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Sample records for years physikalisch-technische qualitaetssicherung

  1. Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Annual report 2015; Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Jahresbericht 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-03-15

    ''PTB's central mission and the demands it places on itself are to make available an innovative metrological infrastructure at the highest international level in Germany to promote Germany's export-oriented high-tech economy, to meet the demands of a complex society and to support science that is operating at the cutting edge worldwide.'' This is what is stated in the ''Agreement on Objectives'' for the years from 2015 to 2019 between the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Energie - BMWi) and PTB, which was signed on 12 January 2016 by State Secretary Machnig and me. Both this agreement and the newly developed ''Work and research program 2015 to 2017'' thus clearly define PTB's medium-term guidelines focusing on ''Innovation and industry'', ''Energy and the environment'', ''Humans and health'', ''Legal and international metrology'' as well as ''The new System of Units''.

  2. Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Annual report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    ''PTB's central mission and the demands it places on itself are to make available an innovative metrological infrastructure at the highest international level in Germany to promote Germany's export-oriented high-tech economy, to meet the demands of a complex society and to support science that is operating at the cutting edge worldwide.'' This is what is stated in the ''Agreement on Objectives'' for the years from 2015 to 2019 between the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Energie - BMWi) and PTB, which was signed on 12 January 2016 by State Secretary Machnig and me. Both this agreement and the newly developed ''Work and research program 2015 to 2017'' thus clearly define PTB's medium-term guidelines focusing on ''Innovation and industry'', ''Energy and the environment'', ''Humans and health'', ''Legal and international metrology'' as well as ''The new System of Units''.

  3. Duties of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in connection with radioactive waste safeguarding and ultimate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1977-01-01

    An outline of the history and duties of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is to illustrate that the new duties of the PTB in connection with radioactive substance safeguarding and ultimate storage fit in very well with the range of duties of the PTB. The organisatory and technical accomplishment of these duties in cooperation with a building and operating company and with industry is explained. The department of the PTB for the 'safeguarding and ultimate storage of radioactive wastes' has an examining, appraising and licensing function in connection with construction, operation and shutdown of safety facilities. Methods for the safeguarding and ultimate storage of all the radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany are described. (HS) [de

  4. Measuring instruments of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt for realization of the units of the dosimetric quantities standard ion dose, photon-equivalent dose and air-kerma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelke, B.A.; Oetzmann, W.; Struppek, G.

    1988-08-01

    The realization of the units of the dosimetric quantities exposure, air-kerma and photon-equivalent dose is an important task of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. The report describes the measuring instruments and other technical equipment as well as the determination of the numerous corrections needed. All data and correction factors required for the realization of the units mentioned above are given in many diagrams and tables. (orig.) [de

  5. Requirements of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) for therapy dosemeters with ionization chambers submitted for calibration and approval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Therapy dosemeters are subject to calibration as from January 1, 1983 according to section 3 of the second ordinance concerning the obligation to calibrate measuring instruments (in the version of the ordinance concerning the amendment of the second and third ordinance about the obligation to calibrate measuring instruments of December 21, 1979, Federal Gazette I p 2347). Section 4 subsection 2 of this ordinance determines a transitional period until December 31, 1985. In this transitional period those therapy dosemeters may be used without calibration which were already in use on January 1, 1983. The requirements of the PTB correspond to the established rules of technology. They specify and complete the provisions of the standardization regulations and establish terms and conditions of the test. They passed the general assembly of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt concerning calibration and measurement of 1982. The requirements of the PTB stipulate the admissible limits for effects of numerous influencing factors and other properties of the equipment and tolerances of calibration and handling. (orig.) [de

  6. Measurement of extrapolation curves for the secondary pattern of beta radiation Nr. 86 calibrated in rapidity of absorbed dose for tissue equivalent by the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1988-10-01

    The following report has as objective to present the obtained results of measuring - with a camera of extrapolation of variable electrodes (CE) - the dose speed absorbed in equivalent fabric given by the group of sources of the secondary pattern of radiation Beta Nr. 86, (PSB), and to compare this results with those presented by the calibration certificates that accompany the PSB extended by the primary laboratory Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, (PTB), of the R.F.A. as well as the uncertainties associated to the measure process. (Author)

  7. Measurement of extrapolation curves for the secondary pattern of beta radiation Nr. 86 calibrated in rapidity of absorbed dose for tissue equivalent by the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt; Medicion de curvas de extrapolacion para el patron secundario de radiacion beta Nr. 86 calibrado en rapidez de dosis absorbida para tejido equivalente por el Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T

    1988-10-15

    The following report has as objective to present the obtained results of measuring - with a camera of extrapolation of variable electrodes (CE) - the dose speed absorbed in equivalent fabric given by the group of sources of the secondary pattern of radiation Beta Nr. 86, (PSB), and to compare this results with those presented by the calibration certificates that accompany the PSB extended by the primary laboratory Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, (PTB), of the R.F.A. as well as the uncertainties associated to the measure process. (Author)

  8. Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Annual report 2016; Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Jahresbericht 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-03-15

    The following topics are dealt with: Quality management, legal metrology, technology transfer, technical cooperation, mechanics and acoustics, chemical physics and explosion protection, optics, manufacturing measurement techniques, ionizing radiation, temperature and synchrotron radiation, medical physics and metrological information techniques. (HSI)

  9. Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The annual report presents general information on the institution's activities and the various departments, and reports on scientific work in the field of metrology and safety engineering. Brief scientific accounts refer to work in the domains of mechanics and acoustics, electricity, heat, optics, industrial metrology, atomic physics, technical and scientific services, collection and disposal of radioactive waste. (orig.) [de

  10. Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Mechanics and acoustics, electricity, chemical physics and explosion protection, optics, manufacturing measureing techniques, ionizing radiation, temperature and synchrotron radiation, medical physics and metrological information techniques, the German calibration service, quality management. (HSI)

  11. Photon and electron dosimetry at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, H.

    1983-12-01

    The PTB is charged by the government to prepare the legal control for dosimeters used in radiotherapy and radiation protection by setting up requirements for type approvals and by developing the technical prerequisites for performing type tests. Based on international recommendations, the change of units had to be connected with a change of quantities. The exposure had to be changed either to kerma or to absorbed dose or to dose equivalent. (DG)

  12. Absolute Measurement of Radioactive Materials at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, H. M.

    1960-01-01

    A short report is given about the routine methods of standardization of radionuclides. The measurements are done by 4 π β proportional counters, 4 π β-γ coincidence counting and for secondary standardization of γ emitters by 4 π γ ionization chamber. The equipments used and the procedures of source preparation are described. (author) [fr

  13. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB (physical-technical Federal institution) - research institute and highest technical authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klages, H.

    1976-01-01

    The PTB Braunschweig and Berlin is a Federal institution for the natural sciences and engineering and the highest technical authority for measurements. It is subject to the directions of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs. Its main tasks are representation, maintenance and development of physical units and, in connection with this, research, examinations, and granting permissions for calibration measuring equipment, as well as examinations of building types and permissions. The types of measuring equipment are represented. Many examinations are carried out on a voluntary basis. The advisory activities and the PTB's publications are also reported on. An organizational plan informs of the structure of the PTB. (orig.) [de

  14. Quality assurance and quality control of analytic data produced within the Association for Research on Heavy Metal Emissions; Qualitaetssicherung und Qualitaetskontrolle der analytischen Daten aus dem Forschungsverbund Edelmetallemissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegscheider, W [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria). Inst. fuer Allgemeine und Analytische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    In many fields of scientific research formalised quality assurance is not common practice. The present promotional measure by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research was nevertheless provided with an own research project for external quality assurance. This paper reports on the orientation and execution of the project. [Deutsch] Formalisierte Qualitaetssicherung ist ueber weite Bereiche in der naturwissenschaftlichen Forschung nicht ueblich. Fuer diese Foerdermassnahme des BMBF wurde dennoch ein eigenes Forschungsvorhaben zur externen Qualitaetssicherung eingerichtet ueber dessen Ausrichtung und Durchfuehrung im folgenden berichtet wird. (orig.)

  15. Quality assurance and quality control of analytic data produced within the Association for Research on Heavy Metal Emissions; Qualitaetssicherung und Qualitaetskontrolle der analytischen Daten aus dem Forschungsverbund Edelmetallemissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegscheider, W. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria). Inst. fuer Allgemeine und Analytische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    In many fields of scientific research formalised quality assurance is not common practice. The present promotional measure by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research was nevertheless provided with an own research project for external quality assurance. This paper reports on the orientation and execution of the project. [Deutsch] Formalisierte Qualitaetssicherung ist ueber weite Bereiche in der naturwissenschaftlichen Forschung nicht ueblich. Fuer diese Foerdermassnahme des BMBF wurde dennoch ein eigenes Forschungsvorhaben zur externen Qualitaetssicherung eingerichtet ueber dessen Ausrichtung und Durchfuehrung im folgenden berichtet wird. (orig.)

  16. Experimental facilities for calibrations at the dosimetry facility of group 6.5 'Neutron dosimetry' at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzelczyk, H.

    1986-07-01

    The mechanical and electrical layout of the ''Dosimetriemessplatz'', a low scattering target area at the accelerator facility is described. Monoenergetic neutrons are generated at the irradiation facility for the research on neutron detectors and dosimeters for radiation protection. The report is aimed to inform dosimetry in particular for those guest's coming from other laboratories. For that purpose a detailed description is given of the mechanical construction, of cable connections and of the monitor system. The feasibitity of data transfer from the system at the target position to the user's system and the mode of acceptance of external data are explained. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Quality assurance for primary batteries. Qualitaetssicherung fuer Primaerbatterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedinger, G [Varta AG, Ellwangen (Germany, F.R.)

    1989-11-01

    Apart from a few applications in tube sets, the use of primary batteries was limited until well into the fifties to the current supply of lighting units, predominantly of flashlights. Only with the invention of the transistor and of integrated circuits, the primary battery took an important place among electric components. As a consequence, this component had to meet much different requirements. In order to ensure the quality of an article produced in enormous quantities - several hundred million units per year with a great variety of types, with nine different systems and of approx. 100 different types - it became indispensable to set up a well equipped quality assurance system. (orig.).

  18. Brachytherapy source calibration, reviews, and consistency of 192Ir high-dose rate afterloading sources supplied over the period of 10 years: a retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagappan, Balasubramanian; Kumar, Yogesh; Patel, Narayan P.; Dhull, Anil Kumar; Kaushal, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Measurement and verification of strength of monomodal high-dose rate (mHDR) 192 Ir source supplied by the vendor is a major part of quality assurance program. Reference air kerma rate (RAKR) or air kerma strength (AKS) is the recommended quantity to specify the strength of gamma emitting brachytherapy sources. Physicist in our institution performed the source calibration as soon as each 192 Ir new source was loaded on the mHDR afterloading machine. The AKS accurately measured using a physikalisch technische werkstatten (PTW) re-entrant chamber-electrometer system in a scatter-free geometry was used to compute the air kerma rate (AKR) at one-meter distance in the air. To ensure accurate dose delivery to brachytherapy patients, measured AKS or RAKR should be entered correctly in both HDR treatment console station (TCS) as well as treatment planning system (TPS) associated with it. The clinical outcome mainly depends not only on the accuracy of the source strength measurement in the hospital but also on the correct source strength entered into both TCS and TPS software. A retrospective study on 22 mHDR V2 sources supplied by the vendor for the period of 10 years was taken up to access the accuracy of source strength supplied to the Radiotherapy department. The results are analyzed and reported. The accuracy in measured RAKR of all 22 sources supplied by vendor was well within the tolerance limits set by the national regulatory body and international recommendations. The deviations observed between measured RAKR versus manufacturer's quoted RAKR were in the range from -1.71% to +1.15%. In conclusion, the measured RAKR have good agreement with vendor quoted RAKR values. (author)

  19. Quality assurance for the incorporation surveillance in Germany; Qualitaetssicherung fuer die Inkorporationsueberwachung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Werner; Gerstmann, Udo; Hartmann, Martina; Loescher, Simone; Meisenberg, Oliver; Woidy, Patrick [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). FB Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit

    2017-08-01

    The coordination center of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz is performing annual ring experiments for in-vivo and in-vitro measuring points. This procedure allows checking the measuring data and the competence of the personnel. In the last years these tests included also radionuclides that are important in radiation emergency protection. Case studies for dose determination based on incorporation scenarios are included.

  20. Methods and quality assurance in environmental medicine. Formation of a RKI-Commission; Methoden und Qualitaetssicherung in der Umweltmedizin. Einrichtung einer Umweltmedizin-Kommission am RKI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eis, D. [Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany). Robert-Koch-Institut

    2000-05-01

    An almost bewildering number of widely differing methods and techniques, often not validated, are being applied often inappropriately in the field of environmental medicine to answer questions regarding exposure assessment, diagnosis, treatment, counselling and prevention. Therefore, quality control within the field of environmental medicine is quite problematic. A primary goal of the newly formed RKI-Commission 'Methods and Quality Assurance in Environmental Medicine' is to form a panel of experts in the field, who evaluate the situation and generate consensus documents containing respective recommendations. By this the commission will contribute to standardization and agreement on appropriate methods, procedures and their correct application in the practice of environmental medicine. Hopefully it will also achieve a stronger, more consistent use of evidence-based-medicine and improve the quality of the structure, processes and results of research and practice in this field. The committee will initially deal with the issue of clinical environmental medicine, because here the largest problems in quality assurance are seen. In this context the commission will look at the problem areas of environmental-medical outpatient units and environmental clinics. The work of the commission will be supported by the newly formed Documentation and Evaluation Center for Methods in Environmental Medicine (Zentrale Erfassungs- und Bewertungsstelle fuer umweltmedizinische Methoden, ZEBUM) at the Robert Koch Institute. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen der umweltmedizinischen Expositionserfassung, Diagnostik, Beratung, Therapie, Prophylaxe und Sanierung wird eine kaum mehr ueberschaubare Zahl unterschiedlichster, zum Teil nichtvalidierter Verfahren bei oftmals fragwuerdiger Indikation eingesetzt. Die umweltmedizinische Qualitaetssicherung (QS) ist damit zum Problem geworden. Ein Hauptanliegen der neu eingerichteten RKI-Kommission 'Methoden und Qualitaetssicherung in der

  1. Quality assurance for photovoltaic energy supply. Final report; Qualitaetssicherung von photovoltaischen Energieversorgungssystemen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, G.; Gabler, H.; Hille, G.; Puls, G.; Rehm, M.; Sauer, U.; Schulz, M.; Schweizer-Ries, P.

    2000-07-01

    The availability of isolated PV systems was to be improved by an inspection agreement between operators, users and inspection organisations. The systems were to be inspected and serviced once a year. In all, 22 systems were inspected regularly between 1996 and 1999, and a failure statistics was drawn up on the basis of the records. On average, there were three failures per system and per year, one of which was caused by research activities. In a second detailed analysis after termination of the project, the failure rate had decreased to one every two years, i. e. a reduction by a factor of 6. [German] Ziel des Projektes war die Erhoehung der Betriebssicherheit und der Lebensdauer netzunabhaengiger Photovoltaikanlagen (Inselanlagen) durch Ermittlung und Reduzierung des Wartungsbedarfs sowie durch Komponentenoptimierung. Zu Projektbeginn war der technische und finanzielle Umfang von Wartungsarbeiten und somit den Betriebskosten dieser Anlagen nur sehr lueckenhaft bekannt und vorhersehbar. Um belastbare Erkenntnisse ueber den Wartungsbedarf und -kosten zu erhalten, fuehrten ortsansaessige Firmen mit Hilfe von Wartungshandbuechern auf Kosten der Betreiber in 22 ausgewaehlten Inselanlagen 4 Jahre lang 1 mal jaehrlich eine Fruehjahrskontrolle und eine Herbstinspektion durch. Das Fraunhofer ISE erstellte eine Fehlerstatistik, analysierte die Fehler und den Optimierungsbedarf. Durch die einmal jaehrliche Inspektion und durch den Einsatz optimierter Komponenten liess sich die anfaengliche Fehlerrate von 3 Fehlern pro Jahr und Anlage auf 1 Fehler innerhalb von 2 Jahren reduzieren. Die Anlagenfehler wurden ueberwiegend durch alterungsbedingte Bauteildefekte in Komponenten verursacht. Zusammen mit Herstellern wurde an Komponenten, wie Ladereglern und Wechselrichtern, Optimierungen durchgefuehrt. Die Optimierung der Anlagenbetriebsfuehrung erhoehte deutlich die Zufriedenheit des Nutzers und die Batterielebensdauer. Die Stromgestehungskosten in optimierten und regelmaessig

  2. Quality assurance when surface welding nickel-based alloys; Qualitaetssicherung bei der Auftragsschweissung von Nickelbasislackierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metschke, J. [Muellkraftwerk Schwandorf Betriebsgesellschaft mbH (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The cladding of evaporator heat exchanger surfaces in refuse incineration boilers with alloy 625 can effectively protect against the corrosive wear of the basic tube if the described rules concerning the pre-treatment, processing, quality control and after-care are observed. This statement is supported by the positive experience with this alloy at the Schwandorf refuse-fired power plant over a period of eight years now. Since the maximum service temperature is limited to 420 C, alloy 625 is only suitable for protecting superheater pipes subject to certain conditions. Long-term experience with alternative nickel-based alloys (alloy 622, alloy 686 and others) are not yet available. (orig.) [German] Die Schweissplattierung von Verdampferwaermetauscherflaechen in Muellverbrennungskesseln mit Alloy 625 kann einen wirksamen Schutz gegen den korrosiven Verschleiss des Grundrohres darstellen, wenn die vorstehenden Regeln ueber Vorbehandlung, Verarbeitung, Qualitaetskontrolle und laufende Nachsorgearbeiten beachtet werden. Diese Aussage wird durch die positiven Erfahrungen mit dieser Legierung im Muellkraftwerk Schwandorf ueber einen Zeitraum von nunmehr acht Jahren gestuetzt. (orig.)

  3. Shortcomings of the industrial quality assurance of {sup 106}Ru ophthalmic plaques; Therapierelevante Schwachstellen bei der industriellen Qualitaetssicherung von {sup 106}Ru-Augenapplikatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaulich, T.W.; Nuesslin, F. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radioonkologie, Tuebingen (Germany). Abt. Medizinische Physik; Zurheide, J. [BrainLAB AG, Heimstetten (Germany); Fluehs, D. [Abt. Strahlentherapie, Bereich klinische Strahlenphysik, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany); Haug, T. [Isotopenlabor der Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Bamberg, M. [Abt. Radioonkologie, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radioonkologie, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    , Oberflaechenkontaminationspruefung, Dichtheitspruefung, Dosisleistungsueberpruefung. Die Oberflaechenkontaminationspruefung besteht aus einer feuchten Wischprobe unter leichtem Druck. Zur Ueberpruefung der Dichtheit der {sup 106}Ru-Augenapplikatoren wurde ein klinisch relevantes Szenario entwickelt, bei dem der Kontakt der Augenapplikatoren mit Humangewebe simuliert wird. Dabei wird der Applikator mehrere Tage in Ringer-Loesung eingelegt. Die zertifizierten Energiedosisleistungsangaben des Herstellers werden mit einem 1 mm{sup 3} grossen Plastikszintillator auf Konsistenz geprueft. Ergebnisse: Bei den klinikinternen Eingangspruefungen von {sup 106}Ru-Augenapplikatoren unterschiedlicher Groesse ergaben sich folgende Resultate: Die Dichtheitspruefung wurde an sieben Applikatoren durchgefuehrt. Dabei wurden Kontaminationen bei den Wischproben bis 57 Bq und in der Ringer-Loesung bis 520 Bq gemessen. Bei der dosimetrischen Konsistenzpruefung der zertifizierten Dosisleistungsangabe von 14 Applikatoren zeigte sich bei sechs Applikatoren gute Uebereinstimmung mit einem Variationskoeffizienten von 2,6%. Bei acht Applikatoren lagen die Abweichungen zwischen -37% und +74%, d.h., die Spannweite dieser nicht akzeptablen Applikatoren betrug 111%. Die Ergebnisse wurden exemplarisch durch externe Begutachtung bestaetigt. Schlussfolgerung: Bei der klinikinternen Eingangspruefung von {sup 106}Ru-Augenapplikatoren wurden schwerwiegende therapierelevante Schwachstellen der industriellen Qualitaetssicherung festgestellt. Es ist deshalb notwendig, dass {sup 106}Ru-Augenapplikatoren vor klinischem Einsatz intern ueberprueft werden. Die hierzu entwickelte Eingangspruefung kann von anderen Kliniken direkt uebernommen werden. (orig.)

  4. New ways for the coordination of research for the dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhmacher, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    The European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) is a network of about 50 institutions from nearly oil European countries which coordinates research and development for the dosimetry of ionizing radiation. EURADOS was supported over many years by the European Communities. Since 2008 EURADOS is registered as a non-profit society (eingetragener Verein, e.V.) in Braunschweig with the office at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). This new formal status and the related independence from European research programmes allows new ways in the coordination of research. (orig.)

  5. eLearning-radiology.com. Sustainability for quality assurance; eLearning-radiology.com. Nachhaltigkeit im Sinne der Qualitaetssicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelsen, D. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Talanow, R. [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Uder, M. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Grunewald, M. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik

    2009-04-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to analyze the availability of published radiological e-learning tools and to establish a solution for quality assurance. Materials and Methods: Substantial pubmed research was performed to identify radiological e-learning tools. 181 e-learning programs were selected. As examples two databases expanding their programs with external links, Compare (n = 435 external links) and TNT-Radiology (n = 1078 external links), were evaluated. A concept for quality assurance was developed by an international taskforce. Results: At the time of assessment, 56.4 % (102/181) of the investigated e-learning tools were accessible at their original URL. A subgroup analysis of programs published 5 to 8 years ago showed significantly inferior availability to programs published 3 to 5 years ago (p < 0.01). The analysis of external links showed 49.2 % and 61.0 % accessible links for the programs Compare (published 2003) and TNT-Radiology (published 2006), respectively. As a consequence, the domain www.eLearning-radiology.com was developed by the taskforce and published online. This tool allows authors to present their programs and users to evaluate the e-learning tools depending on several criteria in order to remove inoperable links and to obtain information about the complexity and quality of the e-learning tools. (orig.)

  6. Quality assurance, quality control from an operating company's point of view; Qualitaetssicherung aus Sicht eines Betreibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, Heiko [E.ON New Build and Technology, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    With a last years output of over 39 TWh the CCGT power stations participated with 14 % on the total power produced within E.ON. Within the E.ON CCGT Fleet there are more than 86 gas turbines with an output above 10 MW. Due to fast growing internationalism and globalism within the manufacturing and erection of gas turbines and their auxiliarities E.ON has started an expansive QA-Program especially with focus on their F-Class engines. Due to reduced trained personnel and lack of expertise at the owner and the potential service provider (OEM) for older technology QA becomes more and more important. We as the owner, together with the OEM, try to challenge these needs by systematically gathering causes for damage and carrying out resulting upgrades within the design and the service management. (orig.)

  7. Absolute Measurement of Radioactive Materials at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt; Mesure absolue des substances radioactives a l'Institut federal de physique appliquee; Absolyutnoe izmerenie radioaktivnykh veshchestv v fiziko-tekhnicheskom federal'nom institute; Determinacion absoluta de la actividad de sustancias radiactivas en el Instituto Federal de Fisica Aplicada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, H M [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1960-06-15

    A short report is given about the routine methods of standardization of radionuclides. The measurements are done by 4 {pi} {beta} proportional counters, 4 {pi} {beta}-{gamma} coincidence counting and for secondary standardization of {gamma} emitters by 4 {pi} {gamma} ionization chamber. The equipments used and the procedures of source preparation are described. (author) [French] L'auteur presente un rapport succinct sur les methodes courantes de normalisation des radionuclides. Les mesures sont effectuees au moyen de compteurs proportionnels 4 {pi} {beta}, par voie de comptage par coincidences 4 {pi}{beta}-{gamma} et, en ce qui concerne la normalisation secondaire des emetteurs de rayons {gamma}, au moyen d'une chambre d'ionisation 4 {pi} {gamma}. Le memoire contient une description du materiel utilise et des procedes employes pour la preparation des sources. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se describen brevemente los metodos corrientes de calibracion de radionuclidos. Las mediciones a que se refiere se han efectuado con contadores proporcionales {beta} 4 {pi}, contadores de coincidencias {beta}-{gamma} 4{pi}l; para la calibracion secundaria de emisores {gamma} se ha utilizado una camara de ionizacion {gamma} 4 {pi}. Se describen los aparatos empleados y los procedimientos de preparacion de las fuentes. (author) [Russian] Privoditsya kratkij doklad po obychnym metodam standartizatsi i radioizotopov. Izmereniya osushchestvlyalis {beta}-proportsional'nym i schetchikami na 4 {pi}, schetchikami {beta}-{gamma} sovpadenij i {gamma}-ioniziruyushche j kameroj na 4 i dlya vtorichnoj standartizatsi i {gamma}-izluchatelej . Privoditsya opisanie, ispol'zuemogo oborudovaniya i protsedura podgotovki istochnika. (author)

  8. Quality management and reduction of processing time through automised preforming in the rotorblade manufacturing for wind turbines; Teilautomatisiertes preforming zur Qualitaetssicherung und Verkuerzung von Fertigungszeiten bei der Herstellung von Rotorblaettern von Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doersch, C.; Ohlendorf, J.H.; Gebauer, I.; Mueller, D.H. [Bremer Institut fuer Konstruktionstechnik, Universitaet Bremen (Germany); Weigel, L. [Abeking Rasmussen Rotec GmbH and Co. KG, Lemwerder (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Verkuerzung der Fertigungszeit sowie der zunehmende Qualitaetsanspruch an die Rotorblaetter eine immer staerkere Rolle einnehmen. Um diese Ansprueche erfuellen zu koennen, beschaeftigen sich das Bremer Institut fuer Konstruktionstechnik und das Unternehmen Abeking and Rasmussen Rotec GmbH and Co KG unter anderem mit der Handhabung und Erstellung von sogenannten Preforms, dies sind trockene, textile Halbzeuglagen, die als vorgeformter Lagenstapel in den Fertigungsprozess des Rotorblattes eingebracht werden. Mit Hilfe der Technologie des Preformings ist es moeglich, Bereiche der Fertigung zu parallelisieren. Dies ist ein grosser Vorteil bei der Produktion, da aufgrund der notwendigen Temperzeiten, alle anderen Fertigungsschritte moeglichst zeitoptimiert gestaltet werden muessen, um kurze Zykluszeiten zu realisieren. Betrachtet werden soll die Handhabung von textilen Halbzeugen, insbesondere das preforming und dessen Auswirkungen auf die Wirtschaftlichkeit der Faserverbundfertigung. Ebenfalls sollen die Aspekte der Qualitaetssicherung in Verbindung mit dem preforming aufgezeigt werden und moegliche Ansaetze zu einer Teilautomatisierung gegeben werden. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Review on common calibration and measurement practises for measuring gears on CMMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sammatini-Malberg, Maria-Pia; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    , in order to give an overview of the improvements achieved in the last 25 years. Special attention is paid to gear metrology on coordinate measuring machines (CMMs). Calibration chains for the major gear geometrical quantities developed by Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) as well as their recent...... results obtained in gear standards measurement uncertainties are presented. This review also describes the design and development of a new type of master gear: the Gauge Block Gear (GBG).The GBG was developed for the performance verification of CMMs, for the specific task of pitch and chordal tooth...... thickness measurement. Its main characteristic is the replacement of the teeth with gauge blocks, in order to achieve direct traceability of the chordal tooth thickness...

  10. Investigation of Calibrating Force Transducer Using Sinusoidal Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Wang Yu; Zhang Lizhe

    2010-01-01

    Sinusoidal force calibration method was studied several years before at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). A similar dynamic force calibration system is developed at Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement (CIMM). It uses electro-dynamic shakers to generate dynamic force in the range from 1 N to 20 kN, and heterodyne laser interferometers are used for acceleration measurement. The force transducer to be calibrated is mounted on the shaker, and a mass block is screwed on the top of force transducer, the sinusoidal forces realized by accelerated load masses are traceable to acceleration and mass according to the force definition. The methods of determining Spatial-dependent acceleration on mass block and measuring the end mass of force transducer in dynamic force calibration are discussed in this paper.

  11. BESSY annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The annual report 1991 is drawn up as in the previous years, with general information on the organisational structure of the institution and its general purposes being given ahead of the research-specific reports. The achievements and developments in the fields of machines and experiments are reported, including contributions from the Litography laboratory of the Fraunhofer Institute for Microstructural Studies and Techniques, and from the Radiometry Laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, followed by reports on basic research work. The machine developments are reported in varions contributions, and a list of publications shows all available and known scientific publications resulting from research work done at the BESSY installations by the various users. Diploma, doctoral and habilitation theses are listed separately. (orig.) [de

  12. An international intercomparison of passive dosemeters, electronic dosemeters and dose rate meters used for environmental radiation measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Thompson, I.M.G.

    1995-01-01

    during 1994. The intercomparison was organised by the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig, Germany, and by the Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark. This paper describes the intercomparison experiments performed at the newly established Riso Natural Environmental Radiation...

  13. Quality assurance of in-situ-gammaspectrometry. International comparison measurement at the K-RISK-phantom 2015; Qualitaetssicherung der In-situ-Gammaspektrometrie. Internationale Vergleichsmessung an der K-RISK-Phantomwand 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, G.; Schupfner, R. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). ZRN-URA-Lab.; Buss, K. [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Kulmbach (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    During the last years the collimated in-situ-gammaspectrometry established itself as a powerful mean for free- release of buildings, parts of buildings, walls and ground area. To accomplish a suitable possibility for quality assurance of in-situ-gammaspectrometry, the K-RISK-phantom wall was developed and built at the University of Regensburg on the authority of the state office for environmental protection, Kulmbach. The K-RISK-phantom is a large surface calibration wall made of concrete which allows simulating different realistic three-dimensional wall contaminations. Contrary to many other calibration phantoms the K-RISK phantom permits completely reversible three-dimensional activity distributions. The comparison measurement is a useful tool for quality assurance and allows the participants to review their measurements relating to measurement, calibration or analysis. 19 institutions (industry, surveyor, authorities) from Germany, Austria and Switzerland participated at the comparison measurement.

  14. A Focus of Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Huebener, Rudolf Peter

    2008-01-01

    In 1887, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) was originally founded as the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt (PTR) in Berlin in order to promote basic research in physics. It subsequently developed into the largest research center worldwide as a place where scientists could concentrate exclusively on their research subject, and served as a model for similar institutes established in other countries.Within a very short time, the PTR produced extremely important scientific results that cemented its international position at the top, such as Max Planck's radiation law and energy q

  15. Temperature documentation - instrument for quality assurance; Temperaturdokumentation - Instrument der Qualitaetssicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegglin, A [Wurm AG, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2000-10-01

    Important inspection points of a HACCP concept are the temperatures. On the basis of the demands for a systematic temperature documentation, the application of control systems and instruments is described by several examples. (orig.) [German] Wichtige Kontrollpunkte eines HACCP-Konzepts sind die Temperaturen. Ausgehend von den Anforderungen, die an eine systematische Temperaturedokumentation gestellt werden, wird der Einsatz geeigneter Regel- und Ueberwachungsgeraete an mehreren Beispielen erlaeutert. (orig.)

  16. Ultimate disposal of radioactive waste in the FRG - current progress of projects and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesel, H.

    1989-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, the state is responsible for providing for the ultimate disposal of radioactive waste, whereas the cost is borne by the waste producing establishments. The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety, (BMU), as the competent state authority has delegated its responsibilities in this matter to the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The PTB is allowed to have work done by third parties. For this purpose, the Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau und Betrieb von Endlagern fuer Abfallstoffe mbH (DBE) has been founded, which since 1979 is investigating the Gorleben salt dome for suitability to serve as a repository for all type of solid, radioactive waste. The final decisions on site approval can be taken after completion of the underground exploration work, which according to current schedules is expected to be achieved at the end of the 1990s. The other candidate site, the Konrad mine, has been investigated by the GSF in the years 1976 to 1982, and on August 31, 1982 the PTB has filed an application to institute the plan approval procedure for the Konrad mine to be prepared to serve as a waste repository. The plan is expected to be laid open in the first half of 1989, and hearings possibly be held in the second half. In case of plan approval, the site preparation will probably take 3 years, so that the Konrad mine will be ready to receive radioactive waste by the year 1993. (orig.) [de

  17. Radioactive waste in Federal Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.; Warnecke, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is responsible for the long-term storage and disposal of radioactive waste according to the Federal Atomic Energy Act. On behalf of the Federal Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, since 1985, the PTB has been carrying out annual inquiries into the amounts of radioactive waste produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. Within the scope of this inquiry performed for the preceding year, the amounts of unconditioned and conditioned waste are compiled on a producer- and plant-specific basis. On the basis of the inquiry for 1986 and of data presented to the PTB by the waste producers, future amounts of radioactive waste have been estimated up to the year 2000. The result of this forecast is presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany two sites are under consideration for disposal of radioactive waste. In the abandoned Konrad iron mine in Salzgitter-Bleckenstedt it is intended to dispose of such radioactive waste which has a negligible thermal influence upon the host rock. The Gorleben salt dome is being investigated for its suitability for the disposal of all kinds of solid and solidified radioactive wastes, especially of heat-generating waste. Comparing the estimated amount of radioactive wastes with the capacity of both repositories it may be concluded that the Konrad and Gorleben repositories will provide sufficient capacity to ensure the disposal of all kinds of radioactive waste on a long-term basis in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  18. Environmental radiation monitoring of nuclear sites by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.; Strachotinsky, Ch.

    1978-04-01

    The measurement of environmental radiation doses around nuclear facilities requires the detection of few mrem/year. The properties of the automatic TLD-system Harshaw Mod. 2271 for such measurements have been evaluated under practical conditions and optimized techniques derived. The automatic TLD-system is based on LiF dosimeter cards with two crystals providing gamma and beta dose values. Limit of detection defined as three standard deviations of residuel dose is 1,2 mR. Automatic readout combined with electronic data evaluation are especially useful for large monitoring networks. Practical intercomparisons of this dosimeter with bulb-type CaF 2 detectors have been performed showing good agreement of both detector. Although bulb-dosimeters proved to be extremely sensitive with a limit of detection at 0,012 mR which makes them very suitable for very short exposure times, the automatic LiF system is superior in regards of man power requirement if monthly monitoring periods are sufficient. The system has been tested in practice during two international intercomparisons performed by the US Department of Energy - Health and Safety Laboratory New York and the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig, Germany, showing excellent agreement. Furthermore a routine monitoring network consisting of 12 measurement positions around the Research Center Seibersdorf has been operated with this technique since more than two years. (author)

  19. Development of a New Fundamental Measuring Technique for the Accurate Measurement of Gas Flowrates by Means of Laser Doppler Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopheide, D.; Taux, G.; Krey, E.-A.

    1990-01-01

    In the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), a research test facility for the accurate measurement of gas (volume and mass) flowrates has been set up in the last few years on the basis of a laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) with a view to directly measuring gas flowrates with a relative uncertainty of only 0,1%. To achieve this, it was necessary to develop laser Doppler anemometry into a precision measuring technique and to carry out detailed investigations on stationary low-turbulence nozzle flow. The process-computer controlled test facility covers the flowrate range from 100 to 4000 m3/h (~0,03 - 1,0 m3/s), any flowrate being measured directly, immediately and without staggered arrangement of several flow meters. After the development was completed, several turbine-type gas meters were calibrated and international comparisons carried out. The article surveys the most significant aspects of the work and provides an outlook on future developments with regard to the miniaturization of optical flow and flowrate sensors for industrial applications.

  20. Calibration of the precision high voltage dividers of the KATRIN experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rest, Oliver [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Collaboration: KATRIN-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino) experiment will measure the endpoint region of the tritium β decay spectrum to determine the neutrino mass with a sensitivity of 200 meV/c{sup 2}. To achieve this sub-eV sensitivity the energy of the decay electrons will be analyzed using a MAC-E type spectrometer. The retarding potential of the MAC-E-filter (up to -35 kV) has to be monitored with a relative precision of 3 . 10{sup -6}. For this purpose the potential will be measured directly via two custom made precision high voltage dividers, which were developed and constructed in cooperation with the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig. In order to determine the absolute values and the stability of the scale factors of the voltage dividers, regular calibration measurements are essential. Such measurements have been performed during the last years using several different methods. The poster gives an overview of the methods and results of the calibration of the precision high voltage dividers.

  1. A superconducting wavelength shifter as primary radiometric source standard in the X-ray range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, R. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: roman.klein@ptb.de; Brandt, G.; Cibik, L.; Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Mueller, P.; Ulm, G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Scheer, M. [BESSY GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-10-11

    For more than 20 years, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has been using the calculable radiation of bending magnets from the BESSY I and BESSY II electron storage rings in the visible, UV, vacuum-UV (VUV) and X-ray spectral range for radiometry, especially for the calibration of radiation sources and energy-dispersive detectors. Due to its-compared to bending magnets-higher magnetic field, wavelength shifters (WLS) have the potential to extend the usable spectral range for these applications to higher photon energies. Thus, the characteristic energies of BESSY II bending magnet radiation and a 6 T WLS radiation are 2.5 and 11.5 keV, respectively. Within the scope of this work, the properties of the synchrotron radiation from the 6 T WLS have been investigated and compared to theoretical predictions for photon energies up to 150 keV. Good agreement within the experimental uncertainty of several percent was found. Further improvements for a future radiometric use of WLS radiation with low uncertainties will be discussed.

  2. A superconducting wavelength shifter as primary radiometric source standard in the X-ray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.; Brandt, G.; Cibik, L.; Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Mueller, P.; Ulm, G.; Scheer, M.

    2007-01-01

    For more than 20 years, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has been using the calculable radiation of bending magnets from the BESSY I and BESSY II electron storage rings in the visible, UV, vacuum-UV (VUV) and X-ray spectral range for radiometry, especially for the calibration of radiation sources and energy-dispersive detectors. Due to its-compared to bending magnets-higher magnetic field, wavelength shifters (WLS) have the potential to extend the usable spectral range for these applications to higher photon energies. Thus, the characteristic energies of BESSY II bending magnet radiation and a 6 T WLS radiation are 2.5 and 11.5 keV, respectively. Within the scope of this work, the properties of the synchrotron radiation from the 6 T WLS have been investigated and compared to theoretical predictions for photon energies up to 150 keV. Good agreement within the experimental uncertainty of several percent was found. Further improvements for a future radiometric use of WLS radiation with low uncertainties will be discussed

  3. Development and production of a multilayer-coated x-ray reflecting stack for the Athena mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massahi, S.; Ferreira, D. D. M.; Christensen, F. E.; Shortt, B.; Girou, D. A.; Collon, M.; Landgraf, B.; Barriere, N.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Schreiber, S.

    2016-07-01

    The Advanced Telescope for High-Energy Astrophysics, Athena, selected as the European Space Agency's second large-mission, is based on the novel Silicon Pore Optics X-ray mirror technology. DTU Space has been working for several years on the development of multilayer coatings on the Silicon Pore Optics in an effort to optimize the throughput of the Athena optics. A linearly graded Ir/B4C multilayer has been deposited on the mirrors, via the direct current magnetron sputtering technique, at DTU Space. This specific multilayer, has through simulations, been demonstrated to produce the highest reflectivity at 6 keV, which is a goal for the scientific objectives of the mission. A critical aspect of the coating process concerns the use of photolithography techniques upon which we will present the most recent developments in particular related to the cleanliness of the plates. Experiments regarding the lift-off and stacking of the mirrors have been performed and the results obtained will be presented. Furthermore, characterization of the deposited thin-films was performed with X-ray reflectometry at DTU Space and in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II.

  4. A superconducting wavelength shifter as primary radiometric source standard in the X-ray range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R.; Brandt, G.; Cibik, L.; Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Müller, P.; Ulm, G.; Scheer, M.

    2007-10-01

    For more than 20 years, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has been using the calculable radiation of bending magnets from the BESSY I and BESSY II electron storage rings in the visible, UV, vacuum-UV (VUV) and X-ray spectral range for radiometry, especially for the calibration of radiation sources and energy-dispersive detectors. Due to its—compared to bending magnets—higher magnetic field, wavelength shifters (WLS) have the potential to extend the usable spectral range for these applications to higher photon energies. Thus, the characteristic energies of BESSY II bending magnet radiation and a 6 T WLS radiation are 2.5 and 11.5 keV, respectively. Within the scope of this work, the properties of the synchrotron radiation from the 6 T WLS have been investigated and compared to theoretical predictions for photon energies up to 150 keV. Good agreement within the experimental uncertainty of several percent was found. Further improvements for a future radiometric use of WLS radiation with low uncertainties will be discussed.

  5. Aircrew Exposure from Cosmic Radiation on Commercial Airline Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.J.; McCall, M.J.; Green, A.R.; Bennett, L.G.I.; Pierre, M.; Schrewe, U.J.; O' Brien, K.; Felsberger, E

    2001-07-01

    As a result of the recent recommendations of the ICRP 60, and in anticipation of possible regulation on occupational exposure of Canadian-based aircrew, an extensive study was carried out by the Royal Military College of Canada over a one-year period to measure the cosmic radiation at commercial jet altitudes. A tissue-equivalent proportional counter was used to measure the ambient total dose equivalent rate on 62 flight routes, resulting in over 20,000 data points at one-minute intervals at various altitudes and geomagnetic latitudes (i.e. which span the full cut-off rigidity of the Earth's magnetic field). These data were then compared to similar experimental work at the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, using a different suite of equipment, to measure separately the low and high linear energy transfer components of the mixed radiation field, and to predictions with the LUIN transport code. All experimental and theoretical results were in excellent agreement. From these data, a semi-empirical model was developed to allow for the interpolation of the dose rate for any global position, altitude and date (i.e. heliocentric potential). Through integration of the dose rate function over a great circle flight path, a computer code was developed to provide an estimate of the total dose equivalent on any route worldwide at any period in the solar cycle. (author)

  6. Progress report on reversal and substitute element technique for thread calibration on CMMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmignato, Simone; Larsen, Erik; Sobiecki, Rene

    . For this project, the Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM) at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) takes care of thread measurements, in collaboration with Dipartimento di Innovazione Meccanica e Gestionale (DIMEG) - University of Padova - Italy, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig (PTB...

