Sample records for yamabe type problems

  1. The Markus--Yamabe Stability Conjecture and the Generalized Dependence Problem

    Guíñez, Víctor


    We study the continuous and discrete versions of the Markus-Yamabe Conjecture for polynomial vector fields in $ \\mathbb{R}^3 $ of the form $ X = \\lambda \\, I + H $, where $ \\lambda $ is a real number, I the identity map, and H a map with nilpotent Jacobian matrix $ JH $. We distinguish the cases when the rows of $ J H $ are linearly dependent over $ \\mathbb{R} $ and when they are linearly independent over $ \\mathbb{R} $. In the dependent continuous case, we give a polynomial family of counterexamples to the Markus-Yamabe conjecture which contains and generalizes that of Cima-Gasull-Ma\\~nosas. Furthermore, we construct a new class of polynomial vector fields in $\\mathbb{R}^3$ having the origin as a global attractor. We also find non--linearly triangularizable vector fields $ X $ for which the origin is a global attractor for both the continuous and the discrete dynamical systems generated by $ X $. In the independent continuous case, we present a family of vector fields that have orbits escaping to infinity.

  2. Yamabe flow on Berwald manifolds

    Azami, Shahroud; Razavi, Asadollah


    Studying the geometric flow plays a powerful role in mathematics and physics. We introduce the Yamabe flow on Finsler manifolds and we will prove the existence and uniqueness for solution of Yamabe flow on Berwald manifolds.

  3. Conformal hypersurface geometry via a boundary Loewner-Nirenberg-Yamabe problem

    Gover, A Rod


    We develop an approach to the conformal geometry of embedded hypersurfaces by treating them as conformal infinities of conformally compact manifolds. The central tool is the Loewner-Nirenberg-type problem of finding on the interior a metric that is both conformally compact and of constant scalar curvature. Our first main result is an all orders asymptotic solution involving log terms. We show that the coefficient of the first of these is a hypersurface conformal invariant which generalises to higher dimensions the Willmore invariant of embedded surfaces; for even dimensional hypersurfaces this is a fundamental curvature invariant. We also show that this obstruction to smoothness is a scalar density analog of the Fefferman-Graham obstruction tensor for Poincare-Einstein metrics; in part this is achieved by exploiting Bernstein-Gel'fand-Gel'fand machinery. The solution to the constant scalar curvature problem provides a hypersurface defining density determined canonically by the embedding up to the order of the...

  4. On the structure of gradient Yamabe solitons

    Cao, Huai-Dong; Zhang, Yingying


    We show that every complete nontrivial gradient Yamabe soliton admits a special global warped product structure with a one-dimensional base. Based on this, we prove a general classification theorem for complete nontrivial locally conformally flat gradient Yamabe solitons.

  5. Exact solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation and the Yamabe construction

    Ita, Eyo


    Exact solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation of the full theory of four dimensional gravity of Lorentzian signature are obtained. They are characterized by Schr\\"odinger wavefunctionals having support on 3-metrics of constant spatial scalar curvature, and thus contain two full physical field degrees of freedom in accordance with the Yamabe construction. These solutions are moreover Gaussians of minimum uncertainty and they are naturally associated with a rigged Hilbert space. In addition, in the limit the regulator is removed, exact 3-dimensional diffeomorphism and local gauge invariance of the solutions are recovered.

  6. Exact solutions of the Wheeler–DeWitt equation and the Yamabe construction

    Ita III, Eyo Eyo, E-mail: [Physics Department, US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Soo, Chopin, E-mail: [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China)


    Exact solutions of the Wheeler–DeWitt equation of the full theory of four dimensional gravity of Lorentzian signature are obtained. They are characterized by Schrödinger wavefunctionals having support on 3-metrics of constant spatial scalar curvature, and thus contain two full physical field degrees of freedom in accordance with the Yamabe construction. These solutions are moreover Gaussians of minimum uncertainty and they are naturally associated with a rigged Hilbert space. In addition, in the limit the regulator is removed, exact 3-dimensional diffeomorphism and local gauge invariance of the solutions are recovered.

  7. Types of Learning Problems

    ... Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ... important distinction is that this is not a vision problem ; rather, the brain is reversing, inverting or ...

  8. Yamabe Spectra

    Reznikov, A G


    We study the set of volumes of constant scalar curvature one metrics on an atoroidal three-manifold.The infinum of this set is believed to be attained at a hyperbolic metric. We prove that the supremum of this set is always infinity. The technique is: minimal surfaces, Thurston norm in homology and new conformal invariants.

  9. An Efficient Collocation Method for a Class of Boundary Value Problems Arising in Mathematical Physics and Geometry

    A. H. Bhrawy


    Full Text Available We present a numerical method for a class of boundary value problems on the unit interval which feature a type of power-law nonlinearity. In order to numerically solve this type of nonlinear boundary value problems, we construct a kind of spectral collocation method. The spatial approximation is based on shifted Jacobi polynomials Jn(α,β(r with α,β∈(-1,∞, r∈(0,1 and n the polynomial degree. The shifted Jacobi-Gauss points are used as collocation nodes for the spectral method. After deriving the method for a rather general class of equations, we apply it to several specific examples. One natural example is a nonlinear boundary value problem related to the Yamabe problem which arises in mathematical physics and geometry. A number of specific numerical experiments demonstrate the accuracy and the efficiency of the spectral method. We discuss the extension of the method to account for more complicated forms of nonlinearity.

  10. Problems in differential diagnosis of diabetes types.

    Małecki, Maciej; Skupień, Jan


    Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases characterized by chronic increase of glucose level. The last years brought progress in understanding the multiplicity of its forms, as well as, its complex pathogenesis. In 1999, a classification of diabetes based on the etiology of individual types, was proposed by the Experts Committee of the World Health Organization, and is now commonly accepted. Etiologic classification in the last decade was gradually extended with the progress of knowledge, in particular, with successes of researchers in the field of genetics. Monogenic forms of diabetes such as MODY, mitochondrial diabetes, neonatal diabetes and lipoatrophic diabetes, discovered over a dozen years ago, are characterized by unique clinical features and possibility of applying a tailored treatment, assuring optimal correction of genetically conditioned metabolic defect. The differential diagnostics of types of the diseases is playing an increasing role in diabetology, as it enables selection of optimal treatment methods, as well as, the assessment of prognosis referring to the diabetes course and complications occurence. In this article, a review of problems associated with the differential diagnostics of diabetes and its practical clinical application was made.

  11. Boundary Value Problems for Boussinesq Type Systems

    Fokas, A. S. [Cambridge University, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Pelloni, B. [University of Reading, Department of Mathematics (United Kingdom)], E-mail:


    We characterise the boundary conditions that yield a linearly well posed problem for the so-called KdV-KdV system and for the classical Boussinesq system. Each of them is a system of two evolution PDEs modelling two-way propagation of water waves. We study these problems with the spatial variable in either the half-line or in a finite interval. The results are obtained by extending a spectral transform approach, recently developed for the analysis of scalar evolution PDEs, to the case of systems of PDEs.The knowledge of the boundary conditions that should be imposed in order for the problem to be linearly well posed can be used to obtain an integral representation of the solution. This knowledge is also necessary in order to conduct numerical simulations for the fully nonlinear systems.

  12. Typewriting: Is Problem Typing Synonymous with Production Typing?

    Stoddard, Ted D.; Stoddard, Lucille T.


    Notes that in a good production typing program that builds significant keystroking skills along with high-level production skills, quality of typing work plus the time required to complete that quality work must be adequately reflected. Essential conditions of production typing are outlined. (HD)

  13. Algorithms for Assembly-Type Flowshop Scheduling Problem


    An assembly-type flowshop scheduling problem with minimizing makespan is considered in this paper. The problem of scheduling for minimizing makespan is first addressed, and then a new heuristic algorithm is proposed for it.


