, and 2.92 Mcal/kg, respectively). The NE content for field pea starch was 2.0% greater (P bean starch (2.68, 2.63, and 2.61 Mcal/kg, respectively). Protein concentrates had a 14 and 11% greater (P bean and field pea protein than soy protein (95.5, 92.6, and 88.7%, respectively). The SID of Lys was 6.0% greater (P bean than field pea starch. Nutrient digestibility and digestible nutrient profiles indicated that air

  2. The rationale of moisture on wheat, enriched flour from oat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, relevant is the production of food not only meets human needs but also has a certain nutritional value and mineral and vitamin composition, thereby providing a physiologically significant positive effect on the human body. Among bakery products, aimed at improvement of health, leads the bread produced with the goal of weight control, then it should be bread, stimulating the digestive functions of the body. The priority of increasing the nutritional value of bakery products is the inclusion in their formulation non-traditional types of flour from wholemeal grains of cereals and legumes seeds: wheat, rye, oats, buckwheat, peas, chickpeas and others. Their use in the diet improves the balance of vitamins, amino acids, macro - and microelements, food fibers and has a positive effect on human health. The use of flour from oat bran in the production of bakery products will increase the content of protein, dietary fiber, minerals, will allow to produce a comprehensive enrichment product. The paper presents research on the influence of the moisture content of the dough of wheat flour of first grade flour from oat bran, obtained by disintegration-wave grinding on the organoleptic, physico-chemical characteristics properties of dough and finished bread. The results revealed rational moisture content of the dough of wheat bread – 46% at a dosage of fortifier – 7%, ensuring the best indicators of quality of semi-finished and products. The data obtained will contribute to the expansion of the range of breads of high nutritional value to give the product a functional orientation, to intensify the process of production.

  3. Pea and pea-grain mixtures as whole crop protein silage for dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Rondahl, Tomas

    2004-01-01

    In this review the use of pea and pea/grain mixtures as whole crop protein silage for dairy cows is discussed. An introductory discussion concerns the ensilage process and protein degradation and effects of different silage additives. To minimise protein loss, prewilting time should be kept short. An acid additive will reduce respiration and thereby reduce protein degradation. The main part of the review discusses nutritional and botanical changes during development as well as results from bo...

  4. Development and analysis of composite flour bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Lakshmi; Majumdar, Swarnali Dutta; Ravi, Usha

    2015-07-01

    The study elucidates the effect of utilizing cereal-pulse-fruit seed composite flour in the development and quality analysis of leavened bread. The composite flour was prepared using refined wheat flour (WF), high protein soy flour (SF), sprouted mung bean flour (MF) and mango kernel flour (MKF). Three variations were formulated such as V-I (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 85:5:5:5), V-II (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 70:10:10:10), and V-III (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 60:14:13:13). Pertinent functional, physico-chemical and organoleptic attributes were studied in composite flour variations and their bread preparations. Physical characteristics of the bread variations revealed a percentage decrease in loaf height (14 %) and volume (25 %) and 20 % increase in loaf weight with increased substitution of composite flour. The sensory evaluation of experimental breads on a nine-point hedonic scale revealed that V-I score was 5 % higher than the standard bread. Hence, the present study highlighted the nutrient enrichment of bread on incorporation of a potential waste material mango kernel, soy and sprouted legume. Relevant statistical tests were done to analyze the significance of means for all tested parameters.

  5. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intent of this article is to demonstrate how wood waste called sawdust or wood flour can be transformed by plastic moulding machine into items of economic value. Wood flour is wood reduced to very fine particle form. It can be waste product from saw mills, wood working plants or produced from selected dry wood by ...

  6. Influences of pea morphology and interacting factors on pea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, N; Cuddington, K

    2009-08-01

    It has been claimed that plant architecture can alter aphid reproductive rates, but the mechanism driving this effect has not been identified. We studied interactions between plant architecture, aphid density, environmental conditions, and nutrient availability on the reproduction of pea aphids [Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)] using four near-isogenic peas (Pisum sativum L.) that differ in morphology. Manipulations of aphid density (1, 5, and 10 adults per plant) allowed us to examine any effects of plant morphology on crowding and consequently reproduction. Pea morphology per se did not alter pea aphid crowding, as measured by mean nearest neighbor distance, and there was no effect on reproduction. In addition, reproduction increased with increasing adult density, indicating positive density dependence. In a separate experiment, peas were fertilized to determine whether differences between nutrient availability of the four different morphologies might drive any observed differences in aphid reproduction. Although plant nitrogen content was altered by fertilization treatments, this did not have an impact on aphid reproduction. Greenhouse experiments, however, suggested that pea morphology can interact with environmental conditions to reduce aphid reproduction under some conditions. We conclude that plant morphology only influences aphid reproduction when environmental conditions are less than optimal.

  7. WHIPPED FLOUR CONFECTIONERY BASED UPON WHOLE GRAIN GROUND FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Flour confectionery products for the Russian market are the traditional products and their sales occupy the 1st place among all types of confectionery. Therefore, it is especially important to conduct research aimed at developing biscuits with increased food and biological value, meeting the existing in the human body requirements in nutrients. The use of flour from whole grain rye, wheat and amaranth allows to receive a quality product with a fine pore structure, pleasant taste and aroma and of high nutritional value. Using a mechanical method for dough loosening reduces operating costs, significantly intensifies the whole technological process, greatly reduces production area of enterprise, the duration of the entire technological process of biscuit production is reduced by 40%. In the developed biscuits protein content increases in 1,5 times; fiber in 6 times, potassium in 10.8 times, calcium in 11 times, phosphorus in 3 times, iron in 3.3 times, vitamin the B6 in4.1 times; B12 in 2.4 times, B9 in 12.4 times.

  8. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Onl...

  9. Pea Streak Virus Recorded in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sarkisova, Tatiana; Bečková, M.; Fránová, Jana; Petrzik, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2016), s. 164-166 ISSN 1212-2580 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71145 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Pea streak virus * alfalfa * carlavirus * partial sequence Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2016

  10. Pea disease diagnostic series - Powdery Mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew is a serious disease of pea worldwide, and it could be caused by two fungal species Erysiphe pisi and E. trifolii. White powdery patches on leaves, stems and pods are characteristics of the disease. The pathogen may form black fruiting bodies called chasmothecia near the end of the gr...

  11. Transport processes in pea seed coats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, Joost Thomas van

    2001-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns transport processes in coats of developing pea seeds. The scope of the investigation ranges from seed coat anatomy, via transport studies to the cloning of cDNA encoding proteinaceous membrane pores, and the heterologous expression of these

  12. CEI-PEA Alert, Summer 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Practical Skills & High Academic Standards: Career Technical Education; (2) Parents: Help Your Children Gain "Soft Skills" for the Workforce; (3) Culinary Arts…

  13. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen peas... two or more, of the following safe and suitable optional ingredients: (i) Natural and artificial... “early June” shall precede or follow the name in the case of smooth-skin or substantially smooth-skin...

  14. Relationship between population growth of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and protein and carbohydrate content in flour and starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nellie; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2011-12-01

    The effects of eight diets (atta flour, wheat flour, self-rising flour, rice flour, custard powder, corn flour, tapioca starch, and potato starch) on the development of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), reared at 29-31 degrees C and 66-70% RH were assessed. Five pairs of male and female T. castaneum were reared on the respective diets for 28 d before the experimental setup was dismantled and adult counts were recorded. In another experiment, the insects were allowed to mate and oviposit in each flour or starch type over a period of 7 d before being removed. The counting of pupae and adult emergence began on the day of emergence and was continued on a daily basis until day 140. Proximate analysis was performed for chemical composition of each diet, and the numbers of new adults that developed were found to be positively correlated (r2 = 0.97; P flour > wheat flour > self-rising flour > rice flour > custard powder > corn flour > tapioca starch > potato starch. T. castaneum larval development to the pupal and adult stages developed significantly faster in atta flour (P flour. Fewer adults emerged from wheat flour, self-rising flour, and rice flour, and no new emergences were recorded for the remaining diets. Developmental rate was much slower in beetles reared on diets in which a low number in progeny was produced. These data illustrate that different diets can influence the sustainability of these insects and affect their development and growth.

  15. Flax - Evaluation of composite flour and using in cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hrušková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two types of yellow and brown linseed, differing in granulation, were tested in form of wheat flour composites (additions 2.5% and 5.0% by using the Farinograph, the Extensigraph and the Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA apparatuses. Additions of brown and yellow flax fibre significantly affected Falling Number and Zeleny test values. Curves of farinograph were differed according to flax fibre type - finer flax (better terminology granulation meant somewhat stronger negative changes in dough stability and dough softening degree. Results of extensigraph test demonstrated changes in dough elasticity and extensibility due to lowering of gluten protein content. Appearance of the RVA profiles was verifiably different, reflecting diverse wheat and flax polysaccharides, added dietary fibre type and its granulation. Due to that, bread volume and shape was lowered up to one-half in case of golden flax composites. Similar tendencies with smaller negative influence caused the brown linseed. Fibre from flax is used for technical (textile use, but linseed dietary fibre addition affected quality of laboratory prepared cut-off biscuits and dried pasta differently, showing a dependence on the fibre type, granulation as well as addition level. Sensory profiles of all mentioned product types were acceptable.

  16. Characteristics of bread prepared from wheat flours blended with various kinds of newly developed rice flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, S; Suzuki, K; Ohtsubo, K

    2009-04-01

    Characteristics of the bread prepared from wheat flour blended with the flour of various kinds of newly developed rice cultivars were investigated. Qualities of the bread made from wheat flour blended with rice flour have been reported to be inferior to those from 100% wheat flour bread. To improve its qualities, we searched for the new-characteristic rice flours among the various kinds of newly developed rice cultivars to blend with the wheat flour for the bread preparation. The most suitable new characteristic rices are combination of purple waxy rice, high-amylose rice, and sugary rice. Specific volume of the bread from the combination of wheat and these 3 kinds of rice flours showed higher specific volume (3.93) compared with the traditional wheat/rice bread (3.58). We adopted the novel method, continuous progressive compression test, to measure the physical properties of the dough and the bread in addition to the sensory evaluation. As a result of the selection of the most suitable rice cultivars and blending ratio with the wheat flour, we could develop the novel wheat/rice bread, of which loaf volume, physical properties, and tastes are acceptable and resistant to firming on even 4 d after the bread preparation. To increase the ratio of rice to wheat, we tried to add a part of rice as cooked rice grains. The specific volume and qualities of the bread were maintained well although the rice content of total flour increased from 30% to 40%.

  17. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sprouted soybean flour on wheat bread was studied. Sprouting significantly increased the vitamin C content of soybean flour from 2.0 mg kg-1 to 3.25 mg kg-1. The sprouted soybean flour resulted in increased loaf volume, a firmer, spongy and more elastic loaf. However, increasing the sprouted soybean flour ...

  18. Effects of Defatted Jack Bean Flour and Jack Bean Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of substituting wheat flour with defatted Jack bean flour and Jack bean protein concentrate on bread quality. Jack bean flour milled from the seed nibs was defatted with n-hexane and part of the defatted flour (DJF) extracted in acid medium (pH; 4.5) for protein concentrate (JPC). Both the DJF ...

  19. Composite Flours for Baked Products and Possible Challenges – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It contains some suggestions on how to reduce the high import bills of wheat by using composite flours or blends of wheatless flours in place of wheat flour for making leavened and unleavened products. Some studies on the quality characteristics of leavened and unleavened products made from composite flours or blends ...

  20. Application to Food of Lentinus edodes Flour with Extrusion Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    岡村, 徳光; 上杉, 誓子; 星野, 由紀子; 奥田, 展子; 大杉, 匡弘; Tokumitsu, Okamura; Seiko, Uesugi; Yukiko, Hoshino; Nobuko, Okuda; Masahiro, Ohsugi

    1997-01-01

    We report the application to food using Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) flour, which is a good vegetable for health, rich in protein, fiber and vitamins (B_1, B_2, niacin). The wheat flour contained Lentinus edodes flour was expansed and textured by a twin screw extruder. The snack contained 1% Lentinus edodes flour was most prefered in the points of taste, flavor, color and appearance.

  1. Pea and Broad Bean Pods as a Natural Source of Dietary Fiber: The Impact on Texture and Sensory Properties of Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghith-Fendri, Lilia; Chaari, Fatma; Kallel, Fatma; Zouari-Ellouzi, Soumaya; Ghorbel, Raoudha; Besbes, Souhail; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha

    2016-10-01

    Attention has focused on bakery products such as cake which is one of the most common bakery products consumed by people in the world. Legume by-products, pea pods (PPs) (Pisum sativum L.) and broad bean pods (BBPs) (Vicia faba L.) mediterranean (Tunisian), has been studied for its high dietary fiber content (PP: 43.87 g/100 g; BBP: 53.01 g/100 g). Protein content was also a considerable component for both by-products. We investigated the effect of substituted of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% of PP and BBP flours on the sensory and technological properties in cake. Cakes hardness increased whereas L * and a * color values decreased. The overall acceptability rate showed that a maximum of 15% of PP and BBP flours can be added to prepare acceptable quality cakes. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Determination of carotenoids in yellow maize, the effects of saponification and food preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzhingi, Tawanda; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Russell, Robert M; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Qin, Jian; Tang, Guangwen

    2008-05-01

    Maize is an important staple food consumed by millions of people in many countries. Yellow maize naturally contains carotenoids which not only provide provitamin A carotenoids but also xanthophylls, which are known to be important for eye health. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the effect of saponification during extraction of yellow maize carotenoids, 2) determining the major carotenoids in 36 genotypes of yellow maize by high-performance liquid chromatography with a C30 column, and 3) determining the effect of cooking on the carotenoid content of yellow maize. The major carotenoids in yellow maize were identified as all-trans lutein, cis-isomers of lutein, all-trans zeaxanthin, alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin, all-trans beta-carotene, 9-cis beta-carotene, and 13-cis beta-carotene. Our results indicated that carotenoid extraction without saponification showed a significantly higher yield than that obtained using saponification. Results of the current study indicate that yellow maize is a good source of provitamin A carotenoids and xanthophylls. Cooking by boiling yellow maize at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes increased the carotenoid concentration, while baking at 450 degrees F for 25 minutes decreased the carotenoid concentrations by almost 70% as compared to the uncooked yellow maize flour.

  3. Yellow fever: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, T P

    2001-08-01

    Yellow fever, the original viral haemorrhagic fever, was one of the most feared lethal diseases before the development of an effective vaccine. Today the disease still affects as many as 200,000 persons annually in tropical regions of Africa and South America, and poses a significant hazard to unvaccinated travellers to these areas. Yellow fever is transmitted in a cycle involving monkeys and mosquitoes, but human beings can also serve as the viraemic host for mosquito infection. Recent increases in the density and distribution of the urban mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, as well as the rise in air travel increase the risk of introduction and spread of yellow fever to North and Central America, the Caribbean and Asia. Here I review the clinical features of the disease, its pathogenesis and pathophysiology. The disease mechanisms are poorly understood and have not been the subject of modern clinical research. Since there is no specific treatment, and management of patients with the disease is extremely problematic, the emphasis is on preventative vaccination. As a zoonosis, yellow fever cannot be eradicated, but reduction of the human disease burden is achievable through routine childhood vaccination in endemic countries, with a low cost for the benefits obtained. The biological characteristics, safety, and efficacy of live attenuated, yellow fever 17D vaccine are reviewed. New applications of yellow fever 17D virus as a vector for foreign genes hold considerable promise as a means of developing new vaccines against other viruses, and possibly against cancers.

  4. Combination of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachmawati; Rohaeti, E; Rafi, M

    2017-01-01

    Taro flour on the market is usually sold at higher price than wheat and sago flour. This situation could be a cause for adulteration of taro flour from wheat and sago flour. For this reason, we will need an identification and authentication. Combination of near infrared (NIR) spectrum with multivariate analysis was used in this study to identify and authenticate taro flour from wheat and sago flour. The authentication model of taro flour was developed by using a mixture of 5%, 25%, and 50% of adulterated taro flour from wheat and sago flour. Before subjected to multivariate analysis, an initial preprocessing signal was used namely normalization and standard normal variate to the NIR spectrum. We used principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to make an identification and authentication model of taro flour. From the result obtained, about 90.48% of the taro flour mixed with wheat flour and 85% of taro flour mixed with sago flour were successfully classified into their groups. So the combination of NIR spectrum with chemometrics could be used for identification and authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour. (paper)

  5. Combination of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati; Rohaeti, E.; Rafi, M.

    2017-05-01

    Taro flour on the market is usually sold at higher price than wheat and sago flour. This situation could be a cause for adulteration of taro flour from wheat and sago flour. For this reason, we will need an identification and authentication. Combination of near infrared (NIR) spectrum with multivariate analysis was used in this study to identify and authenticate taro flour from wheat and sago flour. The authentication model of taro flour was developed by using a mixture of 5%, 25%, and 50% of adulterated taro flour from wheat and sago flour. Before subjected to multivariate analysis, an initial preprocessing signal was used namely normalization and standard normal variate to the NIR spectrum. We used principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to make an identification and authentication model of taro flour. From the result obtained, about 90.48% of the taro flour mixed with wheat flour and 85% of taro flour mixed with sago flour were successfully classified into their groups. So the combination of NIR spectrum with chemometrics could be used for identification and authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour.

  6. HARDNESS PHENOMENON IN BEACH PEA (Lethyrus maritimus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    U.D. Chavan; R. Amarowicz; F. Shahidi

    2013-01-01

    Beach pea is mostly grown on seashores and it contains higher amount of protein than other legumes. However, the pea has several undesirable  attributes, such as long cooking time and hard to germinate (imbibitions) that limited its use as food. The present investigation aimed to study the physico-chemical properties, cooking characteristics and hull crude fibre structure of beach pea as compare to other similar legumes. Standard methods of processing pulses were used for present study. Beach...

  7. Protein import into isolated pea root leucoplasts

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Chiung-Chih; Li, Hsou-min

    2015-01-01

    Leucoplasts are important organelles for the synthesis and storage of starch, lipids and proteins. However, molecular mechanism of protein import into leucoplasts and how it differs from that of import into chloroplasts remain unknown. We used pea seedlings for both chloroplast and leucoplast isolations to compare within the same species. We further optimized the isolation and import conditions to improve import efficiency and to permit a quantitative comparison between the two plastid types....

  8. Genomic Tools in Pea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeh, Nadim; Aubert, Grégoire; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Warkentin, Thomas D.; Burstin, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22–25% protein, complex starch and fiber constituents, and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tons produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel's experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress toward deciphering the pea genome. PMID:26640470

  9. Genomic tools in pea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim eTAYEH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22-25 percent protein, complex starch and fibre constituents and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tonnes produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel’s experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress towards deciphering the pea genome.

  10. Yellow fever: epidemiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2007-03-15

    Yellow fever continues to occur in regions of Africa and South America, despite the availability of effective vaccines. Recently, some cases of severe neurologic disease and multiorgan system disease have been described in individuals who received yellow fever vaccine. These events have focused attention on the need to define criteria for judicious use of yellow fever vaccine and to describe the spectrum of adverse events that may be associated with yellow fever vaccine. Describing host factors that would increase risk of these events and identifying potential treatment modalities for yellow fever and yellow fever vaccine-associated adverse events are subjects of intense investigation.

  11. Effects of milling on functional properties of rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadan, R S; Bryant, R J; Miller, J A

    2008-05-01

    A commercial long-grain rice flour (CRF) and the flours made by using a pin mill and the Udy mill from the same batch of broken second-head white long-grain rice were evaluated for their particle size and functional properties. The purpose of this study was to compare the commercial rice flour milling method to the pin and Udy milling methods used in our laboratory and pilot plant. The results showed that pin milled flour had more uniform particle size than the other 2 milled flours. The chalky kernels found in broken white milled rice were pulverized more into fines in both Udy milled flour and CRF than in the pin milled flour. The excessive amount of fines in flours affected their functional properties, for example, WSI and their potential usage in the novel foods such as rice breads (RB). The RB made from CRF collapsed more than loaves made from pin milled Cypress long-grain flours.

  12. Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How can I prevent yellow fever? Yellow fever vaccine Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow fever. Yellow fever vaccine ... such as those containing DEET. 3 Yellow fever vaccine Yellow fever vaccine is a live, weakened virus. It is ...

  13. Effect of Iron Fortified Wheat Flour on the Biology and Physiology of Red Flour Beetle, (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron overload in the fortified flour can influence the life stages and physiology of the insects. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of commercially available premix iron fortified flour as well as effect of different concentrations of post-mix iron fortified flour (30–5 ppm on biology of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Hebrst.. Larval and pupal duration, total developmental time, fecundity and larval weights in two consecutive generations of beetle were compared with control treatment. Amylase and protease activities of gut of the beetle were also measured in premix and postmix flours. Results showed that larval mortality increased in two sources of premix iron flour when compared with control. Larval weight was reduced in first generation only. The larval mortality was significantly higher in 30 ppm postmix iron fortified flour than in other postmix concentrations and control treatment. The larvae of T. castaneum fed on two sources of premix and in various concentrations of postmix iron fortified flour revealed an increase in amylases and decrease in protease activities.

  14. Bread making properties of wheat flour supplemented with thermally processed hypoallergenic lupine flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillamon, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Pedrosa, M. M.; Varela, A.; Cabellos, B.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in using lupine for human nutrition due to its nutritional properties and health benefits. Moreover, lupine is used as an ingredient in bread making because of its functional and technological properties. However, a higher number of allergic reactions to this legume have recently been reported as a consequence of a more widespread consumption of lupine-based foods. In a previous study, several thermal treatments were applied to lupine seeds and flours resulting in reduced allergenicity. In order to study how this thermal processing (autoclaving and boiling) affects the bread making properties, raw and thermally processed lupine flours were used to replace 10% of wheat flour. The effect of supplementing wheat flour with lupine flour on physical dough properties, bread structure and sensory characteristics were analysed. The results indicated that thermally-treated lupine flours, had similar bread making and sensorial properties as untreated lupine flour. These thermal treatments could increase the potential use of lupine flour as a food ingredient while reducing the risk to provoke allergic reactions. (Author) 36 refs.

  15. Effect of canning on color, protein and phenolic profile of grains from kidney bean, field pea and chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Naincy; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Thakur, Sheetal

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of canning on color, protein and phenolic profile of grains of kidney bean, field pea and chickpea varieties/accession. Color of grains of different pulses was enhanced after canning. Grains L* (lightness) decreased while a* (redness to yellowness) and b* (greenness to blueness) increased after canning in all the pulses. Protein profiling of grains of different pulses after canning revealed that kidney bean and chickpea, respectively, had the least and the most thermally susceptible polypeptides. Kidney bean and chickpea showed higher Percentage washed drained weight (PWDW) than field pea. Pulse with more grain hardness and PWDW showed higher degree of grain splitting during canning. Grain splitting was also higher in dark colored accessions/varieties as compared to the light colored. Ferulic acid was the most predominant compound present in raw grains of different pulses. Raw kidney bean grains showed higher accumulation of catechin, chlorogenic, protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid than those of chickpea and field pea. Canning caused reduction in all the phenolic compounds except gallic acid and most prominent effect of canning on protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic and ferulic acid was observed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Flour sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extractable protein level as a cookie flour quality indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareyt, Bram; Bruneel, Charlotte; Brijs, Kristof; Goesaert, Hans; Delcour, Jan A

    2010-01-13

    Flour characteristics of laboratory-milled flour fractions of two wheat cultivars were related to their cookie-baking performance. Cultivar (cv.) Albatros wheat milling yielded fractions with lower damaged starch (DS) and arabinoxylan levels and higher sodium dodecyl sulfate-extractable protein (SDSEP) levels than did cv. Meunier wheat milling. During baking, cv. Albatros flour doughs spread faster and set later than their cv. Meunier counterparts and, hence, resulted in larger cookie diameters. DS levels negatively affected spread rate during both cv. Albatros (R2=0.68) and cv. Meunier (R2=0.51) cookie baking. SDSEP levels also influenced cookie quality. The use of flour heat-treated to reduce its SDSEP levels to different degrees led to reduction of the set time (R2=0.90). It was deduced that larger gluten polymer sizes limit dough spread time during baking and that, apart from DS level, the SDSEP level is an indicator for cookie flour quality.

  17. Yellow substance (gelbstoff)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, A.

    1988-04-01

    The different values of the mean slope (S) of the absorption coefficient a(λ) of gelbstoff (yellow substance) for each region under the same hydrological conditions and the correlation between the quantity of absorption (CA) of gelbstoff and sea water parameter is discussed. 12 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Introducing the Yellow Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2018-01-01

    The author has acquired a yellow laser with the specific wavelength of 589 nm. Because this is the first time such a laser has been discussed in this journal, I feel it is appropriate to provide a discussion of its function and capabilities. Normal laser safety should be employed, such as not pointing it into eyes or at people, and using eye…

  19. Utilization of Durian Seed Flour as Filler Ingredient of Meatball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Malini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Durian seed flour contains starch consisted of amylose and amylopectin like tapioca flour, so it can be utilized as a filler in meatball production. The purposes of this research were to evaluate the nutrient content and quality of durian seed flour, the best level of durian seed flour addition to the meatball production, and the quality of beef meatball during storage in room temperature and refrigerator. Complete randomized design (CRD was used with 3 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments used different filler ingredients consisted of: 1 100% tapioca, 2 50% tapioca + 50% durian seed flour, and 3 100% durian seed flour utilization. The results showed that durian seed flour could affect the protein levels and hardness of beef meatballs. In the organoleptic test, the addition of durian seed flour had no effect on the appearance of the color, flavor, aroma, and texture. The meatballs with 100% durian seed flour had the lowest hardness. The protein content of the meatballs with 100% durian seed flour was the highest. The used of 50% durian seed flour gave the best effect to beef meatball during storage. Meatball could be stored up to 8 h in room temperature while refrigerator could keep it longer up to 12 d. It was concluded that the addition 50% durian seed flour may substitute tapioca flour as filler ingredient of beef meatball.

  20. Substitution Value of toasted Pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and eighty 7-day old broilers were used in a 28-day feeding trial to determine the substitution value of toasted pigeon pea seeds meal (TPSM) for soybean meal and maize in boiler starter diet. The brown coat coloured pigeon pea seeds were toasted at 100oC for 15minutes and milled. The inclusion levels of ...

  1. Fibril Formation from Pea Protein and Sesequent Gel Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munialo, C.D.; Martin, A.H.; Linden, van der E.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20

  2. Fibril formation from pea protein and subsequent gel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munialo, Claire Darizu; Martin, Anneke H; van der Linden, Erik; de Jongh, Harmen H J

    2014-03-19

    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20 h at pH 2.0. Following heating of pea proteins, it was observed that all of the proteins were hydrolyzed into peptides and that 50% of these peptides were assembled into fibrils. Changes on a structural level in pea proteins were studied using circular dichroism, transmission electron microscopy, and particle size analysis. During the fibril assembly process, an increase in aggregate size was observed, which coincided with an increase in thioflavin T binding, indicating the presence of β-sheet aggregates. Fibrils made using pea proteins were more branched and curly. Gel formation of preformed fibrils was induced by slow acidification from pH 7.0 to a final pH of around pH 5.0. The ability of pea protein-based fibrillar gels to fracture during an amplitude sweep was comparable to those of soy protein and whey protein-based fibrillar gels, although gels prepared from fibrils made using pea protein and soy protein were weaker than those of whey protein. The findings show that fibrils can be prepared from pea protein, which can be incorporated into protein-based fibrillar gels.

  3. Fibril Formation from Pea Protein and Subsequent Gel Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munialo, XC.D.; Martin, A.H.; Linden, E. van der; Jongh, H.H.J de

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20

  4. The Pisum Genus: Getting out of Pea Soup!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) has long been a model for plant genetics and is a widely grown pulse crop producing protein-rich seeds in a sustainable manner. However, many questions remain open about (sub)species relationships in the Pisumgenus. The ongoing pea genome sequencing project and the recent geno...

  5. KASP assays for powdery mildew resistance breeding in pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew of pea, caused by Erysiphe pisi DC, is a serious production constraint to pea (Pisum sativum L.) production in the U.S. and elsewhere. Utilization of genetic resistance to powdery mildew using er1 has been an effective strategy to manage this disease. This gene, er1, conferring powde...

  6. Revoluntionary Faith and Religious Disillusionment in Enrico Pea's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questa tragedia segna anche un momento cruciale di transizione nella produzione letteraria di Pea e, pur mostrando chiaramente l'influenza delle sue precedenti affinità con il Marxismo e con il movimento anarchico, guarda già in avanti con il profondo interesse e rispetto di Pea per le proprie radici cattoliche che si ...

  7. 78 FR 68410 - United States Standards for Whole Dry Peas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... available for public inspection in the above office during regular business hours (7 CFR 1.27(b)). Please... the fundamental starting point to define commodity quality in the domestic and global marketplace... for whole dry peas, split peas, and lentils in today's marketing environment. According to information...

  8. Yield advantage and water saving in maize/pea intercrop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, L.; Zhang, L.; Li, W.; Werf, van der W.; Sun, J.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Li, L.

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is a well-established strategy for maximization of yield from limited land, but mixed results have been obtained as to its performance in terms of water use efficiency. Here, two maize/pea intercrop layouts were studied in comparison to sole maize and sole pea with and without plastic

  9. Effective management of pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) in a crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective management of pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) in a crop/livestock integrated farming system in northern Ghana. ... Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science ... Pigeon pea plots with row lengths averaging 11 m and a planting geometry of 80 cm W 50 cm, were either pruned at 60 or 100 cm above ground level or not ...

  10. The effect of Orobanche crenata infection severity in faba bean, field pea, and grass pea productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Fernandez-Aparicio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Broomrape weeds (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp. are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops i.e. faba bean, field pea and grass pea. Regression functions modelled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2 and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The proportion of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host-parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than 4 parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size

  11. The Effect of Orobanche crenata Infection Severity in Faba Bean, Field Pea, and Grass Pea Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Flores, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Broomrape weeds ( Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops, i.e., faba bean, field pea, and grass pea. Regression functions modeled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2, and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea, and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The increase of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host-parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than four parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size. In contrast

  12. Domestication of Pea (Pisum sativum L.): The Case of the Abyssinian Pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Norman F.

    2018-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the Abyssinian pea (Pisum sativum ssp. abyssinicum) to other subspecies and species in the genus were investigated to test between different hypotheses regarding its origin and domestication. An extensive sample of the Pisum sativum ssp. sativum germplasm was investigated, including groups a-1, a-2, b, c, and d as identified by Kwon et al. (2012). A broad sample of P. fulvum but relatively few P. s. ssp. elatius accessions were analyzed. Partial sequences of 18 genes were compared and these results combined with comparisons of additional genes done by others and available in the literature. In total, 54 genes or gene fragment sequences were involved in the study. The observed affinities between alleles in P. ssp. sativum, P. s. ssp. abyssinicum, P. s. ssp. elatius, and P. fulvum clearly demonstrated a close relationship among the three P. sativum subspecies and rejected the hypothesis that the Abyssinian pea was formed by hybridization between one of the P. sativum subspecies and P. fulvum. If hybridization were involved in the generation of the Abyssinian pea, it must have been between P. s. ssp. sativum and P. s. ssp. elatius, although the Abyssinian pea possesses a considerable number of highly unique alleles, implying that the actual P. s. ssp. elatius germplasm involved in such a hybridization has yet to be tested or that the hybridization occurred much longer ago than the postulated 4000 years bp. Analysis of the P. s. ssp. abyssinicum alleles in genomic regions thought to contain genes critical for domestication indicated that the indehiscent pod trait was independently developed in the Abyssinian pea, whereas the loss of seed dormancy was either derived from P. s. ssp. sativum or at least partially developed before the P. s. ssp. abyssinicum lineage diverged from that leading to P. s. ssp. sativum. PMID:29720994

  13. Studies on Production of Arabic Bread From Irradiated and Stored Potato Flour as Partial Substitute of Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kuraieef, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate Arabic bread produced from potato flour and wheat flour. Potato flour was prepared from Diamont cultivar of potato tubers after irradiation with 50 and 150 Gy. The ratios of potato flour were 5, 10 and 15% and the flour was stored for six months and taken for analysis every three months. Amino acids, protein, carbohydrate, baking and staling tests were applied to study the effect of adding potato flour extracts from tubers of non-irradiated and irradiated potato to wheat flour in Arabic bread making. Amino acids in potato and wheat were studied. The flour of wheat was found to be poor in lysine while potato flour contained about twice of these amino acids. Protein content was decreased with increasing the ratios of potato flour. The addition of potato flour to the Arabic bread increased the percentage of essential amino acids. Moreover, the addition of potato flour during storage periods had an improving effect on the quality of Arabic bread. Water retention capacity (the staling rate) was increased progressively with increasing the percentage as potato flour in the bread which was effective in keeping bread fresh and organoleptic properties

  14. Utilization of Durian Seed Flour as Filler Ingredient of Meatball

    OpenAIRE

    D. R. Malini; I. I. Arief; H. Nuraini

    2016-01-01

    Durian seed flour contains starch consisted of amylose and amylopectin like tapioca flour, so it can be utilized as a filler in meatball production. The purposes of this research were to evaluate the nutrient content and quality of durian seed flour, the best level of durian seed flour addition to the meatball production, and the quality of beef meatball during storage in room temperature and refrigerator. Complete randomized design (CRD) was used with 3 treatments and 3 replications. The tre...

  15. Development of Wet Noodles Based on Cassava Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Akhmad Z. Abidin; Cinantya Devi; Adeline

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is one of Indonesia's original commodities and contains good nutrition and has high productivity and a relatively low price. Cassava flour has a high potential as a substitute for imported wheat flour that is widely used in noodle production. The main purpose of this research was to develop wet noodles from cassava flour that can compete with wet noodles from wheat flour. The research consisted of experiments with several variations of composition and production method for producing c...

  16. Effect of quinoa and potato flours on the thermomechanical and breadmaking properties ofwheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rodriguez-Sandoval

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermomechanical properties of dough and the physical characteristics of bread from quinoa-wheat and potato-wheat composite flours at 10 and 20% substitution level were evaluated. The functional properties of flours were measured by the water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI and swelling power (SP. The thermomechanical properties of wheat and composite flours were assessed using a Mixolab and the baking quality characteristics of breads were weight, height, width, and specific volume. The results showed that the higher values of WAI (4.48, WSI (7.45%, and SP (4.84 were for potato flour. The quinoa-wheat composite flour presented lower setback and cooking stability data, which are a good indicator of shelf life of bread. On the other hand, the potato-wheat composite flour showed lower stability, minimum torque and peak torque, and higher water absorption. Weight, height, width, and specific volume of wheat bread were most similar to samples of potato-wheat composite flour at 10% substitution level.

  17. Tempeh flour as a substitute for soybean flour in coconut cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos Leite

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare roasted and lyophilized tempeh flour with soybean cultivar BRS 267 to apply them in the formulation of coconut biscuits. The cookies produced with whole soy flour and mixed flour of soybean and tempeh were evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid profile, and isoflavone aglycones in order to verify the effects of inoculation with the fungus Rhizopus oligosporus and those of the drying processes of roasting and lyophilization on the chemical characteristics of the final product. Sensory acceptance and purchase intention of the formulated products were also evaluated. The results indicate the maintenance of linolenic acid, which is important in the prevention of coronary diseases, and an increase in the aglycones levels when the tempeh flour was used. Lipids and proteins showed differences, and the sensory analyses demonstrated similarity between the cookies with satisfactory scores for aroma, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability for both samples. when compared to the control. Purchase intent was also positive for the lyophilized and toasted tempeh flours, thus enabling the use of the roasting process as a simple drying method, for processing tempeh and obtaining a flour rich in proteins and aglycones that can be used as a partial substitute for soy flour in cookies and other bakery products.