  7. Feasibility of the reversal and substitute element technique for thread calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik; Carmignato, Simone; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    . For this project, the Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM) at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) takes care of thread measurements, in collaboration with Dipartimento di Innovazione Meccanica e Gestionale (DIMEG) - University of Padova - Italy, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig (PTB...

  8. Accelerated degeneration testing for flowmeter sensors. Evaluation and constancy against measuring; Beschleunigte Abnutzungspruefung fuer Durchflusssensoren. Abschaetzung der Messbestaendigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Juergen; Fenske, Helmut; Gerdes, Oda [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Waerme

    2009-01-15

    Test specifications for flow sensors state that a fatigue test should be carried out for 2400 h. The PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt), in cooperation with industrial organisations, developed a faster fatigue test for mechanical and static sensors which requires only 600 h. (orig.)

  9. X-ray pencil beam facility for optics characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrey, Michael; Cibik, Levent; Müller, Peter; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Ackermann, Marcelo; Collon, Maximilien J.

    2010-07-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has used synchrotron radiation for the characterization of optics and detectors for astrophysical X-ray telescopes for more than 20 years. At a dedicated beamline at BESSY II, a monochromatic pencil beam is used by ESA and cosine Research since the end of 2005 for the characterization of novel silicon pore optics, currently under development for the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). At this beamline, a photon energy of 2.8 keV is selected by a Si channel-cut monochromator. Two apertures at distances of 12.2 m and 30.5 m from the dipole source form a pencil beam with a typical diameter of 100 μm and a divergence below 1". The optics to be investigated is placed in a vacuum chamber on a hexapod, the angular positioning is controlled by means of autocollimators to below 1". The reflected beam is registered at 5 m distance from the optics with a CCD-based camera system. This contribution presents design and performance of the upgrade of this beamline to cope with the updated design for IXO. The distance between optics and detector can now be 20 m. For double reflection from an X-ray Optical Unit (XOU) and incidence angles up to 1.4°, this corresponds to a vertical translation of the camera by 2 m. To achieve high reflectance at this angle even with uncoated silicon, a lower photon energy of 1 keV is available from a pair of W/B4C multilayers. For coated optics, a high energy option can provide a pencil beam of 7.6 keV radiation.

  10. Comparison of temperature standards. 800 deg C to 1500 deg C (radiation pyrometers). Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Rebagliati, M.; Hildebrand, E.; Tischler, M.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison between implementations of the temperature scale (IPTS-68) between 800 deg C to 1500 deg C was made at the Department of Physics and Metrology at INTI, using pyrometric lamps with a tungsten filament which were calibrated at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The purpose of this analysis was the detection of possible systematic errors as well as the evaluation of the uncertainty limit. (Author) [es

  11. Evaluation of disposal possibilities and potential in the Konrad iron-ore mine based on experiments for the handling and isolation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewitz, W.

    1984-01-01

    The Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen und Umwelftorschung (GSF) has established, at the conclusion of feasibility studies, that the suitability of the Konrad mine for the disposal of low-level waste and decommisioning waste has been proved, as well as the radiological safety of the disposal operations. On 31 August 1982, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) submitted an application for licensing to the State Authority of Lower Saxony

  12. Utilization of the research and measurement reactor Braunschweig for neutron metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) with regard to neutron metrology are briefly described. The use of the PTB's Research and Measuring Reactor as neutron source for metrological purposes is discussed. Reference neutron beams are described which serve as irradiation facilities for the calibration of detectors for radiation protection purposes in the frame of the legal metrology work in the PTB. (orig.) [de

  13. The German thoron progeny chamber-Concept and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettger, Annette; Honig, Anja; Arnold, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Following completion of the project 'Generation and characterisation of reference atmospheres of thoron decay products for the calibration of measuring devices for thoron decay products', the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) now operates a thoron progeny chamber in which 220 Rn (thoron), 222 Rn and its progenies can be made available under almost all ambient conditions. This allows all measuring systems to be calibrated under realistic climatic conditions with an accuracy unique worldwide.

  14. Quality management for noble gas trace analysis; Qualitaetssicherung bei der Edelgasspurenanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, S.; Konrad, M.; Kumberg, T.; Schlosser, C. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Freiburg (Germany); Gohla, H. [Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), Vienna International Centre, Vienna (Austria). Preparatory Commission

    2014-01-20

    The Federal Office for Radiation Protection operates measurement systems to determine the activity concentrations of Krypton-85 and Xenon-133 in air samples since the early 70s. Certified standards with stable noble gas admixtures are still missing for quality assurance (certified activity concentrations). The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is currently establishing a global noble gas monitoring network for the verification of compliance with the Treaty. In cooperation with CTBTO the BfS currently develops concepts of quality assurance for noble gas measurements. Opportunities for quality assurance without using certified standards are discussed by comparisons between individual laboratories and internal audits. The results from the first CTBTO laboratory intercomparison with synthetic radioxenon samples look very promising.

  15. PROCORAD. An international network for quality control; PROCORAD. Ein internationales Netzwerk zur Qualitaetssicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berard, Philippe [CEA/Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Fontenay-aux-Roses CEDEX (France). Unite PROSITON; Hill, Peter [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Kehagia, Konstantina [Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Agia Paraskevi (Greece)

    2011-07-01

    Intercomparisons in the testing field of in-vitro monitoring are an essential tool of quality control. The international network PROCORAD provides its members with annual inter-laboratory comparisons on nine different kinds of samples. They include different matrices (urine, faeces) as well as different radionuclides (e.g. tritium, strontium, polonium, actinides..). In 2010 there were 71 participating laboratories from 21 countries. An annual meeting of the participants offers the opportunity to discuss the results as well as an opportunity to relate to other participants, which is important for both scientific exchange and cross-border emergency response. (orig.)

  16. EURADOS intercomparison 2012 for neutron dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantuzzi, E.; Chevallier, M.A.; Cruz-Suarez, R.; Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Mayer, S.; Thomas, D.J.; Tanner, R.; Vanhavere, F.

    2014-11-01

    EURADOS, within the work performed by Working Group 2 - Harmonization of Individual Monitoring in Europe, has started a self-sustained programme of regular intercomparisons and has successfully executed three intercomparisons for whole body photon dosemeters (IC2008, IC2010, IC2012) and one intercomparison for extremity dosemeters for photon and beta fields (IC2009). In 2012, the EURADOS intercomparison IC2012n was launched for personal neutron dosemeters routinely used to measure personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), in individual monitoring. No systems under development were allowed to participate. IC2012n was carried out by a EURADOS nominated Organization Group (OG) consisting of: Marie- Anne Chevallier (IRSN, F), Rodolfo Cruz-Suarez (IAEA, UN-Vienna), Marlies Luszik-Bhadra (PTB, D), Sabine Mayer (PSI, CH), David J. Thomas (NPL, UK), Rick Tanner (PHE, UK), Filip Vanhavere (SCK-CEN, B) led by a Coordinator, Elena Fantuzzi (ENEA, I). 31 participants registered for the comparison, with 34 dosimetry systems. In total 816 dosemeters were irradiated in selected neutron fields on an ISO slab phantom. The irradiations were performed at 2 European accredited laboratories which are both National Primary Metrology Laboratories for ionizing radiation: NPL (National Physical Laboratory, UK) and PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, D). All irradiations were carried out according to the irradiation plan developed by the OG. The overall results show that most, although not all, dosimetric systems perform acceptably well (within a factor of 2) for irradiations with a bare radionuclide source ( 252 Cf at 0 ), whilst more than half of the systems underestimate the reference value for irradiations from non-normal angles of incidence irradiations ( 252 Cf at 45 ) or for simulated workplace fields ( 252 Cf(D 2 O) or 252 Cf source behind a shadow cone). The performance for 250 keV mono-energetic neutron irradiations varies mainly reflecting the detection principle on which the

  17. EURADOS intercomparison 2012 for neutron dosemeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantuzzi, E. [ENEA-Radiation Protection Institute, Bologna (Italy); Chevallier, M.A. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Cruz-Suarez, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Luszik-Bhadra, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Mayer, S. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Thomas, D.J. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington (United Kingdom); Tanner, R. [Public Health England, Oxon (United Kingdom); Vanhavere, F. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    EURADOS, within the work performed by Working Group 2 - Harmonization of Individual Monitoring in Europe, has started a self-sustained programme of regular intercomparisons and has successfully executed three intercomparisons for whole body photon dosemeters (IC2008, IC2010, IC2012) and one intercomparison for extremity dosemeters for photon and beta fields (IC2009). In 2012, the EURADOS intercomparison IC2012n was launched for personal neutron dosemeters routinely used to measure personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), in individual monitoring. No systems under development were allowed to participate. IC2012n was carried out by a EURADOS nominated Organization Group (OG) consisting of: Marie- Anne Chevallier (IRSN, F), Rodolfo Cruz-Suarez (IAEA, UN-Vienna), Marlies Luszik-Bhadra (PTB, D), Sabine Mayer (PSI, CH), David J. Thomas (NPL, UK), Rick Tanner (PHE, UK), Filip Vanhavere (SCK-CEN, B) led by a Coordinator, Elena Fantuzzi (ENEA, I). 31 participants registered for the comparison, with 34 dosimetry systems. In total 816 dosemeters were irradiated in selected neutron fields on an ISO slab phantom. The irradiations were performed at 2 European accredited laboratories which are both National Primary Metrology Laboratories for ionizing radiation: NPL (National Physical Laboratory, UK) and PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, D). All irradiations were carried out according to the irradiation plan developed by the OG. The overall results show that most, although not all, dosimetric systems perform acceptably well (within a factor of 2) for irradiations with a bare radionuclide source ({sup 252}Cf at 0 ), whilst more than half of the systems underestimate the reference value for irradiations from non-normal angles of incidence irradiations ({sup 252}Cf at 45 ) or for simulated workplace fields ({sup 252}Cf(D{sub 2}O) or {sup 252}Cf source behind a shadow cone). The performance for 250 keV mono-energetic neutron irradiations varies mainly reflecting the detection

  18. Lean years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnet, R J

    1982-01-01

    The author attempts to take stock of five critical systems of resources: Energy, mineral resources, food, water, and human abilities. All five systems have been integrated, to an ever-increasing extent in global control systems. These control systems determine how many people, in what parts of the world, will be faced with hunger, cold, or unemployment. The author tries to find out who is in charge of these control systems, how they have come into existence, and on what strategies they are based. In the final chapter, ''Policy of survival'', the author states that the secret of survival in the lean years to come is still in the dark. Man's most fundamental desire is to be human, i.e. to be in harmony with nature both psychologically and biologically. Politics should take account of this and provide us with the means for doing what is necessary.

  19. Past Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    Preface; 1. Ancestry and early days; 2. Schooldays; 3. Relation with other boys at school; 4. Education; 5. Influence of the Royal Institution; 6. Later education in London; 7. Reminiscences of Bedford College; 8. Scientific work and friends in London; 9. Personal retrospect; 10. Romance; 11. Influence of the British Association; 12. Reminiscences of Coopers Hill and assistants and popular lectures; 13. Liverpool; 14. Scientific work at Liverpool; 15. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 16. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 17. Electric waves and the beginnings of wireless; 18. Other friends; 19. Family life; 20. Holidays; 21. Side issues; 22. Early experiences in psychical research; 23. Psychical research; 24. Further psychic adventures, and psycho-physical phenomena; 25. Reminiscences of my years at the university of Birmingham; 26. Birmingham friendships and recollections; 27. Scientific retrospect; 28. Apologia pro vita mea; Index.

  20. Workplace photon radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Bartlett, D.T.; Ambrosi, P.

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of workplace radiation fields is essential for measures in radiation protection. Information about the energy and directional distribution of the incident photon radiation was obtained by several devices developed by the National Radiation Protection Board, United Kingdom, by the Statens Stralskyddsinstitut, Sweden, together with EURADOS and by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany. The devices are described and some results obtained at workplaces in nuclear industry, medicine and science in the photon energy range from 20 keV to 7 MeV are given. (author)

  1. Involving private persons and corporations in the planning process according to paragraph 9b German nuclear law - practicability and limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, J.; Roesel, H.

    1978-01-01

    The 4th Amendment to the German Nuclear Law has procured the legal base for the disposal of radioactive waste in the German Federal Republic. The Nuclear Law states that the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig is responsible for the disposal of radioactive waste. The PTB can be assisted in its responsibilities by persons and institutions of private character. Involving private persons and corporations in the licensing process figures a legal problem, and there has been a seminar in the PTB discussing such problems. The present contribution gives a brief summary of the opinions stated by the various legal experts taking part in this seminar. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Lessons learnt from an international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-Vergara, J.C.; Thompson, I.M.G.; Funck, E.

    2003-01-01

    and at the Underground Laboratory for Dosimetry and Spectrometry (UDO) of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. The network systems are used continuously to monitor radiation levels throughout a country in order to give early warning of nuclear accidents having transboundary implications...... in order to be consistent with the preliminary report. In addition, in some cases the results are also given in terms of the quantity measured by each national network system. The experience gained from this intercomparison is used to help organise a follow-up intercomparison to be held at the PTB...

  3. Situation and development of solid state dosimetry from the PTB-point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, D.; Nink, R.

    An outline is given of the legal situation concerning dosimetry in the field of radiation protection in the Federal Republic of Germany which is ruled by the German law of verification. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) therefore has worked out requirements for the type approval of TLD systems the main points of which are discussed briefly. A further progress of TLD - measuring methods and materials - seems desirable. Therefore, extended research with regard to preparation, TL mechanism and dosimetric properties is necessary. Examples of the activities in the solid state physics group of PTB - mainly concerning TLD an LiF - are given

  4. Comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K8 of high dose-rate Ir-192 brachytherapy standards for reference air kerma rate of the PTB and the BIPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, C.; Allisy-Roberts, P.J.; Selbach, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    An indirect comparison of the standards for reference air kerma rate (RAKR) for 192 Ir high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy sources of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany, and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out at the PTB in September 2011. The comparison result, based on the calibration coefficients for a transfer standard and expressed as a ratio of the PTB and the BIPM standards for reference air kerma rate, is 1.0003 with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.0099. (authors)

  5. Practical experience in and improvements to aerosol sampling for trace analysis of airborne radionuclides in ground level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.; Jagielak, J.; Kolb, W.; Pietruszewski, A.; Wershofen, H.; Zarucki, R.

    1994-01-01

    In November 1989 the Polish government and the German government signed a bilateral agreement for scientific and technological co-operation. In the framework of this co-operation the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLRP), Warsaw, and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig, conducted a co-operation project in the field of monitoring the airborne radioactivity in ground level air. This progress report deals with the history of the project covering the period from July 1990 to December 1992, the scientific activities and their results. A proposal for future co-operation, which is planned for the near future, is made. (orig.)

  6. Quality control of radionuclide calibrators: Interlaboratory comparison of thallium-201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debertin, K.

    1985-01-01

    After 131 I and sup(99m)Tc comparisons in 1982 and 1983, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in cooperation with the firm Amersham-Buchler organized a further comparison in October 1984 in order to investigate the accuracy of activity measurements in nuclear medicine. 48 hospitals or institutes participated in this 201 TI comparison. The wast majority of the reported results agreed with the PTB-value to within 10%, however in 5 cases deviations amounted to more than 20%. (orig.) [de

  7. Preliminary waste acceptance requirements for the planned Konrad repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, E.; Brennecke, P.

    1987-01-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has established Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements for the planned Konrad repository. These requirements were developed, in accordance with the Safety Criteria of the Reactor Safety Commission, with the help of a site specific safety assessment; they are under the reservation of the plan approval procedure, which is still in progress. In developing waste acceptance requirements, the PTB fulfills one of its duties as the institute responsible for waste disposal and gives guidelines for waste conditioning to waste producers and conditioners. (orig.) [de

  8. Determination of the neutron detection efficiency of an NE213 scintillator for En=2.5 to 16 MeV using the 2H(d,n)3He reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ohali, M.A.; Aksoy, A.; Coban, A.

    1997-01-01

    The absolute efficiency of an NE213 liquid scintillator of 12.7 cm diameter and 5.08 cm thickness was measured in the neutron energy range 2.5-16 MeV using the 2 H(d,n) 3 He reaction as a source of monoenergetic neutrons. The efficiencies were measured at the time-of-flight facility of Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory TUNL. The experimental data are compared to calculations from the Monte Carlo code NEFF of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany PTB. (orig.)

  9. Determination of the neutron detection efficiency of an NE213 scintillator for E{sub n}=2.5 to 16 MeV using the {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ohali, M.A.; Aksoy, A.; Coban, A. [King Fahd Univ. of Pet. and Miner., Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Energy Res. Lab.; Hanly, J.M.; Felsher, P.D.; Howell, C.R.; Tornow, W.; Salinas, F.; Walter, R.L. [Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratories, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    1997-09-11

    The absolute efficiency of an NE213 liquid scintillator of 12.7 cm diameter and 5.08 cm thickness was measured in the neutron energy range 2.5-16 MeV using the {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reaction as a source of monoenergetic neutrons. The efficiencies were measured at the time-of-flight facility of Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory TUNL. The experimental data are compared to calculations from the Monte Carlo code NEFF of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany PTB. (orig.). 7 refs.

  10. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory at INFLPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlat, F.; Minea, R.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Badita, E.; Sima, E.; Dumitrascu, M.; Stancu, E.; Vancea, C., E-mail: scarlat.f@gmail.com [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics - INFLPR, Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (INFLPR) has constructed a High Energy Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory SSDL-STARDOOR - for performing dosimetric calibrations according to ISO IEC SR/EN 17025:2005 standards. This is outfitted with UNIDOS Secondary Standard Dosimeter from PTW (Freiburg Physikalisch-Technische Werksttaten) calibrated at the PTB-Braunschweig (German Federal Institute of Physics and Metrology). A radiation beam of the quality of Q used by our laboratory as calibration source are provided by INFLPR 7 MeV electron beam linear accelerator mounted in our facility. (author)

  11. Determination of the air attenuation correction factor for a free air ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Natalia F.; Cintra, Felipe B.; Castro, Maysa C. de; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present the experimental and simulation results for the air attenuation correction factor for a free air ionization chamber with concentric cylinders of Victoreen, model 481-5. This correction factor was obtained for the standard mammography qualities established in the Instrument Calibration Laboratory (LCI) of IPEN. The values were compared with the results from the German primary standard laboratory Physikalisch- Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), and maximum differences of 0.40% in relation to the experimental value and 0.31% in relation to the simulated value were obtained. (author)

  12. Neutron noise measurement technique in a coupled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genoud, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Describes work carried out on the swimming pool reactor at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at Braunschweig. The reactor has two multiplying zones, is light water moderated, with 90% enriched 235 U fuel. There is a D 2 0 reservoir between the two parts of the reactor. Signal/noise ratio obtained by means of ionisation chamber type neutron detectors of 10 -13 amp/u.f. sensitivity is of the order of 40 dB and band frequency 1.5 kHz. Spectral density of the interzone interaction energy was obtained by use of Fourier transforms, previously corrected by a Hanning window. (S.W.)

  13. Quality assurance from the point of view of the gas and water suppliers; Qualitaetssicherung aus Sicht der Gas- und Wasserversorger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiltknecht, M. [SVGW, Abt. Gas, Zurich (Switzerland); Girsberger, W. [SVGW, Abt. Gas, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-06-01

    Considerable misgivings concerning the quality assurance systems exist among the energy supply enterprises. However, the proper utilisation of these systems creates cost transparency, increases economic efficiency and promotes customer satisfaction. A working group comprising representatives of the insular works and the propane-air producers for peak demand have critically examined the quality requirements in the field of product, operation, application and management of the gas supply on the basis of a well-defined performance commission. The evaluation of the enquiry at the member plants showed that, especially concerning the gas quality, network management, operational security and the organisational procedures, a demand for an efficient quality management exists. For a long-term execution of the service commission a certification according to ISO 9000-Series is recommended. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den Energieversorgungsunternehmen bestehen erhebliche Bedenken ueber die Nuetzlichkeit von Qualitaetssicherungssystemen. Deren richtige Anwendung schafft jedoch Kostentransparenz, steigert die Wirtschaftlichkeit und foerdert die Kundenzufriedenheit. Eine Arbeitsgruppe aus Vertretern der Inselwerke und der Propan-Luft-Spitzendeckung hat sich bei definiertem Leistungsauftrag mit den Qualitaetsanforderungen in den Bereichen Produkt, Betrieb, Anwendung und Management der Gasversorgung auseinandergesetzt. Die Auswertung der Umfrage bei den Mitgliedwerken zeigte, dass besonders bei der Gasqualitaet, der Netzbewirtschaftung, der Betriebssicherheit und der betrieblichen Ablauforganisation ein Bedarf an effizienter Qualitaetsbewirtschaftung besteht. Zur langfristigen Erfuellung des Dienstleistungsauftrages empfiehlt sich die Zertifizierung nach der ISO-9000er-Reihe. (orig.)

  14. Quality assurance and management in radiation protection - burden and benefit; Qualitaetssicherung und -management im Strahlenschutz - Last und Nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baehrle, H.G.; Butterweck, G.; Habegger, R.; Schuler, C.; Wyser, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen PSI (CH). Abt. Strahlenschutz und Sicherheit (ASI); Beck, T. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandten Strahlenschutz; Buchholz, W. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). AG-SG 2.4 - Inkorporationsueberwachung; Kuehne, J.; Tesch, J. [Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Geologie Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Stralsund (Germany). Abt. Umweltanalytik und Strahlenschutz; Valbuena, A. [DAP Deutsches Akkreditierungssystem Pruefwesen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Measurements of radiation for the purpose of Radiation Protection and Health Physics demand a high degree of quality and accuracy. Selected topics of quality management and control are presented. They vary from practical aspects of analytical quality control, from traceability and uncertainty of measurement results to quality of intralaboratory communication. Changes in the German system of accreditation due to European harmonization are also presented. Certification and accreditation of testing laboratories are being increasingly expected and have already been laid down by certain federal regulations. (orig.)

  15. Update in breast MRT. Standards and quality management; Update in der Mamma-MRT-Technik. Untersuchungsstandards und Qualitaetssicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Claudia [Kantonsspital Luzern, Lucerne (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2013-06-15

    Meanwhile breast MRI has emerged to an important tool for breast diagnostics, with a broad spectrum of technical requirements and interpretation guidelines. The use of breast MRI is reasonable and helpful, provided that an appropriate application and optimal technical conditions are fulfilled, otherwise unnecessary follow-up examinations or biopsies might be initiated. This article gives an overview about planning and performing the examination, describes the physical background for optimal acquisition protocols, gives support for post-processing and image interpretation and also refers to possible misinterpretations. (orig.)

  16. Service planning. Methods for quality assurance in manufacturing; Instandhaltungs-Planung. Methoden zur Qualitaetssicherung in der Fertigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapp, H.

    1995-12-31

    Servicing is the generic term for inspection, maintenance and repair. It is largely carried out using quality-oriented methods as are laid down in DIN EN ISO 9000 ff. Service planning is an investment in the future which will become more important with growing automisation of production plants. Planned servicing reduces risks and protects against accidents, excessive downtime, and damage to movable property and buildings. The present book addresses servicemen from industry, craftsman`s establishments, and service planners who deal with the servicing of mchanical installations. It contains examples of planning which may serve the reader as a guide and stimulus for his or her own work. Rather than providing detailed solutions the examples offer hints and information on how to go about one`s own service planning. Tables containing technical terms and proposals for schedule and checklist forms and operating sheets offer guidance in setting up one`s own service planning. Planned servicing contributes to prolonging service life, increasing the value and ensuring maximum operability of an installation. Service planning includes the elaboration of schedules, codable operating sheets, material lists, test certificates, error reports, damage reports, and analyses of weak points. Operators of production plants can procure these planning tools also in the form of software. Coding of different types of maintenance work, damaged parts and damage patterns (terminology of defects) makes it possible to call for maintenance tenders from other companies. (orig.) [Deutsch] Instandhaltung ist der Oberbegriff fuer Inspektion, Wartung und Instandsetzung. Im Vordergrund stehen qualitaetsorientierte Methoden gemaess DIN EN ISO 9000 ff. Geplante Instandhaltung ist eine Investition fuer die Zukunft; sie wird mit der weiteren Automatisierung der Produktionsanlagen an Bedeutung gewinnen. Die geplante Instandhaltung reduziert das Risiko und schafft Sicherheit vor Unfaellen, Produktionsausfaellen, Sach- und Gebaeudeschaeden. Dieses Buch wendet sich an Instandhalter der Industrie und an Handwerksbetriebe sowie an Instandhalterplaner, die sich mit der Instandhaltung mechanischer Anlagen beschaeftigen. Es enthaelt Planungsbeispiele, die als Anleitung und Anregung fuer die eigene Arbeit gedacht sind. Die Beispiele sind keine Rezepte, sondern sollen Tips und Hinweise geben fuer eigene Ueberlegungen zur Planung der Instandhaltung. Tabellen mit Begriffen und Formularvorschlaegen zur Erstellung von Terminplaenen, Checklisten und Arbeitskarten geben Hilfestellung beim Aufbau einer eigenen Instandhalteplanung. Geplante Instandhaltung traegt dazu bei, dass die Nutungsdauer der Anlagen verlaengert, der Anlagenwert verbessert und die maximale Einsatzbereitschaft gewaehrleistet wird. Die Instandhalteplanung umfasst neben der Erstellung von Terminplaenen, codierbaren Arbeitskarten und Betriebsmittellisten auch Messprotokolle, Maengelberichte, Schadensmeldungen und Schwachstellenanalysen. Vorgenannte Planung kann auch den Betreibern von Fertigungsanlagen ueber EDV angeboten werden. Durch die Codierung der Instandhaltetaetigkeiten, Schadensteile und Schadensbilder (Maengelbegriffe) koennen auch Instandhalte-Angebote von Fremdfirmen eingeholt werden. (orig.)

  17. Radiological information systems: improvements in service, economy, and quality control?; Radiologische Informationssysteme: Verbesserung von Leistungserfassung, Wirtschaftlichkeit und Qualitaetssicherung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross-Fengels, W. [Abt. fuer Klinische Radiologie, AK Harburg (Germany); Weber, M. [Abt. fuer Klinische Radiologie, AK Harburg (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    By means of complete service control and standardized accounting processes, radiological information systems clearly contribute to improved results. They provide the prerequisites for the establishment of expanded networks and allow comprisons with comparable institutions. The quality of patient care can be improved since, for example, the production time from referral to finished result becomes shorter. Direct access to patient and findings data from several positions is possible. Preliminary results can be viewed immediately. The patient`s history is accessible to authorized users at all times. The exact reproducibility and assignment of services leads to more clarity. By means of the information available form RIS, rapid adaptive processes can be undertaken. The system assists the to fulfill the requirements of health regulations. The above-mentioned relationships demonstrate that the EDP systems are well accepted by physicians, medical assistants, and administrators and represent an indispensable aid for solving problems. (orig.) [Deutsch] Radiologische Informationssysteme fuehren ueber komplette Leistungserfassungen und standardisierte Abrechnungsverfahren eindeutig zu einer Ergebnisverbesserung. Sie stellen die Voraussetzungen fuer den Aufbau erweiterter Netzstrukturen dar und erlauben Quervergleiche mit aehnlichen Institutionen. Die Qualitaet der Patientenversorgung laesst sich verbessern, da z.B. die `Produktionszeit` von der Anforderung bis hin zur Befundausgabe kuerzer wird. Der Zugriff zu Patienten- und Befunddaten ist unmittelbar von mehreren Stellen aus moeglich. Vorbefunde sind sofort einsehbar. Die Patientenhistorie ist jederzeit fuer autorisierte Anwender verfuegbar. Die exakte Reproduzierbarkeit und Zuordnung der Leistungen fuehrt zu einer hohen Transparenz. Durch die Informationen, die ueber das RIS zu erhalten sind, koennen rasche Anpassungsprozesse vorgenommen werden. Die Anlagen unterstuetzen den Anwender, den Anforderungen der GSG nachzukommen. Die vorgenannten Zusammenhaenge verdeutlichen, dass diese radiologischen EDV-Anlagen bei Aerzten, MTAs und Verwaltungsmitarbeitern eine hohe Akzeptanz aufweisen und fuer die angestrebten Problemloesungen ein unverzichtbares Hilfsmittel darstellen. (orig.)

  18. Quality assurance in medical radiation applications. The medical and dental appointment; Qualitaetssicherung bei medizinischen Strahlenanwendungen. Die aerztlichen und zahnaerztlichen Stellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst-Elz, Andreas [Ministerium fuer Energiewende, Landwirtschaft, Umwelt, Natur und Digitalisierung des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    Medical radiation applications cause averaged over the German population an annual exposure of almost 2 mSv. Medical authorities have the assignment to assure and control the diagnostic and therapeutic quality of these applications and to provide recommendations for operators with respect to dose reductions and radiation protection, including guidance for radiotherapy planning aimed to questions of dose and therapy optimization.

  19. Optimisation of small-scale hydropower using quality assurance methods - Preliminary project; Vorprojekt: Optimierung von Kleinwasserkraftwerken durch Qualitaetssicherung. Programm Kleinwasserkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, S.; Staubli, T.

    2006-11-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary project that examined how quality assurance methods can be used in the optimisation of small-scale hydropower projects. The aim of the project, to use existing know-how, experience and synergies, is examined. Discrepancies in quality and their effects on production prices were determined in interviews. The paper describes best-practice guidelines for the quality assurance of small-scale hydro schemes. A flow chart describes the various steps that have to be taken in the project and realisation work. Information collected from planners and from interviews made with them are presented along with further information obtained from literature. The results of interviews concerning planning work, putting to tender and the construction stages of these hydro schemes are presented and commented on. Similarly, the operational phase of such power plant is also examined, including questions on operation and guarantees. The aims of the follow-up main project - the definition of a tool and guidelines for ensuring quality - are briefly reviewed.

  20. One each year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1980-01-01

    Later this year or early next year site construction work is due to start on two new nuclear power projects in Britain. There has been a gap of ten years since the last start of construction on a nuclear project in the country. Coupled with this is a, long overdue, rationalisation of the complicated management structure of the National Nuclear Corporation and its operating subsidary, the Nuclear Power Company, with a new Chairman, Denis Rooney, taking up his duties on July 1. At the end of last year the Government announced a program of nuclear power plant construction which will involve the ordering of at least one new station per year for a ten year period starting in 1982 and both nationally and internationally the Prime Minister, Margret Thatcher, has declared her conviction in the need for the industrialised nations of the world to develop further the use of nuclear energy as an alternative to oil. (orig.) [de

  1. Final Year Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubsch, Tristan [Howard University

    2013-06-20

    In the last years of this eighteen-year grant project, the research efforts have focused mostly on the study of off-shell representations of supersymmetry, both on the worldline and on the world- sheet, i.e., both in supersymmetric quantum mechanics and in supersymmetric field theory in 1+1-dimensional spacetime.

  2. Validating year 2000 compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); P. Klint (Paul); M.P.A. Sellink

    1997-01-01

    textabstractValidating year 2000 compliance involves the assessment of the correctness and quality of a year 2000 conversion. This entails inspecting both the quality of the conversion emph{process followed, and of the emph{result obtained, i.e., the converted system. This document provides an

  3. Chernobyl ten years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The accident in the fourth reactor plant in Chernobyl in Ukraine occurred ten years years ago, caused the death of 31 people while the health consequences have turned out to be difficult to assess. This review describes the accident, its consequences and effects to health, studies carried out at the present state as well as the comparison with the other accidents and disaster. (author)

  4. Four-Year Itch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Ohio's decision to let community colleges award four-year degrees is part of a growing national trend. When this article went to press, more than 90 community colleges across 19 states offered active four-year degree programs. Counting New York's Fashion Institute of Technology, which technically is a community college, but offers degrees as high…

  5. Seven years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwicki, R.

    1993-01-01

    The paper contains information of the WHO about the state of public health in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus seven years after the Chernobyl accident. The results of medical investigations obtained after two years run of IPHECA project have been also presented

  6. Mathematics year 5 answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena; Poggo, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Features the complete set of answers to the exercises in Mathematics Year 5, to save you time marking work and enable you to identify areas requiring further attention. The book includes diagrams and workings where necessary, to ensure pupils understand how to present their answers. Also available from Galore Park www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics Year 5. - Mathematics Year 6. - 11+ Maths Practice Exercises. - 11+ Maths Revision Guide. - 10-Minute Maths Tests Workbook Age 8-10. - 10-Minute Maths Tests Workbook Age 9-11. - Mental Arithmetic Workbook Age 8-10. - Mental Arithmetic Workbook Ag

  7. Year 2000 awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, C.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the challenges business face with the year 2000 software problem. Estimates, roadmaps, virtual factory software, current awareness, and world wide web references are given.

  8. Fiscal Year 2015 Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 Council-approved operating budget for Montgomery County. The dataset does not include revenues and detailed agency budget...

  9. 100 years of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalla, Horst

    2011-01-01

    Even a hundred years after its discovery, superconductivity continues to bring us new surprises, from superconducting magnets used in MRI to quantum detectors in electronics. 100 Years of Superconductivity presents a comprehensive collection of topics on nearly all the subdisciplines of superconductivity. Tracing the historical developments in superconductivity, the book includes contributions from many pioneers who are responsible for important steps forward in the field.The text first discusses interesting stories of the discovery and gradual progress of theory and experimentation. Emphasizi

  10. 25 years at Trieste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Towards the end of October 1964, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) came formally into being in Trieste. With less than 200 scientific visitors in its first year, the Centre, under the inspired Directorship of Abdus Salam and supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), UNESCO, and Italian national and regional authorities, has grown into a veritable world centre of scientific excellence, attracting over 4000 active researchers each year.

  11. 25 years at Trieste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-01-15

    Towards the end of October 1964, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) came formally into being in Trieste. With less than 200 scientific visitors in its first year, the Centre, under the inspired Directorship of Abdus Salam and supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), UNESCO, and Italian national and regional authorities, has grown into a veritable world centre of scientific excellence, attracting over 4000 active researchers each year.

  12. Chernobyl: a year after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazzaniga, R.; Dominici, G.; Malvicini, A.; Sangalli, E.

    1989-01-01

    The radioactivity measurements in the year after the Chernobyl accident, carried out by the Radioprotection Division of the Joint Research Centre of Ispra, are reported. Air at ground level and in grass, milk, wheat, meat, fishes and man have been measured. The evaluation of the 1987 individual dose equivalent due to the exposure of the population living in N.W. Italy is compared with the dose equivalent absorbed in the year following the accident

  13. Comparison of natural and synthetic diamond X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansley, S. P.; Betzel, G.T.; Meyer, J.; Metcalf, P.; Reinisch, L.

    2010-01-01

    , the synthetic diamond detector performed well in comparison to the natural dia mond detector. Keywords X-ray detector Synthetic diamond Natural diamond Energy dependence Dose linearity . Dose-rate dependence X-ray detectors fabricated from diamond have been co sidered for many years, e.g. [1-5], for reasons including the near-tissue equivalence and high radiation tolerance of diamond, and low leakage current (which helps improve signal-noise ratio) due to high intrinsic resistivity. It is worth noting that, while diamond is described as near-tis sue equivalent because of its atomic number (Z = 6), the mass density of diamond (3.51 g/cm3) is much higher than water (1.00 g/cm/ muscle (1.06 g/cm3) [6] or fat (0.92 gl cm3) [7]. Natural diamond-based detectors for use in high-energy photon and electron beams are only commercially-avai able from Physikalisch- Technische Werkstatten GmbH (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) [8]; they were developed in cooperation with the IPTP Institute in Riga, Latvia. These detectors have a small sensitive volume (1-6 mm3) and hence are marketed as being especially well suited for

  14. Year book Australia 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R J

    1985-01-01

    The Year Book is the principal reference work produced by the Central Office of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). It provides a comprehensive and detailed statistical review of all aspects of the economy and social conditions of Australia. In addition, it contains descriptive matter dealing with Australia's history, geography, physiography, climate and meteorology, government, defence and repatriation services and international relations. The first Official Year Book was published in 1908. This is the sixty-ninth Year Book issued under the authority of the Commonwealth Government and follows a similar pattern to previous editions. However, chapters have been revised and new material has been added. Most of the statistics contained in this volume relate to the years ended June or December 1983 or 1984. More detailed, and in many cases more recent, statistics are available in other ABS publications. The more significant of these publications are listed at the end of the relevant chapters of the Year book; the ABS Catalogue of Publications (1101.0) lists all current publications of the ABS.

  15. Celebrating nine years together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinico Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Perspectives on Federalism starts off its ninth year with this issue which gathers, as usual, a series of multi-disciplinary pieces. Almost two years have passed since we started our collaboration with De Gruyter, and our journal has since then enjoyed continued growth and has been acquiring international visibility. 2017 is going to be rich in surprises for our readers, with a wealth of interesting projects and special issues which will increase the already high standard of the journal. 2016 was also a very challenging year for scholars interested in federalism; the start of the Trump Presidency and the results of the referendum on Brexit held on 23 June 2016 are just two examples.

  16. Emergent technologies: 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Hawley K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

  17. 50 years of positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    This year marks the 50th anniversary of one of the major landmarks of modern physics - the discovery of the positron, the antimatter counterpart of the electron. This provided the first evidence for antimatter, and it was also unprecedented for the existence of a new particle to have been predicted by theory. The positron and the concepts behind it were to radically change our picture of Nature. It led to the rapid advancement or our understanding, culminating some fifteen years later with the formulation of quantum electrodynamics as we now know it. (orig./HSI).

  18. Intercomparison tests and internal control samples as substantial elements of the quality control system: practical insights; Ringversuche und interne Kontrollproben als Elemente der Qualitaetssicherung: Erfahrungen aus der Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, D.; Hartmann, M. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandten Strahlenschutz

    2002-07-01

    The contribution highlights the practical experience accumulated in implementing the statutory ordinance on the monitoring of incorporated ionizing radiation by official monitoring stations, effective in Germany since 1996, focusing on the quality assurance system to be maintained by those stations. The examples used to illustrate practical aspects are: participation in intercomparison tests, sampling for internal control purposes, and the monitoring by way of excretion analyses of individuals handling alpha and beta emitters (nuclides) at their place of work. (orig./CB) [German] Im Jahre 1996 trat in Deutschland die 'Richtlinie ueber Anforderungen an Inkorporationsmessstellen' (Anforderungsrichtlinie) in Kraft. Danach werden fuer die Durchfuehrung der Inkorporationsueberwachung nur noch Messstellen amtlich anekannt, die unter anderem den dort gegebenen Anforderungen an Qualitaetssicherungsmassnahmen genuegen. Im Einzelnen betrifft dies die Teilnahme an Ringversuchen sowie die vorgeschriebenen internen Eigenkontrollen. Am Beispiel der Inkorporationsueberwachung durch Ausscheidungsanalyse, die bevorzugt beim Umgang mit alpha- und betastrahlenden Nukliden durchgefuehrt wird, werden die bisherigen Erfahrungen bei Anwendung der Anforderungsrichtlinie vorgestellt. (orig.)

  19. ESO: The CERN Years

    CERN Multimedia

    Schaeffer, A

    2012-01-01

    In 1970, CERN and ESO signed a collaboration agreement for the construction of the Observatory’s first telescope. That same year, ESO’s Telescope Division and Sky Atlas laboratory settled on the CERN site in Meyrin. Let’s turn back to the beginnings of this lasting and fruitful alliance.

  20. Interlochen: The Earliest Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Theron

    1997-01-01

    Provides a personal reminiscence of the first two years (1928-29) of the now famous Interlochen Arts Camp. Profiles the camp's two founders, Joseph E. Maddy and Thaddeus P. Giddings. Early participants performed carpentry and landscaping duties and learned a classical music repertoire. Includes photographs of Maddy and Giddings. (MJP)

  1. Einstein's Miraculous Year

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The revolution of the earth around the sun has given us a natural unit of time, the year ... are watershed events for the human race itself, in a far more profound sense ..... the conflict was to modify Newtonian mechanics while retaining Maxwell's ...

  2. The next fifty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaldwell, Reg

    1995-01-01

    The General Manager of the reactor division of Centronics, a world class manufacturer of reactor control systems and radiation detectors, describes its achievements and looks forward to speculate on what the next fifty years may mean in terms of technological development. Tables are given of the locations of Centronics Fission Chambers and of reactors controlled with Centronic Detectors. (UK)

  3. ENLIGHT 10 year Anniversary

    CERN Multimedia

    Alvarez, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Ten years ago, in February 2002, the European Network for Light Ion Hadron Therapy (ENLIGHT) had its inaugural meeting at CERN. As a pioneering multidisciplinary network celebrates its 10th anniversary, some of the founders recall how it all started. Picture 1 : Participants at the 10th anniversary meeting of ENLIGHT at CNAO, Pavia, in September 2012.

  4. Fifty Years of Insulin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    has since saved millions of lives throughout the world. The year 197I is the 50th anniversary of Banting's historic discovery. The story of insulin ... He found no evidence of injury. An impaired ... Prize in medicine for his discovery of insulin.

  5. 150 years of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Messina

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This preview of the Festival della Scienza 2011 focuses on a major initiative celebrating 150 years of Italian scientific research. Run jointly by the Italian Research Council (CNR and the Associazione Festival della Scienza, the project presents outstanding achievements in various fields including neuroscience, web technologies, genetics, chemistry and much more.

  6. European Music Year 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  7. 10 years with TAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehneer, H.

    1997-01-01

    During the IV TAPS (two arm photon spectrometer) workshop held at Mont Saint Odile near Strasbourg the third of September, the TAPS collaboration celebrated its 10. anniversary. At this occasion a compilation entitled 'The first 10 years with TAPS' was issued. The foreword of the spokesperson of the TAPS collaboration is presented. (K.A.)

  8. Fifty years of ILO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    'Poverty anywhere constitutes a danger to prosperity everywhere. This is the motto of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) which in June this year was celebrating the 50th anniversary of its foundation. It was initiated to advance the cause of social justice as a way of contributing to peace. (author)

  9. Mid Year Meetings | Events

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... (in connection with World Year of Physics). 14.00-14.45, N. MUKUNDA, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru Light, space and time, View presentation ... T. RAMASAMI, Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai Collagen-based smart biomaterials, View presentation. 10.30-11.00, Tea break. 11.00-11.30, V. SHANKAR, ...

