Sample records for yao wei yuan

  1. His Excellency Professor Dr Che-Ho Wei, Chairman, National Science Council Executive Yuan, Republic of China

    Patrice Loïez


    Photo 01: Professor Dr. Che-Ho Wei signing the Guest Book with CERN Director-General, L. Maiani. Photo 02: Professor Dr. Che-Ho Wei. Photo 03::Professor Dr. Che-Ho Wei shaking hands with CERN Director-General, L. Maiani.

  2. Herb-Drug Pharmacokinetic Interaction of a Traditional Chinese Medicine Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San with 5-Fluorouracil in the Blood and Brain of Rat Using Microdialysis

    Meng-Hsuan Chiang


    Full Text Available According to a survey from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS is the most popular Chinese medicine for cancer patients in Taiwan. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU is a general anticancer drug for the chemotherapy. To investigate the herb-drug interaction of JWXYS on pharmacokinetics of 5-FU, a microdialysis technique coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography system was used to monitor 5-FU in rat blood and brain. Rats were divided into four parallel groups, one of which was treated with 5-FU (100 mg/kg, i.v. alone and the remaining three groups were pretreated with a different dose of JWXYS (600, 1200, or 2400 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days followed by a combination with 5-FU. This study demonstrates that 5-FU with JWXYS (600 mg/kg/day or 1200 mg/kg/day has no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of 5-FU in the blood and brain. However, JWXYS (2400 mg/kg/day coadministered with 5-FU extends the elimination half-life and increases the volume of distribution of 5-FU in the blood. The elimination half-life of 5-FU in the brain for the pretreatment group with 2400 mg/kg/day of JWXYS is significantly longer than that for the group treated with 5-FU alone and also reduces the clearance. This study provides practical dosage information for clinical practice and proves the safety of 5-FU coadministered with JWXYS.

  3. Herb-Drug Pharmacokinetic Interaction of a Traditional Chinese Medicine Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San with 5-Fluorouracil in the Blood and Brain of Rat Using Microdialysis

    Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Chang, Li-Wen; Wang, Ju-Wen; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu


    According to a survey from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS) is the most popular Chinese medicine for cancer patients in Taiwan. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a general anticancer drug for the chemotherapy. To investigate the herb-drug interaction of JWXYS on pharmacokinetics of 5-FU, a microdialysis technique coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography system was used to monitor 5-FU in rat blood and brain. Rats were divided into four parallel groups, one of which was treated with 5-FU (100 mg/kg, i.v.) alone and the remaining three groups were pretreated with a different dose of JWXYS (600, 1200, or 2400 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days) followed by a combination with 5-FU. This study demonstrates that 5-FU with JWXYS (600 mg/kg/day or 1200 mg/kg/day) has no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of 5-FU in the blood and brain. However, JWXYS (2400 mg/kg/day) coadministered with 5-FU extends the elimination half-life and increases the volume of distribution of 5-FU in the blood. The elimination half-life of 5-FU in the brain for the pretreatment group with 2400 mg/kg/day of JWXYS is significantly longer than that for the group treated with 5-FU alone and also reduces the clearance. This study provides practical dosage information for clinical practice and proves the safety of 5-FU coadministered with JWXYS. PMID:25861367

  4. Master QingYuanWei-xin’ s Three Phase Theory about Meditation%论青源惟信见山见水参禅三境界



    The Zen meditation people are very diligent in their pursuit of the highest State of their bodies and thoughts.It is very hard in the beginning.Then you must try your best to practice how to achieve Moksha.Finally you may succeed.That’ s what we mention it as more and more complex levels in the process of self -cultivation and meditation.In order to achieving Moksha , you must trust the zen theory absolutely and do all you could to a-chieve your goal in stead of practicing meditation casually and being content with a little bit of achievement.QingYuanWeiXin ’ s three phase theory about meditation correlated with Master Huineng ’ s satori for three times.All of them can help those who practice zen in order to achieve Moksha.%禅者抉择身心,孜孜切切,始之难入,中之做功夫,终之廓然开朗,所谓关外有关,天外有天。最惧了草而事,轻忽而行,可退可休,而得少为足;最须死心信受,疾驱长驰,殚精竭神,不退不休,而破重重幽关。青源惟信见山三阶段与六祖惠能之三次“悟”互照互应,其皆能激发学人疑情,使学人遍得一切深浅,而登解脱自在之门。

  5. 汪绂《医林纂要探源》的整理研究%The Collecting and Studying of Wang Fu's "YiLing CuanYao TanYuan"

    王甜; 江凌圳


    [目的]对清代名家汪绂及著作《医林纂要探源》进行系统的整理研究。[方法]应用文献整理方法,对汪绂的生平、《医林纂要探源》版本进行考证,对其治学理念、学术思想进行研究评述。对《医林纂要探源》的作者、版本和主要内容进行了系统研究。[结果]汪绂为婺源段莘人,东南名儒,生平坎坷,并常识渊博,精通医药。虽未从医,但授学著书,读书细致,治学严谨,共撰写30多种书稿。《医林纂要探源》为其医学代表作,集诸家医书分类编辑而成,现存两个清刻本和一个清抄本,其中最早的是婺源和源单氏刻本,遗经堂藏板。全书以医源为先导,以中药、方剂为重心,而推《素》《灵》微言为纲领,循叙人体病变为正宗,对中医基础理论和疾病辨证论治作了全面而深刻的阐述[结论]对汪绂及其著作《医林纂要探源》系统的整理研究有重要的文献价值,汪绂细致严谨、引经据典、博采众长的治学理念和作风值得后世继承和发扬。%Objective]Collecting and studying Wang Fu and his book "YiLing CuanYao TanYuan" systematically. [Method]Literature research on Wang Fu's life and the versions of"YiLing CuanYao TanYuan", reviewing his concept of study and academic thoughts. [Result]Confucian Wang Fu wrote more than 30 manuscripts, his medical masterpiece“YiLing CuanYao TanYuan", existing versions of two Qing printed editions and one Qing transcript, guided by medical source, centered on traditional Chinese medicine and prescription, accounted for human disease, made a comprehensive and profound elaboration on the basic theory of TCM.The recipes and traditional Chinese medicine of this book have clinical significance . [Conclusion]The collecting and studying have important literature value. These are worthy of our future generations to inherit and carry forward.

  6. Yao Women Singers


    The Yao nationality, with a population of 2.13 million, has its own language. Due to a long history of contact with the Han and Zhuang nationalities, most Yao people also speak the Han and Zhuang languages. The Yao nationality has no written script.The Yao have settled mainly in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. and Hunan, Yunnan, Guangdong and Guizhou Provinces. The areas they live in boast beautiful mountains dotted with bamboo trees and pine forests. The Yao are divided into many branches such as "Pan Yao". "Guoshan Yao". "White-trousers Yao", and "Red-trousers Yao". Each group has distinctive dwellings, clothing, and customs.The Yao nationality is one with strong cultural traditions. Among the many folk books, the historic documents most cherished by the Yao are the Canonization of Guoshan and the Ode to King Pan. The former tells the Yao’s history and the latter, over 3.000 lines long, depicts how the Yao ancestors created the nationality and how the objects in the world came into being.The col

  7. An Investigation into and Explanation of the Cuisine Knife Skills and Cooking Techniques in the Mongolian Yuan Place- Taking Yin Shan Zheng Yao as an Example%蒙元宫廷烹饪刀工与烹饪方法考释*--以《饮膳正要》为例

    王猛; 仪德刚


    对成书于14世纪30年代由元朝饮膳太医忽思慧编撰《饮膳正要》记载的烹饪刀工和烹饪方法进行了详实考究,并对蕴藏在烹饪刀工和烹饪方法在实际操作过程中呈现出的力学知识和烹饪知识进行分析和说明,指出部分蒙古族宫廷食品及其制作技艺与当前蒙古族保留下来的食品及其制作技艺存在较大程度的关联性和沿袭关系。%Through an investigation and research on the book Yin shan zheng yao written by imperial dietary doctor HuSi hui in the 1330s,and after making an analysis and explanation of the mechanics and cooking knowledge in practical operation ,the author concluded that the cuisine knife and cooking skills preserved in the present Mongolian district is closely connected and inherited from that of the Mongalian yuan palace.



    @@ Professor Zhen YAO, Ph.D., a distinguished cell biologist and a Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,Editor-in-Chief of Cell Research, passed away at 9:55 am on November 4th, 2005 in Shanghai at the age of 90. He is survived by his wife, Jing DING, his son Li Xing YAO,and granddaughter, Qin Yi YAO.



      Professor Zhen YAO, Ph.D., a distinguished cell biologist and a Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,Editor-in-Chief of Cell Research, passed away at 9:55 am on November 4th, 2005 in Shanghai at the age of 90. He is survived by his wife, Jing DING, his son Li Xing YAO,and granddaughter, Qin Yi YAO.……

  10. 姚兰的穷爸爸%Yao Lan's Poor Father



    @@ When Yao Lan was born, her parents were both working in a factory that produced newsprint paper. The paper from the factory was considered good quality and all the workers enjoyed a fairly prosperous( 富裕的 ) lifestyle, not that they were rich. They were really only comfortable, but much more than most of their counterparts(对应的人) in other factories. So, when Yao Lan came along, Yao Long, her father and An Ying, her mother were both very happy. Yao Lan's father and mother each earned three hundred yuan and in the early eighties that amount went a long way. They knew they could take good care of their daughter and provide her a decent upbringing(抚育).

  11. On Yao's method of translation

    Liu, X.; Hoede, C.


    Machine Translation, i.e., translating one kind of natural language to another kind of natural language by using a computer system, is a very important research branch in Artificial Intelligence. Yao developed a method of translation that he called ``Lexical-Semantic Driven". In his system he introd

  12. Spotlight on the Yuan

    Wang; Jun


    The yuan reached yet another milestone on October 8 when the first phase of the Cross-Border Interbank Payment System(ClPS) was launched in Shanghai. The system, which provides capital settlement and clearing services for cross-border yuan transactions for financial institutions, will enhance the efficiency of the yuan's cross-border settlement and pro- mote its global use, said Fan Yifei, Vice Governor of the People's Bank of China (PBC), the court- trys central bank

  13. Yelling About Yuan


    A rising yuan may appease foreign nations,but it won’t help all Chinese boats float Many nations trading with China should be pleased—this coun-try’s currency, the renminbi (RMB), is rising, and this could help ease their own deficits.

  14. The Educational Process of Yao Nationality



    As an important theory and practical problem,“educational process”draws double concerns both from educational the-ory and practice. Yao nationality of China is a constantly migratory minority group without its own words, However ,relying on its own unique educational process,this minority maintain its own distinctive national characteristics and keep a strong ethical identity.

  15. To Enrich Chinese Culture and to Enhance National Spirit——From an Interview with Yao Meiliang


    LOVING one‘s hometownand cherishing the emo- tions it kindles are part ofthe psychology of Chinese peo- pie.Patriotic overseas Chineseare always thinking about theirhometowns and their ancestracountry.Overseas ancestors,represented by Chen Jiageng,made great contributions towardschanging the backwardness of their motherland.At presentnew-generation overseas Chineseare following their ancestors anddevoting themselves to the re-surgence of the Chinese nation.Yao Meiliang,chairman of theboard of the Hongkong NanYuan Yin Fang CorporationGroup,is an outstanding representative among them.

  16. The Yao Muslims : religion and social change in southern Malawi

    Thorold, Alan Peter Hereward


    The African Muslim minority in Malawi has been identified with one particular linguistic group, the Yao. The dissertation begins with the problem of their conversion and adherence to Islam in the face of seemingly adverse circumstances. In exploring-solutions to this problem the emergence of a Yao identity is outlined and the politics of conversion are described. The narrative then moves on to the transformations of the Yao Muslims in the hundred years since their convers...

  17. Yao Ming's Retirement from the NBA



    China's towering basketball star Yao Ming has announced his decision to retire from the National Basketball Association after a series of injuries made it impossible for him to continue to compete. Yao Ming says he's not leaving basketball, however, and will continue to work for his former Chinese team, the Shanghai Sharks as well as with his charity group the Yao Foundation.

  18. New and improved spanning ratios for Yao graphs

    Barba, Luis; Bose, Prosenjit; Damian, Mirela


    For a set of points in the plane and a fixed integer κ > 0, the Yao graph Yκ partitions the space around each point into κ equiangular cones of angle θ = 2π/κ, and connects each point to a nearest neighbor in each cone. It is known for all Yao graphs, with the sole exception of Y5, whether or not...

  19. [The classification method of syndromes in the Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand Gold)].

    Shen, Xiaowei; Zheng, Wenjie; Ma, Mingyue; Zhang, Zhibin


    Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand Gold) epitomizes the medical achievements of the Tang Dynasty with an extensive coverage. The classification method of syndromes in this book is derived from Nei jing (Inner Canon), Nan jing (Classic of Questioning), Shang han za bing lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic and Miscellaneous Diseases), Zhu bing yuan hou lun (General Treatise on Causes and Manifestations of All Diseases), and enlightens the later generation with many unique characteristics, reflecting the mature recognition of the diseases in the contemporary clinical medicine from one side. It is still of great significance for understanding the diseases and exploring its pathogenesis even today.

  20. Simulating Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems Using Yao

    Rigaut, François; Van Dam, Marcos


    Adaptive Optics systems are at the heart of the coming Extremely Large Telescopes generation. Given the importance, complexity and required advances of these systems, being able to simulate them faithfully is key to their success, and thus to the success of the ELTs. The type of systems envisioned to be built for the ELTs cover most of the AO breeds, from NGS AO to multiple guide star Ground Layer, Laser Tomography and Multi-Conjugate AO systems, with typically a few thousand actuators. This represents a large step up from the current generation of AO systems, and accordingly a challenge for existing AO simulation packages. This is especially true as, in the past years, computer power has not been following Moore's law in its most common understanding; CPU clocks are hovering at about 3GHz. Although the use of super computers is a possible solution to run these simulations, being able to use smaller machines has obvious advantages: cost, access, environmental issues. By using optimised code in an already proven AO simulation platform, we were able to run complex ELT AO simulations on very modest machines, including laptops. The platform is YAO. In this paper, we describe YAO, its architecture, its capabilities, the ELT-specific challenges and optimisations, and finally its performance. As an example, execution speed ranges from 5 iterations per second for a 6 LGS 60x60 subapertures Shack-Hartmann Wavefront sensor Laser Tomography AO system (including full physical image formation and detector characteristics) up to over 30 iterations/s for a single NGS AO system.

  1. China Kitchen Cabinet King——Yao Liangsong Concerning Yao Liangsong


    @@ Yao Liangsong,Board Chairman of Guangzhou Optima Kitchen Enterprise Co.,Ltd.,graduated from Beijing University of Aeronautics in 1985.In 1988,he quit his leisure teacher job and tried to organize some business.After running a restaurant,being a salesman,establishing a medical instrument company,he successfully set up in kitchen cabint market,founded the kitchen cabinet brand"Optima",became a forerunner in industrialized kitchen cabinet industry,and the pace-setter of China kitchen cabinet industry.He is called"China Kitchen Cabinet King"

  2. Is China Ready for Full Yuan Convertibility?


    Although China has made headway in reforming the exchange rate regime of its currency,the yuan,and expanding the use of it in cross-border trade during the past year,the yuan is far from fully convertible.Huang Yiping,a professor at the National School of Development of Peking University,said in an article for Beijing Review that China has the conditions for capital account liberalization and should strive for basic convertibility within five years. Edited excerpts follow

  3. Oil Giants Profit 146b Yuan in First Half


    The first-half net profit of the three leading oil companies in China - PetroChina, Sinopec and CNOOC Ltd. - totaled 146 billion yuan, averaging at 800 million yuan a day. PetroChina's profit falls below estimate The net income of PetroChina in the first six months rose 1 percent to 66 billion yuan, missing analysts'estimates. PetroChina's refining business swung to a loss of 23.4 billion yuan from a profit of 3 billion yuan a year earlier, as the cost of processing crude into fuels climbed 3.1 percent to 138.75 yuan a ton.

  4. 78 FR 16680 - Shu Bei Yuan: Debarment Order


    ... countries other than China, including South Korea, when in fact Ms. Yuan knew that the honey originated from China. Between August and November 2005, Ms. Yuan and others caused the fraudulent import and entry into.... The purpose of Ms. Yuan's scheme was to import, enter, and sell Chinese-origin honey into the...

  5. 500 Million Yuan Textile Machinery Project Located in Laiyang


    Textile machinery project with 500 million Yuan investment was formally signed in Yantai Laiyang Development Zone on November 15, which is the l Oth project in the development zone with more than 100 million Yuan investment, and the 5th project in the development zone with more than 500 million Yuan investment.

  6. Obituary: Chi Yuan (1937-2008)

    Ho, Paul


    Chi Yuan graduated from the National Taiwan University in1959, and received his Masters of Science degree from the University of Florida in 1962, and his Doctor of Philosophy from the University of Michigan in 1966. He was a postdoctoral fellow with Professor C.C. Lin at MIT for three years, before taking his faculty post at the City College of New York in 1969. He attained full professorship at CCNY in 1981. From 1994-1996, Chi returned to Taiwan as Director of the newly found Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA). From 1997-2002, he was the recipient of an Outstanding Scholar Award, reserved for the most distinguished scientists employed in Taiwan. Chi retired from ASIAA in 2007, but continued to be active in his research during his two-year fight with brain cancer. Chi Yuan made his greatest impact with his work on the density-wave theory for spiral arm structures in galaxies, with C.C. Lin and Frank Shu. His early work elucidated the observational tests of density-wave theory, and the effects of magnetic fields in galactic shocks. In the 1980s, Chi Yuan worked on spiral density waves in Saturn's rings. In the past two decades, Chi Yuan concentrated on the problem of barred and spiral structures in the nuclei of galaxies, with their implications for fueling the central supermassive black holes. He also worked on the problem of the migration of giant extrasolar planets in their solar disks. These studies were made possible by his establishment of a program on computational fluid dynamics, which became one of the key initiatives in theory at the ASIAA. Among his academic records, two contributions are particularly notable. First, with Typhoon Lee, Fred Lo, and Frank Shu, Chi Yuan founded the ASIAA in order to stimulate the growth of astronomy in Taiwan. Second, and perhaps his greatest influence, has been his training and mentoring of a great number of students in astrophysics, especially for the last 20 years in Taiwan. Today, astronomy

  7. World Could Pay For Yuan Appreciation


    Debating whether China’s yuan is undervalued is a hot topic of conversation between China and its major trading partners, particularly the United States, which has a large trade deficit with China. Soon after the Second Meeting of the China-U.S. Strategic Economic Dialogue focused on this topic in May, some U.S. senators proposed a bill that is widely recog- nized as aiming to force the acceleration of appreciation of the yuan. But Professor Liu Zhibiao, Dean of the School of Economics of Nanjing University, points out one salient fact: With the increase of foreign invest- ment and rising level of trade openness, China is contributing more and more to the world’s economic growth, with the benefits of this growth being shared by the whole world. Therefore, the cost of sharp appreciation in the value of the Chinese currency will exert impact on the whole world, he says.

  8. On official corruption in the Yuan dynasty

    Li Zhi'an


    The vicious cycle of official corruption got worse unprecedent edly in the Yuan dynasty (ca.1279-1368).Corrupt officials at all levels from the local to the central governments were "extremely shameless and greedy."Even many court ministers got involved in the vicious cycle of corruption.The top officialdom was polluted and degenerated badly because the Mongolian nobles made their "Sauqaf" (taking gifts) tradition and the Semu,both official and merchant groups,took bribes as a way to amass wealth.Although the Mongol Yuan rulers did make a set of anti-corruption policies such as detailed rules of censorship and inspection relating to corruption crimes,these didn't work well.Of all the reasons of the Yuan official corruption,the old Mongolian steppe traditions play the most important role,which formed the context for the low salary,improper selection and poor quality of the officials and of bending the law wrongly to pardon official misconduct.

  9. [Study on Chinese Acup-Mox Medicine by YAO Tianmin].

    Li, Jianrong; Huang, Longxiang; Du, Guangzhong; Gang, Weijuan


    The characteristics and academic thoughts of Chinese Acup-Mox Medicine written by YAO Tianmin during the Republic of China was studied and analyzed in this paper. The academic thoughts of this book were confluence of Chinese and western knowledge, respecting for classics culture but not stubborn, using western science and medicine without worshiping it. The main characteristics were the scientific meridian-acupoint theory, extensive acupoint selection, "qie" method of acupuncture, high recommendation on medicated thread and ironing moxibustion, reinforcing and reducing based on the meridian direction in infantile massage, using acupuncture and cream formula for surgical treatment, and creating his own acupuncture codes.

  10. Mao Was My Neighbour: Yao Zhongda and the "Opening" of Chinese Adult Education

    Boshier, Roger


    After Deng Xiaoping's 1978 reform and opening, foreigners had a chance to see adult education in China. As a result, many met Yao Zhongda, Chief of the Bureau of Workers' and Peasants Education. From 1921 onwards, adult education has been a vital corollary of Communist revolution. Although Yao's biography was extremely relevant to what foreigners…

  11. 论《金匮要略》辨证方法的多样性%Variety of syndrome differentiation strategies of Jin Gui Yao Lue

    刘鑫源; 王昀; 赵进喜


    Jin Gui Yao Lue ( Synopsis Golden Chamber) written by ZHANG Zhong-jing, consists of the comprehensive schemes of the principles, methods, formulas and medicinals, as well as syndrome differ-entiation strategies. However, when referring to Jin Gui Yao Lue ( Synopsis Golden Chamber ) , the practitioners always think of the visceral-meridian syndrome differentiation. Actually, there are other various syndrome differentiation strategies, such as syndrome differentiations of the six meridians, the eight principal, constitution-disease-pattern, the location of disease, the different levels or stages, the cause of disease, and the qi, blood, body-fluid. These syndrome differentiation strategies not only set a typical model for later ages but also enlighten later generations to found the more advanced and practical strategies, including triple-jiao syndrome differentiation, wei-qi-ying-xue ( defence-qi-nutrient-blood ) syndrome differentiation, constitution syndrome differentiation and so on. Moreover, they make significant contributions to complete the system of syndrome differentiation in traditional Chinese medicine.%张仲景所著《金匮要略》蕴含了丰富多样的辨证方法,然而一般只提到脏腑经络辨证,实际上,在《金匮要略》中,亦有三阴三阳辨证、八纲辨证、辨体质—辨病—辨证三位一体辨病模式、部位辨证、分阶段—分层次—分期辨证、病因辨证、气血津液辨证等多种辨证方法。

  12. China Institute Proposes Weaker Yuan to Boost Growth


    @@ China should actively guide the yuan's exchange rate to about 6.93 against the dollar to help maintain economic growth and bolster employment, according to a report by the Ministry of Finance's research institute.

  13. CEPA and interrelationship between Chinese yuan and Hong Kong dollar


    In order to explore the interrelated impacts of the economical communications between China and Hong Kong SAR, especially after the closer economic partnership arrangement (CEPA) and the Chinese yuan offshore financial business in Hong Kong banks in 2004, the exchange rates of the Chinese yuan and the Hong Kong dollar are investigated as well-performing market signals that should reflect this historical transformation. With vector autoregressive models (VAR), the Johansen cointegration test and the Granger ...

  14. Can Yuan Appreciation Solve U.S.Problems?

    Chen Wen; Liu Yunyun


    @@ At The Heritage Foundation seminar in Washington,D.C.,a group of American experts on China brainstormed how appreciating the Chinese currency(yuan)can change the high unemployment situation now facing the United States.Beijing Review conducted exclusive interviews with three of the U.S.experts on the yuan issue after the seminar.The experts collectively agreed a trade war would be a zero-sum game for both countries.Edited excerpts follow:

  15. 6.4 Billion Yuan for NSFC Projects in 2008


    @@ NSFC President Prof.Chen Yiyu announced at NSFC's Sixth Plenary Session of the General Assembly that a budget of 53.59 billon yuan,which is an increased of 25% to that of last year,was approved by the government for the fiscal year 2008.In practice,NSFC,based on the demand of national budgeting reform and the development of basic research,will arrange a funding plan of 6.4 billion yuan.

  16. Statistical properties of the yuan exchange rate index

    Wang, Dong-Hua; Yu, Xiao-Wen; Suo, Yuan-Yuan


    We choice the yuan exchange rate index based on a basket of currencies as the effective exchange rate of the yuan and investigate the statistical properties of the yuan exchange rate index after China's exchange rate system reform on the 21st July 2005. After dividing the time series into two parts according to the change in the yuan exchange rate regime in July 2008, we compare the statistical properties of the yuan exchange rate index during these two periods. We find that the distribution of the two return series has the exponential form. We also perform the detrending moving average analysis (DMA) and the multifractal detrending moving average analysis (MFDMA). The two periods possess different degrees of long-range correlations, and the multifractal nature is also unveiled in these two time series. Significant difference is found in the scaling exponents τ(q) and singularity spectra f(α) of the two periods obtained from the MFDMA analysis. Besides, in order to detect the sources of multifractality, shuffling and phase randomization procedures are applied to destroy the long-range temporal correlation and fat-tailed distribution of the yuan exchange rate index respectively. We find that the fat-tailedness plays a critical role in the sources of multifractality in the first period, while the long memory is the major cause in the second period. The results suggest that the change in China's exchange rate regime in July 2008 gives rise to the different multifractal properties of the yuan exchange rate index in these two periods, and thus has an effect on the effective exchange rate of the yuan after the exchange rate reform on the 21st July 2005.

  17. On the Evolution of Yuan Family in the Wuyue Kingdom%吴越国元氏家族演进述论



    Wei Quanfeng and Wei Zaichang were the persons who owned force in the local. They occupied by force Fu Zhou and Xin Zhou in the chaotic period of late Tang Dynasty and maintained domination for more than twenty years through marriages with regional Warlords and Superior separatist forces. In the early of Five Dynasties,the Wei brothers were defeated by the Southern Tang Dynasty in the tangle warfares among warlords. Then Wei Zaichang went to the Wuyue Kingdom for shelter. Since then, his descendants changed their surname to Yuan and gradually gave upmilitary career for intellectual pursuits. Relying heavly on Wuyue Kingdom, the family achieved family transformation. Since Song Dynasty, a lot of talented people have emerged from the family.%危全讽、危仔倡原为地方“有武力者”,乘唐末混战依靠武力据抚、信二州,通过与地方实力派及上级割据势力联姻的方式维持统治二十余年。五代初,危氏兄弟在军阀混战中败于南唐,危仔倡投奔吴越国,子辈改姓为元,家族成员逐步由武转文,并依靠吴越王权,渐次完成家族转型。入宋以来更是人才荟萃。

  18. On MAO Zedong’s Manuscript Guiguo Yao·Jinxiao Yue%关于毛泽东手迹《归国谣·今宵月》的探讨



    1937年,毛泽东在延安亲笔书写并送给了著名作家丁玲三首诗词,《归国谣·今宵月》为其一,但该词系何人何时何地所作尚无定论。笔者认为该词是毛泽东于1917年夏天游学期间,在宁乡沩山密印寺所作。这首词赞美了月色下的沩山,也含蓄地表达了作者在此顿悟救国救民的大道理后开朗的心情。%In 1937,MAO Zedong wrote three poetries by himself in Yan’an and gave them to the famous writer DING Ling.One of these poetries is Guigong Yao·Jinxiao Yue;however,it is not certain about its creator,creation time and location yet.The writer be-lieves that this poetry was created by MAO Zedong at Miyin Temple in Wei Mountain,Ningxiang in 1917 during his travel study in summer.This poetry extolled the Wei Mountain in the moonlight,and also implicitly expressed his good mood after obtaining the epiph-any of saving our country and people there.

  19. Liu Fang Yuan at The Huntington——An Overview

    (USA)Laurie Sowd


    Liu Fang Yuan is a classical Chinese Garden, the Garden of Flowing Fragrance, a most remarkable project in Huntington. This project was conceived by James Folsom. It is an international business venture, complex construction project, unique China-US collaboration, and center of cultural memory. Inspired by the centuries-old Chinese tradition of private gardens, Liu Fang Yuan combines the scenic beauty of nature with the expressiveness of literature to give deeper meaning to the landscape. True to the authentic nature of a Chinese garden, the design respects the site. It extends to adapting some of the traditional elements of Chinese garden design to meet local needs for seismic safety and wheelchair accessibility. Liu Fang Yuan is the only truly seasonal garden at the Huntington, emphasizing and symbolizing the progression of winter, spring, summer, and autumn. The visitor experiences more than the visual realm. The garden's name, Liu Fang Yuan, has bolh literal and symbolic meanings refer to the scent of flowers and trees, also echoes the name of famed Ming dynasty painter Li Liufang. Liu Fang Yuan is truly a microcosm of The Huntington, bringing together botany, art and literature in a garden that will serve as a place of cultural memory and center for education about one of the great humanities traditions of the world.

  20. Investigation on Qiong yao shen shu (Qiongyao's Magical Book).

    Huang, L


    Written in about the period of late Yuan to early Ming dynasties, Qiongyao's Magical Book is attributed to a Taoist who was also conversant with acupunture art. By investigation, it is found that there are, at least, three books carrying the same title of Qiongyao's Magical Book, including a 3 volume Qiongyao's Magical Book now lost; a 3 - volume Qiongyao's Magical Book of Discovery (also called The Acupuncture Classic of Qiongyao the Immortal printed in the Ming dynasty, which is entirely different from the previous one and is an apocrypha; and a 4 - volume Qiongyao's Magical Book printed in the Qing dynasty also called Qiongyao's Great Collections of Magical Books wiich is a mixture of authentic and apocryphal texts in which 2 medical books irrelevant to the original are attached to the end of volume 3, with supplements by later writers intermingled in other volumes.

  1. The proof of the sufficient descent condition of the Wei-Yao-Liu conjugateg radient method under the strong Wolfe-Powell line search

    Hai Huang; Zengxin Wei


    @@ 1. Introduction The conjugate gradient (CG) method has played a special role for solving large-scale nonlinear optimization due to the simplicity of their iteration and their very low memory requirements. In fact, the CG method is not among the fastest or more robust optimization algorithms for nonlinear problems available today,but it remains very popular for engineers and mathematicians who are interested in solving large problems [16,17].

  2. A Program That Sold for 60 Million Yuan


    DURING a public bidding recently held by CCTV for one of its programs, the final bid of 65.6 million yuan - 2.3 times its base price, caused a sensation.At a time when TV occupies a dominant position, public bidding for prime-time commercials is common. As the first ever held by CCTV for a single TV pro-

  3. 《奎章政要》真伪及虞、揭关系辨析%The Authenticity of Kuizhang Zheng Yao and the Relationship between Yu Ji and Jie Xisi



      揭斯著《奎章政要》一书的说法,最早见于元末陶宗仪《辍耕录》“奎章政要”条。根据与揭斯同时的欧阳玄为揭斯写的墓志铭、黄蟳为揭斯写的神道碑可以确定,《奎章政要》是讹窜揭斯的《太平政要》所致。“奎章政要”条的描述逻辑乖谬,基本是杜撰,这与元季人士对虞集、揭斯才华的估定以及对他们的熟稔程度有关。人们以揭斯在《范先生诗序》中所提供的虞集关于“元诗四家”的诗评为导火索,对虞、揭关系的解读逐渐偏离事实,引发出许多讹谬。%The earliest mention of Jie Xisi's writing of the book Kuizhang Zheng Yao(《奎章政要》) can be found in Tao Zong yi's Chuo Geng Lu(《辍耕录》). From Jie's epitaph written by his contem-porary Ouyang Xuan and the inscriptions on his tombstone written by Huang Jin,we can conclude that Kuizhang Zheng Yao was actually Jie's Taiping Zheng Yao(《太平政要》). That is to say,the entry of Jie's Kuizhang Zheng Yao in Chuo Geng Lu was invented by its author Tao Zongyi,which is against the fact and logic. Tao's invention is due to the fact that scholars in the late Yuan Dynasty misinterpreted the talents of and the relationship between Yu Ji and Jie Xisi,which gave rise to many misleading ac-counts in that regard. Their interpretation of the relationship between Yu and Jie is based on the shaky foundation of their misunderstanding of Jie's review of Yu's poems in Fanxiansheng Shi Xu(《范先生诗序》).

  4. [On Relation between Diabetes and Intestinal Flora from Theory of Pi-Wei].

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Guang; Wang, Ding-kun; Lu, Fu-er


    Diabetes is seriously hazards to human health and its pathogeneses are not clear. Recent studies show that the imbalance of intestinal flora and the development of diabetes are closely related. Appropriate bacteria can improve blood sugar disorder. Treating diabetes from the theory of Pi-Wei is effective. Regulating intestinal flora has become a new pathway for treating diabetes from the theory of Pi-Wei. On the basis of intestinal flora, authors discussed the treatment of diabetes from Pi and Wei.

  5. 瑶族药浴防治风湿病%Preventing and Treating Rheumatism by Yao Nationality Medicated Bath

    李拥军; 郭玉荣; 尹智功


    本研究从瑶族药浴的形成、分类、作用、注意事项及防治风湿病方面进行系统阐述,指出运用瑶族药浴防治风湿病是瑶医治未病思想的具体体现。%The formation, classification, function, notes of Yao nationality medicated bath and preventive treatment of rheumatism are illustrated systematically, preventing and treating rheumatism by Yao nationality medi-cated bath are the embodiment of the thinking of preventive treatment of disease in Yao medicine.

  6. Lu YaoS Works, Deeply Rooted in Loessland%浅析路遥作品中的黄土地情结



    黄色与红色构成了陕北文化的重要底色,黄土地也成为路遥小说中着力营构的文学意象。荒凉、苦焦并不是黄土地的真实内涵,她用干瘪的乳房哺育了世世代代的陕北人,为千千万万的如同路遥那样渴望改变命运,改变贫穷的有志青年提供不竭的动力,黄土地也用她那博大、宽广的胸怀接纳、抚慰着迷茫、失落的奋斗者。路遥在苦难中寻找出路,在失败中顽强崛起,在黄土地的沟峁拐梁里谱写着一曲曲凝重、悲怆的不屈之歌。%The colors of yellow and red constructed the crucial grounding color, loessland became the vital imago that Lu Yao went all out to establish in his novels. Desolation and misery is not the real connotation of the loessland, she fed up generations of northern Shaanxinese with her flaccid breasts and providing endless power for thousands of youth as LU Yao who longed to change fate and poverty, the loessland comforted and accepted the confused and lost strivers with her broad and giant mind. Lu Yao sought for outlet in the misery, erected in his failure and ultimately com- posed themes of tragedies in the ditches of loessland.

  7. An Incomplete Survey of Wang Yao's and Chen Pingyuan's Academic Research%沿着鲁迅的道路--对王瑶与陈平原之学术研究的不完全考察



    In the inheritance and development of Lu Xun's academic research achievements, Wang Yao and Chen Pingyuan are prominent representatives, for the studies on the setup of the modern Chinese academic system initiated by Wang Yao and carried forward by Chen Pingyuan has once exerted a greater influence on relevant re-searches in the late 20th century. In Scholars' Lives in Medieval Times can be discerned not only Lu Xun's impact on Wang Yao regarding Lu Xun's idea of the literary creation and viewpoints of scholars in Wei and Jin dynasties but also Wang Yao's expansion and innovation on the basis of relevant studies on Lu Xun. In the wake of Wang Yao, Chen Pingyuan has studied the history of the 20th-century Chinese novels and surveyed the modern academic history, thus having shown his strong consciousness of the academic history and his perspective as a historian. Mo-reover, based on his inheritance of Lu Xun's view on writing the literary history, Chen Pingyuan has proposed his own theoretical supposition on writing the modern literary history and has made some beneficial attempt. Chen will, in time, have more success in this aspect.%在承继和发展鲁迅的学术研究成果方面,王瑶和陈平原师生二人是较为突出的代表,由王瑶首倡并由陈平原继之的有关中国现代学术体系建立的研究,曾对20世纪末的相关研究产生了较大影响。在《中古文人生活》中,不仅可见王瑶所受鲁迅有关魏晋文人创作及思想观点的影响,更可发见王瑶在鲁迅相关研究基础上的拓展与创新。王瑶之后,陈平原所作有关20世纪中国小说史的研究以及关于现代学术史的考察等,都显示出其较强的学术史意识和史家眼光,他本人也在承继鲁迅的文学史撰写理念基础上,对现代的文学史书写提出了自己的理论构想并作出有益的尝试。假以时日,他当能在这方面有更大的成就。

  8. 山田业广《千金要方读书记》初探%Preliminary study on Yamada's Qian jin yao fang du shu ji (Reading Notes of Essential Recipes Worth A Thousand Gold)



    Yamada was a Japanese famous textology expert and bibliographer of Kampo medicine in the middle and late Edo period, one of his representative works is Qian jin yao fang du shu ji ( Reading Notes of Essential Recipes Worth A Thousand Gold), which was completed after he studied Qian jia yao fang (Essential Recipes Worth A Thousand Gold) , with the Song edition of Edo medical library as the master text it check against the Yuan edition, Zbengde edition, Wanli edition, Jiajing edition and handcopied genuine version. The above editions were the best contemporary version even until today, with high literature values. Yamada made a perfect texture research on Qian jin yaofang with familiar textology knowledge so as to cor-rect mistakes, elaborate annotations and judge common words. Unfortunately, there were seldom new ideas and several checked mistakes and wrong annotations.%山田业广是江户中末期日本著名的汉方医学考据学专家、文献学家,是其代表著作之一.山田业广以江户医学馆模刻宋版作为底本,取元刊本、正德本、万历本、嘉靖本、手抄真本等为校本,对进行研究并完成的撰写.以上几种版本是当时乃至现在所存之最善者,具有较高的文献价值.山田业广在中运用熟稔的考据学知识,对进行精良的考证,纠正讹误、阐发文义、判断俗字等方面为其所得;但新颖见解较少,并存在误校误训之处.

  9. 唐传奇研究的新创获--评李军《〈甘泽谣〉评注》%A Review of Li Jun’s Annotations of Gan Ze Yao



    Li Jun is a young scholar active in the study of ancient Chinese literature,esp.the legend of the Tang Dynasty and the frontier literature and history for the past few years.Recently,Li’s Annota-tions of Gan Ze Yao has been published by China Social Sciences Press,which is a positive impetus to the study of the Tang legend as well as the classical Chinese novels.In his book,Li Jun has made a systematic and focused study of Gan Ze Yao ,a legend anthology by Yuan Xiao,a writer in the late Tang Dynasty, and has annotated each piece of writing minutely and carefully,thereby displaying the unique value and status of the book.%李军是近年来活跃于古代文学尤其是唐传奇、边疆文史研究方面的青年学者。最近,他的《〈甘泽谣〉评注》一书由中国社会科学出版社出版,这对唐传奇乃至中国古典小说的研究是一个积极的推进。该书对晚唐作家袁郊的传奇集《甘泽谣》进行了系统、集中的研究,并对其中每篇作品进行了详细、精审的校注,充分彰显了其独特的价值与地位。

  10. 论林则徐与魏源的经世思想%On the Social Thoughts of Lin Zexu and Wei Yuan




  11. Wei Yuan,Lin Zexu and Hai Guo Tu Zhi%魏源、林则徐与《海国图志》




  12. Secure multi-party computation solution to Yao's millionaires' problem based on set-inclusion

    LI Shundong; DAI Yiqi; YOU Qiyou


    Secure multi-party computation is a focus of international cryptography in recent years. Protocols for Yao's millionaires' problem have become an important building block of many secure multi-party computation protocols. Their efficiency are crucial to the efficiency of many secure multi-party computation protocols. Unfortunately, known protocols for Yao's millionaires' problem have high computational complexity or communication complexity. In this study, based on the 1-out-of-m oblivious transfer and set-inclusion problem, we propose a new protocol to solve this problem. This new protocol is very efficient in terms of both computational and communication complexities. Its privacy-preserving property is also proved by simulation paradigm which is generally accepted in the study of secure multi-party computation. We also compare the information leakage of our new protocol and the known protocols.

  13. Yuan Longping-An Outstanding Technical Talent in China


    @@Acad. Yuan Longping, Director General of China National Hybrid Rice R & D Center and Honourable President of HAAS, is internationally recognized as the father of hybrid rice. He not only developed three lines for hybrid seed production but also developed the seed production technology. Hybrid rice is now planted on 15 million hectares or so in China, almost 50%of the country's total rice land. It has contributed greatly to the rice production increase in China. Hybrid rice technology is being adopted in other countries such as India , Vietnam,Philippines and Burma.

  14. Paper Money Management in Yuan Dynasty Recorded in Yuan Dianzhang%从《元典章》看元朝纸币管理

    毛良伟; 施继龙; 冯立昇


    In order to study the management system of paper money in Yuan Dynasty recorded in Yuan Dianzhang, we arranged and analyzed the edicts and rules about printing, publishing,and management of paper money released by Yuan government from Yuan Dianzhang, setting-up of the institution for paper money management, the bans of maintaining paper money method,and the management regulations of broken paper money, fake paper money, and altering paper money. This paper combs and summarizes the paper money management systems in Yuan Dynasty recorded in Yuan Dianzhang, which can provide references for later research on paper money in Yuan dynasty.%为探究《元典章》记载的元朝纸币管理制度,整理、分析了《元典章》有关元朝政府印刷、发行、管理纸币的诏令、规定,初步探讨了元朝纸币管理机构的设置、各种维护钞法的禁令以及对昏钞、伪钞、挑钞的管理。通过梳理和研究,总结了《元典章》记载的元朝纸币管理制度的特点,为研究元朝纸币者提供参考。

  15. A 500 Million Yuan of the Aluminum Production Project in Inner Mongolia has been Made


    <正>Jarud Banner,Tongliao,Inner Mongolia has recently signed a cooperation agreement on the aluminum hub production project with Zhejiang Jinfei Kaida Wheel Co.,Ltd.The project will be implemented in two phases with a total investment of 500 million yuan,of which 200 million yuan is for the Phase I project to be put

  16. Evaluation of the Cachazo-He-Yuan gauge amplitude

    Lam, C. S.; Yao, York-Peng


    The Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula for n -gluon scattering is known to give the same amplitude as the one obtained from Feynman diagrams, though the former contains neither vertices nor propagators explicitly. The equivalence was shown by indirect means, not by a direct evaluation of the (n -3 )-dimensional integral in the CHY formula. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how such a direct evaluation can be carried out. There are two basic difficulties in the calculation: how to handle the large number of terms in the reduced Pfaffian, and how to carry out the integrations in the presence of a σ dependence much more complicated than the Parke-Taylor form found in a CHY double-color scalar amplitude. We have solved both of these problems, and have formulated a method that can be applied to any n . Many examples are provided to illustrate these calculations.

  17. Chinese Yuan after Chinese Exchange Rate System Reform

    Eiji Ogawa; Michiru Sakane


    In this paper, the actual exchange rate policy conducted by the Chinese government after the Chinese exchange rate system reform on 21 July 2005 is investigated. Also, the long-run effect is investigated, including the Balassa-Samuelson effect on the Chinese yuan. It was found that the Chinese government generated a statistically significant but small change in exchange rate policy during the sample period until 25 January 2006. It was not identifted that the Chinese monetary authority is adopting the currency basket system because the change is too small in the economic sense. It is indicated that the Chinese government should take account of the productivity growth of countries composing the currency basket in order to operate a currency basket regime.

  18. The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy

    Ho, Paul T P; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Chung-Cheng; Chen, Ke-Jung; Chen, Ming-Tang; Han, Chih-Chiang; Ho, West M; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Ibanez-Romano, Fabiola; Jiang, Homin; Koch, Patrick M; Kubo, Derek Y; Li, Chao-Te; Lim, Jeremy; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Lo, Kwok-Yung; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Martin, Robert N; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Molnar, Sandor M; Ng, Kin-Wang; Nishioka, Hiroaki; O'Connell, Kevin E; Oshiro, Peter; Patt, Ferdinand; Raffin, Philippe; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wei, Tashun; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Chiueh, Tzi-Dar; Chiueh, Tzihong; Chu, Tah-Hsiung; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Hwang, W Y Pauchy; Liao, Yu-Wei; Lien, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wang, Huei; Wei, Ray-Ming; Yang, Chia-Hsiang; Kesteven, Michael; Kingsley, Jeff; Sinclair, Malcolm M; Wilson, Warwick; Birkinshaw, Mark; Liang, Haida; Lancaster, Katy; Park, Chan-Gyung; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B


    The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is the first interferometer dedicated to studying the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation at 3mm wavelength. The choice of 3mm is to minimize the contributions from foreground synchrotron radiation and Galactic dust emission. The initial configuration of seven 0.6m telescopes mounted on a 6-m hexapod platform, was dedicated in October 2006 on Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Scientific operations began with the detection of a number of clusters of galaxies via the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. We compare our data with Subaru weak lensing data in order to study the structure of dark matter. We also compare our data with X-ray data in order to derive the Hubble constant.

  19. The classification method of syndromes in the Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand Gold)%《备急千金要方》病证分类方法

    申晓伟; 郑文杰; 马明越; 张志斌


    Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand Gold) epitomizes the medical achievements of the Tang Dynasty with an extensive coverage.The classification method of syndromes in this book is derived from Neijing (Inner Canon),Nanjing (Classic of Questioning),Shang han za bing lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic and Miscellaneous Diseases),Zhu bing yuan hou lun (General Treatise on Causes and Manifestations of All Diseases),and enlightens the later generation with many unique characteristics,reflecting the mature recognition of the diseases in the contemporary clinical medicine from one side.It is still of great significance for understanding the diseases and exploring its pathogenesis even today.%《备急千金要方》为唐代医书集大成者,内容涵盖十分广泛,其病证分类方法,上承《内经》、《难经》、《伤寒杂病论》、《诸病源候论》,下启后世诸家,有很多独创之处,从一个侧面体现出当时的临床医学对很多疾病的认识已相当成熟,直到现代,对于今人认识疾病,探讨疾病病机仍有很大的意义.

  20. Kang Wei Granules in Treatment of Gastropathy Related to Helicobacter Pylory Infection

    陈飞松; 危北海; 姚伟; 罗晓梅


    @@ Kang Wei Granules,a granular preparation for strengthening the spleen and replenishing Qi and for clearing away heat and resolving dampness,was used in the treatment of 288 cases of gastropathy related to Helicobacter pylori infection.

  1. Research on the Dulcimer in Wei Yuan's Poem "Listening to the Dulcimer and Song Played by a Foreign Woman in Macao Garden"%魏源《澳门花园听夷女弹洋琴歌》之“洋琴”考



    中国隆回网隆回县文化局提供的材料《魏源澳门花园听琴》认为魏源笔下的“洋琴”很可能为“竖琴”。文章认为这是一种误读。根据相关材料论证,1848年魏源访问澳门,写作了《澳门花园听夷女弹洋琴歌》,诗中所描述的“洋琴”(即魏源所看到的“洋琴”)应该是古钢琴之一的“古翼琴”。%"Wei Yuan's Listening to the Dulcimer and Song in Macao Garden", provided by Longhui Culture Bureau on http://www, longhui, gov. cn/, considers the dulcimer in Wei Yuan's poem as a harp. The author of this paper thinks it is likely to be misunderstood. According to the relevant historical facts, Wei Yuan visited Macao in 1848 and wrote "Listening to the Dulcimer and Song Played by a Foreign Woman in Macao Garden". The dulcimer described in this poem should be one of the pianos at that time: clavichord.

  2. Ethnobotanical studies on medicinal plants used by the red-headed yao people in Jinping, Yunnan Province, China.

    Long, Chun-lin; Li, Rong


    Sixty-six medicinal plant species traditionally collected and used by the Red-headed Yao people in Jinping county, Yunnan Province, SW China, were investigated and studied through the approaches of ethnobotany, anthropology and participatory rural appraisal (PRA). Among these plants, 27 species were recorded to have medicinal values for the first time recorded in literature, 23 species were found to have different medicinal functions from those recorded in the literature. Many medicinal herbs are simultaneously wild food plants. The local Yao people take medicinal baths on some special days very common to treat and prevent diseases. The Red-headed Yao medicinal herb doctors have conserved medicinal plants and their habitats over the years. Most of the folk healers are old women, who are concerned about passing on their secrets to the younger generation. They fear that the younger generations have not learned enough about the herbal traditions to keep the practice going. The authors suggest that plants used by the Red-headed Yao people need to be further studied phytochemically and pharmacologically.

  3. China’s Hongqi Group Invests 500 Million Yuan in Guixi Copper Processing Project


    <正>China’s Hongqi Group recently signed an agreement with Guixi municipality to invest 500 million yuan in developing the copper processing project in Guixi.It is reported that this is the seveth copper processing project with

  4. Qinghai 100 Billion Yuan Lithium Market Attracts Domestic and Overseas Enterprises


    Qinghai,a province whose lithium resource reserve accounts for one third of global total reserve,promises a fertile land of investment for many enterprises in the industry.In 2014,the"Qinghai Province Development Plan of 100 Billion Yuan Grade Lithium Battery Industry"clearly proposed to convert the advantage of Qinghai Province’s lithium battery industry to economic advantage to the maximum degree,construct 100 billion yuan

  5. The Rise of a 100-Billion-Yuan Copper Industry Cluster in Huangshi, Hubei Province


    <正>On 28th,Sep.,Amer(Huangshi)Electronic Information Industrial Park with a total investment of 20 billion Yuan officially broke ground in Huangshi Economic and Technological Development Zone,Hubei,which indicated the rise of a 100-Billion-Yuan Copper Industry Cluster centering on Amer’s Industrial Park project.Amer International Group,a World’s Top 500Company,is a leading global group focusing

  6. Analysis of temporal and spatial trends of hydro-climatic variables in the Wei River Basin.

    Zhao, Jing; Huang, Qiang; Chang, Jianxia; Liu, Dengfeng; Huang, Shengzhi; Shi, Xiaoyu


    The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China. The relationship between runoff and precipitation in the Wei River Basin has been changed due to the changing climate and increasingly intensified human activities. In this paper, we determine abrupt changes in hydro-climatic variables and identify the main driving factors for the changes in the Wei River Basin. The nature of the changes is analysed based on data collected at twenty-one weather stations and five hydrological stations in the period of 1960-2010. The sequential Mann-Kendall test analysis is used to capture temporal trends and abrupt changes in the five sub-catchments of the Wei River Basin. A non-parametric trend test at the basin scale for annual data shows a decreasing trend of precipitation and runoff over the past fifty-one years. The temperature exhibits an increase trend in the entire period. The potential evaporation was calculated based on the Penman-Monteith equation, presenting an increasing trend of evaporation since 1990. The stations with a significant decreasing trend in annual runoff mainly are located in the west of the Wei River primarily interfered by human activities. Regression analysis indicates that human activity was possibly the main cause of the decline of runoff after 1970.

  7. Zhang Jing-yao and Yuxiang Bank%张敬尧与裕湘银行



      1918年3月,湖南银行倒闭,湖南币政几至不可收拾之地,也更使湖南金融困窘,财政枯竭。4月张敬尧督湘后,锐意整顿金融以巩固其在湘统治,创建了裕湘银行。该行开办以后,代办省库,经营存、放款、汇兑业务,发行纸币等,张敬尧极力维持。但由于中央支持力度薄弱;湖南政局动荡、财政困难;张敬尧个人能力不足,随着张敬尧在湖南政权的结束,裕湘银行也随之被取代。%  With Hunan Bank being bankrupt in March 1918 ,Hunan government affairs on currency got into dilemma ,which made it fiscal deficit .After governed by Zhang Jing - yao in April , a series of implements had been carried out in order to reorganize the government finance and consolidate his ruling in Hunan . And Yuxiang Bank was established . Zhang maintained it energetically in managing the exchequer of Hunan ,operating deposit and loan business ,exchanging the old ticket coin and issuing paper currency .But because of some reasons ,including the central government , Hunan provincial government and Zhang Jing - yao ,Yuxiang Bank was replaced after Zhang governed Hunan no longer .

  8. Polymorphism of rs1044925 in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    Yan Ting-Ting


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1 gene and serum lipid profiles is not well known in different ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was carried out to clarify the association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 626 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 624 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P P P P P P Conclusions These results suggest that the polymorphism of rs1044925 in the ACAT-1 gene is mainly associated with female serum TC, LDL-C and ApoB levels in the Bai Ku Yao population. The C allele carriers had lower serum TC, LDL-C and ApoB levels than the C allele noncarriers.

  9. Relativistic Treatment of Spinless Particles Subject to a Tietz-Wei Oscillator

    孙国华; 董世海


    The bound state solutions of the relativistic Klein-Gordon equation with the Tietz-Wei diatomic molecular potential are presented for the s wave. It is shown that the solutions can be expressed by the generalized hypergeometric functions. The normalized wavefunctions are also derived.

  10. PIXE study on Chinese underglaze-red porcelain made in Yuan Dynasty

    CHENG Huan-Sheng; ZHANG Zheng-Quan; LIN Er-Kang; HUANG Yun-Peng


    In China, the firing and glazed red techniques of producing underglaze-red porcelain began early in the Yuan Dynasty (AD1206~ 1368). This paper reports the results of the PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese underglaze-red porcelain produced at Kuan kiln (Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province) in the Yuan Dynasty. In this work the elemental composition analysis of the obtained samples was carried out using the PIXE facility of a 3 MeV tandem accelerator at Fudan University. The major; minor and trace elements of the clay body, white and red glazes were determined,and details of the results are presented. The obtained data can be used for identification of precious Chinese Yuan underglaze-red porcelain.

  11. 辨体:许学夷论汉魏六朝诗歌流变%Form-distinguishing:Xu Xueyi' s Discussion on the Evolution of Poetry in Han,Wei and Six Dynasties



    晚明诗论家许学夷以精于辨体著称,其《诗源辩体》通论先秦至晚唐诗之演变。所论汉魏六朝诗部分,力求调和七子派宗汉魏黜六朝与六朝派嗜好“偏奇”、公安竟陵“诡诞相尚”之间的理论对峙,通过对诗歌体制中俳偶、声韵等因素的详尽考察,把握汉魏六朝诗歌的流变轨迹,并对此前“诗溺于陶”的辨体命题予以修正,为该段诗史研究确立了系统的辨体认知方式。%Xu Xueyi,a critic of poetry,is skilled in distinguishing poetic forms in different dynasties. His work Ci Yuan Bian Ti mainly discusses the evolution of poetry from before Qin dynasty to Tang dynasty. In commenting on poems of Han, Wei and Six Dynasties, he tries to balance contrary views from different schools of poetry, and also reevaluates Tao Yuanming' s position in the history of literature. Through investigating into the formal changes of antithetical par- allelism and sound in different dynasties,he precisely describes the evolutionary trend of poetry in Han,Wei and Six Dynasties. This academic achievement in poetry embodies his work' s theoretical values.

  12. 试析魏晋士人重情之历史背景与社会基础%On the Historical Background and Social Basis for Gentry Group's Attaching Importance to Feelings in Wei and Jin Dynasties



    Compared with Han Dynasty when the Gentry Group sang highly of ambition, the Gentry Group in Wei and Jin Dynasties attached great importance to feelings. Why was there so huge a diversion between these two times? It used to be attributed to "sentimental" and "sorrowful" feelings in the time of disorder and confusion. However, this article points out that the Gentry Group's sense of values should be understood mainly in the historical and social contexts. Based on this, it tries to analyze the intellectualism in Wei and Jin Dynasties from the historical background ( YIN, 因 ) and social basis ( YUAN,缘).%相对于汉代士人通经致用、立功名于天下的“尚志”隋怀,魏晋士风的特点可以用谈玄论道、“称情而直住”的“重情”来概括。汉魏之间何以有此巨大变化?过去学人们大多演绎的是“乱世多感伤”的调子。体认一个时代士人的价值观与生存意识等应该更多地从时代性、社会性等方面加以考虑。基于此,对魏晋士风产生的历史背景(即“因”)与社会基础(即“缘”)两个主要方面作了综合考察。

  13. Inquiring Wei Yuan’s Modern Diplomatic Ideas From His Book the Maps and Records of the World%从《海国图志》看魏源的近代外交思想

    胡慧娥; 黄盾


    魏源是我国近代“睁眼看世界”的先进士人之一,面对近代中国出现的“数千年来未有之变局”,魏源立足现实,审时度势,着手收集中外古今史料,编写出了中国近代史上第一部比较全面的史地著作——《海国图志》,并在该书中提出了富有近代色彩的外交理念,主要包括三个方面的内涵:即“以夷款夷”的经济外交,“博取众长,宽容开放”的文化外交以及“以夷攻夷”、“师夷长技以制夷”的军事外交。%Wei Yuan is one of the advanced intellectuals in modern China to “open your eyes and see the world". In modern China, people faced changeable situation which was different from thousands years of ancient Chinese history. Based on reality, Wei Yuan judged the time suitably and sized up the situation, setting to collect ancient and modern historical materials about China and other foreign countries, and he wrote out a more comprehensive book of world history and geography in modern Chinese history——the Maps and Records of the World. In this book, he put forward rich modern diplomatic ideas which mainly includes three aspects: the economic diplomacy, which means mobilizing western countries to control western countries; the cultural diplomacy, means having open minds and learning from others strong points; the military diplomacy, means "mobilize enemies of Western countries to attack Western countries" and "learn the strengths of Western countries to restrict Western countries".

  14. “Xiao yao Traveling”of Zhuangzhi%庄子“逍遥游”



    通过解析《庄子》中“吾丧我”、“有待”、“无待”几个词组的内涵,说明庄子以讲述故事的方式所表达的哲学核心——逍遥游。庄子哲学是关于一个人的、心灵自由的哲学。人应去除成心,无所依持,回归本然,以道观之,从而达到精神心灵之自由。%Through explaining the inner meaning of《Zhuangzhi’s“I lost myself”,“to have some condition”,“without any condition”,which shows that the philosophy core by the ways of Zhuangzhi’s telling stories——“Xiao yao you”.Zhuangzhi’s philosophy is individual mind-free one.A human being should get rid off prejudice,without any relying,to return to the nature, to look at everything with natural ideas, because everything has no noble and humble. Therefore,we can get our souls and mind free.

  15. Accurate Location of the Yao'an Earthquake Sequence and the Yongsheng Earthquake Sequence

    Wang Xinling; Liu Jie; Zhang Guomin; Zhao Cuiping


    The Yao'an Ms6.5 earthquake occurred on Jan. 15, 2000 and the Yongsheng Ms6.0 earthquake occurred on Oct. 27, 2001 in Yunnan Province, China. They are both located in the middle of the Dian block. Their epicenters are close to each other, the tectonic and strain characters of the earthquakes were similar, and there were many aftershocks after the two main shocks. In order to further study the spatial-temporal distributions and fault rupture characters of the main shocks and aftershocks, the latter are located using the Geiger earthquake location algorithm (Geiger) and the double difference earthquake location algorithm (DD) based on the seismic phase data of the two earthquake sequences. They were recorded by two Near Source Digital Seismic Networks (YNSSN and YSNSSN) deployed by the Yunnan Seismological Bureau (YNSB). Then, two main shock parameters were relocated using DD based on the data of larger magnitude aftershocks and the two main shocks that were recorded by the Kunming Regional Digital Seismic Network (KMSN). Combining the spatialtemporal distributions of the two earthquake sequences, the tectonic and strain characters of earthquakes, the rupture processes of the two aftershock sequences along faults are analyzed and discussed contrastively.

  16. Heng Yuan Xiang Released 10/11 A/W Cashmere Collections in Beijing


    On July 9th,Heng Yuan Xiang Corporation released its 10/11 A/W Cashmere Collections for Women’s Wear in Beijing.Nearly 200 brand sagents and franchisers from 16 provinces took part in the press conference,looking for their target series for the coming season.

  17. Heng Yuan Xiang Released 10/11 A/W Cashmere Collections in Beijing

    Wang Ting


    @@ On July 9th,Heng Yuan Xiang Corporation released its 10/11 A/W Cashmere Collections for Women's Wear in Beijing.Nearly 200 brands agents and franchisers from 16 provinces took part in the press conference,looking for their target series for the coming season.

  18. Zhongfu Industry Co., Ltd Plans to Invest an Additional 155 million yuan in Aluminum Processing


    <正>On December 8,Zhongfu Industry Co.,Ltd announced that it planned to authorize its subsidiary Linzhou City Linfeng Aluminum Industry Co.,Ltd to add 155 million yuan investment into Linzhou City Linfeng Aluminum Electric & Aluminum Product Co.,Ltd.

  19. Anhui Tongling Invests 1 Billion Yuan to Set up “Copper Industry Fund”


    <正>On September 12, the signing ceremony for "Anhui Copper Industry Fund" set up by Anhui Tongling Development & Investment Group Co., Ltd. and Shanghai V. Stone Investment Management Co., Ltd. was held in Tongling. The fund is 1 billion yuan.

  20. China Gold Group Invested 2.18 billion Yuan to Buy Gold Mine


    <正>Ministry of Finance recently proclaimed that China Gold Group has invested 2.18 billion Yuan to gain the exploration right on the Yang- shan gold mine in Wen County,Gansu Prov- ince.Yangshan is located at the place where

  1. Shangdong Electrc Power,CNOOC-Shell ink 1.51-billion-yuan contract


    The EPC contract for CNOOC-Shell Petrochemical Complex Project has recently been signed in Huizhou City,Cuangdong Province between Shangdong Electric Power Construction Corporation (SEPCC)and CNOOC-Shell Petrochemical Limited.Under the contract valued at 1.51 billion yuan

  2. CPAFFC Vice President Xie Yuan Mourns over the Death of President Hugo Chavez


    <正>On the morning of March 7, CPAFFC Vice President Xie Yuan went to the Embassy of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela in China to mourn over the passing away of Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez on behalf of the CPAFFC. He presented the letter of condolence from President Li Xiaolin to Ambassador Rocio Maneiro

  3. 380-million-yuan Refined Leadand Copper Project Launched in Kashi City


    <正>On June 30,Chengdu Linpeng Co., cided to invest 380 million yuan in an refined lead and copper project in Kashi City.As a large mining development company,Chengdu Linpeng Co.,Ltd has discovered a huge poten-

  4. Chongqing Clothing Enterprises Grasp 1.3-billion-yuan Orders


    @@ The Fashion Festival of Chongqing held on Sep. 25th provides the city with a platform for international communication, bringing business opportunities. At the negotiation meeting & the signing ceremony among the firms processing export garment, the signed 1.3-billion-yuan orders attracted people's attention.

  5. Chongqing Clothing Enterprises Grasp 1.3-billion-yuan Orders


    The Fashion Festival of Chongqing held on Sep. 25th provides the city with a platform for international communication, bringing business opportunities. At the negotiation meeting & the signing ceremony among the firms processing export garment, the signed 1.3-billion-yuan orders attracted people’s attention.

  6. Aluminum Production Cost Drops to 375 Yuan/Tonne After On-Grid Power Tariff Cut


    Following the cut of coal-fired on-grid power tariff in April 2015,in 2016 the coal-fired ongrid power tariff experienced another cut.The average nationwide cut was about0.03yuan/k Wh,the reduced amount will be used to lower general industrial and commercial electricity sales price by the same

  7. Qijiang Plans to Build 50 Billion Yuan Industrial Cluster for Transport-use Aluminum


    The reporter learned from the China International Transport-use Aluminum Forum2015 that 5 years later Qijiang District is expected to develop transport-use aluminum industrial cluster with annual output of 50billion yuan.According to statistics,last year 1 in every 9automobile OEM manufacturers nationwide

  8. The Administrative System in Tibet during the Tang and Yuan Dynasties

    TangJia-hong; WangXiaohui


    China's Tang Dynasty (618-907) and Yuan dynasty (1279-1368) were of epoch-making importance in the formation and development of the Tibetan ethnic group. Numerous ethnic tribes began to unite, and the process of evolution from a tribal to a political society was basically completed over the span of the two dynasties.

  9. Chinalco Plans to Invest 6 Billion Yuan in Guizhou in 2012


    <正>According to Xiong Weiping,President of Chinalco,Chinalco plans to invest 6 billion yuan in Guizhou this year;it will step up aluminum industrial base projects and co-generation projects in Guiyang and Zunyi,take strong measures to support deep processing of aluminumin Guizhou,extend the industry chain,and




    姚培毅、于菁珊(1986)为广西扶绥下白垩统的褶珠蚌类标本建立了一个新亚属Plicatounio(Guangxiconcha)Yao and Yu,以Plicatounio(Guangxiconcha)fortis Yao and Yu,1986(230页,图版1,图4;图版2,图3,6)作为模式种。

  11. 论王维山水诗的审美特点%The aesthetic characteristics of Wang Wei's landscape poems

    王伟; 和磊


    Wang Wei, Mo Jie , the population lay people, is known as"Wang You Cheng", he 's the famous Tang Dynasty poet, painter. This paper will quote the concrete poetry text of Wang Wei's landscape poems, and borrow the concepts for aesthetic category to the analysis and the elaboration of Wang Wei's landscape poems poetry aesthetic characteristics. The main purpose is to absorb and expand the using of Ultra utilitarian aesthetic mentality in Wang Wei's landscape poetry.%以王维山水诗的具体诗作为文本,借于审美范畴,阐述、分析王维山水诗篇创作的审美特点,挖掘展现王维山水诗创作上的超功利审美心态。

  12. Status and decoration features of Yao nationality costumes in north of Guangdong province%粤北瑶族服饰现状及装饰特点



    Yao nationality costumes in north of Guangdong province is one of the important culture heritages of Guangdong province. Taking Pai Yao and Guoshan Yao in north of Guangdong province as examples, this paper gave a brief summary of the status of Yao costumes, analyzed the details of daily dresses and splendid attire and summed up three main forms and two decoration types of Yao minority nationality costumes in north Guangdong province, expecting obtain protection and excavation.%粤北瑶族服饰是广东省非常重要的文化遗产之一,以粤北排瑶和过山瑶为例,简述了瑶族服饰的现状,并从服饰细节和装饰特点入手,分析了平装和盛装服饰的细节特点,归纳出粤北瑶族服饰装饰的3种主要形式和2种装饰内容,以期得到保护和挖掘.

  13. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    Cao Xiao-Li


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene polymorphism and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse ethnics. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The aim of the present study was to eveluate the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 780 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 686 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P P P P P P P Conclusions The differences in serum TC, TG, LDL-C and ApoB levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different genotypic and allelic frequencies of the MTHFR C677T or different MTHFR gene-enviromental interactions.

