Sample records for yamagata prefectural experimental

  1. [Occurrence of Tsutsugamushi disease infection by Orientia tsutsugamushi, Kawasaki serotype, in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan].

    Otani, Katsumi; Kaneko, Akiko; Aoki, Toshiya; Murata, Toshio


    Of 95 Tsutsugamushi disease case occurring in Yamagata prefecture from 1999 to 2006, four-all women-involved the O. tsutsugamushi Kawasaki serotype. The three major symptoms were fever, exanthema, and eschar present from mid-October to early November. Serodiagnosis by indirect immunofluoresence assay showed elevated IgG and IgM antibody titers against the Kawasaki serotype antigen, with IgM higher than IgG. Nested PCR detected 56-kDa DNA in three of the cases. DNA was amplified in Kawasaki-specific PCR. Two cases for which sequencing was done using nested PCR-amplified DNA showed an identity of 99.8% for the Kawasaki strain (Accession number: M63383). These results confirmed the occurrence of Tsutsugamushi disease infection involving Kawasaki serotype in Yamagata prefecture.

  2. An Outbreak of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Yamagata Prefecture Following the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Ken Iseki


    Full Text Available Background: In the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake, most of the areas in Yamagata prefecture experienced a serious power failure lasting for approximately 24 hours. A number of households were subsequently poisoned with carbon monoxide (CO due to various causes. In this study, we conducted a survey of CO poisoning during the disaster. Methods: A questionnaire regarding CO poisoning associated with the disaster was sent to 37 emergency hospitals in Yamagata prefecture. Results: A total of 51 patients were treated for unintentional CO poisoning in 7 hospitals (hyperbaric oxygen chambers were present in 3 of the hospitals. The patients (18 men, 33 women ranged in age from 0 to 90 years. The source of CO exposure was charcoal briquettes (23 cases; 45%, gasoline-powered electric generators (18 cases; 35%, electric generators together with oil stoves (8 cases; 16%, oil stoves (1 cases; 2%, and automobile exhaust (1 cases; 2%. Blood carboxyhemoglobin levels ranged from 0.5% to 41.6% in 49 cases. Of these, 41 patients were treated by normobaric oxygen therapy, while one was intubated for artificial respiration. Additionally, 5 patients (10% were treated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and 3 patients (6% experienced delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae. Conclusion: CO sources included gasoline-powered electric generators and charcoal briquettes during the disaster. Storm-related CO poisoning is well recognized as a disaster-associated accident in the United States, but not in Japan. We emphasize that public education is needed to make people aware of the dangers of CO poisoning after a disaster. In addition, a pulse CO-oximeter should be set up in hospitals.  

  3. Detailed genetic analysis of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein gene in human parainfluenza virus type 1 isolates from patients with acute respiratory infection between 2002 and 2009 in Yamagata prefecture, Japan

    Mizuta Katsumi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1 causes various acute respiratory infections (ARI. Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN glycoprotein of HPIV1 is a major antigen. However, the molecular epidemiology and genetic characteristics of such ARI are not exactly known. Recent studies suggested that a phylogenetic analysis tool, namely the maximum likelihood (ML method, may be applied to estimate the evolutionary time scale of various viruses. Thus, we conducted detailed genetic analyses including homology analysis, phylogenetic analysis (using both the neighbor joining (NJ and ML methods, and analysis of the pairwise distances of HN gene in HPIV1 isolated from patients with ARI in Yamagata prefecture, Japan. Results A few substitutions of nucleotides in the second binding site of HN gene were observed among the present isolates. The strains were classified into two major clusters in the phylogenetic tree by the NJ method. Another phylogenetic tree constructed by the ML method showed that the strains diversified in the late 1980s. No positively selected sites were found in the present strains. Moreover, the pairwise distance among the present isolates was relatively short. Conclusions The evolution of HN gene in the present HPIV1 isolates was relatively slow. The ML method may be a useful phylogenetic method to estimate the evolutionary time scale of HPIV and other viruses.

  4. Family Dynamics and Mental Status of Japanese Families Who Live in a Northern Prefecture of Japan

    SEKITO, Yoshiko


    Abstract :The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of family dynamics and mental status of Japanese families who live in a northern prefecture of Yamagata, Japan. Data were collected using Family Dynamics Measure II (FDM II) and a questionnaire including questions about socio-demographic characteristics and mental status. Data were collected by convenience sampling from residents of community groups and care personnel. Participation was voluntary. Findings: The majority of pa...

  5. Imported malaria in Okayama prefecture

    安治, 敏樹; 頓宮, 廉正; 頼, 俊雄; 何, 黎星; 下野, 國夫; 稲臣, 成一; 村主,節雄; 塩田, 哲也; 桜井, 浩一


    Two cases of imported malaria which occurred in Okayama prefecture are reported. One was infected with Plasmodium vivax in India, the other with P. falciparum at Nigeria, Africa. The efficacy of some antimalarial drugs in these cases is discussed. One patient was infected with P. falciparum, despite taking the medicine Daraprim® regularly. The efficacy of Daraprim® for suppressive cure in Nigeria is doutful. The therapy of chloroquine-resistance tropical malaria is also discussed.

  6. Cross-lineage influenza B and heterologous influenza A antibody responses in vaccinated mice: immunologic interactions and B/Yamagata dominance.

    Danuta M Skowronski

    Full Text Available The annually reformulated trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV includes both influenza A/subtypes (H3N2 and H1N1 but only one of two influenza B/lineages (Yamagata or Victoria. In a recent series of clinical trials to evaluate prime-boost response across influenza B/lineages, influenza-naïve infants and toddlers originally primed with two doses of 2008-09 B/Yamagata-containing TIV were assessed after two doses of B/Victoria-containing TIV administered in the subsequent 2009-10 and 2010-11 seasons. In these children, the Victoria-containing vaccines strongly recalled antibody to the initiating B/Yamagata antigen but induced only low B/Victoria antibody responses. To further evaluate this unexpected pattern of cross-lineage vaccine responses, we conducted additional immunogenicity assessment in mice. In the current study, mice were primed with two doses of 2008-09 Yamagata-containing TIV and subsequently boosted with two doses of 2010-11 Victoria-containing TIV (Group-Yam/Vic. With the same vaccines, we also assessed the reverse order of two-dose Victoria followed by two-dose Yamagata immunization (Group-Vic/Yam. The Group-Yam/Vic mice showed strong homologous responses to Yamagata antigen. However, as previously reported in children, subsequent doses of Victoria antigen substantially boosted Yamagata but induced only low antibody response to the immunizing Victoria component. The reverse order of Group-Vic/Yam mice also showed low homologous responses to Victoria but subsequent heterologous immunization with even a single dose of Yamagata antigen induced substantial boost response to both lineages. For influenza A/H3N2, homologous responses were comparably robust for the differing TIV variants and even a single follow-up dose of the heterologous strain, regardless of vaccine sequence, substantially boosted antibody to both strains. For H1N1, two doses of 2008-09 seasonal antigen significantly blunted response to two doses of the 2010

  7. Epidemiology of influenza B/Yamagata and B/Victoria lineages in South Africa, 2005-2014

    Treurnicht, Florette K.; Tempia, Stefano; Hellferscee, Orienka; Mtshali, Senzo; Cohen, Adam L.; Buys, Amelia; McAnerney, Johanna M.; Besselaar, Terry G.; Pretorius, Marthi; von Gottberg, Anne; Walaza, Sibongile; Cohen, Cheryl; Madhi, Shabir A.; Venter, Marietjie


    Background Studies describing the epidemiology of influenza B lineages in South Africa are lacking. Methods We conducted a prospective study to describe the circulation of influenza B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages among patients of all ages enrolled in South Africa through three respiratory illness surveillance systems between 2005 and 2014: (i) the Viral Watch (VW) program enrolled outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI) from private healthcare facilities during 2005–2014; (ii) the influenza-like illnesses program enrolled outpatients in public healthcare clinics (ILI/PHC) during 2012–2014; and (iii) the severe acute respiratory illnesses (SARI) program enrolled inpatients from public hospitals during 2009–2014. Influenza B viruses were detected by virus isolation during 2005 to 2009 and by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction from 2009–2014. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients hospitalized with SARI and infected with different influenza B lineages were also compared using unconditional logistic regression. Results Influenza viruses were detected in 22% (8,706/39,804) of specimens from patients with ILI or SARI during 2005–2014, of which 24% (2,087) were positive for influenza B. Influenza B viruses predominated in all three surveillance systems in 2010. B/Victoria predominated prior to 2011 (except 2008) whereas B/Yamagata predominated thereafter (except 2012). B lineages co-circulated in all seasons, except in 2013 and 2014 for SARI and ILI/PHC surveillance. Among influenza B-positive SARI cases, the detection of influenza B/Yamagata compared to influenza B/Victoria was significantly higher in individuals aged 45–64 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–16.5) and ≥65 years (aOR: 12.2; 95% CI: 2.3–64.4) compared to children aged 0–4 years, but was significantly lower in HIV-infected patients (aOR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2–0.9). Conclusion B lineages co

  8. Study on wind turbine for Yamagata wind energy institute. Comparison of the actual and estimate values for electric power; Yamagata furyoku hatsudensho no fusha ni tsuite. Hatsudenryo yosoku to jissekichi no hikaku

    Nagai, H. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Kojima, T. [Yamagata Wind Energy Institute, Yamagata (Japan)


    For two 400kW wind turbines erected in Jan. 1996 of Yamagata Wind Energy Institute, their estimated power output was compared with actual output for 7 months. AMeDAS data in 1985-94 were totaled every month to use as basic data. The altitude and surface roughness model necessary for WAsP analysis recommended by NEDO`s wind condition close inspection manual were prepared using 1/25,000 maps and aerial photographs. The obstacle model for estimating wind conditions at height of the wind turbine was prepared using the data obtained by field survey. Mean wind velocity and latent energy were determined by statistical analysis of wind velocity occurrence relative frequencies and Weibull distribution parameters. The power output of 717,700kWh was obtained for 7 months, which is equivalent to 88.5% of the estimated output of 810,730kWh for the same period. It was clarified from obtained characteristic wind conditions at the site that the wind power generation is promising at the site not only in winter but also in summer. Although the test period was too short, this method was effective as analytical method of output estimation in the planning stage of wind turbines. 3 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Detection of Saffold viruses from children with acute respiratory infections in Yamagata, Japan, between 2008 and 2015.

    Itagaki, Tsutomu; Aoki, Yoko; Matoba, Yohei; Tanaka, Shizuka; Ikeda, Tatsuya; Matsuzaki, Yoko; Mizuta, Katsumi


    Although Saffold virus (SAFV) was reported as a novel human cardiovirus in 2007, no causative association between SAFV and clinical disease has been proven and the longitudinal epidemiology of SAFVs is not available. To establish the relationship between SAFVs and acute respiratory infections (ARIs) and to clarify the longitudinal epidemiology of SAFVs, 7258 nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from children with ARIs in Yamagata, Japan between 2008 and 2015. The specimens were inoculated on a microplate including six cell lines as part of routine surveillance, and molecular screening was performed for SAFVs using a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method. Throughout the study period, 95 (1.3%) SAFV genotype 2 (SAFV2), and 28 (0.4%) SAFV3 were detected, mainly between September and November. There were two outbreaks of SAFV2 in 2009 and 2013, and one outbreak of SAFV3 in 2012 and the positive rates during these outbreaks were 12.1% (53/439), 11% (35/319), and 4.4% (20/453), respectively. Sixty-three SAFV2 and 28 SAFV3 strains were detected as a single virus from children with ARIs such as pharyngitis, herpangina, and tonsillitis. These results suggested that SAFV2 and SAFV3 are possible causative agents of ARIs among children and their infections occur mainly in the autumn season in Japan. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Countermeasures for Tobacco Branding and Industrial Development in Enshi Prefecture

    Guangzhong; DAI


    Agricultural branding is an important mark of agricultural modernization. Enshi Prefecture of Hubei Province is reputed as " Tobacco Kingdom" and " World Capital of Selenium". It is also the key production area of flue-cured tobacco,burley tobacco and selenium-enriched tobacco. The tobacco industry has become a pillar industry of Enshi Prefecture. This paper firstly introduces tobacco resource and industry of Enshi Prefecture. Then,it analyzes countermeasures for tobacco branding and industrial development. Finally,it comes up with several constructive recommendations.

  11. Surveillance and vaccine effectiveness of an influenza epidemic predominated by vaccine-mismatched influenza B/Yamagata-lineage viruses in Taiwan, 2011-12 season.

    Yi-Chun Lo

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The 2011-12 trivalent influenza vaccine contains a strain of influenza B/Victoria-lineage viruses. Despite free provision of influenza vaccine among target populations, an epidemic predominated by influenza B/Yamagata-lineage viruses occurred during the 2011-12 season in Taiwan. We characterized this vaccine-mismatched epidemic and estimated influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE. METHODS: Influenza activity was monitored through sentinel viral surveillance, emergency department (ED and outpatient influenza-like illness (ILI syndromic surveillance, and case-based surveillance of influenza with complications and deaths. VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza was evaluated through a case-control study on ILI patients enrolled into sentinel viral surveillance. Logistic regression was used to estimate VE adjusted for confounding factors. RESULTS: During July 2011-June 2012, influenza B accounted for 2,382 (72.5% of 3,285 influenza-positive respiratory specimens. Of 329 influenza B viral isolates with antigen characterization, 287 (87.2% were B/Yamagata-lineage viruses. Proportions of ED and outpatient visits being ILI-related increased from November 2011 to January 2012. Of 1,704 confirmed cases of influenza with complications, including 154 (9.0% deaths, influenza B accounted for 1,034 (60.7% of the confirmed cases and 103 (66.9% of the deaths. Reporting rates of confirmed influenza with complications and deaths were 73.5 and 6.6 per 1,000,000, respectively, highest among those aged ≥65 years, 50-64 years, 3-6 years, and 0-2 years. Adjusted VE was -31% (95% CI: -80, 4 against all influenza, 54% (95% CI: 3, 78 against influenza A, and -66% (95% CI: -132, -18 against influenza B. CONCLUSIONS: This influenza epidemic in Taiwan was predominated by B/Yamagata-lineage viruses unprotected by the 2011-12 trivalent vaccine. The morbidity and mortality of this vaccine-mismatched epidemic warrants careful consideration of introducing a

  12. Landscape change detection in Yulin prefecture

    ZHANJinyan; DENGXiangzheng; YUETianxiang


    Landscape is a dynamic phenomenon that almost continuously changes. The overall change of a landscape is the result of complex and interacting natural and spontaneous processes and planned actions by man. However, numerous activities by a large number of individuals are not concerted and contribute to the autonomous evolution of the landscape in a similar way as natural processes do. There is a well-established need to detect land use and ecological change so that appropriate policies for the ;egional sustainable development can be developed. Landscape change detection is considered to be effectively repeated surveillance and needs especially strict protocols to identify landscape change. This paper developed a series of technical frameworks on landscape detection based on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Data. Through human-machine interactive interpretation, the interpretation precision was 92.00% in 1986 and 89.73% in 2000. Based on the interpretation results of TM images and taking Yulin prefecture as a case study area, the area of main landscape types was summarized respectively in 1986 and 2000. The landscape pattern changes in Yulin could be divided into ten types.

  13. How to Develop Rubber Production in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture?

    Huide; HUANG; Haolun; HUANG; Wanzhen; ZHANG


    The natural rubber planting area in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture accounts for about 30% of rubber planting area in China. At the end of 2013,the rubber planting area in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture was 29. 4 ha,the tapped rubber plantation area was 17. 49 ha,and the dry rubber production was 317000 t. Currently,the production and management level of rubber plantation has declined in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture,the tapping technique is outdated,and the tapping technology management system is difficult to implement. Therefore,some ways can be employed to promote the development of rubber industry such as enhancing the operation and management level of rubber industry,organizing the rubber production team,and developing the new rubber farmers’ cooperatives.

  14. Epidemiological Survey of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration in Tottori Prefecture, Japan

    Kenji Wada-Isoe


    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD in Japan is unknown. An epidemiological survey study of FTLD was undertaken in Tottori Prefecture, a district in the western region of Japan. Methods: Hospitals in Tottori Prefecture were surveyed by a two-step questionnaire in 2010, and the prevalence of FTLD per 100,000 inhabitants was calculated using the actual number of patients and inhabitants in Tottori Prefecture on the prevalence day of October 1, 2010. Results: In this survey, 66 patients were diagnosed with FTLD. The subtypes of FTLD were as follows: 62 cases of frontotemporal dementia (FTD, 3 cases of progressive nonfluent aphasia, and 1 case of semantic dementia. Among the FTD cases, 5 cases were FTD with motor neuron disease and 1 case was FTD with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. The prevalence of FTD in the total population of Tottori Prefecture was 11.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. Based on these results, the prevalence of FTLD in Japan in 2008 was estimated to be 9.5 per 100,000 individuals. Conclusions: Our epidemiological survey results suggest that there are at least 12,000 FTLD patients in Japan, indicating that FTLD is not a rare disease.

  15. Incidence of pests and viral disease on pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan

    Kim, Ok-Kyung; Yamada, Yoshihiro; Sato, Takuma; Shinohara, Hirosuke; Takahata, Ken


    Abstract Background The solanaceous fruit crop pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.), originating in the Andes, is grown commercially in South American countries and New Zealand. In these areas, pests and diseases of pepino have been identified well; however, to date, these have seldom been investigated in detail in Japan. Herein, we attempt to reconstruct an agricultural production system for commercial pepino crops in Japan, and evaluate the incidence of pests and viral diseases on pepino. The findings of this study will facilitate in developing a better crop system for the commercial cultivation of healthy pepino fruits. New information A total of 11 species, comprising nine insects and two mites, were recognized as pests of pepino plants in our experimental fields in Kanagawa Prefecture, central Honshu, Japan. Of these pest species, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 and the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877, were remarkably abundant than the other pest species. Eventually, 13 species, including two previously recorded, are currently recognized as the pests of pepino in Japan. With regard to viruses, we tested two species Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), as well as three genera Carlavirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus. No virus was detected in symptomatic pepino leaves collected in our experimental fields. This is a first report on the identification of pests on pepino plants in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and elucidates the relationship between currently occurring pests of pepino plants and potential viral pathogens that they can transmit. PMID:28947875

  16. Ultrasonography survey and thyroid cancer in the Fukushima Prefecture

    Jacob, Peter; Kaiser, Jan Christian; Ulanovsky, Alexander [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Department of Radiation Sciences, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)


    Thyroid cancer is one of the major health concerns after the accident in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station (NPS). Currently, ultrasonography surveys are being performed for persons residing in the Fukushima Prefecture at the time of the accident with an age of up to 18 years. Here, the expected thyroid cancer prevalence in the Fukushima Prefecture is assessed based on an ultrasonography survey of Ukrainians, who were exposed at an age of up to 18 years to {sup 131}I released during the Chernobyl NPS accident, and on differences in equipment and study protocol in the two surveys. Radiation risk of thyroid cancer incidence among survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and preliminary estimates of thyroid dose due to the Fukushima accident were used for the prediction of baseline and radiation-related thyroid cancer risks. We estimate a prevalence of thyroid cancer of 0.027 % (95 % CI 0.010 %; 0.050 %) for the first screening campaign in the Fukushima Prefecture. Compared with the incidence rate in Japan in 2007, the ultrasonography survey is predicted to increase baseline thyroid cancer incidence by a factor of 7.4 (95 % CI 0.95; 17.3). Under the condition of continued screening, thyroid cancer during the first fifty years after the accident is predicted to be detected for about 2 % of the screened population. The prediction of radiation-related thyroid cancer in the most exposed fraction (a few ten thousand persons) of the screened population of the Fukushima Prefecture has a large uncertainty with the best estimates of the average risk of 0.1-0.3 %, depending on average dose. (orig.)

  17. [Radioactive contamination of foods marketed in saitama prefecture].

    Yoshida, Terumitsu; Nagahama, Yoshiyuki; Takekuma, Mikiko; Miyake, Sadaaki; Nomoto, Kahoru; Takano, Mariko


    Up to October 31, 2012, a total of 170 food samples marketed in Saitama Prefecture were examined following the setting of provisional regulatory limits for radioactivity in drinking water and foodstuffs by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare on 1 April 2012. No sample exceeded the regulatory limits as determined by gamma ray spectrometry with a germanium semiconductor detector. However the radioactive cesium concentrations of food samples such as raw wood-shiitake and maccha (powdered green tea) produced in Saitama were nearly at the regulatory limits, being 74 Bq/kg and 84 Bq/kg, respectively.

  18. Chemical studies on hot springs in Ehime Prefecture

    Mitarai, K. (Ehime Prefecture Research Institute of Public Health, Japan)


    One hundred and twenty-seven hot springs in Ehime Prefecture, which are primarily located in the Dogo area, were studied. The waters were subjected to chemical analysis and the springs were surveyed in-situ for hydrogen ion concentration, total soluble component, temperature, and F ion concentration. About 80% of the springs were slightly alkaline and the major soluble component was NaHCO/sub 3/ or NaCl. Fifty percent of the springs contained more than 2 ppm of F ion. The chemical components were closely related to area geology.

  19. Characteristics of Farmer Tourism Market in Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture

    Rishan; JIN; Yanxiang; LI; Shizhu; JIN


    On the basis of comparison of urban and rural areas,distance and nationality,this paper analyzes characteristics of farmer tourism market in Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture. There is a distinct difference in tourism of urban and rural residents. The tourism difference between outer suburban and inner suburban farmers is mainly manifested in organizational ways,travel distance,travel destination,and amount of consumption. Nationality difference is mainly shown in selection of means of transportation,length of travel time,and amount of consumption.

  20. Prefecture-level economic conditions and risk of suicide in Japan: a repeated cross-sectional analysis 1975-2010

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Kashima, Saori; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V


    .... We sought to examine temporal changes in the associations between prefecture-level economic conditions and completed suicide during the recent 35 years, controlling for individual composition in each prefecture...

  1. Radon concentrations of ground waters in Aichi Prefecture

    Ohnuma, Shoko; Kawamura, Norihisa [Aichi Prefectural Inst. of Public Health, Nagoya (Japan)


    Aichi Prefectural Institute of Public Health has been collecting the data concerning the spacial distribution of Rn concentration of groundwater in Aichi Prefecture and its time course changes. In this report, the data was described chiefly from 1991 and the availability of newly developed polyethylene vessel was discussed. Determination of Rn concentration was performed at a total of 104 sites within the range from the horizon to the depth of 1800 m. The measurement has been repeatedly conducted for ca. 20 years. The maximum level of Rn was 896 Bq/l and the minimum was 0.3 Bq/l for the groundwater samples collected from different springs. Correlation of Rn concentration with other chemical and physical factors for ground water was investigated and a significant correlation was found only between Rn concentration and pH ({gamma}=0.304, p<0.01). No time course changes in Rn concentration was observed except for the water sample from the site affected by some newly dug wells. In addition, the newly developed extraction vessel was shown to be available for the determination and its operability in the field was superior to the conventional glass ware. (M.N.)

  2. Evaluation of SPECT imaging using myocardial phantoms in Akita prefecture

    Tamura, Kiyohiko [Akita Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Watarai, Jiro; Miura, Mamoru


    Evaluation of SPECT imaging using myocardial phantom in Akita Prefecture. The Society of Nuclear Medicine for Circulation disease in Akita was established in July, 1997. To improve myocardial spect imaging in Akita Prefecture, we first visually evaluated two acrlic defect (2 cm{phi} x 1 cm thickness aqcliel and 1 cm{phi} x 1 cm thickness) images of long axis and short axis of myocardial phantoms, using 14 SPECT Cameras. These defect images of myocardial phantom were evaluated by four cardiologists and twelve radiologists between August and December, 1996. Secondly, we measured the FWHM of four line sources (anterior, lateral, inferior, and septum positions in the short axis of myocardial phantom) using quantitative analysis by myocardial phantom between April and July, 1997. The results were reported at the 4th and 5th meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine for Circulation Disease in Akita. In conclusion, about 70% of myocardial spect images were of good or normal quality, whereas about 30% of the images were evaluated as of bad quality. To improve the myocardial spect images, we recognized that the basic performance of the SPECT cameras need be investigated. (author)

  3. Spatial analysis of the Chania prefecture: Crete triangulation network quality

    Achilleos, Georgios


    The network of trigonometric points of a region is the basis upon which any form of cartographic work is attached to the national geodetic coordinate system (data collection, processing, output presentations) and not only. The products of the cartographic work (cartographic representations), provide the background which is used in cases of spatial planning and development strategy. This trigonometric network, except that, provides to a single cartographic work, the ability to exist within a unified official state geodetic reference system, simultaneously determines the quality of the result, since the trigonometric network data that are used, have their own quality. In this paper, we present the research of spatial quality of the trigonometric network of Chania Prefecture in Crete. This analysis examines the triangulation network points, both with respect to their spatial position (distribution in space), and in their accuracy (horizontally and vertically).

  4. Current Situations and Development Ideas of Buckwheat Tea Industry in Liangshan Prefecture

    Fayong; GONG; Shiming; XIAO; Jing; LI


    This paper firstly introduces current situations of buckwheat tea industry in Liangshan Prefecture,current situations of intellectual property right of buckwheat tea in whole China,and total flavonoid content in buckwheat tea. On the basis of these current situations,it analyzes drawbacks of buckwheat tea sold in the market. Finally,it presents development ideas of buckwheat tea industry in Liangshan Prefecture.

  5. Wild boar hunters profile in Shimane prefecture, western Japan

    Ueda, G.


    Full Text Available Wild boars have been expanding their range and seriously damage agricultural crops all over Japan. Such situation is obvious in Shimane Prefecture, western end of Honshu Island, where most of its territory is mountainous. Populaton control is strongly expected by farmers and administration. However, the number of hunters has been drastically decreasing since the 1970’s. To maintain and increase hunters, we must investigate their activities and attitudes to clarify the problems. Questionnaires were conducted in 2001 on 310 hunters who renewed their hunting license at local office. The response rate was 80.0%. Wild boar hunters accounted for 61.6%, and the others were mostly bird hunters (32.5%. The objective of wild boar hunting was predominantly nuisance control, and very few hunted for money despite of its high commercial value. Most of them were farmers (35.8% and/or farm village dwellers (53.6%, and used the leg snare (61.4%. Despite the stable number of hunters, the number of hunters using guns is decreasing. Hunters do not to appear to be interested in maintaining the local hunting society. Leisure is the most pursued objective rather nuisance control. Therefore, actions should be taken to stimulate hunting as a leisure activity thus maintaining an important tool for wild boar management.

  6. [Trials for early intervention in Mie Prefectural Mental Care Center].

    Harada, Masanori; Adachi, Takako; Iwasa, Takashi; Kurita, Kouji; Nakamura, Tomoki; Hama, Yukinobu; Yamamoto, Ayako; Maegawa, Sanae


    Mie Prefectural Mental Care Center is a public psychiatric hospital that has 400 beds and 250 outpatients a day. The main catchment area is Tsu City (population: 290,000). Our hospital started early intervention in Aug 2008, and opened the Youth Mental Support Center MIE (YMSC MIE) in Oct 2008. This article reports an early intervention trial in a regional area of Japan. The mission of YMSC MIE is the education, consultation, staff training, and intervention for mental health problems and early psychosis of youths. In Jul 2009, we set up the Youth Assist Clinic (YAC) to support youths with mental health problems and early psychoses. Our activities consist of school-based, community-based, and hospital-based approaches. Specific programs are as follows: 1) School-based approaches: Outreach consultation to school. Mental health lessens. Creating mental health textbooks. Education for parents and teachers. 2) Community-based approaches: To enlighten primary physicians and mental clinic psychiatrists about the importance of early psychosis. To survey their concerns regarding early psychosis. Promoting awareness of community staff and the general public. 3) Hospital-based approaches: YAC. Case manager system. Family meetings for the family including the young with mental disorders. Peer group. Looking back over our 3-year trials, especially in school and the community, we find several problems, as follows: 1) Lack of consultation skills of medical staff outside the hospital. 2) Limiting number of schools which have mental support system. 3) Support for school attendance and learning. 4) Lack of concern about early psychosis of primary physicians and mental clinic psychiatrists. 5) Staff training for early intervention. We are now getting close to improving these issues.

  7. Epidemiological survey for visna-maedi among sheep in northern prefectures of Japan

    Massimo Giangaspero


    Full Text Available Ovine sera collected from the northern Prefectures of Hokkaido, Iwate and Aomori in Japan, were examined for the presence of antibodies against visna-maedi virus using the agar gel immunodiffusion test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Three animals (1.12%, out of 267 samples tested, were found to be seropositive to the visna-maedi antigens in both tests. Levels of infection were found in flocks from Hokkaido and Iwate Prefectures, but not in the Aomori Prefecture. Nucleic acid detection by polymerase chain reaction on serum samples did not give positive results. Although no diagnostic measures were in place, the infection could not be related to losses in sheep production or to reduced survival rates. The very limited visna-maedi distribution indicates a highly favourable condition for the application of eradication strategies in this area.

  8. Merging of hospitals. The case of Argolida prefecture

    Ilias M. Giannakoulis


    Full Text Available Based on the institutional framework (Government's Newspaper Issue: 1681/B'/28-7-2011, we have developed a proposition of merging/consolidation between the General Hospitals of Argos and Nafplion as our interest is the best provision of health services to the citizens at the lowest possible cost. Purpose: Our case study is the rational management of the resources and facilities of the two hospitals in the form of a Corporate Body under Public Law with a single statute and budget and a merging of departments. Material- Methodology: The material used was the data from the two hospitals regarding human and financial resources and facilities. The methodology involved the use of ratings in order to find the best possible combination of the above resources for a more effective use of all the productive factors. Results: According to the hospital's capacity in 2010, the necessary beds for the General Hospital in Argos were 109 and for the General Hospital in Nafplion were 38. The new hospital, with a 10% superaddition, will need 166 beds. The personnel ratings are 0,84 doctors/ bed and 1,34 nurses/ bed. The development of unified outsourcing cleaning, security and cooking services would bring in a financial profit of 250.000€. Unified services of laundry-ironing-sawing, a catering service, provisions etc are within the framework of restructuring the two hospitals. As far as the operational expenses are concerned, a merging of the hospitals can bring in a reduction of expenses by 50%. Moreover, the expansion of the facilities in the General Hospital in Argos and providing for all the patients in the prefecture with kidney disease are a feasible target. Conclusions: With the creation of a Corporate Body under Public Law based in Argos we expect to have: an enhancement in the quality of health services, an improvement in their distribution in terms of space and a reduction of expenses, an immediate performance of the new merged services and a positive

  9. High Mortality Rate of Stomach Cancer Caused Not by High Incidence but Delays in Diagnosis in Aomori Prefecture, Japan

    Matsuzaka, Masashi; Tanaka, Rina; Sasaki, Yoshihiro


    Background: There are substantial differences in the mortality rates of stomach cancer among the 47 prefectures in Japan, and Aomori prefecture is one of the most severely impacted. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and mortality rates of stomach cancer in Aomori prefecture in comparison with Japan as a whole and cast light on reasons underlying variation. Methods: Data on stomach cancer cases were extracted from the Aomori Cancer Registry Database. Incidence rates for specific stages at the time of diagnosis were cited from Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan, and mortality rates for stomach cancer in Aomori prefecture and the whole of Japan were obtained from Vital Statistics. Age-standardised incidence and mortality rates were calculated using the direct method. Results: The age-standardised incidence rate of stomach cancer in Aomori prefecture was higher than in the whole of Japan for males but lower for females. However, the age-standardised mortality rates were higher in Aomori prefecture in both sexes. The proportion of localised cancers was lower in Aomori prefecture than in the whole of Japan for most age groups. Conclusions: The lower rate for localised cancer suggests that higher age-standardised mortality rates are due to delays in diagnosis, despite an attendance rate for stomach cancer screening was higher in Aomori prefecture than in the whole of Japan. One plausible explanation for the failure of successful early detection might be poor quality control during screening implementation that impedes early detection.

  10. Characteristics Studies on Uyghur Place Names in Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture



    Because of its peculiar language environment with multi ethnicities and the One Belt and One Road initiative, the stud-ies of place names in Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture attract many linguists'interests. This paper focuses on characteristics stud-ies of Uyghur place names in Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture based on Universal Principles of Tendencies proposed by the Polish linguist Witold Manczak. Through careful and thorough study, this paper found that because of different traditional lifestyles and different political strategies through different historical periods, as urban people, the Uyghur place names highlighted the Uyghur people's great contributions to artificial constructions.

  11. Retention of physicians in rural Japan: concerted efforts of the government, prefectures, municipalities and medical schools.

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Kajii, Eiji; Takeuchi, Keisuke


    In post-war Japan, a number of factors lead to a general shortage of physicians by the 1950s, which became acute in rural areas and has continued until recent times. Teamwork among national, prefectural, municipal governments and public medical schools has addressed this shortage of physicians. The national government doubled the number of medical schools in the 1960s and 1970s; each of the country's 47 prefectures, whether rural or not, has at least one medical school. In rural areas where private hospitals are not profitable, municipal governments have funded public hospitals and physician recruitment from their own budgets. A cooperative project among Japan's 47 prefectural governments and the national government established Jichi Medical University (JMU), which conducts a bound medical education program followed by obligatory rural service. As a result, the number of 'non-physician communities' (muichiku) nationwide has decreased by 73%; however, the gap between physician concentrations in urban and rural areas has not changed. Therefore, the government has recently implemented a JMU-like contractual program as a form of 'rural quota' at other medical schools in all 47 prefectures. If all the replicated programs work as successfully as JMU, the impact on the geographic distribution of physicians will be substantial. The Japanese public-sector-led rural physician securing system could also be effective in countries where rural healthcare provision is the responsibility of the public sector and close cooperation among levels of government is possible.

  12. Geographical structures and the cholera epidemic in modern Japan: Fukushima prefecture in 1882 and 1895

    Fukui Hiromichi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease diffusion patterns can provide clues for understanding geographical change. Fukushima, a rural prefecture in northeast Japan, was chosen for a case study of the late nineteenth century cholera epidemic that occurred in that country. Two volumes of Cholera Ryu-ko Kiji (Cholera Epidemic Report, published by the prefectural government in 1882 and 1895, provide valuable records for analyzing and modelling diffusion. Text descriptions and numerical evidence culled from the reports were incorporated into a temporal-spatial study framework using geographic information system (GIS and geo-statistical techniques. Results Changes in diffusion patterns between 1882 and 1895 reflect improvements in the Fukushima transportation system and growth in social-economic networks. The data reveal different diffusion systems in separate regions in which residents of Fukushima and neighboring prefectures interacted. Our model also shows that an area in the prefecture's northern interior was dominated by a mix of diffusion processes (contagious and hierarchical, that the southern coastal region was affected by a contagious process, and that other infected areas experienced relocation diffusion. Conclusion In addition to enhancing our understanding of epidemics, the spatial-temporal patterns of cholera diffusion offer opportunities for studying regional change in modern Japan. By highlighting the dynamics of regional reorganization, our findings can be used to better understand the formation of an urban hierarchy in late nineteenth century Japan.

  13. [A case of black dot ringworm caused by Trichophyton tonsurans in Chiba Prefecture].

    Takahashi, Yoko; Sano, Ayako; Komori, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Nishimura, Kazuko


    A 74-year-old woman visited a clinic in Kisarazu, Chiba Prefecture in December 2002 complaining of itching, scale and alopecia. She had been diagnosed as having tinea capitis by a direct microscopic examination of scales, and been treated with an antifungal cream and steroid lotion since 1999. The bald area spread from frontal to occipital in which multiple black dots and red papules were scattered. Abundant endothrix spores were observed in the hair shaft. A mycelial colony was isolated from the black dots. A giant colony on Sabouraud's agar was white, powdery and flattened with cottony elevation at the center in the obverse, and a reddish-brown pigmentation in the reverse. The isolate produced abundant microconidia that were round to club-and balloon-shaped with extreme swelling, while macroconidia and spiral bodies were few. Hair perforation test was negative and urease activity test was positive. ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA sequencing revealed 100% homology with T. tonsurans isolated from two old women in Niigata Prefecture. On the other hand, 3 bases were different from those of the outbreak isolates from judo and wrestling players infected through international matches. T. tonsurans has polymorphism and the present isolate might be an autochthonous genotype in Japan. This is the first time T. tonsurans was isolated in Chiba Prefecture. But this prefecture had been known as an endemic area of Trichophyton coccineum, which was very similar in morphological and physiological characteristics to those of T. tonsurans before World War II. These facts raise the question of whether T. tonsurans has existed in this prefecture before.

  14. Geographical Indication Characteristics and Agricultural Intellectual Property Protection of the Tea in Enshi Prefecture

    Guangzhong; DAI


    Agricultural intellectual property rights can protect the innovation of agricultural science and technology. Enshi Prefecture is China’s important tea-producing area. Its tea industry has become a pillar industry. The prefecture enjoys a reputation of " world selenium capital",and is the best birthplace of natural selenium-enriched tea. The national geographical indication protection has been implemented for Enshi Yulu Tea,Enshi selenium-enriched tea,Wujiatai Tribute Tea,Hefeng Tea,Mapo Tea,etc. This paper introduces the geographical indication characteristics and agricultural intellectual property protection of the tea in this world selenium capital,analyses the countermeasures for agricultural intellectual property protection,and puts forward some constructive suggestions.

  15. A Study of the Tuition of Middle Schools in Prwear Tokyo Prefecture

    烏田, 直哉


    The purpose of this paper is to clarifying the tuition in middle schools at the prewar Tokyo prefecture. The tuition differed between the public schools and the private schools. In the 1890s, most expenses required for management of middle schools was provided with tuition in both private amd public schools. At this time, the tuition of public schools was higher than the private schools. After 1900 tuition of public schools became cheaper than private schools. As expenses of public schools, i...

  16. Consumers' Attitudes towards Edible Wild Plants: A Case Study of Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan

    Bixia Chen; Zhenmian Qiu


    This study explored the rural revitalizing strategy in FAO's Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS) site in Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture of Japan, using a case study of edible wild plants. This study assessed the current and possible future utilization of edible wild plants as one important NTFP by clarifying the attitudes of consumers and exploring the challenges of harvesting edible wild plants. Traditional ecological knowledge associated with edible wild plants and ...

  17. Characteristics Studies on Kazak Place Names in Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture



    This paper focuses on characteristics studies of Kazak place names in Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture based on Univer⁃sal Principles of Tendencies proposed by the Polish linguist Witold Manczak. Through careful and thorough study, this paper found that because of different traditional lifestyles and different political strategies through different historical periods, this paper proved that the Kazaks as the nomads were proficient in observing the environmental conditions, and made full use of them to name places.

  18. [Investigation on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, 2007 and 2010].

    Feng, Yun; Zhang, Hailin; Fu, Shihong; Yang, Weihong; Zhang, Yuzhen; Wang, Piyu; Yang, Jie; Liu, Yonghua; Dong, Chaoliang; Li, Shi; Zhang, Baosen; Yin, Zhengliu; Dong, Xingqi; Wang, Huanyu; Liang, Guodong


    To investigate the distribution patterns of mosquito and mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China. Mosquito samples were collected using the mosquito traps from five counties of Dehong prefecture on July, 2007 and 2010. Mosquito were cell cultured for viral isolation, and positive isolates were identified using RT-PCR and sequence analysis. A total of 43 634 mosquito comprised of 29 species representing six genera were collected. Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis comprised 78.69% and 14.77% of the total. Six strains of viruses were isolated from the mosquito pools. RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis revealed three strains from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, identified as genotype I Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). One strain was identified from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, as Getah virus (GETV). Two strains isolated from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles vagus were identified as Culex pipiens pallens Densovirus (CppDNV). Cx. tritaeniorhynchus had been the major species of mosquito and mainly transmitting vector of mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture. Genotype I JEV, GETV and CppDNV were the vectors causing transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in this area. Data from phylogenetic analysis showed that these newly discovered isolates seemed to have had close relationship with those viruses previously circulating in Yunnan and other provinces of China.

  19. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on acute myocardial infarction in Fukushima prefecture.

    Yamaki, Takayoshi; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Kijima, Mikihiro; Maruyama, Yukio; Takeishi, Yasuchika


    The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) reportedly increases following a huge disaster. On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake hit a large area of eastern Japan. In Fukushima prefecture, many people suffered from the consequences of the earthquake, the subsequent tsunami, and especially the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. We assessed whether the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) increased after the earthquake. We enrolled AMI patients admitted to 36 hospitals in Fukushima prefecture between March 11, 2009, and March 10, 2013 (n = 3068). We compared the incidence of AMI after the earthquake for more than 3 months and 1 year with that in the control years. The incidence of Fukushima's annual AMI patients (per 100 000 persons) in 2011 was similar to that of previous years (n = 38.9 [2011] vs 37.2 [2009] and 38.5 [2010], P = .581). However, a significantly higher incidence of AMI was found in the Iwaki district after the disaster that corresponded to the 1-year period of observation (n = 38.7 [2011] vs 27.3 [2009] and 32.8 [2010], P = .045). The Great East Japan Earthquake affected the incidence of AMI only in limited areas of Fukushima prefecture.

  20. On seismic intensities of questionnaires for 1996 earthquake near Akita-Miyagi prefecture

    Nogoshi, M.; Sasaki, N. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education; Nakamura, M. [Nippon Geophysical Prospecting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The earthquake occurred in 1996 near the border of Akita and Miyagi Prefectures was a seismic activity in mountainous area with low population density. However, since a necessity was felt to make a seismic intensity survey, a questionnaire investigation was carried out. The investigation placed a focus on the following points: (1) to learn seismic intensity distribution in the vicinity of the epicenter by using replies to the questionnaire and (2) to learn what evacuation activities the residents have taken to avoid disasters from the earthquake, which is an inland local earthquake occurred first since the Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake in 1995. Because the main shock has occurred in the Akita prefecture side, the shocks were concentrated at Akinomiya, Takamatsu, Sugawa and Koyasu areas where the intensities were 4.0 to 4.5 in most cases. The largest aftershocks were concentrated to the Miyagi prefecture side, with an intensity of 6.0 felt most, followed by 5.5. The questionnaire on evacuation actions revealed a result of about 37% of the reply saying, ``I have jumped out of my house before I knew what has happened`` and ``I remember nothing about what I did because I was acting totally instinctively``. The answers show how intense the experience was. This result indicates how to make the unconscious actions turned into conscious actions is an important issue in preventing disasters. 11 figs.

  1. Effects of socioeconomic factors on suicide from 1980 through 1999 in Osaka Prefecture, Japan.

    Aihara, Hirokuni; Iki, Masayuki


    Suicide rate in Japan surged in 1998. Although the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of suicide in Osaka Prefecture, Japan had been mostly lower than the national SMRs of suicide between 1980 and 1997, they surpassed the increased national SMR of suicide in 1998 and 1999. We investigated whether the suicide rates for 1980-97 and the recent increased suicide rates in Osaka Prefecture were associated with socioeconomic factors. Time-series regression analyses of the suicide rate and socioeconomic factors were performed on respective data for five sub-areas in Osaka Prefecture. The suicide rates of young people and middle-aged men were more strongly associated with the job application and divorce rates for 1980-99 than for 1980-97. Some relations between the suicide rate and public assistance rate were found. The suicide rate was negatively associated with the marriage rate in some areas. The suicide rate of elderly women was strongly associated with the number of persons per household. The notable relation was found between the suicide rate of middle-aged men and the job application rate for 1980-99. The inverse relation between the suicide rate of elderly women and the number of persons per household was noteworthy.

  2. Guide to the effective use of wind power generation (Akita Prefecture); Furyoku hatsuden katsuyo guide (Akitaken)



    This guidebook aims to provide persons, who are in charge of large-scale wind power generation system introduction and utilization at local autonomies and business offices in the prefecture, with various information concerning the procedure and contents of utilization. A wind power generation system is a clean energy system which does not emit any of such substances as carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and sulfur oxide when in operation for power generation. Among various new energy systems, it is the best in terms of cost efficiency, and is found commercialized in some cases. According to a NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) survey, the wind power generation potential of Akita Prefecture is the second highest in Japan, next to Hokkaido. It is hoped that the prefecture, endowed with so high a potential for wind power generation, will lead the way toward effectively utilizing wind power generation. The guidebook contains how to make good use of wind power generation, how to introduce wind power operation, and studies of some leading cases. It also names observation spots for wind direction, wind speed, etc., and lists wind characteristics data and references. (NEDO)

  3. Seeding Experiment of Liquid Carbon Dioxide for Enhancing Winter-time Precipitation in Saga Prefecture,Northern Kyushu,Japan

    Wakimizu, K.; Nishiyama, K.; Tomine, K.; Maki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Morita, O.


    Many droughts (shortage of water) have broken out by extreme small amount rainfall in recent Japan. So far,in order to prevent these droughts,artificial rainfall methods with 'AgI' or 'dry ice' have been widely used in Japan. However,these methods have many problems,which a large amount of overcooling liquid in the cumulus cloud was not able to be converted into precipitation efficiently. So as to solve these problems,new artificial rainfall method using liquid carbon dioxide (LC) was proposed by Fukuta (1996). This new method consists of the generation of ice particles by homogeneous nucleation using LC and the subsequent more effective growth for ice particles without competition process. And, this method is called 'Low-Level Penetration Seeding of Homogeneous Ice Nucleant (LOLEPSHIN)' ; this induces a 'Roll-up Expansion of Twin Horizontal Ice-crystal Thermals (RETHIT)' and a subsequent 'Falling growth-Induced Lateral Air Spreading (FILAS)'. This LC method was applied to thin super-cooled cumulus clouds in Saga prefecture, Northern Kyushu, Japan on February 4,2006. The seeding airplane took off the Atugi Airport in Kanagawa Prefecture toward the Iki Island around 0830JST. Many cloud bands were cofirmed in the flight going to the experimental area and the cloud base temperature was approximately -9C (1200m). Scince some young developing thin cumuli were found over the Iki Island, LC seeding to these clouds was carried out two times from 0841JST until 0919JST penetrating the -9C (1200m) altitude. The first precipitation seeding ebded in failure. The second penetration seeding was done for 115 seconds around 0917JST. This penetration led to success of developing one artificial echo (Echo I) in the leeward side of the Iki Island. Eco I moved from NNW to SSW. The maximum area of Echo I were 48km2 (at 1033JST) and first comfirmed by the Kyushu University radar (KU radar) at 1006JST (46 min. after LC seeding) around Mt.Sefuri in Saga Prefecture. It can be inferred that


    Mori, Mayuka; Kanaya, Ken

    Purpose of this research is to clear present condition and measures to expand of voluntary agreement on plastic shopping bags reduction at the prefectural level. Methods of this research are questionnaire survey to prefectures implementing the agreement and survey by i town page to the number of stores of companies and the number of companies in the prefectures. Findings of this research are as follows: 1. The refusal rate of plastic shopping bags was 10-40% before the implementation of voluntary agreements. And the rate is approximately 70-90% after the implementation. Therefore, before and after the implementation of voluntary agreements, the refusal rate of plastic shopping bags is approximately 40-70% less. 2. It is suggested that the time and number of meetings from proposal to conclusion of the agreement are related in some way, to the ratio of stores participating. On the participation of administration, the ratio of stores participating in the case in which prefecture and cities participate is higher than in the case in which prefecture participates.

  5. On freak minor octopus, Octopus minor, found out in Imabari Fish Market, Ehime Prefecture

    東出, 遼介; 坂井, 陽一; 橋本, 博明


    The three male freak minor octopus, Octopus minor were found out on Fish Market of Imabari Fisheries Cooperative, Ehime Prefecture, Japan. One of them was the octopus landed on May 25, 2006, which had two hectocotilized arms on both of the third right and left, though male octopus usually has only one hectocotilized arm on the third right arm. It was seemed to be arisen from the abnormal generation. Another ones were landed on the Fish Market on April 16 and June 26, 2007, respectively. Both ...

  6. Assessing sediment connectivity to understand dynamics of contaminated sediment within coastal catchments of Fukushima Prefecture (Japan)

    Chartin, Caroline; Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Ottlé, Catherine; Brossoni, Camille; Lefèvre, Irène; Lepage, Hugo; Bonté, Philippe; Patin, Jeremy; Ayrault, Sophie


    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident has led to the release of large radionuclide quantities (e.g., about 20 PBq of Cs-137 and 200 PBq of I-131) into the atmosphere. About 80% of the release was blown out and over the Pacific Ocean. The remaining 20% of emissions were deposited as wet and dry deposits on soils of Fukushima Prefecture, mainly between 15-16 March. As most radionuclides are strongly sorbed by fine particles, they are likely to be redistributed within the landscape in association with soil and sediment particles transported by runoff and erosion processes. A spatial analysis of Ag-110m:Cs-137 ratio in soils and river sediments provided a way to trace those transfers. This fingerprinting study showed that particles eroded from inland mountain ranges exposed to the highest initial radionuclide fallout were already dispersed along coastal rivers, most likely during summer typhoons and spring snowmelt. Those results suggest that hillslopes and rivers have become a perennial source of radioactive contaminants to the Pacific Ocean off Fukushima Prefecture. This study aims to specify the location and nature of the preferential sources supplying contaminated material to the main rivers draining the Fukushima contamination plume. To this end, important parameters controlling soil erosion and sediment transfers within catchments, i.e. landscape morphology and land use characteristics, were preliminary derived from DEM data and satellite images for the River Mano, Nitta and Ota catchments (ca. 525 km²) draining the most radioactive part of the contamination plume that formed across Fukushima Prefecture. Then, those data were used to compute indices assessing the potential sediment connectivity (i) between hillslopes and rivers and (ii) between hillslopes and catchment outlets. Finally, spatially-distributed values of connectivity indices were confronted to gamma-emitting radionuclide activities (Cs-134, Cs-137 and Ag-110m) measured in riverbed

  7. Salmonella in liquid eggs and other foods in fukuoka prefecture, Japan.

    Murakami, Koichi; Noda, Tamie; Onozuka, Daisuke; Sera, Nobuyuki


    The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Salmonella in retail and wholesale foods in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. A total of 2,021 samples collected between 1999 and 2010 were tested using a culture method. Samples consisted of liquid eggs (n = 30), meat (beef and pork) (n = 781), offal (n = 69), processed meats (n = 2), seafood (n = 232), processed seafood (dried fish) (n = 76), vegetables (n = 481), processed vegetables (n = 87), fruits (n = 167), and herbs (n = 96) from 574 outlets and wholesale agents in 15 areas (five samples were undocumented regarding outlets). Overall, liquid egg showed significantly (P retailers there.

  8. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by High schools of Argos prefecture


    Continuing the subatomic journey that started last year in Argos, Greece, 45 students from 14 high schools of the prefecture will take part in a dedicated ATLAS Masterclass organized by the University of Athens in the framework of the Go-Lab and Inspiring Science Education European projects. Students will learn how to analyse real events from the ATLAS experiment with the use of HYPATIA online applet. They will also have the opportunity to visit the ATLAS control room to learn what it takes for scientists to keep on pushing the boundaries of our understanding of the origins of the universe.

  9. Epidemiological Survey on Periodontal Disease in Junior High School Students in Niigata Prefecture Using the CPITN

    原沢, 正昭; 矢野, 正敏; 小林, 清吾; 平川, 敬; 安藤, 雄一; 堀井, 欣一; 岸, 洋志; 高塚, 真理子; 原, 耕二; Harasawa, Masaaki; Yano, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Seigo; Hirakawa, Takashi; Ando, Yuichi; Horii, Kin-ichi


    A survey on the prevalence of periodontal disease was carried out on 360 8th grade students in three Junior High Schools in Niigata Prefecture, Shiozawa Junior High, Yahiko Junio High and Kurokawa Junior High. According to the partial recording of the CPITN, 6 index teeth (16, 11, ,26, 36, 31and 46 defined by FDI terminology) were examined at the time of the annual school-based dental examination. The results of this study showed that the percentages of the subjects having no sign of periodon...




    The charity event kicked offin Beijing on June 25th and will be held from July 7th to 15th.More than 400 volunteer experts from Beijing’s major medical facilities are expected to go to Ngapa Tibetan-Qiang Autonomous Prefecture to offer free medical and mobile clinics,screenings and treatments for children with congenital heart disease,as well as to establish long-term mechanisms.Redi,vice chairman of the 10th Standing Committee of China’s National People’s Congress partici-

  11. Dental fear in Japan: Okayama Prefecture school study of adolescents and adults.

    Weinstein, P.; Shimono, T.; Domoto, P.; Wohlers, K.; Matsumura, S.; Ohmura, M.; Uchida, H.; Omachi, K.


    A total of 3,041 students and staff in middle school in Okayama Prefecture, Japan, were surveyed regarding dental fear. Over 88% reported fear, with 42.1% classified as having high fear. Almost 70% reported acquiring dental fear prior to junior high school. A majority reported being hurt at the last appointment. Delay of dental work was also reported for over 50% of the sample. Coping, pattern of physiological upset, nondental fears, and sex and age differences were also reported. Results suggest intervention is needed to address the major dental public health problems associated with dental fear. PMID:8250343

  12. Control of a measles outbreak by prohibiting non-vaccinated susceptible students from attending school in Akita Prefecture, Japan.

    Takimoto, Noriaki; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Ishiyama, Akira; Kishimoto, Kaoru; Iwama, Renji; Nakano, Megumi


    In 2007-2008, a measles outbreak occurred among children above the age of 10 years in Akita Prefecture, northeastern Japan (population, approximately 1,120,000 at the time). Our group controlled the outbreak by (i) implementing a publically financed urgent vaccination program and (ii) prohibiting non-vaccinated and non-infected students from attending school as per regulations of the school public health law. We encouraged high-risk students to undergo a vaccination program, which resulted in the successful containment of the outbreak without the development of any severe cases. After the outbreak, the Akita Prefectural Government began an annual"Akita measles elimination month" every April, and no measles case found in Akita Prefecture during 2009-2010 subsequently. Our outbreak response initiative can be applied nationally for the complete elimination of measles throughout Japan.

  13. Multiple Origins and Admixture of Recently Expanding Japanese Wild Boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) Populations in Toyama Prefecture of Japan.

    Yamazaki, Yuji; Adachi, Fuminari; Sawamura, Akira


    Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) populations have expanded drastically throughout the Japanese Archipelago in recent decades. To elucidate the dispersal patterns of Japanese wild boar in Toyama Prefecture in central Japan, we used a multi-locus microsatellite DNA analysis to determine its population structure and the degree of admixture. The deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected in either total or separate regional wild boar samples from Toyama Prefecture. This result could be explained by the Wahlund effect resulting from the mixture of samples from different sources. Bayesian structure analysis, assignment test, and factorial correspondence analysis suggested that wild boars around Toyama Prefecture derive from at least two ancestral sources. The migration and possible mating of each individual may have occurred recently and continued in each geographically neighboring region. The present genetic results may be useful for prediction of future dispersal patterns of Japanese wild boar, as well as other animals in expansion.

  14. Vaccination coverage of children aged 4-12 years old in the prefecture of Evritania

    Yannis Getsios


    Full Text Available The last two decades a huge progress has taken place in the field of the primary prevention of infections and many new vaccines have been introduced in the compulsory vaccination program. There is evidence, however, that immunization coverage against some infectious diseases is not adequate. Aim: It was to investigate the level of immunization coverage of Greek and Immigrants' children aged 4-12 years old in the prefecture of Evritania regarding vaccines against pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus (DTaP, poliomyelitis (IPV and measles–mumps–rubella (MMR. Material and methods: The sample of the study consisted of the pupils of all nursing and elementary schools of the prefecture of Evritania , aged 4-12 years old. Children's personal Health Cards were used to evaluate the adequacy of vaccine doses. X2 was usedfor comparisons. Statistics was processed with SPPS 17.0. Results: The boys of the sample were 469 (51.9% and the girls 434 (48.1%. Full vaccination coverage with DTaP, MMR and IPV was 87.3%, 79.9%, and 97.6% respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between Greek and Immigrants' children. Conclusion: Vaccination coverage against measles, mumps and rubella was inadequate. Immigrants' and Greek children are equally covered. Vaccination coverage with MMR is troublesome.

  15. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on Regional Obstetrical Care in Miyagi Prefecture.

    Sugawara, Junichi; Hoshiai, Tetsuro; Sato, Kazuyo; Tokunaga, Hideki; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Arai, Takanari; Okamura, Kunihiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo


    The authors report the results of surveys on the emergency transport or evacuation status of obstetric patients conducted in Miyagi prefecture, one of the major disaster areas of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami. The surveys examined the damages to maternity institutions, evacuation status and transport of pregnant women, and prehospital childbirths and were conducted in 50 maternity institutions and 12 fire departments in Miyagi. Two coastal institutions were destroyed completely, and four institutions were destroyed partially by the tsunami, forcing them to stop medical services. In the two-month period after the disaster, 217 pregnant women received hospital transport or gave birth after evacuation. Satisfactory perinatal outcomes were maintained. Emergency obstetric transport increased to approximately 1.4 fold the number before the disaster. Twenty-three women had prehospital childbirths, indicating a marked increase to approximately three times the number of the previous year. In the acute phase of the tsunami disaster, maternity institutions were damaged severely and perinatal transport was not possible; as a result, pregnant women inevitably gave birth in unplanned institutions, and the number of prehospital births was increased extremely. To obtain satisfactory obstetric outcomes, it is necessary to construct a future disaster management system and to re-recognize pregnant women as people with special needs in disaster situations. Sugawara J , Hoshiai T , Sato K , Tokunaga H , Nishigori H , Arai T , Okamura K , Yaegashi N . Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on regional obstetrical care in Miyagi Prefecture. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):255- 258.

  16. Retrospect and prospect of “Traffic Safety Education” in Kagawa Prefecture

    Takeo Ihara


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain why we have conducted “Traffic Safety Education” in the Kagawa Prefecture during the past ten years so as to clarify the important factors for preventing painful traffic accidents in advance. To meet this aim, we firstly clarify the reason why we eventually decided to conduct “Traffic Safety Education” in the Kagawa Prefecture. In other words, the organization of powerful actors and/or leaders to cope with traffic accidents plays a very important role in “Traffic Safety Education.” Then, we specifically describe the essential parts of our “Traffic Safety Education”. In this respect, we have decided to select the following two aims: to reduce the number of traffic accidents, and to improve traffic manners, respectively. Thirdly, we evaluate various measures, such as teaching materials, teaching methods, and other activities of our “Traffic Safety Education” in detail. Lastly, we summarize the remaining tasks, which have been revealed so far, together with some concluding remarks.


    Relations with the Host States Service


    All non-French nationals who reside in France for more than three consecutive months or who, in the case of intermittent periods of residence, are effectively present in France for more than three months in any six-month period must obtain a residence or stay permit (titre de séjour). If members of the CERN personnel and members of their families fulfil those conditions inter alia, they normally receive a legitimation document, which is valid as a residence or stay permit, from the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Carte spéciale FI or AT, Carte d'assimilé à un membre de mission diplomatique). However, members of the personnel with permanent resident status (résident permanent) are not, by virtue of that status, entitled to a legitimation document and must obtain a residence permit issued by a Prefecture. For the latter purpose, with the agreement of the Prefecture de l'Ain, CERN (i.e. the Personnel Records Office, Human Resources Division, office 33/1-...

  18. New energy vision drawn up for Fukushima Prefecture; Fukushimaken chiiki shin energy vision



    In Fukushima Prefecture, photovoltaic power generation and solar heat utilization will be introduced into public facilities, old official cars will be replaced by clean energy types upon renewal, and cogeneration will be adopted. In every city and town, photovoltaic power generation and solar heat utilization will be introduced into public facilities, clean energy vehicles will be adopted as official cars and garbage collecting vehicles, wind power generation will be introduced, waste treatment facilities will be newly constructed, and they will be provided upon re-construction with systems of refuse fueled power generation and waste heat utilization. The inhabitants of the prefecture will be requested to be positive in adopting the photovoltaic power generation system, water heating system driven by solar heat, and other solar systems, and in purchasing hybrid vehicles or replacing old vehicles with hybrid vehicles. Business people are requested to make use of photovoltaic power generation and solar heat utilization, wind power generation, biomass energy, cogeneration and fuel cells, and clean energy vehicles for their offices and factories. (NEDO)

  19. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010–2014

    Lou, Pengwei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xueliang; Xu, Jiabo


    Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV) model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920–18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R0 = 2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129–2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic. PMID:27872852

  20. Assessing cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru


    Despite the enormous cost of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, it is not clear what levels of reduction in external radiation exposure are possible in the Special Decontamination Area, the Intensive Contamination Survey Areas and the whole of Fukushima. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture in its entirety. Using a geographic information system, we calculated the costs of removal, storage containers, transport, and temporary and interim storage facilities as well as the reduction in air dose rate for a cumulative external exposure for 9000 1 km × 1 km mesh units incorporating 51 municipalities. The decontamination cost for the basic scenario, for which forested areas within 20 m of habitation areas were decontaminated, was JPY2.53-5.12 trillion; the resulting reduction in annual external dose was about 2500 person-Sv. The transport, storage, and administrative costs of decontamination waste and removed soil reached JPY1.55-2.12 trillion under this scenario. Although implementing decontamination of all forested areas provides some major reductions in the external radiation dose for the average inhabitant, decontamination costs could potentially exceed JPY16 trillion. These results indicate that technologies for reducing the volume of decontamination waste and removed soil should be considered to reduce storage costs and that further discussions about forest decontamination policies are needed.

  1. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010-2014.

    Lou, Pengwei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xueliang; Xu, Jiabo; Wang, Kai


    Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV) model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920-18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R0 = 2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129-2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic.

  2. New mothers' perceptions regarding maternity care services provided in a prefecture of Northern Greece

    Maria Tsiligiri


    Full Text Available Background: The use of health care services during pregnancy assists in decreasing neonatal deaths and improves the quality of life of pregnant women and their newborn children.Aim: To investigate the perceptions of new mothers in a prefecture of Northern Greece regarding the maternity services provided during pregnancy and childbirth.Methodology: The sample consists of 133 mothers of newborn babies who were hospitalised, after in-hospital delivery, between April and June 2008 in a prefecture of Northern Greece. The instrument used for the data collection was the Kuopio Instrument for Mothers (KIM.Results: 97% of participants were married, 42.2% had higher education and 23.3% were full-time employees. 42.9% of the mothers were primiparous and 57.1% were multiparous. 56.8% had vaginal delivery, while 42.9% had caesarean section. 84.2% of the participants stated that they would prefer to have their next delivery in a private maternity clinic, and 3% stated that they would prefer to give birth at home. 15.3% had participated in childbirth preparatory courses. Finally, the participants considered that maternity services, such as pregnancy monitoring, preventative examinations for foetal abnormalities, PAP-test and preventative examinations for breast cancer, should be provided by the state free of charge.Conclusions: It is necessary to further develop and modernize maternity services in such a way that they will correspond to pregnant women’s needs.

  3. Nuclear accident-derived (3)H in river water of Fukushima Prefecture during 2011-2014.

    Ueda, Shinji; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Ochiai, Shinya; Akata, Naofumi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi


    During 2011-2014, we measured (3)H concentrations in river water samples collected during base flow conditions and during several flood events from two small rivers in a mountainous area in Fukushima Prefecture, which received deposition of (137)Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. (3)H concentrations above background levels were found in water samples collected during both base flow conditions and flood events in 2011. The (3)H concentrations during flood events were generally higher than those during base flow conditions. The (3)H concentrations in both rivers during base flow conditions and flood events decreased with time after the accident and reached almost background levels in 2013. We also measured (3)H concentrations in freshwater samples from 16 other rivers and one dam in eastern Fukushima Prefecture from 2012 to 2014 during base flow conditions. The measured (3)H concentrations were higher than the background level in 2012 and decreased with time. The (137)Cs inventory in the catchment area at each sampling point was estimated from air-borne monitoring results in the literature and compared with the (3)H concentrations. We found surprisingly good correlations between (137)Cs inventories in the catchment areas and (3)H concentrations in the water samples. Further studies will be necessary to clarify the reason for the good correlation.

  4. A new species of the genus Pontogeneia (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from Matsukawa-ura Inlet, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    Hirayama, Akira


    A new species of the genus Pontogeneia taken from a shallow inlet of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, is described and figured. The new species is closely related to P. intermedia from Japan Sea and California but is distinguished from it by a slightly dilated propod of gnathopod 1, the presence of calc

  5. An epidemiological analysis of drunk driving accidents in Kagawa Prefecture - comparison of 1997-2000 and 2003-2006.

    Fujita, Yoshitsugu; Inoue, Ken; Sakuta, Akira; Seki, Nobuhiko; Miyazawa, Teruomi; Eguchi, Kenji


    In this study, we examined the number of drunk driving accidents and drunk driving accident toll in 1997-2000 and 2003-2006 for Kagawa Prefecture, which had Japan's highest number of traffic accident fatalities per 100,000 population.

  6. A new species of the genus Pontogeneia (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from Matsukawa-ura Inlet, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    Hirayama, Akira


    A new species of the genus Pontogeneia taken from a shallow inlet of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, is described and figured. The new species is closely related to P. intermedia from Japan Sea and California but is distinguished from it by a slightly dilated propod of gnathopod 1, the presence of

  7. Estimate of the Potential Amount of Low-Level Waste from the Fukushima Prefecture - 12370

    Hill, Carolyn; Olson, Eric A.J.; Elmer, John [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Broomfield, Colorado 80021 (United States)


    The amount of waste generated by the cleanup of the Fukushima Prefecture (Fukushima-ken) following the releases from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident (March 2011) is dependent on many factors, including: - Contamination amounts; - Cleanup levels determined for the radioisotopes contaminating the area; - Future land use expectations and human exposure scenarios; - Groundwater contamination considerations; - Costs and availability of storage areas, and eventually disposal areas for the waste; and - Decontamination and volume reduction techniques and technologies used. For the purposes of estimating these waste volumes, Fukushima-ken is segregated into zones of similar contamination level and expected future use. Techniques for selecting the appropriate cleanup methods for each area are shown in a decision tree format. This approach is broadly applied to the 20 km evacuation zone and the total amounts and types of waste are estimated; waste resulting from cleanup efforts outside of the evacuation zone is not considered. Some of the limits of future use and potential zones where residents must be excluded within the prefecture are also described. The size and design of the proposed intermediate storage facility is also discussed and the current situation, cleanup, waste handling, and waste storage issues in Japan are described. The method for estimating waste amounts outlined above illustrates the large amount of waste that could potentially be generated by remediation of the 20 km evacuation zone (619 km{sup 2} total) if the currently proposed cleanup goals are uniformly applied. The Japanese environment ministry estimated in early October that the 1 mSv/year exposure goal would make the government responsible for decontaminating about 8,000 km{sup 2} within Fukushima-ken and roughly 4,900 km{sup 2} in areas outside the prefecture. The described waste volume estimation method also does not give any consideration to areas with localized hot spots

  8. Increases in perinatal mortality in prefectures contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Japan

    Scherb, Hagen Heinrich; Mori, Kuniyoshi; Hayashi, Keiji


    Abstract Descriptive observational studies showed upward jumps in secular European perinatal mortality trends after Chernobyl. The question arises whether the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident entailed similar phenomena in Japan. For 47 prefectures representing 15.2 million births from 2001 to 2014, the Japanese government provides monthly statistics on 69,171 cases of perinatal death of the fetus or the newborn after 22 weeks of pregnancy to 7 days after birth. Employing change-point methodology for detecting alterations in longitudinal data, we analyzed time trends in perinatal mortality in the Japanese prefectures stratified by exposure to estimate and test potential increases in perinatal death proportions after Fukushima possibly associated with the earthquake, the tsunami, or the estimated radiation exposure. Areas with moderate to high levels of radiation were compared with less exposed and unaffected areas, as were highly contaminated areas hit versus untroubled by the earthquake and the tsunami. Ten months after the earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent nuclear accident, perinatal mortality in 6 severely contaminated prefectures jumped up from January 2012 onward: jump odds ratio 1.156; 95% confidence interval (1.061, 1.259), P-value 0.0009. There were slight increases in areas with moderate levels of contamination and no increases in the rest of Japan. In severely contaminated areas, the increases of perinatal mortality 10 months after Fukushima were essentially independent of the numbers of dead and missing due to the earthquake and the tsunami. Perinatal mortality in areas contaminated with radioactive substances started to increase 10 months after the nuclear accident relative to the prevailing and stable secular downward trend. These results are consistent with findings in Europe after Chernobyl. Since observational studies as the one presented here may suggest but cannot prove causality because of unknown and uncontrolled factors or

  9. Molecular survey of Babesia microti, Ehrlichia species and Candidatus neoehrlichia mikurensis in wild rodents from Shimane Prefecture, Japan.

    Tabara, Kenji; Arai, Satoru; Kawabuchi, Takako; Itagaki, Asao; Ishihara, Chiaki; Satoh, Hiroshi; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Tsuji, Masayoshi


    A significant number of patients are diagnosed with "fevers of unknown origin" (FUO) in Shimane Prefecture in Japan where tick-borne diseases are endemic. We conducted molecular surveys for Babesia microti, Ehrlichia species, and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in 62 FUO cases and 62 wild rodents from Shimane Prefecture, Japan. PCR using primers specific for the Babesia 18S small-subunit rRNA (rDNA) gene and Anaplasmataceae groESL amplified products from 45% (28/62) and 25.8% (16/62) of captured mice, respectively. Of the 28 18S rDNA PCR positives, 23 and five samples were positive for Hobetsu- and Kobe-type B. microti, respectively. In contrast, of the 16 groESL PCR positives, eight, one and seven samples were positive for Ehrlichia muris, Ehrlichia sp. HF565 and Candidatus N. mikurensis, respectively. Inoculation of selected blood samples into Golden Syrian hamsters indicated the presence of Hobetsu- and Kobe-type B. microti in four and one sample, respectively. Isolation of the latter strain was considered important as previous studies suggested that the distribution of this type was so far confined to Awaji Island in Hyogo Prefecture, where the first case of transfusion-associated human babesiosis originated. DNA samples from 62 FUO human cases tested negative for B. microti 18S rDNA gene, Anaplasmataceae groESL gene, Rickettsia japonica 17K genus-common antigen gene and Orientia tsutsugamushi 56K antigen gene by PCRs. We also conducted seroepidemiological surveys on 62 human sera collected in Shimane Prefecture from the FUO patients who were suspected of carrying tick-borne diseases. However, indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests using B. microti- and E. muris-infected cells detected IgG against E. muris in only a single positive sample. This study demonstrates the presence of several potentially important tick-borne pathogens in Shimane Prefecture and suggests the need for further study on the causative agents of FUOs.