  10. 50 years of CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jingtang

    2006-01-01

    The successes of CERN during the past 50 years since the organization was established in 1954 are described, with emphasis on the areas of scientific achievement, science globalization, creating new technologies for society, and the scientific exchanges and cooperation with China. (authors)

  11. Reflections on 21 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, S.; Mandel, H.; Teller, E.

    1977-01-01

    Personal reflections after twenty one years of nuclear power are presented by a number of those who were international figures in the nuclear energy field during that period. Lessons learnt, achievements, prospects and predictions for the future are discussed in eleven brief surveys. (U.K.)

  12. CND twenty years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.; Pritchard, C.

    1980-01-01

    A study is presented of people who were supporters or leaders in the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) in the 1950s and 1960s. Information is given from questionnaires completed by 403 respondents, about their social and political development during the past 20 years. (author)

  13. 'THE FIVE ACCURSED YEARS'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryld, Claus

    2007-01-01

    The subject for this paper is the question of how the Second World War has been perceived and used since that war - in Denmark, and especially in recent years, but also with a comparative view to Norway and Sweden. In addition to an outline of the development of public history regarding the war...

  14. Affordances: Ten Years On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jill P.; Stillman, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Ten years ago the construct, affordance, was rising in prominence in scholarly literature. A proliferation of different uses and meanings was evident. Beginning with its origin in the work of Gibson, we traced its development and use in various scholarly fields. This paper revisits our original question with respect to its utility in mathematics…

  15. TODDLERS (1 - 5 YEARS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    to atopic dermatitis, but apart from this, the toddler years are a relatively quiet period dermatologically ... in addition to sessional work as a consultant at Johannesburg .... The rash fades rapidly within hours to a few days, and there is no desqua ...

  16. Chinese New Year Dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgemann, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

  17. Fifty years of ILO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-07-01

    'Poverty anywhere constitutes a danger to prosperity everywhere. This is the motto of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) which in June this year was celebrating the 50th anniversary of its foundation. It was initiated to advance the cause of social justice as a way of contributing to peace. (author)

  18. Reflections, 15 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, George

    2016-01-01

    George Knox reflects on his 15-year career as president of Labette Community College in Parsons, Kansas. Knox writes that, as a first-time president coming into a brand new system, he was very fortunate to have many seasoned presidents and mentors in Kansas and from the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Presidents Academy. He says…

  19. Toward the year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    If the world population continues to grow at its present rate, in only about 35 more years there will be an additional 3.5 billion people. Although it is likely that the growth rate will slow down in the future, there will be an increase of between 2.3-3.5 billion people by the year 2000. At that time the Asian, African, and Latin American regions of the world will account for between 81-84% of world population, regardless of whether there is a fertility decline. Simultaneously, the populations of Europe and North America will decrease from 26 to between 16-19%. The People's Republic of China is now working to contain population increase, but despite the efforts for every 10 Chinese alive in 1970 there will be 15 in the year 2000. For the other 9 most populous less developed countries, there will be nearly 20 persons for every 10. As this figure is 12 in the year 2000 for every 10 Russians or Americans in 1970, a significant reduction in the growth rate of population in the 10 largest less developed countries would do much to reduce the world's population problems. The number of children born between now and the year 2000 depends on the fertility of all women in the childbearing ages during that period. Finally, as the population of the world continues to increase, there will be a marked concentration of the world's children in the poorer nations, and this will be a major problem in these developing countries.

  20. [Ryazan hospital--80 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, A S; Gromov, M F

    2012-02-01

    In December 2011 marked 80 years of the founding of the Ryazan garrison hospital, originally housed in two buildings: "Redut housed"--a monument of architecture of the XVIII century and the former almshouses room "for the maimed in the war", was built in 1884 now Ryazan garrison hospital (from 2010--Branch No 6 FSI "in 1586 the district military hospital in the Western Military District", the Defense Ministry of Russia)--a multi-field medical preventive institution on the basis of which soldiers, military retirees, family members and military retirees from Ryazan, Moscow, Tambov regions are treated. Every year more than 7 thousand patients get treatment here. During the counterterrorism operations in Chechnya over 800 wounded were brought to the hospital from the battle area.

  1. Year in review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Events in the Canadian nuclear industry from June 1990 to June 1991 are highlighted, with emphasis on the role of the Canadian Nuclear Association and its committees. The sale of a second 600 MW CANDU reactor to Korea by AECL was finalized in December 1990. Scoping hearings for the review of the Canadian fuel waste disposal concept were completed during the year. In September 1990 the New Democratic Party came to power in Ontario, and announced a moratorium on construction of new nuclear plants pending hearings, except that all four reactors of Darlington A are to be completed. Despite excellent performance by the newer CANDU units, Ontario Hydro has found it necessary to devote increased resources to improving the performance of its older reactors. Possibilities of reactor sales in Saskatchewan and New Brunswick were under discussion at the time of writing. The Federal Government's Green Plan has provided a goal to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions over the next 10 years to 1990 levels

  2. One year to celebrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the achievements reached by Ecopetrol, during the 2000 is made where it was a year of positive results. Several facts as exploration and production ratify this way it; the discovery of Guando, the year record in signature of association contracts, the assignment of more than 50% of the oil potential of the blocks, the entrance to Colombia of thirteen new companies and the signature of the international agreement with Petrobras to advance combined projects. These achievements put of present that Colombia continues effective in the world oil panorama and they allow to see the competitive advantages that it offers the country in contractual matter, economic stability, respect for the agreements and exploration in the basins

  3. Key figures. Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the key data of the petroleum industry and of the other energies for the year 2006. Data of the two previous years are given for comparison: 1 - petroleum, France: exploration, reserves, production, transports (tankers, pipelines, crude and refined products), storage capacities, status of resources and uses, foreign trade (imports, prices, exports), refining (capacities, facilities), evolution of supplies, automotive fuels consumption; 2 - energies, France: production, consumption and trade data for coal, natural gas, electricity; total production and consumption of primary energy; consumption per sector of use; 3 - petroleum, world: crude production and reserves per geographical area, OPEC production, imports/exports and refining/consumption per geographical area, international quotation for crudes and refined products; 4 - energies, world: reserves, production and consumption data for coal, natural gas and electricity; uranium production and resources; total primary energy production and consumption per energy source and geographical area. (J.S.)

  4. Key figures. Year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the key data of the petroleum industry and of the other energies for the year 2005. Data of the two previous years are given for comparison: 1 - petroleum, France: exploration, reserves, production, transports (tankers, pipelines, crude and refined products), storage capacities, status of resources and uses, foreign trade (imports, prices, exports), refining (capacities, facilities), evolution of supplies, automotive fuels consumption; 2 - energies, France: production, consumption and trade data for coal, natural gas, electricity; total production and consumption of primary energy; consumption per sector of use; 3 - petroleum, world: crude production and reserves per geographical area, OPEC production, imports/exports and refining/consumption per geographical area, international quotation for crudes and refined products; 4 - energies, world: reserves, production and consumption data for coal, natural gas and electricity; uranium production and resources; total primary energy production and consumption per energy source and geographical area. (J.S.)

  5. Seventy years of incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumbleton, Brian

    1995-06-08

    A third waste incineration plant, which will conform to new United Kingdom emission standards is currently under construction at Tyseley in Birmingham. The plant will generate 25MW of electricity for 25,000 households by burning 350,000 t of municipal wastes per year. The site has been used for such energy from waste schemes since 1926. The new plant includes the latest air pollution abatement equipment designed to absorb mercury vapour and dioxins together with fabric filters. Other improvements at the Tyseley site include a new purpose built public waste disposal facility, clinical waste and animal carcass incineration and the recovery of 16,000t of ferrous metals per year for recycling. Because these waste products are incinerated it also therefore reduce`s Birmingham`s need for landfill sites. (UK)

  6. Happy New Year 2018!

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Early in the new year, the Staff Association wishes you and your loved ones its best wishes for a happy and healthy New Year 2018, as well as individual and collective success. May it be filled with satisfaction in both your professional and private life. A Difficult start The results of the election of the new Staff Council were published on 20th November 2017 in Echo N° 281. The process of renewing the Staff Council proceeded very well: candidates in numbers, from all departments, ranks and categories (staff, fellows and associates); and the turnout rate in this election is up compared to previous elections ... something to be celebrated and congratulated. In accordance with the statutes of the Staff Association, the new Staff Council shall, at its first meeting, elect an Executive Committee comprising a “Bureau” with four statutory posts: President, Vice-President, Secretary and Treasurer. However, while the composition of the Executive Committee was easily established...

  7. Chernobyl, 12 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) The Franco-German cooperation, and 7) Glossary

  8. Year in review 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richman, J.

    1995-01-01

    The past year saw a basic restructuring and reorganization of operations at AECL and at the CNA. Ontario Hydro saw a record electricity export sales. The CANDU units continue to rank among the world leaders in lifetime reliability. The sale of two CANDU 6 reactors to China is under negotiation after the signing of a bilateral Nuclear Cooperation Agreement between China and Canada. 1 tab., 2 figs

  9. Chernobyl, 14 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) International cooperation, 7) More information about Chernobyl and 8) Glossary

  10. A Year in Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyez Jiwa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The AMJ is two years old. It is now a registered trademark and listed on 11 databases. In 2010 we published 169 papers from ten countries. We reviewed papers within 24 days on average and published most within 45 days. We remain committed to publication free of charge and offer free on-line access to all the material we publish. In this review we highlight the most memorable moments in 2010.

  11. Ten Years of Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    We celebrated the 10-th anniversary of the Launch of the Chandra X-ray Observatory on July 13, 2009. During these 10 years data from this Great Observatory have had a profound impact on 21st century astrophysics. With its unrivaled capability to produce sub-arcsecond images, the Observatory has enabled astronomers to make new discoveries in topics as diverse as comets and cosmology. We shall review some of the highlights, discuss the current status, and future plans.

  12. 10 years of SIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-11-15

    The Schweizerisches Institut fur Nuklearforschung (Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research, or SIN) proudly celebrated its 10th anniversary earlier this year. Welcoming the audience at a reception on 22 June, Swiss Federal Councillor Alphons Egli recalled that only about one human lifetime ago was it demonstrated that the atom, despite its name (from the Greek for indivisible), could in fact be split. Since then, questions arising from this discovery have continued to fascinate research workers all over the world.

  13. 10 years of SIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The Schweizerisches Institut fur Nuklearforschung (Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research, or SIN) proudly celebrated its 10th anniversary earlier this year. Welcoming the audience at a reception on 22 June, Swiss Federal Councillor Alphons Egli recalled that only about one human lifetime ago was it demonstrated that the atom, despite its name (from the Greek for indivisible), could in fact be split. Since then, questions arising from this discovery have continued to fascinate research workers all over the world

  14. 1905-a miraculous year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, Juergen; Hoffmann, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses Einstein's famous papers of 1905-his miraculous year-and deals with their physical and historical context as well as their fundamental impact on modern physics. It shows that the papers are not isolated, but connected with each other by Einstein's deep-seated conviction of physical atomism and his criticism of an ether. They are concerned with specific problems that can be characterized as 'borderline problems' since they go beyond the traditional divisions between mechanics, electrodynamics, and thermodynamics

  15. The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Light Source Assembly of PTB - ELISA

    CERN Document Server

    Gruebling, P; Ulm, G

    1999-01-01

    In the radiometry laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische,Bundesanstalt at the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY I, radiation sources for radiometric applications in industry and basic research in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral range are developed, characterized and calibrated. Established sources such as deuterium lamps, Penning and hollow cathode discharge sources have limited spectral ranges and in particular their stability and life time suffers from the erosion of the cathode material. To overcome these limitations we have developed a radiation source based on the principle of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source. ELISA is a 10 GHz monomode source with a compact design featuring a tunable cavity and axially positionable permanent magnets. The radiation emission of the source can be detected simultaneously in the VUV and X-ray spectral range via a toroidal grating monochromator and a Si(Li)-detector. The special design of the source allows spectroscopic investigations of the plasma in dep...

  16. Results of the dosimetry intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dure, Elsa S.

    2000-07-01

    The appropriate way to verify the accuracy of the results of dose reported by the laboratories that offer lend personal dosimetry service is in the periodic participation of round of intercomparison dosimetry, undertaken by laboratories whose standards are trace (Secondary Laboratory). The Laboratory of External Personal Dosimetry of the CNEA-PY has participated in three rounds of intercomparison. The first two were organized in the framework of the Model Project RLA/9/030 RADIOLOGICAL WASTE SECURITY, and the irradiations were carried out in the Laboratory of Regional Calibration of the Center of Nuclear Technology Development, Belo Horizonte-Brazil (1998) and in the National Laboratory of Metrology of the ionizing radiations of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry, Rio de Janeiro-Brazil (1999). The third was organized by the IAEA and the irradiations were made in the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB, Braunschweig - Federal Republic of Germany (1999-2000) [es

  17. New techniques for cutting and decontamination for decommissioning of nuclear research reactors with consideration of cost reduction. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, W.; Redeker, C.F.; Versemann, R.

    2003-06-01

    In decommissioning of research reactors, specific boundary conditions, such as special materials, nuclides, geometries, spatial circumstances exist. This project aims on the development and adaptation of progressive procedures for decommissioning tasks with respect to economical aspects (cost reduction). Explored are Laser Cutting techniques, especially the cutting of aluminium in atmosphere and under water, remote- and manually controlled; decontamination and removal of concrete and ceramics by a combined diodelaser / cryogenic carbon dioxide thermal shock treatment (dry ice blasting) as well as cutting with the water-abrasive-suspension-jet and the plasma beam. The project will lead to application in the decommissioning of PTB's FRMB (research reactor of Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany). (orig.) [de

  18. Fluence measurement at the neutron time of flight experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Christina; Jericha, Erwin

    At the neutron time of flight facility n_TOF at CERN a new spallation target was installed in 2008. In 2008 and 2009 the commissioning of the new target took place. During the summer 2009 a fission chamber of the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) Braunschweig was used for the neutron fluence measurement. The evaluation of the data recorded with this detector is the primary topic of this thesis. Additionally a neutron transmission experiment with air has been performed at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities (ATI). The experiment was implemented to clarify a question about the scattering cross section of molecular gas which could not be answered clearly via the literature. This problem came up during the evaluations for n_TOF.

  19. Activity measurements of the radionuclide 109Cd for the PTB, Germany and the NIST, USA in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Cd-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Janssen, H.; Kossert, K.; Lucas, L.; Karam, L.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Germany) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) each submitted one sample of known activity of 109 Cd to the International Reference System (SIR). The PTB result replaces their previous measurement of 1994 and the NIST result updates their 1986 CCRI(II) comparison result. The values of the activity submitted were about 15 MBq and 42 MBq. The new key comparison results have replaced the earlier values in the matrix of degrees of equivalence that now contains six results, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Cd-109, to which the remaining eleven results from the CCRI(II)-K2.Cd-109 held in 1986 are still linked. (authors)

  20. Online imaging of initial DNA damages at the PTB microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesen, U.; Langner, F.; Mielke, C.; Mosconi, M.; Dirks, W. G.

    2011-01-01

    In an inter-disciplinary collaboration of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (DSMZ) and Heinrich-Heine Univ., live-cell imaging has been established at the charged-particle microbeam facility of PTB. Candidate genes participating in DNA strand-break repair pathways such as PARP-1, MRE11, MSH2, MDC1 and p53BP1 have been modified to generate fluorescent fusion proteins. Using multi-cistronic expression vectors, stable genomic integration was achieved in HT-1080 fibroblasts. The aim of this study is to characterise and use these highly reliable cell lines for studying initial steps of DNA damage responses and kinetics of repair after microbeam irradiation with high- and low-linear energy transfer (LET) particles in living cells at physiological conditions. (authors)

  1. High-frame rate imaging of two-phase flow in a thin rectangular channel using fast neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zboray, R; Mor, I; Dangendorf, V; Stark, M; Tittelmeier, K; Cortesi, M; Adams, R

    2014-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of performing high-frame-rate, fast neutron radiography of air-water two-phase flows in a thin channel with rectangular cross section. The experiments have been carried out at the accelerator facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. A polychromatic, high-intensity fast neutron beam with average energy of 6 MeV was produced by 11.5 MeV deuterons hitting a thick Be target. Image sequences down to 10 ms exposure times were obtained using a fast-neutron imaging detector developed in the context of fast-neutron resonance imaging. Different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. Two phase flow parameters like the volumetric gas fraction, bubble size and mean bubble velocities have been measured. The first results are promising, improvements for future experiments are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Final report on bilateral comparison EURAMET.M.T-S3: Torque wrenches (10 N m - 1 kN m)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röske, Dirk; Medina, Nieves

    2011-01-01

    A bilateral comparison from 10 N m up to 1000 N m has been carried out between Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and Centro Español de Metrología (CEM) for reference torque wrenches calibrated according to DKD-R 3-7. The transfer standards have been two reference torque wrenches, 10 N m and 1000 N m respectively, that have been measured between November and December 2010. The results presented here demonstrate the metrological equivalence, within the quoted uncertainties, of both participant laboratories. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  3. Cross sections for ionization of tetrahydrofuran by protons at energies between 300 and 3000 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingjie; Rudek, Benedikt; Bennett, Daniel; de Vera, Pablo; Bug, Marion; Buhr, Ticia; Baek, Woon Yong; Hilgers, Gerhard; Rabus, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Double-differential cross sections for ionization of tetrahydrofuran by protons with energies from 300 to 3000 keV were measured at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt ion accelerator facility. The electrons emitted at angles between 15∘ and 150∘ relative to the ion-beam direction were detected with an electrostatic hemispherical electron spectrometer. Single-differential and total ionization cross sections have been derived by integration. The experimental results are compared to the semiempirical Hansen-Kocbach-Stolterfoht model as well as to the recently reported method based on the dielectric formalism. The comparison to the latter showed good agreement with experimental data in a broad range of emission angles and energies of secondary electrons. The scaling property of ionization cross sections for tetrahydrofuran was also investigated. Compared to molecules of different size, the ionization cross sections of tetrahydrofuran were found to scale with the number of valence electrons at large impact parameters.

  4. Gas detectors for x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiedtke, K.; Feldhaus, J.; Hahn, U.; Jastrow, U.; Nunez, T.; Tschentscher, T.; Bobashev, S. V.; Sorokin, A. A.; Hastings, J. B.; Moeller, S.; Cibik, L.; Gottwald, A.; Hoehl, A.; Kroth, U.; Krumrey, M.; Schoeppe, H.; Ulm, G.; Richter, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed different types of photodetectors that are based on the photoionization of a gas at a low target density. The almost transparent devices were optimized and tested for online photon diagnostics at current and future x-ray free-electron laser facilities on a shot-to-shot basis with a temporal resolution of better than 100 ns. Characterization and calibration measurements were performed in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the electron storage ring BESSY II in Berlin. As a result, measurement uncertainties of better than 10% for the photon-pulse energy and below 20 μm for the photon-beam position were achieved at the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH). An upgrade for the detection of hard x-rays was tested at the Sub-Picosecond Photon Source in Stanford

  5. Gas detectors for x-ray lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedtke, K.; Feldhaus, J.; Hahn, U.; Jastrow, U.; Nunez, T.; Tschentscher, T.; Bobashev, S. V.; Sorokin, A. A.; Hastings, J. B.; Möller, S.; Cibik, L.; Gottwald, A.; Hoehl, A.; Kroth, U.; Krumrey, M.; Schöppe, H.; Ulm, G.; Richter, M.

    2008-05-01

    We have developed different types of photodetectors that are based on the photoionization of a gas at a low target density. The almost transparent devices were optimized and tested for online photon diagnostics at current and future x-ray free-electron laser facilities on a shot-to-shot basis with a temporal resolution of better than 100 ns. Characterization and calibration measurements were performed in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the electron storage ring BESSY II in Berlin. As a result, measurement uncertainties of better than 10% for the photon-pulse energy and below 20 μm for the photon-beam position were achieved at the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH). An upgrade for the detection of hard x-rays was tested at the Sub-Picosecond Photon Source in Stanford.

  6. Postirradiation effects in alanine dosimeter probes of two different suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    The measurand relevant for the dosimetry for radiation therapy is the absorbed dose to water, D W . The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is establishing a secondary standard for D W for high-energy photon and electron radiation based on electron spin resonance (ESR) of the amino acid alanine. For practical applications, like, for example, intercomparison measurements using the ESR/alanine dosimetry system, the temporal evolution of the ESR signal of irradiated probes is an important issue. This postirradiation behaviour is investigated for alanine pellets of two different suppliers for different storage conditions. The influence of the storage conditions on the temporal evolution may be dependent on the type of probes used. The measurement and analysis method developed at the PTB is able to circumvent the apparent difficulties in the case of alanine/paraffin probes. Care has to be taken in case this method cannot be applied

  7. Fitting methods for constructing energy-dependent efficiency curves and their application to ionization chamber measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svec, A.; Schrader, H.

    2002-01-01

    An ionization chamber without and with an iron liner (absorber) was calibrated by a set of radionuclide activity standards of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The ionization chamber is used as a secondary standard measuring system for activity at the Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU). Energy-dependent photon-efficiency curves were established for the ionization chamber in defined measurement geometry without and with the liner, and radionuclide efficiencies were calculated. Programmed calculation with an analytical efficiency function and a nonlinear regression algorithm of Microsoft (MS) Excel for fitting was used. Efficiencies from bremsstrahlung of pure beta-particle emitters were calibrated achieving a 10% accuracy level. Such efficiency components are added to obtain the total radionuclide efficiency of photon emitters after beta decay. The method yields differences of experimental and calculated radionuclide efficiencies for most of the photon-emitting radionuclides in the order of a few percent

  8. Performance of ionization chambers in X radiation beams, radioprotection level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessa, Ana C.M.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2005-01-01

    Narrow beams, radioprotection level, were implanted in an X ray system, based on ISO 4037-1, as recommended by IAEA (SRS 16). Energy dependency tests were carried out and short-term stability in ionization chambers for use in radiation protection of trademark Physikalisch-Technische Werkstaetten (PTW), 32002 and 23361 models. The ionization chambers were studied with regard to short-term stability within the program of quality control of the laboratory, with a 90 Sr + 90 Y. The results of the short-term stability test were compared with the recommendations of IEC 60731, respect to dosemeters used in radiotherapy, since this standard presents the more restrictive limits with regard to the behaviour of ionization chambers. All cameras showed results within the limits recommended by this standard. With respect to the energy dependency of the response, the model Chamber 32002 presented a maximum dependence of only 2.7%, and the model Chamber 23361, 4.5%

  9. Measuring and interpreting X-ray fluorescence from planetary surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Alan; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Fraser, George; Kolbe, Michael; Krumrey, Michael; Mantero, Alfonso; Mantler, Michael; Peacock, Anthony; Pia, Maria-Grazia; Pullan, Derek; Schneider, Uwe G; Ulm, Gerhard

    2008-11-15

    As part of a comprehensive study of X-ray emission from planetary surfaces and in particular the planet Mercury, we have measured fluorescent radiation from a number of planetary analog rock samples using monochromatized synchrotron radiation provided by the BESSY II electron storage ring. The experiments were carried out using a purpose built X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer chamber developed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's national metrology institute. The XRF instrumentation is absolutely calibrated and allows for reference-free quantitation of rock sample composition, taking into account secondary photon- and electron-induced enhancement effects. The fluorescence data, in turn, have been used to validate a planetary fluorescence simulation tool based on the GEANT4 transport code. This simulation can be used as a mission analysis tool to predict the time-dependent orbital XRF spectral distributions from planetary surfaces throughout the mapping phase.

  10. Alpha-induced reactions on selenium between 11 and 15 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebiger, Stefan; Slavkovská, Zuzana; Giesen, Ulrich; Göbel, Kathrin; Heftrich, Tanja; Heiske, Annett; Reifarth, René; Schmidt, Stefan; Sonnabend, Kerstin; Thomas, Benedikt; Weigand, Mario

    2017-07-01

    The production of 77,79,85,85m Kr and 77Br via the reaction Se(α ,x) was investigated between {E}α =11 and 15 MeV using the activation technique. The irradiation of natural selenium targets on aluminum backings was conducted at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig, Germany. The spectroscopic analysis of the reaction products was performed using a high-purity germanium detector located at PTB and a low energy photon spectrometer detector at the Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany. Thick-target yields were determined. The corresponding energy-dependent production cross sections of 77,79,85,85m Kr and 77Br were calculated from the thick-target yields. Good agreement between experimental data and theoretical predictions using the TALYS-1.6 code was found.

  11. 2011: What a year!

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    “What a year it’s been, and what a way to end it. The star of the show has been the LHC, along with its experiments, which have again turned in an Oscar-winning performance. But there has been a strong supporting cast of actors ranging from antimatter to the CLOUD experiment.” This is what the Director-General wrote to us on 20 December in his message with his wishes for the festive season. And, do not forget, the famous hyperfast neutrinos toward Gran Sasso that put CERN on the front of the world stage. These achievements which are the pride and strength of the Organization were made possible “thanks to the hard work of all CERN’s staff,” as noted by the Director-General in his New Year speech of Wednesday, January 11. He reviewed the year 2011 and set out the challenges ahead in 2012 and beyond. The scientific and technological achievements of 2011 are a great satisfaction to the Director-General, his team and all CERN staff. Moreover, despite a...

  12. Nuclear power: Year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper offers a contrary view on the future of nuclear power in the U.S. Contrarian, in that it argues that it is quite possible that the installed U.S. nuclear capacity in the year 2000 will be in the range of 250GWe. This projection is based on the longer view - a 20-30 year picture - of the price trends of the fuels commercially available to make electricity. And on the belief that other projections of nuclear capacity for the year 2000, while generally acknowledging the need to add significant amounts of new electricity capacity, are essentially discounting nuclear power. And thus, are ignoring fundamental economics. The logic for the projected 250 GWe follows: The demand for electricity is continuing to grow, albeit at a slower rate than that experienced prior to 1973; The excess generating capacity in the construction pipeline, which developed during the 1970s as economic growth rates came in at half the projections made in 1973, has been worked off; in fact, the pendulum has swung past the mid-point; U.S. utilities need to order an additional 200-350 GWe of capacity for service between 1992 and 2000; The real capital costs of plants, particularly nuclear plants, ordered in the 1980s will be less than that being completed today, as this new plant will be completed on a more expedient basis for reliability reasons, and built in an improved financial climate for utilities; Owing primarily to more favorable economics, but also to environmental considerations, at least half of new generating capacity will be nuclear

  13. 500 years after Columbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbach, A

    1992-01-01

    The astonishing range of plants and animals of Central America's 7 countries (Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama) is disappearing, as 60% of its forests have been cut for lumber and firewood as well as for cotton, cattle, or subsistence crops. Up to 5 million Mayans lived sustainably for thousands of years in an area now being destroyed by a few hundred thousand inhabitants. The Spanish colonization that started 500 years ago was concentrated in Panama, Nicaragua, and Guatemala. The majority of the English-speaking country of Belize are descended from the black slave population whose culture spread down the coast to Central America. Panama's service economy is based on the Panama Canal and trade and finance. Costa Rica benefits from a tourist industry based on its natural beauty, however, it also has the highest rate of deforestation and its fast population growth could jeopardize earlier social and economic progress. In El Salvador and Guatemala long periods of civil conflict have taken their toll on the economy and the environment. El Salvador has a mountainous territory and limited natural resources and industrialization, while the best land is in the hands of a few families. Honduras and Nicaragua retain the highest proportion of forest cover of the countries in the region, despite Nicaragua's years of tyranny, then revolution and the Contra war, and Honduras's own turmoils. Belize has achieved some stability, and is now strengthening its Central American links. Its coral reefs and coastal areas offer potential for sustainable development through fishing and tourism. Central American countries face the challenges of their fragile environments and major social problems.

  14. Year in review: 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This review of the year includes mention of the following subjects: The good performance of CANDU reactors worldwide (especially Point Lepreau and Wolsung-1); Permission granted to proceed with four new uranium projects in Saskatchewan; Failure of a suit brought by Energy Probe, the City of Toronto and Roslie Bertell claiming unconstitutionality of the Nuclear Liability Act; The International Nuclear Congress (INC93) in Toronto, and other conferences; Consultations with the Government of Canada regarding license fees to be charged by the AECB, and also consultations regarding the environment and other matters

  15. Hundred years of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefner, A.

    1996-01-01

    Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, as was his custom, was working alone in his laboratory on Friday, November 8. 1895, when he first made a discovery that would have an enormous impact on physical and medical science and, indeed, upon all mankind. Let us have a short look on the personal record of Roentgen. His discovery of X-Ray and its applications in various areas has led to the need for radiation protection against its harmful effects. Later on a significant amount of publications from ICRP, ICRU, NCRP, UNSCEAR and IAEA giving new directions, directives, guidelines and recommendations for Radiation Protection every year was produced

  16. Tangshan, six years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    At 3:42 a.m on July 28, 1976, the now infamous Tangshan earthquake struck that heavily industrialized city in eastern China killing, by official count, 240,000 people. During the first 2 years after the earthquake, estimates of casualties ranged from 650,000 to 800,000. Almost certainly the exact number will never be known. The earthquake was measured at magntiude 7.8, and intensities that registered XI on teh Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale occurred throughout the city of Tangshan.  

  17. PAs: Fifty years young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Ellen D; North, Shannon

    2017-10-01

    The PA profession is 50 years young. Practicing PAs and current students hail from several generational categories ranging from Builders to Generation Z. This article reviews how different generations may have experienced PA program expansion, professional identity, state licensing, and prescription delegation. The authors sampled a cohort of PA program applicants about their views on what evokes optimism and concern for the PA profession. These themes mirror the recently paved professional road, while posing the all-important question: What construction lies on the horizon?

  18. Ceremony marking Einstein Year

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Sunday 13th November at 10:00amat Geneva's St. Peter's Cathedral To mark Einstein Year and the importance of the intercultural dialogue of which it forms a part, a religious service will take place on Sunday 13 November at 10 a.m. in St. Peter's Cathedral, to which CERN members and colleagues are warmly welcomed. Pastor Henry Babel, senior minister at the Cathedral, will speak on the theme: 'God in Einstein's Universe'. Diether Blechschmidt will convey a message on behalf of the scientific community.

  19. One year after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    It is now one year since the accident which destroyed the fourth unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Its principal cause was a flagrant disregard by operating personnel of well-established operating rules and procedures, which placed Unit 4 in an unstable state. This booklet reviews some aspects of what had already been done before the accident, and what has taken place since. It describes, in particular, the Agency's programmes in the field of nuclear safety

  20. 10 years of Ws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Ten years ago, on 25 January 1983, the discovery of the W particle at CERN's proton-antiproton collider was announced to the world. The W, the electrically charged carrier of the weak nuclear force, had been predicted 24 years earlier in the classic formulations of modern weak interaction theory by Feynman and Gell- Mann and by Marshak and Sudarshan, and went on to play an important role in the subsequent electroweak unification of electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force. Following the discovery of the neutral current at CERN in 1973, it became clear that the W was an extremely heavy particle, some 80 times heavier than the proton, too heavy to be detected by any accelerator in operation at the time. Pushed by Carlo Rubbia, the CERN proton-antiproton collider was built to find the W and its electrically neutral companion, the Z. Collider operations at CERN in 1982 had been compressed into a two month run, from October to December. The teams at the big UA1 and UA2 experiments eagerly sifting through their 1982 data noticed the first signs of Ws. The initial candidate W events were announced in CERN seminars by Carlo Rubbia, for UA1, on 20 January 1983*, and the following day by Luigi Di Leila for UA2. As well as new science, these two seminars also set a trend for packing the CERN auditorium to overflowing

  1. 2010: a decisive year

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    Salaries, Health Insurance, Pensions The year 2010 will see the LHC reach an energy likely to open a new window on the microscopic world. Furthermore, in 2010, the Organization, in its role as a State, will have to consolidate the social security system of its present, past, and future employees. This means our Pension Fund, which is showing a deficit of two thousand million Swiss francs, and our Health Insurance Scheme, which is also in deficit. The next five-yearly review of our salaries will also end in 2010. During this time of good wishes, let us hope that the level of our salaries and of our health insurance remain attractive in order to attract, retain and motivate the staff of the highest competence needed by CERN to carry out its current and future projects. Adhere to the principles as well On Thursday 17 December, the Staff Association called on you to participate in a gathering in the main building and to sign a petition (see photos). More than 800 of you attended that day, for which we thank...

  2. Einstein's Years in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plendl, Hans S.

    2005-11-01

    Albert Einstein left Germany, the country of his birth, in 1894 and moved to Switzerland in 1895. He studied, worked and taught there, except for a year's stay in Prague, until1914. That year he returned to Germany, where he lived until his emigration to the United States in 1933. In 1905, while living with his wife Mileva and their first son Hans Albert in Bern and working as a technical expert at the Swiss Patent Office, he published his dissertation on the determination of molecular dimensions, his papers on Brownian Motion that helped to establish the Kinetic Theory of Heat and on the Photo-Electric Effect that validated the Quantum Theory of Light, and the two papers introducing the Special Theory of Relativity. How the young Einstein could help to lay the foundations of these theories while still working on his dissertation, holding a full-time job and helping to raise a family has evoked much discussion among his biographers. In this contribution, the extent to which living within Swiss society and culture could have made this feat possible will be examined. Old and recent photos of places in Switzerland where Einstein has lived and worked will be shown.

  3. Chernobyl, 13 years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regniault-Lacharme, Mireille; Metivier, Henri

    1999-04-01

    This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of Chernobyl fallout in France

  4. INIS at 45 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todeschini, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Do you remember punched paper tape? That’s how many INIS Member States sent their input to the database in the early years of the system. And you had to be careful with that tape; a torn paper tape was a nuisance. Of course the rolls of paper came by post, how else? And if it took two weeks to get a postal package with paper tape in it from somewhere in Asia to Vienna, so be it! Of course the more sophisticated INIS imputing centers used magnetic tapes. Yes, magnetic tapes were also shipped by post from the ends of the earth to Vienna and that also sometimes took weeks. I recall the total thesaurus revision that we undertook in 1971. INIS had taken over the nuclear terminology contained in the thesaurus of the ENDS system (European Nuclear Documentation System of the European Community) but soon decided on a total revision, total in the sense that we decided to revise both the terminological content of the thesaurus AND the structure (interrelationships) that was given to the terminology. Who were the “we” who carried out the revision? Staff at the national INIS centres of Czechoslovakia (as it was at the time), France, the U.S.A. and staff at the University of California in Berkley, California, plus of course the INIS staff in Vienna. Magnetic tapes were naturally the support used for the exchange of data. Can you imagine the crisscrossing of tapes around the globe during that one year of work? Almost incredible by today’s standards, where the tip of a key will send immeasurably vaster quantities of data anywhere on earth within a fraction of a second! But apart from its technological aspects and the continuous developments that these were subjected to and from which the system profited, it was the human aspect of the system, that is, the people that made INIS work, that was so interesting, challenging and finally rewarding for all those involved. And here we must immediately stress that what made the system such a success over these past 45 years, was

  5. Year 2000 commercial issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T. [Bennett Jones, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers` obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs.

  6. Nebulized therapy. SEPAR year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olveira, Casilda; Muñoz, Ana; Domenech, Adolfo

    2014-12-01

    Inhaled drugs are deposited directly in the respiratory tract. They therefore achieve higher concentrations with faster onset of action and fewer side effects than when used systemically. Nebulized drugs are mainly recommended for patients that require high doses of bronchodilators, when they need to inhale drugs that only exist in this form (antibiotics or dornase alfa) or when they are unable to use other inhalation devices. Technological development in recent years has led to new devices that optimize pulmonary deposits and reduce the time needed for treatment. In this review we focus solely on drugs currently used, or under investigation, for nebulization in adult patients; basically bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, antibiotics, antifungals, mucolytics and others such as anticoagulants, prostanoids and lidocaine. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Year 2000 commercial issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers' obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs

  8. One hundred years ago...

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In 1895, exactly one hundred years, ago, a chance discovery in Wurzburg, Germany, marked the dawn of a new science - atomic physics. Other discoveries and new insights followed quickly. Apart from interruptions for two World Wars, this rapid succession of breakthroughs continued for 88 years. A new series of occasional articles in the CERN Courier will look back to what was happening one century ago. In Wurzburg on 8 November 1895, Wilhelm Conrad Rôntgen became an immortal legend. Interested in the effects of ultra-violet radiation, he covered a cathode-ray discharge tube with black paper and darkened the room. With the glow from the tube hidden, Rôntgen was surprised to see a fluorescent screen two metres away light up. For several weeks, Rôntgen hid in his laboratory, finding out more about the mysterious penetrating 'X' rays, produced when the cathode rays hit the end of the discharge tube. Since the time of Faraday, the glow produced in an evacuated tube when an electric current was passed through had intrigued physicists and entertained the public. Nobody understood what these cathode rays were. William Crookes in the UK, who had narrowly missed making the Rôntgen discovery, surmised they were a new 'fourth state' of matter. Some scientists said the phenomena were due to radiation, others said particles. Also in 1895, a young physics student named Ernest Rutherford arrived in Britain from New Zealand with a scholarship for further study. The scholarship, awarded to a New Zealand student only once every few years, had initially been given to a young chemist, but who decided at the last minute to get married and stay in New Zealand. The scholarship passed to Rutherford, who, thanks to a change in regulations, was able to use it at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, under J.J. Thomson. In New Zealand, Rutherford had carried out experiments on radio telegraphy. He took his transmitter to Britain and at Cambridge continued his pioneer

  9. Fifty years after Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, R.

    1997-01-01

    Any discussion of the nuclear-proliferation regime in the post-Cold War era, its present role and expected function in the future must take into account the outcome of the New York Non-proliferation Treaty Review Conference held in 1995, and the four factors that shaped the twentieth century: fascism and communism, nuclear energy and environmental concerns, as well as the interaction between them. none of the factors can be handled within the boundaries of a single state. After fifty years of nuclear competition both for military and energy generation purposes, international conferences on disarmament, Non-proliferation Treaty, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, START negotiations and agreements, there are still remaining nuclear issues. Population growth, energy demands and supplies, all related to global environmental changes must be taken into account

  10. Year 2000 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapp, D.

    1999-01-01

    The steps that Enbridge Consumer Gas Company has taken to prepare for year 2000 were highlighted in a series of overhead viewgraphs which accompanied this presentation. The company's Y2K program was initiated early in 1998 with an initial assessment of the true magnitude of the problem. The transportation and distribution divisions of the company are running separate but coordinated programs. The methodology is to perform an inventory of all components, conduct risk assessments and to determine a compliance strategy to remediate any problems so that all critical systems can be Y2K ready by June, 1999. The second part of this presentation reviewed the company's business continuity planning. This included: (1) an overview of natural gas, (2) BCP methodology, (3) risk assessment, (4) supply chain management, (5) best practices, and (6) program status. 2 figs

  11. Four years of crusade!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Beatriz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry is entering its 4th year of existence which is a reason to celebrate. A great work has been devoted to preserve a scientific journal of international reputation. This work was not always without mistakes or any trouble. However, these very adversities stimulate additional efforts in order to overcome our errors and, continuing with our serious proposal of editing a journal which scientists from all over the world can submit online their original works manuscripts to be published in peer review and open-access style. Beginning this year, Orbital was classified by the Chemistry Coordination Area on the B5 rank of CAPES Qualis (Brazil and, leveled as B4 by Coordination Areas of Materials and Engineering II. These important details demonstrate that Orbital is progressively attaining the acknowledgment of the Brazilian scientific community. The recognition by CAPES Qualis is crucial as the system evaluates the generation of knowledge in the Brazilian universities and the method by which this same knowledge disseminated to society. Not all these were possible without endeavoring of editors and volunteer assistance of advisors from several national and international institutions. Recently, the young Professors Kleber Thiago de Oliveira (UFSCAR, Grégoire Demetz (USP-RP and Amilcar Machulek Júnior (UFMS have joined us to share the idea and philosophy of Orbital by accepting our invitation to be associated editors. The tasks and challenges are enormous and, we are sure that new participants will support us on the way to achieve indexation in new Databases systems as SCOPUS, ISI and Scielo. Consequently, the international success of this electronic journal will be assured. We sincerely hope that in the academic Brazilian scenario, Orbital can figure as a solid bridge to interchange real creative science that is happening in various locations around the world.

  12. The CERN's year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadli, M.; Coppier, H.; Pezzeti, M.

    2007-01-01

    CERN, the European organization for nuclear research, has just celebrated its fifty years of existence. Its first goal was to counterbalance the migration of physics scientists towards the USA by the creation of a physics laboratory gathering scientists from the different European countries. Today, the CERN's mission has changed and has overcome all the expectations of its founders. In 2008, it will become, with the LHC (Large Hadron Collider), the biggest particle accelerator in the world. The CERN employs about 3000 physicists, engineers, technicians and workers. There is also 6500 people from 80 different countries who use the CERN's facilities during the year. The CERN is controlled by 20 European member states and 6 observer countries, and 20 non-member countries participate to the programs in progress. The CERN's power comes from its international and cosmopolitan spirit. The whole most famous physicists of the world can work together for the progress of science and for a better understanding of matter, of its interactions and of our universe. Two Nobel prices of physics come from the CERN: C. Rubbia and S. Van der Meer in 1983 for the discovery of W + , W - and Z 0 bosons, and G. Charpak for the development of particle detectors. One can foresee that the LHC will allow new scientific achievements, like for instance, during experiments for the quest of the famous Higgs boson. It is important also to mention that the CERN has been at the origin of several technological innovations in all technical and engineering domains in the framework of its fundamental physics researches. (J.S.)