  14. 瑶族帽饰文化内涵解析%Analysis of cultural connotation of Yao people's headwear



    With analyzing from the style,material,wrapping,pattern,color and cultural implication of Yao people's headwear,their unique customs and their yearning for a better life were delivered.%从瑶族帽饰的形式、材质、包缠方式、图案色彩以及文化寓意等角度对瑶族各支系帽饰进行分析比较,反映了瑶族人民独特的民俗风情及对美好生活的向往等文化内涵。

  15. 瑶族节庆民俗与治未病%Folk Festivals of Yao Nationality and Preventive Treatment of Disease

    郭玉荣; 徐宏; 李拥军


    从心理因素、民族和谐团结、体育运动、饮食几方面论述瑶族节庆民俗与治未病的关系,以深入研究瑶医学的文化内涵,提高瑶医药临床应用水平,促进人类的健康。%The connection between folk festivals of Yao nationality and preventive treatment of disease is stat-ed from psychological factors, ethnic harmony and solidarity, sports and diet, in order to further study cultural con-notation of Yao medicine, raise the level of clinical application of Yao medicine and life quality of human.

  16. 试论“随园第一女弟子”席佩兰的科举诗%Try to Discuss Imperial Civil Service Examination Poetry of Xi Peilan Who Was the First Girl Student of Yuan Mei



    Xi Peilan, famous soul school female poet lived in Changshu, who was regarded as first female poet in Qing dynasty by Yuan Mei. She had the obvious masculine consciousness extremely, moreover, she and her husband were famous poet. His husband Sun Yuanxiang, and Wang Tan, Shu Wei were regard as three Gendemen. in Jiangzuo. However, he is not smooth at the imperial civil service examination,in Xi Peilan' s poem has the record about these. Trough reading this type poetry , we can find the characteristics of the soul school of poetry and situadescription about imperial civil service examination. It had both esthetic value and cognition value.%席佩兰,清代常熟著名性灵派女诗人,被袁枚推尊为本朝第一。她有极为明显的男性意识,且伉俪能诗。其夫孙原湘与王昙、舒位合称“江左三君”,然场屋不畅,席佩兰诗中对此有所记述,该类描摹科举情状之诗颇见性灵派诗歌的特色,既具审美价值,又有认知价值。

  17. Effect of WeiJia on carbon tetrachloride induced chronic liver injury

    Pik-Yuen Cheung; Jay Chun; Hsiang-Fu Kung; Meng-su Yang; Qi Zhang; Ya-Ou Zhang; Gan-Rong Bai; Marie Chia-Mi Lin; Bernard Chan; Chi-Chun Fong; Lin Shi; Yue-Feng Shi


    AIM: To study the effect of WeiJia on chronic liver injury using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury animal model.METHODS: Wistar rats weighing 180-220g were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (Group A), CCl4 induced liver injury control group (Group B) and CCl4 induction with WeiJia treatment group (Group C). Each group consisted of 14 rats. Liver damage and fibrosis was induced by subcutaneous injection with 40% CCl4 in olive oil at 3 mL/kg body weight twice a week for eight weeks for Groups B and C rats whereas olive oil was used for Group A rats. Starting from the third week,Group C rats also received daily intraperitoneal injection of WeiJia at a dose of 1.25 μg/kg body weight. Animals were sacrificed at the fifth week (4 male, 3 female), and eighth week (4 male, 3 female) respectively. Degree of fibrosis were measured and serological markers for liver fibrosis and function including hyaluronic acid (HA), type Ⅳ collagen (CIV), γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined. Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry were also performed.RESULTS: CCl4 induction led to the damage of liver and development of fibrosis in Group B and Group C rats when compared to Group A rats. The treatment of WeiJia in Group C rats could reduce the fibrosis condition significantly compared to Group B rats. The effect could be observed after three weeks of treatment and was more obvious after eight weeks of treatment. Serum HA, CIV,ALT, AST and Y-GT levels after eight weeks of treatment for Group C rats were 58±22 μg/L (P0.05) respectively, similar to normal control group (Group A), but significantly different from CCl4 induced liver injury control group (Group B). An increase in PCNA and decrease in a-SMA expression level was also observed.CONCLUSION: WeiJia could improve liver function and reduce liver fibrosis

  18. Arsitektur Cina pada Klenteng Jin De Yuan di Kawasan Pecinan Jakarta Sebagai Suatu Perwujudan Akulturasi Kebudayaan

    Polniwati Salim


    Full Text Available Cultural acculturation can be seen from various aspects, where the fusion of two cultural elements will not remove the could go to Indonesia and was applied to the temples in Indonesia, but still did not leave the cultural elements of Indonesia. Temple Jin De Yuan was one of the many temples in Jakarta, especially in the area of Chinatown, an area in terms of population, form of shelter, social order and the atmosphere of the environment had historically rooted characteristic of cultured Chinese people which was very thick with the architecture Chinese. Article presents how the application of Chinese architecture as a manifestation of Chinese culture and acculturation Indonesia in the temple Jin De Yuan can increase the cultural treasury of Indonesia. The research applied qualitative method and also library research.

  19. Academician Yuan Longping was Awarded “the Nobel Prize of Asia”


    @@Academician Yuan Longping, father of hybrid rice, was lately awarded the Magsaysay Prize named after the third Philippine president Ramon F. Magsaysay. The Prize was founded in 1957 which has been known as “the Nobel Prize of Asia”. Prof Yuan received the honor for his great ontributions to hybrid rice research and Asian food security. Hybrid rice yielded about 0.4 billion ton in the past twenty years in Chiha, and has been introduced into 20 countries in Asia, Afica and America and successfully popularized in India and Viemam on a large scale, signifing a great scientific creation in solving the problem of world grain shortage. The awarding ceremony was held on Aug. 31, 2001 in Manila, Phillippines.

  20. Processes affecting the spatial distribution of seagrass meadow sedimentary material on Yao Yai Island, Thailand

    Quak, Michelle S. Y.; Ziegler, Alan D.; Benner, Shawn G.; Evans, Sam; Todd, Peter A.; Gillis, Lucy G.; Vongtanaboon, Sukanya; Jachowski, Nick; Bouma, Tjeerd J.


    Many islands throughout SE Asia are experiencing rapid development and land-cover conversion that potentially threaten sensitive coastal ecosystems, such as seagrasses, through increased loading of sediment and nutrients originating from disturbed catchments draining to the sea. To evaluate this threat for one such island in Southern Thailand (Yao Yai), we perform sediment source tracing via end-member mixing analysis using stable isotopes δ13C and δ15N in organic matter to explore sediment loading in a seagrass meadow. The analysis indicates that sedimentary material in the meadow originates mostly from ocean-associated sources (∼62% from seagrass detritus, seston, and ocean sediments). Terrestrial material comprises ∼19% of the organic material found in the seagrass meadow, with another 20% originating from an adjacent mangrove forest. Approximately one-fourth of the seagrass meadow material (24%) is detritus that has been (re)deposited internally. The high contribution of terrestrial-derived organic matter deposited near the river mouth demonstrates that substantial quantities of sediment are being transferred from upslope erosion sources into the seagrass meadow. However, only a small amount of this material is deposited throughout the entire bay because much of the terrestrial- and mangrove-derived sediment is transferred to the open ocean via channels that are periodically dredged to allow boat access to two small inland harbours. This positive affect of dredging has not received very much attention in existing literature. River water flowing to the channels during falling tide delivers sediment to these efficient pathways, where much of it bypasses the seagrass meadow at periods of time when sediment deposition would normally be the greatest. There is growing concern that ongoing land-cover changes and planned urbanization related to tourism and agriculture on the island may boost sediment/nutrients above a critical threshold, beyond that revealed in

  1. Chongqing Hechuan District Plans to Build 10 Billion Yuan Size Aluminum Industry Park


    Recently,the reporter learned from Chongqing Hechuan District Aluminum Industry Integration Enterprise Discussion Meeting that Hechuan District would build aluminum industrial park at Caojie Development Park,and strive to fulfill 10 billion yuan output value within 3 to 5 years.It has been learned that Hechuan District currently has 29 aluminum product enterprises(including enterprises with aluminum and aluminum products as raw material),in which 9

  2. Research on Remote Sensing recognition features of Yuan Yang Terraces in Yunnan Province (China)

    Xiang, Jie; Chen, Jianping; Lai, ZiLi; Yang, Wei


    Yuan Yang terraces is one of the most famous terraces in China, and it was successfully listed in the world heritage list at the 37th world heritage convention. On the one hand, Yuan Yang terraces retain more soil and water, to reduce both hydrological connectivity and erosion, and to support irrigation. On the other hand, It has the important tourism value, bring the huge revenue to local residents. In order to protect and make use of Yuan Yang terraces better, This study analyzed the spatial distribution and spectral characteristics of terraces:(1) Through visual interpretation, the study recognized the terraces based on the spatial adjusted remote sensing image (2010 Geoeye-1 with resolution of 1m/pix), and extracted topographic feature (elevation, slope, aspect, etc.) based on the digital elevation model with resolution of 20m/pix. The terraces cover a total area of about 11.58Km2, accounted for 24.4% of the whole study area. The terraces appear at range from 1400m to 1800m in elevation, 10°to 20°in slope, northwest to northeast in aspect; (2) Using the method of weight of evidence, this study assessed the importance of different topographic feature. The results show that the sort of importance: elevation>slope>aspect; (3) The study counted the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) changes of terraces throughout the year, based on the landsat-5 image with resolution of 30m/pix. The results show that the changes of terraces' NDVI are bigger than other stuff (e.g. forest, road, house, etc.). Those work made a good preparations for establishing the dynamic remote sensing monitoring system of Yuan Yang terraces.

  3. Study on shear wave splitting in the aftershock region of the Yao'an earthquake in 2000

    WANG Xin-ling; LIU Jie; ZHANG Guo-min; MA Hong-sheng; WANG Hui


    After Ms=6.5 Yao'an earthquake on January 15, 2000, a large amount of aftershock waveforms were recorded by the Near Source Digital Seismic Network (NSSN) installed by Earthquake Administration of Yunnan Province in the aftershock region. It provides profuse data to systematically analyze the features of Yao'an earthquake. The crustal anisotropy is realized by shear wave splitting propagating in the upper crust. Based on the accurate aftershock relocations, the shear wave splitting parameters are determined with the cross-correlation method, and the results of different stations and regions are discussed in this paper. These conclusions are obtained as follows:firstly, the average fast directions of aftershock region are controlled by the regional stress field and parallel to the maximum horizontal compressive stress direction; secondly, the average fast directions of disparate stations and regions are different and vary with the structural settings and regional stress fields; finally, delay time value is affected by all sorts of factors, which is affinitive with the shear wave propagating medium, especially.

  4. 苗瑶语的动结式%Resultative V-R Constructions in Miao-Yao Languages



    The development of the resultative V-R constructions in Miao-Yao languages is imbalanced and incomplete.But with the influence of the V-R compounds in Chinese,the structure of "verbal element+resultative" appears in lexical level.The resultative V-R constructions in Miao-Yao languages is the outcome of both the syntactic and lexical development under the influence of Chinese.%苗瑶语动结式结构句法层面的发展既不平衡,也不充分,但受汉语动结式复合词影响,词汇层面已出现"动词性成分+结果补语"的结构。苗瑶语动结式结构是在汉语的影响下,句法层面和词汇层面同时发展的产物。

  5. 元杂剧媒妁形象管窥%Yuan Dramas Matchmakers: A Discussion



    There are many matchmaker figures in Yuan Dramas, either being aimed at getting benefit or helping someone to fulfill his wishes, Matchmakers always play an important part in Chinese traditional marriages. Through the analysis of the matcher figures in Yuan Drama, we can better know the function of matcher, understanding the matchmaker culture and the concept of marital etiquette and custom in Yuan dynasty.%元杂剧中有丰富多样的媒妁形象,无论是以牟取经济利益为中心的职业官媒,还是以成人之美为出发点的非职业媒妁,他们在中国传统婚姻中都扮演着重要角色。通过对元杂剧中媒妁形象的探析,能更好地认识媒妁在元杂剧中的作用,了解元代媒妁文化及元代的婚姻礼俗观念。

  6. Asbestos related diseases from environmental exposure to crocidolite in Da-yao, China. I. Review of exposure and epidemiological data

    Luo, S; Liu, X; Mu, S; Tsai, S; Wen, C; Wong, O.


    Background: Scattered patches of crocidolite, one form of asbestos, were found in the surface soil in the rural county of Da-yao in southwestern China. In 1983, researchers from the West China University of Medical Sciences (WCUMS) discovered that residents of two villages in Da-yao had hyperendemic pleural plaques and excessive numbers of pleural mesotheliomas. Aims: To review and summarise epidemiological studies, along with other relevant data, and to discuss the potential contribution to environmental risk assessment. Methods: This report is based on a review of several clinical/epidemiological studies conducted by WCUMS researchers since 1984, which included one cross sectional medical examination survey, one clinical/pathological analysis of 46 cases of mesothelioma, and three retrospective cohort mortality studies. Additional information acquired from reviewing original data first hand during a personal visit along with an interview of medical specialists from Da-yao County Hospital was also incorporated. Results: The prevalence of pleural plaque was 20% among peasants in Da-yao over 40 years of age in the cross sectional survey. The average number of mesothelioma cases was 6.6 per year in the 1984–95 period and 22 per year in the 1996–99 period, in a population of 68 000. For those mesothelioma cases that were histology confirmed, there were 3.8 cases/year in the first period and 9 cases/year in the second. Of the 2175 peasants in this survey, 16 had asbestosis. Lung cancer deaths were significantly increased in all three cohort studies. The annual mortality rate for mesothelioma was 85 per million, 178 per million, and 365 per million for the three cohort studies, respectively. The higher exposed peasants had a fivefold increased mesothelioma mortality compared to their lower exposed counterparts. There were no cases of mesothelioma in the comparison groups where no crocidolite was known to exist in the environment. In the third cohort study, almost

  7. Anxiolytic and neuroprotective effects of the Traditional Chinese Medicinal formulation Dan-zhi-xiao-yao-san in a rat model of chronic stress.

    Cao, Guo-Ping; Gui, Dan; Fu, Lu-Di; Guo, Zhou-Ke; Fu, Wen-Jun


    Dan-zhi-xiao-yao-san is a Traditional Chinese Medicinal formulation widely used for the treatment of neuropsychological disorders. The present study examined the anxiolytic and neuroprotective effects of Dan-zhi-xiao-yao-san in a rat model of chronic stress. The results of an elevated plus maze test showed that Dan‑zhi‑xiao‑yao‑san significantly attenuated the levels of anxiety-induced stress as evidenced by increases in the time spent in the open arm region, as well as the percentage of entries into this area. In addition, Dan-zhi-xiao-yao-san alleviated stress‑induced neuronal death, as indicated by histological examination. Furthermore, mechanistic studies suggested that the anxiolytic and neuroprotective effects of Dan-zhi-xiao-yao-san may be mediated via attenuation of chronic stress‑induced upregulation of α‑synuclein and corticosterone, and downregulation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in the hippocampal region of the brain at the mRNA and protein level. In addition, Dan‑zhi‑xiao‑yao‑san decreased the serum levels of stress‑induced corticosterone in the model animals. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that Dan‑zhi‑xiao‑yao‑san exerted anxiolytic and neuroprotective effects in a rat model of chronic stress via attenuation of stress‑induced upregulation of α‑synuclein and corticosterone, and downregulation of PP2A in the hippocampus.

  8. New Evidence of the Life Story of Kong Yuan’s Uncle Chen Bingsheng--A Monographic Study on Kong Yuan (八)%孔原胞叔陈丙生身世新证--孔原研究专题(八)



    The research on Kong Yuan’s uncle Chen Bingsheng is an indispensible part of the study of Kong Yuan. There was a breakthrough in the previous investigation. The descendants of Bingshen’s two orphan daughters were found and interviewed. It was discovered that Bingsheng’s name is in his son-in-law’s family genealogy. New evidence was found with the 1939 version of Kong Yuan’s original family genealogy obtained recently. Compared with the 1939 version, the 1944 version has got the information of Kong Yuan’s mother Chen, stepmother Yao and uncle Tongyin (Bingsheng) added, which further reveals that Bingsheng is the uncle of Kong Yuan, a blood relative.%提孔原胞叔陈丙生之论,是研究孔原不可分割的组成部分。前阶段性调查的突破性进展,是寻访到丙生所遗两孤女的后人,访见到两孤女夫家族谱牒所载丙生之名。近期调查新证据是又获孔原本宗1939编陈氏联修谱,与1944版比较,1944版谱新增孔原生母龚氏、继母姚氏、弟铁怀,孔原胞叔同寅(丙生)四人资讯,进一步揭示了丙生为孔原胞叔的血亲关系。

  9. Fluvial Processes in the Meandering Reach of the Lower Wei River During the Course of Degradation


    This paper presents an analysis of the changes of the longitudinal and lateral profiles in the meander- ing reach of the Lower Wei River over the period from October 1973 to October 1976 during the course of degradation.Analysis results indicated that retrogressive erosion and subsequent downstream erosion occurred in the reach due to the lowering in the Tongguan elevation and the inflowing water carrying low sediment con- centrations.At the end of the degradation,the main channel widths of the majority ...

  10. "Shui wei"(谁为) and"Wei shui"(为谁) from the Pre-Qin poetry to the Tang Dynasty%先秦到唐代的“谁为”和“为谁”



    先秦时期,几乎所有的“谁为”都属于“谁宾语+为”式,发展到唐代,绝大多数“谁为”都属于“谁主语+为”式。先秦时期,所有的“为谁”都属于“为系词+谁表语”式,发展到唐代,绝大多数“为谁”都属于“为+谁宾语”式。也就是说,从先秦到唐代,“谁宾语+为”式由盛转衰,几乎退出历史舞台,“为+谁宾语”式从无到有,成为常式。这种现象表明,发展到唐代,“为”的疑问代词宾语“谁”,后置化历程基本完成。%In the pre-Qin period, almost all the "shui wei"(谁为)belong to the pattern of "shui(谁,object) +wei(为)".With the development of Chinese , it evolved into the pattern of "shui(谁,subject) +wei(为)"in Tang Dynasty.Likewise, from the pre-Qin period to the Tang Dynasty, most of the"wei shui"(为谁)developed from "wei(为,link word) +shui(谁,predicative)"to the pat-tern "wei(为) +shui(谁,object)".That is to say, with the evolvement of Chinese from the pre-Qin period to the Tang Dynasty, the pattern of "shui(谁,object)+wei(为)"gradually disappeared into history .However, starting from scratch, the pattern"wei (为)+shui(谁object)"has become a common one .These phenomenons reflected the historical trend in which the objects of the interrogative pronouns were placed from the front to the rear , and thus laid a solid foundation for forming the final syntactic pattern-the object post-position of interrogative pronouns .

  11. The Comparison of Governing Thinking Between Gong Zizhen, Lin Zexu and Wei Yuan%龚自珍、林则徐、魏源经世致用思想之比较

    伍君; 王卫



  12. The Contributions of Lin Zexu and Wei Yuan to the Introduction of Western Library into China%林则徐、魏源对西方图书馆的译介及其影响




  13. 林则徐魏源民营思想产生的历史条件及其影响%History Condition and Effects about Civil-managing Ideas Advocate by Lin Zexu and Wei Yuan




  14. Polymorphisms in immunoregulatory genes, smoky coal exposure and lung cancer risk in Xuan Wei, China

    Lee, K.M.; Shen, M.; Chapman, R.S.; Yeager, M.; Welch, R.; He, X.Z.; Zheng, T.Z.; Hosgood, H.D.; Yang, D.Y.; Berndt, S.I.; Chanock, S.; Lan, Q. [NCI, Bethesda, MD (United States). Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics


    We conducted a population-based case-control study in Xuan Wei, China, where lung cancer rates are among the highest in China due to exposure to indoor coal combustion products, to evaluate the association between polymorphisms in immunoregulatory genes and lung cancer risk. A total of 122 incident primary lung cancer cases and 122 individually matched controls were enrolled in Xuan Wei, China. Fifty single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 23 immunoregulatory genes involved in inflammation were genotyped and analyzed by logistic regression to assess the risk of lung cancer. A global test of association for 42 SNPs, which excluded eight SNPs that were in very tight linkage disequilibrium with other SNPs, was statistically significant (P = 0.01), suggesting that overall genetic variation in this pathway contributes to lung cancer risk. In addition, the IL1B - 1060TT (i.e. -511TT) genotype was associated with increased lung cancer risk compared with the CC genotype. The IL8RA Ex2+860 GC or CC, ICAMI Ex2+100 AT or TT and IL12A Ex7+277 GA or AA genotypes were associated with decreased lung cancer risk. The protective effect of the IL8RA variant was stronger among subjects with high cumulative smoky coal use (> = 130 tons). In conclusion, genetic variation in immunoregulatory genes may play an important role in the development of lung cancer in this population.

  15. Spatial-temporal variation of precipitation concentration and structure in the Wei River Basin, China

    Huang, Shengzhi; Huang, Qiang; Chen, Yutong; Xing, Li; Leng, Guoyong


    It is of significant importance to investigate precipitation structure and precipitation concentration due to their great impact on droughts, floods, soil erosion, as well as water resources management. A complete investigation of precipitation structure and its distribution pattern in the Wei River Basin was performed based on recorded daily precipitation data in this study. Two indicators were used: concentration index based on daily precipitation (CID), to assess the distribution of rainy days, and concentration index based on monthly precipitation (CIM), to estimate the seasonality of the precipitation. Besides, the modified Mann-Kendall trend test method was employed to capture the variation trends of CID and CIM. The results indicate that: (1) the 1-3-day events are the predominant precipitation events in terms of the occurrence and fractional contribution; (2) the obvious differences in the CID of various areas are found in the Wei River Basin, and the high CID values mainly concentrate in the northern basin, conversely, the southern basin has a relatively low CID value; (3) high CIM values are primarily in the western and northern basin, reflecting a remarkable seasonality of precipitation in these regions; and (4) all of the stations show a downward trend of CIM, which indicates that the monthly precipitation distribution tends to be more uniform.


    HU Baoqing; JIANG Shufang; LIAO Chimei; HUANG Qiuyan; ZHOU Dequan


    Du'an Yao Autonomous County is a typical area for the distribution of karst rocky desertification in Guangxi.The indices for the grades of rocky desertification are selected according to the scientific meaning of karst rocky desertification and after the interpretative symbol system of rocky desertification. RS images are established by the landscape characteristics of Du'an karst and its TM image. Relying on RS & GIS means and taking land use map as base map, this paper conducts synthetic analysis on the 1999a TM image (126-043) and the correlation data involving landform, soil, geological map and GPS-database and photo on the spot, and brings forth a map showing the Du'an rocky desertification grades and a digital lithology map. As can be viewed from spatial correlation, the inherent connection is also illuminated between the various levels of rocky desertification and the carbonate lithology.

  17. The alleviating pain effect of aqueous extract from tong-xie-yao-fang, on experimental visceral hypersensitivity and its mechanism.

    Hu, Xu-Guang; Xu, Di; Zhao, Yue; Yang, Xiang-Bo; Meng, Jiang; Shen, Han; Guo, Jiao


    Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang (TXYF) is a prescription in traditional chinese medicine (TCM), used for relieving abdominal pain associated with irritable bowel syndrome. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of TXYF on experimental visceral hypersensitivity (VH) models. TXYF affected the abdominal withdrawal reflex produced by colonic distention in maternal separation-induced visceral hypersensitivity rats, in a dosage-dependent manner. TXYF significantly decreased serotonin (5-HT) levels in serum and corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) concentrations in the brain. Moreover, it was found that VH alleviation by TXYF was dependent on the substance P (SP) expression in the colon mucosa. These results suggest that TXYF attenuates behavioral hyperalgesia by regulating substance associated with the brain-gut axis, including decreasing the expression of 5-HT and SP in the periphery and that of CRF in the center.

  18. Mining Gold in Africa——Development Course of Bao Yao Huan Jian Iron Steel Group Ltd.

    Bai Yifeng


    @@ Historical Trail Founded in 1998,the company jointly ventured with a Nigerian company and invested US$1 million to establish a small rolling mill.In the beginning of 2000,the company established Bao Yao Huan Jian Iron& Steel Group Ltd.with an independent investment of US$15 million with the standard workshop covering an area of 38000,office and logistics workshop occupying an area of 4,000 m2.The group can produce over 300,000 tons of various iron & steel rolling steel materials annually.In 2003,the group set up more companies such as Bulconexim International Ltd,BYHJ shipping Co.,Ltd.and Construction Co., after another.In 2005,additional fund of US$4 million was invested to set up MAWA Textile Nigeria FZE,the workshop of which has the ability to produce 5 million meters of all kinds of textile each year.

  19. Differences in Effects of Zuojin Pills(左金丸)and Its Similar Formulas on Wei Cold Model in Rats

    赵艳玲; 史文丽; 山丽梅; 王伽伯; 赵海平; 肖小河


    Objective:To explore the effects of Zuojin Pills(左金丸)and its similar formulas on the stomach cold syndrome in a Wei cold model in rats.Methods:The rat Wei cold model was established by intragastric administration of glacial NaOH,and the gastric mucosa injury indices,together with the levels of motilin and gastrin in the stomach,were determined.The preventive and curative effects of Zuojin Pills and its similar formulas on gastric mucosa injury were investigated.Results:Zuojin Pills and its similar formul...

  20. Double soft limit of the graviton amplitude from the Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism

    Saha, Arnab Priya


    We present a complete analysis for double soft limit of graviton scattering amplitude using the formalism proposed by Cachazo, He, and Yuan. Our results agree with that obtained via Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion relations in [T. Klose, T. McLoughlin, D. Nandan, J. Plefka, and G. Travaglini, Double-soft limits of gluons and gravitons, J. High Energy Phys. 07 (2015) 135., 10.1007/JHEP07(2015)135]. In addition we find precise relations between degenerate and nondegenerate solutions of scattering equations with local and nonlocal terms in the soft factor.

  1. The yuan-dollar parity and its effects on Mexico's exports of manufacturing goods

    Víctor Manuel Cuevas Ahumada


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the impact of Chinese exchange rate policy on Mexican manufacturing exports in the US market. To that end, an amplified export function which combines demandand supply-side variables is estimated. The empirical evidence shows that, in the long run, a real depreciation of the yuan visà- vis the US dollar reduces Mexican manufacturing sales in the US. The econometric work also suggests that lowering unit labor costs, perhaps by means of a comprehensive and coherent training policy package, could serve the purpose of offsetting the negative effects of an undervalued Chinese currency.

  2. Chinalco Sold Assets to Withdraw 2 Billion Yuan Capital, Paving the Way For Injecting New Businesses


    With only a little over one month left for 2015,looking back at this year’s aluminum price,it can be argued that it has reached the bottom.Since June this year,aluminum price began to fall,and showed no sign of stop in falling,by the time of the traditional peak season,market performance was still inactive,in October aluminum price picked up speed in falling,by November aluminum price has dropped below10000 yuan per tonne.

  3. Design of Ejector Pins-wing Plate Wave Power Generation Device Based On Weis-Fogh Effect%基于 Weis-Fogh 效应的顶杆-翼板型波浪能发电装置设计

    杨琨; 旷权; 陈新; 王彦超; 李阳; 王松波; 叶云凌


    为提高波浪能发电装置的发电效率与适应能力,利用Weis-Fogh效应可以产生瞬态高升力的特点,设计顶杆-翼板型波浪能发电装置,基于Weis-Fogh理论设计翼板形状并建立翼板运动方程,结合强度理论求解并校核顶杆的尺寸,应用ANSYS软件对顶杆-翼板组合体进行应力仿真。理论分析及仿真结果表明该组合体结构强度满足安全要求。%In order to improve the generation efficiency and adaptability of wave power generation device, the characteristic of Weis-Fogh effect that can produce high lift force in transient is applied to design the ejector pins-wing plate wave power genera-tion device.The Weis-Fogh theory is used to design the shape of wing plate and establish the motion equation of wing plate.The scantling of ejector pins is designed by strength theory, and the strength of ejector pins-wing plate is evaluated in ANSYS.Theo-retical analysis and simulation result show that the strength of combination solid meets the safety requirements.

  4. Buprenorphine, methadone, and morphine treatment during pregnancy: behavioral effects on the offspring in rats

    Chen HH; Chiang YC; Yuan ZF; Kuo CC; Lai MD; Hung TW; Ho IK; Chen ST


    Hwei-Hsien Chen,1,2,* Yao-Chang Chiang,3,4,* Zung Fan Yuan,5,6 Chung-Chih Kuo,5,6 Mei-Dan Lai,2 Tsai-Wei Hung,1 Ing-kang Ho,1,3,4 Shao-Tsu Chen2,7 1Center for Neuropsychiatric Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli County, Taiwan; 2Master and PhD Program in Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan; 3Center for Drug Abuse and Addiction, China Medical University Hospital, 4Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung,...

  5. Approximate solutions of theWei Hua oscillator using the Pekeris approximation and Nikiforov–Uvarov method

    P K Bera


    The approximate analytical bound-state solutions of the Schrödinger equation for the Wei Hua oscillator are carried out in N-dimensional space by taking Pekeris approximation scheme to the orbital centrifugal term. Solutions of the corresponding hyper-radial equation are obtained using the conventional Nikiforov–Uvarov (NU) method.




    Fuchuan Yao Autonomous County in Northeast of Guangxi is the folk craft-distributing center of this area. There are several salient features of this area's brocade, such as color ingenious, beautiful patterns and auspicious implies, exquisite workmanship, good material and quality. They represents the Yao's culture image and national wisdom from one generation of Yao to another. Meanwhile that is extraordinarily precious national costume of the Yao. With the development of the society and the change of customs and habits, Yao's folk brocade slowly disappears in daily life. The purpose of this paper is to communicate Yao's traditional culture and to influence persons who are interested in Yao's traditional culture through the pioneering research of Fuchuan Yao's folk brocade. We hope that more and more people know and understand Yao and Yao's traditional culture, and look for a new path for inheriting and developing the Yao's folk brocade.%广西东北部的富川瑶族自治县是桂东北瑶族地区民间工艺集散地,这里的瑶族民间织锦配色巧妙、图美意祥,工艺精湛、材优质良,代表着瑶族的文化形象及瑶族世代相传的民间智慧,是不可多得的民族瑰宝。时至今日,改革步伐的加速,风俗习惯的淡化,瑶族民间织锦将慢慢地消失在人们的视线里。该文通过对富川瑶族民间织锦开拓性的研究,去宣传瑶族传统文化,影响那些对瑶族传统文化感兴趣的人们,让更多人认识和了解瑶族和瑶族传统文化,为瑶族民间织锦的传承和发展寻找新的途径。

  7. Shifted Tietz-Wei oscillator for simulating the atomic interaction in diatomic molecules

    Falaye, Babatunde J; Hamzavi, Majid


    The shifted Tietz-Wei (sTW) oscillator is as good as traditional Morse potential in simulating the atomic interaction in diatomic molecules. By using the Pekeris-type approximation to deal with the centrifugal term, we obtain the bound-state solutions of the radial Schr\\"odinger equation with this typical molecular model via the exact quantization rule (EQR). The energy spectrum for a set of diatomic molecules ($NO \\left(a^4\\Pi_i\\right)$, $NO \\left(B^2\\Pi_r\\right)$, $NO \\left(L'^2\\phi\\right)$, $NO \\left(b^4\\Sigma^{-}\\right)$, $ICl\\left(X^1\\Sigma_g^{+}\\right)$, $ICl\\left(A^3\\Pi_1\\right)$ and $ICl\\left(A'^3\\Pi_2\\right)$ for arbitrary values of $n$ and $\\ell$ quantum numbers are obtained. For the sake of completeness, we study the corresponding wavefunctions using the formula method.

  8. Wei Gao and the Reopening of the Southern Silk Road in the Tang Dynasty

    Zhao Xinyu


    Weigao was one of the famous Jie-dushi ( regional military commissioners ) of the Jiannan Xichuan ( located in today’s southern Si-chuan) in the Tang Dynasty. During the rule of Wei Gao, he successfully defeated the Tubo, and changed the Tang court’s submissiveness in the southwestern region and the fight between the Tang and Tubo along the southern line. He also restored the links between Yunnan and Xichuan including all the way to the Central Plains, and, as a result, the once closed Southern Silk Road was reopened. A further exploration and evaluation of Wei Gao’s actions and his influence on reopening the Southern Silk Road ought to be given. I. Wei Gao’s Alliance with the Nanzhao King-dom and Reopening the Southern Silk Road In 785 A. D. , Wei Gao arrived in Chengdu and was appointed Jiedushi of Jiannan Xichuan. The situation of Jiannan Xichuan at that time was very critical. After the Tianbao war, the Kingdom of Nanzhao, which had unified the area around Er-hai Lake with the support of the Tang in the past, turned against the Tang and publicly announced its alliance with the Tubo. The Nanzhao Kingdom, to-gether with the Tubo, struck the Tang in the south-western region. This shift not only put the Tang in a submissive position in the southwestern region, but also significantly influenced the relations be-tween the Tang and the Tubo. As the Jiedushi of Jiannan Xichuan, Wei Gao became a unique practitioner and actively promoted a joint strategy in Yunnan. After the Tang decided to make an alliance with the Nanzhao Kingdom, relevant actions were taken immediately. However because relations between the Nanzhao Kingdom and the Tang had been broken for many years, at the beginning, Wei Gao could only communicate through some of the tribal chiefs of the Dongman ( Eastern Barbarians) . Through several years of ef-fort and mutual contact, Wei Gao’s endeavors to make an alliance with the Nanzhao, at last, were effective. Wei Gao’s efforts to make an

  9. Study on Strata Behavior Regularity of 1301 Face in Thick Bedrock of Wei - qiang Coal Mine

    Gu, Shuancheng; Yao, Boyu


    In order to ensure the safe and efficient production of the thick bedrock face, the rule of the strata behavior of the thick bedrock face is discussed through the observation of the strata pressure of the 1301 first mining face in Wei qiang coal mine. The initial face is to press the average distance of 50.75m, the periodic weighting is to press the average distance of 12.1m; during the normal mining period, although the upper roof can not be broken at the same time, but the pressure step is basically the same; the working face for the first weighting and periodical weighting is more obvious to the change of pressure step change, when the pressure of the working face is coming, the stent force increased significantly, but there are still part of the stent work resistance exceeds the rated working resistance, low stability, still need to strengthen management.

  10. Detecting Abrupt Change of Streamflow at Lintong Station of Wei River

    Jingjing Fan


    Full Text Available According to abrupt diagnosis of runoff, two methods, that is, moving approximate entropy and moving permutation entropy, are used to analyse the abrupt year of the daily river runoff from 1961 to 2006 at Lintong station of Wei River in Loess Plateau. The runoff series are divided into 4 stages. With the analysis of hydrological characters of different stages, we find that there are abrupt changes at the three years 1972, 1983, and 2002. The result shows that moving approximate entropy and moving permutation entropy methods are useful tools for abrupt diagnosis of runoff. The attribution of abrupt change at the Lintong runoff series is primarily due to the reduced precipitation, increased water conservancy project, increased water consumption of industry and agriculture, significantly decreased groundwater table, and increased evaporation.

  11. Eigensolution techniques, their applications and the Fisher's information entropy of Tietz-Wei diatomic molecular potential

    Falaye, B J; Ikhdair, S M; Hamzavi, M


    In this study, approximate analytical solution of Schr\\"odinger, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations under the Tietz-Wei (TW) diatomic molecular potential are represented by using an approximation for the centrifugal term. We have applied three types of eigensolution techniques; the functional analysis approach (FAA), supersymmetry quantum mechanics (SUSYQM) and asymptotic iteration method (AIM) to solve Klein-Gordon Dirac and Schr\\"odinger equations, respectively. The energy eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions for these three wave equations are obtained and some numerical results and figures are reported. It has been shown that these techniques yielded exactly same results. some expectation values of the TW diatomic molecular potential within the framework of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem (HFT) have been presented. The probability distributions which characterize the quantum-mechanical states of TW diatomic molecular potential are analysed by means of complementary information measures of a probabil...

  12. Undercooling, Rapid Solidification, and Relations to Processing in Low Earth Orbit (A Review of the Works of Bingbo Wei)

    deGroh, Henry C., III


    This is a survey of the published works of Prof. Bingbo Wei of the Department of Applied Physics at Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian P.R. China. Transformations among solid - liquid - and vapor are fundamental to the foundations of life and culture on Earth. The development and understanding of materials has lead the evolution and advancement of the human race since antiquity. Materials and fluids research is continuing today, with us standing on the shoulders of those that have gone before us. Technological and scientific breakthroughs continue due to studies of greater and greater complexity, that include for example, research done at high pressures, in high magnetic fields, at temperatures near absolute zero, and in the low gravity environment of low Earth orbit. Of particular technological importance is the liquid to solid transformation of metals and alloys. Solidification processing is generally the most important factor in the final properties of objects made of metal; and undercooling is the fundamental driving force for all solidification. The interest and resources dedicated to the study of solidification and undercooling are great and World wide. For many years B. Wei and his coworkers have been studying undercooling and rapid solidification and have amassed a significant body of published research in this important field, contributing to the leading edge of the state-of-the-art. It is the goal of this memorandum to provide a review of the research of B. Wei et al.; publications in Chinese are included in the reference list but are not discussed. The bulk of Wei's work has been in the area of undercooling and rapid solidification [1-11, 13-16, 24-36] with papers dating back to 1989, the same year he earned his Ph.D. Below, discussions of Wei's undercooling and rapid solidification research have been grouped together mostly on the basis of alloy type, such as eutectic, intermetallic, or monotectic.

  13. Clinical Observation on Therapeutic Effect of Ji De Sheng She Yao Tablet on 16 Cases with AIDS Complicated by Herpes Zoster


    @@The Ji De Sheng She Yao tablet (季德胜蛇药片)is a drug for snake-bites and insect bites. According to recent reports, this drug has been used to treat herpes zoster, hepatitis B, parotitis, nephrotic syndrome, acute conjunctivitis, recurrent aphtha, urticaria, etc.1 with good therapeutic effects. More than half of the AIDS patients suffered from herpes zoster. The area of skin lesion in AIDS patients is larger than that of the patients without AIDS and the pain lasts longer. Many cases have keloids and depigmentation for months, even severe pain till their death. Routine therapeutic methods are not satisfactory in therapeutic effects. The expert group of traditional Chinese medicine for cooperative research on AIDS used Ji De Sheng She Yao tablets (季德胜蛇药片) to treat AIDS complicated by herpes zoster for the first time and the results are reported as follows.

  14. 桂枝汤和营调卫法之探析%Exploratory analysis on the method of ying and wei harmonization by Cinnamon Twig Decoction

    张敏; 纪立金


    桂枝汤乃仲景群方之首,临证应用广泛.本文基于藏象及营卫理论,从桂枝汤和营调卫之理、法、药、用四个方面探析桂枝汤营卫不和的内涵,提出了卫病伤营是营卫不和的重要病机、滋营化卫是和营调卫的前提条件,调营治卫是辨治思路、建中调营是关键环节的观点.%Cinnamon Twig Decoction is the first prescription of Shanghanlun, and it is widely used in clinics. Based on the visceral state and ying-wei theory, it analyses the connotation of Cinnamon Twig Decoction of ying-wei disharmony from the theory, method, Chinese herbal and clinical application, and put forward the view that ying-wei impaired is the important pathomechanism of disorder between ying and wei, nourishing ying-wei is the premise condition of ying and wei harmonization, harmonization the ying and wei is the differentiation ideas, and nourishing middle-jiao to balance ying is the key point.

  15. 从《诗比兴笺》看魏源的人格之美%On The Beauty of Wei Yuan’s Personality in Shi Bi Xing Jian(《诗比兴笺》)

    唐飞凤; 黄建军


    魏源,湘学代表人物,中国睁眼看世界第一批人物,其《海国图志》之“师夷长技以制夷”的战略性主张鼓舞着一代又一代的中国人。至于其《诗比兴笺》同样表现了一个深受传统文化影响的儒家学子的高尚人格。从这些笺诗中,读者可以感知:魏源语言上崇古尚雅,讲究引经据典;内容上追求诗史合一,体现关注现实的求真之美;当然,其最终的归宿与其经学思想一样,表现魏源忧国忧民、经世致用的实用之美。%As a typical representative of Hunan academics, Wei Yuan was one of thefirst batch of Chinese to observe the world.H is strategic proposition,“learning from the advanced technologies in the Wset in order to resist the invasion of the weste rn powers”, which was put forward in his book An Illustrated Gazetteer of Martime Countries, has been inspiring generati on after generation of Chinese. And his book, Shi Bi Xing Jian, also showed hisnoble persona ilty which was heavily influe nced by the traditional culture of the Confucian scholars. According to his ocmments, readers have a lot of perception that , he was fond of giving quotations from classics, pursuing the beauty of truht.Of course, as his Confucian thoughts, the f inal destination was also showing his patriotism and the beauty of concernign reality and utility.

  16. 20世纪上半叶中国的瑶族研究%Study on China Yao Nationality in the First Half of the 20th Century



    In the first half of the 20th century many scholars overcame numerous difficulties to do the field research in the minority regions. One of their important works is the Yao nationality study. They wrote a lot of fieldwork reports and collected related cultural relics. These efforts inspired scholars and public at that time to expand and deepen the study, so “Yao study ”has got its place in world academic circle. Understanding and inheriting works of that time has great significance in Yao nationality study.%20世纪上半叶,一些学者克服重重困难进入少数民族地区进行田野调查,瑶族地区的调查和研究是其中重要的一环。他们撰写了一些实地调查报告并搜集相关文物。这些前驱者的努力和成果激励着学术同仁和普通民众,学术研究得以拓展和深化,国际学界由此有了“瑶学”的一席之地。研究这份宝贵的学术遗产,具有重要的学术意义。

  17. Dan Zhi Xiao Yao Yin Combined With Auricular-Point-Pressing for Treatment of Optic Atrophy - A Clinical Observation of 51 Cases



    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Dan Zhi Xiao Yao Yin (丹栀消遥饮 Decoction of Moutan Bark and Capejasmine) combined with auricular-point- pressing therapy for treatment of optic atrophy. The visual acuity and visual field was observed in the 51 cases (58 eyes) from the treatment group that were treated with Dan Zhi Xiao Yao Yin combined with auricular-point-pressing therapy and the 43 cases (49 eyes)from the control group that were treated with routine western drugs at the end of the trial (60 days). The effective rates of increase in visual acuity obtained in the treatment and the control groups were 79.3% and 44.89% respectively and enlargement in visual field were 61.9% and 22.6% respectively. Statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences between two groups (P<0.05). The therapeutic effect of Dan Zhi Xiao Yao Yin combined with auricular-point -pressing therapy in increasing the visual acuity and enlarging the visual field was superior to that of the routine western drugs.

  18. Study on the Kind and Character of Mongol Hats in Yuan Dynasty

    JIA Xi-zeng


    In the thirteenth century the Mongols created a vast, transcontinental empire that intensified cultural, art,craftwork, garment and commercial contact throughout Eurasia. Hats were so indispensable parts of formal Mongol dress that were seen as a symbol of Mongol traditional garment. Roughly Mongolian men's headgear can be divided into two groups, which are Li and Mao. In addition,Mongolian women's Gu-gu-gwan, a kind of bonnet, was the head-dress for the empress, concubines of the emperor, and wife of high ranking ministers. This study, based on the analysis of image resources and existing evidence, discusses the hats of Yuan period in the context of its group, origin, decoration and cultural influences.

  19. Part Ⅰ Clinical Acupuncture Lecture Twenty-Seven Rhinorrhea (Nasosinusitis,"Bi Yuan") with Turbid Discharge

    SHANG Xiukui; GUO Ling; DONG Hongying


    @@ In traditional Chinese medicine, "Bi Yuan"(rhinorrhea 鼻渊 ), also known as Nao Lou ( nasosinusitis with purulent discharge), is mainly characterized by turbid nasal discharge. It is often divided into two types, namely excess syndrome and deficiency syndrome. The excess syndrome results from the flaring-up of the stagnant lung-heat affecting the nose due to chronic common cold, or from the upward attack of the excessive fire from the liver and gallbladder. The deficiency syndrome is usually caused by hypofunction of the lung in dispersing and descending actions and the spleen in transportation and transformation of the water and dampness. Excess type rhinorrhea should be treated by removing heat, eliminating dampness and dredging the orifices, while deficiency type rhinorrhea treated by warming the lung, strengthening the spleen,dispelling cold and eliminatingdampness. It has been proved that excess type rhinorrhea can be treated effectively with acupuncture.

  20. Shandong Plans to Cultivate Two Aluminum Industry Groups with Sales Income Topping 100 billion yuan Within Three Years


    Recently,Shandong Province unveiled"Nonferrous Industry Transition and Upgrading Plan",which proposed that by 2017 it would cultivate 2 ultra large aluminum industry groups with sales income topping 100 billion yuan,aluminum capacity will be reduced to 9million tonnes;before 2020 it will no longer add new capacity.

  1. Analysis of Sima Qian's Criticism of Qu Yuan's "Li Sao"%司马迁屈骚批评析义



    司马迁与屈原均以宏文名垂千古,但屈原之“志”为“存君兴国”,即通过君王来实现其“美政”理想,把楚国的事情办好;司马迁之“志”是撰著《史记》,以期名垂后世。屈原“无我”,司马迁“为我”;屈原无心插柳柳成荫,司马迁则是有意栽花花盛开。%Sima Qian and Qu Yuan go down in history for their master pieces. But Qu Yuan's "ambition" is "save your country", namely by the emperor to realize the ideal of "beautifying politics" of the Chu state affairs; Sima Qian's "ambition" is writing"historical records" in order to leave a name in history. Qu Yuan holds on the idea of"without me",while Sima Qian holds "for me"; Qu Yuan becomes famous without intention but Sima Qian intends to be well known.

  2. 125 million Yuan has been In-vested in the Aluminium Fluoride Project in Mianchi County,He-nan Province


    <正>In May this year,Orient Shaoxing Salt Fluoride Co.,Ltd.under China Nonferrous Metals Min- ing Co.,Ltd.launched its 60,000-ton dry- process aluminium fluoride project.Currently, a total of 125 million Yuan has been invested in this project.It is reported that the project,lo-

  3. Jiaozuo Wanfang to Investment 1 Billion Yuan in Chalco Xinjiang for a Coal-fired Electricity Aluminum Integrated Project


    <正>On March 16,Jiaozuo Wanfang Aluminum Co.,Ltd.announced that the company together with its controlling shareholder Aluminum Corporation of China(Chalco) will jointly inject 2,848 million yuan into Chinalco Xinjiang Aluminum & Power("Chalco Xinjiang" for

  4. CSCEC and Chinalco Joined Hands to Invest 5 Billion Yuan for Making Deployment in Building New Materials


    CSCEC-Chinalco New Material Co.,Ltd,a company jointly invested by China State Construction Engineering Corporation(CSCEC)and Chinalco,was inaugurated in Chengdu,Sichuan,on December 15,CSCECChinalco will invest nearly 5 billion yuan capital in the next five years to makedeployment in the building new materials

  5. Shandong XinfaPlans to Invest 70 billion Yuan to Develop CoalPower-Aluminum Project in Zunyi


    <正>DOn April 18, Shandong Xinfa Group and Zunyi People’s Government formally signed a framework cooperation agreement for coalpower-aluminum integrated project, planning to invest 70 billion yuan to concentrate on building North Guizhou coal-power-aluminum integrated resource downstream processing base.

  6. Xinjiang Hongze Mining Invests 1 billion-1.2 billion yuan in a 20,000-ton Copper Mining Project


    <正>Xinjiang Hongze Mining Co.,Ltd.plans to invest 1 billion-1.2 billion yuan in a 20,000-ton copper mining project in Wuqia County.So far, it has completed registration,and completed consolidation of 7 mining rights of copper,lead

  7. Xiao Yao San against Corticosterone-Induced Stress Injury via Upregulating Glucocorticoid Receptor Reaction Element Transcriptional Activity

    Guoping Cao


    Full Text Available Previous studies have revealed that uncontrollable stress can impair the synaptic plasticity and firing property of hippocampal neurons, which influenced various hippocampal-dependent tasks including memory, cognition, behavior, and mood. In this work, we had investigated the effects and mechanisms of the Chinese herbal medicine Xiao Yao San (XYS against corticosterone-induced stress injury in primary hippocampal neurons (PHN cells. We found that XYS and RU38486 could increase cell viabilities and decrease cell apoptosis by MTT, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry assays. In addition, we observed that XYS notably inhibited the nuclear translocation of GR and upregulated the mRNA and protein expressions levels of Caveolin-1, GR, BDNF, TrkB, and FKBP4. However, XYS downregulated the FKBP51 expressions. Furthermore, the results of the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and double luciferase reporter gene detection indicated that FKBP4 promotes the transcriptional activity of GR reaction element (GRE by binding with GR, and FKBP51 processed the opposite action. The in vivo experiment also proved the functions of XYS. These results suggested that XYS showed an efficient neuroprotection against corticosterone-induced stress injury in PHN cells by upregulating GRE transcriptional activity, which should be developed as a potential candidate for treating stress injury in the future.

  8. Tong Xie Yao Fang relieves irritable bowel syndrome in rats via mechanisms involving regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine and substance P.

    Yin, Yue; Zhong, Lei; Wang, Jian-Wei; Zhao, Xue-Ying; Zhao, Wen-Jing; Kuang, Hai-Xue


    To investigate whether the Chinese medicine Tong Xie Yao Fang (TXYF) improves dysfunction in an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) rat model. Thirty baby rats for IBS modeling were separated from mother rats (1 h per day) from days 8 to 21, and the rectum was expanded by angioplasty from days 8 to 12. Ten normal rats were used as normal controls. We examined the effects of TXYF on defection frequency, colonic transit function and smooth muscle contraction, and the expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and substance P (SP) in colonic and hypothalamus tissues by Western blot and RT-PCT techniques in both normal rats and IBS model rats with characterized visceral hypersensitivity. Defecation frequency was 1.8 ± 1.03 in normal rats and 4.5 ± 1.58 in IBS model rats (P colon transit function was significantly increased (256.88 ± 20.32 vs 93.36 ± 17.28, P colonic smooth muscle tension and contract frequency in IBS model rats were significantly decreased by administration of TXYF. Exogenous agonist stimulants increased spontaneous activity and elicited contractions of colon smooth muscle in IBS model rats, and all of these actions were significantly reduced by TXYF involving 5-HT and SP down-regulation. TXYF can modulate the activity of the enteric nervous system and alter 5-HT and SP activities, which may contribute to the symptoms of IBS.

  9. From “Customary” to “Illegal”: Yao Ethnic Marriages on the Sino-Vietnamese Border

    Elena Barabantseva


    Full Text Available This article examines changing governing practices in the context of the Sino-Vietnamese border in the Guangxi Autonomous Region of China. The groups inhabiting the mountainous ranges of this ethnically diverse part of Southeast Asia evaded the reach of the state until the 1970s, when China and Vietnam started tightening control over the land border after the border war. With an increasingly rigid and clearly delimited Sino-Vietnamese borderland, binary forms of classification began to replace earlier fluid identifications, and the room for diverse social and cultural expressions became restricted. It is within this context that the ethnic marriage practices straddling the borders of China and its southern neighboring states discussed in this article took place. Cross-border ethnic Yao marriages have gone from customary to illegal in recent years as a result of China’s strict population control, its changing demography, and the accelerated shortage of manual labor in its border area. Border politics have permeated the private sphere, transforming common ethnic marriage partners into illegal migrants. Although ethnic marriage partners are relegated to an illegal status, they are indispensible in the local labor market and moral economy as mothers, caretakers, translators, guides, and manual workers. This article argues that, despite being antithetical to the bordering logic of state sovereignty, they are important agents who depend on and capitalize on the border economy.

  10. Heavy metal pollution and health risk assessment in the Wei River in China.

    Yang, Xuefu; Duan, Jinming; Wang, Lei; Li, Wei; Guan, Jianling; Beecham, Simon; Mulcahy, Dennis


    From data collected monthly at 26 monitoring cross sections in the Wei River in the Shaanxi Region of China during the period 2008-2012, the temporal pollution characteristics of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr(VI), Pb, and As) were analyzed based on a heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The monthly HPI values of the five heavy metals in the river fluctuated greatly in 2008 and then declined gradually with time. This general trend of reduction in HPI appears not to have a seasonal variation and most likely resulted from the continued improvement in heavy metal pollution control strategies implemented by local environmental agencies combined with a significant improvement in wastewater treatment capacities. Among the five heavy metals, Cd and Pb were below 0.1 and 3 μg L(-1), respectively, at all the sampling points in the studied areas in the year 2012. The detection rates of As, Hg, and Cr(VI) were in the order of Hg > Cr(VI) > As. Hg, Cr(VI), and As exceeded, in a month of the dry season in 2012, the standard limits for category III surface waters according to the China Environment Quality Standards for Surface Water (CEQSSW). Based on the assessment using the HPI method, the pollution status of these heavy metals in water of the Wei River in the Shaanxi Region was generally at an acceptable level, but exhibited distinctive characteristics between the main stream river and tributaries. Most of the tributaries were more seriously polluted than the main river. A health risk assessment was conducted based on the Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) method recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Apart from As, the health risk for the five heavy metals in the region were at acceptable levels for drinking water sources (hazard quotient (HQ) pollutant of concern among the five heavy metals; both its values of the HQ and CR indicated potentially adverse health risks for the local population.

  11. Wei Man is a Chinese, not a Korean%论卫满是中国人而非朝鲜人



    In BC194, WeiMan,a rebel in Yan region ,escaped to Korea and came to the throne in the locality. Jin Zhenpei,a scholor of RK, considers the majority of people in Yan region belong to the Mo nation, Which is one of ancient nations evolving to Korean;then Jin concludes WeiMan belongs to "Korean system". This thesis retorts his opinion. Indeed, the Mo nation is one of nations hich had evolved to Korean,but the great majority of them in China had fused into Various nations of north China and become the ingredient of the Chinese natioin.It's erroneous to identify the Mo nation with "Korean system".No matter whether WeiMan and Yan's refugees belong to the Mo nation or not,they are Chinese. It can' t be denied that WeiMan Korea contained Chinese constituent.%本文就韩国学者金贞培在其《韩国民族的文化和起源》一书中关于因燕国境内多为貊族,从而认定卫满及燕满亡民为"朝鲜人系统"的观点展开论述。本文认为民族是一个历史的范畴,许多古代民族不断分化融合到其他民族中去,并成为这其他民族不可分割的一部份,因而将貊族完全认为"朝鲜人系统"是错误的。无论卫满和燕满是不是貊族,他们都是中国人;卫满朝鲜的成份是不容否认的。

  12. Analysis of baseflow index based hydrological model in Upper Wei River basin on the Loess Plateau in China

    Liu, D.; Chang, J.; Tian, F.; Huang, Q.; Meng, X.


    The baseflow is the drainage from the groundwater and soil water to the streamflow. As one important source of the streamflow, the baseflow could be the main source of the streamflow in the dry season. The Wei River, located in the semi-arid region of the Loess Plateau which is overlain by deep and loose soil, is the largest tributary of the Yellow River. According to former research, most of the streamflow in the dry season in the headwater of the Yellow River is baseflow. For the whole Yellow River basin, the baseflow is an important component of the streamflow, and accounts for about 44% of the annual runoff. Physically-based distributed hydrological models can simulate the runoff components separately, and are important tools to analyse the runoff components. Given the importance of the baseflow in the dry season for drought relief to support the ecological water requirement and irrigation, especially in the Wei River, the baseflow is analysed in this study. To investigate the baseflow in the Upper Wei River basin, a semi-distributed hydrological model based on a Representative Elementary Watershed approach (THREW) is employed to investigate the runoff generation process. To compare the results, an automatic baseflow separation method proposed by Arnold is used to separate the baseflow from the daily streamflow at Beidao hydrological station in Upper Wei River basin from 2001 to 2004. Based on the hydrological modelling and the Arnold separation method, the average annual baseflow index, i.e. the ratio of baseflow to the total runoff, is estimated as in the range of 0.30-0.36. The average intra-annual monthly baseflow index represents the seasonality of the baseflow due to the seasonality of the precipitation and evapotranspiration, and is also analysed.

  13. Using the WEIS-SR to evaluate employee perceptions of their college work environment.

    Dorsey, Julie; Kaye, Miranda; Barratt, Jennifer; Biondi, Jennifer; Habrial, Amanda; Lane, Amanda; Marinelli, Victoria; Paulino, Tiffany; Singletary, Amanda


    Colleges have been experiencing reduced resource allocations, shifting student expectations, and organizational change. These changes increase employee stress at all levels. Ensuring that employee needs are being met and promoting a healthy and productive workforce has never been more important. To investigate employees' current perceptions of their work environments using the Work Environment Impact Scale-Self Rating (WEIS-SR). Full and part time employees on a small college campus in the United States were surveyed using the WEIS-SR through an online survey program to protect their anonymity. Perception of staffing levels, workplace support for a healthy lifestyle, number of supervisors, and personal health ratings contributed to employee perceptions of their work environment. There were also differences between staff, administration, and tenured and non-tenured faculty. From an occupational performance perspective, valuable information on employees' levels of volition, performance capacity and habituation, and perceptions of their physical and social environment in relation to their work environments was obtained. Further support for the use of the WEIS-SR and psychometric properties of the instrument (reliability and validity) was obtained.

  14. [Investigation of determining strontium in M. nitida Benth. var. hirsutissima. Z. Wei. by flame atomic absorption spectra].

    Zhang, Ling; Rao, Zhi-Jun; Guan, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Hai-Ming


    The present paper is aimed to establish the method of determining the strontium in M. nitida Benth. var. hirsutissima. Z. Wei. by means of air-acetylene flame atomic absorption spectra, and also provide reference for the determination of the strontium in other traditional Chinese medicine. M. Nitida Benthvarhirsutissima Z. Wei. was taken as the object. The authors used nitric-perchloric acid as digestion solution to digest samples by microwave which was controlled by pressure, and used EDTA-2Na as the releasing agent to add in the samples for determining the strontium in M. nitida Benth. var. hirsutissima. Z. Wei. by FAAS. The results showed that the samples were entirely digested by microwave. The working curve was Y = 0.036 5x -0.001 1, r = 0.999 4, the range was 0-1.6 microg x mL(-1), the average recovery rate was 101.5% with RSD 2.04%, and the method detection limit was 0.008 2 microg x mL(-1) (n = 21). It is concluded that this method is simple and accurate. It has high sensitivity and can be effectively used for determining the strontium in this traditional Chinese medicine.

  15. Drought Characteristic Analysis Based on an Improved PDSI in the Wei River Basin of China

    Lei Zou


    Full Text Available In this study, to improve the efficiency of the original Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI_original, we coupled the Soil and Water Assessment tool (SWAT and PDSI_original to construct a drought index called PDSI_SWAT. The constructed PDSI_SWAT is applied in the Wei River Basin (WRB of China during 1960–2012. The comparison of the PDSI_SWAT with four other commonly used drought indices reveals the effectiveness of the PDSI_SWAT in describing the drought propagation processes in WRB. The whole WRB exhibits a dry trend, with more significant trends in the northern, southeastern and western WRB than the remaining regions. Furthermore, the drought frequencies show that drought seems to occur more likely in the northern part than the southern part of WRB. The principle component analysis method based on the PDSI_SWAT reveals that the whole basin can be further divided into three distinct sub-regions with different drought variability, i.e., the northern, southeastern and western part. Additionally, these three sub-regions are also consistent with the spatial pattern of drought shown by the drought frequency. The wavelet transform analysis method indicates that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO events have strong impacts on inducing droughts in the WRB. The results of this study could be beneficial for a scientific water resources management and drought assessment in the current study area and also provide a valuable reference for other areas with similar climatic characteristics.

  16. Retrospect and Prospect: Research on Yuan Ye%《园冶》研究的回顾与展望

    张大鹏; 张薇


    《园冶》被称为世界上最古老的造园名著,内涵丰富,极具研究价值.通过在主要搜索网站和期刊数据库中进行检索,发现近代以来,《园冶》研究文献包括17本著作和155篇论文.首先梳理分析研究成果,总结出《园冶》研究历经起步奠基、渐进发展和纵深发展3个阶段;继而从《园冶》注释及商榷、园林美学、造园理论、技艺和实践以及《园冶》文化等方面归纳主要学术观点,理清《园冶》研究发展脉络,洞悉研究态势;最后分析目前研究中存在的问题,以及提出进一步研究的展望,以期明确《园冶》更为丰富的时代意义.%Yuan Ye is the world's most ancient monograph about landscape architecture with rich meaning and full of value for research. The author made a search in major search websites and journals database and found that there are 17 works and 155 papers in Yuan Ye academic research area since modern times. Firstly, through a review of the relevant research findings, this paper summarized Yuan Ye research has gone through 3 stages which are initial and founding stage, progressive development stage and deepening development stage. Then, from the aspects of comments and discussion, garden aesthetics, theory, skill and practice of landscape architecture, culture of Yuan Ye and so on, the author concluded main academic viewpoints, clarified the development context of Yuan Ye research and thoroughly understood the present research situation. In the end, by analyzing the existing problems in present research, this paper made a prospect about the future research in order to explore the great time significance of Yuan Ye.

  17. Impact of climate change and anthropogenic activities on stream flow and sediment discharge in the Wei River basin, China

    P. Gao


    Full Text Available Reduced stream flow and increased sediment discharge are a major concern in the Yellow River basin of China which supplies water for agriculture, industry and the growing populations located along the river. Similar concerns exist in the Wei River basin which is the largest tributary of the Yellow River basin and comprises the highly eroded Loess Plateau. Better understanding of the drivers of stream flow and sediment discharge dynamics in the Wei River basin is needed for development of effective management strategies for the region and entire Yellow River basin. In this regard we analysed long term trends for water and sediment discharge during the flood season in the Wei River basin, China. Stream flow and sediment discharge data for 1932 to 2008 from existing hydrological stations located in two sub-catchments and at two points in the Wei River were analysed. Precipitation data were analysed from corresponding meteorological stations. We identified change points or transition years for the trends by the Pettitt method and, using double mass curves, we diagnosed whether they were caused by precipitation changes, human intervention, or both. We found significant decreasing trends for stream flow and sediment discharge during the flood season in both sub-catchments and in the Wei River itself. Change-point analyses further revealed that transition years existed and that rapid decline in stream flow began in 1968 (P<0.01, and that sediment discharge began in 1981 (P<0.01 in the main river. In the two sub-catchments, the transition years were 1985 (P<0.01 and 1994 (P<0.05 for water discharge, and 1978 and 1979 for sediment discharge (P<0.05, respectively. The impact of precipitation or human activity on the reduction amount after the transition years was estimated by double mass curves of precipitation vs stream flow (sediment. For reductions in stream flow and sediment discharge, the contribution rate of human

  18. Impact of climate change and anthropogenic activities on stream flow and sediment discharge in the Wei River basin, China

    P. Gao


    Full Text Available Reduced stream flow and increased sediment discharge are a major concern in the Yellow River basin of China, which supplies water for agriculture, industry and the growing populations located along the river. Similar concerns exist in the Wei River basin, which is the largest tributary of the Yellow River basin and comprises the highly eroded Loess Plateau. Better understanding of the drivers of stream flow and sediment discharge dynamics in the Wei River basin is needed for development of effective management strategies for the region and entire Yellow River basin. In this regard we analysed long-term trends for water and sediment discharge during the flood season in the Wei River basin, China. Stream flow and sediment discharge data for 1932 to 2008 from existing hydrological stations located in two subcatchments and at two points in the Wei River were analysed. Precipitation and air temperature data were analysed from corresponding meteorological stations. We identified change-points or transition years for the trends by the Pettitt method and, using double mass curves, we diagnosed whether they were caused by precipitation changes, human intervention, or both. We found significant decreasing trends for stream flow and sediment discharge during the flood season in both subcatchments and in the Wei River itself. Change-point analyses further revealed that transition years existed and that rapid decline in stream flow began in 1968 (P P P P P < 0.05, respectively. The impact of precipitation or human activity on the reduction amount after the transition years was estimated by double mass curves of precipitation vs. stream flow (sediment. For reductions in stream flow and sediment discharge, the contribution rate of human activity was found to be 82.80 and 95.56%, respectively, and was significantly stronger than the contribution rate of precipitation. This evidence clearly suggests that, in the absence of significant decreases in precipitation

  19. The Cultural Implication of the Naming Arts in the Yuan Drama%论元杂剧人物命名的民族文化意蕴



    对元代杂剧人物命名爬梳整理,挖掘其中蕴藏的文化内涵,探讨杂剧人名折射出的元代社会制度、思想文化、时代心理和民族特点。%This article has made some analysis of the naming arts in the Yuan Drama, in order to excavate the social system, the ideology culture, the era psychology, the national characteristic of Yuan dynasty though the naming arts in the Yuan Drama.

  20. An examination on Wei Yuan’s the "ocean country" concept from the perspective of ocean consciousness awakening in modern age%基于近代海洋意识觉醒视角的魏源“海国”理念探究



    19世纪中叶以后,西方的科学技术以"坚船利炮"的方式一度显示了西方海洋文明的强势。在鸦片战争之前,中国统治者一直将海洋当作对外防御的天然"长城"。海洋从来没有被纳入中国国家安全的考虑范围。鸦片战争后,如何面对来自海洋的威胁,执行什么样的海洋战略成为中国不得不面对的问题。作为经历了鸦片战争之变的近代思想家,魏源在中国近代史上最早提出放眼世界、向西方学习的主张,并力图从不同的方面更深入地了解西方海洋文明强盛的根源。魏源吹响了"师夷长技以制夷"的号角,主张改漕运为海运、发展海商、巩固海防、建立新式海军、掌握海权,期望中国通过发展海洋文明而成为一个能够足以"制夷"的"海国"。魏源的"海运—海商—海防—海军—海权"的"海国"理念标志着中国近代海洋意识的觉醒。随着西方海权理论在近代中国的传播,近代国人的海洋意识逐渐从增强"海上力量"过渡到争取"海洋权利"的转变。%In the later nineteenth century,western techniques of strong ships and guns showed that ocean civilization of western powers was strong.Before the Opium War,Chinese rulers recognized the sea as external natural defense "the Great Wall".The ocean had never been incorporated into Chinese national security considerations.After the Opium War,China has to face the problem of how to face the threat from the sea and perform what marine strategy.As a modern thinker experiencing the Opium War,Wei Yuan put forward having the whole world in view,learning western strategies,and understanding of Western strong roots from different aspects.Wei Yuan advocated to use western good technology to control western countries.He advocated to transport the grain by sea instead of river,develop ocean commercial and new navy.He wanted that China could become a modern ocean country which could

  1. Role of Möbius constants and scattering functions in Cachazo-He-Yuan scalar amplitudes

    Lam, C. S.; Yao, York-Peng


    The integration over the Möbius variables leading to the Cachazo-He-Yuan double-color n -point massless scalar amplitude are carried out one integral at a time. Möbius invariance dictates the final amplitude to be independent of the three Möbius constants σr,σs,σt, but their choice affects integrations and the intermediate results. The effect of the Möbius constants, which will be held finite but otherwise arbitrary, the two sets of colors, and the scattering functions on each integration is investigated. A general systematic way to carry out the n -3 integrations is explained, each exposing one of the n -3 propagators of a single Feynman diagram. Two detailed examples are shown to illustrate the procedure, one a five-point amplitude, and the other a nine-point amplitude. Our procedure does not generate intermediate spurious poles, in contrast to what is common by choosing Möbius constants at 0, 1, and ∞ .