  18. Linseed fibre – effect on composite flour properties and cereal products quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hrušková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour was fortified by 2.5 or 5.0 wt. per cent of linseed fibre, gained from seeds of golden flax varieties Amon and Raciol and brown one Recital (granulation 500 - 700 m, prepared from 2015 harvest. Technological quality of six flour composites was described analytically by Falling Number and Zeleny sedimentation test. Both screening methods shown a little impact on amylases activity and protein quality, respectively. Rheological tests included the farinograph, the extensigraph and the Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA proofs. Additions of brown and yellow flax fibre significantly increased farinograph water absorption and shortened dough stability, somewhat stronger by addition of brown linseed fibre. Extensigraph curves course depended on dough resting time, higher differences between wheat control and flour composites were observed after 60 min dough resting. Linseed fibre supported dough extensibility, and energy as area under curve significantly decreased about 7 - 18%, mainly due to increasing alternative material portion in dough. In general, fibre is characterised as hydrophilic material, and pasting profiles of flour composites confirmed this experience. During dough leavening, tested samples were differentiated according to maturograph dough resistance; optimal leavening time of wheat-linseed fibre dough was shorter than control. Regardless described modifications in dough machinability, specific volumes of bread buns were similar though whole sample set. A weak worsening of buns vaulting reflected a partial dilution of dough gluten skeleton. Cut-off biscuits were characterised by gradually lowering spread ratio, correspondingly to elevated dough elasticity. Laboratory prepared elbow-pasta have the same cooking time as the control (8.0 min, and data variation could not be attributed to linseed fibre or addition level. All three cereal products were found to have acceptable sensory profiles. PCA method verified partial lowering of

  19. Quality characteristics of wheat flour dough and bread containing grape pomace flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šporin, Monika; Avbelj, Martina; Kovač, Boris; Možina, Sonja Smole

    2018-04-01

    Wheat bread was enriched with 6%, 10% and 15% dried and milled grape pomace flour from two grape cultivars: 'Merlot' and 'Zelen'. Rheological, textural, sensory and antioxidant properties of the enriched dough and bread were evaluated, and compared to control samples. Grape cultivar had significant impact on the rheological characteristics of the dough, and on the sensory and antioxidant properties of the final bread. Development time and dough stability were longer when 'Merlot' grape pomace flour was added compared to 'Zelen' grape pomace flour and the control. Grape pomace flour addition affected bread volume, firmness, crumb and crust colour, and odour and taste intensity. Moreover, grape pomace flour addition resulted in a stickier and less springy crumb texture, and some negative sensorial properties, such as increased intensity of aftertaste and sand feeling in the mouth. The phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bread were positively correlated with grape pomace flour addition ( r = 0.987, p = 0.01 and r = 0.941, p = 0.01 between phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant power and phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, respectively). The highest total phenolic contents were 5.92 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dw for 'Merlot' and 3.65 mg gallic acid equivalents /g dw for 'Zelen', which were seen for the bread prepared with the highest grape pomace flour addition (15%). The highest antioxidant activity determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays were seen for the bread prepared with the highest 'Merlot' grape pomace flour addition (15%). Dough characteristic and sensory profile are strongly influenced by cultivar of grape pomace flour. Based on results of sensory profiling, the variety 'Zelen' is suggested for use.

  20. Effects on respiratory system due to exposure to wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Mohammed Said

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Exposure to wheat flour increases the risk of developing respiratory symptoms; it also causes reduction in the pulmonary function parameters, as regards spirometry and DLCOSB. Exposure to wheat flour causes interstitial lung disease as detected by HRCT chest. Smoking augments the wheat flour induced lung disease.

  1. Effect of Cassava Flour Processing Methods and Substitution Level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The consumption of bread is globally increasing. However, due to increased costs associated with production of bread from 100% wheat flour especially in developing countries, other cereal based flours are now being blended with wheat flour to produce bread. This study was carried out to assess the effect of using two ...

  2. Effect od Soybean/Cassava Flour Blend in the Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava tubers were also peeled, chopped, dried and milled in a similar fashion. Eventually, the soybean and cassava flour samples were blended individually with the quality protein maize flour in three different proportions: 5:95, 10:90 and 15:85, respectively. Normal maize flour was used as a control for the quality ...

  3. Pea Marker Database (PMD) - A new online database combining known pea (Pisum sativum L.) gene-based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaeva, Olga A; Zhernakov, Aleksandr I; Afonin, Alexey M; Boikov, Sergei S; Sulima, Anton S; Tikhonovich, Igor A; Zhukov, Vladimir A

    2017-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is the oldest model object of plant genetics and one of the most agriculturally important legumes in the world. Since the pea genome has not been sequenced yet, identification of genes responsible for mutant phenotypes or desirable agricultural traits is usually performed via genetic mapping followed by candidate gene search. Such mapping is best carried out using gene-based molecular markers, as it opens the possibility for exploiting genome synteny between pea and its close relative Medicago truncatula Gaertn., possessing sequenced and annotated genome. In the last 5 years, a large number of pea gene-based molecular markers have been designed and mapped owing to the rapid evolution of "next-generation sequencing" technologies. However, the access to the complete set of markers designed worldwide is limited because the data are not uniformed and therefore hard to use. The Pea Marker Database was designed to combine the information about pea markers in a form of user-friendly and practical online tool. Version 1 (PMD1) comprises information about 2484 genic markers, including their locations in linkage groups, the sequences of corresponding pea transcripts and the names of related genes in M. truncatula. Version 2 (PMD2) is an updated version comprising 15944 pea markers in the same format with several advanced features. To test the performance of the PMD, fine mapping of pea symbiotic genes Sym13 and Sym27 in linkage groups VII and V, respectively, was carried out. The results of mapping allowed us to propose the Sen1 gene (a homologue of SEN1 gene of Lotus japonicus (Regel) K. Larsen) as the best candidate gene for Sym13, and to narrow the list of possible candidate genes for Sym27 to ten, thus proving PMD to be useful for pea gene mapping and cloning. All information contained in PMD1 and PMD2 is available at www.peamarker.arriam.ru.

  4. Introducing the yellow laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2018-02-01

    The author has acquired a yellow laser with the specific wavelength of 589 nm. Because this is the first time such a laser has been discussed in this journal, I feel it is appropriate to provide a discussion of its function and capabilities. Normal laser safety should be employed, such as not pointing it into eyes or at people, and using eye protection for the young and inexperienced. It is important to note that 589 nm is the same wavelength as the Sodium-D line (doublet). This allows for the laser to serve as a replacement for sodium lamps, and, considering its rather high price, this added value should be balanced against its cost. What follows is a list of activities that showcase the yellow laser's unique promise as an engaging piece of technology that can be used in the teaching of physics.

  5. Pilot experience yellow tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassanti, W.A.; Esteves Junior, L.

    1990-01-01

    In the search for alternatives to reduce the probability of a electric energy shortage, the National Electric Sector decided to apply Real Cost Supply Tariff. The implementation of this tariff method to consumers supplied on low tension, Group B (lower than 2300 Volts), demands a better knowledge of measurement equipment, tariff values and consumers receptivity for energy modulation and/or conservation, all objects of this Yellow Tariff Experience. (author)

  6. Uses Of Gamma Rays In Peas Breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghunim, A.; Mobakher, H.; Salman, S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of peas varieties grown in Syria are introduced and they have variable characteristics and unstable in the productivity. Therefore this study aims to utilize physical mutagens as the developed technology in plant breeding to obtain high, stable productivity and suitable for human consumption and processing. Two green peas vars (onward, local homsi) were used in this study, and their dry seeds were subjected to different doses of Gamma rays (5.0,7.5,10.0) KR and planted conventional used methods at AL Taibba searching station (20 Km from Damascus) in 1985/1986 season. Individual selection from M2 was practiced based on yield traits. Starting from 1991/1992 season the best selected mutants were used in yield trials to be compared with the best common cultivars. After/3/years of yield trials, the advanced lines were incorporated into field test trials. Some morphological and phonological scores, i.e. green pods yield, dry seeds yield per area were achieved in addition to lab tests. Some strains have advanced in yield of green pods and dry seeds per area compared with the local check. Some other strains. Showed an increase in earliness, length of pods, number of seeds per pod, and number of pods per plant than the local check. Therefore these can be called promising strains and as nucleus for new vars. will be used into verifiable fields, and in large-scale cultivation in order to be released. (Authors)

  7. Yellow cake product practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosina, B.

    1980-01-01

    The flow sheets of uranium ore processing plants at present operating throughout the world terminate with the production of yellow cake. The demands of the refineries on the quality of this commodity have become more stringent with time. The impurity content of yellow cake depends to a considerable extent on the nature of the technical operations preceding precipitation. As a rule the purity of the final product is greater when the uranium is precipitated from re-extractants or regenerators consisting of weakly basic resins. An analysis of 80 uranium precipitation flow sheets demonstrates the advantages of using ammonia, while to some extent use is made of caustic soda, magnesium oxide, hydrogen peroxide or calcium oxide; precipitation is carried out in one or two stages at high temperature. Use of a particular chemical is governed by its availability, price, effect on the environment, degree of filtrate utilization, etc. It may be anticipated that the perfecting of precipitation flow sheets will be directed towards achieving maximum concentration of uranium in the solutions before precipitation, reduction in the volume of liquid flows through the equipment, an improvement in the filtration qualities of the precipitate, etc. The paper gives the flow sheet for precipitation of uranium by means of gaseous ammonia from sulphate-carbonate solutions. For drying yellow cake use has been made of spray driers. The dry product is easily sampled and transported. (author)

  8. Quality evaluation of irradiated wheat flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattani, M.M.; Mastro, N.L. del; Rigoni, V.H.

    1995-01-01

    Co-60 irradiated wheat flour samples in the range of 0.2-30 kGy have been analysed by the ESR technique. (Electron Spin Resonance). Tests of color, stability and Falling Number were also performed. The observed ESR signals showed complex but similar behavior for all samples. The intensity of the ESR signal showed a linear dependence with dose up to 30 kGy. Tests of color, stability and Falling Number showed that up to the dose recommended to destroy plagues (1 kGy), the intrinsic properties of flours are preserved being the product in perfect conditions to be commercialized. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  9. Effect of Weathering Time on the Physical - Mechanical Properties and Color Change in Wood Flour/HDPE Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Kord

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of weathering time on the physical and mechanical properties and color change in composite made of wood flour and high density polyethylene (HDPE. For this purpose, wood flour and polyethylene at a weight ratio of 60:40 with coupling agent were compounded in an internal mixer, and the samples were made in injection molding. Then, the weathering process by ultraviolet irradiation and water spray was done on the samples at different times of 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 hours in accelerated weathering apparatus. Finally, the physical and mechanical properties and color measurement of samples were tested, and compared with control samples. Results indicated that the flexural strength, flexural modulus, tensile strength and tensile modulus decreased with an increase in weathering time; however, the water absorption increased. Also, the yellowness of wood plastic samples decreased with an increase in weathering time and due to the lightness and color change increased.

  10. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND THE ENERGETIC VALUE OF WHEAT FLOUR SUBSTITUTED BY DIFFERENT SHARES OF WHITE AND BROWN RICE FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Nikolić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to produce dough with a lower gluten content, more enriched with rice components and satisfactory rheological properties, the rheological properties, energetic value and cake baking properties of wheat and white or brown rice flour in shares from 3 to 30% (w/w were investigated in this paper. The water absorption in wheat-rice flour mixtures was lower and decreased to 53.5% and 54.0% along with the increase of the white and the brown rice flour share, respectively, than in wheat flour, where it was 58.8%. In the dough made from rice flour, a gluten network had thinner filaments, about 2 and 1 μm in width for white and brown rice flour, respectively, compared to those in the dough from wheat flour only, where it was about 7 μm. The dough from rice flour had almost twice higher gelatinization maximum than the gelatinization maximum of the wheat flour only. The energetic values of the dough from rice flour were smaller than the energetic value of the wheat flour, for only 1.32%. Based on Cluster analysis, the white or brown rice flour share of 20% was pointed out.

  11. Study of mechanical and thermal properties of soy flour elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kendra Alicia

    Bio-based plastics are becoming viable alternatives to petroleum-based plastics because they decrease dependence on petroleum derivatives and are more environmentally friendly. Raw materials such as soy flour are widely available, low cost, lightweight, stiffness and have high strength characteristics, but weak interfacial adhesion between the soy flour and the polymer poses a challenge. In this study, soy flour was utilized as a filler in thermoplastic elastomer composites. A surface modification called acetylation was investigated at soy flour concentrations of 10 wt%, 15 wt% and 20 wt%. The mechanical properties of the composites were then compared to that of elastomers without a filler. Chemical characterization of the acetylated soy flour was attempted in order to understand what occurs during the reaction and after completion. In the range of tests, soy flour loadings were observed to be inversely proportional to tensile strength for both the untreated and treated soy flour. However, the acetylated soy flour at 10 wt% concentration performed comparable to that of the neat rubber and resulted in an increase in tensile strength. Unexpectedly, the acetylation reaction increased elongation, which reduced stress within the composite and is believed to increase the adhesion of the soy flour to that of the elastomer. In the nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR), the intensity for the treated soy flour was larger than that of the untreated soy flour for the acetyl groups that were attached to the soy flour, particularly, the carbonyl function group next to the deprotonated oxygen and the methyl group next to the carbonyl. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the acetylated soy flour is slightly more thermally stable than the untreated soy flour. The treated soy flour also increased the decomposition temperature of the composite.

  12. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nitrate uptake by the pea crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1986-08-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nitrate uptake by pea plants (Pisum sativum L.) were studied in field and pot experiments using the 15 N isotope dilution technique and spring barley as a non-fixing reference crop. Barley, although not ideal, seemed to be a suitable reference for pea in the 15 N-technique. Maximum N 2 fixation activity of 10 kg N fixed per ha per day was reached around the flat pod growth stage, and the activity decreased rapidly during pod-filling. The pea crop fixed between 100 and 250 kg N ha -1 , corresponding to from 45 to 80 per cent of total crop N. The amount of symbiotically fixed N 2 depended on the climatic conditions in the experimental year, the level of soil mineral N and the pea cultivar. Field-grown pea took up 60 to 70 per cent of the N-fertilizer supplied. The supply of 50 kg NO 3 -N ha -1 inhibited the N 2 fixation approximately 15 per cent. Small amounts of fertilizer N, supplied at sowing (starter-N), slightly stimulated the vegetative growth of pea, but the yields of seed dry matter and protein were not significantly influenced. In the present field experiments the environmental conditions, especially the distribution of rainfall during the growth season, seemed to be more important in determining the protein and dry matter yield of the dry pea crop, than the ability of pea to fix nitrogen symbiotically. However, fertilizer N supplied to pot-grown pea plants at the flat pod growth stage or as split applications significantly increased the yield of seed dry matter and protein. (author)

  13. Technological characteristics of bread containing integral irradiated flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Christian A.H.M.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2011-01-01

    Wheat is normally used to make bread, pasta, and noodles, because among the cereal flours, only wheat flour has the ability to form cohesive dough upon hydration. For that reason, only partial substitution of wheat flour can be recommended. In this work, pan breads were prepared with 30% content of irradiated whole wheat, whole rye and coarse cornmeal and the influence of blending on bread making capabilities investigated through some technological characteristics. All-brand wheat, rye and cornmeal flours were irradiated with 0, 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a 60 Co and the deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with those blends were then determined. Breads prepared with irradiated whole wheat flour showed an increase in the deformation force with the increase of radiation dose. The bread height presented also an increase for the doses of 1 and 3 kGy. Breads prepared with refined wheat flour blended with irradiated whole rye flour showed an increased deformation force for radiation doses of 1 and 3 kGy and an increase in weight for samples irradiated with 1 kGy. Coarse cornmeal blended flour showed a great increase of the deformation force upon irradiation, and an increase in weight for samples irradiated with 3 kGy. The results indicate that the addition of irradiated integral flour, whole wheat, whole rye flour and cornmeal to wheat flour may confer changes in physical properties beside an increment in nutritional value. (author)

  14. Development of Wet Noodles Based on Cassava Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Z. Abidin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of Indonesia’s original commodities and contains good nutrition and has high productivity and a relatively low price. Cassava flour has a high potential as a substitute for imported wheat flour that is widely used in noodle production. The main purpose of this research was to develop wet noodles from cassava flour that can compete with wet noodles from wheat flour. The research consisted of experiments with several variations of composition and production method for producing cassava flour-based wet noodles. The best result was then examined for its nutritional value, economical value, and market response, and also a comparison was made between the prepared wet noodles and the standard noodles made from wheat flour. The analysis was based on five characteristics: taste, texture, chewiness, aroma, and appearance. Relations between these characteristics with composition, materials used, and methods applied are discussed. The developed cassava flour-based wet noodle meets physical, nutritional, and economical standards. Raw materials of the noodle were cassava flour and a wheat flour composite with a 5:1 ratio, egg, gluten, soda-ash, water, and vegetable oil, while the process was completed in multiple stages. Market response showed that the cassava flour-based wet noodles were 80% similar to wheat-flour noodles.

  15. Improvement of Tagliatelle Quality by Addition of Red Quinoa Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Pop

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to diversification of tagliatelle pasta and increasing segment of consumers it was intended to improvement of tagliatelle pasta quality by addition of red quinoa flour. The products obtained at Bakery Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of original recipe. To optimize the recipe were made four experimental variants, white flour and red quinoa flour is used in different proportions: Variant 1 – plain tagliatelle pasta (control sample who used white flour WF in 100%, Variant 2 consisting of 15% red quinoa flour (15 QF, Variant 3 consisting of 30 % red quinoa flour (30 QF and Variant 4 consisting of 50 % red quinoa flour (50 RQF. The experimental variants was analyzed for physico-chemical: moisture content, protein content and acidity. The sensory attributes, were evaluated by using a 9-point Hedonic scale. Present study indicated that the variant 3 were most accepted by consumers.

  16. Impact of Quince Flour on Gluten-free Muffins Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana PAUCEAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain gluten free muffins, with increased nutritional and sensorial value by adding quince flour into a composite flour. To optimize the recipe, four experimental variants using rice, soy, quince flours and starch in different proportions have been proposed. Quince is a rich source of vitamins, minerals, polyphenolic compounds and fibres. The quince flour addition led to muffins with increased content in minerals and very good sensorial properties in terms of taste, flavour, texture and general acceptance. It could be concluded that quince flour is a suitable source for obtaining gluten free muffins. Quince flour addition in aglutenic muffin composite flour up to 10% did not affect negatively their phisico-chemical and sensorial  properties.

  17. Fungi species and red flour beetle in stored wheat flour under Jazan region conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosly, Hanan AbuAlQasem; Kawanna, Maha Adel

    2014-05-01

    Infection of stored wheat flour with insects and toxic fungi can be an extremely serious problem. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungal species and insects in different stages, which infested and contaminated the stored flour under Jazan region conditions and changed its color and flavor. The obtained results revealed that the isolated insect was the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Live adult, larvae and cast skin were isolated. Four Aspergillus species were isolated from stored wheat flour; the isolated species prevalence being A. flavus > A. niveus > A. terreus > A. niger by rate 44.5%, 37.8%, 10.9% and 6.7%, respectively. The same fungal species isolated from flour were also isolated from different insect stages. A. flavus was the most common fungus and A. niger was isolated with a lower rate. The results about the isolated fungi either from the suspension of adult insects, larvae or cast skins may confirm the role of T. castaneum to carry and distribute fungi in different parts of the stored flour.

  18. Evaluation of replacing wheat flour with chia flour (Salvia hispanica L. in pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Rodrigues Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, chia (Salvia hispanica L. has become increasingly more prevalent in the Brazilian diet and has triggered the interests of many researchers due to its functional properties and associated health benefits. The objective of this study was to develop pasta with different percentages of chia flour in lieu of wheat flour, and to evaluate the impact of chia on the nutritional, technological, and sensory properties of pasta. Pastas were prepared by replacing 7.5% (T1, 15% (T2, and 30% (T3 of wheat flour with chia flour relative to the control formulation (C. The quality of the pastas were evaluated through cooking tests (increase in weight and volume, cooking time, and loss of solids in the cooking water, chemical composition (moisture, fat, fiber, protein, ash, and carbohydrates, and color, using a Minolta colorimeter and sensory analysis by means of acceptance testing. Pasta made with chia flour had higher nutritional value and superior technological characteristics than did the control. Sensory analysis results showed that pasta with 7.5% chia flour had higher rates of acceptability in terms of the flavor, while the control pasta prevailed in terms of color and texture.

  19. INSECT AND MYCOFLORA INTERACTIONS IN MAIZE FLOUR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium moniliforme had the highest occurrence of 36.7%, 28.1% and 33.3% while Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus had a frequency of 3.2%, 3.1% and 3% on primary isolation media of czapek dox agar (CDA), potato dextrose agar (PDA) and sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) respectively, in maize flour without T. castaneum.

  20. Multigrain bread processing with extruded flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Crosa Balestra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect in bread quality of a new bread making process and two replacement levels (20%, 36% of refined wheat flour by extrusion precooked prepared based on combination of oats, soybeans and wheat bran was studied. Composite flour was characterized according to its functional properties (water absorption index, grain size and nutritional properties (protein, total fiber, soluble fiber, ash, fat. The volume, whiteness index, rheological measurements (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and chewiness of the bread were monitored. No significant changes were recorded in hardness, elasticity and chewiness of bread according to the level of substitution of composite flour; bread with 36% substitution was 7% less cohesive, with 27% less volume bread with 20% substitution. The process conditions caused greatest impact on the quality of bread. The new process resulted in a 37% increase in volume, 6% elasticity, 15% of cohesiveness and 44% decrease in hardness and 34% in chewiness, compared to the traditional process. This trend continued in the four days following the date of processing. The substitution level of composite flour did not cause significant changes in hardness, elasticity and chewiness of bread, but changes were observed in cohesiveness and volume. Bread with 36% substitution was 7% less cohesive, with 27% less volume than the 20% substitution.

  1. 21 CFR 137.165 - Enriched flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched flour. 137.165 Section 137.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... riboflavin, 24 milligrams of niacin, 0.7 milligrams of folic acid, and 20 milligrams of iron. (b) It may...

  2. Protein methylation reactions in intact pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Post-translational protein methylation was investigated in Pisum sativum chloroplasts. Intact pea chloroplasts were incubated with ( 3 H-methyl)-S-adenosylmethionine under various conditions. The chloroplasts were then separated into stromal and thylakoid fractions and analyzed for radioactivity transferred to protein. Light enhanced the magnitude of labeling in both fractions. One thylakoid polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa was labeled only in the light. Several other thylakoid and stromal proteins were labeled in both light and dark-labeling conditions. Both base-labile methylation, carboxy-methylesters and base-stable groups, N-methylations were found. Further characterization of the methyl-transfer reactions will be presented

  3. Lodging resistant pea line derived after mutagenic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenova, N.; Vassilevska-Ivanova, R.

    2006-01-01

    Line 1/502 is a new lodging resistant pea ( Pisum sativum L.) developed for the Bulgarian field pea industry. This line is a direct chlorophyll mutant, which originates after treatment of the initial line, cultivar Auralia, with 150 Gy 60 Co γ - radiation. In regional evaluation trials conducted in Sofia over seven successive seasons 1/502 has revealed improved standing ability that most probably is a result from modification of the architecture of the plants appearing in reduction of plant height. The agronomic and morphological characteristics of the mutant line were reported. The upright plant habit and resistance to lodging is especially beneficial for production of high quality peas because pods are held above the soil surface during crop development and during maturity which aids in keeping the peas clean and free of pathogens that can cause discoloration and rotting. (authors)

  4. Effect of Pigeon Pea Hedgerow Alley Management on the Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year (2010 and 2011 cropping seasons) field investigation conducted at the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, South Eastern Nigeria. Treatments comprised three pigeon pea hedgerow alley populations of 20,000, 33,333 and ...

  5. Induced mutants in beans and peas resistant to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, F.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and peas (Pisum sativum) are important leguminous vegetable crops in Egypt. The area planted with beans is about 40,000 acres and peas 22,000 acres. These crops suffer from several diseases, particularly rusts, (Uromyces phaseoli/Uromyces pisi), which are mainly spread in northern Egypt. In our mutation induction programme we used 60 Co gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for two hours before exposure to 8, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical treatments, bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for eight hours and then treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. The M 1 was cultivated in 1978

  6. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) in the Genomic Era

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smýkal, P.; Aubert, G.; Burstin, J.; Coyne, C.J.; Ellis, N.T.H.; Flavell, A.J.; Ford, R.; Hýbl, M.; Macas, Jiří; Neumann, Pavel; McPhee, K.E.; Redden, R.J.; Rubiales, D.; Weller, J.L.; Warkentin, T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2012), s. 74-115 ISSN 2073-4395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : breeding * germplasm * genetic diversity * pea Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  7. Pea (Pisum sativum L. in the Genomic Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Redden

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. was the original model organism used in Mendel’s discovery (1866 of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. However, subsequent progress in pea genomics has lagged behind many other plant species. Although the size and repetitive nature of the pea genome has so far restricted its sequencing, comprehensive genomic and post genomic resources already exist. These include BAC libraries, several types of molecular marker sets, both transcriptome and proteome datasets and mutant populations for reverse genetics. The availability of the full genome sequences of three legume species has offered significant opportunities for genome wide comparison revealing synteny and co-linearity to pea. A combination of a candidate gene and colinearity approach has successfully led to the identification of genes underlying agronomically important traits including virus resistances and plant architecture. Some of this knowledge has already been applied to marker assisted selection (MAS programs, increasing precision and shortening the breeding cycle. Yet, complete translation of marker discovery to pea breeding is still to be achieved. Molecular analysis of pea collections has shown that although substantial variation is present within the cultivated genepool, wild material offers the possibility to incorporate novel traits that may have been inadvertently eliminated. Association mapping analysis of diverse pea germplasm promises to identify genetic variation related to desirable agronomic traits, which are historically difficult to breed for in a traditional manner. The availability of high throughput ‘omics’ methodologies offers great promise for the development of novel, highly accurate selective breeding tools for improved pea genotypes that are sustainable under current and future climates and farming systems.

  8. Ly α and UV Sizes of Green Pea Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan; Wang, Junxian [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China (China); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Jiang, Tianxing [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration (United States); Leitherer, Claus [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wofford, Aida, E-mail: huan.y@asu.edu [National Autonomous University of Mexico, Institute of Astronomy (Mexico)

    2017-03-20

    Green Peas are nearby analogs of high-redshift Ly α -emitting galaxies (LAEs). To probe their Ly α escape, we study the spatial profiles of Ly α and UV continuum emission of 24 Green Pea galaxies using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope . We extract the spatial profiles of Ly α emission from their 2D COS spectra, and of the UV continuum from both 2D spectra and NUV images. The Ly α emission shows more extended spatial profiles than the UV continuum, in most Green Peas. The deconvolved full width at half maximum of the Ly α spatial profile is about 2–4 times that of the UV continuum, in most cases. Because Green Peas are analogs of high z LAEs, our results suggest that most high- z LAEs probably have larger Ly α sizes than UV sizes. We also compare the spatial profiles of Ly α photons at blueshifted and redshifted velocities in eight Green Peas with sufficient data quality, and find that the blue wing of the Ly α line has a larger spatial extent than the red wing in four Green Peas with comparatively weak blue Ly α line wings. We show that Green Peas and MUSE z = 3–6 LAEs have similar Ly α and UV continuum sizes, which probably suggests that starbursts in both low- z and high- z LAEs drive similar gas outflows illuminated by Ly α light. Five Lyman continuum (LyC) leakers in this sample have similar Ly α to UV continuum size ratios (∼1.4–4.3) to the other Green Peas, indicating that their LyC emissions escape through ionized holes in the interstellar medium.

  9. PEA: an integrated R toolkit for plant epitranscriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jingjing; Song, Jie; Cheng, Qian; Tang, Yunjia; Ma, Chuang

    2018-05-29

    The epitranscriptome, also known as chemical modifications of RNA (CMRs), is a newly discovered layer of gene regulation, the biological importance of which emerged through analysis of only a small fraction of CMRs detected by high-throughput sequencing technologies. Understanding of the epitranscriptome is hampered by the absence of computational tools for the systematic analysis of epitranscriptome sequencing data. In addition, no tools have yet been designed for accurate prediction of CMRs in plants, or to extend epitranscriptome analysis from a fraction of the transcriptome to its entirety. Here, we introduce PEA, an integrated R toolkit to facilitate the analysis of plant epitranscriptome data. The PEA toolkit contains a comprehensive collection of functions required for read mapping, CMR calling, motif scanning and discovery, and gene functional enrichment analysis. PEA also takes advantage of machine learning technologies for transcriptome-scale CMR prediction, with high prediction accuracy, using the Positive Samples Only Learning algorithm, which addresses the two-class classification problem by using only positive samples (CMRs), in the absence of negative samples (non-CMRs). Hence PEA is a versatile epitranscriptome analysis pipeline covering CMR calling, prediction, and annotation, and we describe its application to predict N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modifications in Arabidopsis thaliana. Experimental results demonstrate that the toolkit achieved 71.6% sensitivity and 73.7% specificity, which is superior to existing m6A predictors. PEA is potentially broadly applicable to the in-depth study of epitranscriptomics. PEA Docker image is available at https://hub.docker.com/r/malab/pea, source codes and user manual are available at https://github.com/cma2015/PEA. chuangma2006@gmail.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. Febre amarela Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A febre amarela é doenca infecciosa não-contagiosa causada por um arbovírus mantido em ciclos silvestres em que macacos atuam como hospedeiros amplificadores e mosquitos dos gêneros Aedes na África, e Haemagogus e Sabethes na América, são os transmissores. Cerca de 90% dos casos da doença apresentam-se com formas clínicas benignas que evoluem para a cura, enquanto 10% desenvolvem quadros dramáticos com mortalidade em torno de 50%. O problema mostra-se mais grave em África onde ainda há casos urbanos. Nas Américas, no período de 1970-2001, descreveram-se 4.543 casos. Os países que mais diagnosticaram a doença foram o Peru (51,5%, a Bolívia (20,1% e o Brasil (18,7%. Os métodos diagnósticos utilizados incluem a sorologia (IgM, isolamento viral, imunohistoquímica e RT-PCR. A zoonose não pode ser erradicada, mas, a doença humana é prevenível mediante a vacinação com a amostra 17D do vírus amarílico. A OMS recomenda nova vacinação a cada 10 anos. Neste artigo são revistos os principais conceitos da doença e os casos de mortes associados à vacina.Yellow fever is an infectious and non-contagious disease caused by an arbovirus, the yellow fever virus. The agent is maintained in jungle cycles among primates as vertebrate hosts and mosquitoes, especially Aedes in Africa, and Haemagogus and Sabethes in America. Approximately 90% of the infections are mild or asymptomatic, while 10% course to a severe clinical picture with 50% case-fatality rate. Yellow fever is largely distributed in Africa where urban epidemics are still reported. In South America, between 1970-2001, 4,543 cases were reported, mostly from Peru (51.5%, Bolivia (20.1% and Brazil (18.7%. The disease is diagnosed by serology (detection of IgM, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Yellow fever is a zoonosis and cannot be eradicated, but it is preventable in man by using the 17D vaccine. A single dose is enough to protect an individual for at least

  11. Induced mutations in beans and peas for resistance to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, F.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma rays and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) were applied in a mutation-induction programme for rust resistance in bean and pea. Bean and pea seeds were pre-soaked 2 hours before irradiation with 9, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical mutagen treatments bean and pea seeds were pre-soaked for 8 hours and treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. M 2 seeds of beans and peas were planted in 1979. Resistant M 2 plants were selected for their rust resistance and other morphological characters. M 3 seeds of selected plants were planted in 1980. In 1980 more seeds of the same varieties of beans and peas were treated with 0.1 and 0.3% EMS with the aim to produce rust-resistant mutants. Seed germination was reduced by gamma rays or EMS. Dwarf, malformed and abnormal plants were noticed. Some resistant M 2 plants selected gave high grain yields. Some were different in morphological characters. In the M 3 of selected plants various other mutant characters appeared, such as different height of plants, early and late flowering, resistance to powdery mildew in peas, altered grain yield, thickness of stem, pod shape and flower colour. (author)

  12. Food supplementation for workers: flour enriched with omega -3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Nery de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was preparing a product (omega-3 flour to increase the nutritional value of the food for workers concerning the content of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA. The omega-3 flour was prepared using waste (head sardines and leaves of carrot, flaxseed flour, manioc flour and spices. The fatty acids (FA concentration was analyzed by gas chromatography. A total of 28 FA were identified in the omega-3 flour. The concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were 329.23mg EPA 100 g-1 omega-3 flour and 545.35 mg DHA 100 g-1 omega-3 flour. To meet the minimum requirements of omega -3, it is necessary the intake 2.5 to 3 tablespoons (soup of omega-3 flour day-1.There were analyzed two meals (A and B generally consumed by workers without and with the addition of the omega-3 flour (1 and 2 tablespoons to verify if there was an increase of n-3 FA. It was concluded that there was a significant increase of these FA in both meals. It was found that the omega-3 flour is constituted of a good nutritional value, especially the n-3 FA, so the product can be used as a supplement in the feeding of the workers as well as in other segments.

  13. Need yellow fever vaccine? Plan ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Need yellow fever vaccine? Plan ahead. Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... none were from the United States). What is yellow fever? Yellow fever is caused by a virus that ...

  14. Formulation and characterization of bread using coconut-pulp flour and wheat flour composite with addition of xanthan-gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erminawati; Sidik, W.; Listanti, R.; Zulfakar, H.

    2018-01-01

    Coconut-pulp flour is coconut flour made from by-product of coconut-milk based food products. The flour contains no gluten and high fibre, which can be considered as functional potential food. Bread made from composite-flour of coconut-pulp flour and wheat flour was studied for its physic-chemical and sensory characteristics. Addition of hydrocolloid, like xanthan-gum, was aimed to provide viscoelasticity for the dough which is essential for baked product. Composite-flour proportion used in this study was; 10CPF/90WF, 15CPF/85WF and 20CPF/80WF; and xanthan gum to total flour of 0,1% and 0,4%. Variable observed were; crumb-texture, crumb-colour, taste of coconut, preference and flavour; moisture, ash, fiber and soluble-protein contents. The research showed that addition of coconut-pulp flour in the composite-flour decreased specific volume value and increased the bread texture produced. It also increased the bread moisture-content, ash-content, fibre-content and soluble protein-content. Moreover, the xanthan-gum addition resulted in decreased specific-volume value and increased texture and fiber-content of the bread produced. Overall, the sensory characteristic of crumb colour, flavour and panellist preference revealed better than control bread made from wheat flour, however its crumb texture harder compare to control bread made from wheat flour. This study showed that coconut-pulp flour potential to be developed for production of functional food.