  13. 25 years of KWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Since the first course of instruction twenty-five years ago 2085 foremen of power plants and district heating systems have by now received their certificates of a Chamber of Commerce and Industry. They are acting as unit operators and shift foremen and enjoy esteem and respect in their plants. Moreover, 3232 power plant operators have meanwhile finished their education and received the certificates for power plant operators from the 'KRAFTWERKSSCHULE E.V.' (power plant school). Power plant foremen and operators have proved in practice; their education will also in future be an essential part of the acitvities of the 'Kraftwerksschule e.V.'. With the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy new tasks have arisen to the 'Kraftwerksschule e.V.' They satisfied this development and and are since 1969 also educating nuclear power plant foremen. As the profound training in nuclear reactors themselves is only possible with a lot of reservations, the 'Kraftwerksschule e.V.' began in 1974 to build a nuclear power plant simulator center. One simulator each for nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors have been available for four years. Operators of nuclear power plants who already have profound theoretical and practical knowledge are by this means receiving a complementary education on the dynamic operation behaviour of the plant and they learn to judge operating orders and to control the process with a high degree of safety and availability by means of performance-directed control measures. The good experiences made since 1978 with the use of simulators in the nuclear education have led to the decision to build in addition a simulator for fossil-fired power plants. Late in 1981 the orders for delivery of the simulator hardware and software were placed. The simulator will be available for primary and advanced training by the end of 1984. (orig./GL) [de

  14. GSI DARMSTADT: 25 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: On May 12, Hans J. Specht, Scientific Director of the Geseilschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), welcomed an audience of more than 500 to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Darmstadt heavy ion research Laboratory. Warm greetings and best wishes from Jürgen Ruttgers, Federal Minister for Education, Science, Research and Technology were presented by Hartmut Grubei, Chairman of the GSI Board. The Hessian Minister for Science and Art, Christine Hohmann-Dennhardt, pointed out that the promotion of various fields of research cannot be judged only by the expected return for everyday life. Joachim Treusch, the Chairman of the Association of National Research Centres, went further by stating that basic research, driven by curiosity and not aiming at short term applications, is a necessity. Darmstadt Mayor Peter Benz expressed his pride in having such a prestigious Laboratory in the city and looked forward to a new element named after it. CERN Director General Chris Llewellyn Smith underlined the growing importance of international and inter-regional scientific collaboration and paid tribute to the role of German physicists in general and GSI in particular in CERN's work. GSI is a major partner in the international lead ion programme at CERN which came into operation last year, a scientific and technological success which provides a useful role model for future international partnerships. After pointing to interesting parallels between the two Laboratories - both basing new projects on existing facilities, and both serving large user communities - he thanked GSI for its valuable contributions to CERN. Highlights from the 25 years of GSI were summarized in a talk by Dirk Schwalm, Managing Director of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg. Among other points he presented the unique accelerator facility and the discovery of the five heaviest elements. He stated that many dreams from the founding period of GSI had become a reality, and

  15. Twenty years of JHEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amati, Daniele; Bonora, Loriano

    2017-01-01

    On July 1st of twenty years ago we launched the first issue of JHEP. It was a real challenge to try the adventure of a scientific journal thought and managed by scientists, independent of private or institutional publishers. The idea was that physicists who were performing the work, writing the papers, and refereeing those of their peers, could also edit them in an electronic format. Thus, at a limited cost which could be handled by academic or scientific institutions, giving open access to the published information, and avoiding the heavy burden at that time placed on our libraries. In order to avoid the failure that - as we well remember was predicted to us by publishing companies and institutions, we needed the active support of the scientific community. A support in collaborating to the scrutiny of papers and scientific policies but, mainly, in sending to us their good papers. We contacted in that sense several of our most active and renowned colleagues, restricting of course to our high energy physics field. We received many enthusiastic responses as can be specifically seen from the papers that appear in the first issues of the journal, as well as the respected names listed in the advisory and in the editorial boards featuring in the opening page of the first issue of JHEP attached to this letter. We were optimists, but perhaps not as much as to foresee the success of the journal, which, in his first 20 years, turned out to be one of the most (if not the most) prestigious one in our field. Success for which --- as first project chairman and executive editor - we must essentially thank the scientific community who supported JHEP by considering it ''their journal'', as was our intention from the start. In this occasion we would like to recall the important contribution of Marco Fabbrichesi who designed the software on which the journal is based, and the technical personnel who implemented it and made it work. It is our pleasure to mention

  16. 50 years ago...

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    After completing her university studies in Italy, where it was not all that rare to come across female physicists, Maria Fidecaro arrived at CERN in 1956. Although men were certainly in the majority, they were all just colleagues and gender was irrelevant.    Giuseppe and Maria Fidecaro in 1963, surrounded by spark chambers, inside the detector for the experiment on the decay of a rho meson into a pi meson and a photon. Maria Fidecaro is no stranger to CERN and the field of research, having watched them develop over many years. "In the early days we worked in small teams of no more than two or three people", she recalls. "As in Italy, I was not the only woman involved in research at CERN. Men and women alike, our common goal was to understand physics and conduct experiments." Clearly, juggling an exciting job and looking after a family of four children didn't make for an easy life. "At that time society was different and there were few cr&...

  17. Fukushima, 5 years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perves, Jean-Pierre; Maziere, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    This publication proposes an overview of the situation in Fukushima (in the plant and in its region), 5 years after the accident. As far as the plant is concerned, several issues are addressed: the withdrawal of fuel from decay pools, the management of contaminated waters, and the situation of reactors 1, 2 and 3. The radiological impact for operators is discussed in terms of radioactivity level, of occurrence of leukaemia, and of storage of radioactive wastes. The next part comments the slow return of populations and the recovery of agriculture, notably with respect to decontamination advances, and to waste management. Current perspectives for the Japanese nuclear industry are then addressed: creation of a new and stronger safety authority, and situation of the various other reactors (some are planned to be restarted, some will be dismantled, and new reactors are still being built). The last part addresses the rehabilitation of areas devastated by the tsunami, with temporary housing, urban planning comprising possibilities for the population to quickly find a shelter, and works on the coast for a better protection against tsunamis

  18. Year 2000 disclosure issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, N.; Kratz, M.P.J. [Bennett Jones, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The legal dilemma that the year 2000 (Y2K) problem presents with regard to disclosure requirements is examined. In particular, this paper reviews the complexities involved for customers, suppliers and business partners to communicate about Y2K issues. The review prominently features the many levels of statutory, regulatory and legal overlay that must be considered before any communication takes place . One of the major barriers to disclosure is the threat that any statements made by one company or individual to another may give rise to various forms of liability, including limitation, defamation, misrepresentation, detrimental reliance, collateral contracts and warranties or representations. The paper also describes recent Canadian and U.S. Y2K disclosure requirements for public companies. While the legislation is intended to promote the voluntary sharing of Y2K information, it also sets out conditions limiting the extent to which Y2K statements can be used as the basis for liability. Canadian regulatory bodies also have several policies in effect that compel issuers of new securities to emphasize uncertainties which are likely to be factors in Y2K, and public companies to discuss and analyze risks, events and uncertainties within the management discussion and analysis section of their annual reports that would cause reported financial information to be not necessarily indicative of future operating results or conditions, should those uncertainties materialize. 8 refs.

  19. 25 years - Happy Birthday!

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    The nasty PC virus turned twenty-five years this month. The very first computer virus ever was created in January 1986. Dubbed "©Brain", this virus was aiming to infect DOS-based PCs. While this instance was relatively harmless and their creators claim sincere intentions, the world has changed since then. Today's viruses and worms are malign and aim for making profit. They attack now everything connected to a network: Windows PCs, but also Linux PCs and Macs; iPhones and other mobile devices; directly the operating system, but also applications like Adobe Reader (PDF), Firefox, ... Thus, protect your computers from viruses and malware. Any unprotected computer connected to the Internet is likely to be infected within minutes! Keep your system up to date. Enable the regular automatic installation of updates/patches. If you can, use operating systems managed by CERN’s IT department; Use anti-virus software. The CERN anti-virus solution is even free for your home an...

  20. ICTP celebrates 50 years

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    CERN is not the only scientific organisation to be celebrating a significant anniversary in 2014. Earlier this year, ESA turned 50, and last week it was the turn of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, ICTP, to blow out its 50 candles. I had the pleasure to be there for the occasion, and to take part in the first day of a four-day scientific celebration in which the true value of ICTP came to the fore.   Nobel Prize winning Pakistani physicist Abdus Salam established the ICTP in 1964, and went on to become its first director. The Centre’s mission was and remains to foster the development of international scientific cooperation and to promote scientific excellence with an emphasis on the developing world. Established outside Trieste, Italy, and operated under a tripartite agreement between the Italian government, the IAEA and UNESCO, the ICTP has proven itself true to that mandate and become a driving force for advancing scientific expertise around the globe....

  1. CRESP at one year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, C.; Goldstein, B.; Omenn, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP) is a university-based consortium led by the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI) in New Jersey and the School of Public Health and Community Medicine of the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle. Designed to be an independent, outside integrating institution on risk, CRESP was selected in DOE's 1994 Notice of Proposed Interest competition and awarded a five-year cooperative agreement on March 13, 1995. CRESP's mission is to inform protective and cost-effective cleanup and enhance stakeholder understanding of the nation's nuclear weapons production waste sites by improving the scientific and technical basis of environmental management decisions. Eight separate task groups, drawn from the two universities, have been established to organize research and operations for CRESP. One senior researcher from one of the two schools directs the overall CRESP effort for that task group. Each university is currently focusing its site-specific research on issues and concerns raised at either Hanford or Savannah River. CRESP's Independent Peer Review group, peer reviews CRESP's work and has agreed to provide a review of major risk-evaluation processes within Environmental Management at DOE

  2. Twelve years at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    As reported in our previous issue (page 27), on 28 February Volker Soergel stepped down after serving as Chairman of the Board of the DESY Laboratory in Hamburg since January 1981, when the previous chairman, Herwig Schopper, moved to become Director General of CERN. DESY is now headed by Bjorn Wiik. During the twelve years of Soergel's mandate, DESY substantially evolved and progressed. Dominating the landscape was the big HERA electron-proton collider - the world's first - proposed, approved, constructed and commissioned under Soergel's leadership. As well as pioneering electron-proton collisions, HERA also broke new ground in international collaboration. At the approval of the project by the German government, it had already been made clear that both the machine and its experiments had to be built with full international cooperation, using material contributions from foreign institutes. With the difficult task of transforming these requirements into hard reality, Volker Soergel succeeded brilliantly. The 'HERA model', with interested countries pledging contributions in equipment and/or manpower, established a new route to major project involvement. For HERA, the substantial Italian contribution, organized by Antonino Zichichi, was vital to the success of the project

  3. Year 2000 disclosure issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, N.; Kratz, M.P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The legal dilemma that the year 2000 (Y2K) problem presents with regard to disclosure requirements is examined. In particular, this paper reviews the complexities involved for customers, suppliers and business partners to communicate about Y2K issues. The review prominently features the many levels of statutory, regulatory and legal overlay that must be considered before any communication takes place . One of the major barriers to disclosure is the threat that any statements made by one company or individual to another may give rise to various forms of liability, including limitation, defamation, misrepresentation, detrimental reliance, collateral contracts and warranties or representations. The paper also describes recent Canadian and U.S. Y2K disclosure requirements for public companies. While the legislation is intended to promote the voluntary sharing of Y2K information, it also sets out conditions limiting the extent to which Y2K statements can be used as the basis for liability. Canadian regulatory bodies also have several policies in effect that compel issuers of new securities to emphasize uncertainties which are likely to be factors in Y2K, and public companies to discuss and analyze risks, events and uncertainties within the management discussion and analysis section of their annual reports that would cause reported financial information to be not necessarily indicative of future operating results or conditions, should those uncertainties materialize. 8 refs

  4. Year 2000 compliance issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    This month, we continue our coverage of the year 2000 (Y2K) problem as it affects healthcare facilities and the professionals who work in them. We present the following articles: "Checking PCs for Y2K Compliance"--In this article, we describe the probable sources of Y2K-related errors in PCs and present simple procedures for testing the Y2K compliance of PCs and application software. "Y2K Assessment Equipment Expectations"--In this article, we review the Y2K compliance data from a small sampling of hospitals to help answer the question "What percentage of medical equipment will likely be susceptible to Y2K problems?" "Y2K Labeling of Medical Devices"--In this article, we discuss the pros and cons of instituting a program to label each medical device with its Y2K status. Also in this section, we present an updated list of organizations that support ECRI's Position Statement on the testing of medical devices for Y2K compliance, which we published in the December 1998 issue of Health Devices (27[12]). And we remind readers of the services ECRI can offer to help healthcare institutions cope with the Y2K problem.

  5. Four years of HELAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, M.; Lühe, O. v. d.; Aerts, C.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Corbard, T.; Daszyńska-Daszkiewicz, J.; Di Mauro, M. P.; Gizon, L.; Jiménez-Reyes, S.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Pallé, P. L.; Thompson, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    The European Coordination Action on HELio- and ASteroseismology (HELAS) has completed its fourth and final year of initial funding by the European Commission. Set up as a network which combines solar and stellar physics communities in the important and vigorously evolving field of seismology, HELAS has been able to coordinate the efforts of European astronomers with remarkable success. Four large international conferences including the HELAS-IV conference on Lanzarote as well as many workshops were organized with a substantial contribution from HELAS. About a dozen workshops, addressing specialized questions in global and local helioseismology and asteroseismology were entirely organized by HELAS. Data analysis tools to prepare the European communities for the upcoming influx of data from new missions have been prepared, tested and demonstrated. Lecture notes and outreach material have been assembled and prepared for general access. As a result, HELAS has an important impact on the scientific output of the astrophysics seismology communities and significantly increased the visibility of European research in this field. This paper summarizes the activities and accomplishments of HELAS.

  6. One hundred years on..

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    One hundred years on from the 'war to end all wars', the face of war has profoundly changed. Inter-State conflicts still exist, but are spatially limited; world war is no longer on the agenda. And if a major power is involved, conflict now has every chance of being both violent (given modern strike capabilities) and short (given the cost of strikes). At least three factors explain this shift, starting with the de-legitimising of war. The horrors of the world wars; a European edifice built on a rejection of war; a neo-pacifism born, in Europe, of wealth, ageing, and economic crisis; and finally, the delusions of the past twenty years, resulting from commitments 'that do not amount to war': all downgrade the war hypothesis. The second factor is the nuclear mortgage, which devalues escalation to extremes. The reality of the first industrial and total war created an initial wave of pacifism in the 1920's. Today, the prospect of unmanageable escalation, the hypothesis, beyond a certain level of violence, of a post-total war curbs different forms of aggression. The image of war remains useful for peace. The third is the relative pacification of relations between major powers in the post-Cold War era. It is yet to be called into question by the re-distribution of power promised by the emergence of new major actors, at either the regional or global level. These three factors must continually be re-appraised. The de-legitimising of war is a cultural phenomenon and can thus evolve, either in a certain climate (as the U.S. 'folly' after 9/11 demonstrates), or in the long term (with a re-evaluation of confrontations between 'sides'). A subsidiary issue concerns how Europe, which is largely unable to psychologically and materially deal with the war hypothesis, would react to a re-brutalization of the world. The nuclear mortgage depends on the viability of the system that manages both nuclear power-projection and non-proliferation. In this respect the negotiations with Iran are

  7. Expected years ever married

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Mogi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the second half of the 20th century, remarkable marriage changes were seen: a great proportion of never married population, high average age at first marriage, and large variance in first marriage timing. Although it is theoretically possible to separate these three elements, disentangling them analytically remains a challenge. Objective: This study's goal is to answer the following questions: Which of the three effects, nonmarriage, delayed marriage, or expansion, has the most impact on nuptiality changes? How does the most influential factor differ by time periods, birth cohorts, and countries? Methods: To quantify nuptiality changes over time, we define the measure 'expected years ever married' (EYEM. We illustrate the use of EYEM, looking at time trends in 15 countries (six countries for cohort analysis and decompose these trends into three components: scale (the changes in the proportion of never married - nonmarriage, location (the changes in timing of first marriage - delayed marriage, and variance (the changes in the standard deviation of first marriage age - expansion. We used population counts by sex, age, and marital status from national statistical offices and the United Nations database. Results: Results show that delayed marriage is the most influential factor on period EYEM's changes, while nonmarriage has recently begun to contribute to the change in North and West Europe and Canada. Period and cohort analysis complement each other. Conclusions: This study introduces a new index of nuptiality and decomposes its change into the contribution of three components: scale, location, and variance. The decomposition steps presented here offer an open possibility for more elaborate parametric marriage models.

  8. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from

  9. Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. This report details compliance for model year 2015, fiscal year 2016.

  10. First-year seminar intervention: Enhancing first- year mathematics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year Seminar and the mathematics performance of first-year students in Science? .... generation students enter the new higher education environment (Briggs, Clark ..... institution-wide approaches to enact the FYE as “everybody's business”.

  11. International Year of Pulses 2016 | 2016 International Year of Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Year in collaboration with Governments, relevant organizations, non-governmental organizations and the composition of pulses Image 4 Wrapping up the International Year of Pulses The 5 key messages to food security Infographic Pulses and climate change International Year of Pulses 2016 The 68th UN

  12. Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farr, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven's Medical Research Center program

  13. 2007 - The Year of Turn?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hroch, A.

    2008-01-01

    The year 2007 was the fi rst one after the privatisation of Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (SE). It was the first year after the shutdown of V1 Unit 1. It was a year of big challenges, which got into budget (BDG), however, not everything happened as scheduled, so SE production (including V1 and HPPG) resulted in net supply amounting to 21,242.4 GWh, which means 99.35 % plan performance with year-to-year index 0.90. (author)

  14. Accountability report - fiscal year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the US NRC's accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement

  15. Hazmat Yearly Incident Summary Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Series of Incident data and summary statistics reports produced which provide statistical information on incidents by type, year, geographical location, and others....

  16. Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toddler Fitness Nutrition Toilet Training Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Toddler > Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Español Text ...

  17. 50 years of nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilscher, D.

    1989-01-01

    The article tells the story of the discovery of nuclear fission in Berlin 50 years ago by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in cooperation with Lise Meitner. 50 years later nuclear fission is still a subject of research. Some question remain unanswered. Selected new research results are used to discuss the dynamics of the collective movement of the elementary nuclear fission process. (orig.) [de

  18. Review 08--A Year in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Barack Obama's monumental presidential campaign took the nation by storm, a history-making and future-defining feat sure to keep academicians busy for many years to come. How America addresses race as a result of Obama's sweeping victory remains to be seen, but his election came in the same year New York state installed its first Black governor,…

  19. 35 years of DEB research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, J.; Klok, C.; Kearney, M.R.; Wijsman, J.W.M.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory started 35. years ago. Initially much emphasis was put on the development of a consistent theory. During recent years attention was paid on parameterizing DEB models for a huge collection of species. This enables the search for patterns in parameter

  20. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  1. Fifty years of polymer science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du Prez, Filip; Hoogenboom, Richard; Klumperman, Bert; Meier, Michael; Monteiro, Michael; Müller, Alejandro; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2015-01-01

    The European Polymer Journal (EPJ) has been serving the scientific community for 50 years, which makes it one of the older macromolecular journals with a broad focus. Since its launch 50 years ago, EPJ has provided a distinguished forum for publications in polymer research, including chemistry,

  2. Project LIFT: Year 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Michael; Piccinino, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Research for Action (RFA) is currently in the second year of a five-year external evaluation of the Project Leadership and Investment for Transformation (LIFT) Initiative in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School District (CMS). Project LIFT is a public-private partnership between CMS and the local philanthropic and business communities in Charlotte,…

  3. A Year in the Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1999-01-01

    Minnie Howard School, just outside Washington, D.C., caters exclusively to 14-year olds. Started seven years ago to relieve enrollment pressures, the school protects its 747 9th graders from typical high-school pressures and has reduced suspension and truancy, enrolled more kids in honors classes, and enticed privately educated students back to…

  4. The year of encroaching genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Manfredi-Romanini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The year 2000 has been called “The year of the genome”. Perhaps better would have been to call it “The year of encroaching genomics” (Einarson and Golemis, 2000 intending by this vivid term the torrents of information pouring out of multiorganizational genome sequence projects, large research groups, consortia and industries into the field of active biological research. This is bound to have a strong impact on how research strategies will be designed from now on and it is our expectation that the year 2001 will be the year in which the small academic laboratories now at the forefront of research will have to cope with this new situation if they are to remain at the cutting edge. They will have to show granting institutions how their new research project proposals involve collaboration with large scientific groups and industries such as those mentioned above in order to win financial backing.

  5. Accountability report - fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This document contains the US NRC`s accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement.

  6. Australian coal year book 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This yearbook presents a review of the Australian coal industry during the 1984-85 financial year. Included are details on mines, future prospects, coal export facilities and ports, annual cost statistics and a index of coal mine owners.

  7. Report on the year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This anneal report accounts for the market situation, marketing, structure of cooperation (URENCO), centrifuge production and development, financial aspects and personnel affairs, during the year 1985, of Ultra-Centrifuge Nederland n.v. (UCN). (H.W.). figs.; tabs

  8. Social Development:: 2 Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Social Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body ... and they serve as valuable rehearsals for future social encounters. They’ll also help you appreciate the ...

  9. 150 years since Babbage's ophthalmoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, C R

    1997-11-01

    The discovery of the ophthalmoscope in 1851 is rightly attributed to Hermann von Helmholtz. However, 4 years earlier, in 1847, Charles Babbage nearly invented the instrument that was to revolutionize ophthalmological examination so dramatically.

  10. ABACC ten years applying safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Elias

    2001-01-01

    The Argentinian-Brazilian Agency for Accounting and Control of nuclear special materials has been in operations for ten years. The rational behind the creation and the work performed by the Agency during the last decade is described. (author)

  11. Spending Disclosure - Fiscal Year 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of this Spending Disclosure Fiscal Year 12 dataset is to allow the public to search and view summary information on payments made to recipients (referred...

  12. Shared Year Exchange in Nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsegaard, Helle Wendner; Wederkinck, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien.......Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien....

  13. Communicative action seeking golden years!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza Maria Magalhães Moreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the year of 2015 much has been said and celebrated about the 15 years of Rene. Profesor Lorita Pagliuca, the journal’s founder and my first counselor in research, in the editorial number one, brilliantly rescued, based on the doctor Saramago’s work, that “utopia is the spice of life” and warned that social responsibility preserves the affection and inclusive do over the magazine’s evolution(1.

  14. Yearly refinery construction indexes listed for 68 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.

    1996-01-01

    Yearly values are presented for the Nelson-Farrar refinery inflation cost index since 1926. They are based on 1946 as 100, since that was the date of index inception. Values from 1926 to 1945 were back calculated. Data are presented on indexed cost of materials, labor, and miscellaneous equipment for 1926 through 1994. A second table of itemized refining cost indexes for the years 1954, 1972, 1992--1994, and the first eight months of 1995 is also presented. This table subdivides materials, labor, and equipment into component costs

  15. [SOS-repair--60 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavil'gel'skiĭ, G B

    2013-01-01

    This review integrates 60 years of research on SOS-repair and SOS-mutagenesis in procaryotes and eucaryotes, from Jean Weigle experiment in 1953 year (mutagenesis of lambda bacteriophage in UV-irradiated bacteria) to the latest achievements in studying SOS-mutagenesis on all living organisms--Eukarya, Archaea and Bacteria. A key role in establishing of a biochemical basis for SOS-mutagenesis belonges to the finding in 1998-1999 years that specific error-prone DNA polymerases (PolV and others) catalysed translesion synthesis on damaged DNA. This review focuses on recent studies addressing the new models for SOS-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli and Home sapiens cells.

  16. 50 years CERN Courier Celebration

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The 50th anniversary of the first publication of the CERN Courier provided the opportunity for a modest celebration on 2 September 2009. All six of the principal editors that the magazine has had over its 50-years history met together for the first time. After getting acquainted and reacquainted over lunch, they gathered in the library at CERN to answer questions about the production of the magazine over the years. From left to right, from the present editor to the first one: Christine Sutton, James Gillies, Gordon Fraser, Brian Southworth, Alec Hester and Roger Anthoine.

  17. [150 years of medical mycology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemeinhardt, H

    1990-04-01

    A short survey concerning the development of the medical mycology is presented covering the last 150 years (1839-1989). According to the interpretation of most of the distinguished authors, the year of Schönlein's publication, i.e. 1839, is to be considered as the origin of the medical mycology. Therefore, mycoses were the first infectious diseases the etiology of which were scientifically explained. Monographs and articles in manuals written in the most important world languages represent milestones in the historical development. Over large periods connected to and promoted by dermatology, increasingly this special field has developed to an important and autonomous part of medical microbiology.

  18. Ten Thousand Years of Solitude?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benford, G.; Pasqualetti, M.J.

    1991-03-01

    This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs

  19. NUSTAR – The teenage years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlert, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.herlert@fair-center.eu [FAIR GmbH (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    The “NUclear STructure, Astrophysics and Reactions” (NUSTAR) Collaboration was formed at the end of 2003. More than ten years later, a good fraction of the envisaged experimental equipment has been successfully developed and constructed. While the NUSTAR community is looking forward to the start of the civil construction for the new FAIR facility, existing NUSTAR equipment is tested and operated at radioactive ion beam facilities worldwide. The status of the project is briefly described at the stage when it enters the teenage years.

  20. Ten Thousand Years of Solitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benford, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Kirkwood, C.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Coll. of Business Administration); Harry, O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Pasqualetti, M.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))

    1991-03-01

    This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. 50 Years of Neutrino Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zralek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Some important topics from history of neutrino physics over the last fifty years are discussed. History of neutrinos is older, at 4 th December 2010 it will be eightieth anniversary of the neutrino birth. In that day W. Pauli wrote the famous letter to participants of the physics conference at Tubingen with the suggestion that '' there could exist in the nuclei electrically neutral particle ''. We will concentrate mostly on the 50 years of neutrino history just to show the long tradition of the Zakopane Theoretical School. (author)

  2. NUSTAR – The teenage years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlert, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The “NUclear STructure, Astrophysics and Reactions” (NUSTAR) Collaboration was formed at the end of 2003. More than ten years later, a good fraction of the envisaged experimental equipment has been successfully developed and constructed. While the NUSTAR community is looking forward to the start of the civil construction for the new FAIR facility, existing NUSTAR equipment is tested and operated at radioactive ion beam facilities worldwide. The status of the project is briefly described at the stage when it enters the teenage years.

  3. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Elizabeth Chilcote

    2002-05-01

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  4. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, E.C.; Fuhrman, P.W.

    2002-05-30

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  5. Enhance ONE Year of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Max L.; Smith, Geoffrey G.; Sorenson, Blaine L.

    Substitute teachers are responsible for over 1 full year of every child's education, but research shows that only 10 percent of school districts provide more than 2 hours of substitute teacher training, and 53 percent of school districts provide no training. There is a tremendous need to implement effective training programs that will ultimately…

  6. Breastfeeding: changes after 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Romão

    2017-11-01

    Discussion/Conclusion: The demographic changes aware to the emergence of possibly different difficulties in BF promoting. At the hospital, reduction of infant formula use and time to BF onset represented improvements in this area. Such results highlight the importance of BF efforts over the years and must encourage other similar initiatives after discharge.

  7. 40 years of formal methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; Havelund, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    In this "40 years of formal methods" essay we shall first delineate, Sect. 1, what we mean by method, formal method, computer science, computing science, software engineering, and model-oriented and algebraic methods. Based on this, we shall characterize a spectrum from specification-oriented met...

  8. The Rijksherbarium, 150 years old

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1979-01-01

    On March 29 and 30, 1979, the Rijksherbarium at Leiden commemorated in a modest way its foundation by King William I, 150 years ago. On the first day of the celebration a large company, including several distinguished foreign botanists, gathered in the old central building of the University for a

  9. Compiling a 50-year journey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton, Graham; Bahr, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Fifty years ago, John McCarthy and James Painter published the first paper on compiler verification, in which they showed how to formally prove the correctness of a compiler that translates arithmetic expressions into code for a register-based machine. In this article, we revisit this example...

  10. Hubble 15 years of discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Kornmesser, M

    2006-01-01

    Hubble: 15 Years of Discovery was a key element of the European Space Agency's 15th anniversary celebration activities for the 1990 launch of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. As an observatory in space, Hubble is one of the most successful scientific projects of all time, both in terms of scientific output and its immediate public appeal.

  11. Fifty years of Erlangen radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morell, W.

    2007-01-01

    On June 29, 2006, the Radiochemical Laboratory of AREVA NP GmbH (formerly Siemens AG) in Erlangen celebrated its fiftieth anniversary. The occasion was marked by an event attended by more than 1,000 guests, among them Werner Gebauhr, the 85-year-old founder and first head of the Laboratory; the Managing Directors of AREVA NP GmbH, Ralf Gueldner and Ruediger Steuerlein; representatives of universities, research institutions, power utilities, and public authorities. The present head of the Radiochemical Laboratory, Wilfred Morell, sketched the highlights of the work performed over the past fifty years, which ranged from solid-state and very-high-purity materials technologies to development and service activities for nuclear technology. Manfred Erve, head of the Technical Center of AREVA NP GmbH, of which the Radiochemical Laboratory is a part, emphasized the changes in priorities over the past fifty years, which had always been met successfully by Radiochemistry. In the scientific part of the event, Wolfgang Schwarz (E.ON Kernkraftwerk GmbH, KKW Isar), Ulf Ilg (EnBW Kraftwerk AG, KKW Philippsburg), and Hans-Josef Allelein (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH) explained 3 major subject areas in which Erlangen Radio-chemistry over many years has contributed basic findings (see other articles in this atw issue). On the occasion of the anniversary, a comprehensive booklet was published under the title of '50 Jahre Radiochemie Erlangen - 1956-2006'. (orig.)

  12. Coilin: The first 25years

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machyna, M.; Neugebauer, K.M.; Staněk, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 6 (2015), s. 590-596 ISSN 1547-6286 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP305/12/G034 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Cajal body * coilin * histone Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2015

  13. Twenty years after the embargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, H.; DeCicco, J.; Laitner, S.; Dyson, C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the direct and indirect oil import costs and examines actions that can be taken to reduce future imports. We find that the USA could greatly reduce its oil imports during the next 20 years by increasing energy efficiency and accelerating the introduction of fuels derived from renewable energy sources, particularly in the transport sector. (author)

  14. A Ten-Year Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip, Cyndi

    2016-01-01

    Five initiatives launched during Cyndi Phillip's term as American Association of School Librarians (AASL) President (2006-2007) continue to have an impact on school librarians ten years later. They include the rewriting of AASL's learning standards, introduction of the SKILLS Act, the presentation of the Crystal Apple Award to Scholastic Library…

  15. Report on the year 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This annual report accounts for the market situation, marketing, structure of cooperation (URENCO), centrifuge production and development, financial aspects and personnel affairs, during the year 1984, of Ultra-Centrifuge Nederland n.v. (H.W.). (H.W.). figs.; tabs

  16. CEC Teacher of the Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyles, Lynda

    1995-01-01

    This interview with Brenda Jean Robbins, a Florida music therapist and teacher selected as 1995 Teacher of the Year by the Council for Exceptional Children, reveals her views about music therapy, goals, relationship of music therapy to the special education classroom, musical performance, and getting parents involved. (DB)

  17. 25 years of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocock, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The paper lists some of the notable events of the British nuclear power industry during the past 25 years. The list includes achievements in nuclear power station technology, administrative reorganisation and public concern about the industry's impact on the environment. (U.K.)

  18. Your Child's Development: 3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child’s Development: 3 Years Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 3 años Kids this age ... circle dresses and undresses with a little help Social and Emotional Development is toilet trained during the ...

  19. 70 years of woody plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leverenz, Jerry

    2006-01-01

    On 16 May the Arboretum in Hørsholm celebrates its 70th anniversary. There will be offering guided tours in the evening at 6.30 p.m.. Furthermore, the Arboretum is using the anniversary year to increase public knowledge of the Arboretum and of KVL....

  20. Denmark and the gap year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, Noemi; Juul, Tilde Mette

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes three different educational offers to young people: “The Folk High School”, “The ‘After-school’” and 10th class. All can be considered optional Gap Years. The following diagram shows how the Danish education system is structured. The Folk High School is a training course...

  1. Columbine High: Five Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Marianne D.

    2004-01-01

    A few weeks before the fifth anniversary of the Columbine High School shootings on April 20, 1999, Principal Frank DeAngelis reflects on how his school has changed over the past five years. Much like the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States, "Columbine" carries a chilling meaning that resonates across the…

  2. 175 Years of Linear Programming

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 10. 175 Years of Linear Programming - Max Flow = Min Cut. Vijay Chandru M R Rao. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 10 October 1999 pp 22-39. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. 175 Years of Linear Programming

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 5. 175 Years of Linear Programming - Pune's Gift. Vijay Chandru M R Rao. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 5 May ... Computer Science and Automation, IISc Bangalore 560012, India. Director, Indian Institute of Management, Bannerghatta Road, ...

  4. Osteoporosis and years since menopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Saburo; Hirota, Yoshio; Hotokebuchi, Takao; Takasugi, Shin-ichiro; Sugioka, Yoichi; Hayabuchi, Hitomi

    1999-01-01

    In Fukuoka Prefecture, in south-western Japan, a regional screening program for osteoporosis was conducted from 1994 to 1995. The screening level in the bone mineral density (BMD) at the distal non-dominant radius was equal to or less than two standard deviations below age-specific mean (≤ -2.0 SD). In 1177 examinees with natural menopause (mean age: 61.4, range: 42-88), 56 of those who were screened were subsequently radiologically confirmed by orthopedic specialists to have osteoporosis (case group). They were then compared with 802 normal BMD (≥ -1.0 SD) women (reference group) with their lifestyle and reproductive characteristics. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a logistic regression model. A significant increase in the ORs for osteoporosis based on the number of years since menopause was observed for 7-13 years since menopause (OR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.0-5.4) compared with <7 years, however, no increasing trend in risk was evident in 14+ years since menopause (OR=1.4; 95% CI: 0.4-5.1). Thus, the elevated risk continued up to around 10 years since menopause. These findings are consistent with previous studies that reported an alternation in the calcium metabolism and bone loss related to the length of time after menopause. Both the childhood and current milk consumption were also associated with a decreased risk: ORs were 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2-0.9) and 0.5 (95% CI: 0.3-1.0), respectively

  5. 2015: International Year of Light

    CERN Multimedia

    Paola Catapano

    2015-01-01

    The year 2015, a century after the publication of Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity in 1915, has been proclaimed the International Year of Light and light-based technologies by the UN General Assembly. CERN is taking this opportunity to communicate informationabout the High Luminosity LHC project and CERN’s involvement in the SESAME synchrotron project in Jordan. In addition, light has been chosen as the main theme of CERN’s participation in the 2015 Researchers’ Night.   “Light” as “luminosity” will be the underlying theme of the communication campaign launched to increase awareness of CERN’s High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). By increasing the luminosity of the LHC by a factor of 10, the ambitious project aims at extending the discovery potential of CERN’s flagship accelerator. The challenging upgrade requires a number of key technological breakthroughs, including innovative high-field supercond...

  6. Fiscal Year 2013 Revegetation Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstrom, Jenifer [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2013 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: Summary of each site Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location Actions and Resolutions for each site. Six disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. One has achieved final stabilization. The remaining five sites not meeting the criteria for final stabilization will be evaluated again in the next fiscal year.

  7. Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenifer Nordstrom

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Actions and Resolutions for each site. Ten disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. Six have achieved final stabilization. The remaining four sites not meeting the criteria for final stabilization will be evaluated again in the next fiscal year.

  8. 75 years of Digboi oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-11-01

    Oil was found in Assam, India, some 30 yr before Drake's well was sunk in the U.S., in Aug. 1859. Thus, Digboi Oil Field in Assam is 75 yr old this month. For many years it was India's only proved field, and its story is inseparable from that of exploration for oil in the subcontinent. Throughout Digboi's history an intensive research program has been undertaken to maintain production, and only recently details were published of new attempts to boost its output. A map shows the 3 major oil fields in Assam, and 3 refineries. For some years, production has been declining in the Digboi Field--it was 180,000 metric tons in 1964--although since its inception, nearly 1,000 wells have been drilled. Some of the techniques planned are already being used to stimulate output at Digboi and include gas injection, waterflooding, thermoflood methods, formation fracturing, and modernization of gas lift.

  9. Five-year-old historian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Wynne

    2017-12-01

    In this poem, the author describes a doctor talking with a five-year-old child who has been brought to the hospital after being in a car accident with his/her mother and brother. The child is not able to remember the mother's name, but the doctor continues to talk with the child. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Sixty Years of Casting Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2015-11-01

    The 60 years of solidification research since the publication of Chalmer's constitutional undercooling in 1953 has been a dramatic advance of understanding which has and continues to be an inspiration. In contrast, 60 years of casting research has seen mixed fortunes. One of its success stories relates to improvements in inoculation of gray irons, and another to the discovery of spheroidal graphite iron, although both of these can be classified as metallurgical rather than casting advances. It is suggested that true casting advances have dated from the author's lab in 1992 when a critical surface turbulence condition was defined for the first time. These last 20 years have seen the surface entrainment issues of castings developed to a sufficient sophistication to revolutionize the performance of light alloy and steel foundries. However, there is still a long way to go, with large sections of the steel and Ni-base casting industries still in denial that casting defects are important or even exist. The result has been that special ingots are still cast poorly, and shaped casting operations have suffered massive losses. For secondary melted and cast materials, electro-slag remelting has the potential to be much superior to expensive vacuum arc remelting, which has cost our aerospace and defense industries dearly over the years. This failure to address and upgrade our processing of liquid metals is a serious concern, since the principle entrainment defect, the bifilm, is seen as the principle initiator of cracks in metals; in general, bifilms are the Griffith cracks that initiate failures by cracking. A new generation of crack resistant metals and engineering structures can now be envisaged.

  11. Amfiteatru Economic – Year XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Miron

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The anniversary of the events that have put their mark on Romanian education and science is always an opportunity to make the balance of the successes, but also a duty to position them correctly in the national and international cultural landscape. Even more favourable is the context in which the anniversary years contain several milestones that blend organically and give the measure of quantitative and qualitative accumulations, as well as the measure of the facts of those who have put their mark on the kaleidoscope of professional and scientific successes. How can an anniversary moment be marked more durably than by publishing a book in whose pages there are elaborately gathered the trace elements of a 20-year journey in the fascinating landscape of economic science? As Professor Nicolae Istudor, PhD, the Rector of the Bucharest University of Economic Studies states at the beginning of this book entitled Amfiteatru Economic – Year XX, the 105th Anniversary of the Bucharest University of Economic Studies happily coincides with “two decades since the publishing of the first issue of the Amfiteatru Economic journal and 10 years since the latter’s indexing in Clarivate Analytics Web of Science. The Journal significantly contributes to the international and scientific visibility and recognition of ASE Bucharest”. The author thus reiterates the special place that such a publication, the fruit of an initiative started by a group of enthusiasts, and continued by the multitude of scholars who have directed the best results of their scientific efforts towards it, has in the efforts of The Bucharest University of Economic Studies to continue its path as an advanced research and education university

  12. 2007: A pivotal year (continued)

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2007-01-01

    In our first Echo editorial in January 2007, we pointed out that the manpower plan, the future of our social conditions (health insurance, pensions), the implementation of the last five-yearly review and the review of our voluntary schemes would be subjects on which we would have to keep a close watch and show solidarity. In light of what has been happening, we were right to be cautious.

  13. Get Healthwise this new year!

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    The Public Health Agency is encouraging people with specific health conditions to join the Healthwise scheme – a free 12 week physical activity programme to get their new year off to a healthy start. The scheme is available at registered leisure centres and Healthy Living Centres (HLCs) within the Belfast and South Eastern Health and Social Care Trust areas and is for people with certain health conditions who have been referred by their GP, nurse or other health professionals. The...

  14. General relativity 50 years old

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    In May 1916, 'The Foundations of General Relativity Theory' by Albert Einstein was published in 'Annalen der Physik'. Fifty years later, this major contribution to scientific thought still has a rather isolated position with respect to the main-stream of scientific theory. (In contrast, the Special Theory of Relativity is one of the cornerstones of sub-nuclear physics.) To mark the anniversary of the publication of Einstein's paper a theoretician from CERN discusses the theory and its present status.

  15. Eighty years of neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    This is a pedagogical overview of neutrino physics from the invention of neutrino by Pauli in 1930 to the precise measurement of neutrino mass and mixing parameters via neutrino oscillation experiments in recent years. I have tried to pitch it at the level of undergraduate students, occasionally cutting corners to avoid the use of advanced mathematical tools. I hope it will be useful in introducing this exciting field to a broad group of young physicists. (author)

  16. Editorial Introduction: New Year Resolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Reese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While New Year’s day came and went with very little fanfare at my house (well, if you don’t count our Star Wars marathon, I think I’d be remiss if I didn’t take the time to mark the passing of the new year, with a look ahead to the future.  And I think it is fitting, then, […

  17. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    2006-01-01

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  18. Amersham - the first forty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, C.

    1980-01-01

    The history of the Radiochemical Centre at Amersham is traced over the past 40 years from the early days, when, as Thorium Ltd, the company refined radium and manufactured radium-based self luminous paint, up to the present time when the limited company has sales of Pound40 million per annum of which 85% are overseas, and a staff of 1800 working in three main areas, medical diagnostics, research products and radiation sources. (U.K.)

  19. Ten years of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-08-15

    Ten years have elapsed since the world's first nuclear power station began to supply electricity in Russia, and this in turn marked the end of a twelve year stage following the first controlled nuclear chain reaction at Chicago. These periods mark major stages in the development of atomic energy from the realm of abstract ideas to that of everyday industrial application. They followed a period of fundamental research and laboratory work, culminating in Enrico Fermi's demonstration of a system whereby the forces of the atom could be brought under control. Then it was necessary to find ways and means of using the chain reaction for practical purposes and on an industrial scale. And after this had been shown in 1954 to be technically possible, it had still to be developed into an economic process. The nuclear power station has proved itself from the technical and engineering standpoint. The third phase of development has been to bring it to the stage of being economically competitive with alternative sources of energy, and it would appear that we are now reaching that goal - though more slowly than had been envisaged ten years ago

  20. 2016, a year of change!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      Being the first Echo of the year, your Staff Council delegates should like to seize this opportunity to wish you and your loved ones, a happy new year! According to the Staff Association (SA) statutes, an election was held on December 8, 2015 where a new team and President were elected for a term of two years. Following his election, Alessandro Raimondo, the incoming Staff Association President, thanked the outgoing team and particularly the outgoing President, Michel Goossens, for his work and dedication to CERN and its staff. 2016 signifies the handover to a new management team and also, for the first time, a female Director General whom the Staff Association welcomes and wishes every success in taking up her functions as head of the Organization. It goes without saying that the Association will work with this new team of Directors in a spirit of collaboration, cordial understanding and mutual respect, as it did with previous management. The Staff Association should like to wish the departing...