  2. Development of digital sideband separating down-conversion for Yuan-Tseh Lee Array

    Li, Chao-Te; Kubo, Derek; Cheng, Jen-Chieh; Kuroda, John; Srinivasan, Ranjani; Ho, Solomon; Guzzino, Kim; Chen, Ming-Tang


    This report presents a down-conversion method involving digital sideband separation for the Yuan-Tseh Lee Array (YTLA) to double the processing bandwidth. The receiver consists of a MMIC HEMT LNA front end operating at a wavelength of 3 mm, and sub-harmonic mixers that output signals at intermediate frequencies (IFs) of 2-18 GHz. The sideband separation scheme involves an analog 90° hybrid followed by two mixers that provide down-conversion of the IF signal to a pair of in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signals in baseband. The I and Q baseband signals are digitized using 5 Giga sample per second (Gsps) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). A second hybrid is digitally implemented using field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to produce two sidebands, each with a bandwidth of 1.6 GHz. The 2 x 1.6 GHz band can be tuned to cover any 3.6 GHz window within the aforementioned IF range of the array. Sideband rejection ratios (SRRs) above 20 dB can be obtained across the 3.6 GHz bandwidth by equalizing the power and delay between the I and Q baseband signals. Furthermore, SRRs above 30 dB can be achieved when calibration is applied.

  3. Chondroprotective Effects and Multitarget Mechanisms of Fu Yuan Capsule in a Rat Osteoarthritis Model

    Zeng, Li; Xiao, Cai Zhi; Deng, Zi Ting


    Fu Yuan Capsule (FYC) has been clinically used for osteoarthritis (OA) and its related diseases for many years in China. However, its pharmacological mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the potential chondroprotective effects of FYC on articular cartilage. Rat OA model was induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection. A group of rats was treated with FYC for 12 weeks. Joint structure, types I and II collagen, and proteoglycan were evaluated by histological examination. The expression of C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type II collagen, hydroxyproline, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs, matrix metalloproteinase, interleukin-1 beta, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, heat-shock protein 70, transforming growth factor-beta, osteoprotegerin, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand were detected. Treatment with FYC could protect against articular cartilage injury. FYC treatment significantly decreased the extracellular matrix degradation factors and inflammatory mediators. Moreover, articular cartilage protective factors were increased in the FYC group. The current finding suggests that FYC protects articular cartilage in a rat OA model through various ways. Thus, it may be an effective agent for OA treatment. PMID:28167976

  4. As the Yuan Dynasty Tibetan Buddhism Sakya%简论元代藏传佛教萨迦派


    元代是西藏历史发生重大变化的一个阶段,萨迦派由于得到元朝皇室的扶植,掌握了西藏地方的行政权力,获得了特别的政治和宗教地位,使得萨迦派在宗教教理、文化、建筑、艺术等方面都有重要的建树,巩固了在藏传佛教中的重要地位。%The Yuan dynasty is a significant change of Tibetan history stage, sakya propped up by the yuan dynasty royal, mastered the Tibet local administrative power and the special political and religious status, makes the sakya in religious teachings, culture, architecture, art, etc, are important, sakya was cemented in the important position of Tibetan Buddhism.

  5. The Light of Faith Reflected by Yao Costumes:A Case Study of Du’an Yao Nationality in Guangxi%瑶族服饰折射的信仰之光--以广西都安县布努瑶为例



    以广西都安县布努瑶为对象,在前人研究的基础上,运用民俗学等多学科理论对瑶族织绣图案进行描述和分析,探讨了古老瑶族的民间信仰在服饰上的各种体现,对以瑶族服饰为代表的瑶族文化的传承和发扬具有现实意义,同时具有重要学术价值。%Taking Bunuyao nationality as the object,on the basis of previous studies and by employing multidisciplinary theories,this paper has described and analyzed the dress of Yao nationality with distinctive cultural features,exploring the old Yao folk beliefs reflected in costumes of Yao nationality,which is of great academic value and has practical significance to the Yao’s cultural heritage and develop-ment.

  6. Application of the Ritual Banquet Empresses in Mongolia and Yuan Dynasty%蒙元后妃宴礼探析

    张楠; 贾陈亮


    The ritual banquet of Mongolia and Yuan Dynasty is complicated, after the founding of the Yuan Dynasty, although formulate a ritual banquet which refers the system of Song Dynasty and Jin Dynasty and the Mongols' Customs, mongolian often according to the older customs at the banquet. The ritual banquet has a lot of characters by comparison with The previous dynasties, empresses attend and sponsor many banquets sat court and study their ritual at ritual banquet, which is of value to know their important roles in the political life and represent the heritage and development of the ritual banquet of Mongolia and Yuan Dynasty .%蒙元时期宴礼错综复杂,元朝建立后虽采择宋金遗制、参酌国俗制定了一套宴仪,但蒙古人饮宴仍多按旧俗。宴礼较前代颇具特色,其中后妃多参与并主办多种宫廷宴会,考察后妃在宴会中的礼仪,对我们了解蒙元后妃在政治生活中的重要角色有一定的价值,且能再现蒙元宴礼的传承与发展。

  7. A new framework to evaluate ecosystem health: a case study in the Wei River basin, China.

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Zongxue; Zhan, Chesheng; Yin, Xuwang; Yu, Songyan


    water and watershed management of the Wei River basin, or even the Yellow River basin.

  8. The protective effect of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Fang in salt-sensitive hypertension rats.

    Yang, Qiang; He, Yanming; Wang, Wenjian


    Abstract Hypertension is considered as a chronic and complex disease relating to multiple systemic systems. Apart from lowering blood pressure, the final purpose of the treatment lies in reducing the variability of blood pressure and other risk factors. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history of treating hypertension. This study was designed to determine the effect of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Fang (L-W-D-H-F), a compound used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, to treat salt-sensitive hypertension (SSHT) induced by a high-salt and high-fat diet. L-W-D-H-F was prepared from six plant extracts. It was dissolved in 0.9% sodium chloride solution prior to use. Male Sprague-Dawley (6 weeks) rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet (CON); HSF (Without Drug Intervention); VAL (Valsartan 13.33 mg/kg/day); and LW (L-W-D-H-F 8.13 g/kg/day). Six weeks after blood pressure treatment, plasma biochemical analyses and histological and functional examination of the kidney were performed. L-W-D-H-F decreased the levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting blood glucose (FG), insulin (INS), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), homeostasis model assessment of basal insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and angiotensin II (Ang II) from plasma and Ang II and renin from kidney. It also promoted the excretion of urinary Na(+), reducing the loss of urinary K(+) and microalbuminuria (MAU), and improved the glomerular afferent arteriole, arterioles and each kidney unit. Together, these results suggest that L-W-D-H-F is capable of moderately reducing MAP in salt-sensitive hypertension and can work at different levels on multiple differential targets.

  9. 蓝田瑶族传统婚俗新探%New study on Yao People’s Traditional Wedding Convention in Lantian Marriage Custom of Yao People in Lantian

    穆静; 刘彬彬


    Yao people in Lantian has developed its own unique culture of marriage custom with adapting themselves to the culture of Han people. However,the nature of the marriage custom has been constantly changed as the time moves forward. According to re-search,this paper reveals that the existing description of Lantian marriage custom,such as freedom to choose one’s spouse,details of marriage etiquette,and status of women,is inconsistent with realities and therefore necessary for debating. Besides,some of the main factors that cause the decline of Lantian marriage custom are certain policies in historical periods,impact from the outside world,and gradual decay of its own national awareness. The paper suggests that importance should be attached to the cultivation of the successors of the Lantian marriage custom,more approaches of inheriting the marriage custom be promoted,and tourism resources of national mar-riage custom be exploited in appropriate ways so as to protect and inherit the marriage custom in Lantian.%蓝田瑶族融合汉族文化,形成独具特色的婚俗文化,但传统婚俗随着时代的发展不断发生嬗变。调研发现,已有关于蓝田婚俗的自由恋爱、迎娶礼的细节以及妇女地位等方面的表述,与实际情形有些出入,有商榷的必要。此外,由于历史时期的政策、外界社会的冲击与自身民族意识逐渐薄弱等方面的原因,是蓝田传统婚俗衰落的主因。为此,笔者建议,应重视蓝田婚俗传承人的培养,拓展蓝田婚俗传承途径,合理开发民族婚俗旅游资源,这是保护与传承蓝田传统婚俗的有效途径。

  10. Jiangxi Copper Co.,Ltd Invested 268 Million Yuan to Expand the Capacity of High-Grade Copper Foil Production to 5000 ton/year


    <正>At the end of 2008, Jiangxi Copper Co.,Ltd reviewed and approved the"Proposal on In- vesting 268 Million Yuan to Jiangxi Copper- Yates Foil Inc for Technical Upgrade and Phase-two Expansion of Capacity."

  11. [Xi yuan lu (Records for Washing Away of Wrong Cases) and justice tests in the Republic of China in the context of western knowledge].

    Long, Wei


    Xi yuan lu (Records for Washing Away of Wrong Cases) has become the important criterion and authority of the criminal justice tests in the proceedings of case and judicatory judgment, since it was issued royally and officially in the reign of Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty. However, the Xi yuan lu and its traditional tests was subjected to strong criticism after the introduction of modern science. Especially since the May 4(th) New Culture Movement, not only the theory in the Xi yuan lu had been met with incredulity and condemned sharply through western chemical tests by the intelligentsia, but also the traditional methods of justice tests based on the book was fully criticized. Though the Xi yuan lu has fallen down from the altar, the traditional methods in the book still were used in practice in China during 1930s--1940s because the scientific system of forensic medicine was not established yet. Xi yuan lu, though fallen yet not defeated, reveals its deep-rooted life. The modern fate of the Xi yuan lu was not only the direct result of different historical conversation in the different periods of modern time, but also a true picture of modern China.

  12. Regulating effect of TongXie-YaoFang on colonic epithelial secretion via Cl- and HCO3- channel

    Yang, Cheng; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Sheng-Sheng; An, Fang-Mei; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Qing-Lin; Zhan, Qiang


    AIM To investigate the pharmacological effect of TongXie-YaoFang (TXYF) formula, a Chinese herbal formula, on Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) rats. METHODS In a neonatal maternal separation plus restraint stress (NMS + RS) model of D-IBS, male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups (NMS + RS group and TXYF-formula group) with no handlings were used as controls (NH group). Starting from postnatal day 60, rats in TXYF-formula group were administered TXYF-formula (4.92 g/100 g bodyweight) orally twice a day for 14 consecutive days while NH group and NMS + RS group were given distilled water. Using short-circuit current technology, we observed 5-HT-induced changes of current across ion channels, such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel, epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), Ca2+-dependent Cl- channel (CACC), Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter (NKCC), and Na+-HCO3- co-transporter (NBC), in the colonic epithelium of three groups after exposure to drugs and specific blockers with a Power Lab System (AD Instruments International). RESULTS Under basal conditions, the changes of short-circuit current (∆Isc, µA/cm2) induced by 5-HT were similar in NH group and TXYF-formula group, and both higher than NMS + RS group (70.86 µA/cm2 ± 12.32 µA/cm2, 67.67 µA/cm2 ± 11.68 µA/cm2 vs 38.8 µA/cm2 ± 7.25 µA/cm2, P CFTR Cl- channel was blocked by 1,1-dimethyl piperidinium chloride (DPC), 5-HT-induced ∆Isc did not significantly differ in three groups (42.28 µA/cm2 ± 10.61 µA/cm2 vs 51.48 µA/cm2 ± 6.56 µA/cm2 vs 47.75 µA/cm2 ± 7.99 µA/cm2, P > 0.05, respectively). The similar results could also be obtained in three groups when NBC and NKCC were respectively blocked by their blockers. CONCLUSION TXYF-formula can regulate the Cl- and HCO3- secretion of colonic mucosa via CFTR Cl- channel, Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, NBC and NKCC co-transporters. PMID:28082810

  13. Research on County Dianshi in the Yuan Dynasty%元代县典史考述



    县典史的设置是元朝强化县级衙门中首领吏员职责的表现。县典史全面介入县级政务,是县级政权运作的重要环节。县典史员额南北异制,与诸县等第划分标准的南北异制密切相关。县典史的选任与迁转,横跨不同类别的衙署。县典史的选任呈现出日趋严格、规范的趋势。江南地区县典史的选任与迁转多是在行省范围内进行。县典史的出职入流有着制度上的明确规定。县典史贪腐加剧了县级政权的腐败。%The setup of county Dianshi in the Yuan Dynasty reflected the fact that the function of chief clerks in county had been strengthened by the central government.County Dianshi involved in county affairs comprehensively and become an important part of the operation of county government.The vary number of county Dianshi from north to south,which is closely related to the division standard of county’s grade.The selection and promotion of county Dianshi were been stretched across different Yamen, meanwhile its selection showed a rising trend on strictness and specification.The selection and promotion of county Dianshi in Jiang-nan region carry out within province roughly.The appointment and office of county Dianshi must follow the specific rules.Their cor-ruption aggravated the corruption of county government.

  14. On Intercourse of Yao He and Bai Juyi and Its Influence%论姚合与白居易的交往及其影响



    The literary exchanges of Yao He and Bai Ju-yi is an extremely important part in Bai Ju-yi’s interaction map. Their inter-course is based on Laziness. Bai Ju-yi’s literary export promotes Yao He’s viewpoint of retiring from political life turn from conflict to satisfaction,makes his poems change from single themes to diversified ones,and makes his life style spread from single seclusion and poverty to diversified styles.%姚合与白居易的交往是姚合文学交往图谱中极为重要的组成部分。姚白交往以疏懒性情为基础,白居易的文化输出推动了姚合仕隐观念从矛盾转向圆融,促使姚合单一的诗歌题材向多元化转变,并使其“武功体”从单一的清寒苦僻向多元风格延伸。

  15. A Study on Shear Wave Splitting for the Sequence of the Aftershocks of the Yao'an Ms6.5 Earthquake in Yunnan Province

    Qian Xiaodong; Li Baiji; Qin Jiazheng


    The shear wave splitting study is based on data of the 3-component digital seismograms. This was recorded at 3 sets of stations, which were set up after the Yao'an M_s6.5 earthquake, near its epicenter. The results indicate the following: ①Shear wave splitting has been observed through analyzing 236 aftershock recordings within the shear wave window. ②The time delay was mostly in the range of 3.5~10.5ms/km and the average was 7.0ms/km.③The polarization direction of the fast split S-wave was mostly in the range of N140°E~N164°E and the average was N152.4°E. ④The preferred polarization direction for the fast shear wave was different from the direction of the seismogenic structure of the mainshock (Maweijing fault) and the direction of the rupture of the aftershocks, but similar to the principal compressional amis of the regional stress field. ⑤Shear wave splitting for sequence of the aftershocks of the Yao'an earthuake was the result of anisotropy of EDA cracks controlled by stress field.

  16. Study on meridians and collaterals through ying-qi and wei-qi%体验营卫论经脉



    Assisted with inference, and approved by the ancient medical classics, it is concluded that meridians and collaterals are often felt in the form of qi through imitation of the methods of life experiencing of the ancient people. Ying-qi is considered as jing-qi (meridian qi), which originates from the experiences of respiration. And wei-qi relates with experiences of sleep. Part of meridian theory originated from the traditional Chinese thought of seeking the internal cause but not the external manifestations, and paying attention to the self-adjustment, accomplishment and comprehension. It is also believed that the theory of ying-qi traveling inside the meridians and wei-qi outside the meridians is based on the theory that needling sensation has close relationship with wei-qi.%效仿古人采用的体验、感受生命的方法,辅以推理,证之以古代医学典籍,结果认为经脉常以气的形式被感受到.营气即经气,它源于对呼吸的体验,而卫气则与感受睡眠有关.经脉理论部分来自于中国传统的求诸内而不求诸外、重视生命修为和感悟的思维形式."营在脉中,卫在脉外"的理论建立在针刺"得气"来自卫气的基础之上.

  17. Clinical Observation on Insomnia Treated by Wei-Defensive Qi-Regulating and Brain-Strengthening Needling Technique

    GAO Xi-yan; LI Xing-rui; MA Qiao-lin; ZHAO Xin-ji; SHAO Su-ju; WEI Yu-long; SUN Wei-xia; HANG Guo-qi


    In order to make a report on 90 cases of insomnia treated by the Wei-defensive qi-regulating and brain-strengthening needling technique,as a clinical subject of the multiple center,for assessing the preliminary standardized indications and operating methods and making an initial summary for writing the draft of the technique operation.Methods:By ratio of 1:1,the patients in conformity with the criteria were randomly divided into the experimental group and control group.In the experimental group,45 cases were treated with the Wei-defensive qi-regulating and brain-strengthening needling technique on Baihui (GV 20),Dazhui(GV 14),Shenmai(BL 62),Zhaohai(KI 6),plus ear points.In the control group,45 cases were treated with routine acupuncture on Sishencong(Ex-HN 1),Shenmen (HT 7),Sanyinjiao(SP 6),etc.The therapeutic effects in the two groups were observed and assessed in comparison.Results:The results showed cure in 15 cases.remarkable effect in 27 cases,effect in 42 cases,failure in 6 cases,and the total eriective rate in 94.4% in 90 cases of insomnia.In the three centers,the statistic management was performed based upon PSQI integral and showed significant difference(P<0.01),and no significant difference among various groups(P>0.01).Conclusion:The therapeutic effect in the treatment of insomnia by Wei-defensive qi-regulating and brain-strengthening needling technique is better than the control group and the therapeutic effect and methods in various centers are stable.without any deviation.

  18. "魏晋文学自觉说"反思%Reflections on "literary awareness in Wei and Jin Dynasties"



    日本学者铃木虎雄首倡的"魏晋文学自觉说"并不是一个科学的论断."汉代文学自觉说"是对"魏晋文学自觉说"的一个有力挑战,从汉魏以来"功利主义"与"文学自觉"、汉人的"个体意识"与抒情文学的关系来看,促进汉魏以来中国中古文学发展变化的根本原因是秦汉社会制度的变革、文人阶层的出现及其特殊的文化心态,以及他们对于文学的基本态度.以此为基础,可以清晰地看到从汉到唐的中国文学的演变轨迹."魏晋文学自觉说"不能全面地描述中国中古文学的发展过程,它影响了我们对于中国文学发展规律和本质特征的认识,因而在中国中古文学研究中不适宜使用"文学自觉"这一概念.%Literary awareness in the Wei and Jin Dynasties (Wei Chao 魏朝 CE 220-265; Jin Chao 晋朝 CE 265-420), as first proposed by Suzuki Torao, is not a "scientific" argument. From the relationships between "practicalism" and "literary awareness" as well as "individualism" and "lyric literature" in the Han (Han Chao 汉朝 BCE 206-CE 220) and Wei Dynasties, it can be seen that the fundamental drive of medieval literature was the social changes taking place during these dynasties, the emergence of the literati as a social stratum, and their attitude towards literature. The concept of "literary awareness in the Wei and Jin Dynasties" cannot describe the literary development in medieval China. As it misunderstands the essential characteristics in the development of Chinese literature, it should be discarded.

  19. Identification of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers Linked to Sex Determination in Calamus simplicifolius C. F. Wei

    Hua YANG; Si-Ming GAN; Guang-Tian YIN; Huang-Can XU


    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular marker technique was used to determine the sex of Calamus simplicifolius C. F. Wei In the present study, DNA samples were extracted individually from 10 male and 10 female plants. After a total of 1 040 decamer primers had been tested, an approximate 500-bp male-specific DNA fragment was generated with the S1443 primer. It is feasible to identify sex at the early stages of plant life, which is beneficial for improving breeding programs of this dioecious species. In addition, we have obtained a proper RAPD protocol that is useful for other species of rattan.

  20. Quantitative contribution of climate change and human activities to runoff changes in the Wei River basin, China

    C. S. Zhan; S. S. Jiang; F. B. Sun; Y. W. Jia; C. W. Niu; W. F. Yue


    Surface runoff from the Wei River basin, the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China, has dramatically decreased over last 51 years from 1958 to 2008. Climate change and human activities have been identified as the two main reasons for the decrease in runoff. The study period is split into two sub-periods (1958–1989 and 1990–2008) using the Mann–Kendall jump test. This study develops an improved climate elasticity method based on the original climate elasticity method...

  1. Analysis of baseflow index based hydrological model in Upper Wei River basin on the Loess Plateau in China

    Liu, D; Chang, J.; Tian, F.; Q. Huang; X. Meng


    The baseflow is the drainage from the groundwater and soil water to the streamflow. As one important source of the streamflow, the baseflow could be the main source of the streamflow in the dry season. The Wei River, located in the semi-arid region of the Loess Plateau which is overlain by deep and loose soil, is the largest tributary of the Yellow River. According to former research, most of the streamflow in the dry season in the headwater of the Yellow River is baseflow. For the whole Yell...

  2. Relationship between Emperor Ming of the Wei Dynasty and Sima Yi%魏明帝与司马懿关系考论--兼及魏明帝朝的政治



    Sima Yi was one of the four assisting ministers Emperor Wen of the Wei Dynasty had appointed before his death. After Emperor Ming of the Wei Dynasty acceded to the throne, he dispatched Sima Yi to Jingzhou to defend the enemy. Thereafter Sima Yi was appointed the local administrator, thus he was no longer directly engaged in the court’s affairs. Before Cao Zhen’s death, Emperor Ming assigned Sima Yi to the western frontiers to fight against the northern expedition of Zhuge Liang. After Gongsun Yuan rebelled in Liaodong, Emperor Ming dispatched Sima Yi to that prefecture. He demonstrated his trust to Sima Yi’s commanding the army. This emperor did not appoint Sima Yi as one of the assisting ministers before his death, but later let him control the imperial government with Cao Shuang because of the advice of Liu Fang and Sun Zi. During the period of Emperor Ming, Chen Qun and Chen Jiao actually wielded the power and gained the trust of the emperor. However, their attitude towards Sima Yi was somewhat intriguing. Emperor Ming could make use of Sima Yi, but would not go near him. As for Sima Yi’s attitude towards Emperor Ming, he pretended to be loyal to conceal his unfaithfulness, and raised his prestige by contributing in national affairs outside the capital.%司马懿是魏文帝临终前委任的四位辅政大臣之一。魏明帝即位后,将司马懿从朝中派往荆州御敌,后委以方任,这样他不再能直接参与朝中事务。曹真病逝前,魏明帝将司马懿调到西线抵御诸葛亮的北伐。公孙渊拥兵反叛后,魏明帝又派司马懿远征辽东,并对司马懿统兵作战表现出相当的信任。魏明帝临终前委任的辅政大臣中本来没有司马懿,说明他对后者在政治上并不完全信任,但病中的他后来听信刘放、孙资的话,最终让司马懿与曹爽一同辅政。在魏明帝朝中,陈群与陈矫掌握实权并得到皇帝的信任,而他们对司马懿的态度耐人

  3. 从王元翰诗四首探其与东林党之关系%Study on Relationship of WANG Yuan-han with Donglin Faction from the Four Poems of WANG Yuan-han



    WANG Yuan-han upheld the supervisor spirit, so that he agreed with Donglin faction�s political stance, and regarded Donglin faction members as fellow, and thought Donglin faction could save people and pinned the hope of changing political reality. No matter whether there is consciousness and in court or not, WANG Yuan-han connected with Donglin faction spiritually consciously or unconsciously, and then WANG Yuan-han was impeached to leave the court and was no longer reused, who had a close relation with Donglin faction , from which we can see his political quality as well as the status of fighting in court from Wanli period to the early years of the Tianqi period in Ming Dynasty.%王元翰所秉持的言官精神,使其赞同东林党的政治立场,并引东林党人为同道,视东林党人为“救时”之辈,在他们身上寄托了改变现实政治的希望。无论是否有自觉意识,无论在朝在野,王元翰与东林党人都有自觉和不自学的精神联系,而王元翰被劾辞朝以及后来起复不果,亦皆与东林党有关,由此可观其个人的政治品质以及从万历后期至天启初年朝中党争的状况。

  4. Superman Yao Ming




  5. 论整合连南瑶族自治县传统文化符号体系的重要性%Discussion on the importance of integrating traditional cultural symbolism in Liannan Yao Autonomous County



    Based on analysis the characteristic of the traditional cuhure in Liannan Yao Autonomous County, associate with the reality of local tourist industry developing slowly, then draw a conclusion that the symbols of the Yao national cuhure are confusion, which affects development of Liannan, consequently, it comes up with the importance of integrating symbol systems of traditional culture in Liannan Yah Autonomous County. This paper analyzes some advices about how to integrate the symbols of the Yao national culture, including Diet, Dress, traditional entertainment, architecture, title, etc, in order to provide reference for economic sustainable development of Liannan Yao Autonomous County.%对连南瑶族自治县文化特色的分析说明,当地旅游业发展缓慢的原因在于连南瑶族传统文化符号并未突显出来,因此亟需整合连南瑶族传统文化符号体系。本文提出从饮食、服饰、风俗娱乐、建筑、称谓等方面整合排瑶传统文化符号的建议,可为连南瑶族自治县经济的可持续发展提供参考。

  6. 粤北瑶族文化中的生态精神及其启示%The Ecological Spirit and Inspiration of Yao Culture in Northern Guangdong Province



    粤北过山瑶和排瑶的传统文化,蕴含着尊重他者的“客民”意识、崇尚“和合”的共生期盼、眷恋故园的返乡情结。这一文化特色体现了作为山地丛林民族的瑶族在处理人与自然、人与社会、肉体与灵魂关系问题上的质朴的生态智慧。瑶族文化中的生态精神,可以为当前山区的生态文化建设提供一种本土精神资源的支持。%Traditional culture of Guoshan Yao and Pai Yao in northern Guangdong province contains a “guest Hakka”consciousness of respect for otherness, a symbiotic expectation of advocating “harmony”and strong feeling of returning home. This cultural characteristic reflects pristine ecological wisdom of Yao as mountainous jungle group in dealing with the relationship between people and nature, man and society, body and soul. Ecological spirit of Yao's culture can provide spiritual support for local ecological culture development in northern Guangdong .

  7. Smoky coal exposure, NBS1 polymorphisms, p53 protein accumulation, and lung cancer risk in Xuan Wei, China

    Lan, Q.; Shen, M.; Berndt, S.I.; Bonner, M.R.; He, X.Z.; Yeager, M.; Welch, R.; Keohavong, P.; Donahue, M.; Hainaut, P.; Chanock, S. [DHHS, Bethesda, MD (United States). Occupational & Environmental Epidemiology Branch


    Lung cancer rates in Xuan Wei County are among the highest in China and have been associated with exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The NBS1 gene product participates in DNA double-strand break repair and DNA damage-induced checkpoint activation, which are critical for maintaining genomic integrity. The p53 tumor suppressor gene is known to play key roles both in the maintenance of genomic stability in mammalian cells and in DNA damage surveillance. We examined the association between two common NBS1 polymorphisms (Leu34Leu, GLn185Glu) and lung cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in Xuan Wei, China. Individuals homozygous for the NBS1 34Leu or NBS1 185Glu variants were found to have an increased risk of lung cancer (odds ratio (OR) 2.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91-5.10 and OR 2.53, 95% CI: 1.05-6.08, respectively). A haplotype containing the variant alleles from both NBS1 SNPs was associated with increased risk of lung cancer compared with the most common haplotype. Further, the associations were particularly pronounced among cases with over expression of p53 protein. These results suggest that NBS1 could be important in the pathogenesis of lung cancer in this population. However, additional studies in other populations with substantial environmental exposures to PAHs are needed to confirm our findings.

  8. 浅析韦庄词中的思乡情结%On the Homesick in Wei Zhuang's Poetry



    Huajian School appeared in the Late Tang to Five Dynasties, Weizhuang only with fresh simple but elegant known, stood in"Flower Room", described as a case of pronouns. Under very elegant sense of style, and Wei always contains a strong and sincere emotion, especially as the representative words homesickness. Since ancient times, from a nostalgic vein runs through the entire history of Chinese literature, Wei Zhuang among repeatedly chant, inherited and deepened the Chinese lit-erati of this unique complex, a chant three sigh, lingering finish.%晚唐至五代时期出现的花间词派中,韦庄独以清新简雅著称,鹤立《花间》,可谓一代词宗。极富飘逸感的文风之下,韦庄词中始终蕴含着强烈而真挚的情感,尤以思乡词为代表。乡愁自古而来一脉贯穿整个中国文学史,韦庄在反复吟咏间,继承并深化了这种中国文人士大夫所特有的情结,一咏三叹,余韵悠长。

  9. Quantitative contribution of climate change and human activities to runoff changes in the Wei River basin, China

    Zhan, C. S.; Jiang, S. S.; Sun, F. B.; Jia, Y. W.; Niu, C. W.; Yue, W. F.


    Surface runoff from the Wei River basin, the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China, has dramatically decreased over last 51 years from 1958 to 2008. Climate change and human activities have been identified as the two main reasons for the decrease in runoff. The study period is split into two sub-periods (1958-1989 and 1990-2008) using the Mann-Kendall jump test. This study develops an improved climate elasticity method based on the original climate elasticity method, and conducts a quantitative assessment of the impact of climate change and human activities on the runoff decrease in the Wei River basin. The results from the original climate elasticity method show that climatic impacts contribute 37-40% to the decrease in runoff, while human impacts contribute 60-63%. In contrast, the results from the improved climate elasticity method yield a climatic contribution to runoff decrease of 22-29% and a human contribution of 71-78%. A discussion of the simulation reliability and uncertainty concludes that the improved climate elasticity method has a better mechanism and can provide more reasonable results.

  10. Features of Female Clothing and Their Cultural Causes of Ethnic Yao in Yun 'nan%湖南瑶族女性的服饰特征及其文化成因

    肖宇强; 肖琼琼


    Ethnic Yao has originated and been staying in Hu'nan. Though they are descendants of the same ancestor, female clothing displays different styles and features. Female Yao living in mountains like to wear brocades, circumference hats and plain dresses, while Yao wearing huge shelving are of great imposing manner. Yao living on flat grounds wear headcloth, indigo clothes and patterned aprons, while Yao wearing colorful hats like to wear colorful ribbons, and cross-switch tight skirts. The cultural differences of these clothes are caused by local climate, ecology, national traditions and believes, propitious connotations and influences from advanced culture.%瑶族自古以来就长期生息于湖南境内,虽起源于同一祖先,但是分布于湖南各地区的瑶族女性服饰却呈现出迥然不同的风格与特征:高山瑶女性披织锦、戴围帽,服饰简洁素雅;顶板瑶女性头顶"大排架",气势庞大;平地瑶女性裹包头巾、穿青蓝衣、花围裙,朴实平和;花瑶女性戴花帽、缠五色丝带、着挑花筒裙,华丽多姿.这些服饰的文化成因主要受到当地生态气候环境、民族传统信仰、吉祥寓意观念和外来先进文化的影响,展现了我国少数民族独特的审美情趣、工艺技巧和文化内涵.

  11. Willingness to Pay of Ecosystem Services and Its Influencing Factors---Taking Wei River Basin in Shaanxi Province as an Example%生态系统服务支付意愿及其影响因素分析--以陕西省渭河流域为例

    史恒通; 赵敏娟


    基于对陕西省渭河流域居民的微观调查数据,采用条件价值评估法对渭河流域生态系统服务的支付意愿进行测算,并运用有序Probit模型对其支付意愿的影响因素进行实证分析,结果表明:陕西省渭河流域居民的生态系统服务支付意愿为249.27元/(户·年);居民社会地位和居民环境认知程度对其支付意愿具有显著的正向影响,受访者年龄和是否为农村居民对其支付意愿具有显著的负向影响,男性受访者与女性受访者相比具有显著更高的支付意愿,而居民家庭收入状况对其支付意愿影响不显著。%This paper applies contingent valuation method to measure the willingness to pay of ecosystem services in Wei River basin based on the Micro-data of river basin residents, and does empirical analysis to research on the influencing fac-tors of willingness to pay using an ordered probit model. The results are as follows: The willingness to pay of residents in Wei River basin in Shaanxi province is 249. 27 Yuan per household per year. Social status of residents and their environ-mental cognitions have positive influence on the willingness to pay. Age and whether to be country farmers have negative in-fluence on the willingness to pay. Male respondents would like to pay more than the female significantly. Income of respond-ents has no significant influence on their willingness to pay.

  12. 白裤瑶蚕丝文化的教育价值%Education Values of Silk Culture in Baiku Yao Ethnic Group

    谭莉; 蒋立松


    白裤瑶蚕丝文化体现了日常生活中教人向"学",教人向"善",对性别角色的塑造与强化,对生命的认识与思考,孝道教育的继承与发扬等教育价值。这种具有生命力的本土化教育是民族教育的旨归所在。%The silk culture in Baiku Yao ethnic group is a representation of such education values as teaching people to be studious and kind,molding and intensifying the sexual roles,recognition of and reflection on life,inheriting and carrying on the filial duty,etc.Such localized education with vitality should be the ultimate goal of ethnic education.

  13. New Discoveries on the Ru Yao Site at Qingliangsi,Baofeng%宝丰清凉寺汝窑遗址的新发现

    河南省文物考古研究所; 平顶山市文物管理委员会办公室; 宝丰县文物保护管理所


    The Ru kiln site at Qingliangsi in Baofeng county, Henan province has been a focus in the field of pottery and porcelain studies since it was discovered in 1987. In 2000, 500 square meters were excavated and many kilns, workshops, pits, lots of materials related to porcelain making and firing and porcelains have been found. Among those findings of the porcelains, those sky blue ones making for the imperial family occupies 98%. The excavation has proved that the official Ru kiln (Ru Guan Yao) was located at this site and the workshop and some other materials have provided important information for the study of the development of the Ru kiln of the Song Dynasty.

  14. The Cognition on Vertigo of CHEN Xiu-yuan%论陈修园对眩晕的认识



    The article mainly discuss the cognition of famous Qing dynasty doctor CHEN Xiu-yuan on pathological mechanism, diagnosis and therapy of vertigo. It think that CHEN Xiu-yuan pointed out that the core pathological mechanism of vertigo is on reversed flow of Qi of JiuYin; It must attach important to pulse diagnosis and had better select and use famous prescriptions.AH that afford a good reference to afterword.%文章主要探讨清代医家陈修园对于眩晕病机、诊疗等方面的认识.分析认为陈修园提出了眩晕的病机核心在于厥阴气逆,在诊法上重视脉诊,提纲挈领,辨证清晰,治疗上则多选名方加减,为后世治疗眩晕提供了很好的借鉴.

  15. A Discussion of Witchcraft Incident from the Perspective of Rebellion of Prince Wei%从卫太子起兵反叛谈巫蛊之祸



    The witchcraft incident was a significant event which occurred in Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty . Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty did not want to kill Prince Wei before Prince Wei rebelled , until Prince Wei reb-elled, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty ordered to kill Prince Wei , and it sparked a continuing unrest within the ruling class.The prosperity of the Han Dynasty had gone , starting a political situation of rehabilitation .%巫蛊之祸是汉武帝末年发生的重大事件。汉武帝在卫太子举兵反叛之前并未有诛杀太子之意,直至太子起兵反叛,武帝才下令诛杀,并由此引发了统治阶级内部的持续动荡。汉朝盛世局面一去不复返,由此开始了休养生息的政局。

  16. Impact of LUCC on streamflow based on the SWAT model over the Wei River basin on the Loess Plateau in China

    H. Wang


    impact on both soil flow and baseflow by compensating for reduced surface runoff, which leads to a slight increase in the streamflow in the Wei River with the mixed landscapes on the Loess Plateau that include earth–rock mountain area.

  17. 再谈王维“窃”李嘉佑诗%A Second Talk on Wang Wei "Stealing" the Poem of Li Jiayou



    Wang Wei "stealing" the poem of Li Jiayou has been an issue deserving the continuous study of later generations .Four main viewpoints have been formed in the long-term discussion since Tang Dynasty :Wang Wei "stealing"the poem of Li Jiayou ,Wang Wei not "stealing"the poem of Li Jiayou ,Li Jiayou "stealing"the poem of Wang Wei ,and Wang Li creating the poem separately .To judge the above view-points ,we have to make three questions clear :first of all ,the birth years of Wang Wei and Li Jiayou ;sec-ondly ,w hen Wang Wei created Snow in Wangchuan Village ;and lastly ,is it possible for Li Youjia to cre-ate such a poem .After the above analysis ,the article draws a conclusion that Wang Wei did not "steal"the poem of Li Jiayou .%王维“窃”李嘉佑诗,是唐人留给后人一个值得不断研究的问题。自唐以来,对它的讨论从未停止,在长期的讨论中形成了四种主要观点:王维“窃”李嘉佑诗;王维非“窃”李嘉佑诗;李嘉佑“窃”王维诗;王李各有此句诗。要判断以上观点,就需要研究清楚三个问题:其一、王维、李嘉佑生年问题;其二、王维创作《积雨辋川庄》的时间问题;其三、李嘉佑有没有可能创作出这样的诗句。并可借以认定,王维非“窃”李嘉佑诗。

  18. Gold-weaving Fabric and Its Popularity in the Mongol-yuan Period%织金锦及其在蒙元时期的流行

    苏轩; 杨小明


    介绍了织金锦纳石失和金缎子,比较分析了两种织金锦的异同和在蒙元时期的流行情况,以及从蒙元时期古代墓葬中出土的织金、印金织物,总结了纳石失等织金织物在蒙元时期流行并达到鼎盛的原因。%It introduced nasish gold satin, compared and analyzed two types of gold-weaving fabrics and the situation of the popu- larity in the Mongol-yuan period, as well as the gold-weaving fabric and gold-plated fabric unearthed from ancient tombs in the Mon- gol-yuan period, summarized the reasons why gold-weaving fabric such as nasish was popular in the Mongol-yuan period.

  19. 宝鸡市渭河流域绿化治理探讨%Landscape Afforestation along the Wei River

    刘锦国; 赵宗林


    Based on the investigation along the Wei River, five landscape afforestation programs were developed, landscape corridor along the embankment road, protective afforestation along the embank- ment, parks along the river, slope afforestation, landscape afforestation in the villages, townships and mines along the river. The technical programs also were developed.%本文通过对渭河宝鸡段的实地考察,因地制宜地制定了渭河沿岸堤顶公路景观长廊、沿岸护堤林带、河道绿地公园、两岸直观坡面、两岸近村、镇、厂矿5种绿化治理方案,并选择了造林树种和配置方法,提出了相应的技术措施。

  20. WeiLing Tang in Treating 53 Cases of Acne%胃苓汤治疗痤疮53例

    周荣; 彭琪; 张敏


    目的:观察胃苓汤治疗痤疮的临床疗效。方法:将102例痤疮患者随机分为2组,治疗组53例采用胃苓汤加味治疗,1剂/d,水煎分服;对照组49例采用西药维A酸乳膏治疗。2组均连用6周,观察疗效,并于治疗前后记录痤疮皮疹数目。结果:总有效率治疗组为90.6%,对照组为75.5%,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:透热除湿法治疗痤疮有良好疗效。%Objective:To survey clinical effects of WeiLing Tang in the treatment for acne. Methods:All 102 patients were randomly separated to two groups, 53 cases of the treatment group took modified WeiLing Tang, one dose per day, water decocted;49 cases of the control group were given with tretinoin cream. Both groups were treat-ed for six weeks, curative effects were observed, the numbers of acnes and rash were recorded before and after treat-ing. Results:Total effective rate of the treatment group was 90.6%, higher than 75.5%of the control group, the dif-ference showed statistical meaning (P<0.05). Conclusion:The method of heat-penetration and dampness-eliminat-ing is effective in treating acne.

  1. 宋元南戏本事新探%On the Original Story of Song and Yuan South Drama



    宋元南戏剧本多已佚失不存,仅存散出或只言片语见于明清各曲选、曲谱中,一鳞半爪,难窥全豹。因此,资料的欠缺,一直是制约宋元南戏研究发展的瓶颈。近年来,有关宋元南戏本事方面的研究亦多据成说,少有进展。本文沿用前辈学者的治学路径和方法,充分运用各种文献材料,在重新探索宋元南戏4种存目本事的基础上,得出如下结论:《郑琼英》不是独立剧目,而是元南戏《宋子京鹧鸪天》中的女主角;南戏《杨曼卿》本事出《绿窗新话·杨生私通孙玉娘》;南戏《借烛寻珠》事本《绿窗新话·何会娘通张彦卿》;《子母冤家》戏文是据元杂剧《崔府君断冤家债主》改编而成。%Song and Yuan south drama scripts had mostly been lost or had only a word or two in music score of operas of Ming and Qing Dynasties,hardly to see the whole.Therefore,the research made little progress on the Song play in re-cent years.Following the previous academic path and methods,the author tries to explore the four original stories of the Southern Drama in the Song and Yuan Dynasties.The Zheng Qiongying is not an independent repertoire,but the hero-ine of the Song Zijing Partridge Sky ;the original Story of Yang Manqing is from Lv Chuang Xin Hua ;the original Story of Jie Zhu Xun Zhu is from He Huiniang Fornicate with Yanqing Zhang,Lv Chuang Xin Hua , Zimu Yuanjia should be adapted works of the Yuan Zaju Cuifujun Duan Yuanjiazaizhu .

  2. Epidemiological Survey of Renal Calculi in Adult Yao Population in Guangxi%广西瑶族成年人肾结石流行病学调查

    汤宗源; 江顺建; 李江; 李秀清; 钟明涛; 黄日波; 李萍; 邹爱俐


    目的:分析广西恭城瑶族自治县瑶族成年人肾结石的患病状况及其影响因素。方法采用整群分层随机抽样方法,于2012年10—12月选取广西恭城瑶族自治县7个社区、31个村屯共3475例常住瑶族人为调查对象。采用自行设计的调查问卷,调查研究对象人口学资料、生活饮食习惯、疾病史。并采用肾脏 B 超确诊肾结石患者。采用单因素分析和多因素 Logistic 回归分析肾结石的影响因素。结果3475例调查对象中肾结石患者418例,患病率为12.0%(418/3475)。不同性别、年龄、职业、文化程度、婚姻状况、年收入、体质指数(BMI)者肾结石患病率比较,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。是否吸烟、是否饮酒、不同饮用水源、睡前是否饮水、饮用水是否煮沸及不同频率食用新鲜绿色蔬菜、豆类制品、柿子、动物内脏者肾结石患病率比较,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。既往是否有胆结石、肾炎、泌尿系结石者肾结石患病率比较,差异有统计学意义( P <0.05)。多因素 Logistic 回归分析结果显示:年龄、性别、职业、文化程度、年收入、饮用水源、饮用水煮沸、食柿子、食新鲜绿色蔬菜、食豆类制品、食动物内脏及既往有肾炎、泌尿系结石史是肾结石的影响因素(P <0.05)。结论该地区瑶族成年人肾结石患病率较高,与饮食等多种因素有关,应针对高危因素开展肾结石的防治工作。%Objective To investigate the prevalence of renal calculi in adult Yao population in Gongcheng Yao Autonomous County of Guangxi and its influencing factors. Methods By using stratified cluster random sampling method,we enrolled 3 475 Yao permanent residents from 7 communities and 31 villages of Gongcheng County from October to December in 2012. A self - designed questionnaire was employed to investigate on demographic data,life habit

  3. 元稹“忍情论”新议%On the View of Refraining from Romance by Yuan Zhen



    《莺莺传》中元稹何以大发"忍情论",自陈寅恪先生开始,猜测者甚众,可惜都有所偏差失误。该文结合唐时的社会风气与社会性别意识,从纵欲、尚情、忍情三个方面分析认定:"忍情论"乃是元稹在遭逢制举试之时,巧妙地利用了当时的性别意识形态,刻意造就"翻版红颜祸水论"以迎合当权者的心理。%Ever since Mr.Chen Yinke made a comment,there are a lot of guesses on why Yuan Zhen held a view of refraining from romance in The Biography of YingYing.But there are great discrepancies among them.This paper combines social conduct with social ideology of Tang Dynasty,exploring and analyzing in three ways such as overindulgence,adoration for affection and abandonment of romantic relationship to conclude that the view of refraining from romance was specifically made as another edition of "the fall of kingdoms to Helen of Troy",using the social gender consciousness of that time by Yuan Zhen when he met with the examination to ZhiJu to cater to those in power.

  4. Developing branch of creative culture of Yao Embroidery, Achieve its Social and Market Value%开发瑶绣创意文化,实现社会价值与市场价值



    排瑶文化,在世界上是独一无二的瑶族支系文化。我们要充分发挥自己的优势,立足开发排瑶文化,打造排瑶刺绣艺术品牌,在吸取瑶族其他支系的刺绣特色文化精华的基础上,创出自己的刺绣品牌。%Pai-yao, a kind of exclusively unique branch culture. We should build our brand of embroidery with giving full play of our own advantages, setting foot on developing Pai-yao Culture absorbing essence from different embroideries from other branches.

  5. 魏晋风度的内涵与接受研究%Research on the Connotation and Reception of Wei-Jin Demeanor



    经由历代接受者的拒斥误解和想象追慕,作为专有名词的“魏晋风度”,其内在特征固然和历史的魏晋士人无法分割,但更重要的却是有赖于现代学人的集体建构。魏晋风度的内涵包括二个层面:一是它的社会内涵,即它是那个时代思想解放的产物,是那个特殊时代社会的文化心理的产物;二是它的美学诗学内涵,即它是魏晋士人内在品格、精神气质的美学显现;是魏晋文章所负载的文辞之美。在魏晋名士身上,具体表现为:玄妙其心,至大其神,放达其身。后世学者从不同层面使用了这一词汇。%The proper noun "Wei-Jin demeanor", through the misunderstanding and imagination of the receivers, its intrinsic characteristics has surely become indivisible with the Wei-Jin scholars, while the mutual construction of modem scholars matters e-ven more. The connotation of Wei-Jin demeanor includes two aspects. One is its social connotation, which means the result of the i-deological emancipation of that era. It' s also the result of that specific time' s social and cultural psychology. Another is its connota- tion of aesthetics and poetics, it' s the? inherent character of the Wei-Jin scholars and the aesthetic appearance of their spirit and quality, and it's the beauty of diction the Wei-Jin articles include. This has specifically expressed on the Wei-Jin scholars like: all one' s thinking, spirit, and body can enjoy complete freedom. The later generation scholars have adopted this word from different levels.

  6. 解码药家鑫犯罪行为心理%Analysis of the Psychology of Yao Jiaxing's Criminal Behavior

    邵磊; 袁青安


    The study of criminal behavior can not be divorced from the specific growing experience and the crime situation of the perpetrator. Improper family education in Yao Jiaxing's childhood caused his personality defects, late-night incident took him into extreme fear, and the knife which he accidently carried with him plus the dark night provided him with all the conditions that criminal behavior needs. The fast stabbing action of Yao Jiaxing that repeated several times is not out of scare, nor is the so-called "compulsive behavior of pi- ano-playing", but the momentary outbreak and catharsis of his subconscious anger that he couldn't suppress. The aggressive behavior of such murder has its inner mechanism of producing, maintaining, controlling, trig- gering or causing. Correctly understand and comprehension of its inner mechanism is of significance for inves- tigating such cases and their prevention and control.%研究犯罪行为不能脱离行为人特定的成长经历和案发情境。药家鑫童年阶段不当的家庭教育方式致其人格缺陷,深夜的突发事件使其在极度恐惧中心态失衡,情绪冲动模式下随身携带的刀具和夜幕无形中为其杀人提供了条件。快速的数刀动作,不是因为恐惧,也不是所谓的"弹钢琴强迫行为",而是潜意识中无法抑制的愤怒情绪的瞬间爆发与宣泄。类似杀人的攻击行为有其产生、维持、控制、引起或者触发的内在机制,正确理解和把握这些对于侦查破案和犯罪防控都有重要的意义。

  7. Analysis of Socioeconomic Status Evolution about Gou Lan Yao%关于勾蓝瑶社会经济状况演进的分析



    湖南省江永县勾蓝瑶寨是一个有着千年历史的瑶族村落,在相当长的时期中,是一个比较稳定的微型社会,遗存丰富、民俗独特、内部结构完整。其人口变迁、自我管理、自然经济状况的演进以及数量众多的风雨桥、民居、城墙、寺庙等,为研究者进行人类学、历史学、社会学、建筑学等相关研究,提供了一个完整的活标本。我们通过入户走访、实地勘察、查阅文献等方式,接触到了族谱、碑刻、私人文字记载等资料,认为地理环境和外部行政力量是影响当地社会发展的重要因素;对于未来的发展,则应在加强资源整合、扩大宣传力度、完善配套设施、引进投资方等方面做出更多努力。%The village named Gou Lan Yao in Jiangyong County , Hunan Province , famous as a Yao village over one thousand years , in quite a long time , is a relatively stable micro -society , which has rich heritage , unique folklore and complete internal structure . The population change , the self management , the evolution of natural economy and the large number of wind-rain bridges , local-style dwelling houses , city walls , temples , etc ., provide a complete fresh specimen for the researchers studying on anthropology , history , sociology , architecture and other related researchers . Through household visits , field investigation , the reference of the literature , etc ., we contact the family trees , inscriptions and private written records . We believe that the geographical environment and the external administrative power are important factors affecting the development of local society . For the future development , they should make more efforts on strengthening resources integration , expanding propaganda and improving the supporting facilities .

  8. 尧、舜、禹禅让说之证伪%On the Falsification of the Account of the Abdication of Yao,Shun and Yu

    史芳树; 方嘉珍


    When examined with reason and logic, several important links of the account of the abdication of Yao,Shun,Yu are self-contradictory. For instance, both Dan Zhu and Shang Jun lost their throne for being "unworthy", yet their unworthiness was not only inconsistent with the meaning of unworthiness but with the father-son affection. The account of Yao's marrying his two daughters to Shun and sending his nine sons to inspect him is defected in its inversion of methods and results. The two attempting to murder Shun by setting fire and live burying are in the lack of motives and the ridiculous strategies of both the murderer and the victim are ridiculous. The details of Shun's avoidance of Dan Zhu and Yu's avoidance of Shang Jun can not withstand scrutiny. The cause of Yi's loss of opportunity is contradictory with Qi's succession to the throne for being "virtuous". In a word, the accounts of the abdication of Yao,Shun and Yu must be falsified.%以情理与逻辑检验尧、舜、禹、启禅让说中的几个重要环节皆自相矛盾。诸如丹朱、商均因“不肖”而失去天子位,不符合“不肖”的词义,有违父子亲情;帝尧嫁二女为舜妻、遣九男为舜仆的说法,存在着手段与结果倒置等诸多漏洞;谋杀舜的纵火、活埋两案,既无合理的作案动机,凶手亦无作案机会,凶手与受害人在策略上同样乖谬;舜避让丹朱、禹避让商均的细节经不起推敲;益错过机会的理由与启因“贤”而继位同样自相矛盾。因此,尧、舜、禹、启禅让说是伪作。

  9. Classical Beauty's Call: Investigation on Costume Culture of Baiku Yao in Nandan Area, Guangxi Province%古韵美的召唤:南丹白裤瑶服饰文化特征研究



    白裤瑶是一个以服饰而得名的瑶族支系,其服饰简朴明快而洋溢着古典格调,是记录白裤瑶民俗风情和历史文化的重要依据。要解读白裤瑶服饰古韵美的艺术特征与审美价值,可分别从多样化的款式、五彩斑斓的色彩和韵味浓厚的图案三个方面.挖掘其文化来源、发展与潜在的价值。这不仅能够增强白裤瑶人民对本民族的认同感与自豪感,而且对传承白裤瑶民族文化.对其他少数民族服饰研究具有的重大意义。%This paper aims at showing the unique and exquisite crafftsmanship and its culture richness, which is based on the research on field observation of Baiku Yao, Nandan District. Not only does this study strengthen the sense of identity and pride for their own ethnic in Baiku Yao, but also emphasize its importance of the inheritance of Baiku Yao costume culture, meanwhile the research on costumes in other minorities.

  10. "Argumentation, textual criticism, poetry and prose"--From Yao Nai creation practice angle%浅论“义理、考据、词章”--从姚鼐创作实践的角度



    姚鼐是桐城派的代表人物,也是清代文坛极具影响力的文学家,他提出的“义理、考据、词章”说成为桐城派创作理论的核心思想,而姚鼐也一直在文学创作的实践中履行着这一文学思想。本文试从他的诗词、散文等不同类型作品的写作中探讨其文学特质,以发掘姚鼐如何在创作中践行其写作精神的。%Yao Nai is representative of Tongcheng School of Qing Dynasty, is the most influential literary writer, he puts forward the"argumentation, textual criticism, poetry and prose"become the core idea of Tongcheng School of creation theory, and Yao Nai has also been in the practice of literary creation in using literary thoughts. This paper tries to explore the characteristics of his poetry, prose literature from different types of writing, in order to explore how to practice the spirit of Yao Nai writing in the creation.

  11. The Reminiscent Narrative in Wei Yun's Fiction%论韦晕小说的回忆叙述

    苏晖; 蔡晓玲


    Wei Yun is one of the three important realistic writers in Malaysian Chinese hterary world. He often uses reminiscent narrative in his fiction to describe his characters who live in memories. His fiction shows us a special conception of time and narrative skills. There are many hazy images such as "wind" and "smoke" in his fiction that overlap the multiple dimensions of time, which expands the possibility of fictional narrative. Many characters in his fiction have a memorable past. They often change the present to the past, trying to escape the present by attaching to the past. Some characters also attempt to change the past to the present, bringing illusory memories into the present space and time. Wei Yun' s fiction faithfully reproduces the suffeting courses of Chinese people immigrating overseas, profoundly reflects the emotional conflicts of the Chinese immigrants when they go away far from their parent cultures, and provides us with an unique approach to the meaning of life through reminiscent narrative.%韦晕是"马华现实主义文坛三剑客"之一,他在小说创作中大量采用回忆叙述,反复书写生活在回忆中的人物,展现独特的时间意识及其叙述技巧。其小说常常以"风"和"烟"等朦胧意象,把时间的多重维度重叠起来,拓展了小说叙述的可能性;小说中的人物都有着刻骨铭心的过去,他们常常把现在过去化,企图通过留恋过去而逃避现在;有些人物也会将过去现在化,把虚幻的回忆带进现在这个时空。韦晕的小说真实地再现了华人移民海外的苦难历程,深刻地反映出华人移民在脱离了自身母体文化之后的情感矛盾,并为我们提供了一种通过回忆叙述叩问生命意义的独特方式。

  12. A New Furostanol Saponin from the Water-extract of Dioscorea nipponica Mak., the Raw Material of the Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Wei Ao Xin

    Cheng Bin CUI; Chi XU; Qian Qun GU; Shi Dong CHU; Hai Hong JI; Gang JING


    26-O-β-D-Glucopyranosyl-furost-5(6),20(22)-dien-3β,26-diol 1, a new furostanol saponin, was isolated from the water-extract of Dioscorea nipponica Mak., the raw material of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine Wei Ao Xin. The structure of 1 was determined on the basis of its spectral data especially by NMR spectroscopy. The result provides the first example of naturally occurring furostanol saponins with a single saccharide chain at the C-26 position.

  13. The Selection of New-type Urbanization Path in Western Yunnan Border Poor Area--- A Case Study of SuanYuan Village in Shidian County%滇西边境贫困地区新型城镇化发展路径研究--以施甸县蒜园村为例



    New type of urbanization is the only way to modernization, is the important way to solve the problem of“agriculture, rural areas and farmers”, its essence is the urban and rural areas as a whole, production, intensive economy, ecological livable city interaction, civilized and harmonious of the basic characteristics of the urbanization. Western Yunnan Border Poor Area is Extreme poverty, and is the most concentrated in border county and indigenous minorities destitute areas. New type of urbanization is helpful to promote the development of urban and rural areas as a whole, this have created great opportunities to the development of Western Yunnan Border Poor Area. This paper analyzes the urbanization development present situation of Western Yunnan Border Poor Area, and with SuanYuan village of YaoGuan town, ShiDian county as a case, discuss its development condition, so as to explore the path of the new type of urbanization in minority region along the border, provide a reference for new type of urbanization construction in China.%新型城镇化是现代化的必由之路,是解决“三农”问题的重要途径,其本质是以城乡统筹、产城互动、集约节约、生态宜居、文明和谐为基本特征的城镇化。滇西片区集少数民族地区、边境地区于一体,贫困面广、程度深,是边境县和世居少数民族最多的集中连片特困地区。新型城镇化有利于促进城乡统筹发展,这为滇西边境贫困地区的发展创造了重大机遇。分析了滇西边境贫困地区城镇化的发展现状,并以施甸县姚关镇蒜园村为案例,讨论其发展条件,从而探索边境民族贫困地区新型城镇化的路径,为我国新型城镇化建设提供参考借鉴。

  14. 元代多族士人的同僚關係--以翰林院與奎章閣中心%On Yuan Dynasty Multiethnic Literati’s Fellowship in Office:a Discussinon Centering on the Circumstances at the Hanlin-Yuan Academy and Kuizhang-ge Academy



    The Yuan Dynasty government is a multiethnic bureaucratic apparatus. The“hi-erarchy among the nationalities” created inequality in the division of power and the opportunity of entering bureaucratic circles for the literati-cream of different nationali-ties;and the diversity of governmental organs in rank and nature caused the disparity of ethnic composition among these organs. But at the apparatuses in charge of litera-ture and history, education and book collection, most of the officials came from the Han Nationality. The present paper discusses multiethnic literati’ s fellowship in of-fice by taking the circumstances at the mid Yuan Hardin-yuan Academy (翰林) and Kuizhang-ge Academy (奎章閣學士) as examples. The officials from the Mongols and other minorities established close relations with their colleagues from the Han Nationality and even came into amalgamation with the latter for they all shared the same cultural attainments, axiological viewpoints and ideological interests.


    LIAO Chi-mei; LI Lan; YAN Zhi-qiang; HU Bao-qing


    Ecological security is the main task and applied field of present geography, resources and environment sciences and ecology. Ecological security evaluation will efficiently promote ecological security and environmental construction in regional land use. In this thesis, the authors put forward the index system of ecological security evaluation in karst mountainous area on three aspects, the pressure of resources and eco-environment, the quality of resources and eco-environment, and the ability of environmental protection and ecological improvement. Using the evaluation method with single index, based on the case study ofDu'an Yao Autonomous County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, the system of synthetic regionalization of ecological agricultural economy was formed, which includes three regions, south region with basic security and synthetic agricultural development, east region with critical security and agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry balanced development, mid-west and south region with ecological insecurity and compounded agriculture and forestry management. Meanwhile, for these regions, the countermeasures of sustainable agricultural development were pointed out, which provide the basis and example for ecological regulation and control of sustainable agricultural development in counties ofkarst mountainous area.

  16. Effect of TongXie-YaoFang on Cl− and HCO3- Transport in Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome Rats

    Xiaofang Lu


    Full Text Available TongXie-YaoFang (TXYF can effectively alleviate the symptoms of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS patients. However, the curative mechanism has not been fully clarified. The study was designed to investigate the effect of TXYF on the colonic ion transport induced by serotonin (5-HT in D-IBS rats. A method of multiple stress (neonatal maternal separation (NMS combined with restraint stress (RS was used to induce the D-IBS model. The model rats were randomly divided into two groups: NMS + RS group and TXYF-formula group, and the normal control (no handling rats were classified as NH group. In the NMS + RS group, the change of short-circuit current (ΔIsc induced by 5-HT was lower than that in the NH and TXYF-formula groups. After removing of the extracellular Cl− or HCO3- or basolateral Na+ or blocking the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter (NKCC, Na+-HCO3- cotransporter, Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, K+ channel, or Na+/K+-ATPase, respectively, there was no difference in 5-HT-induced ΔIsc among the three groups. These data suggest that TXYF can regulate 5-HT-induced Cl− and HCO3- secretion, possibly mediated by the combined action of CFTR, NKCC, Na+-HCO3- cotransporter, Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, K+ channel, and Na+/K+-ATPase.

  17. On Economic Inclusive Growth in Ruyuan Yao Autonomous County%广东乳源县经济包容性增长探析

    朱宏伟; 汪雪阳


    Inclusive growth refers to an equal, inclusive, poverty-alleviating and steady economic growth. Based on the analysis of problems confronting Ruyuan Yao Autonomous County in developing economic inclusive growth, the author puts forward four countermeasures: accelerating the development of economic zones to upgrade industry, boosting ethnic tourism, improving eco-economy mechanism, enhancing public services and social management.%包容性增长是公平的、参与的、利贫的和可持续的经济增长.本文在分析乳源经济包容性增长现状和问题的基础上,提出了乳源经济包容性增长发展的途径:加快园区建设促进产业升级、大力发展民族旅游产业、完善生态经济体系、提高公共服务水平和社会管理水平等.

  18. “魏晋风度”表现形式刍议%Discussion on Form of Wei-Jin Demeanor



    “魏晋风度”是中古文学史的一个重要概念,作为一种时代精神一直受到众多学者的关注与褒扬。“魏晋风度”是名士服药集体迷失的生活表达方式,“超脱玄虚”是“魏晋风度”的人格表现特征,“通?清远”则是“魏晋风度”的文风特点。这种文风至晋宋彻底完成过渡,同时也意味着“魏晋风度”的终结。%Wei-jin demeanor,an important concept of medieval literature,has attracted attention and praise of many scholars as an ethos of the times.Wei-jin dynasty demeanor is the expression of the lost life of the drug-addicted celebrities.Its character performance is unconventional and mysterious. Its style of writing is fresh and elegant.This style ended in the Jin-Song dynasty and that implies the end of the Wei-jin demeanor.

  19. Learning from Reading Pi Wei Lun (Treatise on Spleen and Stomach)%研读经典--《脾胃论》心得

    魏晓光; 吴兴全; 王健


    Pi Wei Lun (Treatise on Spleen and Stomach) was written by Li Gao in his later life, which accumulated his academic TCM experience in his whole life. It contains medical thoughts, medical expertise, and formula application, which still have significant learning and reference value for today’s clinic. This article systematically studied Pi Wei Lun (Treatise on Spleen and Stomach), discussed the relationship between Pi Wei Lun (Treatise on Spleen and Stomach) and physiology of Zang-fu organs, pathology of Zang-fu organs, clinical medication, clinical diseases, and expounded its enlightenment for the learning of TCM classics.%《脾胃论》是李杲晚年撰写的总结其一生学术经验的著作,其中的医学思想、医疗经验、方药运用对当今临床仍有重要的学习和参考价值。本文通过系统研究《脾胃论》,探讨《脾胃论》与脏腑生理、脏腑病理、临床用药、临床疾病的关系,及其对中医经典著作学习的启发。

  20. Spatiotemporal Impacts of Climate, Land Cover Change and Direct Human Activities on Runoff Variations in the Wei River Basin, China

    Yunyun Li


    Full Text Available Previous studies that quantified variations in runoff have mainly focused on the combined impacts of climate and human activities or climate and land cover change. Few have separated land cover change from human activities, which is critical for effective management of water resources. This study aims to investigate the impact of changing environmental conditions on runoff using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model; we examined three categories: climate, land cover change and direct human activities. The study area was the Wei River Basin, a typical arid to semi-arid basin that was divided into five sub-zones (UZ, MZ, DZ, JZ and BZ. Our results showed the following: (1 the calibrated SWAT model produced satisfactory monthly flow processes over the baseline period from 1978 to 1986; (2 compared to the baseline period, the impact of climatic variations decreased and the impact of direct human activities increased from the 1990s to the 2000s, while the impact of land cover change was generally stable; and (3 climatic variations were the main cause of runoff declines over the entire basin during the 1990s and in the UZ, MZ and JZ areas during the 2000s, while direct human activities were most important in the DZ and BZ areas during the 2000s.

  1. Effect of chimneys on indoor air concentrations of PM 10 and benzo[a]pyrene in Xuan Wei, China

    Tian, Linwei; Lan, Qing; Yang, Dong; He, Xingzhou; Yu, Ignatius T. S.; Hammond, S. Katharine

    This paper reports the effect of chimneys in reducing indoor air pollution in a lung cancer epidemic area of rural China. Household indoor air pollution concentrations were measured during unvented burning (chimneys blocked) and vented burning (chimneys open) of bituminous coal in Xuan Wei, China. Concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM 10) and of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were measured in 43 homes during normal activities. The use of chimneys led to significant decreases in indoor air concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM 10) by 66% and of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by 84%. The average BaP content of PM 10 also decreased by 55% with the installation of a chimney. The reduction of indoor pollution levels by the installation of a chimney supports the epidemiology findings on the health benefits of stove improvement. However, even in the presence of a chimney, the indoor air concentrations for both PM 10 and BaP still exceeded the indoor air quality standards of China. Movement up the energy ladder to cleaner liquid or gaseous fuels is probably the only sustainable indoor air pollution control measure.

  2. Contributions of Climate Variability and Human Activities to the Variation of Runoff in the Wei River Basin, China

    Huang, Q.


    The Wei River Basin is a typical arid and semi-arid area of the Yellow River Basin. The heuristic segmentation method was used to detect the inflection points of the annual runoff. The slope change ratio of accumulative quantity (SCRAQ) method was applied to computing the relative contribution of human activities and climate changes to the decreasing runoff in the whole basin and the basin above Linjiacun. For the whole basin, when 1960-1969 is selected as the baseline, the contributions of climate changes and human activities in 1970-1993 are 26.47% and 73.53%, respectively, those in 1993-2005 are 23.33% and 76.67%, respectively. When 1970-1993 is selected as the baseline, the contribution of climate and human impacts in 1994-2005 are 18.88% and 81.12%, respectively. The results imply that human activities are the dominant driving factors on runoff reduction, whose effect is increasingly intensifying. Furthermore, in order to verify the contribution of human activities and climate changes based on the SCRAQ method, a method based on the Budyko hypothesis was used in this paper. The results indicate that the contribution of human activities and climate change based on the SCRAQ method is consistent with that based on the sensitivity-based method.

  3. Eigensolution techniques, their applications and Fisherʼs information entropy of the Tietz-Wei diatomic molecular model

    Falaye, B. J.; Oyewumi, K. J.; Ikhdair, S. M.; Hamzavi, M.


    In this study, the approximate analytical solutions of Schrödinger, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations under the Tietz-Wei (TW) diatomic molecular potential are represented by using an approximation for the centrifugal term. We have applied three types of eigensolution techniques: the functional analysis approach, supersymmetry quantum mechanics and the asymptotic iteration method to solve the Klein-Gordon, Dirac and Schrödinger equations, respectively. The energy eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions for these three wave equations are obtained, and some numerical results and figures are reported. It has been shown that these techniques yielded exactly the same results. some expectation values of the TW diatomic molecular potential within the framework of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem have been presented. The probability distributions that characterize the quantum mechanical states of TW diatomic molecular potential are analyzed by means of complementary information measures of a probability distribution called Fisher's information entropy. This distribution has been described in terms of Jacobi polynomials, whose characteristics are controlled by quantum numbers.