  15. Characteristics of mutant lines of sweet potato flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryanti

    2012-01-01

    Research on mutation induction of sweet potato Sari variety has been conducted. Flour mutant lines were obtained from selection of M1V5 tubers irradiated by gamma rays at the dose of 10 Gy. Flour was made by peeling of tubers, then dried, blended and sieved. The quality test of flour have been done by measuring degree of whiteness, proximate, amylose contents, water content, soluble water, swelling power, and flour characteristics. The result of this work showed that flour of C6.26.13 mutant line had higher protein content than the parent plant with concentration of 3.62 % and its amylose content was also higher than the other mutant lines. The soluble water value of mutant lines were significant different compared to the parent plant from 1.82 to 2.25 % and swelling power from 4.28 to 5.55 %. The flour granule of the mutant line was different compared to the parent plant. (author)

  16. Identifying irradiated flour by photo-stimulated luminescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Muhammad Samudi Yasir; Zainon Othman; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: The photo-stimulated luminescence technique is recommended by European Committee for standardization for the detection food irradiation (EN 13751:2009). This study shows on luminescence technique to identify gamma irradiated five types of flour (corn flour, tapioca flour, wheat flour, glutinos rice flour and rice flour) at three difference dose levels in the range 0.2 - 1 kGy. The signal level is compare with two thresholds (700 and 5000). The majority of irradiated samples produce a strong signal above the upper threshold (5000 counts/ 60 s). All the control samples gave negative screening result while the signals below the lower threshold (700 counts/ 60s) suggest that the sample has not been irradiated. A few samples show the signal levels between the two thresholds (intermediate signals) suggest that further investigation. Reported procedure was also tested over 60 days, confirming the applicability and feasibility of proposed methods. (author)

  17. Evaluation of some properties of wheat-brewers' spent cassava flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brewers' spent cassava flour blends and that it has a lot of potential in the food industry especially its use as thickener and binding agent in the food systems. Keywords: Brewers' spent cassava flour, wheat flour, proximate, functional properties.

  18. Solvent Retention Capacities of Oat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianwen Niu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study measured the solvent retention capacities (SRCs of flours from eight oat varieties and one wheat variety against different solvents to explore the swelling volume of oat flour with different solvents, and thus provide a theoretical basis for quick β-glucan analysis. The SRC profile consists of water SRC (WSRC, 50% sucrose SRC (SSRC, 5% lactic acid SRC (LASRC, 5% Na2CO3 SRC (SCASRC, NaCl SRC (SCSRC, CaCl2 SRC (CCSRC, FeCl3 SRC (FCSRC, sodium cholate SRC (SCHSRC, NaOH (pH 10 SRC (SHSRC, Na2CO3 (pH 10 SRC (SCABSRC and SDS (pH 10 SRC (SDSSRC values, and a Chopin SRC kit was used to measure the SRC value. SRCs of the oat flours increased when the solvents turned from neutral (water and NaCl to acidic (5% lactic acid or alkaline (5% Na2CO3, CaCl2, FeCl3, NaOH and pH 10 Na2CO3, and rose as the metal ion valencies of the metal salts (NaCl, CaCl2 and FeCl3 increased. The β-glucan contents were significantly positively correlated with the SCSRC (0.83**, CCSRC (0.82**, SCHSRC (0.80** and FCSRC (0.78*. SRC measurements of β-glucan in oat flours revealed that the CCSRC values were related with β-glucan (0.64* but not related with protein and starch. CaCl2 could therefore potentially be exploited as a reagent for β-glucan assay.

  19. Radiosensitivity of red flour beetle tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, A.; Khattak, S.; Hamed, M.

    1992-07-01

    In this report radiosensitivity of red beetle has been discussed. Red flour beetle is the most injurious pest causing great losses to stored grain. Radiation is one of the best tools of insect control. Different radiation doses (50 to 200 krads) were employed for different age groups from 1 to 60 days. It is concluded from these results that 200 krad radiation dose caused 100% mortality in red beetle in all age group. (A.B.)

  20. Compositional Study for Improving Wheat Flour with Functional Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Apostol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Helianthus tuberosus L. is cultivated widely across for its edible tuber. As a source of inulin with aperient, cholagogue and tonic effects, its tubers have been used for the treatment of diabetes. Also, the leaves of Helianthus tuberosus L. show antipyretic, analgesic effects and are therefore used for the treatment of bone fracture, skin wound and pain. The main aim of this study is to establish the optimum dose from rheological and nutritional point of view of Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber flour and leaves flour used as functional ingredient in bakery products industry. The types of mixtures of flours used in this study was: P1–100% wheat flour; P2-93% wheat flour + 7% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 2% leaves; P3-92% wheat flour + 8% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 3% leaves; P4- 90% wheat flour + 10%  Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 5% leaves; P5 -100% Helianthus tuber; P6- Helianthus leaves. The potential functional of wheat flour enriched with the Helianthus tuberosus, in different proportions, was evaluated concerning chemical composition and rheological behaviour of the doughs. Adding of the Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber and leaves provoked an effect increasing the levels of inulin, minerals and fiber in wheat flour. The rheological properties of dough showed that P2, kept the rheological parameters for the technological behavior in order to obtain an acceptable quality of the bakery products. 

  1. Physical and biochemical properties of green banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntharalingam, S; Ravindran, G

    1993-01-01

    Banana flour prepared from two cooking banana varieties, namely 'Alukehel' and 'Monthan', were evaluated for their physical and biochemical characteristics. The yields of flour averaged 31.3% for 'Alukehel' and 25.5% for 'Monthan'. The pH of the flour ranged from 5.4 to 5.7. The bulk density and particle size distribution were also measured. The average chemical composition (% dry matter) of the flours were as follows: crude protein, 3.2; crude fat, 1.3; ash, 3.7; neutral detergent fiber, 8.9; acid detergent fiber, 3.8; cellulose, 3.1; lignin, 1.0 and hemicellulose, 5.0. Carbohydrate composition indicated the flour to contain 2.8% soluble sugars, 70.0% starch and 12.0% non-starch polysaccharides. Potassium is the predominant mineral in banana flour. Fresh green banana is a good source of vitamin C, but almost 65% is lost during the preparation of flour. Oxalate content (1.1-1.6%) of banana flour is probably nutritionally insignificant. The overall results are suggestive of the potential of green bananas as a source of flour.

  2. Bioactivity of flours of seeds of leguminous crops Pisum sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioactivity of flours of seeds of leguminous crops Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max used as botanical insecticides against Sitophilus oryzae Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on sorghum grains.

  3. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker?s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to...

  4. Optimization of Bread Preparation from Wheat Flour and Malted Rice Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subajiny VELUPPILLAI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of partially replacing wheat flour with malted rice flour in bread making was evaluated in several formulations, aiming to find a formulation for the production of malted rice-wheat bread with better nutritional quality and consumer acceptance. The whole grains of a local rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica var. Mottaikaruppan were steeped in distilled water (12 h, 30°C and germinated for 3 days to obtain high content of soluble materials and amylase activity in bread making. The quality of bread was evaluated by considering the physical and sensorial parameters. When the wheat flour was substituted with malted rice flour, 35% substitution level and the malted rice flour from 3 days of germination was the best according to the physical and sensory qualities of bread. The quality of bread was improved by the addition of 20 g of margarine, 20 g of baking powder and 20 g of yeast in 1 kg of flour. Among different ratios of yeast and baking powder, 2:1 was the best. Bread improver containing amylases and oxidizing agents at the concentration of 40 g/kg was selected as the best concentration. When comparing the final formulation made in the bakery with wheat bread, malted rice-wheat bread contains more soluble dietary fiber (0.62%, insoluble dietary fiber (3.95%, total dietary fiber (4.57% and free amino acid content (0.64 g/kg than those in wheat bread (0.5%, 2.73%, 3.23% and 0.36 g/kg, respectively.

  5. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from [1- 14 C]acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 μM acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl 2 , 1 mM each of the MnCl 2 and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO 3 , and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 μg/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO 3 , divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg 2+ and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor

  6. Protein import into isolated pea root leucoplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Chih eChu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Leucoplasts are important organelles for the synthesis and storage of starch, lipids and proteins. However, molecular mechanism of protein import into leucoplasts and how it differs from that of import into chloroplasts remain unknown. We used pea seedlings for both chloroplast and leucoplast isolations to compare within the same species. We further optimized the isolation and import conditions to improve import efficiency and to permit a quantitative comparison between the two plastid types. The authenticity of the import was verified using a mitochondrial precursor protein. Our results show that, when normalized to Toc75, most translocon proteins are less abundant in leucoplasts than in chloroplasts. A precursor shown to prefer the receptor Toc132 indeed had relatively more similar import efficiencies between chloroplasts and leucoplasts compared to precursors that preferred Toc159. Furthermore we found two precursors that exhibited very high import efficiency into leucoplasts. Their transit peptides may be candidates for delivering transgenic proteins into leucoplasts and for analyzing motifs important for leucoplast import.

  7. The viscoelastic properties of the protein-rich materials from the fermented hard wheat, soft wheat and barley flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    The linear and non-linear rheological properties of the suspensions for the hard red spring wheat (HRS) flour, soft wheat (Pastry) flour, barley flour, as well as the remain residues of HRS flour, Pastry flour, and barley flour after fermentation were investigated. The linear and non-linear rheologi...

  8. Partial replacement of wheat flour by pumpkin seed flour in the production of cupcakes filled with carob

    OpenAIRE

    BATISTA, Jaqueline Eduarda Rodrigues; BRAGA, Lucas Pereira; OLIVEIRA, Renata Corrêa de; SILVA, Edson Pablo; DAMIANI, Clarissa

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Pumpkin seeds are considered waste and its composition has high protein content, being feasible for human consumption, also reducing costs in waste treatment. In this work we provided an alternative to reuse the wastes of pumpkin seed applied in cupcakes formulation as a complementary source to wheat flour. Four formulations with different proportions of pumpkin seed flour were investigated. The effects of partial wheat flour substitution were evaluated using the parameters texture, ...

  9. Characterization of pea (Pisum sativum) seed protein fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Luis A; Pérez, Alicia; Ruiz, Raquel; Guzmán, M Ángeles; Aranda-Olmedo, Isabel; Clemente, Alfonso

    2014-01-30

    Legume seed proteins have to be chemically characterized in order to properly link their nutritional effects with their chemical structure. Vicilin and albumin fractions devoid of cross-contamination, as assessed by mass peptide fingerprinting analysis, were obtained from defatted pea (Pisum sativum cv. Bilbo) meal. The extracted protein fractions contained 56.7-67.7 g non-starch polysaccharides kg⁻¹. The vicilin fraction was higher than legumins in arginine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine. The most abundant amino acids in the albumin fraction were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine and arginine, and the amounts of methionine were more than double than those in legumins and vicilins. The pea albumin fraction showed a clear enrichment of protease inhibitory activity when compared with the seed meal. In vitro digestibility values for pea proteins were 0.63 ±  0.04, 0.88 ±  0.04 and 0.41 ±  0.23 for legumins, vicilins and albumins respectively. Vicilin and albumin fractions devoid of cross-contamination with other proteins were obtained from pea seed meal. The vicilin fraction also contained low amounts of soluble non-starch polysaccharides and was enriched in isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine. In vitro digestibility values for pea proteins were similar or even numerically higher than those for control proteins. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Effect of Substituting Purple Rice Flour for Wheat Flour on Physicochemical Characteristics, In Vitro Digestibility, and Sensory Evaluation of Biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warinporn Klunklin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple rice flour contains high levels of a number of antioxidant compounds; however, it has seldom been used as an ingredient in bakery products. The aim was to increase the nutritional value of biscuits by adding purple rice flour to a basic wheat flour biscuit. The substitution of purple rice flour in place of wheat flour modified the characteristics of the biscuits in terms of increasing the nutritional values. They contained high fiber, antioxidants, and antioxidant activities, while slightly changing the physical properties such as hardness and spread ratio. The study showed that the protein digestibility increased as the content of the purple rice flour was increased in the biscuit mix. The 100% purple rice flour biscuits had the lowest predicted glycemic index (pGI of all the biscuits. Sensory analysis showed that the overall acceptability of the blended flour biscuits at 25 and 50% substitution levels was slightly less than that of the control biscuits with only 9%; however, the scores were above 5 which means the panelists still liked the biscuits a lot. Overall, the inclusion of purple rice flour in biscuits mix increased crude protein content, protein digestibility, and bioactive compounds with acceptable sensory scores from consumers up to 50% substitution of purple rice.

  11. PEA3activates CXCL12transcription in MCF-7breast cancer cells%PEA3 activates CXCL12 transcription in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li; CHEN Bo-bin; LI Jun-jie; JIN Wei; SHAO Zhi-min

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the activity of PEA3 ( polyomavirus enhancer activator 3 ) on CXCL12 (Chemokine CXC motif ligand 12) transcription and to reveal the role of PEA3 involved in CXCL12-mediated metastasis and angiogenesis in breast cancer. Methods Methods such as cell transfection, ChIP assay (chromatin immunoprecipitation ), and siRNA (small interfering RNA) were applied to demonstrate and confirm the interaction between PEA3 and CXCL12. Results Over-expression of PEA3 could increase the CXCL12 mRNA level and the CXCL12 promoter activity in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ChIP assay demonstrated that PEA3 could bind to the CXCL12 promoter in the cells transfected with PEA3 expression vector. PEA3 siRNA decreased CXCL12 promoter activity and the binding of PEA3 to the CXCL12 promoter in MCF-7 cells. Conclusions PEA3 could activate CXCL12 promoter transcription. It may be a potential mechanism of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis regarding of PEA3 and CXCL12.

  12. Phylogeny of Yellow Fever Virus, Uganda, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Holly R; Kayiwa, John; Mossel, Eric C; Lutwama, Julius; Staples, J Erin; Lambert, Amy J

    2018-08-17

    In April 2016, a yellow fever outbreak was detected in Uganda. Removal of contaminating ribosomal RNA in a clinical sample improved the sensitivity of next-generation sequencing. Molecular analyses determined the Uganda yellow fever outbreak was distinct from the concurrent yellow fever outbreak in Angola, improving our understanding of yellow fever epidemiology.

  13. Discrete forms of amylose are synthesized by isoforms of GBSSI in pea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwards, A.; Vincken, J.P.; Suurs, L.C.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Zeeman, S.; Smith, A.; Martin, C.

    2002-01-01

    Amyloses with distinct molecular masses are found in the starch of pea embryos compared with the starch of pea leaves. In pea embryos, a granule-bound starch synthase protein (GBSSIa) is required for the synthesis of a significant portion of the amylose. However, this protein seems to be

  14. Effect of adding flours from marolo fruit (Annona crassiflora Mart and jerivá fruit (Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham Glassm on the physicals and sensory characteristics of food bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Pablo da SILVA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart. and jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham Glassm fruits grow in the Cerrado biome, and have important sensory and nutritional characteristics. These fruits are eaten fresh or processed and embedded in ice cream, candy, juices, and liquors. However, their use is very limited and is localized exclusively to their native region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of these fruits in food consumer products to improve the nutritional patterns of consumers and extend knowledge thereof. To do this, different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of flour derived from the marolo and jerivá fruits were incorporated into food bars, which were then characterized in terms of their physical of the texture (TPA, porosity, color and sensorial properties. The food bars enriched with marolo and jerivá flours had an intense yellow color and increased hardness relative to the control bars; the porosity of the bars progressively decreased as the amount of flour added increased. The sensorial analysis in the snack bars developed added with the fruits flour no was influence by incorporation this component, showed good averages for the scores evaluated.

  15. Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture. PMID:24471084

  16. Sensitization to lupine flour: is it clinically relevant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, N. W.; van Maaren, M. S.; Vlieg-Boersta, B. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; de Groot, H.; Gerth van Wijk, R.

    2010-01-01

    Lupinus angustifolius (blue lupine) is used for human and animal consumption. Currently, the lupine content in bread varies from 0% to 10% and from 0.5% to 3% in pastry. Although lupine flour is present in many products, anaphylaxis on lupine flour is rarely seen. The aim of our study was to

  17. Sensitization to lupine flour : is it clinically relevant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, N. W.; van Maaren, M. S.; Vlieg-Boersta, B. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; de Groot, H.; van Wijk, R. Gerth

    2010-01-01

    Background Lupinus angustifolius (blue lupine) is used for human and animal consumption. Currently, the lupine content in bread varies from 0% to 10% and from 0.5% to 3% in pastry. Although lupine flour is present in many products, anaphylaxis on lupine flour is rarely seen. Objective The aim of our

  18. Gamma radiation influence on technological characteristics of wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. d.

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The α-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it.

  19. [Effect of soybean lipoxygenae on baking properties of wheat flour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permiakova, M D; Trufanov, V A

    2011-01-01

    Changes in bread-baking properties of wheat flour caused by soybean lipoxygenase and polyunsaturated fatty acids were studied. A positive effect of soybean flour added during dough kneading in an amount of 2% was demonstrated. A method for dough fermentation increasing the loaf volume and improving organoleptic characteristics and total bread-baking estimate is recommended.

  20. Production and evaluation of noodles from flour blends of cocoyam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flour blends were prepared from two cultivars of cocoyam ( and . ), African breadfruit ( ) and wheat ( ) at different proportions and extruded into noodles with a locally fabricated and manually operated singlescrew extruder. Proximate composition and the functional properties of the different flour blends were evaluated. The

  1. "Fufu" flour processing in Ghana: Costs, returns and institutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The introduction of "fufu" flour is an innovative business venture that young entrepreneurs should explore. However, the level of costs and returns as well as institutional support to sustain the industry is not well understood. This study was conducted to determine the profitability of "fufu" flour and the strength of the ...

  2. optimizing soybean flour., whey powder. and colostrum ratios for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    l4 days. If preserved colostrum could be supplemented with reconstituted soybean flour and whey powder, the period of colostrum feeding could be extended to 4 weeks. Various researchers reported the successful inclusion of soybean flour and/or soybean protein concentrate in milk replacers (Schmutz, Cravens, Soldner ...

  3. Quality assessment of flour and bread from sweet potato wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the quality of the flour and bread produced from sweet potato wheat composite flour blends. Matured and freshly harvested sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) was obtained from a local market in Akure, Nigeria. The tubers were thoroughly washed, peeled, washed again, drained, chipped, oven dried, ...

  4. Bread Making Potential of Composite Flour of Wheat-Acha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bread-making potentials of composite flours containing 90% wheat and 10% acha enriched with 0-15% cowpea flour were investigated. Proximate composition and functional properties of the blends were studied using AOAC standard methods. Bread loaves were prepared from the blends using the straight dough method ...

  5. TESTING FOR RISK PREMIUMS IN THE WHEAT-FLOUR SUBSECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald W.; Salih, Hachim M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper specifies a model of wholesale flour price determination that incorporates risk measures for input prices (wheat) and a joint output price (millfeed). Tests using daily price data for a Buffalo flour miller indicate that risk premiums do exist. Moreover, these premiums persist in a model that incorporates hedging.

  6. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  7. Physiological Studies on Pea Tendrils. IV. Flavonoids and Contact Coiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, M. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1967-01-01

    Pea tendrils contain high concentrations of flavonoids, mainly quercetin-triglucosyl-p-coumarate (QGC). QGC is most abundant near the highly responsive apex of the tendril, and least abundant at the base. After mechanical stimulation, and during coiling of the tendril, the QGC titer drops to about 30% of its original value. The kinetics of flavonoid disappearance are significantly correlated with the kinetics of coiling. Aqueous extracts of unstimulated pea tendrils or 10 μm QGC inhibit contact coiling of excised tendrils. Extracts of coiled tendrils do not. The evidence indicates a possible regulatory role for flavonoids in contact coiling. PMID:16656581

  8. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of vegetable and grain pea (Pisum sativum L. seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating pea seed developmental process is extremely important for pea breeding. In this study, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analyses to examine the changes in gene expression during seed development in vegetable pea and grain pea, and compare the gene expression profiles of these two pea types. RNA-Seq generated 18.7 G of raw data, which were then de novo assembled into 77,273 unigenes with a mean length of 930 bp. Our results illustrate that transcriptional control during pea seed development is a highly coordinated process. There were 459 and 801 genes differentially expressed at early and late seed maturation stages between vegetable pea and grain pea, respectively. Soluble sugar and starch metabolism related genes were significantly activated during the development of pea seeds coinciding with the onset of accumulation of sugar and starch in the seeds. A comparative analysis of genes involved in sugar and starch biosynthesis in vegetable pea (high seed soluble sugar and low starch and grain pea (high seed starch and low soluble sugar revealed that differential expression of related genes at late development stages results in a negative correlation between soluble sugar and starch biosynthetic flux in vegetable and grain pea seeds. RNA-Seq data was validated by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 30 randomly selected genes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of seed development transcriptomics in pea. The obtained results provide a foundation to support future efforts to unravel the underlying mechanisms that control the developmental biology of pea seeds, and serve as a valuable resource for improving pea breeding.

  9. Rheology of Potato flour Mixes and Wheat to Make Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Fernando Sacón-Vera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluate the rheological properties of flour mixes Ipomoea batata and Triticum vulgare for the preparation of bread dough, was the goal of this research for it a completely randomized design, as treatments sweet potato flour was used varieties are used: Toquecita, Guayaco Purple, Purple Ecuador, Brazil and Ina Purple in a 30/70 ratio (sweet potato flour / wheat flour respectively. The rheological variables: water absorption, development time, weakening of the dough stability, water absorption index (C1, mixing rate (C2, gluten strength index (C3, gel viscosity (C4, resistance index amylase (C5 and starch retro gradation index (C6 were evaluated with Mixolab equipment. The results showed that the variety Purple Brazil showed better characteristics of flours recommended premixes for the baking process in response to these indices

  10. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  11. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  12. Expansion of the whole wheat flour extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    A new model framework is proposed to describe the expansion of extrudates with extruder operating conditions based on dimensional analysis principle. The Buckingham pi dimensional analysis method is applied to form the basic structure of the model from extrusion process operational parameters. Us....... Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) method, whole wheat flour was processed in a twin-screw extruder with 16 trials. The proposed model can well correlate the expansion of the 16 trials using 3 regression parameters. The average deviation of the correlation is 5.9%....

  13. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soy sauce substituted with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (Linn.))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnaningsih, C.; Sumardi; Meiliana; Surya, A.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study wasto investigate the physicochemical and sensory properties of the soy sauce substituted with pigeon pea. Soybean was substituted by 20%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of pigeon pea. The observation included viscosity, total solids, protein levels, antioxidant activity, and sensory characteristics. The results showed that the more substitution of pigeon pea, the less the protein content of soy sauce and the more the antioxidant activity as well as total solids. The most favored group was 25% pigeon pea substitution. It is suggested that soy sauce could be prepared using 25% to 75% pigeon pea substitution.

  14. Protein Kinase B/Akt Binds and Phosphorylates PED/PEA-15, Stabilizing Its Antiapoptotic Action

    OpenAIRE

    Trencia, Alessandra; Perfetti, Anna; Cassese, Angela; Vigliotta, Giovanni; Miele, Claudia; Oriente, Francesco; Santopietro, Stefania; Giacco, Ferdinando; Condorelli, Gerolama; Formisano, Pietro; Beguinot, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    The antiapoptotic protein PED/PEA-15 features an Akt phosphorylation motif upstream from Ser116. In vitro, recombinant PED/PEA-15 was phosphorylated by Akt with a stoichiometry close to 1. Based on Western blotting with specific phospho-Ser116 PED/PEA-15 antibodies, Akt phosphorylation of PED/PEA-15 occurred mainly at Ser116. In addition, a mutant of PED/PEA-15 featuring the substitution of Ser116→Gly (PEDS116→G) showed 10-fold-decreased phosphorylation by Akt. In intact 293 cells, Akt also i...

  15. A brief review on the early distribution of pea (Pisum sativum L. in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuština Marija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea was a part of the everyday diet of the European hunter-gatherers at the end of the last Ice Age. The major criteria to determine the domestication in pea are non-dehiscent pods, larger seed size and smooth seed testa. Pea seeds were found among the earliest findings of cultivated crops at the site of Tell El-Kerkh, Syria, from 10th millennium BP. Along with cereals and lentil, pea has definitely become associated with the start of the 'agricultural revolution' in the Old World. Pea entered Europe in its southeast regions and progressed into its interior via Danube. Its distribution was rapid, since the available evidence reveals its presence in remote places at similar periods. The linguistic evidence supports the fact that pea had been present in nearly all regions of Europe. Most of European peoples have their own words denoting pea, meaning that it preceded the diversification of their own proto-languages.

  16. Smog Yellows Taj Mahal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Built as a monument to the favorite wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the Taj Mahal has watched over the city of Agra, India, since the mid-seventeenth century with its pillars of gleaming white marble. By the spring of 2007, however, one of the world's most visited landmarks was turning yellow, and a panel of India's parliament had little trouble identifying the culprit: pollution. The panel blamed particles of soot and dirt suspended high in the atmosphere for the Taj Mahal's dinginess. The Taj Mahal's home, Agra, sits not far from the base of the Himalaya, and smog regularly collects along the southern side of the mountain range. On May 16, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around Agra, India. The closeup image shows the immediate vicinity of the Taj Majal. The larger image shows the surrounding area. In both pictures, dingy, gray-beige haze obscures the satellite's view of the land surface. India had tried to minimize the adverse impact of air pollution on the famous landmark. According to the BBC, in the late 1990s, India's Supreme Court ordered the closure of thousands of iron foundries and kilns that had belched smoke near the monument. Many of the 3 million tourists who visited the Taj Majal each year approached the monument on horse-drawn carriages or battery-operated buses as fossil-fuel-powered vehicles could not drive within 2 kilometers (1.5 miles). Since those efforts have failed to save the Taj Majal's complexion, Indian officials have considered applying a cleansing mud pack to the monument's surface to draw out the dirt. As India industrializes, smog results, and the Taj Mahal's gleaming whiteness is only one casualty. Pollution has been blamed for a decrease in Indian rice harvests, which had soared during the 'Green Revolution' of the 1960s and 1970s. Haze and dust also appear to bring on the region's monsoon rains earlier than normal.

  17. 17DD yellow fever vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Reinaldo M.; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S.; Farias, Roberto Henrique G.; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Almeida, Luiz Fernando C.; Lima, Sheila Maria B.; Nogueira, Rita Maria R.; Sá, Gloria Regina S.; Hokama, Darcy A.; de Carvalho, Ricardo; Freire, Ricardo Aguiar V.; Filho, Edson Pereira; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To verify if the Bio-Manguinhos 17DD yellow fever vaccine (17DD-YFV) used in lower doses is as immunogenic and safe as the current formulation. Results: Doses from 27,476 IU to 587 IU induced similar seroconversion rates and neutralizing antibodies geometric mean titers (GMTs). Immunity of those who seroconverted to YF was maintained for 10 mo. Reactogenicity was low for all groups. Methods: Young and healthy adult males (n = 900) were recruited and randomized into 6 groups, to receive de-escalating doses of 17DD-YFV, from 27,476 IU to 31 IU. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (for neutralization tests to yellow fever, serology for dengue and clinical chemistry), 3 to 7 d after vaccination (for viremia and clinical chemistry) and 30 d after vaccination (for new yellow fever serology and clinical chemistry). Adverse events diaries were filled out by volunteers during 10 d after vaccination. Volunteers were retested for yellow fever and dengue antibodies 10 mo later. Seropositivity for dengue was found in 87.6% of volunteers before vaccination, but this had no significant influence on conclusions. Conclusion: In young healthy adults Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz yellow fever vaccine can be used in much lower doses than usual. International Register ISRCTN 38082350. PMID:23364472

  18. Substitution of wheat flour with “acha” ( Digitaria exilis ) for bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of wheat flour (WF) substitution with 'Acha' flour (AF) on the quality attributes in bread making was investigated using the following composite blends ratios 85:15, 80:20, 75:25, 70:30, 100:0 (AF) with 100% wheat flour as control. Proximate analysis on both composite flours and their bread products, as well as sensory ...

  19. Fundamental and empirical rheological behaviour of wheat flour doughs and comparison with bread making performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A. M.; vanVliet, T; Vereijken, JM

    The rheological characteristics of wheat flour doughs from the cultivars Obelisk and Katepwa and of biscuit flour doughs, and also of biscuit flour doughs containing glutens isolated from cv. Obelisk and cv. Katepwa flour, were compared and discussed in relation to bread making performance. Four

  20. Effect of partial substitution of dried plantain flour on the sensory and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of partial substitution of dried plantain flour on the sensory and functional properties of maize flour based snack ( Kokoro ) ... It is concluded that plantain flour can be successfully blended with maize flour for the production of good kokoro product. Recommendation is made for the large scale production of fortified ...

  1. Physico-chemical properties of gluten-free pancakes from rice and sweet potato flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour, and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20 and 40%, of sweet potato flour. The apparent viscosity of the pancake batter increased with increased sweet potato flour replacement. Texture properties of the cooked pancakes, such as, har...

  2. Performance of fourteen improved pea lines (Pisum sativum L. in Challapata zone, Oruro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiza Benedicto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Challapata zone, cultivated pea varieties are low yielding and long cycle. The research objective was to determine the performance of fourteen pea lines developed by “Pairumani Fitoecogenetics Investigation Center” (CIFP in Challapata zone (Oruro. The 14 pea lines with local pea variety, were planted in row and column generalized experimental design with four replications in tree location randomly selection in Challapata zone (Oruro, between October 2011 and April 2012. The results indicate, that, in general, all the improved lines were superior in green pod yield to the local pea variety (3.69 t.ha-1, between 6.13 and 16.58 t.ha-1, (65.9 and 349.3% respectively. among the improved lines, Pea5_102-1, Pea5_102-6, Pea5_102-5, Pea5_102-2, Pea5_102-3 and Pea5_102-4, with high green pod yield (13.05 and 16.58 t.ha-1, large pod (8.49 to 9.25 cm, mayor number of grains for pod (5.27 to 7.20 grains and intermediate cycle (85 days to the floración, are the superior performance. The lines Pea5_102-14, Pea5_102-10 (Pairumani 3 and Pea5_102-13, because of their characteristics of high green pod yield, the longest pod, the mayor number of grains for pod, early maturity, preference and wide adaptability, and according to the farmer’s criteria, are the most recommend for their use in Challapata zone (Oruro.

  3. Strategic nutrient management of field pea in southwestern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategic nutrient management of field pea in southwestern Uganda. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Strategic nutrient management requires that the most limiting nutrient is known in order to provide a foundation for designing effective and sustainable soil fertility management ...

  4. The rhizobium-pea symbiosis as affected by high temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frings, J.F.J.

    1976-01-01

    A study has been made concerning the effect of high temperatures on the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum and pea plants (Pisum sativum). At 30°C, no nodules were found on the roots of plants growing in nutrient solution after inoculation with

  5. Determination of mycoflora of pea (Pisum sativum) seeds and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... Mycoflora of pea seeds and the effectiveness of Rhizobium leguminosarum on important seed-borne pathogens ... seed germination and promoted the plants growth under controlled and ..... 27. Table 3. Summary of fungal inoculation test. .... and lettuce by phosphate-solubilizing Rhizobium leguminosarum.

  6. Faba beans and peas in poultry feed: economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskina, Liga; Cerina, Sallija

    2017-10-01

    Broiler diets mainly consist of cereals and protein-rich feed sources; in the EU-27, poultry farming consumes 24% of the total amount of protein-rich feedstuffs. Since the EU produces only 30% of the total quantity of protein crops used for feed, it is necessary to promote the use of traditional European protein crops (beans, peas) for feed in livestock farming. The research aim is to identify economic gains from the production of broiler chicken meat, replacing soybean meal with domestic faba beans and field peas in broiler chicken diets. Adding field peas and faba beans to the broiler feed ration resulted in a significant live weight increase (5.74-11.95%) at the selling age, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio by 0.61-6.06%, and decrease in the product unit cost (15.34-37.06%) as well as an increase in the production efficiency factor (8.70-48.54), compared with the control group. The optimum kind of legume species used in the broiler diet was peas, which were added in the amount of 200 g kg -1 , resulting in live weight gain, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio and an increase in the production efficiency factor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Modeling growth of Clostridium perfringens in pea soup during cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.E.I.; Beumer, R.R.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a pathogen that mainly causes food poisoning outbreaks when large quantities of food are prepared. Therefore, a model was developed to predict the effect of different cooling procedures on the growth of this pathogen during cooling of food: Dutch pea soup. First, a growth

  8. Effect of cooling on Clostridium perfringens in pea soup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.E.I.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beumer, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    Foods associated with Clostridium perfringens outbreaks are usually abused after cooking. Because of their short generation times, C. perfringens spores and cells can grow out to high levels during improper cooling. Therefore, the potential of C. perfringens to multiply in Dutch pea soup during

  9. Bitterness of saponins and their content in dry peas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, L.; Vincken, J.P.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Legger, A.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Roozen, J.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The bitterness of a saponin mixture (containing saponin B and DDMP (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one) saponin in a ratio of 1:4) and saponin B obtained from dry peas were established by a trained panel using line scaling. Both saponins were found to be bitter. However, the saponin

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF CHAIN OF PEA VARIETIES FOR VEGQ ETABLE CANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Samarin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of seven pea varieties of different groups of ripening are described. These cultivars provide the sustainable row material input in canning factories of Krasnodar region. In bogharic agriculture it takes 24,26 days. When using the irrigation system and different time of sowing it takes 35,40 days.

  11. Symbiotic effectiveness of pea-rhizobia associations and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected strains were isolated from the root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum L.), broad bean (Vicia faba L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris L.) plants in the Loess Plateau of China. Analyses focused on the nodule number, nodule dry weight, plant dry weight, nitrogenase activity, total N accumulation of per plant and seed yield.

  12. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables § 155.172 Canned dry...

  13. Short Communication: Occurrence of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae), on wild annual and perennial leguminous plants was studied at two locations (Adet and Wondata) in West Gojam, Ethiopia in 1999/2000 seasons. Annual and perennial leguminous wild or volunteer plants encountered in the study areas ...

  14. Breeding of a protein pea ideotype for Finnish conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Hovinen

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of protein pea (Pisum sativum L. adapted to cultivation in Finnish conditions were specified. Ideotypes for pure and mixed stands were defined separately. Factors affecting seed yield, protein yield and protein content were determined. Efficiency of biological nitrogen fixation in the varieties was evaluated at two nitrogen application levels, 16 and 80 kg/ha. Selection methods for increasing protein content were discussed. The commercial varieties bred during the programme were presented. The effect of the gene af on different characteristics of the pea was the central object of the studies. The ideotype of peas for cultivation in Finland has to be of the afila-type. This concerns cultivation in both pure and mixed stands. Afila-peas gave seed yields and protein yields as high as the leafed ones. The lodging of afila-peas throughout the generative growth phase was less than that of the conventional leaf types. In mixed cropping the most suitable afila-peas generally formed almost completely unlodged stands together with cereals. The best seed yields were given by the varieties with a stem height of 61 to 94 cm. Due to competition, the corresponding height in mixed stands ranged from 80 to 100 cm. For the same reason, varieties to be used in mixed stands must possess a fairly large seed size and fast growth rate after emergence. The optimum flowering period lasted from 19 to 28 days. The varieties must be early, with a growing time from 91 to 101 days. Late varieties are not adapted to northern conditions, giving low yields and poor quality. The mean yield of the varieties was 4500 kg/ha in pure stands. The high nitrogen application level of 80 kg/ha did not increase pea yield in comparison with the 16 kg/ha level. In contrast, it enhanced the protein content by 1 % and the protein yield slightly. In mixed stands the mean total yield was 4700kg/ha. The hectare yields of crude protein reached levels of 990 and 900 kg

  15. Studies on the Preparation of Aglutenic Foam Type of Pastry Product Using Different Flour Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to obtain a mechanically loose gluten free pastry (leaf roulade by using gluten-free flour: corn flour and rice flour and cornstarch. The samples obtained were compared with a control sample of only wheat flour. To optimize the recipe were made ​​four experimental variants, flour and starch is used in different proportions. Version 1 (control sample who used wheat flour WF in 100%, Version 2 consisting of 20% maize flour (MF, 16 % rice flour (RF, 64% corn starch (CS; Version 3 consisting of: 10% of maize flour (MF, 10% of rice flour (RF, 80% corn starch (CS. The experimental variants was analyzed for physico-chemical: length, width, thickness, specific gravity, moisture and carbohydrates. The sensory attributes, were evaluated by a group of un-trained panellists, using a 9-point Hedonic scale.