  1. Fifty years of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    On 21 March 1957, the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy of the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation established the Working Party on Public Health and Safety. From this early date onwards, radiological protection formed a central part of the work of what was to become the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. Now, 50 years later, the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has commissioned this historical review of half a century of work and accomplishments. Over this period, the key topics in radiological protection have been identified, debated and addressed by the CRPPH. This report brings this history to life, presenting the major questions in the context of their time, and of the personalities who worked to address them. The developments and views of the past condition how we are able to assess and manage radiological risks today, as well as how we may adjust to challenges that will or could emerge in the coming years. This heritage is thus an important element for the CRPPH to consider as it looks forward to its next 50 years of accomplishments. (author)

  2. Mining international year book, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, W.

    1978-01-01

    The 1978 issue of the Mining International Year Book marks the 91st year of publication and contains particulars of the principal and other international companies associated with the Mining Industry. The book is recognized as the foremost reference work of its kind with a coverage both wide and detailed. The many companies registered abroad are distinguished by an entry immediately beneath the title giving the date and place of incorporation; where the date of registration alone is mentioned, the company is registered in the United Kingdom. As in previous years each entry has been reviewed and, where necessary, revised in the light of additional information received since the previous volume. The information thus recorded is the latest available at the time of going to press. Special features of value and interest include cross-reference index to all principal, subsidiary and associated companies in this edition, geographical index, suppliers' directory and buyers' guide, world production table, mining areas of Australia, and professional services section

  3. Areva. 2005 half year report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    With manufacturing facilities in over 40 countries and a sales network in over 100, AREVA offers customers technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. The group also provides interconnect systems to the telecommunications, computer and automotive markets. This half-year report of Areva group presents the key financial data of the group for the first half of 2005: 1 - Highlights of the period; 2 - Transition to the International Financial Reporting Standards: Group's application of IFRS, Impact of IAS 32 and 39 adoption on the Group's financial statements; 3 - Key data: summary data, summary data by business Division, backlog, income statement, review by business Division, cash flow statement, balance sheet items; 4 - events subsequent to the half-year-end; 5 - consolidated financial statements: statutory Auditors' report on the 2005 half-year financial statements - period from January 1 to June 30, 2005, consolidated income statement, consolidated balance sheet, consolidated cash flow statement, change in consolidated shareholders' equity, data by business Division and region, notes to the consolidated financial statements; 6 - Outlook

  4. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nuclear fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fifieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, ''Fifty Years with Nuclear Fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent development in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicated a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two fully days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main site of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered in this Volume 1 by this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled: Preclude to the First Chain Reaction -- 1932 to 1942; Early Fission Research -- Nuclear Structure and Spontaneous Fission; 50 Years of Fission, Science, and Technology; Nuclear Reactors, Secure Energy for the Future; Reactors 1; Fission Science 1; Safeguards and Space Applications; Fission Data; Nuclear Fission -- Its Various Aspects; Theory and Experiments in Support of Theory; Reactors and Safeguards; and General Research, Instrumentation, and By-Product. The individual papers have been cataloged separately

  5. TRIUMF: Five-year plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The Canadian government recently announced approval of a five-year-plan for TRIUMF, giving the Vancouver Laboratory assured funding until the year 2000. Besides continuation of the multidisciplinary cyclotron, this will allow construction of ISAC-1, a new on-line isotope separator. At the same time, TRIUMF will also be responsible for Canadian ''in-kind'' contributions to international science at CERN's LHC proton-proton collider (see page 1). The federal plan strengthens TRIUMF's role as a national facility, run by a consortium of universities across Canada. In addition, TRIUMF will have even stronger international links. The federal government has allocated a total of $166.6 million to TRIUMF over the next five years. In addition, the provincial British Columbia government, a long-time supporter of TRIUMF, has already agreed to provide approximately $10 million for conventional construction. The nature of the accelerator contributions to the LHC has not been finally decided, although two areas are under discussion - the upgrade of the accelerator chain, and construction of the two 'beam cleaning' insertions. The former would involve provision of various new systems (radiofrequency, magnets, power supplies, kickers, etc) for the Booster, PS and SPS synchrotrons; indeed activity is already underway in some areas, such as model studies for a new 40 MHz system for the PS. The acronym of the new facility, ISAC-1, is short for Isotope Separator & Accelerator. A prototype first stage already exists in TRIUMF. ISAC-1 will use the intense proton beam from the TRIUMF cyclotron to create powerful beams of exotic, short-lived, radioactive nuclei which will be accelerated in a new structure

  6. Magnesium diboride: one year on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfield, Paul; Bud'ko, Sergey L.

    2002-01-01

    Last January physicists discovered that an innocuous compound that had been sitting on the shelf for decades was, in fact, a record-breaking intermetallic superconductor. At the end of 2000 superconductivity in metal alloys and compounds appeared to remain trapped by a glass ceiling. Over the previous 10 years the temperature at which certain oxide-based compounds - such as bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide and mercury barium calcium copper oxide - lost their resistance to electric current had soared to well over 100 K. Meanwhile, the transition temperature, Tc, for carbon-based materials, including alkali-doped carbon-60 compounds, had risen close to the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K). During the same period, however, the superconducting transition temperature of intermetallic compounds (materials made solely of metals and metal-like elements) remained close to 20 K - as it had been since the mid-1960s. By February 2001 everything had totally changed. It was as if a firecracker had gone off in the tidy little ant hill of superconductivity research. For the first few months of 2001, groups all over the world raced to understand the properties of a new intermetallic superconductor. The substance that everyone was scrambling to buy or make, the substance that was causing this grand commotion, was magnesium diboride (Mg B 2 ). This seemingly innocuous binary compound, which had been present in many labs for over half a century, had been discovered to superconduct just below 40 K. Even though we already know an amazing amount about Mg B 2 , our knowledge of superconductivity in this compound is only one year old. There is therefore the very real potential to improve its critical properties. In a similar vein, it is almost certain that our understanding of this extreme example of intermetallic superconductivity will greatly improve over the next few years and may even reveal other extreme superconductors. (U.K.)

  7. Health research over 50 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, A. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    CONCAWE has been working on health issues since its formation in 1963. In the early years, the focus of this work was on occupational health hazards and risks in the refining industry. Over the years, especially in the past decade, broader human health issues have been at the centre of environmental and regulatory debate, with 'health effects' increasingly being the driver behind environmental improvement and occupational health initiatives. Against this background, CONCAWE's health research has expanded to deal with these new and emerging issues. Health issues are complex and need to be addressed by experts in several different areas. Through its member companies, CONCAWE has been able to maintain, as its 'Health Management Group', a strong team of occupational physicians, toxicologists, industrial hygienists, exposure and risk assessors, and product stewards with particular expertise in oil industry-related issues. Academic researchers are also called upon to undertake specialised research, as appropriate. In the 40th anniversary Review (October 2003), we reviewed CONCAWE's involvement in three initiatives: (1) the Clean Air for Europe Programme (CAFE), an EU strategy for air quality management; (2) chemicals legislation and the increasing demand to inform the public about health and environmental hazards of chemicals; and (3) a global environment and health strategy with a special focus on children (EU SCALE initiative). Interestingly, these initiatives from 10 years ago continue to influence CONCAWE's work on health research, its objectives being to identify key healthrelated issues and gaps, develop cost-effective, leveraged research programmes to address these gaps, and provide CONCAWE members with advice, guidance and support on the significance of these issues based on scientific and professional evaluations. In this 50th anniversary article, we summarise CONCAWE's involvement in three new or expanded areas: chemicals legislation and its requirements under

  8. 10 YEARS AFTER NATO MEMBERSHIP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ”10 years after NATO Membership. An Anniversary in the Shadow of a Crisis”, indeholder artikler fra politiske aktører, diplomater og forskere, der alle bidrog til til konferencen af samme navn, hvor den 10-året for baltisk medlemskab af NATO var omdrejningspunktet. Udover den danske...... forsvarsminister, er den estiske og litauiske forsvarsminister og NATO’s vicegeneralsekretær blandt bidragyderne. Konferencens formål var at fejre, inddrage og diskutere 10 års forsvarspolitisk NATO-samarbejde i Østersøområdet. Den internationale udvikling i Europa betød at konferencens dagsorden i stedet for kom...

  9. 50 years of personal memories

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The official book for CERN's 50th anniversary will be available as from the Open Day on 16 October. This beautiful book of about 250 pages tells of half a century of events and achievements at CERN through the eyes of 62 witnesses. Administrators, physicists and engineers recall both large and small events in the history of the Laboratory. This luxury edition features many magnificent photographs - often not well known - from CERN's valuable photo archive. Infinitely CERN Memories from fifty years of research Until the end of the month, the book will be sold at the special price of 50 CHF instead of 70 CHF.

  10. 50 years of personal memories

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ The official book for CERN's 50th anniversary will be available as from the Open Day on 16 October. This beautiful book of about 250 pages tells of half a century of events and achievements at CERN through the eyes of 62 witnesses. Administrators, physicists and engineers recall both large and small events in the history of the Laboratory. This luxury edition features many magnificent photographs - often not well known - from CERN's valuable photo archive. Infinitely CERN Memories from fifty years of research Until the end of the month, the book will be sold at the special price of 50 CHF instead of 70 CHF.

  11. 17. The Thirty Years War

    OpenAIRE

    Blamires, David

    2013-01-01

    Without any question the period of the Thirty Years War, from 1618 to 1648, was one of the most horrifying in the history of Germany. Not only were huge numbers of soldiers killed in battle in virtually every part of the Holy Roman Empire, but even greater numbers of the civilian population died in the conflict or through starvation or disease. Houses, churches, villages and towns were burnt and destroyed, and by the end of the war the population had been reduced from about sixteen millions t...

  12. 50 Years of Anderson Localization

    CERN Document Server

    Abrahams, Elihu

    2010-01-01

    In his groundbreaking paper Absence of diffusion in certain random lattices (1958), Philip W. Anderson originated, described and developed the physical principles underlying the phenomenon of the localization of quantum objects due to disorder. Anderson's 1977 Nobel Prize citation featured that paper, which was fundamental for many subsequent developments in condensed matter theory and technical applications. After more than a half century, the subject continues to be of fundamental importance. In particular, in the last 25 years, the phenomenon of localization has proved to be crucial for the

  13. Postdramatic Theatre, 12 years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Thies Lehmann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This text takes stock of the twelve years of emergence of the practice and term Postdramatic and some of its developments and issues in the performing arts. It discusses the changes through which the contemporary scene has gone since 1999 and consequently the changes we should consider when reading and analysing the concept of postdramatic; among them, the focus on collaborative work; new relations between theatre and society; the focus on dance; and the return of words. Finally, the text raises the question of whether or not the term postdramatic should be reconsidered.

  14. Fiscal Year 2009 Revegetation Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Lewis

    2009-10-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2009 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Recommendation(s) for each site.

  15. Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenifer Nordstrom; Mike Lewis

    2010-11-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Recommendation(s) for each site.

  16. 25 years of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curien, H.; Duclos, D.; Saint Raymond, Ph.

    1998-01-01

    This philosophical dossier is devoted to the last 25 years of nuclear safety. It is organized around three main subjects: the control, the communication with the public and the international relations. The control affected the builder and the operator, but also an independent authority. This duality is essential. The public relations became a main point in the risks management. The transparency leads to a better public information. The last part is devoted to the international relations. It affects the international regulations but also the opinion exchange. The nuclear industries (and even non nuclear industries) should take inspiration from the foreign management and experiences. (A.L.B.)

  17. 15 years of Rev Rene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorita Marlena Freitag Pagliuca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Writing an editorial is always a challenge. When drafting a scientific paper one can rely on the literature review, method, results, and discussion with texts supporting or deconstructing what one wants to prove. Utopia is the spice of life, better when there are more than one utopian; particularly a group of dreamers who allowed themselves to dream, not worrying about immediate results; keen to build and preserve a 15-year history. Enter adolescence and be in the world. Create complicity to dream and achieve utopia.

  18. CROATIAN FISHERY IN 2003 YEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jahutka

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the analysis and sublimation of all the relevant informations regarding fisheries in Republic of Croatia. This means that there were processed data about freshwater fisheries (farming of freshwater fish and other aquatic organisms, commercial and sports fisheries, marine fisheries (mariculture, commercial fisheries, small–scale fisheries and processing of fish products, import and export of fish and fish products as well as the financial subventions regarding fisheries. The farming of freshwater fish in 2003 is marked by the decrease of production comparing to the past 5 years. Carp is furthermore the most dominant fish species in freshwater fish farming, but it’s percentage is decreasing, and the percentage of the trout is increasing over the years. In addition to the decrease of production, the areas of production are decreasing as well, and now they are the smallest in the past decade — 6,281.97 ha. In 2003 the amount of used food is also decreased, but the amount of used fertilizers and lime is increased, that means it is the biggest in the past decade. This is caused by the bad climate conditions during the summer. Marine fisheries farming (mariculture in 2003 is in a slightly better position then the freshwater fish farming. The production of white fish species, which was reached before few years, is not changing — 2,510 tons, also the farming of oysters is stagnating, but in the past few years the farming of mussels and tuna fish is increasing. The total marine fish catch is 29,102 tons and it is performed over 34,000 km2, comparing to the 2002 it is increased by almost 49.24%. Additional to the increase of the total catch the number of commercial fishermen and fishing vessels is also increased. The number of fisherman which fish for their own consumption without the right to sell fish, that means the small–scale fishermen in 2003 is 13,500. The production of fish and fish products in 2003 is 19,000 tons

  19. Osteoarthritis year in review 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, M; Ellegaard, K; Henriksen, M

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The current narrative review covers original research related to imaging in osteoarthritis (OA) in humans published in English between April 1st 2015 and March 31st 2016, in peer reviewed journals available in Medline via PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/). METHODS: Relevant...... compared to studies reported previous years is presented, followed by a review of selected imaging studies of primarily knee, hip and hand OA focussing on (1) results for detection of OA and OA-related pathology (2) studies dealing with treatments and (3) studies focussing on prognosis of disease...

  20. 2017. The year of indecision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The energy year 2017 was determined by new thinking, pausing, hesitation, questioning: in the months leading up to the general election, landmark political decisions were not forthcoming. The Federal Government declared ''phase 1'' of the German energy transition to be completed. However, the question of how phase 2 should be structured remained unclear until late autumn, despite some consultation procedures. Internationally, China's largest greenhouse gas emitter, at least declamatory, replaced the United States as the world's leading power in climate protection. [de

  1. The Singapore years and subsequently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    2005-07-01

    Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad was a medical student at the King Edward VII College of Medicine from 1947 to 1953. He described his student days with fondness; he made many friends while he was at the College. He recounted his early days as a doctor before he entered politics in 1964. He became the fourth and longest serving Prime Minister of Malaysia for 22 years from 1981 to 2003. He concluded "The contribution of my Medical College days in Singapore to the racial harmony, peace and prosperity of Malaysia is tangible but unquantifiable."

  2. 200 years of lithium and 100 years of organolithium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wietelmann, Ulrich; Klett, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The element lithium has been discovered 200 years ago. Due to its unique properties it has emerged to play a vital role in industry, esp. for energy storage, and lithium-based products and processes support sustainable technological developments. In addition to the many uses of lithium in its inorganic forms, lithium has a rich organometallic chemistry. The development of organometallic chemistry has been hindered by synthetic problems from the start. When Wilhelm Schlenk developed the basic principles to handle and synthesize air- and moisture-sensitive compounds, the road was open to further developments. After more information was available about the stability and solubility of such compounds, they started to play an essential role in other fields of chemistry as alkyl or aryl transfer reagents. (copyright 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA.)

  3. 200 years of lithium and 100 years of organolithium chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wietelmann, Ulrich [Albemarle Germany GmbH, Synthesis Solutions, Industriepark Hoechst, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Klett, Jan [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2018-03-01

    The element lithium has been discovered 200 years ago. Due to its unique properties it has emerged to play a vital role in industry, esp. for energy storage, and lithium-based products and processes support sustainable technological developments. In addition to the many uses of lithium in its inorganic forms, lithium has a rich organometallic chemistry. The development of organometallic chemistry has been hindered by synthetic problems from the start. When Wilhelm Schlenk developed the basic principles to handle and synthesize air- and moisture-sensitive compounds, the road was open to further developments. After more information was available about the stability and solubility of such compounds, they started to play an essential role in other fields of chemistry as alkyl or aryl transfer reagents. (copyright 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA.)

  4. SE and ENEL - One Year Together One Year after Privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-01-01

    In Bratislava, one year ago, exactly in April 28, the privatization deal of a 66% stake in Slovenske elektrarne (SE) was finally closed. The Slovak government and the Italian company ENEL signed final documents and ENEL thus definitely entered into SE. In May 2006, Miroslav Pikus, a former CEO, was replaced by Marco Arcelli, who, as a regional manager for Slovakia, had been preparing the entry of ENEL into SE since March 2005. Not only did he sometimes cook for us, in his 'kitchen' but also there were prepared 160 investment projects, e.g the improvement of nuclear safety and resistance of the Bohunice power plant, electricity sale through the so-called 'virtual power plant', ensuring a non-attended operation in hydro power plants, reconstruction and modernization of the Orava and Dobsina hydro power plants. (author)

  5. Sixty years of animal biometeorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, John B.; Lees, Angela M.; Sejian, Veerasamy

    2017-10-01

    Animal biometeorology (insects excluded) has been part of the International Journal of Biometeorology since its inception in 1958. Over the first 60 years of the journal, 480 animal biometeorology papers were published. Thus, approximately 14% of published papers dealt with animals. Over the first 60 years, data from more than 50 animal species was presented, with the lead authors coming from 48 countries. The two most common species used in animal papers between 1957 and 2016 were cattle (109 papers: 22.7% of all animal papers) and rats (96 papers: 20.0% of all animal papers). Although cattle and rats dominated, the species in the most cited paper (240 citations) was chickens, followed by bird migration (155 citations), and general livestock (118 citations). Overall, five papers exceeded 100 citations, and a further two exceeded 200 citations. In the last decade, 126 animal papers were published (26% of all animal papers). Many of these papers had a focus on livestock production in developing countries especially Brazil.

  6. Which Russia, twenty years later?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Claudín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia is proud of its position among the emerging powers, of the strength provided by its ample energetic resources and its nuclear potential with which it can influence the world and always be taken into account. Nevertheless, the perception within the country is that stagnation has become Russia’s dominant characteristic at present. The objective of this article is to explore how this situation came about, analysing the evolution of domestic processes in Russia during both of its most defining periods: Yeltsin and Putin’s leadership, since the ephemeral presidency of Medvedev proved to be basically a continuation of the latter. During the eight years of Boris Yeltsin’s tenure, the state of crisis, latent or open, developed into the way that political processes are carried out in Russia. With Putin’s arrival, however, stability and State control are imposed, against the backdrop of economic growth, and they become values in themselves, far from the democratic discourse of the first years.

  7. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nucler fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fiftieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, ''Fifty years with nuclear fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent developments in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicating a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two full days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main sites of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered by Volume 2 of this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled, Nuclear fission -- a prospective; reactors II; fission science II; medical and industrial applications by by-products; reactors and safeguards; general research, instrumentation, and by-products; and fission data, astrophysics, and space applications. The individual papers have been cataloged separately

  8. 100 Years of radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, S.M.; Arnold, D.; Chauvenet, B.; Collé, R.; De Felice, P.; García-Toraño, E.; Wätjen, U.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. - Highlights: • The driving forces for the development of radionuclide metrology. • Radium standards to facilitate trade of this valuable commodity in the early years. • After 1950, focus changes to healthcare and industrial applications. • National Measurement Institutes develop new techniques, standards, and disseminate the best practice in measurement. • Challenges in nuclear medicine, radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics

  9. Neste Corporation - a successful year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihamuotila, J.

    1991-01-01

    The past year proved a successful one for Neste Corporation. Profitability was good and operations were consistently developed. Neste is committed to giving high priority to productivity and know- how to ensure that this success continues into the future. Important developments affecting the structure of Neste Corporation during 1990 included the amalgamation of Neste's oil-related activities into a single division, the increasing concentration of Neste Chemicals, activities in Central and Southern Europe and a major strengthening of oil exploration and production operations. Neste Oil turned in a good result during 1990. Neste imported a total of 8.9 million tonnes of crude oil during 1990. Imports from the Soviet Union at 5.2 million tonnes, were over 2 million tonnes less than planned. Some 2.5 million tonnes were imported from the North Sea, and 1.2 million tonnes from the Middle East. The year was one of expansion, diversification, and solid profit for Neste Chemicals. Net sales grew by 18 % compared to 1989 and the division recorded a satisfactory performance. Petrochemicals and polyolefins production increased suhstantially as a result of plants completed, acquired, or leased during 1989. The gas division's net sales during 1990 were 46 % higher than during 1989. This growth largely resulted from an increase in the consumption of natural gas and an expansion in the volume of international IPG business. The division's profitability remained satisfactory

  10. Fifty years of symmetry operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigner, E.P.

    1978-01-01

    The author begins by discussing the application of symmetry principles in classical physics, which began 150 years ago. He then offers a few remarks on the essence of these principles and their role in the structure of physics; events, laws of nature, and invariance principles - kinematic and then dynamic - are treated. After this general discussion of the various types of symmetries, he considers the fundamental differences in their application in classical and quantum physics; the symmetry principles have greater effectiveness in quantum theory. After a few critical remarks of a general nature on the invariance principles, the author reviews the application of symmetry principles in various areas of quantum mechanics: atomic spectra, molecular physics, solid state physics, nuclear physics, and particle physics. He notes that the role of the different symmetries recognized to be approximate provide the most interesting conclusions

  11. Fifty years of radiochemical tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    During the past 50 years radiochemical tracers, usually in the form of isotopically labelled organic compounds, have been essential tools to further advance our knowledge at the frontiers of a great variety of scientific developments in the life sciences. This plenary lecture reviews necessarily selected highlights in the synthesis and applications of such radiochemical tracers. Included are examples where important advances, made possible by using radiochemicals, have contributed to improving the quality of life on this planet. The principal radioisotopes involved, 14 C, 3 H, 35 S, 32 P, 125 I, are all relatively safe to handle and are commercially available at maximum theoretical specific activity (carrier free). The compounds labeled with these radioisotopes are used in many fields of research which include biosynthesis and biotechnology studies, cell biology, drug metabolism, clinical research and environmental applications, and are briefly reviewed. (author). 55 refs

  12. 50 years of fusion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Fusion energy research began in the early 1950s as scientists worked to harness the awesome power of the atom for peaceful purposes. There was early optimism for a quick solution for fusion energy as there had been for fission. However, this was soon tempered by reality as the difficulty of producing and confining fusion fuel at temperatures of 100 million °C in the laboratory was appreciated. Fusion research has followed two main paths—inertial confinement fusion and magnetic confinement fusion. Over the past 50 years, there has been remarkable progress with both approaches, and now each has a solid technical foundation that has led to the construction of major facilities that are aimed at demonstrating fusion energy producing plasmas.

  13. Homo cyborg: fifty years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hables Gray

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While the term “cyborg” is only 50 years old, the process that has produced cyborgization is much older: the evolution of the human. Humans have evolved to modify ourselves and our environment, especially through evolving culture and the technologies it creates. Culture is part of nature. Today’s mundane i-cyborgs, military drones, intimate human-machine merging and genetic engineering are a result of this; which in turn produce feelings of uncanniness, hubris, and fear. Contemporary politics must take this complex dynamic into account if we are to secure a sustainable, survivable, future for ourselves and our descendents. Social experiments such as Burning Man are a prefiguration of the kinds of (self conscious techno-social creativity needed.

  14. Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacronique, J.F.; Deconinck, F.; Govaerts, P.; Eggermont, C.; Cort, M. de; Joulia, J.P.; Dal, A.H.; Balonov, M.; Kenigsberg, J.; Hindie, E.; Havenaar, M.

    2006-01-01

    In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

  15. Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacronique, J F [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Deconinck, F; Govaerts, P; Eggermont, C [SCK-CEN - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Cort, M de [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, DG JRC EC (Italy); Joulia, J P [EuropeAid Co-operation Office, EC, Brussels (Belgium); Dal, A H; Balonov, M [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Kenigsberg, J [Commission on Radiation protection, council of ministry (Belarus); Hindie, E [Universites Paris, 75 (France); Havenaar, M [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

  16. Resolution 1540, ten years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Adopted on the 28 April 2004 by the United Nations Security Council under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, Resolution 1540 is a composite tool that was hitherto unprecedented. To recap, States are bound to 'refrain from providing any form of support to non-State actors that attempt to develop, acquire, manufacture, possess, transport, transfer or use nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and their means of delivery' (par. 1), and to prohibit and prevent non-State actors from the aforementioned through 'appropriate and effective' (par. 2,3) legal, judiciary, and administrative means. A Committee was established to which States had to submit a first report outlining the steps 'they have taken or intend to take to implement this resolution' (par. 4). This Committee was initially established for two years and has been regularly renewed since, and its mandate was extended in 2011 for ten years. It is not a surveillance mechanism. Finally, with the aim of remedying difficulties that certain States may experience in implementing the Resolution, 'States in a position to do so' are invited to offer assistance (par. 7). The level of the application of Resolution 1540 was originally based on a delicate three-pronged balance of obligation, good will, and partnership. It is not a matter of designating certain States to the rest of the international community, whilst avoiding that the exercise be limited to the submission of national reports, instead aiming to initiate a dynamic. The wager was a risky one. Ten years on, 90% of UN member States have submitted one or several implementation reports. 170 States and 50 international and regional organisations have taken part in outreach and implementation support events. Whatever quantitative or qualitative conclusions that can be reached, we should continue to promote the Re-solution's universal adoption, and to ensure that the implementation of its provisions is undertaken in a lasting manner, taking account of the national

  17. Civil partnerships five years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Helen; Gask, Karen; Berrington, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The Civil Partnership Act 2004, which came into force in December 2005 allowing same-sex couples in the UK to register their relationship for the first time, celebrated its fifth anniversary in December 2010. This article examines civil partnership in England and Wales, five years on from its introduction. The characteristics of those forming civil partnerships between 2005 and 2010 including age, sex and previous marital/civil partnership status are examined. These are then compared with the characteristics of those marrying over the same period. Further comparisons are also made between civil partnership dissolutions and divorce. The article presents estimates of the number of people currently in civil partnerships and children of civil partners. Finally the article examines attitudes towards same-sex and civil partner couples both in the UK and in other countries across Europe.

  18. Fiscal Year 2014 Revegetation Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstrom, Jenifer [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2014 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to document revegetation efforts at Idaho National Laboratory to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Actions and Resolutions for each site. Five disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. Four sites are recommended to be removed from the annual assessment, and one is recommended for continued evaluation. New sites are also identified for future monitoring as part of the annual assessment.

  19. Fiscal Year 2016 Revegetation Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstrom, Jenifer B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to document revegetation efforts at Idaho National Laboratory to verify restoration of disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations occurs as required. This report provides the following information for projects at Idaho National Laboratory completed during FY 2016 that were identified during the National Environmental Policy Act review process as having the potential to disturb soils or vegetation: 1) A summary of all projects identified as having the potential to require revegetation efforts 2) A summary of site disturbance and restoration efforts of each project. For FY 2016, one project required revegetation and sagebrush restoration. For other projects, implementation of best management practices minimized impacts to vegetation and revegetation efforts were not required.

  20. Deformation quantization: Twenty years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternheimer, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    We first review the historical developments, both in physics and in mathematics, that preceded (and in some sense provided the background of) deformation quantization. Then we describe the birth of the latter theory and its evolution in the past twenty years, insisting on the main conceptual developments and keeping here as much as possible on the physical side. For the physical part the accent is put on its relations to, and relevance for, 'conventional' physics. For the mathematical part we concentrate on the questions of existence and equivalence, including most recent developments for general Poisson manifolds; we touch also noncommutative geometry and index theorems, and relations with group theory, including quantum groups. An extensive (though very incomplete) bibliography is appended and includes background mathematical literature

  1. Forty years of TTG research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyen, Jean-François; Martin, Hervé

    2012-09-01

    TTGs (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) are one of the archetypical lithologies of Archaean cratons. Since their original description in the 1970s, they have been the subject of many studies and discussions relating to Archaean geology. In this paper, we review the ideas, concepts and arguments brought forward in these 40 years, and try to address some open questions — both old and new. The late 1960s and the 1970s mark the appearance of "grey gneisses" (TTG) in the scientific literature. During this period, most work was focused on the identification and description of this suite, and the recognition that it is a typical Archaean lithology. TTGs were already recognised as generated by melting of mafic rocks. This was corroborated during the next decade, when detailed geochemical TTG studies allowed us to constrain their petrogenesis (melting of garnet-bearing metamafic rocks), and to conclude that they must have been generated by Archaean geodynamic processes distinct from their modern counterparts. However, the geodynamic debate raged for the following 30 years, as many distinct tectonic scenarios can be imagined, all resulting in the melting of mafic rocks in the garnet stability field. The 1990s were dominated by experimental petrology work. A wealth of independent studies demonstrated that melting of amphibolites as well as of mafic eclogites can give rise to TTG liquids; whether amphibolitic or eclogitic conditions are more likely is still an ongoing debate. From 1990s onwards, one of the key questions became the comparison with modern adakites. As originally defined these arc lavas are reasonably close equivalents to Archaean TTGs. Pending issues largely revolve around definitions, as the name TTG has now been applied to most Archaean plutonic rocks, whether sodic or potassic, irrespective of their HREE contents. This leads to a large range of petrogenetic and tectonic scenarios; a fair number of which may well have operated concurrently, but are

  2. Biblis unit A thirty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, H.

    2004-01-01

    The first nuclear power plant in the Federal Republic of Germany started operation in 1961. It was followed by a consistent period of development until a new energy source had become available by the late sixties which was both powerful and capable of expansion. With 1200 MW electric power, the pressurized water reactor of Biblis A in 1974 was equipped with the world's most powerful single-shaft turbine generator. In 187,656 hours of operation, Biblis A over the past thirty years generated slightly more than 211 billion kWh of gross electricity (by July 31, 2004). The operating experience accumulated also resulted in improvements and modifications of technical plant systems in the 1970s and 1980s which served to bring the unit up to the then current state of the art. Modifications of technical plant systems serving to increase the safety margins or improve operating systems, always in the light of the state of the art, have been carried out consistently and continuously over the years. In combination with a high level of qualification of the operating personnel, which is ensured by an efficient system of primary and refresher training courses of responsible shift personnel and other groups of power plant personnel, this creates a lasting foundation of safe plant operation. In connection with the preparations for, and the execution of, revision outages, Biblis provided the first experience with a PWR of this size category. Unit A of the Biblis nuclear power station is proof of the fact that technical and safety challenges can be solved, and have been solved, by engineering expertise. The high availability and low susceptibility to failure of the plant demonstrate the widely optimized maintenance strategy and the high qualification and motivation of the staff. (orig.)

  3. 30 Years of Robotic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Ghezzi, Tiago; Campos Corleta, Oly

    2016-10-01

    The idea of reproducing himself with the use of a mechanical robot structure has been in man's imagination in the last 3000 years. However, the use of robots in medicine has only 30 years of history. The application of robots in surgery originates from the need of modern man to achieve two goals: the telepresence and the performance of repetitive and accurate tasks. The first "robot surgeon" used on a human patient was the PUMA 200 in 1985. In the 1990s, scientists developed the concept of "master-slave" robot, which consisted of a robot with remote manipulators controlled by a surgeon at a surgical workstation. Despite the lack of force and tactile feedback, technical advantages of robotic surgery, such as 3D vision, stable and magnified image, EndoWrist instruments, physiologic tremor filtering, and motion scaling, have been considered fundamental to overcome many of the limitations of the laparoscopic surgery. Since the approval of the da Vinci(®) robot by international agencies, American, European, and Asian surgeons have proved its factibility and safety for the performance of many different robot-assisted surgeries. Comparative studies of robotic and laparoscopic surgical procedures in general surgery have shown similar results with regard to perioperative, oncological, and functional outcomes. However, higher costs and lack of haptic feedback represent the major limitations of current robotic technology to become the standard technique of minimally invasive surgery worldwide. Therefore, the future of robotic surgery involves cost reduction, development of new platforms and technologies, creation and validation of curriculum and virtual simulators, and conduction of randomized clinical trials to determine the best applications of robotics.

  4. EDITORIAL: 80 Years of Plasma 80 Years of Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, R. N.; Braithwaite, N. St J.

    2009-02-01

    Irving Langmuir proposed the term 'plasma' in a paper in 1928 (Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 14 627-637) to describe a 'region containing balanced charges of ions and electrons'. There does not appear to be any record of the thinking behind this proposal, so it is difficult to be definitive. One idea is that since the Greek word 'plasma' was used to describe a mouldable fluid, 'neon' lighting, with its almost limitless ability to provide colourful shapes, provided the inspiration. Another relates to the prior medical use in relation to blood with its variety of different 'corpuscles' and that the essential description of the positive column required one to recognize at least the role of the separate species of electrons, ions and gas atoms. Tonks, when questioned thirty years later, was inclined to the latter idea, but it is unlikely that we shall ever know for certain. (See postscript added December 2008.) Forty years ago most of the interest in terrestrial plasmas was centred on fusion and the prospect of thus solving the world's energy problems; the quest continues. However, since then a whole new industry has developed. It emerged in the 1970s as an imaginative way to remove the photoresist layers used in patterning semiconductor wafers. Slowly but steadily, plasma-based 'dry' processes began to displace the traditional wet chemistry processes of cleaning, etching and depositing by which the first generation of integrated circuits had been made. Plasma technology offered higher yields while accommodating the complexity of ever-shrinking feature size, driving the microelectronic revolution for almost four decades. Langmuir certainly ushered in an exciting branch of physics when he introduced the term plasma. We have included as Appendix I a condensed CV for Irving Langmuir to show, amongst other things, the early influences on his subsequent life. An interlude in Paris gave him a taste of the wider world of Europe. His subsequent schooling in the United States led

  5. Swift: 10 Years of Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The conference Swift: 10 years of discovery was held in Roma at La Sapienza University on Dec. 2-5 2014 to celebrate 10 years of Swift successes. Thanks to a large attendance and a lively program, it provided the opportunity to review recent advances of our knowledge of the high-energy transient Universe both from the observational and theoretical sides. When Swift was launched on November 20, 2004, its prime objective was to chase Gamma-Ray Bursts and deepen our knowledge of these cosmic explosions. And so it did, unveiling the secrets of long and short GRBs. However, its multi-wavelength instrumentation and fast scheduling capabilities made it the most versatile mission ever flown. Besides GRBs, Swift has observed, and contributed to our understanding of, an impressive variety of targets including AGNs, supernovae, pulsars, microquasars, novae, variable stars, comets, and much more. Swift is continuously discovering rare and surprising events distributed over a wide range of redshifts, out to the most distant transient objects in the Universe. Such a trove of discoveries has been addressed during the conference with sessions dedicated to each class of events. Indeed, the conference in Rome was a spectacular celebration of the Swift 10th anniversary. It included sessions on all types of transient and steady sources. Top scientists from around the world gave invited and contributed talks. There was a large poster session, sumptuous lunches, news interviews and a glorious banquet with officials attending from INAF and ASI. All the presentations, as well as several conference pictures, can be found in the conference website (http://www.brera.inaf.it/Swift10/Welcome.html). These proceedings have been collected owing to the efforts of Paolo D’Avanzo who has followed each paper from submission to final acceptance. Our warmest thanks to Paolo for all his work. The Conference has been made possible by the support from La Sapienza University as well as from the ARAP

  6. Fiscal year 1987 program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The Defense TRU Waste Program (DTWP) is the focal point for the Department of Energy in national planning, integration, operation, and technical development for TRU waste management. The scope of this program extends from the point of TRU waste generation through delivery to a permanent repository. The TRU program maintains a close interface with repository development to ensure program compatibility and coordination. The defense TRU program does not directly address commercial activities that generate TRU waste. Instead, it is concerned with providing alternatives to manage existing and future defense TRU wastes. The FY 87 Program Plan is consistent with the Defense TRU Waste Program goals and objectives stated in the Defense Transuranic Waste Program Strategy Document, January 1984. The roles of participants, the responsibilities and authorities for Operations, and Research ampersand Development (R ampersand D), the organizational interfaces and communication channels for R ampersand D and the establishment of procedures for planning, reporting, and budgeting of Operations and R ampersand D activities meet requirements stated in the Technical Management Plan for the Transuranic Waste Management Program. Detailed budget planning (i.e., programmatic funding and capital equipment) is presented for FY 87; outyear budget projections are presented for future years

  7. 60 years: sleek and stylish

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    As you are aware, CERN will be celebrating its 60th birthday in 2014. To mark the event, next year will be filled with exciting events... of which there will be a taster in the next issue of the Bulletin.   In the meantime, we are pleased to present the official logo for this important anniversary: created by the Graphic Design Service team, it elegantly combines the curves of the numbers 6 and 0 to mirror the shape of our accelerator chain, and in doing so pays homage to the technological prowess of CERN’s installations. The overlap of the 6 and the 0 also symbolises collaboration between countries, professions and people, which is one of the Organization’s fundamental values. The slightly tilted perspective of the logo suggests the geographical layout of CERN’s facilities as well as the dynamism of a forward-looking Laboratory. There’s an obvious nod to the CERN logo, but the new logo differs in the way it evokes a more festive spirit: formed of a loo...

  8. Forty Years with Emerging Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C J

    2014-11-01

    I was raised in a middle-class family in West Texas and was lucky in my preparation through high school faculty, short government programs arising from the politics of Sputnik, inspiring high school mentors, and university training at a first-rate institution. My educational background led me to apply to medical school. With some financial aid, I managed to graduate and then obtain a first-class internal medicine residency at Parkland Hospital, where I acquired skills in discerning evaluation and treatment of patients with complicated diseases. In spite of a liking for and ability in clinical medicine, I entered the Public Health Service and worked for 5 years at the National Institutes of Health laboratory in Panama; there, I began to see the fascination of ecological impacts on virus transmission in nature and its spillover into human populations. I shifted my interests to these themes and their interaction with viral pathogenesis. At each stage of my career, I picked an institution to work where there were strong leaders and other inspiring scientists. I think the young scientist should choose the best available institution and one that offers a career direction that leads to a life where he or she awakens and cannot wait to arrive at his or her job-regardless of the details of each choice, the outcome will be a satisfied person who will contribute greatly to his or her chosen field.