  4. 汉魏时期酒文化浅谈%The Discussion of Wine Culture in Han and Wei Periods



    饮酒,是世界许多民族所共有的文化现象。然而,饮酒习俗所表现出的文化内涵和文化特质,却千差万别,异彩纷呈。历史的不同时期所反映的酒文化也因其特有的社会文化的影响,而有所差异。汉魏时期在前期酒文化发展的基础上,进一步辉煌,逐渐趋于成熟。%Drinking is the cultural phenomenon shared by many peoples of the world.However,its cultural connotations and cultural characteristics vary widely,and is full of splendor.The wine culture is also reflected by the different periods of history because of its unique social and cultural impact.On the basis of its earlier cultural development,Han and Wei periods further developed its glory,becoming more and more mature.

  5. Effect of chimneys on indoor air concentrations of PM10 and benzo(a)pyrene in Xuan Wei, China

    Tian, L.W.; Lan, Q.; Yang, D.; He, X.Z.; Yu, I.T.S.; Hammond, S.K. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). School for Public Health


    This paper reports the effect of chimneys in reducing indoor air pollution in a lung cancer epidemic area of rural China. Household indoor air pollution concentrations were measured during unvented burning (chimneys blocked) and vented burning (chimneys open) of bituminous coal in Xuan Wei, China. Concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 {mu} m or less (PM10) and of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were measured in 43 homes during normal activities. The use of chimneys led to significant decreases in indoor air concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 mu m or less (PM10) by 66% and of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) by 84%. The average BaP content of PM10 also decreased by 55% with the installation of a chimney. The reduction of indoor pollution levels by the installation of a chimney supports the epidemiology findings on the health benefits of stove improvement. However, even in the presence of a chimney, the indoor air concentrations for both PM10 and BaP still exceeded the indoor air quality standards of China. Movement up the energy ladder to cleaner liquid or gaseous fuels is probably the only sustainable indoor air pollution control measure.

  6. 论魏晋经学与文学复古之风%Classical Scholarship in Wei-Jin Period and Restoration of Ancient Literary Tradition

    刘运好; 程平


    Confucian classics,especially the Book of Songs,were one of the leading forces shaping the literature of the Wei-Jin Period. In terms of the poetic style,Wei-Jin literature mimicked the Book of Songs,with siyan poems (the poems with each line composed of four Chinese characters)as its major pattern. In terms of the subject matter and theme,Wei-Jin literature directly mimicked the Book of Songs,and created three types of poems:the poems depicting Confucian Classics;the poems supple-menting the missing part of the Book of Songs;the poems parodying the Book of Songs. The fervor of restoring ancient literary tradition reached its peak in that period. In terms of the artistic style,Wei-Jin literature gave priority to ya (odes)and song (hymns),and transformed feng into ya,making a bold exploration of how to inherit the literary tradition of the Book of Songs. Wei-Jin literature forms a key link in the long history of Chinese literature.%经学尤其《诗经》仍然是支撑魏晋文学的主流意识之一。在诗歌体式上,魏晋文学大量摹拟《诗经》,以四言为主;在诗歌题材和主旨上,直接摹拟《诗经》,创造出拟经诗、补亡诗、拟《诗》诗三种类型,复古之风达到了空前炽烈的局面;在艺术风格上,以雅颂为主、又以风入雅,从而对如何继承《诗经》的文学传统提供一次集大成式的探索,在中国文学史上具有承上启下的重要意义。

  7. Mineralogical and compositional characteristics of Late Permian coals from an area of high lung cancer rate in Xuan Wei, Yunnan, China: Occurrence and origin of quartz and chamosite

    Dai, S.; Tian, L.; Chou, C.-L.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, M.; Zhao, L.; Wang, Jingyuan; Yang, Z.; Cao, H.; Ren, D.


    Some townships in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, have one of the highest lung cancer mortality rates in China and the epidemic disease in the area has generally been attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released from domestic coal burning. However, the cancer-causing culprit is not settled as Tian [Tian, L., 2005. Coal Combustion Emissions and Lung Cancer in Xuan Wei, China. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.] found nanometer quartz in these coals, soot emissions, and lung cancer tissues. We have conducted mineralogical and geochemical studies of the coals from Xuan Wei for the purpose of shedding light on the minerals which may be related to the epidemic lung cancer. In this paper, abundances, modes of occurrence, and origins of minerals and elements in the coals from two mines in Xuan Wei have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The minerals in the coals are mainly composed of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, and calcite. The particle size of quartz is rather small, mostly less than 20????m and it is of authigenic origin. Chamosite occurs mainly as cell-fillings. The occurrence of quartz and chamosite indicates that they were derived from the hydrothermal fluids. Epigenetic calcite is derived from calcic fluids. Kaolinite is derived mainly from sediment source region of Kangdian Oldland to the west of coal basin. The composition of Xuan Wei coal is high in SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, MnO, V, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The high SiO2 content is attributed to quartz, and the Fe2O3 content to chamosite. The high Mn and low Mg contents in the coal indicate the inputs of hydrothermal fluids. CaO occurs mainly in epigenetic calcite. Elements Ti, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and rare earth elements were derived from the basaltic rocks at sediment source region. ?? 2008

  8. Phylogenetic Analysis of mtDNA from the Ancient Human of Yuan Dynasty in Inner Mongolia in China


    A study of the genetic structure of an ancient human excavated from the Yikeshu site of Yuanshangdu ancient city in Inner Mongolia and the relationships between the ancient population and the extant populations was carried out.Sequences of the control region and coding region of mtDNA from the ancient human were analyzed by using direct sequencing and restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods. Phylogenetic analysis and multidimensional scaling analysis were also performed on the mtDNA data of the ancient population and 12 extant populations. These results show that the ancient individuals of Yikeshu site can be assigned to D, G, B and Z haplogroups that are prevalent in Duars and Mongolians from Inner Mongolia. The ancient population is also closer to Duar and Mongolian populations in genetic distance than other compared populations. This study reveals that the ancient population from Yikeshu site in the Yuan Dynasty shares a common ancestor with Mongolic-speaking Daur and Mongolian tribes.

  9. Triple Linear-array Imaging Geometry Model of ZiYuan-3 Surveying Satellite and its Validation

    TANG Xinming


    Full Text Available The ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3 surveying satellite is the first civilian high-resolution stereo mapping satellite of China. Its objective is oriented to plot the 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 topographic maps. Comparing with foreign commercial mapping satellite imagery, the establishment of our own imaging geometry model is the core technical problem for different products and various applications of ZY-3 surveying satellite. This paper analyses the key problem on precision geometry processing based on the overall design, and proposes the ZY-3 Surveying satellite imaging geometry model with the technology of virtual CCD line-array imaging. In addition, this paper utilizes the first orbit imagery of ZY-3 satellite with coverage of the region of Dalian, and produces forward, backward and nadir cameras calibration products. Different ground control points are selected for the block adjustment experiment, and the Digital Surface Model (DSM, Digital Ortho Map (DOM are generated. The accuracy is validated by check points. It can be seen from the experiment that the planar and vertical accuracy are better than 3 meters and 2 meters, respectively. The experiment demonstrates the effectiveness of ZY-3 surveying satellite imaging geometry model

  10. Some Comments on Essay Creation Theory in Yuan Dynasty%元代文章创作论



    The theories of essay creation in the Yuan dynasty tends to be more meticulous and practical than those in the Ming and Song dynasties.They focused on the basic elements and rules for essay writing,which were discussed from aspects such as topic examination,conception,structure,manner,and even style,mistakes.These explanations greatly influenced the theories of the former and latter seven learned men in the Ming dynasty,the Tand and Song school,and even the prose creation theory of the Tongcheng School in the Qing dynasty.%元代的文章创作理论较之唐宋时期更趋于细致和实用,集中地探讨文章写作的基本要素和规律,从审题、立意、结构、行文乃至风格、文病等诸多方面进行了阐释,对明代的"前后七子""唐宋派",乃至清代的"桐城派"散文理论影响都十分明显。

  11. Identification of kinship and occupant status in Mongolian noble burials of the Yuan Dynasty through a multidisciplinary approach.

    Cui, Yinqiu; Song, Li; Wei, Dong; Pang, Yuhong; Wang, Ning; Ning, Chao; Li, Chunmei; Feng, Binxiao; Tang, Wentao; Li, Hongjie; Ren, Yashan; Zhang, Chunchang; Huang, Yanyi; Hu, Yaowu; Zhou, Hui


    The Yuan Dynasty (AD 1271-1368) was the first dynasty in Chinese history where a minority ethnic group (Mongols) ruled. Few cemeteries containing Mongolian nobles have been found owing to their tradition of keeping burial grounds secret and their lack of historical records. Archaeological excavations at the Shuzhuanglou site in the Hebei province of China led to the discovery of 13 skeletons in six separate tombs. The style of the artefacts and burials indicate the cemetery occupants were Mongol nobles. However, the origin, relationships and status of the chief occupant (M1m) are unclear. To shed light on the identity of the principal occupant and resolve the kin relationships between individuals, a multidisciplinary approach was adopted, combining archaeological information, stable isotope data and molecular genetic data. Analysis of autosomal, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA show that some of the occupants were related. The available evidence strongly suggests that the principal occupant may have been the Mongol noble Korguz. Our study demonstrates the power of a multidisciplinary approach in elucidating information about the inhabitants of ancient historical sites. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality assessment of ZiYuan-3 multispectral and panchromatic images fusion: applied in Jiangsu coastal wetland area, China

    Wu, Ruijuan; He, Xiufeng; Wang, Jing


    The new launched ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3) satellite with multispectral (MS) bands and a panchromatic (PAN) band has presented a new opportunity to assess image fusion methods for coastal wetland mapping. This study focuses on image fusion quality assessment through both quantitative spectral and spatial quality analysis and object-oriented classification comparison. Various methods for pan-sharpening ZY-3 MS and PAN bands are tested, including generalized intensity-hue-saturation transform (GIHS), à trous wavelet transform (AWT), nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT), and a combination of NSCT with GIHS (NSCT_GIHS). Spectral fidelity and spatial preservation of fused bands are compared with the original MS bands as reference, and spatial information injections of fused bands are compared with the resampled PAN band as reference. The fusion results demonstrate that, on average, the NSCT_GIHS method has the best performance on spectral fidelity and spatial preservation as well as spatial information injection. The near-infrared (NIR) band has the best spatial information injection in terms of entropy and cross-entropy indices, whereas the NIR band has the best spatial preservation in terms of entropy and structure similarity indices. The classification results show that NSCT_GIHS method also obtains the highest overall accuracy (96%) and Kappa coefficient (0.9425); this is in agreement with the quantitative analysis.

  13. 元朝云南行省乡兵新探%A Study of Yuan Dynasty Yunnan Province Township Soldiers



    Yuan dynasty is the first national unification created by ethnic minorities in the history of china,in order to dominate extremely vast territory,Mongolian rely more on foreign troops to make up for the shortage of troops or engage in other tasks,township soldier system formed.Township soldiers have played an important role in the border areas of yunnan.According to many historical records,the township soldiers of Yunnan province gradually revealing the mystery.%元朝是中国历史上由少数民族建立的第一个全国性的大一统王朝,为了统治无比辽阔的疆域,蒙元政府更多的依靠外族军队来弥补兵力不足或从事其他任务,乡兵制度应运而生。在云南边疆地区,乡兵曾起到重要作用,依据许多史料的记载,云南行省乡兵逐渐露出了神秘的面纱。

  14. 《法苑珠林校注》校勘补遗%A Supplement to Collation and Annotation of Fa Yuan Zhu Lin



    Fa Yuan Zhu Lin is one of the most important Buddhist literature. Collation and Annotation of Fa Yuan Zhu Lin publi shed by Zhonghua Book Company, is an excellent book on the collation of ancient books. However, some sentences are misleadi ng due to missing collation. This paper aims at supplementing collation suggestions to seventeen sentences in this book.%《法苑珠林》是研究佛教文化最为重要的文献之一,中华书局出版的《法苑珠林校注》是一部上乘的古籍整理著作,但其中偶有一些词句因为失校而影响文意的正确理解,今提出16条校勘意见,供研究者参考。

  15. 屈原《九歌》神灵的人情之美%Beauty of the Gods Favor in QU Yuan's Jiuge



    QU Yuan created many images of gods in Jiuge. These gods described by QU Yuan were not only the symbol of natural beauty, but the image of different temperament with the characteristics of the people, the human mind, human emotions. Therefore, these images of gods were close to people's real life, everywhere permeated with the human touch.%屈原在《九歌》中塑造了众多的神灵形象。这些神灵在屈原笔F,不仅是自然美的象征,而且形象各异,性情不一,更多的具有了人的特性、人的思想、人的情感。因此,这些神灵形象与人们的现实生活更贴近,处处渗透着人情味。

  16. 螺蛳壳里的道场 解读五维茶室%Cosmos in a Snail Shell Reading Philip F. Yuan's Teahouse Design



    This paper tries to understand the Teahouse designed by the architect Philip F. Yuan from the following perspectives: environmental/spatial relations, material/aura, and philosophical reflections on the dichotomy of the design concept.%文章从环境/空间关系、材料/氛围及挑战哲学二元论的设计理念等三个方面解读袁烽设计的五维茶室。

  17. Analysis of Gao Jia-lin's life tragedy in Lu Yao's"life"%路遥《人生》中高加林人生悲剧的分析



    Gao Jia-lin personality is very complex, is shape the classic literary by Lu Yao, but also the Chinese contemporary literature in the gallery of immortal images. Gao Jia-lin want to realize their own value, want to have a bright future and perfect love, and therefore exhibit an extraordinary entrepreneurial spirit, but ultimately failed to keep the faith and his principles, resulting in his pursuit of all ended in failure, his life is full of tragic color. A careful analysis of the novel, can be found the cause of Gao Jia-lin's life tragedy both factors of society, and his own personal factor.%高加林的性格十分复杂,是路遥塑造的经典的文学典型,同时也是中国当代文学画廊中不朽的文学形象。高加林想要实现自身的价值,想拥有美好的前程与完美的爱情,并且为此表现出非凡的进取精神,但是高加林最终没有能坚守自己的信念与原则,致使他的这些追求均以失败而告终,他的人生充满了悲剧色彩。认真分析小说,可以发现造成高加林人生悲剧的原因既有社会层面的因素,又有他个人的因素。

  18. Ecological Wisdom of Traditional Yao Livelihoods: A Case Study at Fengmuping%南岭瑶山传统生计中的生态智慧——以都庞岭枫木坪村为例



    As a mountainous people typical in" Ethnic Nanling Corridor" , the Yao lives in an ecologically complex environment. In the course of adapting to the environment, they have accumulated rich ecologic knowledge, including the understanding of different ecosystems, the knowledge on biological species and their interactions, the rational use of biological resources and the list goes on. This indigenous ecological knowledge has been put into a full use in their compound living on forestry and farming, specifically their slash-and-burn cultivation. The current study focuses on such compound living of the Yao at Fengmuping in Mt. Dupang so as to bring to light the ecological skills and wisdom of the Yao.%瑶族作为“南岭民族走廊”典型的山地民族,所处的生态环境错综复杂。瑶族文化在适应所处生态环境中积累了丰富的地方性生态知识。这样的生态知识包括对不同生态系统的认知、对生物物种的认知及其互动关系的把握、对生物资源的合理利用等等。这些知识在瑶族人民传统的“刀耕火种”林农复合生计中得到了全面的应用。以生活在都庞岭枫木坪村的“过山瑶”农林复合生计为分析对象,揭示瑶族传统生计中的生态技能、生态智慧。

  19. Yao Nai’s poetic theory and creation in Qianlong and Jiaqing Perspective%乾嘉视域中的姚鼐诗学观点及诗歌创作论



    Scholar poet Yao Nai, who advocated Song learning which emphasized argumentation first, could not be excused from the the academic atmosphere of Qianjia period. His poetic theory and knowledge tendency expressed by his creations can be seen as the best proof of the phenomenon. However, knowledge representation is only the representation of Yao Nai’s poetic theory and creation, and the essence lies in inspiration and spirit. Yao Nai’s poetic theory and creation and the value of his knowledge tendency can be explored from different levels, including poetry, academy and culture, and can also be embodied by uplifting the realm of poetry, dredging the obstruction in poetic circle, righting the pathway for scholars, and so on.%学者兼诗人的姚鼐,治学虽强调“义理”为先,以宋学为尚,但也不能不被时代的学术风潮所影响,其诗学观点和诗歌创作所表现出的学问化倾向,可以说便是这一情形的最好证明。不过,学问化仅仅是姚鼐诗学观点和诗歌创作的表征,“兴会”和“精神”才是其旨归之所在。姚鼐诗学观点及诗歌创作的学问化倾向所具有的价值,至少可从诗歌、学术、文化等层面进行挖掘,又从助诗歌之境界、疏诗坛之榛塞、正学者之途径等几个方面体现出来。

  20. 红头瑶服饰元素在现代服装设计中的运用%Precious Clothing Element of Red Head Branch of Yao in Modern Clothing Design



      金平红头瑶是我国瑶族众多支系中的一种,红头瑶服饰绚丽多彩,是少数民族服饰中最具特点的服饰之一。红头瑶妇女身穿对襟长衫,下着绣花长裤,特别是在婚嫁以后,剃光头发和眉毛,头戴大红色圆锥形尖帽,很是显眼。红头瑶服饰中有着很多现代服装设计可借鉴的元素,这些元素可以成为服装设计师们发挥设计创意的重要灵感源泉。通过案例,可以看到将红头瑶服饰中优秀的民族服饰文化内涵植入到现代时装形式中去,借以时装之型,传以民族之韵,打造中国风格的特色时装。%  Jin Pinghong head Yao is our country one of the many branches of Yao, Yao red head dress is gorgeous, is a minority costumes is one of most of the features of the dress. Red head Yao women wearing double-breasted gown, with embroidered trousers, especially in marriage later, shaved hair and eyebrows, wearing a big red conical hat, is very conspicuous. Red head precious clothing has many modern garment design reference elements, these elements can become a fashion designer who play a significant source of inspiration for creative design. Through the case, we can see the red head precious clothing will be excellent national dress culture into modern fashion form, in order to fashion, came to national rhyme, to create Chinese style fashion.

  1. 瑶药热敷配合牵引、推拿治疗腰椎间盘突出症%Yao Medicine Fomentation Combined with Traction and Massage for Lumbar Disc Herniation

    吴乙忠; 甘霖; 张喜娟


    Objective:To observe the efficacy of Yao medicine fomentation combined with traction and massage for lumbar disc herniation. Methods:123 cases of patients were randomly divided into treatment group, control group I and control group II, the treatment used the treatment of Yao medi-cine fomentation combined with traction and massage, the control group I used traction and massage, the control group II used Yao medicine fomenta-tion and traction, and observed the efficacy of the three groups. Results:The total effective rate in treatment was higher than that in other two groups (P<0.01). Conclusion:Yao medicine fomentation, as a kind of traditional folk medicine method, is simply operated, and it can significantly improve the symptoms of lumbar disc herniation patients when it's combined with traction and massage, which is worth clinical promotion and application.%目的:观察瑶药热敷配合牵引、推拿治疗腰椎间盘突出症的疗效。方法:将123例患者随机分为治疗组、对照1组和对照2组,治疗组采用瑶药热敷配合牵引、推拿治疗,对照1组给予牵引后推拿,对照2组给予瑶药热敷后牵引,比较三组临床疗效。结果:治疗组总有效率高于其余两组(P<0.01)。结论:瑶药热敷作为一种传统的民间医药方法,操作简单方便,配合牵引、推拿治疗腰椎间盘突出症能显著改善患者的临床症状,值得临床推广应用。

  2. [Comparative study of theoretical literature on cold pathogenic disease in Wai tai mi yao fang (Arcane Essentials from the Imperial Library) and Tai ping sheng hui fang (Taiping Holy Prescriptions for Universal Relief)].

    Zhang, Huirui; Liang, Yongxuan


    In the Wai tai mi yao fang (Arcane Essentials from the Imperial Library) compiled in 752, its portion on cold pathogenic disorders embodies the achievements before the mid Tang Dynasty, whereas that in the Tai ping sheng hui fang (Taiping Holy Prescriptions for Universal Relief), compiled in 992 embodies those before the early Song Dynasty. Comparison on the theory of cold disorders in both books reveal that, during the 2 centuries period from mid Tang to early Song Dynasties, the texts as a carrier for the transmission of such theory in both show no distinct changes, but only with minor revisions and improvements.

  3. 岭南瑶族传统体育文化的变迁及其影响%The changing of traditional sports culture of the Yao nationality in Lingnan and its influence

    赵苏喆; 李金梅; 余卫平


    探讨岭南瑶族传统体育文化的变迁及影响因素。研究认为岭南瑶族传统体育文化在建国后变化明显,侧重于娱乐功能,而其他的功能出现了不同程度的弱化;传统体育项目的数量在缩减,竞技项目器材更先进,仪式类项目趋向于娱乐和审美化的改变。这些变化引起了岭南瑶族各阶层不同的反应。岭南瑶族传统体育文化的变迁在建国后处于主动变迁状态,但也出现了“异化”现象,个别项目有逐渐消退的趋势,因此以保护为基础,与学校教育、旅游等相结合,注重社会培训的力量。%The authors probed into the changing and effecting factors of traditional sports culture of the Yao nation-ality in Lingnan, and put forward the following opinions:after the founding of China, traditional sports culture of the Yao nationality in Lingnan changed significantly: its entertaining functions were emphasized, while its other functions were weakened to different extents;the number of traditional sports events was decreasing, equipment for competitive events was more advanced, events in the ceremony category tended to entertaining and aesthetical changes. These changes had caused different reactions from all walks of life of the Yao nationality in Lingnan. Con-clusion:after the founding of China, the changing of traditional sports culture of the Yao nationality in Lingnan was in an initiatively changing condition, yet had shown the sign of“dissimilation”, some events had the trend of grad-ual disappearance;therefore, we should value the power of social training on the basis of protection, coupled with school education and tourism etc.

  4. 江华瑶族传统家屋的空间与社会%On the Space and Society of Traditional Living Houses of Jianghua Yao Ethnic Group



    家屋一直是人类学研究的经典主题,但瑶族传统家屋却较少得到关注。本文通过对江华瑶族传统家屋建筑形式、建造、使用、继承的分析,揭示了江华瑶族传统家屋既是瑶族同胞赖以安身立命的物质空间,也是独立的社会再生产空间,空间结构具有群聚式、社会性的特征。在江华瑶族社会中,他们将家屋视为一个有生命力的个体,重视次序结构,亲属关系和社会网络的建立和实践是以家屋为追溯原则。他们创造和延续家屋的方式,深刻影响着其社会的结构和功能。%The living house has been a classical subject of anthropology ,but the traditional living house of Jianghua Yao ethnic groups has been received much less attention . In this paper ,through the analysis of the traditional house's form ,construction ,use and inheritance of the Jianghua Yao ethnic group , the author reveals that the people of Jianghua Yao ethnic group do not only live on physical space ,but also are independent of social reproduction space .Their space structure has the characteristic of cluster type and social nature . In the Jianghua Yao ethnic group of society ,they see houses as a living individual and pay attention to order structure .Their kinship and the social network of establishment and practice is to house for traceability principle .The way in which they create and sustain house has a profound impact on the structure and function of society .

  5. On the Influence of Operas of the Song Dynasty on Art ofYuan Qu%论词乐及其体制对元曲的影响



    As the special style,on behalf of literary achievements in Yuan dynasty,YuanQu is a kind "music literature"afler Tang and Song dynasties poem,which could be orally singing,and is closely related to the Song Ci poetry.The music of Ci is translated into a tune of YuanQu in a direct way,or redone the new song into the music system of YuanQu,or influences the formation and development of YuanQu music system,all of which get YuanQu rich vitality nutriment.%元曲作为代表元代文学成就的特殊文体,是继唐诗、宋词而兴起的一种可口头和乐歌唱的“音乐文学”,与宋词有着密切关系,并存在或多或少的渊源血亲联系。词乐或以直接转化的方式转化为曲调,或被翻作新曲进入元曲音乐系统,或在体制上影响元曲曲体的形成与发展,使元曲从中获得了极富生命力的滋养。

  6. Reinforcing thinkings of Jin-Yuan Dynasties four eminent physicians%金元四大家补益观

    赵洁; 戴慎


    探究金元时期四大医家刘完素、张从正、李杲、朱丹溪的补益观。在其学术思想影响下,金元四大家的补益观各具特色,又具有共同点。刘完素多发挥《内经》之思想,且在补益的同时重火热之论;张从正则寓补于攻,重视脾胃在补益中的作用;李杲以脾胃为补益之本;朱丹溪重补阴泻火,且在补益的同时注意顾护脾胃。他们在补益时均重视脾胃的重要作用,并反对一味的温补。%To explore the characteristics of reinforcing views of four eminent physicians who are Liu Wan su,Zhang Cong zheng,Li Gao,Zhu Dan xi in Jin-Yuan Dynasties. Under the influence of their academic thought,Liu Wan su, Zhang Cong zheng,Li Gao,Zhu Dan xi have their own characteristics in reinforcing views,but there are common points at the same time. Liu Wan su exerts the thought in the Inner Canon of Medicine and attachs importance to Hot Theory while reinforcing. Zhang Cong zheng apartments reinforcing to attacking and pay att ention to the founction of taste in reinforcing. Li Gao regards rising the founction of taste as the frist. ,Zhu Dan xi values Yin - reinforcing and protecting the founction of taste at the same time. They all value the importance of the founction of taste while reinfor-cing and fight against blind warm-reinforcing.

  7. Wei Suyuan's Accomplishments in Theories of Literature and Art%论韦素园的文艺理论成就



    Wei Suyuan, one of the four outstanding memhers of Weiming Literary Society, lived a short but keen intellectual life Without an anthology of prose or poetry ever published throughout his lifetime of hard working and poor health, he had nevertheless trodden a path to the theories of literature and art, and the academic field failed to acknowledge properly. This paper is aimed to uncover and sort out Wei's yet unknown literary thoughts and theories, in memory of the 110th anniversary of Wei's birth and the 80th anniversary of his death.%“未名四杰”重要成员之一韦素园,“宏才远志,厄于短年”。他以抱病之身“实地劳作”,甘为人梯,生前虽然未有诗文结集出版,但在文艺理论方面却有独到的思考,造诣很深。对此,学界一直未能给予高度重视。今年是韦素园诞辰110周年、逝世80周年的特殊年份。文章拟对韦素园的文艺思想、文艺理论观点进行初步的挖掘、梳理、总结,一者以补缺漏,再者以示纪念。

  8. Detection of p53 and K-ras mutations in sputum of individuals exposed to smoky coal emissions in Xuan Wei County, China

    Keohavong, P.; Lan, Q.; Gao, W.M.; Zheng, K.C.; Mady, H.H.; Melhem, M.F.; Mumford, J.L. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (US). Graduate School of Public Health


    Lung cancer mortality rates in the Xuan Wei County population are among the highest in China and are associated with exposure to indoor emissions from the burning of smoky coal. Previous studies of lung tumors from both non-smoking women and smoking men in this region showed high frequencies of mutations, consisting mostly of G {yields} T transversions in the p53 tumor suppressor gene and K-ras oncogene, suggesting that these mutations were caused primarily by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this study sputum samples from 92 individuals with no evidence of lung cancer from Xuan Wei County were screened for p53 and K-ras mutations. Sputum cells were collected on glass slides by sputum cytocentrifugation, stained and cytopathologically analyzed. Cytologically non-malignant epithelial cells were taken from each sputum sample using a laser capture microdissection microscope and molecularly analyzed. Cells taken from the sputum of 15 (16.3%) individuals were mutation positive, including 13 (14.1%) individuals each with a p53 mutation, 1 (1.1%) individual with a K-ras mutation and 1 (1.1%) individual with a p53 and a K-ras mutation. p53 mutations were found in both the sputum of individuals with evidence of chronic bronchitis (3 of 46 or 6.5%) and those without evidence of this disease (11 of 46 or 23.9%). Therefore, mutations in the p53 gene and, to a lesser extent, the K-ras gene were frequent in non-malignant epithelial cells taken from the sputum of individuals without evidence of lung cancer who were exposed to smoky coal emissions in Xuan Wei County and were at a high risk for developing the disease.

  9. 探寻魏晋之前生命意识觉醒的历程%On the Life Consciousness Evolution Before: the Wei and Jin Dynasties



    The Wei and Jin Dynasties in Chinese history are generally acknowledged as the age for life consciousness awakening, which finds its full expression in literature as the awareness of the sense of life. The paper aims to explain that life consciousness awakening is a gradual process, of which the fo- cus is transferring from the awareness of external world to the individual' s internal consciousness of life. Therefore, it is a question how the life consciousness evolved before the Wei and Jin Dynasties. The paper makes an analysis of the life consciousness in the Chinese literary classics, which include The Book of Songs , Chuang-tzu , Lament , Hart Fu and Hart Yuefu , in the hope of making a deep exploration into the evolution of life consciousness before the Wei and Jin Dynasties.%魏晋时代被称为是“人的觉醒”的时代,“人的觉醒”在文学中表现为一种强烈的生命意识的觉醒。生命意识的觉醒是一个渐进的过程,是由生命外部的觉醒逐渐转向生命内部本体的觉醒的过程。那么在魏晋之前,生命意识是怎样一步步走向觉醒的呢?通过对《诗经》、《庄子》、《离骚》、汉赋、汉乐府中体现的生命意识的解析,来探寻魏晋之前生命意识渐渐觉醒的历程。

  10. The analysis of the beautiful of WANG Wei poem's phonological rhetoric%浅析王维诗歌的语音修辞美



    With the aid of phonological rhetoric, such as symmetrical syllable, alternate tone patterns, natural beat, harmonious poetic feat and picturesque geminate , WANG Wei made his poem more picturesque and viv-id, giving the people the feeling of beauty.%  王维在诗中借助语音修辞---音节匀称、平仄相间、节拍自然、韵脚和谐、叠音生动,使表意更加生动形象,给人以美的感受。

  11. Domestic Business Recruitment, Efficient in Selection and Services——Interview with Miss Chen Wei, Head of Domestic Business Recruitment Group


    @@ The management and services of participating companies is very important in the whole process of Partenariat, including in the phase of business recruitment. Within the 2-day Partenariat, around 5000 rounds of face to face exclusive business talks will be arranged between over 500 host companies and over 400 visiting companies, each round is only of 25 minutes. How can we help companies improve efficiency? The following is an interview between China's Foreign Trade and Miss Chen Wei, Head of Domestic Business Recruitment Group of the Partenariat Executive Commission.

  12. 霍连文和魏县彩印花布工艺%Huo Lianwen and Color Printing Fabric Art in Wei County



    作者通过对魏县彩印花布工艺的考察和对省级非物质文化遗产传承人霍连文的访问,系统梳理了魏县彩印花布工艺的前世今生,记录了霍连文在继承传统基础上的创新.%Through the research on color printing art in Wei County and the interview with the inheritor of provincial non-material cultural heritage Huo Lianwen, the author systematicaly analyzes the history and records Huo''s creativity based on inheritance of tradition.

  13. Wei Zheng and the Spread of the Wine Brewing Technique%魏徵与葡萄酒酿造术的传播



    Wei Zheng was expert in brewing wine, in which hid a much - told story of the exchange of cul- tures between China and foreign countries. Since Han Dynasty, Sogdiana Settlers and monks of Central Asia intro- duced the technique of wine brewing to our Central Plains at the first time. Wei Zheng was a descendant of Gaoche Tribe, which was founded the state of Gaoche in Gaochang. The Gaoche people engaged in agricultural life gradual- ly and absorbed wine brewing techniques originated from Sogdiana. After the decline of the Gaoche Kingdom, its tribe dispersed and its population was subordinated to the Northern Wei Dynasty. In this condition, the technique of wine brewing was introduced into our Central Plains at the second time, whose achievement was the vintage wine brewed by Wei Zheng. After Tang Dynasty recaptured the Westem Regions, this technique was introduced into our Central Plains at the third time. From then on, it is all over popularized%魏徵擅长酿造葡萄酒,其中隐藏着一段中外文化交流的佳话。汉代以来,粟特聚落、中亚僧侣将葡萄酒酿造技术第一次传入中原。魏徵是内附高车部落的后裔,高车部落曾在高昌立国,逐渐接触农业生活,吸收了源自索格底亚那的葡萄酒酿造技术。高车王国衰落后,部落离散,人口内附北魏,葡萄酒酿造技术第二次传入中原,其硕果即魏徵造佳酿。唐朝收复西域后,葡萄酒酿造技术第三次传入中原,以后就普及开了。

  14. Practicability analysis of Chinese Wushu Duan Wei System to local community%武术段位制进社区的可行性分析



    社区是进行一定的社会活动、具有某种互动关系和共同文化维系力的固定活动区域或社会团体.对于固定区域或群体体育的研究,对于开展落实现阶段群众体育工作就显得尤为重要.本文以武术段位制进入社区为切入点,主要运用文献法、逻辑分析法等,对武术段位制进社区的5大意义、5大优势进行分析和总结并提出一些策略即通过全民健身服务体系、政府支持、建立社区武术段位制推广机构开展社区武术段位制考试和培训工作、完善社区体育竞赛体系、充分利用社会上体育人力资源等更好的促进段位制在社区的开展提供可行性的依据.%Community is defined a stationary activity area or a social organization, holding some social activities, having some kind of interactive relations and sustaining force to common culture. Currently, the study of stationary area and group sports is very important for the development and implement of mass sport. Through Chinese Wushu Duan Wei System''s entry to community, this paper mainly used documentation and logical analysis to analyze and summarize five major significance and advantages of it. Meanwhile, this paper further proposed some strategies, like building national fitness service system、getting government support and setting up promotion institutions of Wushu Duan Wei System in local community to develop Community Wushu Duan Wei System test and training, completing community sports competition system and making good use of sports human resources in society and so on, to better promote and practice the spread of Wushu Duan Wei system in local community.

  15. Die Fußballclubs Rot-Weiß Erfurt und Carl Zeiss Jena und ihre Vorgänger in der DDR : ein Vergleich ihrer Bedingungen

    Kummer, Michael


    Der SC Motor/FC Carl Zeiss Jena war seit Ende der 50-er Jahre bis in die 80-er Jahre hinein ein vom DFV der DDR und vom DTSB immer wieder benannter und bestätigter Schwerpunktclub innerhalb der sogenannten zivilen Clubs. Der SC Turbine/FC Rot-Weiß Erfurt konnte diesen Status innerhalb des Fußballverbands dagegen nie erreichen. Die zentrale Frage dieser Dissertation nach den spezifischen Bedingungsgefügen des zivilen Schwerpunktclubs FC Carl Zeiss Jena (und Vorgänger) und des zivilen Nichtschw...

  16. Long-term treatment with shengmai san-derived herbal supplement (Wei Kang Su) enhances antioxidant response in various tissues of rats with protection against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity.

    Leong, Pou Kuan; Chen, Na; Chiu, Po Yee; Leung, Hoi Yan; Ma, Chung Wah; Tang, Qing Tao; Ko, Kam Ming


    Wei Kang Su (WKS) is a commercial herbal product based on a Chinese herbal formula, Shengmai San. Here, we investigated the effects of long-term treatment with WKS on mitochondrial antioxidant status and functional ability, as well as heat shock protein (Hsp) 25/70 production, in various tissues of rats. WKS treatment enhanced mitochondrial antioxidant status and ATP generation capacity, as well as Hsp 25/70 production in various rat tissues. WKS treatment suppressed plasma reactive oxygen metabolite levels and protected against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in rats. Long-term WKS treatment may prevent diseases by enhancing the resistance of mitochondria to oxidative stress.

  17. An in vitro study of the antioxidant activities and effect on human DNA of the Chinese herbal decoction 'Liu Wei Di Huang'.

    Szeto, Yim-Tong; Lei, Pui-Cheong; Ngai, Kam-Leong; Yiu, Andy Tak-Wah; Chan, Catarina Sin-Pek; Kok, Edith Wun-Fong; Leong, Chi-Wa


    A Chinese medicinal formulation, 'Liu Wei Di Huang', and its individual components have been tested for the genoprotective effect on human DNA by the comet assay. Results showed no DNA protection contributed by this prescription. However, the aqueous extracts of individual herbs, namely Cortex Moutan and Rhizoma Dioscoreae, were able to decrease by 10-15% the DNA stand break from hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidative stress. This provides insight to further evaluate the interaction among herbs and the search for the active ingredient responsible for the DNA protective effect.

  18. Festparolado de Chen Yuan


    Estas granda fojo por mi gratuli la oran jubileon de "E1 Popola Cinio". Permesu al mi paroli unue Esperante kaj poste nacilingve por esprimi miajn korajn bondezirojn al la gastoj, venintaj de malproksime por festi kune kun ni la jubileon. Cetere, mi faras tion por montri al la publiko, ke la artefarita lingvo Esperanto estas la plej efika komunikilo, gi povas esprimi cian penson kaj cian senton de la homa socio.

  19. Yuan Goes Global


    Five cities participate in a trial program to settle overseas trade in renminbi, bringing the currency a step closer to becoming global Five of China’s key manufacturing cities will launch services allowing the experimental use of the renminbi for international trade settlements. This move, aimed at reducing risks from exchange rate fluctuations, is a boon for Chinese exporters who already have had their profits squeezed at both ends.

  20. 路遥小说中进城农民的身份研究%Identity Study of Rural-urban Migrants in Lu Yao's Novels



    At the beginning of the new-period literature, Lu Yao, out of sincerity and love for the land , paid his attention to the new generation of confused but struggling peasants who lived in the"intersecting zone between town and country"against a certain historical background. In the contradictory mode between town and country, these enlightened youths were clearly aware of urban and rural differences in living standards. They envied the realities of urban civilization, feeling eager to drop into the arms of the city and change their identity. However, such a process was extremely obstructed for the reason of the social organization and consciousness in a certain historical context. Even though they entered the city, they could not always be accepted by urban residents. The identity of rural-urban migrants rendered them the special positioning of belonging to neither town or country, or vice versa. Such an embarrassing identity vividly reflected the history in which those discontented peasants migrated to the city at the beginning of the reform and opening-up policy carried out.%新时期文学复苏伊始,路遥出于对土地的执着和热爱,将目光投向了“城乡交叉地带”中在特定历史条件下迷茫、奋斗的新一代农民。在城乡二元对立的模式之下,这些农村中的知识青年看到了乡村的蒙昧和城市的富足。他们欣羡现代文明的成果,渴望投入城市的怀抱,改变自己的农民身份。然而,由于特定历史条件下社会体制及意识观念的因素,他们身份习得的过程倍显艰难,进入到城市之中却通常得不到认可。其进城农民的身份彰显了他们自身在城乡交叉之中非城非乡、亦城亦乡的特殊定位。他们的这一身份略显尴尬却也生动地映射了改革之初那一批不安分的农民向城市进军的历史。

  1. 对魏晋士人同一性危机的探源与思考——兼评郭世轩先生的《魏晋艺术精神研究》%Exploration and Thinking on Intellectual Identity Crisis in Wei and Jin Dynasties -- Also a Comment on Guo Shixuan's "Spirit of Art in Wei and Jin Dynasties"



    魏晋士人的同一性危机,既是一个时代问题,也是一个世代问题。研究魏晋士人的同一性危机,不仅要着眼于魏晋时期的政治、经济与文化,也要探源逐流,研究两汉时期的历史状况。魏晋士人的同一性危机在两汉时期就已经埋下了伏笔。两汉时期,尤其是儒学取得至尊地位以后,士人受儒家伦理道德观念的浸染,志行高洁,少有违礼纵情的。但由于两汉政治局势的混乱,儒学一度低迷,士人的思想极端混乱,这为魏晋士人的自我认同埋下了祸根。同时,由于魏晋的政局更加无序,尤其是统治者对名教的破坏,使得魏晋士人的同一性危机更加突出。%The intellectual identity crisis in Wei and Jin dynasties is not only a problem of the era, but also a descended issue. Studying of the intellectual identity crisis, requires focusing not only on the political, economic and cultural aspects, but also on the historic status left from the two Han dynasties. The intellectual identity crisis in Wei and Jin dynasties was descended from the two Han dynasties. had supreme status, scholars influenced by Confucian ethics norms norms to indulge in other behaviors. But due to the chaos in political During the two Han dynasties, Confucianism had noble virtues, and rarely breached the situation of two Han dynasties, Confucianism was once neglected, and the thoughts of scholars were extremely confused, which became the curse for the intellectual identity crisis in Wei and Jin dynasties. At the same time, because the political situation in Wei and Jin dynasties was even more disordered, especially because of the destruction of the Confucian ethical code by the rulers, the intellectual identity crisis in Wei and Jin dynasties was more outstanding.

  2. A Song of Farewell always Spreads: Appreciation of Wang Wei's “See Yuan-er off to be Prefect in Anxi”%一曲离歌传古今——王维《送元二使安西》赏析




  3. 實徵研究/獨立紀錄片工作者之隱性知識研究─以製片流程為例/張哲偉;阮明淑 │ The Study of Tacit Knowledge in Independent Documentary Film Production / Cher-Wei Chang ; Ming-Shu Yuan

    張哲偉、阮明淑 Cher-Wei Chang ; Ming-Shu Yuan


    Full Text Available 鑑於國內紀錄片領域發展成果豐碩,卻欠缺有關隱性知識的研究,由於隱性知識具有難以言傳、複雜層次等特質,紀錄片工作者除了技術知識、創意的展現, 應該還有較為隱性的部份,故本研究目的在探討獨立紀錄片製作流程之隱性知識種類與特性及其隱性知識獲取的方式。本研究透過文獻分析歸納「素材」、「觀 點」、「拍攝」、「剪輯」、「其他」的範疇,以半結構深度訪談訪問六位專業的獨立紀錄片工作者。編碼依照IF(情境)、THEN(解決方式)及 BECAUSE(理由)的方式,將受訪者的論述予以結構化,從中歸納其隱性知識種類與特性,結果可作為有意進入獨立紀錄片領域者、知識社會、知識管理等相 關研究之應用參考。本研究結論如下:(1獨立紀錄片工作者的製作流程從前製─拍攝─後製至發行四個階段,步驟間不斷反覆進行;(2獨立紀錄片工作者透 過顯性知識的吸收、內化、展現於製作流程上,最終完成紀錄片,紀錄片得以呈現出個人獨特的隱性知識;(3文獻歸納素材、觀點、拍攝、剪輯和其他的範疇, 應用IF─THEN─BECAUSE的編碼方式,有益於將個人的敘述加以結構化,本研究最後歸納出獨立紀錄片製作流程的17種隱性知識類型;(4透過隱 性知識的類型,得以全面性的掌握製作流程中可能發生的情境,有助於個人發展不同類型的隱性知識;(5研究歸納隱性知識的獲取方式,包含互動學習、做中 學、大量接觸影像書籍資源以及專業知識背景,隱性知識的獲取方式皆為形塑個人創作形式與風格的重要因素。研究結果可供對紀錄片有興趣者可以有效掌握並迅速 進入紀錄片的領域;在知識的萃取研究所建構之知識種類與特性,可供知識社會及知識管理相關領域參考;研究實證IF─THEN─BECAUSE的隱性知識編 碼方式,發現其結構性的呈現有助於隱性知識的辨識。Taiwan’s production of documentary is well-developed. But, the related research is not as sufficient. The insufficient research of the tacit knowledge in documentary film-producing due to the reason that tacit knowledge in the field is complicated, and besides the un-categorized layers and difficult to communicate orally as well. In addition to related techniques, knowledge and creativeness, it is believed that there are unrevealed the tacit knowledge behind. This study aims to probe the types and characteristics of the tacit knowledge in independent documentary film-producing, so as the methods of acquiring the tacit knowledge of the profession. Via literature analysis, five major categories: “material”, “viewpoint”, "production”, “post-production”, and “miscellaneous” were utilized to develop a semi-structured in-depth interview with six selected professional and semi-professional independent documentary film-producers. Researchers conduct the coding style of “IF-THEN-BECAUSE” model to structure types and characteristics of the tacit knowledge of the interview contents accordingly. Findings of the study are: 1The four major steps in the routine cycle of documentary film-producing process; 2Through explicating, internalizing, and presenting of the knowledge film-producing, film-producers enable to reveal his personal tacit knowledge; 3By utilizing five categories from the literature analysis and the application of the coding “IF-THEN-BECAUSE” style, 17 tacit knowledge types were summarized; 4With the summarized outcome of 17 tacit knowledge types, concerned parties will be able to deal with different situation in film-producing and develop individual tacit knowledge accordingly; 5The acquisition methods of the tacit knowledge including learning by interacting with related parties, learning by practicing, learning by contacting with films, books, and the professional knowledge. Methods of acquiring the tacit knowledge are a vital factor to cultivate an individual’s forms of creativeness and style. The result of this study will be helpful to people who are interested in documentary film-producing by understanding the field and taking control of the commencing process. This study built the knowledge types and characteristics of documentary film-producing, could used as a reference to the profession. The coding style of “IF-THEN-BECAUSE” is an effective method to verify the identity of the tacit knowledge. The outcome is valuable for audiences who are interested in the independent documentary and can use it as a helpful reference for further researches in the knowledge sociology and management.頁次:42-62

  4. An Analysis of Strategies on Fast Food Enterprise Product---Taking Tian Tian Ju Yuan Wei Fast-Food Catering as an Example%快餐企业产品策略分析--以添添聚源味快餐店为例

    吴晓宣; 李淑儿


    By the analysis of the Tiantian juyuan flavor snack's product strategies, this paper seeks effective marketing strategies, increase its earnings besides meeting cusomers' satisfaction, and provides suggestions for product strategies of fast food industry in China.%近年来,我国的快餐业得到了空前的发展,但能真正办成功的企业并不多见。究其原因,除了经营管理的失败外,产品也是一个不可以忽视的因素。看清快餐市场的发展趋势,选择适当的人员管理策略,才有可能在激烈的市场竞争中取得成功。就此,通过添添聚源味快餐店人员管理策略的研究,寻求有效的营销策略,使顾客满意的同时,增加其企业的收益,为我国快餐业的人员管理提出建议。

  5. Contribution of Fragmentary Argumentation of Qi Min Yao Shu to the Construction of Accounting Culture%《齐民要术・杂说》对会计文化建设的贡献


      贾思勰《齐民要术・杂说》对会计文化的贡献很多,包括提高利用固定资产效率、预测决策、实地考察、区别对待、调节市场、提高效益等思想,其对中国会计文化建设的核心贡献就在于合理有效运用“资产”。%Qi Min Yao Shu written by Jia Sixie has made great contributions to accounting culture , including:improving the efficiency of using fixed assets , decision predicting, taking field trips, dealing with different lands in different ways, adjusting the market, improving effectiveness and so on.The contribution of Qi Min Yao Shu to the construction of Chinese accounting culture lies in that it teaches a lesson of how to make use of "assets"reasonably and effectively.

  6. Three problems and the truth may hide in the history in"Yao Dian"%《尧典》中的三个问题及可能隐藏的历史真相



    As the important books, in"Shangshu · Yaodian"recorded, the legend of Yao and Shun’s abdication and primitive tribal leader election system is very similar, the puzzling problem can also through the study of primitive tribal leaders change of power inanswer. Therefore, some historical facts of Chinese primitive tribal leader election system hidden in"Yao Dian".%作为先秦重要典籍,《尚书·尧典》中记载的尧舜禅让传说与原始部落首领选举制极为相似,其令人费解的问题也可以通过对原始部落首领权力更替中的研究得到答案。因此,《尧典》中隐藏着华夏民族原始部落首领选举制的某些历史真相。

  7. 管弦乐《瑶族舞曲》的创作及其评析%Analysis on the Creation of Orchestra "Dancing Music of Yao Minority"



    The orchestra "Dancing Music of Yao Minority" has been long-spread and well-known in China. Where did the source of creativity come from? It is said to be from Yunnan, Guangxi or Hainan in some record published descriptions and the books of music appreciation, which has been under discussion for a long time. The paper is to clarify in analyzing and commenting on the work and the creation process of "Dancing Music of Yao Minority" .%流传已久的我国著名管弦乐《瑶族舞曲》,其创作源泉来自何处?有唱片出版说明或音乐欣赏书籍上介绍是云南或广西,亦有说是海南的,其不定性讨论已久。本文对《瑶族舞曲》的创作经过及作品展开了评论分析,以示正听。

  8. Comparative study on influence factors of physical development in Han and Yao nationality students ;in Guangxi%广西汉族和瑶族学生体格发育影响因素的对比性研究

    廖玉波; 唐国杰; 陈华; 盘云峰; 龚妃妃; 李春灵


    目的探讨广西汉、瑶族中小学生体格发育影响因素的异同,为制定本地区汉、瑶族学生生长发育干预措施提供参考依据。方法分别抽取7、10、13岁的汉、瑶族学生330和301人,进行体格测量和生长发育影响因素调查。结果(1)男生体格发育无民族差异;女生7岁组瑶族身高、体重均优于汉族,10岁、13岁组身高为汉族优于瑶族,体重无民族差异。(2)23项生长发育影响因素中,除经济情况、富蛋白质食品和水果供给及睡眠质量为汉族略优外,其余因素在两民族的情况相仿。(3)多元线性逐步回归分析表明,除年龄外,挑食习惯是决定汉、瑶族学生身高、体重的最重要因素。身高还与父母身高及膳食营养状况有关,体重则主要表现为膳食营养状况的影响。结论汉、瑶族学生的体格发育差异不明显,生长发育影响因素相似,膳食营养状况是最主要的影响因素。建议对汉、瑶族学生可采取相同的生长发育干预策略,但在具体措施上有所区别。%Objective To investigate the similarities and differences of influence factors for adolescents’ physical development in Han and Yao nationality students of Guangxi, and provide reference basis for formulating the intervention measures of adolescents’ growth and development in the local area. Methods Three hundred and thirty students of Han ethnic and 301 students of Yao ethnic aged 7, 10 and 13 were selected. Their physical development indexes were measured and the influence factors of adolescents’ growth and development investigated. Results ①The ethnic differences in boys’ physical development were not found, in 7 years old group of girls, the height and weight of Yao ethnic were both higher than Han, in 10 and 13 years old groups, the height of Han was higher than Yao, and no ethnic differences in weight was found. ② In the 23 influence factors, only the

  9. 广东省连山县瑶族民歌的音乐形态特征%On Morphological Characteristics of Folk Song of Yao Minority in Lianshan County of Guangdong



    由于各民族的文化传统、地理环境、语言、生活习惯等各方面的原因,民歌也具有不同的特征。本文从音阶调式终止式、Compass音域与旋法、节奏节拍、曲式结构等六个方面对瑶族民歌的音乐形态进行分析,旨在更好地掌握瑶族民歌的风格特点。%Characteristics of folk songs varies with minority's cultural traditions,geographical environments,languages,living habits and other aspects.This article analyses folk song of Yao from six aspects such as scales and modal cadence,range and melody,rhythm beats and the form structure in order to better grasp the characteristics of folk song of Yao.

  10. 郑卫婚恋诗中的女性形象%The Female Images in Love Poems of Zheng and Wei



    The thesis firstly analyzes the reasons of the abundant female characters in love poems of Zheng and Wei in The Book of Songs. One reason is social conditions and the other one is gender difference. Then taking the specific poems as examples, the thesis analyzes the beauty of female characters successively from appearance, morality and spirit. The females in love poems of Zheng and Wei are beautiful for being slim and tall in aspect of appearance, being respectful, cautious and submissive in aspect of morality, and being independent and self-esteeming in aspect of spirit.%首先分析了《诗经》中郑卫婚恋诗中女性形象众多的原因,一是社会条件所致,二是男女性别差异。然后以具体诗歌为例,从容仪、品德、精神三个方面依次对女性形象之美作了分析。郑卫婚恋诗中的女性形象容仪方面主要以修长高大为美,品德方面主要以恭谨柔顺为美,精神方面表现出了独立自尊之美。

  11. 王维辋川诗意象解读*%The Illustration of the Images of Wang Wei's Wang Chuan Poems



    王维辋川诗意象的营造是他追求纯真高洁的审美理想,融合在自然美之中的结晶。诗人能辩证地处理意象的虚实、动静、主次、繁简的关系,精致地描绘山林幽美清空的空灵之境,使言外之旨、象外之趣包含在精炼的意象之中,王维乐隐林泉沉醉自然山水之情因他刻画的意象而跃然纸上。%The creation of images in Wang Wei's Wang Chuan poems is his aesthetic ideal,which means the pursuit of purity and nobility and is fused in the natural beauty's crystallization.The poet can dialectically handle the relations between the empty and solid,act and quiet,primary and seconda-ry,complicatedness and simple of the image,can skillfully depicts the airy transcendence of the na-ture's beauty,and can present the implicated meaning and the fun beside the image in the refined ima-ges.Thus,Wang Wei's love of nature has been expressed vividly for his application of images.

  12. Micro-Raman analysis of the pigments on painted pottery figurines from two tombs of the Northern Wei Dynasty in Luoyang

    Liu, Zhaojun; Han, Yunxia; Han, Ligang; Cheng, Yongjian; Ma, Yiqiang; Fang, Li


    The pigments on the painted pottery figurines from two tombs of Northern Wei Dynasty (AD 386-534) in Luoyang were analyzed by Raman microscopy. All the pigments were identified compared with the Raman spectra of standard pigments. The red pigments were identified as haematite, the blue pigment as lapis lazuli, the green pigment as malachite, the black pigment as carbon black and the white pigment as calcite. Similar pigments were used in the two tombs despite the pottery figurines were very different in artistic style. The use of lapis lazuli as blue pigment on Chinese painted pottery figurines was found for the first time. This pigment and the painted pottery figurine of Sogdians are of great archaeological significance because it demonstrated that the trade and cultural exchanges via the Silk Road had extended to Luoyang city in the Northern Wei Dynasty. The result also confirms that micro-Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analytical method for the identification of pigments on ancient artworks.

  13. Prevalence of HBV infection and virus genotypes in Yao population of Ruyuan area, Guangdong province%广东乳源瑶族居民HBV感染及基因型分析

    李德昌; 马超; 林潮双; 卢志坚; 范红顺; 谢鸿恩; 何国伟; 姜清明; 沈莉华


    目的 了解广东省乳源地区瑶族居民乙型肝炎病毒(HBV)感染率,分析其基因型与临床疾病谱关系.方法采用酶联免疫吸附(ELISA)方法对665名瑶族、589名汉族居民的HBV血清学标志物进行检测,采用微板核酸分子杂交ELISA法对97例不同临床类型的乙型肝炎患者基因型进行检测.结果乳源地区瑶族居民HBsAg阳性率(20.3%)明显高于汉族(13.4%),且2个民族男性居民HBsAg阳性率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);97例瑶族HBV感染者以B基因型(52.58%)、C基因型(36.08%)为主;B/C混合型、C/D混合型、A、D型分别检出4、3、2、2例,未检出E、F基因型;HBV无症状携带者在B基因型中比例(52.94%)高于C型中同类人群(25.71%),慢性乙型肝炎轻、中度患者在B基因型比例(27.45%)低于C型(62.85%),其他临床类型差异无统计学意义.结论乳源地区瑶族居民男性HBsAg阳性率明显高于汉族;HBV感染以B基因型为主,C型次之.%Objective To explore the prevalence of hepatitis B viras(HBV) infection in Yao population in Ruyuan area of Guangdong province and to investigate the correlation between HBV genotypes and clinical disease spectrum. Methods Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA) was used to detect HBV markers of 665 Yao and 589 Han residents. Microboard nucleate molecular hybridization ELISA was used to detect HBV genotype among 97 cases with different clinical types of HBV infection. Results The HBsAg positive rate of Yao population(20. 3% ) was higher than that of Han population 13. 4%) and a significant higher rate was found in the males than in the females(25. 81% vs 13. 22% ,P <0.05). Among the 97 HBV patients of Yao,genotype B took up the highest proportion(52. 58% ,51/97) .followed by genotype C (36.08% ,35/97). Totally 7 cases of mixed genotype(4 cases of B/C,3 cases of C/D.2 cases of genotype A and D) were detected. The proportion of genotype B was higher than that of genotype C(52

  14. 广东连南瑶族成人龋病流行病学调查%An epidemiological survey on prevalence of caries among adults of Yao in Liannan in Guangdong

    尹志英; 曾木秀; 冯铁军; 王玉栋; 孟文霞; 黄友凤


    目的:调查广东连南瑶族成人(35~44岁年龄组)龋病流行情况,为连南瑶族地区开展龋病防治措施提供依据。方法采用多阶段分层等容量随机抽样的方法,抽取连南县城和各乡镇年龄在35~44岁之间的瑶族人720名,进行龋病流行病学调查。结果连南瑶族成人患龋率为58.33%,乡镇明显高于县城(c2=7.406,P=0.006);龋均为5.63±4.92,乡镇明显高于县城(u=2.704,P=0.007);龋齿充填率为7.20%,县城明显高于乡镇(c2=33.962,P<0.001);平均失牙数为3.04,乡镇明显高于县城(u=5.000,P<0.001)。结论连南瑶族成人龋病的流行病学情况城乡差异显著,且龋齿充填率较低,平均失牙数较高。%Objective To explore the prevalence of caries among 35⁃44 years old adults of Yao in Liannan, North⁃west of Guangdong, in order to provide basis for the caries prevention. Methods 720 Yao individuals ranged from 35 to 44 years old living in Liannan country and township were selected by multistage stratified random sampling. And then, a cross⁃sectional survey of caries was carried out. Results The prevalence of caries among Yao adults of Liannan was 58.33%. The prevalence of people living in township was higher than those in country (c2=7.406, P=0.006). DFT (decay and filled tooth) was 5.63 ± 4.92. DFT of people living in township was higher than those in country (u=2.704, P = 0.007). The filling rate of caries was 7.20%. The filling rate of people living in country was higher than those in township (c2 = 33.962, P<0.001). The average number of missing teeth was 3.04. The people living in township had more missing teeth than those in country (u=5.000, P<0.001). Conclusion There were significant differences be⁃tween people living in township and country of Yao residents in Liannan, in caries prevalence, filling rate and missing teeth aspects. The filling rate of caries was low and the average number of

  15. Tu-yuan-ce-fu and Compilation of Encyclopedia in the Tang Dynasty%《兔园策府》与唐代类书的编纂



    类书起源很早,是中国传统文化的产物。唐代修撰类书,始于建国之初,大抵是出于帝王之愿,试图把所有的知识进行分类便于提纲挈领地学习,因而唐代还有不少文人学士所编的类书就因循这样的法则。敦煌本《兔园策府》也是其中之一,它的白文本在唐宋间十分流行,《兔园策府》成书时间在《初学记》前,因而偶句之体例不是自徐坚始,很有可能始自《兔园策府》。%The encyclopedia originated early, is the product of Chinese traditional culture. The encyclopedias com-pilation started at the foundation of Tang Dynasty, which is probably out of the emperor willing to try to put all the knowledge classification facilitates learning focused on the vital. Then the encyclopedias compiled by scholars was procrastinating this rule as well in Tang Dynasty. Tu-yuan-ce-fu ( Encyclopedia Rabbit Garden) of Dunhuang edi-tion is one of them;its full form was very popular among the Tang and Song Dynasties. Tu-yuan-ce-fu was comple-ted before Chu-xue-ji ( The Primary Anthology) . Alternate style was not created by Xu Jian but probably from Tu-yuan-ce-fu.

  16. Tu-yuan-ce-fu and Compilation of Encyclopedia in the Tang Dynasty%《兔园策府》与唐代类书的编纂



    类书起源很早,是中国传统文化的产物。唐代修撰类书,始于建国之初,大抵是出于帝王之愿,试图把所有的知识进行分类便于提纲挈领地学习,因而唐代还有不少文人学士所编的类书就因循这样的法则。敦煌本《兔园策府》也是其中之一,它的白文本在唐宋间十分流行,《兔园策府》成书时间在《初学记》前,因而偶句之体例不是自徐坚始,很有可能始自《兔园策府》。%The encyclopedia originated early, is the product of Chinese traditional culture. The encyclopedias com-pilation started at the foundation of Tang Dynasty, which is probably out of the emperor willing to try to put all the knowledge classification facilitates learning focused on the vital. Then the encyclopedias compiled by scholars was procrastinating this rule as well in Tang Dynasty. Tu-yuan-ce-fu ( Encyclopedia Rabbit Garden) of Dunhuang edi-tion is one of them;its full form was very popular among the Tang and Song Dynasties. Tu-yuan-ce-fu was comple-ted before Chu-xue-ji ( The Primary Anthology) . Alternate style was not created by Xu Jian but probably from Tu-yuan-ce-fu.

  17. 杜诗“原宪”典故探微%An Exploration on the Allusions of Yuan Xian in Du Fu’Poems

    郭院林; 焦霓


    杜诗好用典,而其中“原宪”典故频率较高。通过研究,笔者发现杜甫用此典前期多咏其贫穷,渴求提掖;后期则多咏其超脱,适性自乐。杜诗此典显得笨拙,在于套用过多。原宪典来源依据出自《庄子》而非《论语》,这与唐代推崇道教有关。诗人在唐代道教文化浓厚的环境中,从交友到生活、创作难免受其影响,故而道教文化对其诗作有不少影响。然而诗人对于儒、道思想并没有深入研究。%Du Fu ,the poet of Tang Dynasty likes using allusions in his poems ,in which the allusions of Yuan Xian is used frequently .By studying these poems ,we can find that in his early years ,Du referred Yuan Xian to his destitution and his desire to be promoted .But in his later year ,Du employed Yuan Xian to mean his unworldliness ,comfort and entertainment .The allusion is clumsy and changeable in its meaning .The allusion stems from Chuang Tsu rather than from the Analects of Confucius ,which is due to the prevalence of Taoism in Tang Dynasty .Because of the Taoism environment Du Fu lived in ,his so-cial community and poem creation was heavily influenced by Taoism .On the other hand ,Du Fu did not conduct deep study of Confucianism and Taoism .

  18. 《元曲选》宾白特殊代词刍议%On Special Pronouns in the Spoken Parts of Yuan Drama Selection



    The spoken parts of Yuan Drama Selection are corpus reflecting language features in the Yuan Dynasty and Ming Dynasty, the spoken parts of Yuan Drama Selection contains four special pronouns that consist of suffix de, for instance, wu de, shen de, zen de and nen de. Functions of these pronouns are analyzed using qualitative methods, and then the number of features in these pronouns are counted by quantitative method. wu de and nen de are demonstrative pronoun, they have complementary function, frequency of use is one high and one low, shen de and zen de are interrogative pronoun, they don't have complementary function, frequency of use is not much different.%《元曲选》宾白作为反映元明时代语言特点的语料,有四个由词尾"的"构成的特殊代词"兀的""甚的""怎的"与"恁的". 采用定性的方法分析《元曲选》宾白特殊代词"兀的""甚的""怎的"与"恁的"的功能,再结合定量的方法统计《元曲选》宾白中这四个代词每一种功能出现的次数,"兀的""恁的"是指示代词,句法功能具有互补性,使用频率一高一低;"甚的""怎的"是疑问代词,句法功能没有互补性,使用频率比较接近.

  19. Half is Life and Half is Play---Discussion of Yuan's Novel Writing%半是人生半是戏--论阿袁的小说创作



    Yuan,a female novelist of new realism from Jiangxi,with her unique literary style,steps into the literary world. As a woman in her forties,Yuan has experienced with and formed insights over the sadness of mid-dle - aged women,which sets base for her telling stories one after another in a dismal tone of those women who are stuck in whirlpool of romance and marriage. On the stage set by Yuan with cold eyes,tragedies are performed one after another by women,both academic well - educated women and young women from small towns. Under the so-cial ideology of male sovereign,female's so - called revolution for self - liberation has just become a tragedy of the desire;in the " city of mirror" which is built with men and women,it is vain for women to break the siege;women 's fate is doomed to be sad in the narrative arrangement of the amplified the " second sex" by Yuan.%江西新写实主义女作家阿袁以其独特的文学风格跻身文坛,进入不惑之年的她以对女性暮春悲凉的深刻洞察和感受,凄迷地诉说了一个个在爱情和婚姻的漩涡中打转的女性的故事,不管是学院派的知识女性还是小城镇的青年女子,在作家冷眼搭建的戏台上,演绎了一段段悲情人生。在男性主权的社会意识形态下,女性所谓自我解放的革命只不过成为一场欲望的悲剧;在男男女女围筑成的“镜城”中,女性在围困中的突破只能是徒劳;在作家放大的“第二性”的叙事安排下,女性的命运注定是悲哀。

  20. Chinese Immigrants to Korean Peninsula in Late Yuan and Early Ming Period%元末明初中国移民朝鲜半岛研究



    At the time of the demise of the Yuan Dynasty and the establishment of Ming Dynasty,the Korean Peninsula was under the background of the demise of the Goryeo Dynasty and the establishment of Korean Dynasty.People from China immigrated to Korean Peninsula,which reflected the reconstruction of the tributary-conferring system and the competition for interests between China and Korea Peninsula. The immigration process was divided into three periods:the tributary-conferring system in Yuan Dynasty and Goryeo Dynasty,the system was destroyed in the period which was the demise of the Yuan Dynasty and the establishment of Ming Dynasty,the tributary-conferring system in Ming Dynasty and Korean Dynasty.In each period of the immigration process,the reasons,types,process and impact were highly characterized by the times,which had historical influence.The Red Turban Rebellion immigrated to Korean Peninsula objectively weakened the Yuan Dynasty’s control of Goryeo Dynast.The Jurchen immigrated to Goryeo Dynasty lead to the rise of Li ChengGui’s forces and the establishment of the Korean Dynasty.The immigration promoted the Chinese economic and cultural exchanges with the Korean Peninsula.%元明交替之时正是朝鲜半岛高丽向朝鲜王朝过渡之际。此间中国向朝鲜半岛的移民,体现了中朝双方的利益之争与封贡关系的重构。移民历程分为三个时期:元朝—高丽封贡体制时期,元朝—高丽封贡体制破坏、元明交替时期,明朝—朝鲜封贡体制时期。每一时期移民的原因、类型、进程都极具鲜明的时代特征与历史影响。红巾军进入朝鲜半岛在客观上削弱了元朝对高丽的控制;女真族部落进入高丽,最终促使李成桂势力崛起与朝鲜王朝建立;移民促进了中国与朝鲜半岛的经济文化交流。

  1. A Comparative Study on the Narrative Styles of Kafka and Ma Yuan%卡夫卡与马原叙事风格的比较研究



    Ma Yuan is a representative of Chinese Avant-garde writers and Kafka is a writer of Western expressionism.The former is good at using narrative traps,while the latter is skilled in absurd description. Kafka is the father of modernism,while Ma Yuan starts the Chinese Avant-garde literature.Although dif-ferent in the way of expression,the two,with absurd description,provide the reader with imagery of multi-ple symbolic connotations.Ma Yuan in his early period of creation unconsciously absorbs the Kafkaesque creative features and internalizes these characteristics.Meanwhile,Ma Yuan has his own distinctive quality in these aspects:the mixture of the illusory and the real,the switch between the reader,the author and the narrator,and mystical narration.%马原是中国先锋派的代表作家,卡夫卡是西方表现主义大家。马原善用叙述圈套,卡夫卡善用悖谬化描写。卡夫卡开创了现代派文学的先河,马原则开启了中国先锋文学。虽然两者的表达方式不同,但都通过荒诞化的描写,向世人展开了一幅毕加索式具有多重象征内涵的意象之画。马原在文学创作早期不自觉地吸收了卡夫卡式的创作特征,并将这些特征内化为自己的作品风格。同时,他在虚幻与真实交织,读者、作者及叙述者的互换,神秘主义的叙述化方面具有独到之处。

  2. KOUADIO YAO P..pmd


    L'étude sur la lutte biologique contre les adventices des bananiers s'est déroulée dans la zone de Dabou, au sud de la Côte d'Ivoire. ... Résidus (LMR) de pesticides et de préservation .... Ceux de la parcelle A-12 ont levé spontanément et n'ont ..... No d'ordre. Espèces adventices. Indices d'abondance-dominance moyens.