  16. Storage changes in the quality of sound and sprouted flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, R; Nagi, H P; Sharma, S; Sekhon, K S

    1993-07-01

    Sound and sprouted flours (24 and 48 hr) from bread wheat (WL-1562), durum wheat (PBW-34) and triticale (TL-1210) were stored at room temperature (34.8 degrees C) and relative humidity (66.7%) for 0, 45, 90 and 135 days to assess the changes in physico-chemical and baking properties. Protein, gluten, sedimentation value, starch and crude fat decreased during storage in all the samples; however, the decrease was more in sprouted flours. Free amino acids, proteolytic activity, diastatic activity and damaged starch decreased with increase in storage period. Total sugars and free fatty acids increased more rapidly in the flours of sprouted wheats during 135 days of storage. Loaf volume of breads decreased during storage in both sound and sprouted flour but the mean percent decrease in loaf volume was more in stored sound flours. Aging of sprouted flour for 45 days improved the cookie and cake making properties but further storage was of no value for these baked products. Chapati making properties of stored sound and sprouted flour were inferior to that of fresh counterparts.

  17. Classification of whole wheat flour using a dimensionless number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehn, Georgia Ane Raquel; Steel, Caroline Joy

    2017-11-01

    The rheological standards currently used for classifying refined wheat flour for technological quality of bread are also used for whole wheat flours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rheological and technological behavior of different whole wheat flours, as well as pre-mixes of refined wheat flour with different replacement levels of wheat bran, to develop a dimensionless number that assigns a numerical scale using results of rheological parameters to solve this problem. Through farinograph and extensograph results, most whole wheat flours evaluated presented parameters recommended for bread making, according to the current classification. However, the specific volume of breads elaborated with these flours was not suitable, that is, the rheological analyses were not able to predict the specific volume of pan bread. The development of the Sehn-Steel dimensionless number allowed establishing a classification of whole wheat flours as "suitable" (Sehn-Steel dimensionless number between 62 and 200) or "unsuitable" for the production of pan bread (Sehn-Steel dimensionless number lower than 62). Moreover, an equation that can predict the specific volume of whole pan bread through this dimensionless number was developed.

  18. Flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, Musuvadi R.; Kingsly Ambrose, Rose P.; Alavi, Sajid

    2015-10-01

    Coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake are important co-products of virgin coconut oil that are used in the animal feed industry. Flour from these products has a number of potential human health benefits and can be used in different food formulations. The objective of this study was to find out the flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours at three moisture levels. Coconut milk residue flour with 4.53 to 8.18% moisture content (w.b.) had bulk density and tapped density of 317.37 to 312.65 and 371.44 to 377.23 kg m-3, respectively; the corresponding values for virgin coconut oil cake flour with 3.85 to 7.98% moisture content (wet basis) were 611.22 to 608.68 and 663.55 to 672.93 kg m-3, respectively. The compressibility index and Hausner ratio increased with moisture. The angle of repose increased with moisture and ranged from 34.12 to 36.20 and 21.07 to 23.82° for coconut milk residue flour and virgin coconut oil cake flour, respectively. The coefficient of static and rolling friction increased with moisture for all test surfaces, with the plywood offering more resistance to flow than other test surfaces. The results of this study will be helpful in designing handling, flow, and processing systems for coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake flours.

  19. Gamma radiation influence on technological characteristics of wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Christian A.H.M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L.d.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The α-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it. - Highlights: ► We study the influence of gamma radiation on wheat flour and properties of breads. ► Falling number decreased with radiation remaining almost constant up to one month. ► Ionizing radiation may confer an increase in texture parameters, weight and height on the bread.

  20. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-02-12

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker's yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products.

  1. Effect of pea, pea hulls, faba beans and faba bean hulls on the ileal microbial composition in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Panneman, H.; Jansman, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Grain legumes produced in Europe such as pea, faba beans and lupins are alternative vegetable protein sources for imported soy protein in animal feeds. These legume seeds contain constituents that are not digested and may act as a substrate for microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract,

  2. [Determination of aluminium in flour foods with photometric method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lan; Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Shuang; Yang, Dajin

    2012-05-01

    To establish a determination method for aluminium in flour foods with photometric method. After samples being treated with microwave digestion and wet digestion, aluminium in staple flour foods was determined by photometric method. There was a good linearity of the result in the range of 0.25 - 5.0 microg/ml aluminium, r = 0.9998; limit of detection (LOD) : 2.3 ng/ml; limit of quantitation (LOQ) : 7 ng/ml. This method of determining aluminium in flour foods is simple, rapid and reliable.

  3. Predatory Aptness of Ants Against Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium Castaneum Herbst (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera) in Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, F.A.; Parveen, S.; Qadir, G.

    2016-01-01

    The red flour beetle (RFB), Tribolium castaneum is one of the most destructive pests of stored grains and other food products including wheat flour. Due to its severe infestation, the flour gets mouldy, turns yellowish, gets pungent odour and becomes unhealthy for human consumption. The infested samples of wheat flour by T. castaneum were collected from different localities and its culture was maintained in laboratory. Three ant species namely, Dorylus labiatus, Camponotus rufipes and Monomorium minimum were collected from forest and non-forest habitats and compared for their predation against different life stages of RFB. Results showed D. labiatus of forest habitat as an efficient pupal predator that consumed 91.66% pupae of RFB. It was significantly different from non-forest ant population and control with 73.33% and 11.66% pupal predation, respectively. C. rufipes from forest habitat showed maximum adult predation (25%), which was significantly higher than non-forest ant population and control jar with 15% and 3.33% adult predation, respectively. The forest population of M. minimum exhibited 56.66% larval predation that was significantly different from non-forest population with 41.66% larval consumption. Pupal stage was the highest vulnerable stage to the ant predation and was extremely predated by D. labiatus collected from forest habitats. The lowest predation was observed at larval stage by forest population of M. minimum (1.66%) that was significantly different from all the susceptible stages of RFB. These results indicate that ants could be used as biological control agents against RFB. (author)

  4. Analysis on The Substitution Ability of Mocaf Flour Toward Wheat Flour, its Business Feasibility, and its Industry Multiple Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Riza Firdaus

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of mocaf flour in MSME scale in South Kalimantan area was not feasible considered from its business feasibility hence the multiple effect was unmeasured based on its industry existence. Mocaf flour production derived from cassava, which is a plant that not only match on dry land but also in the wetlands of South Kalimantan, can not be oriented consumer as a substitute for wheat flour for common food products in the society. Therefore, further research refers to aspects mocaf flour premium for health. This objective of this research was to increase the society consumption of mocaf flour for the healthy reason related to the trend on negative effect from high level of gluten in wheat flour. The laboratory test showed the result that supports mocaf product for health. With this consideration then mocaf processed product have potentials to bedeveloped though serious marketing effort is required due to infamiliarity of the mocaf flour especially in South Kalimantan area. Difference test result showed that prospects, indeed, haveintention to purchase mocaf-based processed products for healthy reason.

  5. Influence of xylanase addition on the characteristics of loaf bread prepared with white flour or whole grain wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Zafalon Jaekel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the influence of the addition of the enzyme xylanase (four concentrations: 0, 4, 8, and 12 g.100 kg-1 flour on the characteristics of loaf bread made with white wheat flour or whole grain wheat flour. Breads made from white flour and added with xylanase had higher specific volumes than those of the control sample (no enzyme; however, the specific volume did not differ significantly (p < 0.05 among the breads with different enzyme concentrations. All formulations made from whole grain wheat flour and added with xylanase also had specific volumes significantly higher than those of the control sample, and the highest value was found for the 8 g xylanase.100 kg-1 flour formulation. With respect to moisture content, the formulations with different enzyme concentrations showed small significant differences when compared to the control samples. In general, breads made with the addition of 8 g enzyme.100 kg-1 flour had the lowest firmness values, thus presenting the best technological characteristics.

  6. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic classification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ntushk

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Review. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic ... lethal yellowing-type phytoplasma disease was recorded on a number of palm species of mainly ..... Immunodominant membrane protein (imp) Gene.

  7. Effect of pea intercropping on biological efficiencies and economics of some non-legume winter vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, S.A.; Anjum, M.A.; Hussain, S.; Ahmad, S.

    2013-01-01

    Intercropping with legumes makes effective use of land and other resources and results in reduced cost of production. Increased agricultural production through intercropping with minimal cost is need of time to feed increasing population. The reported work evaluates the biological efficiencies and economics of pea, garlic, turnip and cauliflower grown as sole crops and when pea intercropped in garlic, turnip and cauliflower during 2010-12. All the vegetables generally yielded more when grown as single crop compared with when pea was intercropped in these vegetables. In peas in garlic intercropping, pea yield was not significantly affected; however, garlic yield was significantly reduced (65.8%). Pea intercropping in turnip or cauliflower resulted in significantly lower yields of both crops (29.1 and 28.0%, respectively) as compared with their sole cropping. All other characteristics (plant growth and yield components) of all the four crops which indicate biological efficiency generally were greater when grown as single crops and decreased in intercropping combinations. Analysis of intercropping treatments revealed that pea intercropping in turnip resulted in the highest marginal rate of return (8,875%), followed by pea intercropping in cauliflower (6,977%), due to lower input costs incurred per hectare. However, net benefit to the growers was higher (Rs. 327,925) in case of pea intercropping in cauliflower, followed by pea intercropping in garlic (Rs. 213,425). (author)

  8. Effect of hot aqueous ethanol treatment on anti-nutritional factors, protein denaturation and functional properties in raw pea and pea protein isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolman, G.H.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of hot aqueous ethanol treatment on several nutritionally relevant mainly protein-related parameters in raw peas (var. Solara) and ultra-filtrated pea protein isolate was examined. Of all test samples, water absorptive capacity (WAC), weight loss and protein loss owing to the processing

  9. Photosynthetic alterations of pea leaves infected systemically by pea enation mosaic virus: A coordinated decrease in efficiencies of CO(2) assimilation and photosystem II photochemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyseláková, H.; Prokopová, J.; Nauš, J.; Novák, Ondřej; Navrátil, M.; Šafářová, D.; Špundová, M.; Ilík, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 11 (2011), s. 1279-1289 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/08/1649; GA MŠk ED0007/01/01 Keywords : Chlorophyll fluorescence * Pea enation mosaic virus * Pea * Photosynthesis * Photosystem II * Senescence Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2011

  10. The half-yellow man

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The half-yellow man. BJ Merwitza* and FJ Raala. aFaculty of Health Sciences, Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Research Unit, University of the Witswaterand, Johannesburg, South Africa. *Corresponding author, emails: bmerwitz@hotmail.com, brad.merwitz@gmail.com. Keywords: diffuse normolipaemic planar ...

  11. THE COMPARISON OF QUALITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BREADS BAKED WITH RESIDUAL AND COMMERCIAL OAT FLOURS AND WHEAT FLOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Litwinek; Halina Gambuś; Gabriela Zięć; Renata Sabat; Anna Wywrocka-Gurgul; Wiktor Berski

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare the quality and nutritional value of breads with 50% addition of oat flours of different origin (commercial and residual – a by-product obtained during production of β-glucan preparation) to standard wheat bread. Commercial wheat and oat flours and residual oat flour, as well as wheat and 50/50% wheat/oat breads were used as material in this research. Quality of breads was evaluated by their volume, baking yield and total baking loss. Bread crumb tex...

  12. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.

  13. Plant Guide: Yellow beeplant (Cleome lutea Hook)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Tilley; Jim Cane; Loren St. John; Dan Ogle; Nancy Shaw

    2012-01-01

    Yellow beeplant is a valuable native forage species for bees wasps and butterflies. Over 140 species of native bees have been observed foraging for nectar or pollen on yellow beeplant in southern Utah (Cane, 2008). Yellow beeplant is an annual forb which could provide food to insects in the first growing season of a range seeding (Ogle and others, 2011a). This...

  14. effect of cassava flour processing methods and substitution level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MASAMBA

    the diet. Incorporation of different proportions of flours from cereals and legumes in baked ... desirability of the sensory attributes under consideration. 2193 ... Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) for windows version 12.0 and index to volume.

  15. The effect of apricot kernel flour incorporation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... 2Department of Food Engineering, Erciyes University 38039, Kayseri, Turkey. Accepted 27 ... Key words: Noodle; apricot kernel, flour, cooking, sensory properties. ... their simple preparation requirement, desirable sensory.

  16. The performance of cassava flour as a water reducing admixture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHINYERE

    were then ground to a fine texture in a mill and the flour obtained sieved ... Figure 1: Effect of Water/cement Ratio Upon Slump and Compacting Factor. Saturated Density ... attributed to the bleeding and segregation observed in these mixes.

  17. Biofortification of maize flour with grain amaranth for improved nutrition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biofortification of maize flour with grain amaranth for improved nutrition. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home ...

  18. THE USE OF Orbignya speciosa FLOUR IN PLYWOOD ADHESIVE MIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Coelho Almeida

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813340The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of babaçu flour on urea-formaldehyde adhesive properties and compare it to the adhesives produced with wheat flour, which is the extender usually used for plywood production. An amount of 0, 10, 20 and 30 parts of extender per weight of the adhesive were added. Ammonium sulfate was used as catalyst, in the proportion of 1.5% on dry weight of solid content. The following properties of the adhesive were determined: viscosity, nonvolatile content, gel time, working life and pH. The babaçu flour presented similar properties to wheat flour. Both, in general, although contributed to the increase of the adhesives viscosity, reduced its reactivity, as increased pH value, gel time and working life.

  19. INFLUENCE OF FOUR CEREAL FLOURS ON THE GROWTH OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Department of Biology, Food Storage Technology Programme, Federal University of ... Host preference (choice and no-choice) studies revealed millet flour as the most preferred food ... cadavers thus reducing the palatability, rheological.

  20. Molecular genetic analysis of grain protein content and flour ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Tai'an Academy of Agricultural Science, Tai'an 271000, People's Republic of China ... (GPC) and flour whiteness degree (FWD) are important qualitative traits in common wheat. ... The objectives of present study were to identify QTLs con-.

  1. Toxic effects of chlorinated cake flour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, H M; Lawrence, G A; Tryphonas, L

    1977-05-01

    Four experiments were conducted using weanling Wistar rats to determine whether chlorinated cake flour or its constituents were toxic. Levels of 0.2 and 1.0% chlorine added to unbleached cake flour significantly (p less than 0.01) reduced growth rate by 20.7 and 85.2% and increased liver weight relative to body weight by 16.7 and 25.3%, respectively. Lipids extracted from flour chlorinated at the same levels had similar effects. Rat chow diets containing 0.2 and 0.6% chlorine in the form of chlorinated wheat gluten reduced growth rate and increased liver weight as a percentage of body weight. A rat chow diet containing 0.2% chlorine as chlorinated flour lipids increased absolute liver weight by 40%, kidney by 20%, and heart by 10% compared to pair-fed controls.

  2. Seed treatments affect functional and antinutritional properties of amaranth flours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping germination and flour air classification, on the functional properties and antinutritional factors of Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus seeds were studied. Thermal treatments increased the water absorption with a maximum value of

  3. Catering Gluten-Free When Simultaneously Using Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathryn; McGough, Norma; Urwin, Heidi

    2016-02-01

    A European law on gluten-free (GF) labeling came into force in 2012, covering foods sold prepacked and in food service establishments, and a similar U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation covers GF labeling from August 2014. Gluten is found in the grains wheat, rye, and barley. A common source of gluten in the kitchen is wheat flour. This research aimed to determine variables that have a significant effect on gluten contamination in commercial kitchens when wheat flour is in use and to establish controls necessary to assure GF production. A pilot study was used to test the following hypotheses: (i) increasing duration of exposure to wheat flour would increase gluten contamination, (ii) increasing distance between the site of preparation and the site of wheat flour would reduce gluten contamination, (iii) the use of a ventilation hood would decrease gluten contamination, and (iv) the use of a barrier segregating the site of preparation of a GF meal and the use of wheat flour would decrease gluten contamination. Petri dishes containing GF rice pudding were placed in three directions at increasing distances (0.5 to 2 m) from a site of wheat flour use. A barrier was in place between a third of samples and the site of wheat flour. After wheat flour was handled for 0.5 and 4.0 h, petri dishes were sealed and the contents were analyzed for gluten. The experiment was duplicated with the ventilation hood on and off. The pilot study revealed that a distance of 2 m from the use of wheat flour was required to control gluten contamination at ≤20 ppm if wheat flour had been in use for 4.0 h. The identified control of distance was tested in five different study sites. In each of the study sites, a test meal was prepared a minimum of 2 m away from the site of wheat flour use. Although kitchens vary and must be considered individually, the established control of a minimum 2 m distance, along with good hygiene practices, was found to be effective in preparing GF meals

  4. Thermal inactivation of eight Salmonella serotypes on dry corn flour.

    OpenAIRE

    VanCauwenberge, J E; Bothast, R J; Kwolek, W F

    1981-01-01

    Dry heat was used to inactivate Salmonella newington, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella cubana, Salmonella seftenberg, Salmonella thompson, and Salmonella tennessee in corn flour at 10 and 15% moisture. The flour was spray inoculated at 10(5) Salmonella cells per g and then stored at 49 degrees C (120 degrees F); viable Salmonella cells were counted on Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems) soy agar plates every 30 min for the first 4 h and then at 4-h ...

  5. Protein extractability from defatted Moringa oleifera lam. seeds flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein extractability from defatted Moringa oleifera seed flour was studied under various conditions of pH (2-10), time (5-60 minutes), salts (NaCl and CaCl ), salt concentrations (0-2 M) and solvent to flour ratio (10:1-30:1). 2 Results showed that protein extractability was dependent on pH, type of salt, salt concentrations and ...

  6. Shelf life characteristics of bread produced from ozonated wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadi, Mohammed; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Peng, Wei; Sulieman, Abdellatif A; Mahdi, Amer Ali; Mohammed, Khalid; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2017-11-13

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of ozone treatment on the quality of bread and its shelf life. Flour was treated with ozone gas a rate of 5 L/min for 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 min. Baking studies showed that bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min exhibited improved quality properties (in terms of specific volume, bread color, and crumb cell numbers). Exposure to ozone for shorter times did not cause obvious changes in the major volatile compounds of bread. A shelf life tests showed that ozone gas treatment influenced the extent of starch crystallinity. The relative starch crystallinity of bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min was lower than the control value, as were the hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness. Microscopic examination of crumb structure revealed remarkable differences between control and treated breads. Although ozone is a naturally occurring substance found in the atmosphere, ozone can also be produced synthetically. Recently, ozone has come to be regarded as a new treatment for flour. Especially in countries where the chlorination is forbidden, ozone treatment may be of a great interest if it were associated with significant and reliable changes in flour. Ozone treatment of wheat flour tends to improve bread shelf life and quality in terms of physiochemical, baking properties, X-ray diffraction data, volatile compound levels, crumb structure, and textural characteristics. Given such findings, desirable shelf life and bread qualities may be achieved when ozone is used as a flour oxidant prior to bread baking. Analyses of the effects of ozone gas on treatment of flour on bread shelf life and quality would aid the production of high quality and extend the shelf life of bread. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Comparing Soy Flour Wood Adhesives to Purified Soy Protein Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Linda F. Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    While economics dictate that soy-based wood adhesives be made with soy flour, much of the recent literature on soy-based wood adhesives has involved using soy protein isolate. The obvious assumption is that the additional carbohydrates in the flour but not in the isolate only serve as inert diluents. Our studies have shown that the isolate can provide 10 times the wet...

  8. Asymmetric Price Transmission in Indonesia's Wheat Flour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, Gonzalo J.; Taniguchi, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Data indicate that its domestic price in Indonesia has been increasing regardless of movements in the international price of wheat. A test for asymmetric price transmission from international wheat to domestic wheat flour markets is conducted using an error correction model and find the presence of asymmetric price transmission. The upward adjustment in the domestic price of wheat flour is much faster than its adjustment downward when it deviates from long-run equilibrium. Our results are rob...

  9. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Flour pads: devices to improve CHESS fat suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Susumu; Miki, Yukio; Miyati, Tosiaki; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Yokobayashi, Tsuneo

    2014-01-01

    We compared the suppression of lingering fat signals in chemical shift selective (CHESS) images by pads filled with flour and pads filled with rice in a phantom and human subjects. First, we prepared a phantom by creating an empty space in a mass of lard and filling the space with air, rice, or flour. Then, we obtained MR images of the phantoms in the center of the magnetic field and at a position 8 cm to the left (off-center) to compare lingering fat signals. MR images of the knee were obtained in 10 healthy volunteers using CHESS after placing a polyurethane sponge pillow, rice pad, or flour pad in the popliteal space under the flexed knee. We visually assessed the number of areas with lingering fat signals and the statistical differences among the groups were assessed using Tukey's test. Similarly to rice, flour clearly decreased lingering fat signals in the phantom study. A similar effect was obtained in the off-center images. In the volunteer study, the mean number of areas with lingering fat signals was 2.5 with a sponge pillow, 0.5 with the rice pad, and 0.3 with the flour pad. Those numbers were significantly different using flour pad and rice pad compared with sponge pillow (P CHESS images.

  11. Mycopopulations of grain and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavšić Dragana V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the nutritive characteristics, whole grain flour is a high quality product, due to its high vitamin, mineral, and dietary fiber content. However, the cereal grains are susceptible to the series of contamination during the ripening, harvesting, processing and storage. The aim of this work was to determine mold presence in grains and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat. The determination of total number and identification of isolated genera and species of molds were the subject of this research. All samples were contaminated with the molds. The total number of molds per 100 cereal grains was between 60 cfu (wheat and 120 cfu (buckwheat. The total number of molds in the samples of flour ranged from 6.0x101 cfu/g in white wheat flour to 5.0 x102 cfu/g in buckwheat whole grain flour (DG18 medium. Eight fungal genera (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Chrysonilia, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Scopulariopsis and fifteen species were isolated. The largest number of species of molds was isolated from the genus Aspergillus. About 66.7% of isolated fungi belonged to potentially toxigenic species. The results pointed out the necessity of grain surface treatment, preceding the milling of grains in wheat, corn and whole grain buckwheat flour production.

  12. Maize flour fortification in Africa: markets, feasibility, coverage, and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Afidra, Ronald; Mugambi, Gladys; Tehinse, John; Kabaghe, Gladys; Zulu, Rodah; Lividini, Keith; Smitz, Marc-Francois; Jallier, Vincent; Guyondet, Christophe; Bermudez, Odilia

    2014-04-01

    The economic feasibility of maize flour and maize meal fortification in Kenya, Uganda, and Zambia is assessed using information about the maize milling industry, households' purchases and consumption levels of maize flour, and the incremental cost and estimated price impacts of fortification. Premix costs comprise the overwhelming share of incremental fortification costs and vary by 50% in Kenya and by more than 100% across the three countries. The estimated incremental cost of maize flour fortification per metric ton varies from $3.19 in Zambia to $4.41 in Uganda. Assuming all incremental costs are passed onto the consumer, fortification in Zambia would result in at most a 0.9% increase in the price of maize flour, and would increase annual outlays of the average maize flour-consuming household by 0.2%. The increases for Kenyans and Ugandans would be even less. Although the coverage of maize flour fortification is not likely to be as high as some advocates have predicted, fortification is economically feasible, and would reduce deficiencies of multiple micronutrients, which are significant public health problems in each of these countries. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. BIOFILMS BASED ON CANIHUA FLOUR (Chenopodium Pallidicaule: DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady M. Salas-Valero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to (1 produce and characterize the flour obtained from two varieties of canihua, cupi and illpa-inia, and (2 evaluate the ability of these flours to form biofilms. The flours produced contain proteins, starches, lipids, organic substances containing phenol groups, and high percentages of unsaturated fatty acids. Films produced from the illpa variety presented lower water vapor permeability and larger Young’s modulus values than the films formed from the cupi variety. Both films were yellowish and displayed a high light blocking ability (as compared with polyethylene films, which can be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds. Furthermore, they showed lesser solubility and water permeability than other polysaccharide films, which may be the result of the higher protein (12%–13.8% and lipid (11% contents in canihua flours, as well as the formation of a larger number of S–S bonds. On the other hand, these films presented a single vitreous transition temperature at low temperatures (< 0 °C, crystallization of the A and Vh types, and an additional diffraction peak at 2 = 7.5º, ascribed to the presence of essential fatty acids in canihua flour. Canihua flour can form films with adequate properties and shows promise for potential applications in food packaging, because it acts as a good barrier to incident ultraviolet light.

  14. Evaluation of Pigeon Pea Lines for Biological Soil Decompaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Godoy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil decompaction is generally achieved through mechanical cultivation practices; however biological processes can significantly add to this process through root growth, development, and later senescence. This study was carried out in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil and had the purpose of selecting, among forty one pure pigeon pea lines, the most efficient genotypes that promote soil decompaction by roots penetrating compacted soil layers. Utilizing artificially compacted 30 mm high soil blocks, in a series of experiments, these lines were compared to the cultivar Fava Larga taken as a standard. Three lines were preliminarily selected out of the initial group, and afterwards, in more detailed screenings by monitoring soil resistance to penetration and also evaluating the behavior of Tanzania grass plants seeded after pigeon pea, two of them, g5-94 and g8-95, were selected as possessing the most fit root system to penetrate compacted soil layers.

  15. PIGEON PEA (Cajanus cajan AN ALTERNATIVE IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lucia Navarro V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current situation of inadequate nutrition in the population of many countries, including Colombia. Search sources rich in proteins and low-cost alternatives. The pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan is an important legume that contain a mo derate amount of protein, calories, vitamins and minerals, its use in foods is limited by the presence of anti-nutritional factors, which can be reduced or eliminated through the use of treatments. The proteins have functional properties that can be take advantage in meat, dairy and bakery products. The purpose of this review is to present an overview of the skills nutritional and functional properties of pigeon pea application opportunities in various applications in the food industry.

  16. Achievements of nuclear applications in chick-pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharwal, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Due to narrow and limited genetic variability available in chick-pea, this crop is ideally suited for genetic improvement through mutation breeding. Thus, the use of nuclear tools for regenerating some of the lost useful variability in this crop particularly for an improved plant type of increased yield and disease resistance appears to offer greater scope and promise. Practical results already achieved through the use of nuclear tools which fulfill these expectations to a large extent are confirmed by the extensive studies on mutation breeding in chick-pea crop carried out at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi; at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, Pakistan and at the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, Bangladesh

  17. Developmental differences in posttranslational calmodulin methylation in pea plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sukheung; Roberts, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    A calmodulin-N-methyltransferase was used to analyze the degree of lysine-115 methylation of pea calmodulin. Calmodulin was isolated from segments of developing roots of young etiolated and green pea plants and was tested for its ability to be methylated by the calmodulin methyltransferase in the presence of 3 H-methyl-S-adenosylmethionine. Calmodulin methylation levels were lower in apical root segments and in the young lateral roots compared with the mature, differentiated root tissues. The methylation of these calmodulin samples occurs specifically at lysine 115 since site-directed mutants of calmodulin with substitutions at this position were not methylated and competitively inhibited methylation. The present findings, combined with previous data showing differences in NAD kinase activation by methylated and unmethylated calmodulins, raise the possibility that posttranslational methylation could affect calmodulin action

  18. Uptake and distribution of 232U in peas and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Cline, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake of 232 U from soil and its distribution in peas and barley were examined under conditions which isolated root uptake from deposition on aboveground plant parts. Aboveground plant parts were harvested at maturity and analyzed for 232 U content by alpha-energy-analysis. The ratio of concentration (CR) of 232 U in the dry barley seeds to dry soil was 1.6 x 10 -4 while the CR values of the stem/leaf to dry soil fraction was 3.6 x 10 -3 . The Cr values for the pea seed, stem/pod and leaf components were 5.4 x 10 -4 , 3.3 x 10 -3 and 1.7 x 10 -2 , respectively. This indicates that the CR values used in certain radiological dose-assessment models may be high by about a factor of 100 when evaluating the consumption of seeds of legumes or cereal grains by man. (author)

  19. Intercropping of wheat and pea as influenced by nitrogen fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, B.B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2005-01-01

    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on crop yield, fertilizer and soil nitrogen (N) use was tested on a sandy loam soil at three levels of urea fertilizer N (0, 4 and 8 g N m−2) applied at sowing. The 15N enrichment and natu...... with lower soil N levels, and vice versa for wheat, paving way for future option to reduce N inputs and negative environmental impacts of agricultural crop production......., grain N concentration, the proportion of N derived from symbiotic N2 fixation, and soil N accumulation. With increasing fertilizer N supply, intercropped and sole cropped wheat responded with increased yield, grain N yield and soil N accumulation, whereas the opposite was the case for pea. Fertilizer N...

  20. THE COMPARISON OF QUALITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BREADS BAKED WITH RESIDUAL AND COMMERCIAL OAT FLOURS AND WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Litwinek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare the quality and nutritional value of breads with 50% addition of oat flours of different origin (commercial and residual – a by-product obtained during production of β-glucan preparation to standard wheat bread. Commercial wheat and oat flours and residual oat flour, as well as wheat and 50/50% wheat/oat breads were used as material in this research. Quality of breads was evaluated by their volume, baking yield and total baking loss. Bread crumb texture profile was analyzed by texture analyzer TA.XT Plus. Organoleptic assesment was performed by 15 skilled pearson‘s panel. Moreover both in flours and breads protein, lipids, mineral compounds, dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble fraction and β-glucans content were analyzed by AOAC methods.

  1. The influence of feeding GMO-peas on growth of animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Mares

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of genetically modified (GM food or feed into the commercial sale represents a very complicated process. One of the most important steps in approval process is the evaluation of all risks on the health status of people and animal models. Within our project the genetically modified peas was breeded that showed significant resistance against Pea seed-borne mosaic virus and Pea enation mosaic virus. Preclinical studies have been conducted to found out the effect of GMO peas on animals - rats of outbreeding line Wistar. In a total, 24 male, specific pathogen free Wistar rats were used in the experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, the animals were 28 days old. The three experimental groups with 8 individuals were created. The first group of rats was fed with GMO peas, the second group of rats consumed mix of pea cultivar Raman and the third group was control without pea addition (wheat and soya were used instead of pea. In the present study we focused our attention on health, growth and utility features of rats fed with GM pea. All characteristic were observed during the experiment lasting 35 days. Consumed feed was weighted daily and the weight of the animals was measured every seven days. The average values were compared within the groups. The aim of the experiment was to verify if resistant lines of pea influence the weight growth of animal models. The results of our experiment showed that even a high concentration (30% of GM pea did not influence growth rate of rats to compare with both rats fed with pea of Raman cultivar and control group. We did not observe any health problems of animal models during the experiment.

  2. Obtaining of interspecific hybrids for pea introgressive breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vasilevich Bobkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Overcoming of reproductive isolation, identification and transfer of agronomic value genes from wild relatives into cultivated pea genomes is an important task for pea introgressive breeding. Materials and methods. Reciprocal hybridization of cultivated pea with wide set of P. fulvum accessions was conducted. Identification of hybrids was carried out with use of biochemical and morphological markers. Identification of unique protein was conducted with use of electrophoretic spectra of mature seeds. Results. Pea interspecific hybrids were obtained in two reciprocal directions of crosses. Cross efficiency in Р. sativum × P. fulvum and P. fulvum × Р. sativum combinations was 36 % and 7 %, respectively. All tested seeds in crosses Р. sativum × P. fulvum were hybrids. Crosses in direction P. fulvum × Р. sativum led to formation of puny seeds restricted in embryo growth. Protein markers of one seed derived in cross P. fulvum × Р. sativum proved its hybrid nature. Morphological markers demonstrated that plant derived from another cross was also a hybrid. Culture of immature embryos was developed for recovering plants in interspecific crosses. Morphogenic calli and regenerated plants were obtained in culture of immature embryos P. fulvum (И592589 × Р. sativum (Aest. Identification of unique protein 7 of P. fulvum was conducted. Inheritance of that protein was proved as monogenic dominant. Conclusion. Efficiency of hybridization in combination P. fulvum × Р. sativum was significantly less in compare to reciprocal one. All products of that cross combination were tested as hybrids. Unique protein 7 of P. fulvum was revealed as a result of mature seed electrophoretic spectra analysis. Inheritance of that protein was determined as monogenic dominant.

  3. Investigation of pea seeds treated by 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepold, J.; Soos, T.

    1979-01-01

    Two types of pea seeds were treated by 137 Cs. Radiation doses of 10 and 15 gray, resp. were applied at a dose rate of 480 gray per hour. Both the rate of sprouting and the number of plants per m 2 of the irradiated seeds exceeded the corresponding parameters of the control. The total quantity of the crop and its content of protein and water were higher, too. (L.E.)

  4. Eesti ei pea ümberasujatele midagi tagastama / Helle Kalda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalda, Helle, 1950-

    2006-01-01

    Omandireformi aluste seaduse 7 paragrahvi lõikest 3 ja varade tagastamisest nn. järelümberasunutele. Sama ka Meie Maa 12. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Vooremaa 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Virumaa Teataja 2. veeb. 2006, lk. 11 ; Pärnu Postimees 9. veeb. 2006, lk. 15 ; Pärnu Postimees 9. veeb. 2006, lk. 15, pealkiri kujul : Ümberasujatele ei pea midagi tagastama

  5. Effective stabilization of CLA by microencapsulation in pea protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A M M; Nunes, J C; Lima, B N B; Pedrosa, C; Calado, V; Torres, A G; Pierucci, A P T R

    2015-02-01

    CLA was microencapsulated by spray drying in ten varied wall systems (WS) consisting of pea protein isolate or pea protein concentrate (PPC) alone at varied core:WS ratios (1:2; 1:3 and 1:4), or blended with maltodextrin (M) and carboxymethylcellulose at a pea protein:carbohydrate ratio of 3:1. The physical-chemical properties of the CLA microparticles were characterised by core retention, microencapsulation efficiency (ME), particle size and moisture. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) showed the most promising results, thus we evaluated the effect of M addition in the WS on other physical-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability (CLA isomer profile, quantification of CLA and volatile compounds by SPME coupled with CG-MS) during two months of storage at room temperature, CLA:PPC (1:4) was selected for comparisons. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) microparticles demonstrated better morphology, solubility, dispersibility and higher glass-transition temperature values. M addition did not influence the oxidative stability of CLA, however its presence improved physical-chemical characteristics necessary for food applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. OPPORTUNITIES TO USE PEA - WHEAT MIXES IN ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigori Ivanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presented the results of productivity and quality of the green mass of pea-wheat mixes grown in conditions of organic farming. Are explored 5 wheat varieties - Sadovo 1, Geia 1, Guinness, Farmer, Liusil and 4 varieties of winter peas -Mir, Vesela, №11, L12AB, at different ratio between them - 50:50 and 30:70%. The selection of varieties is made based on previous studies of their complex characteristics – ripening, yield, chemistry (Angelova S., T.Georgieva, M.Sabeva, 2011. Setting up and raising the experimental mixture of seeds has been made in a medium free of organic and mineral fertilizers. We have studied the changes in green mass yield and the biochemistry of surface biomass. The cultivation of pea–wheat mixtures under conditions of organic farming leads to increased yields of green mass in comparison with the self-seeding of wheat and peas. According to the results obtained at early ripening and the highest crude protein content average of three years is the mixture Sadovo1–Mir 30:70%. The most productive is the mixture Sadovo1-Mir 50-50%.