    Jian-lin Jiang; Bo Chen


    This paper investigates various Weber problems including unconstrained Weber problems and constrained Weber problems under l1,l2 and l∞-norms. First with a transformation technique various Weber problems are turned into a class of monotone linear variational inequalities. By exploiting the favorable structure of these variational inequalities, we present a new projection-type method for them. Compared with some other projection-type methods which can solve monotone linear variational inequality, this new projection-type method is simple in numerical implementations and more efficient for solving this class of problems; Compared with some popular methods for solving unconstrained Weber problem and constrained Weber problem, a singularity would not happen in this new method and it is more reliable by using this new method to solve various Weber problems.

  15. Morgan’s problem for a type of nonsquare systems



    Morgan’s problem for a type of nonsquare systems is discussed.Necessary and sufficient conditions for the solution of the problem are obtained.And an algorithm to judge solvability of Morgan’s problem in the discussed case is provided.

  16. Finding "Problem Types" in Judgments of Problem-Similarity: Comparison of Cluster Analysis with Subject Protocols.

    Herring, Richard D.

    Literature in mathematic problem-solving suggests that learners store information in memory which helps them solve stereotyped algebra word problems. Cluster analysis has been used as an exploratory tool to infer the types of problems which have common representations in memory. This study compares the results of a hierarchical cluster analysis of…

  17. Types of problem students encountered by clinical teachers on clerkships.

    Hunt, D D; Carline, J; Tonesk, X; Yergan, J; Siever, M; Loebel, J P


    The teachers who play the all-important role of enabling students to learn on clinical clerkships must balance the two essential skills of being a good role model and maintaining objectivity in order to identify students with a variety of problems. This study describes the findings of a survey that identifies both the type of the problems that most bother teachers and the relative frequency of those problems. Non-cognitive problems (poor interpersonal skills and non-assertive, shy students) were identified by teachers as being seen at the same relative frequency but posing greater difficulty than cognitive problems (poor integration skills, disorganization, poor fund of knowledge, etc.). A variety of the types of interventions to these problems are discussed.

  18. Difference Equation for N-body Type Problem



    In this paper, the difference equation for N-body type problem is estab-fished, which can be used to find the generalized solutions by computing the critical points numerically. And its validity is testified by an example from Newtonian Three- body problem with unequal masses.

  19. Does social problem solving differ from other types of problem solving during the adult years?

    Heidrich, S M; Denney, N W


    One hundred thirteen individuals, ages 18-81, were presented with a test of social problem solving, a test of practical problem solving, the Twenty Questions task (a test of traditional problem solving), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised Vocabulary subtest (a measure of crystallized intelligence), and Raven's Progressive Matrices (a measure of fluid intelligence). The effects of age, sex, education, and intellectual abilities on problem-solving performance were examined. Social problem solving was positively related to higher education and higher Vocabulary scores, but it was not related to age. Social problem solving and practical problem solving were significantly related to each other and to scores on the Vocabulary subtest, whereas traditional problem solving was significantly related to scores on Raven's Progressive Matrices. These results suggest that different types of problem solving are differentially related to other intellectual abilities and to age.


    HE Juan-xiong; HE You-hua


    One type of evolution atmosphere equations was discussed. It is found that according to the stratification theory, (i) the inertial force has no influence on the criterion of the well-posed Cauchy problem; (ii) the compressibility plays no role on the well-posed condition of the Cauchy problem of the viscid atmosphere equations, but changes the well-posed condition of the viscid atmosphere equations; (iii) this type of atmosphere evolution equations is ill-posed on the hyperplane t = 0 in spite of its compressibility and viscosity; (iv) the Cauchy problem of compressible viscosity atmosphere with still initial motion is ill-posed.

  1. Surveying problem solution with theory and objective type questions

    Chandra, AM


    The book provides a lucid and step-by-step treatment of the various principles and methods for solving problems in land surveying. Each chapter starts with basic concepts and definitions, then solution of typical field problems and ends with objective type questions. The book explains errors in survey measurements and their propagation. Survey measurements are detailed next. These include horizontal and vertical distance, slope, elevation, angle, and direction. Measurement using stadia tacheometry and EDM are then highlighted, followed by various types of levelling problems. Traversing is then explained, followed by a detailed discussion on adjustment of survey observations and then triangulation and trilateration.

  2. A Neuropsychological Perspective on Attention Problems in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Templer, Alexandra K.; Titus, Jeffrey B.; Gutmann, David H.


    Cognitive problems are common in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 and they can often complicate treatment. The current literature review examines cognitive functioning in neurofibromatosis type 1, with a specific focus on executive functioning. This includes exploration of how deficits in executive functioning are expressed in children with…

  3. A Neuropsychological Perspective on Attention Problems in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Templer, Alexandra K.; Titus, Jeffrey B.; Gutmann, David H.


    Cognitive problems are common in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 and they can often complicate treatment. The current literature review examines cognitive functioning in neurofibromatosis type 1, with a specific focus on executive functioning. This includes exploration of how deficits in executive functioning are expressed in children with…

  4. Initial value problems in Clifford-type analysis

    Bolívar, Yanett M


    We consider an initial value problem of type $$ \\frac{\\partial u}{\\partial t}={\\cal F}(t,x,u,\\partial_j u), \\quad u(0,x)=\\phi(x), $$ where $t$ is the time, $x \\in \\mathbb{R}^n $ and $u_0$ is a Clifford type algebra-valued function satisfying ${\\bf D}u=\\displaystyle\\sum_{j=0}^{n}\\lambda_j(x)e_j\\partial_ju = 0$, $\\lambda_j(x)\\in \\mathbb{R} $ for all $j$. We will solve this problem using the technique of associated spaces. In order to do that, we give sufficient conditions on the coefficients of the operators ${\\cal F}$ and ${\\bf D}$, where ${\\cal F}(u)= \\displaystyle\\sum_{i=0}^{n}A^{(i)}(x)\\displaystyle\\partial_iu$ for $A^{(i)}(x) \\in \\mathbb{R}$ or $A^{(i)}(x)$ belonging to a Clifford-type algebra, such that these operators are an associated pair.

  5. Two algorithms for two-phase Stefan type problems

    LIAN Xiao-peng; CHENG Xiao-liang; HAN Wei-min


    In this paper, the relaxation algorithm and two Uzawa type algorithms for solving discretized variational inequalities arising from the two-phase Stefan type problem are proposed. An analysis of their convergence is presented and the upper bounds of the convergence rates are derived. Some numerical experiments are shown to demonstrate that for the second Uzawa algorithm which is an improved version of the first Uzawa algorithm, the convergence rate is uniformly bounded away from 1 if τh-2 is kept bounded, where τ is the time step size and h the space mesh size.

  6. RESEARCH ANNOUNCEMENTS Helly Type Problems for Some Special Convex Polygons

    苑立平; 丁仁


    @@In the combinatorial geometry of convex sets the question of how efficiently a family of convex sets can be pierced by points has led to various problems which may be regarded as extensions of the Helly-type problems. A family of sets is said to be n-pierceable (abbreviated as Пn) if there exists a set of n points such that each member of the family contains at least one of them. A family of sets is said to be Пnk if every subfamily of size k or less is Пn. The famous Helly theorem in combinatorial geometry asserts that for finite families of convex sets in the plane П13 implies П1. In a recent paper by M. Katchalski and D. Nashtir[a] the following conjecture of Griinbaum[2] was mentioned again:

  7. Solution of MHD problems with mixed-type boundary conditions

    Antimirov, M.IA.