  3. The WEI6K, a 6-kW 7-m Small Wind Turbine: Final Technical Report

    Wetzel, Kyle K.; McCleer, Patrick J.; Hahlbeck, Edwin C.; DOE Project Office - Keith Bennett


    This project was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under a DOE solicitation “Low Wind Speed Technology for Small Turbine Development.” The objective of this project has been to design a new small wind turbine with improved cost, reliability and performance in grid-connected residential and small business applications, in order to achieve the overall DOE goal of cost effectiveness in Class 3 wind resources that can now be achieved in Class 5 resources. The scope of work for this project has been to complete the preliminary design of an improved small wind turbine, including preliminary loads and strength analyses; analysis and design of all major components; systems integration and structural dynamic analysis; estimation of life-cycle cost of energy; and design documentation and review. The project did not entail hardware fabrication or testing. The WEI6K Turbine resulting from this project is an upwind horizontal-axis wind turbine rated at 6 kW. It features a 3-blade 7-m diameter rotor. The generator is a direct-drive permanent magnet synchronous machine generating 3-phase power at 240 VAC. The turbine is maintained oriented in to the wind via active yaw control using electromechanical servos. Power is regulated with active blade pitch control. The turbine is presently designed to be placed on a 100-foot (30m) tower. The turbine is predicted to generate electricity at a levelized cost of energy (COE) between 7.3 and 8.9 ¢/kWh at an IEC Class II site, with an average wind speed of 8.5 m/s at hub height, depending upon whether the customer uses a guyed truss tower (the lower figure) or a monopole tower. For the NREL Reference Site, with a mean wind speed of 5.35 m/s at 10 m height, the turbine would generate at a levelized cost of energy of between 9.7 and 11.9 ¢/kWh. The lowest of these numbers is presently competitive with retail electricity rates in most of the country. The 8.9 ¢/kWh is still competitive with retail rates in many regions of the

  4. Effects of Wei Chang An on expression of multiple genes in human gastric cancer grafted onto nude mice

    Ai-Guang Zhao; Ting Li; Sheng-Fu You; Hai-Lei Zhao; Ying Gu; Lai-Di Tang; Jin-Kun Yang


    AIM:To investigate the expression of multiple genes in Chinese jianpi herbal recipe Wei Chang An (WCA) in human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901.METHODS:A human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line SGC-7901 grafted onto nude mice was used as the animal model.The mice were randomly divided into 3 groups,one control and the two representing experimental conditions.Animals in the two experimental groups received either WCA over a 34-d period or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) over 6-d period starting at 8th d after grafting.Control animals received saline on an identical schedule.Animals were killed 41 d after being grafted.The expression profiles in paired WCA treated gastric cancer samples and the N.S.control samples were studied by using a cDNA array representing 14181 cDNA clusters.The alterations in gene expression levels were confirmed by Real-time Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).RESULTS:When compared with controls,the average tumor inhibitory rate in WCA group was 44.32%±5.67% and 5-FU 47.04% 4±11.33% (P<0.01,respectively).The average labeling index (LI) for PCNA in WCA group and 5-FU group was significantly decreased compared with the control group.Apoptotic index (AI) was significantly increased to 9.72%±4.51% using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate fluorescence nick end labeling (TUNEL) method in WCA group compared with the controls 2.45%±1.37%.5-FU group was also found to have a significantly increased AI compared with the controls.The expression of cleaved Caspase-3 in WCA group and 5-FU group was significantly increased compared with the control group respectively.There were 45 different expressed sequence tags (ESTs) among the control sample pool and WCA sample pool.There were 24 ESTs up-regulated in WCA samples and 21 ESTs down-regulated.By using qPCR,the expression level of Stat3,rap2 interacting protein x (RIPX),regulator of differentiation 1 (ROD1) and Bcl-2 was lower in WCA group than that in control

  5. Human platelet antigen gene polymorphism analysis in Yao and Zhuang nationality in Guangxi%广西地区壮族瑶族人群人类血小板抗原基因的多态性分析

    杨兰; 梁秀云; 曾江辉


    目的研究广西地区壮族、瑶族人群人类血小板抗原(H PA )1~17bw基因的表达差异。方法采用序列特异引物-聚合酶链反应(PCR-SSP)方法对广西地区100例壮族和100例瑶族健康个体进行 HPA 1~17bw系统基因分型,比较壮族和瑶族的 HPA基因频率。结果等位基因a是广西地区壮族、瑶族健康个体主要的 HPA1~17bw基因型别。在H-W平衡检验中,瑶族健康人群 HPA1~17bw基因多态性中除 HPA1、2、6外,其他均符合H-W群体遗传平衡法则(P>0.05);壮族健康个体中,所有 HPA各系统符合 H-W群体遗传平衡法则(P>0.05)。瑶族和壮族 HPA系统抗原不配合率分析中,HPA3和 HPA15不配合率最高,皆超过30%。比较两个民族的基因频率,发现瑶族的 H PA-3和H PA-15的基因多态性明显低于壮族(χ2=12.242,P=0.002;χ2=6.209,P=0.045)。结论广西地区壮族和瑶族 HPA基因多态性分布存在明显的种族差异,特别是 HPA-3和 HPA-15系统杂合度最高,抗原分布不配合比例相对高,在临床配合性血小板输注中必须加以重视。%Objective To analyze the expression difference of human platelet antigen (HPA) 1-17bw gene be-tween Yao and Zhuang nationality in Guangxi .Methods Genotyping of HPA 1 -17bw system of 100 cases of Yao nationality and 100 cases of Zhuang nationality were conducted by using PCR-SSP ,and genotype and gene frequency were calculated .Results The alleles a was the common genotype of HPA 1-17bw gene in Zhuang and Yao national-ity of Guangxi .H-W population genetic equilibrium test indicated that ,in Yao nationality ,most gene polymorphisms of HPA 1-17bw gene ,excepting HPA1 ,2 and 6 gene polymorphisms ,were conformable to H-W population genetic e-quilibrium law (P>0 .05) ,and in Zhuang nationality ,all HPA system were conformable to H-W rule(P>0 .05) .A-mong all HPA system ,the mismatch rates of HPA3 and HPA15 were the

  6. 元代浙江出版业述略%Brief Introduction to the Publishing Industry of Zhejiang Province in Yuan Dynasty

    隗静秋; 吴如功


      the publishing industry of Zhejiang province in Yuan dynasty is at the time that is key to a new enterprise. On the time, the economy, education and culture were highly developed, so the publishing industry of Zhejiang province in Yuan dynasty had a stable basic. It made great achievements on govermental publishing, folk publishing and the Buddhist Scripture publishing.%  元代浙江出版业处于一个承前启后的时期和阶段,上承两宋时代浙江出版业的鼎盛与辉煌,下启明清浙江出版业的复兴与崛起。浙江凭借深厚的根基与精良的传统工艺,使得浙江在全国出版业中独领风骚、享誉华夏。由于浙江经济繁盛、教育发达、文化昌盛、出版基础扎实,元代浙江出版业在官刻、坊刻、佛经刊刻方面都取得了不菲的成就。

  7. On Yuan Lun’s Life Story in Tang Dynasty%唐代朔州状元苑论事迹考



    Yuans of Mayi county is a famous literary family in Tang Dynasty, among which Yuan Lun is the Champion of imperial examination in 793 A.D.. However, due to the lack of material, people know little about his life story. Newly unearthed literature in recent years can uncover his family background, official career and many mysteries, meanwhile to see his literary style.%唐代马邑(今山西朔州)苑氏为有名的文学世家,其中苑论为唐德宗贞元九年(793年)进士科状元。由于资料缺乏,人们对其生平事迹知之甚少。近年新出土的一些文献资料,可以为我们揭开其家庭及仕宦生涯的诸多谜团,并一睹其文学风采。

  8. 元代回回人音乐生活的伊斯兰色彩%The Islamist-tinged of Huihui People’ s Musical Activities in Yuan Dynasty



    元代回回人音乐生活的伊斯兰色彩,包含宗教和地域两方面涵义,大体可从《伊本·白图泰游记》中略窥一斑。元代回回人在宗教用乐、仪仗用乐和宴飨用乐三方面承袭了当时伊斯兰地区的用乐风俗。宗教和宴飨的音乐生活,对于回族音乐的形成起重大而持续的作用。%The Islamist-tinged of Huihui people ’ s musical activities in Yuan Dynasty contains two aspects of religion and geographical meaning .It generally can be understood from the “the travels of Ibn Battuta”.The article analyzes the situation of the Huihui people ’ s musical life in Yuan dynasty , including three aspects:religious music , ceremonial music and feast music , and thus it can be seen , the Huihui people inherited the customs of Islamic areas .Especially religious music and feast music , they largely have persistent effect for the Ethnic Hui people ’ s musical forms to this day .

  9. 黄公望的“高远”式构图法赏析%Appreciation of GaoYuan type composition method of Huang Gongwang



    Beijing's Palace Museum Danya Yushu Figure was used as the research object in this paper. The Huang Gongwang 's GaoYuan type composition method, which adopt antitheses and look down at the landscape to obtain"scene of outside mountains", was studied base on analysis of three viewing angles:looking up, looking squarely and look down at the landscape, and the drawing method of mountains, rocks and trees. On Guoxi,s landscape painting method basis, it is result that Huang Gongwang 's way is to innovate the GaoYuan type composition method.%以北京故宫博物院藏《丹崖玉树图》为研究对象,基于仰视、平视、俯视三个观察角度以及山峦巨石及树木的浅绛画法分析,研究黄公望采用对比法、鸟瞰视角获取“山外之景”的“高远”式的构图方法。在郭熙的山水画法基础上,黄公望的构图方法是对“高远”式构图法进行了创新。

  10. The Family of Sima Chuzhi in Northern Wei and Zhou Dynasties%北魏初至北周中的司马楚之家族兴替



    北魏初期,司马楚之凭借个人才能及其与鲜卑贵族、皇室的姻亲关系,父子得以世袭王爵,担任云中镇大将、朔州刺史的要职。孝文帝时期,司马楚之家族世袭要职的特权被取消,爵位亦例降为公。司马悦为重振家族,改变了以往的姻亲关系,开始与汉族大族联姻,以抬高家族的地位。北魏末,司马裔归顺西魏(北周)政权,依靠乡里、宗族的势力,屡立功勋,从而受到统治者的宠信,然关东豪族的身份使司马裔最终未能进入西魏(北周)的政权核心或政治中心地区任职。%In the early Northern Wei Dynasty, Sima chuzhi obtained three generations hereditary positions and prince titles by virtue of personal competency and affinity of Xianbei nobles and the Royal. In the period of Emperor Xiaowen, the hereditary post of privilege was cancelled, and the title down to duke. To revitalize the family, Simayue changed the past affinity and started with Han nationality’s marriage in order to boost family status .At the end of the Northern Wei Dynasty, Simayi surrendered to the west (the northern Zhou) regime and was trusted by the rulers relying on the village and clan forces and effectiveness. As local tyrant of Guandong, Sima Yi didn’t hold a post at the West Wei Dynasty’s (the West Zhou Dynasty’s) the core of the regime or in political center areas.

  11. Safety Test of ShuangWei Premix to Pregnant Sows%双威预混剂对怀孕母猪的安全性试验

    孙哲; 刘世军; 裴清哲


    The aim of the study is to tested of the safety to the pregnant sows. A trial was conducted to tested the safety of normal recommended and double recommended dose ShuangWei premix (Albendazole and Ivermectin Premix) in Inner Mongolia Taipusi Banner in Xilinguole League Xilinhe farms. There are three phases, three scales and two dosages, little scale including two pregnant sows, middle scale including ten pregnant sows, large scale including thirty sows. All the sows were feed mixed with normal recommended and double recommended dose ShuangWei premix for one week. In the meantime all the pregnant sows were observed that the sows whether have abortion or signs of poisoning. The results showedthere were no abortion or signs of poisoning in the sows. The ShuangWei premix have no effect to the pregnant sows. It is safe to the pregnant sows.%为了验证双威(阿苯达唑、伊维菌素)预混剂对不同阶段怀孕母猪的安全性,在内蒙古自治区锡林郭勒盟太仆寺旗宝昌镇锡林河养殖场进行双威预混剂在怀孕母猪的安全性试验:药物剂量分正常剂量和加倍剂量;试验阶段分为怀孕前期、中期和后期三阶段;试验规模小批量(每组2头)、中批量(每组10头)、大批量(每组30头);在饲料中预混饲喂一周。结果表明:双威预混剂在怀孕母猪全期均是安全的。说明含有阿苯达唑和伊维菌素的双威预混剂可以在猪场内进行全群驱虫,不会对怀孕母猪有任何不良影响。

  12. Impact of LUCC on streamflow based on the SWAT model over the Wei River basin on the Loess Plateau in China

    Wang, Hong; Sun, Fubao; Xia, Jun; Liu, Wenbin


    Under the Grain for Green Project in China, vegetation recovery construction has been widely implemented on the Loess Plateau for the purpose of soil and water conservation. Now it is becoming controversial whether the recovery construction involving vegetation, particularly forest, is reducing the streamflow in the rivers of the Yellow River basin. In this study, we chose the Wei River, the largest branch of the Yellow River, with revegetated construction area as the study area. To do that, we apply the widely used Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model for the upper and middle reaches of the Wei River basin. The SWAT model was forced with daily observed meteorological forcings (1960-2009) calibrated against daily streamflow for 1960-1969, validated for the period of 1970-1979, and used for analysis for 1980-2009. To investigate the impact of LUCC (land use and land cover change) on the streamflow, we firstly use two observed land use maps from 1980 and 2005 that are based on national land survey statistics merged with satellite observations. We found that the mean streamflow generated by using the 2005 land use map decreased in comparison with that using the 1980 one, with the same meteorological forcings. Of particular interest here is that the streamflow decreased on agricultural land but increased in forest areas. More specifically, the surface runoff, soil flow, and baseflow all decreased on agricultural land, while the soil flow and baseflow of forest areas increased. To investigate that, we then designed five scenarios: (S1) the present land use (1980) and (S2) 10 %, (S3) 20 %, (S4) 40 %, and (S5) 100 % of agricultural land that was converted into mixed forest. We found that the streamflow consistently increased with agricultural land converted into forest by about 7.4 mm per 10 %. Our modeling results suggest that forest recovery construction has a positive impact on both soil flow and baseflow by compensating for reduced surface runoff, which leads

  13. 论北魏鲜卑族女性的家庭法律地位%On Family Legal Status of Xianbei Women in Northern Wei Dynasty



    The family legal status of Xianbei women in the Northen Wei Danasty was more striking in ancient different dynasties,for example,women of Xianbei nationality in Northen Wei Dynasty had the right of free love in the aspect of love;they also possessed the relative right of self-determination in marriage,specific-ally speaking,they not only had the freedom of getting married and divorced,but also were permitted to remarry after the divorce and respected by others. In the aspect of property right,they owned a certain quantity of land, possessing their own property in the family. In order to further understand the protection of women statuses in the law and the clan habit,the paper started with the study on the family legal statuses of Xianbei women in Northen Wei Dynasty,and analyzed the concrete embody of Xianbei women in the family legal statuses. Based on this,the characteristics and reasons of womenˊs family legal statuses in Xianbei nationality of Northern Wei Dynasty were discussed so as to put forward some perfect suggestions for the protection of our womenˊs rights and promote the family legal statuses of modern women.%北魏鲜卑族女性的家庭法律地位在古代各朝代中是比较突出的,例如:在恋爱方面北魏鲜卑族女性享有恋爱自由的权利;在婚姻方面北魏鲜卑族女性享有相对的婚姻自主权,她们既有一定的结婚自主和离婚自由的权利,在离婚后改嫁也是被许可且受到尊重的;在财产权方面北魏鲜卑族女性享有一定量的土地,在家庭中拥有了属于自己的财产。为了进一步了解北魏在立法和氏族习惯法中对女性地位的保护,以北魏鲜卑族女性的家庭法律地位为切入点,分析了北魏鲜卑族女性在家庭中的法律地位的具体表现,在此基础上对北魏鲜卑族女性家庭法律地位体现出的特点及其原因进行探讨,以期对我国现代社会女性权益保护方面提出完善建议,促进现

  14. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China.

    Fan, Liangxin; Liu, Guobin; Wang, Fei; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen J


    Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use) and cultural backgrounds (age, education).

  15. Professor SHAN Zhao-wei's Clinical Experience of Treatment of Peptic Ulcer%单兆伟教授治疗消化性溃疡经验



    作者随单兆伟教授临症10余年,文章从病机、治则、选方、用药特点、生活调摄等多方面对单教授治疗消化性溃疡的临症经验进行了总结,并通过典型病案具体介绍单教授的诊疗思路.%I followed with Pro. SHAN Zhao-wei in clinic for more than ten years. This article summarized the clinical experience from pathology, treatment principle, prescription application, characteristics in administration and regimen, etc. It also introduced diagnostic and treatment thought through typical clinical cases.

  16. Rezension von: Gabriele Dietze: Weiße Frauen in Bewegung. Genealogien und Konkurrenzen von Race- und Genderpolitiken. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag 2013.

    Philipp Dorestal


    Full Text Available Gabriele Dietze zeichnet das Verhältnis der Kategorien Race und Gender innerhalb der US-amerikanischen Geschichte von der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts bis zur Präsidentschaftswahl von Barack Obama nach. Dabei demonstriert sie anhand von zentralen Figuren der weißen Frauenbewegung deren ambivalente Positionen, die oftmals für progressive Inhalte wie das Eintreten für Frauenrechte stehen, gleichzeitig aber dann Anliegen von African Americans nicht artikulieren oder gar zum Schweigen bringen. Ebenso zeigt Dietze mithilfe von Texten einiger schwarzer Autor_innen sowie anhand berühmter Gerichtsprozesse, dass schwarze Emanzipation nicht notwendigerweise mit feministischen Positionen einhergehen musste, sondern sich vielmehr eine Konkurrenzsituation zwischen Race und Gender entspann.

  17. An Analysis of the Spiritual Qualities of The Research of Yuan Dynasty Drama by Yoshikawa Kojiro%简析吉川幸次郎《元杂剧研究》之精神史特色



    日本汉学家吉川幸次郎的《元杂剧研究》是一部从精神史的角度研究元杂剧的力著。吉川拓展了杂剧的研究领域,透过听众和作者的社会背景模式分析了元杂剧产生和发展的重要原因,将其提高到精神史的层次,分析了元代的社会风气和时代精神的变迁。从语言学和杂剧的结构入手分析杂剧,认为元代的社会风气及汉人的时代精神决定杂剧的特征及发展更是吉川研究的特色。%Yoshikawa Kojiro's The Research of Yuan Dynasty Drama analyzed the drama by reviewing the development of Chinese spiritual history. He opened up a new approach, and through analysis of the social background of the audience and the dramatists, he proved that social atmosphere and the spirits of the time made a great contribution to the production and development of Yuan Drama. He studied linguistics and the structures of Yuan Drama and by using Chinese spiritual history as a key factor, he tried to show that the literary characteristics of Yuan Drama were decided by the social atmosphere of Yuan Dynasty and the spirit of the time of the Han people. As Yoshikawa said, The Research of Yuan Dynasty Drama is a process of reaching the Chinese history of spirit and an aspect of integrated Chinese history of spirit.

  18. 北魏前期汉族士人心态初探%Psychological Analysis of the Han Nationality Scholars in the Early Stage of Northern Wei



    北魏前期,汉族士人通过多种途径进入北魏政权,由于艰险的文化地理环境和残酷的政治环境,北魏前期汉族士人形成了复杂而独特的心理状态,即谨慎内敛、以道自守、与北魏政权保持若即若离的关系。同时,北魏前期士人心态随着环境氛围的变化也呈现出起起伏伏、曲曲折折的变化历程,士人们在积极进取与慎以避祸之间徘徊,最终在崔逞之死的阴影和崔浩“国史之狱”的震慑之下走向封闭自守。%In the early stage of northern Wei , the Han nationality scholars participation in Northern Wei through a variety of ways.But, because of dangerous cultural and geography and political conditions, the Han nationality scholars formed complex and distinctive psychological.That is, cautious, introverted, self-sustaining by the principium, they keep certain distance with the polit-ical power.And, the psychological of Han nationality scholars showing a tortuous and changeable process .The scholars make choices between aggressive and prudent to avoid mischance.So, their heart closed under the influence of history inquisition of Cui Hao at last.

  19. On Currency Circulation and Inflation of Wei Shu Wu Period%三国时期的货币流通与通货膨胀∗



    The society had been disordered in late Han Dynasty, at that time, a person who was named Dong Zhuo destroyed mo⁃netary system, forged poor small coin, which created serious inflation, and influenced currency circulation damagingly. Wei, Shu, Wu Dynasties took different approaches to solve this serious economic crisis:Wei Dynasty had not minted and reformed tax policy, which changed the tax method from money to real objects;while Wu and Shu Dynasties had forged big coins to deal with it. The monetary sys⁃tem had been chaotic, inflation had continued to grow because of the wrong currency policy and severe economic damages, which un⁃locked the prologue of natural economy in Medieval Times, and promoted the flourishing of real objects as currency.%汉末丧乱,董卓破坏钱法,铸造劣质小钱,引起了严重的通货膨胀,三国时期的货币流通秩序也因此受到严重影响。魏、蜀、吴政权面对这次经济危机采取了不同的应对方法,北方的曹魏政权主要采取不铸钱与赋税改收实物的办法;南方的吴、蜀政权则以铸造大钱的手段予以应对。由于经济破坏严重,货币政策不合时宜,导致了整个三国时期货币制度混乱,通货膨胀持续增长,为此后实物货币兴盛、“中古自然经济”的出现揭开了序幕。

  20. The Origin and Definition of the Divine Poems during Han and Wei Dynasty%汉魏六朝仙歌界定与溯源

    蒋振华; 罗佳艺


    Divine poem is one of the major styles of Daoism literature.It can be defined in two ways, a generalized way and a narrow way. In the narrow definition of divine poem, the creator should be the Taoist or an immortal that is pretended by the Taoist. And its contents mainly emphasize the concept of immortal, or express the yearning for wonderful fairy land, or desire to become a fairy who is free, happy and undead. In the generalized definition, immortal poem is the poem about fairy, wonderland and immortal thoughts. By the inspection of the citation sources of the divine poem during Han and Wei Dynasty, the poems were generally defined in the generalized way. The divine poems of Han and Wei dynasty rooted in the pre-Qin literature and are included in the Taoist literature.%仙歌是道教文学的主要体裁之一,分为广义与狭义两种.狭义的仙歌,从创作主体看,应该以道教中人物或者是道教中人假托的某某仙人、真圣为创作主体;其内容、主旨以"仙"为中心,或表达对神仙美妙境界之向往,或渴望成为自由幸福、生命长存的仙人.广义地讲,凡吟咏仙人、仙境和神仙思想的诗作,即可视为仙歌.考察汉魏六朝仙歌创作的文献来源,多属广义上的范畴.汉魏六朝仙歌溯源于先秦文学文本,收录于汉魏六朝的道教文献文本.

  1. Characteristic Study of Xujiang Physician WEI Yi-lin's Throat Academy%旴江名医危亦林喉科学术特点初探

    卢嫏环; 谢强


    As a famous Physician in Xu Jiang , Wei Yilin once learned form the earliest throat doctor Fan Shuqing and then wrote the China's earliest throat volume titled Effective Formulae Handed down for Generations · 17th volume· Tongue and throat.Wei's Clinical debate is unique in laryngeal document , initiating 18 kinds of sore-throat syndromes .His particular therapy guides acupuncture of the throat, insufflating medicinal powder and Small bamboo tubes blowing medicine .This particular therapy reflects his unique clinical style in the combination of acupuncture with medicine , and of internal therapy with external one , which has an important influence on the clinical.%元代旴江著名医学家危亦林,曾随我国最早的喉科医家范叔清学习喉科,撰成我国最早的喉科专卷《世医得效方·卷第十七·口齿兼咽喉科》。危氏喉科临证辨治独特,首创咽喉18种喉风证,创导咽喉口腔的患部针刺(喉针)、吹药(喉药)、小竹管吹药(喉枪)等特色疗法,反映了其针药结合、内外兼治的临证独特风格,至今对临床仍有着重要的指导意义。

  2. Buddhism Spreading by Sea during the Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties%魏晋南北朝时期的海路佛教传播∗



    印度佛教是中国佛教的源头。中印佛教的传播,通常有海、陆两条道路。海、陆佛教交流,在魏晋南北朝时期逐渐打通。中印佛教交流实现了海、陆环形循环,相对于陆路佛教传播,海路传播研究相对要冷清一些。不过,钩沉中古时期的佛教入华文献,可以发现:自魏晋始,海路弘法的道路逐渐顺畅;至东晋南北朝,外籍僧人沿海路来华者渐具优势。海、陆两条丝绸之路的文化交流,是世界文化交流史的一大盛事。%Abstracts:Indian Buddhism is the source of Chinese Buddhism.Buddhism between China and India was spread both by sea and land,which was gradually opened up during the period of the Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties.On the other hand,its communication was realized in annular circulation of Western Regions,Sindhu,the South Sea,Middle-earth,Western Regions and Sindhu. Compared with Buddhism spread by land,the study of seaways was relatively poor.However,it could be found from Buddha literature in China that the route of seaway preaching since Wei Jin be-came smooth and foreign monks by sea took continuous advantage until the Eastern Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasty.The cultural exchange of the Silk Road over sea and land was the grand occa-sion in the world cultural history.

  3. “卖膏药”与《眼药酸》关系探析%The Exploration for the Relationships Between “maigaoyao” andYan Yao Suan



    “卖膏药”者形象在社火队伍中较为引人注目,他们手持摇铃作为队伍前导,根据环境的变化,声情并茂地编唱带有吉祥祝福的社火词,令人发喙。宋杂剧《眼药酸》是一出调笑“卖眼药”儒医的喜剧,副净和副末互相插科打诨制造出强烈的喜剧效果。本文从人物形象、角色原型和演出效果三个方面对二者进行了分析,发现现代社火中“卖膏药”者形象实际上是宋杂剧《眼药酸》形象的继承和发展。%Every team of “shehuo” has an eye catching image, i.e., “maigaoyao”. They hold shaking bells as the guide of the team. In addition, they would sing blessing and interesting “shehuo” lyrics with rich emotions based on different time and location. The Song dynasty zaju plays Yan Yao Suan (acid eye drops) is a comedy which jeers the scholar doctors who sell eye drops. In the play, two actors, vice-Jing and vice-Mo, make jokes to each other by means of boasting and attacking, to bring about amusing factors. This paper compares these two forms of performance from the raiment, the prototypes of the roles, and the effect of acting, and then summarized that the role of “maigaoyao” in “shehuo” team is an inheritance of the image of Yan Yao Suan.


    黄瑞松; 朱意麟; 严克俭


    Objective: To provide scientific basis for protection, cultivation, development and utilization of Uncaria Schreber resources. Methods: Investigation on Uncaria Schreber resources and medication experience of Zhuang and Yao in Guangxi by ways of field survey, collection and identification of the specimens and reviewing literature. Results: There were 10 species of Uncaria Schreber in Guangxi, which accounted for 83. 33% of Uncaria Schreber in China. Among them, Uncaria macrophylla Wall. , U. Sessilifructus Roxb. , U. Rhynchophylla (Miq. ) Miq. Ex Havil. , U. Hirsuta Havil. , U. Sandens (Sm. ) Hutch, and U. Rhynchophylloides How were the preponderant species. Conclusion: With rich resources, many varieties, awide distribution and its own feature of folk application in Zhuang and Yao, the resources in Uncaria Schreber of Guangxi should be protected and utilized strongly.%目的:为钩藤属植物资源保护、栽培和开发利用提供科学依据.方法:采用实地调查、标本采集鉴定、文献资料查阅相结合的方法,对广西钩藤属植物资源和壮瑶民间的用药经验进行调查.结果:广西有钩藤属植物10种,占国内钩藤属种类的83.33%,其中以大叶钩藤、无柄果钩藤、钩藤、毛钩藤、攀茎钩藤、侯钩藤等为优势品种;壮、瑶民间使用钩藤内涵丰富.结论:广西钩藤属植物资源丰富,品种多,分布广,壮、瑶民间应用钩藤资源独具特色,应该加强保护和进一步开发利用.

  5. 姚新苗教授治疗腰椎间盘突出下肢麻木经验浅谈%Mr. Yao Xinmiao's Experience in Treating Numb Lower Limbs of Lumbar Vertebral Disc Protrusion

    应建伟; 朱胤晟; 裘伟国; 姚新苗


      [目的]总结姚新苗教授治疗腰椎间盘突出症引起的下肢麻木的临床经验。[方法]从病因病机、治法治则等方面阐述姚新苗教授治疗腰椎间盘突出症引起的下肢麻木的临床经验,并附案例2则以验证。[结果]腰突症引起的下肢麻木主要病机是寒湿内侵、痰瘀血滞、气血亏虚,治疗上分别予散寒燥湿、化痰祛瘀、补气养血。[结论]姚新苗教授通过中医辨证论治,治疗腰椎间盘突出症引起的下肢麻木屡获佳效,易为患者所接受。%Objective] To sum up pro. Yao Xinmiao's experience in treating numb lower limbs induced by lumbar vertebral disc protrusion. [Method] It reiterates his experiences from causa morbi, mechanism, therapy and treating rules. [Result] Such numb lower limbs are owing to cold dump invasion, blocked sputum, stasis and blood and deficient Qi and blood, respectively treated with removing coldness to dry dump, removing sputum and stasis, nour-ishing Qi and blood. [Conclusion] Pro. Yao Xinmiao's experience in treating the disease above by differentiation of signs, has good effect, easily accepted by patients.

  6. 河南豫剧与中原文化传承%On the Inheritance of Zhong Yuan Culture and Henan Opera



    On the basis of studying the history of Henan Opera ,this essay presents details about the features of group-work,focusing on rural culture,enriching people’s cultural life,entering and suitable for the wide crowd .In the same way ,relating its musical character , combining the unique features of no music no spectrum , vocal music of Henan Opera ,this paper reveals Henan Opera ’ s fine tradition of absorbing anything and everything ,emphasizing on self-transcendence and points out its significant role in inheriting Zhong Yuan culture ,showing Henan spirit ,dedu-cing local culture,happy people’s live,revealing the image of Henan.And with a hope that we can establish a cul-tural platform and transmit Zhong Yuan culture through Henan Opera ,so we can achieve a win -win outcome by es-tablishing cultural province in the process of promoting the construction of Zhong Yuan economic zone .%在研究河南豫剧发展史的基础上,详细论述了河南豫剧群体创作、重乡土文化、丰富群众文化生活、娱乐性强、适合人群广的特点。在论述其音乐特征的基础上,结合豫剧无曲无谱、口头传唱的独有特性,揭示了豫剧兼收并蓄、注重自我超越的优良传统,指出豫剧在传承中原文化,展现河南精神,演绎地方文化,幸福百姓生活,展现河南形象和推进文化大省建设方面的巨大作用,并希望河南人通过河南豫剧搭建根亲文化平台,传播中原文化,在推动中原经济区建设过程中,通过创建文化大省实现经济效益和社会效益的双赢。

  7. 影像屈原的建构与批评%On the Construction and Criticism of the Image of Qu Yuan



    影像屈原的建构既要有多元充足的类别与生动丰满的个案,也要尽可能让一些经典个案富含多层的意蕴。影像屈原体类建构的主流目标应该是正格的历史悲剧。从悲剧主体来看,它既是个人命运的悲剧,也是国家民族的悲剧。从悲剧本身的类别与层次来看,它既是社会政治的悲剧,也是历史文化的悲剧与道德理想的悲剧。影像屈原的构建终归要落实到叙事艺术上来,其中重点是人物形象的塑造、情节结构的安排与话语方式的讲求,要注意历史与逻辑的统一、宏观与微观的结合、文学与影像的互动。%The construction of the image of Qu Yuan requires multiple abundant classification and vivid colorful individual cases, and also endows multi-dimensions of meanings to some classical cases. The main purpose of the con-struction of the image of Qu Yuan and such kind of images should be formal historical tragedies. From the subject of the tragedy, it is not only an individual’s tragedy, but also the tragedy of the nation. From the type and level, it is a so-cial and political, historical and cultural, moral and ideal tragedy. The construction of the image of Qu Yuan finally will be demonstrated by narrative art with the emphasis on the shape of image, organization of the plots and ways of dis-course. Historical and logical unity, macro and micro integration, literary and image interaction should be paid atten-tion to during the process.

  8. 刘春霖《甲辰科状元策》探源%On Liu Chunlin’s Jia-Chen Ke Zhuang-Yuan Ce



    Lian-Chi Academy was very famous in Late-Qing Dynasty, whose teaching idea and studying atmosphere kept ahead in China. Being the last Zhuang-Yuan of China, Liu Chun-Lin was one of the top students of this academy. Liu’s thoughts, was put what is learned into practice and acting according to circumstances, embodied in his book, Jia-Chen Ke Zhuang-Yuan Ce, that is Volumes by the Topmost Master of the Jia-chen Year, provided a feasible reform idea for the rulers of Late-Qing Dynasty. His examination paper before the emperor reflected his understanding for the social realities and also the ability for resolving problems. His handwriting was also very famous, and was highly praised for his noble qualities.%莲池书院是我国晚清著名的书院,在教学理念和学风上领先于全国。最后一位状元刘春霖是该书院培养出来的高材生之一。他在《甲辰科状元策》中体现的经世致用、因时制宜的思想,为晚清的统治者提供了切实可行的改革思路。殿试卷内容体现了考生对现实的了解程度和解决实际问题的能力。其书法的艺术也名噪一时,高尚品质时人称赞。

  9. Prosperity and Decline of Jiaolai Canal during the Yuan & Ming Dynasties%元明时期胶莱运河兴废考

    马文辉; 聂传平


    元代初期为了解决漕粮问题,曾开辟海运通道,但沿海岸线航行须绕行山东半岛,多有风涛不测之险。至元十七年元世祖忽必烈下令在胶莱平原利用胶河和大沽河道开凿胶莱运河。河成后,曾一度通漕,且运量较大,但仅隔十余年时间胶莱运河就被废弃不用。明代中后期,在政府官员中以及民间又多次出现重开胶莱运河的提议和行动,王献曾一度凿通马家濠运河,这对地方经济的发展有一定的贡献。然而,胶莱运河并没有全线贯通,不久又被废弃。%At the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, a shipping channel was opened to solve the grain problem, but there were many un-predictable hazards along the coastline of Shandong Peninsula. Until the Yuan 17th years (1280), Kublai Khan ordered to have Jiaolai Canal excavated by way of Jiaohe River and Daguhe River through the Jiaolai Plain. When it was completed, there was large traffic through it. Nevertheless, just ten years later, Jiaolai Canal was abandoned. In the late Ming Dynasty, government officials and local civilians proposed for many times to reopen the Jiaolai Canal, and Wang Xian once finished the Majiahao Canal, which contributed to the development of local economy. However, Jiaolai Canal was not completed and abandoned soon.

  10. The Comparison of the Death Conception Between Qu Yuan and Socrates%屈原与苏格拉底的生死观比较



    通过屈原与苏格拉底生死观的比较研究,旨在揭示他们在各自人生的探寻和追索过程中的相似境遇:不被自己深爱的国家和民众理解和接受,反遭放逐和背弃,直至自杀。一方面关注先行者在人类文化发展史上的共同处境,另一方面试图辨析屈原与苏格拉底在实现人生价值、践履道德理想的途径和方式的差别,凸显中西生死观的迥异。由于不同的价值观赋予死亡的意义有别,同样是慷慨赴死,他们的生命却迸发出不同的光彩。%A Comparative Study of Qu Yuan and Socrates conception of death ,to reveal the similarity of situation in their life to explore and recourse:to his beloved country and the people understand and ac‐cept but is exiled and abandoned until suicide .On the one hand this paper concerned the forerunner of a common situation in the history of the development of human culture ,on the other hand it is trying to study the discrimination of Qu Yuan and Socrates in the value of life ,the different ways of fulfilling moral ideals ,and highlighting the different of Chinese and Western conception of death .Different values of the death meaning made them generous to die ,their life has burst out glory .

  11. 论袁说友在蜀中的诗歌创作%On Yuan Shuoyou’s Poems in Shu



      庆元三年(1197)三月,袁说友以四川制置使的身份到任成都,在蜀三年乃还。在这期间,他组织编纂《成都文类》,为蜀地文化的传承作出了重要贡献。然而,说友作为一位才华出众的文人、诗人,他自己在蜀中的创作也颇为丰富。他所作的诗歌,虽题材不丰,大多为同僚间的唱和之作和入蜀时的行旅之诗。但这些诗歌真实地记录了袁说友在蜀地的生活状况,并且语言朴实直白,刻画意象丰富,体现了他此阶段诗歌的特色。%Yuan Shuoyou arrived in Chengdu as Sichuan special envoy on the March of the third year of Qingyuan (1197 AD),and left here three years later. During this period,he organized the compilation of“Chengdu Genre”,which should be his greatest contribution to the inheritance of Shu culture. However,as a talented writer and poet,he has also created so many works in Shu. His poetry themes were not abundant, mostly antiphon poetry for his colleagues and travel poetry on his way to Shu,but these poems became a true record of Yuan Shuoyou’s living condition in Sichuan. And the poems were plain and direct in language, richness in imagery. They embodied the characteristics of this stage of his poetry.

  12. [Gao Jingyi. Han yu yu bei Ou yu yan : Han yu yu Wula'er yu yan ji Yin Ou yu yan tong yuan tan jiu] / Ago Künnap

    Künnap, Ago, 1941-


    Arvustus: Gao Jingyi. Han yu yu bei Ou yu yan : Han yu yu Wula'er yu yan ji Yin Ou yu yan tong yuan tan jiu = Chinese language and languages of northern Europe. Beijing : Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she, 2008

  13. 《元曲选校注》未释典故二则考证%A Textual Research on the Two Uninterpreted Allusions in Collation and Annotation of YuanQuXuan

    陈林华; 宋颂


    《元曲选》是我们研究元杂剧的一座桥梁,王学奇先生的《元曲选校注》更是方便了我们对各个杂剧的理解。然而此书未对某些典故进行解释,本文在已有研究基础上,依据文献典籍中的记载,对二则未释典故进行考证,探讨典故对元杂剧的重要作用。%YuanQuXuan is a bridge we study Yuan drama and Mr. wang Xueji’s Collation and Annotation of YuanQuXuan is more conVenient tool for us to understand the drama. HoweVer,this book did not explain eVery allusion. On the basis of the existing researches, this paper has a textual research on the two uninterpreted allusions to explore the important effect of allusion on Yuan drama.

  14. [Gao Jingyi. Han yu yu bei Ou yu yan : Han yu yu Wula'er yu yan ji Yin Ou yu yan tong yuan tan jiu] / Ago Künnap

    Künnap, Ago, 1941-


    Arvustus: Gao Jingyi. Han yu yu bei Ou yu yan : Han yu yu Wula'er yu yan ji Yin Ou yu yan tong yuan tan jiu = Chinese language and languages of northern Europe. Beijing : Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she, 2008

  15. 培元开郁法对血管性抑郁症的治未病思想探讨%Discussion on the ideas of treating predisease of cultivating Yuan and dissipating depression in vascular depression



    培元开郁法为血管性抑郁症的主要治法,文章旨在探讨其对血管性抑郁症元气亏虚,气血郁滞病机演变不同阶段的防治原则.通过文献研究,挖掘名老中医经验,结合临床实践,对培元开郁法的分期应用进行了系统阐述.未病先防,重脾肾培元固本,调气血开郁防滞;既病防变,强调早期诊断,早期治疗,培元开郁,顺气化痰,防传杜渐;病后止遗,培元开郁,化瘀解毒,通络疗损;病后调养,培元开郁防复发.总之培元开郁防治血管性抑郁症,充分体现了中医治未病思想.%Cultivating Yuan and dissipating depression is the main therapeutic method of vascular depression. The article discussed about prevention and treatment principle in different phases of vascular depression caused by the changes of archaeus deficiency and Qi-blood stasis. Through literature study, mining the traditional Chinese medicine experiences of famous old doctors and combining with clinical practice, the staging application of Cultivating Yuan and dissipating depression was systematically described. Preventive treatment before the occurrence of diseases, on both spleen and kidney are important for cultivating Yuan, yet both qi and blood are important for dissipating depression. Preventing deterioration after the occurrence of diseases, with cultivating Yuan and dissipating depression, promoting qi is the first, reducing phlegm is important for preventing deterioration. Preventing sequelae after the occurrence of diseases: about cultivating Yuan and dissipating depression, removing blood stasis and disintoxicating, and removing obstruction in collaterals and treating injuries are importent. Recuperating after an illness: cultivating Yuan and disspating depression are vital for avoiding the possibility of relapse. In short,the idea of TCM treating predisease is fully showed off by using of cultivating Yuan and dissipating depression for preventing and treatment of vascular

  16. On the Marriage of Dissimilar Surname Nobles in Northern Wei Dynasty%北魏异姓贵族婚姻论略



    Dissimilar surname nobles mainly refer to the nine surnames of the same - clan with Tuoba's (拓跋 ) and eight surnames of Xun then ( 勋臣, Meritorious ministers) in Northern Wei Dynasty. They were prohibited to intermarry since the nine surname of Tuoba's same -clan had blood relationship. The nine surnames mainly married to minority and large Han families, and eight surnames of Xun Chen become main intermarriage partner of imperial clan, but there were distinction. Generally speaking, the imperial clan married frequentlyXunChensurname, such as Mu (穆氏), Lu (陆氏), Yu (于氏), Wei (尉氏) and so on, whereas the imperial clan hardly married to He ( 贺氏 ) and Liu ( 刘氏 ) , who came from Helan (贺兰) and Dugu (独孤) tribes that had struggled with Tuoba tribe for power. In addition to imperial clan, dissimilar surname nobles also married to minority, and the Han families were their marriage partners as well, which suggests that the interethnic marriage extends as the Chinesization of Northern Wei Dynasty deepens.%北魏时期,异姓贵族主要指拓跋同宗九姓和勋臣八姓。在通婚关系上,拓跋和同宗九姓因有血缘关系,“百世不通婚”;同宗九姓的通婚对象主要是少数族权贵和汉族大族。勋臣八姓成为宗室的主要通婚对象,但勋臣诸姓与宗室通婚也有亲疏之别。总的来看,与宗室通婚较频繁的勋姓,如穆氏、陆氏、于氏、尉氏等。而贺氏和刘氏等,由于其所出的贺兰部和独孤部曾有过与拓跋部争权的历史,故北魏建国后宗室与他们的联姻并不多见。除宗室外,异姓贵族通婚的对象以少数族居多,但汉族也不少。这说明。随着北魏政权汉化程度的加深,民族间的通婚范围更加广泛。

  17. 《金匮要略》中和性用药组方思维初探%Discuss the“Balance”of Treatment in Jin Kui Yao Lve

    林志雄; 徐光星


    Objective] Discuss the“balance”of treatment in Jin Kui Yao Lve,and the“antagonism and complementary”rule,to totally understand the match of medicine and to provide good reference for clinics. [Method] From the 6,7,17 chapters of Jin Kui Yao Lve,choose sentence to be related to“antagonism and complementary”and the“combination of cool and hot”of Ban Xia Xie Xin soup,“complementary of yin and yang”of Shen Qi pill,the“combination of the mobilization and immobilization”rule of Gui Zhi soup,“ treatment together the exterior and interior”of Hou Pu Qi Wu soup,“reinforcing and reducing together”of Shu Yu pill,to explain clearly the “balance”of treatment. [Result]Use “balance”command “antagonism and complementary”in the math of medicine,is the big characteristic to choose medicine in Jin Kui Yao Lve,also is the illustration of the theory“the combination of yin and yang”. Understanding the rule “balance”of “antagonism and complementary”in Jin Kui Yao Lve,to help us to have the comprehension about principle-method-recipe-medicines of traditional Chinese medicine ,provide good reference for clinic. [Conclusion]“Balance”is a word of Chinese ancient philosophy. His sense is"contradiction opposite ,mixture unite”,“antagonism”is contradiction opposite;“complementary”is“mixture unite”. in the match of medicine in Jin Kui Yao Lve,“antagonism”is the way to use medicine,“complementary”is the efficacy of the medicine,so the uniting of“antagonism”andcomplementary”is the key of“balance”.%[目的]探究《金匮要略》“中和性”用药思维,并以“相反相成”作为应用法则来作出分析,以期更全面地掌握方剂配伍之法,从而拓宽思路,提高临床疗效。[方法]从《金匮要略》第6、7、17篇中撷选“相反相成”相关条文,并以“寒热并用”之“半夏泻心汤”、“阴阳相济”之“肾气丸”、“动静结合”之“桂枝

  18. Inter- and intra-annual variability of fluvial sediment transport in the proglacial river Riffler Bach (Weißseeferner, Ötztal Alps, Tyrol)

    Baewert, Henning; Weber, Martin; Morche, David


    The hydrology of a proglacial river is strongly affected by glacier melting. Due to glacier retreat the effects of snow melt and rain storms will become more important in future decades. Additionally, the development of periglacial landscapes will play a more important role in the hydrology of proglacial rivers. The importance of paraglacial sediment sources in sediment budgets of glacier forefields is increasing, while the role of glacial erosion is declining. In two consecutive ablation seasons the fluvial sediment transport of the river Riffler Bach in the Kaunertal (Tyrol/Austria) was quantified. The catchment area of this station is 20 km² with an altitudinal range from 1929 m to 3518 m above msl. The "Weißseeferner" glacier (2.34 km² in 2012) is the greatest of the remaining glaciers. An automatic water sampler (AWS 2002) and a probe for water level were installed were installed at the outlet of the catchment. In order to calculate annual stage-discharge-relations, discharge (Q) was repeatedly measured with current meters. Concurrent to the discharge measurements bed load was collected using a portable Helley-Smith sampler. Bed load (BL) samples were weighted and sieved in the laboratory to gain annual bed load rating curves and grain size distributions. In 2012, 154 water samples were sampled during 7 periods and subsequently filtered to quantify suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). A Q-SSC-relation was calculated for every period due to the high variability in suspended sediment transport. In addition, the grain size distribution of the filtered material was determined by laser diffraction analysis. In 2013, the same procedure was performed for 232 water samples which were collected during 9 periods. Meteorological data were logged at the climate station "Weißsee", which is located in the centre of the study area. First results show a high variability of discharge and solid sediment transport both at the inter-annual as well as at the intra

  19. Farmer and retailer knowledge and awareness of the risks from pesticide use: A case study in the Wei River catchment, China

    Yang, Xiaomei, E-mail: [Soil Physics and Land Management, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700AA Wageningen (Netherlands); State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, 712100 Yangling (China); Wang, Fei [State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, 712100 Yangling (China); Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A and F University, 712100 Yangling (China); Meng, Lei [Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, 712300 Baoji, Shaanxi (China); Zhang, Wenshuai [State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, 712100 Yangling (China); Fan, Liangxin [School of Surveying and Land Information Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, 454003 Jiaozuo, Henan Province (China); Geissen, Violette [Soil Physics and Land Management, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Institute of Crop Science and Resources Conservation (INRES), University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Ritsema, Coen J. [Soil Physics and Land Management, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700AA Wageningen (Netherlands)


    Monitoring the educational level of farmers and retailers on pesticide use would be useful to assess the appropriateness of information for reducing or/and avoiding the risks from pesticides in rural regions. The levels of knowledge and awareness of the dangers to the environment and human health were investigated by questionnaires for farmers (209) and retailers (20) in two rural regions (Qianyang County (S1) and Chencang County (S2)) of the Wei River catchment in China where the modes of farming and the state of erosion are very different. The results showed that farmers learned the use and dangers of pesticides mainly by oral communication (p < 0.01). Protective measures were inadequate; 65% (S1) and 55% (S2) of farmers never used any protective measures during spraying (p < 0.05). Washing hands (> 70%) was the most common mode of personal hygiene, relative to wearing masks, showering, and changing clothes, but no significant differences were observed between the selected regions. Most pesticide wastes were dumped directly onto the land or into water, suggesting that educational measures should be taken to address the potential risks from the residues in the wastes. Over 85% of farmers (S1 and S2) claimed to use illegal pesticides, but the reasons for their use varied (p < 0.01). Retailers were well-informed and highly conscious of their responsibility for the safe use of pesticides, especially in S2 (p < 0.01). A canonical correspondence analysis indicated that educational level and age differed between the two regions and contributed greatly to the risks from pesticide use (p < 0.01). Educational programmes targeted to age groups, proper disposal of pesticide waste, and sufficient supervision from authorities should consequently be considered for improving the levels of knowledge and awareness of the dangers of pesticides to human health and environmental pollution in the Wei River catchment, China. - Highlights: • The status of income and expenditure on

  20. Begonia coelocentroides Y. M. Shui & Z. D. Wei, a new species of Begoniaceae from Yunnan, China%中国云南秋海棠属(秋海棠科)一新种——假侧膜秋海棠

    魏志丹; 税玉民; 张美德; 张嵘梅


    Begonia coelocentroides Y. M. Shui & Z. D. Wei, a new species of the genus Begonia L. (sect. Platycentrum, Begoniaceae) from Yunnan, China, is described and illustrated. It resembles B. oreodoxa Chun & F. Chun in having parietal placentas at the upper part of the ovary, differing mainly in the female flowers with 5 tepals and the largest wing of the capsule being 20-22 mm long and ligulate.%描述了中国云南秋海棠科Begoniaceae秋海棠属Begonia扁果组sect.Platycentrum的一新种--假侧膜秋海棠Begonia coelocentroides Y.M.Shui & Z.D.Wei.该种与山地秋海棠B.oreodoxa Chun & F.Chun相似,子房上部为侧膜胎座,但雌花被片5,蒴果最大翅舌形,长20-22 mm,而易于区别.

  1. Wang Guo-wei's Theory of "Dizziness and Confusion"and Chinese and Western Aesthetic Tradition%王国维之“眩惑”说与中西美学传统



    "Dizziness and confusion" was the theory combined with Schopenhauer's concept of "obsequious" and Chinese traditional aesthetics by Wang Guo-wei. It refered to the opposite of the "magnificent" and "beautiful" in aesthetics. Wang Guo-wei put it on the opposite of life. From this it could reflect an aesthetic view against life that became an adverse current in modern aesthetics.%“眩惑”是王国维结合叔本华“媚美”概念和中国传统美学衍生出的理论,用以指称美学中“壮美”和“优美”的对立面。王国维将“眩惑”置于生活的反面,从中可以透视出一种反生活的美学观,成为近代美学的一股逆潮。

  2. Wei Zheng and the Spread of the Wine Brewing Technique%非物质文化遗产保护与校园文化创新的多元融合

    毛晓红; 甘成英


    Wei Zheng was expert in brewing wine, in which hid a much - told story of the exchange o tures between China and foreign countries. Since Han Dynasty, Sogdiana Settlers and monks of Central Asia duced the technique of wine brewing to our Central Plains at the first time. Wei Zheng was a descendant of G f cul- intro- aoche Tribe, which was founded the state of Gaoche in Gaochang. The Gaoche people engaged in agricultural life gradual ly and absorbed wine brewing techniques originated from Sogdiana. After the decline of the Gaoche Kingdom, its tribe dispersed and its population was subordinated to the Northern Wei Dynasty. In this condition, the technique of wine brewing was introduced into our Central Plains at the second time, whose achievement was the vintage wine brewed by Wei Zheng. After Tang Dynasty recaptured the Western Regions, this technique was introduced into our Central Plains at the third time. From then on, it is all over popularized.%通过对西部非物质文化遗产保护与西部高校校园文化创新的多元融合,弘扬和传承中华民族优秀传统文化,促进文化遗产保护事业和文化产业发展,增强中华民族的凝聚力,推动西部高校校园文化大发展、大繁荣。

  3. 韦绪性教授治疗腰椎间盘突出症学术思想撷要%Academic thought of Professor WEI Xu-xing for treating lumbar disc herniation



    Analysis academic thoughts of Professor WEI Xu-xing from four aspects in treatment of lumbar disc herniation, and study his differentiation therapy through the medical record examples.%从四个方面分析韦绪性教授治疗腰椎间盘突出症的学术思想,通过病案举隅研究其辨证施治要诀。

  4. Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis among school girls of Chuang-Wei and Nan-Ao Districts in I-Lan County and Man-Chow District in Ping-Tung County, Taiwan.

    Chao, D; Liu, H Y; Fan, P C


    By using the naked eye examination and comb method, a field survey and combing collection of head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) among school girls in three different area (Man-Chow, Nan-Ao and Chuang-Wei) of Taiwan were performed from July 1979 to February, 1980. The general infestation rate of head louse was 39.8% (or 998/2,509). In the primary schools, comparatively, the rate at Man-Chow (66.7%) was highest, the next at Nan-Ao (55.4%) and the lowest at Chuang-Wei (39.4%). While in the junior high schools, the rate was apparently higher at Nan-Ao (38.4%) than that at Man-Chow (15.6%) and Chang-Wei (12.0%). The highest rate in the primary schools was found in 3rd graders except at Chuang-Wei in 5th graders. The corresponding figure in the junior high schools was found in 1st graders except at Nan-Ao in 2nd graders. Of 774 infested girls studied, according to the number of lice per infested girl, the percentages of infestation in the 5 groups were: the very light (nits only) 54.5, light (1-10) 38.5, moderate (11-50) 6.5, heavy (51-100) 0.4 and very heavy (over 100) 0.1 respectively. Of 2,178 head lice examined, 53.0% was nymphs; 28.7% females; 18.2% males. The average number of head louse in each infested girl 6.2.

  5. 杜仲腰痛丸治疗慢性腰痛的临床随机对照研究%The Randomized Control Research of DuZhong YaoTong Pill on Chronic Lumbago

    何万庆; 关永林


    目的:观察杜仲腰痛丸治疗慢性腰痛和预防复发的临床疗效。方法:将98例慢性腰痛患者,按照1∶1比例完全随机分为2组。对照组49例给予常规治疗;观察组49例给予常规治疗联合杜仲腰痛丸治疗,2组均连续治疗4周。所有患者分别于治疗前、治疗后1个月、3个月、6个月统计疼痛视觉模拟评分(VAS)、Oswstry功能障碍指数(CODI)值,随访复发情况。结果:2组治疗后VAS、CODI评分较治疗前均明显降低(P<0.05);组内比较,对照组治疗3个月、6个月VAS、CODI评分比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),观察组在不同时间比较,差异均无统计学意义(P<0.05);组间比较,2组在治疗1个月VAS、CODI评分比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),而治疗3个月、6个月比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组的复发率低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:杜仲腰痛丸能增强慢性腰痛的长期治疗效果,包括减轻疼痛症状,改善腰部功能活动,并能预防慢性腰痛的复发。%To observe the clinical efficacy ofDuZhongYaoTongpill in treating chronic lumbago and preventing relapse. Methods: Totally 98 patients with chronic lumbago were randomly assigned to two groups on average. 49 cases in the control group were treated with routine therapy for four weeks continuously, as well as the observation group undergoing routine therapy andDuZhongYaoTongpill. VAS and CODI of all the cases were eval-uated respectively before treatment and at the end of 1st, 3rd and 6th month with follow-up of relapse. Results: The scores of VAS and CODI decreased significantly after treatment (P<0.05) in both groups. The comparison of these scores in the control group showed that the difference before and after treatment at 3rd and 6th month had no statis-tical meaning(P<0.05), so did the observation group in each times(P<0.05). In the comparison of scores in 1st month between

  6. Study of the prevalence of human intestinal parasites in areas inhabited by the Baiku Yao minority in Guangxi%广西白裤瑶地区居民肠道寄生虫感染现状调查

    蒋智华; 吴钦华; 李树林; 张鸿满; 司国爱; 黄福明; 谭裕光; 江河; 张陆娟; 阮廷清; 欧松


    目的 了解广西白裤瑶少数民族地区居民肠道寄生虫感染情况,为进一步防治策略制定和实施提供依据.方法 收集白裤瑶聚居区居民的一般人口学情况,采集粪便标本,采用改良加藤厚涂片法和生理盐水涂片法对粪样进行检查. 结果 调查广西白裤瑶聚居地居民671人,肠道寄生虫感染386人.感染率57.53%,其中白裤瑶居民感染率71.02%.检出9种肠道寄生虫,钩虫感染率33.68%,蛔虫感染率24.89%.鞭虫感染率9.84%,人芽囊原虫感染率10.87%,蓝氏贾第鞭毛虫感染率1.15%,结肠内阿米巴原虫感染率4.45%,溶组织内阿米巴原虫感染率1.65%,其他寄生虫感染率0.33%.不同年龄、不同民族居民的感染率差异有统计学意义. 结论 肠道寄生虫感染仍是广西山区农村尤其是少数民族地区突出的公共卫生问题.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of human intestinal parasites in the areas inhabited by the Baiku Yao minority in Guangxi Province and provide scientific evidence for prevention and control strategies. Methods Demographic data on people in areas inhabited by the Haiku Yao minority were collected along with fecal samples. The Kato-Katz technique and a normal saline smear were used to test fecal samples. Results Of the 671 people screened for intestinal parasites, 386 people were infected with intestinal parasites. The total rate of infection was 57. 53%, and the rate of infection among Baiku Yao was 71. 02%. Nine types of intestinal parasites were found. Of the people infected, 33. 68% were infected with hookworms, 24. 89% were infected with roundworms, 33. 68% were infected with whipw-orms, 10. 87% were infected with Blastocystis hominis, 1. 15% were infected with Giardia lamblia, 4. 45% were infected with Entamoeba coli,1 .65% were infected with Entamoeba histolytica, and 0. 33% were infected with other protozoa. There were significant differences in infection among different age

  7. 神圣与洁净:广西龙胜红瑶祭社仪式的社区整合意义%Divinity and Purity:the Significance of Social Integration of Ji She in Red Yao Longsheng of Guangxi



    祭社是一种古老的祭祀仪式,从古至今对村落社区的社会整合都具有重要意义。广西龙胜各族自治县红瑶地区的祭社仪式伴生着“社老制”民间宗教组织,较好地保留了原始公社制的民主推选、共食和分肉的平均主义,是凝聚红瑶村落共同体的核心纽带之一。红瑶人对祭祀的神圣性与洁净的认同,在很大程度上促进了“社”信仰的传承,并有助于红瑶传统村落社区社会秩序的维护。%Ji She (the Memorial Ceremony of She), an ancient sacrificial ceremony, has been playing a significant role in the so-cial integration of village communities in all ages. For all ethnic groups’ autonomous counties in Longsheng, Guangxi, the Ji She ceremony in their Red Yao area is accompanied with folk religious organizations in the"She Lao System" (“She Lao” means the leader of the community), which better retains the democratic election of original commune system and the equalitarianism that people eat together and share meat. The ceremony is regarded as one of the core links of the Red Yao village communities. The acknowledgment of people in Red Yao about the divinity and purity of sacrifice promotes the heritage of people’s faith in “She”to a large extent and contributes to the maintenance of the social order of traditional village communities in Red Yao.

  8. An Analysis on the Identity of "Wei Lao-po-zi"in LU Xun's The New Year's Sacrifice%《祝福》中卫老婆子身份解析

    梁庆; 严凌雁; 肖洪磊


    在鲁迅先生作品《祝福》中,有一个身份特殊的重要人物而她又常常被忽视——卫老婆子,但她总能在关键时刻恰到好处的出现,与鲁四老爷家有着某种神秘的联系,并且在祥林嫂的命运里起着穿针引线的作用,文章试图从多角度解析卫老婆子的身份.%In Lu Xun's The New Year's Sacrifice, there is a special and important person but often ignored by readers—"Wei Lao-po-zi" (Wei old woman). However, she always appears in key moments, and has some mysterious connection with the family of "Lu Si milord". At the same time, she plays a role of go-between in the fate of "Xiang-lin-sao" (Sister Xiang Lin). This thesis tries to analyze the identity of "Wei Lao-po-zi" from various perspectives.

  9. “治未病”思想在脑卒中后抑郁的临床疗效观察%Clinical effective observation on treating PSD based on Zhi Wei Bing



      目的:对“治未病”思想在脑卒中后抑郁的临床疗效进行总结性研究。方法:选择脑卒中后90例抑郁患者分为治疗和对照组,行常规治疗,治疗组辅助使用“治未病”思想干预治疗。结果:治疗组抑郁状况的改善明显优于对照组。结论:“治未病”思想可以有效帮助脑卒中后抑郁患者康复。%  Objective:To“Zhi Wei Bing”thought after stroke in the clinical efficacy of depression on summative studies. Methods:Choose after stroke in patients with depression in 90 cases, patients were divided into treatment group and control group, both groups were performed with conventional treatment, the treatment group auxiliary use “Zhi Wei Bing” thinking intervention treatment. Results: The treatment group depression in improvement is obviously superior to the control group. Conclusion:“Zhi Wei Bing”thinking can effectively help depressed patients after stroke rehabilitation.

  10. Changes of powder prescriptions in Qian jin yao fang (Essential Prescriptions Worth A Thousand Gold) made by Song people%简述宋人对《千金要方》散剂的改动



    两种重要传本、在内容上多有不同,其中在方剂文献方面的差异特别值得重视.宋人对原书的散剂相关内容进行了诸多改动,包括论述散剂的章节与内容、药味计量单位、药味重量、散剂制法等,其所有的改动均无任何标示,书前的"凡例"亦无任何说明.从内容来看,由于增补了诸多散剂相关医学资料,宋校本较之新雕本显然更为丰富,书籍的章节编排更为明确合理.作为中医临床百科全书,宋校本更便于阅读与使用.但从传统的文献整理的角度来看,径改原书确为学者之大忌.%As the contents in the two circulated versions of Qian jin yao fang (Essential Prescriptions Worth A Thousand Gold),i.e Bei ko qian jin yao fang (Essential Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold for Emergencies) and Xin diao sun zhen ren qian jin fang (Newly Printed Sun's Prescriptions Worth A Thousand Gold) aye different greatly,especially on the literature of prescriptions.Song people made a lot of changes on the contents of powder prescriptions,including the related chapters and its contents,computation unit of materia medica,weights,and processing methods etc.without any remarks,nor notes in its preface.The contents in the Song version were more enriched than the newly carved version with the reasonable arrangement of its texts.As a clinical encyclopedia of traditional Chinese medicine,the Song version is more convenient for reading and using.However,it is a great taboo for the scholars to tamper an ancient work at will from bibliographic viewpoints.

  11. Clinical observation on treating stroke sequel by hemiplegia external washing prescription of Yao medicine%瑶医半身不遂外洗奇方治疗脑卒中后遗症疗效观察



    目的::观察瑶医半身不遂外洗奇方对脑卒中后半身不遂、手足麻木肿胀、痉挛等康复治疗难点的治疗效果。方法:选择80例脑卒中后肢体偏瘫患者,将其随机分为治疗组(n=40)与对照组(n=40),治疗组除常规应用传统的针刺、中药辨证施治、康复功能训练等治疗外,加用瑶医半身不遂外洗奇方外洗,对照组用常规活血化瘀类中药外洗。结果:两组治疗后评定中医临床症状、体征改善及证候积分减少程度,治疗组高于对照组(P﹤0.05)。结论:瑶医半身不遂外洗奇方对脑卒中后遗症疗效满意,值得推广。%Objective: To observe efficacy of hemiplegia external washing prescription of Yao medicine on rehabilitation difficulties including hemiplegia, numbness swelling and spasm. Methods: 80 patients were randomly divided into the treatment group (40 cases) and the control group (40 cases). The treatment group was given the conventional treatment (acupuncture, TCM medicine and rehabilitation) plus hemiplegia external washing prescription. The control group was given the hemiplegia external washing prescription of the Huoxue Huayu. Results: After the treatment, the improvement of TCM clinical symptoms and symptom scores in treatment group was better (P﹤0.05). Conclusion: Hemiplegia external washing prescription of Yao medicine on stroke sequel shows a good effect, and is worthy of promotion.

  12. 镇江肴肉中腐败菌的初步分离鉴定%Preliminary Isolation and Identification of the Spoilaged Bacteria from the Zhenjiang Yao Meat

    祝莹; 董英; 肖香


    分离镇江肴肉中腐败菌,并对主要菌株进行鉴定,为研究特定腐败菌的腐败原理,延长产品的保质期打下基础.利用纯培养的方法,根据细菌的菌落形态、菌落颜色、革兰氏染色等特征,从市售冷藏镇江水晶肴蹄中选取菌落形态差别比较明显的8株菌株,通过16S rDNA序列进行分类研究,确定各细菌所属种.试验结果表明:T-1为假单胞菌属的荧光假单胞菌(Pseudomonas fluorescens),T-2为希瓦氏菌属的渡罗的海希瓦氏菌(Shewanella baltica),T-3、P-1、P-2、V-1、V-2、V-3为拉乌尔菌属的解鸟氨酸拉鸟尔菌(Raoultella ornithi-nolytica)[从前的解鸟氨酸克雷伯氏茼(Klebsiella ornithinolytica)].%In order to study the spoilage principle of specific spoilage bacteria, thereby prolongate the shelf-life of product.The spoilage bacteria in Zhenjiang Yao meat were isolated and its main strains were identified.8 strains with obvious difference in sharp, color, gram staining and so on common characteristic were selected from commercial cold storage Yao meat by pure culture method, and the classified status of bacteria was determined by classification research of 16S rDNA sequences.The experimental results indicated that T-1 is Pseudomonas fluorescens; T-2 is Shewanella baltica; T-3、P-1、P-2、V-1、V-2、V-3 is Raoultella ornithinolytica (formerly Klebsiella ornithinolytica ).