  10. Detection of Histamine in Fish and Fishery Products in Osaka Prefecture (Fiscal 2015 Report).

    Awazu, Kaoru; Takatori, Satoshi; Kakimoto, Sachiko; Nomura, Chie; Masayama, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Kakimoto, You; Kajimura, Keiji


    Histamine food poisoning is caused by ingestion of spoiled fish containing high levels of histamine. This paper reports cases in which histamine was detected in Osaka prefecture in fiscal year 2015 in a survey of fish and fishery products on the market and the food poisoning. A suspected case of histamine food poisoning was also evaluated to investigate the cause and minimize further problems. Histamine in food was separated on SPE cartridge columns, and analyzed after derivatization with fluorescamine by means of HPLC-FL. Histamine was detected in some fishery products on the market and in food that had caused poisoning. The samples in which histamine was detected were semi-dried whole round herring (Urumeiwashi-maruboshi), mackerel (Saba) and sardine dumpling (Iwashi-tsumire). These foods were the main causes of histamine food poisoning according to the report of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Government of Japan.

  11. Consumers’ Awareness of Genetically Modified Food and Their Willingness to Buy in Yanbian Prefecture

    TENG Kui-xiu; YANG Xing-long; YANG Xiao-wei; WANG Lin


    Having a clear understanding of consumers’ awareness of genetically modified food and their willingness to buy, plays a very important role in formulating the regulatory policy of genetically modified food and regulating the market of genetically modified food. This paper takes the supermarket consumers as the study object. Through on-site questionnaire survey, we find that consumers’ awareness of genetically modified food is not high in Yanbian Prefecture, and their willingness to buy is also low; the prices of genetically modified food, consumers’ income, educational level and so on, are the main factors that affect the willingness to buy. Based on this, we put forth the relevant recommendations: increasing publicity efforts to safeguard consumers’ right to know and choose; increasing supervision efforts to improve the existing regulatory system of genetically modified food; actively organizing forces to carry out the study on safety of genetically modified food.

  12. Seroepidemiology of reovirus in healthy dogs in six prefectures in Japan.

    Hwang, Chung Chew; Mochizuki, Masami; Maeda, Ken; Okuda, Masaru; Mizuno, Takuya


    Reovirus infection is common in mammals. However, seroepidemiological data of reovirus neutralizing antibodies are limited in dogs. In this study, sera of 65 healthy dogs from six prefectures across Japan were tested for neutralizing antibodies against reovirus serotype 1 strain Lang (T1L), serotype 2 strain Amy (T2A) and serotype 3 strain Dearing (T3D) using plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Seropositivity against reovirus T1L, T2A and T3D was 53.85%, 33.85% and 46.15%, respectively. Distribution of reovirus seropositive samples displayed no distinguishable geographical pattern. However, reovirus seropositivity increased with age and in dogs housed outdoor. Co-infection of multiple reovirus serotypes in dogs was also detected. These data will provide valuable insights towards the usage of reovirus in oncolytic virotherapy in canine cancers.

  13. The Major Recessive Calamities Affecting the Wheat Production in Chuxiong Prefecture and Control Countermeasures

    Maochang; YANG


    The impact of recessive calamities was analyzed,including seasonal drought,cold injury,dry hot wind and aphid in the wheat production of Chuxiong Prefecture,and the countermeasures that prevented and controlled the recessive calamities in a target-oriented way were proposed,including the improvement of basic farmland,the application of organic manure,the promotion of the breed with high stress resistance,the seedling at suitable date,the improvement of control on fertilizing and watering,the enhancement of management on cultivating and controlling disease in time,and the breeding new variety adaptive to local ecosystem,in order to advance the wheat production in a sustainable way.

  14. High prevalence of hepatitis E virus in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan.

    Hara, Yuka; Terada, Yutaka; Yonemitsu, Kenzo; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Keita; Suzuki, Kazuo; Maeda, Ken


    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes a food- and water-borne disease in humans, and Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) meat is one of the most important sources of infection in Japan. We tested 113 serum samples from wild boar captured in Shimonoseki City, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan from 2010 to 2012. Serum samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using virus-like particles as antigen and nested reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 47 of the 113 wild boar serum samples (42%), and HEV RNA was detected in five samples (4%). Sequence analysis showed that the five HEV isolates belonged to genotype 4, forming a cluster with a previous isolate from a human hepatitis E case in this region in 2011. These results indicate that wild boar in this region are infected with potentially pathogenic HEV at a high prevalence.

  15. An Institutional Analysis of Groundwater Quality Control: Experiences in Hadano, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan

    Takahiro Endo


    Full Text Available A considerable number of studies have been made of institutional arrangements that can prevent excessive groundwater pumping based on Hardin’s seminal work, the “tragedy of the commons.” In contrast, this paper is concerned with groundwater quality control for which policy studies are very limited. This paper not only clarifies institutional challenges specific to groundwater contamination, but also demonstrates how government and industry could solve them using a case study of Hadano, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, which has pioneered countermeasures for groundwater pollution in Japan. Hadano solved the challenges by enacting an innovative local ordinance with three pillars: Proxy purification by the city government, fundraising for purification activities and a retroactive system. Lessons learnt from the Hadano case will be very useful to policy makers because these problems already occur in other urban areas, or are likely to occur in the near future.

  16. The Ibaraki prefecture materials design diffractometer for J-PARC—Designing neutron guide

    Harjo, Stefanus; Kamiyama, Takashi; Torii, Shuki; Ishigaki, Toru; Yonemura, Masao


    Ibaraki prefecture materials design diffractometer of J-PARC needs a neutron guide to increase beam intensity without sacrificing measurements of powder diffraction with good resolution, PDF analysis and small angle scattering. Non-parallel guides including elliptical ones have been compared with a linear-straight guide using the McStas simulation. The elliptical guide having the exit focal points away behind the sample position is available to increase the neutron flux at the sample but gives a slight lowering of the instrumental resolution. This elliptical guide gives also Garland peaks at short wavelengths that may give large ambiguities in powder diffraction measurements. Therefore, the linear-straight guide is considered as the best choice for this instrument to keep a good resolution and also a relatively high flux.

  17. The Ibaraki prefecture materials design diffractometer for J-PARC-Designing neutron guide

    Harjo, Stefanus [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Kamiyama, Takashi [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Torii, Shuki [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ishigaki, Toru [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yonemura, Masao [Institute of Applied Beam Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1 Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan)


    Ibaraki prefecture materials design diffractometer of J-PARC needs a neutron guide to increase beam intensity without sacrificing measurements of powder diffraction with good resolution, PDF analysis and small angle scattering. Non-parallel guides including elliptical ones have been compared with a linear-straight guide using the McStas simulation. The elliptical guide having the exit focal points away behind the sample position is available to increase the neutron flux at the sample but gives a slight lowering of the instrumental resolution. This elliptical guide gives also Garland peaks at short wavelengths that may give large ambiguities in powder diffraction measurements. Therefore, the linear-straight guide is considered as the best choice for this instrument to keep a good resolution and also a relatively high flux.

  18. Results of mass endoscopic examination for gastric cancer in Kamigoto Hospital, Nagasaki Prefecture


    AIM: To examine how the introduction of endoscopy to gastric cancer screening affected survival prognosis in a regional population.METHODS: The subjects comprised 4261 residents of Kamigoto, Nagasaki Prefecture, who underwent gastric X-ray examination for gastric cancer screening from 1991 to 1995, and all 7178 residents who underwent endoscopic examination for the same purpose from 1996to 2003. The analysis evaluated trends in age-adjusted gastric cancer mortality rates and standard mortality ratios (SMRs) among the Kamigoto residents.RESULTS: According to demographic statistics, the 1995 and 2000 age-adjusted gastric cancer mortality rates in Nagasaki Prefecture (per 100000 population) were 42.6 and 37.3 for males and 18.6 and 16.0 for females, while the corresponding rates in Kamigoto before and after the introduction of endoscopic screening were respectively 51.9 and 28.0, and 26.6 and 6.9. The data obtained in this study were divided into those for two periods,1990-1996 and 1997-2006, and SMRs were calculated separately for males and females. For the first period,the SMR was 1.04 (95% CI 0.50-1.58) for males and 1.54(95% CI 0.71-2.38) for females, while for the second period the SMR was 0.71 (95% CI 0.33-1.10) for males and 0.62 (95% CI 0.19-1.05) for females.CONCLUSION: Following the introduction of endoscopic examination, gastric cancer death rates decreased in Kamigoto.

  19. Preventable trauma deaths after traffic accidents in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, 2011: problems and solutions.

    Motomura, Tomokazu; Mashiko, Kunihiro; Matsumoto, Hisashi; Motomura, Ayumi; Iwase, Hirotaro; Oda, Shigeto; Shimamura, Fumihiko; Shoko, Tomohisa; Kitamura, Nobuya; Sakaida, Koji; Fukumoto, Yuichi; Kasuya, Miyuki; Koyama, Tsutomu; Yokota, Hiroyuki


    The incidence of preventable trauma death in the current Japanese emergency medical system remains high. The present study aimed to determine rates of clearly preventable and possibly preventable trauma deaths due to traffic accidents in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, and to consider associated problems and solutions. During 2011, 175 victims died after traffic accidents in Chiba Prefecture. Of these, the deaths of 69 persons who had vital signs at the time of emergency medical service contact were classified as clearly preventable, possibly preventable, or not preventable through the peer review discussion. We also examined problems associated with deaths that were clearly preventable or possibly preventable. Of the 69 deaths, 9 (13%) were classified as clearly preventable, 11 (16%) as possibly preventable, and 49 (71%) as not preventable. Of the 20 clearly or possibly preventable deaths (each death potentially comprising multiple problems), 5 were related to selection of the hospital before hospital arrival, 4 to problems with regional emergency medical systems, and 15 to inappropriate hemodynamic management, including transfusion and delayed (or not attempted) hemostasis in the hospital. Problems of these 20 deaths showed that appropriate triage at the scene, centralization of patients with severe trauma, and trauma centers are necessary in Japan. Under-triage before arrival at the hospital was related to clearly and possibly preventable deaths. Upgrading the triage category for victims with torso injury must be considered. Not all emergency critical care centers in Japan are able to provide severe trauma care. Preventable trauma deaths occur even in some emergency critical care centers; therefore, we need centralization of severe trauma patients from wider area to reduce the incidence of preventable trauma death.

  20. Thyroid ultrasound findings in children from three Japanese prefectures: Aomori, Yamanashi and Nagasaki.

    Hayashida, Naomi; Imaizumi, Misa; Shimura, Hiroki; Okubo, Noriyuki; Asari, Yasushi; Nigawara, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Sanae; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Otsuru, Akira; Akamizu, Takashi; Kitaoka, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru


    Due to the likelihood of physical and mental health impacts following the unprecedented accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, the Fukushima prefectural government decided to conduct the Fukushima Health Management Survey to assist in the long-term health management of residents. This included thyroid ultrasound examination for all children in Fukushima. For appropriate evaluation of ultrasound screening of the thyroid, it is important to understand its reference data of thyroid findings in children in general. In order to analyze the frequencies of specific thyroid findings, we conducted ultrasound screening of the thyroid by the same procedures as used in Fukushima in 4,365 children, aged 3 to 18 years, from three Japanese prefectures. Overall, thyroid cysts were identified in 56.88% and thyroid nodules in 1.65% of the participants. Thyroid cysts and nodules with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm were identified in 4.58% and 1.01%, respectively, and age-adjusted prevalences were 3.82% and 0.99%, respectively. Although the prevalence of cysts and nodules varied among the examination areas, no significant differences were observed among the three examination areas in the prevalence of cysts and nodules with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm. Also, the prevalence of thyroid cysts and nodules, especially those with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm, significantly increased with age, and showed a female predominance. We also identified ectopic thymus (1.95%), diffuse goiter (1.40%), ultimobranchial body (0.73%), lymph node swelling (0.21%) and thyroid agenesis (0.05%). This is the first ultrasound description of the age-adjusted prevalence of thyroid cysts and nodules, or of the prevalence of abnormalities other than cysts and nodules, such as ectopic thymus, in relation to age, in the general Japanese child population. We contend that this can provide relevant information for the Fukushima Health Management Survey and future population

  1. Rainfall erosivity in the Fukushima Prefecture: implications for radiocesium mobilization and migration

    Laceby, J. Patrick; Chartin, Caroline; Degan, Francesca; Onda, Yuichi; Evrard, Olivier; Cerdan, Olivier; Ayrault, Sophie


    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 led to the fallout of predominantly radiocesium (137Cs and 134Cs) on soils of the Fukushima Prefecture. This radiocesium was primarily fixated to fine soil particles. Subsequently, rainfall and snow melt run-off events result in significant quantities of radiocesium being eroded and transported throughout the coastal catchments and ultimately exported to the Pacific Ocean. Erosion models, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), relate rainfall directly to soil erosion in that an increase in rainfall one month will directly result in a proportional increase in sediment generation. Understanding the rainfall regime of the region is therefore fundamental to modelling and predicting long-term radiocesium export. Here, we analyze rainfall data for ~40 stations within a 100 km radius of the FDNPP. First we present general information on the rainfall regime in the region based on monthly and annual rainfall totals. Second we present general information on rainfall erosivity, the R-factor of the USLE equation and its relationship to the general rainfall data. Third we examine rainfall trends over the last 100 years at several of the rainfall stations to understand temporal trends and whether ~20 years of data is sufficient to calculate the R-factor for USLE models. Fourth we present monthly R-factor maps for the Fukushima coastal catchments impacted by the FDNPP accident. The variability of the rainfall in the region, particularly during the typhoon season, is likely resulting in a similar variability in the transfer and migration of radiocesium throughout the coastal catchments of the Fukushima Prefecture. Characterizing the region's rainfall variability is fundamental to modelling sediment and the concomitant radiocesium migration and transfer throughout these catchments and ultimately to the Pacific Ocean.

  2. School-Based Fluoride Mouth-Rinse Program Dissemination Associated With Decreasing Dental Caries Inequalities Between Japanese Prefectures: An Ecological Study.

    Matsuyama, Yusuke; Aida, Jun; Taura, Katsuhiko; Kimoto, Kazunari; Ando, Yuichi; Aoyama, Hitoshi; Morita, Manabu; Ito, Kanade; Koyama, Shihoko; Hase, Akihiro; Tsuboya, Toru; Osaka, Ken


    Dental caries inequalities still severely burden individuals' and society's health, even in countries where fluoride toothpastes are widely used and the incidence of dental caries has been decreasing. School-based fluoride mouth-rinse (S-FMR) programs, a population strategy for dental caries prevention, might decrease dental caries inequalities. This study investigated the association between S-FMR and decreasing dental caries prevalence and caries-related inequalities in 12-year-olds by Japanese prefecture. We conducted an ecological study using multi-year prefecture-level aggregated data of children born between 1994 and 2000 in all 47 Japanese prefectures. Using two-level linear regression analyses (birth year nested within prefecture), the association between S-FMR utilization in each prefecture and 12-year-olds' decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (DMFT), which indicates dental caries experience in their permanent teeth, were examined. Variables that could explain DMFT inequalities between prefectures, such as dental caries experience at age 3 years, dentist density, and prefectural socioeconomic circumstances, were also considered. High S-FMR utilization was significantly associated with low DMFT at age 12 (coefficient -0.011; 95% confidence interval, -0.018 to -0.005). S-FMR utilization explained 25.2% of the DMFT variance between prefectures after considering other variables. Interaction between S-FMR and dental caries experience at age 3 years showed that S-FMR was significantly more effective in prefectures where the 3-year-olds had high levels of dental caries experience. S-FMR, administered to children of all socioeconomic statuses, was associated with lower DMFT. Utilization of S-FMR reduced dental caries inequalities via proportionate universalism.

  3. Research on the Competitiveness of the County Tourism Industry in Ganzi Prefecture from the Perspective of Poverty Alleviation

    Chen Chanping; Jiang Hao


    Tourism is the pillar industry of Ganzi Prefecture, and it is of great practical signif-icance to the study of the competitiveness of county-level tourism industry in Ganzi Prefecture. This paper constructs an indicator system of evaluating competitiveness of the county tourism industry from four dimensions, including the development of the tourism industry, the development of related indus-tries, the economic environment and transport con-ditions. The paper studies the competitiveness of the county tourism industry of Ganzi prefecture in 2013 via the entropy method, and then analyzes the differences and shortcomings of the county’s ca-pability to alleviate poverty through tourism. The results show that, first of all, the various counties’ capability to alleviate poverty through tourism in Ganzi is obviously different from each other: the eastern counties are relatively strong in this area, the northern counties are somewhere in the middle, and the southern counties struggle. Secondly, the development of tourism and related industries has a great impact on the competitiveness of the county tourism industry, and that the counties generally have shortcomings in their transport conditions. Thirdly, the restricting factors on the competitive-ness of the county tourism industry are complicat-ed, and the strategy of tourism development should be formulated with regard to these issues. Based on this situation, this article proposes the following suggestions: 1 ) Various counties in Ganzi prefecture should strengthen their research into and promotion of poverty alleviation through tourism, accelerate the development of their basic infrastructure, and improve the transport condi-tions;2 ) the counties in the east of the prefecture should increase investment into transportation, op-timize their industrial structure, and promote the development of the tertiary service sector; 3 ) the counties in the north should develop their own po-tential, strengthen economic

  4. Transfer pathways of radiocesium to edible wild plants (Sansai) collected from forests in Fukushima Prefecture

    Sugiyama, M.; Muramatsu, Y.; Ohno, T. [Gakushuin University (Japan); Sato, M. [Fukushima Agricultural Technology Center (Japan)


    Large quantities of radionuclides were released from the accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 and farmlands and forests in Fukushima Prefecture were contaminated.The most significant radionuclides related to the contamination of vegetation are {sup 134}Cs (half-life: 2 y) and {sup 137}Cs (half-life: 30 y).Concentrations of radiocesium in vegetables and rice decreased over time to values markedly lower than the guideline (100 Bq/kg). However, radiocesium concentrations in some edible wild plants and mushrooms have still shown very high level. Therefore, it is important to identify plants which accumulate cesium and to clarify the transfer mechanism of radiocesium. In this study, we analyzed both radiocesium and stable cesium in edible wild plants (Sansai) collected from forests in Fukushima Prefecture. Possible mechanisms of high radiocesium transfer into the plants in forest ecosystems were considered. Wild plants were collected from forests in Iitate-mura, Fukushima Prefecture, in 2012 and 2013. We have focused on Koshiabura (Acanthopanaxsciadophylloides) a plant related to Araliaceae and collected their leaves from four different trees in May and July 2013.Radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) concentrations were measured with a Ge-detector. For elemental analysis, the samples were freeze-dried and milled with a mixer. Powdered samples (0.1 g) were digested in teflon vessels with an acid mixture (HNO{sub 3}, HF and HClO{sub 4}) on a hot plate. After digestion, each sample was evaporated to dryness. Then, the sample residue was dissolved in 2% HNO{sub 3}. The concentrations of major and minor elements were determined by ICP-MS. Leaves of Koshiabura showed very high radiocesium concentrations up to 60,000 Bq/kg on a dry weight basis, or 10,000 Bq/kg on a wet weight basis.Root uptake and translocation of radiocesium from other parts of the plants to the leaves were expected to occur. Koshiabura plants tend to be shallowly

  5. Indices using external measurements for assessing fat deposition of adult feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    Kato, Takuya; Uno, Taiki; Fujioka, Yoshiyuki; Hayama, Shin-Ichi


    We examined the use of external measurements and relative fat deposition of adult feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) to develop relative indices of body fat deposition in post-growth feral raccoons. From March 2006 to March 2010, 288 adult raccoon carcasses (110 males, 178 females) collected in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, which were determined to be 24 months old, were subjected to external measurements of body weight (BW), girth measurement (GM), and body mass index (BMI). To assess relative body fat deposition, we visually classified abdominal subcutaneous fat into three grades (Visible Fat Index [VFI]: I-III). Significant differences in the means of BW (both sexes:Praccoons in Kanagawa Prefecture and may be generalizable to populations in other areas.

  6. The field study of the mammography in Fukuoka prefecture. Second report. Investigation of glandular tissue dose and image quality

    Akashi, Kaoru; Nakahara, Hiroko [Social Insurance Kurume Daiichi Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Tanaka, Isamu [Hakuaikai Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others


    The research of the glandular tissue dose and image quality of the mammography in Fukuoka prefecture was performed from April to October 2000 at 50 mammography sites. Effects of the technical parameters, such as screen-film combinations, antiscatter grids, processing conditions, x-ray beam qualities, on the average glandular tissue dose and image quality were analyzed under two exposure conditions: The standard radiographic condition for a RMI156 phantom in each facility (Standard Radiographic Condition). The radiographic condition for obtaining the radiographic density of 1.40{+-}0.15 with RMI156 phantom (Canonical Radiographic Condition). In the investigation in Fukuoka prefecture, facilities of 3 mGy or less at the average mammary gland dosage were 98%. In the meantime, image quality of 54% facilities was insufficient. Analysis of technical parameters affecting the glandular tissue dose and image quality will be useful for the establishment of breast cancer screening system using mammography. (author)

  7. [Experience of Collaborative Research through Department of Medical Instrumental Research and Technology in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine].

    Saitoh, Kensuke


    Both of Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine which offers high, technical and safe medical treatment and Horiba, Ltd. which has small CBC analyzers in a core product established a joint research institute for development of advanced laboratory test analyzer from January 1, 2012 in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine as the "advanced treatment hospital" where the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has got approved. Clinical needs about analyzer and reagent for a laboratory test are being investigated to the emergency medical care unit and the intensive care unit as well as the laboratory test part in the affiliated hospital and many medical departments of the pediatrics, the internal medicine and the surgery. Developing the new analyzer based on high technology, evaluating the performance of them and spreading them to a medical examination and treatment site is our main target.

  8. Detection of Rickettsia tamurae DNA in ticks and wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) skins in Shimane Prefecture, Japan.

    Motoi, Yuta; Asano, Makoto; Inokuma, Hisashi; Ando, Shuji; Kawabata, Hiroki; Takano, Ai; Suzuki, Masatsugu


    We used 24 wild boars trapped from December 2009 to January 2010 and a further 65 from July 2010 to August 2010 in Misato Town, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. We collected blood, spleens, skins and ticks from the wild boars, which were examined for rickettsial infections using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for the genes rickettsial 17-kDa antigen and citrate synthase (gltA). We amplified Rickettsia tamurae AT-1 DNA from the tick Amblyomma testudinarium and from wild boar skins where ticks attached. Antibodies against spotted fever group Rickettsia were detected in wild boar sera using immunofluorescence, whereas blood and spleen samples contained no rickettsial DNA. This study suggests that wild boars have a role as an amplifier and a transporter of A. testudinarium, which harbor R. tamurae. One case of R. tamurae infection in humans was reported in Shimane Prefecture. Therefore, R. tamurae infections in humans might increase, if wild boar populations and their habitats expand.

  9. Thyroid ultrasound findings in children from three Japanese prefectures: Aomori, Yamanashi and Nagasaki.

    Naomi Hayashida

    Full Text Available Due to the likelihood of physical and mental health impacts following the unprecedented accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, the Fukushima prefectural government decided to conduct the Fukushima Health Management Survey to assist in the long-term health management of residents. This included thyroid ultrasound examination for all children in Fukushima. For appropriate evaluation of ultrasound screening of the thyroid, it is important to understand its reference data of thyroid findings in children in general. In order to analyze the frequencies of specific thyroid findings, we conducted ultrasound screening of the thyroid by the same procedures as used in Fukushima in 4,365 children, aged 3 to 18 years, from three Japanese prefectures. Overall, thyroid cysts were identified in 56.88% and thyroid nodules in 1.65% of the participants. Thyroid cysts and nodules with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm were identified in 4.58% and 1.01%, respectively, and age-adjusted prevalences were 3.82% and 0.99%, respectively. Although the prevalence of cysts and nodules varied among the examination areas, no significant differences were observed among the three examination areas in the prevalence of cysts and nodules with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm. Also, the prevalence of thyroid cysts and nodules, especially those with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm, significantly increased with age, and showed a female predominance. We also identified ectopic thymus (1.95%, diffuse goiter (1.40%, ultimobranchial body (0.73%, lymph node swelling (0.21% and thyroid agenesis (0.05%. This is the first ultrasound description of the age-adjusted prevalence of thyroid cysts and nodules, or of the prevalence of abnormalities other than cysts and nodules, such as ectopic thymus, in relation to age, in the general Japanese child population. We contend that this can provide relevant information for the Fukushima Health Management Survey and future

  10. Mass wasting process at the surface of the Sangun metamorphic rocks in Kaminishigawa area, Asahi-machi, Okayama Prefecture.

    新宮原, 秀和; 平山, 恭之; 津島, 淳; 於保, 幸正


    The relation among microstructures, weathering and mass wasting of the Sangun metamorphic rocks in the Kaminishigawa area, Asahi-machi, Okayama Prefecture, was studied. Three stages of penetrative planar structures are recognized; S1 schistosity, S2 crenulation cleavage and S3 crenulation cleavage. The S2 cleavage is the most commonly observed structure. The deree of weathering is divided into two classes on the base of appearance; slightly weathered and highly weathered rock. The three types...

  11. [Nutritional factors influencing the incidence of new dialysis due to diabetes mellitus in each prefecture of Japan].

    Ogata, Satoshi


    There are regional differences in the incidence of new dialysis in Japan. We investigated nutritional factors that might influence the incidence of new dialysis due to diabetes mellitus(DM)in each prefecture. We analyzed the data reported for 47 prefectures in the National Nutrition Survey 1995-1999 (n = 38,003), and the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy 2005-2007 (n = 45,033). Ecological regression was assessed using univariate regression analysis. Univariate analysis showed that body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.296, p = 0.022), intake of fish and shellfish (r = -0.254, p = 0.043), meat (r = 0.275, p=0.031), energy (r = -0.280, p = 0.028), carbohydrates (r = -0.283, p = 0.027), calcium (r = -0.278, p = 0.029), iron (r = -0.338, p = 0.010), salt (r = -0.288, p = 0.025), vitamin B2 (r = -0.279, p = 0.029), and vitamin C (r = -0.302, p = 0.020) were correlated with the incidence of new dialysis due to DM. The incidence of new dialysis due to DM in each prefecture may be influenced by environmental factors, including nutritional factors.

  12. Inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice from Fukushima Prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M


    We summarize the inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice produced in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, for 3 years from the nuclear accident in 2011. In 2011, three types of verifications, preliminary survey, main inspection, and emergency survey, revealed that rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 500 Bq/kg (the provisional regulation level until March 2012 in Japan) was identified in the areas north and west of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The internal exposure of an average adult eating rice grown in the area north of the nuclear plant was estimated as 0.05 mSv/year. In 2012, Fukushima Prefecture authorities decided to investigate the radiocesium concentration levels in all rice using custom-made belt conveyor testers. Notably, rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 100 Bq/kg (the new standard since April 2012 in Japan) were detected in only 71 and 28 bags out of the total 10,338,000 in 2012 and 11,001,000 in 2013, respectively. We considered that there were almost no rice exceeding 100 Bq/kg produced in Fukushima Prefecture after 3 years from the nuclear accident, and the safety of Fukushima's rice were ensured because of the investigation of all rice.

  13. Effect of tree thinning and litter removal on the radiocesium (Cs-134, 137) discharge rates in the Kawauchi forest plantation (Fukushima Prefecture, northern Japan)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Takahashi, Junko; Kato, Hiroaki; Hisadome, Keigo


    On 11 March 2011 a 9.0 earthquake and the resulting tsunami occurred in central-eastern Japan triggering, one day after, the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (DNPP) accident. Despite the bulk of radionuclides (ca. 80%) were transported offshore and out over the Pacific Ocean, significant wet and dry deposits of those radionuclides occurred mainly in the Fukushima Prefecture and in a minor way in the Miyagi, Tochigi, Gunma and Ibaraki Prefectures. As a consequence and among other radionuclides, a total of 511,000 TBq of I-131, 13,500 TBq of Cs-134 and 13,600 TBq of Cs-137 were released into the atmosphere and the ocean, contaminating cultivated soils, rivers, settlements and forested areas. This accident caused severe environmental and economic damages. Several decontamination practices have done, including tree thinning and litter removal within the forests and tree plantations. In this study we analysed the effect of eight different management practices on the radiocesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) discharge rates during 20 months (May'2013 - Dec'2014) in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation (stand age of 57 years), located in a hillslope near the Kawauchi village, Fukushima Prefecture, northern Japan. This study area (37⁰ 20' 04" N, 140⁰ 53' 13.5" E) is located 16 km southwestern from the DNPP and within the evacuation area. The soils are Andosols. Ten runoff plots (5 x 2 meters) were installed and measurements started on May 2013. Two plots remained without any treatment as control plots and the other eight plots represented the following management practices: Mng1) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng2) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng3) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng4) Litter removal; Mng5) Thinning (logged area); Mng6) Thinning (under remnant trees); Mng7) Litter removal + thinning (logged area); Mng8) Litter removal + thinning (under remnant trees). Each plot had a gauging station and sediment samples

  14. Behavior of dissolved radiocesium in river water in a forested watershed in Fukushima Prefecture

    Tsuji, H.; Nishikiori, T.; Yasutaka, T.; Watanabe, M.; Ito, S.; Hayashi, S.


    Dissolved radiocesium concentrations in river water in a high-dose-rate forest watershed in Fukushima Prefecture were investigated under base flow and storm flow conditions. Under base flow conditions, dissolved 137Cs concentrations in water (Bq/L) were relatively high in summer, and these levels were higher than particulate 137Cs concentrations (Bq/L). Under storm flow, particulate 137Cs concentration became dominant as the suspended solid concentration increased. Throughout the monitoring period, dissolved 137Cs concentrations in water (Bq/L) were higher under storm flow than base flow conditions and were positively correlated with runoff intensity. Factors influencing changes in dissolved 137Cs concentrations were investigated by measuring the 137Cs concentration of suspended solid (Bq/kg) and dissolved 137Cs of unsaturated soil water, throughfall, and rainfall, together with other main solute concentrations. The 137Cs concentration per unit weight of suspended solids in river water was not strongly correlated with runoff intensity. Additionally, dissolved 137Cs concentrations of soil water, groundwater, and rainfall were not detected, while higher dissolved 137Cs concentrations were detected in throughfall than river water. K+ concentrations were higher under storm flow than base flow, and dissolved organic carbon increased toward the peak flow rate. These findings suggested that one main factor influencing generation of dissolved 137Cs in the river water was leaching from organic material in flooded areas. However, further investigation is needed to clarify the dominant source of dissolved 137Cs in river water.

  15. Hypothermia in victims of the great East Japan earthquake: a survey in Miyagi prefecture.

    Furukawa, Hajime; Kudo, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Matsumura, Takashi; Abe, Yoshiko; Konishi, Ryota; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Ishibashi, Satoru; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Narita, Norio; Washio, Toshikatsu; Arafune, Tatsuhiko; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki


    A survey was conducted to describe the characteristics of patients treated for hypothermia after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Written questionnaires were distributed to 72 emergency medical hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture. Data were requested regarding inpatients with a temperature less than 36ºC admitted within 72 hours after the earthquake. The availability of functional heating systems and the time required to restore heating after the earthquake were also documented. A total of 91 inpatients from 13 hospitals were identified. Tsunami victims comprised 73% of the patients with hypothermia. Within 24 hours of the earthquake, 66 patients were admitted. Most patients with a temperature of 32ºC or higher were treated with passive external rewarming with blankets. Discharge without sequelae was reported for 83.3% of patients admitted within 24 hours of the earthquake and 44.0% of those admitted from 24 to 72 hours after the earthquake. Heating systems were restored within 3 days of the earthquake at 43% of the hospitals. Hypothermia in patients hospitalized within 72 hours of the earthquake was primarily due to cold-water exposure during the tsunami. Many patients were successfully treated in spite of the post-earthquake disruption of regional social infrastructure.

  16. The current state of workers' pneumoconiosis in relationship to dusty working environments in Okayama Prefecture, Japan.

    Takigawa T


    Full Text Available This study involved the examination of 1,006 chest x-ray films of workers from the industries devoted to shipyard welding, stone grinding, and refractory crushing in southern Okayama prefecture. Of the reviewed films, analysis was focused on subjects with a profusion rate of 0/1 as well as pneumoconiotic subjects (exhibiting profusion rates of 1/0 or greater in order to discover cases in the beginning stages. One-hundred-and-seventy-four films illustrated a profusion rate of 0/1 or greater, and the proportion of this profusion rate was revealed to be highest in shipyard welders. Even some workers under 40 years of age were found to have already developed pneumoconiosis. Of these 1,006 subjects, 30 volunteers permitted us to measure their personal dust exposure concentrations. The measured concentration of the shipyard welders' dust exposure (respirable dust; 3.3 86.3 mg/m3, total dust; 7.5-117.0 mg/m3 was higher than those of the other 2 industries. Statistical differences among the industries were observed in the respirable dust concentrations. A statistically significant positive correlation was demonstrated between the working duration in dusty environments and the rate of profusion. The present findings suggest the need for taking adequate measures in Okayama in order to prevent workers from developing, or to help retard the progression of, pneumoconiosis.

  17. Industrialization Development of Korla Fragrant Pear in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture,China


    Based on the introduction of the natural and geographical conditions in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang(Bazhou),development status of Korla Fragrant Pear is introduced from the two aspects of the production status and the storage and processing status of Korla Fragrant Pear.Among them,production status of Korla Fragrant Pear is analyzed from the aspects of the rapid growth of planting area and the stable growth of output.And the storage and processing status of Korla Fragrant Pear is introduced from the aspects of the development status of the storage industry the development status of processing industry,and the status of domestic and foreign marketing.Problems in the industrialization development of Korla Fragrant Pear in Bazhou are analyzed,such as the weak protection of brand and lack of external propaganda,the imperfect benefit affiliating mechanism between leading enterprises and peasant households,and the marketing network of Korla Fragrant Pear and single mode of marketing.Countermeasures for the acceleration of the industrialization development of Korla Fragrant Pear in Bazhou are put forward,such as making great effort at publicity,brand establishment and counterfeit prevention,cultivating leading enterprises,reducing market risk,implementing industrialization development,adopting various marketing forms and actively developing domestic and international markets.

  18. The Fukushima Health Management Survey: estimation of external doses to residents in Fukushima Prefecture

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Yasumura, Seiji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kobashi, Gen; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Makoto; Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Sakata, Ritsu; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi


    The Fukushima Health Management Survey (including the Basic Survey for external dose estimation and four detailed surveys) was launched after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The Basic Survey consists of a questionnaire that asks Fukushima Prefecture residents about their behavior in the first four months after the accident; and responses to the questionnaire have been returned from many residents. The individual external doses are estimated by using digitized behavior data and a computer program that included daily gamma ray dose rate maps drawn after the accident. The individual external doses of 421,394 residents for the first four months (excluding radiation workers) had a distribution as follows: 62.0%, <1 mSv; 94.0%, <2 mSv; 99.4%, <3 mSv. The arithmetic mean and maximum for the individual external doses were 0.8 and 25 mSv, respectively. While most dose estimation studies were based on typical scenarios of evacuation and time spent inside/outside, the Basic Survey estimated doses considering individually different personal behaviors. Thus, doses for some individuals who did not follow typical scenarios could be revealed. Even considering such extreme cases, the estimated external doses were generally low and no discernible increased incidence of radiation-related health effects is expected. PMID:26239643

  19. Annual incidences of visual impairment during 10-year period in Mie prefecture, Japan.

    Ikesugi, Kengo; Ichio, Takako; Tsukitome, Hideyuki; Kondo, Mineo


    To determine the annual incidence of visual impairment in a Japanese population during a 10-year period. We examined the physical disability certificates issued yearly between 2004 and 2013 in Mie prefecture, Japan. During this period 2468 visually impaired people were registered under the newly defined Act on Welfare of the Physically Disabled Persons' criteria. The age, sex distribution, and causes of visual impairment were determined from the certificates. The major causes of visual impairment during the ten-year period were glaucoma (23.3%), diabetic retinopathy (17.3%), retinitis pigmentosa (12.2%), macular degeneration (9.0%), chorioretinal degeneration or high myopia (7.4%), optic atrophy (5.8%), stroke or brain tumor (5.4%) and cataracts (3.7%). The incidence of glaucoma was significantly higher throughout the period (2004-2013), and that of diabetic retinopathy was lower between 2007 and 2013. The incidence of retinitis pigmentosa did not change significantly during the 10-year period. The incidence of macular degeneration tended to increase between 2004 and 2007, but it decreased significantly between 2007 and 2013. The results indicate that in Japan, the rates of the major causes of visual impairment altered in the most recent 10-year period reflecting the recent changes in the social background and advances in ocular and systemic treatment.

  20. Salmonella in Liquid Eggs and Other Foods in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan

    Koichi Murakami


    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Salmonella in retail and wholesale foods in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. A total of 2,021 samples collected between 1999 and 2010 were tested using a culture method. Samples consisted of liquid eggs (n=30, meat (beef and pork (n=781, offal (n=69, processed meats (n=2, seafood (n=232, processed seafood (dried fish (n=76, vegetables (n=481, processed vegetables (n=87, fruits (n=167, and herbs (n=96 from 574 outlets and wholesale agents in 15 areas (five samples were undocumented regarding outlets. Overall, liquid egg showed significantly (P<0.001 higher frequencies of Salmonella contamination (13.3% than beef (1/423, 0.2% and pork (3/235, 1.3%. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis, the most common serovar as a human pathogen, were isolated from two liquid egg samples. No Salmonella were isolated from seafood and vegetable-related samples including seed sprouts (n=261. In conclusion, liquid egg is a significant Salmonella vehicle, showing a need to continue the vaccination of chickens to prevent S. Enteritidis contamination in Japanese eggs. Moreover, further study is needed to evaluate Salmonella contamination in seed sprouts with more sampling from retailers there.


    Takagi, Akiyoshi; Honjo, Yusuke; Kurauchi, Fumitaka; Asano, Norio; Hara, Takashi; Sawada, Kazuhide; Moriguchi, Shuji; Kitaura, Koji; Yashima, Atsushi

    Gifu University research group has studied on a comprehensive risk-management method for infrastructures. As a first step, this study presents a prototype of the risk-management system of rockfall countermeasures. In the prototype system, Hida area located in Gifu prefecture was selected as a target area. There are more than 3000 slopes in the target area. Value of the risk at each slope was estimated by multiplying the obtained probability and the economic loss. In the evaluation process of rockfall provability, a relative probability was calculated using results of a slope observation based on the logistic regression analysis. Then, the absolute probability of the rockfall was calculated using history data of rockfall occurrence. In a evaluation process of the economic loss, the physical loss, the human loss, the circumvention loss, the emergency medical service loss and the isolated colony loss were taken into consideration. It was confirmed the results obtained in this study are in good agreement with the reality. It is also found the obtained results are useful information to make decision of the rockfall risk-management.

  2. [Occupational health of endoscope sterilization workers in medical institutions in Osaka Prefecture].

    Miyajima, Keiko; Tabuchi, Takeo; Kumagai, Shinji


    To clarify the actual condition of endoscope sterilization work and the adverse health effects of disinfectants on personnel, a questionnaire was sent to 173 medical institutions in Osaka Prefecture. Glutaraldehyde (GA), ortho-phtalaldehyde (OPA), and hyperacetic acid were used as disinfectants of endoscopes by 55.5%, 32.4%, and 8.7% of the medical institutions respectively. The kind of disinfectant used had been changed in 57.8% of these institutions during the past five years, and it was confirmed that the use of substitutes for GA, such as OPA and hyperacetic acid, has increased. Personnel in 35.8% of the institutions complained about symptoms during sterilization work. The kind of disinfectant being used when they complained was GA in many cases and OPA in others. A general ventilation system has now been installed in 72.3% of the institutions; local exhaust systems have been installed in fewer, only 23.4%. Protective gloves were used at about half of the institutions, but protective masks and glasses were seldom used. This study shows that the occupational health problems of endoscope sterilization work have not been resolved. Consequently, it is necessary to promote the installation of ventilation systems and the use of protective devices in all institutions. Health education in regard to the handling of disinfectants is also necessary. Because little information is available about the toxic effects of OPA and hyperacetic acid, epidemiological studies must be conducted to clarify the human health effect of these disinfectants.

  3. Report of radioactivity survey in Kanagawa Prefecture, in 1996; Kanagawaken ni okeru hoshanochosa hokokusho, 1996



    This report summarizes the results of 1-year survey on the radioactivities in foods and environments in Kanagawa Prefecture and the uranium level in the surroundings of Japan Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. (JNF), a nuclear fuel processing plant. The survey of radioactivity or radiation level was made in environments and foods including rain water, tap water, agricultural and livestock products, marine products, etc. For these subjects, analysis of nuclides and determination of spatial radiation dose rate were performed using {gamma}-ray spectrometer. Only for rain water, the general {beta} level was also determined. The uranium levels was monitored in river water and bottom materials, soil, Undaria pinnatifida, a seagrass in river mouths, etc. The present results show that there was no problem for all subjects tested in respect of radioactivity. And the uranium level around JNF was also within the normal range. The mean intake of {sup 137}Cs was 0.085 Bq/Kg/day for the residents in the district of Hiratsuka Health Center and 0.077 Bq/Kg/day for those in the Yokohama city. Both levels were slightly higher than the previous ones. The survey results before and after the returns of nuclear powered ship were also within the normal range. (M.N.)

  4. Consumers' Attitudes towards Edible Wild Plants: A Case Study of Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan

    Bixia Chen


    Full Text Available This study explored the rural revitalizing strategy in FAO's Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS site in Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture of Japan, using a case study of edible wild plants. This study assessed the current and possible future utilization of edible wild plants as one important NTFP by clarifying the attitudes of consumers and exploring the challenges of harvesting edible wild plants. Traditional ecological knowledge associated with edible wild plants and the related attitudes of consumers towards wild plants was documented. A questionnaire survey found that a majority of the respondents held positive attitude towards edible wild plants as being healthy, safe food, part of traditional dietary culture. Increasing demand of edible wild plants from urban residents aroused conflicts with local residents’ interest given that around 86% of the forested hills are private in Noto Region. Non timber forest products (NTFP extraction can be seen as a tool for creating socioeconomic relationships that are dependent on healthy, biodiverse ecosystems. It was suggested that Japanese Agricultural Cooperatives (JA and Forestry Cooperatives (FCA could be involved with GIAHS process. As important traditional dietary and ecological system, edible wild plants should be a part of GIAHS project for rural revitalization.

  5. Assessment of landslide distribution map reliability in Niigata prefecture - Japan using frequency ratio approach

    Rahardianto, Trias; Saputra, Aditya; Gomez, Christopher


    Research on landslide susceptibility has evolved rapidly over the few last decades thanks to the availability of large databases. Landslide research used to be focused on discreet events but the usage of large inventory dataset has become a central pillar of landslide susceptibility, hazard, and risk assessment. Indeed, extracting meaningful information from the large database is now at the forth of geoscientific research, following the big-data research trend. Indeed, the more comprehensive information of the past landslide available in a particular area is, the better the produced map will be, in order to support the effective decision making, planning, and engineering practice. The landslide inventory data which is freely accessible online gives an opportunity for many researchers and decision makers to prevent casualties and economic loss caused by future landslides. This data is advantageous especially for areas with poor landslide historical data. Since the construction criteria of landslide inventory map and its quality evaluation remain poorly defined, the assessment of open source landslide inventory map reliability is required. The present contribution aims to assess the reliability of open-source landslide inventory data based on the particular topographical setting of the observed area in Niigata prefecture, Japan. Geographic Information System (GIS) platform and statistical approach are applied to analyze the data. Frequency ratio method is utilized to model and assess the landslide map. The outcomes of the generated model showed unsatisfactory results with AUC value of 0.603 indicate the low prediction accuracy and unreliability of the model.

  6. Incidence of Legionella and heterotrophic bacteria in household rainwater tanks in Azumino, Nagano prefecture, Japan.

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Oana, Kozue; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki


    Many administrative agencies in Japan are encouraging installation of household rainwater-storage tanks for more effective use of natural rainwater. Water samples were collected periodically from 43 rainwater tanks from 40 households and tested for the presence of Legionella species and the extent of heterotrophic bacteria in Azumino city, Nagano prefecture, Japan. PCR assays indicated the presence of Legionella spp. in 12 (30%) of the 43 tank water samples. Attempts were made to identify correlations between PCR positive samples, topography, pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), atmospheric temperature and the numbers of heterotrophic bacteria. Between June and October, 2012, the numbers of heterotrophic bacteria in rainwater tanks and the values of COD positively correlated with the presence of Legionella species. In most of the Legionella-positive cases, heterotrophic bacterial cell counts were >10(4) CFU/mL. Moreover, Legionella species were less frequently detected when the COD value was >5 mg KMnO(4)/L. Therefore, at least in Azumino, Japan between June and October 2012, both heterotrophic bacterial counts and COD values may be considered index parameters for the presence of Legionella cells in rainwater tanks. Much more accumulation of such data is needed to verify the accuracy of these findings.

  7. GIS-based numerical simulations of the July 2014 Nagiso debris flow in Nagano Prefecture, Japan

    Wang, Chunxiang; Fukuoka, Hiroshi


    A debris flow disaster took place in Nagiso, Nagano Prefecture of Japan in the later afternoon of 9 July 2014 triggered by 76 mm torrential rain associated with the typhoon Neoguri. This debris flow killed one resident and completely destroyed several houses. Although the source of the debris flows, especially the origin of their large boulders exceeding 5 m, are not clear, it seems that those debris flows initiated in the two upstream torrents and they joined Nashisawa torrent. Finally the debris flow ran and deposited in the Kiso River. The downstream residents are much aware of the many historical cases on similar debris flow disasters in the torrents in Nagiso and surrounding communities. Most of the residents could evacuate immediately after they felt the ground tremors induced by the running debris flow. Authors used LAHARZ (Schilling 1998) to simulate the Nagiso debris flow using 5-meter resolution Digital Elevation Model and several debris-flow volumes for the calibration. We also performed a numerical simulation to predicting the runout distance and to get insight into the behavior of the debris flow movement. A GIS-based depth-averaged 2D numerical model using a coupled viscous and Coulomb type law is used to simulate a debris flow from initiation to deposition. We compared the two simulation results and suggested the more appropriate coefficients of equations in LAHARZ for calculating the cross sectional area and planimetric area for application to the July 2014 Nagiso debris flows.

  8. Radium geochemistry in Na-Cl type groundwater in Niigata Prefecture, Japan.

    Tomita, Junpei; Satake, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Taijiro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi


    Radium isotopes in 23 Na-Cl type groundwater sampled mainly from deep wells in Niigata Prefecture, which is the site of the largest oil- and gas-fields in Japan, were measured along with U isotopes, chemical components and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios to elucidate the distribution and behavior of Ra in a brackish environment underground. Also analyzed were U and Th isotopes in 38 rock samples collected from outcrops at 17 locations. Ra-226 concentrations (8.86-1637 mBq kg(-1)) of groundwater samples roughly correlated with total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations and other alkaline earth contents. Their (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios (0.32-5.2) were similar to or higher than the (232)Th/(238)U activity ratios (0.6-1.7) in the rocks. The most likely transport mechanism of Ra isotopes into groundwater was due to their alpha-recoil from the solid phase, probably from the water-rock interface where Th isotopes had accumulated, and adsorption/desorption reaction based on the increase in (226)Ra contents with TDS.

  9. Clinical features and treatment outcomes of isolated secondary central nervous system lymphomas in Miyazaki Prefecture.

    Kawano, Noriaki; Ochiai, Hidenobu; Yoshida, Shuro; Yamashita, Kiyoshi; Shide, Kotaro; Shimoda, Haruko; Hidaka, Tomonori; Kubuki, Yoko; Katayose, Keiko; Toyama, Takanori; Kawano, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Hitoshi; Ishizaki, Junzo; Maeda, Koichi; Satou, Seiichi; Yano, Tatsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Kenichiro; Takenaka, Katsuto; Shimao, Yoshiya; Oshima, Koichi; Ueda, Akira; Shimoda, Kazuya


    Secondary central nervous system lymphoma (SCNSL) without extra-central nervous system (CNS) involvement is characterized by isolated secondary CNS relapse in malignant lymphoma patients. SCNSL is a rare disease, and no standard treatment has yet been established. To elucidate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of SCNSL, we retrospectively analyzed 12 patients (median age 67 years) in Miyazaki prefecture for the last 5 years. The initial histological diagnoses of the patients were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), mantle-cell lymphoma, and adult T-cell lymphoma in 9, 2, and 1 patient, respectively. We focused on analysis of the 9 SCNSL cases originating from DLBCL. The locations of CNS relapse were the cerebral hemisphere, basal ganglia, and cerebellum in 7, 1, and 1 patient, respectively. Three patients were treated with high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) therapy; 4 with whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRTX); and 1 with both HD-MTX and WBRTX. The remaining patients were treated with rituximab. Partial remission was achieved in 6 out of 9 patients (67%); the other 3 patients (33%) did not respond to therapy. Median survival of the 9 patients with CNS relapse was 253 days; 6 of the 9 patients survived for more than 6 months. As of March 2011, 2 HD-MTX group patients but none of the WBRTX group patients were alive. In this retrospective study, 6 of 9 patients with SCNSL originating from DLBCL survived for more than 6 months. Both HD-MTX and WBRTX had clinical benefits in the treatment of SCNSL.

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection and its related factors in junior high school students in Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    Nakayama, Yoshiko; Lin, Yingsong; Hongo, Minoru; Hidaka, Hiroya; Kikuchi, Shogo


    There have been few reports on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in asymptomatic Japanese children and adolescents. We hypothesized that the prevalence of H. pylori infection is very low among Japanese children and that clinical variables such as serum pepsinogen and iron levels are associated with H. pylori infection. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 454 junior high school students aged 12-15 years in four areas in Nagano Prefecture. A commercial ELISA kit (E-plate Eiken H. pylori antibody) was used to measure IgG antibody against H. pylori. Serum pepsinogen and iron levels were also measured using standard methods. A urea breath test was performed for seropositive students. The overall prevalence of H. pylori was 3.1% (14/454). There were no significant differences in H. pylori prevalence among mountain, rural, and urban areas. The mean level of both serum pepsinogen (PG I) and PG II was significantly increased in the seropositive subjects compared with the seronegative subjects. When the cutoff values for adults (PG I: 70 ng/mL and PG I/II ratio: 3) were used, 4 of 14 subjects had PG I ≤70 ng/mL and PG I/II ratio ≤3. The results of a logistic regression analysis showed that low serum iron levels were significantly associated with H. pylori infection (P=.02). The prevalence of H. pylori infection is as low as 3% among junior high school students aged 12-15 years in Japan. The disappearance of H. pylori is accelerating in Japanese children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Molecular typing of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated in Okayama Prefecture using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and random amplification of polymorphic DNA.

    Funamori Y


    Full Text Available Three outbreaks and many isolated cases of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 occurred in 1996 and 1997 in Okayama Prefecture, Japan. In an attempt to investigate the route of these infections, the strains isolated from the 3 outbreaks (total 33 strains and 15 isolated cases (total 15 strains were investigated using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. In addition, 10 strains from an outbreak in Tojo Cho, Hiroshima Prefecture (June 1996, 2 strains from the particular types of meat in Kochi Prefecture, and 42 strains isolated from bovine feces in a farm in Okayama Prefecture were also investigated in the same manner. PFGE was much more useful than RAPD for molecular typing of the clinical isolates, in that it allowed us to classify them into 10 PFGE groups. We noted that the strains differed according to the time and place of the outbreaks (or isolated cases. This indicates that O157:H7 infections in Okayama Prefecture were caused by different strains (although some cases were aggravated by the same strains as were found in other areas. The isolates from bovine feces were classified into 5 groups by PFGE profiles, but none of them were identical to those of the clinical isolates.

  12. Effective educational practice of river learning by using of Hiikawa-river of elementary school, Shimane prefecture, Japan

    Tomoyuki, U.; Matsumoto, I.


    The importance of field learning has been increasing at elementary school and junior high school in Japan. However, In Japan, it is little actual situation that there is in an opportunity for the field learning enforced in the school science lesson. This tendency is strong as much as school of the city and that circumference. I think that this cause is that there are few suitable places for educational tool to observe geological field near the school. Children learn about "Function of running water" in Grade 5 of elementary school in Japan. Therefore, In this study, We remark the river called "Hiikawa-river" which flow in Izumo city, Shimane prefecture as the science teaching materials. Hiikawa is the river which flowing through the granitic rock district. Therefore We can observe granitic rock from in the upper stream, midstream, to the down stream. That is, we can observe the function of running water and diameter (size) of granitic boulders. It is mean that Hiikawa is the one of good educational tool for Children to learn the function of running water. Though it is the place where nature is comparatively rich even in Japan, it can't be said that field learning is relatively popular in Shimane prefecture. I think that teacher has to learning experience at field, because teacher should settle confidence to guide to the student at the field. That is, if it is not, you can not teach children with truly important of curriculum view point of natural and field science. In this research, we introduce practice of geological field learning at the public elementary school of the Shimane prefecture by using of Hiikawa as educational tool which children learn about the function of running water in grade 5, elementary school. In addition, we hope that this study contribute to teachers teaching method and to children natural science literacy.

  13. Mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae) in wild raccoon dogs, Nyctereutes procyonoides, in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    Takahashi, M; Nogami, S; Misumi, H; Maruyama, S; Shiibashi, T; Yamamoto, Y; Sakai, T


    Parasitological and histopathological examinations were performed in 25 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) obtained in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, all of which were found to be heavily infected with Sarcoptes scabiei. The mites detected on these raccoon dogs were morphologically indistinguishable from the human species, and no Demodex mites were detected. Histopathological examinations showed prominent hyperkeratosis and acanthosis with eczema, and numerous burrows containing mites were observed in the epidermis. The enzootic dermatitis of wild raccoon dogs in recent years was clearly demonstrated to be caused by S. scabiei in the present study.

  14. Establishment of a local brand and recognition of the brand by incomers to Kamikatsu, Tokushima Prefecture, Japan

    石川, 菜央


    This study investigates how Kamikatsu, a town in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan, has established a local brand and how it is recognized by incomers to the town. It also analyzes Kamikatsu’s signature agriculture project, called the “Irodori Project,” and a policy aimed at eliminating waste, the “Zero Waste Campaign.” The results reveal that recognition of the town has increased not only in economic terms but also in the cultural sphere through the Irodori Project, whereby elderly people, who are...

  15. [Development and application of microbiology data monitoring system (Akita-ReNICS) for networking hospitals in Akita Prefecture].

    Takeda, Masahide; Ueki, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Tomoe; Tatsuko, Rumi; Kobayashi, Noriko; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Hirokawa, Makoto


    Networking among regional hospitals recently became required for infection control activities in Japan. In Akita prefecture, we developed a microbiology data warehouse for networking hospital laboratories in 2010. Designated users can easily obtain microbiology data and compare it with other participating hospitals using this system. For example, users are able to compare the MRSA/MSSA ratio in Staphylococcus aureus with other participating hospitals in Akita-ReNICS. The effectiveness and assignment of this system were shown by a questionnaire administrated in 2013. In this paper, we clarify the current state and assignment of Akita-ReNICS and consider its effective application for better infection control activities.

  16. Bunnoite, a new hydrous manganese aluminosilicate from Kamo Mountain, Kochi prefecture, Japan

    Nishio-Hamane, Daisuke; Momma, Koichi; Miyawaki, Ritsuro; Minakawa, Tetsuo


    A new mineral, bunnoite, originating from Kamo Mountain in Ino, Kochi Prefecture, Japan, has been identified. Bunnoite occurs as veins and lenses in hematite-rich ferromanganese ore, is dull green in color, and forms foliated subhedral crystals up to 0.5 mm in length. Its hardness is 5½ on the Mohs scale and its calculated density is 3.63 g cm-3. The mineral is optically biaxial (+), with α = 1.709(1), β = 1.713(1), γ = 1.727(1) (white light), 2 V meas = 54° and 2 V calc = 57°. The empirical formula of bunnoite is (Mn2+ 5.36Mg0.27Fe2+ 0.25Fe3+ 0.11)Σ6.00(Al0.60Fe3+ 0.40)Σ1.00(Si5.89Al0.11)Σ6.00O18(OH)3, and its simplified ideal formula is written as Mn2+ 6AlSi6O18(OH)3. The mineral is triclinic P overline{1} , and the unit cell parameters refined from powder X-ray diffraction data are a = 7.521(5) Å, b = 10.008(8) Å, c = 12.048(2) Å, α = 70.46(5)°, β = 84.05(6)°, γ = 68.31(6)° and V = 793.9(9) Å3. The crystal structure of bunnoite has been solved by the charge flipping method in conjunction with single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and refined to R1 = 3.3 %. Bunnoite was found to have a layered structure with alternating tetrahedral and octahedral sheets parallel to the ( overline{1} 11). The silicate tetrahedra form sorosilicate [Si6O18(OH)] clusters in the tetrahedral sheets, while the octahedra share edges to form continuous strips linked by [Mn2O8] dimers in the octahedral sheets. This mineral is classified as 9.BH according to the Nickel-Strunz system and has been named in honor of the Japanese mineralogist Michiaki Bunno (b. 1942).

  17. Historical extreme wave and landslide deposits on the Shirasuka coastal lowlands, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

    Garrett, Ed; Riedesel, Svenja; Fujiwara, Osamu; Walstra, Jan; Deforce, Koen; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Schmidt, Sabine; Brill, Dominik; Roberts, Helen; Duller, Geoff; Brückner, Hulmut; De Batist, Marc; Heyvaert, Vanessa


    Future megathrust earthquakes and consequential tsunamis pose exceptional hazards to densely populated and highly industrialised coastlines facing the Nankai-Suruga Trough, south central Japan. Geological investigations of coastal sedimentary sequences play a key role in understanding megathrust behaviour and developing seismic and tsunami hazard assessments. In this study, we revisit a previously published palaeoseismic site at Shirasuka, located on the Enshu-nada coastline of Shizuoka Prefecture, seeking both to provide further information on past earthquakes and tsunamis and to explore the prospects and limitations of geological data with respect to assessing seismic and tsunami hazards. At Shirasuka, six closely-spaced vibrocores reveal four sand layers interbedded with organic muds. Photographs, X-ray CT scans and grain size analysis reveal a variety of sedimentary structures within these layers, including abrupt contacts, massive sands, rip-up clasts, internal mud drapes and cross bedding. Microfossil assemblages (diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs) and optically stimulated luminescence overdispersion values of single grain feldspars highlight varying sediment sources and transport mechanisms. We suggest that the uppermost sand layer records a landslide from the landward margin of the site, while the remaining three sand layers reflect at least four extreme wave events, some of which are overprinted. We refine the published chronology using AMS radiocarbon, radionuclide and infrared stimulated luminescence approaches. Our Bayesian age models suggest that the oldest two sand layers relate to historically documented tsunamis in AD 1361 and 1498. The second youngest sand layer provides ages consistent with tsunamis in AD 1605 and 1707 and potentially also storm surges in 1680 and/or 1699. The modelled age of the landslide sand layer is consistent with the AD 1944 earthquake. The presence of a fresh scarp in US military aerial photographs from 1947 and

  18. [Experience of "Abakangurambaga" in Gatonde and Kidaho communities of the Ruhengeri prefecture].

    Munyakazi, A


    A vast family planning IEC program planned by Rwanda's National Population Office will depend on the work of the Abakangurambaga, workers elected by their local communities to inform and motivate the population toward rational use of the maternal-child health and family planning services. A preliminary study was begun in 1988 in 3 communes of the prefecture of Ruhengeri each having about 30,000 inhabitants. 23 trained workers in Gatonde informed the population about maternal-child health and family planning services and referred couples to the Gatonde health center. 23 trained workers in Kidaho informed the population about services, made referrals, and also supplied some contraceptive products including condoms, spermicides, and pills after the initial prescription at a health center. The commune of Kinigi served as a control. A preliminary evaluation study was conducted in Gatonde and Kidaho in June 1988, 3 months after the project was launched. Community workers, homes, and sector meetings were found to be the favored channels of communication. Married women in households with 4-6 children were most likely to be contacted by the workers. The numbers of persons individually contacted in Gatonde and Kidaho respectively were 221 and 1022 in March 1988, 312 and 1175 in April 1988, and 155 and 71 in May 1988. The workers in Kidaho resupplied a total of 342 clients with condoms, 73 with spermicides, and 15 with oral contraceptives in the 3 months. The total numbers of women using contraceptives varied between March 1988, when the project began, and May 1988, from 184 to 223 in Kidaho and from 300 to 634 in Gatonde. There was little variation in Kinigi. The number of new acceptors was 47 in March, 114 in April, and 32 in May in Kidaho; 82 in March, 178 in April, and 170 in May in Gatonde, and 2 in March, 7 in April, and 8 in May in Kinigi. The total number of couples using contraception had increased by May 1989, a year after the preliminary evaluation, to 267 in

  19. Change in climate and nature over Toyama prefecture due to global warming

    Hatsushika, H.; Kawasaki, K.; Oritani, T.; Kondo, T.; Mizoguchi, T.; Kido, M.; Tsuchihara, Y.; Wada, N.; Horikawa, K.


    Toyama prefecture is located in the center of the mainland of Japan and is surrounded by steep mountains called Tateyama at about 3,000m above sea level and by the deep Toyama bay at about 1,000m depth. In summer, since Pacific high covers mainland of Japan and East Asian summer monsoon brings a lot of rainfalls, climate in Toyama is suitable for cropping the highest qualified rice and vegetables. In winter, the dominant East Asian winter monsoon brings water from the Japan Sea by heavy snowfalls onto Tateyama. As the snow melts gradually from spring to early autumn, the abundant pure water is utilized for generating hydroelectric power and for a variety of other purposes, making it a vital resource for industries, agriculture, fishery, and human life as well as for wildlife on both sides of the plains and the mountains of Toyama. In recent, by the IPCC-AR4, influence of global warming is reported in many aspects of nature and human lives all over the world. However, we have yet to realize whether these signs are also appeared in Toyama. Therefore, we carried out statistical analyses to investigate change of nature, climate, and human lives in Toyama by global warming. Some of main results are as follows. Using the phenological data of a sample maple (Acer palmatum) tree growing at the garden in Toyama Local Meteorological Observatory, we analyzed that the leaf-color-change date is delayed ca. 20 days and the leaf-falling date is delayed ca. 10 days during recent 30 years. Using daily snowfall data between 1958 and 2007, we found that snow amounts and snowfall days are decreased significantly on the plains, while there is no trend on the mountain side. Using AMeDAS's hourly temperature data between 1978 and 2006, we detected increases in winter time minimum temperature, summer time maximum temperature, and "typical summer days" which is defined as total days that the daily maximum temperature exceeds 30 degree C. It can be inferred from these findings that the

  20. Temporal variations of Sr isotopic compositions for the rocks from Dogo, Oki islands Shimane Prefecture

    Fujimaki, Hirokazu; Xu Hong; Aoki, Ken-ichiro (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science)


    Fifty-three volcanic rocks from Dogo island, Oki, Shimane Prefecture, southwestern Japan were analyzed for Sr isotopic compositions with two basement rocks. The rock samples consist of calc-alkali rock suite, Nagaoda shoshonite-banakite suite, Oki trachyte-rhyolite suite, Dogo mugearite suite, Hei trachyte and Tsuzurao rhyolite series, and Daimanjiyama, Ohmine, Kuroshima, Shiroshimazaki, Saigo, and Misaki alkali basalt groups in the order of probable eruption sequence. The volcanic rocks of calc-alkali suite and shoshonite-banakite suite were produced before Japan Sea opening (ca. 15 Ma), and both have {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios higher than 0.7068. Long after Japan Sea opening Oki-trachyte-rhyolite suite was erupted (ca. 6.6 Ma); they have rather low {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios (0.7066-0.7081). Mugearites followed and have similar Sr isotopic composition, whereas 4.6 Ma old Daimanjiyama basalts have clearly low {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios (0.7050-0.7051). The rocks erupted 3-4 Ma seem to have the lowest {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios; they are Ohmine, Kuroshima, Shiroshimazaki alkali basalt suites (0.7044-0.7048). The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios of the Saigo basalts erupted 0.84 Ma are higher than those erupted 3-4 Ma. The latest volcanic products in Dogo island, Misaki basalt suite has even higher {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios (0.7054-0.7057) than the Saigo basalt suite. Thus, temporal and systematic variation of Sr isotopic compositions of the volcanic rocks from Dogo can be recognized. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios of the rocks were once as high as 0.7066 or even higher than 0.708, but they started decreasing down to ca. 0.7044-0.7048 4-3 Ma ago. Since then the ratios rebounded to 0.7049-0.7055. The Hei trachyte and Tsuzurao rhyolite series are not included in this temporal and systematic change. (Abstract Truncated)

  1. Bunnoite, a new hydrous manganese aluminosilicate from Kamo Mountain, Kochi prefecture, Japan

    Nishio-Hamane, Daisuke; Momma, Koichi; Miyawaki, Ritsuro; Minakawa, Tetsuo


    A new mineral, bunnoite, originating from Kamo Mountain in Ino, Kochi Prefecture, Japan, has been identified. Bunnoite occurs as veins and lenses in hematite-rich ferromanganese ore, is dull green in color, and forms foliated subhedral crystals up to 0.5 mm in length. Its hardness is 5½ on the Mohs scale and its calculated density is 3.63 g cm-3. The mineral is optically biaxial (+), with α = 1.709(1), β = 1.713(1), γ = 1.727(1) (white light), 2V meas = 54° and 2V calc = 57°. The empirical formula of bunnoite is (Mn2+ 5.36Mg0.27Fe2+ 0.25Fe3+ 0.11)Σ6.00(Al0.60Fe3+ 0.40)Σ1.00(Si5.89Al0.11)Σ6.00O18(OH)3, and its simplified ideal formula is written as Mn2+ 6AlSi6O18(OH)3. The mineral is triclinic P overline{1} , and the unit cell parameters refined from powder X-ray diffraction data are a = 7.521(5) Å, b = 10.008(8) Å, c = 12.048(2) Å, α = 70.46(5)°, β = 84.05(6)°, γ = 68.31(6)° and V = 793.9(9) Å3. The crystal structure of bunnoite has been solved by the charge flipping method in conjunction with single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and refined to R1 = 3.3 %. Bunnoite was found to have a layered structure with alternating tetrahedral and octahedral sheets parallel to the ( overline{1} 11). The silicate tetrahedra form sorosilicate [Si6O18(OH)] clusters in the tetrahedral sheets, while the octahedra share edges to form continuous strips linked by [Mn2O8] dimers in the octahedral sheets. This mineral is classified as 9.BH according to the Nickel-Strunz system and has been named in honor of the Japanese mineralogist Michiaki Bunno (b. 1942).

  2. Measurement for coordinated development of "four modernizations" and its efficiency of prefecture level cities or above in China

    JingHu Pan; YanXing Hu


    The efficient and coordinated development of industrialization, urbanization, informatization and agricultural modernization (so called "Sihua Tongbu" in China, and hereinafter referred to as "four modernizations") is not only a practical need but also an important strategic direction of integrating urban-rural development and regional development in recent China. This paper evaluated the comprehensive, coupling and coordinated developmental indices of "four modernizations" of China's 343 prefecture-level administrative units, and calculated their efficiency of "four modernizations" in 2001 and 2011. The effi-ciency evaluation index system was established. The efficiencies and their changing trend during the period 2001–2011 were investigated using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) model. Spatial-temporal pattern of the efficiency of China's prefec-ture-level units was explored by using exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA). Finally, the main influencing factors were revealed with the aid of geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. Results indicate that the comprehensive, coupling and coordinated developmental indices and efficiency of "four modernizations" of China's prefecture-level administrative units have obvious spatial differences and show diverse regional patterns. Overall, the efficiency is relatively low, and only few units with small urban populations and economic scale are in DEA efficiencies. The efficiency changing trends were decreasing during 2001–2011, with a transfer of high efficiency areas from inland to eastern coastal areas. The difference between urban and rural per capita investment in fixed assets boasts the greatest influence on the efficiency.

  3. Kozu-Matsuda fault system in northern Izu collision zone, western part of Kanagawa Prefecture, central Japan

    Odawara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Yoshida, A.


    Western area of Kanagawa Prefecture is techtonically highlighted by its geological setting that the Izu-Bonin volcanic arc collides with the Japan Island arc there. The Kozu-Matsuda fault system which consists of the Kozu-Matsuda fault, the Matsuda-kita fault, the Hinata fault and the Hirayama fault is a surface manifestation of the plate boundary. Research of the Kozu-Matsuda fault has advanced dramatically after the 1995 Kobe Earthquake. Having conducted a trench survey, Kanagawa Prefectural Government (2004) reported that the Kozu-Matsuda fault was activated at least four times in the past 4000 years and the latest activity occurred 650-950 years ago (AD. 1350-1050). However, details of the activity of the Hinata and Hirayama faults, the northern extension of the Kozu-Matsuda fault, are not well understood. The Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban areas (DaiDaiToku) made a 2040 m deep drilling in 2004 in Yamakita Town (Hayashi et al., 2006). DaiDaiToku also carried out the seismic reflection profiling along a route from Odawara to Yamanashi in 2005 (Sato et al., 2005). The study done by DaiDaiToku elucidated presence of two north-dipping thrusts. The northern thrust corresponds to the Hinata fault, and the southern one which is also considered to be a continuation of the Kozu-Matsuda fault probably represents a frontal thrust (Miyauchi et al., 2006). We have conducted paleoseismic investigations using data from boreholes across these thrusts.

  4. Seismic reflection survey in Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture; Gunma Omama senjochi ni okeru hanshaho jishin tansa

    Yamaguchi, K.; Kano, N.; Yokokura, T.; Kiguchi, T.; Yokota, T.; Matsushima, J. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    Seismic reflection survey was performed for the Medial Tectonic Line, an important geological tectonic line in the Kanto plains, at Kushibiki district, Saitama prefecture in the north-western part of the Kanto plains. It was estimated that movements of the basement were different in the individual sides of the active fault. In this study, the seismic reflection survey was performed at the Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture, which is located at the north-eastern extension of the Kushibiki plateau, to grasp the structure of basement to the depth of about 1.0 s of return travel time, and the upper sediments. Two traverse lines passing Ota city, Kiryu city, and Nitta town were used. Southern part of the traverse line-1 was in the bottom land in the middle of Tone river, and northern part was in the Omama fan area. The ground surface along the traverse line was flat. Hachioji heights are the heights elongating in the NW-SE direction and having relative height of 100 to 200 m against the surrounding plain. Another traverse line-2 was set on the steep slope having relative height more than 100 m. The Brute stack time section of each traverse line was characterized by the gradient reflection surface AA of the traverse line-1. It was suggested that the AA or intermittent parts of reflection surfaces deeper than AA may relate to the tectonic lines in the more ancient geological ages. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Molecular epidemiological investigation of a diffuse outbreak caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Montevideo isolates in Osaka Prefecture, Japan.