    The introduction of artificial anisotropy of the dynamic viscosity in one of the subregions in which the solution is sought is utilized to derive an approximation method for MHD problems with mixed-type boundary conditions. The method is demonstrated through two problems: slow rotation of a disk and motion of a finite-width infinitely long plate in an infinite volume of a conducting fluid. The velocity and magnetic field solutions are obtained in the form of integrals of Bessel functions, and the torque is found. It is shown that when the Hartmann number approaches infinity the torque of a convex body of revolution in a longitudinal magnetic field is equal to that of a disk lying at the centerline section of the body.


    罗振东; 王烈衡; 李雅如


    In this paper, a new discrete formulation and a type of new posteriori error estimators for the second-order element discretization for Stokes problems are presented, where pressure is approximated with piecewise first-degree polynomials and velocity vector field with piecewise seconddegree polynomials with a cubic bubble function to be added. The estimators are the globally upper and locally lower bounds for the error of the finite element discretization. It is shown that the bubble part for this second-order element approximation is substituted for the other parts of the approximate solution.

  9. The speed of propagation for KPP type problems. II

    Berestycki, Henri; Franc, Ois Hamel; Nadirashvili, Nikolai


    This paper is devoted to nonlinear propagation phenomena in general unbounded domains of {R}^N , for reaction-diffusion equations with Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piskunov (KPP) type nonlinearities. This article is the second in a series of two and it is the follow-up of the paper The speed of propagation for KPP type problems. I - Periodic framework, by the authors, which dealt which the case of periodic domains. This paper is concerned with general domains, and we give various definitions of the spreading speeds at large times for solutions with compactly supported initial data. We study the relationships between these new notions and analyze their dependence on the geometry of the domain and on the initial condition. Some a priori bounds are proved for large classes of domains. The case of exterior domains is also discussed in detail. Lastly, some domains which are very thin at infinity and for which the spreading speeds are infinite are exhibited; the construction is based on some new heat kernel estimates in such domains.

  10. Problem types used in math lessons: the relationship between student achievement and teacher preferences

    Guven, Bulent; Aydin-Guc, Funda; Medine Ozmen, Zeynep


    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the problems teachers preferred in mathematics lessons and student achievement in different types of problems. In accordance with this purpose, nine mathematics teachers were interviewed, and corresponding problems were prepared and administered to 225 eighth-grade students. The findings indicate that problem types are dependent on teacher preferences. It was found that curriculum-dependent and routine problems were dominant for teacher preferences. Students are more successful at with missing data, problems that are visual and do not require the use of different strategies. They have lower success at long problems, those that contain irrelevant data, problems that require the use of different strategies and difficult problem types. It was found that problem types at which students were successful and which teachers preferred were related. These results relay information about problems used in the learning environment and effect of problem-solving experiences on students' success.

  11. About some types of constraints in problems of routing

    Petunin, A. A.; Polishuk, E. G.; Chentsov, A. G.; Chentsov, P. A.; Ukolov, S. S.


    Many routing problems arising in different applications can be interpreted as a discrete optimization problem with additional constraints. The latter include generalized travelling salesman problem (GTSP), to which task of tool routing for CNC thermal cutting machines is sometimes reduced. Technological requirements bound to thermal fields distribution during cutting process are of great importance when developing algorithms for this task solution. These requirements give rise to some specific constraints for GTSP. This paper provides a mathematical formulation for the problem of thermal fields calculating during metal sheet thermal cutting. Corresponding algorithm with its programmatic implementation is considered. The mathematical model allowing taking such constraints into account considering other routing problems is discussed either.




    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of different concepts of "team" from the point of view of sociology, which today can be divided into two large groups. The first affects his symptoms and descriptions, and the second structure of the definition. Summarizing them all, the author highlighted that currently the "team" can only be called an effectively functioning social group. Despite the fact that "command" is a kind of small social group, described the differences between these concepts. The article examines the question about correlation of concepts "team" and "team". A comparison of their characteristics reveals that they are extremely close to each other. Identified problems in the functioning of the team as a special type of social group. The features of leadership in the team, in particular, the possibility and feasibility of a divided leadership. Divided leadership implies that at different stages of achieving the team purpose leadership position is given to those team members who are most competent in solving a particular task, but the final decisions are made by joint efforts of the group. The presence of a clearly defined leader in the team is imperative. On the other hand, many teams are able to function effectively using only one type of influence ‒ vertical, when a mutual influence on each other have a leader and his associate, boss and employee. The presence of horizontal influence that occurs in the process of interaction between team members (excluding leader among themselves, it is necessary to perform tasks that require synchronous operation of several (or all team members. In the end, formulated the following conclusion: the presence of vertical interactions is a necessary condition for the existence of the team.

  13. A Design Framework for Metaheuristics: Problem Types and Avoiding Bottlenecking


    This paper is concerned with an aspect of the design of metaheuristic algorithms, such as evolutionary algorithms, tabu search and ant colony optimization. The topic that is considered is how problems can be represented when they are given to a metaheuristic algorithm. A particular difficulty is presented, viz. the ''bottleneck'', where the problem is artificially converted into a new representation in order to fit the standard input to the metaheuristic. Such bottlenecks cause problems in in...


    ZHANG Liping; WANG Changyu


    In this paper, we study the continuously spherical facilitylocation problem.(P)(minx∈S∫∫(x)=Ωφ(υ)cos-1(υTx)dΩ) We prove a hull property and optimality condition of the problem (P), andpropose an algorithm to solve (P). Global convergence is proved.

  15. A Study of Alternative Quantile Estimation Methods in Newsboy-Type Problems


    early in 1950 [1]. This problem has been presented in the literature under a variety of names, including newsvendor problem , Christmas tree problem ...quantile estimation methods in newsboy-type problems . Sok, Yong-u Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School from NPS Archive: Calhoun A STUDY OF ALTERNATIVE QUANTILE ESTIMATION METHODS IN NEWSBOY-TYPE PROBLEMS Yong-u Sok sss- 939434 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE

  16. Strong rules for discarding predictors in lasso-type problems

    Tibshirani, Robert; Friedman, Jerome; Hastie, Trevor


    We consider rules for discarding predictors in lasso regression and related problems, for computational efficiency. El Ghaoui et al (2010) propose "SAFE" rules that guarantee that a coefficient will be zero in the solution, based on the inner products of each predictor with the outcome. In this paper we propose strong rules that are not foolproof but rarely fail in practice. These can be complemented with simple checks of the Karush- Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions to provide safe rules that offer substantial speed and space savings in a variety of statistical convex optimization problems.

  17. Adolescents' use of care for behavioral and emotional problems: Types, trends, and determinants

    S.A. Reijneveld (Sijmen); P.A. Wiegersma (Auke); J. Ormel (Johan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); W.A.M. Vollebergh (Wilma); D.E.M.C. Jansen (Daniëlle)


    textabstractObjective: While adolescents use various types of care for behavioral and emotional problems, evidence on age trends and determinants per type is scarce. We aimed to assess use of care by adolescents because of behavioral and emotional problems, overall and by type, and its determinants,

  18. Adolescents' Use of Care for Behavioral and Emotional Problems : Types, Trends, and Determinants

    Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Wiegersma, P. Auke; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.