  7. Selenium and phosphorus interaction in pea (pisum sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahendra; Bhandari, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction of selenium and phosphorus on the dry matter yield and concentration and uptake of phosphorus, sulfur and selenium was studied in pea (Pisum sativnum) var. T 163. The fertilizer was tagged with P 32 . It was observed that increased concentration of applied selenium in soil decreased the dry matter yield and increased the concentration and uptake of total P, soil P and selenium in pea plants. Increased concentration of P alone increased dry matter yield, concentration and uptake of total, soil and fertilizer P and selenium which was beyond safe limits, and decreased concentration and uptake of sulphur. Selenium and phosphorus showed strong synergetic relationship by increasing the concentration of each other in plants while both showed antagonistic effect on the concentration of sulphur. Phosphorus compensated the toxic effect of selenium and improved the growth and dry matter yield of pea plants. The highest selenium concentration of 22.4 ppm was observed in 100 ppm phosphorus with 5 ppm selenium treated pots while lowest (0.10 ppm) in control. (author)

  8. Performance of Garden Pea Genotypes in Eastern Hills of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Poudel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Garden pea (Pisum sativum L is an important winter legume used as fresh vegetables and other drier food products. Despite of its importance as cash crop in many parts of Nepal, much study on various aspects for enhancing production and productivity has yet to be done. Therefore, to evaluate the production performance different genotypes of garden pea in eastern hills agro-ecological conditions present experiments were carried out consecutively for two years (2015 and 2016 at Agricultural Research Station, Pakhribas. The experiment comprised of 11 different genotypes of garden pea including a check variety Arkel. The production performance was evaluated in a completely randomized block design with three replications. The seeds were sown at 50 × 10 cm spacing during first week of October for two years. The result showed that DGP-05 genotype had earliest 104 days after sowing. The DGP-08 genotype showed 13 which were the maximum numbers of pods per plant (13, while DGP-01 showed 8 numbers of seeds as the maximum per pod. The DGP-03 genotype had the longest pod of 9.78 cm among others. The highest fresh pod yield of 18.14 t/ha was achieved from genotype DGP-09 followed by Arkel with (16.32 t/ha.

  9. Relating physico-chemical properties of frozen green peas (Pisum sativum L.) to sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nleya, Kathleen M; Minnaar, Amanda; de Kock, Henriëtte L

    2014-03-30

    The acceptability of frozen green peas depends on their sensory quality. There is a need to relate physico-chemical parameters to sensory quality. In this research, six brands of frozen green peas representing product sold for retail and caterer's markets were purchased and subjected to descriptive sensory evaluation and physico-chemical analyses (including dry matter content, alcohol insoluble solids content, starch content, °Brix, residual peroxidase activity, size sorting, hardness using texture analysis and colour measurements) to assess and explain product quality. The sensory quality of frozen green peas, particularly texture properties, were well explained using physico-chemical methods of analysis notably alcohol insoluble solids, starch content, hardness and °Brix. Generally, retail class peas were of superior sensory quality to caterer's class peas although one caterer's brand was comparable to the retail brands. Retail class peas were sweeter, smaller, greener, more moist and more tender than the caterer's peas. Retail class peas also had higher °Brix, a(*) , hue and chroma values; lower starch, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter content and hardness measured. The sensory quality of frozen green peas can be partially predicted by measuring physico-chemical parameters particularly °Brix and to a lesser extent hardness by texture analyser, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter and starch content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Addition of sucralose enhances the release of satiety hormones in combination with pea protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, Maartje C P; Troost, Freddy J; Saris, Wim H M

    2012-03-01

    Exposing the intestine to proteins or tastants, particularly sweet, affects satiety hormone release. There are indications that each sweetener has different effects on this release, and that combining sweeteners with other nutrients might exert synergistic effects on hormone release. STC-1 cells were incubated with acesulfame-K, aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, sucrose, pea, and pea with each sweetener. After a 2-h incubation period, cholecystokinin(CCK) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentrations were measured. Using Ussing chamber technology, the mucosal side of human duodenal biopsies was exposed to sucrose, sucralose, pea, and pea with each sweetener. CCK and GLP-1 levels were measured in basolateral secretions. In STC-1 cells, exposure to aspartame, sucralose, sucrose, pea, and pea with sucralose increased CCK levels, whereas GLP-1 levels increased after addition of all test products. Addition of sucrose and sucralose to human duodenal biopsies did not affect CCK and GLP-1 release; addition of pea stimulated CCK and GLP-1 secretion. Combining pea with sucrose and sucralose induced even higher levels of CCK and GLP-1. Synchronous addition of pea and sucralose to enteroendocrine cells induced higher levels of CCK and GLP-1 than addition of each compound alone. This study shows that combinations of dietary compounds synergize to enhance satiety hormone release. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Pre-fractionation strategies to resolve pea (Pisum sativum sub-proteomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nicole Meisrimler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are important crop plants and pea (Pisum sativum L. has been investigated as a model with respect to several physiological aspects. The sequencing of the pea genome has not been completed. Therefore, proteomic approaches are currently limited. Nevertheless, the increasing numbers of available EST-databases as well as the high homology of the pea and medicago genome (Medicago truncatula G. allow the successful identification of proteins. Due to the un-sequenced pea genome, pre-fractionation approaches have been used in pea proteomic surveys in the past. Aside from a number of selective proteome studies on crude extracts and the chloroplast, few studies have targeted other components such as the pea secretome, an important sub-proteome of interest due to its role in abiotic and biotic stress processes. The secretome itself can be further divided into different sub-proteomes (plasma membrane, apoplast, cell wall proteins. Cell fractionation in combination with different gel-electrophoresis, chromatography methods and protein identification by mass spectrometry are important partners to gain insight into pea sub-proteomes, post-translational modifications and protein functions. Overall, pea proteomics needs to link numerous existing physiological and biochemical data to gain further insight into adaptation processes, which play important roles in field applications. Future developments and directions in pea proteomics are discussed.

  12. The effect of Normast (PEA) in neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Sven Robert; Bing, Jette; Hansen, Rikke Bod Middelhede

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Neuropathic pain and spasticity after spinal cord injury represent significant problems. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a fatty acid that is produced in many cells in the body, and it is thought to potentiate the body's own cannabis-like substances (endocannabinoids). PEA is suggested...... to reduce pain and inflammation but randomized controlled trials are lacking. Normast is a medical supplement which contains (PEA) approved for use in Denmark. The primary aim is to investigate the effect of Normast (PEA) on neuropathic pain, and secondary to study the effect of Normast on spasticity...

  13. PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG PORANG PADA PEMBUATAN MI DENGAN SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG MOCAF (Modified cassava FLOUR [Addition of Porang Flour in Noodle as Mocaf Substitution (Modified cassava Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Faridah*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Noodle is one of the staple foods that are widely consumed and preferred by the Asian. However, wet noodles with modified cassava flour (mocaf substitution resulted in lower quality compared to 100% wheat noodle. Addition of a certain amount of konjac glucomannan (Amorphophallus oncophyllus flour to wet noodle is strongly recommended due to the fact that the food additive has a health benefit. Porang or konjac flour, which was used in the research, has soluble fiber properties, low calorie content, and highly viscous. It forms a heat stable gel with a mild alkali, interacts with starch, and has a synergistic interaction with kappa carrageenan. In this research, konjac flour was added to study the optimum combination between konjac and water. As much as 2, 4 and 6% (w/w of konjac flour were combined with 35, 40, 45% (v/w of water. The results showed that treatments with combinations of konjac flour and water were significantly contributing to characteristics of cooking time, cooking loss, color brightness index, tensile strength, swelling volume and water absorption. The best treatment was at a combination of 4% konjac (w/w and 35% water (v/w. The best porang noodles have the characteristics of cooking time at 2.13 minutes, cooking loss of 35%, tensile strength of 0.14 N, water absorption of 201.58%, color brightness index of 51.41, swelling volume of 103.63%, moisture content of 31.77%, protein content of 5.87%, fat content of 2.13%, ash content of 0.85% and crude dietary fiber of 4.58%.

  14. Effect of incorporation of plantain and chickpea flours on the quality characteristics of biscuits

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Ritika B.; Yadav, Baljeet S.; Dhull, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Blends of plantain and chickpea flours each with concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% along with of refined wheat flour were used for development of biscuits. The flours were evaluated for their chemical and functional properties. Plantain flour had highest crude fiber (3.6%) and carbohydrate content (80.8%), whereas chickpea flour had highest protein content (19.3%) and fat content (4.4%). Plantain flour showed highest water absorption (167.7%) whereas lowest oil absorption capacity (144....

  15. Effect of Different Flours on the Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural, Furfural, and Dicarbonyl Compounds in Heated Glucose/Flour Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mesías

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety.

  16. Use of Gamma Irradiation for the Control of the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum Hrbst) in Bread Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabbashi, E.E.B.M.; Ahmed, E.G.H.; Aljack, S.A.; Hamad, S.A.A.; Ahmed, M.E.; Elmamoun, K.

    2012-01-01

    Three doses of gamma irradiation (viz. 2, 2.5 and 3 KGy) were tested against the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Hrbst) in bread flour in Khartoum, Sudan. Corresponding control exhibited two groups of infested and uninfested flours. The results obtained showed that all the doses used reduced the infestation in a range 46-100 % during a six month storage period. The 2 KGy mortality range, of the test insect, was 46 - 100%, whereas the corresponding readings for 2.5 KGy and 3 KGy were 90 - 100% and total kill (100%), respectively. However, a natural infestation occurred in all the treated flours and in the infested and uninfested controls as well. This may refer to the resistant eggs of this insect whose a smaller size than the major bulk flour particles and therefore not affected by the milling process and the irradiation doses used too.The treatment mortality in this test was corrected by the Abbott's formula. Moreover, the flour analyses results implied that all the chemical parameters (moisture %, ash % and protein %) and the quality parameters (wet gluten and falling number) are within the recommended levels of the Codex Alimentarius.It was also found that these doses used had no harmful effect on dough rheological properties.

  17. Effect of Different Flours on the Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural, Furfural, and Dicarbonyl Compounds in Heated Glucose/Flour Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J

    2017-02-16

    Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety.

  18. The influence of addition of dried tomato pomace on the physical and sensory properties of whole grain rye flour cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Jelena M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the potential raw materials which could be used for production of food with added nutritional value is tomato pomace, a by-product from tomato processing. On the other hand, requirements of consumers for diverse food with potential for health benefits impose the need for creation of products made from different cereals. In this respect, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of addition of dried tomato pomace on the physical and sensory properties of whole grain rye flour cookies. The whole grain rye flour was substituted with tomato pomace powder in two levels (15% and 25% in the standard formulation of short-dough cookie. The quality of final products was evaluated by instrumental and sensory methods. The results clearly demonstrated that redness (+a* and yellowness (+b* were highly influenced by level of tomato pomace in the cookie formulations due to its content of carotenoid pigments. The spread factor of the cookies made with addition of tomato pomace powder was higher than the control sample. Hardness of the cookie samples decreased for approximately 50% for the cookie sample with 25% tomato pomace level substitution when compared with control sample. According to the results of sensory analysis, substitution level of 15% caused decrease of surface roughness, fracturability, and granularity, as well as increase of caramel flavour intensity. Substitution level of 25% caused higher degree of cookie softening and more pronounced tomato flavour.

  19. Quality evaluation of probiotic capsule prepared from alginate, carrageenan and tofu waste flour based on bacterial activity and organoleptic test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhardina, V.; Ermaya, D.; Aisyah, Y.; Haryani, S.

    2018-02-01

    Probiotic capsule is an innovation in functional food sector. It is used to preserve the living cells of probiotic bacteria during processing and storage. In this research, the improvement of probiotic viability is studied by using two kinds of encapsulating biomaterials and different concentration of tofu waste flour. Extrusion is selected method for encapsulation process. The purpose of this study is to examine the quality of probiotic capsule by evaluating the lactic acid bacteria performance and its physical characteristic. The article provides the data of probiotic bacteria activity related to their living cells present in capsule, activity in fermentation media compare to uncapsulated bacteria, and panelists’ preferences of capsule’s physical properties. The data is analyzed statistically by using ANOVA. The result shows that variables in this study affect the number of bacteria, their metabolic activity in producing acid during fermentation, and physical appearance of the capsule. Combination of alginate and tofu waste flour allows the multiplication of bacteria to a high number, and forms elastic, yellow and cloudy capsule, while with carrageenan, it causes the growth of a few numbers of bacteria which affects to a moderate pH and produces elastic, creamy and transparent capsule.

  20. A peptide that binds the pea aphid gut impedes entry of Pea enation mosaic virus into the aphid hemocoel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sijun; Sivakumar, S.; Sparks, Wendy O.; Miller, W. Allen; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2010-01-01

    Development of ways to block virus transmission by aphids could lead to novel and broad-spectrum means of controlling plant viruses. Viruses in the Luteoviridae enhanced are obligately transmitted by aphids in a persistent manner that requires virion accumulation in the aphid hemocoel. To enter the hemocoel, the virion must bind and traverse the aphid gut epithelium. By screening a phage display library, we identified a 12-residue gut binding peptide (GBP3.1) that binds to the midgut and hindgut of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Binding was confirmed by labeling the aphid gut with a GBP3.1-green fluorescent protein fusion. GBP3.1 reduced uptake of Pea enation mosaic virus (Luteoviridae) from the pea aphid gut into the hemocoel. GBP3.1 also bound to the gut epithelia of the green peach aphid and the soybean aphid. These results suggest a novel strategy for inhibiting plant virus transmission by at least three major aphid pest species.

  1. Characteristics and composition of watermelon, pumpkin, and paprika seed oils and flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawy, T A; Taha, K M

    2001-03-01

    The nutritional quality and functional properties of paprika seed flour and seed kernel flours of pumpkin and watermelon were studied, as were the characteristics and structure of their seed oils. Paprika seed and seed kernels of pumpkin and watermelon were rich in oil and protein. All flour samples contained considerable amounts of P, K, Mg, Mn, and Ca. Paprika seed flour was superior to watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours in content of lysine and total essential amino acids. Oil samples had high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major acids. All oil samples fractionated into seven classes including triglycerides as a major lipid class. Data obtained for the oils' characteristics compare well with those of other edible oils. Antinutritional compounds such as stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, and tannins were detected in all flours. Pumpkin seed kernel flour had higher values of chemical score, essential amino acid index, and in vitro protein digestibility than the other flours examined. The first limiting amino acid was lysine for both watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours, but it was leucine in paprika seed flour. Protein solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities, emulsification properties, and foam stability were excellent in watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours and fairly good in paprika seed flour. Flour samples could be potentially added to food systems such as bakery products and ground meat formulations not only as a nutrient supplement but also as a functional agent in these formulations.

  2. Hydrophobicity of stored (15, 35 °C), or dry-heated (120 °C) rice flour and deteriorated breadmaking properties baked with these treated rice flour/fresh gluten flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Mariko; Tabara, Aya; Ushijima, Yuki; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Seguchi, Masaharu

    2016-05-01

    Rice flour was stored at 15 °C/9 months, at 35 °C/14 days, or dry-heated at 120 °C/20 min. The breadmaking properties baked with this rice flour/fresh gluten flour deteriorated. In addition, the rice flour was mixed with oil in water vigorously, and oil-binding ability was measured. Every rice flour subjected to storage or dry-heated at 120 °C showed higher hydrophobicity, owing to changes in proteins. Then, proteins in the stored rice flour were excluded with NaOH solution, and bread baked with the deproteinized rice flour showed the same breadmaking properties as unstored rice flour/fresh gluten flour. The viscoelasticity of wheat glutenin fraction decreased after the addition of dry-heated rice flour in a mixograph profile. DDD staining increased Lab in color meter, which suggested an increase in SH groups in rice protein. The increase in SH groups caused a reduction in wheat gluten protein resulting in a deterioration of rice bread quality. .

  3. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF DEFATTED OKRA SEED (Abelmoschus esculentus FLOUR ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND Zn BIOAVAILABILITY OF PLANTAIN (Musa paradisiacal Linn FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesleem Ibrahim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria it is advised that nursing mothers should give their baby plantain flour paste “amala ogede” with ‘ewedu’ Corchorus olitorius soup during the process of weaning their baby. The over matured okra that cannot be cut with kitchen knife are thrown away in Nigeria, this lead to postharvest loss of okra. The seed in this okra could be utilised by processing into okra seed flour for the fortification of plantain flour. Since the okra seed flour is rich in oil and the oil contains cyclopropenoid fatty acids which cause some toxicity concerns therefore this work is to evaluate the chemical composition, the functional properties and Zn bioavailability of plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour. The nutrient content increased significantly (P≤0.05, protein; 3.88 – 11.38 %, fibre; 3.03 – 16.30 % and ash; 2.72 – 5.77 % while the fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (P≤0.05 as the percentage of defatted okra seed flour increased. The bulk density of the plantain flour decreased significantly (P≤0.05 from 0.795 g/cm3 to 0.769 g/cm3 as the percentage of okra seed flour increased while the least gelation concentration increased significantly (P≤0.05 (10 to 20. The calculated [Ca][Phytate]/[Zn] molar ratio for the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour (0.02 – 0.04 mol/kg were below the critical level. The increase in the least gelation concentration coupled with increase in the protein content of the resultant flour from the blend means more of the protein will be available in the food made from the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour.

  4. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nochera, Carmen L; Ragone, Diane

    2016-05-20

    Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk ( Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis ), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit.

  5. CHOICE OF EFFICIENT METHOD OF ADDING FLOUR FROM BUCKWHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the production of functional bakery products for therapeutic and preventive nutrition is of current importance. The problem of providing the population with functional products can be solved by enriching the recipes with vitamins, dietary fiber, micro and macronutrients. At the chair of "Technology of baking, confectionery, pasta and grain processing" of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies the recipe of no-salt bread from mixture of baker’s first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat with adding buckwheat bran flour, that increases the nutrition value of the product, has been developed. Flour from buckwheat bran is characterized by a high-scale balance of the content of essential amino acids, good digestibility, rich in vitamins (especially B vitamins, PP, dietary fiber, minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron. The use of buckwheat flour from the bran in bread production stimulates the creation of favorable intestinal microflora, normalizes blood sugar level, and excretes toxins, toxic salts and heavy metals from the body. We have conducted a research on how to make the rational choice of method of adding buckwheat bran flour enricher into dough from a mixture of first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat, compressed yeast and potable water, thus ensuring high and stable physical and chemical characteristics and the quality of the end product. Also, we have discovered that the bakery product prepared on tight sponge with addition of enricher has much better organoleptical properties in comparison with the others. Bread is characterized by a pleasant taste and flavour, elastic porous crumb. It has been found that the consumption of 100 g of a mixture of no-salt bread from first grade wheat flour and whole-grain with adding buckwheat bran flour will provide enough daily intake of protein 10.7%, fat 1.5%, carbohydrates 10.4% dietary fiber 16.3%, amino acids 2.5 14.0%. No-salt bread is recommended to people

  6. Quality characteristics of bread produced from wheat, rice and maize flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sweta; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Baljit; Minhas, K S

    2012-12-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) flour and maize (Zea mays) meal substitution in wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour, from 0 to 100% each, for the production of bread was investigated. The proximate analysis, pasting properties, bread making qualities of raw materials and sensory evaluation of the bread samples were determined. The pasting temperature increased with increased percentage of rice flour and maize meal. But the other pasting characters decreased with the higher proportion of rice flour. The baking absorption was observed to increase with higher level of maize meal but it decreased when level of rice flour was increased. Loaf weight (g) decreased with progressive increase in the proportion of maize meal but increased when rice flour incorporation was increased. Loaf volume, loaf height and specific volume decreased for progressively higher level of maize meal and rice flour. The sensory evaluation revealed that 25% replacement of wheat flour was found to be more acceptable than control sample.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Functional Properties of Some Commonly Used Cereal and Legume Flours and Their Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties such as protein solubility, swelling capacity, water holding capacity, gelling ability, bulk density and foaming capacity of flours of some commonly used cereals and legume (wheat, refined wheat, maize and chickpea and their blends were studied. Blends of flours were prepared by mixing equal proportions of selected floors. Statistically significant difference  in studied functional properties except bulk density was observed among cereal flours and their blends. Chickpea flour was found to possess comparatively high water holding capacity, protein solubility index and swelling capacity. The functional properties of maize and wheat flours were found to be improved when blended with chickpea. Chickpea flour and its blends with cereal flours were found to possess good functional score and suggested as favorable candidates for use in the preparation of viscous foods and bakery products. The data provide guidelines regarding the improvement in functional properties of economically favorable cereal flours.

  8. Dietary fatty acids influence the growth and fatty acid composition of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreassi, Elena; Cito, Annarita; Zanfini, Assunta; Materozzi, Lara; Botta, Maurizio; Francardi, Valeria

    2017-03-01

    Fat is the second most abundant component of the nutrient composition of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) that represents also an interesting source of PUFA, especially n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, involved in prevention of cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the possibility of modifying the fat content and the FA composition of yellow mealworms through feeding and how this would be influenced by developmental stages, pupal sex, and generation with the future aim of applying this coleopteran as a diet supplement for human health. Growth rate and cumulative mortality percentage on the different feeding substrates were also evaluated to select the optimal conditions for a mass-raising of this insect species. Despite the different fat content in the six different breeding substrates used, T. molitor larvae and pupae contained a constant fat percentage (>34% in larvae and >30% in pupae). A similar total fat content was found comparing larvae and male and female pupae of the second generation to those of the first generation. On the contrary, FA composition differed both in larvae and pupae reared on the different feeding substrates. However, the exemplars reared on the diets based on 100% bread and 100% oat flour showed SFA, PUFA percentages, and an n-6/n-3 ratio more suitable for human consumption; the diet based on beer yeast, wheat flour, and oat flour resulted in a contemporary diet that most satisfied the balance between a fat composition of high quality and favorable growth conditions.

  9. Characterization of pre-gelatinized rice and bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a pre-gelatinized flour using a mixture of broken rice and split beans by thermoplastic extrusion, and to evaluate the physicochemical, nutritional, and technological quality of the final product. The extrusion parameters were maintained using three heating zones with temperatures of 30 ºC, 40 ºC, and 70 ºC; screw speed of 177 rpm; feed rate of 257 g/m, and circular matrix of 3.85 mm. The following characterization analyses were performed: physicochemical, nutritional, water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI, and paste viscosity. The pre-gelatinized rice and bean flour had an intermediate value of WAI, 7.51 g/g, and high WSI value, 24.61%. Regarding proteins, it was verified an average content of 12.9% in the final product. The amino acid contents found in the pre-gelatinized flour indicate that the mixture has the essential amino acids. It was also found that the pre-gelatinized flour supplies more than 60% of the essential amino acids recommended for children aged one to three years old. The gelatinized flour composed of broken rice and split beans is an alternative to the use of these by-products of the manufacture process of rice and beans to obtain a product with viable technological characteristics and high nutritional value.

  10. Effect of wheat flour characteristics on sponge cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiraghi, Malena; de la Hera, Esther; Pérez, Gabriela T; Gómez, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    To select the flour parameters that relate strongly to cake-making performance, in this study the relationship between sponge cake quality, solvent retention capacity (SRC) profile and flour physicochemical characteristics was investigated using 38 soft wheat samples of different origins. Particle size average, protein, damaged starch, water-soluble pentosans, total pentosans, SRC and pasting properties were analysed. Sponge cake volume and crumb texture were measured to evaluate cake quality. Cluster analysis was applied to assess differences in flour quality parameters among wheat lines based on the SRC profile. Cluster 1 showed significantly higher sponge cake volume and crumb softness, finer particle size and lower SRC sucrose, SRC carbonate, SRC water, damaged starch and protein content. Particle size, damaged starch, protein, thickening capacity and SRC parameters correlated negatively with sponge cake volume, while total pentosans and pasting temperature showed the opposite effect. The negative correlations between cake volume and SRC parameters along with the cluster analysis results indicated that flours with smaller particle size, lower absorption capacity and higher pasting temperature had better cake-making performance. Some simple analyses, such as SRC, particle size distribution and pasting properties, may help to choose flours suitable for cake making. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Properties of duck meat sausages supplemented with cereal flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H S; Ali, M S; Jeong, J Y; Moon, S H; Hwang, Y H; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2009-07-01

    Duck meat sausages were prepared using 10% beef fat (FDS) and 10% hydrated cereal flours including rice (RDS), wheat, corn, millet, and barley to replace fat. Control duck sausages (DS) were also prepared only with duck meat and duck meat plus 10% beef fat. Results showed that protein and fat contents significantly decreased and total expressible fluid reduced with the addition of cereal flours in duck sausage batters. The FDS had higher fat content and lower pH compared with others. Duck sausages with 10% supplemented wheat flour showed the lowest cooking loss among sausages and had similar redness and chroma values to FDS and DS. Texture analysis indicated that hardness of duck sausage significantly decreased when cereal flours and beef fat were added. In particular, RDS showed the lowest values for all texture measurements compared with others. Result of moisture absorption capacity suggested that the decrease in hardness in RDS was due to higher moisture retention for rice flour treatment. Sensory evaluation indicated that DS had significantly lower overall acceptability than RDS, due to its off-flavor, whereas RDS had higher overall acceptability than DS.

  12. Evaluation of rice flour for use in vanilla ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, T L; Olabi, A; Pettingell, A G; Tong, P S; Walker, J H

    2007-10-01

    The effects of varying concentrations (2, 4, and 6%) of 2 types of rice flours (RF 1 and RF 2) on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of vanilla ice cream samples were assessed at different fat levels (0, 4, and 10%) and storage conditions (control vs. heat-shocked). Fat and total solids were measured as well as hardness, viscosity, and melting rate. Eight trained panelists conducted descriptive sensory analyses of the samples at 0 and 7 wk. The 2% rice flour level and to a certain extent the 4% usage level generally improved texture while affecting to a lesser extent the flavor characteristics of the samples compared with the control. The RF 2 generally had a more significant effect than RF 1, especially on the texture attributes. Although the rice flour reduced the negative impact of temperature abuse on textural properties, the samples still deteriorated in textural properties (more icy) under temperature abuse conditions. In addition, rice starch does lower perceived sweetness and can have a "flour flavor" at high usage levels. The use of rice flour appears to be most advantageous for low fat ice cream samples.

  13. PENGARUH FORMULASI PASTA LABU KUNING DAN TEPUNG BERAS KETAN PUTIH TERHADAP SIFAT KIMIA DAN SENSORI DODOL [The Effect of Formulation Pumpkin Paste and White Glutinous Rice Flour on Chemical and Sensory Properties Dodol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hanggara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effect formulation between pumpkin pasta and white glutinous rice flour on chemical and sensory properties of dodol. The research was a single factor, arranged in a Complete Randomized Design with six replications. The factor was the formulation of pumpkin pasta and white glutinous rice flour consisted of four levels, i.e. 10 : 90 (L1; 20 : 80 (L2; 30 : 70 (L3; 40 : 60 (L4; 50 : 50 (L5; and 60 : 40 (L6.  The data were analyzed by using ANOVA and were further tested with LSD test at 5% level of significant. The results showed that the ratio of pumpkin paste and white glutinous rice flour significantly affected the chemical (moisture and sucrose contents and  sensory properties (texture, color, taste, flavor and overall acceptance of dodol.  The best formulation was found on dodol produced from 50% pumpkin paste and 50% white glutinous rice flour (L5 with the moisture content of 22,51%, sucrose content of 33,67%, total carotenoids content of 1,16 µg/g, fat content of 23,12%, with the texture score of 2,71 (rather elastic, color score of  3,97 (yellow-brown, taste score of 3,75 (feel pumpkin, flavor score of 3,50 (flavorful pumpkin and the overall acceptance of 3,51 (like. Keywords:  dodol, pumpkin, white glutinous rice

  14. Viruses affecting lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. in Greece; incidence and genetic variability of Bean leafroll virus and Pea enation mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisavet K. CHATZIVASSILIOU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. crops are mainly established with non-certified seeds of local landraces, implying high risks for seed transmitted diseases. During April and May of the 2007–2012 growing seasons, surveys were conducted in eight regions of Greece (Attiki, Evros, Fthiotida, Korinthos, Kozani, Larissa, Lefkada and Viotia to monitor virus incidence in lentil fields. A total of 1216 lentil samples, from plants exhibiting symptoms suggestive of virus infection, were analyzed from 2007 to 2009, using tissue-blot immunoassays (TBIA. Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV overall incidence was 4.9%, followed by Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV (2.4% and Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV (1.0%. When 274 of the samples were tested for the presence of luteoviruses, 38.8% were infected with Bean leafroll virus (BLRV. Since BLRV was not identified in the majority of the samples collected from 2007 to 2009, representative symptomatic plants (360 samples were collected in further surveys performed from 2010 to 2012 and tested by ELISA. Two viruses prevailed in those samples: BLRV (36.1% was associated with stunting, yellowing, and reddening symptoms and Pea enation mosaic virus-1 (PEMV-1 (35.0% was associated with mosaic and mottling symptoms. PSbMV (2.2%, AMV (2.2%, BYMV (3.9% and CMV (2.8% were also detected. When the molecular variability was analyzed for representative isolates, collected from the main Greek lentil production areas, five BLRV isolates showed 95% identity for the coat protein (CP gene and 99% for the 3’ end region. Three Greek PEMV isolates co-clustered with an isolate from Germany when their CP sequence was compared with isolates with no mutation in the aphid transmission gene. Overall, limited genetic variability was detected among Greek isolates of BLRV and PEMV.

  15. Perinatal Yellow Fever: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Lilian Martins Oliveira; Romanelli, Roberta Maia Castro; de Carvalho, Andréa Lucchesi; Teixeira, Daniela Caldas; de Carvalho, Luis Fernando Andrade; Cury, Verônica Ferreira; Filho, Marcelo Pereira Lima; Perígolo, Graciele; Heringer, Tiago Pires

    2018-04-09

    An outbreak of yellow fever in Brazil made it possible to assess different presentations of disease such as perinatal transmission. A pregnant woman was admitted to hospital with yellow fever symptoms. She was submitted to cesarean section and died due to fulminant hepatitis. On the 6th day the newborn developed liver failure and died 13 days later. Yellow fever PCR was positive for both.

  16. AHP 47: YELLOW-HEAD HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangs rgyas bkra shis སངས་རྒྱས་བཀྲ་ཤིས།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available My family had a stallion we called Rta mgo ser 'Yellow-Head Horse'. Father and two of his brothers occasionally rode it. Father said that Yellow-Head was very wild when it was taken to join local horseraces. I didn't believe that because Yellow-Head was very gentle when Mother rode it to the local monastery and also when I rode it.

  17. Doing the Basics Better in Africa: How School Support, Autonomy, and Accountability Improved Outcomes for Girls in PEAS Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Libby

    2017-01-01

    Promoting Equality in African Schools (PEAS) seeks to expand access to sustainably delivered, quality secondary education in Africa. PEAS builds and runs chains of not-for-profit, low-cost private schools in public-private partnership with governments. External evaluation data show that PEAS schools in Uganda are delivering higher quality…

  18. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). 201.56-6 Section 201.56-6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...-6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean...

  19. Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Global Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food and feed legume grown across many temperate regions of the world, especially from Asia to Europe and North America. The goal of this study was to use 30 informative pea microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity in a global core from the USDA and ...

  20. Vooruit met de geit. Marktkansen voor Geitenvlees! Een duik in de keten van The Green Peas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livestock Research,

    2012-01-01

    De geitensector loopt tegen verschillende problemen aan. The Green Peas is gevraagd door Wageningen UR Livestock Research (WUR) om onderzoek te doen naar het verwaarden van duurzaam, Nederlands geitenvlees. The Green Peas is gevraagd vanwege haar expertise op het gebied van duurzaam voedselonderzoek

  1. In situ localization of chalcone synthase mRNA in pea root nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, W.C.; Canter Cremers, H.C.J.; Hogendijk, P.; Katinakis, P.; Wijffelman, C.A.; Franssen, H.J.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper studies on the role of flavonoids in pea root nodule development are reported. Flavonoid synthesis was followed by localizing chalcone synthase (CHS) mRNA in infected pea roots and in root nodules. In a nodule primordium, CHS mRNA is present in all cells of the primordium. Therefore it

  2. Microsynteny between pea and Medicago truncatula in the SYM2 region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gualtieri, G.; Kulikova, O.; Limpens, E.; Kim, D.J.; Cook, D.R.; Bisseling, T.; Geurts, R.

    2002-01-01

    The crop legume pea (Pisum sativum) is genetically well characterized. However, due to its large genome it is not amenable to efficient positional cloning strategies. The purpose of this study was to determine if the model legume Medicago truncatula, which is a close relative of pea, could be used

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on pollen and seed fertility in pigeon pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed John, S.

    1997-01-01

    A study was undertaken in pigeon pea parents and their F 1 hybrid to analyse the pollen and seed fertility following gamma irradiation. It is found that the reduction of pollen and seed fertility in pigeon pea was lesser over those of black gram and cowpea. 5 refs., 1 tab

  4. Use of Cowpea and Pigeon pea as Nutritional Ingredients in Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of Cowpea and Pigeon pea as Nutritional Ingredients in Culture Media. ... Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences ... Cheap, locally available plant seeds such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) could be used in the design and formulation of microbial culture media in order to reduce the cost.

  5. Effect of enzyme treatment on pea starch physicomechanical properties of biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sh. Zakirova; T. N. Manahova; A. V. Kanarskiy; Z. A. Kanarskaya

    2013-01-01

    The regularities of change in physical and mechanical properties of biofilms based on pea starch treated with pullulanase enzyme preparation were obtained. The possibility of formation of linear pea starch amylopectin polymers, which contribute to improvement of the mechanical and rheological properties of biofilms was identified.

  6. Effect of enzyme treatment on pea starch physicomechanical properties of biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Zakirova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The regularities of change in physical and mechanical properties of biofilms based on pea starch treated with pullulanase enzyme preparation were obtained. The possibility of formation of linear pea starch amylopectin polymers, which contribute to improvement of the mechanical and rheological properties of biofilms was identified.