  9. An eighty years long history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Fabbio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An eighty years long historyAnnals of Silvicultural Research (ASR take over and are the on line follow-up of the former Annali. The Annali are a body of 36 volumes issued since 1970 from the Experimental Institute of Silviculture, then Forestry Research Centre of the Consiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura (CRA. They originate from the series of Papers of the same Institution (n. 15-18, 1968-69 and formerly of the Royal Station of Silviculture in Firenze (n. 1-14, 1932-67. The history of Annals dates therefore back to 80 years ago and covers quite completely the activity of our Institution since its early establishment in Firenze in 1922.Institutional duty of the Annali was the scientific dissemination of research trials’ outcomes and findings to the manifold stakeholders’ levels and was aimed at an effective transfer of knowledge and innovation in the practice of forestry. The Annali housed original research papers produced inside and in cooperation with researchers outside on the subject-matters of forest ecology, silviculture of semi-natural forests and forest plantations for environmental restoration and wood/ non-wood productions, tree farming and agro-forestry, forest mensuration and stand dynamics, dendro-ecology, conservation and valorization of genetic resources and levels and types of biodiversity, protection and provision of forest ecosystems services, maintenance of their multifunctional role, up to the more recent theme of the adaptive management framed within the environmental change in progress and related issues of forests’ mitigation & carbon sequestration/ stocking ability.A review of research topics and thematic volumes handled throughout the eighty years highlights the attention paid towards the national emerging subject-matters, since the Experiments on the introduction of exotic species in Italy by Pavari and De Philippis (1941, to its conclusive follow-up forty years later Role of exotic species

  10. The year 2000 power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.T.

    1989-01-01

    Every utility seeks extended service life from its existing power plants before building new ones. It is not easy to justify a new power plant. The licensing and cost of new plants have become uncertain. In response to these conditions, electric utilities are undertaking plant life-extension studies and, in some cases, reconditioning/upgrading old power plants to significantly increase useful service life. Other technologies like robotics and artificial intelligence/expert systems are also being developed to reduce operating and maintenance (O and M) expenses, to remove workers from potentially hazardous environments, and to reduce plant downtime. Together, these steps represent an interim solution, perhaps providing some relief for the next few decades. However, there are serious physical and economic limits to retrofitting new technology into existing power plants. Some old plants will simply be beyond their useful life and require retirement. In nuclear plants, for instance, retrofit may raise important and time-consuming licensing/safety issues. Based on their robotics and artificial intelligence experience, the authors of this article speculate bout the design of the year 2000 power plant - a power plant they feel will naturally incorporate liberal amounts of robotic and artificial intelligence technologies

  11. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  12. Fukushima two year processing update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Mark S.; Mertz, Joshua [Kurion, Inc., P.O. Box 5901, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    On March 11, 2011, now two years ago, the magnitude 9.0 Great East Japan earth quake, Tohoku, hit off the Fukushima coast of Japan. This was one of the most powerful earthquakes in recorded history and the most powerful one known to have hit Japan. The ensuing tsunami devastated a huge area resulting in some 25,000 persons confirmed dead or missing. The perfect storm was complete when the tsunami then found the four-reactor, Fukushima- Daiichi Nuclear Station directly in its destructive path. Some 2 million people were evacuated from a fifty mile radius of the area and evaluation and cleanup began. A tremendous effort has been made, by many nationalities, since this time to restore this damaged plant and surrounding area and to return a great deal of the residents to their homes and farm lands. While most of the outcome of this unprecedented natural and manmade disaster was negative, both in Japan and worldwide, there have been some extremely valuable lessons learned and new emergency recovery technologies and systems developed to cope with the aftermath of this disaster. This paper describes new technology developed to selectively remove radioactive materials dangerous to workers, local citizens, and the natural environment from seawater used to cool the damaged reactors at Fukushima. As always, the mother of invention is necessity. (authors)

  13. Nicholas Kaldor after Thirty Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Edward King

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses Kaldor’s ideas on economic policy, his interest in policy issues, and his contribution on specific policies. It underlines Kaldor’s strong and cogent views on three main topics: monetary and fiscal policy, the control of cost inflation, and the stabilisation of commodity prices. The author suggests how Kaldor might have reacted to the most important economic policy questions that still face Britain and the European Union, thirty years after his death. Kaldor was a prominent opponent of Britain’s entry into the then Common Market in the 1970s: not on the basis of any emotive English nationalism, but rather because he believed that the British economy would be damaged by an exposure to unlimited competition from more successful European industries. Perhaps he would have argued that, by 2016, the damage has already been done, and that Britain should now remain in the Union to continue the fight for more sensible macroeconomic policies. He would certainly have been pleased that his adoptive country had refused to join the Eurozone. JEL: B31; E61; E52

  14. Fifty years of Technical Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established in Vienna in 1957. The Statute of the IAEA, approved by 81 nations, founded the organization on three pillars: nuclear verification; safety and security; and the transfer of technology. Today, these three pillars still remain at the heart of the organization's work. However, the way in which the IAEA carries out this work, particularly with regard to technology transfer, has changed greatly over the years. When the IAEA opened for business, nuclear science and technology were in their infancy. Many Member States had no nuclear capacity at all. The IAEA's 'technical assistance' programme, as it was then known, was modest. Early projects were small in scale and short lived, focusing mainly on building human capacities and creating institutions and facilities that would support the introduction of nuclear technology in a safe and effective manner. Today, the picture is more complex. Instead of merely offering assistance, the IAEA focuses on cooperation for sustainable socioeconomic development, building on the skills and infrastructure that Member States have acquired over the past five decades. Member States are full partners in the process, guiding the IAEA's technical cooperation activities, setting national and regional priorities, and offering training opportunities and technical support to the IAEA and to other Member States. Technical cooperation between developing countries is facilitated and supported through regional cooperative agreements. Regional centres of expertise play an important role in sharing the benefits of nuclear science and technology among Member States

  15. TIPSS: 10 years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, G.M.; Brado, M.; Simon, C.; Radeleff, B.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Noeldge, G.; Scharf, J.; Hansmann, J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate and document 10 years of clinical experience gathered by us with TIPSS and to discuss achievements, problems and outlook. Results: Variceal filling was widely reduced by TIPSS, and significantly reduced portal liver perfusion as assessed morphologically and rheologically. However, there was an immediate onset of compensated liver perfusion by increased arterial inflow. Total liver perfusion did not change significantly. In TIPSS portal decompression was readily achieved, the portosystemic gradient dropping from an average of 24 mm Hg to 10.5 mm Hg. In our series we could not demonstrate an increased incidence of hepatic encephalopathy during the 30-day post-TIPSS period. Early mortality was 4% and early rebleeding rate 3%. The 12-month re-intervention rate based on an invasive portography follow-up protocol was 76%, and the 24-month re-intervention rate was 90%. The definite occlusion rate was below 5%. Beyond a follow-up time span of 24-months the necessity for re-intervention dropped significantly: Less than one-third of our patients required some sort of re-intervention. (orig./AJ) [de

  16. Japan: 45 Years of INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    I would like to congratulate INIS on its 45th anniversary. Japan is a founding member of this international cooperation program, and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (formerly, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute — JAERI) was appointed as the national center of INIS by the Japanese government. We have contributed to the collection, classification, indexing, abstracting and submission of nuclear literature published in our country, as well as promoted the INIS database within our country. I have been engaged in INIS activities for many years and have a lot of experience with INIS. On the occasion of INIS’ 45th anniversary, I would like to look back on this experience. I started my career at JAERI in 1984. The first regional training seminar for the Far East was held in Tokyo in October 1984. I was assigned to the Library Division of JAERI, but I worked as support staff for the regional training seminar. During the seminar, I had an opportunity to attend the technical tour with the seminar participants to the University of Library and Information Science, research laboratories, etc., in Tsukuba Science City. This was my first involvement with INIS. It was a very impressive and interesting experience

  17. Ten years of effective multilateralism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2013-12-01

    The EU Strategy against the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction - WMD - ('the Strategy') has just marked its tenth anniversary. This document, which was adopted by the European Council at the Thessalonica Summit on 12 December 2003, constitutes an historic yardstick in the old world for at least two reasons: on the one hand, it is the first of its kind; on the other, it is both the formulation of a vision, a framework, and common means aiming to make the European Union a global actor in the fight against proliferation, something that the Europeans could not hitherto have claimed to be, however much they may have wished to. It is important to recall the context of the Strategy's adoption. Two years earlier, attacks on an unprecedented scale had been carried out on American soil, confirming the perception of a terrorist threat of mass destruction; the existence of a proliferation network run by the Pakistani Abdul Qadeer Khan was confirmed in 2003 (following Iranian discoveries and Libyan revelations), while Washington accused Baghdad of not having abandoned its WMD programme; the Bush Administration launched military attacks in Afghanistan and Iraq and was victorious in both. Overall, WMD directly and indirectly became a threat to peace and security during the 1990's, as the statement by the President of the United Nations Security Council in January 1992 affirmed and in spite of significant progress on the multi-lateral arms control front during the first post-Cold War decade (op cit. the adoption in 1993 and entry into force in 1997 of the Chemical Weapons Convention, and the adoption in 1996 of a Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty). In the face of what have been dubbed 'new threats', EU member States were yet to respond collectively. A European policy was emerging but the Iraq war launched in the spring of 2003 unearthed profound disagreements. The question that needed to be answered at the beginning of the century was the following one: do the

  18. Women's health: beyond reproductive years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Ananya Ray

    2011-01-01

    With changing demographic profile India has more older women than men as life expectancy for women is 67.57 as against 65.46 for men. Gender differences in the aging process reflect biological, economic, and social differences. Both social and health needs of the older women are unique and distinctive as they are vulnerable. The social problems revolve around widowhood, dependency, illiteracy and lack of awareness about the policies and programmes from which they can benefit. Among the medical problems, vision (cataract) and degenerative joint disease top the list, followed by neurological problems. Lifestyle diseases form another single-most important group of health problems in the elderly women. The risk of cardiovascular disease doubles with the outcome being poorer than men. The most common causes of death among women above the age of 60 years are stroke, ischemic heart disease and COPD. Hypertensive heart disease and lower respiratory tract infections contribute to mortality in these women. Common malignancies viz. Cervical, breast and uterus in women are specific to them and account for a sizeable morbidity and mortality. In a study done at Lady Hardinge medical college in Delhi, Hypertension (39.6%) and obesity (12-46.8%) were very common in postmenopausal women. Half or more women had high salt and fat intake, low fruit and vegetable intake and stress. There is a need to recognize the special health needs of the women beyond the reproductive age, to be met through strengthening and reorienting the public health services at all levels starting from primary health care to secondary till tertiary care level with adequate referral linkages. All policies and programs need to have a gender perspective. At present there is lack of sensitization and appropriate training of the health personnel in dealing with the needs of elderly. Women too need to be aware to adopt healthy lifestyle and seek timely care.

  19. 2008: An Exciting Year of Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The year 2005 was celebrated throughout the world as the International year of physics as a tribute to Einstein and his works. That year Einstein's special theory of relativity was 100 years old. The year 2008 shall also be a special year for physics. NASA is launching the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) to look for sources of high energy gamma-rays.

  20. Fifty years of shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rodney

    2017-04-01

    We are here, of course, because 1967 saw the publication of John Ramsay's famous book. Two years later a memorable field trip from Imperial College to the Outer Hebrides saw John on a bleak headland on the coast of North Uist where a relatively undeformed metadolerite within Lewisian (Precambrian) gneisses contained ductile shear zones with metamorphic fabrics in amphibolite facies. One particular outcrop was very special - a shear zone cutting otherwise completely isotropic, undeformed metadolerite, with an incremental foliation starting to develop at 45° to the deformation zone, and increasing in intensity as it approached the shear direction. Here was proof of the process of simple shear under ductile metamorphic conditions - the principles of simple shear outlined in John Ramsay's 1967 book clearly visible in nature, and verified by Ramsay's mathematical proofs in the eventual paper (Ramsay and Graham, 1970). Later work on the Lewisian on the mainland of Scotland, in South Harris, in Africa, and elsewhere applied Ramsay's simple shear principles more liberally, more imprecisely and on larger scale than at Caisteal Odair, but in retrospect it documented what seems now to be the generality of mid and lower crustal deformation. Deep seismic reflection data show us that on passive margins hyper-stretched continental crust (whether or not cloaked by Seaward Dipping Reflectors) seems to have collapsed onto the mantle. Crustal faults mostly sole out at or above the mantle - so the Moho is a detachment- an 'outer marginal detachment', if you like, and, of course, it must be a ductile shear. On non-volcanic margins this shear zone forms the first formed ocean floor before true sea floor spreading gets going to create real oceanic crust. Gianreto Manatschal, Marcel Lemoine and others realised that the serpentinites described in parts of the Alps are exposed remnants of this ductile shear zone. Associated ophicalcite breccias tell of sea floor exposure, while high

  1. Modality-dependent dose requirements in the Austrian breast cancer early detection program. First results from technical quality assurance; Geraeteabhaengiger Dosisbedarf im Oesterreichischen Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm. Erste Ergebnisse aus der technischen Qualitaetssicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osanna-Elliott, A.; Semturs, F.; Menhart, S.; Schloegl, C.; Wildner, S.; Zwettler, G. [AGES, Wien (Austria). Referenzzentrum fuer technische Qualitaetssicherung im Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm

    2015-07-01

    The Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (BKFP) has officially started in January 2014. In order to ensure that all participating women can rely on a sufficient cancer detection rate while at the same time the required dose is as low as reasonably achievable, all participating radiology institutes (approx. 200) have to fulfill strict quality assurance requirements. The control and certification is performed by the Reference Center for Technical Quality Assurance (RefZQS), which has been developing the methods and tolerances in a pilot project since 2007. The limits are defined in the EUREF-Oeprotocol which is based on the European EPQC guidelines. From the requirement for optimized image quality while simultaneously following the ALARA principle, we found modality-dependent dose requirements, which we had expected but which have now been compiled for the first time for Austria.

  2. Trends of metal bioaccumulation from 1990 to 2005 in Germany. Quality assurance in the sampling, analytics, and geostatistical evaluation; Trend der Schwermetall-Bioakkumulation 1990 bis 2005. Qualitaetssicherung bei Probenahme, Analytik, geostatistischer Auswertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Winfried; Pesch, Roland [Hochschule Vechta (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Landschaftsoekologie; Matter, Yehia; Goeritz, Axel [LUFA Nord-West, Hameln (Germany). Inst. fuer Duengemittel und Saatgut; Genssler, Lutz [Landesamt fuer Natur, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz Nordrhein-Westfalen, Recklinghausen (Germany); Dieffenbach-Fries, Helga [Umweltbundesamt (UBA), Langen (Germany). Fachgebiet II 5.4

    2009-12-15

    Since 1990, the UN ECE Heavy Metals in Mosses Surveys provide data inventories of the atmospheric heavy metal bioaccumulation across national boundaries in Europe. The results prove how air pollution control in Germany and in all of Europe affected the bioaccumulation of metals in those ecosystems that are not directly influenced by nearby emission sources. This article focuses on the assessment of spatio temporal patterns of the metal bioaccumulation in Germany since 1990. Furthermore, the spatial variance of the metal bioaccumulation is analysed with regard to sampling site-specific and regional land characteristics. Special focus hereby relies on the correlation of the metal concentration in mosses and in depositions. Hence, the moss surveys contribute to paragraph 12 of the German Federal Nature Conservation Act as well as to the 'Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution' (CLRTAP). (orig.)

  3. Acoustic engineering and technology '90. Acoustic monitoring methods in maintenance and quality assurance and their effects on noise reduction. Schalltechnik '90. Akustische Ueberwachungsmethoden bei der Instandhaltung und Qualitaetssicherung und ihre Auswirkungen auf die Laermminderung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Acoustic monitoring, testing and diagnosis in machines, production processes and products enhance the uptimes and profitability of machinery and plants. 18 papers discuss the current state of the art of acoustic monitoring systems including integrated factory planning as well as industrial health, and noise protection. (DG).

  4. Development of service-relevant materials data and economic quality assurance and machining procedures for gas turbine blades. Final report; Entwicklung betriebsrelevanter Werkstoffkennwerte und wirtschaftlicher Qualitaetssicherungs- und Bearbeitungsverfahren fuer GT-Schaufeln. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buergel, R.; Rechtenbacher, H.

    1994-01-01

    In the frame of the reported project, together with the programme partners, optimization of service relevant properties as well as modification of manufacturing procedures for the forged alloy Nimonic 101 were achieved. These results are directly implementable into serial production and cause improved service reliability and economic benefit. For the forged alloy Udimet 720 materials data were generated in accordance with the programme plan. The final evaluation for this alloy will be performed by the project partner Siemens-KWU. The qualification of fine-grained investment cast blades of IN 792 for large rear=stage blading is not yet fully completed. Three major questions are lacking final answers: - Does a stress rupture strength advantage exist over the forged alloy Udimet 720/coarse/grained? - Can a high cycle fatigue strength as high as that for Udimet 720/coarse-grained be met reproducibly? - Does the investment cast blades offer a cost advantage over the forged ones - technical qualification assumed? The programme helped significantly in preparing the right answers to these questions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des berichteten Teilvorhabens ist es in Zusammenarbeit mit den Projektpartnern gelungen, fuer die Schmiedelegierung Nimonic 101 die betriebsrelevanten Eigenschaften zu optimieren, sowie die Schaufelherstellung so zu modifizieren, dass die Betriebszuverlaessigkeit verbessert wird. Diese Ergebnisse sind direkt in die Serienfertigung implementierbar und damit wirtschaftlich nutzbar. Fuer die Schmiedelegierung Udimet 720 wurden im Rahmen des Projektverbundes Werkstoffkennwerte ermittelt. Die Gesamtauswertung fuer diesen Werkstoff erfolgt von Projektpartner Siemens-KWU. Das Bild zur Qualifikation feinkoerniger Feingussschaufeln ist noch nicht restlos klar. Drei wesentliche, noch abschliessend zu beantwortende Fragen sind: - Ergibt sich ein Zeitstandfestigkeitsvorteil gegenueber der Schmiedelegierung Udimet 720/Grobkorn? - Laesst sich reproduzierbar eine Schwingfestigkeit einstellen, die der des Udiment 720/GK entspricht? - Bietet die Feingussschaufel einen nennenswerten Preisvorteil gegenueber der Schmiedeschaufel, falls die technische Qualifikation erfuellt ist? Das Vorhaben hat entscheidend dazu beigetragen, die Beantwortung dieser Fragen vorzubereiten. (orig.)

  5. Quality assurance in electrical engineering. VDE Regional Group Frankfurt am Main, workshop from November 2-23, 1987. Qualitaetssicherung in der elektrischen Energietechnik. VDE-Bezirksverein Frankfurt am Main, Arbeitsgemeinschaft vom 2. 11. bis 23. 11. 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, H J [ed.

    1987-01-01

    Quality assurance measures are explained at the example of an energy distributor. The VDE (German Association of Electrical Engineers) work team addresses the following articles on quality assurance to experts of energy techniques and those interested in this field. In detail, following topics are dealt with: Basic thoughts and principles of quality assurance; Quality assurance done by the producer, shown at the example of a medium-voltage power switch. Quality assurance done by the producer, shown at the example of a low-voltage power switch. Quality assurance done by the producer of electric distributing hands, shown at the example of a medium-voltage distributing band. Quality assurance by the producer of electric distributing boards, shown at the example of a low-voltage board. Quality assurance by means of maintenance measures in the electric system technique of a public utility. Quality assurance of electric systems and operational means of a public utility. Quality assurance by the operator of electric systems, shown at the example of an industrial plant. (HAG).

  6. Issue of national standards for radiation protection and quality assurance in the medical radiology. Final report; Erstellung von nationalen Normen fuer den Strahlenschutz und die Qualitaetssicherung in der medizinischen Radiologie. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Bernd

    2012-01-15

    The scope of the project is the issue of national standards for the medical radiology to provide standardized (DIN norms) radiation protection in Germany. Emerging new technologies for instance in the field of information processing and digital techniques are have to be adapted. The standards are supposed to allow the surveillance of medical radiological installations with respect to the technical performance, quality and radiation protection. The project is also aimed to enhance the influence on the European and international standardization and its harmonization (ISO, IEC, CEN, CENELEC) in the fields of radiation protection regulation and X-ray regulation.

  7. Central online quality assurance in radiology. An IT solution exemplified by the German Breast Cancer Screening Program; Zentrale Online-Qualitaetssicherung in der Radiologie. Eine IT-Loesung am Beispiel des deutschen Mammografie-Screening-Programms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czwoydzinski, J.; Girnus, R.; Sommer, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Heindel, W.; Lenzen, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Physical-technical quality assurance is one of the essential tasks of the National Reference Centers in the German Breast Cancer Screening Program. For this purpose the mammography units are required to transfer the measured values of the constancy tests on a daily basis and all phantom images created for this purpose on a weekly basis to the reference centers. This is a serious logistical challenge. To meet these requirements, we developed an innovative software tool. Materials and Methods: By the end of 2005, we had already developed web-based software (MammoControl) allowing the transmission of constancy test results via entry forms. For automatic analysis and transmission of the phantom images, we then introduced an extension (MammoControl DIANA). This was based on Java, Java Web Start, the NetBeans Rich Client Platform, the Pixelmed Java DICOM Toolkit and the ImageJ library. Results: MammoControl DIANA was designed to run locally in the mammography units. This allows automated on-site image analysis. Both results and compressed images can then be transmitted to the reference center. We developed analysis modules for the daily and monthly consistency tests and additionally for a homogeneity test. Conclusion: The software we developed facilitates the immediate availability of measurement results, phantom images, and DICOM header data in all reference centers. This allows both targeted guidance and short response time in the case of errors. We achieved a consistent IT-based evaluation with standardized tools for the entire screening program in Germany. (orig.)

  8. Quality assurance of atmospheric dispersion models. Evaluation, assessment and generation of records for model validation; Qualitaetssicherung von Modellen fuer die Ausbreitung von Schadstoffen in der Atmosphaere. Sichtung, Bewertung und Erzeugung von Datensaetzen fuer die Modellvalidierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatzmann, M.; Leitl, B.

    2001-01-01

    Financed by the German Environmental Agency a base of reference data has been generated, which is specifically suited to test and validate microscale flow and dispersion models. A fundamental concept for establishing a reference database has been developed and a set of basic requirements for validation data was defined. The laboratory standards and techniques applied in the boundary layer wind tunnel laboratory at Hamburg University were improved according to the higher quality standards required for generating laboratory data with reference quality. Extensive wind tunnel experiments have been carried out from which the fully documented validation data sets were compiled. All data generated within the scope of the project have been published on an Internet database enabling all potential users to have easy access to the reference data. Further data sets from existing wind tunnel experiments were quality checked and added to the data base. At present, the CEDVAL database, which is accessible under www.mi.uni-hamburg.de backslash cedval consists of 12 complete validation data sets. (orig.) [German] Im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes wurde ein speziell an die Erfordernisse der Validierung mikroskaliger Stroemungs- und Ausbreitungsmodelle angepasster Referenzdatenfundus geschaffen. Es wurde ein Konzept zum Aufbau einer Validierungsdatenbank bereitgestellt und ein die Generierung qualitativ abgesicherter Vergleichsdatensaetze unterstuetzender Anforderungskatalog an Validierungsdaten entwickelt. Nach Anpassung der im Windkanallabor des Meteorologischen Instituts der Universitaet Hamburg vorhandenen Labor- und Versuchstechnik an die speziellen Erfordernisse zur Generierung qualitativ abgesicherter Vergleichsdatensaetze, wurden mehrere, vollstaendig dokumentierte, systematisch aufgebaute Validierungsdatensaetze erzeugt. Die im Projekt erzeugten systematischen Referenzdatensaetze wurden in einer Internet-Datenbank einem breiten Nutzerkreis zur Verfuegung gestellt. Im Rahmen weiterer Windkanaluntersuchungen gewonnene Daten wurden entsprechend den Anforderungen an Validierungsdaten aufbereitet, durch ergaenzende Messungen vervollstaendigt und ebenfalls in die CEDVAL-Datenbank aufgenommen (www.mi.uni-hamburg.de backslash cedval). Mit Abschluss des Projektes stehen zunaechst 12 vollstaendige Vergleichsdatensaetze zur Verfuegung. (orig.)

  9. 9+ The Year-Round School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

    The 9-month school year with a 3-month summer vacation had its origin in our earlier agrarian life. Today's teacher shortages, overcrowded schools, and pressures to learn demand extensions of the school year. This publication analyzes five programs: (1) a staggered-vacation school year for all, (2) a full 48-week school year for all, (3) a…

  10. TECHIRGHIOL - 115 YEARS OF BALNEOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Friday, 27.06.2014 1600-1800 Session 1 „115 Ani de Balneologie la Techirghiol” 1600 – 1620 Drd. Liliana Elena Stanciu, medic specialist Recuperare, Medicină Fizică şi Balneologie, S.B.R.Techirghiol, „Sanatoriul Balnear şi de Recuperare Techirghiol – Unitate sanitară de reper naţional şi internaţional a balneologiei romaneşti” - L. E. Stanciu, C. Oprea, V. Rusu, E. V. Ionescu 1620 - 1640 Director de îngrijiri Carmen Oprea, doctorand kinetoterapeut „Politici de calitate la Sanatoriul Balnear şi de Recuperare Techirghiol” - C. Oprea, L. E. Stanciu, V. Rusu, E. V. Ionescu 1640 - 1700 Conf. Univ. Olga Surdu, medic primar Recuperare, Medicină Fizică şi Balneologie, doctor în Medicină, Universitatea Ovidiu Constanţa, Facultatea de Medicină, S.B.R.Techirghiol „Techirghiol – Privire retrospectivă asupra activităţii ştiinţifice din ultimii 10 ani” - O. Surdu, L. E. Stanciu, V. Marin, T-V Surdu, M. Surdu 1700 - 1730 Adrian Viorel Stan - primar Techirghiol - “Staţiunea Techirghiol – proiecte de dezvoltare” Saturday, 28.06.2014 900 – 1200 Session II „Mud therapy – international scientific news” 900 – 920 Prof.Mufit – Zeki Karagulle, Department of Medical Ecology and Hydroclimatology, Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Turkey “Mud therapy in the management of rheumatic diseases; our experience” - Mine Karagülle* and Müfit Zeki Karagülle** 920 – 940 Prof. Dr. Francisco Maraver - Professional School of Medical Hydrology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Dept. of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Medical Hydrology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Complutense Madrid, Thalasso Center, San Pedro del Pinatar-Murcia, Spain “Current state of balneotherapy in Spain” 940 – 1000Assist Prof. Dr.Antonella Fioravanti, Rheumatology Unit - Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neurosciences, University of Siena, Italy “One year effectiveness of mud bath

  11. Smoking Patterns, Attitudes and Motives: Unique Characteristics among 2-Year versus 4-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, C. J.; An, L. C.; Thomas, J. L.; Lust, K. A.; Sanem, J. R.; Swan, D. W.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Given the previously documented higher rates of smoking among 2-year college students in comparison with 4-year university students, this study compares smoking patterns, attitudes and motives among 2-year and 4-year college students. Two thousand two hundred and sixty-five undergraduate students aged 18-25 years at a 2-year college and a 4-year…

  12. Year 2001 Tropical Cyclones of the World

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Year 2001 Tropical Cyclones of the World poster. During calendar year 2001, fifty tropical cyclones with sustained surface winds of at least 64 knots were observed...

  13. Year 2000 Tropical Cyclones of the World

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Year 2000 Tropical Cyclones of the World poster. During calendar year 2000, forty-five tropical cyclones with sustained surface winds of at least 64 knots were...

  14. Federal Highway Administration 100-year coating study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Federal Highway Administration 100-Year Coating Study was initiated in August 2009 to search for durable : coating systems at a reasonable cost. The objective of the study was to identify and evaluate coating materials that can : provide 100 year...

  15. Yearly (Fiscal) Historical Electronic Services Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This report contains yearly electronic services data for online applications. This report is updated monthly for the current fiscal year. The report is divided into...

  16. Budget estimates, fiscal years 1994--1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report contains the fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal years 1994 and 1995

  17. Evolutionary genetics: 150 years of natural selection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This year marks a hundred and fifty years since the formal enunciation of the ... publication of R. A. Fisher's landmark paper reconciling the statistical results of the ... applications of evolutionary thinking that has emerged over the past fifteen.

  18. Gap Year: Time off, with a Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    A gap year allows people to step off the usual educational or career path and reassess their future. According to people who have taken a gap year, the time away can be well worth it. This article can help a person decide whether to take a gap year and how to make the most of his time off. It describes what a gap year is, including its pros and…

  19. 7 CFR 984.7 - Marketing year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing year. 984.7 Section 984.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.7 Marketing year. Marketing year means the twelve months from September...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.320 - Marketing year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing year. 1205.320 Section 1205.320 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.320 Marketing year. Marketing year means a consecutive 12...

  1. 7 CFR 982.17 - Marketing year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing year. 982.17 Section 982.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.17 Marketing year. Marketing year means the 12 months...

  2. Weather Test Reference Year of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Pedersen, Frank; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    the construction of two test reference years of Greenland used in the work of establishing new energy frame for the coming building code of Greenland. The first test reference year is constructed using measurements of climatic parameters from the town Nuuk located in the southwestern part of Greenland. The second...... test reference year is constructed using measurements from the town Uummannaq located in the north part of Greenland on the west coast. The construction of the test reference years fulfills the procedures described in the standard EN ISO 15927-4 using the following main weather parameters: Dry bulb...... temperature, global radiation, relative humidity and mean wind speed. To construct the test reference years a program called REFYEAR was developed in MatLab. REFYEAR automatically constructs the test reference year using an input file containing the climatic measurements. The two constructed test reference...

  3. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  4. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  5. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  6. Cassini at Saturn: The Final Two Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, L.; Edgington, S.; Altobelli, N.

    2015-10-01

    After 11 years in orbit, the Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn, a collaboration of NASA, ESA, and ASI, continues to wow the imagination and reveal unprecedented findings. Every year Cassini produces answers to questions raised by the Voyager flybys, while at the same time posing new questions that can only be answered with a long duration mission using a flagship-class spacecraft. Here we sample a few of Cassini's discoveries from the past year and give an overview of Cassini's final two years.

  7. Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation: one year later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernard, T.A.; Sofer, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    About one year ago, after 18 years of business as a wholly owned affiliate of Exxon Corporation, Exxon Nuclear Company was acquired by Siemens/KWU and its name was changed to Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation (ANF). This profile describes the status of ANF one year later, principally from the European perspective but with some mention of ANF's worldwide operations to provide a balanced picture. After one year of operation as an affiliate of Siemens/KWU, ANF's role remains as an independent international supplier of nuclear fuel and services to utilities in Europe, the USA and the Far East, but with substantially augmented capabilities resulting from the new affiliation

  8. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  9. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  10. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  11. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  12. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  13. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  14. FFTF operations - 1980 - a year of achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newland, D.J.; Bliss, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The year 1980 saw FFTF achieve initial criticality, proceed through an intense maintenance and system testing period, and achieve a remarkably successful two-day full power (400 MW) demonstration run. These achievements were preceded by two and one-half years of plant startup activity

  15. Scientific Discoveries the Year I Was Born

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Abour

    2012-01-01

    The author has successfully used a learning activity titled "The Year I Was Born" to motivate students to conduct historical research and present key scientific discoveries from their birth year. The activity promotes writing, helps students enhance their scientific literacy, and also improves their attitude toward the learning of science. As one…

  16. Meteor Beliefs Project: ``Year of Meteors''

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeath, Alastair; Drobnock, George J.; Gheorghe, Andrei Dorian

    2011-10-01

    We present a discussion linking ideas from a modern music album by Laura Veirs back to a turbulent time in American history 150 years ago, which inspired poet Walt Whitman to compose his poem "Year of Meteors", and the meteor beliefs of the period around 1859-1860, when collection of facts was giving way to analyses and theoretical explanations in meteor science.

  17. 34 CFR 668.3 - Academic year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definitions. For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section— (1) A week is a consecutive seven-day period; (2... offered by the institution if the institution offers a two-year program leading to an associate degree or a four-year program leading to a baccalaureate degree. (2) An institution's written request must— (i...

  18. Delaying the Academy: A Gap Year Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This investigation serves as one of the first empirical analyses to examine the international volunteering gap year from an educational perspective, concluding an in-depth case study of a prominent gap year organisation in the UK. Contrary to widespread industry promotion of international development, the findings suggest that the experience can…

  19. Anton Chekhov: Yalta Years, 1899-1904.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkle, Lydle

    Anton Pavlovich Chekhov spent 6 of the last 7 years of his life at Yalta (located on the Crimean Peninsula) where he had a house constructed in order that he might live in a climate favorable to his failing health. During these years Chekhov married the actress Olga Knipper and met Leo Tolstoy, who was near the end of his life. Chekhov also…

  20. One year in review 2017: systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Simone; Bruni, Cosimo; Orlandi, Martina; Della Rossa, Alessandra; Marasco, Emiliano; Codullo, Veronica; Guiducci, Serena

    2017-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare acquired systemic disease characterised by heterogeneous evolution and outcome. Each year novel insights into the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this severe disease have been published. We herewith provide our overview of the most significant literature contributions published over the last year.

  1. Early Years Students' Relationships with Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki; Towers, Jo; Plosz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Early years mathematics experiences have been shown to be a significant predictor for students' school readiness and future mathematics achievement. Previous research also indicates an important connection between emotion and mathematics learning. How do students in early years education in Alberta describe their emotional relationship with…

  2. 29 CFR 4010.5 - Information year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... years— If members of a controlled group (disregarding any exempt entity) report financial information on... the controlled group report financial information on the basis of different fiscal years, the... REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.5 Information year. (a) Determinations...

  3. Fifty years of science, memories, and events

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In 2004 CERN celebrates its 50th anniversary. More precisely, on Wednesday 29 September 2004, the signature of the convention that established CERN will be 50 years old. During this special year, CERN's public web site will host a celebratory Fiftieth Anniversary web site.

  4. Giant multipole resonances: perspectives after ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, F.E.

    1980-01-01

    Nearly ten years ago evidence was published for the first of the so-called giant multipole resonances, the giant quadrupole resonance. During the ensuing years research in this field has spread to many nuclear physics laboratories throughout the world. The present status of electric giant multipole resonances is reviewed. 24 figures, 1 table

  5. Organizational results : annual report, fiscal year 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    What can you do in five years? Pay off a car? Send your kid to college? How about change an : organizations culture? Over the past five years thats what Organizational Results has attempted to do. : By placing business process experts and resea...

  6. Cognitive Development: One-Year-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Toddler > Cognitive Development: One-Year-Old Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Cognitive Development: One-Year-Old Page Content Article Body As you watch your toddler at play, have you noticed how hard she ...

  7. Election Year Hints at Shifts for Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honawar, Vaishali; Keller, Bess

    2008-01-01

    The National Education Association is poised for a change in leadership this year as its president of six years, Reg Weaver, bumps up against term limits. Now, speculation is widespread that Edward J. McElroy, his counterpart at the American Federation of Teachers, might not seek re-election in July. The possible exit of Mr. McElroy--and the…

  8. Sixty years of the Chinese physical society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Linzhao; Wu Ziqin; Li Shounan.

    1993-01-01

    In commemoration of the 60th anniversary of the Chinese Physical Society (CPS) established in 1932, an overview is presented of the activities in the former fifty years. The main achievements of physics research in China, the progress in research and development in various branches of physics and the activities of the CPS over the last ten years are then reviewed

  9. Infantile Amnesia across the Years: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Children's Earliest Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carole; Warren, Kelly L.; Short, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Although infantile amnesia has been investigated for many years in adults, only recently has it been investigated in children. This study was a 2-year follow-up and extension of an earlier study. Children (4-13 years old) were asked initially and 2 years later for their earliest 3 memories. At follow-up, their age at the time of these memories…

  10. 2001 – 2010 Danish Design Reference Year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet Wang, Peter; Scharling, Mikael; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian

    This report presents the Danish Design Reference Year based on observed data from 2001 – 2010. In various sectors - i.e. building and construction, energy, etc. - the climate and weather usually plays a part in a given project. The Danish Design Reference Year dataset is a collection of data series...... for eleven specific parameters, that each represents a typical year in Denmark. The uses of the dataset may vary from simulations to statistical analysis, graphical overviews etc. The Danish land areas have been sectionalized into five to six climatological zones depending on the parameter, each...... characterized by distinct diurnal and yearly variations. The dataset consists of observed data from one station located within and representing each zone. In addition to the complete Danish Design Reference Year dataset, a subset specifically selected to be used for energy performance calculations for obtaining...

  11. Lessons learnt from an international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez-Vergara, J.C.; Thompson, I.M.G.; Funck, E.; Andersen, C.E.; Neumaier, S.; Botter-Jensen, L.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the European Research Council's Fourth Framework Programme, the EURADOS Action Group on Monitoring of External Exposures held an intercomparison of national network systems. This took place during May/June 1999 at the Riso Natural Environmental Radiation Measurement Station in Denmark and at the Underground Laboratory for Dosimetry and Spectrometry of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Germany. The network systems are used continuously to monitor radiation levels throughout a country in order to give early warning of nuclear accidents having transboundary implications. The radiation levels measured are used to estimate the radiation risks to people arising from the accident. Seven European countries participated in the intercomparison with detector systems used in their national network systems as well as with detectors being developed for future use. Since different radiation quantities were measured by the systems (namely exposure, air kerma and ambient dose equivalent), the initial analysis of the intercomparison results was made in terms of the quantity air kerma rate. This report completes the analysis of the results and these are given in terms of air kerma rate in order to be consistent with the preliminary report. In addition, in some cases the results are also given in terms of the quantity measured by each national network system. The experience gained from this intercomparison is used to help organise a follow-up intercomparison to be held at the PTB Braunschweig in September 2002 and in which a further seven or eight countries from Europe will participate. (author)

  12. Radiation measurement of civil air flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, M.

    1999-01-01

    In order to aquire knowledge of the radiation exposure of civil aircrew members in common flight altitudes, it was necessary to develop a practicable measurement system. Radiation exposure was hereby estimated by using the ACREM-System, which is patented by the Austrian Research Centres Seibersdorf (OEFZS). Total Equivalent Dose could be estimated in a simple way by combining a measured component of the radiation field in flight altitudes and the results of simulation with LUIN 94 particle transport code (Keran O'Brian). To verify the results of the measurement system, a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) was used. Because of the difficult measurement conditions in cargo airplanes, special attention had to be taken to make the measurement equipment easy to use and transport. Special software has been developed to automate the measurement and the evaluation of the large amount of collected data. Measurements in standard calibration photon fields for the characterization of the equipment could be performed at the Primary Dosimetry Laboratory for Austria at the Austrian Research Centre (OEFZS) in Seibersdorf. Additional measurements were performed at Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig (PTB, Germany) and Paul Scherer Institute (PSI, Switzerland) to determine the reponse of the instruments to high energy photon and standard neutron fields. (author)

  13. Type testing of devices with inserted radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, A.; Droste, B.; Dombrowski, H.

    2006-01-01

    In Germany devices with inserted radioactive sources can get a type approval if they comply with specific requirements. Whoever operates a device whose type has been approved in accordance with the German Radiation Protection Ordinance does not need an individual authorization. Such type approvals for free use are granted by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (B.f.S.) on the basis of type testing performed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (P.T.B.), the national metrology institute, and the Bundesanstalt fur Materialforschung und -prufung (B.A.M.), the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing. Main aspects of the assessment are the activity of the radioactive sources, the dose equivalent rate near the devices, the tamper-proofness and leak-tightness of the sources and the safety of the construction of the devices. With the new Radiation Protection Ordinance in 2001, more stringent requirements for a type approval were established. Experiences with the new regulations and the relevant assessment criteria applied by P.T.B. and B.A.M. will be presented. (authors)

  14. Time-resolved fast-neutron radiography of air-water two-phase flows in a rectangular channel by an improved detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zboray, Robert [Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI Villigen 5232 (Switzerland); Dangendorf, Volker; Bromberger, Benjamin; Tittelmeier, Kai [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig 38116 (Germany); Mor, Ilan [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel)

    2015-07-15

    In a previous work, we have demonstrated the feasibility of high-frame-rate, fast-neutron radiography of generic air-water two-phase flows in a 1.5 cm thick, rectangular flow channel. The experiments have been carried out at the high-intensity, white-beam facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany, using an multi-frame, time-resolved detector developed for fast neutron resonance radiography. The results were however not fully optimal and therefore we have decided to modify the detector and optimize it for the given application, which is described in the present work. Furthermore, we managed to improve the image post-processing methodology and the noise suppression. Using the tailored detector and the improved post-processing, significant increase in the image quality and an order of magnitude lower exposure times, down to 3.33 ms, have been achieved with minimized motion artifacts. Similar to the previous study, different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. The enhanced imaging quality enables an improved prediction of two-phase flow parameters like the instantaneous volumetric gas fraction, bubble size, and bubble velocities. Instantaneous velocity fields around the gas enclosures can also be more robustly predicted using optical flow methods as previously.

  15. Monte Carlo evaluation of the neutron detection efficiency of a superheated drop detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualdrini, G F [ENEA, Centro Ricerche ` Ezio Clementel` , Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; D` Errico, F; Noccioni, P [Pisa, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Costruzioni Meccaniche e Nucleari

    1997-03-01

    Neuron dosimetry has recently gained renewed attention, following concerns on the exposure of crew members on board aircraft, and of workers around the increasing number of high energy accelerators for medical and research purpose. At the same time the new operational qualities for radiation dosimetry introduced by ICRU and the ICRP, aiming at a unified metrological system applicable to all types of radiation exposure, involved the need to update current devices in order to meet new requirements. Superheated Drop (Bubble) Detectors (SDD) offer an alternative approach to neutron radiation protection dosimetry. The SDDs are currently studied within a large collaborative effort involving Yale University. New Haven CT, Pisa (IT) University, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig D, and ENEA (Italian National Agency for new Technologies Energy and the Environment) Centre of Bologna. The detectors were characterised through calibrations with monoenergetic neutron beams and where experimental investigations were inadequate or impossible, such as in the intermediate energy range , parametric Monte Carlo calculations of the response were carried out. This report describes the general characteristic of the SDDs along with the Monte Carlo computations of the energy response and a comparison with the experimental results.

  16. Calculation of coupled bunch effects in the synchrotron light source BESSY VSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruprecht, Martin

    2016-02-22

    In the scope of this thesis, the strength of coupled bunch instabilities (CBIs) driven by longitudinal monopole higher order modes (HOMs) and transverse dipole and quadrupole HOMs is evaluated for the upgrade project BESSY Variable Pulse Length Storage Ring (BESSY VSR) at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH (HZB), based on analytic calculations and tracking simulations, and compared to the performance of an active bunch-by-bunch feedback (BBFB). Algorithms for tracking codes are derived, and a semi-empirical formula for the estimation of transverse quadrupole CBIs is presented. CBI studies are an integral part of the benchmarking of the cavity models for BESSY VSR and have been accompanying and influencing their entire design process. Based on the BESSY VSR cavity model with highly advanced HOM damping, beam stability is likely to be reached with a BBFB system, independent of the bunch fill pattern. Additionally, measurements of CBIs have been performed at BESSY II and the Metrology Light Source of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (MLS), where the longitudinal long range impedance was characterized. Transient beam loading is evaluated by means of analytic formulas and new experimentally verified tracking codes. For the baseline bunch fill pattern of BESSY VSR, it is shown that the particular setup of cavity frequencies amplifies the transient effect on the long bunch, limiting its elongation and potentially resulting in increased Touschek losses.

  17. Assessment of Intercomparison of Radionuclide Activity Measurement between P3KRBiN-BATAN and NMIJ/AIST-JAPAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroh; Pujadi; Hermawan Candra; Ermi Juita; Holnisar

    2003-01-01

    On every radionuclide activity measurements or any measurements always contain uncertainties. The uncertainties come from standard source, equipment to be used, condition of measurements (background) and sample (measurement). Those elements should be taken into account in the measurement result evaluation. To know the result of activity measurement was in a good agreement or not, it can be done by intercomparison. A good result of a measurement if it was nearly with the result of international/primary laboratories measurements such as System Internationale de Reference (SIR)-Franch, National Metrology Institute of Japan- Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST or Physikalisch Technische Bundes-anstalt (PTB) and the absolute value of E n should be less than 1. The result of intercomparison between Center for Research and Development of Radiation Safety and Nuclear Biomedicine (P3KRBiN) -BATAN and NMIJ/AIST were in a good agreement for activity measurement of 125 I (E n =0.193), 58 Co(E n =0.503), 88 Y(E n =0.035) and 59 Fe(E n =0.632), by using gamma spectrometry counting system (HPGe detector) and 166m Ho(E n =0.492), by using Merlin Gerin Ionization chamber. (author)

  18. Towards a determination of the absorbed dose to water in water for low-energy photon-emitting brachytherapy seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Lange, B.; Selbach, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    An accurate determination of the dose produced by brachytherapy seeds emitting low-energy photons is an important component of the radiotherapeutic process. As yet, the output of these seeds has usually been specified in terms of the air kerma rate. The desired quantity in radiation therapy is, however, the absorbed dose to water inside a water phantom, for which primary standards are not available. For this reason, developments are under way in the Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt to establish a primary standard to determine the absorbed dose to water within a phantom. As a fundamental step towards this aim, a method will be introduced in this publication to determine the water kerma inside a graphite phantom housing an extrapolation chamber. Experimental results will be presented and compared with water kerma values obtained from air kerma measurements in free air and applying a conversion factor to water kerma for the conditions of the experiment. First estimates indicate that the relative uncertainty is of the order of 1% (k 1). (authors)

  19. Fast and high-energy neutron detection with nuclear track detectors: Results of the European joint experiments 1992/93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schraube, H. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Alberts, W.G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Weeks, A.R. [comps.] [Nuclear Electric plc, Berkeley (United Kingdom). Berkeley Technology Centre

    1997-12-31

    Under the auspices of EURADOS, the European radiation dosimetry group, seventeen recognised laboratories engaged in the field of individual neutron dosimetry with passive track detectors participated in an international comparative experiment. A number of twenty-seven detector systems, predominantly etched track detectors with the material PADC (poly allyl diglycol carbonate), were employed by the participating laboratories. Quasi-monoenergetic neutrons were provided for irradiations free-in-air and on front of a PMMA phantom by the GSF (Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg, Germany) and by the PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany). High energy irradiations were conducted by the PSI (Paul-Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland). The results of the on-phantom irradiations were used to derive energy and angular responses of the track detectors, those of the free-in-air irradiations to obtain data for the linearity characteristics of the response with dose. The report contains a short description and the original data of the participating laboratories, displays the irradiation and reference conditions, and provides an over-all evaluation. Emphasis is placed on the quantitative evaluation of the background characteristics and of the non-linearity observed with most of the systems employed which limits their useful dose-range of application. (orig.)