    Objective: While adolescents use various types of care for behavioral and emotional problems, evidence on age trends and determinants per type is scarce. We aimed to assess use of care by adolescents because of behavioral and emotional problems, overall and by type, and its determinants, for ages 10


    Florin Ciofu


    Full Text Available A problem often coped on many domains such as wood manufacturing, glass, plastics and metallic platework industry, is the shaping or cutting off a big plate in many pieces. With this purpose there are algorithms of optimizing for positioning the parts following to be cut off from a row plate. From mathematical point of view, in positioning the parts on a raw plate the number of solutions increase four times evrey time a new part is added, and in case of finding the best solution for about few hundreds of pieces or parts would require years of processing on the most performant computers nowadays – for an analogy remember the famous story with the rice beads which the King had to pay to the master teaching him the chess: twice more for each square of the chessboard; for the total quantity assessment, King ascertained that the crops in his whole life wouldn’t have been enough.

  20. Poisson formulas for circular functions on some groups of type H

    KORáNYI; Adam


    [1]Gaveau B,Greiner P,Vauthier J.Polyn(o)mes harmoniques et problème de Dirichlet de la boule du groupe de Heisenberg en présence de symétrie radiale.Bull Sc Math,1984,108:337-354[2]Korányi A,Reimann H M.Horizontal normal vectors and conformal capacity of spherical rings in the Heisenberg group.Bull Sc Math,1987,111:3-21[3]Kaplan A.Fundamental solutions for a class of hypoelliptic PDE generated by composition of quadratic forms.Trans AMS,1980,258:147-153[4]Garofalo N,Vassilev D.Symmetry properties of positive solutions of Yamabe-type equations on groups of Heisenberg type.Duke Math J,2001,106:411-448[5]Gaveau B.Principe de moindre action,propagation da la chaleur et estimées sous-elliptiques sur certains groupes nilpotents.Acta Math,1977,139:95-153[6]Cowling M,Dooley A H,Korányi A,et al.H-type groups and Iwasawa decompositions.Adv Math,1991,87:1-41[7]Erdélyi A,et al.Higher transcendental functions.New York:McGraw-Hill,1953[8]Korányi A.Kelvin transforms and harmonic polynomials on the Heisenberg group.J Funct Analysis,1982,49:177-185[9]Garofalo N,Vassilev D.Regularity near the characteristic set in the non-linear Dirichlet problem and conformal geometry of sub-Laplacians on Carnot groups.Math Ann,2000,318:453-516

  1. Dysphagia in spinal muscular atrophy type II: more than a bulbar problem?

    Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Erasmus, C.E.; Bruggen, H.W. van; Swart, B.J.M. de; Sie, L.T.L.; Steenks, M.H.; Groot, I.J.M. de


    OBJECTIVE: In patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type II, feeding problems and dysphagia are common, but the underlying mechanisms of these problems are not well defined. This case control study was designed to determine the underlying mechanisms of dysphagia in SMA type II. METHODS: Six

  2. The Levenberg-Marquardt-Type Methods for a Kind of Vertical Complementarity Problem

    Shou-qiang Du; Yan Gao


    Two kinds of the Levenberg-Marquardt-type methods for the solution of vertical complementarity problem are introduced. The methods are based on a nonsmooth equation reformulation of the vertical complementarity problem for its solution. Local and global convergence results and some remarks about the two kinds of the Levenberg-Marquardt-type methods are also given. Finally, numerical experiments are reported.

  3. Higher order non-local (n-1,1) conjugate type boundary value problems

    Webb, J. R. L.


    We show how some recent work of Webb and Infante, which gave a unified method of tackling many nonlocal boundary value problems, can be applied to some higher order boundary value problems with more general nonlocal boundary conditions than previously studied. This improves some recent work on problems with conjugate type boundary conditions.

  4. Mixed type symmetric and self duality for multiobjective variational problems with support functions

    Husain I.


    Full Text Available In this paper, a pair of mixed type symmetric dual multiobjective variational problems containing support functions is formulated. This mixed formulation unifies two existing pairs Wolfe and Mond-Weir type symmetric dual multiobjective variational problems containing support functions. For this pair of mixed type nondifferentiable multiobjective variational problems, various duality theorems are established under convexity-concavity and pseudoconvexity-pseudoconcavity of certain combination of functionals appearing in the formulation. A self duality theorem under additional assumptions on the kernel functions that occur in the problems is validated. A pair of mixed type nondifferentiable multiobjective variational problem with natural boundary values is also formulated to investigate various duality theorems. It is also pointed that our duality theorems can be viewed as dynamic generalizations of the corresponding (static symmetric and self duality of multiobjective nonlinear programming with support functions.


    Jeong Ja Bae


    In this article,we consider the global existence and decay rates of solutions for the transmission problem of Kirchhoff type wave equations consisting of two physically different types of materials,one component is a Kirchhoff type wave equation with nonlinear time dependent localized dissipation which is effective only on a neighborhood of certain part of the boundary,while the other is a Kirchhoff type wave equation with nonlinear memory.

  6. Continuous Choreographies as Limiting Solutions of N-body Type Problems with Weak Interaction

    Castaneira, Reynaldo; Padilla, Pablo; Sánchez-Morgado, Héctor


    We consider the limit Nto +∞ of N-body type problems with weak interaction, equal masses and -σ-homogeneous potential, 0absolute minimizer of the action functional among zero mean (travelling wave) loops of class H^1.

  7. Robin-Type Boundary Value Problem of Nonlinear Differential Equation with Fractional Order Derivative

    Liu YANG; Zongmin QIAO


    In this paper,the existence and multiplicity of positive solutions for Robin type boundary value problem of differential equation involving the Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative are established.

  8. Identification of Error Types in Preservice Teachers' Attempts to Create Fraction Story Problems for Specified Operations

    McAllister, Cheryl J.; Beaver, Cheryl


    The purpose of this research was to determine if recognizable error types exist in the work of preservice teachers required to create story problems for specific fraction operations. Students were given a particular single-operation fraction expression and asked to do the calculation and then create a story problem that would require the use of…

  9. Knowledge Types Used by Eighth Grade Gifted Students While Solving Problems

    Baltaci, Serdal; Yildiz, Avni; Güven, Bülent


    This study aims to determine how primary school eighth grade (14 years old) gifted students use knowledge types while solving problems. In the context, the data were collected through clinical interviews conducted with three gifted students. The students' voice recordings during problem solving and the solutions they wrote on the paper formed the…

  10. Sturm-Liouville problems for an abstract differential equation of elliptic type in UMD spaces


    In this paper we give some new results on Sturm-Liouville abstract problems of second-order differential equations of elliptic type in UMD spaces. Existence, uniqueness and maximal regularity of the strict solution are proved using the celebrated Dore-Venni theorem. This work completes the problems studied by Favini, Labbas, Maingot, Tanabe and Yagi under Dirichlet boundary conditions, see [6].

  11. A smoothing Newton method for a type of inverse semi-definite quadratic programming problem

    Xiao, Xiantao; Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Jianzhong


    We consider an inverse problem arising from the semi-definite quadratic programming (SDQP) problem. We represent this problem as a cone-constrained minimization problem and its dual (denoted ISDQD) is a semismoothly differentiable (SC1) convex programming problem with fewer variables than the original one. The Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions of the dual problem (ISDQD) can be formulated as a system of semismooth equations which involves the projection onto the cone of positive semi-definite matrices. A smoothing Newton method is given for getting a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker point of ISDQD. The proposed method needs to compute the directional derivative of the smoothing projector at the corresponding point and to solve one linear system per iteration. The quadratic convergence of the smoothing Newton method is proved under a suitable condition. Numerical experiments are reported to show that the smoothing Newton method is very effective for solving this type of inverse quadratic programming problems.

