Paavola, J.; Eraenen, L. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social Psychology
In this report the potential psychosocial consequences of spent fuel disposal to inhabitants of a community are assessed on the basis of earlier research. In studying the situation, different interpretations and meanings given to nuclear power are considered. First, spent fuel disposal is studied as fear-arousing and consequently stressful situation. Psychosomatic effects of stress and coping strategies used by an individual are presented. Stress as a collective phenomenon and coping mechanisms available for a community are also assessed. Stress reactions caused by natural disasters and technological disasters are compared. Consequences of nuclear power plant accidents are reviewed, e.g. research done on the accident at Three Mile Island power plant. Reasons for the disorganising effect on a community caused by a technological disaster are compared to the altruistic community often seen after natural disasters. The potential reactions that a spent fuel disposal plant can arouse in inhabitants are evaluated. Both short-term and long-term reactions are evaluated as well as reactions under normal functioning, after an incident and as a consequence of an accident. Finally an evaluation of how the decision-making system and citizens` opportunity to influence the decision-making affect the experience of threat is expressed. As a conclusion we see that spent fuel disposal can arouse fear and stress in people. However, the level of the stress is probably low. The stress is at strongest at the time of the starting of the spent fuel disposal plant. With time people get used to the presence of the plant and the threat experienced gets smaller. (orig.) 63 refs.
The social impacts of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the point of view of the inhabitants. Interview research; Kaeytetyn ydinpolttoaineen loppusijoituksen sosiaaliset vaikutukset kuntalaisten naekoekulmasta. Haastattelututkimus
Viinikainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Centre for Urban and Regional Studies
The research studied the social impacts of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel by the means of qualitative methods. The principal research material consisted of 49 theme interviews carried out in four municipalities, Eurajoki, Kuhmo, Loviisa and Aeaenekoski, all of which have a candidate site for spent fuel disposal. The interviews covered residents living near the possible disposal site, local authorities from different sectors of the municipality, social workers, youth workers and teachers, local businesses, trade and other organisations as well as environmental and citizen movements. When considering the risk conceptions and worries over safety, a fairly consistent view on the safety of the different phases of the project can be identified in all the municipalities. The transportation of nuclear waste aroused definitely the most worries over safety, especially because of the danger of sabotage and traffic accidents. When considering the encapsulation stage` the interviews revealed that risks are associated with this stage because it entails a `human factor`: the treatment of a dangerous substance in a disposal site above ground is considered hazardous. When considering the time after the closing of the disposal system, an opinion could be formed on the basis of the interviews that a final disposal system in hard bedrock would probably perform adequately in the short term but there can be no certain knowledge of risks in the long term. Confidence or lack of confidence in the safety of the project appeared as the most important factor causing social impacts. As a summary of the results, it can be concluded that especially (1) familiarity of the risk and (2) the possibility that taking risks are advantageous to oneself increase the acceptability of the risk. These are also the factors which distinguish the municipalities with nuclear power plants (Loviisa and Eurajoki) from the other two municipalities. The fair allocation of risks as well as the division of advantages and disadvantages appear to be an essential matter affecting the acceptability and risk evaluation of the project. Almost all the interviewees were of the opinion that nuclear waste should be disposed where it is produced. The views on the effects of the project on the image, nature and pleasantness of the municipality and the opinions on the economic effects and the significance on the development of the municipality differed in each locality according to the local social situation, history and development prognosis. The final disposal issue brought about conflicts connected to values, interests as well as facts (in other words probable effects) in the municipalities. (orig.) 54 refs.
Laakso, S. [Seppo Laakso Urban Research (Finland)
The study deals with the economic effects of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel on the alternative location municipalities - Eurajoki, Kuhmo, Loviisa and Aeaenekoski - and their neighbouring areas (in Finland). The economic influence of the facility on industrials, employment, population, property markets, community structure and local public economics are analysed applying the approach of regional economics. The evaluation of the facility`s effects on employment is based on the input-output analysis. Both the direct and indirect effects of the construction and the functioning of the facility are taken into account in the analysis. According to the results the total increase in employment caused by the construction of the facility is about 350 persons annually, at national level. Some 150 persons of this are estimated to live in the wider region and 100-150 persons in the facility`s influence area consisting of the location municipality and neighbouring municipalities. This amount is reached at the top stage of construction (around the year 2018). At the production stage - after the year 2020 - the facility`s effects on employment will be concentrated significantly more on the location municipality and the rest of the influence area than on the rest of the country, compared with the construction stage. The estimated employment growth in the production stage is approximately 160 persons at national level of which 100-120 persons live in the candidate municipality and in the rest of the influence area. There is a direct link between local employment and population development. The growth of jobs attracts immigrants affecting the development of both the number and the structure of population. The facility`s effects on population development in the alternative location municipalities are analysed using comparative population forecasts based on demographic population projection methods. According to the results the job growth caused by the facility will increase the population in the candidate municipality by 100-200 persons, depending on the municipality. Relative to the total number of population this means a 1-2 percent growth compared with the alternative that the facility will not be located in the municipality. The increase of population caused by the facility has an effect on the demand for housing. The increased demand may cause a temporary growth in the housing prices and privately owned residential lots, as well as an increase in the construction of new houses and dwellings. The facility has also a significant influence on local public economics. It will pay property tax to the municipality. In addition, the employment and population growth caused by the facility increase the municipal income tax. On the other hand, the growth of tax income to the municipality will cause a cut in municipal grants from the central government. The increase of population caused by the facility also influences the demand and costs of local public services provided by the municipality. (orig.) 54 refs.
Information need about the safety of the final disposal of nuclear waste. Information receiver`s views in Eurajoki, Kuhmo and Aeaenekoski municipalities; Tiedontarve ydinjaetteen loppusijoituksen turvallisuudesta. Vastaanottajan naekoekulmia Eurajoella, Kuhmossa ja Aeaenekoskella
The study analyses the public`s information need about the safety issues related to the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel generated by the Finnish nuclear power stations. Locals in three municipalities that are studied as possible sites for final disposal were interviewed for the study. Earlier studies made in Finland had indicated that the public`s knowledge about safety issues related to the final disposal was almost opposite to the findings of the natural sciences. Also, the public had expressed a wish to receive more information from the safety authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). This study therefore had two basic objectives: To find out what kind of safety information the locals need and what the safety authority`s role could be in providing information. The main results show interest and need especially for information concerning the disposal phases taking place on the ground level, such as nuclear waste transportation and encapsulation. Also, the interviews show a clear need and desire for an impartial actor such as STUK in the information and communication process. (author) (107 refs.).