  7. Exploring variation in pea protein composition by natural selection and genetic transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzitzikas, E.

    2005-01-01

    Pea (Pisumsativum L.) seeds are a rich and valuable source of proteins, which can have potential for food industrial applications. Pea storage proteins are classified into two major classes: the salt-soluble globulins, and the water-soluble

  8. Deletion of PEA-15 in mice is associated with specific impairments of spatial learning abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Gregory

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PEA-15 is a phosphoprotein that binds and regulates ERK MAP kinase and RSK2 and is highly expressed throughout the brain. PEA-15 alters c-Fos and CREB-mediated transcription as a result of these interactions. To determine if PEA-15 contributes to the function of the nervous system we tested mice lacking PEA-15 in a series of experiments designed to measure learning, sensory/motor function, and stress reactivity. Results We report that PEA-15 null mice exhibited impaired learning in three distinct spatial tasks, while they exhibited normal fear conditioning, passive avoidance, egocentric navigation, and odor discrimination. PEA-15 null mice also had deficient forepaw strength and in limited instances, heightened stress reactivity and/or anxiety. However, these non-cognitive variables did not appear to account for the observed spatial learning impairments. The null mice maintained normal weight, pain sensitivity, and coordination when compared to wild type controls. Conclusion We found that PEA-15 null mice have spatial learning disabilities that are similar to those of mice where ERK or RSK2 function is impaired. We suggest PEA-15 may be an essential regulator of ERK-dependent spatial learning.

  9. Titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ataya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unclear etiology. We describe a patient who develops yellow nail syndrome, with primary nail and sinus manifestations, shortly after amalgam dental implants. A study of the patient's nail shedding showed elevated nail titanium levels. The patient had her dental implants removed and had complete resolution of her sinus symptoms with no change in her nail findings. Since the patient's nail findings did not resolve we do not believe titanium exposure is a cause of her yellow nail syndrome but perhaps a possible relationship exists between titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome that requires further studies.

  10. Physical Characteristics of White Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), Rice (Oryza sativa L.), and Tapioca (Manihot esculenta) Flours - Based Seasoning Composite Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfani, NNA; Ishartani, D.; Anam, C.; Praseptiangga, D.; Manuhara, G. J.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physical characteristics of seasoning composite flour that made from white sweet potato, rice, and tapioca flours, and determined the best formula of seasoning composite flour. A completely randomized design (CRD) with formula as the single factor was used. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA method and followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at significance 5% if there was a significant difference. The best formula of seasoning composite flour was 30% tapioca flour, 30% rice flour, and 40% white sweet potato flour. The physical characteristics of the best formula were 5.689 ml/g of swelling power, 2.681 g/g of water absorption capacity, 0.887 ml/g of oil absorption capacity, and 22.03% cooking loss. Physical characteristics of the best seasoning composite flour were significantly different from the commercial seasoning flour and showed a better cooking loss, oil absorption capacity, and swelling power than commercial seasoning flour.

  11. Influence of grain activation conditions on functional characteristics of brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arashdeep; Sharma, Savita; Singh, Baljit

    2017-09-01

    Grain activation is a natural processing technique that can be used to produce modified flours without chemical modification. Functional characteristics of brown rice flour as influenced by grain activation time and temperatures were investigated. Germination temperatures at 25 ℃, 30 ℃ and 35 ℃ and time for 12, 24, 36 and 48 h significantly influenced the functional properties of flour with modification of starch, protein and high enzymatic activity. Significant decrease in the bulk density, water absorption and swelling power of brown rice flour was observed in comparison to non-germinated flour. Gel consistency and oil absorption capacity of brown rice flour increased as the grain activation time and temperature were increased. Native flour had lowest emulsion and foaming properties, while increase in grain activation time and temperature enhanced the emulsifying and foaming properties of flour. Paste clarity of native flour was 54% which was reduced to 25.17%; however, increase in germination time and temperature increased the % synersis values of germinated flour. Native flour had least gelation concentration of 12% which increased to 25% after 48 h of germination at 35 ℃. Overall, germination can be used as a natural way to modify the functional properties of brown rice flours for their utilization in variety food products.

  12. Effects of uniquely processed cowpea and plantain flours on wheat bread properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of incorporating uniquely processed whole-seed cowpeas or plantain flours at 10 or 20 g/100 g in all-purpose flour on paste viscosity and bread-baking properties in model bread was determined. Flours from plantains processed as follows: unblanched plantains dried at 60 degrees C (PLC), so...

  13. Biological resistance of polyethylene composites made with chemically modified fiber or flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons

    2002-01-01

    The role of moisture in the biological decay of wood-plastic composites was investigated. Southern pine wood fiber and ponderosa pine wood flour were chemically modified using either acetic anhydride (AA), butylene oxide (BO), or propylene oxide (PO). A 50:50 mixture of high density polyethylene and either chemically modified fiber or flour, or untreated fiber or flour...

  14. Physicochemical properties of gluten-free pancakes from rice and sweet potato flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20 and 40%, of sweet potato flour. Textural properties of the cooked pancakes, such as hardness and chewiness generally increased with time after cooking, whereas they decreased with increased sw...

  15. Effect of Hydrothermal Treatment on the Physicochemical, Rheological, and Oil-Resistant Properties of Rice Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice flour was thermo-mechanically modified by steam jet-cooking and the physico-chemical and rheological properties of the resulting product were characterized. Then, its performance in frying batters was evaluated as an oil barrier. Compared to native rice flour, the steam jet-cooked rice flour ...

  16. Effect of Gamma Radiation and temperature on storage quality of Pea (Pisum sativum L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.; Hossain, M. M.; Hossain, M. A.; Alam, M. K.; Sarder, A. H.

    2004-01-01

    Effect of radiation, storage temperature and storage period of pea was investigated. During the entire storage period of 12 months, no major changes occurred in weight loss, insect infestation, moisture content, water activity (a w ) and protein content of the pea stored at room temperature (RT) and at 4 0 C. Reconstitution properties and tenderness after cooking were affected at room temperature storage. Both reconstitution properties and tenderness gradually decreased with the increase of storage period when pea was stored at RT. The initial reconstitution properties (94%) decreased to 77% at the end of 12 months and the initial tenderness (97%) decreased to 13% when pea was stored at room temperature. On the other hand the reconstitution properties and tenderness were found 92% and 83% respectively in pea stored at 4 0 C.(author)

  17. The comparison of nitrogen use and leaching in sole cropped versus intercropped pea and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and of crop residue management on crop yield, NO3- leaching and N balance in the cropping system was tested in a 2-year lysimeter experiment on a temperate sandy loam soil. The crop rotation...... cropping. Crops received no fertilizer in the experimental period. Natural N-15 abundance techniques were used to determine pea N-2 fixation. The pea-barley intercrop yielded 4.0 Mg grain ha(-1), which was about 0.5 Mg lower than the yields of sole cropped pea but about 1.5 Mg greater than harvested...... was pea and barley sole and intercrops followed by winter-rye and a fallow period. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER), which is defined as the relative land area under sole crops that is required to produce the yields achieved in intercropping, was used to compare intercropping performance relative to sole...

  18. Barley uptake of N deposited in the rhizosphere of associated field pea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    N deposited in the rhizosphere of a legume may contribute to the N-nutrition of an intercropped non-legume. The process of deposition and subsequent uptake by a neighbouring plant is often termed N-transfer. The N-transfer from field pea (Pisum sativum L.) to associated spring barley (Hordeum...... debris. Separating the root systems reduced the barley recovery of pea-derived N to about half the amount recovered in the association where root systems grew in the same compartment. The death of pea, caused by spraying with a herbicide, increased the amount of N recovered in barley, whereas shading...... the pea plant had no effect on the amount of pea-derived N taken up in barley. The N deposited up to 45 days of growth contributed

  19. Milked flours in Spain (I: 1865-1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Boatella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an historical review of the origin of milked flours, and their introduction in Spain. Commercial products are described and a list of main factories producing and distributing them (until 1965 is included. Product composition shows a high level of variability, mainly due to the quick evolution in the use of different ingredients (increase of soluble carbohydrates and blended flours, fortification with minerals and vitamins, etc.. Ingredients and composition were changing along the years according to the increasing knowledge in nutrition sciences and food technology. Regarding the factories producing milked flours, we can observe a concentration trend during 20’s and 30’s. In contrast, in further decades new producers appeared in the market and some of them are still actives at this moment.

  20. Dielectric properties of wheat flour mixed with oat meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczycka, D.; Czubaszek, A.; Fujarczuk, M.; Pruski, K.

    2013-03-01

    Possibilities of using electric methods for determining admixtures of oat meal to wheat flour, type 650 are presented. In wheat flour, oat meal and mixtures containing 10, 20 and 30% of the oat meal, moisture, protein, starch and ash content, sedimentation value, yield and softening of wet gluten were determined. In samples containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 100% of oat meal, the dielectric loss factor and conductivity were determined using an impedance analyzer for electromagnetic field frequency ranging from 0.1-20 kHz. It was found that the dielectric loss factor varied for tested material. The best distinguishing between tested mixtures was obtained at the measuring electromagnetic field frequency of 20 kHz. The loss factor was significantly correlated with the yield of wet gluten and the sedimentation value, parameters indicating the amount and quality of gluten proteins in flour.

  1. Rheological and microbiological study of flour treated by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laabidi, Othmen

    2007-01-01

    the aim this work is to study the effectiveness of radio treatment and its effect on the conservation of flour and their various parameters (physico-chemical and rheological). The flour has been treated with different doses (0, 0.75, 1.5 and 3 kGy), physico-chemical, rheological, microbiological and sensory analyses were made.The results show that the irradiation as a treatment for decontamination gave a highly effective. Indeed, a dose of 1.5 kGy allows a total destruction of yeasts and molds. Thus, from the point of view physico-chemical, increasing the dose of radiation causes a change in physical and chemical properties and rheological of flour. for the characteristics of bread, increasing the dose of radiation affects the quality of bread. (Author). 38 refs

  2. Development of newly enriched bread with quinoa flour and whey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, D. M.; Naranjo, M.; Pérez, L. V.; Valencia, A. F.; Acurio, L. P.; Gallegos, L. M.; Alvarez, F. C.; Amancha, P. I.; Valencia, M. P.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Arancibia, M. Y.

    2017-07-01

    Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru are countries with the highest amount of quinoa production in the world due to the proximity to the Andes. Further, Ecuador has a high production of dairy products, particularly fresh cheese of which production gives a high volume of whey, without further use, with the consequent loss of their nutritional value. The present study was performed to develop a new fortified bread through the incorporation of quinoa flour and whey at three different concentrations. The use of quinoa and whey improved the texture, shelf life and sensory characteristics of bread, compared to those prepared with wheat flour. This study shows the potential of quinoa flour and whey as ingredients in the development of baked products.

  3. Analysis of radicals induced in irradiated cereal flour using ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Shoei; Kishita, Keigo; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed radicals induced in cereal flour irradiated with gamma-ray or electron beam. Sample was wheat and rice. We detected a broad singlet signal at g = 2.0. It consists of a singlet signal and a triplet signal. It suggested that the singlet signal is originated from organic free radicals and the triplet signal is from 14 N. There were no differences of ESR spectra between irradiated wheat flour and rice flour. The signal intensity of radiation induced radical was tend to increase following with the increase of radiation dose level. After radiation treatment, relaxation time of radiation induced radical was changed during storage. T 1 was decreased and T 2 was increased. In this study, the relaxation time is calculated using the parameters obtained from the ESR signal. It is necessary to analyze the relaxation time directly with pulsed ESR spectroscopy in future. (author)

  4. Physical properties of snacks made from cassava leaf flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Ferrari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is continually growing with new products becoming available every year. Extrusion combines a number of unit operations in one energy efficient rapid continuous process and can be used to produce a wide variety of snacks foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, and amount of cassava leaf flour mixed with cassava starch on the physical properties of extruded snacks processed using a single screw extruder. A central composite rotational design, including three factors with 20 treatments, was used in the experimental design. Dependent variables included the expansion index, specific volume, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index. Among the parameters examined, the amount of cassava leaf flour and extrusion temperature showed significant effects on extruded snack characteristics. Mixtures containing 10% of cassava leaf flour extruded at 100°C and 255 rpm shows favorable levels of expansion, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index.

  5. GREEN PEA GALAXIES REVEAL SECRETS OF Lyα ESCAPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan; Wang, Junxian [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China (China); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E. [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration (United States); Gronke, Max; Dijkstra, Mark [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo (Norway); Jaskot, Anne [Smith College, Northampton, MA (United States); Zheng, Zhenya, E-mail: yanghuan@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: huan.y@asu.edu, E-mail: Sangeeta.Malhotra@asu.edu, E-mail: James.Rhoads@asu.edu [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-04-01

    We analyze archival Lyα spectra of 12 “Green Pea” galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, model their Lyα profiles with radiative transfer models, and explore the dependence of the Lyα escape fraction on various properties. Green Pea galaxies are nearby compact starburst galaxies with [O iii] λ5007 equivalent widths (EWs) of hundreds of Å. All 12 Green Pea galaxies in our sample show Lyα lines in emission, with an Lyα EW distribution similar to high-redshift Lyα emitters. Combining the optical and UV spectra of Green Pea galaxies, we estimate their Lyα escape fractions and find correlations between Lyα escape fraction and kinematic features of Lyα profiles. The escape fraction of Lyα in these galaxies ranges from 1.4% to 67%. We also find that the Lyα escape fraction depends strongly on metallicity and moderately on dust extinction. We compare their high-quality Lyα profiles with single H i shell radiative transfer models and find that the Lyα escape fraction anticorrelates with the derived H i column densities. Single-shell models fit most Lyα profiles well, but not the ones with the highest escape fractions of Lyα. Our results suggest that low H i column density and low metallicity are essential for Lyα escape and make a galaxy an Lyα emitter.

  6. Nutraceutical properties of flour and tortillas made with an ecological nixtamalization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Lilia Irene Rodríguez; Cárdenas, Juan de Dios Figueroa; Gómez, Minerva Ramos; Lagunas, Lilia Leticia Méndez

    2013-10-01

    The traditional nixtamalization (TN) process, used for obtaining maize-based products, negatively affects bioactive compounds because of its highly alkaline pH. Recently, an ecological nixtamalization (EN) process has been developed that retains the pericarp and maintains the nejayote (wastewater) within the acidic-neutral range. This study examines the effect of pH on the nutraceutical compounds (NC) of maize, such as polyphenolics and anthocyanins (ANT), as well as the effect on the antioxidant capacity (AC). The highest concentration of total phenolics (TP) in the maize kernel was found in the black and yellow genotypes, the highest concentration of ANT in the black genotypes, and the highest concentration of AC in the red and white genotypes. In the flour, TP levels were between 206 to 400 mg GA/100 g, ANT levels were 141 to 4107 mg cyanidin-3 glucoside/kg, and AC levels were 2544 to 3001 mg AA/kg. In tortillas, TP levels were 255 to 319 mg GA/100 g, ANT levels were 32 to 3420 mg cyanidin-3 glucoside/kg, and AC levels were from 1513 to 2695 mg AA/kg. The reduced loss of soluble solids, the pH, and the formation of compounds with proteins and carbohydrates from the EN process positively affected NC retention. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. The effect of salinity and moisture stress on pea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, A.Abd-El Ghany

    1985-01-01

    Four experiments were carried out in the green house in Inchas, Atomic Energy Establishment, to study the effect os salinity and moisture stress on pea plants. Salinity experiments were conducted in 1981/1982, 1982/1983 and 1983/1984 seasons to study the effect of NaCl and/or CaC l 2 as single or mixed salts and radiation combined with salinity. Water stress studies were conducted in 1983/1984 growing season to investigate the effect of soil moisture stress on growth, yield and water use efficiency

  8. Stamina pistilloida: a new mutation induced in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, L M; Devreux, M

    1969-01-01

    After diethylsulphate treatment of seeds of the pea variety 'Parvus', a new floral mutation was isolated in the second generation. This mutation, named stamina pistilloida, is characterized by a partial fusion of the androecium with the gynoecium; the two marginal stamens of the staminal column are transformed in rudimentary carpels more or less differentiated according to ecoclimatic conditions. The genetic analysis has shown the monogenic and recessive behaviour of the mutation (gene proposed stp) and its linkage with the gene oh in the chromosome II.

  9. Mutation studies in gamma-ray treated peas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narsinghani, V G; Kumar, S [Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (India). Dept. of Plant Breeding

    1976-01-01

    Pea Seeds (Pisum Sativum L. 2n=14) irradiated with four doses of gamma rays viz, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kR revealed a reduction in seedling height, survival percentage, pods and seed yield and pollen fertility during X/sub 1/ and X/sub 2/ generations. Chlorophyll and leaf mutations were noted. The mitotic cells indicated chromosomal aberrations which were dose dependent. In meiosis, translocated rings and chains of 4,6 and 8 chromosomes; paracentric and pericentric inversions, fragments, laggards and unequal distribution of chromosomes were observed. Besides, the frequency of aberrations were lower during X/sub 2/ as compared to X/sub 1/.

  10. Biomass production and nitrogen accumulation in pea, oat, and vetch green manure mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannink, J.L.; Liebman, M.; Merrick, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    Interest in the use of green manures has revived because of their role in improving soil quality and their beneficial N and non-N rotation effects. This study evaluated biomass production, N content, radiation interception (RI), and radiation use efficiency (RUE) of pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) mixtures. Treatments were a three-way factorial of pea genotype ('Century' vs 'Tipu'), pea planting density (90 vs 224 kg ha -1 ), and cropping mixture (solecropped pea vs pea planted with a mixture of oat and hairy vetch). A mixture of oat and vetch without pea was also planted. Treatments were planted in early June on a Caribou gravelly loam (coarse-loamy, mixed, frigid Typic Haplorthods) in Presque Isle, ME, in 1993 and 1994. Biomass production and radiation interception were measured by repeated sampling. Mixture biomass was affected by a year x pea density interaction: respective yields for mixtures containing low-density and high-density pea were 770 and 880 g m -2 in 1993 vs 820 and 730 g m -2 in 1994. Mixture N content paralleled biomass production and averaged 209 g m -2 across all treatments. While pea sole crops did not consistently produce biomass or N equal to three-species mixtures the two-species mixture of oat and vetch did, yielding 820 g m -2 of biomass and 21.7 g m -2 of N, averaged over the 2 yr. Multiple regression showed that 61% of the variability in mixture biomass production was accounted for by a combination of early-season pea RI and midseason total mixture RUE. Economic analyses showed that rotation including these green manures may be economically competitive with a conventional rotation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) undersown with clover (Trifolium spp.) in a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production system

  11. Nitrogen acquisition by pea and barley and the effect of their crop residues on available nitrogen for subsequent crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen acquisition by field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on a sandy loam soil and availability of N in three subsequent sequences of a cropping system were studied in an outdoor pot experiment. The effect of crop residues on the N availability was evaluated....... The dry matter production and total N uptake of a spring barley crop following pea or barley, with a period of unplanted soil in the autumn/winter, were significantly higher after pea than after barley. The barley crop following pea and barley recovered 11% of the pea and 8% of the barley residue N...

  12. Physical and structural changes induced by high pressure on corn starch, rice flour and waxy rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Carola; Lucisano, Mara; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Mariotti, Manuela

    2016-07-01

    The impact of high pressure (HP) processing on corn starch, rice flour and waxy rice flour was investigated as a function of pressure level (400MPa; 600MPa), pressure holding time (5min; 10min), and temperature (20°C; 40°C). Samples were pre-conditioned (final moisture level: 40g/100g) before HP treatments. Both the HP treated and the untreated raw materials were evaluated for pasting properties and solvent retention capacity, and investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry and environmental scanning electron microscopy. Different pasting behaviors and solvent retention capacities were evidenced according to the applied pressure. Corn starch presented a slower gelatinization trend when treated at 600MPa. Corn starch and rice flour treated at 600MPa showed a higher retention capacity of carbonate and lactic acid solvents, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry and environmental scanning electron microscopy investigations highlighted that HP affected the starch structure of rice flour and corn starch. Few variations were evidenced in waxy rice flour. These results can assist in advancing the HP processing knowledge, as the possibility to successfully process raw samples in a very high sample-to-water concentration level was evidenced. This work investigates the effect of high pressure as a potential technique to modify the processing characteristics of starchy materials without using high temperature. In this case the starches were processed in the powder form - and not as a slurry as in previously reported studies - showing the flexibility of the HP treatment. The relevance for industrial application is the possibility to change the structure of flour starches, and thus modifying the processability of the mentioned products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bambara-wheat composite flour: rheological behavior of dough and functionality in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erukainure, Ochuko L; Okafor, Jane N C; Ogunji, Akinyele; Ukazu, Happiness; Okafor, Ebele N; Eboagwu, Ijeoma L

    2016-11-01

    The rheological behavior and functional properties of doughs from bambara-wheat composite flour was investigated. Bambara-wheat composite flour was prepared by substituting wheat with 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of bambara flour. The rheological behavior of their dough was analyzed with Mixolab. Breads produced from the flour were analyzed for physical characteristics. Organoleptic analysis was carried out by 20 panelists. Mixolab analysis revealed, except for stability time, depreciating values for dough consistency (C1), protein weakening (C2), starch gelatinization (C3), amylase activity (C4), and retrogradation (C5) as the inclusion of bambara flour increased. Physical characteristics of the loaves revealed significant ( P  baking characteristics.

  14. Dimension yields from yellow-poplar lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. Gilmore; J. D. Danielson

    1984-01-01

    The available supply of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), its potential for new uses, and its continuing importance to the furniture industry have created a need to accumulate additional information about this species. As an aid to better utilization of this species, charts for determining cutting stock yields from yellow poplar lumber are presented for each...

  15. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm yellows phytoplasmas have been a subject of debate because of two recent outbreaks. Firstly, a lethal yellowing-type phytoplasma disease was recorded on a number of palm species of mainly the genus Phoenix in Florida in 2008. Shortly afterwards, Sabal palmetto which has never been threatened by a ...

  16. Yellow nail syndrome and bronchiectasis | Adegboye | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Yellow Nail Syndrome includes slow growing, opaque yellow nails with exaggerated lateral curvature, associated with lymphoedema and chronic respiratory disorders. The nail changes may precede the lymphoedema by a number of years. Bronchiectasis may be the only chronic respiratory disorder; others include ...

  17. Production and quality evaluation of extruded snack from blends of bambara groundnut flour, cassava starch, and corn bran flour

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunmuyiwa, O. H.; Adebowale, A. A.; Sobukola, O. P.; Onabanjo, O. O.; Obadina, A. O.; Adegunwa, M. O.; Kajihausa, O. E.; Sanni, L. O.; Tomlins, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Protein dense, fiber-rich extruded snacks were produced from blend of bambara groundnut flour, cassava starch, and corn bran flour using a single screw cooking extruder. The snacks were analyzed for their physical properties and proximate composition using standard laboratory procedures. The expansion ratio, specific volume, breaking force, and breaking strength index (BSI) of the snacks ranged from 0.85 to 1.22, 0.75 to 1.30 g/cm3, 3.95 to 36.45 N, and 0.99 to 9.11 N/mm, respectively. The br...

  18. Phenotypic characterization and inheritance of two foliar mutants in pea (Pisum Sativum L.): 'Reduced leaf size' and 'Orange leaf'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenova, N.; Vassilevska-Ivanova, R.; Tcekova, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Two foliar pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants characterized by reduced leaf size (2/978) and orange leaf (2/1409 M) were established. Both mutants were described morphologically and their productivity potential , pollen viability and inheritance of the mutant traits were evaluated. The mutant 2/978 was identified after irradiation of dry seeds from cv Borek with 15 Gy fast neutrons and was related to the leaf mutation 'rogue'. Reciprocal crosses between mutant 2/978 and cv Borel were executed, and F 1 and F 2 generations were analyzed. The altered leaf trait was presented in all F 1 plants suggesting a dominant character. F 2 segregation data indicated that the trait was controlled by a single dominant gene. The mutant 2/1409M originated from the mutant 2/978 after irradiation with 50 Gy γ-rays. The main mutant's phenotypic characteristic was the orange-yellow coloration of leaves and plants. After of series of crosses it was established that induced chlorophyll mutation is monogenic, recessive and both mutant traits are independently inherited. Two mutants could be used as appropriate plant material for genetic and biological investigations

  19. Strigolactones positively regulate chilling tolerance in pea and in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James W; Hu, Yan; Beyyoudh, Leila; Yildiz Dasgan, H; Kunert, Karl; Beveridge, Christine A; Foyer, Christine H

    2018-01-17

    Strigolactones (SL) fulfil important roles in plant development and stress tolerance. Here we characterised the role of SL in the dark chilling tolerance of pea and Arabidopsis by analysis of mutants that are defective in either SL synthesis or signalling. Pea mutants (rms3, rms4, rms5) had significantly greater shoot branching with higher leaf chlorophyll a/b ratios and carotenoid contents than the wild type. Exposure to dark chilling significantly decreased shoot fresh weights but increased leaf numbers in all lines. However, dark chilling treatments decreased biomass (dry weight) accumulation only in rms3 and rms5 shoots. Unlike the wild type plants, chilling-induced inhibition of photosynthetic carbon assimilation was observed in the rms lines and also in max3-9, max4-1, max2-1 mutants that are defective in SL synthesis or signalling. When grown on agar plates the max mutant rosettes accumulated less biomass than the wild type. The synthetic SL, GR24 decreased leaf area in the wild type, max3-9 and max4-1 mutants but not in max2-1 in the absence of stress. Moreover, a chilling-induced decrease in leaf area was observed in all the lines in the presence of GR24. We conclude that SL plays an important role in the control of dark chilling tolerance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Fluidity of pea root plasma membranes under altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymchuk, D. O.; Baranenko, V. V.; Vorobyova, T. V.; Dubovoy, V. D.

    This investigation aims to determine whether clinorotation 2 rev min of pea Pisum sativum L seedlings induces the alterations in the physical-chemical properties of cellular membranes including the plasma membrane fluidity The last is an important regulator of functional activity of membrane enzymes The plasma membranes were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning from roots of 6-day old pea seedlings The membrane fluidity was examined by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene probe The plasma membrane vesicles with known protein concentration were added to the incubation buffer to a final concentration of 50 mu g of protein per ml A small amount by 1 mu l of pyrene solution in 2-propanol was added to the incubation mixture to a final probe concentration 5 mu M at constant mixing Fluorescence spectra were measured using a Perkin-Elmer LS-50 spectrofluorometer Perkin-Elmer England Pyrene was excited at 337 nm and fluorescence intensity of monomers I M and excimers I E were measured at 393 and 470 nm respectively The I E I M ratios were 0 081 pm 0 003 and 0 072 pm 0 004 in preparations obtained from clinorotated and the control seedlings respectively This fact indicates that rotation on the clinostat increases the membrane fluidity Compared with controls clinorotated seedlings have also showed a reduced growth and a higher level of total unsaturated fatty acids determined by gas chromatography The factors that influence on the fluidity of membrane lipids in bilayer appear to be the

  1. Methionine metabolism and ethylene formation in etiolated pea stem sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, N.; Kende, H.

    1979-01-01

    Stem sections of etiolated pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) were incubated overnight on tracer amounts of L-[U- 14 C]methionine and, on the following morning, on 0.1 millimolar indoleacetic acid to induce ethylene formation. Following the overnight incubation, over 70% of the radioactivity in the soluble fraction was shown to be associated with S-methylmethionine (SMM). The specific radioactivity of the ethylene evolved closely paralleled that of carbon atoms 3 and 4 of methionine extracted from the tissue and was always higher than that determined for carbon atoms 3 and 4 of extracted SMM. Overnight incubation of pea stem sections on 1 millimolar methionine enhanced indoleacetic acid-induced ethylene formation by 5 to 10%. Under the same conditions, 1 millimolar homocysteine thiolactone increased ethylene synthesis by 20 to 25%, while SMM within a concentration range of 0.1 to 10 millimolar did not influence ethylene production. When unlabeled methionine or homocysteine thiolactone was applied to stem sections which had been incubated overnight in L-[U- 14 C]methionine, the specific radioactivity of the ethylene evolved was considerably lowered. Application of unlabeled SMM reduced the specific radioactivity of ethylene only slightly

  2. Ecdysone signaling underlies the pea aphid transgenerational wing polyphenism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellichirammal, Neetha Nanoth; Gupta, Purba; Hall, Tannice A; Brisson, Jennifer A

    2017-02-07

    The wing polyphenism of pea aphids is a compelling laboratory model with which to study the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity. In this polyphenism, environmental stressors such as high aphid density cause asexual, viviparous adult female aphids to alter the developmental fate of their embryos from wingless to winged morphs. This polyphenism is transgenerational, in that the pea aphid mother experiences the environmental signals, but it is her offspring that are affected. Previous research suggested that the steroid hormone ecdysone may play a role in this polyphenism. Here, we analyzed ecdysone-related gene expression patterns and found that they were consistent with a down-regulation of the ecdysone pathway being involved in the production of winged offspring. We therefore predicted that reduced ecdysone signaling would result in more winged offspring. Experimental injections of ecdysone or its analog resulted in a decreased production of winged offspring. Conversely, interfering with ecdysone signaling using an ecdysone receptor antagonist or knocking down the ecdysone receptor gene with RNAi resulted in an increased production of winged offspring. Our results are therefore consistent with the idea that ecdysone plays a causative role in the regulation of the proportion of winged offspring produced in response to crowding in this polyphenism. Our results also show that an environmentally regulated maternal hormone can mediate phenotype production in the next generation, as well as provide significant insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the functioning of transgenerational phenotypic plasticity.

  3. Atomic force microscopy of pea starch: origins of image contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridout, Michael J; Parker, Mary L; Hedley, Cliff L; Bogracheva, Tatiana Y; Morris, Victor J

    2004-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to image the internal structure of pea starch granules. Starch granules were encased in a nonpenetrating matrix of rapid-set Araldite. Images were obtained of the internal structure of starch exposed by cutting the face of the block and of starch in sections collected on water. These images have been obtained without staining, or either chemical or enzymatic treatment of the granule. It has been demonstrated that contrast in the AFM images is due to localized absorption of water within specific regions of the exposed fragments of the starch granules. These regions swell, becoming "softer" and higher than surrounding regions. The images obtained confirm the "blocklet model" of starch granule architecture. By using topographic, error signal and force modulation imaging modes on samples of the wild-type pea starch and the high amylose r near-isogenic mutant, it has been possible to demonstrate differing structures within granules of different origin. These architectural changes provide a basis for explaining the changed appearance and functionality of the r mutant. The growth-ring structure of the granule is suggested to arise from localized "defects" in blocklet distribution within the granule. It is proposed that these defects are partially crystalline regions devoid of amylose.

  4. Mechanisms of protection of pea plants by polysaccharides extracted from a strain of Rhizobium against Orobanche crenata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairi, Hanene; Temani, Randa

    2009-01-01

    The Broomrape causes notable damage on the leguminous crops and became major factor limiting production of pea in the Mediterranean region. The effect of the polysaccharides extracted from P.SOM Rhizobium strain on the development of Orobanche crenata on pea was studied. The results showed that the lipopolysaccharides significantly reduce the infestation of pea by O. crenata. This limitation of infestation results from the reduction of seeds germination rates of the parasite resulting in reduction of the tubercles number on pea roots. Moreover, necrosis of orobanche before or after attachment on pea roots treated by LPS can explain this reduction of parasitism. A correlation was observed between the reduction of pea infection by the broomrape and the activation phenolic compounds pathway. This activation resulted to increase of two enzymes (peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase) activities these enzymes are implicated in plant defense. The results of our study showed that the LPS seem implied in the induction of pea resistance against the broomrape.

  5. PEA3 activates CXCR4 transcription in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengmei Gu; Li Chen; Qi Hong; Tingting Yan; Zhigang Zhuang; Qiaoqiao wang; Wei Jin; Hua Zhu; Jiong Wu

    2011-01-01

    CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a cell surface receptor that has been shown to mediate the metastasis of many solid tumors including lung,breast,kidney,and prostate tumors.In this study,we found that overexpression of ets variant gene 4 (PEA3) could elevate CXCR4 mRNA level and CXCR4 promoter activity in human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells.PEA3 promoted CXCR4 expression and breast cancer metastasis.Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that PEA3 could bind to the CXCR4 promoter in the cells transfected with PEA3 expression vector.PEA3 siRNA attenuated CXCR4 promoter activity and the binding of PEA3 to the CXCR4 promoter in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells.These results indicated that PEA3 could activate CXCR4 promoter transcription and promote breast cancer metastasis.

  6. Improving properties of sweet potato composite flour: Influence of lactic fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, Neti; Nurdjanah, Siti; Setyani, Sri; Novianti, Dini

    2017-06-01

    The use of locally grown crops such as sweet potato as raw material for composite flour is considered advantageous as it reduces the importation of wheat flour. However the use of native sweetpotato flour has drawback properties when applied in the food. This study was aimed to modify sweet potato flour through six methods of lactic fermentation (spontaneous, pickle brine, Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides, a mixed of Lb plantarum and Lc mesentereoides, and mixed of Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides and yeast) to increase its properties in composite flour. Composite flours were obtained after fermentation of sweet potato slices for 48h in the proportion of 50% sweet potatoes flour and 50% wheat flour. pH, moisture content, swelling power, solubility, and pasting properties were determined for the fermented and unfermented composite flours. The results indicated that the composite fermented flours had better properties than those of non fermented flour. Fermentation increased swelling power, moisture content, meanwhile, solubility, and pH, deacresed. Amylose leaching, however, was not significantly affected by the fermentation process.

  7. Nanocomposites of rice and banana flours blend with montmorillonite: Partial characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Marín, María L.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A. [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico); Yee-Madeira, Hernani [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas-IPN, Edificio 9, U.P., ‘Adolfo López Mateos’ Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, México, D. F. (Mexico); Zhong, Qixin [Department of Food science and Technology, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); González-Soto, Rosalía A., E-mail: rsoto@ipn.mx [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. - Highlights: • Flour films presented adequate mechanical and barrier properties. • Addition of montmorillonite modified the mechanical and barrier properties of flour films. • The mechanical properties of the films were influenced by the different components of the flours. • The fiber of the banana flour improved the mechanical properties of the films.

  8. Nanocomposites of rice and banana flours blend with montmorillonite: Partial characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Marín, María L.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A.; Yee-Madeira, Hernani; Zhong, Qixin; González-Soto, Rosalía A.

    2013-01-01

    Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. - Highlights: • Flour films presented adequate mechanical and barrier properties. • Addition of montmorillonite modified the mechanical and barrier properties of flour films. • The mechanical properties of the films were influenced by the different components of the flours. • The fiber of the banana flour improved the mechanical properties of the films

  9. Effect of wood flour content on the optical color, surface chemistry, mechanical and morphological properties of wood flour/recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE) composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Chan Kok; Amin, Khairul Anuar Mat; Kee, Kwa Bee; Hassan, Mohd Faiz; Ali, E. Ghapur E.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, effect of wood flour content on the color, surface chemistry, mechanical properties and surface morphology of wood-plastic composite (WPC) on different mixture ratios of recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE) and wood flour were investigated in detail. The presence of wood flour in the composite indicates a significant total color change and a decrease of lightness. Functional groups of wood flour in WPC can be seen clearer from the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra as the wood flour content increases. The mechanical tensile testing shows that the tensile strength of Young's modulus is improved, whereas the strain and elongation at break were reduced by the addition of wood flour. The gap between the wood flour microvoid fibre and rHDPE matrix becomes closer when the wood flour content is increased as observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) image. This finding implies a significant improvement on the interaction of interfacial adhesion between the rHDPE matrix and wood flour filler in the present WPC.