  12. ABO/Rh Blood-Typing Model: A Problem-Solving Activity

    Wake, Carol


    An ARO/Rh Blood-Typing kit useful for students to visualize blood-typing activities and practice problem-solving skills with transfusion reactions is presented. The model also enables students to identify relationships between A, B, and Rh antigens and antibodies in blood and to understand molecular mechanisms involved in transfusion agglutination…

  13. ABO/Rh Blood-Typing Model: A Problem-Solving Activity

    Wake, Carol


    An ARO/Rh Blood-Typing kit useful for students to visualize blood-typing activities and practice problem-solving skills with transfusion reactions is presented. The model also enables students to identify relationships between A, B, and Rh antigens and antibodies in blood and to understand molecular mechanisms involved in transfusion agglutination…

  14. Association of Problem Gambling with Type of Gambling Among Italian General Population.

    Scalese, Marco; Bastiani, Luca; Salvadori, Stefano; Gori, Mercedes; Lewis, Isabella; Jarre, Paolo; Molinaro, Sabrina


    The origin of gambling disorders is uncertain; however, research has shown a tendency to focus on specific types of games as a potential important risk factor. The principal aim of this study is to examine the relationships between types of gambling practices and gambling disorder. The data were extracted from IPSAD-Italia(®) 2010-2011 (Italian Population Survey on Alcohol and other Drugs), a survey among the Italian general population which collects socio-cultural information, information about the use of drugs, legal substances and gambling habits. In order to identify the "problem gambler" we used the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Three groups are considered in this analysis: no-risk gamblers, low-risk gamblers, moderate-risk/problem gamblers. Type of gambling practice was considered among two types of gambler: one-game players and multi-games players. 1.9 % of multi-game players were considered problem gamblers, only 0.6 % of one-game players were problem gamblers (p gambling severity was associated with multi-game players (OR = 2.23, p gambling severity among both one-game players and multi-game players, with scores of OR equal to 4.3 and 4.5 respectively. These findings suggest a popular perception of risk associated with this type of gambling for the development of gambling problems.

  15. On Bernstein type inequalities and a weighted Chebyshev approximation problem on ellipses

    Freund, Roland


    A classical inequality due to Bernstein which estimates the norm of polynomials on any given ellipse in terms of their norm on any smaller ellipse with the same foci is examined. For the uniform and a certain weighted uniform norm, and for the case that the two ellipses are not too close, sharp estimates of this type were derived and the corresponding extremal polynomials were determined. These Bernstein type inequalities are closely connected with certain constrained Chebyshev approximation problems on ellipses. Some new results were also presented for a weighted approximation problem of this type.

  16. Efficient augmented Lagrangian-type preconditioning for the Oseen problem using Grad-Div stabilization

    Heister, Timo


    Efficient preconditioning for Oseen-type problems is an active research topic. We present a novel approach leveraging stabilization for inf-sup stable discretizations. The Grad-Div stabilization shares the algebraic properties with an augmented Lagrangian-type term. Both simplify the approximation of the Schur complement, especially in the convection-dominated case. We exploit this for the construction of the preconditioner. Solving the discretized Oseen problem with an iterative Krylov-type method shows that the outer iteration numbers are retained independent of mesh size, viscosity, and finite element order. Thus, the preconditioner is very competitive. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


    P. I. Kogut


    Full Text Available In this paper we consider an optimal control problem (OCP for the coupledsystem of a nonlinear monotone Dirichlet problem with matrix-valued L∞(Ω;RN×N-controls in coecients and a nonlinear equation of Hammerstein type, where solution nonlinearly depends on L∞ -control. Since problems of this type have no solutions in general, we make a special assumption on the coecients of the state equations and introduce the class of so-called solenoidal admissible controls. Using the direct method in calculus of variations, we prove the existence of an optimal control. We also study the stability of the optimal control problem with respect to the domain perturbation. In particular, we derive the sucient conditions of the Mosco-stability for the given class of OCPs.

  18. Oblique derivative problems for generalized Rassias equations of mixed type with several characteristic boundaries

    Guo Chun Wen


    Full Text Available This article concerns the oblique derivative problems for second-order quasilinear degenerate equations of mixed type with several characteristic boundaries, which include the Tricomi problem as a special case. First we formulate the problem and obtain estimates of its solutions, then we show the existence of solutions by the successive iterations and the Leray-Schauder theorem. We use a complex analytic method: elliptic complex functions are used in the elliptic domain, and hyperbolic complex functions in the hyperbolic domain, such that second-order equations of mixed type with degenerate curve are reduced to the first order mixed complex equations with singular coefficients. An application of the complex analytic method, solves (1.1 below with $m=n=1$, $a=b=0$, which was posed as an open problem by Rassias.

  19. Three formulations of the multi-type capacitated facility location problem

    Klose, Andreas

    The "multi-type" or "modular" capacitated facility location problem is a discrete location model that addresses non-convex piecewise linear production costs as, for instance, staircase cost functions. The literature basically distinguishes three different ways to formulate non-convex piecewise li....... We show that the latter formulation, with these inequalities included, strictly dominates the other two ways of formulating the problem. We additionally investigate different strategies of including these variable upper bounds within the model using a common MIP solver....


    SHI Kuiran; XIAO Tiaojun; ZHANG Weirong


    This paper develops goal programming algorithm to solve a type of least absolute value (LAV) problem. Firstly, we simplify the simplex algorithm by proving the existence of solutions of the problem. Then, we present a goal programming algorithm on the basis of the original techniques. Theoretical analysis and numerical results indicate that the new method contains a lower number of deviation variables and consumes less computational time as compared to current LAV methods.

  1. Multiple positive solutions for Kirchhoff type problems involving concave and convex nonlinearities in R^3

    Xiaofei Cao


    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the multiplicity of positive solutions for a class of Kirchhoff type problems with concave and convex nonlinearities. Under appropriate assumptions, we prove that the problem has at least two positive solutions, moreover, one of which is a positive ground state solution. Our approach is mainly based on the Nehari manifold, Ekeland variational principle and the theory of Lagrange multipliers.

  2. Conjugate gradient type algorithms for frictional multi-contact problems: applications to granular materials

    Renouf, Mathieu; Alart, Pierre


    International audience; This paper presents gradient type algorithms to solve frictional multi contact problems written as quasi optimization problems. A single loop scheme formally close to the classical conjugate gradient method is proposed with some adap tations of the iterate corrections and gradient projections. Since the convergence is difficult to prove, various tests in the field of granular media are performed with comparison with the non linear Gauss Seidel scheme.

  3. An Approach for Solving Goal Programming Problems using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Goals

    Juan Carlos Figueroa-García


    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal for solving goal problems involving multiple experts opinions and perceptions. In goal programming problems where no statistical data about their goals exist, the use of information coming from experts becomes the last reliable source. This way, we propose an approach to model this kind of goals using Interval Type-2 fuzzy sets, and a simple method for finding an optimal solution based on previous methods that have been proposed for classical fuzzy sets.

  4. Analytic approximations to nonlinear boundary value problems modeling beam-type nano-electromechanical systems

    Zou, Li [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian City (China). State Key Lab. of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment; Liang, Songxin; Li, Yawei [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian City (China). School of Mathematical Sciences; Jeffrey, David J. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada). Dept. of Applied Mathematics


    Nonlinear boundary value problems arise frequently in physical and mechanical sciences. An effective analytic approach with two parameters is first proposed for solving nonlinear boundary value problems. It is demonstrated that solutions given by the two-parameter method are more accurate than solutions given by the Adomian decomposition method (ADM). It is further demonstrated that solutions given by the ADM can also be recovered from the solutions given by the two-parameter method. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by solving some nonlinear boundary value problems modeling beam-type nano-electromechanical systems.