  20. Adaption of an array spectroradiometer for total ozone column retrieval using direct solar irradiance measurements in the UV spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Ralf; Sperfeld, Peter; Riechelmann, Stefan; Nevas, Saulius; Sildoja, Meelis; Seckmeyer, Gunther

    2018-04-01

    A compact array spectroradiometer that enables precise and robust measurements of solar UV spectral direct irradiance is presented. We show that this instrument can retrieve total ozone column (TOC) accurately. The internal stray light, which is often the limiting factor for measurements in the UV spectral range and increases the uncertainty for TOC analysis, is physically reduced so that no other stray-light reduction methods, such as mathematical corrections, are necessary. The instrument has been extensively characterised at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. During an international total ozone measurement intercomparison at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory in Tenerife, the high-quality applicability of the instrument was verified with measurements of the direct solar irradiance and subsequent TOC evaluations based on the spectral data measured between 12 and 30 September 2016. The results showed deviations of the TOC of less than 1.5 % from most other instruments in most situations and not exceeding 3 % from established TOC measurement systems such as Dobson or Brewer.

  1. Calibration methodology for instruments utilized in X radiation beams, diagnostic level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha, M. da; Potiens, A.; Caldas, L.V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: mppalbu@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    Methodologies for the calibration of diagnostic radiology instruments were established at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. The methods may be used in the calibration procedures of survey meters used in radiation protection measurements (scattered radiation), instruments used in direct beams (attenuated and non attenuated beams) and quality control instruments. The established qualities are recommended by the international standards IEC 1267 and ISO 4037-3. Two ionization chambers were used as reference systems, one with a volume of 30 cm{sup 3} for radiation protection measurements, and the other with a volume of 1 cm{sup 3} for direct beam measurements. Both are traceable to the German Primary Laboratory of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). In the case of calibration of quality control instruments, a non-invasive method using the measurement of the spectrum endpoint was established with a portable gamma and X-ray Intertechnique spectrometer system. The methods were applied to survey meters (radiation protection measurements), ionization chambers (direct beam measurements) and k Vp meters (invasive and non-invasive instruments). (Author)

  2. Diffraction efficiency of radially-profiled off-plane reflection gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Drew M.; Tutt, James H.; DeRoo, Casey T.; Marlowe, Hannah; Peterson, Thomas J.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Menz, Benedikt; Burwitz, Vadim; Hartner, Gisela; Laubis, Christian; Scholze, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Future X-ray missions will require gratings with high throughput and high spectral resolution. Blazed off-plane reflection gratings are capable of meeting these demands. A blazed grating profile optimizes grating efficiency, providing higher throughput to one side of zero-order on the arc of diffraction. This paper presents efficiency measurements made in the 0.3 - 1.5 keV energy band at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) BESSY II facility for three holographically-ruled gratings, two of which are blazed. Each blazed grating was tested in both the Littrow configuration and anti-Littrow configuration in order to test the alignment sensitivity of these gratings with regard to throughput. This paper outlines the procedure of the grating experiment performed at BESSY II and discuss the resulting efficiency measurements across various energies. Experimental results are generally consistent with theory and demonstrate that the blaze does increase throughput to one side of zero-order. However, the total efficiency of the non-blazed, sinusoidal grating is greater than that of the blazed gratings, which suggests that the method of manufacturing these blazed profiles fails to produce facets with the desired level of precision. Finally, evidence of a successful blaze implementation from first diffraction results of prototype blazed gratings produce via a new fabrication technique at the University of Iowa are presented.

  3. Comparisons of the standards for air kerma of the PTB and the BIPM for 60Co and 137Cs gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allisy-Roberts, P.J.; Burns, D.T.; Buermann, L.; Kramer, H.M.

    2005-11-01

    Direct comparisons of the standards for air kerma of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Germany) and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) were carried out in the 60 Co and 137 Cs radiation beams of the BIPM in 2000. The results, expressed as ratios of the PTB and the BIPM standards for air kerma, indicate a relative difference in 60 Co of 9.9 x 10 -3 with a combined standard uncertainty of 1.8 x 10 -3 , and in 137 Cs of 6.4 x 10 -3 with a combined standard uncertainty of 2.8 x 10 -3 . The earlier comparisons in 60 Co γ rays made in 1971 (direct) and 1989 (indirect) resulted in an agreement of the two standards within 2 x 10 -3 . The differences obtained now are due to the application of new correction factors for wall effects and point source non-uniformity of the beam, k wall and k pn , for the PTB standards, which were calculated using Monte Carlo methods. (authors)

  4. Activity standardisation of 18F and ionisation chamber calibration for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrader, H.; Klein, R.; Kossert, K.

    2007-01-01

    Primary activity standardisations were performed on solutions of 18 F using 4πβ-γ coincidence counting and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) according to the CIEMAT/NIST method. A β + -emission probability of 96.86% was used for both methods. The various standardised 18 F solutions were measured in ionisation chambers of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and compared by determining radionuclide calibration factors. Already in 2001 an 18 F solution had been standardised at the PTB and compared with the results of nine national metrology institutes (NMIs), using the ISOCAL IV secondary radionuclide calibrators of the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) as transfer instruments and a 68 Ge check source solution. These results were linked to the International Reference System (SIR) at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) by aliquots of solutions sent by the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (BNM-LNHB) and the NPL. Further on, in 2005, PTB sent an aliquot of an 18 F solution to the SIR for ionisation chamber measurements. A value of the equivalent activity was determined and included in the key comparison database (KCDB). The recent PTB value of the equivalent activity of the SIR is in good agreement with the key comparison reference value determined from five NMIs. These results confirm that the standardisation of 18 F solutions can be achieved with the accuracy required for use in nuclear medicine and, in particular, for applications in positron emission tomography (PET)

  5. Determination of the activity of the uranium isotopes U-234, U-235 and U-238 in environmental samples by alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kromphorn, G.

    1996-02-01

    Different materials containing urandium are regularly investigated in the Laboratory for Environmental Radioactivity of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) with respect to the activity of the uranium isotopes ( 234 U, 235 U, and 238 U). Moreover for reasons of quality assurance, the PTB takes part in international comparisons where also uranium contents are to be determined in environmental samples and in the framework of which reference materials can be certified. Finally in national comparisons the PTB has the task to determine values of the specific activity for the different isotopes which can play the role of nominal (orientation) values. The single steps of uranium analyses are described after a compilation of the most important data of the uranium isotopes contained in natural uranium: The use of 232 U as tracer, the chemical separation analytics, the production of α-sources and the measuring methods. Analyses of a soil sample and a waste water sample with respect to their specific uranium activity have been chosen as examples of a practical application. (orig.) [de

  6. International intercomparison of fluence of fast neutrons using 115In(n,γ) activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesiecki, H.; Cosack, M.

    1985-07-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has participated in an international intercomparison of fluence measurements of fast neutrons. This was organized under the auspices of the ''Comite Consultatif pour les Etalons de Mesure des Rayonnements Ionisants (CCEMRI)'', Sect. 3 (Mesures Neutronique). The National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, UK volunteered to assume responsibility for the experimental realization and final evaluation. This report deals with the measurements performed at the PTB for the neutron fluence intercomparison at neutron energies of Esub(n) = 144 keV and 570 keV which was based on the 115 In(n,γ) 116 Insup(m) reaction. The count rate of a 4πβ-counter which had to be used to determine the activation of the In sample was to be compared with the neutron fluence by which the sample was irradiated. A description of the neutron production, the fluence determination, the 4πβ-counting, and the evaluation of the results will be given. (orig.) [de

  7. Photon contributions from the 252Cf and 241Am–Be neutron sources at the PSI Calibration Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedlmoser, H.; Boschung, M.; Meier, K.; Stadtmann, H.; Hranitzky, C.; Figel, M.; Mayer, S.

    2012-01-01

    At the accredited PSI Calibration Laboratory neutron reference fields traceable to the national standards of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany are available for the calibration of ambient and personal dose equivalent (rate) meters and passive dosimeters. The photon contribution to the ambient dose equivalent in the neutron fields of the 252 Cf and 241 Am–Be sources was measured using various photon dose rate meters and active and passive dosimeters. Measuring photons from a neutron source usually involves considerable uncertainties due to the presence of neutron induced photons in the room, due to a non-zero neutron sensitivity of the photon detector, and last but not least due to the energy response of the photon detectors. Therefore eight independent detectors and methods were used to obtain a reliable estimate for the photon contribution of the two sources as an average of the individual methods. For the 241 Am–Be source a photon contribution of approximately 4.9% was determined and for the 252 Cf source a contribution of 3.6%.

  8. Calibration methodology for instruments utilized in X radiation beams, diagnostic level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penha, M. da; Potiens, A.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2004-01-01

    Methodologies for the calibration of diagnostic radiology instruments were established at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. The methods may be used in the calibration procedures of survey meters used in radiation protection measurements (scattered radiation), instruments used in direct beams (attenuated and non attenuated beams) and quality control instruments. The established qualities are recommended by the international standards IEC 1267 and ISO 4037-3. Two ionization chambers were used as reference systems, one with a volume of 30 cm 3 for radiation protection measurements, and the other with a volume of 1 cm 3 for direct beam measurements. Both are traceable to the German Primary Laboratory of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). In the case of calibration of quality control instruments, a non-invasive method using the measurement of the spectrum endpoint was established with a portable gamma and X-ray Intertechnique spectrometer system. The methods were applied to survey meters (radiation protection measurements), ionization chambers (direct beam measurements) and k Vp meters (invasive and non-invasive instruments). (Author)

  9. Numerical and experimental results of the operational neutron dosemeter 'Saphydose-N'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahaye, T.; Chau, Q.; Menard, S.; Ndontcheung-Moyo, M.; Bolognese-Milsztajn, T.; Rannou, A.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1993, the Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has lead, in association with Electricite de France (EDF), a R and D study of a neutron personal electronic dosemeter. This dosemeter, called 'Saphydose-N', is manufactured by the SAPHYMO company. This paper presents first the optimisation of some detector components using Monte Carlo calculations, and second the test of the manufactured Saphydose-N under radiation following the IEC 1323 standard's recommendations for active personal neutron dosemeters. The measurements with the manufactured dosemeter were performed on the one hand at PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt) in mono-energetic neutron fields and, on the other hand at IRSN in neutron fields generated by a thermal facility (SIGMA), radionuclide ISO sources and a realistic spectrum (CANEL/T400). The manufactured dosemeter Saphydose-N was also tested during measurement campaigns of the European programme EVIDOS ('Evaluation of Individual Dosimetry in Mixed Neutron and Photon Radiation Fields') at different nuclear workplaces. The study showed that Saphydose-N complies with the recommendations of standard IEC 1323 and can be used at any workplace with no previous knowledge of the neutron field characteristics. (authors)

  10. Development of a standard operating procedure for mammography equipment used in calibration of ionized chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Yklys Santos; Potiens, Maria da Penha Albuquerque

    2011-01-01

    Mammography is one widely used technique in the detection of breast cancer. In order to optimize the results achieving better images with lower dose rates, a quality assurance programme must be applied to the equipment. Some control tests use ionization chambers to measure air kerma and other quantities. These tests can only be reliable if the ionization chambers used on them are correctly calibrated. In the present work, it was developed a standard operating procedure (SOP) for quality control tests in a commercial mammography equipment installed in the Calibration Laboratory (LCI) at IPEN - Brazilian Institute for energy and nuclear research). Seven tests were performed in the equipment: Tube voltage and exposition time accuracy and reproducibility, linearity and reproducibility of Air kerma and Half Value Layer (HVL). Then, it was made a measurement of the air kerma in the mammography equipment, using a reference ionization chamber with traceability to a primary laboratory in Germany (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt - PTB), that was later compared with the air kerma measured in an industrial irradiator. This industrial X-ray generator was recently used in the implementation of X-radiation Standards beams, mammography level, following the Standard IEC 61267. The HVL values varied from 0.36 (25kV) to 0.41 mmA1 (35kV), and the measured air kerma rates were between 9.78 and 17.97 mGy/min. (author)

  11. Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troussel, Ph; Villette, B; Emprin, B; Oudot, G; Tassin, V; Bridou, F; Delmotte, F; Krumrey, M

    2014-01-01

    CEA implemented an absolutely calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer called DMX on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in 1999 to measure radiant power and spectral distribution of the radiation of the Au plasma. The DMX spectrometer is composed of 20 channels covering the spectral range from 50 eV to 20 keV. The channels for energies below 1.5 keV combine a mirror and a filter with a coaxial photo-emissive detector. For the channels above 5 keV the photoemissive detector is replaced by a conductive detector. The intermediate energy channels (1.5 keV power measurements with the new MLM channel and with the usual channel composed of a thin titanium filter and a coaxial detector (without mirror) are compared. All elements of the channel have been calibrated in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's National Metrology Institute, at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin using dedicated well established and validated methods.

  12. Primary standardization of cesium-137 for international intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.K.

    1977-01-01

    Primary standards of cesium-137 are of great importance for precise radiation measurements because, due to its simple decay-scheme and long half-life, it is widely used for the calibration of radiation detectors. Also 137 Cs is used for the measurement of fission-yield and uranium burn-up in reactor engineering studies. In view of these, an international intercomparison was organised on a limited scale to correlate the standards established at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay(India) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), West Germany. The ''efficiency tracing technique'' was developed at BARC for the primary standardization of 137 Cs for this intercomparison. Two tracers, namely 82 Br and 60 Co, were employed to trace the beta efficiency of the 4 πβ-γ coincidence counting system. It is shown that this technique offers high accuracy and inherent reliability. The ''tracing-technique'' for 137 Cs standardization is briefly described. The gravimetric method of dilution and preparation of mixed sources of 137 Cs - 82 Br and 137 Cs - 60 Co are given. The various counting parameters and settings are included. Data reduction and the estimation of systematic and statistical errors are discussed. The results of the intercomparison, which are also included, show that the agreement between the measurments of BARC and PTB is within 0.5%. (author)

  13. Time-resolved fast-neutron radiography of air-water two-phase flows in a rectangular channel by an improved detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zboray, Robert; Dangendorf, Volker; Mor, Ilan; Bromberger, Benjamin; Tittelmeier, Kai

    2015-07-01

    In a previous work, we have demonstrated the feasibility of high-frame-rate, fast-neutron radiography of generic air-water two-phase flows in a 1.5 cm thick, rectangular flow channel. The experiments have been carried out at the high-intensity, white-beam facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany, using an multi-frame, time-resolved detector developed for fast neutron resonance radiography. The results were however not fully optimal and therefore we have decided to modify the detector and optimize it for the given application, which is described in the present work. Furthermore, we managed to improve the image post-processing methodology and the noise suppression. Using the tailored detector and the improved post-processing, significant increase in the image quality and an order of magnitude lower exposure times, down to 3.33 ms, have been achieved with minimized motion artifacts. Similar to the previous study, different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. The enhanced imaging quality enables an improved prediction of two-phase flow parameters like the instantaneous volumetric gas fraction, bubble size, and bubble velocities. Instantaneous velocity fields around the gas enclosures can also be more robustly predicted using optical flow methods as previously.

  14. Angle comparison using an autocollimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geckeler, Ralf D.; Just, Andreas; Vasilev, Valentin; Prieto, Emilio; Dvorácek, František; Zelenika, Slobodan; Przybylska, Joanna; Duta, Alexandru; Victorov, Ilya; Pisani, Marco; Saraiva, Fernanda; Salgado, Jose-Antonio; Gao, Sitian; Anusorn, Tonmueanwai; Leng Tan, Siew; Cox, Peter; Watanabe, Tsukasa; Lewis, Andrew; Chaudhary, K. P.; Thalmann, Ruedi; Banreti, Edit; Nurul, Alfiyati; Fira, Roman; Yandayan, Tanfer; Chekirda, Konstantin; Bergmans, Rob; Lassila, Antti

    2018-01-01

    Autocollimators are versatile optical devices for the contactless measurement of the tilt angles of reflecting surfaces. An international key comparison (KC) on autocollimator calibration, EURAMET.L-K3.2009, was initiated by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET) to provide information on the capabilities in this field. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) acted as the pilot laboratory, with a total of 25 international participants from EURAMET and from the Asia Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) providing measurements. This KC was the first one to utilise a high-resolution electronic autocollimator as a standard. In contrast to KCs in angle metrology which usually involve the full plane angle, it focused on relatively small angular ranges (+/-10 arcsec and +/-1000 arcsec) and step sizes (10 arcsec and 0.1 arcsec, respectively). This document represents the approved final report on the results of the KC. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. Study of glass hydrometer calibration by hydrostatic weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaoyun; Wang, Jintao; Li, Zhihao; Zhang, Peiman

    2016-01-01

    Glass hydrometers are simple but effective instruments for measuring the density of liquids. Glass hydrometers calibration based on the Archimedes law, using silicon ring as a reference standard solid density, n-tridecane with density stability and low surface tension as the standard working liquid, based on hydrostatic weighing method designs a glass hydrometer calibration system. Glass hydrometer calibration system uses CCD image measurement system to align the scale of hydrometer and liquid surface, with positioning accuracy of 0.01 mm. Surface tension of the working liquid is measured by Whihemy plate. According to twice glass hydrometer weighing in the air and liquid can calculate the correction value of the current scale. In order to verify the validity of the principle of the hydrostatic weighing method of glass hydrometer calibration system, for measuring the density range of (770-790) kg/m3, with a resolution of 0.2 kg/m3 of hydrometer. The results of measurement compare with the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt(PTB) ,verifying the validity of the calibration system.

  16. Limitations of Dower's inverse transform for the study of atrial loops during atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillem, María S; Climent, Andreu M; Bollmann, Andreas; Husser, Daniela; Millet, José; Castells, Francisco

    2009-08-01

    Spatial characteristics of atrial fibrillatory waves have been extracted by using a vectorcardiogram (VCG) during atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the VCG is usually not recorded in clinical practice and atrial loops are derived from the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). We evaluated the suitability of the reconstruction of orthogonal leads from the 12-lead ECG for fibrillatory waves in AF. We used the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt diagnostic ECG database, which contains 15 simultaneously recorded signals (12-lead ECG and three Frank orthogonal leads) of 13 patients during AF. Frank leads were derived from the 12-lead ECG by using Dower's inverse transform. Derived leads were then compared to true Frank leads in terms of the relative error achieved. We calculated the orientation of AF loops of both recorded orthogonal leads and derived leads and measured the difference in estimated orientation. Also, we investigated the relationship of errors in derivation with fibrillatory wave amplitude, frequency, wave residuum, and fit to a plane of the AF loops. Errors in derivation of AF loops were 68 +/- 31% and errors in the estimation of orientation were 35.85 +/- 20.43 degrees . We did not find any correlation among these errors and amplitude, frequency, or other parameters. In conclusion, Dower's inverse transform should not be used for the derivation of orthogonal leads from the 12-lead ECG for the analysis of fibrillatory wave loops in AF. Spatial parameters obtained after this derivation may differ from those obtained from recorded orthogonal leads.

  17. Radiometric calibration of the in-flight blackbody calibration system of the GLORIA interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Monte

    2014-01-01

    Atmosphere is an airborne, imaging, infrared Fourier transform spectrometer that applies the limb-imaging technique to perform trace gas and temperature measurements in the Earth's atmosphere with three-dimensional resolution. To ensure the traceability of these measurements to the International Temperature Scale and thereby to an absolute radiance scale, GLORIA carries an on-board calibration system. Basically, it consists of two identical large-area and high-emissivity infrared radiators, which can be continuously and independently operated at two adjustable temperatures in a range from −50 °C to 0 °C during flight. Here we describe the radiometric and thermometric characterization and calibration of the in-flight calibration system at the Reduced Background Calibration Facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. This was performed with a standard uncertainty of less than 110 mK. Extensive investigations of the system concerning its absolute radiation temperature and spectral radiance, its temperature homogeneity and its short- and long-term stability are discussed. The traceability chain of these measurements is presented.

  18. New x-ray parallel beam facility XPBF 2.0 for the characterization of silicon pore optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrey, Michael; Müller, Peter; Cibik, Levent; Collon, Max; Barrière, Nicolas; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric

    2016-07-01

    A new X-ray parallel beam facility (XPBF 2.0) has been installed in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin to characterize silicon pore optics (SPOs) for the future X-ray observatory ATHENA. As the existing XPBF which is operated since 2005, the new beamline provides a pencil beam of very low divergence, a vacuum chamber with a hexapod system for accurate positioning of the SPO to be investigated, and a vertically movable CCD-based camera system to register the direct and the reflected beam. In contrast to the existing beamline, a multilayer-coated toroidal mirror is used for beam monochromatization at 1.6 keV and collimation, enabling the use of beam sizes between about 100 μm and at least 5 mm. Thus the quality of individual pores as well as the focusing properties of large groups of pores can be investigated. The new beamline also features increased travel ranges for the hexapod to cope with larger SPOs and a sample to detector distance of 12 m corresponding to the envisaged focal length of ATHENA.

  19. High-accuracy X-ray detector calibration based on cryogenic radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Müller, P.

    2010-06-01

    Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs) are absolute thermal detectors, based on the equivalence of electrical power and radiant power. Their core piece is a cavity absorber, which is typically made of copper to achieve a short response time. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESRs due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard X-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 was applied to optimize its absorptance for photon energies of up to 60 keV. The measurement of the radiant power of monochromatized synchrotron radiation was achieved with relative standard uncertainties of less than 0.2 %, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity is used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3 %. For some silicon photodiodes, the photocurrent is not linear with the incident radiant power.

  20. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) for metrological size determination of nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleber, Gudrun; Krumrey, Michael; Cibik, Levent; Marggraf, Stefanie; Mueller, Peter [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Hoell, Armin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    To measure the size of nanoparticles, different measurement methods are available but their results are often not compatible. In the framework of an European metrology project we use Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) to determine the size and size distribution of nanoparticles in aqueous solution, where the special challange is the traceability of the results. The experiments were performed at the Four-Crystal Monochromator (FCM) beamline in the laboratory of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at BESSY II using the SAXS setup of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB). We measured different particles made of PMMA and gold in a diameter range of 200 nm down to about 10 nm. The aspects of traceability can be classified in two parts: the first is the experimental part with the uncertainties of distances, angles, and wavelength, the second is the part of analysis, with the uncertainty of the choice of the model used for fitting the data. In this talk we want to show the degree of uncertainty, which we reached in this work yet.

  1. A cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer for hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Mueller, P.; Ulm, G.

    2007-01-01

    Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESR) are well established in radiometry to determine radiant power with low uncertainties from the infrared to the soft X-ray region. The absorbers are made of copper to achieve a small time constant. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESR due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard X-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at BESSY II. In the first place, extensive simulations were performed for a variety of materials and absorber geometries using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4. The accuracy of the simulations was verified comparing them to scattering experiments performed at a 7 T wavelength shifter beamline at BESSY II. It was shown that Geant4 describes the photo-effect, including fluorescence as well as Compton- and Rayleigh scattering, with high accuracy. The simulations and experiments resulted in an absorber with a gold base 500 μm in thickness, inclined by 30 deg., and a cylindrical shell made of copper 80 μm in thickness to reduce losses caused mainly by fluorescence. The absorber was manufactured at PTB by means of electroforming and was implemented into an existing ESR. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative uncertainties below 1%

  2. High-accuracy X-ray detector calibration based on cryogenic radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Mueller, P.

    2010-01-01

    Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs) are absolute thermal detectors, based on the equivalence of electrical power and radiant power. Their core piece is a cavity absorber, which is typically made of copper to achieve a short response time. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESRs due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard X-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 was applied to optimize its absorptance for photon energies of up to 60 keV. The measurement of the radiant power of monochromatized synchrotron radiation was achieved with relative standard uncertainties of less than 0.2 %, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity is used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3 %. For some silicon photodiodes, the photocurrent is not linear with the incident radiant power.

  3. A cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer for hard X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: Martin.Gerlach@ptb.de; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Mueller, P.; Ulm, G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-09-21

    Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESR) are well established in radiometry to determine radiant power with low uncertainties from the infrared to the soft X-ray region. The absorbers are made of copper to achieve a small time constant. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESR due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard X-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at BESSY II. In the first place, extensive simulations were performed for a variety of materials and absorber geometries using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4. The accuracy of the simulations was verified comparing them to scattering experiments performed at a 7 T wavelength shifter beamline at BESSY II. It was shown that Geant4 describes the photo-effect, including fluorescence as well as Compton- and Rayleigh scattering, with high accuracy. The simulations and experiments resulted in an absorber with a gold base 500 {mu}m in thickness, inclined by 30 deg., and a cylindrical shell made of copper 80 {mu}m in thickness to reduce losses caused mainly by fluorescence. The absorber was manufactured at PTB by means of electroforming and was implemented into an existing ESR. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative uncertainties below 1%.

  4. A cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer for hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Müller, P.; Ulm, G.

    2007-09-01

    Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESR) are well established in radiometry to determine radiant power with low uncertainties from the infrared to the soft X-ray region. The absorbers are made of copper to achieve a small time constant. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESR due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard X-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at BESSY II. In the first place, extensive simulations were performed for a variety of materials and absorber geometries using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4. The accuracy of the simulations was verified comparing them to scattering experiments performed at a 7 T wavelength shifter beamline at BESSY II. It was shown that Geant4 describes the photo-effect, including fluorescence as well as Compton- and Rayleigh scattering, with high accuracy. The simulations and experiments resulted in an absorber with a gold base 500 μm in thickness, inclined by 30°, and a cylindrical shell made of copper 80 μm in thickness to reduce losses caused mainly by fluorescence. The absorber was manufactured at PTB by means of electroforming and was implemented into an existing ESR. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative uncertainties below 1%.

  5. The new remcounter LB6411: Measurement of neutron ambient dose equivalent H*(10) according to ICRP60 with high sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, A.; Burgkhardt, B.

    1996-01-01

    Since the International Commission on Radiological Protection has issued in publication ICRP60 new recommendations on radiation protection quantities, in neutron monitoring there is now increasing Interest in commercially available instruments optimized and calibrated for the measurement of ambient dose equivalent H*(10). Therefore within a joint cooperation between the Research Center Karlsruhe and EG ampersand G Berthold the neutron-dose-rate meter LB6411 was newly developed. The detector system with integrated electronics has a 3 He proportional counter tube centered in a moderating sphere. The response between thermal energies and 20 MeV was optimized with the help of extensive MCNP Monte-Carlo calculations. The instrument has extremely high sensitivity of approximately 3 counts per nSv and can be used both as a portable or as a stationary neutron monitor. Fluence responses and angular dependencies had been measured in monoenergetic neutron beams provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig, Germany. The ambient dose equivalent response of the LB6411 is reported over the whole energy range

  6. Establishment of a primary standard system for low energy X-rays using a free air ionization chamber; Estabelecimento de um sistema padrao primario para raios-X de energias baixas com uma camara de ionizacao de ar livre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Natalia Fiorini da

    2016-08-01

    In this work a primary standard system was established for low energy X-rays (10 kV to 50 kV), using a free air ionization chamber with concentric cylinders, Victoreen (Model 481-5), at the Calibration Laboratory of Instruments (LCI) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP). For this, a new ionization chamber alignment protocol was developed for the radiation system and a modification on the micrometer housing used for the movement of the internal cylinders was ma de. The results obtained for the stability and characterization tests showed to be within the limits established by the standards IEC 61674 and IEC 60731. The correction factors for photon attenuation in the air, transmission and scattering in the diaphragm, scattering and fluorescence and ion recombination were also determined. These values were compared with those obtained by the German primary standard laboratory, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), showing good agreement. Finally, the absolute values of the quantity air kerma rate for the standard qualities direct beams MWV28 and WMV35 and the attenuated beams WMH28 and WMH35 were determined; the results are in agreement, with a maximum difference of 3,8% with the values obtained using the secondary standard system of LCI. (author)

  7. Relative efficiency calibration between two silicon drift detectors performed with a monochromatized X-ray generator over the 0.1-1.5 keV range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, S.; Boubault, F.

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we present the first X-ray calibration performed over the 0.1-1.5 keV spectral range by means of a soft X-ray Manson source and the monochromator SYMPAX. This monochromator, based on a classical Rowland geometry, presents the novelty to be able to board simultaneously two detectors and move them under vacuum in front of the exit slit of the monochromatizing stage. This provides the great advantage to perform radiometric measurements of the monochromatic X-ray photon flux with one reference detector while calibrating another X-ray detector. To achieve this, at least one secondary standard must be operated with SYMPAX. This paper presents thereby an efficiency transfer experiment between a secondary standard silicon drift detector (SDD), previously calibrated on BESSY II synchrotron Facility, and another one ("unknown" SDD), devoted to be used permanently with SYMPAX. The associated calibration process is described as well as corresponding results. Comparison with calibrated measurements performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) Radiometric Laboratory shows a very good agreement between the secondary standard and the unknown SDD.

  8. First set of gated x-ray imaging diagnostics for the Laser Megajoule facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosch, R.; Trosseille, C.; Caillaud, T.; Allouche, V.; Bourgade, J. L.; Briat, M.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Casner, A.; Depierreux, S.; Gontier, D.; Jadaud, J. P.; Le Breton, J. P.; Llavador, P.; Loupias, B.; Miquel, J. L.; Oudot, G.; Perez, S.; Raimbourg, J.; Rousseau, A. [CEA-DAM Ile de France, Bruyères-le-Châtel, 91297 Arpajon Cedex (France); and others

    2016-03-15

    The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) facility located at CEA/CESTA started to operate in the early 2014 with two quadruplets (20 kJ at 351 nm) focused on target for the first experimental campaign. We present here the first set of gated x-ray imaging (GXI) diagnostics implemented on LMJ since mid-2014. This set consists of two imaging diagnostics with spatial, temporal, and broadband spectral resolution. These diagnostics will give basic measurements, during the entire life of the facility, such as position, structure, and balance of beams, but they will also be used to characterize gas filled target implosion symmetry and timing, to study x-ray radiography and hydrodynamic instabilities. The design requires a vulnerability approach, because components will operate in a harsh environment induced by neutron fluxes, gamma rays, debris, and shrapnel. Grazing incidence x-ray microscopes are fielded as far as possible away from the target to minimize potential damage and signal noise due to these sources. These imaging diagnostics incorporate microscopes with large source-to-optic distance and large size gated microchannel plate detectors. Microscopes include optics with grazing incidence mirrors, pinholes, and refractive lenses. Spatial, temporal, and spectral performances have been measured on x-ray tubes and UV lasers at CEA-DIF and at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt BESSY II synchrotron prior to be set on LMJ. GXI-1 and GXI-2 designs, metrology, and first experiments on LMJ are presented here.

  9. Determination of the characteristic limits and responses of nuclear track detectors in mixed radon and thoron atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Röttger, Annette; Honig, Anja; Schrammel, Dieter; Strauss, Heinrich F.

    2016-01-01

    Closed nuclear track detectors are widely used for the determination of Rn-222 exposures. There are also partial open systems available, which are specially designed for the determination of the exposure to Rn-220, which is a relevant exposure in special workplaces or in specific regions of the world. This paper presents data and a detail analysis of how to determine the cross-correlation by calibration in pure Rn-222 and pure Rn-220 atm. By these means calibration coefficients for the analysis of real mixed atmospheres can be obtained. The respective decision threshold, detection limit and limits of the confidence interval were determined according to ISO 11929 (ISO 11929:2010, 2010). The exposure of detectors was performed at the radon reference chamber and the thoron progeny chamber of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The analysis of track response was done at Parc RGM, while the analytical routines were developed in the Leibniz University Hanover, Institute Radioökologie und Strahlenschutz IRS at the working Group AK SIGMA (Arbeitskreis Nachweisgrenzen). - Highlights: • Analysis of exposure in reference atmospheres according ISO 11929. • Calibration of nuclear track detectors for 222 Rn and 220 Rn. • Calculation of cross-correlation by calibration in pure 222 Rn and 220 Rn atmospheres. • Thoron activity concentration should not be omitted in radon exposure determinations.

  10. Establishment of a primary standard system for low energy X-rays using a free air ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Natalia Fiorini da

    2016-01-01

    In this work a primary standard system was established for low energy X-rays (10 kV to 50 kV), using a free air ionization chamber with concentric cylinders, Victoreen (Model 481-5), at the Calibration Laboratory of Instruments (LCI) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP). For this, a new ionization chamber alignment protocol was developed for the radiation system and a modification on the micrometer housing used for the movement of the internal cylinders was ma de. The results obtained for the stability and characterization tests showed to be within the limits established by the standards IEC 61674 and IEC 60731. The correction factors for photon attenuation in the air, transmission and scattering in the diaphragm, scattering and fluorescence and ion recombination were also determined. These values were compared with those obtained by the German primary standard laboratory, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), showing good agreement. Finally, the absolute values of the quantity air kerma rate for the standard qualities direct beams MWV28 and WMV35 and the attenuated beams WMH28 and WMH35 were determined; the results are in agreement, with a maximum difference of 3,8% with the values obtained using the secondary standard system of LCI. (author)

  11. Experimental storage of high-level radioactive wastes in the Asse salt mine - technical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gies, H.; Rothfuchs, T.; Feddersen, H.; Graefe, V.; Gross, S.; Hente, B.; Jockwer, N.; Kessels, W.; Schwaegermann, H.

    1988-01-01

    The work performed under this project in the Asse salt mine is an important milepost within the framework schedule of the 'Gorleben Poject' of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The project phase I (1982 - June 30, 1985) is about to be concluded at the time this report is published. The main points of interest of this project phase cover the planning of the experimental work, the design of experiments, and the first activities for developing the systems for handling the high-level radioactive wastes. The engineering development work has been advanced to the point where construction and manufacture of equipment can be started (transport containers Asse, TB1, collective transport containers, borehole gates, transport vehicles, waste positioning equipment, and borehole casing). Testing of the pipes for the last mentioned task with regard to the material's deformation behaviour will be done by the Dutch ECN as a sub-contractor. First laboratory experiments have been carried out on radiolysis gas formation, to complement the engineering work and the in-situ measuring programmes. (orig./RB) [de

  12. Calorimetric determination of kQ factors for NE 2561 and NE 2571 ionization chambers in 5 cm x 5 cm and 10 cm x 10 cm radiotherapy beams of 8 MV and 16 MV photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Achim; Kapsch, Ralf-Peter

    2007-10-21

    The relative uncertainty of the ionometric determination of the absorbed dose to water, D(w), in the reference dosimetry of high-energy photon beams is in the order of 1.5% and is dominated by the uncertainty of the calculated chamber- and energy-dependent correction factors k(Q). In the present investigation, k(Q) values were determined experimentally in 5 cm x 5 cm and 10 cm x 10 cm radiotherapy beams of 8 MV and 16 MV bremsstrahlung by means of a water calorimeter operated at 4 degrees C. Ionization chambers of the types NE 2561 and NE 2571 were calibrated directly in the water phantom of the calorimeter. The measurements were carried out at the linear accelerator of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. It is shown that the k(Q) factor of a single ionization chamber can be measured with a standard uncertainty of less than 0.3%. No significant variations of k(Q) were found for the different lateral sizes of the radiation fields used in this investigation.

  13. A traceability establishment for the 125I IsoSeed I25.S06 source from Bebig at the hospital level; Propuesta de obtencion de trazabilidad a nivel hospitalario para la fuente de 125I IsoSeed I25.S06 de Bebig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Calatayud, J.; Bejar, M.J.; Lliso, F.; Colmenares, R.; Fernandez, J.; Andrassy, M.; Carmona, V.; Ferrer, N.; Vivanco, J.

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this work has been on one side to solve the traceability problem in hospitals for the I25.S06 seed users, already solved for other seeds, and on the other to design a holder in order to allow the measurement of the reference air-kerma rate for the strand by means of a well-type ionization chamber, widely used in brachytherapy in hospitals. At a joint calibration-measurement session of the involved institutions the following steps were performed: calibration of the HDR 1000 and SourceCheck detectors with a standard source from the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB); reference air-kerma rate measurements for the 5 seeds strand provided by Bebig with the SourceCheck detector and with the HDR 1000 detector and the new insert holder by SIHO (Spain); separation of the stranded seeds by the specialist from Bebig who dissolved the plastic; reference air-kerma rate measurement of each of the seeds of the strand with one of the of HDR 1000 detectors previously calibrated. We present the calibration factors obtained and the analysis of the uncertainties associated with the process. (Author).

  14. Yearly energy balance sheets 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The total supply of energy during the year 2001 rose by 7 per cent compared with the year 2000, from 588 TWh to 630 TWh. The supply of nuclear power increased by 27 per cent, whereas electricity from waterpower has remained still at approximately 80 TWh. During the year 2001 Sweden exported 18,5 TWh electricity and the import was 11,1 TWh. The use of petroleum products for electricity production was nearly the same, 3,5 TWh during 2001 compared with 3,6 TWh during 2000. The production of heat from petroleum products increased from 3,2 TWh 2000 to 4,3 TWh 2001. The explanation to that is mainly the large increasing of heavy fuel oil in district heating plants. The use of energy during the year 2001 increased by nearly 1 per cent compared with the year 2000, from 391 TWh to 394 TWh. The use of coal, coke, biomass fuels and petroleum products decreased a little between the years, whereas the use of gases, district heating and electricity rises. The industrial sectors energy use decreases a bit from 156 TWh for the year 2000 to 152 TWh the year 2001. An increasing use of gases and district heating can nevertheless be seen. The energy use within transport sector rises from 87 TWh to 88 TWh. Within the household sector there is an increasing use of energy between the years with a total of 3 TWh, from 91 TWh to 94 TWh. The households continue to reduce their use of petroleum products. The use of electricity and district heating increases, by 6 per cent and 15 per cent respectively, between year 2000 and 2001

  15. 2 years versus 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab for HER2-positive breast cancer (HERA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldhirsch, Aron; Gelber, Richard D; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J

    2013-01-01

    Trastuzumab has established efficacy against breast cancer with overexpression or amplification of the HER2 oncogene. The standard of care is 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab, but the optimum duration of treatment is unknown. We compared 2 years of treatment with trastuzumab with 1 year of treatment......, and updated the comparison of 1 year of trastuzumab versus observation at a median follow-up of 8 years, for patients enrolled in the HERceptin Adjuvant (HERA) trial....

  16. Good year, bad year: changing strategies, changing networks? A two-year study on seed acquisition in northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Violon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of seed exchange networks at a single point in time may reify sporadic relations into apparently fixed and long-lasting ones. In northern Cameroon, where environment is not only strongly seasonal but also shows unpredictable interannual variation, farmers' social networks are flexible from year to year. When adjusting their strategies, Tupuri farmers do not systematically solicit the same partners to acquire the desired propagules. Seed acquisitions documented during a single cropping season may thus not accurately reflect the underlying larger social network that can be mobilized at the local level. To test this hypothesis, we documented, at the outset of two cropping seasons (2010 and 2011, the relationships through which seeds were acquired by the members of 16 households in a Tupuri community. In 2011, farmers faced sudden failure of the rains and had to solicit distant relatives, highlighting their ability to quickly trigger specific social relations to acquire necessary seeding material. Observing the same set of individuals during two successive years and the seed sources they solicited in each year enabled us to discriminate repeated relations from sporadic ones. Although farmers did not acquire seeds from the same individuals from one year to the next, they relied on quite similar relational categories of people. However, the worse weather conditions during the second year led to (1 a shift from red sorghum seeds to pearl millet seeds, (2 a geographical extension of the network, and (3 an increased participation of women in seed acquisitions. In critical situations, women mobilized their own kin almost exclusively. We suggest that studying the seed acquisition network over a single year provides a misrepresentation of the underlying social network. Depending on the difficulties farmers face, they may occasionally call on relationships that transcend the local relationships used each year.

  17. Operating years 1993 through 1995 power purchases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is obligated to supply electric power to its contractual customers. Based on a forecast of growing customer loads and assuming Critical Period water conditions in the Columbia River Basin, BPA is planning to meet a firm energy deficit during the four operating years (OY) 1992 through 1995, i.e., August 1991 through July 1995. BPA has executed several power purchase agreements to cover the projected OY 1992 deficit. The proposed action is to extend two existing one-year power purchase agreements for an additional three years to cover the four-year Critical Period energy deficit. The extension of these two one-year power purchase agreements would: (1) increase BPA's firm energy load-carrying capability; (2) allow BPA to meet its firm energy contractual commitments over the remaining three years of the four-year Critical Period from August 1, 1992, to July 31, 1995; (3) provide flexibility for BPA's use of hydroelectric resources over the Critical Period; and (4) increase system reliability. Under Critical Period water conditions, absent the proposed action, projected loads would exceed the capability of the Federal power system to serve those loads. The purpose of BPA's proposed action is to assure consistency with its statutory responsibilities, including those found in the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act)

  18. Undergraduate courses with an integral research year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, A S; Regan, P H

    2003-01-01

    We present the details of the four year MPhys undergraduate degree provided by the University of Surrey. Integral to this course is a full year spent on a research placement, which in most cases takes place external to the university at a North American or European research centre. This paper outlines the basic rationale underlying the course and, by including a number of research student profiles, we discuss the triple benefits of this course for the students, the University of Surrey and the host institutions where the students spend their research year

  19. Vadose Zone Journal: The first ten years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, J.A.; Or, D.; Young, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Celebrating ten years of publication, the authors introduce a special section commemorating the anniversary of Vadose Zone Journal and reviewing the journal’s role in an evolving understanding of vadose zone science.