    Harada, Tetsuya; Sakata, Junko; Kanki, Masashi; Seto, Kazuko; Taguchi, Masumi; Kumeda, Yuko


    In Osaka Prefecture, Japan, three foodborne outbreaks were caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Montevideo in rapid succession between September 2007 and May 2008. Further, Salmonella Montevideo was also isolated from several sporadic diarrhea patients and asymptomatic carriers examined during approximately the identical period. To investigate the relatedness of the isolates, we performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) for 29 Salmonella Montevideo isolates obtained in this region between 1991 and 2008. Although antimicrobial susceptibility tests had low discriminatory power, PFGE patterns revealed 17 unique types with outbreaks, one sporadic patient, and three different carriers between 2007 and 2008 had nearly identical PFGE patterns and were classified into the identical MLVA type; further, the isolates with this PFGE and MLVA pattern appeared only at that time between 1991 and 2008. These data strongly suggest that genetically identical Salmonella Montevideo strains may have caused the 2007 and 2008 outbreaks in Osaka Prefecture. Our results demonstrate that PFGE using XbaI and BlnI is useful for discriminating between Salmonella Montevideo isolates, even within a limited area, and reconfirm that continuous epidemiological surveillance for bacterial intestinal infections such as salmonellosis may be useful to not only monitor changes in the genetic diversity of isolates, but to also detect diffuse outbreaks.

  6. Evaluation of ambient dose equivalent rates influenced by vertical and horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium in soil in Fukushima Prefecture.

    Malins, Alex; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Nakama, Shigeo; Saito, Tatsuo; Okumura, Masahiko; Machida, Masahiko; Kitamura, Akihiro


    The air dose rate in an environment contaminated with (134)Cs and (137)Cs depends on the amount, depth profile and horizontal distribution of these contaminants within the ground. This paper introduces and verifies a tool that models these variables and calculates ambient dose equivalent rates at 1 m above the ground. Good correlation is found between predicted dose rates and dose rates measured with survey meters in Fukushima Prefecture in areas contaminated with radiocesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This finding is insensitive to the choice for modeling the activity depth distribution in the ground using activity measurements of collected soil layers, or by using exponential and hyperbolic secant fits to the measurement data. Better predictions are obtained by modeling the horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium across an area if multiple soil samples are available, as opposed to assuming a spatially homogeneous contamination distribution. Reductions seen in air dose rates above flat, undisturbed fields in Fukushima Prefecture are consistent with decrement by radioactive decay and downward migration of cesium into soil. Analysis of remediation strategies for farmland soils confirmed that topsoil removal and interchanging a topsoil layer with a subsoil layer result in similar reductions in the air dose rate. These two strategies are more effective than reverse tillage to invert and mix the topsoil.

  7. Analysis and simulation of land use spatial pattern in Harbin prefecture based on trajectories and cellular automata-Markov modelling

    Gong, Wenfeng; Yuan, Li; Fan, Wenyi; Stott, Philip


    There have been rapid population and accelerating urban growth with associated changes in land use and soil degradation in northeast China, an important grain-producing region. The development of integrated use of remote sensing, geographic information systems, and combined cellular automata- Markov models has provided new means of assessing changes in land use and land cover, and has enabled projection of trajectories into the future. We applied such techniques to the prefecture-level city of Harbin, the tenth largest city in China. We found that there had been significant losses of the land uses termed "cropland", "grassland", "wetland", and "floodplain" in favour of "built-up land" and lesser transformations from "floodplain" to "forestland" and "water body" over the 18-year period. However, the transition was not a simple process but a complex network of changes, interchanges, and multiple transitions. In the absence of effective land use policies, projection of past trajectories into a balance state in the future would result in the decline of cropland from 65.6% to 46.9% and the increase of built-up area from 7.7% to 23.0% relative to the total area of the prefecture in 1989. It also led to the virtual elimination of land use types such as unused wetland and floodplain.

  8. Overland flow connectivity in a forest plantation before and after tree thinning (Tochigi Prefecture, central Japan)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Sun, Xinchao; Kato, Hiroaki; Gomi, Takashi; Hiraoka, Marino


    Overland flow connectivity is a key factor to understand the redistribution dynamics of sediments, nutrients, radiotracers, etc., in the different compartments at channel, hillslope and catchment scales. Human organization of landscape elements has a significant control on runoff and soil redistribution processes. Construction of trails, forest roads and firewalls influence runoff connectivity (RC) in forested catchments. In this study we simulated RC in two forested catchments, called K2 (19.3 ha) and K3 (13.6 ha), located on the Mount Karasawa, in the Tochigi Prefecture in central Japan. Forest plantation includes Japanese cypress and cedar and covers 59% of the total area. Native broad-leaved trees (28%) and mixed forest occupy the rest of the study area. We selected the Index of runoff and sediment Connectivity (IC) of Borselli et al. (2008) to simulate three temporal scenarios: i) Sc-2011, before tree thinning (TT); ii) Sc-2012 after TT in most part of the forest plantation in K2 (32% of the total area); and iii) Sc-2013 after TT in some areas of the K3 catchment, affecting 38% of the total area. The study areas were defined from the coalescence point (139⁰ 36' 04" E, 36⁰ 22' 03" N) of both catchments upslope. Elevation ranges from 75 to 287 m a.s.l. and the mean slope steepness is of 67 and 65% in K2 and K3. Three different high resolution DEM-LiDAR maps at 0.5 x 0.5 m of cell size were used to run the IC model in each scenario. The permanent streams in the study area have a total length of 2123 m. The mean C-RUSLE factor was of 0.0225 in Sc-2011 and 21% and 25% higher in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013. The total length of the landscape linear elements incremented from 2482 m in Sc-2011 to 3151 m in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013 due to the construction of new skid trails in K2. The mean RC in the study area was of -4.536 in Sc-2011 and increased 7.4% and 8.9% in the Sc-2012 and Sc-2013, respectively, due to the tree thinning operations and the construction of new skid trails

  9. [Survey of keratinophilic fungi from soils and mating behaviour of Microsporum canis from human ringworm cases in Hokkaido Prefecture in Japan].

    Kubo, H


    From 383 (38.3%) of a total 1000 of soil samples, collected from Hokkaido prefecture, keratinophilic fungi have been isolated using hair baiting technique. The fungi isolated were as follows: 318 strains of Trichophyton ajelloi (including 90 strains of Arthroderma uncinatum), 59 of Microsporum cookei (including 13 of Nannizzia cajetani), 32 of Chrysosporium keratinophilum, 23 of C. tropicum, 15 of Chrysosporium anamorph of A. tuberculatum, 6 of T. terrestre (including 3 of A. insingulare and one of A. quadrifidum), 4 of Chrysosporium sp., 2 of M. canis (including one of N. otae), one of M. gypseum, and one of Ctenomyces serratus. This is the first isolation of N. otae from soil. Because of the successful isolation of N. otae (and its anamorph) from soil sample, (+) strain of M. canis was suggested to be popular in Hokkaido prefecture. The prevalence of (+) strain of M. canis was investigated using 279 isolates obtained from human ringworm cases. Among the 279 isolates, 257 were (-) mating type, 8 were (+) and 14 were nonreactive. Results of the present study indicate that the distribution of keratinophilic fungi from soils in Hokkaido prefecture is markedly different from that in the southern parts of Japan. The unexpected isolation of N. otae and its anamorph from soil samples as well as the significant population of N. otae(+) strain from human ringworms suggest the peculiar distribution pattern of N. otae (+) in Hokkaido prefecture.

  10. Questionnaire-based analysis of the current level of asthma control and management in Niigata Prefecture, Japan: Changes from 1998 to 2000

    Takashi Hasegawa


    Conclusion: These results indicate that antiinflammatory agents, including inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene receptor antagonists, contributed to improved asthma control, whereas oral theophylline is characteristically used in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. However, not all asthma-related problems, such as satisfaction in daily life, improved and self-evaluation of asthma control by patients may play a key role in improving their satisfaction in daily life.

  11. The 2011 Great East Japan earthquake: a report of a regional hospital in Fukushima Prefecture coping with the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    Irisawa, Atsushi


    A catastrophic undersea megathrust earthquake of magnitude 9.0 off the coast of Japan occurred at 14:46 JST on Friday, 11 March 2011. The earthquake triggered powerful tsunami waves, and the tsunami precipitated Fukushima nuclear accidents. After the terrible earthquake, many people fled from the nuclear accident and arrived at places far from the nuclear power plant. In this article, I present a story of one measure devised to deal with the problem of the Fukushima nuclear accident at a regional hospital of Fukushima prefecture, Aizu General Hospital, which is located far from the Fukushima nuclear plant. In addition, I briefly report the current situation of Fukushima prefecture after the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake. In our hospital, the countermeasure headquarters was established to supply medical care for those who had been injured by tsunami waves and the Fukushima nuclear accident. Especially, the screening for radioactive exposure using a dosimeter to take decontamination measures for cases of external exposure was extremely important task. Nevertheless, because the accurate knowledge related to radioactive contamination didn't provide, most medical staff fell into confusion. Fukushima prefecture has been 'shrinking' since the nuclear accident. However, today, although some hot spots remain in residential areas, the radioactive contamination is decreasing little by little. Many people in Fukushima Prefecture advance as one, facing forward. Recently, decontamination projects started. Efforts must be continued over a long period.

  12. [Study on drop-out from antiretroviral therapy among adult HIV-infected individuals in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province].

    Yao, Shitang; Shi, Yun; Li, Pinyin; Xu, Yuanwu; Yang, Wenqin; Zhang, Yindi; Yin, Chunying; Cun, Liuqing; Zhai, Zhijian; He, Na; Duan, Song


    To examine the proportion and reasons of drop-out from antiretroviral therapy (ART) among 8 367 adult HIV-infected individuals in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province. All adult HIV-infected patients receiving ART before September 30 of 2014 were examined for the situation of drop-out from ART. The proportion of drop-out from ART among adult HIV-infected patients in Dehong prefecture was 14.4% (1 202/8 367). Results from the univariate logistic regression analyses indicated that drop-out from ART was significantly correlated with factors as: living area, gender, age, marital status, HIV transmission route, baseline CD4⁺ T cell counts and initial treatment regimen of the patients. After adjusted for potential confounding variables by multiple logistic regression model, drop-out from ART was significantly correlated with residential area, marital status, HIV transmission route, baseline CD4⁺ T cell count and initial treatment regimen of the patients. HIV-infected patients who were living in Mangshi city, Lianghe county or Yingjiang County, being married or living with partner, HIV infection through sexual contact, with baseline CD4⁺ T cell counts ≤ 200 cells/mm³, and ART included in the initial treatment regimen etc., were less likely to drop out from ART. The proportion of drop out from ART was significantly decreasing along with the increasing time of ART. Data from specific investigation revealed that among the 1 202 patients who dropped out from ART, 704 (58.6%) were lost to follow-up, 303 (25.2%) did not adhere to treatment, 74 (6.2%) moved out the region, 64 (5.3%) were Burmese that had returned to Burma, 29 (2.4%) stopped the treatment according to doctors' advice, 18 (1.5%) were incarcerated and 10 (0.8%) were under other reasons. Reasons for the drop-out varied, according to the situation of patients. The proportion of drop-out from ART varied significantly according to the characteristics of HIV-infected patients in Dehong prefecture that

  13. Increasing newly diagnosed rate and changing risk factors of HCV in Yanbian Prefecture, a high endemic area in China.

    Hong-Xin Piao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The newly diagnosed rate of HCV infection is increasing in China. However, the risk factors have not been fully identified. Here, a survey was performed in Yanbian Prefecture, a high-endemic area in China. METHODS: We identified newly diagnosed HCV infection in 2007-2011, using the local National Disease Supervision Information Management System from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. We determined the risk factors using a case-control survey by questionnaire. RESULTS: Yanbian Prefecture had a rapid increase in the yearly newly diagnosed rate of HCV infection from 32.6 to 72.1/100.000 from the year 2007 to 2011. People aged 50-64 years had a high HCV infection of 43.4%, but only 0.3% of cases were reported in those aged less than 20 years. Cosmetic treatment, family history, blood transfusion, and dental treatment were independent risk factors for HCV infection. Unexpectedly, cosmetic treatments [odd ratio (OR = 5.15, 95% confidence interval (CI = 2.31-11.48, P = 0.00] and family history (OR = 4.68, 95% CI = 2.67-8.75, P = 0.00 showed a higher risk than the conventional risk factors of blood transfusion (OR = 4.49, 95% CI = 1.95-10.37, P = 0.001 and dental treatment (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.42-6.25, P = 0.00. To further analyze the intrafamilial transmission, we found that spouses of HCV patients had an increased risk for acquiring HCV (OR = 5.75, 95% CI: 1.94-17.07, without significant association between either HCV RNA viral load (P = 0.29 or genotype (P = 0.43. CONCLUSIONS: HCV infection was increased in Yanbian Prefecture. Cosmetic treatment was a higher risk factor than medical procedure. HCV infection had a clear family clustering phenomenon, especially between spouses.

  14. Evaluation of ambient dose equivalent rates influenced by vertical and horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium in soil in Fukushima Prefecture

    Malins, Alex; Nakama, Shigeo; Saito, Tatsuo; Okumura, Masahiko; Machida, Masahiko; Kitamura, Akihiro


    The air dose rate in an environment contaminated with 134Cs and 137Cs depends on the amount, depth profile and horizontal distribution of these contaminants within the ground. This paper introduces and verifies a tool that models these variables and calculates ambient dose equivalent rates at 1 m above the ground. Good correlation is found between predicted dose rates and dose rates measured with survey meters in Fukushima Prefecture in areas contaminated with radiocesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This finding is insensitive to the choice for modelling the activity depth distribution in the ground using activity measurements of collected soil layers, or by using exponential and hyperbolic secant fits to the measurement data. Better predictions are obtained by modelling the horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium across an area if multiple soil samples are available, as opposed to assuming a spatially homogeneous contamination distribution. Reductions seen in air dose rate...

  15. Case Study on Effectiveness Evaluation of Buisiness Procedure Reengineering: BPR for Local Government in Saga Prefecture, Japan

    Kohei Arai


    Full Text Available Case study on validation of effeteness of Business Procedure Reengineering: BPR for local government in Saga prefecture, Japan is conducted. As the results, if it found that BPR is effective. The local government, environment established a government CIO room introduction of a number system was a long-cherished wish is determined in 2013, it is possible to promote e- government and e-municipality and the banner of great incredibly plan called "world-leading creative nation" is being put into place some. We would like you to realize the municipality a cloud can be enhanced administrative services to pour our best to take this opportunity, give the impression to the residents as possible; the operational efficiency of the civil service, the foundation is reduced large flower IT costs




    Japan ranks fifth in the world for the number of large dams. Environmental impacts of large dams are known, such as enormous losses of water or disruption of fish spawning, however, impacts of the dams on their up streams are functions of topography of the up stream. Haizuka Dam is located in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan and its implementation will start in 2006. This large dam influences its up stream through dam making activities, which occurs in order and with different spatial presences that were categorized into chronological and spatial impacts. In this case study, spatial impacts were further divided into horizontal and vertical ones. The horizontal impacts were identified as new roads, diversion tunnel, dam lake, and submerged cultivated land, while vertical impacts were recognized as submerged historical monuments, slope protections, dam body, and deforested area in the reservoir. There were convergences of spatial and temporal impacts, however, the extent of the impacts was limited to the lake boundary.

  17. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Japan: an epidemiological study done in a select prefecture between 1976 and 1986.

    Akai, J; Ishihara, O; Higuchi, S


    An epidemiological study was performed with respect to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a designated area in Japan. The subjects were observed in a small rural prefecture where the population generally remains within a limited radius throughout their lives. The patients' life-styles in each area were investigated in detail. Nine cases appeared in 11 years; 6 were definitive and 3 probable. They were all of the subacute type; there were no noteworthy sexual differences, age of onset, course and/or past histories. Three of the nine cases came from two families; the relationship between familial and isolated cases was examined. Revealed facts and time-space clustering were investigated statistically, but no indication of natural transmission was observable.

  18. Determinants of electricity consumption intensity in China: analysis of cities at subprovince and prefecture levels in 2009.

    Xia, X H; Hu, Yi


    China has experienced great social and economic vicissitudes that caused the vast complexity and uncertainty for electricity consumption. This paper attempts to identify the main determinants of the electricity consumption intensity by using the data from Chinese cities at subprovince and prefecture levels in 2009. The key category factors, including urban morphology, industrial structure, regulation context, urbanization degree, price, natural condition, and resource endowment, are abstracted and the influence of these determinants is evaluated by adopting the finite mixture models. The variation of each determinant across regions, the comparative weights of all the factors, and the detailed classifications of the cities are reported for facilitating the understanding of electricity consumption in China. The corresponding policies for electricity administration are addressed as well.

  19. [Evaluation of suicide risk factors based on a survey of suicides and suicidal attempts at psychiatric hospitals in Aichi Prefecture].

    Mori, Takao


    This investigation examined cases of suicide, suicidal attempts, and risk factors in 41 psychiatric hospitals of Aichi Prefecture. As a result, some characteristics of psychiatric wards considered to be effective in suicide prevention were shown. In addition, as for measures to resolve risk factors and the state of the patients, there were many which were effective in the prevention of suicide attempts. Regarding measures to reduce risk factors for symptoms and treat patients, there were many techniques which were effective in the prevention of suicidal attempts, but, for cases which did not respond to treatment, suicide was frequent. In addition, a "suicide preventive manual in a psychiatric hospital" produced based on these results was distributed.

  20. Ecological service assessment of human-dominated freshwater ecosystem with a case study in Yangzhou Prefecture,China

    YE Ya-ping; WANG Ru-song; REN Jing-ming; HU Dan; YUAN Shao-jun; WANG Min


    Freshwater ecosystems provide a host of services to humanity. These services are now rapidly being lost, not least because of the inability of making the impacts measurable. To overcome this obstacle, assessment frameworks for freshwater ecosystem services are needed. A simple water equivalent framework to assess the ecological services provided by freshwater ecosystems was developed in this study. It translated the occupation of freshwater ecosystem services into biologically freshwater volumes and then compares this consumption to the freshwater throughput, that is, the ecological capacity available in this region. In this way, we use the example of Yangzhou Prefecture, to account the main categories of human occupation of water ecosystem services. The result showed that there is a huge gap between the consumption and the supply of freshwater ecosystem services. This must encourage local government to make land-use and water management decisions both economically rational and environmentally sound.

  1. [Surveillance report of drug-resistant bacteria from 2007 to 2012 in Saga Prefecture, Japan (the second report)].

    Kiyosuke, Makiko; Nagasawa, Zenzo; Hotta, Taeko; Utsumi, Takashi; Kang, Dongchon; Miyamoto, Hiroshi


    Drug-resistant bacteria are a problematic issue in Japan. Surveillance of drug-resistant bacteria is important because the frequency of isolation and kinds of such bacteria vary between hospitals and local areas. This study summarizes the results of detection of drug-resistant bacteria in Saga Prefecture from July 2007 to June 2012. Data presented in this study were collected through questionnaire survey that was conducted in 12 hospitals. Frequency of drug-resistant bacteria are as follows: 62.5% of Staphylococcus aureus was methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA); 62.2% of Streptococcus pneumoniae was penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (PISP) or penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP); 26.4% of Haemophilus influenzae was beta-lactamase negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae (BLNAR); 0.5% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) P. aeruginosa; 0.5% of P. aeruginosa was multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa (MDRP); 12.9% and 5.1% of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively, were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms. While the isolation frequencies of MRSA and PISP/PRSP were unchanged, those of BLNAR, ESBL producing E. coli and ESBL producing K. pneumoniae raised from 15.4% to 34.2%, from 5.7% to 18.4% and from 2.6% to 8.2%, respectively, over the past 5 years. The frequencies of isolation of MDRP and two drug resistant P. aeruginosa declined. This study revealed that the overall trend in the long-term changes of isolation frequency of drug-resistant bacteria in Saga Prefecture is similar to the trend in the national data. It also showed that the frequency and kinds of drug-resistant bacteria are variable between hospitals and local areas. Further study, such as examination of the usage and MIC value of antimicrobial drugs, will enable us to gain more detailed information on the drug-resistant bacteria.

  2. Geological field study for science education on Elementary and Junior high school student, in Shimane prefecture, Japan

    Matsumoto, I.


    The importance of learning at field has been increasing in the elementary and the junior high school in Japan. And, an environmental education is one of the important subjects even in the school education, too. It was important, as for science education, understanding with actual feeling and learning were specified as for the Teaching outlines (the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) of the new science textbook of the elementary and the junior high school as well. However, It is a little actual situation that there is in an opportunity for the field learning enforced in the school lesson by the investigation of JST (Japan Science and Tecnology Agency). This tendency is strong as much as school of the city and that circumference. I have this cause think that there are a few suitable places for learning to observe geological and biological field near school. In addition, below two is pointed out as a big problem to obstruct the execution of field learning. 1) A natural experience isn't being done sufficient as much as a teacher can teach to the student. 2) It doesn't have the confidence that a teacher teaches a student geology and biology at the field. I introduce the practical example of geological field learning at the public elementary school of the Shimane prefecture by this research. Though it is the place where nature is comparatively rich even in Japan, it can't be said that field learning is popular in Shimane prefecture. A school teacher has to learning experience at field, and he must settle confidence to guide a student at the field. A specialist in the university and the museum must support continuous learning for that to the school teacher.

  3. Cs-134 and Cs-137 radioactivity in river waters in Fukushima, Miyagi, Ibaraki and Gunma Prefectures in August 2012 after the Fukuhsima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Nagao, S.; Ochiai, S.; Yamamoto, M. [Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Wake, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1224(Japan); Kanamori, M. [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 921-1192 (Japan); Tomihara, S. [Environmental Aquarium Aquamarine Fukushima, 50 Tatsumi, Onahama, Iwaki, Fukushima 971-8101(Japan); Suzuki, K. [Gunma Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Station, 13 Shikishima, Maebashi, Gunma 371-1036 (Japan)


    About 15 PBq from both {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) because of venting operations and hydrogen explosions. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan reported total surface deposition of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in Japan. To estimate short-term and long-term impacts of the radiation dose in Japan, it is important to understand the dynamics of radionuclides, especially those of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, on river watershed environments. This study investigated {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in river systems in Fukushima, Miyagi, Ibaraki and Gunma prefectures, Japan. The secondary radioactive dispersion of radiocesium from the contaminated watershed to the river waters is reported for research areas with widely various radiocesium deposition on ground surfaces at 18 months after the accident. Field experiments were conducted at a fixed station in four rivers (the Uta, Niida, Natsui, and Same Rivers) in Fukushima Prefecture, and the Kuji River, and Naka River in Ibaraki Prefecture in August 2012. The Abukuma River was set up one site at the upper, two sites in the middle reach in Fukushima Prefecture and at one site in the lower area in Miyagi Prefecture. The Tone River system has three stations at the upper river area in Gunma Prefecture and one site at the lower reach in Ibaraki Prefecture. Surface deposition results reveals significant external radioactivity in a zone extending northwest from the NPP. However, a mountainous area in Gunma Prefecture, located about 220 km from Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP south of Fukushima Prefecture, shows similar accumulation of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. The 20 L of surface river waters were collected at the station using buckets. The radioactivity of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in the river waters was measured with gamma-ray spectrometry using ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP)/Cs compound method with a low background Ge

  4. Hybrid library that satisfies the needs of all the citizens! ; Improving the library service through cooperation of higher-education institution libraries and public libraries ; Enthusiasm of Mr. Yasuhiro Nagata, chief librarian of Fukui prefectural library and the staff

    Morita, Utako

    Hybrid library that satisfies the needs of all the citizens! ; Improving the library service through cooperation of higher-education institution libraries and public libraries ; Enthusiasm of Mr. Yasuhiro Nagata, chief librarian of Fukui prefectural library and the staff

  5. 昌吉州人口老龄化问题探析%An Analysis of Population Aging in Changji Prefecture



    Population aging is the result of social progress and economic development,and it is also the common problem of the whole world. Since Chin’s reform and opening up,the rapid development of economic society and the implementation of family planning policy has led to the increase of population aging. Population aging in Changji Prefecture also presents the trend of aging, empty nest family miniaturization,and this put forward new requirements to the corresponding infrastructure,legal system,econom-ic and social development,social pension and social security system in Changji Prefecture. This paper mainly focuses on the aging of the population brought about a series of social question,has carried on the analysis of the current status of aging and facing challenges,and put forward corresponding countermeasures and measures from the aspect of the government,society,family,and the elderly themselves.%内容提人口老龄化的产生是社会进步、经济发展的结果,也是当今全世界关注的共同难题。我国自改革开放以来,由于经济社会快速发展以及计划生育政策的实施导致人口老龄化加剧。“六普”资料表明,昌吉州人口呈现出高龄化、空巢化、家庭小型化的特征,而这些均对其基础设施、法律制度、经济社会发展、社会养老方式及社会保障体系提出了新的要求。本文主要围绕人口老龄化带来的一系列社会问题,对昌吉州当前的老龄化现状和面临的挑战进行了分析,并结合昌吉州州情提出了在政府层面、社会层面、家庭层面、个体层面应采取的相应措施。

  6. The rise and fall of rabies in Japan: A quantitative history of rabies epidemics in Osaka Prefecture, 1914-1933.

    Aiko Kurosawa


    Full Text Available Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0, the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated. A total of 4,632 animal rabies cases were reported, mainly in dogs (99.0%, 4,584 cases during two epidemics from 1914 to 1921, and 1922 to 1933 respectively. The second epidemic was larger (3,705 cases than the first (879 cases, but had a lower R0 (1.50 versus 2.42. The first epidemic was controlled through capture of stray dogs and tethering of pet dogs. Dog mass vaccination began in 1923, with campaigns to capture stray dogs. Rabies in Osaka Prefecture was finally eliminated in 1933. A total of 3,805 rabid dog-bite injuries, and 75 human deaths were reported. The relatively low incidence of human rabies, high ratio of post-exposure vaccines (PEP and bite injuries by rabid dogs (minimum 6.2 to maximum 73.6, between 1924 and 1928, and a decline in the proportion of bite victims that developed hydrophobia over time (slope = -0.29, se = 3, p < 0.001, indicated that increased awareness and use of PEP might have prevented disease. Although significantly more dog rabies cases were detected at higher human population densities (slope = 0.66, se = 0.03, p < 0.01, there were fewer dog rabies cases detected per capita (slope = -0.34, se = 0.03, p < 0.01. We suggest that the combination of mass vaccination and restriction of dog movement enabled by strong legislation was key to eliminate rabies. Moreover, the prominent role of the media in both reporting rabies cases and efforts to control the disease likely contributed

  7. Risk Factors for Non-Occupational Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Anshan Prefecture, Liaoning Province, China, 2011-2012.

    Qiang Lu

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning can be fatal but is preventable. From October 2010 to February 2011, Anshan Prefecture reported 57 cases of non-occupational CO poisoning in District A, with two deaths. We conducted an investigation to identify risk factors and recommend preventive measures.We defined a possible case of non-occupational CO poisoning as onset of at least two of the following symptoms: fatigue, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, cyanosis, loss of consciousness, coma, and shock from October 1, 2010, to February 28, 2011, in a resident of Anshan Prefecture with non-occupational exposure to CO poisoning. We defined a probable case as onset of at least one of the following symptoms: cyanosis, loss of consciousness, coma and shock, plus at least one of the following symptoms: fatigue, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, among possible cases. A confirmed CO poisoning case was a possible case or probable case plus hemoglobin (Hb CO higher than 10%. We searched for cases by reviewing medical records and records of hyperbaric oxygen tank usage. In a case-control investigation, we compared home heating practices of 30 case-persons and 120 control-persons who were individually matched to each case by neighborhood.Overall, 56% (39/70 of case-patients' households burned coal for home-heating. In the case-control investigation, 40% (12/30 of case-persons' households compared with 5.8% (7/120 of control-persons' households placed stoves in bedrooms (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio [ORM-H] = 11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.0-41; 53% (16/30 of case-patients' households and 33% (40/120 of control-patients' households did not extinguish the fire before sleeping (ORM-H = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.1-12; 13% (4/30 of case-patients' households and 3% (4/120 of control-patients' households had not installed the ventilation pipe vertically (ORM-H = 7.3, 95% CI = 1.0-56. Overall, 77% (23/30 of case-patients' households and 39% (47/120 of control

  8. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on health, medical care and public health systems in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, 2011

    Masaru Nohara


    Full Text Available Problem: The Great East Japan Earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded in global history. The damage was spread over a wide area, with the worst-hit areas being Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures. In this paper we report on the damage and the impact of the damage to describe the health consequences among disaster victims in Iwate Prefecture.Context: In Iwate Prefecture the tsunami claimed 4659 lives, with 1633 people missing. In addition to electricity, water and gas being cut off following the disaster, communication functions were paralysed and there was a lack of gasoline.Action: Medical and public health teams from Iwate Prefecture and around the country, including many different specialists, engaged in a variety of public health activities mainly at evacuation centres, including medical and mental health care and activities to prevent infectious diseases.Outcome: Given the many fatalities, there were relatively few patients who required medical treatment for major injuries. However, there were significant medical needs in the subacute and chronic phases of care in evacuation centres, with great demand for medical treatment and public health assistance, measures to counteract infection and mental health care.Discussion: By referring to past experiences of national and international large-scale disasters, it was possible to respond effectively to the health-related challenges. However, there are still challenges concerning how to share information and coordinate overall activities among multiple public health response teams. Further examination will be required to ensure better preparedness in response to future disasters.

  9. Ecosystem Services Evaluation and Its Spatial Characteristics in Central Asia’s Arid Regions: A Case Study in Altay Prefecture, China

    Qi Fu; Bo Li; Linlin Yang; Zhilong Wu; Xinshi Zhang


    Ecosystem services are important foundations to realize the sustainable development of economy and society. The question of how to quantitatively evaluate ecosystem services in a scientific way is a hot topic among international researchers. Studying the spatial characteristics of ecosystem services in arid regions can provide the theoretical and practical basis for coordinating a sustainable man-land relationship. Altay Prefecture of China, a typical arid region in Central Asia, was taken as...

  10. Research report for fiscal 1998 on regional new energy vision drawn up for Tokushima Prefecture; 1998 nendo Tokushimaken shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho



    The amount of energy in existence is theoretically the amount of energy that exists in a given region while the available amount is an amount of energy worked out with technological, economic, and social conditions taken into consideration. The total of the amount in existence and that of the available amount are mentioned in a table, and the available amount is further shown in terms of calorie. It totals 11,120Tcal per year, which is equivalent to approximately 55% of the whole amount of energy that Tokushima Prefecture demands. The availability of each type of new energy and the state of development of related technologies are studied to determine what priority is to be given to what energy. The group that is given the highest priority consists of photovoltaic power generation, passive solar systems, refuse fueled power generation, and heat from wastes (this group occupying more than 80% of the available amount in Tokushima Prefecture). The second group consists of wind power generation, clean energy vehicles, cogeneration, and small and medium scale hydroelectric power generation. The third group consists of fuel cells, ocean energy, biomass, and temperature difference energy. Natural conditions surrounding new energy in existence in Tokushima Prefecture are rather favorable, but social conditions are not. (NEDO)

  11. Basic research report for drawing up regional new energy vision for Aomori Prefecture; Aomoriken chiiki shin energy vision sakutei kiso chosa hokokusho



    Based on the amount of new energy expectedly collectable in the region, feasibility of its use is examined, with various circumstances including the magnitude of demand for it taken into consideration. The types of new energy whose introduction into the Aomori Prefecture region is very likely are the energy of the sun (light and heat) and that of the wind. As for geothermal energy, hydraulic energy of small and medium dimensions, energy from the snow, and energy from wastes, the probabilities of their introduction will grow fairly high dependent on the outcome of negotiations or alignment with energy demanding parties. As for wave power energy and temperature difference energy, though they exist in abundance, there remain difficult problems to solve relating to exploiting technologies and consuming parties, and at the current stage it is deemed that probabilities are low that they will be introduced into the prefecture. As for utilization by incineration of biomass such as excrements of animals and thinnings from forests, probability of realization is low now that there are other uses for them, return to the farmland or processing at timber mills. As for methane fermentation in the treatment of sewage and sludge, the energy from this process is being consumed at many locations across the prefecture, and it is deemed that probabilities are high that their utilization will expand. (NEDO)

  12. The incidence of pediatric invasive Haemophilus influenzae and pneumococcal disease in Chiba prefecture, Japan before and after the introduction of conjugate vaccines.

    Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Hishiki, Haruka; Nagasawa, Koo; Naito, Sachiko; Sato, Yasunori; Chang, Bin; Sasaki, Yuko; Kimura, Kouji; Ohnishi, Makoto; Shibayama, Keigo


    The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) were introduced in Japan in 2008 and 2010, respectively. In 2011, immunization with these two vaccines was encouraged throughout Japan through a governmental program. Children treated in Chiba prefecture for culture-proven invasive H. influenzae disease (IHiD) and invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease (IPD) were identified in a prefectural surveillance study from 2008 to 2013. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) and its confidence interval (CI) were calculated to compare the 3 years before and after governmental financial support for vaccination. The average number of IHiD and IPD cases among children <5 years of age in 2011-2013 decreased 84% (IRR: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.09-0.26, p<0.0001) and 51% (IRR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.37-0.63, p<0.0001) compared with those occurring in 2008-2010. The most common non-PCV7 serotype encountered in 2011 and 2013 was 19A. After governmental subsidization of Hib and PCV7 vaccination, IHiD and IPD decreased in Chiba prefecture, Japan. Continuous surveillance is necessary to determine the effectiveness of these two vaccines and for detection of emerging invasive serotypes.

  13. [Lifetime social, psychological and physical background of suicides --research on the number of suicides during a year in Fukushima prefecture].

    Fujioka, Kotaro; Abe, Sumiko; Hiraiwa, Kouichi


    We performed a questionnaire survey of the bereaved families of decedents in 523 cases of suicide which occurred during the year beginning July 17, 1997, in Fukushima prefecture in Japan. The questionnaire consisted of 33 items which indicated decedents' behavior changes and stress factors before death. Of the 523 cases, 420 questionnaires were completed by the surviving family members. The risk factors for suicide which are conventionally accepted were found with high frequency in the data. Common stress factors were occupational and financial problems in males and difficulties with human relationships and family problems in females. The sexes were clearly differentiated in this respect. Common changes preceding suicide were expressed as "becoming depressed" or "social isolation". These statements were common and tended to be associated with depression. Hanging was the most frequent method of committing suicide in both sexes and at all ages. Thirty one percent of the victims were diagnosed and treated for mental diseases, and 39% for physical diseases. Many of the 39% who had physical diseases also showed depressive behaviors. The screening and treatment of depression is a matter of highest priority in the strategy of suicide prevention. It is therefore important that general practitioners, occupational physicians and public health nurses improve their skills in managing depressive disorder as a common condition. Psychiatrists should undertake their role of education in the diagnosis and treatment of depressive disorders more seriously.

  14. Dominant incidence of multidrug and extensively drug-resistant specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis clones in Osaka Prefecture, Japan.

    Aki Tamaru

    Full Text Available Infection and transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-Mtb and extensively drug-resistant M. tuberculosis (XDR-Mtb is a serious health problem. We analyzed a total of 1,110 Mtb isolates in Osaka Prefecture and neighboring areas from April 2000 to March 2009. A total of 89 MDR-Mtb were identified, 36 (48.5% of which were determined to be XDR-Mtb. Among the 89 MDR-Mtb isolates, 24 (27.0% phylogenetically distributed into six clusters based on mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-various number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing. Among these six clusters, the MIRU-VNTR patterns of four (OM-V02, OM-V03, OM-V04, and OM-V06 were only found for MDR-Mtb. Further analysis revealed that all isolates belonging to OM-V02 and OM-V03, and two isolates from OM-V04 were clonal. Importantly such genotypes were not observed for drug-sensitive isolates. These suggest that few but transmissible clones can transmit after acquiring multidrug resistance and colonize even in a country with a developed, well-organized healthcare system.

  15. Landscape change detection in Yulin prefecture%榆林地区景观变化探测模型

    战金艳; 邓祥征; 岳天祥


    Landscape is a dynamic phenomenon that almost continuously changes. The overall change of a landscape is the result of complex and interacting natural and spontaneous processes and planned actions by man. However, numerous activities by a large number of individuals are not concerted and contribute to the autonomous evolution of the landscape in a similar way as natural processes do.There is a well-established need to detect land use and ecological change so that appropriate policies for the regional sustainable development can be developed. Landscape change detection is considered to be effectively repeated surveillance and needs especially strict protocols to identify landscape change. This paper developed a series of technical frameworks on landscape detection based on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Data. Through human-machine interactive interpretation, the interpretation precision was 92.00% in 1986 and 89.73% in 2000. Based on the interpretation results of TM images and taking Yulin prefecture as a case study area, the area of main landscape types was summarized respectively in 1986 and 2000. The landscape pattern changes in Yulin could be divided into ten types.

  16. An analysis on the relationship between land subsidence and floods at the Kujukuri Plain in Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    Ito, Y.; Chen, H.; Sawamukai, M.; Su, T.; Tokunaga, T.


    Surface environments at the Kujukuri Plain in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, in 1970, 2004, and 2013, were analyzed and compared to discuss the possible impact of land subsidence on the occurrence of floods. The study area has been suffered from land subsidence due to ground deformation from paleo-earthquakes, tectonic activities, and human-induced subsidence by groundwater exploitation. Meteorological data, geomorphological data including DEM obtained from the airborne laser scanning (1-m spatial resolution), leveling data, and the result of our assessment map (Chen et al., 2015) were used in this study. Clear relationship between floods and land subsidence was not recognized, while geomorphological setting, urbanization, and change of precipitation pattern were found to contribute to the floods. The flood prone-area is distributed on the characteristic geomorphological setting such as floodplain and back swamp. It was revealed that the urban area has been expanded on these geomorphological setting in recent years. The frequency of hourly precipitation was also shown to be increased in the past ca. 40 years, and this could induce rapid freshet and overflow of small- and medium-sized rivers and sewerage lines. The distribution of depression areas was increased from 2004 to 2013. This change could be associated with the ground deformation after the Tohoku earthquake (Mw = 9.0) in 2011.

  17. Surveillance of pathogens in outpatients with gastroenteritis and characterization of sapovirus strains between 2002 and 2007 in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan.

    Harada, Seiya; Okada, Mineyuki; Yahiro, Shunsuke; Nishimura, Koichi; Matsuo, Shigeru; Miyasaka, Jiro; Nakashima, Ryuichi; Shimada, Yasushi; Ueno, Takehiko; Ikezawa, Shigeru; Shinozaki, Kuniko; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Wakita, Takaji; Takeda, Naokazu; Oka, Tomoichiro


    Infectious acute gastroenteritis is an important public health problem worldwide. A total of 639 stool specimens were tested for the presence of diarrhea pathogens. The specimens were from outpatients with acute gastroenteritis who consulted the pediatric clinic in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan, from June 2002 to December 2007. Of these, 421 (65.9%) were positive for diarrhea pathogens. Among them were norovirus (NoV) in 260 (61.8%), sapovirus (SaV) in 81 (19.2%), rotavirus in 49 (11.6%), adenovirus in 19 (4.5%), enterovirus in 13 (3.1%), astrovirus in 9 (2.1%), kobuvirus in 1 (0.2%), and bacterial pathogens in 11 (2.6%). Mixed infection (co-infection of viruses) was found in 22 (5.2%) of the 421 pathogen-positive stool samples. NoV was the most prevalent pathogen throughout the study period; however, the SaV detection rate was unexpectedly high and was found to be the secondary pathogen from 2005 to 2007. Genetic analysis of SaV with 81 strains demonstrated that SaV strains belonging to genogroup IV emerged in 2007, and dynamic genogroup changes occurred in a restricted geographic area. This study showed that SaV infection is not as rare as thought previously.

  18. An Improved Neural Network for Regional Giant Panda Habitat Suitability Mapping: A Case Study in Ya’an Prefecture

    Jingwei Song


    Full Text Available Expert knowledge is a combination of prior information and subjective opinions based on long-experience; as such it is often not sufficiently objective to produce convincing results in animal habitat suitability index mapping. In this study, an animal habitat assessment method based on a learning neural network is proposed to reduce the level of subjectivity in animal habitat assessments. Based on two hypotheses, this method substitutes habitat suitability index with apparent density and has advantages over conventional ones such as those based on analytical hierarchy process or multivariate regression approaches. Besides, this method is integrated with a learning neural network and is suitable for building non-linear transferring functions to fit complex relationships between multiple factors influencing habitat suitability. Once the neural network is properly trained, new earth observation data can be integrated for rapid habitat suitability monitoring which could save time and resources needed for traditional data collecting approaches through extensive field surveys. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca natural habitat in Ya’an prefecture and corresponding landsat images, DEM and ground observations are tested for validity of using the methodology reported. Results show that the method scores well in key efficiency and performance indicators and could be extended for habitat assessments, particularly of other large, rare and widely distributed animal species.

  19. [Toxicity and toxin profile of scavenging and carnivorous gastropods from the coastal waters of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan].

    Taniyama, Shigeto; Takatani, Tomohiro; Sorimachi, Taiki; Sagara, Takefumi; Kubo, Hirofumi; Oshiro, Naomasa; Ono, Kaname; Xiao, Ning; Tachibana, Katsuyasu; Arakawa, Osamu


    From January to June 2009, a total of 64 gastropod specimens of 15 species were collected from the coastal waters of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and examined for toxicity by means of mouse bioassay. Among the specimens tested, 5 species, Nassarius glans, Nassariuscoronatus, Olivaannulata, Oliva concavospira and Zeuxis sp., were toxic. The toxicity scores of N. glans were very high; 39.6-461 MU/g in muscle, and 98.6-189 MU/g in viscera including digestive gland, followed by Zeuxis sp. (12.7 MU/g in whole body), N. coronatus (5.64-11.1 MU/g in whole body), O. annulata (10.8 MU/g in the whole body), O. concavospira (6.65 MU/g in the muscle). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) revealed that the major toxic component was tetrodotoxin (TTX), which accounting for 13-82% of the total toxicity. As for the remaining toxicity in the case of N. glans, 4,9-anhydroTTX, 4-epiTTX and 11-oxoTTX were contributors. Moreover, Niotha albescens showed no toxicity (less than 10 MU/g) in mouse bioassay, but TTX (5.08 MU/g) was detected by LC-MS. Paralytic shellfish poison was not detected in any of the specimens by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection (HPLC-FLD).

  20. The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in horses in Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, northwestern China

    Jin-Lei Wang

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which can infect warm-blooded animals and humans. The present study was performed to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in horses in Xinjiang, northwestern China. A total of 637 blood samples were collected from seven regions in Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang in 2011 and assayed for T. gondiiantibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Risk factors (age, gender, and region related to seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 200 horses (31.4%, 95% CI 27.79–35.00 were seropositive for T. gondii. Age, gender, and region present no association with seroprevalence (p>0.05 in the logistic regression analysis. The results indicated that T. gondii is widely prevalent in horses in Xinjiang, northwestern China, representing a serious threat to animal and human health. Therefore, more careful measures should be performed to control and prevent T. gondii infection in horses from Xinjiang, northwestern China.

  1. Threats to Mediterranean rangelands: a case study based on the views of citizens in the Viotia prefecture, Greece.

    Kyriazopoulos, Apostolos P; Arabatzis, Garyfallos; Abraham, Eleni M; Parissi, Zoi M


    Rangelands in Greece constitute a very important natural resource as they occupy 40% of the total surface. Not only is their forage production essential for the development of extensive livestock farming, but also they play a key role in outdoor recreational activities, protection from erosion, provision of water supplies and biodiversity conservation. However, land use changes, inappropriate management and wildfires threaten their existence. The research was conducted among the citizens of Viotia prefecture, an area close to Athens, Greece, using personal interviews with a structured questionnaire in 2008. The aim was to record citizens' opinions regarding the threats to rangelands. The results suggest that the main threats as perceived by the respondents, are land use changes especially for urban development, and wildfires. The application of cluster analysis highlighted the differentiation among the respondents in ranking these threats. The more ecologically aware citizens recognised that mismanagement, abandonment and agriculture also threaten rangelands. These threats can have a considerable impact on the lives of the local people. Policy makers and managers should take the opinions of local citizens into consideration, and engage them in decision making so that sustainable management policies could be applied.

  2. [Nutritional status and related factors of Tujia and Miao minority primary school students in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture].

    Zhang, Fulan; Zhang, Tiancheng; Zhang, Tianwei


    To understand the nutritional status and related factors of Tujia and Miao minority primary school students in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture and to provide refrence for the improvement of minority students' nutritional status. By the method of layered and random sampling, physique test and questionnaire survey were taken to 682 Tujia students and 420 Miao students, the nutritional level of students were estimated by the method of height with standard weight. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of nutritional status. The moderate malnutrition rate was 4.54% and the obesity rate was 11.43%. Logistic regression analysis showed that monthly income per capita (OR = 1.368, 95% CI 1.135-1.648) and culture level of fathers (OR = 1.332, 95% CI 1.108-1.602) were independent risk factors of malnutrition, children with family obesity history (OR =7.688, 95% C15. 134-11.513), monthly income per capita (OR = 1.516, 95% CI 1.204-1.910) and culture level of fathers (OR = 1.466, 95% CI 1.164-1.846 ) were independent risk factors of overnutrition. Malnutrition and overnutrition exist in Tujia and Miao students at the same time, family obesity history, monthly income per capita and culture level of fathers are factors of malnutrition and overnutrition. Nutritional education should be taken universal to students and their guardians.

  3. Visit to valuable water springs (47). Valuable water springs in Kagawa prefecture; Meisui wo tazunete (47). Kagawaken no meisui

    Shinmi, O. [Kagawa Univ., Kagawa (Japan). Faculty of Education


    Kagawa Pref. has the most scarce land area among Japan's prefectures, but there exist a number of springs in various sites including mountains, hills, and plains, even though gushing quantities are not large. These waters have been used for regional people's life and rice paddy irrigation. Kagawa Pref. nominated, in 1993, 10 springs as , which include with an Environment Agency's nomination as one of Japan's 100 valuable waters. Among them, this paper picks up (1) water of Yubune of Shodo Island, (2) spring of Karato, (3) spring of Yasoba, (4) waters of Uwai and Takebayashi, (5) waters of Futagashira and Kasuga in Marugame plain, and introduces their hydrological features and relation with people. The waters of these springs were sampled and analyzed in Oct.-Dec. 1998. Water of Yubune contains much HCO{sub 3} and SiO{sub 3} showing a water quality type of Ca-HCO{sub 3}, and others show the intermediate type between Ca-HCO{sub 3} type and Ca-SO{sub 4} type. It is urgently important, for creating regional environment, to reevaluate gushing waters, which are liable to be neglected among recent abrupt land utilization change and water utilization improvement, and to make efforts to preserve them. (NEDO)

  4. Challenges in controlling the Ebola outbreak in two prefectures in Guinea: why did communities continue to resist?

    Thiam, Sylla; Delamou, Alexandre; Camara, Soriba; Carter, Jane; Lama, Eugene Kaman; Ndiaye, Bara; Nyagero, Josephat; Nduba, John; Ngom, Mor


    Introduction The Ebola outbreak emerged in a remote corner of Guinea in December 2013, and spread into Liberia and Sierra Leone in the context of weak health systems. In this paper, we report on the main challenges faced by frontline health services and by communities including their perceptions and views on the current Ebola response in the Prefectures of Coyah and Forecariah in Guinea. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in December 2014 using mixed approaches: (i) Desk review; (ii) Interviews; and (iii) Direct observation. Results Almost one year after the beginning of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa, the perceptions of stakeholders and the observed reality were that the level of preparedness in the two health districts was low. The study identified poor coordination mechanisms, inadequate training of human resources and lack of equipment and supplies to field teams and health facilities as key elements that affected the response. The situation was worsened by the inadequate communication strategy, misconceptions around the disease, ignorance of local culture and customs and lack of involvement of local communities in the control strategies, within the context of poor socioeconomic development. As a result distrust developed between communities and those seeking to control the epidemic and largely contributed to the reluctance of the communities to participate and contribute to the effort. Conclusion There is a need to rethink the way disease control interventions in the context of an emergency such as Ebola virus disease are designed, planned and implemented in low income countries. PMID:26740850

  5. Spatial genetic structure of Salvia japonica Thunb. population (Labiatae in Botanical Garden of Osaka City University, Kisaichi, Osaka Prefecture, Japan



    Full Text Available Salvia japonica Thunb. (Japan: Aki-no-Tamurasou was a perennial herb, protandry insect-pollinated, and self-incompatible with water-flow dispersed seed. We used allozyme loci to know genetic structure of a S. japonica population. We examined spatial autocorrelation of individuals within five distance class with Moran`s I statistics. The area of observation was in plot 5x5 m2 in Botanical Garden of Osaka City University, Kisaichi, Katano, Osaka Prefecture. The 8 loci examined were polymorphic, namely Aat-1, Aat-2, Pgi, Mnr, Pgm-1, Pgm-2, Idh, and 6-Pgd. Low levels of genetic diversity were found for 29 individuals. Ninety-two percent cases for all of distance class were similar and only 8% (8 of 105 cases were significant differences. This result indicated that the spatial genetic distributions in all of distance classes were all similar and no spatial autocorrelation of genotypes. Only in distance class 2 had one significantly positive cases (0.15 in Pgm-1c, indicating that spatial genetic structure in the study population was weak at most. In the other word that spatial pattern of the individuals within S. japonica population was random. Overall of the result was indicating that genotype among individuals of S. japonica changed distantly and tended to isolation in distance by seed dispersed.

  6. Social factors of mental disorder and suicide in Japan-for understanding circumstance of suicides in each prefecture-.

    Motohashi, Hideyuki; Fujimoto, Atsuko; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira; Yano, Yoshitaka


    In recent years there have been over 30000 suicides annually in Japan. This is one of the most serious problems for Japanese society. Because mental disorder is closely associated with suicide, factors related to the increase in mental disorders and suicides should be clarified. In this study, various data regarding social factors were evaluated to assess the correlation of the number of patients with mental disorders and suicides among the 47 prefectures of Japan. Various data regarding social factors, such as income, savings, or rate of divorce, were obtained from the database of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Among the factors, the annual income and the amount of savings were significantly correlated with the number of patients with mental disorder. On the other hand, while the annual income did not have a significant correlation with suicides, the amount of savings had a significant correlation with suicides. In conclusion, the annual income and amount of savings may both be one of the important factors involved in mental disorders, and the savings may also be a factor affecting suicides. These analyses are valuable in helping to clarify the causes of mental disease, and can hopefully contribute to the health and welfare of Japanese.

  7. Thyroid ultrasound findings in a follow-up survey of children from three Japanese prefectures: Aomori, Yamanashi, and Nagasaki.

    Hayashida, Naomi; Imaizumi, Misa; Shimura, Hiroki; Furuya, Fumihiko; Okubo, Noriyuki; Asari, Yasushi; Nigawara, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Sanae; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Akamizu, Takashi; Kitaoka, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru


    We conducted ultrasound thyroid screening in cohort of 4,365 children aged between 3 to 18 years in three Japanese prefectures (Aomori, Yamanashi, and Nagasaki) using the same procedures as used in the Fukushima Health Survey. Forty-four children had nodules ≥ 5.1 mm in diameter or cysts ≥ 20.1 mm in diameter detected at the first screening, and 31 of these children underwent the second follow-up survey. We collected information from thyroid ultrasound examinations and final clinical diagnoses and re-categorized the thyroid findings after the second examination. Twenty children had nodules ≥ 5.1 mm in diameter or cysts ≥ 20.1 mm in diameter at the second examination; of these, one child was diagnosed with a thyroid papillary carcinoma and the remaining 19 children were diagnosed with possibly benign nodules such as adenomas, adenomatous nodules, and adenomatous goiters. A further 11 children were re-categorized as "no further examinations were required." Our results suggest that ultrasound thyroid findings in children may change with a relatively short-term passing period, and that thyroid cancer may exist at a very low but certain frequency in the general childhood population.

  8. Internal radiation exposure dose in Iwaki city, Fukushima prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Makiko Orita

    Full Text Available As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1-86 years old underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1-86 years old underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01-0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01-0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks.

  9. Influence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on environmental radioactivity in Aomori Prefecture.

    Kudo, S; Igarashi, K; Kimura, H


    Radioactive nuclides with a short half-life, such as (131)I and (134)Cs, were detected in environmental samples collected in Aomori Prefecture after the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. In addition, the observed (137)Cs concentration was increased over the background level. The gaseous (131)I concentration in air observed in April was higher than that observed in March immediately after the accident. Using a backward trajectory analysis, the authors found that the air mass had passed the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant when the gaseous (131)I concentration in air was increasing. Maximum (131)I and radioactive Cs concentrations in daily fallout samples collected in Aomori city were observed on 28 April, when (131)I was also detected in air. (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentration ratios in pine needles and pasture grass were nearly equal to 1, which indicates that the source of these radionuclides was the nuclear power plant accident.

  10. Internal radiation exposure dose in Iwaki city, Fukushima prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nukui, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Naoko; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuda, Naoki; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Takamura, Noboru


    As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01-0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01-0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks.

  11. Evaluation of environmental contamination and estimated radiation doses for the return to residents' homes in Kawauchi Village, Fukushima prefecture.

    Yasuyuki Taira

    Full Text Available To evaluate the environmental contamination and radiation exposure dose rates due to artificial radionuclides in Kawauchi Village, Fukushima Prefecture, the restricted area within a 30-km radius from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP, the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples, tree needles, and mushrooms were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Nine months have passed since samples were collected on December 19 and 20, 2011, 9 months after the FNPP accident, and the prevalent dose-forming artificial radionuclides from all samples were (134Cs and (137Cs. The estimated external effective doses from soil samples were 0.42-7.2 µSv/h (3.7-63.0 mSv/y within the 20-km radius from FNPP and 0.0011-0.38 µSv/h (0.010-3.3 mSv/y within the 20-30 km radius from FNPP. The present study revealed that current levels are sufficiently decreasing in Kawauchi Village, especially in areas within the 20- to 30-km radius from FNPP. Thus, residents may return their homes with long-term follow-up of the environmental monitoring and countermeasures such as decontamination and restrictions of the intake of foods for reducing unnecessary exposure. The case of Kawauchi Village will be the first model for the return to residents' homes after the FNPP accident.

  12. モガミ ベニバナ ノ ハナビラ イリ ショウナイ ダイズ ト ショウナイ カキズ ノ コウサンカ サヨウ ト ケンコウ ニツイテ

    平松, 緑


    The Shonai plains have rich products of fruits, vegetables, and edible plants. Antioxidants are needed for protection against aging and lifestyle-related diseases. For showing people in Yamagata how they have healthy food, we examined antioxidant activity as a marker of free radical scavenging action in (1) a mix powder of Shonai-soybean and Yamagata-prefectural safflower flower, and (2) Shonai-persimmon vineger. Free radical scavenging activity of 1, 1-dipheny1-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radica...

  13. Dose reconstruction for birds species exposed to ionizing radiations highlights risk for species reproducing in the Fukushima Prefecture

    Adam-Guillermin, C.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Sternalski, A.; Bonzom, J.M.; Garnier-Laplace, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France); Brown, J.E. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Giraudeau, M. [Arizona state university (United States)


    The damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (FDNPS) in Japan following the earthquake in March 2011 led to a massive release of radioactive isotopes into the environment. The atmospheric releases have created a footprint of radioactive contamination in the terrestrial ecosystems around the site, with a hot spot area that extends up to 80-km northwest. Despite some data are available on medium and biota contamination, there is still a lack of knowledge on possible ecological consequences due to the complexity of the exposure situation. Few papers were published using data observed in situ, reporting a reduction of bird and invertebrate abundance (Moeller et al., 2012, 2013) and morphological effects in butterflies (Hiyama et al., 2012). But as for any contaminant, the biological effects are dependent on the dose received, and an accurate dose estimation is needed to be able to correctly predict ecological risk. An early study has published preliminary radiological dose reconstruction from Fukushima wildlife signaling potential ecological consequences, but without using any quantitative data relating to biological samples (Garnier-Laplace et al., 2011). In this general framework, the work presented here aims at refining the first assessment conducted to evaluate possible consequences of the FDNPS radioactive releases, focusing on some bird species, studied in Fukushima but also in Chernobyl. Public data available on bird and soil contamination were used to check the bird contamination model used, showing that radioactive contamination predictions were within the range of variation of measured data. This model was then applied to estimate doses in bird species living in the Fukushima prefecture and known to reproduce during the period just after the nuclear power plant accident, based on ecological maps established for Japan. The influence of life stages and species ecological characteristics was taken into account on the dose estimates. The heterogeneity of

  14. Has land subsidence changed the flood hazard potential? A case example from the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    Chen, H. L.; Ito, Y.; Sawamukai, M.; Su, T.; Tokunaga, T.


    Coastal areas are subject to flood hazards because of their topographic features, social development and related human activities. The Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, is located nearby the Tokyo metropolitan area and it faces to the Pacific Ocean. In the Kujukuri Plain, widespread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by exploitation of groundwater, extraction of natural gas dissolved in brine, and natural consolidation of the Holocene and landfill deposits. The locations of land subsidence include areas near the coast, and it may increase the flood hazard potential. Hence, it is very important to evaluate flood hazard potential by taking into account the temporal change of land elevation caused by land subsidence, and to prepare hazard maps for protecting the surface environment and for developing an appropriate land-use plan. In this study, flood hazard assessments at three different times, i.e., 1970, 2004, and 2013 are implemented by using a flood hazard model based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis with Geographical Information System techniques. The model incorporates six factors: elevation, depression area, river system, ratio of impermeable area, detention ponds, and precipitation. Main data sources used are 10 m resolution topography data, airborne laser scanning data, leveling data, Landsat-TM data, two 1:30 000 scale river watershed maps, and precipitation data from observation stations around the study area and Radar data. The hazard assessment maps for each time are obtained by using an algorithm that combines factors with weighted linear combinations. The assignment of the weight/rank values and their analysis are realized by the application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. This study is a preliminary work to investigate flood hazards on the Kujukuri Plain. A flood model will be developed to simulate more detailed change of the flood hazard influenced by land subsidence.

  15. Heterogeneous stress field in the source area of the 2003 M6.4 Northern Miyagi Prefecture, NE Japan, earthquake

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Akira; Okada, Tomomi


    We investigated a detailed spatial distribution of principal stress axis orientations in the source area of the 2003 M6.4 Northern Miyagi Prefecture earthquake that occurred in the forearc of northeastern Japan. Aftershock hypocentres were precisely relocated by applying the double difference method to arrival time data obtained at temporary stations as well as at surrounding routine stations. We picked many P-wave polarity data from seismograms at these stations, which enabled us to obtain 312 well-determined focal mechanism solutions. Stress tensor inversions were performed by using these focal mechanism data. The results show that quite a lot of focal mechanisms are difficult to explain by the uniform stress field, especially near the large slip area of the main-shock rupture. Stress tensor inversions at the location of individual earthquakes show that σ1 axes are orientated mainly to WSW-ENE in the northern part of the source area, while they are oriented to NW-SE in the southern part. This spatial pattern is roughly similar to those of the static stress change by the main shock, which suggests that the observed spatially heterogeneous stress field was formed by the static stress change. If this is the case, the deviatoric stress magnitude before the main shock was very small. Another possibility is the heterogeneous stress field observed after the main shock had existed even before the main shock, although we do not know why it was formed. Unfavourable orientation of the main shock fault with respect to this stress field suggests that the fault is not strong in this case too.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of enteric viruses in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Aichi prefecture, Japan, 2008/09-2013/14.

    Nakamura, Noriko; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Minagawa, Hiroko; Matsushita, Tadashi; Sugiura, Wataru; Iwatani, Yasumasa


    Acute gastroenteritis is a critical infectious disease that affects infants and young children throughout the world, including Japan. This retrospective study was conducted from September 2008 to August 2014 (six seasons: 2008/09-2013/14) to investigate the incidence of enteric viruses responsible for 1,871 cases of acute gastroenteritis in Aichi prefecture, Japan. Of the 1,871 cases, 1,100 enteric viruses were detected in 978 samples, of which strains from norovirus (NoV) genogroup II (60.9%) were the most commonly detected, followed by strains of rotavirus A (RVA) (23.2%), adenovirus (AdV) type 41 (8.2%), sapovirus (SaV) (3.6%), human astrovirus (HAstV) (2.8%), and NoV genogroup I (1.3%). Sequencing of the NoV genogroup II (GII) strains revealed that GII.4 was the most common genotype, although four different GII.4 variants were also identified. The most common G-genotype of RVA was G1 (63.9%), followed by G3 (27.1%), G2 (4.7%) and G9 (4.3%). Three genogroups of SaV strains were found: GI (80.0%), GII (15.0%), and GV (5.0%). HAstV strains were genotyped as HAstV-1 (80.6%), HAstV-8 (16.1%), and HAstV-3 (3.2%). These results show that NoV GII was the leading cause of sporadic acute viral gastroenteritis, although a variety of enteric viruses were detected during the six-season surveillance period.

  17. Spatiotemporal distributions of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in surface sediments in the waters off Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures, Japan

    M. Kusakabe


    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal distributions of anthropogenic radionuclides in surface sediments off Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures were analyzed on the basis of data collected during the monitoring program launched by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology in 2011 right after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident. Concentrations of 137Cs in the surface sediments varied spatially by two orders of magnitude from 1.7 to 580 Bq kg-dry−1, and there was no obvious correlation between 137Cs concentration and the proximity of the sampling location to the site of the accident. The total inventory of 137Cs accumulated in the upper 3 cm of surface sediment in the monitoring area was estimated to be 3.78 × 1013 Bq, that is 0.1–2% of the total 137Cs flux from the plant to the ocean as a result of the accident (the percentage depends on the model used to estimate the total flux. The spatial variations of 137Cs concentration and inventory depended on two main factors: the 137Cs concentration in the overlying water during the first several months after the accident and the physical characteristics of the sediment (water content and bulk density. The temporal variations of the concentrations of other anthropogenic radionuclides (90Sr, 95Nb, 110 mAg, 125Sb, 129Te, and 129 mTe in the sediments were also investigated. The temporal variations of the activity ratios of these nuclides to 137Cs suggest that before the Fukushima-derived nuclides became homogeneous in seawater, they were removed from the water to the sediment.

  18. [Outreach services to clients with severe mental illness in the Okayama Prefectural Mental Health and Welfare Center].

    Noguchi, Masayuki; Moriya, Akira; Fujita, Kenzo


    The community mental health system in Japan is being adversely affected by diminishing public mental health services, including those provided by public healthcare centers and the mental health divisions of municipal governments. It seems reasonable to expect that this will lead to the inadequate detection, assessment, and treatment of the population with mental health problems, and thus to the flooding of psychiatric hospitals with excessive numbers of severely mentally ill patients. In this article, the author suggests the utility of a 'network-based outreach team' as a possible remedy for the current situation. The Okayama Prefectural Mental Health & Welfare Center is running a network-based outreach team on a trial basis to work with individuals with serious mental illness who are disengaged from mental health services. The team is composed of members from the Mental Health & Welfare Center, public mental health services, and human service agencies. The main aims of this team are two-fold: to enhance support for clients with severe mental illness who are overwhelmed with multiple complex problems, through collaborative intervention within the framework of a network-based outreach team; and to develop the qualities and skills of public mental health service and human agency personnel in order that they better assist people with severe mental illness, by providing joint training with mental health specialists of the Mental Health & Welfare Center in community settings. The author suggests that the team structure of the network-based outreach team will benefit public mental health services by reintegrating currently fragmented services into coordinated ones.

  19. Quantitative measurements of inequality in geographic accessibility to pediatric care in Oita Prefecture, Japan: Standardization with complete spatial randomness

    Shima Masayuki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A quantitative measurement of inequality in geographic accessibility to pediatric care as well as that of mean distance or travel time is very important for priority setting to ensure fair access to pediatric facilities. However, conventional techniques for measuring inequality is inappropriate in geographic settings. Since inequality measures of access distance or travel time is strongly influenced by the background geographic distribution patterns, they cannot be directly used for regional comparisons of geographic accessibility. The objective of this study is to resolve this issue by using a standardization approach. Methods Travel times to the nearest pediatric care were calculated for all children in Oita Prefecture, Japan. Relative mean differences were considered as the inequality measure for secondary medical service areas, and were standardized with an expected value estimated from a Monte Carlo simulation based on complete spatial randomness. Results The observed mean travel times in the area considered averaged 4.50 minutes, ranging from 1.83 to 7.02 minutes. The mean of the observed inequality measure was 1.1, ranging from 0.9 to 1.3. The expected values of the inequality measure varied according to the background geographic distribution pattern of children, which ranged from 0.3 to 0.7. After standardizing the observed inequality measure with the expected one, we found that the ranks of the inequality measure were reversed for the observed areas. Conclusions Using the indicator proposed in this paper, it is possible to compare the inequality in geographic accessibility among regions. Such a comparison may facilitate priority setting in health policy and planning.

  20. The role of Public Private Partnership: the Brazilian experience of modernizing hospitals in the São Paulo Prefecture Health Secretariat.

    Vicente, Roser; Castillejo, Joan


    Within the health sector, the aim of the PPP model is to improve management efficiency and innovation in health care services while it also helps to accelerate the modernization of national health systems. Gesaworld's experience in Brazil, including the modernization of the hospital network of the São Paulo Prefecture, has contributed to improvements in the health of the population by offering better health care facilities. The scope of the project, which is based on the legal model of an administrative concession contract, includes sustainability criteria as part of the project.

  1. Study on the Prefecture-level Library’s Interlibrary Service and Document Delivery Service%地市级公共图书馆的馆际互借与文献传递服务研究



    This paper expounds the current status of and problems in prefecture-level library’s ic library interlibrary service and document delivery service, analyzes the factors influencing prefecture-level library’s interlibrary service and document delivery service, and puts forward some methods for prefecture-level library to break through the dilemma.%阐述了地市级公共图书馆馆际互借/文献传递服务的现状与问题,分析了影响地市级公共图书馆馆际互借/文献传递服务的因素,提出了地市级公共图书馆走出困境的方法。

  2. [A survey of utilization of and problems with the MSDS in chemical substances management at workplaces in Kanagawa Prefecture].

    Koshi, Kimiko; Mouri, Tetuo; Sugimori, Hiroki; Numano, Takashi; Ashida, Toshifumi; Hiro, Hisanori; Miyake, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Michiko; Ishiwata, Kouichi


    Kanagawa Occupational Health Promotion Center conducted a survey on how the MSDS is utilized at workplaces with more than 50 employees handling chemical substances, and what measures are taken to help employees to thoroughly understand information in the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Questionnaires were sent out to 265 enterprises in Kanagawa prefecture, putting questions to industrial physicians and industrial hygiene supervisors. The objective of the survey was to find out how MSDS is adopted in the system to manage occupational health, what improvements the survey respondents want in MSDS and what expectations the respondents have of our center. 193 enterprises (72.8%) returned answers to the questionnaire. The major findings are as follows. (1) In many companies, information on hazardous/toxic materials is "controlled by a division using such materials", and roughly half of the companies have compiled a common list shared throughout the company. (2) For the most part suppliers submit to the MSDS. Larger companies have a higher rate of posting up or filing the MSDS at their workplaces. Only 25.8% of the companies "rewrite the MSDS so that workers can understand it." (3) Companies that carry out a hazard/toxicity assessment before introducing a new chemical substance account for 72.1%, which is higher than we expected. It indicates that even though the companies don't manage the MSDS adequately, they are highly concerned about hazard control of chemical substances. (4) The rate of answering that "the current MSDS is not easy to understand" is higher among large-sized enterprises and lower among enterprises with fewer than 300 employees. (5) Asked what improvement needs to be made on the MSDS, the industrial physicians and industrial hygiene supervisors gave same answers such as "Workers find the terminology difficult to understand." and "Levels of toxicity can't be clearly identified." (6) The respondents expect our center to provide information for the MSDS

  3. Current status of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis in Okinawa prefecture, Japan.

    Nakama, Rika; Shingaki, Aoi; Miyazato, Hiroko; Higa, Rikako; Nagamoto, Chota; Hamamoto, Kouta; Ueda, Shuhei; Hachiman, Teruyuki; Touma, Yuki; Miyagi, Kazufumi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Toyosato, Takehiko; Hirai, Itaru


    Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are distributed worldwide. In this study, 114 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated by analyzing 1672 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae collected from an Okinawa prefectural hospital in Japan between June 2013 and July 2014. The overall prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was 6.8%; the prevalence of different bacterial species among the ESBL-producing isolates was as follows: 11.5% Escherichia coli (90 of 783 isolates), 6.2% Klebsiella pneumoniae (19 of 307 isolates), and 11.1% Proteus mirabilis (5 of 45 isolates). The ESBL types blaCTX-M-1, -3, -15, -2, -14, -27, and mutants of blaSHV-1 were detected. Among them, blaCTX-M-15 (33.3%), blaCTX-M-14 (27.8%) and blaCTX-M-27 (33.3%) were dominant in the E. coli isolates, whereas a blaSHV mutant which possessed four mutations (Tyr7Phe, Leu35Gln, Gly238Ser and Glu240Lys) in the amino acid sequence of SHV-1 dominated in the K. pneumoniae isolates (11 of 19, 57.9%). The pandemic E. coli ST131 clone was found to constitute 3.3% of the overall examined isolates and 62.2% of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. Our results suggest that the genetic combination of blaCTX-M, and blaSHV and antibiotics-resistant profile were different from that in other regions such as other areas of Japan, Asia, Europe, and North America, especially in the ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates and in the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates possessing blaCTX-M-15 (40.7% of the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates). Taken together, our results indicate that the ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Okinawa, Japan, might be of a unique nature.

  4. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident on Assisted Reproductive Technology in Fukushima Prefecture: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Hayashi, Masako; Fujimori, Keiya; Yasumura, Seiji; Nakai, Akihito


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidences and obstetric outcomes of women who conceived using assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures in Fukushima Prefecture before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Information was collected and analyzed from 12,070 women who conceived with or without ART in Fukushima Prefecture during the 9 months before and after the disaster. During the 9 months before and after the disaster, 138 (2.0%) and 102 (1.9%) women conceived with in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET), respectively. The proportion of women who conceived with IVF-ET decreased during the 2 months immediately after the disaster, but returned to pre-disaster levels 3 months after the disaster. In the case of women who conceived without IVF-ET, the incidences of preterm birth and low birth weight increased after the disaster. In contrast, women who conceived with IVF-ET did not differ significantly in obstetric outcomes before and after the disaster but had a higher incidence of cesarean section and low birth weight compared to those conceived without IVF-ET, regardless of the study period. The influence of the disaster on woman who conceived using ART procedures was minimal.