  13. 筒论魏晋的谈论和文论%On the Wei and Jin's Talk and Literary Debate



    谈论是指人们以言谈的方式进行交谈,分析和阐明事理。广义之谈论除此之外,它还应包括清谈、清议、言论、辩论、讲论、口论等在内。文论是指因参与论辩需要而以书面语言创作的论体文。魏晋的谈论和文论关系密切,它们互相促进,共同发展,并出现繁荣的局面,其突出表现就是谈论的艺术化和文论的论辨化。%Talking is the way people speak in conversation, analyze and clarify common sense. In addition, it should also include private talk, unofficial argument, speech, debate, verbal criticism and etc. Literary debate is due to participation in debate on the need to create a written language in the body of the text. There is a close relationship between the Wei and Jin's talk and literary debate . They promote each other for mutual development and then enhance their prosperity, with the characteristics of the talk of art and literary debate of argument.

  14. The Complex of Fei Ming on the Wei and Jin Dynasties%废名的魏晋情结发微



    Fei-Ming, with a lonely attitude in the work, immersed in thinking about the human society, tapped into a series of topics on humanistic torture, and made people to chew bitter lives under the cloak of diluted words, showcasing a humanistic perspective out of the enlightenment and national salvation discourse. The rural narration by Fei Ming provided a human nature for the modern society. He managed to understand and digested Wei-Jin literature skills, achieving a creative transform for traditional Chinese literature.%沉浸于社会人性的思考,发掘一连串发人深省的人文拷问话题,冲淡的外衣下让人去咀嚼苦味人生,废名孤独的耕耘姿态,显示了启蒙和救国话语之外的人文视域。废名小说的田园叙事,为动荡频仍的现代社会提供一方令人反思的人文自然。他尽心领会并消化魏晋文学技巧,形成中国文学传统的创造性转化。

  15. 成都老中医史伟治疗阳痿临床经验%Clinical experience of TCM master Shi Wei for treating impotence



    Objective: To summarize the experience for treating impotence treatment by TCM master Shi Wei. Methods:Application of psychological counseling, combined with TCM decoction with soft powder, tonic conditioning, diet supplement physical treatment method, change the way of life, according to the etiology, treatment. Conclusion: The clinical verification, the comprehensive TCM method, clinical accurately detailed examination of etiology, the polygenetic, etiology will be very helpful.%目的:总结老中医史伟治疗阳痿的治疗经验。方法:应用心理疏导,中药汤剂,配合粉剂冲服,膏滋补剂调理,饮食补充体质,改变生活方式,采用五位一体的治疗方法,然后依据病因分步治疗。结论:临床证实,应用老中医独创的五位一体分步治疗方法,临床准确审查病因,把握一病多因,审因论治,能取得满意的临床效果。

  16. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China.

    Liangxin Fan

    Full Text Available Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use and cultural backgrounds (age, education.

  17. Variations in annual water-energy balance and their correlations with vegetation and soil moisture dynamics: A case study in the Wei River Basin, China

    Huang, Shengzhi; Huang, Qiang; Leng, Guoyong; Zhao, Menglong; Meng, Erhao


    It is of importance to investigate watershed water-energy balance variations and to explore their correlations with vegetation and soil moisture dynamics, which helps better understand the interplays between underlying surface dynamics and the terrestrial water cycle. The heuristic segmentation method was adopted to identify change points in the parameter to series in Fu's equation belonging to the Budyko framework in the Wei River Basin (WRB) and its sub-basins aiming to examine the validity of stationary assumptions. Additionally, the cross wavelet analysis was applied to explore the correlations between vegetation and soil moisture dynamics and to variations. Results indicated that (1) the omega variations in the WRB are significant, with some change points identified except for the sub-basin above Zhangjiashan, implying that the stationarity of omega series in the WRB is invalid except for the sub-basin above Zhangjiashan; (2) the correlations between soil moisture series and to series are weaker than those between Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) series and omega series; (3) vegetation dynamics show significantly negative correlations with omega variations in 1983-2003 with a 4-8 year signal in the whole WRB, and both vegetation and soil moisture dynamics exert strong impacts on the parameter omega changes. This study helps understanding the interactions between underlying land surface dynamics and watershed water-energy balance. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes of major tea polyphenols and production of four new B-ring fission metabolites of catechins from post-fermented Jing-Wei Fu brick tea.

    Zhu, Yun-Fei; Chen, Jing-Jing; Ji, Xiao-Ming; Hu, Xin; Ling, Tie-Jun; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Bao, Guan-Hu; Wan, Xiao-Chun


    HPLC analysis of samples from four major fermentation procedures of Jing-Wei Fu brick tea showed that the level of major tea catechins epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG) dropped increasingly to about 1/3 in the final product. Phytochemical study of the final product led to the discovery of four new B-ring fission metabolites of catechins (BRFCs) Fuzhuanin C-F (1-4) together with three known BRFCs (5-7), six known catechins (8-13), five simple phenols (14-18), seven flavones and flavone glycosides (19-25), two alkaloids (26, 27), three triterpenoids (28-30) and one steroid (31). The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR, LC-HR-ESI-MS, IR, and CD spectra. Five compounds (16-18, 28, 29) were reported for the first time in tea. Possible pathways for the degradation of major tea catechins and the generation of BRFCs were also provided.

  19. The Dual Antimelanogenic and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Acorus macrospadiceus (Yamamoto F. N. Wei et Y. K. Li

    Huey-Chun Huang


    Full Text Available The antimelanogenic and antioxidant activities of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Acorus macrospadiceus (Yamamoto F. N. Wei et Y. K. Li have never been explored. The essential oil effectively inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity (EC50 = 1.57 mg/mL and B16F10 tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 1.01 mg/mL, decreased the melanin content (EC50 = 1.04 mg/mL, and depleted the cellular level of the reactive oxygen species (ROS (EC50 = 1.87 mg/mL. The essential oil effectively scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH (EC50 = 0.121 mg/mL and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid ABTS+ radicals (EC50 = 0.122 mg/mL. It also exhibited an apparent reducing power (EC50 = 0.021 mg/mL and metal-ion chelating activity (EC50 = 0.029 mg/mL. The chemical constituents of the essential oil are ethers (55.73%, ketones (19.57%, monoterpenes (7.82%, alcohols (3.85%, esters (3.77%, sesquiterpenes (3.72%, and aromatic compounds (2.85%. The results confirm that A. macrospadiceus essential oil is a natural antioxidant and inhibitor of melanogenesis.

  20. Effects of Elevated Ozone on Stoichiometry and Nutrient Pools of Phoebe Bournei (Hemsl. Yang and Phoebe Zhennan S. Lee et F. N. Wei Seedlings in Subtropical China

    Jixin Cao


    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone (O3 is considered one of the most critical air pollutants in many parts of the world due to its detrimental effects on plants growth. However, the stoichiometric response of tree species to elevated ozone (O3 is poorly documented. In order to understand the effects of elevated ozone on the stoichiometry and nutrient pools of Phoebe bournei (Hemsl. Yang (P. bourneiand Phoebe zhennan S. Lee et F. N. Wei (P. zhennan, the present study examined the carbon (C, nitrogen (N, and phosphorous (P concentrations, stoichiometric ratios, and stocks in foliar, stem, and root for P. bournei and P. zhennan with three ozone fumigation treatments (Ambient air, 100 ppb and 150 ppb. The results suggest that elevated ozone significantly increased the N concentrations in individual tissues for both of P. bournei and P. zhennan. On the contrary, elevated ozone decreased the C:N ratios in individual tissues for both of P. bournei and P. zhennan because the C concentration remained stable under the ozone stress. The P concentration, and C:P and N:P ratios in individual tissues for both P. bournei and P. zhennan did not exhibit consistent variation tendency with elevated ozone. Elevated ozone sharply reduced the total C, N, and P stocks and altered the pattern of C, N, and P allocation for both P. bournei and P. zhennan. The present study suggests that tropospheric ozone enrichment should be considered an important environmental factor on stoichiometry of tree species.

  1. 论袁黄及其研究的当代价值%On the Contemporary Value of YUAN Huang and His Theory



    袁黄博学多产、爱民勤政、追求积德行善,不仅洁身自好,利用功过格约束、督促自己去邪念恶行,且撰写《改过之法》、《积德之方》,专论积德行善,其中既有规律性的认识,又有实际操作方法,极力劝说、帮助他人同自己一样做好事、成好人。他在明中叶道德沦丧相当严重的情况下,发挥了超出一般的正面作用,在保证中华民族善良、正直、清廉、为民的优良传统生生不息上作出了贡献。在400年后的今天,认真分析其作出贡献的方式、方法和指导思想,可以得到有益的借鉴。而在继承、发扬袁黄的善言善行时,也应注意辩证地对待其以因果报应作为理论体系基础的局限性,唯物主义者在将与之混在一起的精华分离出来、加以适当改造、纳入社会主义主流意识体系之中的同时,拒绝其鬼神存在的唯心主义说法。%YUAN Huang was an erudite and prolific writer , a diligent official who cherished the people , and a person did good deeds .He was a clean liver , and refused to be contaminated by evil influences with ledger .YUAN Huang wrote The Method of Correct one's Mistakes and The Way for Accumulating Vir-tue, which includes both regularity cognition and practical methods , and those two books extremely per-suade and help others to do good deeds and to be good men as he did .Then, YUAN Huang has played a highly positive role for promoting excellent Chinese traditions , especially in the middle of the Ming Dy-nasty when moral perversity was serious .At present , we can draw lessons from his ways , methods and thoughts he made 400 years ago .While developing his ways and thoughts , we must adopt dialectical ap-proaches to treat the limitations of his karma -based theory .Materialists separate the essence of the theo-ry from the limitations , before adjusting appropriately to make sure it will be able to fit into the socialist mainstream

  2. 辽金元时期蒙古弘吉剌部领地考%Research of Mongolia Hongjila Tribe During the Liao、Jin and Yuan Dynasties

    孙国军; 康建国


    弘吉剌部是早期蒙古部落之一,辽金时期开始活跃在北方地区。金章宗时期弘吉剌部强盛,常裹胁蒙古诸部出兵金朝,成为金朝北方“边患”的主要制造者。弘吉剌部在成吉思汗建立蒙古汗国的过程中起了积极的推动作用,因此在成吉思汗将蒙古诸部重新划分为95个千户进行统治时,弘吉剌部成为少数几个能统其国族者。弘吉剌部自始至终同成吉思汗家族保持着联姻关系,元朝时更被封为一字王,地位已不亚于皇族诸王,世守漠南,成为诸藩之首。%Hongjila Tribe is one of the early Mongolian tribes; Liao and Jin period became active in the north. Hongjila tribe is strong in the Period of JinZhangzong, often forced to Mongolia the invasion of rulers, become the rulers of the north"foreign invasion "of the main manufacturers. Hongjila tribe played a positive role in the process when Genghis khan established the Mongol khanate. So in the Genghis khan is re-districting into the 95 thousands households of rules, Hongjila tribe can become one of the few governs their na-tion. Hongjila tribe from beginning to end with Genghis khan family department maintained ties of marriage, when it comes to the Yuan dynasty was the "Yiziwang", the position as to the Kings of the royal family, genera-tions to protect the Monan, become the first of all the captaincy. In this paper, through carding hisrorical process of the rise of Hongjila tribe, research of change of the fief from one the early of Hongjila tribe to the Yuan dy-nasty, reveals the Hongjila tribe historical role of the guards in Monan.

  3. On Mr. Cai Yuan-pei's Sports Thought and its Inspirations%论蔡元培先生的体育思想及其启示



    Mr. Cai Yuan-pei is a famous educator and practitioner in Chinese modern history of education, he presented a thought of military country education from the perspective of“resisting foreign imposition and saving motherland, strengthening military and enric-hing country”;advocated the idea of“sports first in full personality”, emphasizing that physical education plays a fundamental role in the comprehensive development education; focused the popularity of sports, specially thinking that citizens should develop lifelong physical exercise regularly;advocated actively to encourages and support women's equality to participate in sports. This paper considers that the application of Cai Yuan-pei's sports ideology will be helpful for sports workers to learn from previous useful thinking and elimi-nate negative factors that probably arise in current physical education.%蔡元培先生是中国近代教育史上著名的教育家和实践家,他站在“御侮救国,强兵富国”的立场提出了军国民体育思想;提倡“完全人格,首在体育”的体育教育主张强调体育在全面发展教育中,具有基础性的重要作用;在强调体育的普及的同时,还特别强调国民应该养成经常锻炼的终身体育思想。提倡积极鼓励和大力支持妇女平等的参加体育。将蔡元培的体育思想运用到当前体育教育中,有助于广大体育工作者吸取前人有益的思维成果,消除当前体育教育工作中可能出现的不利因素。

  4. Manifold Learning for 3D Shape Description and Classification


    action, and activity [2], 3D hand- gesture recognition [5], expression animation by motion capture [9], 3D human torso shape understanding [11...Technology (T-CSVT), Volume:, Issue:, Page(s):, 2014. (Accepted) [5] Yuan Yao and Yun Fu, Contour Model based Hand- Gesture Recognition Using Kinect Sensor...Decomposition, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, (06 2014): 0. doi: Yuan Yao, Yun Fu. Contour Model Based Hand- Gesture

  5. 广西白裤瑶族40岁以上人群的血脂水平调查%Serum lipids levels in subjects aged 40 years and over in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao population

    李牡艳; 尹瑞兴; 潘尚领; 林伟雄; 杨德寨; 李树全


    目的 了解广西白裤瑶族40岁及以上人群的血脂水平. 方法 采用分层随机整群抽样方法对485例白裤瑶族40岁及以上人群的饮食摄入量、生活习惯等进行流行病学调查,对血压、身高、体质量、体质指数(BMI)、腰围、血脂及载脂蛋白(apo)进行测定,并将结果与501例当地的汉族人群进行比较. 结果 白裤瑶族的文化程度、身高、体质量、腰围、血压、高脂血症患病率以及总能量、总脂肪、总蛋白质、食物胆固醇和食盐的摄入量明显低于汉族(P0. 05). Conclusions There are significant differences in lipids levels and the risk factors between Bai Ku Yao and Han populations, which might result from different dietary habits, life styles, and physical activities.

  6. 姚晨:网络新媒体之于明星形象的建构%Yao Chen:The Construction of the Star's Image through New Internet Media



    The image of the star is constructed by various kinds of media as an agent,and the appearance of microblog has brought about a great change to the relationship between the stars and the public,and a new change to the construction of the image of the stars.As a No.1 popular microblog star,Yao Chen has both enriched and changed the image of star through microblog.Involved during the construction process are the following three aspects: star production,star reception,and star semiotics.%明星形象的建构以各种媒体作为介质而得以实现,微博这一网络新媒体的出现令明星和大众的关系发生了巨大的变化,同时也令明星形象的建构出现了新的改变。姚晨作为新浪微博粉丝量排行第一的明星,通过微博这一媒体丰富并改变了大众视野中的明星形象。而这一过程则渗透了明星生产、明星接受及明星符号学这三个层面。

  7. Collation on Shen Quanqi’s Yao Tongdu’s Five Passages of Yu Ling%沈佺期《遥同杜五过庾岭》考校



    There were as many as 16 variants in Shen Quanqi ’s poem collection Yao Tongdu ’s Five Pas-sages of Yu Ling. Through a collation with “An Anthology of Tang Poems”, “the entire Tang poem”, the poems titles should be combined into “With Five Other Members Outside the Instance Du Yu Ling”. “Luopu scenery to jaw joint like nothing Chongshan Dan disease unbearable smell” has been regarded as the best; the neck joint word “Kite” is inferior to the word “man”; and the tail stock “Jiangshan”is superior to the word “spring”.%沈佺期《遥同杜五过庾岭》,异文多达16处。经与《唐诗别裁集》、《全唐诗》比勘校释,诗题应合为《遥同杜五员外审言过庾岭》。颔联似以“洛浦风光何所似?崇山瘅疫不堪闻”为佳;颈联出句中“鸢”字不若“人”字;尾联“江山”一词胜于“春风”一词。

  8. A Brief Analysis of the Pluralism of Religion Belief of Yao Nationality in Yunnan and Its Social Function%简论云南瑶族宗教信仰的多元化及其社会功能



    云南瑶族在其历史发展的进程中,创造了具有本民族特色的独特的宗教信仰,既有原始宗教成分,又有外来宗教成分的介入,最后形成了多元宗教文化。其特征颇有特色,有自然崇拜、图腾崇拜、鬼神崇拜、祖先崇拜、巫教、道教、儒家文化成分等;其原因较为复杂,有自然外力因素、有社会阶级压迫的人为因素、文化融合因素等;其社会功能为现实服务色彩明显。%The Yao nationality in Yunnan creates a unique religious belief with its own national characteristics, combining elements of primitive religion and elements of external religion, forming the culture of plural religions in the end. It is characterized saliently by na-ture worship, totem worship. Ghost or god worship, ancestor worship, witch, Taoism, Confucius culture, etc. And there are certain rea-sons for this phenomenon, such as external force, personal factors like social impression, cultural factors, etc., and its salient function is that it serves society effectively.

  9. The Cultural Interpretation on the Images of Boats in"the Fu on Qu Yuan"%屈赋舟船意象的文化阐释

    何桂芬; 吴广平


    Boat images in Qu Yuan's works have an unique emotional life, rich culture, profound spiritual connotation, from secular to art, practical and aesthetic leap. It carries real relationships, to depict the poet's complex mind world in journey, condenses the spiritual substance of Jingchu culture, always accompanied by poet constantly seeking diligently, embodies the poet's life busy with fall, pursuit and choice, drifting and sorrow, loneliness and heave a deep sigh.%屈赋中的舟船意象有着独特的生命情感、丰厚的文化底蕴、深刻的精神内涵,完成了从世俗到艺术、实用到审美的惊艳跳跃。它承载着现实的人际关系,描摹着诗人漂泊旅途中复杂的心灵世界,凝聚了荆楚文化的精神内质,始终伴随着诗人不断求索的殷勤脚步,寄寓了诗人一生的繁华与离落、追求与抉择、漂泊与愁苦、孤独与太息。

  10. On the Phonetic Phenomena of Dialects in Shu Yuan Notes%《菽园杂记》所载方言语音现象考察



    Shu Yuan Notes is a book of Ming Dynasty with rich contents.It records the phonetic phenomena of dialects in the middle period of Ming Dynasty,such as the homonym pairs "yu"(鱼fish) and "yu"(虞anxiety),"wang" and "huang","zhang"and "jiang" in Wu dialects;alveolar nasal rhyme merging with velar nasal rhyme in north dialects;the homonym pairs "tong" and "tun","qi" and "qing" in Shanxi dialects.Those phonetic phenomena offer a significant reference value for the research of Chinese phonology history and dialectology history.%《菽园杂记》是明代的一部笔记杂说,内容丰富,无所不包,记载了明朝中期各地方言的语音现象,如吴方言"鱼虞不分"、"王黄不分"、"张浆不分",北方方言"前后鼻音韵不分",山西方言"同屯不分"、"妻青同音"等,这些语料对汉语语音史和方言学史的研究具有重要的参考价值。

  11. Innovation and Exploration of Qu Yuan's Poetic Metaphor%屈原诗歌艺术隐喻的创新与探索∗



    Qu Yuan is a great romantic poet in Chinese literary history,and he created the unique genre of Chhuci,which is a milestone in Chinese literary history.He made great achievements in lyric poetry and created a lot of amazing poems.This is due to his creation and use of metaphors in his po-ems.The successful application of unique metaphor mode not only leads to his achievements in poet-ry,but also sets a good example for and exerts a far reaching influence on future generations.%屈原是中国文学史上一位伟大的浪漫主义诗人,他创造了独树一帜的楚辞体,成为中国文学史上的一个里程碑。他在抒情诗方面成就很大,创作了不少令人叹为观止的诗篇。这当然得益于他在诗歌创作中成功创造了属于自己的隐喻。屈原式隐喻方式的诞生和成功运用,不仅成就了他的诗歌创作,而且也为后人树立了典范并产生了深远的影响。

  12. 庄子与屈原的思想情感比较%The Comparison in Thought and Emotion between Zhuang Zi and Qu Yuan



    庄子和屈原对中国思想文化的影响深远。作为诗人的哲人与哲人的诗人,二人的情感世界都绚丽多彩。然而,学界在研究二人的哲理与诗性时,似乎忽略了他们情感世界的研究。如果深入到二人情感世界中就可发现,虽然"哀怨"、"愤激"、"孤独"是庄屈情感基本特征,但仔细研究,二人情感世界又不同。本文通过解读庄屈的情感世界,以求深化对庄屈的研究。%Zhuang Zi and Qu Yuan have a far-reaching influence on Chinese ideology and culture.As a poet philosopher and philosopher poet,both of them have a colorful emotion world.However,when academia focuses on the research of their philosophy and poetics,they seem to ignore that of the emotion world.If a thorough study was made to their emotion world,we can find some differences,although their basic emotional characteristics are sorrow,rage and loneliness.By interpreting their emotion world,we can deepen the research of them.

  13. “元四家”山水画的隐逸特征%Seclusive characteristics of landscape paintings by the four renowned artists in the Yuan Dynasty



    元四家在长期的绘画实践中,融合笔墨的写意精神,通过对物象描绘表达画家的主观心绪,忽略物象的形似而重神似,逐渐形成了尚逸、尚意的山水画风。文人画家主张“逸笔草草,不求形似”,追求“脱俗”和“自娱”的美学思想体现了文人画家之“隐”与山水画之“逸”的结合。%The four renowned artists in the Yuan Dynasty made a spiritual fusion of hands and ink in the long-term practice of painting.They expressed the painters’subjective state of mind by depicting the images with emphasis on spiritual similarities and ignorance of the objective shapes.Such practice of painting gradually developed into a style of landscaoe paintings worshiping confort and spirit.Literati painters advocated “leisure pen in painting,not for the shape”with the aesthetic pursuit of“Free from vulgarity”and “self entertainment”,which reflects the con-bination of the literati painters’ “hidden”with the landscape painters’ “ease”.

  14. 屈原楚辞中香草美人意象分析%The Imagery Analysis of Vanilla Beauty in Chu Yuan's chuck



    屈原在其楚辞作品中,采用了大量的香草美人的意象,创造了中国传统的独特的审美表现观,并影响了后人诗人、小说家的创作理念。其实,屈原楚辞作品中的香草美人意象,是运用比兴的手法表达自我心志愿望的一种艺术方式。但是,这种比兴手法被作者寄托情感有了现实性情感性的意义,而脱离了单纯艺术手法的本身。%In the chick written by Qu Yuan , lots of imagery of vanilla beauty have been adopted . It created a special Chinese traditional view of aesthetic , which have influenced the artistic creation of descendents and writers . This kind of imagery is a kind of artistic method which can use the metaphor and analogy to express one's hope. But , this method which is full of author' emotion has the characteristic of realistic and emotion , out of pure art.

  15. 《园冶·题词》释义解析%Analysis and Annotation on Puzzling Questions ofInscription ofYuan Ye



    作为中国造园史上唯一技术专著,计成所著《园冶》在明清众多园林文论中独树一帜。其独特之处就在于,它不仅系统介绍了中国古典园林的诸多技术手法,而且将许多文人造园的思想和理念蕴涵其中。以举例解析为主线,分析了《园冶·题词》等篇的重点论句,并借此探讨《园冶》有关异宜与成法、工匠与主人等问题的基本立场。%As the only summary of classical gardening techniques,Yuan Ye, orCraft of Gardens, by Ji Cheng is very unusual and may be unique in many gardening literary theory of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Its uniqueness lies in that it not only systematically introduced many of the techniques of Chinese classical gardens, but also contained a lot of literati gardening thoughts and ideas. By example analysis, the paper illustrates the speciifc writing background, and deciphers some of the key discussion in the inscription, and further inquires the fundamental ideology towards the relation of special methods and rules, craftsman and master, etc.

  16. A Study of Business Jargon and Sociolinguistics in Song, Yuan, Ming Dynasty%宋元明市语与社会语言学研究



    宋元明市语是一种社会方言,因此它应当是社会语言学的研究对象;宋元明市语的理论研究和语义结构研究对社会语言学的研究成果都有一定的补正作用;在研究方法上我们必须注意古今结合与学科结合,发展具有中国特色的社会语言学。%Business Jargon in Song, Yuan and Ming Dynasty is a kind of social dialect, so it is an object of sociolinguistics study. The theory study and semantic structure study of business jargon in these dynasties can sup- plement the research achievements of sociolinguistics. In the research method, we must pay attention to the combi- nation of ancient and modem study with disciplines in order to develop sociolinguistics with Chinese characteristics.

  17. Islamic Influence on Yuan Dynasty Blue and White Porcelain%元代青花瓷器的伊斯兰风格



    元青花在中国陶瓷史上占据举足轻重的地位,是中国陶瓷历史上一个重要的转折点,它不仅开创了中国陶瓷的新风格,而且改变了中国传统的陶瓷审美观念,它是在海陆两条丝绸之路的传播过程中产生与发展起来的,是中西方文化交流产生的硕果。本文分析了受伊斯兰文化影响的元代青花瓷的艺术特色,深入挖掘了其所折射出民族文化交流的成果。%uan Dynasty blue and white porcelain occupies a pivotal position in the history of Chinese ceramics, marking one of its important turning points, at which a new style was created, and traditional Chinese ceramic aesthetic ideas were changed. It's developed with the transcontinental trade via the land and sea routes of the Silk Road as a result of the cultural exchange between the East and the West. This paper analyzes the Islamic elements in Yuan Dynasty blue and white porcelain so as to capture a glimpse of the encounter between the East and the West.

  18. 元末明初中朝关系与辽东社会%The relationship between China and Korea in Liaodong at the peir od of Mine takingo ver Yuan dynasty



    Since the Mongol empire made a conquest of the Korean peninsula,the Goryeo had been brought into tributary systems controlled by Yuan dynasty.Korea eased the pressure from Yuan dynasty through political marriage,contribution property and military assistance.Yuan dynasty granted titles to Korea.The relationship of Zongfan between Yuan and Korea had gradually become stereotypes.At the end of the Yuan,the relationship of Zongfan broken,the kingship of Goryeo strengthened.The government of Yuan can' t control the Liaodong re-gion effectively.Korea occupied buffer zone along the east coast of the Yalu river,and controlled Shuangcheng and Posuo areas where Nüzhen nation lived.At the earlier years of Ming dynasty,Korea was related to Liaodong forces with complex relations of formal or informal.This article combs communication events among Korea, Yuan,Ming and Separatist forces in Liaodong region during twenty years,which was from the 1354 to 1374. The beginning time is that Korea provided military assistance to Yuan for fighting with Zhang Shicheng in south of China.The ending time is that the King of Gongmin was killed.Then this article analyzes the social influence of Liaodong region brought by the relations between China and Korea.%蒙古征服朝鲜半岛后,高丽王朝被纳入元之藩属体系. 高丽通过政治联姻、贡献方物、提供军事援助等方式,缓解元朝对高丽的政治压力. 元朝对高丽进行封赐,双方宗藩关系逐渐成为定式. 元末,双方宗藩关系破裂,高丽王权得到强化,并趁机控制鸭绿江东岸的缓冲地带及占领双城、婆娑府一带女真族活动地区. 明初,高丽与辽东各方势力存在着复杂的正式或非正式的关系. 本文以高丽随元南征( 1354年)至恭愍王被弑(1374年)为时间段限,梳理这20年间在辽东地区高丽与元廷、明政府及辽东故元势力之间的交往事件,分析中朝关系变化对辽东社会的影响.

  19. 《八思巴字与元代汉语》增订本评介%Book Review: Phagspa Script and the Chinese Language in the Yuan Period in Revised and Enlarged Edition



    Among the handed-down and archaeologically discovered documents, there are lots of Phagspa-script historical sources translated from Chinese, which provide a great amount of valuable information for studying the history of the Yuan Dynasty. As this script was abandoned and became unknown long ago, the use of these literal data calls, first of all, for its correct decipherment. The Phagspa Script and the Chinese Language in the Yuan Period, first published in 1958, is the fundamental work in this field. Its revised and enlarged edition coming out in 2004 supplements a large amount of new content, collects firsthand referential documents and previous phonological research results, and furnishes a retrievable glossary. Its accomplishments have important value to historical, philological and archaeological studies.

  20. 论元代婚恋杂剧中女性形象的近世性%The Modernity in Images of Women in Yuan Opera with the Love and Marriage Theme



    作为近世文学萌发期的代表性文学样式,元杂剧作品中当然不乏对个人权利和要求的渲染,女性形象对爱情和婚姻的追求是其中的一个重要侧面。但元杂剧中女性形象强烈的依附性人格无法使其承担太多重负,元杂剧作家们在她们身上和相关作品中努力试图的,只是在正统儒学式微的背景下,另辟蹊径,以达到教化的目的。元代婚恋杂剧中的女性形象是中国文学近世性复杂特征的充分体现。%As the symbol in the germination period of Modern Literature, Yuan Opera is full of the demands about individual rights, one important aspect of which is the women pursuit for love and happy marriage.But in fact, the writers of Yuan Opera just try to figure out another way for moralizing in the background of the decline of the classic Confucianism, so the strong dependence in the images of women in Yuan Dynasty cannot carry too much burden of Modernity.The images of women in Yuan Dynasty with Love and marriage theme represent the complexity of Chinese Modern Literature perfectly.

  1. Comparative Analysis Between You and Yuan Referring to Pre-Qin and Qin-Han Landscape Architecture%先秦两汉园林语境下的“囿”与“苑”考辨

    王其亨; 袁守愚


    “囿”与“苑”是对先秦两汉大型园林的通称,其中“囿”的使用比“苑”早,是先秦时期的主要园林用词,“苑”在秦汉时期后来居上,逐渐取代“囿”指称大型园林。二者在表达早期园林以资源、物质生产和动物饲养为主的核心概念上并没有明显区别。在“苑”成为大型园林的核心用词后,“囿”的词义发展停滞下来,在指称园林时更多带有述古和语言美化的倾向。%In pre-Qin and Qin-Han literatures , You and Yuan referred to large landscape architecture with similar features . You had a longer history than Yuan, and was most frequently used referring to large landscape architecture in pre-Qin period, but was gradually replaced by Yuan.The two words are synonyms and both represent the core of early landscape architecture as natural reserve , production and animal culture .After being taken the dominance by Yuan in literatures, You became less active in referring landscape architecture and was commonly used to recite ancient examples or as an elegant word usage .

  2. An Analysis on Several Important Issues of Yuan Dynasty Legal Studies (2000-2011)%元代法律史研究几个重要问题评析(2000-2011)



    Notable achievements in Yuan Dynasty legal studies have been obtained since 2000 .Yuan legal studies have been extensive and in-depth .Since 2000 ,historical materials have been discovered and sorted out ,analysis on custom factors in legal system have been made ,legal culture embodied in Yuan Zaju have been explored ,and studies on contents of civil law system ,problems of penal system ,concrete prac-tices of judicial system ,structure of Yuan legal system ,and the intension of certain particular legal form have been done .In addition ,specific legal provisions like Jingji people (Jingji people were first offenders of theft and robbery whose crimes were not severe enough to receive a death penalty .They were tattooed in the neck and the arm ,registered as special residents and monitored .) and salt law and copyright protection have been studied .%  2000年以来元朝法律史研究取得了显著的成绩。元朝法律史在研究上领域扩张,内容上更加深入。2000年以来,元朝法律研究主要在法律史料的发掘与整理、法律中民族风俗习惯因素的分析、元杂剧体现出的法律文化、民事法律制度的内容、刑罚制度的问题、司法制度的具体运行情况和元代法律体系的结构与某类法律形式内涵问题等展开了研究。此外,还有对元朝一些具体法律制度与问题进行研究,如警迹人、盐法和版权保护。

  3. 论元代山水散曲色彩意象的生命意识%On Life Consciousness of Color Image of Landscape Sanqu in the Yuan Dynasty

    宋巍; 林振晔


    生命意识是人的内心世界对于生命本体和生存价值的一种体悟,是对时光易逝、生命难留的一种体验。在元代山水散曲中,色彩意象是曲家表达生命意识的良好媒介。曲家凭借色彩意象,表现出生命的昂扬,传达出生命的律动,抒发出生命的叹惋,并将寄予其中的自然美、时光美、生命美展现得淋漓尽致。%Life consciousness is a perception of life and survival,and an experience of the idea that“time flies and life is never permanent”from human inner world.In landscape Sanqu verse in the Yuan Dynasty,color image is an excellent medium for Yuan dramatists to express their life con-sciousness.By using color image,Yuan dramatists present the high spirit and rhythm of life,the lament for life to reveal incisively and vividly the natural beauty,the beauty of time and the beauty of life.

  4. 相门出相--试论史浩对史弥远之影响%The Minsisters in the Home of a Statesman:the Influence of Shi Hao on Shi Mi-yuan



    四明史氏为南宋历史上罕有的宰相世家,史浩、史弥远、史嵩之先后为相,尤其是史弥远,执掌朝政更长达26年,令史氏家族显赫一时。史弥远早年虽曾一度师从理学中人,但对理学思想的接受较为有限,他在政治上深受其父史浩影响,他参与政变、对外主和以及用人方式等方面,无不或直接或间接的在效仿乃父。%In the Southern Song Dynasty, the family of Shi is an uncommon prime minister family. Shi Hao, Shi Mi-yuan and Shi Song-zhi successively served as prime ministers. Shi Mi-yuan was typical since he served as a prime minister for 26 years. In his youth Shi Mi-yuan has studied with some parapsychologists, but he did not accept neo-confucianism. His political thought roots from his father Shi Hao. He always imitated his father in taking part in coup attempts, foreign policy and employment approach.

  5. On the Idea that Yuankan Zaju Sanshi Zhong Was Not Printed in the Yuan Dynasty%《元刊杂剧三十种》并非刻于元代说



    It is widely believed in present academia that playscripts in Yuankan Zaju Sanshi Zhong ( thirty types of Zaju plays printed in the Yuan Dynasty) were not published in one place at a time, but a book of collection from bookshops in the Yuan Dynasty.In fact, these thirty plays were pro-ceedings from one bookshop and the reason why place names like “dadu” and “guhang” appeared in the general title is that the master copy they used was such.These plays were not printed in the Yuan Dynasty but in the Ming Dynasty.%学界普遍认为《元刊杂剧三十种》中的剧本并非刊于一时一地,乃是元代“书坊杂凑而成的本子”。实际上,这三十种杂剧为同一书坊汇刊,之所以总题中有“大都”“古杭”等词,是因为它们所用的底本即是如此。它们并非刊刻于元代,而是明朝建立之后。

  6. 元青花人物故事纹饰的符号学解读%A study on ornamentation of figure and story of blue and white of Yuan Dynasty from semiotic perspectives



    The figure and story porcelain of blue and white of Yuan Dynasty is the climax of the art of blue and white painting. It is famous all over the world for its exquisite painting, vivid characters and unique stories. From the perspective of semiotic metaphor, this article, against the social background of the Yuan, tries to interpret characters and stories to dig out deep connotation of ornamentation of figure and story and to reflect the will and emotional expression of the Han people of Yuan dynasty.%元青花人物瓷器将青花绘画艺术推向顶峰,以其精美的绘画、生动的人物形象和特色的故事题材而闻名于世。基于元青花的社会背景,本文尝试从符号学隐喻的视角,解读人物故事,探讨元青花人物故事纹饰的深层内涵,揭示元代汉族人民意志和情感的表达。

  7. On the hydrology and fluvial sediment transport of the proglacial river Riffler Bach (Weißseeferner, Ötztal Alps, Tyrol)

    Morche, David; Baewert, Henning; Weber, Martin; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz


    The hydrology of proglacial rivers is strongly affected by glacier melting. With ongoing glacier retreat the proportion of glacier meltwater in proglacial rivers is declining over longer time periods. Snow melt or rain fall events will play a more important role as water source. Due to glacial erosion the glacier system is also an important player in the orchestra of sediment sources/processes contributing to proglacial sediment budgets. The consequence of increasing deglaciation is a growing importance of other sediment sources/processes, mainly known as paraglacial, for sediment budgets in glacier forefields. The sediment export out of proglacial areas is mainly done by solid river load. Knowledge on the quantity of the exported sediments is important for reservoir management and torrent control. In order to measure fluvial sediment transport in the catchment area of the Gepatsch reservoir in the Ötztal Alps (Tyrol/Austria) we have installed a gauging station at the proglacial river Riffler Bach in June 2012. The catchment area of this station is about 20 km² with an altitudinal range from 1929 m to 3518 m. The higher altitudes in the southern part of the area are covered by the glacier Weißseeferner. Our station is equipped with an automatic water sampler (AWS 2002) and probes for water level, turbidity and electrical conductivity. All parameters are recorded in 5-15 minute intervals during the ablation period. Discharge is measured with current meters during wadable stages and salt dilution during higher floods. Bed load is measured concurrent to discharge measurements using a Helley-Smith sampler. In 2012, 189 water samples were taken and will be analyzed for suspended sediment concentration and ion content. Additionally, the grain size distribution will be determined using a Malvern laser diffractometer. Rating-curves will be used to calculate discharge from stage recordings. Solid load of the Riffler Bach will be quantified using the discharge data and

  8. Decision support system for integrated river basin management conflict assessment and resolution approaches for the Weiße Elster river

    Hennrich, K. P.; Rode, M.; Hansjürgens, B.; Klauer, B.; Petry, D.


    The purpose of the EU water framework directive is to establish a good ecological status for inland surface waters, transition waters, groundwater and coastal waters until 2009. To achieve this goal a program of measures has to be defined in a management plan for each river basin. To date, methodological gaps exist regarding the scientific, economic and legal instruments available to implement the directive in Germany. The main aim of the project is to develop a decision support system for integrated river basin management based on a computer modelling system. Study area is the meso-scale river basin of the Weiße Elster river, flowing through three states, Thuringia, Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt. Currently, river basins in Germany are managed on a state level. Research is carried out in close cooperation with local authorities. In the context of the EU water framework directive scientific, economic, and legal methods and approaches will be coupled and developed further. The core of the decision support system is an object-oriented modelling system coupled with a multi-criteria analysis. The modelling system integrates water and substance transport as well as socio-economic forecasting models and methods. The system will be able to simulate and assess the scientific, economic and social effects of management measures. The results as well as interests of concerned stakeholders will be joined and evaluated in a subsequent multi-criteria analysis. Based on these results for decision support, programs of measures recognising interests of water management, industry, agriculture, politics and the public can be established in the management plans of the respective authorities.

  9. 孙维峰治疗痛风性关节炎经验%Sun Wei-feng's Experience of Treating Gouty Arthritis



    Professor Sun Wei-feng thinks that gouty arthritis during the intermittent period and chronic phase are mainly due to yin deficiency of the liver and kidney leading to the spleen failing to activate,internal phlegmatic dampness,intermingled phlegm and blood stasis blocking in meridians,joints and the viscera.He emphasizes that "deficiency of the liver,spleen and kidney,intermingled phlegm and blood stasis" are the root of gouty arthritis during the intermittent period and chronic phase,so the treatment should focus on "purging turbidity and removing pathogenesis,dissolving the dampness and clearing away heat,activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis." He uses self-made (XZCBD) to treat it.He especially pays attention to prevention and regulation of patients with gouty arthritis.%孙维峰教授认为痛风性关节炎间歇期及慢性期的病因多为肝肾阴虚,脾失健运,痰湿内生,久则痰瘀互结,留滞经脉、关节、脏腑,强调“肝脾肾虚、痰瘀互结”为痛风的发病根源.孙教授认为痛风性关节炎间歇期及慢性期的治疗原则为“泄浊祛邪、化湿清热、活血化瘀”,自拟“泄浊除痹汤”治疗痛风间歇期及慢性期.孙维峰教授特别注重对痛风性关节炎患者生活上的预防调摄.

  10. Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan through its active ingredient loganin counteracts substance P-enhanced NF-κB/ICAM-1 signaling in rats with bladder hyperactivity.

    Tsai, Wen-Hsin; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Cheng, Chen-Hung; Chien, Chiang-Ting


    Overt bladder afferent activation may exacerbate endogenous substance P (SP) release to induce intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)-mediated inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production leading to hyperactive bladder. Ba-Wei-Die-Huang-Wan (BWDHW), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms in patients by undefined mechanisms. We explored the possible mechanisms and the active components of BWDHW on exogenous SP-induced bladder hyperactivity. BWDHW contained six major components: loganin, paeoniflorin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, and paeonol by high-performance liquid chromatography. In urethane-anesthetized female Wistar rats, we evaluated transcystometrogram, pelvic afferent nerve activity by electrophysiologic recording techniques, ICAM-1 expression by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, ROS amount by an ultrasensitive chemiluminescence method and possible ROS sources from the different leukocytes by specific stains in SP-treated bladder. BWDHW and its major component loganin dose-dependently inhibited H2 O2 and HOCl activity in vitro. Intragastrical BWDHW (250 mg/kg) and loganin (5 mg/kg) twice daily for 2 weeks did not affect the baseline micturition parameters. Intra-arterial SP (20 µg/rat) through neurokinin-1 receptor activation increased voiding frequency (shortened intercontraction intervals), pelvic afferent nerve activity, bladder NF-κB/ICAM-1 expression, bladder ROS amount, neutrophils adhesion to venous endothelium, CD68 (monocyte/macrophage), and mast cell infiltration in the inflamed bladder. BWDHW and loganin pretreatment significantly depressed SP-enhanced pelvic afferent nerve activity, bladder NF-κB/ICAM-1 expression, leukocyte infiltration, and ROS amount, and subsequently improved bladder hyperactivity. In conclusion, our results suggest that BWDHW and its active component loganin improves bladder hyperactivity via inhibiting SP/neurokinin-1

  11. Pharmacokinetics of the main compounds absorbed into blood after oral administration of Liu Wei Di Huang Wan, a typical combinatorial intervention of Chinese medical formula.

    Zhang, Ning; Li, Lijing; Wang, Ping; Sun, Hui; Wu, Zeming; Piao, Chengyu; Wang, Xijun


    Liu Wei Di Huang Wan (LW) has been used as an active Chinese patent formula for "Five Late Syndrome" of Children for thousands of years. Due to the complexity in its chemical constituents, the pharmacokinetics of this formula have not been elucidated clearly, and the understanding of its pharmacological properties has been delayed. Previous studies have identified the constituents absorbed into blood after the oral administration of LW; moreover, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furoic acid (HMFA), loganin and paeonol have been proved as surrogate markers. In this study, a rapid validated high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for determining three marker compounds in plasma. The analysis was performed on a Waters Symmetry Shield™ RP(18) column with acetonitrile and 0.15% phosphoric acid as the mobile phase, which showed acceptable linearity, intra- and inter-day precision, and accuracy. By using the established method, the pharmacokinetic analysis of LW was carried out. The t (1/2)α and t (1/2)β were 2.62/32.66, 0.46/4.71 and 1.30/23.51 h and the climax times and concentrations were 0.56/683.75, 0.70/2826.11 and 0.62 h/4030.48 ng ml(-1) for HMFA, loganin and paeonol, respectively. Especially, both the absorption and disposition of HMFA were swift (t (1/2) kα 0.1 h, t (1/2)α 2.62 h), but the elimination was quite slow (t (1/2)β 32.66 h); this phenomenon reflected the synergetic effect of LW combinatorial intervention and the value of compatibility can be more clearly understood. The pharmacokinetic characters of HMFA, loganin and paeonol not only elucidated the steady and long-lasting pharmacological properties, but they also revealed the practical value of the compatibility of Chinese medical formula.

  12. The Commandment Book & Home Dissuasion in Han Wei and Six Dynasties%汉魏六朝诫子书与家诫论议



    The Commandment book & Home dissuasion in Han Wei and Six Dynasties focus on warning and teach-ing children. Because of the tangled warfare political situation of the troubled times, it warned their children and grandchildren of being discreet in word and deed, cultivating their mind and realizing their ambition, saving life and keeping safe. Most of them explain the philosophy of life in society, and survival values. Because of the dis-crepancy in sentiment and intellect, the conflict between the self-examination from mistakes and the acceptance of new ideas, the divorce between argument and practice presents a paradox. Commandment Book & Home dissuasion seeks to find truth, esteeming simplicity, applying comparison, and establishing the two kinds of styles: being good at giving methodical and patient guidance and conducting imperative teaching.%汉魏六朝时期的诫子书和家诫重在对子弟警诫教诲,叮嘱后辈谨言慎行、养性守志、保身远害,是数百年混战的乱世时局使然。但其观点主张多与行为实践分离形成悖论,是情感理智差异、行为教训反思和思想接受冲突造成的。诫子书与家诫求“真”、尚“简”、用“比”,形成循序善诱和命令教诲两种风格。

  13. Effects of Fluid Saturation on Gas Recovery from Class-3 Hydrate Accumulations Using Depressurization: Case Study of Yuan-An Ridge Site in Southwestern Offshore Taiwan

    Huang, Yi-Jyun; Wu, Cheng-Yueh; Hsieh, Bieng-Zih


    Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds in which guest gas molecules are trapped in host lattices of ice crystals. In Taiwan, the significant efforts have recently begun to evaluate the reserves of hydrate because the vast accumulations of gas hydrates had been recognized in southwestern offshore Taiwan. Class-3 type hydrate accumulations are referred to an isolated hydrate layer without an underlying zone of mobile fluids, and the entire hydrate layer may be well within the hydrate stability zone. The depressurization method is a useful dissociation method for gas production from Class-3 hydrate accumulations. The dissociation efficiency is controlled by the responses of hydrate to the propagating pressure disturbance, and the pressure propagation is relating to the amount (or saturation) of the mobile fluid in pore space of the hydrate layer. The purpose of this study is to study the effects of fluid saturation on the gas recovery from a class-3 hydrate accumulation using depressurization method. The case of a class-3 hydrate deposit of Yuan-An Ridge in southwestern offshore Taiwan is studied. The numerical method was used in this study. The reservoir simulator we used to study the dissociation of hydrate and the production of gas was the STARS simulator developed by CMG, which coupled heat transfer, geo-chemical, geo-mechanical, and multiphase fluid flow mechanisms. The study case of Yuan-An Ridge is located in southwestern offshore Taiwan. The hydrate deposit was found by the bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). The geological structure of the studied hydrate deposit was digitized to build the geological model (grids) of the case. The formation parameters, phase behavior data, rock and fluid properties, and formation's initial conditions were assigned sequentially to grid blocks, and the completion and operation conditions were designed to wellbore blocks to finish the numerical model. The changes of reservoir pressure, temperature, saturation due to the hydrate

  14. 宋元时期宁波盐业考述%Textual Research of Salt Industry in Ningbo during the Song and Yuan Dynasties



    In Song Dynasty,salt production in Ningbo had a rapid growth.While salt production organization in Mingzhou consisted of state-ownership and private ownership,salt selling was completely controlled by the government.In Yuan Dynasty,salt production generally remained unchanged in scale and producing areas.Following the previous note-salt practice in Song Dynasty,salt monopoly policy was carried out.Under the system,civilian could produce salt under government supervision and both government and merchants could do business on salt transportation and marketing.Additionally,there were then two main ways to make brine in Ningbo,brine dripping from saline mud scraped from the sea salt field and brine dripping from saline rice husk ash collected from the sea salt field.%宋代,宁波的盐业生产进入快速发展的时期,明州盐业生产组织主要分为国家官有制和盐民私有制,食盐行官卖法。及至元代,宁波基本稳定了宋代的盐业生产规模和范围,沿袭了宋代的钞盐法,实行官督民制、官与商兼运兼销的专卖制度。宋元宁波盐区海水制卤大致有刮泥淋卤和摊灰淋卤两种方法。

  15. The urban flood control embankment engineering design of Wu-Yuan City%婺源县城区防洪治理工程设计

    蔡方昕; 王建峰


    Aimed at the problems of unblocked flood protection levee , no blocking flood drainage facilities in water-logging area and cannot resist the 20 year design flood with low flood control standard in the Wu-Yuan urban flood control system , according to the overall planning of urban flood control, the distribution of Le-An river, and flood control standard of the planning years,combining with the existing flood control facilities, protection object and other factors, the integrated protection and reinforcement scheme with building new embankment, new flood wall and dry masonry stone revetment has been design and adopted. The anti sliding and anti overturning stability, seepage stability and stress analysis results show that the overall stability, permeability and stress indicators of the protection and reinforcement structure conform to the standard requirement totally. The flood prevention and strengthening scheme has good technical and economic benefits.%针对婺源县城区防洪体系中防洪堤未封闭,涝区无挡洪排涝设施,防洪堤防洪标准偏低、无法抵御20年一遇洪水等问题,结合防洪堤现状、防护对象等因素,设计采取有针对性的新建土堤、新建防洪墙和干砌石护岸等为一体的防护加固方案。计算结果表明:防护加固建筑结构整体稳定性、抗渗性和应力指标均符合规范要求,防洪加固方案具有较好的技术和经济效益。

  16. 元代江南文士的游谒与文坛风气%Jiangnan Scholars′Lobbying and Literary Circle′s Climate in Early Yuan



    In early Yuan, Scholars in Jiangnan distric take poems and proses as main lobbying form and are ac⁃tive in the two literary center Hangzhou and Beijing (the Capital). They expand the influencing power of south⁃ern people′s literature creation and fortiy literary circle in Jiangnan distrcit.These scholars keep trying to fit into Beijing (the Capital)litaraty circle by connecting with social network in Beijing which bring interaction of liter⁃ary themes, styles and philosophy. The bedrock of merging northern and southern literature gets laid and leads to united literature and culture which signify the developing character of regional civilization replaing mono ethnic civilization.%元代江南文士以诗文为主要谒具,游谒于杭州、大都两个主要的文化圈中心。通过序跋、赠答、结社、唱和等方式,提高了异族统治下南方人文学创作格局的影响力,巩固了江南文化圈。在北游构建江南文士京城社会网络的同时,不断融入大都文化圈,带来了题材、风格、文学理念的互动,奠定了南北融合的诗文走向基础,最终促成了多元文化融合下大一统的文化与文学,体现出元代文学以地域文明取代单一民族文明的发展特征。

  17. 论于光远先生的生态经济伦理观%On Yu Guang-yuan's Ethical Thought of Eco-economy



    Yu Guang-yuan had a unique profound understanding of eco-economy.He emphasized the consistency of ecology-economy and differences of perspective;he underlined the ecological value and economic significance of ar-tificial nature .Furthermore , he emphasized the identity of ecology , economy and ethics , and adhered to practical ethics position in ecological research .These viewpoints have significant guiding function in ecology protection , eco-logical civilization construction acceleration , and industrial structure adjustment and even in circular economy de-velopment .Yu's interdisciplinary research method and the foresight prospective make our vision wider and bring us a lot of enlightenments to construct our beautiful country .%于光远先生对生态经济有非常独特的认识,强调生态与经济之对象一致性和视角的差异;强调人工自然的生态价值和经济意义。进而,于先生强调生态、经济与道德的同一性,并坚持研究生态问题的实践伦理学立场。他的这些观点对保护生态、提速生态文明建设,对经济结构、产业结构的合理调整,发展循环经济,都有重要的指导作用。于先生这种跨学科的研究方法和前瞻性思维方式在开阔我们视野的同时,也给我们“圆美丽中国梦”以深远启示。

  18. Exploring Space Landscape and Environmental Behavior of Wang Shi Yuan Garden%网师园的空间景观与环境行为探究

    陈思; 马子龙; 曹磊


    从网师园的历史沿革、造园立意、平面布局、主要景观及空间特色等方面分析了园内环境景观与古代文人雅士的居、息、游、赏,以及现代游览者领略文化、休闲游园等行为活动之间的关系。探究了“因诗成景”、“以画入园”的独特景观营造思想和布局手法及其在有限空间的无限意境中提高人们感知、体验、参与环境的行为价值。最后结合当下的时代精神,提炼了中国古典园林中的景观环境行为理念。%From Wang Shi Yuan's history, gardening conception,layout, major landscapes and space characteristics,etc. ,this artiCle aims at exploring its relationship between environmental landscape and activities of ancient scholars' residing, resting,touring, and enjoying as well as contemporary tourists' culture appreciation and recreation. In addition, the article explores the unique landscape thoughts and layout techniques of "poems ,of the scene" and "paintings of the garden", and improves the behavior value of people's perception, experience, and environmental participation in the infinite artistic landscape. Hopefully, according to the current spirit, the refining of the environmental behavior principles in the Chinese classical gardens will benefit the modern landscape design.

  19. [Analysis of the Decorated Silicate Beads Excavated from Tomb M4 of the Ma-Jia-Yuan Warring States Cemetery, Gansu Province].

    Huang, Xiao-juan; Yan, Jing; Wang, Hui


    This paper reports the analysis results of 11 decorated silicate beads samples excavated from Ma Jia-yuan Warring State Cemetery, Gan Su Province with the portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, laser Raman spectrometer and X-ray diffraction spectrometer. It is includes 3 types among these samples on the basis of their chemical composition, NaO-CaO-SiO2, PbO-BaO-SiO2 glass system, and glassy faience. The blue part of the NaO-CaO-SiO2 glass sample was colored by Co2+, and Sb2O5 was discovered as opacifier. The results of Laser Raman analysis shows in some circle beads exits Chinese blue and Chinese purple. Combined with the existing research results the early cultural factors and technical exchange reflected from these samples are discussed. It shows that the material and craftsmanship of the beads contained Chinese blue and Chinese purple were affected by Qin Culture. But the composition of the Na-Ca-SiO2 glass eye bead is similar with those excavated from Xin Jiang area. It infers the technology of glass manufacture of the Xi Ron nationality was influenced by the Qin Culture and the grassland nationalities' culture simultaneously. The faience bead composed with the inner core and the outer glassy layer is possible a kind of transitional type between the faience and the real glass. This information offers a new reference for the research of the origin of the glass technology in the ancient China.

  20. "Learning yuan"platform application in food analysis teaching%"学习元"平台在食品分析教学中的应用



    Food analysis course is a compulsory course for undergraduate students at the university of science and engineering professional. This course involves the food quality and safety inspection contents, also the main embodiment of bachelor of engineering degree in food. With the coming of information age, the Internet network developed, " Learning yuan " platform gradualy walked into the university classroom. Food analysis course is given priority to with applied re―search, more wide―ranging, knowledge spread, mobile learning or distance learning for students. So the construction of this new type of teaching mode and learn―ing style in food analysis course is very necessary, is also a direction of food analysis course construction in the future.%食品分析课程是食品科学与工程专业大学本科学生的专业必修课.该门课程涉及到食品质量与安全的检测内容,也是食品专业工科学士学位的主要体现.随着信息时代的来临,互联网网络的发达,"学习元"平台渐渐走进了高校课堂.食品分析课程多以应用研究为主,内容广泛,知识点分散,适合学生移动学习或者远程学习.因此把这种新型的教学模式和学习方式建设在食品分析课程中是十分必要的,也是未来食品分析课程建设的一个方向.

  1. Textual Research on the Time Change of Ducha Yuan in the Ming Dynasty%明代都察院更置时间考论



    The current Ming-history academic circles are firmly convinced that the change of Ducha Yuan(the Censorate) took place in the 15th year during Emperor Hongwu's reign.Actually,there are 3 versions for the exact time change,namely,the 13th year,the 14th year,and the 15th.A clear documentation mistake renders the time of the 13th year incredible.With the help of apagoge,it is obvious that the real time change happened in the 14th year rather than the 15th year during Emperor Hongwu's reign.Meanwhile,it is pointed out that the executive administrator of Ducha Yuan,the then imperial supervisory institution,is Chief Investigating Censor rather than Chief Imperial Censor.%明史学界对于《明史·职官志》记载的明代都察院更置于洪武十五年的说法,深信不疑。事实上,明清史籍关于明代都察院的更置时间,至少存在洪武十三年、十四年、十五年三种说法。对于洪武十三年说,由于文献存在明显的记载错误,不足为据。在洪武十四年和洪武十五年两种说法之中,运用反证法,考证明代都察院应该是更置于洪武十四年,而非洪武十五年,都察院时最高长官为监察都御史,而不是监察御史。

  2. CAI Yuan-pei's Thoughts on Museum Aesthetic Education%蔡元培的博物馆美育思想研究



    著名的教育家、思想家蔡元培先生非常重视美育对培养健全人格以及促使人的全面发展的重要作用。他认为,在实施美育教育中,博物馆丰富的艺术藏品为美育教育提供了重要的物质基础;藏品的直观性成为美感的最佳培养形式;具有强烈融入感的博物馆陈列语言以及博物馆教育的公众性特征与美育教育的特点相得益彰。由此进一步认为博物馆是美育教育的重要媒介和载体之一。关注博物馆建设,既是关注社会美育教育的具体表现,同时也符合美育发展之公例。%Mr. CAI Yuan-pei, a notable educator and thinker of China, valued aesthetic education highly for the important role it plays in forming sound personalities and promoting integrated development of people. According to Cai, the artistic collections of museums provide important material base for aesthetic education, the direct viewing of objects offers the best approach to cultivate the appreciation of aesthetics, and the engaging narratives of displays and the public feature of museum education are in consonance with the characteristics of aesthetic education. Cai argued further that museums were an important medium and carrier of aesthetic education. Paying attention to museum development is a way to value social aesthetic education, which is in line with the principles of aesthetic education development.


    Ping-fu (Brian LAI


    Full Text Available The Chinese Yuan (RMB has been on the trend of appreciation over the last decade, and such a trend will likely be continuing for some years over the next decade. According to some scholars in their published literatures, the appreciation of RMB, the influx of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI has been ongoing accompanying the sustained growing economy in mainland China over the past decade. It is believed that the China economy has an implication from some significant factors including appreciation of RMB, interest rate of RMB, inflation and continuous increase of FDI for the next several years. The present study aims to provide an emphasis on investigation into effect on China economy as a result of appreciation of RMB and FDI together with some other factors, and to provide an outlook on the economy in China for the coming decades. First, a review was carried on relevant background information and development history of RMB and FDI. There are many reasons and factors behind leading to the sustained growth in the economy in China in the last decade and such effects were in coverage in the literature review. An overview of the development of RMB exchange mechanism, and other variables including (1 RMB exchange rate, (2 China interest rate, (3 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, (4 Trade Balance of China, (5 Annual Inflation rate in China, (6 Energy Consumption in China, (7 Foreign Exchange Reserve in China, (8 China wages, (9 China External Debt and (10 China Consumer Price Index, which may have effect on the growth of the economy in China is covered in the literature review conducted in Chapter 2.

  4. 魏晋清谈与论体主题之演变%On the Evolution of Wei-Jin Pure Conversation and the Theme of the Creation of Lun-Ti-Wen



    魏晋时期是论体文创作的繁盛期,其主题的发展和变化与魏晋清谈的演变密切相关,它们之间互相促进,共同发展,并出现繁荣的局面。魏晋的清谈先后经历了人物品评、才性之辩和名教自然之辩三个阶段,相应的论体文则出现了人物论、名理论和力命论三大主题。人物品评促进了人物论创作的繁荣,才性之辩促进了探讨哲理的名理论创作,名教、自然之辩推动了探讨人生的力命论创作。%Wei and Jin Dynasties can be considered to be the prosperous stage of the creation of Lun-Ti-Wen. The development and change of the theme closely related to the evolution of Wei-Jin Pure conversation. They promoted common development and created the prosperous situation. Wei-Jin Pure conversation has experienced three stages: judging people, the debate between capacity and moral character and the debate between Ethical Code and the Liberal. So the corresponding theme mainly reflected in three aspects. Firstly, judging people promoted the prosperity creation of judging people. Secondly, the debate between capacity and moral character developed the philosophical theory for creation of the truth of things. Thirdly, the debate between Ethical Code and the Liberal enhanced the creation of life on life.

  5. Relationship between Lower Motor Neuron Atrophy and Wei Syndrome in Su Wen%下运动神经元瘫与《素问》痿病相关性分析



    The clinical manifestations of the lower motor neuron atrophy are muscle weakness ,muscle atro-phy and fasciculation. They are similar to the wei disease described in Su Wen Wei Lun,which manifests as weak feet,claw dry and muscle tremor. Actually the muscle tremor is fasciculation,not the weakness and flaccidity of the muscles. Wei disease includes motor neuron disease or other lower motor neuron paralysis disease of the modern medicine,but not includes the upper motor neuron paralysis and muscle atrophy myo-genic disease. According to the theory that “treatment of atrophy should be focused on yangming channel”, invigrating spleen and tonifying stomach could achieve satisfactory effects.%下运动神经元瘫临床表现的肌无力、肌萎缩和肌束震颤与《素问·痿论》所述痿病之足痿不用、爪枯、肉蠕动相似。肉蠕动是指肌束颤动,而非肌肉软弱无力。根据临床表现,痿病应包含现代医学的运动神经元病或其他下运动神经元瘫痪性疾病,而不包含上运动神经元瘫和肌源性肌萎缩疾病。根据“治痿独取阳明”的理论,应用健脾养胃法治疗此类疾病效果较好。

  6. On Inheritance of the Dynasty Han and Wei Style in Poetry about Immortals by Guo Pu%试论郭璞《游仙诗》对汉魏风骨的继承

    陈祥伟; 陈亮; 臧守刚


    初唐陈子昂在《修竹篇序》中说:“汉魏风骨,晋宋莫传。”这一说法不能成立。郭璞是东晋人,其《游仙诗》产生的时代背景与汉魏诗歌相近,其诗歌精神实质是坎壈自伤,运用的表现手法是比兴寄托,抒情风格表现为激烈悲愤,这几个方面是对汉魏风骨继承与发展。《游仙诗》具备汉魏风骨特征。%Chen Ziang, the poet in early Tang Dynasty , once remarked in his Preface to Long Bamboos,“ The Vigorous Style of the Han and Wei Dynasty hasn ’ t been inherited in the poems of Jin an Song Dynas-ty.” However, the statement isn’t proved true.The background of The Poetry about Immortals by Guo Pu who was born in the Eastern Jin Dynasty is similar to the historical background of poems composed during the Han and Wei Dynasty .The spirit of the poem is essentially sentimental .The analogy is applied as the? ex-pression technique? in the poem .Furthermore , the lyric style in this poem is presented as fierce grief .Ac-cording to these mentioned aspects , it is indisputable to draw a conclusion that the poetic features of Han and Wei Dynasty are inherited and improved in Poetry about Immortals.

  7. A Study on the Triangular Relationship among Later Chou Chi, Northern Wei and Liu Song Dynasty%论后仇池国与刘宋、北魏的三角关系



    During the period of the Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern dynasties, Later Chou Chi Dynasty was founded by Yang Ding of Di nationality in the Southeast present Gansu Province. Since it was between two forces of Northern Wei and Liu Song Dynasty, in order to survive, Later Chou Chi Dynasty had to submit to them and be quick to switch sides. The purpose was to be the third party benefiting from the tussle and strengthening its own forces. Northern Wei and Liu Song Dynasty tried to co-opt Later Chou Chi Dynasty and implemented a Jimi policy on it in order to suppress each other. Faced with natural disasters, two wars were launched by Later Chou Chi Dynasty on Liu Song Dynasty but failed and led to the demise of the Dynasty.%魏晋南北朝时,氐族杨定建立的后仇池国位于今甘肃省东南部,处于北魏和刘宋两大势力的夹缝中。为了生存发展,后仇池国分别对这两大势力奉表称臣,过着朝秦暮楚的生活,其目的就是想东食西宿、左右逢源,趁机壮大自己的势力。北魏和刘宋为了相互钳制对方,也尽力拉拢后仇池国,对其实行羁縻政策,双方甚至为争夺仇池而大动干戈,进行了你死我活的斗争。为灾荒所逼,后仇池国两次对刘宋发动战争,结果招来灭顶之灾。

  8. Experience of Professor Wei Xuxing in the Treatment of Migraine by Tongtian Xiaotong Prescription%韦绪性教授运用通天笑痛方治疗偏头痛经验



    目的:探讨韦绪性教授运用通天笑痛方治疗偏头痛的经验.方法:通过跟师学习,对其所创的通天笑痛方的治法、药物组成、用药剂量进行分析,阐明通天笑痛方治疗偏头痛的疗效.结果:通天笑痛方是韦绪性教授治疗顽固难愈偏头痛的经验方,方由生白附子12 g,僵蚕6 g,全蝎4.5g,川芎18 g,白芍30 g,炙甘草10 g,大枣8枚组成.是治疗偏头痛标实证(无明显热象)之通用方,临证多能收“一剂知,二剂已”之奇效.结论:韦绪性教授运用通天笑痛方加减治疗偏头痛疗效显著.%Objective:To investigate the experience of Professor Wei Xuxing in the treatment of migraine by Tongtian Xiaotong Prescription.Methods:Therapeutic method,drug composition and medication dosage of Tongtian Xiaotong Prescription created by Professor Wei Xuxing were analyzed and TCM mechanism of Tongtian Xiaotong Prescription in treating migraine were clarified through learning with the teacher.Results:Tongtian Xiaotong Prescription is the experience prescription of Professor Wei Xuxing treatment of migraine.The prescription is composed by Raw rhizoma typhonii 12 g,Bombyx batryticatus 6 g,Scorpio 4.5 g,Ligusticum wallichii 18 g,Radix paeoniae alba 30 g,Prepared radix licorice 10 g,Jujube 8 pieces.It is the general prescription in treating excessive superficial syndrome of migraine(without obvious heat syndrome) and it can receive wonderful effects of "the first dose of effectiveness,and the second dose of recovery" in clinical.Conclusion:Professor Wei Xuxing in the treatment of migraine by Tongtian Xiaotong Prescription has obvious therapeutic effect.

  9. 魏晋士人重情之思想氛围与现实因缘%On the Ideological Atmosphere and Reality Fate of Scholars'Attaching to Feelings in Wei and Jin Dynasties



    Based on the historical background ,two causes of Wei and Jin scholars'attaching to feelings are discussed:metaphysical real life themes and scholars'conscious feelings the turbulent situation and scholars'tragic sense .%从时代性背景分析魏晋士人重情风尚的成因,从两个方面展开讨论:玄学的现实人生主题与士人情感的自觉;时局变乱与魏晋士人的悲情。

  10. One Case of Time-rhythm Dizziness Treated by Technique of Harmonizing Ying and Wei%调和营卫法治疗时间节律性眩晕1例



    在《黄帝内经》营卫理论及时间医学理论的启迪下,从调和营卫、益气固表论治1例具有典型时间节律性的眩晕患者,获得显著疗效。%Enlightened by the theory of yingwei and chronomedicine inHuangdi’s Internal Classic, a patient with time-rhythm dizziness was successfully treated by the method of tonifying qi and strengthening exterior, harmonizing Ying and Wei.