  5. Analytic Approximations to Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems Modeling Beam-Type Nano-Electromechanical Systems

    Zou, Li; Liang, Songxin; Li, Yawei; Jeffrey, David J.


    Nonlinear boundary value problems arise frequently in physical and mechanical sciences. An effective analytic approach with two parameters is first proposed for solving nonlinear boundary value problems. It is demonstrated that solutions given by the two-parameter method are more accurate than solutions given by the Adomian decomposition method (ADM). It is further demonstrated that solutions given by the ADM can also be recovered from the solutions given by the two-parameter method. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by solving some nonlinear boundary value problems modeling beam-type nano-electromechanical systems.

  6. Solving evolutionary-type differential equations and physical problems using the operator method

    Zhukovsky, K. V.


    We present a general operator method based on the advanced technique of the inverse derivative operator for solving a wide range of problems described by some classes of differential equations. We construct and use inverse differential operators to solve several differential equations. We obtain operator identities involving an inverse derivative operator, integral transformations, and generalized forms of orthogonal polynomials and special functions. We present examples of using the operator method to construct solutions of equations containing linear and quadratic forms of a pair of operators satisfying Heisenberg-type relations and solutions of various modifications of partial differential equations of the Fourier heat conduction type, Fokker-Planck type, Black-Scholes type, etc. We demonstrate using the operator technique to solve several physical problems related to the charge motion in quantum mechanics, heat propagation, and the dynamics of the beams in accelerators.

  7. Diabetes mellitus type 1 as a health, nutriotial and social problem for children up to 18 years of age.



    Work specifies the problems of children with diabetes mellitus type 1 - of site for health, in nutrition and social problems. The theoretical part is characterized by diabetes mellitus type 1, its causes, symptoms, treatment with diet and takes into account the specific problems arising from this condition for age. The practical part comprises the results of the questionnaire survey, which focuses on the problems of diabetes mellitus type 1 in childhood, and the level of knowledge about diabe...

  8. Boundary Value Technique for Initial Value Problems Based on Adams-Type Second Derivative Methods

    Jator, S. N.; Sahi, R. K.


    In this article, we propose a family of second derivative Adams-type methods (SDAMs) of order up to 2k + 2 ("k" is the step number) for initial value problems. The methods are constructed through a continuous approximation of the SDAM which is obtained by multistep collocation. The continuous approximation is used to obtain initial value methods,…

  9. An interpretation of the Gini coefficient in a Stiglitz two-type optimal tax problem

    Rasmussen, Bo Sandemann


    In a two-type Stiglitz (1982) model of optimal non-linear taxation it is shown that when the utility function relating to consumption is logaritmic the shadow price of the incentive constraint relating to the optimal tax problem exactly equals the Gini coefficient of the second-best optimal income...

  10. An Interpretation of the Gini Coefficient in a Stiglitz Two-Type Optimal Tax Problem

    Rasmussen, Bo Sandemann


    In a two-type Stiglitz (1982) model of optimal non-linear taxation it is shown that when the utility function relating to consumption is logaritmic the shadow price of the incentive constraint relating to the optimal tax problem exactly equals the Gini coefficient of the second-best optimal income...

  11. An Interpretation of the Gini Coefficient in a Stiglitz Two-Type Optimal Tax Problem

    Rasmussen, Bo Sandemann


    distribution of a utilitarian government. In this sense the optimal degree of income redistribution is determined by the severity of the incentive problem facing the policy-maker. Extensions of the benchmark model to allow for more general functional forms of the utility function and for more than two types...


    Sun Hye PARK


    In this paper, we investigate the influence of boundary dissipation on the de-cay property of solutions for a transmission problem of Kirchhoff type wave equation with boundary memory condition. By introducing suitable energy and Lyapunov functionals, we establish a general decay estimate for the energy, which depends on the behavior of relaxation function.


    Yepeng Xing; Qiong Wang; Valery G. Romanovski


    We prove several new comparison results and develop the monotone iterative tech-nique to show the existence of extremal solutions to a kind of periodic boundary value problem (PBVP) for nonlinear integro-differential equation of mixed type on time scales.

  14. Three formulations of the multi-type capacitated facility location problem

    Klose, Andreas

    The "multi-type" or "modular" capacitated facility location problem is a discrete location model that addresses non-convex piecewise linear production costs as, for instance, staircase cost functions. The literature basically distinguishes three different ways to formulate non-convex piecewise...

  15. Adolescents' use of care for behavioral and emotional problems: types, trends, and determinants.

    Sijmen A Reijneveld

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: While adolescents use various types of care for behavioral and emotional problems, evidence on age trends and determinants per type is scarce. We aimed to assess use of care by adolescents because of behavioral and emotional problems, overall and by type, and its determinants, for ages 10-19 years. METHODS: We obtained longitudinal data on 2,230 adolescents during ages 10-19 from four measurements regarding use of general care and specialized care (youth social care and mental healthcare in the preceding 6 months, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and Youth Self-Report, and child and family characteristics. We analyzed data by multilevel logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall rates of use increased from 20.1% at age 10/11 to 32.2% at age 19: general care was used most. At age 10/11 use was higher among boys, at age 19 among girls. Use of general care increased for both genders, whereas use of specialized care increased among girls but decreased among boys. This differential change was associated with CBCL externalizing and internalizing problems, school problems, family socioeconomic status, and parental divorce. Preceding CBCL problems predicted more use: most for mental health care and least for general care. Moreover, general care was used more frequently by low and medium socioeconomic status families, with odds ratios (95%-confidence intervals: 1.52 (1.23;1.88 and 1.40 (1.17;1.67; youth social care in case of parental divorce, 2.07 (1.36;3.17; and of special education, 2.66 (1.78;3.95; and mental healthcare in case of special education, 2.66 (1.60;4.51. DISCUSSION: Adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems use general care most frequently. Overall use increases with age. Determinants of use vary per type.


    Deren Han


    Typical solution methods for solving mixed complementarity problems either generate feasible iterates but have to solve relatively complicated subproblems such as quadratic programs or linear complementarity problems, or (those methods) have relatively simple subproblems such as system of linear equations but possibly generate infeasible iterates.In this paper, we propose a new Newton-type method for solving monotone mixed complementarity problems, which ensures to generate feasible iterates, and only has to solve a system of well-conditioned linear equations with reduced dimension per iteration. Without any regularity assumption, we prove that the whole sequence of iterates converges to a solution of the problem (truly globally convergent). Furthermore, under suitable conditions,the local superlinear rate of convergence is also established.

  17. The effect of different types of scaffolding in a multimedia program on students' problem finding

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer

    This study investigated which scaffolding type most effectively helped students define a complex problem. A secondary objective of this study was to determine whether the amount of time students spent watching videos of experts, who had differing views on the problem, related to how well they grappled with the problem's multiple perspectives. In order to support students with this task, a learning environment was developed based on an instructional model that builds on the cognitive flexibility theory and incorporates situated cases and scaffolding elements from a variety of constructivist theories and models. This study was conducted over a 6-day period with 79 tenth-grade students from four biology classes in an urban high school. The classes were randomly assigned to one of four comparison groups that each received different versions of the software. These versions included varying types of scaffolding to help students define the problem. The organization scaffold, a template with headings and focusing questions, was most effective in helping students understand the problem, develop hypotheses, and ask more specific questions related to the problem. The higher-order thinking scaffold, a prompt with reflective questions, was most effective at helping students generate more questions and helping them grasp the multiple perspectives of the problem. The combination of these two scaffolds tended to be able to assist students, more than the organization scaffold did by itself, in asking questions that were more specific and formulating hypotheses of higher quality. However, the combination of these scaffolds did not do as well as the individual scaffolds did across the other measures. Relevant individual learner differences were also assessed to determine the moderating effect of these differences on students' use of the scaffolding in defining the problem. Problem-solving ability, in addition to the amount of time students watched the expert videos, may be

  18. A Newton type iterative method for heat-conduction inverse problems

    HE Guo-qiang; MENG Ze-hong


    An inverse problem for identification of the coefficient in heat-conduction equation is considered. After reducing the problem to a nonlinear ill-posed operator equation, Newton type iterative methods are considered. The implicit iterative method is applied to the linearized Newton equation, and the key step in the process is that a new reasonable a posteriori stopping rule for the inner iteration is presented. Numerical experiments for the new method as well as for Tikhonov method and Bakushikskii method are given, and these results show the obvious advantages of the new method over the other ones.