  5. Basic research report on regional new energy vision drawn up for Saga Prefecture; Sagaken chiiki shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho (kiso chosa)



    The need of new energy introduction is found in matters relating to energy security, resources depletion, environmental problems, and the construction of distributed energy sources. The total amount of new energy in the prefecture is 4,859,052Gcal (525,301kl in terms of crude oil), which occupies approximately 30% of the energy that the prefecture demanded in fiscal 1996. Out of the said new energy, those from the sun, wind, ocean, and small- and medium-scale water systems may be acquired in the form of electric power, and they add up to 3,615,424MWh (3,109,265Gcal in terms of calorific value, 336,137kl in terms of crude oil) and occupy 64% (including industrial wastes) of the whole amount. As for the percentage of each type of new energy, solar energy is the highest, its amount of 2,973,679Gcal (321,479kl) occupying 61.2% of the whole, followed by the energy from wastes whose amount in total is 695,131Gcal (75149kl) occupying 14.3%. The possibility of introduction of new energy is studied and the conclusion is described for each energy type, district, and sector (residential and commercial, industrial, transportation). The respects on which prudence should be exercised in introducing new energy are also discussed. (NEDO)

  6. Epidemiological Characteristics of Sapovirus and Human Astrovirus Detected among Children in Nara Prefecture, Japan, during the 2009/2010-2014/2015 Seasons.

    Yoneda, Masaki; Nakano, Mamoru; Sugimoto, Daichi; Inada, Machi; Fujitani, Misako; Kitahori, Yoshiteru


    The current study elucidated the epidemiological characteristics of sapovirus (SaV) and human astrovirus (HAstV) associated with gastroenteritis among children in regional populations of Nara Prefecture, Japan, during the 2009/2010-2014/2015 seasons. The SaV detection rate was 7.5% (71/948) according to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A high SaV detection rate of 13.5% was observed among children 4 years of age. The highest SaV detection rate was observed in June (19.2%), followed by July (11.1%). The detected SaV included 7 genotypes: GI.1, GI.2, GII.3, GII.1, GI.3, GII.2, and GV, in order of decreasing prevalence. In comparison, the HAstV detection rate was 4.2% (40/948). The HAstV detection rate among children 4 years of age was 12.2%. The HAstV detection rate was highest in July (13.9%), followed by May (10.5%) and August (6.7%). The detected HAstVs included genotypes 1, 4, 6, and 8. The most prevalent genotype was 1, followed by 4 and 8. This report provides an epidemiological overview of SaV and HAstV infection in Nara Prefecture, Japan.

  7. 对当前延边朝鲜族自治州旅游业的研究%Research on the Korean Autonomous Prefecture Tourism in Yanbian



      延边朝鲜族自治州旅游业自1984年以来得到了蓬勃发展。分析了延边朝鲜族自治州旅游业现状,找出其了客源国单一、旅游服务有待于再提高等存在问题,并提出了提高导游素质、提供丰富的旅游商品、多开发历史人文旅游资源等建议。%The tourism industry of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture has been booming since 1984. Analysis of Yanbian Korean Au-tonomous Prefecture Tourism industry current situation,find out the source of a single,tourism services need to be improved and other problems,and proposes to improve the quality of guides,provide abundant tourist commodities,a history of the development of human tourism resources suggestions.

  8. Market analysis Fukushima. Renewable energy, energy efficiency and energy conservation in Fukushima prefecture; Marktanalyse Fukushima. Erneuerbare Energien, Energieeffizienz und Energieeinsparung in der Praefektur Fukushima



    The use of renewable energy has experienced in Fukushima Prefecture in the years after the reactor accident in March 2011, a substantial upswing. In total 500 MW of renewable energy capacity have been installed. According to the plans of the prefecture this capacity should be increased in 2020 to a total of just over 8 gigawatts. As in the rest of the country parts also, the solar energy was primarily used; this accounted 295 MW alone. In future, the priorities but more are in the areas of wind energy and hydropower. [German] Der Einsatz erneuerbarer Energien hat in der Praefektur Fukushima in den Jahren nach dem Reaktorunglueck vom Maerz 2011 einen erheblichen Aufschwung zu verzeichnen. Insgesamt wurden 500 MW erneuerbare Energie Leistung installiert. Nach den Plaenen der Praefektur soll diese Kapazitaet bis 2020 auf insgesamt gut 8 Gigawatt gesteigert werden. Wie in den uebrigen Landesteilen auch, kam bisher vorwiegend die Solarenergie zum Zuge; diese machte allein 295 MW aus. Kuenftig sollen die Schwerpunkte jedoch staerker in den Bereichen von Windenergie und Wasserkraft liegen.

  9. Expert Evaluation of Subsidies for the Management of Fragmented Private Forest in Regards to National Biodiversity Goals—The Case of Kochi Prefecture, Japan

    Dennis Gain


    Full Text Available This paper presents an expert evaluation of the subsidy scheme for private forest plantations in Kami City, Kochi Prefecture, Japan, to determine whether the twelve currently available subsidies are designed to realize national biodiversity goals. Subsidies for forestry practices are often criticized for rarely achieving planned outcomes and for environmental threats. Threats to natural balance of private forest have been observed in Kochi Prefecture, suggesting that current forestry subsidies may not be achieving national objectives. The utilization objectives, type of management, requirements, area, intensity, and subsidy rates were contrasted to the three forest multifunctionality objectives of the National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan (NBSJ 2012–2020, to identify subsidy weaknesses. Focus group discussions (FGD were conducted in the study site, as well as Bavaria, Germany and Steiermark, Austria, to get a big picture of how experts in these comparable management areas evaluate the Kochi subsidy scheme. Analyses were performed based on a combination of framework analysis and constant comparison analysis. It was found that realization of vertical multifunctionality is hindered due to lack of site-specific management. A six-point proposal for restructuring the subsidy scheme, leaned on results, and the Bavarian subsidy scheme was made. To improve vertical multi-functionality, subsidy schemes should focus on forest owner integration and site-specific, long-term oriented forest works.

  10. Bath water contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria in 24-hour home baths, hot springs, and public bathhouses of Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Oana, Kozue; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki


    Bath water samples were collected from 116 hot springs, 197 public bathhouses, and 38 24-hour home baths in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, during the period of April 2009 to November 2011, for determining the presence and extent of contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Cultures positive for Legionella were observed in 123 of the 3,314 bath water samples examined. The distribution and abundance of Legionella and/or combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria were investigated to clarify the contamination levels. The abundance of Legionella was demonstrated to correlate considerably with the levels of combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Legionella spp. were obtained from 61% of the water samples from 24-hour home baths, but only from 3% of the samples from public bathhouses and hot springs. This is despite the fact that a few outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in Nagano Prefecture as well as other regions of Japan have been traced to bath water contamination. The comparatively higher rate of contamination of the 24-hour home baths is a matter of concern. It is therefore advisable to routinely implement good maintenance of the water basins, particularly of the 24-hour home baths.

  11. Geochemical evaluation of the land use and human activities at a Medieval harbor site, Masuda city, Shimane Prefecture, Japan

    Dalai, Banzragch; Ishiga, Hiroaki


    Large-scale harbor and settlement sites from the latter half of the eleventh through sixteenth centuries have recently been discovered in the northern part of Masuda City, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. The sites were constructed at the river mouth delta of the Takatsu and Masuda rivers, facing the Sea of Japan. In former time, the mouths of the two rivers are thought to have formed a shallow lagoon connecting with the Sea of Japan. The harbor was thus well located for ships sailing along the sea coast, especially for conducting trade with the China mainland and the Korean peninsula. Archaeological investigations have identified over 800 construction pits, blacksmith hearths, harbor structures and numerous fragments of ceramic porcelain originating both from within Japan and from Asia (China, Korea, Vietnam and Thailand). It seems that the maritime trade network operated from this Medieval harbor site by the Masuda Clan was on an East Asian scale. Consequently, the harbor site can be expected to have received a considerable amount of ancient anthropogenic matter. Concentrations of 22 elements in 66 soil samples from the Nakazu Higashihara site were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, in order to identify the land use and human impacts on soil chemistry at the harbor site. The results show that significant differences in geochemical compositional exist between the northern and southern parts of the site due to differences in lithology and land use practice. The south area was a production area of this harbor site. Three different activity areas were recognized within this area (fire pit and charcoal area, building pillars, and a blacksmith furnace area), based on geochemical and archaeological information. Cluster analysis shows a strong relationship exists between As, Pb, Cu, Br, TS, MnO and P2O5 in the fire pit and charcoal area. These charcoal materials were likely derived from fuel used in firing and heating. Close relationships occur between Cr, Sr, Sc

  12. Detection of a novel mutagen, 3,6-dinitrobenzo[e]pyrene, as a major contaminant in surface soil in Osaka and Aichi Prefectures, Japan.

    Watanabe, Tetsushi; Hasei, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Asanoma, Masaharu; Murahashi, Tsuyoshi; Hirayama, Teruhisa; Wakabayashi, Keiji


    We previously identified 1,3-, 1,6-, and 1,8-dinitropyrene (DNP) isomers as major mutagens in surface soil in three metropolitan areas of Japan. In the present study, an organic extract from surface soil collected at a park in Takatsuki in Osaka Prefecture, which showed extremely high mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in the absence of mammalian metabolic system (S9 mix), was investigated to identify major mutagens. A new powerful bacterial mutagen, as well as 1,6- and 1,8-DNP isomers, was isolated from the organic extract (1.8 g) of the soil sample (2.2 kg) by column chromatography. On the basis of mass spectra, the new mutagen, which accounted for 15% of the total mutagenicity of the soil extract, was thought to be a dinitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with a molecular weight of m/z 342. The mutagen was synthesized from benzo[e]pyrene by nitration and was determined to be 3,6-dinitrobenzo[e]pyrene (DNBeP) based on its 1H NMR spectrum. The mutagenic potency of 3,6-DNBeP in the Ames/Salmonella assay was extremely high, in that it induced 285,000 revertants/nmol in TA98 and 955,000 revertants/nmol in YG1024 without S9 mix and was comparable to those of DNP isomers, which are some the most potent bacterial mutagens reported so far. In addition to the soil sample from Takatsuki, 3,6-DNBeP was also detected in surface soil samples collected at parks in four different cities, i.e., Izumiotsu and Takaishi in Osaka Prefecture and Nagoya and Hekinan in Aichi Prefecture, and accounted for 22-29% of the total mutagenicity of these soil extracts in TA98 without S9 mix. These results suggest that 3,6-DNBeP is a major mutagen in surface soil and may largely contaminate the surface soil in these two regions in Japan.

  13. [Mental health care systems and provisions in the immediate and acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake: situational and support activities in Miyagi Prefecture].

    Matsumoto, Kazunori


    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, which measured 9.0 on the Richter scale, was followed by a huge tsunami that caused catastrophic damage to the area extending from the Tohoku to Kanto regions. It was also accompanied by the meltdown of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Mental health service provisions were hit equally hard by the disaster, with a wide range of support and relief activities being implemented. This article reviews damage that was inflicted and support activities that were carried out in the mental health field in Miyagi Prefecture in the immediate aftermath and acute phase of the disaster, and also examines future challenges. Almost all mental health institutions in Miyagi Prefecture were affected by the disaster, and experienced difficulties such as feeding inpatients and securing necessary medication. Mental health institutions in the coastal area, in particular, were severely hit. Three hospitals-were seriously damaged by the tsunami, which forced them to make arrangements for the transfer of 300 inpatients. In the aftermath of the earthquake, it became difficult to access medical institutions, and confusion ensued regarding the provision of mental health services. Many municipalities in Miyagi Prefecture were seriously affected by the disaster, and information-gathering was crippled due to the disruption of communication and transport networks. Consequently, the administrative function regarding mental health service provisions was significantly impaired. Through official, private, and academic channels, volunteers in the field of mental health were sent to the affected areas in the immediate aftermath of the disaster. It was very difficult to coordinate these volunteers because of the confusion in gathering-information and in the chain of command for support activities. The number of support teams working in the affected areas peaked one to two months after the earthquake, but it became clear that continuous and long

  14. Increases in perinatal mortality in prefectures contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Japan: A spatially stratified longitudinal study.

    Scherb, Hagen Heinrich; Mori, Kuniyoshi; Hayashi, Keiji


    Descriptive observational studies showed upward jumps in secular European perinatal mortality trends after Chernobyl. The question arises whether the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident entailed similar phenomena in Japan. For 47 prefectures representing 15.2 million births from 2001 to 2014, the Japanese government provides monthly statistics on 69,171 cases of perinatal death of the fetus or the newborn after 22 weeks of pregnancy to 7 days after birth. Employing change-point methodology for detecting alterations in longitudinal data, we analyzed time trends in perinatal mortality in the Japanese prefectures stratified by exposure to estimate and test potential increases in perinatal death proportions after Fukushima possibly associated with the earthquake, the tsunami, or the estimated radiation exposure. Areas with moderate to high levels of radiation were compared with less exposed and unaffected areas, as were highly contaminated areas hit versus untroubled by the earthquake and the tsunami. Ten months after the earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent nuclear accident, perinatal mortality in 6 severely contaminated prefectures jumped up from January 2012 onward: jump odds ratio 1.156; 95% confidence interval (1.061, 1.259), P-value 0.0009. There were slight increases in areas with moderate levels of contamination and no increases in the rest of Japan. In severely contaminated areas, the increases of perinatal mortality 10 months after Fukushima were essentially independent of the numbers of dead and missing due to the earthquake and the tsunami. Perinatal mortality in areas contaminated with radioactive substances started to increase 10 months after the nuclear accident relative to the prevailing and stable secular downward trend. These results are consistent with findings in Europe after Chernobyl. Since observational studies as the one presented here may suggest but cannot prove causality because of unknown and uncontrolled factors or confounders

  15. Research on the strategies to optimize traditional Korean nationality village residential environment -- Taking the transformation of Chatiao Village in Antu County, Yanbian Korean Nationality Autonomous Prefecture as example

    Chaoyang, Sun; Xin, Sui; Mo, Li; Yongqiang, Wang


    This research is aimed to make an in-depth research into the strategies and methods to protect and develop the residential environment in the villages and towns with minority group characteristics. In the research on the construction mode and optimization strategy of the residential environment of the original residents in Chatiao Village, Antu County, Korean Nationality Autonomous Prefecture, the contents of architecture and planning were used comprehensively with the philosophy of green design, sociology and economics being combined simultaneously to drive the humanistic and economic development in the minority areas at the same time of providing new employment opportunities and a comfortable residential environment for people, thus realizing the complete development of the characteristic villages in Chinese minority areas.

  16. Short communication. Prevalence of antibodies against Parainfluenza virus type 3, Respiratory syncitial virus and bovine Herpesvirus type 1 in sheep from Northern Prefectures of Japan

    Massimo Giangaspero


    Full Text Available Ovine sera collected in the Prefectures of Hokkaido, Aomori and Iwate in the Northern Japan were examined for the presence of antibodies against Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis: IBR and Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3 using serum neutralisation (SN and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests. Twenty-three animals (11.73% out of the 196 tested were sero-positive to PIV3. Sixteen animals (8.69% out of the 184 tested reacted to RSV. No animals were positive to IBR antigen. Sero-conversions to PIV3 were detected in Hokkaido and Iwate (14.92% and 8.82%, respectively. Antibodies against RSV were detected in Hokkaido (9.23% and Aomori (14.28%. Although no diagnostic measures were in place, the infections did not appear to be related to any reduction in sheep productivity.

  17. Two novel Lipomycetaceous yeast species, Lipomyces okinawensis sp. nov. and Lipomyces yamanashiensis f.a., sp. nov., isolated from soil in the Okinawa and Yamanashi prefectures, Japan.

    Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yanagiba, Mana; Naganuma, Takafumi


    Four novel Lipomyces strains were isolated from soil collected in the Okinawa and Yamanashi prefectures, Japan. Based on their morphological and biochemical characteristics, along with sequence typing using the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region including 5.8S rRNA, and translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene (EF-1α), the four strains were shown to represent two novel species of the genus Lipomyces, described as Lipomyces okinawensis sp. nov. (type strain No.3-a(35)T=NBRC 110620T=CBS 14747T) and Lipomyces yamanashiensis f.a., sp. nov. (type strain No.313T=NBRC 110621T=CBS 14748T).

  18. Research on Competitiveness of the Developmental Pattern of "Enterprise+Cooperative"——A case of Lamb Fattening Cooperatives in Hainan Sub-prefecture of Qinghai Province


    The empirical analyses on agricultural industrialization pattern and local animal husbandry in northwestern areas show that the industrialization development of husbandry in northwestern areas faces international and national competitive pressures. The survival ability and competitive ability are the key points of husbandry industrialization. The paper, having a lamb fattening professional cooperatives in Hainan sub-prefecture of Qinghai Province as the example, introduces the general conditions of the establishment and development of cooperatives and points out the advantages and disadvantages of husbandry in Qinghai Province. The paper analyzes the competitive advantages of Hongyuan Lamb Fattening Cooperatives through five forces mode of Michael Port, putting forward countermeasures and upgrading the competitiveness of Hongyuan Lamb Fattening Competitive.

  19. [Two woman medical doctors of the Meiji era who came from the "Preservative District of Johnai Suwakohji Important Traditional Buildings Group", Kanegasaki Town, Iwate Prefecture].

    Fukushima, Masakazu


    There is a historical group of samurai buildings called the "Preservative District of Johnai Suwakohji Important Traditional Buildings Group" in Kanegasaki Town, Iwate Prefecture. Two woman medical doctors (Misaho Aizawa and Mie Shiga, came from this district at the end of the Meiji Era (1910-1911). Misaho Aizawa was born in a minister's family in 1885 and studied at the Women's School of Dohshisha. After graduation she studied abroad at the Women's Medical College of Philadelphia and graduated from the college in 1910. Immediately after graduation she came back to Japan and got a medical license in Japan. She married a minister and was employed by the Red Cross Clinic in Fukuoka Prefecture. Mie Shiga was born in a samurai-family in 1880 and worked her way through various medical schools in Tokyo. After three failures to pass the national medical examination she received a medical license in 1911. In 1913 she opened her clinic of internal medicine & pediatrics in Utsunomiya. She made an effort to diagnose correctly and won patients' confidence. These two women had neither communication nor common points due to the differences of their family environment and their age. However, they were brought up by fathers who were enthusiastic for education and they made an effort to become woman doctors. Although women's social situation and the female compulsory education rate were low, and women's medical education was poor in the Meiji Era, Misaho Aizawa was able to enter the medical route under the influence of Christianity, and Mie Shiga through the assistance of her family and her samurai spirit.

  20. Trends of allergic symptoms in school children: large-scale long-term consecutive cross-sectional studies in Osaka Prefecture, Japan.

    Yura, Akiko; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Iki, Masayuki; Shimizu, Tadahiko


    Trends in the prevalence rates of allergic symptoms in children have been discussed extensively, but it remains uncertain which symptoms increase or decrease over time owing to the lack of large-scale long-term consecutive cross-sectional studies performed on a representative population of children. To clarify the trends in the prevalence rates of allergic symptoms in Japanese children. Total population questionnaire surveys were conducted 15 times from 1975 to 2006 for all children attending public elementary schools in Osaka Prefecture, Japan, with the number of subjects ranging from 460,000 to 900,000. Parents of the children completed the questionnaire about allergic symptoms and other symptoms, including wheeze, physician-diagnosed atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, and itching eyes. Response rates were consistently over 90%. The prevalence of wheezing was constant until 1983, then increased from 1983 until 1993, then stabilized at about 4.4%. The lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis increased to 24% by 1993, and then decreased. The prevalence of rhinitis increased to 25% by 2003, whereas the prevalence of non-seasonal symptoms plateaued from 1993 on at 11% and vernal symptoms increased. The prevalence of itching eyes continued to increase to 21% in 2006, and vernal symptoms increased sharply. In Osaka Prefecture, Japan, the turning point when the prevalence of wheezing in schoolchildren had begun to increase was 1983. And the turning point when the increase in the prevalence of wheezing, atopic dermatitis, and non-seasonal allergic rhinitis turned to decrease or constant was 1993. The prevalence of rhinitis and itching eyes in spring was still increasing in 2006. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Assessing the Mental Health Impact of the 2011 Great Japan Earthquake, Tsunami, and Radiation Disaster on Elementary and Middle School Children in the Fukushima Prefecture of Japan.

    Lieber, Mark


    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred off of Japan's Pacific coast, which was followed by huge tsunamis that destroyed many coastal cities in the area. Due to the earthquake and subsequent tsunami, malfunctions occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi (Fukushima I) nuclear power plant, resulting in the release of radioactive material in the region. While recent studies have investigated the effects of these events on the mental health of adults in the region, no studies have yet been performed investigating similar effects among children. This study aims to fill that gap by: 1) assessing the mental health of elementary and middle school children living within the Fukushima prefecture of Japan, and 2) identifying risk and protective factors that are associated with the children's mental health scores. These factors were quantified using an original demographics survey, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the latter two of which have been previously validated in a Japanese setting. The surveys were distributed to approximately 3,650 elementary and middle school students during the months of February and March, 2012. The data suggests that those children who had been relocated to the city of Koriyama had significantly higher SDQ scores than those children who were native to Koriyama (p < .05) as well as a control group that lived outside of the Fukushima prefecture (p < .01). Using a multivariate regression, we also found that younger age and parental trauma were significantly correlated with higher SDQ scores (p < .001), while gender, displacement from one's home, and exposure to violence were not. These results suggest that, among children affected by natural disasters, younger children and those with parents suffering from trauma-related distress are particularly vulnerable to the onset of pediatric mental disturbances.

  2. Possibility of relationship between the yellow sand and the foot-and-mouth disease in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan in March 2010 by using MODIS images

    Kato, Yoshinobu


    In Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan, the O-type foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) appeared and spread from March to July, 2010. The first infected livestock by FMD virus was detected on March 26, 2010 at Tsuno Town in Miyazaki Prefecture. The O-type FMD was found on March 14 at the suburb of Lanzhou City in Gansu, and on March 25, 2010 in Shanxi, China. The duration of FMD virus incubation is 2 to 8 days. Maki et al. (2011, 2012) presumed the cause of the first FMD in Miyazaki as follows: The yellow sand adhered with FMD virus was transported from Gansu to Miyazaki by global westerly winds. In this paper, we investigate whether the yellow sand generated in Gansu flew to Miyazaki in March, 2010 by using MODIS data of Terra and Aqua satellites. True-color mosaic images, AVI mosaic images and T11 mosaic images from China to Japan are made and examined. The aerosol vapor index (AVI) is defined as AVI=T12-T11, where T12 and T11 are the brightness temperatures at 12μm and 11μm wavelength, respectively. The AVI can detect the dust and sandstorms (DSS, i.e., yellow sands) in satellite images both at daytime and night. AVI values are classified into six levels from 0 to 5. From AVI images, DSS existed in the vicinity of Lanzhou on March 19, and in the south area of Shanxi on March 20, and in the vicinity of Tsuno Town on March 21. If Maki et al. are right, the cause of the first FMD in Miyazaki in March 2010 is that DSS generated in Gansu on March 19 flew to Miyazaki on March 21.

  3. Effects of land use and climate change on ecosystem services in Central Asia's arid regions: A case study in Altay Prefecture, China.

    Fu, Qi; Li, Bo; Hou, Ying; Bi, Xu; Zhang, Xinshi


    The sustainable use of ecosystem services (ES) can contribute to enhancing human well-being. Understanding the effects of land use and climate change on ES can provide scientific and targeted guidance for the sustainable use of ES. The objective of this study was to reveal the way in which land use and climate change influence the spatial and temporal variations of ES in the mountain-oasis-desert system (MODS). In this study, we assessed water yield, soil conservation, crop production, and sand fixation in 1990, 2000, and 2010 in Altay Prefecture, which is representative of the MODS, based on widely used biophysical models. Moreover, we analyzed the effects of different land use and climate change conditions on ES. The results show that the area of forest and bare land decreased in Altay Prefecture. In contrast, the area of grassland with low coverage and cropland increased. The climate of this area presented an overall warming-wetting trend, with warming-drying and cooling-wetting phenomena in some areas. Soil conservation in the mountain zone, water yield in the oasis zone, and sand fixation in the desert zone all decreased under the influence of land use change alone. The warming-drying trend led to decreased water yield in the oasis zone and increased wind erosion in the desert zone. Based on the results, we recommend that local governments achieve sustainable use of ES by planting grasslands with high coverage in the oasis zone, increasing investment in agricultural science and technology, and establishing protected areas in the mountain and desert zones. The methodology in our study can also be applied to other regions with a MODS structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the Mental Health Impact of the 2011 Great Japan Earthquake, Tsunami, and Radiation Disaster on Elementary and Middle School Children in the Fukushima Prefecture of Japan


    Background On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred off of Japan’s Pacific coast, which was followed by huge tsunamis that destroyed many coastal cities in the area. Due to the earthquake and subsequent tsunami, malfunctions occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi (Fukushima I) nuclear power plant, resulting in the release of radioactive material in the region. While recent studies have investigated the effects of these events on the mental health of adults in the region, no studies have yet been performed investigating similar effects among children. Methods and Findings This study aims to fill that gap by: 1) assessing the mental health of elementary and middle school children living within the Fukushima prefecture of Japan, and 2) identifying risk and protective factors that are associated with the children’s mental health scores. These factors were quantified using an original demographics survey, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Impact of Event Scale–Revised (IES-R), the latter two of which have been previously validated in a Japanese setting. The surveys were distributed to approximately 3,650 elementary and middle school students during the months of February and March, 2012. The data suggests that those children who had been relocated to the city of Koriyama had significantly higher SDQ scores than those children who were native to Koriyama (p < .05) as well as a control group that lived outside of the Fukushima prefecture (p < .01). Using a multivariate regression, we also found that younger age and parental trauma were significantly correlated with higher SDQ scores (p < .001), while gender, displacement from one’s home, and exposure to violence were not. Conclusions These results suggest that, among children affected by natural disasters, younger children and those with parents suffering from trauma-related distress are particularly vulnerable to the onset of pediatric mental disturbances. PMID:28099497

  5. Analysis of 129I in the soils of Fukushima Prefecture: preliminary reconstruction of 131I deposition related to the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP).

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Toyama, Chiaki; Ohno, Takeshi


    Iodine-131 is one of the most critical radionuclides to be monitored after release from reactor accidents due to the tendency for this nuclide to accumulate in the human thyroid gland. However, there are not enough data related to the reactor accident in Fukushima, Japan to provide regional information on the deposition of this short-lived nuclide (half-life = 8.02 d). In this study we have focused on the long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (half-life of 1.57 × 10(7) y), and analyzed it by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for surface soil samples collected at various locations in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to obtain information on the (131)I/(129)I ratio released from the accident, we have determined (129)I concentrations in 82 soil samples in which (131)I concentrations were previously determined. There was a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.84) between the two nuclides, suggesting that the (131)I levels in soil samples following the accident can be estimated through the analysis of (129)I. We have also examined the possible influence from (129m)Te on (129)I, and found no significant effect. In order to construct a deposition map of (131)I, we determined the (129)I concentrations (Bq/kg) in 388 soil samples collected from different locations in Fukushima Prefecture and the deposition densities (Bq/m(2)) of (131)I were reconstructed from the results.

  6. Countermeasures for Branding and Industrial Development of Tobacco in Enshi Prefecture,the World Selenium Capital%“世界硒都”恩施州烟草品牌化与产业发展对策



    农业品牌化是农业现代化的重要标志。湖北恩施州是烤烟、白肋烟、天然富硒烟草的重要产地。本文介绍了恩施州烟草资源与产业,分析其烟草品牌化与产业发展对策。%Agricultural branding is an important symbol of the agricultural modernization .Enshi Prefec-ture is an important producing area of flue -cured tobacco , white burley and natural selenium -enriched to-bacco .The tobacco resources and industry in Enshi Prefecture were introduced , and the countermeasures for its branding and industrial development were analyzed in this paper .

  7. Low-level cadmium exposure in Toyama City and its surroundings in Toyama prefecture, Japan, with references to possible contribution of shellfish intake to increase urinary cadmium levels

    Yamagami, T. [Hokuriku Health Service Association, Toyama 930-0177 (Japan); Ezaki, T. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Moriguchi, J. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Fukui, Y. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Okamoto, S. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Ukai, H. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Sakurai, H. [Occupational Health Research and Development Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0014 (Japan); Aoshima, K. [Hagino Hospital, Fuchu-machi, Toyama 939-2723 (Japan); Ikeda, M. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan)]. E-mail:


    Objectives: This study was initiated to examine if exposure to cadmium (Cd) was high also outside of the previously identified Itai-itai disease endemic region in the Jinzu River basin in Toyama prefecture in Japan. Methods: Morning spot urine samples were collected in June-August 2004 from 651 adult women (including 535 never-smokers) in various regions in Toyama prefecture, and subjected to urinalyses for cadmium (Cd), {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin ({alpha}{sub 1}-MG), {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin ({beta}{sub 2}-MG), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), specific gravity (SG or sg) and creatinine (CR or cr). Three months later, the second urine samples were collected from those with elevated Cd in urine (e.g., {>=} 4 {mu}g/g cr), together with answers to questionnaires on shellfish consumption. Results: The geometric mean (GM) Cd, {alpha}{sub 1}-MG, {beta}{sub 2}-MG and NAG (after correction for CR) for the total participants were 2.0 {mu}g/g cr, 2.4 mg/g cr, 104 {mu}g/g cr and 2.8 units/g cr, respectively; further analysis with never-smoking cases only did not induce significant changes in these parameters. Analyses of the second urine samples from the high Cd subjects showed that there was substantial decrease (to about a half) in Cd in the 3-month period, and that the decrease was accompanied by reduction in {alpha}{sub 1}-MG and NAG ({beta}{sub 2}-MG did not show elevation even in the first samples). The urinalysis results in combination with the results of the questionnaire survey suggest that the high urinary Cd was temporary and might be induced by intake of shellfish that is edible whole. Conclusions: The overall findings appear to suggest that Cd exposure in Toyama populations (outside of the Itai-itai disease endemic region) was at the levels commonly observed on the coast of the Sea of Japan, and that the Cd level in urine might be modified by the intake of some types of seafood. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relation of urinary Cd

  8. Survey of preventable disaster death at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake: a retrospective preliminary investigation of medical institutions in Miyagi Prefecture.

    Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Tsuruwa, Miho; Ueki, Yuzuru; Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Koido, Yuichi; Kushimoto, Shigeki


    The 2011, magnitude (M) 9, Great East Japan Earthquake and massive tsunami caused widespread devastation and left approximately 18,500 people dead or missing. The incidence of preventable disaster death (PDD) during the Great East Japan Earthquake remains to be clarified; the present study investigated PDD at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake in order to improve disaster medical systems. A total of 25 hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan) that were disaster base hospitals (DBHs), or had at least 20 patient deaths between March 11, 2011 and April 1, 2011, were selected to participate based on the results of a previous study. A database was created using the medical records of all patient deaths (n=868), and PDD was determined from discussion with 10 disaster health care professionals. A total of 102 cases of PDD were identified at the participating hospitals. The rate of PDD was higher at coastal hospitals compared to inland hospitals (62/327, 19.0% vs 40/541, 7.4%; Pcause of PDD, the PDD rate was higher at GHs compared to DBHs (24/316, 7.6% vs 21/552, 3.8%; Pcauses of PDD were: insufficient medical resources, delayed medical intervention, disrupted lifelines, deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters at coastal hospitals, and delayed medical intervention at inland hospitals. Meanwhile, investigation of PDD causes based on type of medical institution demonstrated that, while delayed medical intervention and deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters were the most common causes at DBHs, insufficient medical resources and disrupted lifelines were prevalent causes at GHs. Preventable disaster death at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred mainly at coastal hospitals. Insufficient resources (at GHs), environmental factors (at coastal hospitals), and delayed medical intervention (at all hospitals) constituted the major potential

  9. 西藏昌都地区农业信息化现状与发展建议%The Current Situation and Proposals of Agricultural Informatization in Changdu Prefecture of Tibet



    By making a systematic survey, the article stated the development of agricultural informatization in Changdu prefecture of Tibet from four aspects, including agricultural information infrastructure, service system, agricultural info-resource and information broadcasting cannel. It showed that the application of agricultural informatization promoted scientific extension of agriculture and herder industry in Changdu prefecture, and took a great positive impact on farmer’s income growth and rural development. However, the agricultural informatization development in Changdu prefecture also had many problems, such as backwards of information infrastructure, unsound of information service system and so forth. This article presented proposals to strengthening the agriculture info-resource and infrastructure construction so as to boost agricultural informatization development in Changdu prefecture.%本文从农业信息基础设施、农业信息服务体系、农业信息资源和信息传播渠道4个方面,对昌都地区农业信息化发展情况进行了系统调研。结果表明:农业信息化的应用进一步推动了昌都地区农牧业科技的推广,对促进农牧民增收和农村社会健康发展起到了积极作用。针对昌都地区农业信息化发展还存在着信息基础设施落后、信息服务体系不健全等问题,提出了加强农业信息资源和信息基础设施建设等建议,以促进昌都地区农业信息化健康发展。

  10. On the Current Issues and Reform of Preschool Education Teachers in the Rural Areas of Aba Prefecture%阿坝州农村学前教育师资存在的问题及改革探析

    梁建东; 梁涛; 李娟


    学前教育是国家和社会稳定和发展的重要基础,也是提高国民素质的重要基础工程。而学前教育中师资水平的高低直接决定着学前教育质量的好坏,阿坝州农村学前教育不仅师资队伍不稳定,还严重影响着阿坝州教育的健康发展。本文将分析阿坝州农村学前教育师资存在的问题与如何有效建设阿坝州学前教育师资队伍等方面展开探析,旨在为提高阿坝州农村学前教育师资队伍水平和促进全州学前教育的健康发展提供可行性建议。%Preschool education is an important foundation for the development of country and social stability as well as for the improvement of the overall quality of the whole nation. And the competence of teachers for preschool education has a great impact on teaching quality. Currently, the worrisome situation of teachers for preschool education in the rural areas of Aba prefecture not only leads to the shortage of teachers, but also prevents the full and healthy development of the education in Aba prefecture.In this article, the author would like to talk about the current situation of the preschool education teachers in the rural areas of Aba prefecture and how to effectively strengthen the teacher troops,on the purpose of enhancing the teaching level and providing some feasible advice on the development of preschool education in the whole prefecture.

  11. Implement PPET Strategy and Develop Ecotourism of Minority Areas in Western China——Take Xinlong County of GanziTibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province as An Example



    To help the poor and to develop tourism are two mportant problems in poverty-stricken area. Howeve,they were isotated for years. The PPET strategy was put forward in this paper based on PPT. The Feasibility and the realistic meaning of the strategy in developing the ecotourism, overcoming poverty, and achieving prosperity of minority areas in western China are analyzed by taking Xinlong county of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Stchuan Province as an example.

  12. Consumers' attitudes towards GM Free products in a European Region. The case of the Prefecture of Drama-Kavala-Xanthi in Greece.

    Tsourgiannis, L; Karasavvoglou, A; Florou, G


    This study aims to identify the factors that affect consumers purchasing behaviour towards food products that are free from Genetic Modified Organism (GM Free) in a European Region and more precisely in the Prefecture of Drama-Kavala-Xanthi. Field interviews conducted in a random selected sample consisted of 337 consumers in the cities of Drama, Kavala, Xanthi, in November and December of 2009. Principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted in order to identify the factors that affect people in preferring consuming products that are GM Free. The factors that influence people in the study area to buy GM Free products are: (a) products' certification as GM Free or organic products, (b) interest about the protection of the environment and nutrition value, (c) marketing issues, and (d) price and quality. Furthermore, cluster and discriminant analysis identified two groups of consumers: (a) those are influenced by the product price, quality and marketing aspects and (b) those are interested in product's certification and environmental protection. Non parametric statistical bivariate techniques were performed to profile the identified groups of consumers regarding their personal characteristics and some other factors affecting their buying behaviour.

  13. Importance of field scientific learning at the time of elementary and junior high school. - Introduction of geological field learning in Shimane Prefecture, Japan

    Matsumoto, I.


    Importance of the scientific field learning is increasing since the disaster by the Tohoku-Earthquake and Tsunami at the 11th March 2011, in Japan. Effective enforcement of the environmental education from a kindergarten to a University student is very important educational tool for protecting future earth's environment. Practice of the geological field study at the time of elementary and junior high school is very important. This study reports the present situation and the practice example of field scientific learning of Japan. Particularly, I report practice of the geological field education in a class of Shimane prefecture. I point out that "Consciousness (In)", "knowledge (About)", and "action (For)" are important three factors not only environmental education but also geological field education (e.g. Matsumoto, 2014). However, the practice rate of field geological learning at the elementary and junior high school is very low in Japan (Miyashita and Matsumoto, 2010). I introduce the effective method of increasing the practice rate of field geological study. I discuss about pedagogy which improves especially a student's scientific literacy.

  14. Epidemiological survey of school-age children with low vision in Zhouqu County of Gannan Tibetan autonomous prefecture of Gansu province

    Le-Xin Yang,


    Full Text Available AIM: To have a detailed picture of school-age children's eyesight status, and the main factors that caused their low vision in Zhouqu County of Gannan Tibetan autonomous prefecture of Gansu province. METHODS: The census work of knowing school-age children's eyesight status was implemented through visual inspection, conventional ophthalmic examination, optometry checks, etc. The results were compared with other domestic epidemiological data. RESULTS: Altogether 536 people with low vision were identified through survey and the rate was 21.12%. Among those people, the number of myopia patients accounted for 80.59% and the prevalence rate was 17.02%. Besides, the prevalence rate of presbyopia was 2.05%, amblyopia 2.76%, strabismus 1.02%, ocular trauma 0.95%, and congenital eye disease 0.71%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence rate of low vision was related with several factors such as gender and nationality. The rate increases with age and the myopia is the primary element that causes low vision.

  15. Entire Catchment and Buffer Zone Approaches to Modeling Linkage Between River Water Quality and Land Cover——A Case Study of Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan

    Bahman Jabbarian AMIRI; Kaneyuki NAKANE


    This study investigated the linkages between fiver water quality and land use in river catchments in Yama-guchi Prefecture, the western Japan, in order to examine the effect of land use changes of both entire catchment andbuffer zone on river water quality. Dissolved Oxygen (DO), pH, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Suspended Solids(SS), Escherichia coli, Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) were eousidered as river water quality indica-tors. Satellite images were applied to generating the land use map. Multiple regression model was applied to linkingthe changes in the fiver water quality with the land uses in both entire catchment area and buffer zone. The results in-dicate that the integrative application of land use data from the entire catchment and the buffer zone could give rise tomore robust model to predict the concentrations of Suspended Solids (r2=0.88) and Total Nitrogen (r2=0.90), ratherthan models which separately considered land use data in catchment and buffer zone.

  16. Perfluoroalkyl substances in the blood of wild rats and mice from 47 prefectures in Japan: use of samples from nationwide specimen bank.

    Taniyasu, Sachi; Senthilkumar, Kurunthachalam; Yamazaki, Eriko; Yeung, Leo W Y; Guruge, Keerthi S; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi


    Numerous studies have reported on the global distribution, persistence, fate, and toxicity of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). However, studies on PFASs in terrestrial mammals are scarce. Rats can be good sentinels of human exposure to toxicants because of their habitat, which is in close proximity to humans. Furthermore, exposure data measured for rats can be directly applied for risk assessment because many toxicological studies use rodent models. In this study, a nationwide survey of PFASs in the blood of wild rats as well as surface water samples collected from rats' habitats from 47 prefectures in Japan was conducted. In addition to known PFASs, combustion ion chromatography technique was used for analysis of total fluorine concentrations in the blood of rats. In total, 216 blood samples representing three species of wild rats (house rat, Norway rats, and field mice) were analyzed for 23 PFASs. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS; concentration range 80 % of the blood samples. Concentrations of several PFASs in rat blood were similar to those reported for humans. PFSAs (mainly PFOS) accounted for 45 % of total PFASs, whereas perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), especially PFUnDA and PFNA, accounted for 20 and 10 % of total PFASs, respectively. In water samples, PFCAs were the predominant compounds with PFOA and PFNA found in >90 % of the samples. There were strong correlations (p blood.

  17. Measurement of radon concentration in water by means of {alpha}, {gamma} spectrometry. Radon concentration in ground and spring water in Hiroshima Prefecture

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan)


    Radon ({sup 222}Rn, T{sub 1/2}=3.8235{+-}0.0003d) is {alpha}-ray releasing nuclide, so that it can not be detected by {gamma}-ray measurement. But, the daughter nuclides {sup 214}Pb (T{sub 1/2}=26.8 min) and {sup 214}Bi (T{sub 1/2}=19.9 min) release {gamma}-ray, accordingly they are measured by Ge detector. Their radioactive equilibrium is kept in the closed vessel, because their half-lives are shorter than that of radon. We developed a measurement method of radon concentration by means of {gamma}-spectrometry. We applied this method to catch radon in the atmosphere by active carbon. The same principle can be applied to radon in water. Radon concentrations in the ground water were measured in 22 points in the Higashi-Hiroshima city and 82 points in the Hiroshima prefecture. The efficiencies of {gamma}-ray were determined. The radon concentration showed between 11 and 459 Bq/l and the average was 123 Bq/l. The high concentration of radon was distributed in the spring of granitic layer and higher concentration of radon were observed in the ground water of fault. (S.Y.)

  18. Whole-body counter surveys of over 2700 babies and small children in and around Fukushima Prefecture 33 to 49 months after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    HAYANO, Ryugo S.; TSUBOKURA, Masaharu; MIYAZAKI, Makoto; OZAKI, Akihiko; SHIMADA, Yuki; KAMBE, Toshiyuki; NEMOTO, Tsuyoshi; OIKAWA, Tomoyoshi; KANAZAWA, Yukio; NIHEI, Masahiko; SAKUMA, Yu; SHIMMURA, Hiroaki; AKIYAMA, Junichi; TOKIWA, Michio


    BABYSCAN, a whole-body counter (WBC) for small children was developed in 2013, and units have been installed at three hospitals in Fukushima Prefecture. Between December, 2013 and March, 2015, 2707 children between the ages of 0 and 11 have been scanned, and none had detectable levels of radioactive cesium. The minimum detectable activities (MDAs) for 137Cs were ≤3.5 Bq kg−1 for ages 0–1, decreasing to ≤2 Bq kg−1 for ages 10–11. Including the 134Cs contribution, these translate to a maximum committed effective dose of ∼16 µSv y−1 even for newborn babies, and therefore the internal exposure risks can be considered negligibly small. Analysis of the questionnaire filled out by the parents of the scanned children regarding their families’ food and water consumption revealed that the majority of children residing in the town of Miharu regularly consume local or home-grown rice and vegetables, while in Minamisoma, a majority avoid tap water and produce from Fukushima. The data show, however, no correlation between consumption of locally produced food and water and the children’s body burdens. PMID:26460321

  19. Whole-body counter surveys of over 2700 babies and small children in and around Fukushima Prefecture 33 to 49 months after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    Hayano, Ryugo S; Miyazaki, Makoto; Ozaki, Akihiko; Shimada, Yuki; Kambe, Toshiyuki; Nemoto, Tsuyoshi; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakura, Yu; Shimmura, Hiroaki; Akiyama, Junichi; Tokiwa, Michio


    BABYSCAN, a whole body counter (WBC) for small children was developed in 2013, and units have been installed at three hospitals in Fukushima Prefecture. Between December, 2013 and March, 2015, 2702 children between the ages of 0 and 11 have been scanned, and none had detectable levels of radioactive cesium. The minimum detectable activities (MDAs) for $^{137}$Cs were $\\leq 3.5$ Bq kg$^{-1}$ for ages 0-1, decreasing to $\\leq 2$ Bq kg$^{-1}$ for ages 10-11. Including the $^{134}$Cs contribution, these translate to a maximum committed effective dose of $\\sim 16 \\mu$Sv y$^{-1}$ even for newborn babies, and therefore the internal exposure risks can be considered negligibly small. Analysis of the questionnaire filled out by the parents of the scanned children regarding their families' food and water consumption revealed that the majority of children residing in the town of Miharu regularly consume local or home-grown rice and vegetables, while in Minamisoma, a majority avoid tap water and produce from Fukushima. Th...

  20. Cytochrome p450 induction and gonadal status alteration in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) associated with the discharge of dioxin contaminated effluent to the Hikiji River, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Nakai, Kiyotaka; Aoto, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Aiko; Ushikoshi, Ryoko; Hirose, Hitomi; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Kazusaka, Akio; Fujita, Shoichi


    Accumulations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls were analyzed in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected in the Hikiji River, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan in which dioxin contaminated effluent was released during the period starting from November 1992 to March 2000. Higher levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents were observed in carps collected downstream to the dioxin release site (contaminated site) than the reference site. Modulations of cytochrome p450 (CYP) enzyme in liver, serum estrogen concentration and gonadal somatic index (GSI) were also measured as biomarkers for the contaminants. Total CYP content in livers was markedly higher in male and female carps from the contaminated site relative to the reference site fish. The expression level of the cytochrome p450 1A and Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity were significantly higher in female carps from the contaminated site than from the reference site. A lower level of plasma estrogen was observed in carps from the contaminated site. The GSI in female carps from the contaminated site was smaller than that recorded at the reference site. The present study indicates that dioxins released to the Hikiji River might induce the CYP enzyme and inhibit the reproductive functions in common carps dwelling downstream from the release site.

  1. Geoelectrical structure by electrical logs and Schlumberger sounding at the Akinomiya geothermal field, Akita Prefecture; Denki kenso oyobi Schlumberger ho ni yoru Akinomiya chinetsu chiiki no hiteiko kozo

    Kajiwara, T.; Takemoto, S.


    Based on the electrical logging data of the existed well and Schlumberger sounding data obtained in 1974, a two-dimensional inversion analysis of the specific resistance profile was conducted at the Akinomiya geothermal field, Akita Prefecture. From the electrical logging data, relationships between the geology and the specific resistance were illustrated. The specific resistance values of basement rocks showed more than 100 ohm-m, which were higher than those of the other seams. Intrusive rocks and tuffs in the basement rocks showed locally low values less than 100 ohm-m. Younger volcanic rocks showed low values around 10 ohm-m. As a result of the two-dimensional inversion analysis, the basement rocks could be detected as high specific resistance layers. Accordingly, it was considered that the basement rocks in this field can be detected as high specific resistance layers by analyzing the results of field survey sufficiently. Low specific resistance zones were observed in the shallow depth, which corresponded to the fumarolic gases. There were some layers with remarkably varied specific resistance values, which were considered to be related with alteration. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Site selection for drinking-water pumping boreholes using a fuzzy spatial decision support system in the Korinthia prefecture, SE Greece

    Antonakos, Andreas K.; Voudouris, Konstantinos S.; Lambrakis, Nikolaos I.


    The implementation of a geographic information system (GIS)/fuzzy spatial decision support system in the selection of sites for drinking-water pumping boreholes is described. Groundwater is the main source of domestic supply and irrigation in Korinthia prefecture, south-eastern Greece. Water demand has increased considerably over the last 30 years and is mainly met by groundwater abstracted via numerous wells and boreholes. The definition of the most "suitable" site for the drilling of new boreholes is a major issue in this area. A method of allocating suitable locations has been developed based on multicriteria analysis and fuzzy logic. Twelve parameters were finally involved in the model, prearranged into three categories: borehole yield, groundwater quality, and economic and technical constraints. GIS was used to create a classification map of the research area, based on the suitability of each point for the placement of new borehole fields. The coastal part of the study area is completely unsuitable, whereas high values of suitability are recorded in the south-western part. The study demonstrated that the method of multicriteria analysis in combination with fuzzy logic is a useful tool for selecting the best sites for new borehole drilling on a regional scale. The results could be used by local authorities and decision-makers for integrated groundwater resources management.

  3. 凉山彝族女性代际教育探析%The Inter-generation Education of Yi Nationality Women in Liangshan Prefecture



    The concept of female subordination has been entrenched in Liangshan prefecture for many years, i.e.Yi women are in weak position relatively .They only as housewives had no speaking -right in the family.The economic level in Liangshan is much backward before the democratic reform , so Yi women may be educated by the so called "school education"through inter -generational education in the family, and this way was handed down from generation to generation .In recent years the inter-gen-eration education status has been changed a lot with the rapid development of social and economy , but it is not optimistic .%凉山彝族地区男尊女卑思想观念的根深蒂固,彝族女性一直处于弱势地位,没有话语权,只能扮演家庭主妇的角色。民主改革之前,凉山地区经济发展水平低,彝族女性接受学校教育的机会甚少,只有通过家庭代际教育,代代相传。近年来,社会经济的飞速发展,彝族女性的代际教育状况有所转变,但也不容乐观。

  4. Monopoly experimentation


    This paper considers a firm facing an uncertain demand curve. The firm can experimentally adjust its output in order to gain information that willincrease expected future profits. We examine two basic questions. Under whatconditions is it worthwhile for the firm to experiment? How does the firmadjust its output away from the myopic optimism to exploit its ability to experiment? Two necessary conditions are established for experimentation tooccur, involving requirements that experimentation be...

  5. Multi-scale Spatial Analysis Of Physical Habitat Of Pseudobagrus ichikawai (Siluriformes: Bagridae) In Third Order Stream Landscapes, Mie Prefecture, Japan

    Tashiro, T.; Sagawa, S.; Kayaba, Y.; Saiki, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Amano, K.


    The bagrid catfish, Pseudobagrus ichikawai, is threatened with extinction, occurring only in the rivers flowing into Ise and Mikawa Bays. P. ichikawai is perceived to use the interstices of boulder clusters in backwaters. However, its ecology remains unclear owing to its nocturnal habits and unique habitat features. Recently, several river improvement works for controlling floods such as bank revetment, channel shortening and dam construction have decreased such environments in many rivers, and have also been considered to cause the reduction of catfish populations. The conservation of the remaining populations is fundamental not only for preserving species / genetic diversity, but also for sustaining the river landscape with its various environments. In other words, P. ichikawai can be utilized as an indicator species for this original river landscape. Therefore, in order to conserve a tiny population of the catfish, habitat restorations are planned in the 3rd order stream, a small branch of the Inabe River system in Mie Prefecture. The objectives of this study are to clarify the physical characteristics of P. ichikawai habitats and to help implementing habitat restoration in this small branch. This study consists of stratified analysis from the viewpoints of three kinds of spatial scale as follows: (1) landscape scale which includes physical land shape characteristics of the valley with each stream investigated before, (2) reach scale of the longitudinal 100 m length including the riparian zone with the multiple observed points of catfish and (3) micro-habitat scale of the quadrates (2m X 2m) where we observed the catfish individuals. At first, cluster analysis for scale (1) was conducted using variables such as sinuosity of channel, channel / valley width, and longitudinal / cross-sectional valley gradient. These parameters were obtained from general topographic maps and the 3rd order streams where local P. icihikawai populations survived in Mie Prefecture were

  6. 1958-2010年阿坝州炭疽流行状况分析%Prevalence of Anthrax in Aba Prefecture, 1958 -2010



    目的 分析阿坝州1958 -2010年炭疽发病情况,找出发病规律和特点,探讨有效降低炭疽病发病的措施和方法.方法 对53年来的炭疽疫情数据进行流行病学分析.结果 53年来累计报告炭疽病例1 349例,死亡21例,年均发病率3.47/10万、死亡率0.06/10万.全年均有病例报告,但集中在4~10月,3个牧区县的发病占报告总数的89.03%;职业以牧民为主,发病年龄集中在20~44岁.1958 - 2001年发病率在0.8/10万~2.52/10万之间,2002-2010年发病率在6.33/10万~12.66/10万之间.结论 阿坝州1958 -2001年炭疽发病较平稳,2002年起发病呈逐年上升趋势,且发病主要在牧区,应加强健康教育和畜牧业管理,做好疫点、外环境消毒和预防接种,有效控制牧区炭疽流行.%Objective By analyzing the incidence of anthrax in Aba prefecture from year 1958 to 2010, to find out the rules and features of the incidence, and explore effective measures to reduce the incidence of anthrax. Methods Data of anthrax epidemics in 53 years (1958 -2010) was analyzed with epidemiological methods. Results Totally 1 349 anthrax cases were reported in 53 years, with 21 death cases. The annual incidence rate was 3.47/105, and case mortality rate was 0. 06/105. Cases were reported throughout the year, and concentrated in period of April to October, 89. 03% cases were from 3 pastoral counties. Professional was mainly pas-toralists, and cases concentrated in 20 -44 years old. Annual incidence rate during 1958 -2001 fluctuated within 0. 8/105 -2. 52/105, and annual incidence rate was from 6. 33/105 to 12. 66/105 during 2002 -2010. Conclusions The incidence of anthrax was stable in Aba prefecture during 1958 - 2001, followed by the in- , creasing since 2002 year by year, and mainly in pastoral areas. Health education and animal husbandry management should be strengthened, with epidemic focus and external environment disinfection and vaccination, to control the prevalence of

  7. The screening and gene analysis of thalassemia in Heyuan prefecture%河源地区地中海贫血筛查及基因分析

    刘平; 刘天明


    Objective: Researching the morbidity and genetype distribution of Thalassemia in Heyuan prefecture is to strengthen the awarness of Thalassemia screening and improve the quality of the population in this region. Methods: 6470 cases of prenatal care or pre - marital check were diagnosed by routine testing of blood, RBC osmotic fragility lest, hemoglobin electrophoresis experiment and so on. And then according to the results, we made a preliminary judge to know the people whether is a Thalassemia of patient or not and its type. Of which 976 cases of Thalassemia were diagnostic by PCR. Results; There were 6470 cases in 1545 samples of Thalassemia, the detection rate is 23. 88% , including a - Thalassemia (1104 cases), HbH disease (27 cases), β - Thalassemia (414 cases) , abnormal hemoglobin disease (27 cases). The result of PCR show that detection ratio of α - thalassemia is 73. 23% and detection ratio of β - thalassemia is 95. 83%. Conclusion; Detection rate of the Thalassemia in Heyuan prefecture is higher than another region, α - thalassemia is particularly highter than β - thalassemia. By this way, we should increase the intensity of Thalassemia screening and avoid the birth of children with heavy Thalassemia through rational marriage, genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis and another measures. It is very important for prenatal and postnatal care.%目的 统计河源地区地中海贫血(简称地贫)的发病率及其类型分布情况,增强本地区人群进行地中海贫血筛查意识,提高该地区人口素质.方法 对来我院行产前检查或婚前检查的育龄人群共6470例常规做地中海贫血筛查,检测项目主要是血液常规检测、红细胞渗透脆性试验和全自动琼脂糖血红蛋白电泳试验,综合三者的结果判定被筛查者是否患有地贫及其地贫类型,对其中976例地贫表型阳性者进行基因诊断试验,并对结果进行回顾性分析.结果 在6470例育龄人群地中海贫血筛查中共

  8. Introduction and Development of Carya illinoensis in Honghe Prefecture%红河州薄壳山核桃引种及产业发展分析



    Through 20 years of introduction observation,growing status of Carya illinoensis was normal in Honghe prefecture,and had better cultivation benefit.Third year grafted seedlings began to fruit,ten year grafted seedlings teemed with fruits; eight year grafted seedling produced 13 kg per strains maximum.The average yield per crown projected area was up to 0.17 kg.The seed is full,with the kernel easy to take,in pure flavor,and good quality.Carya illinoensis was suitable to be planted in area of altitude 800 ~ 1600 m.The favorable conditions and constraints of Carya illinoensis planting were analyzed.It was esteemed that as long as planning,planting and managing were carried out scientifically,the prospects of Carya illinoensis industry is promising.%通过20年的引种观察认为,薄壳山核桃在红河州生长结果正常,栽培效益好,嫁接苗种植第三年开始挂果,10年进入盛果初期,8 a生最高株产达13 kg,每树冠投影面积平均产量0.17 kg,种实饱满,取仁容易,味道香纯,品质优良,适宜在红河州海拔800 ~1 600 m的区域栽培.对红河州种植该树种的有利条件及制约因素进行分析,认为只要科学规划、种植、管理,发展薄壳山核桃产业前景广阔.

  9. End-of-life care bonus promoting end-of-life care in nursing homes: An 11-year retrospective longitudinal prefecture-wide study in Japan.

    Nishiguchi, Sho; Sugaya, Nagisa; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Mizushima, Shunsaku


    The end-of-life (EOL) care bonus introduced by the Japanese government works as a financial incentive and framework of quality preservation, including advance care planning, for EOL care among nursing home residents. This study aims to clarify the effects of the EOL care bonus in promoting EOL care in nursing homes. A longitudinal observational study using a questionnaire was conducted. We invited 378 nursing homes in Kanagawa prefecture in Japan, a region with a rapidly aging population, to participate in the study. The outcome was the number of residents dying in nursing homes from 2004 to 2014. In a linear mixed model, fixed-effect factors included year established, unit care, regional elderly population rate and hospital beds, adjacent affiliated hospital, full-time physician on site, physician's support during off-time, basic EOL care policy, usage of the EOL care bonus, EOL care conference, and staff experience of EOL care. A total of 237 nursing home facilities responded (62.7%). The linear mixed model showed that the availability of the EOL care bonus (coefficient 3.1, 95 % CI 0.67-5.51, p = 0.012) and years of usage of the EOL care bonus (p homes. Our analysis revealed that the EOL care bonus has the potential to increase the number of residents receiving EOL care in nursing homes over several years. EOL care conferences, physician support for emergency care during off-time, and the presence of an adjacent affiliated hospital may also increase the number of residents receiving EOL care in nursing homes. These results suggest that a government financial incentive may contribute to effective EOL care among nursing home residents in other developed countries with rapidly aging populations.

  10. [Relationship of hypertension prevalence in companies to business type and scale--from an analysis of health examination results in Fukui prefecture].

    Hirai, T; Kusaka, Y; Iki, M; Deguchi, Y; Sato, K; Umino, K; Kawahara, K


    The results of health examinations of 89,299 examines from companies in Fukui Prefecture conducted pursuant to the Occupational Safety and Health Act were analyzed to study the relationship between the prevalence in these companies of hypertension, and company size business type. The Mantel-Haenszel method was utilized to adjust for age structure of the examinees according to gender and the type of business of their companies to compare prevalence of hypertension. The results of the analysis indicated that the prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in small-scale companies for the female examinees working in pulp/paper processing and motor freight transport business than in large-scale companies, but no significant difference was seen for scale of business when the female examinees were grouped without regard to the business type of their companies. In the case of the male examinees, the analysis results revealed that the prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in small-scale companies for those working in ceramic/earth/rock, motor passenger transport and hotel/restaurant business than in large-scale industry while the prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in large-scale companies for those working in non-ferrous metal industry, financial and other types of business. Moreover, the analysis results for the male examinees grouped without regard to the type of business of their companies indicated that the prevalence of hypertension remained significantly higher in small-scale companies. The above also suggests the need for measures for health care of workers that considers business type and scale for the purpose of primary prevention of hypertension.

  11. Study on the Comprehensive Tourism Development Pattern in Periphery Minority Area:A Case Study of Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Gansu Province,China

    Xu Lin; Li Yu; Wang Lili


    The paper took the human-land relations as a basic point,and the theories of tourism industry system and sustainable development as the guidance,with Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture(Gannan)as the case study area.From microcosmic and macroscopic viewpoints,the author carried out function orientation and evaluation to the tourism industry development,and research on the comprehensive tourism industry development pattern of Gannan.Results show that the fragile ecological environment and the traditional economic growth pattern have restricted regional sustainable development,and made Gannan to bocome a representative of the periphery minonty areas in Northwest China.Tourism development of Gannan is at the primary phase,with the characteristics of short industry chain and low economic efficiency.It iS an inevitable choice to transform the way of regional economic growth and the development pattern of tourism industry from the traditional pattern to the pattern of snstainable development.Simultaneously,Gannan's natural,uational and religious culture makes Gannan a broad prospect on the comprehensive tourism development.Gannan should choose the comprehensive tourism industry as its scientific pattern to realize sustainable development,promote harmonious social,economic and ecological development,alleviate the human-land contradictory,and realize dual goals in terms of ecology construction and economical development. For Gannan and the similar areas in China,studies on the sustainable development pattern of tourism have extremely important strategic sense with respect to tourism development and the sustainable development of regional economy.

  12. Paralytic toxicity in the ribbon worm Cephalothrix species (Nemertea) in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan and the isolation of tetrodotoxin as a main component of its toxins.

    Asakawa, Manabu; Toyoshima, Tadayoshi; Ito, Katsutoshi; Bessho, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Chisato; Tsunetsugu, Shogo; Shida, Yasuo; Kajihara, Hiroshi; Mawatari, Shunsuke F; Noguchi, Tamao; Miyazawa, Keisuke


    Paralytic toxicity of ribbon worms ("himomushi" in Japanese), identified as undescribed species of the genus Cephalothrix, found on the surface of the shells of cultured oysters in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture was examined between April 1998 and December 2001. The toxicity study showed that all of specimens were found to contain toxins with strong paralytic action in mice; the highest toxicity (as tetrodotoxin, TTX) was 25,590 mouse units (MU) per gram for whole body throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component of this himomushi toxin (HMT) was isolated from a pooled specimen (390 g; total toxicity 2,897,000MU) by a method that consisted of treatment with activated charcoal, chromatography on Bio-Gel P-2 and Bio-Rex 70 (H+ form), and finally crystallization from an acidified methanolic solution. The recrystallized toxin showed a specific toxicity of 3520MU/mg. This toxin showed (M+H)+ and (M+H-H(2)O)+ ion peaks at m/z 320 and 302, respectively, by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The absorption band at 3353, 3235, 1666, 1612 and 1076 cm(-1) were observed in infrared spectrum of this toxin. This spectrum was indistinguishable from that of TTX. The 1H-NMR spectrum for the recrystallized toxin was the same as that for TTX. The pair of doublets centered at 2.33 (J=10.0Hz) and 5.48 ppm (J=10.0Hz) which are characteristic of TTX, were shown to be coupled by double irradiation. Furthermore, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the alkali-hydrolyzate of this toxin indicated the presence of quinazoline skeleton (C9-base) specific to TTX.

  13. Web-based recruiting for a survey on knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer prevention among young women living in Kanagawa prefecture, Japan.

    Miyagi, Etsuko; Motoki, Yoko; Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Taguri, Masataka; Morita, Satoshi; Hirahara, Fumiki; Wark, John D; Garland, Suzanne M


    Cervical cancer (CC) incidence and mortality among young women have been increasing in Japan. To develop effective measures to combat this, we assessed the feasibility of using a social networking site (SNS) to recruit a representative sample of young women to conduct a knowledge and attitude study about CC prevention via an internet-based questionnaire. From July 2012 to March 2013, advertising banners targeting women aged 16 to 35 years in Kanagawa Prefecture were placed on Facebook in a similar manner as an Australian (AUS) study conducted in 16- to 25-year-olds in 2010 and on a homepage to advertise our CC advocacy activities. Eligible participants were emailed instructions for accessing our secure Web site where they completed an online survey including demographics, awareness, and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and CC. Data for the study population were compared with the general Japanese population and the AUS study. Among 394 women who expressed interest, 243 (62%) completed the survey, with 52% completing it via Facebook. Women aged 26 to 35 years, living in Yokohama City, with an education beyond high school, were overrepresented. Participants had high awareness and knowledge of HPV and CC, comparable with the AUS study participants. However, the self-reported HPV vaccination rate (22% among participants aged 16-25 years) and the recognition rate of the link between smoking and CC (31%) were significantly lower than in the AUS study (58% and 43%, respectively) (P < 0.05). Significant predictors of high knowledge scores about HPV included awareness of HPV vaccine (P < 0.001) and self-reported HPV vaccination (P < 0.05). The SNS and homepage are efficient methods to recruit young women into health surveys, which can effectively be performed online. A nationwide survey using SNSs would be an appropriate next step to better understand the current lack of uptake of the national HPV vaccine program by young women in Japan.

  14. Transfer of radiocesium to four cruciferous vegetables as influenced by organic amendment under different field conditions in Fukushima Prefecture.

    Aung, Han Phyo; Djedidi, Salem; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea


    Soil-to-plant transfer of radiocesium ((137)Cs) in four cruciferous vegetables as influenced by cattle manure-based compost amendment was investigated. Komatsuna, mustard, radish and turnip were cultivated in three different (137)Cs-contaminated fields at Nihonmatsu City in Fukushima Prefecture from June to August 2012. Results revealed that organic compost amendments stimulated plant biomass production and tended to induce higher (137)Cs concentration in the cruciferous vegetables in most cases. Among the studied sites, Takanishi soil possessing low exchangeable potassium (0.10 cmolc kg(-1)) was associated with an increased concentration of (137)Cs in plants. Radiocesium transfer factor (TF) values of the vegetables ranged from 0.025 to 0.119. The increase in (137)Cs TFs was dependent on larger plant biomass production, high organic matter content, and high sand content in the studied soils. Average (137)Cs TF values for all study sites and compost treatments were higher in Komatsuna (0.072) and radish (0.059), which exhibited a higher biomass production compared to mustard and turnip. The transferability of (137)Cs to vegetables from soils was in the order Komatsuna > radish > mustard > turnip. The highest (137)Cs TF value (0.071) of all vegetables was recorded for a field where the soil had high organic matter content and a high clay proportion of 470 g kg(-1) consisting of Al-vermiculite clay mineral. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Isotopic compositions of (236)U and Pu isotopes in "black substances" collected from roadsides in Fukushima prefecture: fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Sakaguchi, Aya; Steier, Peter; Takahashi, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Masayoshi


    Black-colored road dusts were collected in high-radiation areas in Fukushima Prefecture. Measurement of (236)U and Pu isotopes and (134,137)Cs in samples was performed to confirm whether refractory elements, such as U and Pu, from the fuel core were discharged and to ascertain the extent of fractionation between volatile and refractory elements. The concentrations of (134,137)Cs in all samples were exceptionally high, ranging from 0.43 to 17.7 MBq/kg, respectively. (239+240)Pu was detected at low levels, ranging from 0.15 to 1.14 Bq/kg, and with high (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratios of 1.64-2.64. (236)U was successfully determined in the range of (0.28 to 6.74) × 10(-4) Bq/kg. The observed activity ratios for (236)U/(239+240)Pu were in reasonable agreement with those calculated for the fuel core inventories, indicating that trace amounts of U from the fuel cores were released together with Pu isotopes but without large fractionation. The quantities of U and (239+240)Pu emitted to the atmosphere were estimated as 3.9 × 10(6) Bq (150 g) and 2.3 × 10(9) Bq (580 mg), respectively. With regard to U, this is the first report to give a quantitative estimation of the amount discharged. Appreciable fractionation between volatile and refractory radionuclides associated with the dispersal/deposition processes with distance from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant was found.

  16. Survey on the Sheep Resources in Nagqu Prefecture of Tibet Autonomous Region%西藏那曲地区绵羊资源调查与分析

    任子利; 赵彦玲; 王建州; 李瑜鑫; 商鹏; 刘锁珠; 强巴央宗


    The quantity change of Nagqu sheep's characteristics and laws was analyzed by the sheep population statistics in Nagqu from 1958 to 2009. The results showed that sheep proportion to livestock was between 48% and 63% from 1958 to 2001 and although the number of sheep growth is on the rise, but also annual growth rate has been put on the control little by little. However , sheep proportion to livestock was between 48% and 55%, the number of sheep and annual growth rate was declined gradually from 2002 to 2009. Livestock population structure adjustment has reached "The general principles of development yak (including cattle) , moderate development goats, reduce sheep, control horse" since 1958, which laid a foundation for the positive development of animal husbandry in Nagqu prefecture.%利用1958-2009年间那曲地区绵羊的统计资料,对那曲地区绵羊数量变化的特征和规律进行了分析.结果表明:从1958-2001年44a间,那曲地区绵羊数量占富群比例为48%~63%,绵羊数量虽呈现增长趋势,但绵羊增长率也逐渐得到控制;从2002-2009年8a间,绵羊数量占畜群比例为48%~55%,绵羊增长率逐年呈下降趋势,经过50多年的畜种群结构的调整,已经达到“发展牦牛(含黄牛)、适度发展山羊、减少绵羊、控制马”的总体原则,为那曲地区畜牧业的良性发展奠定了基础.

  17. Ecosystem Services Evaluation and Its Spatial Characteristics in Central Asia’s Arid Regions: A Case Study in Altay Prefecture, China

    Qi Fu


    Full Text Available Ecosystem services are important foundations to realize the sustainable development of economy and society. The question of how to quantitatively evaluate ecosystem services in a scientific way is a hot topic among international researchers. Studying the spatial characteristics of ecosystem services in arid regions can provide the theoretical and practical basis for coordinating a sustainable man-land relationship. Altay Prefecture of China, a typical arid region in Central Asia, was taken as the study area. It is on the Silk Road economic belt, which is a key region in the program of developing Western China. Three ecosystem services: water yield, soil conservation, and net primary productivity were quantitatively evaluated. The results show that (1 the spatial distribution pattern has a distinct characteristic of zonality; (2 mountain zone and mountain-oasis ecotone are the hotspots of ecosystem services; and (3 the correlation between water yield and net primary productivity shows a gradual increasing trend as altitude decreases. Objective analysis from the aspect of mechanism is given by discussing the causes of this particular pattern. It is found that altitude and slope have great influence on spatial distributions of ecosystem services, zones with the most amount of services are distributed in 1.5–2 km-altitude and 15–25°-slope. Different human activities in different regions and spatial distance decay of ecosystem services also contribute to the formation of spatial pattern. Thus, overgrazing, logging and mining are prohibited in mountain zones and mountain-oasis ecotones. Scholars are encouraged to focus on desert-ecosystem services in the future.

  18. Strategies of Path Dependence and Selection of Ecological Economy Development in Qiannan Prefecture%黔南州生态经济发展的路径依赖与选择策略

    肖国学; 郭治友; 黄明辉; 李永波; 莫光友


    黔南布依族苗族自治州(简称黔南州)是位于贵州南部的少数民族地区.民族地区的生态经济既具有生态系统性、公共性、全球性和持续性,又具有政治性、民族性、矛盾性、阶段性和复杂性等特性,在民族地区相对封闭的经济环境中,这些特征通过民族地区不断地自我强化,逐渐形成了强烈的路径依赖.分析了黔南州发展生态经济的缘由,探讨了其发展生态经济的路径依赖的主要类型,提出超越路径依赖的策略.%Qiannan Buyi and Miao Autonomous Prefecture(abbr. Qiannan Prefecture) is a minority territory of nationality which is located in southern Guizhou. The ecological economy of the territory of nationality has characteristics of not only ecological systematicness, publicity, globalization and persistence, but also political nature, nationality, contradictoriness, periodic and complexity and so on. In such relative close economic environment in the territory of nationality, these characteristics are self-reinforced constantly to form gradually some strong path dependences. The author analyzed reasons that developed ecological economy, discussed main types of path dependence and put forward strategies of path dependence in Qiannan Prefecture.

  19. Survey of the stray dog population and the health education program on the prevention of dog bites and dog-acquired infections: a comparative study in Nepal and Okayama Prefecture, Japan.

    Kato M; Yamamoto H; Inukai Y; Kira S


    We estimated the number of stray dogs in Kathmandu, Nepal, where human rabies cases still occur, and in Shimotsui, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. In Kathmandu, the stray dog density was 2,930 stray dogs/km2, and the ratio of stray dogs to humans was 1:4.7. In Shimotsui, the density was 225 stray dogs/km2, and the ratio was 1:5.2. Since the stray dog population in Nepal is very large, one of the measures used to prevent dog bites and dog-acquired infections such as rabies is an effort to capture s...