  11. 论魏晋士风嬗变的历史、时代动因%Historical and Era Motivations in the Evolution of Academic Atmosphere in Wei and Jin Dynasties



    士风是一个时代的意识形态、学术变迁的历史投影。魏晋是士风变化剧烈的历史时期。从政治文化说,魏晋承袭汉代而来。魏晋经学的国家意识形态化直接影响时代的学术变迁,而时代的学术变迁直接影响一代学术风气和士人价值选择,因此在观念上又深刻影响了一代士人的人生态度、人格精神和立身行事的基本作风,从而成为影响一代士风形成、变化的主要时代动因。然而,发端于汉末的士林主体意识的觉醒是魏晋士人思想、观念、行为所表现出的基本特点,而主体意识与集团依附意识的错综交织、儒家思想与玄释思想的错综交织,又使得魏晋士人主体意识觉醒的历史过程显得异常复杂而曲折。%Academic atmosphere is the historical shadow of the ideology and academic changes in one era. Wei and Jin Dynasties are historical periods of the drastic change in the academic atmosphere. In political culture, Wei and Jin Dynasties follow Han dynasty. The national ideology of the Confucian classics in Wei and Jin Dynasties has an immediate impact on academic changes of the times. Academic changes of the times also have an immediate impact on academic atmosphere and scholars’ selection on value in one era. So, in perception, academic changes of the times also deeply influenced the life attitudes, personality spirits, and the basic style of their behaviors. And these have been the main motivations in the evolution of academic atmosphere in the formation and transformation. However, the awakening of scholars’ subject consciousness, originated at the last reign of Han Dynasty, is the essential feature, which are reflected in scholars’ ideas, perceptions, and behaviors in Wei and Jin Dynasties. With the mixture of subject consciousness and group attached consciousness, the Confucianism and Metaphysics, the awakening of the historical period of scholars’ subject consciousness

  12. Common Deviations of Internet Users" Social Inference : Taking Yao Jiaxin Event as an example%网民社会推论的常见偏差分析——以药家鑫事件为例

    胡志海; 张妮妮


    推论是综合或组合多样的复杂的信息,并将他们组织成一个判断的过程。社会推论是社会认知中的核心问题。由于网络的特殊性,网络群体性事件中,网民在信息收集、整合、推论过程中都会出现偏差。以药家鑫事件为例,对网民在社会推论中的常见偏差,主要从网络信息的窄化、网民的从众心理、去个性化、易情绪化和刻板印象五方面进行分析,网民应该充分利用网络信息,应该坚持自我,应养成自律的好习惯,不应该情绪化.盲目从众。%Inference is a process in which various kinds of complex information is integrated or combined to form a judgment. Social inference is the core of social cognition. Because of the particularity of the network, deviations tend to occur in network group events in the process of Interact users" information collection, integration and inference. Taking Yao Jiaxin Event as an example, this paper analyzes some common deviations of Internet users" social inference mainly from the following five aspects: the narrowing of network information, netizens" group psychology, deindividuation, moodiness and inflexible impression. And then this paper puts forward some corresponding countermeasures, for example, Internet users should make full use of network information, insist on themselves, form a good habit of self-discipline, and avoid being emotional and following the crowd blindly.

  13. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicinal formula Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Yan, Zhixiang; Yang, Xinghao; Wu, Jianbo; Su, Huai; Chen, Chen; Chen, Yin


    Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang (TXYF), a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula, has efficient effects on treatment of the diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS), a disease with high incidence worldwide. However, the active principles for this complex formula have not been fully explored so far. In this paper, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) was applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of major chemical constituents in TXYF. Two monoterpene glycosides, one chromone and five polymethoxylated flavones were tentatively characterized based on the retention times, UV spectra and MS data. Fifteen compounds were unambiguously identified by comparison with reference standards. Constituents such as lactone and steroidal, which could not be found by single HPLC method due to the low content in the formula, were identified in this paper. Seven compounds (gallic acid, prim-O-β-D-glucosylcimifugin, paeoniflorin, cimifugin, naringin, hesperidin and 4'-O-β-D-glucosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol) were quantified by HPLC-DAD using a C18 column and gradient elution with acetonitrile and water-0.1% formic acid. The method exhibited intra- and inter-day precision of less than 2.35% and 3.14%, respectively. The LODs and the LOQs for the analytes were less than 0.47 and 1.82 μg ml(-1), respectively. The overall recoveries ranged from 96.82% to 102.47%, with the R.S.D. ranging from 1.17% to 3.94%. These results demonstrated that our present method was effective and reliable for comprehensive quality evaluation of TXYF. Meanwhile, the study might provide the chemical evidence for revealing the material basis of its therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Campus Bullies in Literary Films, with Examples from Fresh Meat Pie by Yao-sheng Chang%文学电影中的"校园霸凌"——以张耀升《鲜肉饼》为例



    In recent years, micro films, particularly those that feature the theme of'Campus Bullies'made by middle-school students, have experienced a resurgence in Taiwan. Fresh Meat Pie, by Yao-sheng Chang, is different from the rest of them in that it was adapted from a piece of literary fiction and, for that reason, it provides a more comprehensive and profound ex ploration of the cause of the campus bullies and inner suffering of the characters. This paper, based on a research into Fresh Meat Pie, is an attempt to look at how the male protagonist is bullied and his psychology in relation to the relationships between parents and their children, schoolteachers and their students, and the male protagonist and the owner of the fresh meat pie restaurant.%近年台湾微电影有崛起之势,尤以中学生拍摄"校园霸凌"为主题的微电影最多.张耀升的《鲜肉饼》与其他微电影不同,原因在于它是由一篇具文学性的小说改编而成,因此在探讨校园霸凌的成因、反映人物内心的痛苦,更加全面而深刻.本文试以《鲜肉饼》为研究,分别就亲子关系、学校师生,以及男主角与鲜肉饼店老板之间的关系着手,探讨造成男主角被霸凌的成因及其心理.

  15. On the political thoughts of Du Shu of the Wei Dynasty%论曹魏杜恕的政治思想



    In the mid Wei Dynasty, Du Shu advocated Confucianism, insisting the political thought of morality and rites, which reflected the political demands of that time, and showed the unshakable position of the traditional Confucian political thoughts. Du Shu inherited the essence of pre-Qin Confucianism, abandoned the theory of correspondence between man and universe of Han Confucianism, which deserves affirming in the Chinese ideological history. As to the liege relationship and emperor-people relationship, Du Shu didn' t emphasize the absolute control position of the emperor, instead, he put forward a series of principles of behavior for the emperor. Among them, the key concept was the emperor should be kind to his people. Besides, he set forth some important principles for the election and justice. These thoughts played a positive role in inhibiting the overexpansion of monarchical power, which was objectively beneficial for the people.%曹魏中期,杜恕力倡儒学,坚持儒家德礼为本的政治思想,既反映了当时现实政治的需要,也说明传统的儒家政治思想的统治地位已经难以撼动。杜恕继承了先秦儒家思想的精华,摒弃了汉代儒家思想中的天人感应学说,在中国思想史上值得肯定。在君臣关系和君民关系上,杜恕不片面强调君的绝对主导地位,对居于统治地位的君提出了种种行事准则,其核心就是要求君对臣民宽厚;在选举和司法等具体的政治问题上,也提出了一些重要原则。这些思想对于抑制君权的过度膨胀有一定积极作用,在客观上也有利于民众。

  16. Multivariate joint probability distribution of droughts in Wei River basin%渭河流域干旱特征联合概率分布研究

    马明卫; 宋松柏; 于艺; 张雨; 李扬


    This study aims to model the dependence structures of multivariate drought variables using elliptical copulas.Bivariate dependence was estimated with Pearson′s classical correlation coefficient γn,Spearman′s ρnand Kendall′s τn,together with rank scatter plot and Chi-plot and K-plot,while parameters of trivariate copulas were estimated with the maximum likelihood method.For best-fitting of these copulas,Akaike information criterion(AIC),Bayesian information criterion(BIC) and RMS error(RMSE) were used,and a bootstrap version of Rosenblatt′s transformation was used to test goodness-of-fit for Gaussian copula and student t copula.In application to the Wei River basin for determination of its spatial distribution of drought return periods,Gaussian copula was selected for modeling the multivariate joint probability distribution of its drought duration,drought severity and severity peak.The results show that both Gaussian and student t copulas are applicable,but Gaussian copula gives better fitting.In the basin,prolonged droughts had frequently broken out with rather short return periods and thus more emphases should be placed on drought forecast and management in the future.%应用椭圆copulas描述干旱多变量间的相依性结构。采用Pearson'sγn、Spearman'sρn、Kendall'sτn、秩相关图、Chi-plot和K-plot度量2变量相依性;根据极大似然法估计3维copulas的参数,并以AIC、BIC和RMSE进行copulas拟合效果评价;运用基于Rosenblatt变换的Bootstrap法进行Gaussian copula和Student t copula的拟合度检验;选择Gaussiancopula描述干旱历时D、烈度S、和峰值P的联合概率分布,探讨渭河流域干旱重现期的空间分布规律。研究表明:①3维Gaussian copula和Student t copula均适合用来描述干旱多变量联合概率分布,且前者拟合效果优于后者;②渭河流域发生较长时期持续干旱的频率高、重现期短,应加强干旱预报与管理。

  17. 陆志韦新诗节奏试验综论%On Experiment of Chinese Free Verse Rhythm by LU Zhi -wei

    邓丹; 陈芝国


    陆志韦因最早自觉地进行新诗节奏试验而在新诗史上占有重要地位。他在表征现代民族国家想象的白话做诗原则下,自《渡河》中南腔北调的精神奋斗失败后,摹仿无韵诗以北京话的轻重音作为新诗节奏的基石,为新诗格律探索在自由诗派的自然语调、新月诗派的整齐划一和后起的音组说之外提供了一条新的道路。陆志韦虽然意识到轻重的局限而回撤到中国传统的用韵,但其《杂样的五拍诗》不仅是具有诗歌形式的试验品,更因为其中凸现的“经验隔断”使它成为我们考察转折时代诗人政治与审美错位的一个典型文本。%LU Zhi - wei plays an important role in the history of modern poetry for the first one to make the experiment of Chinese free verse rhythm consciously. Based on the principle of vernacular, he imitated iambic pentameter of the blank verse to make the stress and unstressed syllable of Beijing dialect as the basic rhythm of the new poem, adding a new method for the meter of the poem besides the natural intonation style of Free Verse and the neat style of New Moon. He realized the limitation of the stress and unstressed syllable and returned to Chinese traditional rhythm, but his Zayang Wupai Shi is regarded as a typical text to study the politics and esthetic dislocation of the poet, being only a sample of the new poem and distinguished for its Experimental Gap ( between the poems and people).

  18. 农民工对大众传统小吃的传承——基于新疆博乐圆中园名食店的个案分析%Rural Migrant Workers ' Contribution in Preserving Popular Traditional Snacks A Case Study of Yuan-zhong-yuan Food Shop in Bole, Xinjiang



    Based on a case study of the entrepreneurship of Yuan-zhong-yuan Food Shop, the article introduces life experience of a rural migrant family under the background of Reform and Opening-up, commodity-based economy, urban migration, change and diffusions of catering culture. Then it analyzes the generality and inheritance of popular traditional snacks as intangible cultural heritage, and holds affirmative attitudes for rural migrant contributions to preserving intangible cultural heritage, including rural migrant workers undertaking food processing and catering services and those rural migrant workers as traditional low-end consumers, who involuntarily serve as inheritors of popular traditional snacks while earning a living in food services. The role of the modern family kitchen gradually gives way to outside food shops operating modes. However, the increasingly prominent food security problems are worthy of our thoughts, research and exploration.%以新疆博乐圆中园名食店的创业历程为研究个案,将河南一个农民家庭的谋生轨迹置于改革开放、商品经济、农村人口流动、饮食文化变迁与传播的时代背景下,分析大众传统小吃作为饮食领域的非物质文化遗产所具备的普泛性与承传性。同时,肯定打工族对这类饮食领域非物质文化遗产的传承,它包含从事食品加工、餐饮行业的打工者和作为传统食品中低端消费群的农民工。二者为了维持生计而自觉或不自觉地充当了传统小吃的传承者,而大众传统小吃本身的廉价、速食和对人体基本热量、大众口味的满足等特性,在相当大程度上持续其传承。外食店经营的模式将逐步取代家庭厨房在饮食传承中的角色,但其中日益凸显的饮食安全问题值得人们关注。

  19. Yuan Exchange Rate 'Properly Adjusted'


      The currency exchange rate was "properly adjusted" this year and takes into account effects on the country's neighbors and the world, Premier Wen Jiabao said at a regional meeting in Malaysia.……

  20. 傩:神秘中多种文化的融合--读危远辉先生《触摸祖先的灵魂--中国•上栗傩文化大观》之一%Nuo culture:Multi-culture Merge in Mystery--Review of Mr. Wei Yuan Hui’s“touch the soul of ancestors-China•Shangli Nuo culture“Part one



    “Touch the soul of ancestors”is the valuable outcomes achieved from the protective research of Chinese Nuo culture. Even though the book only“shows”the Nuo cultural relics in a small area of Shangli county of Pingxiang City, but it has very broad cultural horizons and views. It inspires readers to understand Nuo-culture through in-depth Chinese's historical and cultural background as well as world wide universal values. Nuo-culture originated in ancient times, runs all the way through to present times. In the mysterious operation of exorcising, multi-cultures, such as music, dance, drama, sculpture, painting, literature, architecture, worship rituals, witchcraft, and traditional Chinese medicine, were blended in one folk culture with the core value of“evilness-exorcising and fortune-impetrating”.%《触摸祖先的灵魂》是中国傩文化保护研究中的可贵成果。该书“展示”的虽仅限萍乡市上栗县一个小区域的傩文化遗存,却以开阔的文化视野,启发读者从中华纵深的历史文化背景和举世共存的普世价值层面上认识傩文化:它起源于远古,纵贯至今,在傩祭的神秘运作中,融音乐、舞蹈、戏剧、雕刻、绘画、文学、建筑及祭祀礼仪、巫术、中医药科技等多种文化因素于一体,是以“驱邪禳灾,祈吉纳福”为价值核心的民间综合文化体系。

  1. 谁是Wang Wei?



    2007年美国物理学会主席在美国的权威物理学杂志上发表了一篇文章,题目是《谁是Wang Wei?》。文章的大意是说在美国的杂志上发表文章的中国学者的名字都是使用英语字母来表示的,他举例说,像用英文字母表示的Wang Wei在中国可以找出许多用不同汉字表示的人名,我们很难判断Wang Wei到底是谁。

  2. Trial Excavation on the City-site of the Han-Wei Period at Bao’an Village in Shuangyashan City,Heilongjiang%黑龙江双鸭山市保安村汉魏城址的试掘



    In May-June 1999, the Heilongjiang Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology carried out a trial excavation on the city-site at Bao'an Village. Having an irregular plan, the site measures 733m in circumference and occupies an area of about 50,000sq m, with a gate in the northeast. The cultural deposits in the city fall into two phases. The early phase is roughly conformable to the early remains in the seventh area of the Fenglin city-site and the Guntuling culture in the Anbanghe River valley and goes back to the Western and Eastern Han period. The late phase of remains is similar to the Fenglin culture and corresponds to the Wei-Jin period. The trail excavation sheds light on the construction period, building methods, works order and abandoning factors of the city. Another piece of information from the site is about the use of ploughs in lical people's farming in the Wei-Jin period.

  3. 魏品康从痰论治强直性脊柱炎经验探析%Professor WEI Pin-kang's experience in treating ankylosing spondylitis from phlegm

    矫健鹏; 刘煊


    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic difficult and complicated disease which can cause disability. Professor WEI Pin-kang consider phlegm as the key pathogenesis factor and confirm a series of principle of treatment: expelling phlegm and regulating meridian, warming the kidney and strengthening the Du meridian, expelling wind and clearing away cold. This article summarize professor WEI Pin-kang's experience in treating ankylosing spondylitis from phlegm and give an effective example.%强直性脊柱炎是一种具有致畸性的慢性疑难病症.魏品康教授认为痰为本病重要致病因素,围绕从痰论治制定了搜痰剔络、温肾壮督、祛风散寒等治疗法则,文章探析了魏教授从痰论治本病的经验,并例举了临床验案.

  4. Research on Month Rhythm Change of Plasma Metabolic Markers of Rat with Wei Qi Deficiency%卫气虚模型大鼠血浆代谢标志物月节律变化的研究

    李博林; 王亚利; 张明泉; 王鑫国; 贾琳; 闫翠环; 曹文利; 师旭亮


    目的:运用代谢组学方法研究卫气虚证月周期性变化的物质基础,寻找其潜在标志物,为卫气虚证实质研究提供新的途径。方法以秋分日所在的农历月,确定月初(农历八月初一)、月中(八月十五)及月末(八月三十)3次实验的取材时间。取材日前2周将20只大鼠随机分为正常组与模型组,每组10只。模型组采用疲劳联合寒热交替法制备卫气虚模型,正常组常规喂养。3次实验均在其相应取材日正午12:00断头取血,采用高效液相色谱-质谱联用仪检测血浆代谢物,利用偏最小二乘法对数据进行统计分析,组间进行比较,探索卫气虚证差异性代谢标志物,进而推测寻找卫气虚证月周期变化的潜在标志物。结果油酸酰胺、磷脂酰甘油、皮质醇、脯氨酸、富马酸二甲酯、二十碳五烯酸6种差异代谢物可能为月初卫气虚证潜在证候标志物;1-磷酸鞘氨醇、苹果酸、皮质醇、油酸酰胺、肉毒碱、二十碳五烯酸、富马酸二甲酯7种差异代谢物可能为月中卫气虚证潜在证候标志物;胆固醇乙酸酯、苏氨酸、皮质醇、富马酸二甲酯、油酸酰胺、二十碳五烯酸、焦谷氨酸7种差异代谢物可能为月末卫气虚证潜在证候标志物。结论卫气虚证月周期性变化可能受油酸酰胺、皮质醇、二十碳五烯酸、富马酸二甲酯影响,其周期性变化可能与能量代谢密切相关,同时还伴随着细胞、激素及神经调节。%Objective To use metabonomics method to study the change of the basic materials of month rhythm of wei qi deficiency syndrome; To find the potential markers so as to provides a new way for the essence of the wei qi deficiency syndrome research.Methods Based on the autumnal equinox in lunar calendar month, the beginning of a month (the first day of lunar August), the middle of a month (the 15th day of lunar August), and the end of a

  5. Analysis on the finalized date and first carving time of Wei sheng bao jian (The Precious Mirror of ;Hygiene)%《卫生宝鉴》成书及初刊年代辨析

    温雯婷; 虞舜


    The Wei sheng bao jian ( The Precious Mirror of Hygiene) , written by Luo Tianyi should be finished in the spring of 1283. The wrong date of 1281 was a mistake coming from Yanjian’ s Preface, while the complete date of 1343 was a misunderstanding on “Guiwei year of the Zhiyuan reign” in Wan-gyun’ s Preface. The hypothesis that Wei sheng bao jian was first carved in 1294 or before the Tang ye ben cao ( Materia Medica for Decoctions) is also groundless. The book was probably completed, carved and dis-tributed in the same year, or no later than 1307, even if it was not carved in the same year right after its completion.%罗天益所撰《卫生宝鉴》应成书于1283年春。成书于1281年之说,是据《砚坚序》的错误推理;成书于1343年之说,是对《王恽序》“至元癸未”的误解。《卫生宝鉴》初刊于《汤液本草》之前或1294年之说,均不足为据。此书成书当年可能即刊刻行世;即便成书当年没有刊刻,初刊年也不晚于1307年。

  6. Excavation at the Mingtang Site of Northern Wei Pingcheng City in Present-day Datong City,Shanxi,in 1995%山西大同市北魏平城明堂遗址1995年的发掘

    王银田; 曹臣明; 韩生存


    This site is situated at Liuhangli about 1.8 km south of the Ming dynasty prefectural seat site in Datong city. It is known through drilling that the whole rningtang site is surrounded by a large ditch, the four sides of which are each adjacent to a 凸 -shaped rammed-earth platform about 2 m thick under the ground. The excavation was carried out on the western platform and the ditch section near it, covering an area of 372 sq m. Among the revealed ruins are remains of the ditch, its stone embankment, the rammed-earth platform, and buildings on it. The unearthed objects include tile-ends and semi-cylindric and fiat tiles with inscriptions in many cases. Judging from its remains, location, shape and related literary records, the site must belong to the mingtang ritual hall in the Pingcheng city of the Northern Wei period. Its discovery is of great significance to the determination of the location of Pingcheng, the indentification of other buildings near the excavated area, and the study of the whole Pingcheng culture in the Northern Wei period.

  7. 秦汉魏晋南北朝时期制笔业考述%The Manufacturing of Writing Brush during the Qin, Han, Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties



    During the Qin and Han Dynasties, stationery manufacturing begins to rise, and the shape of writing brush is established and developed. During the Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties, manufacturing of writing brush obtains further development with continuously increasing of raw materials, and gradual improvement of technology, and the extension of use. In the Qin, Han, Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties, the center of manufacturing of writing brush is mainly in the Yellow River regions, but after the Eastern Jin Dynasty, the southern manufacturing of writing brush makes rapid development.%秦汉时期,文具制造业开始兴起,毛笔的形制确立并得以发展。魏晋南北朝时期,制笔业持续发展,制作原料不断增加,技术水平逐渐完善,使用范围渐趋广泛。秦汉魏晋南北朝时期,制笔业重心主要在北方黄河流域,但东晋以后,南方地区的制笔业发展明显。

  8. A Comparison of Machine Learning Algorithms for Mapping of Complex Surface-Mined and Agricultural Landscapes Using ZiYuan-3 Stereo Satellite Imagery

    Xianju Li


    Full Text Available Land cover mapping (LCM in complex surface-mined and agricultural landscapes could contribute greatly to regulating mine exploitation and protecting mine geo-environments. However, there are some special and spectrally similar land covers in these landscapes which increase the difficulty in LCM when employing high spatial resolution images. There is currently no research on these mixed complex landscapes. The present study focused on LCM in such a mixed complex landscape located in Wuhan City, China. A procedure combining ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3 stereo satellite imagery, the feature selection (FS method, and machine learning algorithms (MLAs (random forest, RF; support vector machine, SVM; artificial neural network, ANN was proposed and first examined for both LCM of surface-mined and agricultural landscapes (MSMAL and classification of surface-mined land (CSML, respectively. The mean and standard deviation filters of spectral bands and topographic features derived from ZY-3 stereo images were newly introduced. Comparisons of three MLAs, including their sensitivities to FS and whether FS resulted in significant influences, were conducted for the first time in the present study. The following conclusions are drawn. Textures were of little use, and the novel features contributed to improve classification accuracy. Regarding the influence of FS: FS substantially reduced feature set (by 68% for MSMAL and 87% for CSML, and often improved classification accuracies (with an average value of 4.48% for MSMAL using three MLAs, and 11.39% for CSML using RF and SVM; FS showed statistically significant improvements except for ANN-based MSMAL; SVM was most sensitive to FS, followed by ANN and RF. Regarding comparisons of MLAs: for MSMAL based on feature subset, RF achieved the greatest overall accuracy of 77.57%, followed by SVM and ANN; for CSML, SVM had the highest accuracies (87.34%, followed by RF and ANN; based on the feature subsets, significant differences were

  9. 论元代乐府诗的入乐问题%On the Composing Scores for Yuefu Poem in Yuan Dynasty



    元代的乐府诗,无论是旧题乐府还是新题乐府,大都是可以配乐而唱的。在"乐府音节,自宋已失其传,生今之世,无复能辨之者"的文化背景下,元代乐府诗所具有的这一特点,成为了乐府诗史上的一个奇迹。元代乐府诗所配唱之乐,主要是诗人们(含坊间乐工)创制的"今曲"。因而,"今之曲歌于古,犹古之曲也,古之词歌于今,犹今之词也",就成为了当时诗人们的共识。在这种乐府观念的指导下,元代诗人们无论是于乐府诗还是古诗,大都称之为"歌",即认为其都是可配乐而唱的。于是,元代乐府诗可入乐而歌的现实,与盛行于当时的散曲、杂剧、词体艺术等互相融合,从而构建了中国文学史上的第一个"音乐文学王国"。%Yuefu poem of Yuan Dynasty,whether historical or contemporary,could be scored.It is a miricle that this attribute remains when ‘syllables of Yuefu poem has died out since Song Dynasty and today no one could identify its scores.’ Most of the scores are the new compositions from folk musicians.Thus,it is widely believed that ‘new score with old Yuefu poem sounds like old song;old lyric with new score sounds like new lyric’.With this concept,contemporary poets hold that both Yuefu poems and ancient poems could be songs.Thus scoring of Yuefu poem,integrated with popular Sanqu,Zaju,and Ci,construct the first 'musical literature kingdom' in Chinese literature.

  10. The Evolution Characteristics of Dragon King Image in Yuan Poetic Drama%从元杂剧看龙王形象的演化特征



    A concentrating description of dragon king is rarely seen in the existing works of Yuan poetic drama. It can be only found in Shang Zhongxian's “Yi Liu Deliver Letter on Dongting Lake ” and “Chang Sheng Boiling sea on Shaman Island” of Li Haogu. Among which, as the lord of the sea, the image of the dragon king spreads out mainly as a role of father.The two plays ex-pressed how weak and helpless the dragon king is towards his children's marriage. However, this is totally different from the dragon image in Chinese traditional concept. The reason is that it should be greatly affected by the description of humble Dragon king in Buddhist Scripture of India. During the spreading process, it interacted with Chinese folklore and stories and interpenetrated until it was sinicized and anthropomorphized.%现存元杂剧作品中集中描写龙王形象的并不多,仅见于尚仲贤的《洞庭湖柳毅传书》和李好古的《沙门岛张生煮海》两部杂剧。其中,作为一水之主的龙神---龙王形象主要以父亲角色出现,二剧共同表现了龙王在儿女婚事上的软弱与无奈,而这样的形象特点与中国传统观念中的龙王形象截然不同。究其原因,应该说很大程度上受到印度佛典中地位低下的龙王故事的影响,并在其流播过程中与中国民间传说、故事互相影响、渗透,最终中国化、人格化的结果。

  11. Precise georeferencing using the rigorous sensor model and rational function model for ZiYuan-3 strip scenes with minimum control

    Pan, Hongbo; Tao, Chao; Zou, Zhengrong


    The rigorous sensor model (RSM) and the rational function model (RFM) are the most widely used geometric models for georeferencing. Even though geometric calibration and bundle adjustment with the RFM has been carried out for the ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3) earth observation satellite, few studies determined the major error sources affecting the three line cameras (TLCs). In this work, we propose a new set of compensation parameters, the shift and drift of both pitch and roll angle, for the RSM, since the yaw angle error is not as significant as the pitch angle for very narrow field of view images. Corresponding bias compensation methods are also validated for the RFM. Seven continuous strip scenes from the ZY-3 TLCs are used for the experiments, for which the root mean square error (RMSE) in the image space and object space are calculated. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can model the major errors and achieve the same accuracy as the use of redundant parameters. With this model, the RMSEs of the checkpoints are 2.048 m in planimetry and 1.256 m in height. The RMSEs would increase to 2.522 m in planimetry and 2.635 m in height if the drift parameters were ignored. However, subpixel georeferencing accuracy is not as sensitive as the RMSE in the object space, since the RMSE of the height increases to 2.6 m compared to 1.3 m, while the change of the RMSE in the image space is within 0.1 pixels. In addition, the relationships among the TLCs are dynamic during imaging. Compensation for the TLCs as a unit introduces a height error of about 1 m, while maintaining subpixel georeferencing accuracy. Two ground control points (GCPs) placed at the beginning and the end of a strip are preferred to reduce oscillation and point picking errors. Compared with the RSM, the RFM can achieve similar accuracy when the drift compensation model and shift compensation model are applied.

  12. 上海古典园林曲水园空间结构中的网络特征%Network System of Spatial Structure in Qushui Yuan



    通过运用网络和语言学的一些方法与理论,揭示了上海古典园林曲水园空间结构的网络特征及其三要素:单元空间(结点)/边界/联结.正是这种网络结构中的相似性和复杂性形成了曲水园中“藏与寻”的不尽之美.如果没有这种网络系统,园子将会失去诗意的连贯性、整体性以及内在情感表达的依存.尽管这一几何模型不能解释园林中所有的复杂现象和深层意义,但是这一网络模型不仅提供了一种重新洞察中国古典园林空间结构的手段和巧妙利用有限的土地空间资源的策略,而且为如何处理自然和人工环境之间的复杂关系以及重构人居环境的相似性、多样性与复杂性提供一种灵活可行的机制.%The paper focuses on the geometrical model of the complex spatial structure in a classical Shanghai garden. Through methods of network and linguistics, the author reveals that the network system in Qushui Yuan is composed of space cells, edges and linkages, which mainly gives rise to both physical and mind similarities, complexities between parts and whole and a great sense of endless model of "hide and seek". Without this system, the garden might lose the sense of poetic coherence and deep feeling. Although the geometrical model can't explain all kinds of intricate phenomena and meanings in the garden, the author argues that the network model not only provides a better insight into spatial structures of Shanghai gardens and alternative strategy to make an ingenious use of a limited land, but also offers a flexible, feasible approach in dealing with the complexity between chaos nature and built environments and in creating or re-establishing similarity and diversity in human habitat spaces of gardens.

  13. 生机与汇流:民族文化交融中的辽金元诗歌%Vitality and confluence: Liao, Jin and Yuan poetry in national culture fusion



    辽、金、元三代诗歌创作是中国诗歌史上不可分割的一个重要段落,也是为中国诗歌史带来活泼生机与特殊样态的独特存在。广义的辽金元诗歌,包括了诗、词、曲这几种不同的诗歌样式,它们并不是既成的东西,而是在生成和发展之中呈现出的状貌。以狭义的诗来看,辽金元诗歌是呈现了一个由生新走向成熟的过程,但它不同于以往的生新与成熟,它们裹挟进相当多的新质——文化的新质。文章还从民族文化的角度探讨辽金元诗歌研究的新意,指出辽、金、元三代诗歌的发展都是文化交融与互动的结果。具体可概括为:辽诗展现的是面目生新的样态;金诗在流变中发展;元诗在文化汇流中完善。作为诗的大家族中的重要成员的散曲和词,在金、元时期开拓了前所未有的局面,词曲作为一种新兴的诗歌样式,足以使元代在文学史上熠熠生辉。%Poetry creation in Liao, Jin and Yuan of Chinese poetry, invested Chinese poetry with dynasties, an inseparably important part in the history animated vitality and uniqueness. Liao, Jin and Yuan poetry in its broad sense includes various poetry forms of poem, Ci and Qu. They are not anything es- tablished, but something appearing in the process of their formation and development. In a narrow sense, Liao, Jin and Yuan poetry went from novelty to maturity. But this process is different from that in the past in that much new quality--quality of culture--were integrated. New significance of Liao, Jin and Yuan poetry study was pointed out from the perspective of national culture. This poetry develop- ment is the result of culture fusion and interaction. Specifically speaking, Liao poetry is fresh in style; Jin's developes in changes; Yuan's is perfected in culture confluence. Ci and Qu, as important members of poetry family, made an unprecedented look in Jin and Yuan dynasties. Ciqu, a novel poetry style, makes Yuan

  14. 袁宏道美学思想的转变与儒释道精神的循环%Transformation of YUAN Hong-dao's Aesthetic Thought & Cycle of Confucian, Taoist and Buddhist Philosophy



    There is a marked difference between YUAN Hong-dao's aesthetic thinking of the later stage and of the earlier stage, the former is combined by the Chan sect philosophy with the Taoist philosophy while the latter is combined by the Confucian philosophy with the Taoist philosophy. The transformation had its external factor such as the change of the social situation at that time, however, the logic of YUAN's thinking was its principal factor. Making a general survey of YUAN Hong-dao' aesthetic thinking we can reach a conclusion that it had never break through the traditional framework for the Confucian, Taoist and Buddhist philosophy and it had not modern significance similar to the Enlightenment.%袁宏道后期美学思想与前期差别很大,前期主要是禅道思想的融合,而后期则基本上是儒道思想的结合。这种转变的发生,既有当时社会形势的变化等外在原因,但更主要的是袁氏思想发展的内在必然。综观袁宏道美学思想发展的全过程,可以看出,它始终没有突破传统的儒释道精神的框架,并不具有近代式的启蒙意义。

  15. New Members of CPAFFC Executive Council The Executive Council of the CPAFFC gained three new members in 2013——vice prcsidcnts Xie Yuan and Hu Sishe,and secretary gencral Li Xikui.


    <正>Xie Yuan,born in Beijing in 1959 and a graduate of Beijing Foreign Studies University,joined the CPAFFC in 1985 and has engaged in people-to-people diplomacy ever since,serving successively as deputy director and director of the U.S.Division,and deputy director general and director general of the Department of American and Oceanian Affairs.He worked as the First Secretary of the Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in the United States in the late 1990s.

  16. 圆运动的古中医学在平衡火罐治疗痤疮中的运用%Application of Yuan motion doctrine in treating acne by balance cupping therapy



    In this article, application of Yuan motion doctrine in treating acne by balance cupping therapy was investigated. Based on 1 cured case, the rationality of treating acne by balance cupping therapy was thought deeply and proofed forcefully.%本文探讨了圆运动的古中医学在平衡火罐治疗痤疮中的运用。笔者以1例成功治愈案例为典型,对平衡火罐治疗痤疮的合理性进行了深入思考和有力论证。

  17. 连南排瑶刺绣艺术价值观与产品创新问题探讨%Exploration on Values and Innovation of Embroidery Made by Yao Minority in Liannan



    Guangdong Province, liannan paiyao embroidery is intangible cultural heritage, local brand of cultural tourism. In recent years, “economy of intangible cultural heritage,” Yao embroidery from the field of economic development and tourism industrialization resulted in handicraft production problems: cultural disorientation of value and culture fades the products into a structured marketing dilemma. Analysis of neighboring Japan on industrial design and traditional culture of the “dual track” strategy, explore even characteristics of Paiyao traditional embroidery art, remained from the original technology of eco-typical cultural symbols with the hands-pure modern design concepts derived from two aspects of the traditional Liannan Paiyao embroidery art industry innovations, problem and countermeasures of cultural heritage and development.%连南瑶绣是广东省非物质文化遗产,也是当地特色旅游文化品牌。近年来,“非物质文化遗产经济”以及旅游经济发展场域下的瑶绣产业化引发这一自给型传统手工艺向产品型产业化生产的种种弊病:文化价值观错位、民族文化特色消褪、产品陷入结构性营销困局。依托日本工业设计及传统文化的“双轨制”策略及连南排瑶刺绣的传统艺术特征,从原生工艺的生态典型性保持与脱离手工的文化符号衍生的纯现代设计生产两方面阐述传统连南排瑶刺绣艺术产业的创新,文化的传承与发展。

  18. Ethical Reflection on “Wei Zexi Incident”%基于魏则西事件的伦理反思

    苏洁; 韩跃红


    魏则西事件一发生就引起了社会各界广泛关注,暴露出一系列伦理问题:互联网广告的伦理失范、公立医院违规科室外包、医疗技术的临床试验及其监管问题,违背了广告伦理原则的真实可信及消费者至上原则、生命伦理的尊重与有利原则及临床诊疗原则,诱导患者走向错误的求医道路,危害患者健康安全。建议严格遵循广告伦理原则,健全广告审查和监管机制,创造和维护公平、公正、公开的广告环境;遵守生命伦理“四原则”,完善对医疗机构的管理及监督机制,开放社会监督平台;规范医疗技术的临床试验,将生命伦理融入医院管理和医院文化,遏制利益驱使下有违医德和法律的行为运作。%“Wei Zexi Incident”caused widespread concern among the communities,which disclosed a se-ries of ethical issues:ethical misconduct of the Internet advertising,public hospital department of illegal out-sourcing,clinical trials and regulatory issues in medical technology,going against the principles of advertising ethics,of consumer and of life ethics,taking a wrong road in inducing treatment,and doing harm to the patients' health and safety.It is suggested that we should strictly follow the principles of advertising ethics,im-prove the advertising censorship and supervision mechanism,and create and maintain a fair,just and open ad-vertising environment.Abiding by the “four principles”of life ethics,we should perfect the management and supervision mechanism of medical institutions,and open up the public platform.The clinical trials of medical technology should be standardized,the integration of life ethics should be introduced into the hospital manage-ment and hospital culture,in order to effectively curb the interests driven by illegal medical ethics and the oper-ation of the law.

  19. The Study of the Valences of the Psychological Verbs in the Fictions of Wei, Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties%魏晋南北朝小说中心理动词配价研究



    魏晋南北朝小说中的心理动词可分为状态心理动词和行为心理动词两类。不同类别的心理动词的配价情况存在差异:表情绪的状态心理动词在不带宾语的情况下为一价,带原因宾语或使动宾语时为二价;表态度的状态心理动词为二价;表思维和感知的行为心理动词也都为二价动词。从历时角度来考察,将魏晋南北朝小说中心理动词的配价情况与先秦比较,可以得出:从先秦到魏晋南北朝,心理动词的配价情况比较稳定,大体上保持一致。%The psychological verbs in the fictions of Wei, Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties can be divided into the psycho-logical state verbs and the psychological activity verbs. The va-lences of the different types of psychological verbs are different:the emotional state of psychological verbs are one valence in the case of non-object and are two valences in the case of reason ob-ject and causative object;the feeling state of psychological verbs are two valences;the thinking and the perception activity of psy-chological verbs are both two valences. Comparing the valences of the psychological verbs in the fictions of Wei, Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties with that in the books of Pre-Qin Period, we can draw a conclusion that the valences of the psychological verbs are stable and consistent from Pre-Qin Period to Wei, Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties.

  20. A Study of the Husband - and - Son - loving Women Image in the Baogong Drama of the Yuan Dynasty%元代包公戏中爱夫爱子的女性形象述论



    The Baogong Drama of the Yuan Dynasty presents many distinctive female images. Some are clear about what to love and what to hate; some are kindhearted or delicate; and others are overbear- ing and vicious; and still others are licentious. Through about twenty female images the playwrights have shown us the characteristics of the economy, politics and culture of the Yuan Dynasty society. Through the female husband - and - son loving images, the playwrights have shown their aesthetic value and emotional orientation.%元代包公戏中塑造了众多的女性形象,这些女性形象各具特色,她们或爱憎分明,或善良柔弱,或霸道狠毒,或放荡淫乱,剧作者通过这二十几位女性形象向我们展示了元代社会特殊的经济、政治及文化风貌,并通过剧中爱夫爱子的女性形象展现了他们的审美价值和情感取向。

  1. 宋元时期河北临城的密宗陀罗尼信仰%Tantric Buddhism Dharani Belief at Hebei Lincheng of Song and Yuan Dynasties

    王晓薇; 张春芳


    Since the mid-Tang Dynasty, Tantric Buddhism mantras widely spread in the community, and combined with Dharani into one. In this paper, the author record the text of two stone columns of North Song and Yuan Dynasties and analysis the reason of construction of Jingzhuang. Tantric Buddhism Dharani belief prevalenced in Hebei Dharanifaith of Song and Yuan Dynasties. Two Buddhism Jingchuang provide reliable first-hand information for Lincheng regional culture and Hebei Buddhist culture and Hebei Buddhist Culture.%自唐中期后,佛教密宗经咒广泛流传于民间,且与陀罗尼经合而为一,陀罗尼信仰在僧、俗两界广为流传。以河北临城北宋嘉祐五年的“顶尊陀罗经幢”和元至元六年的《真定府赵州临城县崇法院普润大师寿塔记》为例,分析陀罗尼经幢的建造缘起,宋元时期河北地区陀罗尼信仰的流行情况。两座佛教经幢为研究河北临城区域文化、民间信仰和河北佛教文化史提供了可靠的一手资料。

  2. 何处是归程--宋元之际同题诗的新主题%The Poem’s New Theme with the Same Title between Song and Yuan Dynasty



    虽然同题诗由来已久,但多应制之作或交游逞才斗胜的文字游戏。宋元之际的同题诗深受政治风云的影响,典型地体现出此时期文士心态的起伏。他们或继续践行儒家的积极淑世精神,或退隐遁世,冲和求道,或介之于出世与入世之间。文士心态的起伏变化对文学创作也产生了重要影响,使得探索心灵归途成为宋元同题诗的重要主题之一。%Although the same poem has a long history, but more should be made of the work or to make friends suc⁃ceed only fight win word games. The influence of the song and Yuan Dynasties of the same poem by the political cli⁃mate, typically reflected in this period the ups and downs of the scribes mentality. Their mentality changes a great deal. These changes in the mentality of the ups and downs of literature also had a significant impact, so explore soul home has become one of the important themes in the same heading poem between Song and Yuan Dynasty.

  3. On Huang Tou, an Official in Charge of the Port Management in the Yuan Dynasty%元代海道都漕运万户西域唐兀人黄头事迹考∗



    The sea transportation was highly developed in the Yuan dynasty due to the fact there was a galaxy of talents of different nationalities involved in this endeavor. There have been many researches on personages such as Yang Shu, Zhu Qing, Zhang Xuan, Pu Shougeng, Shabudin, and Shebushi. This paper, however, focuses on Huang Tou who improved the livelihood of the transportation workers, better the port management and tackle voyage issues after the fall of Zhu Qing and Zhang Xuan in the Yuan Dynasty.%  元代航海事业发达,与各民族航海与海外贸易人才的得力经营密切相关。时任海道都漕运万户的西域唐兀人黄头在朱清、张王宣倒台以后,于武宗至大年间至仁宗延祐年间,在改善运户待遇、改善港口管理以及解决航程中的问题三方面对元代海运事业发展作出了突出贡献。

  4. Slam Dunk, As Yao Weds Sweetheart


    A low-key but elegant wedding ceremony at Shanghai’s five-starShangri-La Hotel on August 6 looked ordinary enough until the brideand groom walked down the aisle. He is 7-foot-6-inch and she is 6-foot-

  5. 2367-IJBCS-Article-Koffi Mathias Yao


    développés après le tabac et l'hypertension, et le onzième dans ... troubles physiques et mentaux, parmi lesquels ... adultes, à Abidjan, en Côte d'Ivoire. Par ... activité professionnelle ? Si oui, laquelle ? 3- Avez-vous consommé de l'alcool, au.

  6. 70994-179427-Yao et al- +DOI


    mortalité, du troisième facteur de risque de décès ... l'hypertension, et du onzième dans les pays en .... activité delta et figures paroxystiques) ; .... ancienneté de l'alcoolisme supérieure à 5 ans ; EEG : anomalie EEG ; EPG : état physique.

  7. Rapid Determination of Costunolide and Dehydrocostuslactone in Human Plasma Sample and Chinese Patent Medicine Xiang Sha Yang Wei Capsule Using HPLC-DAD Coupled with Second-order Calibration

    刘亚娟; 吴海龙; 朱绍华; 康超; 许慧; 苏志义; 谷惠文; 俞汝勤


    A novel methodology that combines high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) coupled with second-order calibration method based on alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) algorithm was used in determination of the effective constituents such as costunolide and dehydrocostuslactone, in plasma sample and Chinese patent medicine Xiang Sha Yang Wei (XSYW) capsule. Complicated systems such as plasma and Chinese patent medicine which have intricate components are tedious to isolate and purify. The problem that chromatographic peaks are heavily overlapped among the analytes and interferents from the background matrices can be resolved, and the satisfactory quantification results have been gained with the help of the ATLD algorithm which utilized "mathematical separation" instead of partial "physical or chemical separation". Meanwhile, HPLC-MS/MS method was used to validate the accuracy of the proposed determination method.

  8. “The Competition for Fame” and the Changes of Poetry in the Wei and Jin dynasties%魏晋浮竞世风与诗歌新变



    “浮竞”风尚促使魏晋诗坛形成了以“丽藻”为主要评价标准的审美观念,也促使诗坛“求丽”的倾向持续流行,并最终在西晋时期形成“繁缛”的特征。伴随这一过程,魏晋诗坛展现出三点新变:第一,“赋”成为诗歌创作的主要手法,促使诗歌日渐靡丽;第二,形成“先辞后情”的审美标准,“为文造情”现象突出;第三,文人乐府诗的格调得到提升,并实现了“化俗为雅”的转变。%The prevalent competition for fame in the Wei and Jin dynasties facilitated 'the beautiful rhetoric'as the main aesthetic evaluation standard in poetry circles .As a result , the tendency of 'the pursuit of the beautiful rhetoric'was popular and there eventually formed overelaboration in the Western Jin Dynasty .Along with this , three changes appeared in poetry circles of the Wei and Jin Dynasties:elaboration becoming one of the main technique of poetry writing , making poetry magnificent;formation of the aesthetic standards of emotion after word , with promi-nent “germinal emotion for words”; the literary styles of Yuefu Poetry being promoted , changing vulgar into ele-gance .

  9. 魏晋清谈对口语交际教学目标取向的启示%The Inspirations of Wei - Jin Pure Talk on Oral Communication Teaching Goal-orientation



    Teaching has long been neglected oral communication caused no history of oral communication teaching empirical evidence may refer to the situation. In the context of globalization, countries native language educational experiences influence each other, learn from each other, but just far enough nutrition learn from foreign experience teaching development of oral communication. Chinese oral communication teaching to obtain long-term development will have to go back to the ancient culture to absorb nutrients and get inspira⁃tion, such as Wei - Jin pure talk. Identify the" Wei - Jin pure talk in terms of oral communication objectives orientation" and"new standard oral communication teaching goal orientation" meeting point between these two, may help locate contemporary oral communi⁃cation teaching goal-oriented.%长期以来对口语交际教学的忽视造成了我国口语交际教学无历史实证依据可资参考的局面。在全球化的背景下,各国母语教育经验相互影响、相互借鉴,但仅仅是借鉴国外经验远远不够。中国口语交际教学要获得长足发展还得回到古代文化中去汲取营养,比如魏晋清谈。找准“魏晋清谈在口语交际方面的目标取向”和“新课标口语交际教学的目标取向”这二者之间的契合点,或许有助于当代口语交际教学目标取向的定位。

  10. 我国优秀女子举重运动员邓薇的赛前训练研究%Research Of The Pre-competition Training Of Elite Female Weightlifter Deng Wei



    为研究我国优秀女子举重运动员邓薇赛前备战训练,从训练学角度探讨赛前训练规律,通过文献资料法、个案分析法和数理统计法,探索赛前训练研究热点,结合邓薇赛前阶段划分、训练内容和训练强度,对举重项目赛前训练进行研究。研究认为,邓薇赛前训练特点为:赛前训练阶段持续6周,最高训练量出现在第3、4周,第5周开始减量幅度较为明显,每周内训练内容相对集中,训练强度分布有明显的极化趋势。%To study pre-competition training of the Elite Female weightlifter Deng Wei , exploring the training reg-ularity with the training point of view.Through the literature material law , case studies and mathematical statistics , combined with the phasing , training content and intensity for researching weightlifting pre -competition training.Conclusion:Deng Wei pre-competition training features:the training phase for 6 weeks, the highest volume ap-pear in the third and fourth weeks , the fifth weeks reduced amplitude is relatively obvious , within a week training content is relatively concentrated , training intensity distribution has obvious polarization trend.

  11. VALIDASI MODIFIKASI METODE WEIßHAAR UNTUK ANALISIS 3-MCPD ESTER DALAM MINYAK GORENG SAWIT [Validation of Modified Weißhaar’s Method for 3-MCPD Esters Analysis in Palm Oil

    Tanti Lanovia1,2*


    Full Text Available The 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD and 3-MCPD esters were found in any type of refined vegetable oil -mostly produced during the refining process- and recognized as emerging food contaminants. Several analytical methods have been developed and one of which was a Weißhaar's method. The study aims to validate the modified Weißhaar's method for analysis of 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD esters in refined palm oil. Ion fragments were used for identification and quantification of 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD-d5. 3-MCPD was determined by GC-MS after released from its ester by transesterification with sodium methoxide and derivatized with phenylboronic acid. The validation showed that liniarity response (r=0.994 was observed from a linear regression by using external standard and internal standard at a concentration range of 0.008 and 0.377 µg mL-1. The LOD of the validated method was 0.06 µg g-1 while its LOQ was 0.20 µg g-1, precision (relative standard deviation, RSD was 6.16%, and accuracy (as percentage of recovery was in the range of 95.83-113.27%. This results indicated that the modified method was valuable and sensitive for detection of 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD esters. Using the validated method, 3-MCPD esters content of a commercial palm oil sample was determined and calculated as the difference between total 3-MCPD and free 3-MCPD, which was 13.24 µg g-1. Total 3-MCPD content of several palm oils were at a concentration range of 13.94-34.52 µg g-1. These results also showed that there was a correlation between 3-MCPD with diacylglyceride (DAG. Samples with DAG content gave a high test results of 3-MCPD with a coefficient of correlation of r=0.752.

  12. Art Freak---Comparison between Xu Wei and Caravaggio's Painting Art%艺术狂士--徐渭与卡拉瓦乔绘画艺术之比较



    Xu Wei and Caravaggio , one in West , the other east , are called a lunatic on the art .Art is from life, actually more from life.Studying on the art of painting , it is outrageous to them, pioneering task of artistic exploration of life.Xu Wei, creating Chinese Freehand flower and bird painting , in art, would never fall back on others, like original one, with a strong personality, style, bold and pramada; Caravaggio is the pioneer of Western realism art , works with the distinctive democratic spirit , with the then -classical rival , bringing poor people in real life to the icon paintings in the Church .%徐渭与卡拉瓦乔,一中一西,却都被称为艺术上的疯子。艺术源于生活,其实更源于生命。研究二者的绘画艺术,是对二者惊世骇俗、敢为天下先的艺术生命的探索。徐渭开创了中国大写意花鸟画先河,在艺术上绝不依附他人,喜好独创一格,具有强烈的个性,风格豪迈而放逸;卡拉瓦乔则是西方现实主义艺术开拓者,作品具有鲜明民主主义精神,与当时古典主义分庭抗礼,将现实生活中贫苦百姓引入教堂圣像画。

  13. Between Life and Art: Wei-Jin Style and Performance Art%在生活和艺术之间游弋:魏晋风度与行为艺术



    古老的“魏晋风度”和现代的行为艺术之间有某种相似,其相似主要表现在三个方面:一、以行为、身体来表达观念;二、行为具有某种震惊效果;三、行为蕴含着具有启示性的观念、意味。但“魏晋风度”本质上是一种具有艺术风度的生活,而行为艺术终究是一种观念艺术,并且,两者是不同时代和文化背景的产物,因而是似又不似的关系。将“魏晋风度”和行为艺术加以深层的比照,对于此两种文化现象,对于生活和艺术之间关系的认识和实践,都不无意义。%There exists some resemblance between ancient Wei-Jin Style and modem performance art, which can be mainly found in the following three aspects: a. expressing concepts with behaviors and body; b. the behavior is possessed with some astonishing effect; c. the behavior contains concepts and meanings of revelation. However, in essence, Wei-Jin Style is a kind of life while the performance art is ultimately a kind of conceptual art. In addition, they are born under different time and different cultural backgrounds, and it is meaningful for the understanding of relationship between life and art to make deep comparisons between them.

  14. The Humanistic Implication of the Ghost Marriage in the Fictions of Wei,Jin and Six Dynasties%魏晋六朝志怪小说中冥婚的人文意蕴



    The people and ghost marriages in ghost stories in the Wei Jin Dynasties have the unique cul‐tural implication .Currently the research scholars ,mostly from a psychological point of view ,to study the cultural implications ,w hich are seeking for w ealth ,for a happy marriage and for life consciousness three aspects .T his paper analyzed the disadvantage research on the social environment and the patriarch system that people lived in ,and presented the tragedy aesthetics of the humanities implication of such fiction ghost marriage .The author therefore come from these areas to study the humanistic implication of the ghost marriage in the ghost novels in the Wei Jin Dynasties .%魏晋六朝志怪小说中的人鬼、鬼鬼之间的冥婚故事,具有其独特的人文意蕴。目前学界对此的研究多为从心理学角度分析,所得出的文化意蕴总概为求富贵、美满婚恋和生命意识的觉醒三个方面,而对当时人们生存的社会环境以及门阀制度的分析不够深入,同时对此类冥婚小说的人文意蕴所表现出来的悲剧美学尚未涉及。故而笔者从这些方面来深入,试图深度挖掘魏晋六朝志怪小说中冥婚的人文意蕴。

  15. 论魏晋小说中侠客形象的“超人”之美%The Study of Aesthetic"Superman" Embodied in the Knight Image in Novels of Wei and Jin Dynasties



    The novelists during the Wei knights different from the historical figu strong sense of justice and ready to help dom. This knights "courage" essential and Jin dynasties in their works shaped the image of res of previous generations. The knights not only had a the weak but also exceeded the rest in bravery and wisly is a kind of "superman" property endowed by the knights fight with enemies as well as their words and deeds. Through the analysis of the knights "superman" property, the aesthetic style of"like Fantasy, full of human feelings'can be detected in the Chinese martial novels during the Wei and Jin dynasties.%魏晋时期小说家在作品中塑造了不同于前代史传人物的侠客形象。这些侠客不但行侠仗义,胆识过人,而且具有非凡的武勇。这种侠客的“武勇”实质上是小说家通过侠客与强大敌人的斗争和侠客自身的言行赋予侠客的“超人”属性。分析侠客的“超人”属性,可以看出魏晋时期中国武侠小说已初步形成“以奇为胜,饱含人情”的美学风格。

  16. 杜仲腰痛丸联合中药热敷治疗腰椎间盘突出症的临床研究%Clinical Study on DuZhong YaoTong Pill Combined with Herbal Hot Compress in the Treatment for Lumbar Disc Herniation

    牛喜信; 何万庆


    目的:观察杜仲腰痛丸联合中药热敷治疗腰椎间盘突出症的临床疗效。方法:将腰椎间盘突出症患者120例随机分为A组(常规治疗组30例)、B组(杜仲腰痛丸组30例)、C组(中药热敷组30例)和D组(杜仲腰痛丸+中药热敷组30例),观察各组患者治疗1周和1月时视觉模拟量表(visual analogue scale, VAS)评分、JOA评分及JOA评分好转率。结果:D组在VAS、JOA评分及JOA评分好转率方面均优于A、B、C组(P<0.05),同时疗效方面1月优于1周,治疗效果有时间依赖性。结论:杜仲腰痛丸联合中药热敷治疗腰椎间盘突出症能够减轻患者的疼痛,改善患者的功能,提高临床效果,且治疗时间较长时效果更明显。%Objective:To observe and evaluate curative effects of DuZhong YaoTong pill combined with herbal hot compress in the treatment for lumbar disc herniation. Methods:All 120 patients were randomized into A group (30 cases of routine treatment group), B group (30 cases of DuZhong YaoTong pill group), C group (30 cases of herbal hot compress group) and D group (30 cases of combined therapy group), to observe visual analogue scale (VAS), JOA scales and JOA scale improvement rate of the patients after treating for one week and one month. Results:D group was superior to A, B and C groups in VAS, JOA scales and JOA scale improvement rate (P<0.05), at the same time, therapeutic effects in one month were better than one week, therapeutic effects were dependent on time. Conclusion: DuZhong YaoTong pill combined with herbal hot compress in treating lumbar disc herniation could alleviate the patients' pain, improve functions and clinical effects which are time-dependent.

  17. Yuan Shikai in the Institutional Changes in the Late Qing Dynasty --Review of McKinnon's Power and Politics in Late Imperial China Yuan Shikai in Tianjin and Beijing(1901--1908)%晚清制度变迁中的袁世凯——评麦金农著《中华帝国晚期的权力与政治:袁世凯在天津与北京(1901-1908)》

    王先明; 牛秋实


    McKinnon's study on Yuan Shikai. and his new policy was mainly based on the following concerns: relatively speaking, we know little of the policy of the Qing Dynasty in Beijing and the external and internal pressures it suffered, even less of the empire's change of political power structure at the turn of the century. The author's research and new viewpoint were built on the basis of detailed historical data, in addition to extensive use of common historical data, such as Yuan Shikai' s Memorial, the relevant local records as Guanzong County Annals, archival material as files of the Ministry of Communications and "Customs report", the more use of the "British Foreign Office files (White Paper)" and proofread with Yuan Shileai' s Memorial. Meanwhile more materials are used from the Taipei Palace Museum, such files of the Military Confidential Administration as "the business files of Cuangxu Period, fang ben and the Memorial series". This naturally ensures the academic and credibility of the study.%麦金农对袁世凯和新政的研究,主要基于以下忧虑:相对说来,我们对清末北京政府所受的外部和内部压力知之甚少,对帝国在世纪之交的政治权力结构如何改变的情况知之更少。作者的研究和新见建立在翔实的史料基础之上,除大量运用常见史料如《袁世凯奏折》、相关地方志如《广宗县志》、档案资料如交通部档案以及“海关报告”外,更多地利用了“英国外交部档案(白皮书)”,并以此与《袁世凯奏折》比勘使用。同时,对于台北故宫博物院有关军机处的档案如“光绪朝的商务档、方本、奏编”也使用较多。这自然保证了此项研究的学术性和可信度。

  18. On the Beauty of Neutrality in the Poetic Dramas of Love between officials and Prostitutes in Yuan Dynasty%论元代士妓恋爱杂剧的中和美



    受草原游牧文化的冲击,元代的审美风尚也相应地发生了变化,呈现出多元化趋势,而不再固守传统。然而通观现存的元代士妓恋爱杂剧,无论是作品内容、情节结构、情感历程,还是整体风格上都表现出中和美的创作倾向。%Under the impact of nomadic culture , the aesthetic custom in Yuan Dynasty changed accordingly and became more diversified .From the existing poetic dramas of love between the officials and the prostitutes , we can get its beauty of neutrality in its contents , plots, emotions experience and its overall style .

  19. Retracted: Exosomes secreted by human urine-derived stem cells accelerate skin wound healing by promoting angiogenesis in rat by Yuan H, Guan J, Zhang J, Zhang R, Li M.


    The above article, published online on 21 April 2016 in Wiley Online Library (, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor, Sergio Schenkman, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed because the authors discovered inconsistent results in repeated tests. The authors and publisher apologise for any inconvenience. Reference Yuan H, Guan J, Zhang J, Zhang R, LiM(2016) Exosomes secreted by human urine-derived stem cells accelerate skin wound healing by promoting angiogenesis in rat. Cell Biol Int, Accepted Author Manuscript. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  20. 试论《回回药方》治疗脑系疾病滴鼻剂的剂型特点%On Characteristics of Drug Forms of Nose Drops for Brain Disease in HuiHui YaoFang

    刘耀龙; 马晓东; 丁小龙; 王佩佩; 贾孟辉


    Medical theory of Hui nationality, prescription names, formation, preparation and instruction of 19 recipes for brain disease from 12th remained volume "ZhongFengMen-ZuoTan YouHuang KouYan WaiXieLei" of HuiHui YaoFang were analyzed and concluded to explore characteristic of drug forms of nose drops and promote clinical application of external nose drops.%对残卷十二"众风门-左瘫右痪口眼歪斜类"治疗脑系疾病的19首滴鼻剂的回族医学理论、方剂名称、药物组成、制备服法进行分析、归纳和总结,探讨回族医学滴鼻剂的剂型特点,并在临床中推广使用.

  1. “热敷药”对硬皮病小鼠模型COL-Ⅰ、COL-Ⅲ蛋白含量的影响%Effects of Refu Yao on Mice Models with Scleroderma of COL-Ⅰ and COL- Ⅲ

    闫小宁; 韩世荣; 李文彬; 李美红; 刘燕婷


    Objective To study the effects of traditional Chinese herbs Refu Yao on mice models with scleroderma of COL-I and COL- M. Methods 60 BALB/C mice models were randomly divided into six groups with ten mice in each group. Mice models with scleroderma were established in mice by repeated local injections of bleomycin for five weeks. Then 10%, 20% and 40% Refu Yao were given to the mice models of high -concentration group, mid -concentration group and low concentration group for one month. Than the pathological change of skin tissue was observed, and the COL-I and COL- DI expression in lesions were detected by immunohistochemical detection. Results Compared with the model group, there was significant improvement in the skin tissue of high-concentration group and mid-concentration group. The content of COL-I and COL- ID was decreased remarkably by Refu Yao, and the difference was significance (PYao can take effects on decreasing of the content of COL-I and COL- DI, and it can also improve fibrosis in the skin.%目的 观察“热敷药”对硬皮病小鼠模型Ⅰ型胶原、Ⅲ型胶原(COL-Ⅰ、COL-Ⅲ)含量的影响.方法 60只BALB/c小鼠按照随机原则分为空白组、模型组、西药组、小浓度组、中浓度组、大浓度组各10只,采用博莱霉素皮下注射形成硬皮病模型,造模完成后,根据分组分别给予10%、20%、40%“热敷药”药糊及肝素钠软膏外用,1次/d,连续1个月,空白组及模型组不用药.完成后观察各组皮肤组织病理变化,免疫组化检测皮损COL-Ⅰ、COL-Ⅲ蛋白含量.结果 与模型组相比较,高、中浓度组硬皮痛小鼠模型COL-Ⅰ、COL-Ⅲ蛋白含量明显降低,差异较显著(P<0.05);结论 “热敷药”具有改善硬皮病小鼠模型皮肤硬化,降低COL-Ⅰ、COL-Ⅲ的作用.

  2. A Comment on Tao Yuan-ming's Farming Life and Related Poetry Creation%陶渊明的躬耕之路与相关诗歌创作考论



    Tao Yuan-ming had great aspiration since early youth, and also served as an official away from home in many years, but he could not adapt himself to the officialdom, and was deeply attracted by the farming life the previous hermits, which finally led to his resignation and returning to the countryside. He lived by his personal plough ever since. Tao Yuan-ming' s farming life can be divided into three stages: hesitating between farming and official career, keeping his mind on farming and his later years with illness and poverty. In the long course of his farming practices, he recognized the meaning of fanning and enjoyed his idyllic life, however he was also puzzled by war, natural calamity, hunger and cold. He responded to all those experiences in his poetry writing, thus building a complete self-image.%陶渊明少有壮志,也曾游宦多年。但是他对晋末官场的不适,前代隐者躬耕传统的感召,最终促使他解职归田,过上躬耕自足的生活。陶渊明的躬耕之路大体可分为耕仕徘徊期、安心躬耕期与老病困穷期三个阶段。在漫长的躬耕历程中,他认识了躬耕的意义,体验了田园生活的乐趣,但也饱尝了战乱、自然灾害与饥寒等方面的困扰。这些经历他都真实地反应于诗歌创作中,从而构建了一个完整的自我形象。

  3. 从婚姻习俗探究元代蒙古族的择偶观*%Analysis on Mongolian Mate Concept of Yuan Dynasty f rom Marriage Customs



    T he mate is human important psychological ,social and cultural phenomenon ,mate choice criteria are reflected in the value orientation of people of different ages .As the 13th century ,early 12th century ,the rise of Mobei - - - Mongolian nomads ,establish by force gallop Great Yuan Empire of the world ,driven by e-conomic and political as well as social customs and other factors ,the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty mate standard housekeeping road to the initial male and female mate heavy color concept evolved gradually strengthen political attributes as well as the concept of a strong first spouse social status concept ,while in the lower income adoptive marriage ,its mate outlook has changed to economic interests based .%择偶是人类重要的心理、社会及文化现象,择偶的标准是不同时代人们价值取向的反映。作为12世纪末13世纪初崛起漠北的游牧民族---蒙古族,凭借武力建立起驰骋世界的大元帝国,在其经济和政治以及社会习俗等因素的驱动下,元代蒙古族的择偶标准以最初的男看家道,女重颜色的择偶观,逐渐发展为政治属性渐趋强化以及门第观念较强的择偶观,同时在收继婚俗的影响下,其择偶观又转变为以经济利益为主。

  4. Corresponding with Heart:the Spiritual Core of Yuan Xie’s Literatural and Artical Thoughts%有契于心:袁燮文艺思想之精神内核



    袁燮文艺观的形成源于其心学思想。在文艺审美旨趣上,他推崇浑然天成之美境。为达到此种境界,袁燮提出“有契于心”的创作理念,并延伸出书以传心与画以写心的艺术命题。而且“有契于心”也是袁燮的鉴赏理念,他认为观者之于书画重点应在体悟省察作者之道心,从而使自己之本心有所感发。因此,他十分重视文艺创作主体之心性修养,认为这是使文艺作品“有契于心”的根源,也是诗书画是否具有宝藏价值的决定因素。%Yuan Xie’s view on literature and art originated in his mind studies. On the Literature aesthetic, he admired the beauty like nature itself. To achieve such a state, Yuan Xie put forward the creative ideas of“corresponding with heart”, and extends the art proposition such as calligraphy can communicate heart and paint should write the heart. And“corresponding with heart”is also his appreciation of ideas, he thought that the viewer should focus on understanding the writer’s heart of his calligraphy and painting, so that the viewer can be deeply moved. Therefore, he attached great importance to writer’s cultivation of the mind, thought of this as the ideological root-cause of“corresponding with heart”, and also a determining factor of the value of literary and artistic works.

  5. Reasons and Conditions of Tuntian in the Western Regions in the Yuan Dynasty%元代在西域屯田之原因及条件探析



    元代在西域的屯田虽然时间非常短暂,但所起的作用和影响却是显著的。元朝之所以能够在西域开展屯田,与当时统治者统治西域的指导思想有着很大关系,忽必烈对屯田事关元朝在西域统治基础的重要性认识,加之当时西域严峻的军事形势,是导致西域屯田的直接原因,而元朝政府为稳定西域采取的一些行政、军事措施,客观上促成了西域屯田的开展并取得了一定成效。%Although the period of Tuntian (have garrison troops or peasants open up wasteland and grow grain) in the western regions of the Yuan dynasty was very short, but it had a noteworthy impact and significance. The implement of Tuntian in the Yuan dynasty was greatly influenced by the ruler's guiding thought of governing the western regions. Kublai Khan's emphasis on the importance of Tuntian as a foundation of ruling the western regions and the severe martial conditions at that time were the direct impetus of Tuntian. In the meantime, the administrative and martial mesures adopted by the central government to stabilize these regions actually promoted the implement of Tuntian effectively.