  10. The effect of moisture content on physicochemical properties of extruded waxy and non-waxy rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsutjarittam, Ornpicha; Charoenrein, Sanguansri

    2014-12-19

    The properties of waxy rice flour (WRF) and non-waxy rice flour (RF) were modified using an extrusion process with different feeding material moisture contents. WRF was more affected by the thermomechanical stress from extrusion; consequently, it had a lower glass transition temperature but higher water solubility index (WSI) indicating higher molecular degradation than extruded RF. The lower moisture content of the feeding flour caused more severe flour damage (coarser surface of the extruded flour) and lowered relative crystallinity compared to higher moisture content processing. Moreover, low moisture content processing led to complete gelatinization, whereas, partial gelatinization occurred in the higher moisture content extrusion. Consequently, the extruded flours had a lower peak viscosity and gelatinization enthalpy but a higher water absorption index and WSI than native flour. In conclusion, the rice flour type and the moisture content of the extrusion feeding flour affected the physicochemical properties of the extruded flour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hypolipidemic effect of dietary pea proteins: Impact on genes regulating hepatic lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, Elena; Parolini, Cinzia; Marchesi, Marta; Diani, Erika; Brambilla, Stefano; Sirtori, Cesare R; Chiesa, Giulia

    2010-05-01

    Controversial data on the lipid-lowering effect of dietary pea proteins have been provided and the mechanisms behind this effect are not completely understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate a possible hypolipidemic activity of a pea protein isolate and to determine whether pea proteins could affect the hepatic lipid metabolism through regulation of genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid homeostasis. Rats were fed Nath's hypercholesterolemic diets for 28 days, the protein sources being casein or a pea protein isolate from Pisum sativum. After 14 and 28 days of dietary treatment, rats fed pea proteins had markedly lower plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels than rats fed casein (pPea protein-fed rats displayed higher hepatic mRNA levels of LDL receptor versus those fed casein (ppea protein-fed rats than in rats fed casein (ppea proteins in rats. Moreover, pea proteins appear to affect cellular lipid homeostasis by upregulating genes involved in hepatic cholesterol uptake and by downregulating fatty acid synthesis genes.

  12. Germinated Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan): a novel diet for lowering oxidative stress and hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchegbu, Nneka N; Ishiwu, Charles N

    2016-09-01

    This work studied the antioxidant activity of extract of germinated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Germination was carried out in a dark chamber under room temperature (28°C). The total phenolic, 1,1,diphenyl-2-picrylhy-drazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase were done in vitro and blood glucose levels of the animal were investigated. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were analyzed spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic and DPPH scavenging activity increased by 30% and 63%, respectively, after germinating pigeon pea. Also after germination there was an increase in the inhibitory potential of pigeon pea extract against α-glucosidase compared with the nongerminated pigeon pea extract. There was a significant increase (P pigeon pea extract gave rise to a reduced fasting blood glucose level in diabetic rats. On administration of germinated pigeon pea extract, LPO reduced drastically but there was an increase in the level of GSH. This study concluded that intake of germinated pigeon pea is a good dietary supplement for controlling hyperglycemia and LPO.

  13. De Novo Assembly of the Pea (Pisum sativum L. Nodule Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Zhukov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large size and complexity of the garden pea (Pisum sativum L. genome hamper its sequencing and the discovery of pea gene resources. Although transcriptome sequencing provides extensive information about expressed genes, some tissue-specific transcripts can only be identified from particular organs under appropriate conditions. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of polyadenylated transcripts from young pea nodules and root tips on an Illumina GAIIx system, followed by de novo transcriptome assembly using the Trinity program. We obtained more than 58,000 and 37,000 contigs from “Nodules” and “Root Tips” assemblies, respectively. The quality of the assemblies was assessed by comparison with pea expressed sequence tags and transcriptome sequencing project data available from NCBI website. The “Nodules” assembly was compared with the “Root Tips” assembly and with pea transcriptome sequencing data from projects indicating tissue specificity. As a result, approximately 13,000 nodule-specific contigs were found and annotated by alignment to known plant protein-coding sequences and by Gene Ontology searching. Of these, 581 sequences were found to possess full CDSs and could thus be considered as novel nodule-specific transcripts of pea. The information about pea nodule-specific gene sequences can be applied for gene-based markers creation, polymorphism studies, and real-time PCR.

  14. Evaluation of the suitability of cassava and sweetpotato flours for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that water binding capacity, solubility and swelling power affect the overall quality of pasta. Pasta made from sweetpotato composite flour was too brittle and crumbled easily when pressed between the fingers. Pasta made from 50% cassava (Abasafita)/50% hard wheat performed better and showed no ...

  15. 8474 APPLICATION OF THE FLOUR OF FOUR LEGUMINOUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... However, due to poor post-harvest technologies, more than 35% of annual crop yield is often lost ... seed flours is evaluated 50 days after application. ..... (Harris) and induced effects on the structure of midgut epithelial cells. J.

  16. CD 121 - cultivar with flour characteristics for cookie baking

    OpenAIRE

    Marchioro, Volmir Sergio; Franco, Francisco de Assis; Dalla Nora, Tatiane; Schuster, Ivan; Evangelista, Adriel; Lima, Fábio Junior Alcântara de; Polo, Mateus

    2013-01-01

    CD 121 is indicated for wheat regions with the classification Value for Cultivation and Use 1 and 2, in the states of PR, SC and RS. The cultivar is tolerant to leaf rust, has good agronomic traits, flour suited for cookie baking and an average grain yield of 3.622 kg ha-1.

  17. CD 121 - Cultivar with flour characteristics for cookie baking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Sergio Marchioro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CD 121 is indicated for wheat regions with the classification Value for Cultivation and Use 1 and 2, in the states of PR,SC and RS. The cultivar is tolerant to leaf rust, has good agronomic traits, flour suited for cookie baking and an average grain yieldof 3.622 kg ha-1.

  18. Utilization of sweetpotato starches and flours as composites with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hussein

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... Also, blends of wheat and sweet potato starch were developed in the ratios 80:20 ... Functional properties of wheat: sweet potato composite flour ..... 32: 115-119. Ulm SG (1988) The effect of Storage Condition on Selected.

  19. Committed effective dose determination in southern Brazilian cereal flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibel, V; Appoloni, C R

    2013-01-01

    The health impact of radionuclide ingestion from foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in eight commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, cornmeal, cassava, rye, oat, barley and rice flours). The radioactivity traces of (228)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, (7)Be and (137)Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing an HPGe detector of 66 % relative efficiency. The efficiency curve has taken into account the differences in densities and chemical composition between the matrix and the certified sample. The highest concentration levels of (228)Th and (40)K were 3.5±0.4 and 1469±17 Bq kg(-1) for soy flour, respectively, within the 95 % confidence level. The lower limit of detection for (137)Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq kg(-1). The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 μSv.y(-1) for (228)Ra in cassava flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the International Atomic Energy Agency dose limit of 1 mSv.y(-1), to the public exposure.

  20. Committed effective dose determination in southern Brazilian cereal flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibel, V.; Appoloni, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    The health impact of radionuclide ingestion from foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in eight commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, cornmeal, cassava, rye, oat, barley and rice flours). The radioactivity traces of 228 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 40 K, 7 Be and 137 Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing an HPGe detector of 66 % relative efficiency. The efficiency curve has taken into account the differences in densities and chemical composition between the matrix and the certified sample. The highest concentration levels of 228 Th and 40 K were 3.5±0.4 and 1469±17 Bq kg -1 for soy flour, respectively, within the 95 % confidence level. The lower limit of detection for 137 Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq kg -1 . The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 μSv.y -1 for 228 Ra in cassava flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the International Atomic Energy Agency dose limit of 1 mSv.y -1 , to the public exposure. (authors)

  1. Molecular genetic analysis of grain protein content and flour ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Grain protein content (GPC) and flour whiteness degree (FWD) are important qualitative traits in common wheat. Quantitativetrait locus (QTL) mapping for GPC and FWD was conducted using a set of 131 recombinant-inbred lines derived fromthe cross 'Chuan 35050. ×Shannong 483' in six environmental conditions. A total ...

  2. Quality Attributes of Tapioca Meal Fortified With Defatted Soy Flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be processed to a variety of products such as soy flour, soy milk, soy yoghurt, soy .... Values are means of triplicate determinations on fresh weight basis; means ... of the sensory analysis is shown in Table 2 and it is based on the perception of.

  3. Adoption and impact of high quality bambara flour (HQBF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption and impact of high quality bambara flour (HQBF) technology in the ... consumer acceptability/quality of products, credit, availability of raw materials, and ... as a result of 12.5 per cent increase in demand for bambara-based products.

  4. Effects of submerged and anaerobic fermentations on cassava flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava tubers for processing into cassava flour, Lafun a Nigerian locally fermented product was subjected to two different types of fermentations: submerged and anaerobic fermentation for 72 h. Physicochemical changes that occurred during fermentation and their influence on the functional, rheological and sensory ...

  5. Inclusion of sweet sorghum flour in bread formulations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Inclusion of sweet sorghum flour in bread formulations. Veronica Freitas Pires Araujo1, Wellingthon da Silva Guimaraes Junnyor1, Marco Antonio. Pereira da Silva1* ..... Revista Brasileira de Saúde e. Produção Animal.

  6. Instrumental methods for analysis of some elements in flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagrodzki, P.; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Malec, P.; Krosniak, M.; Knap, W.

    1993-10-01

    For ten various brands of flour contents of chosen (heavy) elements were determined by means of ICP, GF-AAS, PIXE and ASV/CSV methods. General performance of participating laboratories as well as pros and cons of different analytical methods were compared and discussed. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs, 7 tabs

  7. Quality of fermented cassava flour processed into placali | Koko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermented cassava flour was obtained from Yace variety. Cassava roots were washed, peeled and ground. After adding cassava inoculums at 8% (m/m), the pulp was allowed to ferment for 72 hours at ambient temperature. The fermented dough was removed, squeezed and oven-dried for 48 hours at 55 °C. The dried ...

  8. The occurrence of gibberellin-binding protein(s) in pea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z.H.

    1988-01-01

    In vitro gibberellin (GA) binding properties of a cytosol fraction from epicotyls of dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Progress No. 9) and tall pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) were investigated using ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} in a DEAE filter paper assay at 0-3 C. The binding obtained is saturable, reversible, and temperature labile in dwarf pea, and has a half-life of dissociation of 5-6 min. By varying the concentration of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} in the incubation medium the Kd was estimated to be 120-140 nM in dwarf pea and 70 nM in tall pea. The number of binding sites (n) was estimated to be 0.66 and 0.43 pmole mg{sup {minus}1} soluble protein in dwarf pea and in tall pea, respectively. In competition binding assays, biologically active GAs, such as GA{sub 3} and GA{sub 4} could reduce the level of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} binding much more than the biologically inactive GA{sub 4} methyl ester and epi-GA{sub 4}. Changes in gibberellin-binding protein(s) were studied during seed germination. While the Kd of the binding protein(s) for ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} remained the same, there was a marked increase in the number of binding sites from 24 h soaked seed to 8-day old seedlings. Also, the Kd and the number of binding sites in the GA-responsive apical part and in the nonresponsive basal part in the epicotyl were similar. The effect of light on gibberellin-binding protein in dwarf pea was also studied. The GA-binding protein in dwarf pea was partially purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography.

  9. Importance of new winter pea genotyp in production of the milk on family farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Županac

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Forage pea (Pisum sativum L. is becoming more represented gorage leguminoza on the fields Republic of Croatia. Three year field trials (2003-2005 were carried out to determine the effect of seed winter pea inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on productivity of new winter pea genotype G3 in production of milk on family farms. Just before sowing the inoculation of pea seed was performed by the variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 1001 which is part of the microbiological collection of the Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The results of the research showed that the highest total nodule number on pea root (39.7 nodule/plant as well as nodule dry matter weight (0.203 g/plant was determined on the inoculated variant. Average highest yield of winter pea dry matter was, once more, determined on the inoculated variant (4.33 t ha-1. Total dry matter yield of winter pea and wheat mixture were ranging from 8.92 t ha-1 (control up to 10.64 t ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Average highest yield of winter pea crude protein was, once more, determined on the inoculated variant (266 kg ha-1 in 2003, (672 kg ha-1 in 2004 and (853 kg ha-1 in 2005. The conclusion of this research is that the highest dry matter yield (4.33 t ha-1 and crude protein yield was obtained with the inoculation of new genotype winter pea G3.

  10. Fungal contamination of produced wheat flour in West Azerbaijan, northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Asadzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate fungal contamination of produced wheat flours in West Azarbaijan Province, located in the North West of Iran as wheat flour is one of the most important food and nutrient in the Iranians diet. Methods: This descriptive study was performed during March 2011 to April 2013 in flour mills of West Azerbaijan province. A total of 17 samples of produced wheat flour in Azerbaijan Province of Iran were tested for mold contamination based on Iran National Standard Method No. 2393. Results: Presence of molds in all collected 151 samples from flour factories of Azerbaijan Province were at the limit based on Iranian national standard. Conclusions: The obtained results showed that the process of flour production was hygienic quietly. Bread is staple ingredient of Iranian diet, and strict control on its processing of wheat flour, maintenance and distribution results nonpolluting or reduction of fungal contamination. Objective: To investigate fungal contamination of produced wheat flours in West Azarbaijan Province, located in the North West of Iran as wheat flour is one of the most important food and nutrient in the Iranians diet. Methods: This descriptive study was performed during March 2011 to April 2013 in flour mills of West Azerbaijan province. A total of 17 samples of produced wheat flour in Azerbaijan Province of Iran were tested for mold contamination based on Iran National Standard Method No. 2393. Results: Presence of molds in all collected 151 samples from flour factories of Azerbaijan Province were at the limit based on Iranian national standard. Conclusions: The obtained results showed that the process of flour production was hygienic quietly. Bread is staple ingredient of Iranian diet, and strict control on its processing of wheat flour, maintenance and distribution results nonpolluting or reduction of fungal contamination.

  11. Influence of the inclusion of cooked cereals and pea starch in diets based on soy or pea protein concentrate on nutrient digestibility and performance of young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parera, N; Lázaro, R P; Serrano, M P; Valencia, D G; Mateos, G G

    2010-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare different dietary vegetable sources of starch and protein on the coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of energy and nutrients and performance of piglets from 29 to 60 d of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 6 treatments arranged factorially with 3 sources of starch (cooked-flaked corn, cooked-flaked rice, and pea starch) and 2 sources of protein [soy protein concentrate (SPC) and pea protein concentrate (PPC)]. The pea starch and the PPC used were obtained by dehulling and grinding pea seeds to a mean particle size of 30 microm. Each treatment was replicated 6 times (6 pigs per pen). For the entire experiment, piglets fed cooked rice had greater ADG than piglets fed pea starch with piglets fed cooked corn being intermediate (471, 403, and 430 g/d, respectively; P Protein source did not have any effect on piglet performance. The CATTD of DM, OM, and GE were greater (P pea starch being intermediate. Crude protein digestibility was not affected by source of starch but was greater for the diets based on SPC than for diets based on PPC (0.836 vs. 0.821; P Protein source did not affect the digestibility of any of the other dietary components. It is concluded that cooked rice is an energy source of choice in diets for young pigs. The inclusion of PPC in the diet reduced protein digestibility but had no effects on energy digestibility or piglet performance. Therefore, the finely ground starch and protein fractions of peas can be used in substitution of cooked corn or SPC, respectively, in diets for young pigs.

  12. Effect of processing techniques on nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seed flour

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Hemlata; Awasthi, Pratima

    2013-01-01

    Fenugreek (Pusa Early Bunching) seeds were processed by using different processing methods viz. soaking, germination and roasting. Raw and processed fenugreek seed flours were analyzed for nutritional composition, anti- nutritional, and antioxidant activity. Raw fenugreek seed flour contained higher amount of dietary fiber (45.4 %) followed by 41.7 % in soaked seed flour, 40.9 % in roasted fenugreek seed flour and 31.3 % in germinated fenugreek seed flour. Processing of fenugreek seeds improv...

  13. PEA-15 Induces Autophagy in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells and is Associated with Prolonged Overall Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Rosen, Daniel; Wei, Caimiao; Kazansky, Anna; Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Takahashi, Takeshi; Itamochi, Hiroaki; Kondo, Seiji; Liu, Jinsong; Ueno, Naoto T.

    2008-01-01

    Phospho-enriched protein in astrocytes (PEA-15) is a 15-kDa phosphoprotein that slows cell proliferation by binding to and sequestering extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the cytoplasm, thereby inhibiting ERK-dependent transcription and proliferation. In previous studies of E1A human gene therapy for ovarian cancer, we discovered that PEA-15 induced the antitumor effect of E1A by sequestering activated ERK in the cytoplasm of cancer cells. Here, we investigated the role of PEA-15 ...

  14. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    .05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P pea to be a high-digestible protein source relative to sunfl ower......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T...

  15. Pea-barley intercropping and short-term subsequent crop effects across European organic cropping conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gooding, M.; Ambus, Per

    2009-01-01

    . In the replacement design the total relative plant density is kept constant, while the additive design uses the optimal sole crop density for pea supplementing with ‘extra’ barley plants. The pea and barley crops were followed by winter wheat with and without N application. Additional experiments in Denmark......) to grain N yield with 25–30% using the Land Equivalent ratio. In terms of absolute quantities, sole cropped pea accumulated more N in the grains as compared to the additive design followed by the replacement design and then sole cropped barley. The post harvest soil mineral N content was unaffected...

  16. Resistance to rusts (uromyces pisi and u. viciae-fabae) in pea

    OpenAIRE

    Barilli, Eleonora; Sillero, Josefina C.; Prats, Elena; Rubiales, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Pea is the second most important food legume crop in the world. Rust is a pea disease widely distributed, particularly in regions with warm, humid weather. Pea rust can be incited by Uromyces viciae-fabae and by U. pisi. U. viciae-fabae prevails in tropical and subtropical regions such as India and China, while U. pisi prevails in temperate regions. Chemical control of rust is possible, but the use of host plant resistance is the most desired means of rust control. In this paper we revise and...

  17. Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared from wheat flour supplemented with cassava and water chestnut flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Bala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared by supplementing different proportions of cassava flour (CF and water chestnut flour (WCF blends (0–100% to wheat flour (WF were studied. Seven formulations of cookies were prepared from (a Control (100% WF, (b 30% WF, 35% WCF and 35% CF, (c 27% WF, 37.5% WCF and 37.5% CF, (d 20% WF, 40% WCF and 40% CF, (e 15% WF, 42.5% WCF and 42.5% CF, (f 10% WF, 45% WCF and 45% CF, and (g 0% WF, 50% WCF and 50% CF. Cookies were subjected to physical analysis (cookie diameter, cookie thickness, spread ratio, bulk volume, bulk density, breaking strength, and color analysis and evaluated for consumer acceptance by descriptive sensory analysis. Cookies prepared from water chestnut and cassava flour had low moisture content (5.63%, low fat (24.87%, higher spread ratio (8.148, decreased L, a and b values (dark color, and low breaking strength than control ones. Sensory evaluation established that cookies prepared from 50% WCF and 50% CF were more acceptable than cookies prepared from other formulations.

  18. Quality improvement of a rice-substituted fried noodle by utilizing the protein-polyphenol interaction between a pea protein isolate and green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youngwoon; Yoo, Sang-Ho

    2017-11-15

    The quality of rice-substituted fried noodles was improved by applying interaction between pea protein isolate (PPI) and green tea extract (GTE). Radical-scavenging activities of GTE were stably maintained when exposed to acidic pH, UV light, and fluorescent light, but decreased by approximately 65% when exposed to 80°C for 168h. The RVA profiles of noodle dough showed that peak viscosity and breakdown increased significantly but that setback and final viscosity remained unchanged with 20% rice flour replacement. PPI significantly decreased the viscosity parameters of rice-supplemented dough, and the addition of GTE recovered these values significantly. The cooking loss and viscoelasticity (R max ) of cooked rice-supplemented noodles were fully restored by combined treatment of PPI and GTE. GTE decreased the peroxide value of fried noodles by 14% after storage at 63°C for 16days. Therefore, PPI+GTE treatment has great potential for use in fried noodles owing to the reinforced network and antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hippocrates, cardiology, Confucius and the Yellow Emperor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T O

    2001-12-01

    Although Hippocrates (460-c.375 BC) has been traditionally recognized as the Father of Medicine, the fact that he was seminal in the development of cardiology is much less well known. Evidence is presented to support the notion that Hippocrates could also be considered the Father of Cardiology. Hippocrates also had many of the teachings and practices in common with Confucius (c.551-c.479 BC) and the Yellow Emperor of China (2695-2589 BC). Whereas Confucius was not a physician, the Yellow Emperor was an ancient Chinese physician whose Huang Di Neijing, the Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Medicine, is the oldest known treatise of medicine in existence.

  20. Development of functional cookies with wheat flour, banana flour (Musa paradisiaca, sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum and storage stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Loza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional cookies were developed using banana flour (BF and sesame seeds (SS. Protein, moisture and ash w ere determined , and farinographic analyzes of flours were performed. The attributes odor, color, flavor, crunch and the IC 50 value of the cookies were determined. The results were evaluated with the C omplete R andomized D esign and the Tukey and Kruskall Wallis test. The flour mixture presented higher protein (10.2%, humidity (14.40 % than BF, but lower than wheat flour. C ookies with 10 % , 15 % and 20% BF and 8% sesame seeds were selected. Flours with 10 % , 15 % and 20% BF had similar values of water absorption (≤ 60% and different values statistically (p ≤ 0.05 for development time, mass stability and degree of softening. Cook ies with 20% BF and 8% SS (SC had IC 50 = 17.52 ± 0.25 mg / mL, with moisture, protein, fat, crude fiber, ash and carbohydrates of 1.88 % , 10.65 % , 22.01 % , 1.01 % , 1.54 % and 62.91%, respectively. SC did not present sensorial statistical differences (p ≤ 0.05 the first two months, the third month decreased the acceptability of the crunch and flavor. In ninety days of storage the IC50 value (29.07 ± 0.92 mg / mL, reducing sugars (1.20 ± 0.02 and pH (5.24 ± 0.01 decreased and humidity (3.83 ± 0.03 increased.

  1. Elaboration of gluten free cupcakes from xanthosoma flours, taro, rice, cassava and their mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiros Alpizar, Silvia Maria

    2013-01-01

    The effect of taro flour, xanthosoma, cassava and rice, their possible mixtures and two different percentages of egg protein in cupcakes with total substitution of wheat flour are studied. Flours of xanthosoma and taro were elaborated and have utilized flours of cassava and rice existing in market. The moisture was evaluated and found that taro flour presents a lower water content compared to rice flour, xanthosoma and cassava in all flours. 22 formulations of cupcakes were elaborated using the flours (100% substitutions), flour mixture (substitution 50:50 of each flour) and wheat as control, also the egg content (standard content to egg and lower content to egg), to analyze their sensory characteristics and consumer preferences. The study data was carried out with two independents groups of people, a trained panel that has conducted the descriptive analysis and a consumer group that has made the study of acceptance. An analysis of variance was applied to data, test Fisher LSD and external preference mapping, an analysis of ''cluster '' for proof of acceptance, with witch were identified the three consumer groups, composed by 19, 51, 35 people. All three groups have preferred the control samples with wheat in groups 2 and 3 cupcakes with rice-cassava with content standard and less content of egg, and cassava with less egg, have showed without significant differences in preference (p [es

  2. Heat-treated hull flour does not affect iron bioavailability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Carvalho, Ariela Werneck de; Silva, Cassiano Oliveira da; Dantas, Maria Inês de Souza; Natal, Dorina Isabel Gomes; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Costa, Neuza Maria Brunoro

    2011-06-01

    In this study the chemical composition and iron bioavailability of hull and hull-less soybean flour from the new cultivar UFVTN 105AP was evaluated. The hemoglobin depletion-repletion method was used in Wistar rats. Soybean hull flour presented 37% more total dietary fiber and higher content of iron than hull-less soybean flour. The phytate:iron molar ratio, however, was 2-fold lower in the soybean hull flour in compared to the hull-less soybean flour. Animals fed soybean hull flour presented hemoglobin gains similar to those of the control diet group (p > 0.05). The Relative Biological Values of hull and hull-less soybean flour were 68.5% and 67.1%, respectively, compared to the control group. Heat-treated soybean hull flour (150 degrees C/30 minutes) showed high content of iron and low phytate, which favors the iron bioavailability. Thus, the soybean hull flour is a better source of dietary fiber and iron than hull-less soybean flour at comparable bioavailabilities.

  3. Rheological, thermo-mechanical, and baking properties of wheat-millet flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprodu, Iuliana; Banu, Iuliana

    2015-07-01

    Millet has long been known as a good source of fiber and antioxidants, but only lately started to be exploited by food scientists and food industry as a consequence of increased consumer awareness. In this study, doughs and breads were produced using millet flour in different ratios (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) to white, dark, and whole wheat flour. The flour blends were evaluated in terms of rheological and thermo-mechanical properties. Fundamental rheological measurements revealed that the viscosity of the flour formulations increases with wheat flour-extraction rate and decreases with the addition of millet flour. Doughs behavior during mixing, overmixing, pasting, and gelling was established using the Mixolab device. The results of this bread-making process simulation indicate that dough properties become critical for the flour blends with millet levels higher than 30%. The breads were evaluated for volume, texture, and crumb-grain characteristics. The baking test and sensory evaluation results indicated that substitution levels of up to 30% millet flour could be used in composite bread flour. High levels of millet flour (40 and 50%) negatively influenced the loaf volume, crumb texture, and taste. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Wheat-water chestnut flour blends: effect of baking on antioxidant properties of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Musarat; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Bazaz, Rafiya

    2016-12-01

    Proximate composition, mineral content, functional, pasting and antioxidant properties of water chestnut flour (WCF) were compared with refined wheat flour. WCF showed higher phenolic (4.25 gGAE/1000 g), flavonoid (1.92 g QE/1000 g) and mineral content (K, Mg, Zn, Cu) than wheat flour. WCF showed greater retrogradation tendency but lower peak viscosity than wheat flour. Wheat flour - WCF blends and cookies were evaluated for water activity, physical & textural properties. Water activity of cookies decreased significantly (0.415-0.311) with increase in level of WCF in wheat flour. Total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity (DPPH• scavenging capacity, FRAP) of WCF - wheat flour blends as well as their cookies was also determined. Baking led to a greater increase in DPPH• scavenging capacity of WCF cookies (33.8%) than WF cookies (25%). Baking had a similar effect on FRAP value. Wheat flour cookies showed a decrease of 51%, and 62% while WCF cookies showed a decrease of 36%, and 34% in TPC and TFC values respectively. WCF cookies thus showed better retention of antioxidant activities suggesting greater stability of WC phenolics than wheat phenolics. Sensory analysis showed cookies made from water chestnut (100%) had fair acceptability due to their characteristic flavor. Thus, water chestnut flour serves both as a gluten free as well as antioxidant rich flour for production of cookies.

  5. Evaluation of dry heat treatment of soft wheat flour for the production of high ratio cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, S; Bakalis, S; Leadley, C E; Sahi, S S; Fryer, P J

    2018-05-01

    An accurate method to heat treat flour samples has been used to quantify the effects of heat treatment on flour functionality. A variety of analytical methods has been used such as oscillatory rheology, rheomixer, solvent retention capacity tests, and Rapid Visco Analysis (RVA) in water and in aqueous solutions of sucrose, lactic acid, and sodium carbonate. This work supports the hypothesis that heat treatment facilitates the swelling of starch granules at elevated temperature. Results furthermore indicated improved swelling ability and increased interactions of flour polymers (in particular arabinoxylans) of heat treated flour at ambient conditions. The significant denaturation of the proteins was indicated by a lack of gluten network formation after severe heat treatments as shown by rheomixer traces. Results of these analyses were used to develop a possible cake flour specification. A method was developed using response surfaces of heat treated flour samples in the RVA using i) water and ii) 50% sucrose solution. This can uniquely characterise the heat treatment a flour sample has received and to establish a cake flour specification. This approach might be useful for the characterisation of processed samples, rather than by baking cakes. Hence, it may no longer be needed to bake a cake after flour heat treatment to assess the suitability of the flour for high ratio cake production, but 2 types of RVA tests suffice. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbiological Control of Flour-Manufacture: Dissemination of Mycotoxins Producing Fungi in Cereal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Doolotkeldieva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain and its products are widely consumed as fodder and basic daily food stuffs in Kyrgyzstan. Mycobiota is known to produce hazardous effects to a consumer since it produces mycotoxins. Henceforth, mycobiota starting from the field stage to flour, grain and flour samples were selected for mycological analysis from eight sites of flour manufacture: grain stored in storehouses before milling, mechanically cleaned grain, washed grain, grain dried and prepared for mill, roughly-milled flour, first grade flour and high grade flour. The samples were analyzed using classical mycological and immunoassay methods in order to detect mycotoxins producing fungi species. We isolated overall 27 species belonging to 7 genera. Mycotoxins producing species like Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium cyclopium were detected in the stored grains and in mechanically-cleaned grains. The species of Penicillium, Alternaria and Fusarium genera dominated in roughly-milled flour samples, so this site of flour manufacture still has a risk and danger of contamination with mycotoxins producing fungus. Only the final product i.e. the high grade flour lacked any fungal contamination. We recommend to scrutinize flour samples at the last stages of processing, particularly in the mills like B1, C1 and C4.

  7. Changes in protein and starch digestibility in sorghum flour during heat-moisture treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thanh-Hien; Bean, Scott; Hsieh, Chao-Feng; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) has been used to modify properties of sorghum starches. However, information is limited on the effects of HMT on the digestibility of starch and the concurrent changes in protein in sorghum flour. The objectives of this research were to identify heat-moisture conditions to increase the resistant starch (RS) content of sorghum flour and investigate changes in sorghum proteins and starch structure. Sorghum flours with different moisture contents (0, 125, 200, and 300 g kg -1 w.b.) were heated at three temperatures (100, 120 and 140 °C) and times (1, 2 and 4 h). HMT of sorghum flour increased its RS level. The flour treated at 200 g kg -1 moisture and 100 °C for 4 h had a high RS content (221 g kg -1 vs. 56 g kg -1 for the untreated flour). Starch was not gelatinized when sorghum flours heated at moisture content of 200 g kg -1 or below. Sorghum protein digestibility and solubility decreased during HMT. The increase in RS of sorghum flour upon HMT was attributed to enhanced amylose-lipid complexes and heat induced structural changes in its protein fraction. HMT can be used to increase RS content in sorghum flour without gelatinizing its starch, thereby providing sorghum flour with unique food applications. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Development and characterization of ice cream enriched with different formulations flour jabuticaba bark (Myrciaria cauliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Leopoldina Lamounier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to perform the physicochemical characterization of the flour from the bark of jabuticaba, as well as developing three ice cream formulations (enriched with 0, 5 and 10% of this flour and evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fruits were pulped, the peels were dehydrated, dried, crushed and sieved to obtain the flour that was analyzed for physicochemical levels. Then, three ice cream formulations were developed (with 0%, 5% and 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, considering the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The results showed that the flour from the bark of jabuticaba showed high ash and fiber. The ice creams showed differences (p < 0.05 for pH, titratable acidity, moisture and ash due to the incorporation of flour from the bark of jabuticaba. The only attribute that did not differ (p > 0.05 was soluble solid. The overrun was ecreasing with increasing addition of flour. In the sensory evaluation, only attributes that differ (p < 0.05 were flavor, texture and overall appearance of the formulation with 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, which represents that incorporation of 5% flour from the bark of jabuticaba did not affect the cceptability of ice creams. It can be concluded that the enrichment of blemish bark flour provides edible ice increase in nutritional value without affecting the sensory characteristics at the level of 5% added.

  9. Effects of incorporating germinated brown rice on the antioxidant properties of wheat flour chapatti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujral, H Singh; Sharma, P; Bajaj, R; Solah, V

    2012-02-01

    Brown rice after germinating for 24 and 48 h was milled into flour and incorporated in whole wheat flour at a level of 10% to prepare chapattis. The objective was to use chapatti as a delivery vehicle for germinated brown rice. The flour blends and chapattis made from the flour blends were evaluated for their antioxidant properties. Incorporating germinated brown rice flour increased the total phenolic content of the flour blend from 1897 to 2144 µg FAE/g. The total flavonoids content increased significantly from 632.3 to1770.9 µg CAE/g and metal chelating activity significantly increased by 71.62%. Antioxidant activity increased significantly by the addition of brown rice flour and addition of 24- and 48-h germinated brown rice flour further increased the antioxidant activity significantly. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids content decrease significantly in all the blends after baking the flour into chapatti. A decrease of 3% to 29% was observed in the total phenolic content and a decrease of 25% to 42% was observed in the total flavonoids content. However, baking of the flour blends into chapatti increased the reducing power, metal chelating activity by three folds and antioxidant activity from 64% to 104%.

  10. Development of pea protein-based bioplastics with antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Puyana, Víctor; Felix, Manuel; Romero, Alberto; Guerrero, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, bioplastics from renewable polymers were studied in order to reduce the huge generation of plastic wastes, causing an environmental problem that continues owing to the increasing demand for plastic products. Bioplastics with much better antimicrobial properties, in particular against Gram-positive bacteria, were obtained with the addition of nisin to the initial protein/plasticizer mixture. However, the addition of nisin produces more rigid but less deformable bioplastics (higher Young's modulus but lower strain at break). The results obtained are useful to demonstrate the antimicrobial properties of pea protein-based bioplastics by adding nisin and make them suitable as potential candidates to replace conventional plastics in food packaging. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Coupling of solute transport and cell expansion in pea stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalstig, J. G.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    As cells expand and are displaced through the elongation zone of the epicotyl of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. var Alaska) seedlings, there is little net dilution of the cell sap, implying a coordination between cell expansion and solute uptake from the phloem. Using [14C] sucrose as a phloem tracer (applied to the hypogeous cotyledons), the pattern of label accumulation along the stem closely matched the growth rate pattern: high accumulation in the growing zone, little accumulation in nongrowing regions. Several results suggest that a major portion of phloem contents enters elongating cells through the symplast. We propose that the coordination between phloem transport and cell expansion is accomplished via regulatory pathways affecting both plasmodesmata conductivity and cell expansion.

  12. Phloem unloading and cell expansion in pea stems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalstig, J.G.; Cosgrove, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Phloem unloading into elongating stems of dark-grown pea seedlings was greater in regions with higher relative growth rates. Phloem transport was monitored over 1 h by measuring accumulation of radiolabel from 14 C-sucrose added between the cotyledons. The apical hook and plumule and 8 mm of the growing region of an intact plant were sealed in a pressure chamber and the pressure was raised to stop elongation. Phloem unloading was inhibited in the pressurized zone of elongation and accelerated in the apical hook and plumule, with the result that the magnitude of phloem transport into the stem was unchanged. The results demonstrate a coupling between cell expansion and phloem unloading

  13. Induction of mutation in peas (Pisum sativum) in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Pando, L.; Torres Aranda, M.; Romero Loli, M.