  20. Sanitary evaluation of domestic water supply facilities with storage tanks and detection of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria in domestic water facilities in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan.

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Sano, Kouichi; Hirai, Itaru


    To provide for temporary restrictions of the public water supply system, storage tanks are commonly installed in the domestic water systems of houses and apartment buildings in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan. To learn more about the sanitary condition and management of these water supply facilities with storage tanks (hereafter called "storage tank water systems") and the extent of bacterial contamination of water from these facilities, we investigated their usage and the existence of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria. Verbal interviews concerning the use and management of the storage tank water systems were carried out in each randomly sampled household. A total of 54 water samples were collected for bacteriological and physicochemical examinations. Conventional methods were used for total viable count, fecal coliforms, identification of bacteria such as Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NF-GNR), and measurement of residual chlorine. On Aeromonas species, tests for putative virulence factor and an identification using 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were also performed. Water from the water storage systems was reported to be consumed directly without boiling in 22 of the 54 houses (40.7%). 31 of the sampled houses had installed water storage tanks of more than 1 cubic meter (m(3)) per inhabitant, and in 21 of the sampled houses, the tank had never been cleaned. In all samples, the total viable count and fecal coliforms did not exceed quality levels prescribed by Japanese waterworks law. Although the quantity of bacteria detected was not high, 23 NF-GNR, 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 5 Aeromonas were isolated in 42.6%, 7.4% and 3.7% of samples respectively. One isolated A. hydrophila and four A. caviae possessed various putative virulence factors, especially A. hydrophila which had diverse putative pathogenic genes such as aer, hlyA, act, alt, ast, ser, and dam. Many bacteria were isolated when the concentration of residual chlorine

  1. Seasonal variations of {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C for cave drip waters in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan

    Minami, Masayo, E-mail: [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kato, Tomomi [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Horikawa, Keiji [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemistry, Toyama University, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)


    Speleothem {sup 14}C has recently emerged as a potentially powerful proxy for hydrology changes in comparison with atmospheric {sup 14}C calibration curve, rather than as a direct dating tool, apart from a time marker using bomb peak of {sup 14}C. Some possible causes for the relationship between speleothem {sup 14}C content (or dead carbon fraction: DCF) and karst hydrology have been proposed, such as changes in temperature, precipitation, drip water flow dynamics, cave air ventilation, soil air pCO{sub 2}. In this study, we investigated seasonal variation in {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C of drip water in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan, to examine the causes of the {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C variations in a speleothem. The results show that different {sup 14}C concentrations and δ{sup 13}C values of drip water from the Ryugashi Cave, were exhibited at different sites of the Caves No. 1, No. 3, and No. 4, which have different temperature, air pCO{sub 2}, and flow paths. Further, the {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C of drip waters showed seasonal variations at all sites, which were lower in fall and winter, and higher in spring and summer, though the extent of the variations was different among the sites. The {sup 14}C in drip waters tended to be correlated with the drip rates: {sup 14}C tended to be higher in drip waters with higher drip rates, and also correlated with rainfall amount around the Ryugashi Cave, especially for the drip waters in Cave No. 3, which are considered to have simpler flow paths. The increase in rainfall amount could bring the increase in drip rate of drip water, and then the decrease in interaction between solution and karst, resulting in {sup 14}C increase (DCF decrease) in drip water. Accordingly, the reconstruction of precipitation could be performed using {sup 14}C variation in a speleothem formed by drip water with simple flow dynamics.

  2. Distribution of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in seawater in the Pacific off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures, Japan

    S. Oikawa


    Full Text Available The activities of artificial radionuclides in seawater samples collected off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures were measured as part of a monitoring program initiated by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The spatial and temporal distributions of those activities are summarized herein. The activities of strontium-90, iodine-131, cesium-134 and -137 (i.e. 90Sr, 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs derived from the accident were detected in seawater samples taken from areas of the coastal ocean adjacent to the power plant. No 131I was detected in surface waters (≤ 5 m depth or in intermediate and bottom waters after 30 April 2011. Strontium-90 was found in surface waters collected from a few sampling stations in mid-August 2011 to mid-December 2011. Temporal changes of 90Sr activity in surface waters were evident, although the 90Sr activity at a given time varied widely between sampling stations. The activity of 90Sr in surface waters decreased slowly over time, and by the end of December 2011 had reached background levels recorded before the accident. Radiocesium, 134Cs and 137Cs, was found in seawater samples immediately after the accident. There was a remarkable change in radiocesium activities in surface waters during the first 7 months (March through September 2011 after the accident; the activity reached a maximum in the middle of April and thereafter decreased exponentially with time. Qualitatively, the distribution patterns in surface waters suggested that in early May radiocesium-polluted water was advected northward; some of the water then detached and was transported to the south. Two water cores with high 137Cs activity persisted at least until July 2011. In subsurface waters radiocesium activity was first detected in the beginning of April 2011, and the water masses were characterized by σt (an indicator of density values

  3. An Analysis on Tourism Market Potential of Chinese Prefecture-level Cities%中国地级行政区旅游市场潜力分析

    顾春香; 许爱文; 钟章奇; 王铮


    Based on tourism gravity model, combined with GIS,we calculate the tourism market area of Chinese prefecture-level cities,and analyze their tourism market potentials. We find that, firstly, the first market area, the second market area and the third market area obviously show distance decay. The tourism market potential in most parts of China is small. In addition, the market area of Chinese cities is affected by geographical location, natural environment and regional development policies.Secondly, 346 Chinese prefec-ture-level cities can be divided into four kinds of cities by clustering ac-cording to the market area. There are mainly differences among tourism re-sources, traffic location and economy, which affects the tourism market poten-tial. Thirdly, in all cities of every province, there are 19 provinces that the market area of the capitals is the largest. In other 8 provinces, the mar-ket area of capitals is not the largest. Therefore, measures like building airports and high-speed railways, can be taken to strengthen tourism services and ecological environment.%本文基于威尔逊形式的旅游引力模型,结合GIS技术计算了中国地级行政区的旅游市场域,同时分析了各城市的市场潜力。结果分析表明:(1)城市的一级市场域、二级市场域和三级市场域存在明显的距离衰减效应,而且当前市场域能够覆盖全国范围的并不多,大部分地区的旅游市场潜力并不大。(2)根据全国346个地级行政区的市场域进行系统聚类为四类城市,主要是在旅游资源、交通区位、经济等方面产生了一定的差异,进而影响到旅游市场潜力的不同。(3)在各省区内的所有地级行政区中,省会城市是旅游市场域最大的省区有19个。

  4. Convenience experimentation.

    Krohs, Ulrich


    Systems biology aims at explaining life processes by means of detailed models of molecular networks, mainly on the whole-cell scale. The whole cell perspective distinguishes the new field of systems biology from earlier approaches within molecular cell biology. The shift was made possible by the high throughput methods that were developed for gathering 'omic' (genomic, proteomic, etc.) data. These new techniques are made commercially available as semi-automatic analytic equipment, ready-made analytic kits and probe arrays. There is a whole industry of supplies for what may be called convenience experimentation. My paper inquires some epistemic consequences of strong reliance on convenience experimentation in systems biology. In times when experimentation was automated to a lesser degree, modeling and in part even experimentation could be understood fairly well as either being driven by hypotheses, and thus proceed by the testing of hypothesis, or as being performed in an exploratory mode, intended to sharpen concepts or initially vague phenomena. In systems biology, the situation is dramatically different. Data collection became so easy (though not cheap) that experimentation is, to a high degree, driven by convenience equipment, and model building is driven by the vast amount of data that is produced by convenience experimentation. This results in a shift in the mode of science. The paper shows that convenience driven science is not primarily hypothesis-testing, nor is it in an exploratory mode. It rather proceeds in a gathering mode. This shift demands another shift in the mode of evaluation, which now becomes an exploratory endeavor, in response to the superabundance of gathered data.

  5. Experimental philosophy.

    Knobe, Joshua; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun; Robbins, Philip; Sarkissian, Hagop; Sommers, Tamler


    Experimental philosophy is a new interdisciplinary field that uses methods normally associated with psychology to investigate questions normally associated with philosophy. The present review focuses on research in experimental philosophy on four central questions. First, why is it that people's moral judgments appear to influence their intuitions about seemingly nonmoral questions? Second, do people think that moral questions have objective answers, or do they see morality as fundamentally relative? Third, do people believe in free will, and do they see free will as compatible with determinism? Fourth, how do people determine whether an entity is conscious?

  6. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro


    A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9-50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years.

  7. Analysis on the Results of Measles Vaccine Mass Immunization Campaign in Qiangdongnan Prefecture in 2010%黔东南州2010年麻疹疫苗强化免疫结果分析

    潘宏; 段林李; 郭豫; 邓茂铭; 吴念标


    目的 评价黔东南州麻疹疫苗强化免疫活动效果.方法 采用描述流行病学方法,对2010年黔东南州麻疹疫苗(MV)强化免疫的各种数据进行分析.结果 全州儿童报告接种率为98.33%,其中本地儿童报告接种率为98.40%;抽样调查接种率为97.43%;州统计局公布人口数估算接种率为92.57%.结论 本次MV强化免疫达到了预期目标.%Objective To evaluate the effect of MV mass immunization campaign in Qiandongnan Prefecture in 2010. Methods With descriptive epidemiological methods, we analyzed the data of MV mass immunization in Qiandongnan Prefecture. Results The total reported immunization coverage rate of the children in Qandongnan City was 98.33%, and that of the native children was 98. 39%. The sampling investigation rate was 97. 43%, and the estimation coverage rate was 92.57%. Conclusions The MV mass immunization campaign has almost reached the primary target.

  8. Screening of high-arsenic water resources in Dali Prefecture, Yunnan%云南省大理州高砷水源筛查结果报告

    陈白云; 罗剑龙; 罗华; 马雪梅; 王磊


    Objective To find out the distribution characteristics of drinking water with high arsenic in Dali Prefecture, Yunnan. Methods General investigation plus sampling survey was adopted in the city of Dali and 11 counties. The arsenic content in water was tested by half-quantitative fast reagent-box method. The water samples exceeding the standard(≥0.03 mg/L) were re-tested by silver diethyldithiocarbamate eolorimetric method or mercury-atomic fluorescence spectrometric method. Population and children exposed by high-arsenic were statistically analyzed. Results Arsenic content in 15 180 samples from 2639 villages are screened, of which 14 976 samples were less than 0.01 mg/L, reaching 98.66% (14 976/15 180); 110 samples was no less than 0.05 mg/L, only accounting for 0.72%(110/15 180). Water sources with excessive arsenic was found in 29 villages, in a percentage of 1.1% of all covered villages(29/2639). The samples were constituted of 10 399 portions of well water(well was less than 10 m deep), 3903 from spring, 93 from river water, 69 from hot spring water, 26 from reservoir water and 690 from surface water. And for the samples which arsenic content were ≥0.05 mg/L, 89 samples(0.86%, 89/10 399) were from well water, 15 from spring water(0.38%, 15/3903) and 6 from spring water(8.70%, 6/69). A total of 1 561 553 individuals were investigated, in a percentage of 67.83%(1 561 553/2 302 156) of the whole population, among those 420 513 were children, rating 26.93% of the investigated population(420 513/1 561 553); 27 865 were exposed to arsenic, accounting for 1.78% of the investigated population 27 865/1 561 553; 8993 children were exposed, rating 2.14% of the investigated population(8993/420 513). Conclusions There exists high-arsenic water resources in Dali Prefecture, Yunan, so the local inhabitants are in the danger of high-arsenic exposure. Urgent attention shall be paid for the endemic arsenic including investigation, prevention and control.%目的 了解云

  9. Experimental Techniques

    Engelfried, J


    In this course we will give examples for experimental techniques used in particle physics experiments. After a short introduction, we will discuss applications in silicon microstrip detectors, wire chambers, and single photon detection in Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters. A short discussion of the relevant physics processes, mainly different forms of energy loss in matter, is enclosed.

  10. Serum uric acid levels and mortality in the Japanese population: the Yamagata (Takahata) study.

    Kamei, Keita; Konta, Tsuneo; Ichikawa, Kazunobu; Sato, Hiroko; Suzuki, Natsuko; Kabasawa, Asami; Suzuki, Kazuko; Hirayama, Atsushi; Shibata, Yoko; Watanabe, Tetsu; Kato, Takeo; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao


    Serum uric acid level is regulated by gender, dietary habit, genetic predisposition, and renal function, and is associated with the development of renal and cardiovascular diseases. This study prospectively investigated the association between serum uric acid levels and mortality in a community-based population. Three thousand four hundred and eighty-seven subjects regardless of the antihyperuricemic medication (45 % male; mean age 62 years old) from the Takahata town in Japan participated in this study and were followed up for 8 years (median 7.5 years). We examined the association between serum uric acid levels at baseline and the all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively, in this population. One hundred seventy-nine subjects died during the follow-up period, with 49 deaths attributed to cardiovascular causes. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the all-cause mortality was significantly higher along with the increase in serum uric acid levels at baseline among female (Log-rank P uric acid ≥7.0 mg/dL) was an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively, in female [hazard ratio (HR) 5.92, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.10-14.6 for all-cause mortality, and HR 10.7, 95 % CI 1.76-50.2 for cardiovascular mortality], but not male subjects. Hyperuricemia was an independent risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in female, but not among the male subjects in a community-based population.

  11. Animal experimentation.

    Kolar, Roman


    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  12. Biogeochemistry of plant-soil system in a limestone area: A case study of Mt. Kinsho-zan, Gifu prefecture, central Japan

    Ueno, S.; Sugitani, K.; Ono, M.


    Limestone contains few of the nutrients essential for plant growth, such as Si, K, and P. Owing to its high concentrations of alkali earth elements and the resulting high pH, P and Fe tend to be sparingly available for plants in soils developed in limestone areas. Because of this limited availability of nutrients in calcareous soils, certain typical calcareous plants are known to occasionally dominate. On Mt. Kinsho-zan, a limestone mountain in Gifu prefecture, central Japan, however, typical calcareous plants are not seen; various non-calcareous plants appear and do not seem to be malnourished. In addition to the nutrients supplied by precipitation and eolian dusts, litter decomposition may supply nutrients, which could circulate in the plant-soil system. In this study, the soil properties (water content, loss on ignition, and pH) and the chemical compositions of soils, plant leaves (Chamaecyparis obtusa), and parental rocks (limestone) were analyzed to clarify the biogeochemical cycle of the plant-soil system on Mt. Kinsho-zan. A mountain composed of sandstone and mudstone, which lies near the main research area, was chosen for comparison. Chemical compositions were analyzed using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (Spectris Co., Ltd Panalytical Division Axios-N system). Ten major elements were analyzed in all samples, and 13 and 4 trace elements were analyzed for soils and plants and for limestones, respectively. In the limestone samples, the concentrations were as follows: SiO2 = 0.12-0.22wt%, Al2O3 = 0.054-0.13wt%, Fe2O3 = 0.021-0.057wt%, CaO = 55.12-55.33wt%, K2O = 40-55 ppm, TiO2 = 29-48 ppm, and Zr = 12-14 ppm. In soils developed in the limestone area, SiO2 = 43.48-55.46wt%, Al2O3 = 25.47-34.92wt%, Fe2O3 = 10.75-13.64wt%, CaO = 0.46-5.61wt%, K2O = 1.30-1.72wt%, TiO2 = 1.02-1.36wt%, and Zr = 240-319 ppm. Concentrations of Fe2O3, MnO, and P2O5 in soils from the limestone area are two times higher than those in soils from the sandstone-mudstone area; the

  13. 大理州外科护士专业自我概念的现状分析%Status Analysis of Professional Self-concept of Surgical Nurses in Dali Prefecture

    赵媛; 和晓凤; 夏琳娟


    〔Abstract〕Objective:To investigate the current status of professional self-concept of surgical nurses in Dali prefecture. Methods:Through convenient sampling, a self-madequestionnaire and the Chinese version of professional self-concept of nurses instrument (PSCNI)were used to survey 240 surgical nurses in one comprehensive hospital in Dali. Results:The mean score of professional self-concept of nurses in Dali prefecture was(82.92 ± 10.86)and the total average level was(2.76 ± 0.39). The score of skill dimension is the highest, while the score of satisfaction dimension is the lowest. Conclusion: Surgical nurses in Dali prefecture showed positive professional attitude, however their job satisfaction should be paid more attention to. Hospitals ought to take measures to improve the job satisfaction and professional self-concept, and the quality of nursing.%目的:调查大理州外科护士专业自我概念水平。方法:应用便利抽样法,以一般资料调查表、中文版护士专业自我概念量表对大理州某综合性医院的240名外科护士进行调查,并对调查结果进行分析。结果:大理州外科护士专业自我概念总分为(82.92±10.86)分,总均分(2.76±0.39)分,技能维度得分最高,满意度维度得分最低。结论:大理州外科护士总体具有积极的专业态度,但工作满意需得到重视,医院应采取措施提高外科护士工作满意度和专业自我概念水平,增进护理质量。

  14. 黔西南州1997年至2014年艾滋病疫情分析%Analysis of AIDS Epidemic Situation in Qianxinan Prefecture of Guizhou Province from 1997 to 2014

    张敏; 潘玲; 徐碧华; 刘源


    目的:分析黔西南州艾滋病流行特征并预测其流行趋势,为制定防治对策提供依据。方法利用艾滋病疫情报告数据,分析黔西南州1997年至2014年的艾滋病疫情。结果1997年发现首例艾滋病患者,至2014年底,累计报告 HIV /AIDS 1082例,其中1997年至2010年报告291例,2011年至2014年报告791例。男性695例,女性387例;20~49岁年龄组占67.93%,传播途径中静脉注射毒品传播8.13%,性传播+注射毒品17例,异性传播82.53%,同性传播6.75%,母婴传播1.02%。结论黔西南州艾滋病疫情从2010年后呈明显上升趋势,性传播,包括同性传播成为最主要的传播方式,急需采取有效措施,遏制艾滋病蔓延。%Objective To analyze the epidemic situation and predict the trend of HIV /AIDS in Qianxinan Prefecture for making the HIV /AIDS prevention and control measures. Methods The reported data of HIV /AIDS were analyzed from 1997 to 2014 in Qianxinan Prefecture. Results A total of 1 082 cases of HIV /AIDS were reported from the first patients in 1997 to the end of 2014,including 695 male and 387 female.From 1997 to 2010,291 cases were reported,and 791 cases were reported from 2010 to 2014.The 20 ~49 years old age group showed major proportion(67.93%).The modes of transmission above cases were as follow:Heterosexual transmission (82.53%),intravenous injection of drugs (8.13%),homosexual transmission (6.75%),mother to infant transmission (1 .02%),sexual and intravenous injection of drugs (1 .57%). Conclusion The epidemic trend of HIV /AIDS in Qianxinan Prefecture had obviously increased since 2010.Sexual transmission,including the transmission of the homosexual transmission as the most important way of transmission,so that prevention measure should be performed in order to control the incidence rate of HIV /AIDS in Qianxinan Prefecture.

  15. [Distribution of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH)- and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH)-producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in coastal Shimane Prefecture and TDH and TRH V parahaemolyticus contamination of retail shellfish].

    Fukushima, Hiroshi


    We studied distribution of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH)- and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH)-producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in coastal sea water, sediment, and shellfish and related retail shellfish contamination in Shimane Prefecture, Japan, between 2002 and 2004. V. parahaemolyticus was isolated from > 80% of sea water, sediment, and shellfish. The detection of TDH gene (tdh) and TRH gene (trh)-positive V parahaemolyticus in sea water was 11%, in sediment 16%, and in shellfish 26%. The number of genes and gene-related in seawater was 23 MPN/L, in sediment 29 MPN/100 g, and in shellfish 460 MPN/10 g. TDH- and TRH-producing V. parahaemolyticus detected in seawater was 5%, in sediment 11% and in shellfish 14%. The continuous distribution of TDH-producing O2:K28, O4:K88, O4:K37, and O4:KUT organisms on the western coast and TRH2-producing O5:k30, O5:K43, O10:K19, O10:KUT, O11:K40, O11:KUT, and OUT:KUT organisms on the Oki Island coast suggested the settlement of these organisms in these coastal environments. From 7 (12%) of 59 retail short-necked clam samples, we isolated TDH-producing O 1:KUT, O3:K6 (2 strains from 2 samples imported from Korea), O4:K12, OUT:K8, and TRH2-producing OUT:K40 and OUT:K51 organisms. These findings suggested that TDH- and TRH-producing V. parahaemolyticus are widely distributed along the coast of this prefecture and are transported by contaminated retail shellfish from other areas.

  16. Surveys of making/causing-trouble status by major psychosis patients in Tongling prefecture%铜陵地区重性精神病肇事肇祸状况调查

    王玲; 梁涛; 张瑞; 孙锐


    Objective To investigate the making/causing-trouble status by major psychosis patients in Tongling prefecture in order to provide basis for prevention and cure of major psychosis .Methods Retrospective analyses of clinical data and making/causing-trouble status were conducted in 4107 major psychosis patients .Results The incidence of making/causing-trouble was 23 .4% ,there were very significant differences in gender ,age ,marital status ,disease type ,family history ,drug compliance and economic status between patients with and without making/causing-trouble (P<0 .01) .Conclusion The incidence of making/causing-trouble by major psychosis patients in Tongling prefecture is higher ,supervision and treatment for them should be enhanced .%目的:了解铜陵地区重性精神病患者肇事肇祸状况,为重性精神病患者的防治提供依据。方法对4107例重性精神病患者的临床资料及肇事肇祸状况进行回顾性分析。结果本组重性精神病患者肇事肇祸发生率为23.4%,是否肇事肇祸患者性别、年龄、婚姻状况、疾病类型、家族史、服药依从性及经济状况比较差异有极显著性(P<0.01)。结论铜陵地区重性精神病患者肇事肇祸发生率较高,应加强对这一特殊人群的监管和治疗。

  17. Almetax and industrial technology total center Shigaraki ceramic industry technology test field in Shiga Prefecture; Arumetakkusu to Shiga-ken kogyo gijutsu sogo senta sigaraki yogyo gijutsu gijutsu shikenjo



    Almetax and industrial technology total center Shigaraki ceramic industry technology test field in Shiga Prefecture. Almetax of the aluminum building material and industrial technology total center Shigaraki ceramic industry technology test field in Shiga Prefecture developed the light thermal insulation foaming tile in the cooperation. This is a tile using the ash which arises by the renewal process of the aluminum. The aluminum ash was mixed with the feldspar of the Shigaraki-made, and it was burnt at the low temperature. In the lightness under the half of usual tile, it has the heat retaining property over 3 times. almetax was being planned a waste loss thermal insulation a stone two bird environmental consideration type goods begin to. The aluminum ash is mixed with the feldspar, and by the process burnt at 1200-1250 degrees C, it decomposes, the aluminum nitride in the ash foams. Therefore, the stoma which was homogeneously independent in burnt tile is possible. It is lightly easy to be handled, and it is a feature that the heat retaining property is high. There is the strength from the foaming concrete, and the water absorption rate is low. The aluminum reconstruction technique of almetax was made to fuse with the technology of the ceramic industry technology test field of the pottery lightening. almetax studies the cost reduction of the decontamination processing of the ash. It aims at cost of product of 3 thousand yen /m{sup 2} of usual tile level. The commercialization as partition between two rooms of external wall and life space of the building has been planned. The gross discharge of the domestic aluminum ash has been estimated with annual about 192 thousand tons. Though the part is utilized as a secondary material of the iron and steel refining, it deals with the excess minute as an industrial waste. (translated by NEDO)

  18. Total HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan province in 2010: the first systematic evaluation of both health and non-health related HIV/AIDS expenditures in China.

    Duo Shan

    Full Text Available We assessed HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province, one of the highest prevalence regions in China, and describe funding sources and spending for different categories of HIV-related interventions and at-risk populations.2010 HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture were evaluated based on UNAIDS' National AIDS Spending Assessment methodology.Nearly 93% of total expenditures for HIV/AIDS was contributed by public sources. Of total expenditures, 52.7% was allocated to treatment and care, 24.5% to program management and administration and 19.8% to prevention. Spending on treatment and care was primarily allocated to the treatment of opportunistic infections. Most (40.4% prevention spending was concentrated on most-at-risk populations, injection drug users (IDUs, sex workers, and men who have sex with men (MSM, with 5.5% allocated to voluntary counseling and testing. Prevention funding allocated for MSM, partners of people living with HIV and prisoners and other confined populations was low compared to the disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in these populations. Overall, people living with HIV accounted for 57.57% of total expenditures, while most-at-risk populations accounted for only 7.99%.Our study demonstrated the applicability of NASA for tracking and assessing HIV expenditure in the context of China, it proved to be a useful tool in understanding national HIV/AIDS response from financial aspect, and to assess the extent to which HIV expenditure matches epidemic patterns. Limited funding for primary prevention and prevention for MSM, prisoners and partners of people living with HIV, signal that resource allocation to these key areas must be strengthened. Comprehensive analyses of regional and national funding strategies are needed to inform more equitable, effective and cost-effective HIV/AIDS resource allocation.

  19. Aftershock distribution and heterogeneous structure in and around the source area of the 2014 northern Nagano Prefecture earthquake (Mw 6.2) , central Japan, revealed by dense seismic array observation

    Kurashimo, E.; Hirata, N.; Iwasaki, T.; Sakai, S.; Obara, K.; Ishiyama, T.; Sato, H.


    A shallow earthquake (Mw 6.2) occurred on November 22 in the northern Nagano Prefecture, central Japan. Aftershock area is located near the Kamishiro fault, which is a part of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL). ISTL is one of the major tectonic boundaries in Japan. Precise aftershock distribution and heterogeneous structure in and around the source region of this earthquake is important to constrain the process of earthquake occurrence. We conducted a high-density seismic array observation in and around source area to investigate aftershock distribution and crustal structure. One hundred sixty-three seismic stations, approximately 1 km apart, were deployed during the period from December 3, 2014 to December 21, 2014. Each seismograph consisted of a 4.5 Hz 3-component seismometer and a digital data recorder (GSX-3). Furthermore, the seismic data at 40 permanent stations were incorporated in our analysis. During the seismic array observation, the Japan Meteorological Agency located 977 earthquakes in a latitude range of 35.5°-37.1°N and a longitude range of 136.7°-139.0°E, from which we selected 500 local events distributed uniformly in the study area. To investigate the aftershock distribution and the crustal structure, the double-difference tomography method [Zhang and Thurber, 2003] was applied to the P- and S-wave arrival time data obtained from 500 local earthquakes. The relocated aftershock distribution shows a concentration on a plane dipping eastward in the vicinity of the mainshock hypocenter. The large slip region (asperity) estimated from InSAR analysis [GSI, 2014] corresponds to the low-activity region of the aftershocks. The depth section of Vp structure shows that the high Vp zone corresponds to the large slip region. These results suggest that structural heterogeneities in and around the fault plane may have controlled the rupture process of the 2014 northern Nagano Prefecture earthquake.

  20. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro


    A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9–50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years. PMID:28129382

  1. 广东省地市级疾控中心卫生资源配置现况分析%Analysis of health resources allocation among prefecture Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Guangdong province

    郝爱华; 曹蓉; 严维娜; 赵杰; 刘勇鹰; 马文军; 张永慧


    Objective:To measure health resources allocation among prefecture Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDCs)in Guangdong province and to provide evidence for rational allocation of health resources. Methods:Employee structure and financial investment were analyzed by descriptive method. The equality of health resources allocation of CDCs,such as human resources,financial investment,instruments and equipment were measured by Gini coefficient. Results:Most of the employees were 30 to 49 years old,accounting for 69.5%of the total. Twenty-nine percent of employees had work experience of 10 to 19 years,32.4%and 28.3%of employees held primary and secondary professional title,respectively. Undergraduates accounted for 37.9%of all employees. The prefecture CDCs in Pearl River Delta regions had the highest score of personnel comprehensive quality with 7.75 points. A total of 70.17%of equipment with the value of over ten thousand RMB were allocated in Pearl River Delta region. The government financial subsidy was made up of 59.54%of gross revenue of 9 prefecture CDCs in Pearl River Delta region and 50.27%of other 12 prefecture CDCs. Gini coefficients of employees,equipment with the value of over ten thousand RMB and financial subsidy in prefecture CDCs were 0.234,0.390 and 0.536 in accordance with population distribution and it was over 0.4 based on geographic distribution. Gini coefficient of senior personnel in accordance with population or geographic distribution was 0.4 or more. Conclusion:In Guangdong province,employee structure of prefecture CDCs was described as energetic type. The health resources in Pearl River Delta region were better than those in other areas. Health resources were allocated more equitably relative to population distribution than to regions. The allocation of human resources was fairer than that of equipment. The key problem of health resources allocation was inequity of financial subsidy.%目的:了解广东省地市级疾控中心卫

  2. Experimental music for experimental physics

    Rosaria Marraffino


    Using the sonification technique, physicist and composer Domenico Vicinanza paid homage to CERN at its 60th anniversary ceremony. After months of hard work, he turned the CERN Convention and LHC data into music.   Click here to download the full score of the "LHChamber music". Every birthday deserves gifts and CERN’s 60th anniversary was no exception. Two gifts were very special, thanks to the hard work of Domenico Vicinanza, a physicist and composer. He created two experimental pieces by applying the sonification technique to the CERN Convention and to data recorded by the four LHC detectors during Run 1. “This technique allows us to ‘hear’ data using an algorithm that translates numbers or letters into notes. It keeps the same information enclosed in a graph or a document, but has a more aesthetic exposition,” explains Domenico Vicinanza. “The result is meant to be a metaphor for scientific cooperation, in which d...

  3. Epidemic Analysis of Echinococcosis in Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan Province from 2006 to 2011%2006-2011年四川省甘孜州棘球蚴病疫情分析

    许光荣; 张丽杰; 曾光


    目的 了解四川省甘孜州棘球蚴病流行病学特点,为改进棘球蚴病防控策略提供科学依据. 方法 使用SPSS19.0和Epi inf03.5软件,对中国疾病监测信息报告管理系统中2006-2011年四川省甘孜藏族自治州棘球蚴病疫情数据和监测数据进行描述性流行病学分析. 结果 2006-2011年累计报告病例8 939例,累计患病率818.7/10万,其中牧民占88.9%(7 949/8 939);全州18个县均有病例报告,病例分布乡镇占总乡镇的66.8% (217/325),以牧区和半农半牧区为主,石渠、色达2个牧业县报告病例占总病例数的84.3%(7 535/8 939);最小年龄1岁,最大99岁,平均年龄41岁,20-60年龄组占84.3% (7 534/8 939);男女性别比为1∶1.19,女性患病率明显高于男性(P<0.01);2011年儿童血清学阳性率3.0%(126/4 231)及牲畜内脏棘球蚴病阳性率11.1% (496/4465)较2007年4.2%(395/9 413)、13.9% (906/6496)均有所下降(P<0.01),2011年犬粪抗原阳性率21.9%(3 532/16 099)与2007年阳性率21.8% (826/3 791)差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 四川省甘孜州的棘球蚴病流行依然严重,须进一步加大综合防控力度,以减轻和遏制棘球蚴病的危害.%Objective To provide scientific evidence for further improving of the prevention and control strategies for echinococcosis in Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture,Sichuan Province,according to the epidemiological characteristics of echinococcosis surveyed in this prefecture.Methods Data of echinococcosis cases and surveillance information of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture from 2006 to 2011 were downloaded from the National Infectious Diseases Reporting System,and statistically analyzed by using SPSS 19.0 and Epi info3.5 software.Results A total of 8939 echinococcosis cases was reported during the observed period,the prevalence rate was 818.7/100000,and 88.9% of the patients were herdsmen.Cases distributed in all the 18 counties and counted for 66.8% (217

  4. 日本海重油流出事故

    木津, 良一; 安藤, 京子; 早川, 和一


    The Russian tanker Nakhodka met a hull-broken accident in sailing in the Sea of Japan on January 2, 1997, releasing approximately 6200 kl of heavy oil into the Sea of Japan. The spilled oil was driven by the prevailing winds and water currents and polluted the coastline from the Shimane Prefecture through the Yamagata Prefecture. While much effort was made to remove the reached oil, many workers engaged in oil-removing complained of an eyeache, giddiness, a headache, etc. These symptoms were ...

  5. Effect on different sowing date and planting density to black stem disease and white rust disease occurred in sunflower in Yili prefecture, Xinjiang%播期和种植密度对伊犁地区向日葵黑茎病及白锈病发生的影响

    陈卫民; 马福杰; 荆珺; 王杰花


    以向日葵油用型品种S606为试验材料,在自然发病条件下,2012~2013年连续两年在新疆伊犁地区新源县种植不同播期和不同密度的向日葵,通过调查向日葵发病情况,研究不同播种时期和不同种植密度对检疫性新病害--向日葵黑茎病、白锈病发生的影响。结果表明新疆伊犁地区向日葵最佳种植时间为5月中旬,此期间播种的向日葵产量较高,黑茎病病情指数较低;播期与白锈病的发生程度未见相关性。伊犁地区向日葵最佳种植密度为株距30 cm,行距50 cm(4500株/667m2),此密度下种植的向日葵产量较高,白锈病病情指数较低;种植密度与黑茎病的发生程度未见相关性。%In this paper, as experimental material, Sunflower oil varieties S606 was planted with different sowing date and planting density from 2012 to 2013 in Xinyuan county, Yili prefecture, Xinjiang. It was investigated by the incidence of sunflower black stem and white rust disease under natural infection conditions,and analyzed effect on two kind of quarantine new disease through experiment of different sowing date and different planting density. It was concluded the best sowing date of sunflower is at the middle of May. During the period, the sunflower yield was higher and the index of black stem disease was lower, and occurrence degree of white rust disease was no correlation with sowing date. The best planting density of sunflower is row spacing 30 cm, line spacing 50 cm (4500 plant per 667m2). Within the density, sunflower yields was higher and the index of white rust disease was lower, and occurrence degree of black stem disease was no correlation with planting density .

  6. 云南省德宏州2007年和2010年蚊虫及蚊媒病毒调查%Investigation on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture,Yunnan province,2007 and 2010

    冯云; 李轼; 张保森; 尹正留; 董兴齐; 王环宇; 梁国栋; 张海林; 付士红; 杨卫红; 章域震; 王丕玉; 杨捷; 刘永华; 董朝良


    目的:调查云南省德宏州蚊虫和蚊媒病毒分布特点。方法2007年和2010年的7月在德宏州5个县市利用诱蚊灯采集蚊虫标本,采用C6/36和BHK-21细胞分离病毒,RT-PCR和序列分析方法鉴定病毒分离物。结果共采集到6属29种43634只蚊虫,其中三带喙库蚊构成比高达78.69%,中华按蚊构成比为14.77%,其他蚊种数量较少。从蚊虫中分离到6株病毒,经RT-PCR和进化分析表明,其中3株为基因Ⅰ型流行性乙型脑炎病毒(JEV),均分离自三带喙库蚊;1株盖塔病毒(GETV)分离自三带喙库蚊;2株淡色库蚊浓核病毒(CppDNV)分别分离自三带喙库蚊和迷糊按蚊。结论三带喙库蚊是德宏州优势蚊种和蚊媒病毒主要传播媒介,当地存在基因Ⅰ型JEV、GETV和CppDNV的流行,并与以往云南省及我国其他地区的分离株有较近亲缘关系。%Objective To investigate the distribution patterns of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture,Yunnan province,China. Methods Mosquito samples were collected using the mosquito traps from five counties of Dehong prefecture on July,2007 and 2010. Mosquitoes were cell cultured for viral isolation,and positive isolates were identified using RT-PCR and sequence analysis. Results A total of 43 634 mosquitoes comprised of 29 species representing six genera were collected. Culex tritaeriorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis comprised 78.69% and 14.77% of the total. Six strains of viruses were isolated from the mosquito pools. RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis revealed three strains from Cx. tritaeriorhynchus,identified as genotypeⅠJapanese encephalitis virus(JEV). One strain was identified from Cx. tritaeriorhynchus,as Getah virus (GETV). Two strains isolated from Cx. tritaeriorhynchus and Anopheles vagus were identified as Culex pipiens pallens Densovirus(CppDNV). Conclusion Cx. tritaeriorhynchus had been the major species of mosquitoes and mainly transmitting

  7. Distribution and transfer of radiocesium and radioiodine in the environment following the Fukushima nuclear accident - Distribution and transfer of radiocesium and radioiodine in the environment of Fukushima Prefecture following the nuclear accident

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohno, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Midori [Gakushuin University, Toshima-ku, Tokyo, 171-8588 (Japan); Sato, Mamoru [Fukushima Agricultural Technology Centre, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0531 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki [The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)


    Large quantities of radioiodine and radiocesium were released from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011. We have carried out intensive studies on the distribution and behaviour of these nuclides in the environment following the accident. Two topics obtained from our studies are presented. (1) Retrospective estimation of I-131 deposition through the analysis of I-129 in soil: It is necessary to obtain deposition data of radioiodine in Fukushima Prefecture for the assessment of thyroid doses due to the accident. However, short half-life of I-131 (8 days) made it impossible to obtain adequate sample coverage that would permit direct determination of the regional deposition patterns of I-131 within the prefecture and surrounding areas. On the other hand, I-129 released simultaneously during the accident still remains in soil, due to its long half-life of 1.57x10{sup 7} years. In order to reconstruct the I-131 deposition, we have determined I-129 concentrations by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). A good correlation was found between the measured concentrations of I-131 and I-129 in soils collected in the vicinity of FDNPP. We have analyzed I-129 in more than 500 soil samples collected systematically from Fukushima Prefecture. Using the obtained results, the I-131 deposition was calculated in different areas and the deposition map for I-131 was constructed. We also studied the vertical distribution of I-129 in soil. (2) Peculiar accumulation of radiocesium to some plants and mushrooms The radioactivity levels in agricultural crops decreased markedly in some months following the accident and their concentrations became lower than the Japanese guideline for foodstuffs (500 Bq/kg in 2011, and 100 Bq/kg after 2012). However, some agricultural products such as tea leaves and citrus fruits showed relatively higher values. Our analytical results obtained for the distribution of radiocesium in tea trees show that the root uptake

  8. Analysis and Research on the Function Demand of the Prefecture-county Integrated Electricity Measuring System%电能量计量系统地县一体功能需求分析与研究



    Electricity metering system is an automation system for the collection and statistics of substation power supply and demand. It not only provides real-time data for the production, operation monitoring and analysis system but also supports massive data for the forefront research on big data management and cloud computing applications. The completed power system consists of energy meter, collector, communication channels and electricity measuring main station system which is the heart of the system. The prefecture-county integrated electricity measuring system is currently promoted in the grid system. The system functional requirements is designed in the operation and maintenance mode of the prefecture-county integrated, including the web browser interface, report generation, data error correction and requirement analysis on the lack of interaction with distribution system.For this, complex needs of data processing can be adapted increasingly while system maintenance workloads can be reduced.%电能量计量系统是用来采集和统计变电站电力电量供需状况的自动化系统,不仅为生产、运营监控分析系统提供实时数据,还可以为正处于前沿研究的大数据管理、云计算应用提供海量数据支撑。完整的电能量系统由电能表、采集器、通信通道、电能量计量主站系统构成,主站系统处于核心地位。目前,电网系统内正推广建设地县一体电量系统。探讨在地县一体运行维护模式下,对系统功能需求进行设计,包括Web界面浏览、报表生成、数据纠错及与营配系统交互功能不足进行需求分析,在减轻系统维护工作量的同时适应日益复杂的数据处理需求。

  9. 基于概率神经网络的文山州水资源配置合理性评价分析%Evaluation of Rational Water Allocation Based on Probabilistic Neural Network: Case Study of Wenshan Prefecture

    崔东文; 郭荣


    To evaluate the bearing capacity of water resources objectively, a PNN ( probabilistic neural network ) -based model was established in line with the evaluation criteria for rational water allocation in water-abundant areas. The model was applied to evaluate the rationality of water allocation in different target years in Wenshan prefecture. Results showed that the water allocation in different target years was between level 3-level 7, which suggests a basically-rational to rational water allocation. It also indicated that the fairness of water allocation, the efficiency of water consumption and the coordination between utilization and supply needs to be improved. The results largely reflect the status quo and medium-to-long-term condition of water allocation in the prefecture. Moreover, the PNN-based model is superior to the error backpropagation model in terms of classification precision. The model is simple and feasible, with short operation time and no local optimum value, thereby could effectively evaluate the rationality of regional water allocation.%通过分析概率神经网络(以下称PNN)的基本结构及其训练算法,依据水资源丰沛区水资源合理配置评价指标标准,建立PNN水资源合理配置评价模型,对文山州不同规划水平年水资源配置的合理性进行综合评价.结果表明:①不同规划水平年各评价区域水资源配置评价为3~7级,即处于基本合理与合理之间,基本反映了文山州现状及中、长期水资源配置状况,符合区域发展现状,说明研究建立的PNN评价模型和评价方法是合理可行的.②概率神经网络模型在分类精度上优于误差反向传播神经网络模型,且方法简单可行,运算时间短,不存在局部最优值,能够有效实现对水资源配置合理性的综合评价,是一种可以运用的区域水资源配置合理性评价方法.

  10. 德政碑与唐代州县官员的政绩书写%The Prefectures and Counties’ Officials Political Achievements Written on Benevolent Monuments in the Tang Dynasty



    In Tang dynasty, assessment provisions emphasized the official political achievements a⁃bout taxes, cultivated fields, account changes, the officials’ corruption perceptions and hardworking. Comparing with that, the Prefectures and Counties official’ performances written emphasized their Confu⁃cian moral cultivation, social order, educating people with propriety, encouraging agriculture and mul⁃berry industry, tax and corvee, etc. Assessment provisions did not mention the industrial and commercial development, catastrophist phenomenon and praying God efficaciously, which were written for good gov⁃ernance in benevolent monuments. Some of the political achievements on inscriptions were contrary to the assessment provisions’ spirit of the will, such as tax and corvee, cultivating land reclamation, etc. This shows the differences in civic and official evaluation criteria for a Prefectures or Counties official. In addi⁃tion, the political achievement contents written on benevolent monuments detailed and deepen our under⁃standing about the assessment provisions.%唐代考课条文强调州县官员的税收、垦田、户口增减政绩以及官员清白、清勤的生活、工作作风。与之相较,德政碑所书州县官员政绩,却是强调其所应该具备的儒家品德修养、境内社会秩序、对民众的礼义教化、鼓励农桑和赋役税收问题;考课条文所没有提及的发展工商业、灾异现象及祈神灵验等,却被德政碑书写为善政;有的碑文所述官员政绩,还与考课条文的精神旨意相悖,如税收力役、垦田等问题,反映了民间和官方对于一位州县官员的评价标准存在差异。此外,德政碑的政绩书写内容,细化并深化了我们对“四善二十七最”纲领性考课条文的认识。

  11. The Climate Characteristics of the Popular Occurrence of Potato Late Blight Epidemic,Liangshan Prefecture in 2012%凉山州2012年马铃薯晚疫病偏重发生的气候特征

    朱红秀; 曹艳秋; 房鹏


    In this paper,we analyze the ecological environment of spring potato late blight from the aspects of the climate characteristics of potato late blight popular occurrence under the background of the existence of the spring potato late blight in Liangshan Prefecture in 2012. The climate characteristics include the warm,cool climate and the rainy,humid season in early summer. We find out the regulation of popular late blight and analyze it in this paper. The epidemic of potato late blight occurrence happens from the middle of May to early July. If the rainy weather reaches 4 days or continuous rainfall continues for more than 3 days,the daily average air relative humidity over 75%lasting 4 to 5 days,late blight epidemic will occur. The conclusion can be used as a warning indicator to prevent and control potato late blight in Liangshan Prefecture in spring,and it also can provide the scientific evidence for the prevention of late spring potato blight epidemic.%  本文从马铃薯晚疫病发生流行的气候特征方面,分析了2012年凉山州春马铃薯晚疫病生态环境存在背景下,马铃薯晚疫病偏重发生的天气气候特征为初夏阴雨连绵,天气温凉,多雨高湿。初步分析出晚疫病发生流行的规律:在马铃薯晚疫病主要发生流行期的5月中旬~7月上旬,若出现连阴雨天气4d或持续降雨日在3d以上、日均空气相对湿度超过75%连续4~5d后,晚疫病将发生流行。该结论可作为凉山州春马铃薯晚疫病防治的预警指标,为晚疫病防治提供科学依据。

  12. Han Nationality Immigrant's Function in Economy Development of Bijie Prefecture of Guizhou Province in Ming and Qing Dynasties%明清时期汉族移民在贵州毕节地区经济开发中的作用



    Prior to the Ming and Qing dynasties,and the whole Guizhou's economy is still very backward in bijie Prefecture,was seen as "land of the barbarians".Large-scale Han Chinese immigrants pouring into this territory in bijie Prefecture in Ming dynasty brought an advanced production technique,production and adequate labour force strongly promoted agriculture,mining trade,transportation development in bijie Prefecture,changed their face backward and barbaric,set in bijie region social economic development with unprecedented.This change is inextricably linked to the arrival of Han Chinese immigrants,immigrants in bijie Prefecture of Han nationality in Ming and Qing dynasties played a significant role in promoting economic development.%明清之前,毕节地区乃至整个贵州经济都十分落后,被视为"蛮夷之地"。明代大规模的汉族移民涌入今毕节地区境内,带来了先进的生产技术、生产方式以及充足的劳动力,有力地推动了毕节地区农业、工矿业、交通运输业的发展,改变了其落后、野蛮的面貌,使毕节地区的社会经济有了前所未有的发展。而这种变化是与汉族移民的巨大的推动作用密不可分的。

  13. Implement PPET Strategy and Develop Ecotourism of Minority Areas in Western China-Take Xinlong County of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province as An Example%实施PPET战略,发展西部民族地区生态旅游



    To help the poor and to develop tourism are two mportant problems in poverty-stricken areas. However,they were isola ted for years. The PPET strategy was put forward in this paper based on PPT. The feasibility and the realistic meaning of the strategy in developing the ecotourism, overcoming poverty, and achieving prosperity of minority areas in western China are analyzed by taking Xinlong county of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province as an example.

  14. Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures

    Sugawara Kazuo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.

  15. Structural Changes in Molluscan Community over a 15-Year Period before and after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Subsequent Tsunami around Matsushima Bay, Miyagi Prefecture, Northeastern Japan.

    Sato, Shin'ichi; Chiba, Tomoki


    We examined structural changes in the molluscan community for ten years (2001-2010) before and five years (2011-2015) after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami around Matsushima Bay, Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Before the earthquake and tsunami, Ruditapes philippinarum, Macoma incongrua, Pillucina pisidium, and Batillaria cumingii were dominant, and an alien predator Laguncula pulchella appeared in 2002 and increased in number. After the tsunami, R. philippinarum and M. incongrua populations quickly recovered in 2012, but P. pisidium and B. cumingii populations did not recover until 2015. By contrast, Musculista senhousia, Mya arenaria, Retusa sp., and Solen strictus were found in low densities before the tsunami, but they rapidly increased in abundance/number over five years after the tsunami. These results suggest that the molluscan community on the Tona Coast was drastically changed by the earthquake and tsunami, and some species mainly inhabiting the intertidal-subtidal zone may have increased in number because of land subsidence. We also emphasize that the seawall delayed recovery of the intertidal community after the earthquake and tsunami.

  16. Growth and {sup 137}Cs uptake of four Brassica species influenced by inoculation with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus in three contaminated farmlands in Fukushima prefecture, Japan

    Aung, Han Phyo [United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Djedidi, Salem; Oo, Aung Zaw [Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Aye, Yi Swe [Department of International Environmental and Agricultural Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh [Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Sekimoto, Hitoshi [Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, 321-8505 (Japan); Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea, E-mail: [Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)


    The effectiveness of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus regarding growth promotion and radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) uptake was evaluated in four Brassica species grown on different {sup 137}Cs contaminated farmlands at Fukushima prefecture in Japan from June to August 2012. B. pumilus inoculation did not enhance growth in any of the plants, although it resulted in a significant increase of {sup 137}Cs concentration and higher {sup 137}Cs transfer from the soil to plants. The Brassica species exhibited different {sup 137}Cs uptake abilities in the order Komatsuna > turnip > mustard > radish. TF values of {sup 137}Cs ranged from 0.018 to 0.069 for all vegetables. Komatsuna possessed the largest root surface area and root volume, and showed a higher {sup 137}Cs concentration in plant tissue and higher {sup 137}Cs TF values (0.060) than the other vegetables. Higher {sup 137}Cs transfer to plants was prominent in soil with a high amount of organic matter and an Al-vermiculite clay mineral type. - Highlights: • PGPR inoculation did not enhance plant biomass of tested plants. • PGPR inoculation resulted in higher {sup 137}Cs concentration in plants. • Komatsuna that had larger root volume showed higher {sup 137}Cs TF from soil to plants. • Soil with high SOM and Al-vermiculite caused larger {sup 137}Cs transfer to plants.

  17. On the properties of the pyroclastic deposit in Fukushima prefecture as a raw material of teh micro shirasuballoons. Biryu shirasuballoon no genryo to shite no Fukushimakensan shirado no tekisei shiken

    Kimura, K. (Government Industrial Research Institute, Kyushu, Fukuoka (Japan)); Jinnai, K. (Kagoshima Prefectural Industrial Technology Center, Kagoshima (Japan))


    Properties of the pyroclastic deposit in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan were studied from the viewpoint as raw material of micro shirasuballoons. The pyroclastic deposit was composed of shirasu and natural glass like pearlite including crystalline minerals in some specimens. Weathered surfaces effective in thermal foaming were scarcely found in a grain size range over 10 {mu}m, and there was no effect of grain size on bulk density or grain density because of nearly no existence of pumice grains. Because there were much massive glass and less thin plane glass most suitable as raw material of micro shirasuballoons in the pyroclastic deposit, multi-foamed grains were probably formed by thermal foaming. Because specimens including only grains below 10 {mu}m in size were scarcely foamed, the least grain size suitable for the raw material seemed to be 10 {mu}m. The shirasuballoons recovered from specimens offered lower recovery rates in spite of both their sufficient densities and higher strengths. 5 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Effect of Jilin-Hunchun High-speed Rail on the Economic Development of Yanbian Prefecture and Countermeasures%吉珲高铁对延边州经济发展的影响与对策

    谢梦璐; 聂璐琳


    Since the formal operation of Jilin-Hunchun high-speed rail, the operation time from Changchun to Hunchun is reduced to 3 hours from 10 hours, thereby Yanbian Prefecture came into the "high-speed rail age, "which will have a positive impact on stimulating economic development of Yanbian. Faced with new opportunities for development, Yanbian should make relevant countermeasures, try out a development road of higher quality, better efficiency, better structure, and full advantage, and constantly create a rich, open, ecological, harmonious, happy Yanbian.%吉珲高铁正式运营后,长春至珲春通车时间由10小时缩短至3小时,延边州由此跨入“高铁时代”,这对于拉动延边州经济发展将产生积极影响。面对新的发展机遇、发展“新引擎”,延边州应该制定相关对策,努力走出一条质量更高、效益更好、结构更优、优势充分释放的发展之路,不断开创富庶、开放、生态、和谐、幸福延边新局面。

  19. [A comparative study of the health conditions of elderly people living alone, elderly couples and the bedridden elderly at home in a rural area of Shiga Prefecture: special reference to morbidity rate and blood pressure, electrocardiograph and blood examination data].

    Nozaki, A; Hirao, K; Sugimoto, C; Kita, Y; Ueshima, H; Okayama, A; Yamakawa, M


    For the purpose of obtaining basic data and for establishing a support system for elderly people with various health and social problems, a population survey was performed in 1990 to investigate the health and living conditions of elderly people living alone, elderly couples and the bedridden elderly in the town of Shigaraki, Shiga Prefecture. A total of 275 subjects (103 male, 172 female) 65 years of age and over were surveyed. The participation rate in this survey was 88.1%. Analysis of health conditions (morbidity rate, blood pressure, electrocardiograph and blood examination data) of elderly people living alone, elderly couples and the bedridden elderly produced the following: 1) Stroke was the main cause of being bedridden in men, while in women, bone and joint disease, especially fracture, was the main cause. 2) The combined prevalence of hypertension and borderline hypertension in elderly people living alone, elderly couples and the bedridden elderly was over 50%. The bedridden elderly had a lower prevalence than elderly people living alone and elderly couples. 3) Men in all of the above mentioned life styles, had a higher tendency of showing ECG abnormalities than women. The tendency for major ECG abnormalities was high for bedridden elderly, both male and female, with the tendency for men being higher. 4) In bedridden elderly, a tendency of higher prevalence of anemia, in both male and females, lower total serum cholesterol and triglyceride in males compared to elderly people living alone and in elderly couples, was observed.

  20. Drug Resistance of Metalaxyl against Tobacco Black Shank in Bijie Prefecture%毕节地区烟草黑胫病菌对甲霜灵抗药性的初步检测

    丁海霞; 龙友华; 葛永怡; 彭丽娟


    The drug resistance of metalaxyl to nine tobacco black shank strains isolated from five counties in Bijie prefecture was determined by colonial growth rate method. The results showed that the mycelium growth of tobacco black shank was sensitive to metalaxyl to varying degrees, the mean ECs0 value of metalaxyl to nine tobacco black shank strains was 0. 715 8 μg/mL, the EC50value of metalaxyl to CGch 2 strain reached 1. 225 3 μg/mL, which indicates that tobacco black shank pathogenic fungus is of drug resistance to metalaxyl.%为了解烟草黑胫病菌对甲霜灵产生的抗药性,采用菌落生长测定法,对从贵州省毕节地区5个县分离的9株烟草黑胫病菌进行了抗性测定.结果表明:烟草黑胫病菌菌丝生长对甲霜灵均存在不同程度的敏感性,EC50值平均为0.7 158μg/mL,其中,CGch-2的耐药性最强,EC50值为1.225 3 μg/mL.毕节地区的烟草黑胫病菌已经对甲霜灵产生了抗性.

  1. Study on Development Strategy of Small and Micro Halal Food Enterprises in Aksu Prefecture of Xinjiang%新疆阿克苏地区清真食品小微企业发展战略研究

    萨依普加玛丽·吐尔洪; 热孜燕·瓦卡斯


    With the rapid development of halal food consumption in Aksu prefecture of Xingjiang, small and micro enterprises have become an important component of local industrial economy. In this paper, it analyzed external environment and self-development situation exiting in enterprises, put forward the differentiation development strategy of improving focusing capability of local small and micro halal food enterprises and its implement countermeasure.%随着新疆阿克苏地区清真食品消费的快速发展,小微企业已经成为当地产业经济的重要组成部分。运用环境因素模型分析方法,分析企业所处的外部环境和自身发展现状,提出当地清真食品小微企业聚焦能力提升的差异化发展战略和实施对策。

  2. Chemical and geochemical study on the hot spring. Dogo onsen no fussoion no kigen ni tsuite; Onsen no chikyu kagakuteki kenkyu. The origin of fluoride in Dogo spring group Ehime Prefecture, Japan

    Maki, T.; Tagashira, K.; Inoue, S.; Takechi, T. [Ehime Prefectural Inst. of Public Health, Ehime (Japan)


    Leaching experiments of fluoride ion (F{sup -}) from CaF2 in the solution of CaCl2 (Ca{sup 2+}) and Na2CO3 (CO3{sup 2}) as well as leaching experiments from typical granite in Ehime Prefecture and boring cores obtained at Dogo spa were carried out. Concentration of F{sup -} in water could be controlled by varying the concentrations of Ca{sup 2+} and CO3{sup 2-}. As a result, a relational equation of [Ca{sup 2+}][F{sup -}]{sup 2} = 10{sup -10.39} was obtained. As a result of the leaching experiments of granite and boring core of Dogo spa, high concentration F{sup -} was leached. The leaching of F{sup -} from granite had positive correlation with CO3{sup 2-} and negative correlation with Ca{sup 2+} in the solution, and the concentration was controlled to some extent. Granite and biotite supplied F{sup -} to hot spring water, and had a property of adsorbing Ca{sup 2+} in the hot spring water. Water soluble F{sup -} compound produced from volatile component of magna was assumed to contribute greatly to the origin of F{sup -} supply to hot spring water from granite. 8 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Complex Cultivation Patterns of Arabica Coffee ill Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan and Benefit Analysis%云南德宏小粒咖啡复合栽培模式及其效益分析

    彭中人; 韩东亮; 山云辉; 杨明荣


    针对德宏州旱地分布和气候特点,采取咖啡/乔木作物/农作物三元复合栽培模式,较好地解决了咖啡/乔木作物二元复合栽培模式存在的成本回收期长、咖啡幼树成活率低、长势弱、虫害严重等问题。二元复合栽培模式的综合效益超过了二元复合栽培模式和橡胶、咖啡、柠檬、茶叶等单一栽培模式的,充分展示了咖啡产业与其它产业协调发展的广阔前景。%According to the De hong Prefecture dryland distribution and climate characteristics, to take a coffee/tree crops/crop ternary complex cultivation patterns, the better solution of the binary complex coffee/tree crop cultivation patterns, costs and long payback period, coffee saplings survivallow, growth is weak, and serious pest problems, the overall efficiency of more than a binary complex cultivation patterns and rubber, coffee, lemon, tea monoculture mode, fully demonstrating the broad prospects for the coordinated development of the coffee industry and other industries.

  4. Survey of the first local dengue fever infection in Xishuangbanna Prefecture of Yunnan Province.%西双版纳首例本地感染登革热调查处理

    朱进; 李鸿斌; 申剑波; 车英


    Objective To trace the source of the fist local dengue fever infection in Xishuangbanna Preecture of Yunnan Province. Methods Epidemiological survey of the fist case of dengue fever in the local residents was made and the focus of infection was properly managed and treated. Results There was one local infected dengue fever cases in Xishuangbanna Prefecture and 12 latent infections. Conclusion The local conditions suitable for transmission of dengue fever,thus the measures of control mosquito vectors and health education be carried out to reduce the possibility of occurrence of dengue fever infection.%目的 调查了解此次本地感染登革热病例发生原因.方法 首例本地感染登革热流行病学调查并对疫点采取处置措施.结果 本地感染登革热病例l例,登革热本地隐性感染者12例.结论 勐海县纳京村委会纳京九组有再次发生登革热疫情的可能性,需注重做好登革热防控工作及知识普及.

  5. On Instruction Language's Influence on Mathematics Study of Tibetan Students in Pastoral Area of Aba Prefecture%论授课语言对阿坝牧区藏族学生数学学习的影响

    嘉仓; 梁广交


    The mathematics education in pastoral area of Aba prefecture develops slowly, accordingly students are mostly poor in math. The reason is mainly in that the instruction language of math doesn't follow the rule of cognitive and education. Therefore, native%阿坝牧区的数学教育发展缓慢,学生数学成绩普遍较差.究其原因,发现其最主要原因是传授数学知识的语言媒介没有遵循认知规律和教育规律.因此,母语应成为学生学习非语言类学科的基础和工具,并且母语教学也是藏区提高非语言类学科教学质量的根本保证,同时要注意母语教学坚持“两个原则”、突出“三化”和“八个接轨”.

  6. 清代贵州女性自杀现象初探--以铜仁府为例%Preliminary Study of Female Suicide in Guizhou Province in Qing Dynasty--Taking Tongren Prefecture as An Example



    Female suicide is a serious social problem known for its long history. This paper analyzes the types, methods, and the main reasons of female suicide in Tongren Prefecture in Qing Dynasty. The author believes that there were three types of female suicide:as human sacrifice for her dead husband, fearing of being humiliated, fearing of being deprived of her will, and being despaired of life. There were many methods of suicide, of which drowning and cliff jumping were commonly used. Female suicides mainly resulted from a turbulent social environment full of warfare. A harmonious and stable social environment can reduce the occurrence of female suicide.%女性自杀是长期存在的严重社会问题。文章分析了清代铜仁女性自杀的类型、方式和主要原因。自杀类型有殉夫型、惧辱型、夺志型和绝望型四种;自杀方式很多,而以投水和跳崖为主;导致自杀的原因主要在于当时的战乱不已、动荡不安的社会环境,进而认为,和谐、稳定的社会环境才是减少女性自杀现象的根本所在。

  7. Causes and Significance of the Establishment of School of the CPC Anyuan Prefecture Committee%中共安源地委党校创办成因及其意义

    邵沪权; 黄爱国


    The popularization of Anyuan Workers' education makes a base for the establishment of the CPC Anyuan Prefecture Committee. The development of Anyuan Railway and Mine Workers' Move.ment is a prerequisite for it. The number of Anyuan Party member increases greatly, but still needs education and training. Thus, the guidance of superiorities promotes the establishment. Anyuan Party School is one of the earliest Party schools. It nurtures talents and leaders, which gives experience for later Party schools.%安源工人教育的普及,为安源党校的创办奠定了基础;安源路矿工人运动的坚持和发展,为安源党校的创办准备了条件;安源党员数量剧增,亟需进行教育训练;上级组织的督促指导,促进了安源党校的创办。安源党校是中国共产党最早的党校,培养了人才,造就了干部,为我们党以后创办党校积累了经验。

  8. [Promotion plan for the promotion of cancer: coping measures at Matsuyama Red Cross Hospital in Ehime prefecture - the current state of affairs at the hospital's cancer treatment promotion office].

    Fujii, Motohiro


    Recent cancer control strategies in Japan have been aimed at lowering morbidity and mortality rates, based on the Thirdterm Comprehensive 10-year Strategy for Cancer Control initiated by the Japanese government. In April 2007, the Cancer Control Basic Law was promulgated to necessitate promotion of cancer control by national and local authorities. In June 2007, the Japanese Health Ministry released a plan for the promotion of measures to cope with cancer. The cancer control measures adopted by the Matsuyama Red Cross Hospital(MRCH)in Ehime Prefecture were as follows: ·Progress in the promotion of measures to cope with cancer in Ehime, including a review of 2012, problems with new treatment methods for childhood cancer, employment of cancer patients, and promotion of home care. ·Cancer treatment measures adopted by MRCH as a hub medical institution for the past 5 years. ·The distinctive efforts of the intensive professionals team at the Cancer Treatment Promotion Office for cancer treatment at MRCH, and its work on cancer care from the 4 perspectives of the balanced scorecard in accordance with the basic policy of MRCH.

  9. Surveys of sickness status of severe mental illness in Bingchuan county,Dali prefecture in 2 0 1 5%2015年大理州宾川县重性精神病患病状况调查

    马红霞; 童碧怀; 刘成立


    Objective To investigate the sickness status of severe mental illness in Bingchuan county,Dali prefecture in 2015.Methods Screenings were conducted by experts of Dali Prefecture Mental Hospital in 528 suspected mental patients,patients’total risks assessed according to total risk indexes,trouble-mak-ing risks according to trouble-making risk indexes,and patients were hierarchically managed according to risk evaluation results.Results Of 528 suspected mental patients 40 ones were diagnosed as severe men-tal illness before screening (7.6%),290 ones in this screening (54.9%),46 ones excluded (8.7%),and 152 ones didn’t accept screening (28.8%).Total risk ≥ 3 made up 27.3% of diagnosed severe mental pa-tients and ≥ 4 did 7.3%;trouble-making risk ≥ 3 made up 17.3% and ≥ 4 did 4.9%;69.4% of the pa-tients received grade 1,19.4% did 2,4.6% did 3,and 6.7% did 4.Conclusion Total and trouble-mak-ing risk are high in severe mental patients in Bingchuan county and this phenomenon should be improved by government from various aspects.%目的:了解2015年大理州宾川县重性精神病的患病状况。方法由大理州精神病医院专家组对528例疑似精神病患者进行筛查,根据总体危险度指标评定患者的总体危险度,根据肇事肇祸危险度指标评定患者的肇事肇祸危险度,依据危险度评定结果对患者进行分级管理。结果本组528例疑似精神病患者中筛查前已确诊重性精神病40例(7.6%),本次筛查确诊重性精神病290例(54.9%),排除46例(8.7%),未接受筛查152例(28.8%)。确诊重性精神病患者中总体危险度≥3级占27.3%,≥4级占7.3%;肇事肇祸危险度≥3级占17.3%,≥4级占4.9%;患者分级管理1级69.4%、2级19.4%、3级4.6%、4级6.7%。结论宾川县重性精神病患者总体危险度及肇事肇祸危险度高,政府应从多方面入手改善这一状况。

  10. 楚雄州城市化进程与水资源利用关系定量分析%The relationship between the process of urbanization and water consumption of Chuxiong Prefecture

    李秀寨; 何娇; 韦宇; 吴娇娇


    以楚雄州为研究对象,采用综合指标法计算城市化进程参数,并利用相关分析和回归分析对城市化进程与水资源利用关系进行研究。结果表明:随着城市化的发展,总用水量、农业用水量及工业用水量呈波动性变化,生活用水量则呈逐年增加趋势,用水效益也呈逐年上升趋势。通过回归分析发现,总用水量、农业用水量、人均总用水量与城市化水平之间存在三次函数关系;工业用水量与城市化水平之间存在较为紧密的幂函数关系;人均生产用水量、用水效益与城市化水平呈二次函数关系;生活用水量及人均生活用水量与城市化水平之间则存在高度紧密的线性正相关关系。15年间年均变化率最大为生活用水量,其次为人均生活用水量,年均变化率最小为人均生产用水量。最后,针对楚雄州现状提出几点建议。%With the methods of correlation and regression analysis,the relationship between urbaniza-tion and urban water resource utilization of Chuxiong Prefecture was studied. The results show that total water consumption,industrial water consumption and agricultural water consumption were all fluctuated with the process of urbanization,while domestic water consumption and water usage effi-ciency increased year by year. Regression analysis suggests that there exists a cubic - functional rela-tionship between urbanization and total water consumption,and so are the relationships between ur-banization and agricultural water consumption as well as relationship between urbanization and per capita water consumption. A power functional relationship is witnessed between industrial water con-sumption and urbanization. And a quadratic functional relationship exists between per capita produc-tion water consumption and urbanization and so is the relationship between water usage efficiency and urbanization. There is a highly linear correlation between

  11. A Study on the Relational Model of Spring Buckwheat Yield and Climatic Conditions in Liangshan Prefecture%凉山州春苦荞产量与气候条件的关系及模型研究

    彭国照; 曹艳秋; 阮俊


    According to the spring buckwheat yield data of Liangshan Prefecture from 1999 to 2011 ,the main climatic factors and the critical periods influencing spring buckwheat yield were studied ,and climatic models of spring buckwheat yield for Liangshan Prefecture and 5 representative counties in it were estab-lished .The results showed that the critical periods in which the weather conditions influenced buckwheat yield differed with different regions .There were different forms with different times and different factors on buckwheat yield .Temperature was correlated with buckwheat yield positively in the early and middle growth periods of the crop and negatively in its late growth period .The daily range had its influence mainly in the late growth period .Sunshine was associated with yield positively in the early stage and negatively in the late grow th stage .Precipitation had a positive effect ,especially in the early grow th stage of the crop . Climatic and ecological models of buckwheat yield were established in this study for meteorological depart-ments to be used in their service of buckw heat yield forecast .%根据凉山州各县1999-2011年春苦荞产量资料,研究了影响凉山州春苦荞产量形成的主要气象因子和关键时段,建立了凉山州及冕宁、昭觉等5个代表县春苦荞产量的气候生态模型。结果表明:(1)不同区域气象条件对荞麦产量影响的关键时段不同。凉山全州(区域平均),气候条件影响的关键时段在荞麦生产的前期和中后期两个时段,其它各代表县的关键时段有的有3个时段,有的只有2个时段或者1个时段。(2)不同时段不同因子对荞麦产量的影响形式不同。荞麦生产的中前期温度与产量呈现正相关,而后期呈负相关;日较差的影响在后期,产量呈抛物线关系;日照与产量的关系前期为正,后期为负;降水量的影响主要在前期,与产量

  12. On the Pension Issues of the Left -behind Elders in Rual Areas of Yi People in Liangshan Prefecture%凉山州农村彝族留守老人养老问题研究

    赵华英; 李丽娇


    With the development of Chinaˊs industrialization , urbanization and modernization , a large number of rural young workers flow outward each year , especially in the backward minority areas , many elderly people are left behind .And increasingly , pension issues of these left -behind elder people be-come the focus of society .Based on the interviews of 100 Yi Nationality left-behind elders in the rural areas of Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan province , this study finds out their current living situation and pension issues , and then analyzes the causes of these problems , finally proposes some sug-gestions which can be a reference for the left -behind elderly in Liangshan rural areas .%随着中国工业化、城市化、现代化步伐的加快,每年我国农村有大量的青壮年劳动力向外流动,特别是经济发展落后的少数民族地区每年有大量的年轻人进城务工,由此出现了很多的留守老人。这些留守老人的养老问题,日益成为社会的焦点。本文通过对凉山彝族自治州的100名农村彝族留守老人进行访谈式调查,了解他们的生活现状和当前养老存在的问题,对存在这些问题的原因进行分析,提出了建立适合凉山州农村留守老人养老的对策建议。

  13. Change in and long-term investigation of neuro-otologic disorders in disaster-stricken Fukushima prefecture: retrospective cohort study before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Jun Hasegawa

    Full Text Available On March 11, 2011, Japan's northeast Pacific coast was hit by a gigantic earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture is situated approximately 44 km north of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Soma General Hospital is the only hospital in Soma City that provides full-time otolaryngological medical care. We investigated the changes in new patients from one year before to three years after the disaster. We investigated 18,167 new patients treated at our department during the four years from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2014. Of the new patients, we categorized the diagnoses into Meniere's disease, acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo, sudden deafness, tinnitus, and facial palsy as neuro-otologic symptoms. We also investigated the changes in the numbers of patients whom we examined at that time concerning other otolaryngological disorders, including epistaxis, infectious diseases of the laryngopharynx, and allergic rhinitis. The total number of new patients did not change remarkably on a year-to-year basis. Conversely, cases of vertigo, Meniere's disease, and acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss increased in number immediately after the disaster, reaching a plateau in the second year and slightly decreasing in the third year. Specifically, 4.8% of patients suffering from these neuro-otologic diseases had complications from depression and other mental diseases. With regard to new patients in our department, there was no apparent increase in the number of patients suffering from diseases other than neuro-otologic diseases, including epistaxis, and allergic rhinitis. Patients suffering from vertigo and/or dizziness increased during the first few years after the disaster. These results are attributed to the continuing stress and tension of the inhabitants. This investigation of those living in the disaster area highlights the need for long-term support.