  19. Discontinuous initial value problems for functional differential-algebraic equations of mixed type

    d'Albis, H.; Augeraud-Véron, E.; Hupkes, H. J.

    We study the well-posedness of initial value problems for nonlinear functional differential-algebraic equations of mixed type. We are interested in solutions to such problems that admit a single jump discontinuity at time zero. We focus specially on the question whether unstable equilibria can be stabilized by appropriately choosing the size of the jump discontinuity. We illustrate our techniques by analytically studying an economic model for the interplay between inflation and interest rates. In particular, we investigate under which circumstances the central bank can prevent runaway inflation by appropriately hiking the interest rate.

  20. Dysphagia in spinal muscular atrophy type II: more than a bulbar problem?

    van den Engel-Hoek, L; Erasmus, C E; van Bruggen, H W; de Swart, B J M; Sie, L T L; Steenks, M H; de Groot, I J M


    In patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type II, feeding problems and dysphagia are common, but the underlying mechanisms of these problems are not well defined. This case control study was designed to determine the underlying mechanisms of dysphagia in SMA type II. Six children with SMA type II and 6 healthy matched controls between 6.4 and 13.4 years of age were investigated during swallowing liquid and solid food in 2 different postures using surface EMG (sEMG) of the submental muscle group (SMG) and a video fluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS). The VFSS showed postswallow residue of solid food in the vallecula and above the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), which can be responsible for indirect aspiration. Better results in swallowing were achieved in a more forward head position. These findings were supported by the sEMG measurements of the SMG during swallowing. Dysphagia in spinal muscular atrophy type II is due to a neurologic dysfunction (lower motor neuron problems from the cranial nerves in the brainstem) influencing the muscle force and efficiency of movement of the tongue and the submental muscle group in combination with a biomechanical component (compensatory head posture). The results suggest an integrated treatment with an adapted posture during meals and the advice of drinking water after meals to prevent aspiration pneumonias.

  1. On a new nonlocal boundary value problem for an equation of the mixed parabolic-hyperbolic type

    Dildabek, Gulnar


    In this work a new nonlocal boundary value problem for an equation of the mixed type is formulated. This equation is parabolic-hyperbolic and belongs to the first kind because the line of type change is not a characteristic of the equation. Non-local condition binds points on boundaries of the parabolic and hyperbolic parts of the domain with each other. This problem is generalization of the well-known problems of Frankl type. A boundary value problem for the heat equation with conditions of the Samarskii-Ionlin type arises in solving this problem. Unlike the existing publications of the other authors related to the theme it is necessary to note that in this papers the nonlocal problems were considered in rectangular domains. But in our formulation of the problem the hyperbolic part of the domain coincides with a characteristic triangle. Unique strong solvability of the formulated problem is proved.

  2. A Two-Stage Assembly-Type Flowshop Scheduling Problem for Minimizing Total Tardiness

    Ju-Yong Lee


    Full Text Available This research considers a two-stage assembly-type flowshop scheduling problem with the objective of minimizing the total tardiness. The first stage consists of two independent machines, and the second stage consists of a single machine. Two types of components are fabricated in the first stage, and then they are assembled in the second stage. Dominance properties and lower bounds are developed, and a branch and bound algorithm is presented that uses these properties and lower bounds as well as an upper bound obtained from a heuristic algorithm. The algorithm performance is evaluated using a series of computational experiments on randomly generated instances and the results are reported.

  3. A Conjugate Gradient Type Method for the Nonnegative Constraints Optimization Problems

    Can Li


    Full Text Available We are concerned with the nonnegative constraints optimization problems. It is well known that the conjugate gradient methods are efficient methods for solving large-scale unconstrained optimization problems due to their simplicity and low storage. Combining the modified Polak-Ribière-Polyak method proposed by Zhang, Zhou, and Li with the Zoutendijk feasible direction method, we proposed a conjugate gradient type method for solving the nonnegative constraints optimization problems. If the current iteration is a feasible point, the direction generated by the proposed method is always a feasible descent direction at the current iteration. Under appropriate conditions, we show that the proposed method is globally convergent. We also present some numerical results to show the efficiency of the proposed method.

  4. Medication-related problem type and appearance rate in ambulatory hemodialysis patients

    Drayer Debra K; Manley Harold J; Muther Richard S


    Abstract Background Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at risk for medication-related problems (MRP). The MRP number, type, and appearance rate over time in ambulatory HD patients has not been investigated. Methods Randomly selected HD patients were enrolled to receive monthly pharmaceutical care visits. At each visit, MRP were identified through review of the patient chart, electronic medical record, patient interview, and communications with other healthcare disciplines. All MRP were categorize...


    Yicheng LIU; Jun WU; Zhixiang LI


    In this paper, the authors investigate the existence of solutions of impulsive boundary value problems for Sturm-Liouville type differential inclusions which admit non-convex-valued multifunctions on right hand side. Two results under weaker conditions are presented. The methods rely on a fixed point theorem for contraction multi-valued maps due to Covitz and Nadler and Schaefer's fixed point theorem combined with lower semi-continuous multi-valued operators with decomposable values.

  6. The $\\mu$-Problem and Seesaw-type Mechanism in the Higgs Sector

    Ito, M


    We explore a new solution to the $\\mu$-problem. In the scenario of SUSY breaking mediation via anti-generation fields, we point out that the $B\\mu$ term has its origin in seesaw-type mechanism as well as in loop diagram through gauge interactions. It is shown that the dominant contributions to the $B\\mu$ term are controlled by the flavor symmetry in the model.

  7. Obstacle problem for a class of parabolic equations of generalized p-Laplacian type

    Lindfors, Casimir


    We study nonlinear parabolic PDEs with Orlicz-type growth conditions. The main result gives the existence of a unique solution to the obstacle problem related to these equations. To achieve this we show the boundedness of weak solutions and that a uniformly bounded sequence of weak supersolutions converges to a weak supersolution. Moreover, we prove that if the obstacle is continuous, so is the solution.

  8. Type 1 diabetes risk in children born to women with fertility problems

    Hargreave, Marie; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jørgensen, Marit E


    INTRODUCTION: While some studies have indicated that children born following fertility treatment are at an increased risk for insulin resistance and higher blood glucose levels, no study to date has investigated the risk of type 1 diabetes. In this large population-based cohort study we aim to as...... 1.01, 95% CI 0.90-1.13) when taking into account birth year, sex, history of parental diabetes, parental age and age at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed no association between maternal fertility problems and risk of type 1 diabetes in children.......INTRODUCTION: While some studies have indicated that children born following fertility treatment are at an increased risk for insulin resistance and higher blood glucose levels, no study to date has investigated the risk of type 1 diabetes. In this large population-based cohort study we aim...... to assess the association between maternal fertility problems and the risk of type 1 diabetes in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information on all children, born in Denmark from 1987 to 2010, was extracted from the Civil Registration System and linked with the Danish Infertility Cohort to identify maternal...