    1984-01-01

    The production of peas, a staple food in Peru, can be increased by crop rotation with cereals in high lands (3000 m and above). Cultivation in high lands not only gives cultivar of higher proteic content but also improves the fertility of the soils. However, the low temperature (in the freezing region) in the high lands and the associated plant diseases are the major problems for this kind of cultivation. The present report describes the development of freezing and disease resistant mutants through mutagenesis with gamma radiation. Two varieties, Alderman and Amarilla, which had been adopted to high lands are selected for the present study. Two doses were used, 14 and 18 Krad, employing 4600 seeds/dose for the Alderman variety and 3600 seeds/dose for Amarilla. Preliminary results are presented

  14. Macromolecular organization of xyloglucan and cellulose in pea epicotyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Maclachlan, G.

    1984-01-01

    Xyloglucan is known to occur widely in the primary cell walls of higher plants. This polysaccharide in most dicots possesses a cellulose-like main chain with three of every four consecutive residues substituted with xylose and minor addition of other sugars. Xyloglucan and cellulose metabolism is regulated by different processes; since different enzyme systems are probably required for the synthesis of their 1,4-β-linkages. A macromolecular complex composed of xyloglucan and cellulose only was obtained from elongating regions of etiolated pea stems. It was examined by light microscopy using iodine staining, by radioautography after labeling with [ 3 H]fructose, by fluorescence microscopy using a fluorescein-lectin (fructose-binding) as probe, and by electron microscopy after shadowing. The techniques all demonstrated that the macromolecule was present in files of cell shapes, referred to here as cell-wall ghosts, in which xyloglucan was localized both on and between the cellulose microfibrils

  15. Technological and nutritional aspect of different hemp types addition: Comparison of flour and wholemeal effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hrušková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of non-traditional raw-materials and flours into wheat flour follows contemporary trend of manufacturing nutritionally healthier fermented bakery products. Aim of the study follows this tendency, evaluating nutritional improvement of composite flour and baking potential of prepared wheat-hemp flour composites. Hemp products addition significantly increased both protein and dietary fibre contents. Between five types of hemp flour, differences were observed according to incorporated amount (wheat flour substitution from 5% to 20%. In composites containing 20% of hemp flour and dehulled hemp wholemeal, protein content increased to 14.9% and to 15.7%, respectively (compared to 12.5% proteins in control wheat flour. Dietary fibre content change was governed unequivocally by addition level for both hemp flour and hemp wholemeal. Hemp wholemeal affected the solvent retention capacity (SRC profile of the wheat flour used in a broader extent than hemp flour done, interacting moreover with addition level applied. Significant diminishing was measured for the sucrose and the lactic acid SRC, which describe physicochemical stage of starch and proteins in prepared composites. Addition of 5% and 20% of dehulled hemp wholemeal decreased the formed SRC from 112.0% to 102.3% and to 64.1%, and the latter SRC from 182.6% to 108.0 and to 78.3%, respectively. Smaller bread volume and worse shape were evaluated as the amount of hemp flour gradually increased; wholemeal form had more or less a positive effect. Correspondingly to that, crumb firmness measured by penetration test was found approximately half for hemp flour composite bread than for the hemp wholemeal ones.

  16. Xyloglucan galactosyl- and fucosyltransferase activity from pea epicotyl microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faik, A.; Chileshe, C.; Sterling, J.; Maclachlan, G.

    1997-01-01

    Microsomal membranes from growing tissue of pea (Pisum sativum L.) epicotyls were incubated with the substrate UDP-[14C]galactose (Gal) with or without tamarind seed xyloglucan (XG) as a potential galactosyl acceptor. Added tamarind seed XG enhanced incorporation of [14C]Gal into high-molecular-weight products (eluted from columns of Sepharose CL-6B in the void volume) that were trichloroacetic acid-soluble but insoluble in 67% ethanol. These products were hydrolyzed by cellulase to fragments comparable in size to XG subunit oligosaccharides. XG-dependent galactosyltransferase activity could be solubilized, along with XG fucosyltransferase, by the detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1 propanesulfonate. When this enzyme was incubated with tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed XG or nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) seed XG that had been partially degalactosylated with an XG-specific beta-galactosidase, the rates of Gal transfer increased and fucose transfer decreased compared with controls with native XG. The reaction products were hydrolyzed by cellulase to 14C fragments that were analyzed by gel-filtration and high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation with pulsed amperometric detection. The major components were XG subunits, namely one of the two possible monogalactosyl octasaccharides (-XXLG-) and digalactosyl nonasaccharide (-XLLG-), whether the predominant octasaccharide in the acceptor was XXLG (as in tamarind seed XG) or XLXG (as in nasturtium seed XG). It is concluded that the first xylosylglucose from the reducing end of the subunits was the Gal acceptor locus preferred by the solubilized pea transferase. These observations are incorporated into a model for the biosynthesis of cell wall XGs

  17. Quality characteristics of northern-style Chinese steamed bread prepared from soft red winter wheat flours with waxy wheat flour substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality characteristics of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from two soft red winter (SRW) wheat flours blended with 0-30% waxy wheat flour (WWF) were determined to estimate the influence of starch amylose content. The increased proportion of WWF in blends raised mixograph absorption with insign...

  18. Hard Winter Wheat and Flour Properties in Relation to Breadmaking Quality of Straight-dough Bread: Flour Particle Size and Bread Crumb Grain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S H Park; O K Chung; P A Seib

    2006-01-01

    Samples of 12 hard winter wheats and their flours that produced breads varying in crumb grain scores were studied for 38 quality parameters including: wheat physical and chemical characteristics; flour ash and protein contents, starch damage,swelling power, pasting characteristics, and flour particle size distribution; dough properties determined by a mixograph; and breadmaking properties for pup loaves (100g flour). Only two parameters, the protein content of wheat and the granulation of flour, showed significant correlations with bread crumb grain scores. Protein content of wheat ranging 12.9%~ 14.5% determined by an NIR method showed a weak inverse relationship (r =-0.61, p < 0.05) with bread crumb grain score. Flour particle size distribution measured by both Alpine Air Jet Sieve and NIR methods revealed that the weight wt % of particles less than 38μ m in size and representing 9.6%~ 19.3% of the flour weights was correlated positively (r =0.78, p < 0.01) with crumb grain score, whereas wt % of flour particles larger than 125μm had an inverse relationship (r =-0.60, p<0.05) with crumb grain score.

  19. White Whole-Wheat Flour Can Be Partially Substituted for Refined-Wheat Flour in Pizza Crust in School Meals without Affecting Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hing Wan; Burgess Champoux, Teri; Reicks, Marla; Vickers, Zata; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Recent dietary guidance recommends that children consume at least three servings of whole-grains daily. This study examined whether white whole-wheat (WWW) flour can be partially substituted for refined-wheat (RW) flour in pizza crust without affecting consumption by children in a school cafeteria. Methods: Subjects included first to…

  20. Physiological responses of PEA (Pisum sativum cv. meteor) to irrigation salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.; Pervez, M.A.; Balal, R.M.; Azhar, N.; Shahzad, J.; Ubaidullah

    2008-01-01

    The effects of irrigation water or soil salinity on physiological aspects of pea (Pisum sativum cv.Meteor) were contrived. Ten weeks old pea plants were treated with NaCl at 0, 40, 90 and 140 mM in nutrient solution Plants were grown in controlled environment and harvested at each 3 days interval for decisiveness 0 physiological parameters. Photosynthetic rate, relative water content, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll contents reduced by increasing the NaCI concentration while CO/sub 2/ concentration and free proline content intensified. By experiment it was adumbrated that high salinity level along with prolonged accentuate duration is more drastic to pea plants physiology. Results also exhibited that pea plants could indulge 40 and 90 mM NaCl but are sensitive to 140 mM. (author)

  1. Effect of Root-Zone Moisture Variations on Growth of Lettuce and Pea Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Iliana; Ivanova, Tania

    2008-06-01

    Variations in substrate moisture lead to changes in water and oxygen availability to plant roots. Ground experiments were carried out in the laboratory prototype of SVET-2 Space Greenhouse to study the effect of variation of root-zone moisture conditions on growth of lettuce and pea plants. The effect of transient increase (for 1 day) and drastic increase (waterlogging for 10 days) of substrate moisture was studied with 16-day old pea and 21-day old lettuce plants respectively. Pea height and fresh biomass accumulation were not affected by transient substrate moisture increase. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of pea plants showed fast response to substrate moisture variation, while chlorophyll content did not change. Drastic change of substrate moisture suppressed lettuce Pn, chlorophyll biosynthesis and plant growth. These parameters slowly recovered after termination of waterlogging treatment but lettuce yield was greatly affected. The results showed that the most sensitive physiological parameter to substrate moisture variations is photosynthesis.

  2. Effect of cadmium on growth, protein content and peroxidase activity in pea plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bavi, K.; Kholdebarin, B.

    2011-01-01

    n this study the effects of different cadmium chloride concentrations (5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mu M) on some physiological and biochemical processes including seed germination, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, protein content and peroxidase activity in peas (Cicer arietinum cv. pars) were investigated. Cadmium did not have any significant effect on the rate of pea seed germination. However, it affected the subsequent growth rate in these plants. Higher cadmium concentrations specially at 50 and 100 mu M reduced plant growth significantly. Leaf chlorosis, wilting and leaf abscission were observed in plants treated with cadmium. Protein content in pea roots reduced significantly in the presence of high cadmium concentrations. Low concentrations of CdCl/sub 2/ resulted in higher peroxidase activity both in roots and shoots of pea plants. (author)

  3. Competition for and utilisation of sulfur in sole and intercrops of pea and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Klindt; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2007-01-01

    gave barley a growth and nutrient use advantage compared to pea (REIc values importance of initial size differences decreased relative to the effect of species identity in determining the competitive strength of the two species and by the end...

  4. Nitrogen immobilization and mineralization during initial decomposition of 15N-labelled pea and barley residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The immobilization and mineralization of N following plant residue incorporation were studied in a sandy loam soil using N-15-labelled field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) straw. Both crop residues caused a net immobilization of soil-derived inorganic N during...... the complete incubation period of 84 days. The maximum rate of N immobilization was found to 12 and 18 mg soil-derived N g(-1) added C after incorporation of pea and barley residues, respectively. After 7 days of incubation, 21% of the pea and 17% of the barley residue N were assimilated by the soil microbial...... the decomposition of the barley residue. The net mineralization of residue-derived N was 2% in the barley and 22% in the pea residue treatment after 84 days of incubation. The results demonstrated that even if crop residues have a relative low C/N ratio (15), transient immobilization of soil N in the microbial...

  5. Breeding high yielding varieties of pigeon pea, mungbean and black gram using induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.E.; Wanjari, K.B.

    1994-01-01

    The present communication emphasis the developing of high yielding varieties of pigeon pea, mungbean and black gram using induced mutation with disease resistance in these crops. This would help in stabilisation of the higher yield potential

  6. Protein interactions during flour mixing using wheat flour with altered starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Appels, Rudi; Zhang, Xiaoke; Diepeveen, Dean; Torok, Kitti; Tomoskozi, Sandor; Bekes, Ferenc; Ma, Wujun; Sharp, Peter; Islam, Shahidul

    2017-09-15

    Wheat grain proteins responses to mixing and thermal treatment were investigated using Mixolab-dough analysis systems with flour from two cultivars, Ventura-26 (normal amylose content) and Ventura-19 (reduced amylose content). Size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) analysis revealed that, stress associated and metabolic proteins largely interacted with dough matrix of Ventura-26 after 26min (56°C); gliadins, avenin-like b proteins, LMW-GSs, and partial globulins showed stronger interactions within the dough matrix of Ventura-26 at 32min/C3 (80°C), thereafter, however, stronger protein interactions were observed within the dough matrix of Ventura-19 at 38min/C4 (85°C) and 43min (80°C). Thirty-seven proteins associated with changes in dough matrix due to reduced amylose content were identified by mass spectrometry and mainly annotated to the chromosome group 1, 4, and 6. The findings provide new entry points for modifying final product attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds.

  8. A “Yellow Submarine” in Dermoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Satolli

    2018-01-01

    CONCLUSION: HS is usually diagnosed at an already advanced clinical stage and it has a high mortality rate even today. Dermoscopy, showing a yellow and distributed homogeneously colour, can facilitate its hard diagnosis.

  9. Yellow phosphorus-induced Brugada phenocopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharanipradab, Mayakrishnan; Viswanathan, Stalin; Kumar, Gokula Raman; Krishnamurthy, Vijayalatchumy; Stanley, Daphene Divya

    Metallic phosphides (of aluminum and phosphide) and yellow phosphorus are commonly used rodenticide compounds in developing countries. Toxicity of yellow phosphorus mostly pertains to the liver, kidney, heart, pancreas and the brain. Cardiotoxicity with associated Brugada ECG pattern has been reported only in poisoning with metallic phosphides. Brugada phenocopy and hepatic dysfunction were observed in a 29-year-old male following yellow phosphorus consumption. He had both type 1 (day1) and type 2 (day2) Brugada patterns in the electrocardiogram, which resolved spontaneously by the third day without hemodynamic compromise. Toxins such as aluminum and zinc phosphide have been reported to induce Brugada ECG patterns due to the generation of phosphine. We report the first case of yellow phosphorus-related Brugada phenocopy, without hemodynamic compromise or malignant arrhythmia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mineralogical characterization of uranium yellow cake concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausen, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    Uranium yellow cake concentrates have been analyzed and characterized mineralogically by means of differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectra and wet chemical methods. On the basis of mineralogical methods of characterization, the following four major structural types of yellow cake may be classified: Uranyl Hydroxide Hydrate, UO 2 (OH) 2 nH 2 O; Basic Uranyl Sulfate Hydrate, (UO 2 ) x (SO 4 ) y (OH) s(x-y ).nH 2 O; Sodium Para-Uranate, Na 5 U 7 O 24 and Uranyl Peroxide Hydrate, UO 4 .nH 2 O. In this paper conditions of yellow cake preparation and characterization are described, along with discussion of significance of structural types to the physical and chemical properties of yellow cake production

  11. Efficient in vitro import of a cytosolic heat shock protein into pea chloroplasts

    OpenAIRE

    Lubben, Thomas H.; Keegstra, Kenneth

    1986-01-01

    In order to further our understanding of the targeting of nuclear-encoded proteins into intracellular organelles, we have investigated the import of chimeric precursor proteins into pea chloroplasts. Two different chimeric precursor proteins were produced by in vitro expression of chimeric genes. One chimeric precursor contained the transit peptide of the small subunit of soybean ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and the mature peptide of the same protein from pea. The second contained th...

  12. Symbiotic Activity of Pea (Pisum sativum) after Application of Nod Factors under Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy; Wielbo, Jerzy; Kidaj, Dominika; Szarlip, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides). To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10−11 M) or water (control) before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurement...

  13. STUDIES ON SOUTH AMERICAN YELLOW FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nelson C.; Shannon, Raymond C.

    1929-01-01

    Yellow fever virus from M. rhesus has been inoculated into a South American monkey (Cebus macrocephalus) by blood injection and by bites of infected mosquitoes. The Cebus does not develop the clinical or pathological signs of yellow fever. Nevertheless, the virus persists in the Cebus for a time as shown by the typical symptoms and lesions which develop when the susceptible M. rhesus is inoculated from a Cebus by direct transfer of blood or by mosquito (A. aegypti) transmission. PMID:19869607

  14. Silvical characteristics of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian M. Gilbert

    1960-01-01

    Of the birches in the Northeast, the yellow birch is the elite species, by far the most valuable as a timber tree. More than that, it is one of the largest deciduous trees of northeastern America. It may reach 100 feet in height and more than 3 feet in diameter, and may live to 300 years of age. Pioneers told tales of the gigantic yellow birches they saw.

  15. Extraction and purification of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation has reviewed current studies on production and purification of yellow cake from uranium ores by both acid and alkaline leaching processes. It comprises three chapters, the first one deal with uranium minerals, uranium deposits, geology of uranium and uranium isotopes. The second chapter covers mining and milling methods, uranium leaching chemistry, precipitation, and purification of uranium concentrate by solvent extraction and possible impurities that commonly interfered with yellow cake. The last chapter presented ongoing literature review.(Author)

  16. The effects of fermentation and enzymatic treatment of pea on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Senz, M; Kozłowski, K; Boros, D; Wisniewska, M; Rose, D; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2017-10-01

    The present study examined the impacts of native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas (Pisum sativum L.) inclusion in broiler diets, on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. For the fermentation process, Madonna pea was mixed with water (1/1) containing 2.57×108 Bacillus subtilis (GalliPro®) spores/kg pea and then, incubated for 48 h at 30 °C. For the enzymatic treatment process, the used water for dough production contained three enzymes, AlphaGalTM (α-galactosidase), RONOZYME® ProAct and VP (protease and pectinases respectively - DSM, Switzerland) and the pea dough incubated for 24 h at 30°C. Nine corn-wheat-soybean diets were formulated by supplying 10%, 20% and 30% of the required CP with either native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas. Performance was recorded weekly and at the end of the experiment (day 35), apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP, amino acids (AA), crude fat, starch, Ca, P and K were determined. Data were subjected to ANOVA using GLM procedure with a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Both processes reduced α-galactosides, phytate, trypsin inhibitor activity and resistant starch in peas. Increasing levels of pea products up to 300 g/kg diet, reduced BW gain and feed intake (P⩽0.05). Broilers fed diets containing enzymatically treated pea had the best feed conversion ratio at day 35. Different types of pea product and their inclusion levels had no effect on AID of all nutrients. The interaction between type of the pea products and inclusion levels was significant for AID of starch. For native pea diets, 10% group showed similar AID of starch to 20% native pea but it had higher AID than 30% native pea. For fermented and enzymatically treated groups, all three levels displayed similar AID of starch. In conclusion, enzymatic treatment and fermentation could improve the nutritional quality of pea. Inclusion of enzymatically treated pea in broiler diets could improve broiler performance compared with other pea

  17. Hypocholesterolaemic effects of lupin protein and pea protein/fibre combinations in moderately hypercholesterolaemic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Triolo, Michela; Bosisio, Raffaella; Bondioli, Alighiero; Calabresi, Laura; De Vergori, Viviana; Gomaraschi, Monica; Mombelli, Giuliana; Pazzucconi, Franco; Zacherl, Christian; Arnoldi, Anna

    2012-04-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of plant proteins (lupin protein or pea protein) and their combinations with soluble fibres (oat fibre or apple pectin) on plasma total and LDL-cholesterol levels. A randomised, double-blind, parallel group design was followed: after a 4-week run-in period, participants were randomised into seven treatment groups, each consisting of twenty-five participants. Each group consumed two bars containing specific protein/fibre combinations: the reference group consumed casein+cellulose; the second and third groups consumed bars containing lupin or pea proteins+cellulose; the fourth and fifth groups consumed bars containing casein and oat fibre or apple pectin; the sixth group and seventh group received bars containing combinations of pea protein and oat fibre or apple pectin, respectively. Bars containing lupin protein+cellulose ( - 116 mg/l, - 4·2%), casein+apple pectin ( - 152 mg/l, - 5·3%), pea protein+oat fibre ( - 135 mg/l, - 4·7%) or pea protein+apple pectin ( - 168 mg/l, - 6·4%) resulted in significant reductions of total cholesterol levels (Ppea protein+cellulose. The present study shows the hypocholesterolaemic activity and potential clinical benefits of consuming lupin protein or combinations of pea protein and a soluble fibre, such as oat fibre or apple pectin.

  18. A BIODEGRADABLE FILM FROM JACKFRUIT (ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS AND DURIAN (DURIO ZIBETHINUS SEED FLOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah S. Retnowati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus and durian (Durio zibethinus seeds contain high portion of amylose, which makes them potential materials for biodegradable films. The objective of this study is to develop biodegradable films composed of jackfruit and durian seed flours and glycerol as plasticizer. The films were prepared by dispersing flours in water, adding glycerol, heating the mixture, casting the solution on an acrylic plate, and drying the films at 50 ºC for 20 hours. Glycerol contributes to the flexibility of the film, while reduces the strength of the film. The Young’s modulus, tensile strength, and elongation at break increase as the ratio of jackfruit to durian seed flour increases. The films made from jackfruit and durian seed flours in this work are stronger than the film made from rice flour obtained by other researcher. Therefore, jackfruit and durian seed flours are potential raw material for biodegradable films.

  19. Relationship of the moisture content of Finnish wheat flour and relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yen Linko

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the moisture content of Finnish commercial wheat flour stored at variable relative humidities, representing the conditions typical of flour storage in Finland, were investigated. It could be shown that flour of 15 % moisture at the time of packing tends to dry considerably during normal storage conditions. Owing to the hysteresis effect, the moisture content of once dried flour is not likely to reach detrimental levels during normal storage, even if the relative humidity would exceed the critical level of 75—80 % for short periods. Minimum warehouse relative humidity was observed during Januay, at which time flour moisture had decreased to 6.7 %. The equilibrium humidity for flour of 15 % original moisture content was found to be about 70 %.

  20. Quality characteristics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered Moringa oleifera seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsina, B S; Radha, C; Indrani, D

    2011-03-01

    The effects of replacing wheat flour with 0-15% debittered moringa seed (DBMS) flour on the dough rheology of wheat flour and physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread were studied. Incorporation of an increasing amount of DBMS from 0 to 15% decreased farinograph water absorption, dough stability, amylograph peak viscosity and overall quality of bread. The bread with 10% DBMS had a typical moringa seed taste and was acceptable. Addition of combination of additives improved the dough strength and quality of bread with 10% DBMS flour. Replacement of wheat flour with 10%, 20% and 30% DBMS grits was found to affect cookies quality. Cookies with 20% DBMS grits had the nutty taste of moringa seeds and were acceptable. Bread with 10% DBMS flour and cookies with 20% DBMS grits had more protein, iron and calcium. Incorporating moringa seeds in baked foods may be exploited as a means of boosting nutrition in Africa and Asia where malnutrition is prevalent.

  1. Protein and starch digestibilities and mineral availability of products developed from potato, soy and corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlawat, P; Sehgal, S

    1998-01-01

    A technique for development of potato flour was standardized. Five products viz. cake, biscuit, weaning food, panjiri and ladoo were prepared incorporating potato flour, defatted soy flour and corn flour. Baking and roasting were the major processing techniques employed for the development of these products. Protein, ash and fat contents of potato flour were almost similar to those of raw potatoes. Significant differences in protein, ash and fat contents of all the products were observed. Protein and starch digestibility of potato flour was significantly higher than that of raw potatoes. Protein digestibility increased by 12 to 17 percent on baking or roasting of products. Processed products had significantly higher starch digestibility and mineral availability compared to raw products. Thus, it can be concluded that roasting and baking are effective means of improving starch and protein digestibility and mineral availability of products.

  2. Effect of amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) on the technological and sensory quality of bread wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Cristina S; Ribotta, Pablo D; Añón, María Cristina; León, Alberto E

    2014-03-01

    The technological and sensory quality of pasta made from bread wheat flour substituted with wholemeal amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) at four levels, 15, 30, 40 and 50% w/w was investigated. The quality of the resulted pasta was compared to that of control pasta made from bread wheat flour. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition and pasting properties. Cooking behavior, color, raw and cooked pasta texture, scanning electron microscopy and sensory evaluation were determined on samples. The pasta obtained from amaranth flour showed some detriment of the technological and sensory quality. So, a maximum substitution level of 30% w/w was defined. This is an equilibrium point between an acceptable pasta quality and the improved nutritional and functional properties from the incorporation of amaranth flour.

  3. Effect of the Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Flour Addition on Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea flour is a good source of proteins, fibers, minerals and other bioactive compounds and it could be an ideal ingredient for improve the nutritional value of bread and bakery products. The aim of this study was to supplement wheat flour (WF with various levels of chickpea flour (CF in order to obtain bread with good nutritional and quality characteristics. Four experimental variants obtained by substituting wheat flour with different proportions (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of chickpea flour were used. The results showed a valuable increment in bread protein and fiber content. The volume of the breads decreased as the level of chickpea flour (CF increased due the dilution of gluten content in the blend and due to the interactions among fiber components, water and gluten. Nevertheless, substitution at 10%, 20% and 30%, gives parameter values at least as good as the control sample (WFB and produces acceptable bread, in terms of weight, volume and sensorial properties.

  4. Baking properties and biochemical composition of wheat flour with bran and shorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaprelyants, Leonid; Fedosov, Sergey; Zhygunov, Dmytro

    2013-11-01

    Bran, being a by-product of grain grinding, is characterised by a high biological value and is thus widely used in food production. In this study, different streams of bran and shorts from the wheat graded milling process were incorporated into wheat flour at levels of 5, 11, 17 and 23% (w/w) to investigate their influence on the nutritional and baking properties of flour. Bran and shorts streams improved the baking properties of flour blends. The best result in the case of graded flour blends with different bran products was obtained at the 95:5 ratio. The products containing peripheral parts of grain had higher proteolytic enzyme and superoxide dismutase activities and lower trypsin inhibitor content and β-amylase activity compared with graded flour. Streams of wheat milled fractions including peripheral parts of grain increase the content of bioactive substances and dietary fibre in blends with wheat graded flour. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Orange peel flour effect on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Hernandez Garcia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour and samples with this functional ingredient. A no trained panel determinate that there was no difference between control and orange peel flour added sausages at a 5% (w/w level. In this view, orange peel flour can be employed to improve yield and texture of cooked meat products.

  6. Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Effect of Composite Rice Flour in Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhigang; Gao, Hongmei; Du, Chuanlai; Zheng, Yimei; Guo, Yuanxin; Pan, Dongmei

    2016-03-01

    To study the hypoglycemic effect of composite rice flour, the diabetic mouse model was established through the intraperitoneal injection of alloxan saline (twice, 200 mg/kg bw). The mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: negative control, positive control, metformin medication group, and composite rice flour feed group. After 21 days, the fasting blood glucose levels were determined by glucose oxidase method and followed with a glucose tolerance test. The results show that the body weight growth rate of mice in the rice flour group was significantly higher than that of the medication group (P rice flour group were significantly lower, and the glucose tolerance was significantly increased in rice flour group (P rice flour has obvious hypoglycemic and protective effect for diabetic mouse model.

  7. Characterization of Gamma-Irradiated Egyptian Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, H.H.; Attia, A. A.; Elsayed, A.A.; Ali, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Physical, rheological and baking properties of bread Shamy, prepared from gamma-irradiated Egyptian wheat flour up to 25 KGy as one of common types of bread in Egypt, were studied and the acceptability of bread was evaluated by sensory tests. All amylo-, farino-, and extensograph characteristics and also sample ph showed significant decrease as irradiation dose increased. Such results could be explained in terms of loss of unique elastic and cohesive properties of wheat gluten and starch damage upon increment of radiation dose. The improvement in properties of bread, baked from flour irradiated up to 7.5 KGy, could be explained on the basis of a simulation in gas production during dough fermentation due to increase in starch degradation products. However, bread, prepared from wheat samples irradiated above 7.5 KGy, exhibited significantly lower values of acceptance because of physico-chemical changes in both starch and gluten

  8. Comparative studies of different varieties of wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, H.; Alizai, M.N.K.

    2007-01-01

    Studies were carried out to evaluate the nutritional quality of different samples of wheat flour, collected form various flour mills. These were analyzed physically for colour, flavour, taste, texture, microbiologically for total bacterial count, coliform bacteria, yeast, mould and chemically for moisture content, total protein, gluten, acidity, crude fiber and ash content. Effect of storage time on the gluten content was also studied. Out of 24 samples 13 samples were contaminated with mould. Deterioration of food constituents like protein and gluten was recorded in all the samples which were infected with mould. Moisture content of 12 samples out these 13 infected samples were also higher than the required standard. While the rate of 11 samples have moisture content within the specified range (less than 12%). In these samples there were no losses of protein, gluten and were also free from yeast and mould. (author)

  9. Examination of the safety of gamma-irradiated soya flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.; Katsareva, Ts.

    1988-01-01

    Fat-free soya flour was used as model food for demonstrating the safety of food additives decontaminated with ionizing radiation. The food was irradiated with 10 kGy and included in the daily food of line C 57 BL mice in amount of 35%. Important medical-biological tests were performed for evaluating the potential toxicity of irradiated food products. Results are reported on a study of three generations of mice, which had persistently consumed 35% irradiated soya flour. The parameters studied were: body mass, mass of internal organs, number of newborn animals and their body mass after weaning, reproductive capacity in F 1a and hematological parameters. The results were summarized in five tables

  10. Qualitative analysis of hexane flour extract of spelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Đura N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used for performing a qualitative analysis of the hexane flour extract of three samples of spelt. All the three samples were first treated with hexane and the obtained extracts were used for the analysis of the fatty acid lipid components. The transesterification reaction was performed using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide, 0.2M in methanol, and the fatty acids were esterified from acylglycerol to methyl-esters. In all analyzed extracts, the predominant component was methyl linoleate, followed by methyl oleate and methyl palmitate. The subsequent tests, performed by cluster analysis, were used to compare the hexane flour extracts of different types of spelt. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46005 i br. TR 31066

  11. Rheological properties of the wheat flour supplemented with different additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGETA STOENESCU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available One characteristic of the Romanian wheat flour in the recent years consists of high values of the falling number. The aim of the present study was to explore the Mixolab device to characterize the thermo-mechanical behaviour of flour supplemented with different additives that contain α-amylase. Mixolab parameters C4 and C5 were found to be lower in samples with high doses of additives containing α-amylases. The increase of the α-amylase dose reduces the dough stability. The samples that contain higher doses of additives presented low values of the β slope, which gives indications about starch gelatinization. The samples with reduced α-amylases activity showed high values of the γ slope.

  12. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olise, Felix S.; Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P.; Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO3) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO3 levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about -16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  13. Mycological and mycotoxicological quality of wheat and flour fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Tatjana V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed infection is a result of complex factors influence: weather conditions, health conditions of used seed, quantity of infective potentila in soil, etc. By visual evaluation, initial wheat sample has been divided in four fractions: healthy, dark germed, slightly and very fusarious. Three varietes from two localities 1 and 2 have been included in analyses. Beside the wheat, the mycotoxicological contamination of flour produced by grounding of given samples was monitored, too. The representatives of genera Fusarium were dominating, and the most frequent was F. oxysporum. The wheat and flour samples have also been analysed on presence of aflatoxin B1 "AB1" and G1 "AG1", ochratoxin A "OA" and zearalenone "F-2" toxin. AG1 had the lowest representation (2,3 g/kg and the highest representation was of F-2 toxin (even 500 g/kg.

  14. Nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of flour made from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blanching had a significant effect on the nutrients as protein in control (4.61%) differed significantly (p<0.05) from treated fingers. Cold-water treatment (73.29%) and fingers blanched at 100oC for 10 min (73.15%) had a significant (p<0.05) effect on the starch content of new Musa flour. Cold-water treatment also had ...

  15. Occupational allergic multiorgan disease induced by wheat flour

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Torrijos, Elisa; Rodríguez Sanchez, Joaquín; Diaz Perales, Araceli; García, R.; Feo-Brito, F.; García, C.; Pineda, Fernando; Quirce, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Bakers are repeatedly exposed to wheat flour (WF) and may develop sensitization and occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma to WF allergens.1 Several wheat proteins have been identified as causative allergens of occupational respiratory allergy in bakery workers.1 Testing of IgE reactivity in patients with different clinical profiles of wheat allergy (food allergy, wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, and baker's asthma) to salt-soluble and salt-insoluble protein fractions fro...

  16. Improvement of Nutritional Value of Instant Noodles by Fortifying with Catfish (Pangasius Hypophthalmus) Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Gusriadi, Depri; Sukmiwati, Mery; ', Dahlia

    2014-01-01

    This study was intended to evaluate the nutritional value of instant noodlesfortified with catfish flour. Instant noodles were prepared from a mixture of wheatflour (50%), sweat potato flour (10%), egg (15%), salt (0,7%), water (23%),cooking oil (0,3%) and Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (1%). The noodles wereprepared by fortifying the mixture with catfish flour at a level of 0%, 5%, 10%,and 15 % respectively. Instant noodles was evaluated for sensory quality andproximate composition (moisture, prot...

  17. Studies on the effect of brown rice and maize flour on the quality of bread

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M.Z; Shams, M.

    2011-01-01

    Breads were prepared with various combinations of maize, brown rice and wheat flours in the basic formulation of bread. The baking properties and chemical composition of bread were evaluated and analysed, respectively. The bread volume decreased, where as bread weight and moisture content increased with the increasing level of maize and brown rice flour. The crumb and crust colour of breads were improved with addition of 8% maize and 8% brown rice flour in bread formulation. The protein conte...

  18. A novel laboratory scale method for studying heat treatment of cake flour

    OpenAIRE

    Chesterton, AKS; Wilson, David Ian; Sadd, PI; Moggridge, Geoffrey Dillwyn

    2014-01-01

    A lab-scale method for replicating the time–temperature history experienced by cake flours undergoing heat treatment was developed based on a packed bed configuration. The performance of heat-treated flours was compared with untreated and commercially heat-treated flour by test baking a high ratio cake formulation. Both cake volume and AACC shape measures were optimal after 15 min treatment at 130 °C, though their values varied between harvests. Separate oscillatory rheometry tests of cake ba...

  19. Effect of inulin on dough and biscuit quality produced from different flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Blanco Canalis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods of improving the nutritional profile of baked-goods is the incorporation of dietary fibre (DF to the formulation. However, DF retains more water than wheat flour, which affects dough rheological properties and thus the final product quality. Flour is the main ingredient in biscuits and contributes to the baked texture and shape of biscuits. There are large differences in quality among the flours from wheat cultivars and among non-wheat flours used for biscuit production. In previous works, different dietary fibres were tested and inulin was found to have a positive quality  effect on biscuits made from an all-purpose wheat flour without the need of introducing significant changes in dough properties. To know whether these results are extended to different types of flours that can be used for biscuit production, this paper aimed to analyse the effects of different levels of inulin incorporation on dough and biscuits quality made from three different wheat flours and one triticale flour. Chemical and physic-chemical characterization of the flour samples was performed and compared (moisture, ashes, gluten, solvent retention capacity (SRC and protein content. Inulin was incorporated to biscuits formulation in two levels: 6 and 12% (wheat replacement. Dough and biscuits quality was measured by spread rate during baking and biscuit factor, texture and surface colour. Inulin incorporation increased dough spreading and biscuit factor and decreased biscuit hardness. The enhancing effect of inulin was observed in all flour. The results confirmed the effect of inulin on biscuits obtained with all flour assayed, despite the differences in flour quality that was tested.

  20. Exposure-response relations of alpha-amylase sensitisation in British bakeries and flour mills

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J.; Heederik, D.; Doekes, G.; Venables, K. M.; Newman, T

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the levels of exposure to fungal alpha-amylase in British bakeries and flour mills, and to describe the relation between exposure to alpha-amylase and sensitisation to fungal alpha- amylase. METHODS: 495 personal flour dust samples were taken in seven British bakeries and flour mills and analysed for alpha-amylase with an immunoassay. Workers at the sites were asked to fill out questionnaires on work related symptoms, smoking history, and work history, and they w...