  14. Change in and long-term investigation of neuro-otologic disorders in disaster-stricken Fukushima prefecture: retrospective cohort study before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Hasegawa, Jun; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Obara, Taku; Hashimoto, Ken; Tateda, Yutaka; Okumura, Yuri; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Katori, Yukio


    On March 11, 2011, Japan's northeast Pacific coast was hit by a gigantic earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture is situated approximately 44 km north of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Soma General Hospital is the only hospital in Soma City that provides full-time otolaryngological medical care. We investigated the changes in new patients from one year before to three years after the disaster. We investigated 18,167 new patients treated at our department during the four years from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2014. Of the new patients, we categorized the diagnoses into Meniere's disease, acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo, sudden deafness, tinnitus, and facial palsy as neuro-otologic symptoms. We also investigated the changes in the numbers of patients whom we examined at that time concerning other otolaryngological disorders, including epistaxis, infectious diseases of the laryngopharynx, and allergic rhinitis. The total number of new patients did not change remarkably on a year-to-year basis. Conversely, cases of vertigo, Meniere's disease, and acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss increased in number immediately after the disaster, reaching a plateau in the second year and slightly decreasing in the third year. Specifically, 4.8% of patients suffering from these neuro-otologic diseases had complications from depression and other mental diseases. With regard to new patients in our department, there was no apparent increase in the number of patients suffering from diseases other than neuro-otologic diseases, including epistaxis, and allergic rhinitis. Patients suffering from vertigo and/or dizziness increased during the first few years after the disaster. These results are attributed to the continuing stress and tension of the inhabitants. This investigation of those living in the disaster area highlights the need for long-term support.

  15. Construction and Management of Day-care Ward for Tumor in Prefecture-level Hospitals%地市级医院肿瘤日间病房的建设与管理



    Objective:To discuss the construction and management of day-care ward for tumor in prefecture-level hospitals,and summarize the experience. Method:The author analyzes the results of construction,management and opera-tion of the day-care ward for tumor from Sept,2014 to June,2015. Result:The average stays in hospital decreases 44. 12%compared with that of ordinary hospitalization,the average hospitalization expenses lowers 46. 98% with 5 087 527. 2 yuan savings in medical insurance. Conclusion:The construction of day-care ward for tumor can shorten the days of hospitaliza-tion,decrease expenses, reduce the payment from medical insurance and benefit the rational distribution of hospital re-sources.%目的 探讨地市级医院肿瘤日间病房的建设与管理,总结经验. 方法 分析2014年9月至2015年6月肿瘤日间病房建立、管理及运营的效果. 结果 平均住院日较普通住院降低44. 12%,平均住院费用降低46. 98%,医保节约5 087 527. 2元. 结论 肿瘤日间病房的建设在缩短病人住院天数、降低费用的同时减轻医保支付压力,有利于医院资源的合理配置.

  16. 甘孜州赛马体育运动实现教育功能途径分析%The Approaches to Realize the Educational Implication of Horse-racing in Garze Prefecture

    刘进彬; 胡玖英


    According to the documents , and survey , this article analyzes the approaches of how to real-ize the educational implication of horse -racing, one of traditional minorities'sports in Garze Prefecture . Then, it argues that horse -racing, as a miniature of traditional minority education , can cultivate the members of the group in these aspects such as social experience , life mode , behavioral norm , collectiv-ism, and aesthetic value , etc.And these educational functions can be realized in line with the social need, expanding more living space , and cultivating the consciousness to protect and inherit their tradi-tional culture .%采用文献资料、调查等研究方法,从民间的社会活动角度对甘孜州赛马体育运动实现教育功能途径进行分析。认为赛马在甘孜州地区所处的角色就是教育之于体育的一个缩影。从社会生活经验、生活模式、行为规范、集体主义思想、艺术和审美情趣等方面阐述了它对族群社会成员的“教化”作用,提出了立足于时代社会的现实需要,保障和拓展其生存和成长的社会空间,倡导维护或传承文化的自觉意识,才是赛马体育运动实现教育功能途径的重要思路。

  17. Horticultural therapy as a measure for recovery support of regional community in the disaster area: a preliminary experiment for forty five women who living certain region in the coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture.

    Kotozaki, Yuka


    Three years have passed since the earthquake, in the coastal areas in the disaster area, by population transfer or the like from the temporary housing, the importance of the regeneration and revitalization of the local community has been pointed out. This study performed a preliminary study to aim at the psychological inspection about an effect of the horticultural therapy as the means of the local community reproduction support of the disaster area. Forty five women who are living in the coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture participated in this study. They experienced the Great East Japan earthquake in 2011 and suffered some kind of damage caused by the earthquake. The participants were assigned to two groups, the intervention group and the control group, via a random draw using a computer. The HI group attended the horticultural therapy intervention (HT intervention) sessions for 16 weeks. The HT intervention was designed in collaboration with a horticultural therapist and clinical psychologists. This intervention comprised a total of 16 weekly sessions (120 min each) at the community center and 15 minutes per day at participants' homes. We used five psychological measures for an intervention evaluation. The HI group showed a significant increase in post- intervention SCI-2 total scores, post- intervention SCI-2 membership scores, post-intervention SCI-2 influence scores, post- intervention SCI-2 meeting needs scores, post- intervention SCI-2 shared emotional connection scores, and post- intervention RSES score. We believe that these results suggest the effectiveness of the horticultural therapy as the means of the local community reproduction.

  18. Impact and attribute of each obesity-related cardiovascular risk factor in combination with abdominal obesity on total health expenditures in adult Japanese National Health insurance beneficiaries: The Ibaraki Prefectural health study.

    Sairenchi, Toshimi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Irie, Fujiko; Nagao, Masanori; Umesawa, Mitsumasa; Haruyama, Yasuo; Kobashi, Gen; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ota, Hitoshi


    The aim of this study was to examine the attribution of each cardiovascular risk factor in combination with abdominal obesity (AO) on Japanese health expenditures. The health insurance claims of 43,469 National Health Insurance beneficiaries aged 40-75 years in Ibaraki, Japan, from the second cohort of the Ibaraki Prefectural Health Study were followed-up from 2009 through 2013. Multivariable health expenditure ratios (HERs) of diabetes mellitus (DM), high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and hypertension with and without AO were calculated with reference to no risk factors using a Tweedie regression model. Without AO, HERs were 1.58 for DM, 1.06 for high LDL-C, 1.27 for low HDL-C, and 1.31 for hypertension (all P < 0.05). With AO, HERs were 1.15 for AO, 1.42 for DM, 1.03 for high LDL-C, 1.11 for low HDL-C, and 1.26 for hypertension (all P < 0.05, except high LDL-C). Without AO, population attributable fractions (PAFs) were 2.8% for DM, 0.8% for high LDL-C, 0.7% for low HDL-C, and 6.5% for hypertension. With AO, PAFs were 1.0% for AO, 2.3% for DM, 0.4% for low HDL-C, and 5.0% for hypertension. Of the obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors, hypertension, independent of AO, appears to impose the greatest burden on Japanese health expenditures. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reliability of telecommunications systems following a major disaster: survey of secondary and tertiary emergency institutions in Miyagi Prefecture during the acute phase of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Kudo, Daisuke; Furukawa, Hajime; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Abe, Yoshiko; Washio, Toshikatsu; Arafune, Tatsuhiko; Sato, Dai; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Ochi, Sae; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki


    Telecommunication systems are important for sharing information among health institutions to successfully provide medical response following disasters. The aim of this study was to clarify the problems associated with telecommunication systems in the acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake (March 11, 2011). All 72 of the secondary and tertiary emergency hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture were surveyed to evaluate the telecommunication systems in use during the 2011 Great Japan Earthquake, including satellite mobile phones, multi-channel access (MCA) wireless systems, mobile phones, Personal Handy-phone Systems (PHS), fixed-line phones, and the Internet. Hospitals were asked whether the telecommunication systems functioned correctly during the first four days after the earthquake, and, if not, to identify the cause of the malfunction. Each telecommunication system was considered to function correctly if the hospital staff could communicate at least once in every three calls. Valid responses were received from 53 hospitals (73.6%). Satellite mobile phones functioned correctly at the highest proportion of the equipped hospitals, 71.4%, even on Day 0. The MCA wireless system functioned correctly at the second highest proportion of the equipped hospitals. The systems functioned correctly at 72.0% on Day 0 and at 64.0% during Day 1 through Day 3. The main cause of malfunction of the MCA wireless systems was damage to the base station or communication lines (66.7%). Ordinary (personal or general communication systems) mobile phones did not function correctly at any hospital until Day 2, and PHS, fixed-line phones, and the Internet did not function correctly at any area hospitals that were severely damaged by the tsunami. Even in mildly damaged areas, these systems functioned correctly at telecommunications systems do not function.

  20. Estimation of seismic velocity changes at different depths associated with the 2014 Northern Nagano Prefecture earthquake, Japan ( M W 6.2) by joint interferometric analysis of NIED Hi-net and KiK-net records

    Sawazaki, Kaoru; Saito, Tatsuhiko; Ueno, Tomotake; Shiomi, Katsuhiko


    To estimate the seismic velocity changes at different depths associated with a large earthquake, we apply passive image interferometry to two types of seismograms: KiK-net vertical pairs of earthquake records and Hi-net continuous borehole data. We compute the surface/borehole deconvolution waveform (DCW) of seismograms recorded by a KiK-net station and the autocorrelation function (ACF) of ambient noise recorded by a collocated Hi-net station, 26 km from the epicenter of the 2014 Northern Nagano Prefecture earthquake, Japan ( M W 6.2). Because the deeper KiK-net sensor and the Hi-net sensor are collocated at 150 m depth, and another KiK-net sensor is located at the surface directly above the borehole sensors, we can measure shallow (150 m depth) velocity changes separately. The sensitivity of the ACF to the velocity changes in the deeper zone is evaluated by a numerical wave propagation simulation. We detect relative velocity changes of -3.1 and -1.4% in the shallow and deep zones, respectively, within 1 week of the mainshock. The relative velocity changes recover to -1.9 and -1.1%, respectively, during the period between 1 week and 4 months after the mainshock. The observed relative velocity reductions can be attributed to dynamic strain changes due to the strong ground motion, rather than static strain changes due to coseismic deformation by the mainshock. The speed of velocity recovery may be faster in the shallow zone than in the deep zone because the recovery speed is controlled by initial damage in the medium. This recovery feature is analogous to the behavior of slow dynamics observed in rock experiments.

  1. The γ-aminobutyric acid-producing ability under low pH conditions of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented foods of Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, with a strong ability to produce ACE-inhibitory peptides

    Florin Barla


    Full Text Available Many traditional fermented products are onsumed in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, such as kaburazushi, narezushi, konkazuke, and ishiru. Various kinds of lactic acid bacteria (LAB are associated with their fermentation, however, characterization of LAB has not yet been elucidated in detail. In this study, we evaluated 53 isolates of LAB from various traditional fermented foods by taxonomic classification at the species level by analyzing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA sequences and carbohydrate assimilation abilities. We screened isolates that exhibited high angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities in skim milk or soy protein media and produced high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA concentrations in culture supernatants when grown in de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth in the presence of 1% (w/v glutamic acid. The results revealed that 10 isolates, i.e., Lactobacillus buchneri (2 isolates, Lactobacillus brevis (6 isolates, and Weissella hellenica (2 isolates had a high GABA-producing ability of >500 mg/100 ml after 72 h of incubation at 35 °C. The ACE inhibitory activity of the whey cultured with milk protein by using L. brevis (3 isolates, L. buchneri (2 isolates, and W. hellenica (2 isolates was stronger than that of all whey cultured with soy protein media, and these IC50 were < 1 mg protein/ml. Three of 10 isolates had high GABA-producing activities at pH 3, suggesting that they could be powerful candidates for use in the fermentation of food materials having low pH.

  2. Analysis of Rainfall Characteristics of Flash Flood and Geological Disastar in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture%湘西自治州山洪地质灾害降雨特征分析

    郑逢春; 张丹丹; 石燕清; 朱国光; 刘宝光


    Based on the rainfall data of flash flood and geological disasters in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture from 1981 to 2010, the precipi-tation characteristics of flash flood and geological disasters were analyzed .The results showed that the distribution of flash floods and geological disasters in the central north was larger than that in the southe, mainly occurred during May-July.Rainfall intensity, rainfall duration and rain-fall quantity were closely related to the occurrence of flash folld and geological disasters .6 hours precipitation can be used as a reference index for the prediction of geological disasters.%利用1981—2010年湘西自治州历次山洪地质灾害的降雨资料,对山洪地质灾害发生时的降雨特征进行分析。结果表明,近30年湘西自治州山洪地质灾害的空间分布呈现中北部大于南部,5—7月出现山洪地质灾害的概率非常大。降雨强度、降雨持续时间和降雨量与山洪地质灾害的发生密切相关,小时雨强越大,累计雨量越大,发生山洪地质灾害的风险越高。6h降雨量对地质灾害发生概率的指示性更好,可以作为地质灾害预测的一个参考指标。

  3. A survey about further work-up for cases with positive sputum cytology during lung cancer mass screening in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan: a retrospective analysis about quality assurance of lung cancer screening.

    Sagawa, Motoyasu; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Uotani, Chika; Kibe, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Makoto; Machida, Yuichiro; Motono, Nozomu; Maeda, Sumiko; Usuda, Katsuo


    In cancer screening programs, performing appropriate further work-up is essential. In order to elucidate whether the further work-up for the subjects with positive screening results by sputum cytology was performed appropriately, the present study was conducted as the first large-scale thorough survey in Japan. All of the lung cancer screening records from 2007 to 2012 in Ishikawa Prefecture were reviewed. Additional investigations about the further work-up were performed. In total, 2 234 984 people were invited to undergo lung cancer screening, and 494 424 people participated in the screening. Of these, 25 264 people underwent sputum cytology, and 68 positive cases were identified. Three of these 68 cases did not undergo further work-up, and another three cases had already been diagnosed to have lung cancer. Forty-five of the remaining 62 cases did not have suspicious chest shadows, and bronchoscopic examinations were performed in 36 cases. Seventeen of these 36 cases were diagnosed as having cancer, whereas none of the nine cases who did not receive the examination was diagnosed (P = 0.038). A bronchoscopic examination was not performed due to other medical conditions in three cases, due to the patient's refusal in another three cases and in the remaining three cases, the reasons were unknown. The participation rate for further work-up was very high. However, there are some issues to be resolved regarding the transmission of information. With our new registered hospital system, the quality assurance of our screening program will be improved. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  4. [Clinical and epidemiological aspects of enteritis due to Salmonella hadar. II. Environmental contamination by Salmonella hadar in Shizuoka Prefecture--studies on the feasibility of reducing S. hadar infection].

    Mochizuki, Y; Masuda, H; Kanazashi, S; Hosoki, Y; Itoh, K; Ohishi, K; Nishina, T; Handa, Y; Shiozawa, K; Miwa, Y


    A systematic examination was performed for environmental food contamination by Salmonella in poultry farms, broiler chickens, broiler processing plants and meat on the market. Salmonella was isolated from 219 of 1197 samples and the serotypes showed a wide distribution. (Table 1-1). S. hadar accounted for 37.1% (96) of all isolations (259). The contamination rate of broiler chickens on arrival at broiler processing plants is relatively low. However, in the broiler processing plants, containers, processing machinery, cooling water and slaughters were highly contaminated by Salmonella, S. hadar being the most prominent serotype in the plants. 64% of chicken meat on the market was contaminated by Salmonella, S. hadar being the second most prominent serotype. 11% of the pork and none of the beef or horseflesh was contaminated by Salmonella. These results indicate that poultry is the main source of S. hadar infection in humans. However, no S. hadar was isolated from cultures of 119 samples of feed for chickens from each delivery (Table 1-1). Thus, as the main source of infection by S. hadar of broiler chickens, an association with the feed seems to be ruled out. S. hadar was isolated at three of 18 poultry farms within Shizuoka Prefecture. Follow-up studies were performed at the three poultry farms which revealed that in two of them, Salmonella was completely eradicated on completion of disinfection. In the other one farm, which is still being disinfected, various strains of Salmonella including S. hadar still survived. We conclude that the main cause of the problem is the magnification of contamination of Salmonella-free material during the process at the broiler processing plants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Analysis of the public health emergencies events in Qiandongnan Prefecture, Gui Zhou Province in 2005-2010%黔东南州2005~2010年突发公共卫生事件分析

    罗涛; 周文红; 邓茂铭; 潘宏; 杨斌


    OBJECTIVE To understand the epidemiological characteristic of public health emergencies events in Qiandongnan prefecture, in order to provide the basis to formulate and implement prevention and control measures for the public health e-mergencies events. METHODS Collected data and materials of public health emergencies events in Qiandongnan prefecture from 2005 to 2010 to summarize and analyze epidemiological characteristics. RESULTS From 2005 to 2010, the number of public health emergencies was 178 in Qiandongnan. 8 708 cases were reported, 24 people were died. 152 infectious disease were among them, other public health events were 26 cases, unrated events were 17, general events were 145 cases, larger events were 13, significant events were 3; 140 cases happened in elementary school and kindergarten; the average time of the first case to be reported to department was 10.61 days, the average time of the receipt of the report to take measures was 3.28 hours, the average time of confirmation time to network report was 1.51 days, the average time from receipt of the report at the county level to a state level was 0.74 days, the average time of flow report to disposal report was 3.21 days. CONCLUSION The public health emergencies in Qiandongnan prefecture are mainly infectious diseases. Most are common infectious diseases. Incident response speed increases year by year. The report from the place after the events is the key. The school in rural areas is a place with sudden and higher incidence of public health. Public health emergencies influence students' physical health in primary and middle school, which should arouse the attention of education and health department. Improving sensitivity of the basic units for students of infectious diseases reported and timeliness of the investigation on public health emergencies in school should be the focuses in future work.%目的 了解黔东南州突发公共卫生事件的流行病学特征,为制订和实施突发公共卫

  6. Current situation and influential factors concerning the sexual transmission of HIV in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province%云南省德宏州艾滋病经性途径传播现况及影响因素

    郭浩岩; 邢彦; 卢小鹏; 孙江平; 段松; 庞琳; 项丽芬; 叶润华; 杨跃诚; 陆继云; 罗巍; 曹卫华


    目的 了解云南省德宏州艾滋病经性途径传播现况,并分析其影响因素.方法 分析云南省德宏州2005-2007年艾滋病病例报告数据、2003-2007年吸毒和暗娼人群监测数据等资料,并于2007年10月26日-11月7日开展专项调查,对暗娼、嫖客、感染者及其配偶、关键知情人等共计685人进行定性访谈,了解艾滋病经性途径传播的影响因素.结果 2007年1月1日-9月20日报告的1636例艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染者(患者)中,经性传播的比例占52%.586例经性传播感染的人群中,40.6%有商业性性行为,28.6%有婚外非商业性性行为,安全套使用率均低于30%.2003-2007年暗娼哨点监测结果显示,娱乐场所暗娼HIV阳性检出率为3.3%~5.5%,最近1个月与客人的安全套使用率为29.4%~84.4%,但与固定性伴的安全套使用率仅为9.5%~34.8%.暗娼艾滋病相关知识知晓率为95.0%,但在部分预防知识上仍存在误区.结论 目前性传播已成为德宏州艾滋病传播的重要传播途径之一,卖淫、嫖娼、姘居、多性伴、随意性行为等现象普遍存在以及安全套使用率低等是导致德宏州艾滋病经性途经传播的重要原因.%Objective To investigate the current situation of the sexual transmission of HIV in Dehong prefecture,analyze the influential factors,and provide support for drafting pertinent preventive interventions in the future.Methods We had analyzed the data of case report from 2005 to 2007,and the prostitutes surveillance data from 2003 to 2007.A special survey was conducted from October 26 to November 7,2007.Totally 685 people including prostitutes,the clients of prostitutes,people who were HIV positive and their partners,key insiders were interviewed in order to better understand the influential factors related to sexual transmission of HIV.Results Among 1636 cases reported from January 1 to September 20,2007,52%were infected through sexual transmission.Among 586 cases infected

  7. 四川甘孜藏族自治州近五年采供血情况统计分析%Statistical Analysis of Blood Collection and Supply in Sichuan Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Recent Five Years



    目的:分析研讨四川甘孜藏族自治州近五年采供血状况,并统计。方法将四川甘孜藏族自治州2011年1月至2015年12月期间血站采供血和医院用血数据统计作为分析研讨对象,统计此期间我地区采供血状况和临床使用状况,并分析。结果从统计五年内采供血状况上来看,2011年采血量和采血人次均位居首位,而2015年采血量和采血人次、其他医院供血量均位居第五,但总供血量、调血量、我院供血量等三者位居首位;五年间采血人次、采血量、总供血量、调血量、我院供血量、其他医院供血量方面,各年份间数据均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论近五年来,四川甘孜藏族自治州中心血站采血量逐年下降,但血液使用量呈逐年增加状况,出现严重的供需矛盾,血源长时间处于供不应求的状态,因此,建议政府相关部门对此加强重视度,并制定出相应有效措施进行干预,血站、医院可向社会做好献血宣传,提升人们献血意识和积极性,达到缓解临床用血紧张的状况,进而让更多生命得到成功救治。%Objective to analyze and study blood collection and supply situation in Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan during the recent five years, and carry on statistics. Methods treat blood collection and supply and hospital blood data statistics of blood bank of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan from January 2011 to December 2015 as analysis and research objects, carry on statistics and analysis of blood collection and supply and clinical assumption status of the area during the period. Results statistics of blood collection and supply status during five years showed, blood collection volume and times in 2011 ranked the first, and in 2015 volume of times, blood supply of other hospitals ranked the fifth, but total blood supply volume, transfering volume, blood supply in our hospital

  8. Analysis on Surveillance of Rabies in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture from 2008 to 2011%湘西自治州2008-2011年狂犬病监测分析

    吴戈; 吴登科; 全李涛; 姚华; 孙灵芝; 陈敏


    Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of rabies and population exposed to rabies, to evaluate the effectiveness of prevention and management, and to offer evidence for prevention and control of rabies in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture. Methods The information of population exposed to rabies and the data of rabies surveillance in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture from 2008 to 2011 were collected and analyzed. Results There were 15,509, 11,412, 9,845 and 8,986 cases of rabies exposure in 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The exposure rates in 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011 were 62.80/10,000, 46.03/10,000, 39.53/10,000, and 35.27/10,000, respectively, with the average annual exposure rate of 45.81/10,000. The dog bite cases accounted for 87.24 %. There were 48 cases of rabies repeated in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture from 2008 to 2011, including one case of injury by cat, two cases of unknown injuries, and 45 cases of injuries by dogs. The incidence rates in 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011 were 0.53/10,000, 0.20/10,000, 0.68/10,000, and 0.51/10,000, respectively, with the average annual incidence rate of 0.48/10,000. The exposure ratios of class I, II, and III were 18.78%, 45.19%, and 36.03%, respectively. There were 41 cases of class II and III exposure, accounting for 85.4%. 3 cases were treated in outpatient department, 8 cases were self- treated, and 36 cases were untreated. There were 2 cases with inoculating rabies vaccine, 1 case with inoculating human rabies immunoglobulin, and one case with an unknown vaccination status. Conclusions The key point of elimination or control of rabies is to improve the vaccination coverage of the dog population. The results indicate that the following countermeasures may be beneficial for controlling the rabies epidemic, which include developing new rabies vaccines for animals, timely detecting rabies in the exposed populations, strengthening the propaganda of rabies prevention and control, enhancing the

  9. HIRENASD Experimental Data

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Experimental Data for HIRENASD configuration Zip files below contain the experimental data for the pressure coefficients, both the static and the forced oscillation...

  10. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Yusuf Ergun


    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  11. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Yusuf Ergun


    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  12. Flow characteristic of Hijiori HDR reservoir from circulation test in 1991; Koon tantai Hijiori jikkenjo ni okeru senbu choryuso shiken (1991 nendo) kekka to ryudo kaiseki

    Shiga, T.; Hyodo, M.; Shinohara, N.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports one example of flow analyses on a circulation test carried out in fiscal 1991 at the Hijiori hot dry rock experimental field (Yamagata Prefecture). A fluid circulation model was proposed to simulate an HDR circulation system for a shallow reservoir (at a depth of about 1800 m) demonstrated in the circulation test by using an electric circuit network (which expresses continuity impedance in resistance and fluid storage in capacitance). Storage capacity of the reservoir was estimated by deriving time constant of the system from data of time-based change in reservoir pressure associated with transition phenomena during the circulation test. The storage capacity was estimated separately by dividing change of storage in the reservoir by change in the reservoir pressure. To derive the storage in the reservoir, a method to calculate non-recovered flows in the circulation test was utilized. The results of evaluating the reservoir capacity in the shallow reservoir using the above two independent methods were found substantially consistent. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Microexperiencia Educativa (Microeducational Experimentation).

    Burton Meis, Roberto


    Experimentation for educational reform in Argentina is limited to specifically designated schools which are to be in a permanent state of experimentation. This article presents the official statements designating the experimental schools and includes remarks covering administration, evaluation, and supervision. (VM)

  14. Countermeasures and institutional innovations for poverty alleviation in Yulin Prefecture of Shanxi Province%陕西榆林地区的脱贫对策与制度创新

    杨友孝; 蔡运龙


    榆林地区是中国西部的贫困地区之一,目前仍有400000贫困人口,脱贫任务还很艰巨。造成本区贫困的主要原因是生态系统脆弱,经济系统低效,社会文化系统落后和政策体制不合理。提出的脱贫对策是通过小流域综合治理控制水土流失,调整扶贫的优先秩序,降低人口增长速度,立足综合资源优势提高经济效益,建立公平合理的政策体系。制度创新的关键在于给予地方政府矿产资源的部分所有权,荒地的长期使用和经营管理权,以及重视地方和农民的利益。%Yulin prefecture, which still has a population of 400 000 under povertyline by1997, is one of the poorest areas in arid and semiarid lands of China. In this paper, the authors put forward the countermeasures for shaking off poverty and the viewpoints on institutional innovations of extinguishing poverty after analyzing the causes of poverty relatedto ecological vulnerability low efficiency of economic system, backward social and oulturalsystem and irrational policy and institution in detail. The countermeasures are (1) to alleviate and control soil and water erosion by tackling small drainage areas in a comprehensive way; (2) to decrease the number of population and reduce natural increase rate ofpopulation by adjusting the priority objects of extinguishing poverty; (3) to heighten economic benefit by transforming industrial structure based on resource advantage; and (4) toimprove policy and institutional system by insisting on equal rule. The institutional innovations comprise three aspects, which are (1) to bestow partial ownership of mineral resources on the local government to remove poverty radically, (2) to put all wastelands under farmer's control and corporations to stop tragedy of commons, and (3) to attach importance to local interests to quick the pace of extinguishing poverty.

  15. The present Situation and Problems of Brazil mushroom Industry Development in Honghe Prefecture%红河州巴西蘑菇产业发展现状及存在问题

    周浩; 毛维艳; 白建波


    红河州自2009年引进巴西蘑菇种植,现已形成一定规模,成为云南省最大的巴西蘑菇生产地。文章通过实地考察、问卷等方式对红河州内巴西蘑菇种植基地及相关从业者进行调查,结果表明:红河州巴西蘑菇的种植已初具规模,2014年全州年产巴西蘑菇产量突破5000吨,产值突破5000万元,给当地农民带来较好的经济效益,但存在种植技术水平低,单位面积产量低、技术水平各地不均一等问题。最后,笔者从研究合作、技术培训、政策引导和市场营销等方面对红河州巴西蘑菇的发展给出了建议。%Honghe introducted the cultivation of Brazil mushroom since 2009, and it has now formed a certain scale, and Honghe has been the largest production area of Brazil mushroom in yunnan province.In this paper, through on-the-spot investigation, questionnaire and so on ,the author investigated Brazil mushroom planting base and the Brazil mushroom planter in honghe Prefecture. The results showed that: the cultivation of Brazil mushroom in Honghe has begun to take shape, the Brazil mushroom production has exceeded 5000 tons in 2014, the production value has exceeded 50 million yuan,and it has brought good economic benefits to local farmers,but there are still many problems such as low level Planting technology and low yield of per unit area and the unequal level of the technology in different regions and so on.In the end,the author gave suggestions to the Brazil mushroom inductry development in Honghe from research collaboration and technical training and policy guidance and marketing and so on.

  16. 云南省德宏州奶水牛业可持续发展前景分析%Sustainable Development Prospects of Milking Buffalo Industry of Deihong Prefecture,Yunnan Province

    杨子姗; 谭琳; 姜开梅; 薛世明; 钟声


    分析云南德宏州发展奶水牛产业在自然气候、区位、市场、饲草资源、国家及地方政府宏观产业政策等方面的优势,及德宏州奶水牛产业总体规模小、饲养分散、杂交改良进展缓慢、饲草品质粗劣、草畜季节矛盾尖锐、相关服务体系建设滞后等存在问题。提出实现德宏奶水牛产业可持续发展的建议:正确处理德宏水牛地方品种资源保护与杂交改良之间的关系;扩大奶水牛的养殖规模,引导养殖户走规模化、集约化的发展道路;合理开展农田种草,增加优质饲草供应;完善奶水牛业相关科技和社会服务体系。%The development of milking buffalo industry in Dehong Prefecture does not only fit the need for social development,but also has more advantages in many aspects such as climate,location,market,pasture resources,and the macro-economic policy of the national and the local government,etc.But it is also facing many unfavorable factors,such as the milking buffalo industry with small-scaled and dispersed animal keeping,the slow procedure of breed improvement,the poorness of pasture quality,the acute seasonal conflict between grass and livestock and the far-behind social service system which is closely related to the milking buffalo industry,and so on.In order to ensure the sustainable development of the milking buffalo industry in the future,the following measures should be observed: First,the relationship between protection of Deihong buffalo variety resource and crossbreeding should be correctly handled.Second,the breeding scale of milking buffalo should be expanded to direct farmers to the way of industrialization and intensive raising.And then,plantation of fodder crops should be carried out on farm land to increase supply with high-quality forage.In addition,the corresponding service system of both in science and technology and in society should also be improved.

  17. 延边地区牛瑟氏泰勒虫病的分子流行病学调查%Molecular epidemiological survey of Theileria sergenti infections in cattle in Yanbian Prefecture

    胡诗悦; 钱年超; 王轶男; 贾立军; 张守发


    为了解吉林省延边地区牛瑟氏泰勒虫病的流行情况,分别采用血涂片染色镜检法和PCR方法对采自延边地区的206份牛血液样本进行了牛瑟氏泰勒虫病的分子流行病学调查。结果显示,PCR检测的阳性率为62.6%,显著高于血涂片染色镜检法检测的阳性率(17.5%)。采用统计学分析方法对PCR检测的206份血液样本进行了不同地区、不同年龄、不同品种及饲养方式的比较;结果,不同地区之间和不同品种之间瑟氏泰勒虫感染率差异不显著(P〉0.05);而不同年龄阶段之间和不同饲养方式之间牛瑟氏泰勒虫感染率差异显著(P〈0.05)。结果表明,吉林省延边地区是牛瑟氏泰勒虫病的流行地区。%In order to understand the prevalence of Theileria sergenti infections in cattle in Yanbian area,a molecular epidemiological survey was conducted to examine T. sergenti using PCR method. Totally, 206 blood samples were detected. In result,the positive rate of PCR method was 62.6% ,which was significantly higher than 17.5% by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears. Risk factors including counties,ages,breeds and grazing were evaluated and statistical analyzed. In result, ages and grazing were associated with the prevalence of T. sergenti infections(P〈0.05) ,while counties and breeds were not (P〉0.05). The survey confirmed that Yanbian Prefecture was the epidemic region of T. sergenti.

  18. Relationship between the Mongolia Family of Lord Bin and the Ejina Prefecture in the Yuan Dynasty%蒙古豳王家族与元代亦集乃路之关系


      蒙古豳王出伯一族系察合台后裔,1277至1282年间脱离察合台汗国而投归元廷忽必烈麾下,被委以重任,长期驻守河西走廊西端的肃、瓜、沙及西域东部的哈密地区,始终处于抵御窝阔台汗海都、察合台汗都哇等西北诸王叛乱的第一线。透过黑水城元代汉文文书,如《大德四年军粮文卷》、仁宗朝文献(编号F116:W561)、TK204文书、TK248文书等,可见作为元代之军事集结地与物资供给地的亦集乃路以其特殊的地理位置,成为了元朝西北边防线上的重要军事堡垒,而活跃于西陲重地的豳王出伯家族一直与其保持着密切的联系,互相引以为援,从而进一步巩固了西北边防。%the clan of Chu Bo, Mongolian Lord Bin, was the offspring of Chagatai Khanate. They broke away from Chagatai Khanate and submitted to Kublai Khan from 1277 to 1282. They were entrusted with the important task to garrisoning the Suzhou, Guazhou, and Hami regions at the west end of the Hexi Corridor, the front line of defending against rebellions of the other lords such as Ogadai Khan and Chagatai Khan. The Yuan dynasty Chinese documents from Khara-Khoto, including F116:W561, TK204, and TK248, suggest that Ejina Prefecture, which enjoyed a special geographical position and served as the place for military buildup and material supply, became an important fortress on the northwestern defense line, and kept a close relation with the clan of Lord Bin, who were active in that region. They worked together to enhance the stability of the northwestern border.

  19. A Study on the Profiting Pattern of the Poor in the Ethnic Areas——A case study in Xiangxi autonomous prefecture%基于PPT战略的民族地区贫困人口受益模式研究——以湖南省湘西土家族苗族自治州为例



    湘西自治州是湖南省最贫困的地区之一,虽然其旅游资源非常丰富,旅游开发在一定程度上促进了当地经济的发展,但旅游发展没有体现出相应的扶贫效应.本文在分析湘西州旅游开发过程中贫困人口受益现状的基础上,对制约该区域旅游业发展中贫困人口受益的主要因素展开探寻,并提出了基于PPT战略的湘西州贫困人口受益新模式.%Xiangxi autonomous prefecture is one of the poorest areas in Hunan province. Although its tourism resources are extremely rich and tourism exploiting has promoted its economy to some extent,tourism development did not reflect the corresponding effect of anti-poverty. Based on the analysis about the profit status of the poor from the tourism development in Xiangxi autonomous prefecture,the article explore the major factor that restrict the poor benefit from the tourism development and proposes the new model that make the poor benefit from the tourism development based on the PPT strategy.

  20. A Research for Economic Change on Private Businessmen of Vietnam in P.R.China--Honghe Prefecture of Yunnan Province as an Example%建国后越侨私商在中国的经济变迁--以云南省红河州为例



    文章以云南红河州为例,主要阐述了建国后越侨私商在中国的经济变迁:即疏理了中国建国初期越侨私商在云南红河州的经济现状,回顾了六、七十年代对红河州越侨私商进行社会主义改造的基本情况,改革开放时期红河州越侨私商的恢复和发展。%Based on investigation and reliable materials,as an Example in Honghe Prefecture of Yunnan Province, this article research economic changing mainly on private businessmen of Vietnam in P.R.China. The article know economic situation on private businessmen of Vietnam in the early time of P.R.China, review economic change to carry on the basic situation Socialist Transformation on private businessmen of Vietnam in 1960s~.1970s,and recovery and development of private businessmen of Vietnam during the period of reform and opening up of P.R.China in Honghe Prefecture.

  1. 武陵山片区企业经营环境与发展战略研究--以湘西州为例%The Study of Business Environment and Development Strategy in Wuling Mountain Area---Taking Xiangxi Prefecture as an Example

    郑玲; 贾宇杨; 丁聪; 姚明; 李甫; 任鑫


    改善企业经营环境,进行恰当的战略选择,已成为武陵山片区促进企业稳步发展,带动经济增长的关键问题。课题组通过对武陵山片区的湘西州企业发展的现状进行调查,立足于企业发展的内外部经营环境的分析,运用战略地位和行动评估矩阵SPACE分析法对湘西州企业发展的基本战略进行定位。%Improving the operating environment of the enterprise and selecting the appropriate strategy have become the key issue of promoting the enterprise developing steadily and spurring economic growth in Wuling Mountain Area.By investigating present situation of enterprise development in Xiangxi prefecture,based on analysis of the internal and external business environment,the research group use strategic position and action matrix SPACE analysis method to develop the basic strategy of localization for enterprise development in Xiangxi prefecture.

  2. Spatiotemporal Pattern of Gold Content of GDP at Prefecture Level or Cities Above in China%中国地级及以上城市GDP含金量时空分异格局



    Gold content of GDP is an international general index to reflect the improvement of people's liveli-hood. For decades China's GDP and per capita GDP have been growing rapidly. However, the cost of high growth in GDP including the waste of resources, environmental pollution, urban-rural income gap, slowly rise of living standard and so on.The fundamental goal of economic growth is human all-round development. There will be real meaning that economic growth must be translated into upgrading the level of benefits of the over-whelming majority of residents. Only a reasonable income vs. GDP ratio can have reference value for the econ-omy at large. Taking the gold content of GDP as the measuring indicator, this article analyses the global trends, spatial heterogeneities and correlations of gold content of GDP for 343 cities at the prefecture level or above with panel data in 2001 and 2011 with exploratory spatial data analysis methods, of Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi*, whereby the significance of spatial interactions and geographical location was investigated. Semi-variant function, gravity center migration and trend surface analysis was used to explore the spatiotemporal spatial pat-terns of the gold content of GDP over the 10 years with the application of ArcGIS10.0 and GeoDa095i. Influ-encing factors of gold content of GDP were tried to summarize. The results show as following:The spatial dif-ference of gold content of GDP is significantly, showing a trend of the western China>the eastern China>the middle China, and the North>the South>the Central. The calculate result of Moran's I shows that the density of gold content of GDP at prefecture level or above cities in China has a growing global spatial autocorrelation characteristic, regional disparities trend of gold content of GDP is more and more obvious. The gravity center of gold content of GDP had moved southeast on the whole from 2001 to 2011. The north of the Yellow River and the south of the Changjiang River are

  3. 云南省德宏州艾滋病传播模式分析%Analysis of the epidemiologic patterns of HIV transmission in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province

    段松; 罗巍; 孙江平; 郭浩岩; 庞琳; 袁建华; 贾曼红; 项丽芬; 叶润华; 杨跃诚; 陆继云


    Objective To uncover the transmission patterns of the HIV epidemic in Dehong prefecture.Methods The reviewed case reports,data of sentinel surveillance,testing and special survey were analyzed by SAS 8.0 program.The transmission patterns were modeled by utilizing data including sizes of the whole population and the high risk groups,high risk behavior data from 1989 to 2007,and the population index such as sex ratio and fertility rate.Results In 2005,case reports showed the proportion of people infected with HIV through sexual contact was 39.1%,and 46.9%in 2006.Among 1636 cases reported between January 1 to September 20,2007,the proportion of people infected with HIV through sexual contact was 52%.From 1 989 to 2007,the proportion of HIV infection among drug users was declining,while HIV infection through sexual contact was rising after standardizing the population tested/surveyed.The Asian Epidemic Model has shown that the proportions of incident HIV infections through sexual transmissions were 50.6%,52.3%and 52.7%respectively from 2005 to 2007.Correspondingly,the proportions of incident cases by injecting drug user were 48.9%,47.2%and 46.7%respectively during this period.Moreover,the Workbook method has shown that,among adults living with HIV in 2007,50.3%were infected through injecting drugs and 48.4%through unsafe sexual activity.Conclusion The rapid rise in HIV infections through injecting drug in Dehong prefecture has been initially curbed.HW epidemic has already witnessed a change from predominantly through drug injecting-related activity to an almost equally fuelled epidemic by sexual and drug-related transmission.%目的 对云南省德宏州当前艾滋病疫情的传播模式做出初步判断.方法 对德宏州1989-2007年艾滋病监测(检测)覆盖人群数量及其构成比、报告的感染者(患者)的流行病学资料应用SAS 8.0软件进行分析.将德宏州1989-2007年的人口规模、高危人群规模及高危行为数据、2000-2007年

  4. Analysis of occupational exposure to HIV between 2004 and 2009 in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province%云南省德宏州2004-2009年艾滋病病毒职业暴露状况分析

    项丽芬; 段松; 高洁; 单多; 叶润华; 杨跃诚; 龚渝蓉; 杨世江; 姚仕堂; 何纳


    Objective To examine the occurrence, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and prognosis of occupational exposure to HIV from 2004 to 2009 in Dehong prefecture in Yunnan province, in order to further promote prevention and control of occupational HIV exposure. Methods Intensive epidemiological and treatment data were collected for all occupational HIV exposure cases occurring in Dehong prefecture from 2004 through 2009, and were analyzed. Results From 2004 to 2009, a total of 151 cases of occupational HIV exposure were reported, of whom 77 (51.0%) were female. The means of exposure included direct contact and needle or other sharp instrument sticking which was the most frequent (59.6%, or 90/151). The occupational HIV exposure was primarily occurring in hospitals (41.1%, or 62/151), was mostly of the first-level exposure (57. 6%) followed with the second-level exposure (33.1% ) and the third-level exposure (9. 3 % ). The majority (112, or 74. 2 % ) of the exposure sources were HIV/ AIDS patients, with one laboratory exposure to HIV-positive specimen and 38 (25.2%) unknown sources. After exposure to HIV, 139 (92. 1 %) immediately washed and disinfected skin or mucous membranes whereas the other twelve (7.9 %) did not take any special treatment. A timely and emergent response was significantly correlated with prior training on HIV/AIDS-related safer operations (x2= 6.19, P= 0. 01). Among the 151 exposed cases, 142 (94.0%) had received post-exposure prophylactic (PEP) antiretroviral treatment whereas the other nines case had not received such treatment voluntarily. So far, none of them had sero conversion. Conclusions Timely and emergent treatment and PEP antiretroviral treatment are effective for prevention of HIV infection due to occupational exposure. More efforts are needed to enhance training on HIV/AIDS-related safer operations and occupational prevention for professionals having the potential for occupational HIV exposure.%目的 了解云南

  5. 新疆喀什地区维吾尔族18个STR基因座的遗传多态性%Genetic Polymorphisms of 18 STR Loci in Uygur Population of Kashi Prefecture of Xinjiang

    张晓红; 李平; 翁玮霞; 刘长晖; 刘宏; 唐建新; 刘超


    目的 调查新疆喀什地区维吾尔族无关个体18个STR基因座(D18S51、D21S11、D3S1358、FGA、D8S1179、vWA、CSF1PO、D16S539、D7S820、D13S317、D5S818、D2S1338、D19S433、D12S391、TPOx、TH01、Penta E和D6S1043)的遗传多态性并研究其法医学应用价值.方法 采用DNA TyperTM 15 Plus试剂盒对1381名维吾尔族无关个体血样进行复合扩增,3130XL遗传分析仪对扩增产物检测,GeneMapper ID v3.2软件进行基因分型.计算群体遗传学参数,并与其他人群进行比较,计算Reynold's遗传距离,绘制系统发生树.结果 在1381名维吾尔族无关个体中,共发现231种等位基因,单个等位基因频率分布在0.0004~0.5304,H在0.644~0.923,PIC在0.587~0.918,DP在0.817~0.988,CPE大于0.9999999.与广州汉族人群遗传距离最大(0.088 3),与希腊人群遗传距离最小(0.0503).结论 这18个STR基因座在新疆喀什地区具有高度多态性,可满足该群体个体识别和亲权鉴定,其遗传多态性更接近欧洲.%Objective To investigate the genetic polymorphisms of 18 STR loci {D18S51, D21S11, D3S1358, FGA, D8S1179, vWA, CSF1PO, D16S539, D7S820, D13S317, D5S818, D2S1338, D19S433, D12S391, TPOX, TH01, Penta E and D6S1043) in unrelated Uygur individuals in Kashi prefecture of Xinjiang and to explore the application value in forensic practice. Methods Blood samples from 1 381 unrelated Uygur individuals were amplified by using DNA Typer?15 Plus kit. The amplified products were detected by using 3130XL Genetic Analyzer and the genotyping was done by using GeneMapper ID v3.2. Population genetics parameters were calculated and compared with that of the other population. The genetic distance of Reynold's was calculated and phylogenetic tree was constructed at last. Results Of the 1 381 unrelated Uygur individuals, 231 alleles were detected, with an allele frequency of 0.000 4-0.530 4. The H values were 0.644-0.923, PIC values were 0.587-0.918, and DP values were 0

  6. 理州中小学生1991年至2010年视力检测分析%Analysis of Vision Testing for Primary and Middle School Students from 1991 to 2010 in Dali Prefecture

    刘宇珠; 林灿松; 何社吉


    目的:了解大理州学生视力不良状况和变化趋势,为采取预防控制措施提供依据。方法:按照《历年全国学生体质健康状况调查研究工作手册》的要求,于1991年、2000年、2005年、2010年分别对大理州中小学校学生进行裸眼视力检测。结果:白族、汉族男女生,小学、初中、高中视力不良率均随年份的增加而增加,且视力不良率均随年级的增加而增加。平均视力不良率,小学、初中、高中白族男生分别是15.48%、31.06%、49.26%,女生分别是20.05%、38.83%、58.61%;汉族男生分别是23.07%、52.89%、69.47%,女生分别是28.61%、63.00%、77.58%。2010年汉族城乡男女生视力不良率均是女生高于男生(除男生的视力不良率小学阶段城乡差异无统计学意义外)。视力不良的程度除小学白族女生的视力不良率是以中度为主外,其余都是以重度为主。白族、汉族男女生视力不良均以近视为主,重度视力不良率是汉族学生高于白族学生。结论:大理州学生视力不良率有不断上升的趋势,且以重度视力不良、近视为主,学生近视防治工作应引起社会各界高度重视。%Objective: To know the prevalence of studentsj poor eyesight and its changes from 1991 to 2010 in Dali Prefecture and to provide evidence for prevention and control measures. Methods: On the basis of the "Manual of National Survey of Student's Physical Health", primary and middle school students uncorrected visual acuity was tested respectively in the year of 1991, 2000, 2005 and 2010. Results: The poor eyesight rate increased irrespective of student's ethnicity and gender, and the rate worsened with increasing year as well as with the increase of grade. The average unhealthy rates of sight for Bai boys in the primary school, junior high and senior high schools were 15.48%, 31,06%, and 49.26% respectively

  7. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli


    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  8. Transonic Experimental Research Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Transonic Experimental Research Facility evaluates aerodynamics and fluid dynamics of projectiles, smart munitions systems, and sub-munitions dispensing systems;...

  9. Generalizing Experimental Findings


    new method using propensity score stratified sampling. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness 7 114–135. 11 ...Generalizing Experimental Findings Judea Pearl University of California, Los Angeles Computer Science Department Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1596, USA...Selection Bias The classical problem of generalizing experimental findings from the trial sample to the population as a whole, also known as the problem

  10. Experimental quantum field theory

    Bell, J S


    Presented here, is, in the opinion of the author, the essential minimum of quantum field theory that should be known to cultivated experimental particle physicists. The word experimental describes not only the audience aimed at but also the level of mathematical rigour aspired to. (0 refs).

  11. Strength of Experimental Grouts

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....... The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  12. Introduction: Experimental Green Strategies

    Peters, Terri


    Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research.......Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research....

  13. The Experimental College.

    Meiklejohn, Alexander

    "The Experimental College" tells the story of a 4-year academic experiment at the University of Wisconsin established by Alexander Meiklejohn. Aimed at finding a method of teaching that would help students develop "intelligence in the conduct of their own lives," the Experimental College discarded major requirements,…

  14. Surveillance of Adverse Events Following Immunization in Dali Prefecture, 2006 - 2010%2006-2010年大理州疑似预防接种异常反应监测



    目的 了解大理州2006-2010年疑似预防接种异常反应监测,系统运转情况,评价大理州疑似预防接种异常反应(AEFI)监测和处理控制系统的运行状况.方法 采用描述性流行病学方法对疑似预防接种异常反应测系统所收集的AEFI病例进行分析.结果 全州共报告AEFI 78例,其中一般反应8例(10.26%),异常反应49例(62.82%),偶合症12例(15.38%),不明原因3例(3.85%),实施差错事故6例(7.69%).在所使用的20种疫苗中有12种出现不良反应,以肺炎疫苗发生率最高.在报告的预防接种不良反应中,最常见的为过敏性皮疹(25.64%).结论 建立和完善规范化的预防接种AEFI监测系统,可提高不良反应报告的敏感性和利用率.加强预防接种规范化操作,准确掌握禁忌证,选用免疫效果好、且安全性高的疫苗,以减少预防接种不良反应的发生.%Objective To understand the occurrence of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) from 2006 to 2010 in Dali prefecture and evaluate the running status of the monitoring control system for AEFI. Methods Surveillance data was analyzed with descriptive epidemiological methods. Results Totally 78 cases of AEFI were reported, including 8 cases with general reaction (10. 26% ) , 49 cases with abnormal reaction (62. 82% ) , 12 cases with coincidental reaction ( 15. 38% ) , 3 cases with unknown reason (3. 85% ) , 6 cases with program error (7. 69% ) . Adverse reactions were induced by 12 kinds of vaccine out of the 20 kinds of used vaccine, especially the Pneumonia vaccine. The most commonly adverse events was rash (25.64%). Conclusion Establishing and perfecting the standardized AEFI will improve the sensitivity and the utilization of the data on AEFI. To reduce AEFI, vaccination regulations, distinguish contraindications and introducing safer vaccine should be implemented.

  15. Epidemiological analysis on typhoid fever in Kashi Prefecture from 2005-2010%喀什地区2005-2010年伤寒疫情流行病学分析

    王庭宇; 党江安; 李朝霞; 王立杰; 胥丽敏


    [Objective]To investigate the epidemic causes and characteristics of typhoid fever, and provide evidence for developing control measures. [ Methods]The epidemic data of typhoid fever was analyzed by using descriptive epidemiology in Kashi Prefecture from 2005-2010. The incidence trend described. [Results] A total of 3 267 cases of typhoid fever was reported through direct network report, with average annual incidence rate of 14.33/100 000. The epidemic of typhoid fever showed obviously seasonal characteristics, with peak incidence in August- October. But sporadic cases appeared in other months. Then the total situation showed a decreasing trend in the 6 years, but the incidence fluctuated at a high level. The positive rate of typhoid was 14.47% from monitoring and was extremely low in focus groups and outside environment and the typhoid bacterium was the main strain type. [Conclusion]The important and main reasons for the typhoid fever outbreak are the polluted water resources, poor sanitation, bad living habits, low immunity, ineffective segregation and daily contact transmission.%目的 调查分析喀什地区伤寒疫情的流行原因和特征,为采取控制措施提供依据.方法 利用描述流行病学方法,对喀什地区2005-2010年伤寒疫情进行分析,描述伤寒6年发病率的变化趋势.结果 2005-2010年喀什地区共通过网络直报报告伤寒病例3 267例,年平均发病率约为14.33/10万.存在明显的季节集中趋势,发病高峰为8-10月份,其他月份均有不同程度的散发病例.6年期间伤寒发病率总体呈现下降趋势,但是在较高发病率上波动.伤寒病例监测阳性率为14.47%,重点人群和外环境监测阳性率极低;菌株分型以伤寒为主.结论 饮用不安全饮水是发生伤寒暴发流行的重要原因,卫生条件差,不良的生活习惯,人群免疫力低,传染源得不到及时有效的隔离治疗,日常接触传播等是该区伤寒流行的主要因素.

  16. Investigation on Anopheline species in Chayu County, Linzhi Prefecture of Tibet Autonomous Region%西藏林芝地区察隅县按蚊种群调查

    王洪举; 胡松林; 李松凌; 顾政诚; 陈建设; 朱国鼎; 黄芳


    目的 确定西藏林芝地区察隅县主要按蚊蚊种.方法 2010年7-8月在察隅县选择4个自然村,采用通宵/半通宵室内、外人饵帐诱捕法和通宵诱蚊灯诱捕法捕蚊,对捕获的按蚊进行形态学鉴定.结果 共捕获按蚊2 991只,其中带足按蚊2 284只(占76.36%),多斑按蚊种团667只(占22.30%),其他按蚊40只(占1.34%);带足按蚊室内、外半通宵平均密度分别为56.2只/夜和4只/夜,多斑按蚊种团室内、外半通宵平均密度分别为17.8只/夜和17.9只/夜;带足按蚊室内、外全通宵室内叮人率分别为28.1只/(人·夜)和2只/(人·夜),多斑按蚊种团全通宵室内、外叮人率均为8.9只/(人·夜).结论 带足按蚊和多斑按蚊为察隅县优势蚊种,是可能的疟疾传播媒介.%Objective To investigate Anopheline species in Chayu County of Linzhi Prefecture, Tibet Methods Four natural villages in Chayu County were selected in this study in 2010. The methods of overnighl/semi-overaight trapping indoor and outdoor human-bait, and overnight trapping with light traps were used, and all the Anopheline mosquitoes were confirmed by morphological characteristics. Results Totally 2 991 Anopheline mosquitoes were captured, with 76.36% (2 284/2 291) of An, peditae-niatus, 22.30% (667/2 291) of An. maculates group. The average densities of An. peditaeniatus by semi-overnight trapping were 56.2/per person indoor and 4/per person outdoor respectively, and the average densities of An. maculatus group by semi-overnight trapping were 17.8/per person indoor and 17.9/per person outdoor respectively. The man-biting rates of An. peditaeniatus by overnight trapping were 28.I/per person indoor and 2/per person outdoor respectively, and were both 8.9/per person to An. maculatus group. Conclusion An. peditaeniatus and An. maculatus group are the possible transmission vectors of malaria in Chayu County.

  17. HIV prevalence and risk factors among premarital couples in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province, 2010%云南省德宏州2010年婚检人群的HIV感染率及其影响因素

    龚渝蓉; 杨育燕; 袁成; 寸东霞; 杨菊春; 段松; 何纳; 杨玲; 高洁; 项丽芬; 叶润华; 杨跃诚; 白雪; 许娟; 蒋成芹


    Objective To study the HIV prevalence and risk factors among people receiving premarital medical examinations in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province. Methods Data were collected for HIV infection test, and questionnaire survey was conducted among premarital couples. Results In 2010, among 23,223 participants in the premarital examinations, 0. 78%(180) were tested as HIV positive . Among them, 70. 0% were sero-disaccord couples. 83. 3%(150) of HIV positive couples were infected with heterosexual transmission. The premarital sexual behavior was common with 56. L%(13,025) among all participants and 11. 9%(l,340) of the female participants were pregnant. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the HIV prevalence was higher in drug users than in non drug users, and that among those aged > 25 years was higher than-among those aged <25 years, The HIV prevalence was also higher among the unemployed and among Burmese than among farmers and among local residents. Conclusion The HIV prevalence among premarital couples in 2010 was still at a high level. As one of the key way to detect HIV infections, premarital HIV testing should be promoted in HIV highly epidemic areas to prevent HIV transmission through sex and mother to child transmission.%目的 了解云南省德宏州2010年婚检人群的艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染状况及其影响因素.方法 利用德宏州2010年参加婚前体检人群的婚检资料,对该人群HIV感染率及相关因素进行分析.结果 23 223名婚前体检者HIV感染率为0.78%(180人),其中HIV单阳性比例为70.0%;83.3%(150/180)是通过异性性行为感染.婚检人群中有56.1%(13 025人)有婚前性行为,11.9%(1 340人)的女性婚检者已怀孕.Logistic多因素回归分析显示:HIV感染率为有吸毒行为者高于无吸毒行为者,25岁以上者高于25岁以下者,无业者高于农民,缅甸籍高于国内者.结论 2010年德宏州婚检人群的HIV感染率仍较高,吸毒、高年龄、无业与缅甸籍

  18. Nutritional status of Tujia and Miao minority middle school students in Xiangxi autonomous prefecture%湘西州土家族、苗族中学生营养状况分析

    张福兰; 张天成; 文理中


    目的 了解湘西土家族苗族自治州的土家族、苗族中学生营养状况,为少数民族学生营养状况改善提供科学依据.方法 对土家族、苗族3 402名中学生的身高、体重进行测量,采用身高标准体重法进行营养状况评价.结果 2009年土家族、苗族中学生营养不良检出率分别为2.32% (39/1 680)、1.51% (26/1 722),低体重率分别为21.67% (364/1 680)、18.82%(324/1 722),超重率分别为7.02%(118/1 680)、9.47%(163/1 722),肥胖率分别为3.27%(55/1 680)、4.76% (82/1 722);低体重率土家族高于苗族(x2=4.29,P<0.05),超重、肥胖率苗族均高于土家族(x2=6.69,P<0.01;x2=4.87,P<0.05);低体重率土家族、苗族女生均高于男生(P<0.05),肥胖率土家族、苗族男生均高于女生(P<0.01);高中生营养不良率较高,初中生,尤其是低年级学生肥胖率较高.结论 湘西州土家族、苗族中学生营养不良和营养过剩同时存在,应对不同群体的营养问题进行针对性指导.%Objective To examine the nutritional status of Tujia and Miao minority middle school students in Xiangxi Tujia and Miao autonomous prefecture for the improvement of minority students' nutritional status. Methods Totally 3 402 Tujia and Miao minority students were selected and their height and weight were measured and evaluated with the method of height with standard weight. Results In 2009, the malnutrition rate in the Tujia and Miao students was 2. 32% (39/1680) and 1. 51% (26/1722) ;the underweight rate was 21. 67% (364/1 680) and 18. 82% (324/1 722); the overweight rate was 7.02% (118/1 680) and 9.47% (163/1 722) ;the obesity rate was 3.27% (55/1 680) and 4. 76% (82/1 722) Respectively. The underweight rate of Tujia students was oviously higher than than of Miao students; the overweight and obesity rate of Miao students were obviously higher than those of Tujia students. The underweight rate of female students was higher than that of male students

  19. Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Tibetan and Yi Adolescents' Hair from Liangshan Prefecture, Sichuan Province%四川凉山藏彝青少年头发中多氯联苯污染水平的研究

    周萤; 孙一鸣; 金军; 雷建容; 秦贵平; 何雪珠; 林尤静


    本研究采用索式提取-气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)分析了39份来自四川省凉山州藏族﹑彝族青少年(11~19岁)头发样品中的12种类二英多氯联苯( DL-PCBs)的浓度水平及其同族体组成,并分析了其浓度与民族﹑食肉和饮奶习惯及性别的相关性.结果表明,头发样品中 PCBs 的检出率为100%, DL-PCBs 的总含量为(102.2±14.3) pg•g-1,含量范围9.6~991.6 pg•g-1,表明该地区受到DL-PCBs的污染程度较轻. PCB-77﹑PCB-105﹑PCB-118为主要单体,占∑DL-PCBs的84.7%.凉山州彝族青少年头发样品中的PCBs浓度显著高于藏族,且其浓度与每周食肉﹑饮奶频次具有相关性( P﹤0.05),表明通过饮食摄取的PCBs可能是造成浓度差异的原因之一.该地区藏﹑彝青少年女性发样中PCBs浓度显著高于男性(P﹤0.05).%Adolescents’(11-19 years old) hair samples( n=39) collected from Liangshan prefecture, Sichuan Province were analyzed for 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl(DL-PCBs) congeners by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). The levels and distribution characteristics of DL-PCBs in Tibetan and Yi Adolescents’ hair were studied, meanwhile, the relationships between the levels of DL-PCBs and the nationalities, eating habits and genders were addressed. The results indicated that the average concentration of PCBs was(102. 2 ± 14. 3) pg•g-1 with the range from 9. 6 pg•g -1 to 991. 6 pg•g-1 . The concentration levels of this region were relatively low. PCB-77, PCB-105 and PCB-118 were the major congeners, contributing to 84. 7% of the total. The levels of PCBs in Yi teenagers’ hair were higher than those in Tibetan, and the concentration in hair was related to the frequency of eating meats and drinking milk per week. It might be attributed to the different eating habits of these two nationalities. When gender was considered, significantly higher concentrations were found in female than in male( P﹤0. 05) .

  20. Analysis of the Characteristics of Tibetan Patients with Orthodontic Treatment in Barkam of Aba Prefecture%阿坝州马尔康地区藏族口腔正畸患者的特征分析

    肖遥; 郑立舸; 江蓉; 白晓东; 钟应权


    Objective To know the characteristics of Tibetan patients with orthodontic treatment in Barkam of Aba prefec-ture,to improve Tibetan oral health consciousness. Methods 226 tibetan orthodontic patients(90 males and 136 females) were selected in recent 8 years in Aba Prefecture People′s Hospital. Through the retrospective analysis of clinical data,to record and sta-tistic their classification of malocclusion,medical reasons,oral habits,oral health status,age distribution and so on. Results The majority of Tibetan patients with orthodontic treatment were female adolescents ( P <0. 05 ) . Angle II malocclusion were in the most,and Angle III malocclusion were in the least(P<0. 05),the most common Clinical manifestation were dental crowding,deep overbite and deep overjet. Medical reason was given priority to with the wishes of parents of the aesthetic requirements(P<0. 05). The most common oral habits was to bite lips. Dental caries incidence was 67. 3%,there was no significant differences between male and female. Conclusion There was a certain characteristic in tibetan patients with orthodontic treatment in Barkam of aba pre-fecture,we need to strengthen the oral health care knowledge education.%目的:了解阿坝州马尔康地区藏族人口腔正畸治疗的特征,提高藏区口腔保健意识。方法选取马尔康地区近8年来就诊的藏族口腔正畸患者226例,男90例,女136例,通过对病例资料的回顾性分析,记录并统计其错类别、就诊原因、口腔不良习惯、口腔健康状况、年龄分布等信息。结果就诊的藏族患者中以女性青少年居多( P<0.05);错以安氏Ⅱ类最多,安氏Ⅲ类最少(P<0.05),表现以牙列拥挤、前牙深覆合深覆盖为主;就诊原因以家长意愿的美观要求为主(P<0.05);口腔不良习惯以咬唇居多;龋齿发病率为67.3%,男女差异无统计学意义。结论阿坝州马尔康地区藏族口腔正畸治疗患者有一定的特征

  1. Study on Risk Factors of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Yanbian Korean Prefecture%延边朝鲜族自治州丙型肝炎病毒感染危险因素研究

    缪宁; 金龙洙; 朴红心; 陈龙男; 王富珍; 陈园生; 郑徽; 吴振华; 崔富强


    目的 了解吉林省延边朝鲜族自治州(延边州)丙型肝炎(丙肝)病毒(Hepatitis C Virus,HCV)感染的危险因素,为预防控制丙肝提供参考.方法 采用病例-对照研究的方法,以性别和年龄作为匹配因素,按照1∶1的配对原则选择研究对象,开展相应的问卷调查和血清学检测,以确定HCV感染的危险因素.结果 单因素分析显示,病例组和对照组在家庭成员是否有HCV感染者、纹眉(眼线、唇线)、是否去洗浴场所、是否去理发店修面、是否使用安全套、手术史、输血史、输血时间、针灸史、口腔诊疗史、内窥镜史方面差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).多因素Logistic回归分析结果表明,进入回归方程的变量是家庭成员有HCV感染、去洗浴场所、有输血史和口腔诊疗史.结论 家庭成员有HCV感染者、输血史、经常去洗浴场所、有口腔诊疗史是HCV感染的危险因素,其中在输血的时间上,1992年及以前输血感染HCV的风险高于1993年及以后.而经常使用安全套是HCV感染的保护因素.%Objective To find out the risk factors of hepatitis C infection,and provide scientific basis for prevention of hepatitis C in Yanbian prefecture.Methods risk factors are evaluated by case-control method.The subjects were selected by matching indicators of sex and age,and based on the matching principle of 1:1 between case and control groups.Results The single factor analysis showed that the history of hepatitis C infection,Eyebrow (eyeliner,lip line),experience in bathing shop,shaving in barbershop,using condoms,history of operation,history of blood transfusion,time of blood transfusion,history of acupuncture,history of dental clinic and history of endoscope are influenced factors and two groups has significant statistic difference.Multifactor analysis showed that history of hepatitis C infection,experience in bathing shop,history of blood transfusion and history of dental clinic are the

  2. 2008-2010年阿坝州马尔康城区部分中小学生常见病监测%Monitoring of Common Diseases Among School Students in Maerkang District, Aba Autonomous Prefecture

    付海霞; 胡晓丽; 陈彬


    目的 了解阿坝州马尔康城区部分中小学生视力不良、沙眼、龋齿、营养不良、肥胖的流行现状,为学生常见病防治措施提供科学依据.方法 对2008-2010年度马尔康城区部分中小学生的健康检查资料进行统计分析.结果 中小学生视力不良呈逐年上升趋势,中学生视力不良检出率高于小学(P<0.01);学生的龋患率逐年升高,小学生龋患率高于中学生(P<0.01);中小学生沙眼平均检出率为5.74%,中学生沙眼检出率最高于小学生(P<0.01);学生营养不良及肥胖平均检出率为5.26%和10.06%,中小学生营养不良、肥胖检出率差异均无统计学意义(P>0.01).结论 中小学生视力不良呈逐年上升趋势,学生的龋患率逐年升高,学生沙眼检出率均高于小学生.%objective To analyze the epidemiologic situation of poor eyesight, trachoma, dental caries, malnutrition and obesity among school students in Maerkang district, Aba prefecture; and to provide scientific basis for feasible prevention measures. Methods Statistical analysis was performed on the health examination data of school students in Maerkang through 2008 -2010. Results School students showed an increasing trend in poor eyesight, and the detection rate of poor vision in secondary school students was higher than that in pupils ( P < 0. 01). Caries rate was increasing among school students, and caries rate of pupils was higher than in secondary school students (P <0. 01). The average detection rate of trachoma among school students was 5. 74% , secondary school students higher than pupils (P <0. 01). As for malnutrition and obesity, the average detection rate was 5. 26% and 10. 06% respectively. Conclusion Poor sight and trachoma are showing an ascending trend among school students in Maerkang, calling for intensified pertinent measures, such as health education, regular health examination and so on.

  3. 土地利用功能分区若干问题探讨——以云南德宏州为例%Preliminary Approach to Several Issues about Regional Division of Land Use Function: A Case Study in Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province

    陈星怡; 杨子生


    The regional division of land use function is a newborn regional division in China' s third round revision of general land use planning, also is the core content of this round revision of municipal (prefectural) general land use planning, which embodies the requirements of major function oriented zoning to land use. Based on expounding the basic concept and connotation of regional division of land use function, this paper has comprehensively summarized the theoretical basis and technical methods of regional division of land use function. Taking Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture as an example, the paper has discussed the principles of regional division of land use function, regional division system, ideas of regional division, technical route, and specific methods and steps of regional division. Overall, the basis of regional division of land use function is the needs of land use function subareas according to the characteristics of regional land resource and the needs of future economic and social development in the study area, and primary purpose of this regional division lies in "controlling and guiding the main function of land use", and thereby the use of land will be more rational. The regional division of land use function is basis is mainly regional differentiation theory (i. a complicated system engineering, its theoretical e. regional differences theory). In addition, thetheory of major function oriented zoning, land use function and land suitability evaluation, and overall regional coordinated development are also important theories of regional division. On technical methods, "top-down" regionalization method and "bottom-up" zoning method, which include special charts superposition method, qualitative analysis method (experience meth- od), statistical classification method, process analysis method, system clustering analysis meth- od, comprehensive evaluation method, discriminant analysis method, system evaluation hierarchi

  4. Ansiedade experimental humana Human experimental anxiety

    Frederico Guilherme Graeff


    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A ansiedade experimental no ser humano constitui-se em ponte entre os modelos animais e os ensaios clínicos. OBJETIVO: Este artigo focaliza métodos químicos e psicológicos utilizados para provocar ansiedade experimental em seres humanos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se revisão seletiva da literatura. RESULTADOS: Os desafios farmacológicos têm sido usados principalmente para induzir ataques de pânico em pacientes com transtorno de pânico, os quais são mais sensíveis a eles que indivíduos normais ou pacientes portadores de outros transtornos psiquiátricos. Uma das mais importantes contribuições deste método é a de ter mostrado que os agentes panicogênicos mais seletivos, como o lactato ou a inalação de CO2, não ativam o eixo hormonal do estresse. Entre os métodos psicológicos, destacam-se o condicionamento de respostas elétricas da condutância da pele, cujo perfil farmacológico se aproxima daquele do transtorno de ansiedade generalizada, e o teste da simulação do falar em público, cuja farmacologia é semelhante à do transtorno de pânico. CONCLUSÕES: Tais resultados salientam a diferença entre a neurobiologia da ansiedade e a do pânico.BACKGROUND: Human experimental anxiety methods bridge the gap between animal models and clinical assays. OBJECTIVE: This article is focused on chemical and psychological procedures used to generate experimental anxiety in human beings. METHODS: A selective review of the literature has been carried out. RESULTS: Pharmacological challenges have been mainly used to induce panic attacks in panic disorder patients, who are more susceptible than normal individuals or patients with other psychiatric disorders. One of the most important contributions of this method is to have shown that the most selective panicogenic agents, such as lactate or CO2 inhalation, do not activate the hormonal stress axis. Among the psychological methods stand the conditioning of the electrical skin conductance

  5. Experimental semiotics: a review.

    Galantucci, Bruno; Garrod, Simon


    In the last few years a new line of research has appeared in the literature. This line of research, which may be referred to as experimental semiotics (ES; Galantucci, 2009; Galantucci and Garrod, 2010), focuses on the experimental investigation of novel forms of human communication. In this review we will (a) situate ES in its conceptual context, (b) illustrate the main varieties of studies thus far conducted by experimental semioticians, (c) illustrate three main themes of investigation which have emerged within this line of research, and (d) consider implications of this work for cognitive neuroscience.

  6. Experimentally produced calf pneumonia.

    Gourlay, R N; Howard, C J; Thomas, L H; Stott, E J


    Experimental pneumonia was produced in calves by the endobronchial inoculation of pneumonic lung homogenates. Irradiated homogenates produced minimal pneumonia. Ampicillin treatment of the homogenates and the experimental calves reduced the extent of pneumonia. Treatment with tylosin tartrate prevented experimental pneumonia. These results suggest that the total pneumonia was due to organisms susceptible to tylosin tartrate and that the residual pneumonia remaining after ampicillin treatment was due to organisms susceptible to tylosin tartrate but not to ampicillin. Of the organisms isolated from the lungs, the ones in this latter category most likely to be responsible are Mycoplasma dispar and ureaplasmas (T-mycoplasmas).

  7. Experimental approaches and applications

    Crasemann, Bernd


    Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, Volume II: Experimental Approaches and Applications focuses on the physics of atomic inner shells, with emphasis on experimental aspects including the use of radioactive atoms for studies of atomic transition probabilities. Surveys of modern techniques of electron and photon spectrometry are also presented, and selected practical applications of inner-shell processes are outlined. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general principles underlying the experimental techniques that make use of radioactive isotopes for inner-sh

  8. Network Science Experimentation Vision


    Experimentation Ecosystem 3 2.1 Multi-thread Campaign of Experimentation 4 2.1.1 Need for a CAMPX 4 2.1.2 CAMPX Overview 5 2.1.3 Conceptual Model ...Collaborative Research Alliance (CS CRA) and Applied Research and Experimentation Partner (AREP) Programs 19 3.3 Researcher Empowerment and...Productivity 20 4. Composite Network CAMPX 21 4.1 Military Relevance 21 iv 4.2 Goals 22 4.3 Conceptual Model 23 4.3.1 Endeavor Space 23 4.3.2 Single

  9. Experimental Aspects of Synthesis

    Ehlers, Rüdiger


    We discuss the problem of experimentally evaluating linear-time temporal logic (LTL) synthesis tools for reactive systems. We first survey previous such work for the currently publicly available synthesis tools, and then draw conclusions by deriving useful schemes for future such evaluations. In particular, we explain why previous tools have incompatible scopes and semantics and provide a framework that reduces the impact of this problem for future experimental comparisons of such tools. Furthermore, we discuss which difficulties the complex workflows that begin to appear in modern synthesis tools induce on experimental evaluations and give answers to the question how convincing such evaluations can still be performed in such a setting.