  20. Safety for Your Child: 8 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Safety for Your Child: 8 Years Page Content Article ... is not buckled by a seat belt. Sports Safety Ask your doctor which sports are right for ...

  1. Safety for Your Child: 10 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Safety for Your Child: 10 Years Page Content Article ... out if your child's friends carry guns. Sports Safety At this age your child may be playing ...

  2. Advances in mammary imaging for forty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maulmont, C. de; Cherel, P.; Ouhioun, O.; Becette, V.; Stevens, D.; Plantet, M.M.; Hagay, C.

    2000-01-01

    In the sixties years the mammary diagnosis is just clinical, then the low contrast mammography, not very efficient, appears in the seventies years. During the eighties years, the ultrasound is set up while modern mammography with high contrast allows the non palpable breast lesions diagnosis. In the nineties years the mammography come before the clinical examination within the context of the breast cancer screening program. Some histological correlation are more specific about the ductal carcinoma in situ grading with microcalcifications, while new techniques (MRI, CT) are evaluated. At present the stereotactic large core breast biopsies are benefit from the digital prone table, allow a histological diagnosis and avoid surgical excision of some indeterminate images. After the pernicious effects of imaging, we assess the progress according to the cancerous disease results. We also consider the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ. (author)

  3. Localized cutaneous sporotrichosis lasting for 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi S

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A case of localized cutaneous sporotrichosis lasting for 10 years is being reported. The fixed cutaneous variety creates diagnostic difficulty by mimicking other conditions, chiefly lupus vulgaris.

  4. Fifty years of nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Valderrama, Juan Crisostomo

    1997-01-01

    Short information about the main developments of nuclear magnetic resonance during their fifty existence years is presented. Beside two examples of application (HETCOR and INADEQUATE) to the structural determination of organic compounds are described

  5. Fiscal Year 2008 Agency Financial Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) Fiscal Year (FY) 2008 Agency Financial Report (AFR) provides the President, Congress, other federal departments and agencies, and the American public an overview of the Department's financial condition...

  6. Key Royale bridge five year evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report describes the design, construction, instrumentation, and five-year evaluation of the Key Royale Bridge substructure. The primary focus was the evaluation of the implementation of highly reactive supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) ...

  7. First-Year Principal Encounters Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retelle, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    A 1st-year principal encounters homonegativity and an ethical dilemma when she attempts to terminate a teacher because of the teacher's inadequate and ineffective teaching. The teacher responds by threatening to "out" Ms. L. to the parents.

  8. 25 years... and still going strong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    A history of the 28 GeV proton synchrotron (PS) development during the past 25 years is outlined in brief. The obtained physical data are presented, stages of modification of the main accelerator systems are pointed out

  9. Launching PPARC's five year strategy programme

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    "Over one hundred delegates from Parliament, Whitehall and Industry attended a reception on Tuesday night (25 November) to mark the launch the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council's (PPARC) Five Year Plan" (1 page).

  10. International Polar Year Historical Data and Literature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The International Polar Year Historical Data and Literature collection (formerly known as the Discovery and Access of Historic Literature from the IPYs (DAHLI)...

  11. Your Child's Development: 2 Years (24 Months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Years (24 Months) Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 2 años (24 meses) Tired ... and circular scribbles feeds himself or herself well Social and Emotional Development plays alongside other children fears ...

  12. Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2012 contains an analytical overview of the dominant trends, issues and challenges worldwide in 2011 and the Agency's efforts to strengthen the global nuclear safety framework. This year's report also highlights issues and activities related to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The analytical overview is supported by the Appendix at the end of this document, entitled: The IAEA Safety Standards: Activities during 2011. A draft version of the Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2012 was submitted to the March 2012 session of the Board of Governors in document GOV/2012/6. The final version of the Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2012 was prepared in light of the discussions held during the Board of Governors and also of the comments received.

  13. Six-Year Review Contaminant Occurrence Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) requires EPA to review each National Primary Drinking Water Regulation (NPDWR) at least once every six years and revise them, if...

  14. Dietary Treatment for Migraine Under Six Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical factors and response to treatment were compared in children < 6 years and older children treated for migraine by nonpharmacologic measures in a pediatric headache clinic at Schneider Children’s Medical Center, Petah Tiqwa, Israel.

  15. Ochratoxin A: 50 Years of Research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malíř, F.; Ostrý, V.; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A.; Malíř, Jan; Toman, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2016) E-ISSN 2072-6651 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : food law * European Union law * legal regulation of OTA Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences Impact factor: 3.030, year: 2016

  16. 1-year rehospitalization after percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirstine Nørregaard; Bendix, Kristoffer; Antonsen, Lisbeth

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the incidence and causes of rehospitalization within 1-year after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a country where the National Health Service provides universal tax-supported health care, guaranteeing residents free hospital access. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between January.......26-1.34) and Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥ 3 (OR 3.03;95% CI 2.71-3.27) Conclusions: In an unselected patient cohort treated with PCI, half of the patients were rehospitalized within 1-year, illuminating the impact of comorbidity in patients with ischemic heart disease....... 2010 and September 2014, 17,111 patients were treated with PCI in two University Hospitals in Western Denmark. Patients who were readmitted within 1-year after PCI were identified. Overall 1-year readmission rate was 50.4%. The cause was angina/myocardial infarction (MI) in 4,282 patients (49...

  17. The Chernobyl accident - five years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.

    1991-06-01

    At the fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident the initial situation at that time, the control of the consequences to Austria in the present light, as well as the knowledge gained from the accident and its consequences are described. A final estimate and appraisal of the total population dose by the accident alloted according to the individual exposure pathways and the dose reductions due to countermeasures by the authorities are given. The dose reduction in the following years is described. Five years later the external exposure was reduced to about 6 % of the values of the first year, the ingestion dose to about 5 % of the first-year-values. Finally, the current radiation situation is described and the dose contribution by foodstuff with elevated activity concentration is estimated. Also the consequences from the experience and knowledge obtained by the accident are described. (author)

  18. 25 Years of AAPT's PhysicsBowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleski, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The PhysicsBowl is a contest for high school students that was first introduced in 1985. In this article, we discuss both some of the history of the contest as well as the 25th contest occurring this year.

  19. Another Record Year for Academic Pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how, fueled by the war on terrorism, Congress has awarded a record $1.8 billion in academic earmarks in the 2002 fiscal year. Profiles several recipient programs and includes a campus-by-campus list of projects. (EV)

  20. Korean society of mechanical engineers 60 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    This book introduces 60 years of Korean society of mechanical engineers with birth, foundation, development process, change of enforcement regulation and articles of association, important data of this association, 60 years of parts, committee and branch, business of association like academic event, publication, technical development business, supporting research centers, bond Korean society of mechanical engineers and mechanical industry and development of related organizations, development for industrial fields and development direction of Korean society of mechanical engineers.

  1. Lurpak: Ready for another 100 years?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    The Lur mark - the forerunner and very foundation of Lurpak butter - celebrates its 100th anniversary this year. That is an unusual and impressive lifetime for a consumer goods brand and something Danish dairy sector can be proud of.......The Lur mark - the forerunner and very foundation of Lurpak butter - celebrates its 100th anniversary this year. That is an unusual and impressive lifetime for a consumer goods brand and something Danish dairy sector can be proud of....

  2. [Lambarene 25 years after Albert Schweitzer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, W

    1993-04-27

    The author, who lived with Albert Schweitzer during the last four years of the doctor's life, and who worked as a physician in Lambarene for ten years, tells about the evolution of the Gabonese Republic and the Lambarene Hospital since 1961. The actual medical importance of the hospital as well as the spiritual response Schweitzer still finds today among Africans are described. And: Africa, too, has a message for us.

  3. Four years after the JCO criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    It has been about four years since the first criticality accident in Japan. The JCO accident site was not so far from this auditorium. I have been asked to give a short review of important results from the various technical investigations on the accident that have been performed during the past four years. I will also give a short introduction to the changes that have been made in the nuclear safety regulation systems of the Japanese Government. (author)

  4. Environmental releases for calendar year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greager, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1996 from facilities and activities managed by the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated (formerly the Westinghouse Hanford Company) and Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated. Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated provides effluent monitoring services for Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated, which includes release reporting. Both summary and detailed presentations of the environmental releases are provided. When appropriate, comparisons to data from previous years are made

  5. NDT in Canada - the next 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittmer, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The theme for the Fifth Canadian Conference on Nondestructive Testing was 'NDT in Canada - The Next 20 years'. The three day conference with 42 presentations provided a short overview of NDT in Canada, a look at NDT in pipeline, materials, offshore, nuclear and training applications, and a glimpse into the next 20 years with recent advances in research and development as related to this 'hi-tech' field of work

  6. Environmental releases for calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greager, E.M.

    1997-07-31

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1996 from facilities and activities managed by the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated (formerly the Westinghouse Hanford Company) and Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated. Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated provides effluent monitoring services for Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated, which includes release reporting. Both summary and detailed presentations of the environmental releases are provided. When appropriate, comparisons to data from previous years are made.

  7. 2009 International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    400 years ago, Galileo first turned a telescope to the sky, and to honor that historic moment, 2009 has been designated the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). This session will feature two scientists who have used the telescope to understand our solar system and well beyond to yield fantastic new discoveries. Jennifer Wiseman will share the work she does with NASA, presenting beautiful and tantalizing images from the Hubble Space Telescope and discussing how space astronomy can inspire all ages.

  8. SLEEP HABITS AMONG FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Neera; Varun; Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is part of the rhythm of life; without a good sleep the mind is less adaptive, mood is altered and the body loses the ability to refresh. The sleep-wake cycle of medical students is quite different and sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality, occurrence of napping episodes during the day. This study was designed to assess sleep habits in first year medical students. MATERIAL AND METHODS Participants of this study were healthy medical students of first year MBBS course of S...

  9. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level

  10. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  11. Perflubron residua: 12 years following therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servaes, Sabah; Epelman, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Partial liquid ventilation therapy utilizing perfluorocarbons has been used for patients with severe respiratory distress. Perfluorocarbons such as perflubron have been demonstrated to clear from the lungs shortly after therapy. We present a 13-year-old boy with residual perflubron in his lungs, 12 years following therapy with perflubron. The imaging features are important to recognize as these patients return for additional care and imaging. (orig.)

  12. Twenty-year survivors of kidney transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Traynor, C

    2012-12-01

    There have been few studies of patients with renal allografts functioning for more than 20 years. We sought to identify clinical factors associated with ultra long-term (>20 year) renal allograft survival and to describe the clinical features of these patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of the Irish Renal Transplant Database and included 1174 transplants in 1002 patients. There were 255 (21.74%) patients with graft function for 20 years or more. Multivariate analysis identified recipient age (HR 1.01, CI 1.01-1.02), gender (male HR 1.25, CI 1.08-1.45), acute rejection (HR 1.26, CI 1.09-1.45) and transplant type (living related donor vs. deceased donor) (HR 0.52, CI 0.40-0.66) as significantly associated with long-term graft loss. Median serum creatinine was 115 μmol\\/L. The 5-year graft survival in 20-year survivors was 74.7%. The mean age at death was 62.7 years (±10.6). The most common causes of death were cardiovascular disease and malignancy. The two major causes of graft loss were death (with function) and interstitial fibrosis\\/tubular atrophy. Comorbidities included skin cancer (36.1%), coronary heart disease (17.3%) and other malignancies (14.5%). This study identifies factors associated with long-term allograft survival and a high rate of morbidity and early mortality in long-term transplant recipients.

  13. Fifty years of driving safety research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John D

    2008-06-01

    This brief review covers the 50 years of driving-related research published in Human Factors, its contribution to driving safety, and emerging challenges. Many factors affect driving safety, making it difficult to assess the impact of specific factors such as driver age, cell phone distractions, or collision warnings. The author considers the research themes associated with the approximately 270 articles on driving published in Human Factors in the past 50 years. To a large extent, current and past research has explored similar themes and concepts. Many articles published in the first 25 years focused on issues such as driver impairment, individual differences, and perceptual limits. Articles published in the past 25 years address similar issues but also point toward vehicle technology that can exacerbate or mitigate the negative effect of these issues. Conceptual and computational models have played an important role in this research. Improved crash-worthiness has contributed to substantial improvements in driving safety over the past 50 years, but future improvements will depend on enhancing driver performance and perhaps, more important, improving driver behavior. Developing models to guide this research will become more challenging as new technology enters the vehicle and shifts the focus from driver performance to driver behavior. Over the past 50 years, Human Factors has accumulated a large base of driving-related research that remains relevant for many of today's design and policy concerns.

  14. Years of life lost through Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M B

    1979-10-01

    A congenital genetic condition does not act either as a cause of death or at the time of death only. Hence, years of life lost through such a conditon cannot be calculated in the same way as for a conventional cause of death. The main difference is that a cause of death acting at age x cuts off as many years of life as the dead person might otherwise have expected to live (life expectancy at age x), whereas a congenital genetic condition exposes an affected person to a different schedule of life-threatening risks from birth onwards. In the latter case, years of life lost is calculated as the difference in life expectancy at birth for affected and non-affected persons. This reasoning is worked out in algebraic form and then applied to Down's syndrome. The data base is provided by two large and recent studies, one in Massachusetts and the other in Denmark, of mortality rates among all cases of Down's syndrome, whether in an institution or not, born during a given period of years or living at a given point in time in a fixed geographical area. So calculated, years of life lost through Down's syndrome relative to the United States general population in 1970 was 53.6 years per 1000 livebirths. Prenatal mortality is also discussed.

  15. Engaging Beyond the First College Year: Exploring the Needs of Second-year Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L. Black

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article makes the case for librarians to engage with second-year students as part of the burgeoning movement in higher education to provide dedicated programming and experiences for second-year students. Grounded in development theories and transition theory, the article describes the special needs characteristic of typical second-year students and how librarians can build on the excellent work in first-year programs to collaborate with campus colleagues to further information literacy instruction.

  16. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year survival rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, Jes [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi year ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first year sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. Here we develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of first year and multi year ice control the mean state, variability, and trends in ice area and volume.

  17. Multi-year and reference year weather data for building energy labelling in north Italy climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pernigotto, G.; Prada, A.; Costola, D.; Gasparella, A.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Representative weather information is essential for a reliable building energy performance evaluation. Even if detailed energy analyses can be carried out considering the multi-year weather data, generally a single reference year is adopted. Thus, this artificial year has to correctly approximate

  18. Decision year for gas industry. [Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, L; Rankin, A

    1975-01-20

    This year should be one of decision as far as the Canadian natural gas industry is concerned. There is urgent need to avoid the energy shortage now being experienced in the U.S., inasmuch as this year appears to mark the beginning of increasingly short supplies of gas in many parts of Canada. Increased gas plant construction and rising sulfur sales this year are 2 highlights of this annual natural gas report. A comprehensive listing of natural gas processing plants in Canada is given. Natural gas sales climbed by only 46 billion cu ft to an estimated 2,289 billion cu ft for a growth of 2% from 1973. The decline in exports will accelerate this year and as a result the overall gain this year is expected to be held to a modest 1% with an increase of 71 billion cu ft in the domestic sector and a drop of 58 billion cu ft in exports. Tabular data provide more complete details.

  19. Tennessee Valley Region: a year 2000 profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the potential radiological implications of nuclear facilities in the combined watersheds of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, an area covering portions of 7 states of varied topography. The regional population in 1970 was about 4.6 million and is expected to increase to about 7 million by the year 2000. A 1973 projection estimated the installed electric generating capacity of the region to increase from a 1970 value of 45,000 megawatts to a total of 222,000 megawatts by the year 2000. In that year, about 144,000 megawatts were projected to be nuclear plants. The profile of the Tennessee Valley Region in the year 2000, as drawn from this report, contains the essential data for calculation of the radiological dose from operation of nuclear facilities in that year. Those calculations are reported in the companion document, DOE/ET-0064/2. Specifically, Volume I establishes the parameters describing where the people live, what they eat, the activities in which they engage, and the environmental surroundings that enable an evaluation of the potential radiation dose to the population. Airborne radionuclides from nuclear facilities in this zone may enter the study area and be deposited on the ground, on growing food, and on water surfaces. Consideration was not given to waterborne radionuclides external to the study region. 17 references

  20. Nuclear safety review for the year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2001 reports on worldwide efforts to strengthen nuclear and radiation safety, including radioactive waste safety. It is in three parts. Part 1 describes those events in 2001 that have, or may have, significance for nuclear, radiation and waste safety worldwide. It includes developments such as new initiatives in international cooperation, events of safety significance and events that may be indicative of trends in safety. Part 2 describes some of the IAEA's efforts to strengthen international co-operation in nuclear, radiation and waste safety during 2001. It covers legally binding international agreements, non-binding safety standards, and provisions for the application of safety standards. This is done in a very brief manner, because these issues are addressed in more detail in the Agency's Annual Report for 2001. Part 3 presents a brief look ahead to some issues that are likely to be prominent in the coming year(s). The topics covered were selected by the IAEA Secretariat on the basis of trends observed in recent years, account being taken of planned or expected future developments. A draft of the Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2001 was presented to the March 2002 session of IAEA's Board of Governors. This final version has been prepared taking account of the discussion in the Board. In some places, information has been added to describe developments early in 2002 that were considered pertinent to the discussion of events during 2001

  1. Waste management fiscal year 1998 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Waste Management Program is pleased to issue the Fiscal Year 1998 Progress Report presenting program highlights and major accomplishments of the last year. This year-end update describes the current initiatives in waste management and the progress DOE has made toward their goals and objectives, including the results of the waste management annual performance commitments. One of the most important program efforts continues to be opening the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, for the deep geologic disposal of transuranic waste. A major success was achieved this year by the West Valley Demonstration Project in New York, which in June completed the project's production phase of high-level waste processing ahead of schedule and under budget. Another significant accomplishment this year was the award of two privatization contracts for major waste management operations, one at Oak ridge for transuranic waste treatment, and one at Hanford for the Tank Waste Remediation System privatization project. DOE is proud of the progress that has been made, and will continue to pursue program activities that allow it to safely and expeditiously dispose of radioactive and hazardous wastes across the complex, while reducing worker, public, and environmental risks

  2. Tennessee Valley Region: a year 2000 profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the potential radiological implications of nuclear facilities in the combined watersheds of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, an area covering portions of 7 states of varied topography. The regional population in 1970 was about 4.6 million and is expected to increase to about 7 million by the year 2000. A 1973 projection estimated the installed electric generating capacity of the region to increase from a 1970 value of 45,000 megawatts to a total of 222,000 megawatts by the year 2000. In that year, about 144,000 megawatts were projected to be nuclear plants. The profile of the Tennessee Valley Region in the year 2000, as drawn from this report, contains the essential data for calculation of the radiological dose from operation of nuclear facilities in that year. Those calculations are reported in the companion document, DOE/ET-0064/2. Specifically, Volume I establishes the parameters describing where the people live, what they eat, the activities in which they engage, and the environmental surroundings that enable an evaluation of the potential radiation dose to the population. Airborne radionuclides from nuclear facilities in this zone may enter the study area and be deposited on the ground, on growing food, and on water surfaces. Consideration was not given to waterborne radionuclides external to the study region. 17 references. (MCW)

  3. Isolated laryngeal myasthenia gravis for 26 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Dimitri; Hedayat, Amir; Gagnard, Corinne

    2015-02-01

    Laryngeal myasthenia gravis is a relatively rare variant of myasthenia gravis. A vast portion of patients with initial laryngeal myasthenia gravis develop involvement of ocular and/or extra-ocular muscles during the years after symptom onset although a minority of laryngeal myasthenia gravis patients continues to have isolated laryngeal muscle involvement for several years. We present a 58-year-old woman with recurrent episodic isolated dysphonia (associated with diffuse bilateral vocal cord paresis on laryngoscopy) since the age of 32. Dysphonia became permanent since 6 months. A diagnosis of laryngeal myasthenia gravis was made based on abnormal single-fiber electromyography and spectacular response to pyridostigmine treatment. Repetitive nerve stimulation was normal and anti-acetylcholine receptor and anti-muscle specific tyrosine kinase antibodies were absent. This case shows that laryngeal myasthenia gravis can be isolated during 26 years of follow-up. We propose that even when myasthenia gravis seems unlikely as underlying mechanism of isolated dysphonia (because of lack of antibodies, normal repetitive nerve stimulation, and absence of extra-laryngeal involvement after years of follow-up), single-fiber electromyography should be performed and myasthenia gravis treatment should be tried. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. CGPA - CGPSA: The year 1998 in review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    An account of the activities of the Canadian Gas Processors Association (CGPA) and the Canadian Gas Processors Suppliers Association (CGPSA) during 1998 was given. The two organizations were formed some 40 years ago to represent the interests of their respective members by actively participating in developing, improving, and promoting professional services and products to the gas processing industry, for the benefit of the industry, the environment and the public. Both organizations publish relevant technical and business reports, undertake educational, research and recognition programs, pursue initiatives that improve and promote the gas processing business and services. The year 1998 has been a good year for both organizations, with several mergers and acquisitions, changes in natural gas liquids transmission and processing capacities, and growth of petrochemical facilities reported. The CGPA has continued to hold its traditional quarterly conferences to discuss business issues, advances in gas processing technology, operations and environmental concerns. A Maintenance and Safety Conference was held in April 1998, and CGPA co-hosted a conference with the Petroleum Joint Venture Association in November. The CGPSA too, had an excellent year. It increased its member companies by some 10 per cent during the year, while total membership increased by 13 per cent. Changes in accounting procedures and due dates for membership fees, discussions to establish a scholarship fund, and production and distribution of a new procedures manual for directors of the association were some of the more noteworthy accomplishments. Both organizations have new board of directors for 1999

  5. Electric peak power forecasting by year 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsayegh, O.A.; Al-Matar, O.A.; Fairouz, F.A.; Al-Mulla Ali, A.

    2005-01-01

    Peak power demand in Kuwait up to the year 2025 was predicted using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air conditioning (A/C) units on long-term power demand. Five socio-economic factors were selected as inputs for the simulation: (1) gross national product, (2) population, (3) number of buildings, (4) imports of A/C units, and (5) index of industrial production. The study used socio-economic data from 1978 to 2000. Historical data of the first 10 years of the studied time period were used to train the ANN. The electrical network was then simulated to forecast peak power for the following 11 years. The calculated error was then used for years in which power consumption data were not available. The study demonstrated that average peak power rates increased by 4100 MW every 5 years. Various scenarios related to changes in population, the number of buildings, and the quantity of A/C units were then modelled to estimate long-term peak power demand. Results of the study demonstrated that population had the strongest impact on future power demand, while the number of buildings had the smallest impact. It was concluded that peak power growth can be controlled through the use of different immigration policies, increased A/C efficiency, and the use of vertical housing. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  6. Electric peak power forecasting by year 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsayegh, O.A.; Al-Matar, O.A.; Fairouz, F.A.; Al-Mulla Ali, A. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Kuwait City (Kuwait). Div. of Environment and Urban Development

    2005-07-01

    Peak power demand in Kuwait up to the year 2025 was predicted using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air conditioning (A/C) units on long-term power demand. Five socio-economic factors were selected as inputs for the simulation: (1) gross national product, (2) population, (3) number of buildings, (4) imports of A/C units, and (5) index of industrial production. The study used socio-economic data from 1978 to 2000. Historical data of the first 10 years of the studied time period were used to train the ANN. The electrical network was then simulated to forecast peak power for the following 11 years. The calculated error was then used for years in which power consumption data were not available. The study demonstrated that average peak power rates increased by 4100 MW every 5 years. Various scenarios related to changes in population, the number of buildings, and the quantity of A/C units were then modelled to estimate long-term peak power demand. Results of the study demonstrated that population had the strongest impact on future power demand, while the number of buildings had the smallest impact. It was concluded that peak power growth can be controlled through the use of different immigration policies, increased A/C efficiency, and the use of vertical housing. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. The joint action on healthy life years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robine, Jean-Marie; Cambois, Emmanuelle; Nusselder, Wilma

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Life expectancy has been increasing during the last century within the European Union (EU). To measure progress in population health it is no longer sufficient to focus on the duration of life but quality of life should be considered. Healthy Life Years (HLY) allow estimating...... the quality of the remaining years that a person is expected to live, in terms of being free of long-standing activity limitation. The Joint Action on Healthy Life Years (JA: EHLEIS) is a joint action of European Member States (MS) and the European Union aiming at analysing trends, patterns and differences...... in HLY, as well as in other Summary Measures of Population Health (SMPH) indicators, across the European member states. METHODS: The JA: EHLEIS consolidates existing information on life and health expectancy by maximising the European comparability; by analysing trends in HLY within the EU; by analysing...

  8. AINSE - The years between 1988 and 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammon, R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: This paper traces the history of AINSE between the years 1988 and 1998. It was a time of great change for AINSE. At the beginning of this period the Government implemented major structural reforms of the higher education system and new mechanisms for research infrastructure support followed a year later. This culminated in 1993 with a major restructuring of AINSE which had continued with little change since its inception in 1958. This was followed in 1994 with a comprehensive review and reorganisation of ANSTO, which also had a significant effect on AINSE. These events will be described and will include some of AINSE, considerable achievements and successes which saw the organisation, in partnership with ANSTO, in a strong position at the end of this ten year period

  9. The 2015 five-yearly review

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      This year CERN celebrates its 60th anniversary. On this occasion, throughout Europe — most recently on July 1st at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris — festivities are being organized to celebrate the Organization’s success as a flagship laboratory of high-energy physics. To ensure that CERN can remain a centre of excellence in the field of fundamental research, the Organization verifies every five years with the help of a five-yearly review procedure whether the financial and social conditions which it proposes to Staff Members allow it to recruit and retain Staff Members of the highest competence and integrity required for the execution of its mission from all its Member States. For Fellows these conditions should remain attractive compared with those in comparable research institutions, while for Associated members of personnel these conditions should allow it to host them in its research facilities taking into account the highest cost-of-living level in the local ...

  10. Differential equations of my young years

    CERN Document Server

    Maz'ya, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Vladimir Maz'ya (born 1937) is an outstanding mathematician who systematically made fundamental contributions to a wide array of areas in mathematical analysis and in the theory of partial differential equations. In this fascinating book he describes the first thirty years of his life in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg). He starts with the story of his family, speaks about his childhood, the high school and university years, and recalls his formative years as a mathematician. Behind the author's personal recollections, with his own joys, sorrows and hopes, one sees a vivid picture of those times in the former Sovjet Union. He speaks warmly about his friends, both outside and inside the world of mathematics, about discovering his passion for mathematics and his early achievements, and about a number of mathematicians who influenced his professional life. The book is written in a highly readable and inviting style, spiced with the occasional touch of humor.

  11. Three years of an intensive Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Lopez, Jose Manuel Guterrez Lopez; Kirikova, Marite

    2015-01-01

    points, we can highlight the importance of clearly communicating learning goals as well as motivations for the students to work problem-based and across traditional disciplines. Also, having short time to get a group from four different universities work together it is important to actively encourage (or......-12 teachers from the 4 participating universities would meet in the location of one of the partner institutions. During the three years, the programme was each year adjusted according to the observations and evaluations from the previous year. The course was organized as a week of course modules, followed...... by a week of project work. The topics of the first week were defined to support the project work in the following week. The projects were based on real-life problems proposed by companies, and had to be solved in student groups with a mix of nationalities and educational backgrounds. Among the key learning...

  12. What was the year 2008 like

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hroch, A.

    2009-01-01

    The conditions at the Slovak energy market are different each year, practically since the era of planned economy was over. So what was 2008 like from this point of view? The Energy Market Rules (No. 409/2007) became fully effective, the Energy Act (No. 112 and 283/2008) was amended twice, and the SEPS legislation has changed. However, we are also influenced by the internal European energy market and the fluctuation of prices at the world's markets. All this has been reflected in the manner of the units' deployment and commercial activities. Towards the end of the year financial crisis broke out impacting the industrial production, which resulted in the restriction of the consumption even in Slovakia. We will fight these consequences even this year. Let's now go back to the external conditions of 2008 in detail. (author)

  13. [Twelve years of liver transplantation in Lausanne].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosimann, F; Bettschart, V; Gardaz, J P; Fontolliet, C; Tissot, J D; Meuwly, J Y; Chioléro, R; Gillet, M

    2001-02-01

    From 1988 to June 2000 138 transplantations were performed in 129 adult patients. Actuarial patient and graft survivals have been 80.7% and 75.4% at one year and 67.8% and 63.5% at 10 years. This compares favourably with the statistics of the European Liver Transplant Registry that collected data from more than 30,000 grafts. Over the twelve years of activity, the indications have become more liberal and the techniques have been simplified. The waiting list has therefore grown and some patients are now unfortunately dying before a graft can be found because the number of brain dead donors remains stable. In order to palliate this shortage, older donors are now being accepted even with co-morbidities and/or moderate alterations of the liver function tests. The use of live donors and the split of the best cadaveric grafts for two recipients will also reduce the gap between the demand and the offer.

  14. Budget estimates: Fiscal years, 1990--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The budget estimates for the NRC for fiscal year 1990 provide for obligations of $475,000,000, to be funded in total by two new appropriations---one is NRC's Salaries and Expenses appropriation for $472,100,000 and the other is NRC's Office of the Inspector General appropriation of $2,900,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses, $23,195,000 shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund. The sum appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during fiscal year 1990 from licensing fees, inspection services, other services and collections, and from the Nuclear Waste Fund, excluding those moneys received for the cooperative nuclear safety research program, services rendered to foreign governments and international organizations, and the material and information access authorization programs, so as to result in a final fiscal year 1990 appropriation estimated at not more than $292,155,000

  15. Fifty years of allergy: 1965-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dianne E; Mehr, Sam

    2015-01-01

    The last 50 years in allergy could almost be considered the first 50 years. Over this time period, we have witnessed the emergence of allergy as a subspecialty, have seen and continue to observe a tremendous change in prevalence of allergic disease and have gained insight into the mechanisms that underlie allergic predisposition and disease manifestation. We have improved the care of children with many forms of allergic disease and now sit poised to be able to alter the natural history of allergic disease with the use of specific immunotherapy. There is much left to do in the next 50 years including understanding what underlies both the predisposition to atopic disease and its natural resolution and identifying the environmental cofactors involved in the 'allergic epidemic' and therefore targets for effective primary prevention. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittle, Lauren E.; Wenger, Trey; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Angell, Dylan; Burkhardt, Andrew; Davis, Blair; Firebaugh, Ariel; Hancock, Danielle; Richardson, Whitney; Rochford Hayes, Christian; Linden, Sean; Liss, Sandra; Matthews, Allison; McNair, Shunlante; Prager, Brian; Pryal, Matthew; Troup, Nicholas William

    2017-01-01

    We present activities from the eighth year of Dark Skies Bright Kids (DSBK), an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in Central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts. Over the past seven years, our primary focus has been hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools, and over the past several years, we have partnered with local businesses to host our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows. This past summer we expanded our reach through a new initiative to bring week-long summer day camps to south and southwest Virginia, home to some of the most underserved communities in the commonwealth.

  17. Sub-Saharan Africa thirty years hence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J

    1986-11-01

    By the year 2015, Sub-Saharan Africa's population will probably rise from a 1985 level of about 460 million to about 1.1 billion. Today Africa's population is growing at a rate of roughly 3% a year, with exceptionally high growth rates in some countries. The leaders of Africa, and those who wish to help Africa, confront difficult and urgent problems of drought, political and military conflict, accumulated debt, lower commodity prices, and other factors of immediate and important concern. Africa has given education a high priority and should be as well known for its success in increasing school enrollment as it is for its relative failures in other areas. A projected population of 1.1 billion people and a fertility rate down to 30/1000 by the year 2015 suggests that the number of children old enough to enter primary school will be of the order of 30 million a year at this time. The working-age population will grow from 235 million now to perhaps 600 million in 30 years. The urban population has been growing at about 6% a year--twice the pace of population increase. All of these situations will have an effect on environment, water, and health. Coping with Africa's burgeoning population in terms of children in school, the demand on health systems, the need for jobs, achieving an adequate diet, the provision of basic urban services, and all the rest, is an extraordinary challenge. While the government's role is critical, success at the sectoral level almost always means cost recovery, administration decentralized to the community or to the private sector, and program implementation that does not burden the budget.

  18. Suicide rates in five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhat, Ravi; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    -79 years) and the oldest old (80+ years) age groups. METHODS: Data on the number of suicides (International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in each of the eight five-year age-bands between the age-bands 60-64 years and 95-99 years in both gender for as many years as possible from 2000...... were ascertained from three sources: colleagues with access to national data, national statisics office websites and email contact with the national statistics offices. The population size for the corresponding years and age-bands was estimated for each country using data provided by the United Nations......BACKGROUND: There is paucity of studies examining suicide rates in narrow five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years. This study examined suicide rates in eight five-year age-bands between the age of 60 and 99 years because this will allow more precise comparison between the young old (60...

  19. Fourier-Mukai, 34 years on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzo, Ugo; Maciocia, Antony

    2017-12-01

    This special issue celebrates the 34 years since the discovery of the Fourier-Mukai Transform by Shigeru Mukai. It mostly contains papers presented at the conference held in the Mathematics Research Centre of the University of Warwick, 15th to 19th June 2015 as part of a year long Warwick symposium on Derived categories and applications. The conference was also the annual conference of the Vector Bundles on Algebraic Curves series led by Peter Newstead. The symposium was principally supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council of the UK and there was further funding from the London Mathematical Society and the Foundation Compositio.

  20. Year 2000 TWRS Maintenance procedure review report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    A concern exists that some equipment in use might contain microprocessors that are dependent upon a time date function. The majority of the software programming for microprocessors has only utilized a 2 digit identifier for the year. With the approach of the year 2000, (Y2K), there is concern that the date function will not be correctly recognized and some functions will not operate properly. TWRS maintenance procedures have been reviewed to identify equipment components that may not be Y2K compliant. Engineering judgment was utilized to eliminate procedures and equipment that is obviously not impacted by Y2K

  1. CERN Courier editors through 50 years

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The 50th anniversary of the first publication of the CERN Courier provided the opportunity for a modest celebration on 2 September 2009. All six of the principal editors that the magazine has had over its 50 years met together for the first time. After getting acquainted and re-acquainted over lunch, they gathered in the library at CERN to answer questions about producing the magazine over the years. From right to left, from the first editor to the present incumbent: Roger Anthoine, Alec Hester, Brian Southworth, Gordon Fraser, James Gillies and Christine Sutton.

  2. Software quality assurance - seven years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malsbury, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes seven years experience with software quality assurance at PPPL. It covers the early attempts of 1980 and 1981 to establish software quality assurance; the first attempt of 1982 to develop a complete software quality assurance plan; the significant modifications of this plan in 1985; and the future. In addition, the paper describes the role of the Quality Assurance organization within each plan. The scope of this paper is limited to discussions of the software development procedures used in the seven year period. Other software quality topics, such as configuration control or problem identification and resolution, are not discussed

  3. 2000--the year of the "super CFO".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, A P

    1980-01-01

    Just as the financial manager of today bears little resemblance to the hospital bookkeeper of 20 years ago, the CFO in the year 2000 will differ from today's CFO. In 2000 the CFO will have to be a combined expert in finance, economics, accounting, business law, health law and risk management, as well as people motivation. The evolutionary process will take the CFO through the hospital maze as we know it today, and on into the world of insurance, medical transportation and hotel management--possibly even shopping centers and spaghetti factories.

  4. US Strategic Plan: two years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In the two years since it issued its Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Power Plants, the US nuclear power industry says significant progress has been achieved. The plan's major points call for completing the engineering for advanced reactor designs over the next five years; identifying suitable sites for new nuclear plants; achieving stable regulatory conditions so investors can be assured of earning a fair return on financing for new plants; improving the performance of existing nuclear plants; resolving the waste problems; and improving public acceptance of nuclear power. (author)

  5. Four-year experience with methotrexate exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoVecchio, Frank; Katz, Kenneth; Watts, David; Wood, Ian

    2008-09-01

    Unintentional methotrexate (MTX) acute oral overdose is rarely reported. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all human exposure calls (>150,000 charts) for MTX ingestions reported to our Poison Center during 2000-2003. Thirteen patients met the criteria. The average amount of MTX ingested was 13.03 mg (data from 7 cases), and the average patient age was 43 years (20 months to 80 years). No significant toxicities occurred. Although intravenous MTX toxicity can be severe, this does not appear to be a phenomenon associated with either acute unintentional or suicidal oral ingestion.

  6. First Fifty Years of Chemoresistive Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Neri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first fifty years of chemoresistive sensors for gas detection are here reviewed, focusing on the main scientific and technological innovations that have occurred in the field over the course of these years. A look at advances made in fundamental and applied research and leading to the development of actual high performance chemoresistive devices is presented. The approaches devoted to the synthesis of novel semiconducting materials with unprecedented nanostructure and gas-sensing properties have been also presented. Perspectives on new technologies and future applications of chemoresistive gas sensors have also been highlighted.

  7. Environmental releases for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.P.; Curn, B.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1993 from facilities managed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. As part of this executive summary, comprehensive data summaries of air emissions and liquid effluents in 1993 are displayed in tables. These tables represent the following: radionuclide air emissions data; data on radioactive liquid effluents discharged to the soil; radionuclides discharged to the Columbia River; nonradioactive air emissions data; total volumes and flow rates of 200/600 area liquid effluents. Both summary and detailed presentations of these data are given. When appropriate, comparisons to data from previous years are made

  8. Year 2000 TWRS Maintenance procedure review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    1999-02-24

    A concern exists that some equipment in use might contain microprocessors that are dependent upon a time date function. The majority of the software programming for microprocessors has only utilized a 2 digit identifier for the year. With the approach of the year 2000, (Y2K), there is concern that the date function will not be correctly recognized and some functions will not operate properly. TWRS maintenance procedures have been reviewed to identify equipment components that may not be Y2K compliant. Engineering judgment was utilized to eliminate procedures and equipment that is obviously not impacted by Y2K.

  9. Interest in PSI across Sixteen Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamal, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    To determine whether interest in the personalized system of instruction (PSI) in the behavioral sciences has waned since 1968, conference papers and poster presentations dealing with PSI were surveyed. The number of papers and posters devoted to PSI peaked in the years 1972-1979 and has since clearly declined. (RM)

  10. Guided Reading in Inclusive Middle Years Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Wanda; Thompson, Scott Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Teachers in inclusive classrooms are challenged to provide reading instruction for students with a wide range of instructional levels. This article reports on the implementation of guided reading in four middle years inclusive classrooms, the impact on student engagement and reading progress, and teacher perspectives on the guided reading…

  11. Eighteen Years of Safe Storage and Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moren, Richard J. [Mission Support Alliance; Morton, M. [Polestar Technical Services, INC

    2016-03-28

    The purpose of this paper is to share the status and condition of the six reactor buildings at the Hanford Site in Washington State that are in this SAFSTOR condition (for between 4 and 18 years as of summer of 2016).

  12. 7 CFR 985.9 - Marketing year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing year. 985.9 Section 985.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE...

  13. 50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicole D; Craik, Fergus I M

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this Introduction to the Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences special issue on "50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory" are to provide a brief overview of cognitive aging research prior to 1965 and to highlight significant developments in cognitive aging theory over the last 50 years. Historical and recent theories of cognitive aging were reviewed, with a particular focus on those not directly covered by the articles included in this special issue. Prior to 1965, cognitive aging research was predominantly descriptive, identifying what aspects of intellectual functioning are affected in older compared with younger adults. Since the mid-1960s, there has been an increasing interest in how and why specific components of cognitive domains are differentially affected in aging and a growing focus on cognitive aging neuroscience. Significant advances have taken place in our theoretical understanding of how and why certain components of cognitive functioning are or are not affected by aging. We also know much more now than we did 50 years ago about the underlying neural mechanisms of these changes. The next 50 years undoubtedly will bring new theories, as well as new tools (e.g., neuroimaging advances, neuromodulation, and technology), that will further our understanding of cognitive aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A Year's Turning: Young People Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, I. V., Ed.

    This book is an anthology of unedited verse and prose written by 14- and 15-year-old students. The book is intended for teachers in training, for their tutors, and for all teachers of English. The verses are classified as undirected and directed poems about nature, places, war, the Egyptian Tomb, up and back again, and people. The prose is…

  15. Learning Reproducibility with a Yearly Networking Contest

    KAUST Repository

    Canini, Marco; Crowcroft, Jon

    2017-01-01

    fostered by organizing a yearly international contest. We argue that holding a contest undertaken by a plurality of students will have benefits that are two-fold. First, it will promote hands-on learning of skills that are helpful in producing artifacts

  16. Sixty years of antimicrobial use in animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This, the last in our series of feature articles celebrating 125 years of Veterinary Record, aims to provide an overview of antimicrobial use in animals. Starting with a journey through the history of antimicrobial use in animals, Luca Guardabassi gives his opinion on the current zoonotic risks...

  17. Energy consultancy in the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeve, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Liberalisation of the energy markets, shifting emphasis from energy carriers to energy products, improving insights in the areas of saving energy and energy efficiency, changes in the company itself. These are the developments which will continue to influence the profession of energy consultant, according to the author. A brief impression is given of what the energy consultant can do in the year 2000

  18. Sixty-Year Career in Solar Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, C.

    2018-05-01

    This memoir reviews my academic career in solar physics for 60 years, including my research on non-LTE modeling, white-light flares, and small-scale solar activities. Through this narrative, the reader can catch a glimpse of the development of solar physics research in mainland China from scratch. In the end, some prospects for future development are given.

  19. PBL – Reflections after 10 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soler, José

    The poster describes course 34357 at DTU, where PBL has been used in the last 10 years. While the course responsibles where not aware initially that the used methodology was PBL, the poster describes the triggering idea for the initial taken choices, i.e. homogenize working methodologies...

  20. Beatrix Potter: A Hundred Years in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocargeanu, Dana; O'Connell, Eithne; McGillicuddy, Áine

    2016-01-01

    This year, 2016, marks the 150th anniversary of the birth of Beatrix Potter (1866-1943), the much-loved author and illustrator of children's books. Although translation has made a vital contribution to her international success, Potter's work remains relatively under-researched from a translation studies perspective. This article aims to provide a…