  6. 《全金元词•李孝光词》校补%Proofreading and Supplement for Li Xiaoguang’s Ci’s in Complete Works of Ci’s during Jin and Yuan Dynasties



    Complete Works of Ci’s during Jin and Yuan Dynasties (《全金元词》) is edited by Tang Guizhang. It is recorded in Siyinzhai Collection of Ci’s (《四印斋所刻词》) compiled by Wang Pengyun in the Qing Dynasty that there are 22 Ci’s written by Li Xiaoguang in zhe Yuan Dynasty are included. However, the collection has quite a few missing, omssions and errors. This paper outlines the distribution of Li Xiaoguang’s Wufeng Ci’s (《五峰词》) and makes some corrections, compilations, revisions of words and expressions as well as making up the titles according to the Ming Dynasty trancript of Li Wufeng’s collection (《李五峰集》). What’s more, the author compiles five missing Ci’s and adds up additional comments.%唐圭璋编《全金元词》,据清王鹏运《四印斋所刻词》收录元李孝光词22首,然尚多遗阙疏误。兹略述李孝光《五峰词》流布情况,据山东省图书馆珍藏之明抄本《李五峰集》,对《全金元词•李孝光词》作校补,校订字句,补充词题,并辑录佚词五首,酌加按语。

  7. An Inquiry Into the Application of the Element of Red Yao Ethnic Monority in Clothing Design--A Case Study of Dazhai Village in Heping County%红瑶服饰元素在现代服装设计中的应用--以和平乡大寨村为例



    随着时代的发展,科技的大量应用,服装设计全球化发展趋势越来越近。在设计多元化的今天,民族风潮的涌起,对我国传统民族服饰的发展是一个契机,也是中国未来服装发展的趋势。作为中国服装文化的结晶,我国民族传统服饰中最具代表性的少数民族服饰还在发展探索之中,加大对红瑶服饰研究,可以开阔视野,弘扬红瑶的传统服饰文化,把红瑶服饰元素应用于现代服装设计中,推动民族服饰的创新性设计,有利于更好的传承与保护中国的民族服饰。%In modern time, with the application of science and technology, globalization in modern de⁃sign trends is getting nearer. Today diversified designs, national wave surges are in fashion, it is a turning point for the development of China’s traditional national costumes as well as the development trend of future Chi⁃nese clothing. As the mainstream of Chinese clothing in the future development trend of China’s traditional ethnic costumes, the most representative costume designs are to be explored. The clothing of the Red Yao Mi⁃nority can broaden our horizons. With Red Yao element applied to the modern art design in the national cloth⁃ing, it is beneficial to promote innovative design, to protect and inherit China’s national costume.

  8. Analysis of Contemporary College Students' Absence of Civic Responsibility and Reconstruction from Yao Jia-xin Event%从药家鑫事件看当代大学生公民责任感的缺位与重建



    With the accelerated development of China's economic society and the significant improvement of living standards in recent years, contemporary college students, being senior intellectual group, whose absence of civic responsibility appeared, in which Yao Jia-xin Event happened in Xi'an was a typical example. Yao Jia-xin Event fully reflected the current generation of college student's in-different sense of moral responsibility, distorted sense of legal responsibility and aridity of social responsibility. The reconstruction of contemporary college students' civic responsibility requires to strengthen civic responsibility education, rebuild responsibility subject, perfect regulatory system, enhance the government's public service capacity and give full play to the guiding role of social media in posi-tive propaganda.%近年来我国经济社会加速发展,物质生活水平明显提高,作为社会高知人群的当代大学生的公民责任感却出现了缺位,轰动一时的西安药家鑫事件就是一个典型的事例。药家鑫事件充分反映了当前代大学生的道德责任感淡漠、法律责任感扭曲、社会责任感荒芜。重建当代大学生的公民责任感,需要对大学生加强公民责任感教育、重建责任主体、健全监管体系,增强政府公共服务能力,充分发挥社会媒介的正面舆论导向作用。

  9. A Study of the Exploitation of Mountainous region of the Yao nationality and its influence on ecological environment in Guangxi since the Song Dynasty%论宋代以来广西瑶族的山地开发及其对生态环境的影响



    The Yao nationality distributed extensively among the mountainous region through migrating frequently since the Song Dynasty,and they transformed mobile cultivation into fixed cultivation gradually.They made a living through planting coarse food crops such as Chinese yam,taro,millet,beans,and economic crops such as cotton and ramie,which remade the primordial ecological environment of mountainous region preliminarily.Along with the introduce of maize and artificial planting of China fir,tung oil tree,tea-oil tree,new ecological system substituted primordial ecological system gradually,the ecological landscape of mountainous region was rebuilt in Guangxi.Because of the effect of spontaneous ecological idea,the Yao nationality combined their own existence with ecological protection in course of exploiting mountainous region in Guangxi.%广西是中国瑶族人口的集中分布地,占全国瑶族人口的60%。但广西并不是瑶族的起源地,今天的分布格局是唐宋以来不断迁徙形成的。广西瑶族的祖先可以追溯到秦汉时期的长沙武陵蛮,又称黔中蛮或五溪蛮。随后不断南迁,南朝时到达今湘南粤北地区。隋唐时期,广西东北部已分布着较多莫瑶(1)。宋代瑶族在广西的分布更为广泛,宋人范成大记载了桂北瑶族的分布情况,他说:"瑶本五溪瓠之后,其壤接广右者,静

  10. 《园冶》在日本的传播及其在现代造园学中的意义%A Study on Yuan Ye with Viewpoints on Its Introduction to Japan and Its Impact on Ideas of Landscape Architecture



    This paper discusses how the philosophy of Yuan Ye was conveyed to Japan, and what kind of significance this philosophy has with regard to landscape architecture today. The following research parts were included: a) the introduction of Yuan Ye philosophy to Japan; b) present editions of Yuan Ye and the differences between them; c) the trends of landscape research in Japanese; d) the essence of Yuan Ye pertinent today. This paper points out that Yuan Ye was noticed early in Japan and that this philosophy influenced fields of gardening, literature, art, etc. The modern edition of Yuan Ye by the Society for the Study of Chinese Architecture influenced present editions in Japan although incomplete parts remain. Some troubles in putting traditional concepts into modern terms were noted academically, but the essential ideas conveyed by Yuan Ye are still meaningful today.%考察了《园冶》在日本的传播和影响,并再考了《园冶》对现代造园学的启示.考察范围具体为:1)《园冶》在日本的传播;2)《园冶》的现代版和诸版本的比较;3)日本造园学最近的趋势;4)再探《园冶》之精华.结论为:《园冶》在历史上对日本的造园学、文学和美术等领域有过不同程度的影响;在营造学社的版本面世之后又对日本有过新的影响,但在与原版的对照与校正方面尚存疑点;传统的造园学在向现代接轨中尚存的问题,但《园冶》中的基本概念在现代仍有价值.

  11. Clinical observation of Jian Wei Xiao Shi oral liquid on functional dyspepsia in children%健胃消食口服液治疗小儿功能性消化不良的临床观察

    万俊; 包志丹; 王向烨; 李虎


    目的 观察健胃消食口服液对小儿功能性消化不良的临床疗效.方法 将106例功能性消化不良患儿随机分为Ⅰ组50例,Ⅱ组56例.2组患儿均于餐前服用多潘立酮混悬剂;Ⅰ组患儿在此基础上加用健胃消食口服液.2周为1个疗程.观察2组患儿临床疗效,比较食欲减退、食量减少、嗳气腹胀、恶心呕吐、大便稀薄等症状改善的时间以及总疗程的差异.结果 Ⅰ组临床总有效率明显高于Ⅱ组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);Ⅰ组患儿食欲减退、食量减少、嗳气腹胀、恶心呕吐、大便稀薄等症状改善的时间以及总疗程均明显短于Ⅱ组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 健胃消食口服液联合多潘立酮混悬剂治疗小儿功能性消化不良可明显缩短症状改善时间,提高了临床疗效.%Objective To observe the clinical effect of Jian Wei Xiao Shi oral liquid on functional dyspepsia in children. Methods 106 cases with functional dyspepsia were randomly divided into group Ⅰ(n - 50) and group Ⅱ (n = 56). The two groups received domperidone suspension before meals, and the patients in group I were given extra Jian Wei Xiao Shi oral liquid. One treatment session lasted for two weeks. The clinical effect was observed. The differences of improvement time of anorexia, reduction of appetite and food intake, belching and abdominal distension, nausea and vomiting, watery stool and total course between the two groups were compared. Results The clinical efficacy rate of group Ⅰ was higher than that of group Ⅱ (P<0.01). The improvement time of anorexia, reduction of appetite, belching and abdominal distension, nausea and vomiting, watery stool and total course of group I were obviously shorter than those of group Ⅱ (P < 0.01). Conclusion Jian Wei Xiao Shi oral liquid combined with domperidone suspension can obviously shorten time for symptom improvement and enhance the clinical effect.

  12. 汪机的"营卫虚实论"与"参芪双补说"%Wang ji's theory of 'Ying-Wei deficiency and excess' and 'Renshen-Huangqi nourishment'



    WANG Ji, the famous doctor in the Ming dynasty, devoted all his life to writing books and had completed 14 books in his lifetime. He established the academic thought of Ying-Wei ( Yingqi and Weiqi) deficiency and excess and Renshen-Huangqi, which was that both have the function of nourishment. This had a positive influence on correcting some scholars' opinion in the Ming dynasty, which was if using bitter and cold herbs to nourish Yin, it usually damaged the Qi of spleen and stomach;and influence on formation of the Gubenpeiyuan School ( consolidating Yuanqi to enhance body resistance). The formation of the thought was related to the background of some iatrogenic illness whereby Yang deficiency of spleen and stomach was caused by excess use of bitter and cold medicine. WANG Ji' s academic thought was mainly refined from Ying-Wei theory in the Neijing, spleen-stomach theory of LI Dongyuan and excess of Yang and deficiency of Yin theory of ZHU Danxi, and was also influenced by the thought of other doctors at the same time.%明朝著名医家汪机,一生勤于著述,所著著作达14部之多.其创立的"营卫虚实论"和"参芪双补说"的学术思想,对纠正明季一派苦寒滋阴而导致损伤脾胃之气的时弊,以及"固本培元"流派的形成,均起到了积极的作用.其思想形成的背景与当时社会崇尚滋阴,过分使用苦寒之剂,从而损伤脾胃阳气,带来较多医源性疾患有着直接的关系.其学术思想主要来源于"营卫理论"以及李东垣的"脾胃论"和朱丹溪的"阳有余阴不足论",同时代的医家思想也对其产生了间接的影响.

  13. On the First Monograph On the Strange Tales of Liao Zhai---Liao Zhai Fa Wei%论《聊斋志异》研究史上的索隐派--《聊斋发微》



    As the first monograph on the strange tales of liao zhai,Wen Hensh-eng's liao zhai fa wei divide the motif of strange tales of liao zhai into five parts:grieving on failing races,angry about power,jealous of wealth,despising on scholars,worshiping on swordsman.Above all,grieving on failing races is the ma-in spirits of strange tales of liao zhai. Interested in detecting the secret history, Liao zhai fa wei takes all foxes written by Pu Songling as Manchu. In his opin-ion,Pu Songling intended to revolt against qing dynasty by literature. The reaso-n that the absurd opinion arise is that bias on minority and shortage of related knowledge. However,some ideas in that book are also inspiring.%问恨生的《聊斋发微》是聊斋研究史上的第一部专著,将《聊斋志异》全书的内容分为“悲种”、“愤势”、“嫉富”、“贱士”、“尚侠”五例。其中“悲种”为全书之主脑,其他四例皆由此生发。《聊斋发微》有着明显的“索隐派”作风,将《聊斋志异》中的狐视为胡,认为书中的鬼狐与人的恋爱传奇隐喻着蒲松龄的反清思想。《聊斋发微》的主要观点是不值一驳的,其错误产生的根源在于作者的民族偏见与相关知识的欠缺,但书中的某些观点对于今天的《聊斋志异》研究也有所启发。

  14. Analysis on impacts of climate changes and Baojixia water diversion on Wei river runoff%气候变化及宝鸡峡引水对渭河径流量的影响分析

    林启才; 李怀恩


    渭河宝鸡段河道年径流减少,生态基流得不到保障引起社会各界的重视.根据1954-2009年以来的降水、气温以及径流观测数据,分析降水及气温变化变化对渭河径流量的影响.采用相关系数法得到降水与径流的相关系数为0.69,正相关性好,气温与径流的相关系数为-0.73,呈明显负相关.采用降水、气温以及径流累积曲线分析得到,降水减少趋势不明显、年径流量减少趋势明显,以及气温升高趋势明显.分析认为径流减少趋势主要由降水量减少和气温升高所致.此外,1971年和2003年是两个重要突变点,主要原因是宝鸡峡渠首引水和宝鸡峡加坝加闸工程所致.%Reduction in the runoff and ecological basic flow in the Baoji reach of Wei River has attracted a great public attention over recent years.This paper analyzes the effect of changes in precipitation and air temperature on the Wei River runoff,based on the records of these two quantities and the hydrological data of the period 1954-2009.Using a correlation coefficient method,we obtained a close correlation 0.69 of runoff with precipitation,and a close but negative correlation-0.73 of runoff with air temperature.Trend analysis shows that the precipitation had decreased sligatly,while the runoff had decreased dramatically and the air temperature risen significantly.For the runoff reduction,the main reasons would be precipitation reduction and air temperature rise.The mass curve has two breaking points,one caused by the Baojixia water diversion in 1971,and the other caused by the renovation of dam and gate in this diversion project in 2003.

  15. 高效液相色谱法测定消食健胃片中绿原酸的含量%Quantitative Determination of Chlorogenic acid In Xiao Shi Jian Wei Pian by HPLC

    成霄; 朱佳茜


    Objective To study and establish the reversed phased high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of Chlorogenic acid in Xiao Shi Jian Wei Pian.Method The chromatographic conditions were as follows: Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18(4.6×150mm, 5μ),column was used as stationary phase,the mobile phase was composed of Acetonitrile and 0.4% phosphoric acid solution (13:87), the flow rate was 1.0 mL?min-1;the UV absorbance detection wavelength was set at 327nm.Results The Chlorogenic acid curve was linear within the range of 0.0050-0.0500 mg?mL-1(r=1.0000);The average recovery of Chlorogenic acid was 99.59%.Conclusion The result showed that this method was convenient、rapid、sensitive、reproducible and accurate. It can be used in determination of Chlorogenic acid in Xiao Shi Jian Wei Pian.%目的:建立消食健胃片中绿原酸含量测定的方法.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,以ZORBAX SB-C18(4.6mm×150mm,5μ)为色谱柱,流动相为乙腈-0.4%磷酸(13:87),流速1.0 mL?min-1,检测波长为327nm.结果 绿原酸在0.0050mg?mL-1~0.0500 m g?m L-1范围内线性关系良好(r=1.0000),平均回收率为99.59%, R S D=0.94%.结论:该方法准确、可靠、重复性好、专一性强,可用于消食健胃片中绿原酸的含量测定.

  16. 魏子孝“外病内治”皮肤病经验探析%Prof. Wei Zixiao's Experiences in Skin Diseases Based on“Treating the In-ternal for the Disorder on the External”

    邵鑫; 张广德; 魏子孝


    Skin disease is the common clinical manifestation or combined disorder in endocrinal dis-eases,manifested as acne,chloasma,diabetic eczema,acanthosis nigricans,skin pruritus,bullous disease, pretibial myxedema,etc. Prof. Wei Zixiao believes that skin disease is the outward manifestation of general disease on the skin and the local skin disorders can induce general disorders. They are interacted and mani-fested each other and caused by the imbalance of yin and yang,and the disturbance of zangfu qi and blood. In the treatment of skin disease,Prof. Wei stresses on“treating the internal for the disorder on the external”. Balancing yin and yang,overall regulation,determining the treating principle by syndrome differentiation, strengthening the antipathogenic qi and eliminating the pathogens are the main thoughts on the treatment of skin disease. And the good efficacy has been achieved.%皮肤病是内分泌疾病常见的临床表现或伴发疾病,临床常见有痤疮、黄褐斑,糖尿病伴发湿疹、黑棘皮病、皮肤瘙痒症、大疱病、胫前黏液水肿等。魏子孝教授认为,皮肤病是人体全身性疾病在皮肤上的表现,同时局部的皮肤病变又可引起全身性病变,二者互为表现又相互影响,是体内阴阳平衡失调、脏腑气血紊乱的表现,对于皮肤病的治疗,魏师强调“外病内治”,其以阴阳平衡、整体调节、辨证论治、扶正祛邪为主要临证思想辨治皮肤病,取得了良好效果。

  17. 魏晋南北朝道教身体哲学建设论纲%On Daoist Philosophy of the Body during the Period of the Wei,Jin,Northern and Southern Dynasties



    Philosophy of the Body takes the body as ontology .In the view of philosophy of body , Taoism during the Period of the Wei ,Jin ,Northern and Southern Dynasties expresses the characteris‐tic of “root resistance .In the context of celestial theory ,cosmic existence ,Truth confession ,good and evil discrimination ,all are associated with “body” which is internal and necessary to the world . The natural law ,ethics and celeste’s existence are based on physical situation and revealed in different directions .The characteristics of “root resistance” during the Period of the Wei ,Jin ,Northern and Southern Dynasties established later thinking style which was along the trend of the theory of “body and heaven”and“telepathy between heaven and man” .%身体哲学是一种以身体为本体的哲学观。在身体哲学的视域下审视魏晋南北朝道教,其理论思想呈现出鲜明的“根身性”特征。在神道设教的语境中,宇宙之存在、真理之体认、善恶之判别都与“身体”相缠绕,是身体“向世界敞开”的内在环节、必要条件。天道之落实、伦理之践行、仙道之体贴,都因进入“以身体道”的身体场景而获得了笃实的存在根据,并因身体展开的不同指向而呈现出各自不同的身体特征。魏晋南北朝道教的这种“根身性”特征,基本上奠定了后世道教哲学思想构建的运思风格,使之沿着“身天一体”“天人感应”的整体趋向不断演变、发展。

  18. 河北临漳县邺城遗址东魏北齐佛寺塔基的发现与发掘%Discovery and Excavation of the Pagoda Foundation Vestiges in the Buddhist Temple of the Eastern Qi and Northern Wei period on the Yecheng City-site in Linzhang County, Hebei

    中国社会科学院考古研究所邺城考古队; 河北省文物研究所邺城考古队


    The pagoda-foundation vestiges of the Buddhist temple on the southern Yecheng city-site were discovered about 200m southwest of Zhaopengcheng village in Xiwen Township, Linzhang County. They lie some 1300m to the south of the southern wall of southern Yecheng City and to the east of the line extended from thecentral axis of the southern Yecheng City and Zhumingmen-gate Road. Judging from the stratigraphical evidence and objects unearthed, the rammed earth of the pagoda foundations goes back to the Eastern Wei and Northern Qiperiod. The vestiges revealed include remains of the pagoda body above the ground and those of the foundation ex-cavations under the ground. The pagoda body can be inferred to be square, with the sides measuring about 30m.This is the only ruined square wooden Buddhist pagoda of the Eastern Wei and Northern Qi period discovered so far in China.

  19. 贴近市场服务企业大有作为--黄卫副部长寄语《建筑》杂志%Close to Market, Service Enterprise, Do Well in Construction Market in the Future--Huang Wei , the Construction Department Vice-minister, sends word to the magazine of" Construction "



    The “Construction” will change to the semimonthly publication in January of 2006.Vice-minister Huang Wei listens to the report of testing publication earnestly, encourages them kindly when the staff of“ Construction ”on preparing for the next semimonthly publication intensely. He also gives the important tutorial-style comment that the “Construction”should service for the construction market and service for the most of construction enterprises better.

  20. 魏氏伤科导引结合穴位埋针治疗网球肘34例%Treatment of 34 cases of tennis elbow by Wei' s Daoyin practice combined with needle-embedding therapy at acupoints

    杜炯; 曹月龙; 李飞跃


    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of Wei' s Daoyin practice combined with needle-embedding therapy at acupoints in treating tennis elbow. Methods Thirty-four patients with tennis elbow were treated by Wei' s Daoyin practice combined with needle-embedding therapy for four courses, seven days as one course. The clinical efficacy was observed. Results Nineteen cases were cured and fourteen cases were improved,and the total effective rate was 97. 0% . Conclusion Combined Wei' s Daoyin practice combines with needle-embedding therapy has positive effects on tennis elbow.%目的 观察魏氏伤科导引结合穴位埋针治疗网球肘的临床疗效.方法 对34例网球肘患者采用魏氏伤科导引结合穴位埋针治疗,7天为1个疗程,共治疗4个疗程,观察临床疗效.结果 34例患者中临床治愈19例,好转14例,总有效率为97.0%.结论 魏氏伤科导引结合穴位埋针治疗网球肘疗效良好.

  1. On the Basic Dialect of the Mandarin of Ming Dynasty in Zhang Wei's Wenqiji%从张位《问奇集》看明代官话的基础方言



    Dialects in Zhang Wei's Wenqiji are the pronunciation bias resulted from people of different regions when speaking their Mandarin, namely Chinese common language. An explorative study on the pronunciation bias can help us get the valuable information about the common language in Ming Dynasty. It is suggested in this paper that the standard pronunciation of the mandarin in Ming Dynasty is based on the pronunciation of Jianghuai mandarin, and the phenomena of entering tones and"ni lai bu hun" are pronunciation features of Chinese common language in Ming Dynasty.%明代张位《问奇集》中的"乡音"是指明代各地人说官话——汉语共同语时出现的语音偏误. 研究这些语音偏误能够得知明代官话的一些信息. 明代官话语音的标准音以江淮官话语音为基础,至于有入声、泥来不混等则是明代汉语共同语语音的特征.

  2. Definitions in Some Large Dictionaries based on Data from the Stone Inscriptions in Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties%从魏晋南北朝石刻文献看大型辞书的释义问题



    魏晋南北朝石刻文献数量丰富,文体多样,语言特色鲜明,是中古时期重要的出土文献资料。大型辞书由于对石刻文献利用不足,对不少词语释义有误或有义项缺漏的情况。结合传世文献对“潜形、潜迹”、“短祚”等6条词语进行考释,可以补大型辞书释义之不足。%Abundant,diversified in literary styles and distinctive in linguistic features,the stone inscriptions in the Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties are an important part in the unearthed literature of the Chinese medieval period.However,in those large Chinese dictionaries the data from the stone inscriptions are not fully unitlized,and some definitions of the words are erroneous or lack of meaning items. For example, the definitions of “Qianxing, Qianji ”,“Duanzuo”,“Nazhi”,“Jifa”,“Jingjin”,and “Changwang”can be defined and explained correctly and explicitly by using relevant data in the stone inscriptions and inherited documents and literature to complement the insufficiency of the large Chinese dictionaries.

  3. Professor WEI Pin-kang's Experience in Treating Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting: an Analysis of Herbal Medication%魏品康教授防治化疗导致恶心呕吐用药规律研究

    施俊; 魏品康


    Objective To summarize the herbal medication by Professor WEI Pin-kang's prescriptions in treating chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Methods On the basis of outpatient and inpa-tients' medical records concerning CINV from case-database (keywords: chemotherapy and vomiting), data of 143 patients and 143 effective prescriptions were collected. The herbs and those category, nature, flavor and meridian distribution were summarized by frequency method using SPSS 13.0 Software. The couple herbs were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis. Results A total of 144 herbs were used (2 353 frequencies). Six groups of herbs [frequency >5%, cumulative relative frequency (CRF) 58.89% ] were used frequently as follow : the herbs for regulating qi (17.81%), resolving phlegm (13.51%), invigorating qi (8.07%), relieving food retention (7.44%), calming Gan to stop endogenous wind (7.05%), and warming the interior (5.01%). The most frequently used herbs ( >20 frequencies, CRF 77.31 %) had 31 species as follow: the herbs for regulating qi (6 species), calming Gan to stop endogenous wind (4 species), resolving phlegm (3 species), external application (2 species), invigorating qi (2 species), warming the interior (2 species), activating blood and removing blood stasis (2 species), promoting diuresis and resolving dampness (1 species), purgation (1 species) , invigorating blood (1 species), relieving exterior syndrome with pungent-warm property (1 species), relieving exterior syndrome with pungent-cool property (1 species), astringent (1 species), resolving dampness with aromatic property (1 species), calming the mind (1 species), eliminating heat and dampness (1 species), relieving food retention (1 species). Frequency of Rhizoma Pinelliae was 127 including Rhizoma Pinetliae (processed with ginger) 83 (65.35%). Frequency of prepared Radix et Rhizoma Rhei was 85 (95.51% of Prea- praed Rhizoma Rhei). These herts were mostly of warm nature (43.99%). The total frequency of

  4. On the Emotion Differences and Their Causes between Meng Haoran and Wang Wei's Landscape Poems%孟浩然、王维山水诗的情感差异及其原因



    为了进一步探讨孟浩然与王维山水诗的异同,通过将二人题材相同的山水诗加以比较分析,得知二人一些山水诗存在着描写的景物相似,而其中的情感却存在着明显差异的情况,引入马克思的"有意识的生命活动"理论后认为:此种差异主要是由作者不同的思想情感造成的,或者说,是由作者不同的生命意识活动决定的。%in order to further explore the similarities and differences of landscape poems of Meng Haoran and Wang Wei,it analyzes their landscape poems of the same subject matter and find out that their described scenary is similar,but the aroused emotions are quite different.After introducing the theory of Marx's "conscious life activities",we hold that this difference is mainly decided by the author's different feelings,or say by the author's different life consciousness activities.

  5. 从雷蒙罗维的设计看品牌形象与市场的关系%Analyze the Relationship Between Brand Image and Market from Wei Raymond’s Design

    张金玲; 刘宝成


    Lo Wei Raymond———a famous designer of the United States who designed the company's effec‐tive brand image of the greyhound bus ,the shell oil company and the sears"cold spots"refrigerator .This making them won a broad market and achieved great economic benefits .Through the analysis of this ,I got an important conclusion———The relationship between brand image and market are inseparable ,influential and restrict to each other .%以美籍著名设计师雷蒙·罗维为启示,分析了壳牌石油公司、灰狗客运汽车、西尔斯百货公司的“冷点”电冰箱等企业的有效的品牌形象设计,从其赢得了广阔的市场,获得了巨大的经济效益的结果,提出了重要的结论———品牌形象与市场的关系是密不可分、相互影响与制约的。

  6. Book publishing and literature in Wei,Jin and the Southern and Northern Dynasties%魏晋南北朝图书业兴盛与文学发展浅析



    The article discusses the major achievements in book publishing of Wei,Jin and the Southern and Northern Dynasties. The article also point out that the rapid development of the book publishing industry has an important role in promoting the development of literature. At the same time, the development of literature also promotes the blossom ofthe book publishing industry.%文章探讨了魏晋南北朝图书业取得的主要成就,并指出图书业的快速发展对文学发展所具有的推动作用。与此同时,文学的勃兴也带来图书出版业的繁荣。图书业与文学两者之间互相促进,互为因果,共同促进了当时的文化发展与文化繁荣。

  7. Micro-Raman Analysis for the Identification of Pigments in Painted Pottery Figurine from the Northern Wei Dynasty Tombs%北魏墓彩绘陶俑颜料的显微拉曼光谱分析

    程永建; 马毅强; 方莉; 韩运侠; 韩礼刚; 刘照军


    利用拉曼光谱对洛阳地区两座北魏墓出土陶俑的彩绘颜料进行了分析,与标准颜料样品的拉曼光谱相比较,识别出了陶俑所使用的红色、黑色、白色和蓝色颜料的显色成分.研究结果表明,显微拉曼光谱分析技术非常适合对古墓葬彩绘陶俑进行成分分析.%The pigments in the painted pottery figurines from two Northern Wei Dynasty-tombs were analyzed by Raman microscopy. All the pigments used were identified compared with the standard pigments Raman spectra. The result confirms that Micro-Raman spectroscopy is a very effective analytical method for the identification of pigments in ancient painted pottery figurine.

  8. The Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties classical Chinese calligraphy art consciousness%论魏晋南北朝时期中国古典书法的艺术自觉



    中国古典书法在其发展过程中有其独特的双重性,即相互交融与渗透的实用性与艺术性。而这种相互交融和渗透,是以文字为载体以线条为语汇的书法艺术发展的必然结果。魏晋南北朝时期,在当时特殊的政治背景和多样化的思想文化背景下,以及各种书体发展完备,笔法的精熟,书法进入了艺术的自觉期,成为真正独立的艺术。%The Chinese classical calligraphy in its development process has its unique duality,namely the blending and penetration of the practicality and artistry.The blending and osmosis,is in the language as the carrier to the line as the vocabulary of the inevitable result of the development of the art of calligraphy.The Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties period,at the time the special political background and diverse culture background,as well as various script development complete mastery of calligraphy,brushwork,enters the art conscious period,become truly independent art.

  9. On the Artistic Features of the Novel You in the Plateau by ZhangWei%论张炜《你在高原》的艺术特色



    ZhangWei, a Chinese famous writer, spent more than 20 years to write the novel You in the Plateau, which contains four million five hundred thousand words and 39 volumes.For this novel, he was awarded the Eighth MaoDun Prize in Literature in 2011.The paper studied the structure ,the characters and the scenery description of the novels in order to promote the creation and research of the Chinese novels.%中国当代著名作家张炜,花了20多年时间,写成了一部长达39卷450万字的长篇小说《你在高原》,堪称中外小说史上篇幅最长的纯文学小说,并于2011年获得第八届茅盾文学奖。拟从作品的结构安排、人物形象塑造、景物描写等方面,对这部长篇巨制的艺术审美价值进行梳理与探析,以期对中国长篇小说的创作与研究起到一定的促进作用。

  10. Archetype Criticism on the Image of"Door"in Poems by Wang Wei%王维诗歌中“门”意象的原型批评



    Based on the theory of Myth-archetype Criticism arising in western countries during 20th century, the present study aims at probing into the image"door"in the poems by Wang Wei from the perspective of the orig-inal meaning of door, the development of cultural meaning to the return of its poetic meaning, elaborating the un-conscious effects and influence of the image"door"on human psychology in Chinese cultural history by combining the researches of common human unconsciousness on images in the study of humantity, culture and psychology.%文章以20世纪西方出现的神话原型批评理论,综合人类学、文化学和心理学对意象中的人类的共同的无意识进行探究,以王维诗歌中的“门”意象为例追根溯源,从“门”这个语词的原始意义、变迁的文化意义到诗学意义的回归,阐述关于“门”意象在中国文化中的发展变迁,且对诗歌及人类心理的无意识影响。

  11. 健胃喜食宝片促进消化功能动物试验研究%Animal test on "Jian Wei Xi Shi Bao Tablets" in facilitating digestive function

    王叔桥; 张丽宏; 刘莉; 马晶


    Objective To evaluate the facilitating digestive function of Jian Wei Xi Shi Bao Tablets in animal. Methods Male KM mice were randomly divided into control group, model control group and three dosage groups(0. 53,1. 06,1. 60g/kg-BW). The dosage groups were orally administered respectively with test drugs for 15 days, both control group and model control group were treated with experimental water. Mice constipation model was established by using compound diphenixylate. Small intestine movement was studied out in mice, and the ink propelling rates was detected. Male SD rats were randomly divided into control group and three dosage groups(0. 265,0. 53,1. 06g/kgBW). The dosage groups were orally administered respectively with test drugs for 30 days. Body weight, weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio were observed in rats, and the activity and secretion quantity of pepsin were detected. The control group was treated with experimental water. Results Jian Wei Xi Shi Bao Tablets (1.06, 1. 60g/kgBW) improved significantly the ink propelling rate in small intestine of mice(P <0.01) and the body weight and food intake of rats, with no significant difference in food efficiency ratio. Jian Wei Xi Shi Bao Tablets ( 0. 53 、1.06g / kgBW) aslo significantly enhanced the activity and secretion quantity of pepsin in rats(P < 0.01). Conclusion The experiment result indicates that "Jian Wei Xi Shi Bao Tablets "has promoting degestive function in animals, namely enhance appetite, food intake , the secretion of gastric juice and pepsin, body weight and small intestine peristalsis, and aslo has the defecation function in mice.%目的 研究健胃喜食宝片促进动物消化功能的效果.方法 将昆明种雄性小鼠随机分为空白组、模型对照组和3个剂量(0.53、1.06、1.60g/kgBW)的给药组.各剂量组分别连续经口给予受试样品15d,空白组和模型对照组给予实验用水.用复方地芬诺酯制造小鼠便秘模型,进行小鼠小肠运

  12. Intimate Friends:On the Intercourse Between Lu Xun and Wei Suyuan%独夜有知己——鲁迅与韦素园交往的深层思考



    鲁迅与韦素园的交往是短暂而又真挚的,而这段交往由于种种原因却被遮蔽于现代文学史料中。二人的交往始于未名社的成立和对进步翻译文学事业的追求,由于同患肺病的特殊经历和相似的人生早年以及二人性格的相近,使得他们成为现代文坛一对年龄悬殊的知己。%Short and sincere intercourse existed between Lu Xun and Wei Suyuan, which was closed over by modem literary documents. Their intercourse began with the founding of Weiming Society and their pursuit for the progressive literature translating cause. Because of their special pulmonary disease experience, similar early life experience and character, they became bosom friends gradually in modern literary arena in spite of their age gap.

  13. WEI Qing-lin's experience on intractable facial paralysis treated with acupuncture-moxibustion and massage%魏清琳针灸推拿治疗顽固性面瘫经验撷要

    李玲; 陈前琼


    介绍魏清琳主任医师针灸综合疗法治疗顽固性面瘫的临床经验与施术特色.魏老师临证重用背部腧穴调理脏腑功能,根据解剖定位,创用颈阔肌体表投影区取穴法、巧用轻提拉浅透刺针刺法以恢复面部肌肉功能.同时擅长综合协同运用针、灸、指针、推摩等多种疗法,强调治疗过程中身心并调、医患互动,使患者达到全面康复的目的.%The clinical experiences and manipulation characteristic of comprehensive therapy of acupuncture-Moxibustion of WEI Qing-lin in treatment of intractable facial paralysis are introduced, including selecting acu-points on the back to regulate functions of zang fu, creating sensitive points of platysma projective area as acu-points and using skillfully the manipulation of lifting gently and penetration needling superficially so as to recover the function of facial muscles. Meanwhile, she excels in combination with acupuncture, moxibustion, finger needling and massage, and emphasizes co-regulating physical and mental condition and doctor-patient interaction so as to achieve comprehensive rehabilitation.

  14. 中西方浪漫主义美术之比较--以徐渭与德拉克洛瓦为例%Comparison of Western and Chinese Romanticism Fine Art-- Taking Xu Wei and Delacroix for Example



    在艺术创作过程中,浪漫主义艺术家以现实生活为基础,用无限的幻想和饱满的热情,来抒发主体对理想世界的追求和表现内在精神世界的渴望。但中西方浪漫主义美术无论从历史发展的角度还是从具体艺术表现形式来看都存在很大的差异,我们可以从浪漫主义艺术家徐渭和德拉克洛瓦的作品中得以充分的感悟。%Romanticism artists express their ideas on the spiritual world with boundless imagination and enthusiasm and these artistic creations are rooted in their real lives. However,there is a great difference between western and eastern ro-manticism fine art,both in historical development and specific artistic form. We can gain an insight from romanticism artists Xu Wei and Delacroix’s works.

  15. Professor Wei Wei′ s Core Elements of Treating Diseases by Applying Spleen and Stomach%魏玮教授调理脾胃论治疾病核心要素

    王欣; 魏玮


    魏玮教授在多年的临证过程中总结出疾病论治的三大核心要素:“能量、动态、平衡”。中医药论治疾病讲求整体观念,辨证论治,而脾胃是“后天之本,气血生化之源”,无论是论治脾胃病还是其他疾病,都要以恢复人体内的能量和动态作为基础和核心,并以达到平衡为最终的目的,即恢复人体正常有序的生理活动。%Professor Wei Wei′s three core elements of treating disease are energy,dynamics,and balance. Chinese medicine emphasizes on holism and differentiation,and spleen and stomach are the root of acquired constitution,and source of qi and blood transformation. No matter treating diseases on spleen or stomach or other diseases,it is very important to differentiate based on Four Diagnosis method,so as to regain the energy and dynamics,and ultimately achieve balance,which means recovering normal and regular physical activity.

  16. Identification of the non-stationarity of extreme precipitation events and correlations with large-scale ocean-atmospheric circulation patterns: A case study in the Wei River Basin, China

    Liu, Saiyan; Huang, Shengzhi; Huang, Qiang; Xie, Yangyang; Leng, Guoyong; Luan, Jinkai; Song, Xiaoyu; Wei, Xiu; Li, Xiangyang


    The investigation of extreme precipitation events in terms of variation characteristics, stationarity, and their underlying causes is of great significance to better understand the regional response of the precipitation variability to global climate change. In this study, the Wei River Basin (WRB), a typical eco-environmentally vulnerable region of the Loess Plateau in China was selected as the study region. A set of precipitation indices was adopted to study the changing patterns of precipitation extremes and the stationarity of extreme precipitation events. Furthermore, the correlations between the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)/El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events and precipitation extremes were explored using the cross wavelet technique. The results indicate that: (1) extreme precipitation events in the WRB are characterized by a significant decrease of consecutive wet days (CWD) at the 95% confidence level; (2) compared with annual precipitation, daily precipitation extremes are much more sensitive to changing environments, and the assumption of stationarity of extreme precipitation in the WRB is invalid, especially in the upstream, thereby introducing large uncertainty to the design and management of water conservancy engineering; (3) both PDO and ENSO events have a strong influence on precipitation extremes in the WRB. These findings highlight the importance of examining the validity of the stationarity assumption in extreme hydrological frequency analysis, which has great implications for the prediction of extreme hydrological events.

  17. Chinese Patent Medicine Liu Wei Di Huang Wan Combined with Antihypertensive Drugs, a New Integrative Medicine Therapy, for the Treatment of Essential Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Jie Wang


    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the beneficial and adverse effects of Liu Wei Di Huang Wan (LWDHW, combined with antihypertensive drugs, for essential hypertension. Methods. Five major electronic databases were searched up to August 2012 to retrieve any potential randomized controlled trials designed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of LWDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs for essential hypertension reported in any language, with main outcome measures as blood pressure. The quality of the included studies was assessed with the Jadad scale and a customized standard quality assessment scale. Results. 6 randomized trials were included. The methodological quality of the trials was evaluated as generally low. The pooled results showed that LWDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs was more effective in blood pressure and the scale for TCM syndrome and symptom differentiation scores compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. Most of the trials did not report adverse events, and the safety is still uncertain. Conclusions. LWDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs appears to be effective in improving blood pressure and symptoms in patients with essential hypertension. However, the evidence remains weak due to the poor methodological quality of the included studies.

  18. New Variations to Emotions Expressed Through Scenes--On Prose Composition by Wei Qing-chao%借景抒情散文的新变奏--漫谈魏清潮的散文创作



    The prose composed by Wei Qing-chao followed the conventional rituals and patterns of tak⁃ing advantage of scenes or describing objects to express emotions. However, he wouldn’t stiffly create his own metaphorical system to change or promote the nature, but rather bestow the beauty of uniqueness and value of expression on the nature. In addition, unlike most of other proses which organized the layouts around the artis⁃tic conception, he employed the technique of film montage in the prose, scenes constantly being taken and flashed back, repeated and compared, expressed emotions.%魏清潮的散文走的是借景抒情、托物言志的传统写作套路,但他不会生硬地以自己构造的隐喻系统去改造和提升自然,而是赋予自然独立的美和表现价值。另外,他的大多数散文也不像过往的许多散文那样围绕意境的创造来谋篇布局,而是借用电影蒙太奇的表现手法,通过扑面而来的一个个画面的闪回、重叠或者对比,抒情或言志。

  19. 密教传播与宋元泉州石造多宝塔%Research on the Communication of Esoteric Buddhism and Quanzhou Stone Duobao Pagoda in Song and Yuan Dynasty



    As an important town of the Sea Silk Road, Quanzhou was famous for its brilliant maritime transport history and abundant multieuhural. Quanzhou was influenced by overseas cultural, including the Indian culture and Esoteric Buddhism. The 13th century invasion of the islamic in India made exodus of large numbers of tantra monks, corresponds to the frequent transportation between China and India during this period, lots of monks im- migrated to Quanzhou. They made significant impact on esotericism in Quanzhou. There are a large number of architectural monuments influenced by Es- oteric Buddhism, including Buddhist sculptures, Sanskrit seed figure, Quanzhou Kaiyuan temple, etc. Esoteric Buddhism especially influenced the stone Building of Song and Yuan dynasty, including Baoqieyin Pagoda, Duobao Pagoda and stone pillar column. In the Song and Yuan period the impact of Es- oteric Buddhism showed a trend of more intense effect and greater number of remains as time goes by. These trends were synchronous with the Quanzhou overseas transport development and prosperity gradually. This paper, taking the Duobao Pagoda in Song and Yuan dynasty as example, reveals these trends by systematic fieldwork and site investigation.%地处海上交通要道的泉州历来受到海外文化影响.亦包括印度文化及密教的渗透;13世纪伊斯兰世界对印度的入侵使大量密教僧人外逃,与这一时期中印海上交通频繁相对应,对泉州的影响也更为明显。泉州传统建筑遗迹中,有大量受到密教的影响,除在造像、梵文种子图及开元寺大殿等木构建筑中有所体现外,更多表现在宋元时期的石建筑中,如宝箧印塔、多宝塔、石经幢等;其时间段集中在宋元时期,且随着时间推移呈现出影响更浓厚、遗迹数量更多的趋势;这一趋势表现出与泉州海外交通发展渐趋繁荣的同步性。本文通过较系统的现场调研,以宋元泉州石造多宝塔为例

  20. Analysis on the Status and Dynamic Changes of Forest Resources in Yu'an District,Lu'an City%六安市裕安区森林资源现状与动态变化分析

    王升堂; 陈传胜; 黄敏; 倪建华


    利用裕安区2004年与2013年森林资源二类调查数据,分析了森林资源现状特点及十年间的变化。结果表明:全区林地比重较高,占土地总面积的36.31%,林地主要分布在南部低山和中部丘陵岗地地区,北部平原区相对较少;林种、龄组结构比较合理,树种结构有所改善。2004~2013年10年间林地面积、活立木蓄积、森林覆盖率和林木绿化率均实现了增长。裕安区实施生态公益林建设工程、森林增长工程、森林长廊工程取得显著成效,使森林资源快速增长,生态环境安全得到改善。%This paper analyzed the percent characteristics and developing changes of forest resources in Yu'an district according to the 2nd‐class inventory data of years in 2004 and 2013 .The results showed that percentage of the region's forest land was higher , accounting for 36 .31% of the total land area .The distribution of forest land was uneven .Forest land mainly distributed in low mountains located in the south and hilly region in the middle part .Forest resources were poor in the northern plain .The forest categories and age structure of forest were more reasonable and plant species slightly improved .The woodland area ,forest volume of stumpages ,the percentage of forest cover and greening rate achieved growth during 2004‐2013 .There was a rapid growth of forest resources and environmental security was significantly improved in Yu'an district with the implementation of ecological forest construction ,forest grow th projects ,forest corridor project .

  1. Commercial Business Like Political Affair---Zhang Yuan-ji’ s Culture Practice with His Commercial and Political Opinion%商事如政事--张元济“以政入商”下的文化运作



    The Chung Hua Book Company tried to occupy the market of the commercial textbooks through republican text-books during the 1911 Revolution. The leader of the Commercial Press,Zhang Yuan-ji,who was of great political intelligence and abundant experience and was also well known among the political,business and education circles,resolved highly adaptive solutions to the crisis. Imitating the imperial examination system,the Commercial Presss based on all kinds of cultural publica-tion no matter the old or the new things,or the things in China or abroad. And the Commercial Presss was able to survive in the turbulent times also by extending its ample interpersonal relationship so that it then developed well under the leadership of Zhang Yuan-ji and maintained its position among political,business and education circles. At the same time the Commercial Presss had been keeping great benefit and good reputation.%民元鼎革之际,中华书局以共和教科书为突破口,抢占商务教科书市场份额。面对危机,商务领导人张元济将其丰富从政经验与政治智慧导入商业模式,加之苦心经营政学商三界高端人脉有年,故得以及时调整并挽回颓势。商务也适时利用其丰沛人脉,在动荡不安的历史年代夹缝中求生存,以文化出版事业为桥梁,无分新旧左右、禹内域外,效仿科举大举储才,将各方势力活成一片,使人脉在商务这个“变相之官场”的平台上,继续在政学商界良性延展,获得了自身历史上义利双赢的黄金时代。

  2. 袁同礼的图书馆人才培植方法及启示%Yuan Tongli's Methods about Cultivating Talents of Libraries and Its Revelation



    Yuan Tongli who is an important leader of Chinese librarianship in the period of the Republic of China, he has own unique ways of cultivating talents. In selecting talents, he attached importance to knowledge basis and academic skills of talents. In using talents, he respected talents' interests and took advantage of their strengths. In cultivating talents, he provided many opportunities of academic training and advanced studying for talents. In retaining talents, he cared them and fully played leadership charisma. Yuan Tongli's methods about cultivating talents have a great inspiration for libraries today. Firstly, cultivating talents of library is a strategic issue related to librarianship development and academic progress. Secondly, libraries should moderately increase the space-level positions in favor to cultivate talents. Finally, libraries should pay attention to the establishment of long-term mechanism of cultivating talents.%民国时期中国图书馆事业的重要领导者袁同礼在培植图书馆人才上有自己独特的方法:在选才方面,重视人才的知识基础和学术功底;在用才方面,尊重人才的志趣,用人所长;在育才方面,努力为人才提供学术训练和进修深造的机会,注重人才的成长;在留才方面,关心人才,充分发挥个人的领导魅力。此方法对当今图书馆的人才培植仍有极大的启发意义。图书馆人才培养是事关图书馆事业发展、学术进步的战略问题,图书馆应适度增加空间职位层次,建立长效的人才培养机制,为人才提供多方面的成长渠道。

  3. Clinical Study of Dan Zhi Xiao Yao San and Er Zhi Wan Jia Jian in Treating the Hormone Therapy of Breast Cancer the Clinical Observation of after Menopause Syndrome%丹栀逍遥散合二至丸治疗三苯氧胺不良反应的研究

    张传雷; 郑玉玲


    目的:观察丹栀逍遥散合二至丸加减对乳腺癌患者三苯氧胺(TAM)内分泌治疗不良反应的治疗作用.方法:将64例符合入选标准的乳腺癌患者,随机分为治疗组和对照组.治疗组:TAM,每次10 mg,每日2次,温开水送服,同时配合丹栀逍遥散合二至丸加减浓煎300 mL,日1剂,早、晚各服1次.对照组:TAM,每次10 mg,每日2次,温开水送服.治疗2月后评价疗效,比较两组患者库坡曼(kuppermann)症状积分、药物不良反应等观察指标.结果:治疗组kuppermann症状积分明显低于治疗前(P<0.05),临床缓解率(显效+有效)达90.63%;对照组积分较前无改善.两组缓解率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:应用TAM配合丹栀逍遥散合二至丸加减治疗乳腺癌,能够改善潮热汗出、失眠、疲乏及情绪异常等内分泌治疗后不良反应,提高生活质量.%Objective;To observe the therapeutical effect of Dan Zhi Xiao Yao San with Er Zhi Wan Jia Jian on adverse reactions of breast cancer of endocrine therapy on tamoxifen(TAM). Methods;64 patients with breast cancer according to the criteria,randomly divided into the treatment group and control group. The treatment group:TAM,every time 10 mg,2 times a day with lukewarm water service, at the same time cooperating with 300ml fried Dan Zhi Xiao Yao San with Er Zhi Wan Jia Jian,day 1 agent,the morning and evening take 1 times. Control group: TAM, every time 10 mg,2 times a day with lukewarm water service. Evaluate the efficacy after 2 months. Compared the kuppennann symptom scores, adverse drug reaction and other outcome of two groups of patients. Results; The kuppermann symptom scores of treatment group is significantly lower than no treatment(P< 0.05 ) , clinical response rate (powerfully + effective) 90. 63% ;the control group did not improve the previous points. The remission rate of two groups was significant difference(P <0.01). Conclusion;The application of TAM with Dan Zhi Xiao Yao

  4. 杜仲腰痛丸对腰椎间盘突出症患者血清TNF-α、IL-1β的影响%The Effect of DuZhongYaoTong Wan on the Levels of TNF-αand IL-1βin Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation

    朱换平; 赵继荣; 邓强


    目的:观察杜仲腰痛丸对腰椎间盘突出症(LDH)患者血清肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)、白介素-1β(IL-1β)的影响。方法:选择LDH患者共145例,治疗组76例,对照组69例,另选参加健康体检的成年人70例作为正常组。服药3周后,评定疗效,应用视觉模拟评分法进行疼痛评分,用放免法测定患者血清TNF-α、IL-1β含量。结果:TNF-α、IL-1β血清含量治疗后2组较治疗前明显下降(P<0.05),治疗组下降更明显(P<0.05)。2用药组均取得较好疗效,治疗后疼痛评分均有明显改善(P<0.05),治疗后2组间总有效率及疼痛评分比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:应用杜仲腰痛丸治疗LDH可取得较好疗效,其作用机理可能在于有效干预LDH患者炎症介质TNF-α、IL-1β表达。%To observe the effect ofDuZhongYaoTongWanon serum levels of tumor necrosis fac-tor-α(TNF-α) and interleukin-1β(IL-1β) in patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Methods: Totally 145 pa-tients with LDH were randomly divided into the treatment group with 76 cases, and the control group with 69 cases. Another 70 adults who participated in physical examination were selected as the normal group. The efficacy was e-valuated after takingDuZhongYaoTongWanfor three weeks. Visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to assess the score of pain and radioimmunoassay was applied to measure the contents of serum TNF-αand IL-1β. Results: The serum levels of TNF-αand IL-1βsignificantly increased in the patient group compared with the normal group (P<0.01). The serum levels of TNF-αand IL-1βsignificantly decreased in the treatment group compared with that before the treatment (P<0.05). The serum levels of TNF-αand IL-1βdecreased in the control group compared with that before treating (P<0.05). Two patient groups both obtained good efficacy, indicating significant improvements of pain scores after the treatment (P<0.05), and differences in

  5. Analysis of Gene Polymorphism of Human Platelet Antigen 1~17 System in Yao Nationality in Guangxi%广西瑶族人群血小板抗原1~17系统基因多态性研究



    To analyze the regional distribution feature of gene polymorphism of human platelet antigen ( HPA )l ~ 17 system in Yao ethnic group in Guangxi. Methods HPA 1 ~ 17 system genotyping of 48 Yao ethnic group was conducted by using PCR-SSP and the genotype frequency and gene frequency were calculated. Results Among the 17 HPA systems, HPA-3 had the greatest heterozygosity with a gene frequency of 0. 2292,0. 5208 and 0. 2500 for HPA-3a/3a, HPA-3a/3b,HPA-3b/3b,respectively;followed by HPA-15,which showed the heterozygosity with a gene frequency of 0.3125,0.4583 and 0. 2292,respectively. The predominance of a/a homozygosity was noted for HPAl-17,and the frequency of a/a homozygosity was 1.000 for the remaining 17 HPAs. There was a good fit to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium within each group. Conclusion The ethnic and original difference is significant in HPA. HPA-3 and HPA-15 have their own characteristic in Guangxi Yao population. The distribution of HPA-3 and HPA 15 gene frequencies are polymorphous, their roles in clinical platelet matched transfusion should be paid attention to.%目的 研究广西瑶族人群血小板抗原HPA-1~17系统基因多态性分布特点.方法 采用PCR-序列特异性引物(PCR-SSP)方法对48例广西瑶族健康人进行HPA-1~17系统基因分型,计算基因型频率、等位基因频率,并与其他种族、地区人群相关资料比较.结果 在17个HPA系统中,HPA-3基因型杂合频率最高,HPA 3a/3a、HPA3a/3b和HPA 3b/3b的频率分别为0.2292,0.5208和0.2500;HPA-15的杂合程度仅次之,HPA 15a/15a,HPA 15a/15b和HPA15b/15b的频率分别为0.3125、0.4583和0.2292;其余HPA系统只检测到a等位基因,其基因频率均为1.000,符合Hardy-Weinberg遗传定律.结论 HPA基因多态性分布存在明显的种族和地域性差异.广西瑶族HPA-3和HPA-15系统基因频率分布具有多态性,在临床血小板输注中必须重视.

  6. 从《古文辞类纂》到《唐宋文举要》——兼论高步瀛对姚鼐文章观念的继承和发展%From Anthology of Classical Prose to Sketch of Prose of Tang and Song Dynasties———Also on Gao Buying's Inheritance and Development of Yao Nai's View of Prose



    姚鼐的《古文辞类纂》以其较为精当完备的选文、精辟的评论和谨严的注释成为清中期以后学习古文的畅销选本,对桐城派古文标准的确立和传承也具有重要的意义。高步瀛选注《唐宋文举要》显示出对《古文辞类纂》的借鉴与吸收,也表现了高步瀛对姚鼐文章观念的继承和发展。%The Anthology of Classical Prose by Yao Nai has been a best-seller of anthologies for classical prose learning since the mid-Qing Dynasty with its comprehensive selection of prose,incisive commentaries and precise annotation.It is also of significance to the establishment and inheritance of the classical prose criteria for the Tongcheng School.Gao Bu'ying's compilation and annotation of Sketch of Prose of Tang and Song Dynasties shows his learning from the Anthology of Classical Prose and his inheritance and development of Yao Nai's view of prose.

  7. "Societies" of Nan Song in Notes Novels of Song and Yuan Dynasties and Causes for Their Prosperity%宋元笔记小说中的南宋“社会”及其繁盛原因



    Notes novels of Song and Yuan Dynasty have recorded various kinds of "societies" of Nan Song, including the society of entertainment, religion and making a living. The reason for their prosperity lies in the fully developed urban culture of Nan Song, the extreme custom of seeking entertainment, the psychology of seeking recognition and belonging of those who were forced to leave their home and the abnormal prosperity and decadence at the end of Nan Song.%宋元笔记小说记载了大量南宋时期各种类型组织的"社会",包括娱乐消遣型、宗教组织型和谋生服务型。这些"社会"之所以在南宋时期繁盛,离不开南宋高度发达的都市文化,浓郁的享乐风气,背井离乡者寻求认同感和归属感的心理需求,以及南宋末世的畸形繁华与颓废气象。

  8. A Summary of the Fifth National Academic Seminar of Jing Hua Yuan(镜花缘)%第五届全国《镜花缘》学术研讨会综述

    王立; 秦鑫


    2012年8月17日至18日,第五届全国《镜花缘》学术研讨会在江苏灌云召开。会议围绕《镜花缘》作者生平交游、文本生成、审美创新、《镜花缘》与的中外比较,以及小说与地方文化建设、文化产业发展等方面展开。%The Fifth National Academic Seminar of Jing Hua Yuan (镜花缘) was held in GuanyL:n, Jiangsu province from Aug. 17th to 18th, 2012. Topics such as the author's life experiences, text writing, appreciation and innovation of the text, the comparison between the novel in China and abroad, as well as the relationship be- tween the novel and the local culture construction and cultural industry development were discussed in the meeting.

  9. Illustration on Academic Characteristics and Annotation Instances of ZhiYuanYiCaoCunAn%《芷园臆草存案》学术特色及考释举例

    赵仁龙; 任杰; 焦振廉


    This paper is to introduce lifetime of LU Fu, a physician in the Ming Dynasty, and his book of Zhi Yuan Yi Cao Cun An. This book contains various subjects including exogenous disease, endogenous disease, external diseases and miscel aneous disease, though with limited cases. The academic characteristic are emphasized on three aspects:treating root of disease, pulse taking, case analysis. In this paper, some instances are given through textual researches and explanatory notes, for its obscure, refined words.%本文对明代医家卢复的生平及其医案著作《芷园臆草存案》进行论述,认为其医案虽有限,所涉则广,凡外感、内伤、外科及杂症无不及之,而所体现的学术特色大致有重视治本、重视脉诊、重视议病三个方面。《芷园臆草存案》文辞雅奥,多有不便于今人理解者,文中举数例予以考释。

  10. A View of “Horizon Fusion” From Translation of “Bidding Adieu to Yuan Junior in His Mission to Anxi”%从《送元二使安西》的译文看视野融合



    The paper introduces a brief account of the concept of “horizon fusion”, the main idea of reception aesthetics and modern hermeneutics, pointing out the important role of readers in literary activities, in fusion of horizon especially. The writer specifies that translator is both the reader and the author and translation is both the process of comprehension and innovation. Through the comparison among four translation versions of the poem entitled“Bidding Adieu to Yuan Junior in His Mission to Anxi” by Wangwei, illustrates the writer from the perspective of horizon fusion the preferable features of the one translated by Sun Dayu.%本文简述了视野融合的概念、接受关学和现代阐释学的主要观点,说明了读者的能动性在文学活动尤其在视野融合中的重要性,指出翻译者既是读者同时也是作者,翻译过程既是理解过程同时也是创造过程。作者通过对王维《送元二使安西》四个译文比较,从视野融合的角度说明了孙大雨译文的可取之处。

  11. 同济大学文远楼建设与改造设计的现代建筑思想研究%Analysis on Modern Design Philosophy in Renovation Project of Wen Yuan Building(Tongji University)



    A longitudinal/lengthwise analysis of modern design philosophy for building/renovating Wen Yuan building has been made from the perspective of form, content and concept. While the modern design movement has been revolutionary and impressive in western countries for over half a century, it was stagnant and neutral through the complex building cultural context of different times in china.%从形式、内容、观念等多视角对同济大学文远楼建设及改造设计中的现代建筑思想进行横向与纵向的比较分析,探讨了逾半个世纪以来,与西方国家振聋发聩的现代主义建筑运动不同,现代建筑思想在中国不同时代复杂的建筑文化语境下一直保持一种胶滞的“中用状态”存在方式.

  12. On the Tragic Connotation of Dramas with Love Stories. between Scholars and Prostitutes in Yuan Dynasty%元代士妓恋爱杂剧的悲剧意蕴



    The dramas with love stories between scholars and prostitutes in Yuan Dynasty have long been treated as romantic comedy of love. But because of personal pursuit and conflicts of personal fate, such dramas are full of tragic color. This is mainly expressed in three aspects: tragic depiction of geisha, violent conflict between affection and reason, and the tragic consciousness behind the reunified finale.%向来被视为元代爱情喜剧的士妓恋爱杂剧,由于个体性追求与整体性命运的冲突,其中又充满了强烈的悲剧色彩,这在剧作中主要表现在悲剧性歌妓形象的刻画,情与理的强烈冲突,隐藏在团圆结局背后的悲剧意识三个方面。

  13. The Only Existing Copy ofXing Yuan Guang Si and the Influence of Western Civilization%孤本《性原广嗣》与西学之影响

    刘虹; 穆丽华; 苗婷秀


    Traditional Chinese medicine doctor named Wang Honghan was prominent during the Qing Dynasty and known as the first master of traditional Chinese and Western civilizations. There were as many as 18 kinds of his work, but so far only just five kinds are still existing. Each book was influenced by Western civilization.Xing Yuan Guang Si was the only existing copy of monograph which was about the fountainhead of life and fetal pregnant influenced by Western natural property and ethics theory. Original heat and original damp theory, viviparity theory and other semantic environment integrating in Western medicine were the main content about Western civilization accepted in this book.%清初医家王宏翰被称为中西汇通第一家,其著作有18种之多,但至今存世的仅有5种,各书中均有其接受西学影响之内容。《性原广嗣》现为孤本,是一部受西方性理学影响的关于性命本原及嗣育胎孕的专著,元热元湿理论、胎生理论以及融入西学的语义环境等是本书接受西学的主要内容。

  14. 袁枚《随园食单》中的美食品鉴与美食思想探究%A Probe into Food Tasting and Food Ideas in Suiyuan Recipes by Yuan Mei



    Suiyuan Recipes,a key book on foods in ancient China, gives a systematic account of cuisine theory as well as a complete record of 326 local special dishes during the Qing dynasty. Yuan Mei briefly described the production process of a specific dish as well as sampled every dish, embodying his unique food ideas.%《随园食单》是清代论述美食的重要著作,系统阐述烹饪理论的“须知单”和“戒单”,还较全面地记录了清代各地特色名菜、名点326种。袁枚不仅简单地叙述具体菜点的制作方法,而且每道菜点都进行品鉴,其中也包含着独特的美食思想。

  15. Investigation on management of physical education and hygiene in primary school of town and village of QingYuan%广东省清远市乡镇小学体育卫生管理现状的研究



      通过问卷和实地调查对清远市乡镇小学体育与卫生管理现状进行调查研究。结果发现:该地区小学体育与卫生管理机构设置欠完善,校领导对体卫工作重视不够,规章制度缺乏校本性;师资、经费和场地器材严重缺乏;常规体育卫生工作处于有数量没质量状态%  By means of questionnaire and on-the-spot investigation, this paper aims to make a study of the present situation of the management systems of physical education and hygiene in primary schools of the villages and towns of QingYuan. The results indicate that the establishment of physical education and hygienic management organization is lack of perfection, the school leaders attach less importance to physical education and hygiene, the relevant school rules and regulations are not based on its practical situation;teachers, capital, sports ground and equipments are seriously deficient; the work of regular physical education and hygiene is in quantity state without quality.

  16. The "Emptiness and Fullness" and "Intricacy" Grammar in Zuo Commentary by Wang Yuan%王源《左传评》之“虚实”、“错综”文法



    The remarks on the " emptiness and fullness" and " intricacy" grammar in Zuo Commentary by Wang Yuan are of ingenuity, forming a series of theoretical systems of its own. His "emptiness and fullness" grammar mainly lies in three aspects: vividness in "emptiness", combination of emptiness with fullness, and authentic writing. However, the " intricacy" grammar is one of the most important expressive approaches to make article structure full of change. This paper explores the special art of composition of "taking orderliness as intricacy. "%王源对《左传》中“虚实”、“错综”文法的评点可谓独出心裁,形成了自己的一套理论体系。其“虚实”文法主要体现在三个方面:“虚”处传神;“虚”、“实”结合;关于写真的问题。而“错综”文法则是使文章结构充满变化的最重要的表现手段之一,并且探究了“以整齐为错综”的特殊章法现象。

  17. The Administration of the Ethnic Regions in Northwest China during the Reign of the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty%蒙元对西北各民族地区的经营设治



    In Northwest China, during the reign of the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty, ethnic problems were complex, migration was frequent, and ethnic division and reunion became prevalent. Political instability and disruption propelled the Central Government to carry out urgent measures. Under the leadership of the princes, in Gansu Province, administrative organs at different levels were established, roads were opened and cultivation improved. These measures and practices strengthened the political relationship between the local regions and the Central Government and consolidated the unity of Northwest China.%蒙元统治时期的西北,民族情况复杂,各民族的迁徙对流频繁,民族间的分化与重组相互交叉,政治上的统一与分裂变化无常,中央政府通过亲王出镇、建立甘肃行中书省和行枢密院、设置站赤、打开交通、开展屯田垦殖等一系列措施,加强了地方与元王朝中央的政治联系,巩固了西部边疆民族地区的统一。

  18. 宋元明清时期的畜牧业技术及其在吉林的借鉴%Animal Husbandry Technology and Reference to Jilin in Song, Yuan, Ming, Qing Dynasty

    谭黎明; 徐秀文; 夏宇旭; 赵阳


    宋元明清时期是国家从分裂割据、若干民族政权并立,到各民族融合进一步加强,逐步走向中华民族的统一时期.其边疆与中原通过贸易的方式相互融合,促进了经济的发展乃至科学技术的进步,畜牧技术、兽医技术和渔业技术都有很大提高.羊、马、牛、猪、鸡、鸭、鹅都有许多优良品种涌现,并有许多史书记载了家畜禽的饲养管理方式、渔业捕捞与贩运的方式与规模.这些珍贵的农业资源遗产,对于今天畜牧业的发展具有启示意义.%The integrity of each nation was strengthened through trade during Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasty, which advanced economic development and scientific techniques improvement in animal husbandry, veterinary and fishery. Fine varieties of sheep, horse, cattle, pig, chick, duck and goose occurred, the breeding and management way, fishery tracking scale were recorded in book. These precious agriculture resource heritages have significance for animal husbandry development.

  19. Research on Symptom and Medicine Information Abstraction of TCM Book Jin Gui Yao Lue Based on Conditional Random Field%基于多特征条件随机场的《金匮要略》症状药物信息抽取研究

    叶辉; 姬东鸿


    目的:结合自然语言处理方法,研究可以有效抽取中医古籍中所含症状和药物文本实体信息的方法。方法以《金匮要略》为例,采用条件随机场(CRF)算法,先将文本进行分词处理,然后以词性、基于键值对的中医诊断标记集作为辅助特征,通过症状-药物 BIO 标签为训练特征来训练出模型,然后利用该模型对测试集文本进行自动标签标注。结果基于多特征 CRF 自动标注的结果准确率达到84.5%,召回率达到70.9%,F测度值达到77.1%。结论运用CRF方法加入词性、中医诊断标记集特征集进行训练得出的多特征模型,能有效提高 CRF 算法对中医古籍的实体抽取能力,生成的模型可用来自动化抽取中医古籍文本的症状药物实体信息。%Objective To find an efficient way to abstract symptoms and medicine information from TCM book Jin Gui Yao Lue through combination of natural language processing method. Methods Taking Jin Gui Yao Lue as an example and by using conditional random fields (CRF), texts were processed according to words, and then part of speech and key assignments based on TCM diagnosis marker group were set as auxiliary features. Symptom-medicine BIO labels were set as the training features to train the model. Then this model was used to conduct automatic labeling to tested texts. Results The accuracy rate of automatic labeling based on multi-feature CRF was 84.5%, recall rate 70.9%, F measure value 77.1%. Conclusion The multi-feature model trained through CRF combined with part of speech and TCM diagnosis marker group can successfully improve abstraction entity information ability from ancient TCM books. The model can be used to automatically abstract symptom and medicine entity information from ancient TCM books.

  20. The Custom of Dyeing Teeth among the Yao People in Vietnam——Based on Field Surveys in Laocai Province,Vietnam%触变与持守:越南瑶族的黑齿习俗——基于越南老街省保胜县田野调查的探讨



    漆染牙齿是人类一种古老的体饰文化,历史上曾在亚太地区广泛存在。瑶族本无漆齿习俗,但有的支系———如越南保胜的白裤瑶(贺瑶),却在与越濮族系的黑齿民族接触中所濡染;受现代审美观念的影响,越南社会不再"以黑为美",瑶族黑齿习俗也随之变迁。相对封闭的生活环境与相对保守的族群文化,使其成为这一习俗的最后持守者。从本质上看,越南瑶族对黑齿习俗的习得、持守或放弃,均是他们基于生活需要因应环境与社会变迁的文化策略。%Dyeing teeth is a kind of ancient culture of body decoration,which was historically widespread in the Asia-Pacific region.There used to be no custom of dyeing teeth among the Yao people,but some branches,like the white-pants Yao(also named Ho Yao) in Vietnam,followed the custom by contact with black-teeth Yue or Pu people.Influenced by modern aesthetic ideas,the Vietnamese society no longer holds the idea that "Blackness means beauty" and the Yao's custom of dyeing teeth has also changed.However,these people become the last practitioner of the custom in reality thanks to their relatively isolated living environment with relatively conservative ethnic cultures.In essence,the acquisition,adherence or abandonment of the custom of dyeing teeth among the Yao people in Vietnam are their cultural strategies to meet their needs in adapting to the environmental and social changes.