  10. Systems biology: experimental design.

    Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens


    Experimental design has a long tradition in statistics, engineering and life sciences, dating back to the beginning of the last century when optimal designs for industrial and agricultural trials were considered. In cell biology, the use of mathematical modeling approaches raises new demands on experimental planning. A maximum informative investigation of the dynamic behavior of cellular systems is achieved by an optimal combination of stimulations and observations over time. In this minireview, the existing approaches concerning this optimization for parameter estimation and model discrimination are summarized. Furthermore, the relevant classical aspects of experimental design, such as randomization, replication and confounding, are reviewed.

  11. Nuclear test experimental science

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Bucciarelli, G.; Carter, J.; Cherniak, J.; Donohue, M.L.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Reid, S. (eds.)


    This report discusses research being conducted at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under the following topics: prompt diagnostics; experimental modeling, design, and analysis; detector development; streak-camera data systems; weapons supporting research.

  12. Experimental modal analysis

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.


    This technical report concerns the basic theory and principles for experimental modal analysis. The sections within the report are: Output-only modal analysis software, general digital analysis, basics of structural dynamics and modal analysis and system identification. (au)

  13. Experimental economics in antitrust

    Normann, H.T.; Müller, W.; Blair, R.D.; Sokol, D.D.


    This chapter assesses the scope and the specific contribution of laboratory experiments for antitrust. It reviews experiments that have addressed specific antitrust issues, problems, and institutions. The chapter mainly covers experimental studies on collusion (tacit and explicit, conscious

  14. The Experimental Art School

    Ørum, Tania


    The article describes the Experimental Art School from its early beginnings, its development from formal experiments to political action, the question of gender and politics, and the power of the self-organised......The article describes the Experimental Art School from its early beginnings, its development from formal experiments to political action, the question of gender and politics, and the power of the self-organised...

  15. Software Reliability Experimentation and Control

    Kai-Yuan Cai


    This paper classifies software researches as theoretical researches, experimental researches, and engineering researches, and is mainly concerned with the experimental researches with focus on software reliability experimentation and control. The state-of-the-art of experimental or empirical studies is reviewed. A new experimentation methodology is proposed, which is largely theory discovering oriented. Several unexpected results of experimental studies are presented to justify the importance of software reliability experimentation and control. Finally, a few topics that deserve future investigation are identified.

  16. Application of Asian epidemic model in estimation of AIDS epidemic and prediction of intervention effect in Liangshan prefecture%亚洲流行模型在凉山州艾滋病疫情估计及干预效果预测中的应用

    陈颖; 周颖; 吴春霖; 李崇行; 王启兴; 卫大英; 南磊; 栾荣生


    Objective To explore the application of Asian epidemic model(AEM) in estimating AIDS epidemic and predicting intervention effect. Methods AEM was used to estimate dynamic trend of AIDS epidemic in Liangs-han prefecture, and to predict the trend of new HIV infections in 2011 - 2015 after implementing comprehensive intervention with AEM . Results In recent years, the proportion of reported and estimated AIDS epidemic continued to rise in Liangshan prefecture. At the end of 2009, the actual reported number had already been more than 1/2 of the estimated number. There would be little change of HIV infection in IDUs, FSWs and clients of FSWs in the next 5 years, but HIV infection in MSM would increase rapidly. Meanwhile, the proportion of casual sexual behaviors in HIV transmission would rise year by year. If intensity of current comprehensive intervention was maintained, the trend of new HIV infections would continue to rise. If the coverage of AIDS comprehensive intervention achieved 70% , the trend of new HIV infections would begin to decline. If the coverage of AIDS comprehensive intervention a-chieved 90% , the trend of new HIV infections would decline obviously. Conclusions The detection capacity of AIDS epidemic has been greatly improved in Liangshan prefecture. The role of MSM and casual sexual behaviors in HIV transmission in Liangshan prefecture should be paid more attention. The coverage of AIDS comprehensive interventions need to be further improved, including the frequency and intensity of intervention.%目的 探讨亚洲流行模型(AEM)在艾滋病疫情估计及干预效果预测中的应用.方法 运用AEM预测凉山州艾滋病疫情变化趋势,并通过AEM Intervention预测改变综合干预覆盖率后,2011-2015年新发感染的变化情况.结果近年来,凉山州艾滋病报告与估计疫情比例持续上升.截止2009年底,实际报告数已超过疫情估计数的1/2.在今后5年,各类人群中,注射吸毒人群、暗娼和嫖客人

  17. 论地市级“一城多媒”现状的有效改革--新媒体环境下传统媒体的战略转型研究%On Effective Reform of Prefecture-level“One City with Multiple Media”--A Research on strategic transformation of traditional media under the background of new media

    林喦; 郑婉瑶


    在新媒体环境下,传统媒体的发展受到了一定程度上的冲击,而对于地市级“一城多媒”的现实情况,传统的报纸、广播、电视如何与新媒体“融合”与“压缩”,如何实现自身发展的突围?在地方媒体之多、质量不高的情况下,传统媒体如何从自身本体优势出发,打造城市专属媒介品牌,已成为当下媒体业界和学界探讨的话题。地市级“一城多媒”的改革必须做有效的多媒融合与媒体压缩,改变固有的新闻同源化与同质化的弊端,才能提升“一城多媒”的发展空间。%Under the background of new media, a great impact has been inflicted on the development of traditional media. How does the traditional media like newspapers, radio and TV integrate with the new media and develop itself under the current situation of prefecture-level“One City with Multiple Media”? There is a hot debate as to how to build an exclusive media brand in the city with the advantages of traditional media. To effectively reform the prefecture-level "One City with Multiple Media", it is necessary to integrate and reduce the existing media, and overcome the shortcomings like the same source of news for a better development.

  18. 民族区域自治制度的法律保障及其实施效果评价*--以云南省楚雄彝族自治州为例%Evaluation on the Legal Guarantee and Implementation Effect of the System of Regional National Autonomy- A Case Study of Chuxiong Yi Nationality Autonomous Prefecture



    民族区域自治制度和《中华人民共和国民族区域自治法》的实施,是我国民族政策和民族工作规范化、法制化的鲜明标志。今年是《云南省楚雄彝族自治州自治条例》颁布实施30周年。以云南省楚雄彝族自治州为例,在全面依法治国背景下,组织人员对民族区域自治制度在民族自治地方的贯彻落实情况进行了实证调查,在此基础上提出加强和改进民族区域自治地方法制建设的对策建议。%The system of the regional national autonomy and the implementation of Law of the People’s Repub-lic of China on Regional National Autonomy mark the progress of standardization and legalization of the ethnic poli-cy and the national work of China. To mark the 30th anniversary of the promulgation of Regulations on Autonomy of Chuxiong Yi Nationality Autonomous Prefecture,Yunnan Province,a survey is conducted on the status of imple-mentation of the autonomy system in areas inhabited by the minority ethnic groups in Chuxiong Yi Nationality Au-tonomous Prefecture under the background of overall practice of rule of law. Based on the survey,suggestions are made regarding reinforcement and improvement of legal construction in areas under regional national autonomy.

  19. Self-experimentation.

    Davis, John K


    Except in certain cases of unusual risk, self-experimentation should not be encouraged. It is usually scientifically inadequate for lack of proper controls and sufficient subjects to generate meaningful results. It is also inadequate as an ethical test because even if lay persons are also enrolled, self-experimentation is neither necessary nor sufficient to establish that they may participate. It is not necessary to establish that lay persons may participate because institutional ethics review and informed consent are better ways to determine this. It is not sufficient because the investigator may be more risk accepting or not medically typical. Moreover, because scientific research is now done in teams, self-experimentation may involve undue influence when junior investigators participate as research subjects.

  20. Frozen waves: experimental generation.

    Vieira, Tarcio A; Gesualdi, Marcos R R; Zamboni-Rached, Michel


    Frozen waves (FWs) are very interesting particular cases of nondiffracting beams whose envelopes are static and whose longitudinal intensity patterns can be chosen a priori. We present here for the first time (that we know of) the experimental generation of FWs. The experimental realization of these FWs was obtained using a holographic setup for the optical reconstruction of computer generated holograms (CGH), based on a 4-f Fourier filtering system and a nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM), where FW CGHs were first computationally implemented, and later electronically implemented, on the LC-SLM for optical reconstruction. The experimental results are in agreement with the corresponding theoretical analytical solutions and hold excellent prospects for implementation in scientific and technological applications.

  1. Experimental Research in Marketing

    Jose Mauro Hernandez


    Full Text Available Considering the growing number of scientific studies published in the marketing field and the development of unique theories of the area (Hunt, 2010, using experimental designs seems increasingly appropriate to investigate marketing phenomena. This article aims to discuss the main elements in conducting experimental studies and also to stimulate researchers to adopt this research method. Several international journals (e.g., JCR, JCP, JMR, JR, JBR have been publishing articles based on experiments that not only demonstrate a relationship between two events, but also elucidate how they occur by means of mediation and moderation analyses. This article intents to be a roadmap for novice researchers on how to conduct experiments and to offer new perspectives in experimental research for experienced researchers.  

  2. 府际关系视角下的跨区域经济合作——以江苏对口支援新疆伊犁哈萨克自治州州直地区为例%Cross-region economic cooperation in intergovernmental relations Perspective: a case study of partner assistance of Jiangsu to Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture

    季菲菲; 陈江龙; 袁丰; 陈雯


    对口援疆是国家引导下的特殊跨区域经济合作关系,是解决区域发展不平衡、促进少数民族地区经济增长的重要手段.随着2010年新一轮对口支援新疆工作的实施启动,亟需加强该领域的理论研究.基于府际关系的理论视角,以江苏省对口支援伊犁州直为倒,分析对口援疆中府际关系网络的形成、利益相关者的作用和利益诉求,进而探讨了对口援疆工作合作方式.研究表明,援疆的府际关系网络是由纵向府际关系促成横向府际关系而建立的复杂网络,在这一网络中,中央政府以协调区域关系为主,江苏省政府、新疆维吾尔自治区政府、伊犁州政府起政策过渡作用,伊犁州直各县市等受援方最关注如何使用援助资金改善民生、完善基础设施,江苏市区县等施援方对建立产业合作最为重视.对口援疆是双方府际关系发展的一个阶段,今后发展的重点将逐渐转向充分利用地缘和资源优势打造产业平台,实现优势互补,变“对口支援”关系为“战略型伙伴”关系.%Partner Assistance in Xinjiang is a specific cross-region economic cooperation, which is led by national government. It is an method used by centre government in order to deal with the unbalance regional development and promote economic growth in some developing area. There should be more literature on theoretical bases uf Partner Assistance in Xinjiang, as the new round of partner assistance of Jiangsu to Hi Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture began in 2010. From intergovernmental relations perspective, this paper takes Partner Assistance of Jiangsu to Iil Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture as a case study and applies the basic concept of intergovernmental relations theory, to study the formation of this intergovernmental network in Partner Assistance, reveal the complicacy of it, identify the stakeholders in it and analyze their interactions and functions. This study creates an analysis

  3. SPHINX experimenters information package

    Zarick, T.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Radiation Effects Experimentation Dept.


    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  4. Experimental probes of axions

    Chou, Aaron S.; /Fermilab


    Experimental searches for axions or axion-like particles rely on semiclassical phenomena resulting from the postulated coupling of the axion to two photons. Sensitive probes of the extremely small coupling constant can be made by exploiting familiar, coherent electromagnetic laboratory techniques, including resonant enhancement of transitions using microwave and optical cavities, Bragg scattering, and coherent photon-axion oscillations. The axion beam may either be astrophysical in origin as in the case of dark matter axion searches and solar axion searches, or created in the laboratory from laser interactions with magnetic fields. This note is meant to be a sampling of recent experimental results.

  5. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    Cortina Gil, D. [Santiago de Compostela Univ. (Spain)


    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  6. Experimental fully contextual correlations

    Amselem, Elias; Lopez-Tarrida, Antonio J; Portillo, Jose R; Bourennane, Mohamed; Cabello, Adan


    Quantum correlations are contextual yet, in general, nothing prevents the existence of even more contextual correlations. We identify and test a simple noncontextual inequality in which the quantum violation cannot be improved by any hypothetical post-quantum resource, and use it to experimentally obtain correlations in which the maximum noncontextual content, defined as the maximum fraction of noncontextual correlations, is less than 0.06. Our correlations are experimentally generated from the outcomes of sequential compatible measurements on a four-state quantum system encoded in the polarization and path of a single photon.

  7. 湘西自治州甲型H1N1流感血清流行病学调查%Seroepidemiological Survey on the Influenza A (H1N1) in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefectures

    姚华; 石金泉; 吴登科; 黄生权; 吴戈; 向玉德


    目的 了解湘西自治州人群甲型H1N1流感病毒感染状况和免疫水平,分析流感流行趋势,为制定针对性的防治措施提供依据.方法 采用多阶段分层随机抽样方法,于2010年1月4月8月共选取675人进行问卷调查,并采集血液标本进行甲型H1N1流感病毒血凝抗体检测.结果 在不同季节,不同职业人群中H1抗体阳性率不同(P<0.05),同时在出现过急性呼吸道症以及接种过甲型H1N1流感疫苗的人群中H1抗体阳性率相对较高(P<0.05).H1抗体GMT呈现季节性变化(P<0.05),在不同年龄,不同职业人群中抗体水平大小差异有统计学意义(P< 0.05,P< 0.01).调查还发现发现出现过急性呼吸道症人群中抗体GMT和中位数高于未出现呼吸道症状者(P< 0.001);接种过甲型H1N1流感疫苗者抗体GMT和中位数也同样高于未接种者(P< 0.001).在不同性别和民族人群中,抗体的阳性率和水平大小无统计学差异.结论 目前湘西地区甲型H1N1流感已经得到有效控制,但鉴于人群中保护性抗体水平季节性变化,下一阶段重点是定期开展快速的血清学监测,并且继续对高危人群实施甲型H1N1流感疫苗接种.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the infection status of influenza A (H1N1) and the immunity level in Xiangxi and analyze the epidemic trend, and to provide evidence for the prevention and control of the disease. METHODS By multi-stage stratified random sampling method, a total of 675 individuals from Xiangxi autonomous prefectures were selected in January, April and August 2010. All the collected data from questionnaires was analyzed by seroepidemiological methods. The antibodies of influenza A (H1N1) viruses were detected by the hemagglutination- inhibition test. RESULTS In different seasons, different occupational groups, H1 antibodes' positive rate was significantly different (P< 0.05), and H1 antibodes' positive rate was relatively high in the population suffered from

  8. 西藏浪卡子县不同民族人群口腔健康状况调查%Oral health status of different nationalities in Nagarze County of Shannan Prefecture

    王冕; 蒋勇


    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of caries and periodontal disease in Han and Tibetan nation-alities in Nagarze County of Shannan Prefecture. METHODS: Oral health examination was done according to the standards of the 3rd National Oral Epidemiological Survey and WHO Oral Health Surveys. 342 residents aged from 35 to 74 years were included in the investigation and were divided into three age groups (35-44year-old, 45-64-year-old and 65-74year-old). RESULTS: Caries prevalence rates of Han and Tibetan nationalities among different age groups were 78.2% , 93. 7% , 94. 7% and 58. 3% , 79. 3% , 83. 3% respectively. Gingival bleeding rates were 57. 3% , 71.8% , 73.3% and 62.5% , 65.5% , 66.7% respectively. Dental calculus detection rates were 99. 1% , 96.7% , 94.6%and 91. 7% , 89. 6% , 77. 8% respectively. Periodontitis rates were 26. 1% , 35. 9% , 44% and 33. 3% , 48.2% , 55. 6% respectively. Of the 342 subjects investigated, impaired teeth rates in the Han nantionality were 62.5%, 65. 5% and 73. 6%, while those in Tibetan nationality were 76. 5%, 84. 2% and 85.8%. CONCLUSION; Oral disease prevalence in Tibetan nationality is higher than in Han nationality. More work should be done in order to improve the oral health status of this area.%目的:了解西藏山南地区浪卡子县藏族和汉族不同年龄组人群的口腔健康状况,为当地口腔疾病防治提供依据.方法:按照《第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查方案》和世界卫生组织《口腔健康调查基本方法》的标准对山南地区浪卡子县342名居民(35~74岁)口腔卫生情况进行调查.结果:在35~44、45~64、65~74岁组,藏族和汉族恒牙患龋率分别为78.2%、93.7%、94.7%和58.3%、79.3%、83.3%,牙龈炎患病率分别为57.3%、71.8%、73.3%和62.5%、65.5%、66.7%,牙石检出率分别为99.1%、96.7%、94.6%和91.7%、89.6%、77.8%,牙周炎率分别为26.1%、35.9%、44%和33.3%、48.2%、55.6

  9. 西藏山南地区藏族高中毕业学生口腔健康状况调查分析%Oral health survey on graduating senior high school students in Shannan Prefecture of Tibet

    侯锐; 吴芳; 肖高; 杨文兵; 魏银花


    Objective To investigate oral health status of graduating senior high school students of Zang nationality in Shannan Prefecture of Tibet,and to provide basis for prevention of local oral diseases. Methods Based on 3rd national oral health survey project and WHO methodology of oral health survey,totally 1907 students were checked on caries, periodontitis,dental fluorosis,and oral hygiene status. With questionnaire the students' oral health practice,present situ-ation of oral medical service,and need of oral health service were investigated. Results It showed that mean DMFT was 0.97 and caries prevalence rate was 39.96%in students of Zang nationality. In community periodontal index,the detec-tion rates of gingivitis and dental calculus were 59.50%and 62.64%. Oral hygiene index-simplified was 0.69,with 0.36 and 0.33 in debris index-simplified and calculus index-simplified. Community dental fluorosis index was 0.29,with 8.13%in prevalence rate. The questionnaire showed that students had poor oral health practice and lower needs for oral health service. The local area had also poor oral medical service. Conclusion Students of Zang nationality in plateau ar-eas have higher prevalence of oral diseases and lower oral health perception. Oral health education and local dentists training should be strengthened and improved so as to get effective prevention for oral diseases.%目的:了解西藏山南地区藏族高中毕业学生的口腔健康状况,为当地口腔疾病防治提供依据。方法于2013年4月按照《第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查方案》和世界卫生组织《口腔健康调查基本方法》的标准,对1907名西藏山南地区藏族高中毕业学生进行恒牙的龋病、牙周病、氟牙症以及口腔卫生情况检查,计算该人群的龋病指数、社区牙周指数(CPI)、简化口腔卫生指数(OHI-S)和社区氟牙症指数(CFI),并通过问卷调查其口腔卫生行为、口腔医疗服务现状和

  10. 晋中地区荞麦品质气候区划的GIS多元分析%Climate Regionalization of Buckwheat Quality Index Based on GIS Multivariate Analysis in Jinzhong Prefecture

    冯美臣; 牛波; 杨武德; 肖璐洁


    and meteorological factors was analyzed, together with the geographical distribution information of buckwheat and the major meteorological factors which effected on quality index were screened out. The model was established based on PCA method in order go assess the comprehensive quality of buckwheat, then the ecological regionalization was determined using the ArcGIS spatial analysis technique. The results showed that temperature, rainfall and sunshine梙our were the main ecological factors which effected buckwheat quality index. It had bad effect on buckwheat growth and went against accumulate of quality index, if the daily highest temperature was more than 35癈 and mean temperature was higher. A plenty of precipitation in August and plenteous sunshine of whole stage were beneficial to accumulate of quality index. Combined with evaluation model, u-sing GIS, Jinzhong Prefecture was divided into three regions, i. e. adapted, inferior adapted and bad adapted planting region, and it was largely in line with the actual condition. PCA combined with GIS method is the most powerful approach for regionalization, and the quantitative computing and qualitative analysis are integrated. So, there is a feasibility to carry through ecological regionalization of buckwheat quality u-sing PCA method and GIS, and the regionalization results are objective and scientific. The method is concise, applicable and effective, which can really reflect the regionalization actual situation and provide reference for fine quality production of buckwheat.

  11. 新疆喀什地区2010年细菌耐药性监测分析%Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Kashi Prefecture,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in 2010

    王怀振; 李际强; 杜希利; 易婷曲; 商勇; 何涛; 梁景华


    目的 了解新疆维吾尔自治区喀什地区2010年2家地区级医院临床分离株的耐药情况.方法 采用纸片扩散法(K-B法)对临床分离株进行药敏试验,采用CLSI 2009年版判断标准.结果 2 768株临床分离株中,革兰阳性菌占34.57%,革兰阴性菌占65.43%.排名前6位的病原菌是:大肠埃希菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、表皮葡萄球菌、铜绿假单胞菌、鲍曼不动杆菌.146株铜绿假单胞菌对亚胺培南、美罗培南的耐药率分别为8.46%和10.00%,对阿米卡星、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦、妥布霉素的耐药率在14.94%~17.36%;对136株鲍曼不动杆菌耐药率小于30%的药物从低到高分别为美洛培南、阿米卡星、亚胺培南、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦、妥布霉素;MRSA占所有金黄色葡萄球菌的38.89%,葡萄球菌属未发现对万古霉素、利奈唑胺的耐药菌株;发现4株屎肠球菌和4株粪肠球菌对万古霉素耐药,但对利奈唑胺均敏感.结论 喀什地区的抗生素耐药率与全国情况稍有差别,如铜绿假单胞菌及鲍曼不动杆菌对碳青霉烯类耐药率明显低于全国水平,可能与经济情况相关.但细菌耐药性普遍存在,亦发现了多耐药及泛耐药菌株,因此加强抗菌药耐药监测是目前合理应用抗生素的当务之急.%Objective To investigate the pathogens distribution and the antibiotic resistance of clinical isolated isolates from two hospitals of Kashi Prefecture,the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in 2010. Method Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by Kirby-Beuer method and results were analyzed according to CLSI 2009. Results Of total 2 768 clinical isolates,Gram positive cocci accounted for 34.57% and Gram negative organisms for 65.43%. The top six pathogens were E. coli,S. aureus ,K. pneumonias, S. epidermisdis ,P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. The resistance of 146 P. aeruginosa isolates to Imipenem and Meropenem were detected with

  12. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel


    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  13. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    Christensen, Thomas


    of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) was used as an experimental model of ischemic stroke. MCAO produces an acute lesion consisting of an ischemic core or focus with severely reduced blood flow surrounded by a borderzone or ischemic penumbra with less pronounced blood flow reduction. Cells in the ischemic focus...

  14. Communicating Uncertain Experimental Evidence

    Davis, Alexander L.; Fischhoff, Baruch


    Four experiments examined when laypeople attribute unexpected experimental outcomes to error, in foresight and in hindsight, along with their judgments of whether the data should be published. Participants read vignettes describing hypothetical experiments, along with the result of the initial observation, considered as either a possibility…

  15. Experimental modal analysis

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten

    This technical report concerns the basic theory and principles for experimental modal analysis. The sections within the report are: Output-only modal analysis software (section 1.1), general digital analysis (section 1.2), basics of structural dynamics and modal analysis (section 1.3) and system ...

  16. Trends in animal experimentation.

    Monteiro, Rosangela; Brandau, Ricardo; Gomes, Walter J; Braile, Domingo M


    The search of the understanding of etiological factors, mechanisms and treatment of the diseases has been taking to the development of several animal models in the last decades. To discuss aspects related to animal models of experimentation, animal choice and current trends in this field in our country. In addition, this study evaluated the frequency of experimental articles in medical journals. Five Brazilian journals indexed by LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, and recently incorporate for Institute for Scientific Information Journal of Citation Reports were analyzed. All the papers published in those journals, between 2007 and 2008, that used animal models, were selected based on the abstracts. Of the total of 832 articles published in the period, 92 (11.1%) experimentation papers were selected. The number of experimental articles ranged from 5.2% to 17.9% of the global content of the journal. In the instructions to the authors, four (80%) journals presented explicit reference to the ethical principles in the conduction of studies with animals. The induced animal models represented 100% of the articles analyzed in this study. The rat was the most employed animal in the analyzed articles (78.3%). The present study can contribute, supplying subsidies for adoption of future editorials policies regarding the publication of animal research papers in Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery.

  17. Myofibroblasts in experimental hydronephrosis

    Diamond, J R; van Goor, H; Ding, G; Engelmyer, E

    Interstitial fibrosis is a common outcome of longterm ureteral obstruction. One pathological arm of the fibrotic reaction in diverse tissue loci and experimental models is the retraction of granulation tissue. The role of the myofibroblast in granulation tissue contraction and fibrocontractive

  18. Experimental Blade Research

    Eder, Martin Alexander; Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter

    This report is a summary of the results obtained in the project: Experimental Blade Research – phase 2 (EBR2). The project was supported by the Danish Energy Authority through the 2010 Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Program (EUDP 2010-II) and has journal no. 64011-0006. The project...

  19. Research, Innovation and Experimentation.

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL.

    This is the second in a series of annual presentations on the innovative, experimental, and research activities conducted at Santa Fe Junior College. The studies include: classroom activities, college-wide research, short statements on different instructional approaches to formal dissertation abstracts, subjective observations, intricate…

  20. Semiconductor Research Experimental Techniques

    Balkan, Naci


    The book describes the fundamentals, latest developments and use of key experimental techniques for semiconductor research. It explains the application potential of various analytical methods and discusses the opportunities to apply particular analytical techniques to study novel semiconductor compounds, such as dilute nitride alloys. The emphasis is on the technique rather than on the particular system studied.

  1. Outsourcing of experimental work

    Nielsen, Henrik


    With the development of new technologies for simultaneous analysis of many genes, transcripts, or proteins (the "omics" revolution), it has become common to outsource parts of the experimental work. In order to maintain the integrity of the research projects, it is important that the interphase...

  2. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    Irvine, George W.


    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  3. Teaching experimental design.

    Fry, Derek J


    Awareness of poor design and published concerns over study quality stimulated the development of courses on experimental design intended to improve matters. This article describes some of the thinking behind these courses and how the topics can be presented in a variety of formats. The premises are that education in experimental design should be undertaken with an awareness of educational principles, of how adults learn, and of the particular topics in the subject that need emphasis. For those using laboratory animals, it should include ethical considerations, particularly severity issues, and accommodate learners not confident with mathematics. Basic principles, explanation of fully randomized, randomized block, and factorial designs, and discussion of how to size an experiment form the minimum set of topics. A problem-solving approach can help develop the skills of deciding what are correct experimental units and suitable controls in different experimental scenarios, identifying when an experiment has not been properly randomized or blinded, and selecting the most efficient design for particular experimental situations. Content, pace, and presentation should suit the audience and time available, and variety both within a presentation and in ways of interacting with those being taught is likely to be effective. Details are given of a three-day course based on these ideas, which has been rated informative, educational, and enjoyable, and can form a postgraduate module. It has oral presentations reinforced by group exercises and discussions based on realistic problems, and computer exercises which include some analysis. Other case studies consider a half-day format and a module for animal technicians. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  4. Experimental Design Research

    of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology......This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations......, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current...

  5. Geoengineering as Collective Experimentation.

    Stilgoe, Jack


    Geoengineering is defined as the 'deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth's climatic system with the aim of reducing global warming'. The technological proposals for doing this are highly speculative. Research is at an early stage, but there is a strong consensus that technologies would, if realisable, have profound and surprising ramifications. Geoengineering would seem to be an archetype of technology as social experiment, blurring lines that separate research from deployment and scientific knowledge from technological artefacts. Looking into the experimental systems of geoengineering, we can see the negotiation of what is known and unknown. The paper argues that, in renegotiating such systems, we can approach a new mode of governance-collective experimentation. This has important ramifications not just for how we imagine future geoengineering technologies, but also for how we govern geoengineering experiments currently under discussion.

  6. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco


    Temporal steering is a form of temporal correlation between the initial and final state of a quantum system. It is a temporal analogue of the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (spatial) steering. We demonstrate, by measuring the photon polarization, that temporal steering allows two parties to verify if they have been interacting with the same particle, even if they have no information about what happened with the particle in between the measurements. This is the first experimental study of temporal steering. We also performed experimental tests, based on the violation of temporal steering inequalities, of the security of two quantum key distribution protocols against individual attacks. Thus, these results can lead to applications for secure quantum communications and quantum engineering. PMID:27901121

  7. Experimental higher dimensional entanglement

    Richart, Daniel L.; Wieczorek, Witlef; Weinfurter, Harald [MPI fuer Quantenoptik, Hans Kopfermannstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Schellingstr. 4, D-80797 Muenchen (Germany)


    Higher dimensional states (qudits) allow to implement quantum communication schemes of increasing complexity, as e.g. superdense coding. Similarly, qudits allow further research into the fundaments of quantum theory. Here we report on first steps towards the implementation of states with correlated photon pairs in a 2 x 8 dimensional Hilbert space. To this end the photon pairs are prepared in the energy-time basis, as initially proposed in: Using unbalanced interferometers, information can be encoded in the different arrival times of the photon pairs, early and late, as was experimentally realized in. Here, we extend this scheme by proposing and characterizing a scalable multiple time delay interferometer. This interferometer system allows an exponential increase in the dimensionality of the entangled state with only a linear increase in the optical components used. Using the proposed interferometer system, first experimental tests on a two-dimensional state yielded a violation of a Bell inequality by four standard deviations.




    The article provides an overview of experimental studies of charoite and charoite-containing rock formation hypotheses. The authors conducted experiments to clarify charoite and host rocks interaction and study charoite transformation processes at high temperatures. A series of experiments was aimed at improving the substandard charoite samples. The experiments show the formation of polymineral reaction zones due to the contact interaction between charoite and microcline-arfvedsonite lamproph...

  9. Experimental status of physics

    H Yamamoto


    In a short period of time, we will have a large amount of results from -factories including ones on CP violation. In this talk, we briefly review the current experimental status of -physics. After a quick description of -facilities, we divide this vast field into two categories: (1) weak interaction and QCD, (2) unitarity triangle and CP violation. Only a few critical items are selected in each category for the sake of time and space.

  10. Experimental chronic periodontitis morphogenesis

    Schneider S.A.


    Morphogenesis of periodontium tissue in a model of chronic periodontitis was studied. Adult Wistar rats wereused in a model; chronic periodontitis was developed through mastication-related loading decrease. Histological assessmentof periodontium tissue was conducted at Days 7, 14, 21 and 30. It was demonstrated that dystrophic tissue changes prevailover the inflammatory one in this particular experimental model. The structural elements of periodontium were involved intothe pathologic process ...

  11. Blois V: Experimental summary

    Albrow, M.G.


    The author gives a summary talk of the best experimental data given at the Vth Blois Workshop on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering. He addresses the following eight areas in his talk: total and elastic cross sections; single diffractive excitation; electron-proton scattering; di-jets and rapidity gaps; areas of future study; spins and asymmetries; high-transverse momentum and masses at the Tevatron; and disoriented chiral condensates and cosmic radiation.

  12. Woodward Effect Experimental Verifications

    March, Paul


    The work of J. F. Woodward (1990 1996a; 1996b; 1998; 2002a; 2002b; 2004) on the existence of ``mass fluctuations'' and their use in exotic propulsion schemes was examined for possible application in improving space flight propulsion and power generation. Woodward examined Einstein's General Relativity Theory (GRT) and assumed that if the strong Machian interpretation of GRT as well as gravitational / inertia like Wheeler-Feynman radiation reaction forces hold, then when an elementary particle is accelerated through a potential gradient, its rest mass should fluctuate around its mean value during its acceleration. Woodward also used GRT to clarify the precise experimental conditions necessary for observing and exploiting these mass fluctuations or ``Woodward effect'' (W-E). Later, in collaboration with his ex-graduate student T. Mahood, they also pushed the experimental verification boundaries of these proposals. If these purported mass fluctuations occur as Woodward claims, and his assumption that gravity and inertia are both byproducts of the same GRT based phenomenon per Mach's Principle is correct, then many innovative applications such as propellantless propulsion and gravitational exotic matter generators may be feasible. This paper examines the reality of mass fluctuations and the feasibility of using the W-E to design propellantless propulsion devices in the near to mid-term future. The latest experimental results, utilizing MHD-like force rectification systems, will also be presented.

  13. SAA drift: Experimental results

    Grigoryan, O. R.; Romashova, V. V.; Petrov, A. N.

    According to the paleomagnetic analysis there are variations of Earth’s magnetic field connected with magnetic moment changing. These variations affect on the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) location. Indeed different observations approved the existence of the SAA westward drift rate (0.1 1.0 deg/year) and northward drift rate (approximately 0.1 deg/year). In this work, we present the analysis of experimental results obtained in Scobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (SINP MSU) onboard different Earth’s artificial satellites (1972 2003). The fluxes of protons with energy >50 MeV, gamma quanta with energy >500 keV and neutrons with energy 0.1 1.0 MeV in the SAA region have been analyzed. The mentioned above experimental data were obtained onboard the orbital stations Salut-6 (1979), MIR (1991, 1998) and ISS (2003) by the similar experimental equipment. The comparison of the data obtained during these two decades of investigations confirms the fact that the SAA drifts westward. Moreover the analysis of fluxes of electrons with energy about hundreds keV (Cosmos-484 (1972) and Active (Interkosmos-24, 1991) satellites) verified not only the SAA westward drift but northward drift also.

  14. Investigation on the Hosts with Natural Paragonimus Infection and Species Identification in Jinhua Prefecture of Zhejiang Province%浙江省金华地区并殖吸虫自然宿主调查及虫种鉴定

    楼宏强; 胡野; 金耀建; 余新图; 王岚; 何旭英; 屠平光


    Objective To investigate the natural hosts infected with Paragonimus sp. And identify the species of the parasite in selected counties/districts of Jinhua prefecture in Zhejiang Province. Methods Three townships/towns were randomly sampled from each of the 9 counties/districts in Jinhua as pilot spots for the survey. Fresh-water snails were collected from the fields for examining cercariae. Crabs were collected and detected for metacercariae by routine technique and the metacercariae were fed to dogs purchased in areas free from paragonimiasis. Fecal materials of dogs and cats around the villages and streams where crabs were found infected were collected for examining eggs. The artificially infected dogs were sacrificed 55 d after infection to receive adult worms. The size of cercariae, metacercariae, eggs and adult worms was measured. After the DNA of the adult worm was extracted, PCR was used to amplify the COI gene and ITS2 gene of the mitochondria from the worms. Homology with relative strains/isolates was analyzed and phylo-genetic tree constructed. Results The survey demonstrated that the snail Semisulcospira libertina and the crab Sinopotamon chekiangense served as the first and second intermediate hosts respectively. Natural infection was found in Wucheng District with an infection rate of 0.2% (2/1 088) in snails and 76.7% (46/60) in crabs in Shafan township, and an infection index (II) of 2.0 in crabs, 0.1% (1/1 683) in snails and 53.0% (46/60) in crabs with an II of 0.9 inLangya town. The infection rate was 0 (0/575) in snails and 30.0% (18/60) in crabs with an II of 0.1 in Baimu township of Wuyi County. Paragonimus eggs were detected in feces of stray cats with a positive rate of 8.3% (1/12) in Shafan and 0.6% (1/17) in Langya. The size and morphology of the cercariae, metacercariae, eggs and adult worms were similar to those of Paragonimus westermani. The sequences of the COI and ITS2 genes were with 390 bp and 363 bp respectively, indicating a

  15. 中国地级及以上城市"四化"协调发展效率的时空分异测度%Spatial-temporal Pattern of the Coordinated Development Efficiency of the'Four Modernizations'of Prefecture Level Cities or Above in China

    潘竟虎; 胡艳兴; 刘晓; 张建辉


    The efficient and coordinated development of industrialization, urbanization, information and agricul-tural modernization (so called'Sihua Tongbu'in Chinese) is not only a practical need but also an important strategic direction of integrating urban-rural development and regional development in recent China, and it al-so provides a significant perspective for identifying problems so as to improve the regional policies using sci-entific methods. The existing studies are instructive for the overall grasp of this issue at national and provincial levels. However, they failed to uncover the regional patterns and impact factors of the'four modernizations' development at an appropriate scale from the geographical perspective, and the interactions between four mod-ernizations development and regional policies have been neglected as well. This article evaluated the compre-hensive development index, coupling development index and coordinated development index of the'four mod-ernizations'of China's 343 prefecture-level administrative units, and calculated their efficiency of the'four modernizations'in 2001 and 2011. Then, this article establishes the evaluation index system of the coordina-tion development efficiency of the'new four modernizations', which includes four input elements of per capi-ta consumption expenditure of urban and rural residents, per capita local fiscal budget, the total social invest-ment in fixed assets and per capita local or foreign currency and one output element of the coordinated devel-opment index of the'four modernizations'. Based on the data from 343 prefecture-level administrative units, the efficiencies of four modernizations and their changing trends during the period 2001-2011 were investigat-ed using DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) model. Spatial-temporal pattern of coordination development effi-ciency of the'new four modernizations'of China's prefecture-level regions was explored by using explorato-ry spatial data analysis (ESDA). Finally

  16. Experimental computer tomograph

    Heinemann D.


    Full Text Available The computed tomography is one of the most important medical instruments, allowing the non-invasive visualization of cross sections which are free from superpositions. Since 2000 an experimental computer tomo-graph of the third generation for the purpose of education and research was set up and further developed. Besides the mechanical construction design reconstruction algorithms, including certain corrections of the measured data were developed and implemented. In 2013 iterative reconstruction methods were investigated and implemented for advanced reconstructions and dose reduction using various ray tracing algorithms. The new reconstruction technique leads to improvements in image quality and low dose reconstructions.

  17. Teatro experimental en Almagro



    El objeto del proyecto es la construcción de un teatro experimental en el Centro de Arte Dramático en Almagro. En este proyecto se opta por un edificio único, no fragmentario, que puede recorrerse de forma continua. Se busca que el patio sea el centro alrededor del que se organiza el edificio; es el espacio susceptible de ser ocupado y se utiliza también para la representación. Una parte de este patio se particulariza cubriéndose para construir la sala, que se convierte en el centro de refere...

  18. Experimental Axion Review

    CERN. Geneva


    Axions are a natural consequence of the Peccei-Quinn mechanism, the most compelling solution to the strong-CP problem. Similar axion-like particles (ALPs) also appear in a number of possible extensions of the Standard Model, notably in string theories. Both axions and ALPs are very well motivated candidates for the Dark Matter, and in addition would be copiously produced at the stellar cores. Some anomalous astrophysical observations could be hinting the existence of these particles. They are object of increasing interest by experimentalists. I will briefly review the motivation to search for axions and ALPs, as well as the current status and future prospects of the experimental landscape.

  19. Experimental semiclassical gravity

    Gan, C C; Scully, S


    We show that optomechanical systems can provide definitive tests of the many-body Schrodinger-Newton equation of gravitational quantum mechanics. This equation is motivated by semiclassical gravity, a widely used theory of interacting gravitational and quantum fields. The many-body equation implies an approximate Schrodinger-Newton equation for the center-of-mass dynamics of macroscopic objects. It predicts a distinctive double-peaked signature in the output optical quadrature spectral density of certain optomechanical systems. Since the many-body Schrodinger-Newton equation lacks free parameters, these will allow its experimental confirmation or refutation.

  20. Experimental unsaturated soil mechanics

    Delage, Pierre


    In this general report, experimental systems and procedures of investigating the hydro-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils are presented. The water retention properties of unsaturated soils are commented and linked to various physical parameters and properties of the soils. Techniques of controlling suction are described together with their adaptation in various laboratory testing devices. Some typical features of the mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils are presented within an elasto-plastic framework. An attempt to describe the numerous and significant recent advances in the investigation of the behaviour of unsaturated soils, including the contributions to this Conference, is proposed.

  1. Outsourcing of experimental work.

    Nielsen, Henrik


    With the development of new technologies for simultaneous analysis of many genes, transcripts, or proteins (the "omics" revolution), it has become common to outsource parts of the experimental work. In order to maintain the integrity of the research projects, it is important that the interphase between the researcher and the service is further developed. This involves robust protocols for sample preparation, an informed choice of analytical tool, development of standards for individual technologies, and transparent data analysis. This chapter introduces some of the problems related to analysis of RNA samples in the "omics" context and gives a few hints and key references related to sample preparation for the non-specialist.

  2. Construction and installation of the experimental marine equipment for recovery of rare metals in seawater

    Hasegawa, Shin; Seko, Noriaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Tabata, Kokichi [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuiding Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [and others


    An experimental marine equipment was designed and constructed to evaluate a fibrous polymer adsorbent prepared with radiation-processing and to extract the technical tasks in the step to the utilization of the rare metals recovery in seawater. The equipment was set in the offing of Mutsu-Sekine in Aomori prefecture. The scale of this equipment is capable of recovering 1 kg uranium in seawater by dipping the adsorbents by 6 times into the sea for 30 days per one dipping. The adsorbents, packed in metal wire cages, were hung down from a fish preserve-shaped float (floating steel frame). This float capacity was designed that the floating steel frame was sunk when wave height becomes high in order to reduce the tension of the ropes. The safety of the rope was evaluated by using design wave height 4.3 m and maximum wave height 7.3 m derived from 10 years' probability wave height. The safety factors obtained were 6.4 for the design wave height and 3.7 for the maximum wave height. The floating steel frame and the adsorbent cage were designed to maintain the mechanical strength under the maximum wave height. The weight of four anchor blocks are 40 tons enough to moor the floating steel frame. In the setting of the marine equipment, the floating steel frame connected with the anchor blocks by rope was put down on the bottom of the sea. The adsorbent cage was hung in the center of the floating steel frame. The characteristic test was carried out by packing adsorbents into adsorbent cage and dipping them for 20 days into the sea. There was no serious problem in the floating steel frame, the adsorbent cage, and the ropes and their knots. (author)

  3. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah


    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  4. Experimental studies o

    Mohammad Mohsen Sarafraz


    Full Text Available Experimental investigations on the influences of different contaminants to deionized water have been conducted under the sub-cooled flow boiling heat transfer inside the vertical annulus. Many experiments have been performed to investigate the influence of different operating parameters on the flow boiling heat transfer coefficient in the upward flow of contaminated water under the atmospheric pressure. The experimental apparatus provides the particular conditions to investigate the influence of heat flux (up to 132 kW/m2, flow rate (1.5–3.5 l/min, sub-cooling level (Max. 30 °C, and concentration of contaminants (1–5% by volume. According to the results, with increasing the heat flux and flow rate, the flow boiling heat transfer coefficient and rate of bubble formation significantly increase. Results also demonstrated that adding contaminants to the deionized water causes the flow boiling heat transfer coefficient to be deteriorated. Likewise, sub-cooling level may only influence on the onset of nucleate boiling and heat flux corresponding to beginning of nucleate boiling phenomenon which is called inception heat flux.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of earlier diagnosis of HIV infection in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province%云南省德宏州艾滋病病毒感染者中早发现率及其影响因素研究

    叶润华; 龚渝蓉; 高洁; 段松; 何纳; 项丽芬; 齐金蕾; 杨跃诚; 杜本丽; 韩文香; 杨建华; 李维美; 杨忠桔


    Objective To examine prevalence and correlates of earlier diagnosis of HIV infection in Dehong Prefecture of Yunnan Province. Methods Through the National Information System for Comprehensive AIDS Prevention and Control, all newly reported HIV cases during January, 2009 to June, 2010 in Dehong Prefecture of Yunnan Province were included for the present analysis. Results Multiple Logistic regression analysis indicated that HIV cases who were migrants or foreigners, ethnic Jingpo and married were less likely to be early diagnosed with HIV than those who were local residents, ethnic Han or single, whereas HIV cases who were aged 20-29 years or diagnosed through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) , testing at detention centers for drug users, premarital examinations, and antenatal examinations were more likely to be early diagnosed with HIV. Conclusions The prevalence of early diagnosis of HIV infection in Dehong Prefecture was relatively low. This underscores the importance of continuous efforts for promotion of HIV testing at VCT sites, detention centers, premarital and antenatal examinations, and in particular much more efforts for promotion of HIV testing and surveillance among migrants, foreigner, Jingpo ethnic minorities and married people.%目的 了解云南省德宏州HIV感染者早发现率及其影响因素.方法 利用艾滋病综合防治信息系统,对2009年1月~2010年6月期间德宏州新报告的HIV感染病例进行分析.结果 多因素Logistic回归分析显示,外地或外籍、景颇族和已婚的HIV感染者中早发现率显著低于本地、汉族和未婚的HIV感染者;而20 ~29岁年龄组HIV感染者中早发现率较50岁以上者高;经由自愿咨询检测、戒毒所人员检测、婚前检查、孕产期检查发现的HIV感染者中早发现率均较医院就诊检测的早发现率高.结论 德宏州HIV感染者中早发现率较低,必须继续推进在自愿咨询检测门诊、戒毒所、婚前体检和孕产

  6. Project to support promotion of forming an environmentally friendly energy community. Survey report on 'a survey on feasibility of business to perform continually from RDF manufacturing mainly using industrial wastes to high-efficiency electric power generation in Fukui Prefecture'; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin hojo jigyo. 'Fukuiken ni okeru sangyo haikibutsu wo chushin to shita RDF seizo kara kokoritsu hatsuden made wo ikkanshite okonau jigyo no kanosei chosa' chosa hokokusho



    Investigations and discussions were given on electric power generation business using as fuel the industrial wastes RDF composed of waste plastics having been manufactured in four blocks in Fukui Prefecture and sewage sludge. The investigations were carried out on estimation of quantity of the industrial wastes available in Fukui Prefecture and quantity of the industrial waste RDF supply, an optimal system for industrial waste RDF power generation, evaluation on economic effects, and environment improving effects. The result of the investigations revealed that the industrial waste RDF can be assured at 80 tons a day, which can make the power generation capacity 5000 kW. The industrial waste RDF manufacturing system adopts a chain type striking, crushing and drying equipment and a fluid bed combustion system. The ash melting system is a multi-phase alternating current system. This system is expected of enhancing the energy saving effect and the CO2 emission reducing effect. Economic effects were discussed on the industrial waste RDF manufacturing business and power generation business both on independent basis and continuous basis. Either case would require industrial waste RDF receiving fee. However, it was confirmed that the business can be realized on the continuous basis. (NEDO)

  7. The Experimental Turn in Economics : A History of Experimental Economics

    Svorencik, A.


    The emergence of experimental economics in the last third of the 20th century revisited the long standing belief that economics is a non-experimental discipline. By experimental economics I denote the field within economics that from its beginnings in the 1960s and early 1970s has continuously studi

  8. Treatment Differences and Clinical Characteristics of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Between Yi and Han Nationality in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture%凉山州彝族、汉族多囊卵巢综合征患者的特点及治疗差异性

    李雅琪; 宋致蓉; 廖国芳; 张瑜; 马燕; 彭俊; 杨炜婷


    Objective To discuss treatment differences and clinical characteristics between Yi and Han nationality in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Methods From January 2009 to December 2011, a total of 80 cases with PCOS were included into this study. They were divided into Yi group (n = 40) and Han group (n = 40) according to their nationalities. The study protocol was approved by the Kthical Review Board of Investigation in Human Being of First People s Hospital of Liangshan Prefecture. Informed consent was obtained from each participate. There had no significant differences between two groups among age, infertility years, and so on (P>0. 05). All the subjects received dimethyl biguanide + metformin hydrochloride for 3 months, and the glycometabolism indexes, body mass index (BMI) , and egg chamber changes were observed before and after the treatment. Results The level of LH, T and LH/FSH ratio decreased significantly than those before treatment (P0.05).对两组患者给予炔雌醇环丙孕酮(达英-35)+二甲双胍治疗3个月,观察治疗前、后性激素及糖代谢指标、体重指数(BMI)、卵泡变化情况等.结果 彝族组及汉族组黄体生成素(LH),睾酮(T),卵泡刺激素(FSH)及LH/FSH水平均较治疗前明显下降(P<0.05),治疗后两组葡萄糖和胰岛素的曲线下面积(AUC)均明显下降(P<0.05).结论炔雌醇环丙孕酮+二甲双胍对降低PCOS患者内分泌代谢紊乱疗效明显,但彝、汉族之间临床表现及疗效有一定差异.

  9. 云南省楚雄州10起急性职业中毒事件原因分析与预防对策%Cause Analysis and Preventive Measures of 10 Incidents of Acute Occupational Poisoning in Chuxiong Prefecture of Yunnan Province

    胡黎明; 白光平


    目的 了解云南省楚雄州急性职业中毒事件发生的状况及分布规律,为预防和控制急性职业中毒提供科学依据和防治对策.方法 用回顾性调查的方法,对楚雄州10年间发生的10起急性职业中毒事件进行分析.结果 该州10起急性职业中毒事件,中毒人数146人,罹患率为66.36%;死亡6人,病死率为4.11%.职业中毒事件6起发生在乡镇企业.中毒主要在冶金和化工行业,共9起,中毒罹患率高达73.91%,且以硫化氢、砷化氢中毒为主.中毒原因主要是设备跑、冒、滴、漏,违反操作规程超负荷生产,无通风设施和个人防护不当.结论 急性职业中毒应作为楚雄州职业病防治的重点,并应制定相应的防治措施.%[Objective]To understand the starus of acute occupational poisoning occurrence and its regularities of distribution in ChuXiong Prefecture of Yunnan Province, and provide scientific evidence and strategies for prevention and control of acute occupational poisoning. [ Methods] Retrospective investigation was adopted to analyze 10 incidents of acute occupational poisoning occurred in ChuXiong Prefecture in 10 years. [Results]Of 10 incidents, 146 were poisoned, with attach rate of 66.36%; 6 were dead, with fatality rate of 4.11%. Six incidents occurred in township enterprises. Nine incidents occurred in metallurgical and chemical industry, with poisoning attack rate of 73.91%, mainly due to hydrogen sulfide and arsine. The main causes of poisoning were leakage of facilities, production overload, no ventilation and improper individual protection [ Conclusion ] Acute occupational poisoning should be taken as the focal point of occupational disease prevention which needs corresponding control measures.

  10. Experimental adaptive process tomography

    Pogorelov, I. A.; Struchalin, G. I.; Straupe, S. S.; Radchenko, I. V.; Kravtsov, K. S.; Kulik, S. P.


    Adaptive measurements were recently shown to significantly improve the performance of quantum state tomography. Utilizing information about the system for the online choice of optimal measurements allows one to reach the ultimate bounds of precision for state reconstruction. In this article we generalize an adaptive Bayesian approach to the case of process tomography and experimentally show its superiority in the task of learning unknown quantum operations. Our experiments with photonic polarization qubits cover all types of single-qubit channels. We also discuss instrumental errors and the criteria for evaluation of the ultimate achievable precision in an experiment. It turns out that adaptive tomography provides a lower noise floor in the presence of strong technical noise.

  11. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)


    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  12. Experimental particle physics

    Steinberg, R. I.; Lane, C. E.


    The goals of this research are the experimental testing of fundamental theories of physics beyond the standard model and the exploration of cosmic phenomena through the techniques of particle physics. We are working on the MACRO experiment, which employs a large-area underground detector to search for grand unification magnetic monopoles and dark matter candidates and to study cosmic ray muons as well as low- and high-energy neutrinos; the Chooz experiment to search for reactor neutrino oscillations at a distance of 1 km from the source; a new proposal (the Perry experiment) to construct a one-kiloton liquid scintillator in the Fairport, Ohio underground facility IMB to study neutrino oscillations with a 13 km baseline; and development of technology for improved liquid scintillators and for very-low-background materials in support of the MACRO and Perry experiments and for new solar neutrino experiments.

  13. Interviews within experimental frameworks

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.


    -subjects experimental design served as the framework for the study, while in-depth qualitative interviews were employed alongside surveys and audio and video recording as the data collection methods.  Data collection occurred while participants were engaging with the media products, via talk aloud protocols......As virtual worlds become increasingly utilized for purposes of entertainment, information and retail, how people understand, think, feel, act and make decisions about them likewise become important research considerations.  This essay reports on the methodology and methods used to study these sense......-making processes in relatively inexperienced people as they engage with virtual worlds.  In order to understand the sense-making of virtual worlds, a method to record the interpretive process, as well as physical actions, was required.  In order to understand the sense-making processes involved in new experiences...

  14. Future Experimental Programs

    Murayama, Hitoshi


    I was asked to discuss future experimental programs even though I'm a theorist. As a result, I present my own personal views on where the field is, and where it is going, based on what I myself have been working on. In particular, I discuss why we need expeditions into high energies to find clues to where the relevant energy scale is for dark matter, baryon asymmetry, and neutrino mass. I also argue that the next energy frontier machine should be justified on the basis of what we know, namely the mass of the Higgs boson, so that we will learn what energy we should aim at once we nail the Higgs sector. Finally I make remarks on dark energy.

  15. Experimental impact crater morphology

    Dufresne, A.; Poelchau, M. H.; Hoerth, T.; Schaefer, F.; Thoma, K.; Deutsch, A.; Kenkmann, T.


    The research group MEMIN (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Impact Modelling Research Network) is conducting impact experiments into porous sandstones, examining, among other parameters, the influence of target pore-space saturation with water, and projectile velocity, density and mass, on the cratering process. The high-velocity (2.5-7.8 km/s) impact experiments were carried out at the two-stage light-gas gun facilities of the Fraunhofer Institute EMI (Germany) using steel, iron meteorite (Campo del Cielo IAB), and aluminium projectiles with Seeberg Sandstone as targets. The primary objectives of this study within MEMIN are to provide detailed morphometric data of the experimental craters, and to identify trends and characteristics specific to a given impact parameter. Generally, all craters, regardless of impact conditions, have an inner depression within a highly fragile, white-coloured centre, an outer spallation (i.e. tensile failure) zone, and areas of arrested spallation (i.e. spall fragments that were not completely dislodged from the target) at the crater rim. Within this general morphological framework, distinct trends and differences in crater dimensions and morphological characteristics are identified. With increasing impact velocity, the volume of craters in dry targets increases by a factor of ~4 when doubling velocity. At identical impact conditions (steel projectiles, ~5km/s), craters in dry and wet sandstone targets differ significantly in that "wet" craters are up to 76% larger in volume, have depth-diameter ratios generally below 0.19 (whereas dry craters are almost consistently above this value) at significantly larger diameters, and their spallation zone morphologies show very different characteristics. In dry craters, the spall zone surfaces dip evenly at 10-20° towards the crater centre. In wet craters, on the other hand, they consist of slightly convex slopes of 10-35° adjacent to the inner depression, and of sub-horizontal tensile

  16. Experimental Particle Physics

    Rosenfeld, Carl [Univ of South Carolina; Mishra, Sanjib R. [Univ of South Carolina; Petti, Roberto [Univ of South Carolina; Purohit, Milind V. [Univ of South Carolina


    The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the Ba

  17. Experimental quantum data locking

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Zhu; Wu, Cheng; Fukuda, Daiji; You, Lixing; Zhong, Jiaqiang; Numata, Takayuki; Chen, Sijing; Zhang, Weijun; Shi, Sheng-Cai; Lu, Chao-Yang; Wang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Fan, Jingyun; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei


    Classical correlation can be locked via quantum means: quantum data locking. With a short secret key, one can lock an exponentially large amount of information in order to make it inaccessible to unauthorized users without the key. Quantum data locking presents a resource-efficient alternative to one-time pad encryption which requires a key no shorter than the message. We report experimental demonstrations of a quantum data locking scheme originally proposed by D. P. DiVincenzo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 067902 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.067902] and a loss-tolerant scheme developed by O. Fawzi et al. [J. ACM 60, 44 (2013), 10.1145/2518131]. We observe that the unlocked amount of information is larger than the key size in both experiments, exhibiting strong violation of the incremental proportionality property of classical information theory. As an application example, we show the successful transmission of a photo over a lossy channel with quantum data (un)locking and error correction.

  18. Wind power development field test project at Third Sector/Ubuyama Pasture, Ubuyama-mura, Kumamoto Prefecture. Detailed wind characteristics survey; Kumamotoken Ubuyamamura 'daisan sector Ubuyama Bokujo' ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho



    A detailed wind characteristics survey was conducted at Ubuyama-mura, Aso-gun, Kumamoto Prefecture, on the assumption that a wind power generation system would be constructed. The survey was a 1-year project from October 1998 through September 1999, and wind characteristics such as the average wind speed, average wind direction, standard deviation of wind velocity, and the maximum instantaneous wind speed were observed. The observation point was fixed at 20m above ground, the minimum time unit for observation was 10 minutes, and the 10-minute average value was defined as the measured value. For the maximum instantaneous wind speed, the minimum time unit for observation was set to be 2 seconds. The yearly average wind speed was 4.5m/s and the maximum wind speed in the period was 39.0m/s. Winds came prevalently from WNW (26.4%), and then from ESE (19.4%) and NW (12.6%). The wind axis was in the WNW-ESE direction, and the total wind direction occurrence rate was 72.2%. Turbulence intensity was 0.16 at wind speed 2.0m/s or more and 0.15 at wind speed 4.0m/s or more. Estimated wind turbine yearly operating factors of 58-74% were obtained using rated values of a 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW-class wind turbines. (NEDO)

  19. Aspiration toward geothermal energy utilization in regional development plan. Part 6. ; Hydrothermal fluid utilization business in Matsuo-mura of Iwate prefecture. Chiiki keikaku ni okeru 'chinetsu riyo' eno hofu. 6. ; Iwateken Matsuomura no chinetsu nessui riyo jigyo

    Otobe, Y.; Furutate, E.


    Twenty six years have passed since the first geothermal power station was constructed in Matsuo-mura of Iwate Prefecture, Japan. This paper describes the history, the present situation and the future conception of the geothermal energy utilization in this village. This village includes Hachimantai of a vantage ground in the center and has the gross area of 233.8km[sup 2], the annual average temperature of 8.3 centigrade and the continuous snow cover period of about 100 days. The hot water leading facility was cooperatively constructed by Japan Metals and Chemicals, Hachimantai Hot Spring Development and Matsuo-mura. The total working expense is 539.3 million yen. Hot water sources are the condensate from the condenser of geothermal power plant and hot spring. This mixed hot water of 4.3 t/min is led to respective facilities. The hot water supplying channel has the length of 12.8km from the power station through the Hachimantai hot spring resort, Kamiyogi to Takaishino. Respective total areas of greenhouses using hydrothermal fluid in both districts are 1,075ha and the inlet temperature of hot water is 60 centigrade and kinds of crop are 5 like green pepper and others. Takaishino agricultural park has selected flower and ornamental plant culture such as poppy anemone, stock and statice which are suitable for this district of low temperature and insufficient sunshine. The planted area is 10,700m[sup 2]. 2 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. GIS-based Assessment of Rainstorm-induced Geological Hazards Risk in Enshi Autonomous Prefecture%基于GIS的贫困地区降雨诱发型地质灾害风险评估--以湖北省恩施州为例

    陈曦炜; 裴志远; 王飞


    湖北省恩施土家族苗族自治州(简称恩施州)地处中国14个集中连片特困区之一的武陵山区内,州内少数民族聚居多、贫困人口分布广,地质灾害频发,“因灾致贫、因灾返贫”现象较为突出。本文根据灾害系统学原理和灾害风险分析理论,综合考虑恩施州降雨诱发型地质灾害的致灾因子、孕灾环境和承灾体,构建了降雨诱发型地质灾害风险评价指标体系,基于灾害系统学原理的风险评估模型,对该区的降雨诱发型地质灾害风险进行评估。主要结论如下:(1)降雨诱发型地质灾害的诱发因子为强降雨,恩施州降水丰沛,恩施市中部与鹤峰县东南部属于致灾因子高危险性区域;(2)选取地形地貌、基础地质、水文条件、人类工程活动等孕灾环境要素,耦合信息量法和层次分析法,构建恩施州孕灾环境敏感性评价指标体系,结果表明恩施州孕灾环境敏感性较高、高区域主要分布在巴东县、恩施市和鹤峰县;(3)选取工程建筑、居民人口、社会经济、耕地等承灾体进行脆弱性评估,结果表明承灾体脆弱性较高区域与人口集中地区在空间上重合,利川市和来凤县有更多的高脆弱性区域;(4)综上可知,恩施州的降雨诱发型地质灾害风险总体较高,其较高、高风险区域主要分布在巴东县和恩施市。%Rainstorm-induced geologicaldisasters happen frequently in recent years and cause great loss in some regions of Chi-na. Enshi Autonomous Prefecture which located in Wuling Mountain Region is one of the fourteen Continuous Extremely Poverty Areas (CEPA) in China. The region is characterized with more frequent geologicaldisasters, large amount of minority population and wide range of poor people distribution. Rainstorm-induced geologicaldisaster threatens the communities usually, which pushes the people into a worse condition. Based

  1. 甘肃临夏回族自治州回族老年人根面龋发病状况的抽样调查与分析%Incidence of root caries in Hui elderly people of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture:a sampling survey

    司庆宗; 安晓莉; 李淼; 马占海; 马玉梅; 赵望泓


    Objective To investigate the incidence of root caries in Hui elderly people of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province. Methods Root caries in 436 Hui elderly people aged 65 -74 years and their clinical examination were investigated with questionnaire by random sampling according to the third national oral health survey standards and methods. Results The incidence of root caries in Hui elderly people of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture was 28. 90% , with mean number of root caries of 0. 42. No significant difference was found in the incidence of root caries between urban and rural areas and between male and female (P >0.05). The filling rate of root caries was only 0. 68%. The root caries index ( RCI) value was 2. 85% and 2.76% , respectively, in the distal and mesial surfaces. The RCI value was higher in maxillary teeth than in corresponding mandibular teeth. Root caries involving one root surface was detected in 88. 7% of Hui elderly people. Logistic regression analysis showed that frequency of teeth brushing and sugar food intake was closely related with the occurrence of root caries in Hui elderly people of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture ( OR; 0. 492,95%C7:0.317 to 0.764,P =0.002;OR:l. 654,95%C/:1.033 to 2.648,P =0.036). Conclusion The incidence of root caries in Hui elderly people of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture is low due to their good oral health and life habits. However, root caries is rarely treated, thus needing instructions on their oral health and taking more preventive measures against their oral diseases.%目的 了解并分析甘肃省临夏回族自治州回族老年人根面龋发病状况.方法 按照第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查标准和方法,采用多阶段分层等容量随机抽样方法对436例临夏回族65 ~ 74岁老年人进行问卷调查及根面龋的口腔临床检查.结果 临夏市65 ~ 74岁回族老年人恒牙根面龋患病率为28.90%,龋均为0.42.患龋率和龋均在城乡和性别

  2. Experimental thermodynamics experimental thermodynamics of non-reacting fluids

    Neindre, B Le


    Experimental Thermodynamics, Volume II: Experimental Thermodynamics of Non-reacting Fluids focuses on experimental methods and procedures in the study of thermophysical properties of fluids. The selection first offers information on methods used in measuring thermodynamic properties and tests, including physical quantities and symbols for physical quantities, thermodynamic definitions, and definition of activities and related quantities. The text also describes reference materials for thermometric fixed points, temperature measurement under pressures, and pressure measurements. The publicatio

  3. Factors that prolong the 'postmortem interval until finding' (PMI-f) among community-dwelling elderly individuals in Japan: analysis of registration data.

    Ito, Tomoko; Tamiya, Nanako; Takahashi, Hideto; Yamazaki, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Hideki; Sakano, Shoji; Kashiwagi, Masayo; Miyaishi, Satoru


    To clarify the factors affecting 'postmortem interval until finding' (PMI-f) among elderly unexpected death cases. Cross-sectional study. All area of Yamagata prefecture in Japan. Entering subjects were 5675 elderly cases with age of ≥65 years selected from all 9002 cases of unexpected death from 2002 to 2007 in Yamagata prefecture between 2002 and 2007. Our final study subjects consisted of 3387 cases sampled with several criteria to assess the factors to prolong PMI-f. The outcome was the postmortem interval until finding (PMI-f) as the time from death until finding the body which we defined in this study. 'Living alone' showed the highest adjusted HR (3.73, 95% CI 3.37 to 4.13), also 'unnatural death' (1.50, 1.28 to 1.75), 'found at own home' (1.37, 1.22 to 1.55) and 'younger subjects' (0.99, 0.98 to 0.99). In the model including interactions with the household situation, we found 'male subjects living alone' and 'female subjects living with family' tended to be found later. PMI-f is an effective outcome for quantitative analyses of risk of bodies left. To prevent the elderly dead bodies left for long time, it is necessary to keep regular home-based contact with elderly individuals living alone.

  4. [Experimental nuclear physics


    An earlier study of unusual electromagnetic decays in {sup 86}Zr was extended in order to make comparisons with its isotone {sup 84}Sr and with {sup 84}Zr. The K=14 (t {sub {1/2}} = 70 ns) high-spin isomer in {sup 176}W was found to have a 13% branch directly to the K=O ground-state band, one of the strongest violations of K-selection rules known. A new program to search for a predicted region of oblate deformation involving neutron deficient isotopes in the Rn/Fr/Ra region was begun. In the area of nuclear astrophysics, as part of a study of the onset of the rp-Process, a set of measurements searching for possible new resonances for {sup 14}O+{alpha} and {sup 17}F+p reactions was completed and a coincidence experiment measuring the {sup 19}F({sup 3}He,t){sup 19}Ne({alpha}){sup 15}O and {sup 19}F({sup 3}He,t){sup 19}Ne(p){sup 18}F reactions in order to determine the rates of the {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O and {sup 18}F(p,{gamma}){sup 19}Ne reactions was begun. Experimental measurements of {beta}n{alpha} coincidences from the {sup 15}N(d,p){sup 16}N({beta}{sup {minus}}{nu}){sup 16}O({alpha}){sup 12}C reaction have also been completed and are currently being analyzed to determine the rate of the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}) reaction. In the APEX collaboration, we have completed the assembly and testing of two position-sensitive Na barrels which surround the axial silicon detector arrays and serve as the e{sup +} triggers by detecting their back-to-back annihilation quanta were completed. The HI@AGS and RHIC collaborations, construction and implementation activities associated with the space-time-tracker detector and in the design of the central detector for the PHENIX experiment were carried out. Operation of the ESTU tandem accelerator has been reliable, delivering beam on target at terminal voltages as high as 19.3 MV and running for as long as 143 days between tank openings. Fabrication and bench testing of a new negative ion source system have been completed.

  5. Experimental Object-Oriented Modelling

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    This thesis examines object-oriented modelling in experimental system development. Object-oriented modelling aims at representing concepts and phenomena of a problem domain in terms of classes and objects. Experimental system development seeks active experimentation in a system development project...... through, e.g., technical prototyping and active user involvement. We introduce and examine “experimental object-oriented modelling” as the intersection of these practices. The contributions of this thesis are expected to be within three perspectives on models and modelling in experimental system...... and discuss techniques for handling and representing uncertainty when modelling in experimental system development. These techniques are centred on patterns and styles for handling uncertainty in object-oriented software architectures. Tools We present the Knight tool designed for collaborative modelling...

  6. Global cities and cultural experimentation

    Rojas Gaviria, Pilar; Emontspool, Julie


    an ethnographic perspective, combining observations of rehearsals and performances, in-depth interviews with actors, directors and audience, and secondary data. Findings: The fluidity of global cities allows their inhabitants to engage in collective creative processes of cultural experimentation, performing...... of the research community to the collective, reflexive, and experimental aspects of symbolic consumption. It does this by introducing the concept of cultural experimentation. Finally, it shows how arts and cultural products can function as valuable contexts for international marketing research, providing original...

  7. Experimental Data Processing. Part 2

    Wilhelm LAURENZI


    Full Text Available This paper represents the second part of a study regarding the processing of experimental monofactorialdata, and it presents the original program developed by the author for processing experimental data.Using consecrated methods and relations, this program allows establishing the number of samples,generating the experimental plan, entering and saving the measured data, identifying the data corrupted byaberrant errors, verifying the randomness, verifying the normality of data repartition, calculating the mainstatistical parameters and exporting the experimental data to Excel or to other programs for statistical dataprocessing.

  8. Experimental Volcanology: 2010 and 2020

    Dingwell, D. B.


    The advent of an experimental approach to volcanology has its roots in decades-old laboratory based approaches to characterising the properties of magmas and analog materials, together with the attempts at simulating volcanic processes in the lab. A little over ten years ago many new thrusts of experimental advance led to a new dawn for experimental science applied to volcanic eruptions. Along with that, new expectations, new goals and new strategies emerged about ten years ago. Ten years later, in 2010, many fruits have been born of this labour, and new frontiers are being unfolded as we meet here. Here are some of the youngest captivating themes being explored in experimental programs today: 1) interfacing volcanic monitoring systems to experimentally generated eruptions. 2) elucidating the physicochemical behavior of experimentally generated volcanic ash as an agent in the earth system. 3) blending experimental rock deformation and magmatology studies to understand the strength and stability of volcanic materials and volcanic structures 4) exploiting the kinematics of experimentally-generated versus natural volcanic products to understand flow style and strain history. The past ten years of experimental developments in volcanology have prepared us for great advances in the future, most of which were not perceived as likely avenues of investigation as little as ten years ago! The situation is likely to repeat itself in 2020.

  9. Experimental Design and Some Threats to Experimental Validity: A Primer

    Skidmore, Susan


    Experimental designs are distinguished as the best method to respond to questions involving causality. The purpose of the present paper is to explicate the logic of experimental design and why it is so vital to questions that demand causal conclusions. In addition, types of internal and external validity threats are discussed. To emphasize the…

  10. Bayesian Analysis of Experimental Data

    Lalmohan Bhar


    Full Text Available Analysis of experimental data from Bayesian point of view has been considered. Appropriate methodology has been developed for application into designed experiments. Normal-Gamma distribution has been considered for prior distribution. Developed methodology has been applied to real experimental data taken from long term fertilizer experiments.

  11. Experimental Mathematics and Computational Statistics

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.


    The field of statistics has long been noted for techniques to detect patterns and regularities in numerical data. In this article we explore connections between statistics and the emerging field of 'experimental mathematics'. These includes both applications of experimental mathematics in statistics, as well as statistical methods applied to computational mathematics.

  12. Experimental Spaces and Institutional Innovation

    Cartel, Melodie; Boxenbaum, Eva

    This paper examines processes involved in designing experimental spaces for institutional innovation. Through a qualitative, process-oriented analysis of an experimental space related to the institutional innovation of carbon markets in Europe, we show how key actors in the European electricity s...

  13. Aterosclerose experimental em coelhos Experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits

    Waleska C. Dornas


    Full Text Available Numerosas pesquisas têm sido realizadas utilizando modelos experimentais para estudar o desenvolvimento da aterosclerose com dieta induzindo hiperlipidemia. Devido ao fato de que coelhos são muito sensíveis a dietas ricas em colesterol e acumulam grandes quantidades no plasma, a utilização destes animais como modelo experimental para avaliar o desenvolvimento de aterosclerose é de grande relevância, trazendo informação sobre fatores que contribuem para progressão e regressão aplicadas a situações humanas. Sendo assim, nessa revisão a função aterogênica do colesterol é mostrada em trabalhos que incluem o coelho como modelo experimental, uma vez que este animal tornou-se o mais popular modelo experimental de aterosclerose.Many researches have been conducted in experimental models in order to study the development of atherosclerosis from hyperlipidemia-inducing diets. Since rabbits are very sensitive to cholesterol-rich diets and accumulate large amounts of cholesterol in their plasma, their use as experimental models to evaluate the development of atherosclerosis is highly relevant and brings information on factors that contribute to the progression and regression of this condition that can be applied to humans. As such, this review includes studies on the atherogenic function of cholesterol based on rabbits as the experimental model, since they have become the most largely used experimental model of atherosclerosis.

  14. Experimental Evolution with Caenorhabditis Nematodes

    Teotónio, Henrique; Estes, Suzanne; Phillips, Patrick C.; Baer, Charles F.


    The hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been one of the primary model systems in biology since the 1970s, but only within the last two decades has this nematode also become a useful model for experimental evolution. Here, we outline the goals and major foci of experimental evolution with C. elegans and related species, such as C. briggsae and C. remanei, by discussing the principles of experimental design, and highlighting the strengths and limitations of Caenorhabditis as model systems. We then review three exemplars of Caenorhabditis experimental evolution studies, underlining representative evolution experiments that have addressed the: (1) maintenance of genetic variation; (2) role of natural selection during transitions from outcrossing to selfing, as well as the maintenance of mixed breeding modes during evolution; and (3) evolution of phenotypic plasticity and its role in adaptation to variable environments, including host–pathogen coevolution. We conclude by suggesting some future directions for which experimental evolution with Caenorhabditis would be particularly informative. PMID:28592504

  15. Psychopharmacology's debt to experimental psychology.

    Schmied, Lori A; Steinberg, Hannah; Sykes, Elizabeth A B


    The role of experimental psychology in the development of psychopharmacology has largely been ignored in recent historical accounts. In this article the authors attempt to redress that gap by outlining work in early experimental psychology that contributed significantly to the field. While psychiatrists focused on the therapeutic nature of drugs or their mimicry of psychopathology, experimental psychologists used psychoactive drugs as tools to study individual differences in normal behavior as well as to develop methodologies using behavior to study mechanisms of drug action. Experimental work by Kraepelin, Rivers, and Hollingworth was particularly important in establishing drug-screening protocols still used today. Research on nitrous oxide and on the effects of drug combinations is discussed to illustrate the importance of experimental psychology to psychopharmacology.

  16. 云南德宏1982~2010年鼠疫流行特征及防治效果分析%Analysis for epidemic characters and prevention and control effect of plague in dehong prefecture, Yunnan Province, 1982 to 2010

    梁伟; 罗启松; 场增源; 寸永良; 石兴建; 杜晓红; 田宗茂


    Objective To analyze epidemic characters and prevention and control effect of plague and provide a science basis for establishing the strategies of plague prevention and control. Methods Data on animal and human plague epidemic situation and plague prevention and control in Dehong Prefecture were collected and analyzed using descriptive epidemiology, and plague control and prevention effects were evaluated. Results From 1982 to 2010, plague epidemic experienced 25 years/times, 497 animal plague foci were confirmed, and 319 natural villages or units in 41 townships of 5 counties (cities) were involved. Human plague experienced 9 years/times and total number of human cases was 39 (including 38 bubonic plague cases and 1 septicemic plague case). All cases recovered after appropriate treatment. No human plague case was reported after 2004 and no animal plague epidemic was reported after 2008. Conclusion Plague focus in Dehong Prefecture belongs to one of commensal rodent plague foci. Host and vector without hibernation live around household and wild fields and its activating territory is wider. Animal plague can occur whole year. Local people easily get plague infection for contacting rodent and flea. Plague surveillance and " three report of epidemic situation" should be seriously implemented. In those areas where plague easily occurs and the density for rodent and flea is higher, killing rodents and fleas and improving prevention and control measures will be effective strategies for preventing and control plague occurrence and epidemic.%目的 分析德宏州鼠疫流行特征及防治效果,为制定防治策略提供科学依据.方法 收集德宏州动物和人间鼠疫疫情及防治工作资料,进行描述流行病学分析和防治效果评价.结果 1982 ~2010年德宏州有25年次发生鼠疫流行,判定动物鼠疫疫点497个,疫情波及5县(市)41个乡(镇)319个自然村或单位.有9年次发生人间鼠疫,病例数39例,其中腺鼠疫38

  17. 博州中东部树轮宽度年表特征及其气候响应%Tree-ring Width Chronologies Characteristics in the Middle and East of Boertala Mongolia Autonomous Prefecture and Their Response to Climate Change

    蔺甲; 袁玉江; 魏文寿; 李漠岩; 喻树龙


      利用采自博尔塔拉蒙古自治州中东部山区9个采点的树轮样本,研制树轮宽度年表,分析9个树轮宽度标准化年表的统计特征及年表对气候的响应.结果表明:(1)位于森林中下部林缘的吉普克北、包尔克特沟西侧、小海子、胡苏木萨拉年表和森林上树线的吉普克年表包含的气候信息较多.(2)博州中东部山区气候对树木年轮生长的影响存在持续性,显著的持续年数大多表现在当年及其后的3 a.(3)9个年表间的互相关系数均超过了0.01的显著水平,森林中下部林缘年表间的相关性大于森林上树线.(4)森林上树线树轮宽度年表与上年12月至当年9月平均最低气温相关系数最大(R=0.583,显著性水平达0.0001),其中与6月温度的相关最好,温度是影响森林上树线树轮宽度生长的主要气候限制因子.森林中下部林缘区域树轮宽度年表与上年6月至当年5月的降水量呈显著正相关(R=0.644,显著性水平达0.0001),其中与6月降水量的相关最好,降水是影响森林中下部林缘树木年轮宽度生长的主要气候限制因子.%This paper analyzed characteristics of the tree-ring standardized chronologies from the nine sampling points in the middle and east of Boertala Mongolia Autonomous Prefecture and their response to climate change. The results indicated that:(1)JPB,BEK,XHZ,HSM chronologies which located near the lower limit of the forest and JPK chronology which located near the upper limit of the forest contained more climatic information.(2)The climate in the middle and east of Boertala Mongolia Autonomous Prefecture appeared obviously consistent influence to the radial growth of tree rings,most lasting in the current year or the next 3 years.(3)The correlation coefficients which located to lower treeline of forest were superior to upper treeline.(4)There was positive correlation between the tree-ring standardized chronologies and the mean lowest

  18. The Research of Air Temperature Variation Characteristics and Trend in Altay Prefecture in Xinjiang Province in Recent 55 Years%近55年来新疆阿勒泰地区气温变化特征及趋势分析

    彭玉刚; 崔伟敏


    By dint of the monthly average temperature data in Altay Prefecture of Xinjiang province during 1954 - 2008, the multi-temporal scale characteristics and future changes trend of temperature in Ahay area were discussed. Results suggested that the changes coefficient of temperature in Altay Prefecture was 24. 7% ~ 40. 0%, having relatively strong interannual changes of temperature. The changes coefficient was 40. 0% and the extreme value was up to 15.04, having 4, 8 and 17 years of main cycles approximately. The one before 80s were used to be cold area, having an average temperature of 3.34 °C. Temperature increased damatically since 80s. The annual average temperature in Haba River was up to 5.84 ℃, being the highest in Altay area and the one in Fuyun was lowest. The temperature in each period were increasing significantly ( passing P = 0.05 and P = 0.01 significance test). The most distinctly increasing temperature span was is 1.27 - 1.98 °C each 10 years,and the smallest increasing temperature speed was 0. 27 -0. 65 °C each 10 years in summer. The annual average temperature changes speed was 0.54 °C each 10 years.%利用新疆阿勒泰地区1954~2008年月平均气温资料,探讨了阿勒泰地区气温多时间尺度特征及其未来的变化趋势.结果表明:阿勒泰地区气温系列变异系数为24.7%-40.O%,富蕴气温年际变化相对剧烈,变异系数40.0%,极值比达15.04;存在4、准8及17年的主周期;20世纪80年代以前处于冷期,均温3.34℃,80年代以来气温逐渐上升,哈巴河年均气温达5.84℃,为阿勒泰地区最高,富蕴则为最低;各时段气温均呈显著或极显著升高趋势(通过P=0.05或P=0.01的显著性检验),冬季升温最明显幅度,每10年迭1.27-1.98℃,夏季升温速率最小,每10年为0.27-0.65℃,年均气温变化速率每10年为0.54℃.

  19. Serological Investigation on Neosporosis and Brucellosis in Part Wenquan County of Boertala Prefecture%新疆博尔塔拉州温泉县部分流产奶牛新孢子虫病和布氏杆菌病血清学调查

    别格扎特汗; 陈亮; 闫双; 王娜; 巴音查汗


    In order to find out the infection situation of Neosporosis and Brucellosis in part Wenquan county of Boertala prefecture, the author collected 51 serum samples with abortion history in Wenquan county to diagnose the Neosporosis by ELISA with recombinant protein. The Brucellosis was diagnosed according to GB. Twelve serum samples were positive of anti-Neospora among 51 samples, the seroprevalence was 11.9%, milk cow in each age group could be infected. The statistic analysis showed that there were no obvious difference (P〈0.05). No positive of anti- Brucella. The testing results can provide a important theoretical basis to effective control the occurrence and spread of this disease in Wenquan county.%为了调查博尔塔拉州温泉县部分流产奶牛新孢子虫病和布氏杆菌病的感染情况,应用重组抗原ELISA,对采自温泉县51份有流产史的奶牛血样进行了牛新孢子虫病和布氏杆菌病的检测。结果显示:51份流产奶牛血样中检出牛新孢子虫抗体阳性血清为12份,阳性率为11.9%,各种年龄段的奶牛均可感染,经统计学分析,差异不显著(P〈0.05)。其中检出布氏杆菌阳性血清为零。本次血清学调查为温泉县散养奶牛户乐有效地控制该病的发生和蔓延提供了重要的理论依据。

  20. 基于多水平模型的西南民族地区农户非农劳动行为研究——以云南省红河哈尼族彝族自治州为例%Non-farmlaboractionresearchofthesouthwestregionfarmersBasedonthemulti-levelmodel——Take honghe hani nationality yi nationality autonomous prefecture in Yunnan province for example



      文章基于农户模型理论,结合西南民族地区农户特征,寻找影响农户非农劳动行为的因素;基于农户数据具有层级结构的特点,从多水平模型统计分析方法入手,通过对数据的组间异质性和随机性问题的有效处理,以云南省红河哈尼族彝族自治州为例,结合实证得出了最终模型,并与普通最小二乘估计进行比较。%  In this paper, based on the farmer model theory, combined with the household characteristics of the southwest national area, looking for influence factors of non-agricultural Labour behavior;based on characteristics of hierarchical structure in the household data, starting from statistical analysis method of multilevel models, Through effective handling between groups heterogeneity of data and random question, Take honghe hani nationality yi nationality autonomous prefecture in Yunnan province for example, combined with the positive,obtained final model and compared with the ordinary least squares estimates, the empirical results show that multi-level model better is suitable for the research of the economic problems of farmers, were new ideas were put forward from methodology.

  1. Investigation and analysis on 6 species of Cupressaceae plants growing in karst area of Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture%湘西喀斯特地区6种柏科植物生长情况调查分析

    杜昌军; 李平; 黄瑞春; 贾松林; 王承南; 向云艳


    In order to solve the problem of karst rocky desertiifcation, six Cupressaceae plants about 20-year-old of were investigated growing in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture Forest Ecological Experiment Station, and the Chinaifr forests were taken as the contrast. The survey on 6 species of Cupressaceae plants and theirs seven growth indexes were comprehensively investigated and evaluated; The results shows that of 6 Cupressus, mourning cypress is most suitable for growing in Xiangxi of karst area, followed by Cupressus lusitanica cv. Zhongshan bai, Mexico Bai. Theifndings can better solve Cupressaceae plants’ suitabilityproblem in the region.%为了解决喀斯特地区石漠化问题,对在湘西自治州森林生态实验站生长近20 a的6种柏科植物生长情况进行了调查,并选择杉木作为对照,运用模糊数学对柏科6个树种7个指标的生长情况进行了调查分析及综合评判。研究结果表明:6种柏科植物中柏木在湘西喀斯特地区生长表现最佳,其次是中山柏、墨西哥柏。研究结果为更好地解决适宜本地区栽种柏科植物具有指导意义。

  2. Study on Public Opinion Governance in Minority Autonomous Regions:A Case Study on Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture%民族区域自治地方舆论治理研究——以大理白族自治州为例



    In the progress of globalization and the social modernization, with the special natural and social environment, the complicity and the particularity of public opinions in minority autonomous regions are different from the other inland provinces and regions in China. This paper studies the typical cases of public opinion governance in Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, found that it's necessary to pay attention to the public opinion governance in resolving the social management crisis for minority autonomous regions. Promoting the expertise of public opinion monitoring, public opinion supervision and analysis of public opinion, and innovating the guidance way of public opinion in minority autonomous regions are meaningful for handling the increasing and complex public crisis.%在全球社会现代化的进程中,由于自然、社会环境独特,我国民族自治地方的舆情具有不同于内地省区的复杂性、特殊性,研究近年大理白族自治州舆论治理典型案例,认识民族区域自治地方化解社会治理危机要重视舆论治理,既要提升民意监测、舆论监督、舆情分析的专业性,又要创新民族区域自治地方舆论引导的方式,这对应对日益频发且复杂的公共危机具有一定的现实意义.

  3. 新疆双语班学生汉语写作能力调查研究--以新疆喀什、和田、克州为例%A Survey on the Chinese Writing Skills of Ethnic Bilingual Students in Xinjiang-A Case Study of Bilingual Teachers and Students in Kashgar, Hetian, and Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture

    高立明; 王新青


    文章以新疆喀什、和田、克州地区的双语班教师及学生为研究对象展开调研,通过调查发现存在少数民族双语班师生对写作课的重视度不够、教师在教授汉语写作课时教学模式单一、双语班学生没有形成良好的写作习惯等现实问题,从而针对这些问题提出独立设置汉语写作课程、优化师资队伍、更新教学方法、加强学生阅读积累等对策,以促进新疆中小学少数民族双语班学生汉语写作能力的提高。%The survey of the bilingual teachers and students in some of the schools in Kashgar, Hetian, and Kizilsu Kirghiz Autono⁃mous Prefecture shows that there exist the following problems in writing classes for ethnic students in Xinjiang:unawareness of the impor⁃tance of writing training, unvaried teaching method, and lack of good writing habits. To solve those problems, the author puts forward sever⁃al suggestions:to develop a separate writing course, to optimize the teaching staff, and to adopt new effective teaching methods.

  4. Coordinated Development of Urbanization and Ecological Environment Protection in Minority Areas of Gansu---A Case Study of Gannan Prefecture%甘肃少数民族地区城镇化与生态环境保护协调发展研究--以甘南州为例



    In Gannan Prefecture as the background , the aim of this paper is to study Gannan urbanization and ecological and environmental development as the goal , indepth analysis of Gannan ecological environ-ment situation , urbanization status quo , which is based on the proposed targeted selection urbanization and ecological environment protection a combination of roads , establish and improve the market mecha-nism , the establishment of institutional mechanisms for policy , planning mechanisms , ecological compen-sation mechanism , national regional cultural development mechanism , education and training mecha-nisms, regulatory mechanisms , national support and investment mechanism , construction and urban and rural development compatible other 11 urban system that can promote Gannan urbanization and ecological environment coordinated development mechanism and countermeasures .%该文主要研究甘南州城镇化与生态环境协调发展这一问题。在深入分析甘南州生态环境现状、城镇化建设现状的基础上,针对性地提出了选择城镇化建设与生态环境保护相结合的道路、建立健全市场机制、制度政策机制、规划机制、生态补偿机制、民族地区文化发展机制、教育培训机制、调控机制、国家扶持和投资机制、构建与城乡一体化发展相适应的城镇体系等11条具体促进甘南州城镇化与生态环境协调发展机制形成的对策。

  5. 四川省凉山彝族自治州西昌市6~16岁儿童注意缺陷多动障碍的流行病学调查%Diagnosis of Puerile Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Xichang City, Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province

    方敏; 杨尧; 王西蓉; 汤艳; 庄晓玲


    Objective To study prevalence and influential factors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) in children in Xichang city,Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture,Sichuan Province.Methods A cluster-stratified sampling was conducted in children aged 6-16 years old in Xichang city,Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture,Sichuan Province.Using General information Questionnaire and ADHD Symptoms Rating Questionnaire,diagnostic interviews were conducted in suspected ADHD children and their parents.Using Manual of Mental Disorders-Ⅳ (DSM-Ⅳ) criteria of ADHD.Patients were classified as ADHD predominantly inattentive(ADHD-I),predominantly hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI)and combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive(ADHD-C)subtypes.According to children age,who were divided into 6-7 years old group(n=399),8-10 years old group(n=958),11-16 years old group(n=993).Influential factors of ADHD were analyzed.This study followed the ethics standard that was enacted by investigation in human beings Committee of the First people' s Hospital in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan Province.Informed consent was obtained from the parents of each participating child.Results Prevalence of ADHD in children aged 6-16 years old in Xichang city,Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture,Sichuan,Prevalences were 4.81%,and 2.64%,1.40% and 0.77% in ADHD-I,ADHD-C and ADHD-HI subtypes,respectively.Prevalence of ADHD in boys was higher than that in girls(P<0.05).There were significant differences in prevalence of ADHD among various age groups and subtypes.Prevalence of ADHD was the highest in children aged 6-7 years old.Age,sex,mothers' education levels family history,birth injuries,unmerited education,parenthood were influential factors of ADHD.Conclusions Prevalence of ADHD-HI subtype was higher than those other two subtypes.Prevalence of ADHD was the highest in children aged 6-7 years old.The Prevalence of ADHD in boys was higher than that in girls in Xichang city

  6. 在日本福井县立病院体验“以人为中心”的服务和体会%Service and experience on “taking the people as the center” In Japanese Fukui prefectural hospital



    Based on the experiences of advanced study in Japan, the service process of"taking the health of the people as the center"is introduced in the Japanese Fukui prefectural hospital. This process includes making the medical environment quiet and neat, visiting sequence in good order, paying great attentions to the safety management of nursing care, maintaining good relationship between doctors and patients, hospital rigorous style of work and the homogenization of management as well. Japanese counterparts' humanized nursing service, nursing safety management, quiet environment and neat belongings and so on are believed to provide a reference in the development of our nursing career in China.%笔者结合在日本进修期间的体会,介绍了日本福井县立病院“以人的健康为中心”的服务流程。具体体现在就诊环境安静、整洁,就诊次序井然有条,高度重视护理安全管理,医患关系融洽,医院工作作风严谨以及同质化管理等。认为日本同行的人性化护理服务理念、护理安全管理、环境安静、物品整洁等方面可以为我国护理事业的发展提供借鉴。

  7. 2015年云南省西双版纳州登革2型病毒暴发疫情的调查研究%Investigation on an outbreak of dengue serotype 2 virus in Xishuangbanna prefecture of Yunnan province in 2015

    李园园; 冯云; 范建华; 李鸿斌; 朱进; 潘虹; 李卫平; 高阳; 张海林


    Objective To understand the epidemiologic features of an outbreak of dengue fever (DF) in Xishuangbanna prefecture of Yunnan province in 2015,with its viral serum-type and transmission source.Methods The data of DF cases in Xishuangbanna prefecture were collected.The serum samples from acute stage of these patients were collected to detect the viral nucleic acid by RT-PCR assay.The phylogenetic tree was generated and analyzed based on the nucleotide sequences of C/PrM gene fragments of dengue virus (DENV).Results A total of 1 132 cases of DF were reported in Xishuangbanna prefecture in 2015.Of them,1 089 were indigenous cases (96.20%),43 were imported cases (3.80%),i.e.,38 from Myanmar,3 from Laos and 2 from Thailand.Autochthonous DF occurred in urban area and Gasa towan of Jinghong city that there was distribution of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.Epidemic month of DF was from July to December.The majority of patients were aged from 20 to 49 years-old,with the youngest 2 years old and the eldest 93 years old.The male to female ratio was 1 ∶ 1.05.The results of virus nucleic acid detection and sequencing indicated that nucleotide sequences of C/PreM of 33 virus strains were obtained from the DF cases.Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the 33 strains belonged to DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2),and the strain from the imported cases of Thailand shared high homology with the strains from indigenous cases as well as belonged to same clade.These DENV-2 strains from Xishuangbanna had a closer genetic relationship with the strains isolated from Southeast Asia,Fujian and Guangdong provinces of China,however,distant relatives with DENV-2 strains from Ruili city of Yunnan province in 2014.Conclusions The autochthonous DF epidemic occurred in Xishuangbanna in 2015 was caused by DENV-2.The study also suggests that the transmission of DF from Thailand to Xishuangbanna of China was the main cause of the autochthonous DF epidemic,and Aedes aegypti mosquito was the main transmitting

  8. Incidence and risk factors of HIV infection among sero-negative spouses of people living with HIV/AIDS in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province%云南省德宏州艾滋病病毒感染者/艾滋病患者阴性配偶HIV新发感染研究

    杨跃诚; 张玉成; 曹艳芬; 唐仁海; 杨世江; 李林; 姚仕堂; 叶润华; 王继宝


    Objective To study the incidence rate and risk factors of HIV infection among sero-negative spouses of people living with HIV/AIDS (HIV/AIDS) in Dehong prefecture,Yunnan province.Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted from February 2009 to December 2014 in Dehong prefecture,Yunnan province.Questionnaire survey and HIV related tests were carried out once a year.Results By the end of December 2014,2 091 sero-negative spouses had been recruited,of whom 1 692 were followed-up for at least one time.Results showed that 34 new HIV infections were identified within 5 494.52 person years of follow-up,for an overall incidence of 0.62 per 100 person years.HIV incidence rates appeared as 0.79 per 100 person years,0.62 per 100 person years,0.47 per 100 person years in 2009-2010,2011-2012,2013-2014,respectively.Data from the Cox proportional hazard regression model indicated that risk factors of HIV infection among sero-negative spouses of HIV/AIDS were:non-consistent condom use (HR=4.64,95%CI:1.89-11.40,P=0.001),HIV/AIDS delayed antiviral retrovirus therapy (ART) for more than one year (HR=3.70,95%CI:1.44-9.49,P=0.007) after the HIV negative spouses were initially recruited,HIV/AIDS did not receive any ART (HR=3.62,95%CI:1.14-11.51,P=0.029).Conclusions The incidence of HIV infection among sero-negative spouses in Dehong prefecture was relatively low.Publicity on consistent condom use program should be emphasized among sero-negative spouses of HIV/AIDS,together with the timely provision of ART to those HIV/AIDS.%目的 了解云南省德宏州艾滋病病毒感染者/艾滋病患者(HIV/AIDS)阴性配偶HIV新发感染率及其危险因素.方法 2009年2月至2014年12月,在HIV/AIDS的阴性配偶中建立前瞻性队列,每年随访一次,进行问卷调查及HIV检测.结果 至2014年12月,共纳入研究对象2 091例,其中1 692例研究对象至少随访一次,34例研究对象新发感染HIV,累计观察时间为5 494.52人年,HIV新发感染率为0

  9. Study on drop-out from antiretroviral therapy among adult HIV-infected individuals in Dehong ;prefecture,Yunnan province%云南省德宏州成年艾滋病患者抗病毒治疗脱失情况及其原因分析

    姚仕堂; 何纳; 段松; 时允; 李品银; 许元武; 杨文芹; 张银娣; 尹春英; 寸柳青; 翟志坚


    目的:了解云南省德宏州成年艾滋病患者抗病毒治疗(ART)脱失比例及其原因。方法对德宏州截至2014年9月30日的参加ART的8367名成年艾滋病患者脱失情况进行调查。结果德宏州累计接受ART的成年艾滋病患者中脱失比例为14.4%(1202/8367)。单因素logistic回归分析,ART脱失与患者所在县(市)、性别、年龄、婚姻状况、感染途径、基线CD4+T淋巴细胞计数和初始治疗方案有关。多因素logistic回归分析,ART脱失与患者所在县(市)、婚姻状况、感染途径、基线CD4+T淋巴细胞计数和初始治疗方案有关。芒市、梁河县、盈江县、已婚或同居、性传播、基线CD4+T淋巴细胞计数≤200 cells/mm3、初始治疗方案含齐多夫定(AZT)者脱失比例低;瑞丽市、未婚、注射吸毒、基线CD4+T淋巴细胞计数>200 cells/mm3、初始治疗方案不含AZT者脱失比例高。ART患者随着治疗时间的延长,其脱失比例下降。调查发现1202例脱失治疗的患者中,失访704例(58.6%)、依从性困难303例(25.2%)、外出74例(6.2%)、缅甸籍回国64例(5.3%)、医嘱停药29例(2.4%)、羁押18例(1.5%)、其他原因10例(0.8%)。不同特征患者其脱失原因不同。结论德宏州不同特征的艾滋病患者ART脱失比例不同,需采取针对性的措施以减少脱失,重点是减少失访和提高治疗依从性。%Objective To examine the proportion and reasons of drop-out from antiretroviral therapy(ART)among 8 367 adult HIV-infected individuals in Dehong prefecture,Yunnan province. Methods All adult HIV-infected patients receiving ART before September 30 of 2014 were examined for the situation of drop-out from ART. Results The proportion of drop-out from ART among adult HIV-infected patients in Dehong prefecture was 14.4%(1 202/8 367). Results from the univariate logistic regression analyses indicated that drop-out from ART

  10. Experimentation on humans and nonhumans.

    Pluhar, Evelyn B


    In this article, I argue that it is wrong to conduct any experiment on a nonhuman which we would regard as immoral were it to be conducted on a human, because such experimentation violates the basic moral rights of sentient beings. After distinguishing the rights approach from the utilitarian approach, I delineate basic concepts. I then raise the classic "argument from marginal cases" against those who support experimentation on nonhumans but not on humans. After next replying to six important objections against that argument, I contend that moral agents are logically required to accord basic moral rights to every sentient being. I conclude by providing criteria for distinguishing ethical from unethical experimentation.

  11. Experimental design a chemometric approach

    Deming, SN


    Now available in a paperback edition is a book which has been described as `` exceptionally lucid, easy-to-read presentation... would be an excellent addition to the collection of every analytical chemist. I recommend it with great enthusiasm.'' (Analytical Chemistry). Unlike most current textbooks, it approaches experimental design from the point of view of the experimenter, rather than that of the statistician. As the reviewer in `Analytical Chemistry' went on to say: ``Deming and Morgan should be given high praise for bringing the principles of experimental design to the level of the p

  12. The Impact of Superoxide Dismutase-1 Genetic Variation on Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality in a Prospective Cohort Study: The Yamagata (Takahata) Study

    Otaki, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Tetsu; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Arimoto, Takanori; Shishido, Tetsuro; Miyamoto, Takuya; Konta, Tsuneo; Shibata, Yoko; Sato, Hidenori; Kawasaki, Ryo; Daimon, Makoto; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Takeo; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao


    Background Oxidative stress is a major cause of cardiovascular disease. Superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) is an antioxidant that protects against oxidative stress. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) variations such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) or haplotypes within the SOD gene are reportedly associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. However, it remains to be determined whether SOD1 variability is associated with cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in the general population. Methods and Results This prospective cohort study included 2799 subjects who participated in a community-based health study with a 10-year follow-up. We genotyped 639 SNPs and found the association of SNP rs1041740 and rs17880487 within a SOD1 gene with cardiovascular mortality. There were 193 deaths during the follow-up period including 57 cardiovascular deaths. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that the homozygous T-allele of rs1041740 was associated with all-cause and cardiovascular deaths after adjusting for confounding factors. The net reclassification index was significantly improved by adding rs1041740 as a cardiovascular risk factor. On the other hand, cardiovascular death was not observed in homozygous T-allele carriers of rs17880487. Haplotype analysis identified the haplotype with T-allele of rs1041740 and that with T-allele of rs17880487 as increasing and decreasing susceptibility for cardiovascular mortality, and it had complementary SNP sequences. Conclusion Variation in the SOD1 gene was associated with cardiovascular deaths in the general population. PMID:27755600

  13. HIRENASD Experimental Data, Individual Plots

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The HIRENASD data produced by analyzing the experimental data is repeated on this website, for those who can not download the information in the zip format found on...

  14. Animal Experimentation in High Schools

    Ansevin, Kystyna D.


    Recommends that teacher and student be provided with the broadest possible spectrum of meaningful and feasible experiments in which the comfort of the experimental animal is protected by the design of the experiment. (BR)

  15. Multi-Directional Experimental Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ATLSS Multi-directional Experimental Laboratory was constructed in 1987 under funding from the National Science Foundation to be a major facility for large-scale...

  16. Animal Experimentation in High Schools

    Ansevin, Kystyna D.


    Recommends that teacher and student be provided with the broadest possible spectrum of meaningful and feasible experiments in which the comfort of the experimental animal is protected by the design of the experiment. (BR)

  17. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    Mancini, Ferdinando


    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  18. HIRENASD Experimental Data - matlab format

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This resource contains the experimental data that was included in tecplot input files but in matlab files. dba1_cp has all the results is dimensioned (7,2) first...

  19. General footage ISOLDE experimental hall


    Overview of the ISOLDE experimental hall. Equipment and experiments. Taken from the WITCH / EBIS platform: ISOLDE hall infrastructure, GHM line, LA1, LA2, LA0, central beamline, COLLAPS experiment, CRIS experiment, ISOLTRAP experiment, laser guidance from building 508 into the hall for laser spectroscopy COLLAPS and CRIS. Taken from the HIE ISOLDE shielding tunnel roof: ISOLDE hall infrastructure, WITCH experiment, VITO line, TAS experiment. General footage: High Tension room entrance and EBIS platform, staircases and passages in the experimental hall.

  20. Persuasion in experimental ultimatum games

    Andersson, Ola; Galizzi, Matteo M.; Hoppe, Tim


    We study persuasion effects in experimental ultimatum games and find that Proposers' payoffs significantly increase if, along with offers, they can send messages which Responders read before deciding. Higher payoffs are driven by both lower offers and higher acceptance rates.......We study persuasion effects in experimental ultimatum games and find that Proposers' payoffs significantly increase if, along with offers, they can send messages which Responders read before deciding. Higher payoffs are driven by both lower offers and higher acceptance rates....

  1. Experimental realization of quantum illumination.

    Lopaeva, E D; Ruo Berchera, I; Degiovanni, I P; Olivares, S; Brida, G; Genovese, M


    We present the first experimental realization of the quantum illumination protocol proposed by Lloyd [Science 321, 1463 (2008)] and S. Tan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253601 (2008)], achieved in a simple feasible experimental scheme based on photon-number correlations. A main achievement of our result is the demonstration of a strong robustness of the quantum protocol to noise and losses that challenges some widespread wisdom about quantum technologies.

  2. [The ethics of animal experimentation].

    Goffi, Jean-Yves


    The paper starts with a short definition of animal experimentation, then three main approaches to the practice are considered: unconditional approval (as advocated by Claude Bernard), conditional and restricted approval (as advocated by Peter Singer) and strict prohibition (as advocated by Tom Regan and Gary Francione). It is argued that what is actually approved or condemned in animal experimentation is the value of the scientific enterprise.

  3. Risk minimization by experimental mechanics


    Experimental mechanics has to undertake new functions to confirm theoretical perceptions and to check results of numerical analysis, because such results are dependent on the validity of assumptions and suppositions which generally are necessary to enable mathematical analysis of complex problems. Methods of experimental mechanics have become essential to design structures and products of a large variety to save raw materials and energy, to improve safety against failure and reliability of products, structures and even complex technical systems. Experimental methods are applied in system identification of complex structures. They are developed also as tools for supervising operating systems, machinery and installations as well as engineering structures, in order to get reliable informations on the life-time, to guarantee a higher degree of safety and to minimize risks. Therefore, methods of experimental mechanics are quite essential in developing strategies of riskmanagement. The contributions to this report are dealing with new theoretical perceptions, practical applications and experiences according to the objectives of the international symposium on 'Risk Minimization by Experimental Mechanics'. (orig.).

  4. Graphical Models for Quasi-Experimental Designs

    Kim, Yongnam; Steiner, Peter M.; Hall, Courtney E.; Su, Dan


    Experimental and quasi-experimental designs play a central role in estimating cause-effect relationships in education, psychology, and many other fields of the social and behavioral sciences. This paper presents and discusses the causal graphs of experimental and quasi-experimental designs. For quasi-experimental designs the authors demonstrate…

  5. Experimental application of QCD antennas

    Bobrovskyi, Sergei


    A serious problem in searches for new physics at the LHC is the rejection of QCD induced multijet events. In this thesis the formalism of QCD antenna variables based on the SPHEL approximation of QCD matrix elements is applied for the rst time on experimentally reconstructed jets in order to discriminate QCD from supersymmetric processes. The new observables provide additional information with respect to traditional event shape variables. Albeit correlated with experimentally measured missing transverse energy, the variables can be used to improve the signal to background ratio. (orig.)

  6. Experimentation and Bricolage on Institutions

    Cartel, Melodie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Aggeri, Franck

    a qualitative study of institutional bricolage in the context of the making of the European carbon market. We suggest that, during episodes of experimental bricolage, alternative arrangements may be tested and evaluated inside experimental spaces named platforms. We identify three selection mechanisms......This paper examines how innovative institutional arrangements are generated during processes of institutional bricolage. The aim of the paper is to highlight how an arrangement is selected among the others when many alternatives exist or are imaginable. To address this question, we present...

  7. Experimental Approach to Teaching Fluids

    Stern, Catalina


    For the last 15 years we have promoted experimental work even in the theoretical courses. Fluids appear in the Physics curriculum of the National University of Mexico in two courses: Collective Phenomena in their sophomore year and Continuum Mechanics in their senior year. In both, students are asked for a final project. Surprisingly, at least 85% choose an experimental subject even though this means working extra hours every week. Some of the experiments were shown in this congress two years ago. This time we present some new results and the methodology we use in the classroom. I acknowledge support from the Physics Department, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM.

  8. Experimental techniques in hadron spectroscopy

    Gianotti P.


    Full Text Available Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD is the theory of the strong interaction, but the properties of the hadrons cannot be directly calculated from the QCD Lagrangian and alternative approaches are then used. In order to test the different models, precise measurements of hadron properties are of extreme importance. This is the main motivation for the hadron spectroscopy experimental program carried out since many years with different probes and different detectors. A survey of some recent results in the field is here presented and commented, together with the opportunities offered by the forthcoming experimental programs.

  9. Understanding experimentally-observed fluctuations

    Kitazawa, Masakiyo


    We discuss two topics on the experimental measurements of fluctuation observables in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. First, we discuss the effects of the thermal blurring, i.e. the blurring effect arising from the experimental measurement of fluctuations in momentum space as a proxy of the thermal fluctuations defined in coordinate space, on higher order cumulants. Second, we discuss the effect of imperfect efficiency of detectors on the measurement of higher order cumulants. We derive effective formulas which can carry out the correction of this effect for higher order cumulants based on the binomial model.


    Romanova OA


    Full Text Available Introduction. With the transport links development there is rather important issue respiratory viral infections spread, especially influenza. The only method controlling influenza is vaccination. Search and development effective and safe vaccines is important. Material and methods. In base SO "Mechnikov Institute Microbiology and Immunology National Ukrainian Academy Medical Sciences" in the scientific theme "Developing new approaches to creating viral vaccines and study specific activity depending of type and degree component`s modification" was created several experimental influenza vaccine with subsequent component`s modification for selecting the most optimal pattern of safety and immunogenicity. In assessing the influenza vaccine safety is using a few criteria, including, reactivity, as measured by the frequency of local and systemic adverse (negative effects, which due to its introduction, and for lipid content drugs, ability to influence oxidation processes. At present study phase was determined: a systemic reaction and local reaction of delayed-type hypersensitivity (foot pad swelling assay;b lipids and proteins peroxidation processes after administration officinal and experimental vaccines (content protein’s carbonyl groups, lipid’s hydroperoxides, activity of glutathione-peroxidase.Study objects were trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine, "Vaxigrip" (Sanofi Pasteur, S.A., France, "Inflexal V" (Biotech Ltd. Berne, Switzerland and experimental vaccine samples. Highest immunogenicity vaccines had undergone improvements and modifications using adjuvant systems and acylation influenza proteins. Liposomes 2 – the experimental influenza vaccine with a liposome negative charge and antigenic composition like split vaccines "Vaksihryp". Liposomes 2.1 - the adjuvantexperimental influenza vaccine with modifications liposomal components (etoniy and chlorophyllipt molecules embedded in liposomal membrane. Liposomes 2.2 - the adjuvant

  11. New way to develop the rural labor force transfer for employment in the western ethnic areas--Taking Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture Sichuan province as an example%拓展西部民族地区农村劳动力转移就业新途径--以四川省甘孜藏族自治州为例



    The transfer of rural labor employment,coordination of urban and rural economic development,an important way to increase farmers' income,poverty,is an inevitable trend to realize rural modernization,is the important content of the construction of the well-off society.Western ethnic regions with a positive change for the implementation of the western development of rural employment structure,the employment percentage of the primary industry declined,the proportion of employment second,three industry significantly improve.But overall,the employment structure is still not reasonable,difficult employment of surplus labor transfer of agricultural and pastoral areas. Starting from the Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture,Sichuan Province,analysis of the current labor in the western minority areas transfer status and restriction factors of employment,give full play to the advantages of western ethnic areas,establish the way for rural labor employment transfer mode in western ethnic areas,and with all the advanced experience of the proposed effective solution.%  农村劳动力转移就业,是统筹城乡经济发展,增加农民收入、脱贫致富的重要途径,是实现农村现代化的必然趋势,是全面建设小康社会的重要内容。西部民族地区随着西部大开发的实施农村就业结构发生了积极的变化,第一产业就业比重有所下降,第二、三产业就业比重明显提高。但总体来说,就业结构仍然不够合理,农牧区剩余劳动力转移就业困难。从四川省甘孜藏族自治州入手,分析目前西部民族地区劳动力转移就业的现状和制约因素,探索充分发挥西部民族地区优势,建立适合西部民族地区农村劳动力转移就业模式的途径,并结合各地先进经验提出有效的解决途径。

  12. A study on the effectiveness of prevention of mother-to-child HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B transmission among pregnant women in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China from 2011 to 2013%云南省德宏州2011-2013年预防艾滋病、梅毒和乙型肝炎母婴传播效果研究

    单多; 王娟; 孙江平; 段松; 郭云松


    Objective To demonstrate the effectiveness of prevention of mother-to-child HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B transmission among pregnant women in Dehong prefecture , Yunnan province,China from 2011 to 2013.Methods Data were collected mainly from the continuous HIV surveillance system and prevention of mother-to-child transmission ( PMTCT ) reporting system of Dehong prefecture , and supplemented by annual reported data on HIV , syphilis, and hepatitis B PMTCT to know the general demographic characteristics , HIV testing and counseling service , PMTCT service, and other medical services.Data were presented as absolute numbers and proportions.Results From 2011 to 2013,the number of pregnant women participating in HIV ,syphilis,and hepatitis B testing in Dehong prefecture increased and the HIV testing rates were 99.2%( 18 694/18 854 ) , 99.9%( 22 047/22 060 ) and 99.9%( 21 751/21 756),the syphilis testing rates were 56.0%(10 550/18 854),99.6%(21 980/22 060) and 99.9%(21 751/21 756),and the hepatitis B testing rates were 60.2%(11 358/18 854),99.6%(21 974/22 060) and 99.9%(21 751/21 756).From 2011 to 2013, the HIV positive rates were 0.87%(327/37 787), 0.82%(319/38 817) and 0.85%(315/37 261),the syphilis positive rates were 0.05%(10/18 520), 0.12%(43/36 817) and 0.11%(40/35 888),the hepatitis B positive rates were 2.46%(456/18 520), 2.23%(794/35 547) and 2.14%(739/34 468),respectively.The rates of HIV-positive pregnant women giving birth in hospitals were 99.2%(128/129),100.0%(141/141) and 100.0%(141/141).From 2011 to 2013,the proportions of HIV-positive pregnant women receiving antiretroviral therapy were 99.2%(128/129),99.3%(140/141) and 99.3%(140/141),respectively.And the treatment rate of syphilis-positive pregnant women were 71%(5/7),89%(16/18) and 97%(32/33).The rates of hepatitis B immunoglobulin injection among new-borns of hepatitis B-positive pregnant women were 92.9%(263/283),99.7%(612/614) and 99.4%(629/633).The estimated rates of mother-to-child transmission

  13. Study on Urbanization and Human Capital:Based on Unbalanced Panel Data of China’s 261 Prefecture-level Cities%城市化与人力资本关系研究--基于我国261个地级以上城市非平衡面板数据

    刘铮; 孙健


    城市化与人力资本之间存在显著的影响关系,但衡量我国人力资本的不同变量,其影响效果和程度存在明显差异,而资源禀赋不同的地区影响也有所不同。采用2004-2010年我国261个地级以上城市非平衡面板数据,本文实证研究了城市化与人力资本水平之间的关系,并区分东、中、西部地区进行了进一步分析。结果表明,全国范围内,人力资本投资对城市化具有正向的推动作用,人口增长与人口密度已超过临界值,负外部性已经显现,第二产业仍是带动城市形成与扩张的主要产业;东部地区城市化对人才需求最大,城市类型并无显著影响,中部的高等教育投资和西部的中等教育投资分别与城市化存在显著的正向关系。%There is a significant relationship between urbanization and human capital,but impact and the extent of the effect of different variables,which measuring China’s human capital,appear significant differences,and different regions due to re-source endowment unbalance is also different. Using unbalanced panel data on 261 prefecture-level cities in China from 2004 to 2010,this paper studies empirically urbanization and human capital,and distinguishes conditions among the eastern,central and western areas. The results shows that, nationwide,human capital investment has a positive role in promoting urbanization, population growth and population density has exceeded the critical value,negative externalities has emerged,the secondary in-dustry is still the major industry which drives the formation and expansion of the city;eastern region urbanization has the greatest demand for talent,city type has no significant effect. High education investment in central and middle education in-vestment in western have significant positive effect on urbanization respectively.

  14. 西藏地区乡村社会媒介使用状况研究--以山南地区扎囊县沙布夏村为例%On Social Media Use in Rural Tibet-A case study of Sabusha Village in Zhanang County of Lhoka Prefecture

    次旺卓玛; 罗布


    Mass media is popular in the rural areas of Tibet. Thus, the production, governance and individual life of the people in rural Tibet affect the use of media, and television has become the main media the villagers ac-cess to. A case study has been done on the media use and media perception of the villagers of Sabusha Village in Zhanang County of Lhoka Prefecture, and it is found that the official information broadcasted via television and the unofficial via micro-letters will occupy an important position in the information environment of the agricultur-al and pastoral areas. Media play its catalyst role in maximum in social development only when media match with other factors, such as, finance, local natural environment, social conditions, etc.%在大众传播媒介普及的西藏农村,生产方式、治理方式、个体生活都影响着媒介的使用,电视已成为村民接触与使用的主要媒介。文章以山南地区扎囊县沙布夏村为例,调查了该村村民接触、使用与认知媒介的状况,并进行了分析。认为,电视媒介传播的官方资讯与微信传播的草根资讯将成为未来广大农牧区信息环境的重要组成部分。传播媒介在社会建设中并不具有发生学意义的因素,只有与资金、当地自然环境、社会环境等因素相匹配,才能在最大限度上发挥自己的催化剂作用。

  15. THE WITCHCRAFT, BELIEF AND THE FORMATION OF ORDER:A Survey to the Phenomenon of “Witchcraft Infection” in M Township in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture%巫蛊、信仰与秩序的形成--以湘西M乡“中蛊”现象为例



    本文从湘西自治州M乡的“中蛊”现象出发,重点讨论巫蛊信仰、巫蛊功能以及巫蛊规则等问题。通过田野调查及个案研究发现,巫蛊信仰应该被认为是一种内心的确信,这构成了巫蛊文化的心理基础。巫蛊具有社会整合和社会控制功能,巫蛊功能的发挥一方面依靠作为心理基础的巫蛊信仰,另一方面依靠具体的巫蛊规则。巫蛊规则符合“另类规范”的特征,应该被视为一种典型的“另类规范”,“另类规范”对于地方“小传统”社会秩序的形成及维系起着极为重要的作用。%This paper focuses on witchcraft beliefs, functions, and rules as well as other issues of the phenomenon of “witchcraft infection” in M township, Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture.It is found from fieldwork and case studies that witchcraft beliefs should be considered as a confidant in heart, constituting the psychological foundation of witchcraft culture.Witchcraft plays functions of social integration and social control, relying on the psychological basis of witchcraft beliefs on the one hand, and on the specific rules of witchcraft on the other.The witchcraft rules are in line with the features of “alternative rules”, which should be regarded as a typical “alternative rules” .The “alternative rules” play an extremely important role to form and maintain social order in the local “little tradition” .

  16. 符号学视角下的舞蹈传播探析--以文山州马关县苗族舞蹈为例%On Popularizing Dance from the Perspective of Semiotics--- A Case Study of the Miao Dance of Maguan County of Wenshan Prefecture



    The art of dance has been an information carrier to express the emotions and thoughts of the people . Its occurrence and development means constant upgrading feelings and ideas among people . Acting as a medium between the sender (choreographer and performer) and human action , dancers send a message by dynamic dance movements ,facial expressions and finally the recipient (or its audience) understand and respond to their dancing ,thus they complete the communication process .Dance art communication is an important way to realize its social function and the indispensable role .Based on the analysis of the concept of the dance popularization , the author of this paper takes Miao Maguan County of Wenshan prefecture dance as an example and discusses its core areas , symbolic activity , and the mode of communication and dance culture communication code from the perspective of semiotics .The author reflects from a new perspective on the cultural connotation of the dance spread ,highlights the Maguan County of Miao dance in the dissemination of national culture in terms of its value in order to better protect Miao dance of Maguan County and protect and develop Miao intangible cultural heritage of Maguan County .%从舞蹈传播的概念出发,以文山州马关县苗族舞蹈为例,运用符号学理论,论述其核心领域、符号活动和传播模式以及舞蹈的文化代码,试图从一种新的研究视角解读舞蹈传播所体现的文化内涵,凸显马关县苗族舞蹈在民族文化传播领域中的价值,以期更好地保护马关县苗族舞蹈,促进马关县苗族非物质文化遗产的保护与开发。

  17. 情报主导警务模式下的警务辅助人员队伍建设--以阿坝州A县公安局为例%Team Construction of Auxiliary Police in Intelligence-dominant Policing Model:Taking A county in Aba Prefecture as an Example



    近年来,由于藏区维稳工作需要,警务辅助人员队伍建设亟待加强。按照情报主导警务工作模式要求,藏区警务辅助人员队伍还存在不少问题。从阿坝州某县的调查来看,辅警的情报素质主要存在对情报信息概念认识模糊,对情报信息收集的意识不强,情报信息收集渠道不畅,情报信息的内容单调,以及情报信息队伍稳定性差等问题。建议从以下方面加强辅警队伍建设,实施特殊辅警招录政策;强化教育培训,提高职业能力;加强职业保障。%AbstractIn recent years, due to the need to maintain Tibetan stability, the auxiliary police staff team construction is urgent to be strengthened. In accordance with requirements of the intelligence-dominant policing model, there are still a lot of problems existing in the Tibetan auxiliary police staff team construction. From a survey of a county in Aba prefecture, the intelligence quality of auxiliary police need to be improved. For example, the concepts about intelligence information are fuzzy, the awareness of intelligence information collection falls behind, information collecting channels are impeded, intelligence information content is monotonous, and intelligence information team is not stable, and so on. This article puts forward the following suggestions to strengthen the construction of auxiliary police team: implementing special enrolling policy for auxiliary police, strengthening education and training to improve their professional ability, and improving their professional guarantee.

  18. Legal Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritages in Minority Areas--Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture as an example%论少数民族地区非物质文化遗产的法律保护--以云南省红河哈尼族彝族自治州为例



    法律保护问题在当前的非物质文化遗产保护中是带有根本性的关键问题。要做好少数民族地区非物质文化遗产保护工作,首要的就是要重视法律保护。中国是一个实行民族区域自治的国家,在非物质文化遗产保护中,少数民族地区自有其重要性和特殊性。从少数民族地区这一特定区域出发,以云南省红河哈尼族彝族自治州为例,概括了非物质文化遗产保护和红河州少数民族非物质文化遗产的情况,分析了少数民族地区非物质文化遗产法律保护的现状,提出了依托民族自治构建非物质文化遗产法律保护的有效途径。%Legal protection is a fundamental and vital issue of protection of intangible cultural heritages at present. To attach importance of legal protection is the first priority for well protecting of intangible cultural heritages in minority areas. China has instituted a system of regional autonomy in minority areas. Protecting of intangible cultural heritages in minority areas has its own importance and specificity in the work on protecting intangible cultural heritage. Starting off the special areas of minorities and taking Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan province as an example, this article has summarized protection of intangible cultural heritages and the situation of intangible cultural heritages in Honghe, analyzed the situations of legal protection of intangible cultural heritages in minority areas, and proposed an effective approach of constructing legal system for protecting intangible cultural heritages by relying on system of regional autonomy in minority areas.

  19. 青海省海南州引进种牛布鲁氏菌衣原体和弓形虫等病血清学检测%Serological detection on Brucellosis, Chlamydiosis,and Toxoplasmosis of cattle in Haimm prefecture of Qing Hal province

    措毛加; 李秀萍


    应用布鲁氏菌病虎红平板凝集试验、衣原体和弓形虫IHA试验,对青海省海南州某核心种牛群引进的40只种公牛,进行了布鲁氏菌、衣原体和弓形虫等病的特异性血清抗体检测。结果:检出布氏杆菌阳性血清1份,阳性率2.50%:检出衣原体阳性血清6份,阳性率为15.00%;弓形虫阳性血清2份,阳性率为5.00%。结果表明引进的种牛中存在不同程度的布鲁氏菌病、衣原体及弓形虫病。而该三种病均可通过垂直传播。所以,对种牛引进因加强检疫及管理等措施。防止种牛感染造成的疫病传播。%To investigate the prevalence of Brucellosis, Chlamydiosis, and Toxoplasmosis of 40 eattles in Hainan prefecture of Qing hai province, Rose - Bengal plate Agglutination Test ( RBPT ), Chlamydisosis and Toxoplasmosis Indirect Hemagglutination Assay(IHA) were used to detect antibody of these disease. The results showed that one serum sample was Brucella positive and the positive rate was 2.5 percent,six serum sample were Chlamydia positive and the positive rate was 15 percent,two serum asmple were Toxoplasma positive and the positive tare was 5 percent. The survey revealed that a few introduced cattles have been infected by Brucellosis, Chlamydisosis, and Toxoplasmosis. All these diseases are related to vertical transmission, so it is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of these disease in introduced cattle.

  20. 实施生态移民,推进少数民族地区跨越发展*--以云南省怒江傈僳族自治州为例%Implementing Ecological Migration in the Areas Inhabited by Minority Ethnic Groups to Promote Leaping Development---A Case Study of Lujiang Lisu Nationality Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province



    贫困、地质环境条件恶劣和自然灾害是怒江傈僳族自治州(简称怒江州)发展的结症,恶劣的地理地质生态环境和频发的自然灾害导致边疆民族群众贫困,贫困又加剧生态环境恶化。由此形成恶性循环圈,成为长期制约怒江州发展的瓶颈。在新常态下,实施怒江州生态移民,推进民族特色的山地小城镇发展安置移民,转变陡坡农垦生产方式,消除发展瓶颈,闯出一条跨越式发展的路子来,使怒江州实现云南省委省政府提出的到2020年完全解决贫困任务目标,率先建成云南“生态文明建设的排头兵,民族团结进步示范区”。%Poverty, extreme geographical conditions and natural disasters impede development and undermine national unity of Lujiang Lisu Nationality Autonomous Prefecture and these conditions interact to make things worse.Under the condition of the New Normal, it is necessary that ecological migration be a-dopted in the mountainous towns mainly inhabited by the minority ethnic groups and the traditional agricul-ture be changed to “open up a new approach for leaping development.” This way, the objectives pre-scribed by the CPC Yunnan Provincial Committee of eliminating poverty and constructing demonstrative ec-ological civilization can be accomplished.

  1. 科技服务业发展与城市成长力之关系研究——以江苏省地级市为例%Relationship Between S & T Service Industry Development and Urban Growth Force: A Case Study on Prefecture Cities in Jiangsu Province

    石忆邵; 刘玉钢


    Firstly,The basic connotation of scientific and technological services was defined and a comprehensive evaluation index system of the development level of scientific and technological services was listed. Then, the development level of scientific and technological services of prefecture-level cities of Jiangsu Province was evaluated with the help of entropy method and makes a correlation analysis between the development level of scientific and technological services and urban growth. The results showed that there were basic agreement of the regional differences of scientific and technological services development level and regional economic development differences; and the relationship between scientific and technological services development level and urban growth is significant, and the degree of correlation rendered in a "V" shape. However,the development of scientific and technological services in Jiangsu province has not fully promoted its economic growth and urbanization. Finally,some countermeasures and suggestions have been put forward on this problem.%在界定科技服务业基本内涵的基础上,构建了科技服务业发展水平的综合评价指标体系,运用熵值法对江苏省地级市的科技服务业发展水平进行评价,并对科技服务业发展水平与城市成长力之间的关系进行研究.结果表明:科技服务业发展水平的区域差异与区域经济发展水平的差异基本吻合;科技服务业发展水平与城市成长力系数之间存在较为显著的关系,两者之间的关联程度呈现V字形变化.鉴于江苏省科技服务业的发展尚未成为其经济增长与城市化发展的强力支撑,对此提出了对策建议.

  2. 边疆地区小学数学双语教师心理健康状况分析--以新疆克州某市为例%A Survey on Mathematics Bilingual Teachers’ Mental Health for Primary Schools---Illustrated by the Case Study of a City in Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture

    杨宏波; 方敏; 曹吉祥


    To learn the state of mathematics bilingual teachers’ mental health of primary schools in frontier minority areas in our country, this study chose SCL - 90 to assess 126 mathematics bilingual teachers’ mental health of a city in Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture. Score of frontier bilingual teachers’ mental health for primary school mathematics in SCL - 90 is lower than that of the local adults with the significant difference(P<0.01), and 11%of the mathematics bilingual teachers for primary schools suffered severe psychological reactions and obstacles. At the same time, the levels of teachers’ mental health is significantly different between different teaching ages (P<0.01), however, different genders are not. In frontier areas, therefore, the mental health status of the primary school mathematics bilingual teachers is not optimistic, which should be paid more positive attention by the society. And it is recom-mended that the communication between and among schools, families and teachers should be strengthened to promote the health development of teachers’ psychology.%选用SCL-90对新疆克州某市的126名小学数学双语教师进行心理健康评估,以了解我国边疆少数民族地区小学数学双语教师心理健康状况。结果显示:边疆地区小学数学双语教师SCL-90得分低于地方成人,且差异显著(P<0.01),其中有11%的人出现了较为严重的心理反应和障碍,同时,这些教师的心理健康水平在不同教龄间存在显著差异(P<0.01)。由此可见,边疆小学数学双语教师的心理健康状况不容乐观,应引起社会的积极关注,建议加强学校、家庭、教师三者之间的相互沟通,共同推动教师心理的健康发展。

  3. 区域高等教育对“人的城镇化”的影响--基于地级市层面的实证分析%Impacts of Regional Higher Education on "Human-Centered Urbanization":Empirical Analysis Based on Prefecture-Level Cities

    孙哲; 王家庭


    This paper uses prefecture-level cities' data in 2011 for regression analysis, to verify whether regional higher education improves the level of "human-centered urbanization" by talent training, R&D and social capital cultivating. Based on the meaning and measurement of "human-centered urbanization", empirical findings of this paper show that promotion of undergraduate education is different from specialized education in different cities of scale; R&D has not fully functioned; the impact of social capital fosters stronger in larger cities. We put forward the following recommendations: the higher education resource allocation model of collaborative development inside provinces should be built; local institutions of higher education should be involved in the urbanization development plan; big cities should pay attention to the fundamentals and universality, while small cities should pay attention to the characteristic and practicability. .%本文利用2011年地级市层面的数据进行回归分析,验证区域高等教育是否在人才培养、科技研发和社会资本培育三个方面提升了“人的城镇化”水平。基于对“人的城镇化”的内涵阐释与指标测度,本文的实证结果表明,本科教育和专科教育的促进作用因城市规模而异,科技研发的促进作用没有充分实现,社会资本培育的促进作用在小城市更强。本文建议构建省内协同发展的高等教育资源配置模式,地方高等教育机构参与制定城镇化发展规划,大中城市的高等教育注重高级化与普适性,非大中城市注重特色化与实用性。

  4. 我国 FDI 流入的经济效率分析--基于地级市动态面板数据模型%Study on Economic Efficiency of FDI Inflows in China:Based on Dynamic Panel Data of Prefecture-level City

    赵广川; 郭俊峰; 陈颖


    文章利用2003-2012年期间我国246个地级市数据,借助DEA方法测量出不同地市的Malmquist指数,并通过基于工具变量的固定效应面板回归模型,实证研究了外商直接投资对地区经济效率的影响。结果表明,自2003年以来,全国经济效率逐渐上升,约累计提高了37.1%,但是东部、中部和西部三大区域的经济效率及其增速各不相同。控制其他影响因素后,发现FDI能够有效促进所在地的经济效率,特别是在经济相对发达的东部和经济效率较高的地市。地区经济越发达、经济效率越高,则FDI提升当地经济效率的作用越显著。%Through panel data of Chinese 246 prefecture -level city between 2003 and 2012 , this paper analyses the impact of FDI on regional economic efficiency, by using DEA method to measure cities’ Malmquist index and applying fixed-effect model based on instrumental variables.The results show that Chinese economic efficiency has totally increased about 37.1 percent since 2003 , while economic efficiency among eastern, central and western areas are different. What’s more, after controlling other influence factors, FDI can significantly promote local economic efficiency, especially in relatively developed eastern district as well as relatively high efficient areas.The more prosperous and more efficient local economy is, the more notable positive effect of FDI is.

  5. 民族地区妇女参与产业扶贫的问题分析和政策建议——以凉山彝族自治州美姑县为例%Analysis and Policy Recommendations about the Participation of Minority Women in Industrialization Poverty Alleviation——Cases of Meigu County in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture

    叶宏; 马海五达; 木乃铁哈


    在民族地区开展产业扶贫,将对广大民族地区的可持续发展具有决定性的意义。以凉山彝族自治州为例,近年来,随着农村男性劳动力的不断输出,彝族妇女越来越在当地的产业扶贫发展中扮演着举足轻重的角色。美姑县彝族妇女在参与产业扶贫发展中,却存在着基础教育水平低,生产技能低下,受地方传统家庭分工影响,自主性不强等问题。这可以说是广大民族地区妇女参与产业扶贫的缩影。政府在民族地区开展产业扶贫项目时,要开发更多适合妇女的项目,通过增加少数民族妇女的受教育机会,开展民族语言培训、培养带头人、成立互助组等方式,突出她们在产业扶贫中的主体性。%Developing Industrialization poverty alleviation in minority regions has a decisive significance for the sustainable development in these places.For example,in recent years,along with the rural male labor forces continue to output in Liangshan Yi autonomous prefecture,Yi women are playing an increasingly important role in the local Industrialization poverty alleviation development.However,when Yi women of Meigu county participate in industrial development,they face such problems as their low education and poor production skill,their autonomy is not strong enough which is affected by the traditional domestic division of labor,etc.It can be seen as the microcosm of women's participation in Industrialization poverty alleviation in majority of poor minority areas.As a result,when governments develop the Industrialization poverty alleviation projects in minority regions,more projects fitting for women should be considered.The minority women's main place in Industrialization poverty alleviation will be highlighted by increasing their educational opportunities,carrying out the skill training in minority language,training female leaders,and establishing the mutual aid groups,etc.

  6. 水库移民可持续生计能力分析——以阿坝州典型水电工程为例%Sustainable livelihood ability of reservoir immigrants: case studies of typical hydropower projects in Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture of Aba of Sichuan Province, China

    张华山; 周现富


    The reservoir resettlement has become one of the most remarkable issues in construction of hydropower projects, and the immigrants' production and life dilemma has increasingly become the focus of social concern. The sustainable livelihood framework is employed to analyze the problems of reservoir resettlement so as to provide a new way for studying the status of the immigrants' dilemma, the factors for poverty as well as the possible management strategy. Through case studies of hydropower stations in Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture of Aba of Sichuan Province, it is found that the reservoir immigrants ' sustainable livelihood ability is short and makes them become potential poor community. The problems of barren natural capilal, weak economic capital, scarce human capital and deficient social capital are the most prominent. Therefore, the key to the problems of reservoir resettlement is gradually to improve the immigrants' sustainable livelihood ability from the strategic level.%水库移民已经成为水电工程建设最突出的问题之一,移民的生产生活困境也日益成为社会关注的焦点.运用可持续性生计分析框架对水库移民问题进行解析,为研究水库移民的困境现状、导致贫困的因素以及可行的治理策略提供新的思路.通过对四川省阿坝州几个水电站的典型个案分析,发现水库移民可持续性生计能力短缺,水库移民成为潜在的贫困社会群体,自然资本贫瘠、经济资本薄弱、人力资本稀缺、社会资本不足的问题尤为突出.指出:解决水库移民问题的关键在于从战略层面分层逐步提升移民的可持续性生计能力.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Rural Tourism from the Perspective of Stakeholders:a Case in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture%从利益相关者视角评价乡村旅游绩效--以湘西土家族苗族自治州为例

    张海燕; 罗健阳


    Rural tourism is critical to the development of a rural area.Based on the stakeholder theory,the performance evaluation system of rural tourism is created from the perspectives of tourists,local resi-dents and tourism developer.The evaluation of rural tourism development in Xiangxi Autonomous Pre-fecture shows the following problems:(1 )tourist satisfaction with the overall environment of rural tourism is low,and the rural tourism product is not cost-effective;(2)the local residents have no conspic-uous awareness of the environmental performance,and the rural tourism lead to small growth in local residents'incomes;(3)the sources of tourists are unstable and single,and little attention has been paid to the development of employees.In order to improve the performance of rural tourism,some countermeas-ures are proposed in terms of service facility improvement,regional cooperation,and the rural tourism community establishment.%乡村旅游对促进乡村区域发展具有重要意义,对乡村旅游绩效进行评价能发现乡村旅游发展中存在的不足。基于利益相关者理论,从游客、社区居民、开发主体三个视角构建乡村旅游绩效评价体系,并对湘西乡村旅游发展进行评价,发现存在以下问题:(1)基于游客感知的乡村旅游整体环境满意度较差,旅游产品性价比不高;(2)社区居民对环境绩效感知不明显,乡村旅游对当地居民收入提升影响不高;(3)开发主体客源市场不稳定或市场来源单一,员工培养重视程度不够。从完善旅游服务设施建设,增强区域合作,构建无景区化乡村旅游社区等方面提出了提升乡村旅游绩效的对策。

  8. 新疆金融排斥的区域差异及影响因素研究--基于15个地州市的实证分析%A Study of Regional Differences of Financial Exclusion in Xinjiang and Its Influencing Factors---An Empirical Analysis Based on 15 Regions and Prefectures in Xinjiang

    谢婷婷; 马洁


    内容提本文以新疆15个地州市为研究对象,在运用变异系数来测算新疆2013年金融排斥指数的基础上,利用灰色关联和皮埃尔逊相关系数来探究新疆金融排斥区域差异的主要影响因素。研究结果表明:新疆金融排斥区域差异较为明显,金融排斥程度由高到低依次为南疆、东疆、北疆;区域间收入水平、产业结构、金融发展程度、民族构成、人口结构的不同导致了金融排斥区域的差异性。鉴于此,结合新疆金融服务业发展现状,本文从金融因素、经济因素和社会因素等方面提出了弱化金融排斥的建议。%Based on the employment of the variation coefficient method to measure financial exclusion index of Xinjiang in 2013, this paper, taking 15 regions and prefectures in Xinjiang as the research object, explores the main factors influencing the finan-cial exclusion on regional differences in Xinjiang with grey correlation and Pierre Johnson correlation coefficient method. The re-sults show that the financial exclusion in regional differences in Xinjiang are more obvious, financial exclusion degree in sequence from high to low is south Xinjiang, east Xinjiang, north Xinjiang. Differences in income, industrial structure, financial develop-ment, ethnic composition, population structure lead to different regional financial exclusion. Therefore, in combination with the status quo of the development of financial service industry in Xinjiang, effective suggestions are put forward to weaken the finan-cial exclusion from financial, economic and social aspect.

  9. Investigation of working situation of community nurses and care needs of the residents in a prefecture-level city%某地级市社区护士工作现状与居民护理需求的调查*

    陈利芬; 张振路; 陈瑞娟; 于萍; 黄焕馨; 吴兰笛


      目的调查某地级市社区护士工作现状与居民护理需求。方法采用自行设计的调查问卷对135名社区护士和338户社区居民进行调查。结果社区护士的工作重点在治疗护理方面,而预防、康复、保健、健康宣教和计划生育5项的工作力度明显不够;社区护理工作现状与居民需求存在差异,居民对社区护理服务的需求从疾病治疗向疾病预防和健康促进转变。结论社区护士应转变观念,加强疾病预防和健康促进的理念;社区护理应以居民需求为导向,尽快建立以社区人群健康为中心,融医疗、预防、保健、康复、健康教育、计划生育于一体的综合性社区护理服务模式。%Objective To survey the working situation of community nurses and care needs of the residents in a prefecture-level city.Method One hundred and thirty-five community nurses and 338 residents were selected and investigated by self-designed questionnaire.Results Community nurses still focused on the area of nursing and treatment rather than prevention,rehabilitation, health care,health education and family planning,which need to be paid more attention to.The needs of residents on community nursing service shift from disease treatment to disease prevention and health promotion.The current community nursing service cannot satisfy residents’care needs.Conclusion Community nurses should provide demand-oriented community care to the residents, strengthen the concept of disease prevention and health promotion,and set up community health centers to be a blend of prevention, health care,rehabilitation,health education and family planning as soon as possible.

  10. 基于遥感和GIS的延边州耕地变化与驱动力分析%Study on the Changes of Cultivated Land and the Driving Forces in Yanbian Autonomous Prefecture Based on Remote Sensing and GIS

    丁婧; 冯恒栋


    Based on the remote sensing data, the temporal and spatial change characteristics of cultivated land at the Yanbian Autonomous Prefecture during 1990 to 2010 were analyzed. The driving forces which caused the variation were also studied through the method of principal component. Result showed that the area of cultivated land keeps increasing in recent two decades, the increasing speed ups and then downs. The new increased land was mainly in the area of rich water and soil resources that was suitable for farming. The lost land mainly distributed in the edge of the original cultivated land as well as the urban peripheral. By principal component analysis, the driving factors were found to be social and economic development, popu-lation growth and the agricultural technology improvement. Finally, the measures for cultivated land and protection were proposed to make the cultivated land resources used safely and sustainably.%以延边朝鲜族自治州为研究区,基于遥感数据分析了1990~2010年该地区耕地的时空变化特征。并运用主成份分析方法探讨了影响耕地变化的驱动因子。结果表明:近20年来延边州耕地总量一直在增长,增加速度呈先快后慢的趋势。新增耕地主要位于各县市水土资源良好的宜耕地区,流失耕地主要分布在原有耕地的边缘以及城市的周边地区。通过主成分分析得出耕地变化的主要驱动因素是:社会经济发展、人口增长以及农业科技进步。在此基础上提出了保护耕地的措施,以确保该地区耕地资源得到安全和可持续利用。

  11. Digging the CMS experimental cavern

    Laurent Guiraud


    The huge CMS experimental cavern is located 100 m underground and has two access shafts through which the experiment's components will be lowered. Initially assembled on the surface, each part of the 12 500 tonne machine must be lowered individually with very little clearance.

  12. Experimental Modeling of Dynamic Systems

    Knudsen, Morten Haack


    An engineering course, Simulation and Experimental Modeling, has been developed that is based on a method for direct estimation of physical parameters in dynamic systems. Compared with classical system identification, the method appears to be easier to understand, apply, and combine with physical...

  13. Persuasion in Experimental Ultimatum Games

    Andersson, Ola; Galizzi, Matteo; Hoppe, Tim;


     This paper experimentally studies persuasion effects in ultimatum games and finds that Proposers' payoffs significantly increase if, along with offers, they can send messages which Responders read before their acceptance decision. Higher payoffs are due to higher acceptance rates as well as more...

  14. Persuasion in Experimental Ultimatum Games

    Andersson, Ola; Galizzi, Matteo; Hoppe, Tim


     This paper experimentally studies persuasion effects in ultimatum games and finds that Proposers' payoffs significantly increase if, along with offers, they can send messages which Responders read before their acceptance decision. Higher payoffs are due to higher acceptance rates as well as more...

  15. Skill Development in Experimental Courses

    Bagán, Héctor; Sayós, Rosa; García, José F.


    Experimental courses offer a good opportunity to work with competences, promoting the incorporation of strategies oriented towards motivating students to actively involve in the learning process, promoting reflexive learning and developing generic skills. This study presents different ways of developing and evaluating some important general…

  16. [Ethical issue in animal experimentation].

    Parodi, André-Laurent


    In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society.

  17. Experimental Blade Research - phase 2

    Eder, Martin Alexander; Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter

    This report is a summary of the results obtained in the project: Experimental Blade Research – phase 2 (EBR2). The project was supported by the Danish Energy Authority through the 2010 Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Program (EUDP 2010-II) and has journal no. 64011-0006. The project...

  18. Experimental Research On Asset Pricing

    Noussair, C.N.; Tucker, S.


    Abstract This paper selectively surveys some of the more prominent laboratory experimental studies on asset market behavior. The strands of literature considered are market microstructure, pari-mutuel betting markets, characteristics of participants, the effect of information release, and studies of

  19. Experimental analysis of armouring process

    Lamberti, Alberto; Paris, Ennio

    Preliminary results from an experimental investigation on armouring processes are presented. Particularly, the process of development and formation of the armour layer under different steady flow conditions has been analyzed in terms of grain size variations and sediment transport rate associated to each size fraction.

  20. Experimental Evidence for the Pentaquark

    Carman, D S


    The present experimental evidence for the existence of light pentaquarks is reviewed, including both positive and null results. I also discuss the CLAS experiments at Jefferson Laboratory that are forthcoming in the near future to address questions regarding existence, mass, width, and other quantum numbers of these five-quark baryon states.