  9. Problems

    Yekini Shehu


    real Banach space which is also uniformly smooth using the properties of generalized f-projection operator. Using this result, we discuss strong convergence theorem concerning general H-monotone mappings and system of generalized mixed equilibrium problems in Banach spaces. Our results extend many known recent results in the literature.

  10. On the Dirichlet Problem of Mixed Type for Lower Hybrid Waves in Axisymmetric Cold Plasmas

    Lupo, Daniela; Monticelli, Dario D.; Payne, Kevin R.


    For a class of linear second order partial differential equations of mixed elliptic-hyperbolic type, which includes a well known model for analyzing possible heating in axisymmetric cold plasmas, we give results on the weak well-posedness of the Dirichlet problem and show that such solutions are characterized by a variational principle. The weak solutions are shown to be saddle points of natural functionals suggested by the divergence form of the PDEs. Moreover, the natural domains of the functionals are the weighted Sobolev spaces to which the solutions belong. In addition, all critical levels will be characterized in terms of global extrema of the functionals restricted to suitable infinite dimensional linear subspaces. These subspaces are defined in terms of a robust spectral theory with weights which is associated to the linear operator and is developed herein. Similar characterizations for the weighted eigenvalue problem and nonlinear variants will also be given. Finally, topological methods are employed to obtain existence results for nonlinear problems including perturbations in the gradient which are then applied to the well-posedness of the linear problem with lower order terms.

  11. Are Good Games Also Good Problems? Content Analysis of Problem Types and Learning Principles in Environmental Education Games

    Lee, Yu-Hao


    Based on theories from problem-based learning, this study content analyzed how educational messages are communicated to players in 108 web-based educational games. An argument of digital game based learning was also examined. Specifically the argument that good games will engage players with problems to solve, include more learning features to…


    Danping Yang; Yanzhen Chang; Wenbin Liu


    In this paper,we investigate a priori error estimates and superconvergence properties for a model optimal control problem of bilinear type,which includes some parameter estimation application.The state and co-state are discretized by piecewise linear functions and control is approximated by piecewise constant functions.We derive a priori error estimates and superconvergence analysis for both the control and the state approximations.We also give the optimal L2-norm error estimates and the almost optimal L8-norm estimates about the state and co-state.The results can be readily used for constructing a posteriori error estimators in adaptive finite element approximation of such optimal control problems.

  13. Monomiality principle, Sheffer-type polynomials and the normal ordering problem

    Penson, K A; Dattoli, Giuseppe; Duchamp, G H E; Horzela, A; Solomon, A I


    We solve the boson normal ordering problem for $(q(a^\\dag)a+v(a^\\dag))^n$ with arbitrary functions $q(x)$ and $v(x)$ and integer $n$, where $a$ and $a^\\dag$ are boson annihilation and creation operators, satisfying $[a,a^\\dag]=1$. This consequently provides the solution for the exponential $e^{\\lambda(q(a^\\dag)a+v(a^\\dag))}$ generalizing the shift operator. In the course of these considerations we define and explore the monomiality principle and find its representations. We exploit the properties of Sheffer-type polynomials which constitute the inherent structure of this problem. In the end we give some examples illustrating the utility of the method and point out the relation to combinatorial structures.

  14. On the solution to the Polonyi problem with no-scale type supergravity

    Moroi, T.


    We study the solution to the Polonyi problem in the framework of no-scale type supergravity. In such a model, Polonyi field can weigh as O(10TeV) and decay just before the big-bang nucleosynthesis. It is shown that in spite of a large entropy production by the decay of the Polonyi field, one can naturally explain the present value of the baryon-to-entropy ratio, {eta}{sub B}/S {approximately} (10{sup {minus}10} {minus} 10{sup {minus}11}) if the Affleck-Dine mechanism for baryogenesis works. It is pointed out, however, that there is another cosmological problem related to the abundance of the lightest superparticles produced by the decay of the Polonyi field.

  15. Selected problems relating to the dynamics of block-type foundations for machines

    Marek Zombroń


    Full Text Available Atypical but real practical problems relating to the dynamics of block-type foundations for machines are considered using the deterministic approach and assuming that the determined parameters are random variables. A foundation model in the form of an undeformable solid on which another undeformable solid modelling a machine is mounted via viscoelastic constraints was adopted. The dynamic load was defined by a harmonically varying signal and by a series of short duration signals. The vibration of the system was investigated for the case when stratified ground (groundwater occurred within the side backfill was present. Calculation results illustrating the theoretical analyses are presented.


    Yanzhen Chang; Danping Yang


    In this paper, we consider the finite element approximation of the distributed optimal control problems of the stationary Bénard type under the pointwise control constraint. The states and the co-states are approximated by polynomial functions of lowest-order mixed finite element space or piecewise linear functions and the control is approximated by piecewise constant functions. We give the superconvergence analysis for the control; it is proved that the approximation has a second-order rate of convergence. We further give the superconvergence analysis for the states and the co-states. Then we derive error estimates in L∞-norm and optimal error estimates in L2-norm.

  17. Wine sellin in the province of Leon in the eighteenth Century: types and problems



    Full Text Available Wine trade in the province of León in the Eighteenth Century: types and problems. Study of the types of the wine sales in the province of León in the Eighteenth Century, focusing on the importance of wine producers, «wine producers’ guilds» and how they controlled this trade, especially retail sales. The study also includes other kinds of wine trade organized with forced suppliers such as those in the of Astorga and its surroundings. We have also analyzed the conflicts which happened between the producers and the local authorities, caused by the retail sale which were more frecuent in the cities of Ponferrada and León.

  18. Do Dental Students' Personality Types and Group Dynamics Affect Their Performance in Problem-Based Learning?

    Ihm, Jung-Joon; An, So-Youn; Seo, Deog-Gyu


    The aim of this study was to determine whether the personality types of dental students and their group dynamics were linked to their problem-based learning (PBL) performance. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) instrument was used with 263 dental students enrolled in Seoul National University School of Dentistry from 2011 to 2013; the students had participated in PBL in their first year. A four-session PBL setting was designed to analyze how individual personality types and the diversity of their small groups were associated with PBL performance. Overall, the results showed that the personality type of PBL performance that was the most prominent was Judging. As a group became more diverse with its different constituent personality characteristics, there was a tendency for the group to be higher ranked in terms of PBL performance. In particular, the overperforming group was clustered around three major profiles: Extraverted Intuitive Thinking Judging (ENTJ), Introverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ISTJ), and Extraverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ESTJ). Personality analysis would be beneficial for dental faculty members in order for them to understand the extent to which cooperative learning would work smoothly, especially when considering group personalities.

  19. An adaptive metamodel-based global optimization algorithm for black-box type problems

    Jie, Haoxiang; Wu, Yizhong; Ding, Jianwan


    In this article, an adaptive metamodel-based global optimization (AMGO) algorithm is presented to solve unconstrained black-box problems. In the AMGO algorithm, a type of hybrid model composed of kriging and augmented radial basis function (RBF) is used as the surrogate model. The weight factors of hybrid model are adaptively selected in the optimization process. To balance the local and global search, a sub-optimization problem is constructed during each iteration to determine the new iterative points. As numerical experiments, six standard two-dimensional test functions are selected to show the distributions of iterative points. The AMGO algorithm is also tested on seven well-known benchmark optimization problems and contrasted with three representative metamodel-based optimization methods: efficient global optimization (EGO), GutmannRBF and hybrid and adaptive metamodel (HAM). The test results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method. The AMGO algorithm is finally applied to the structural design of the import and export chamber of a cycloid gear pump, achieving satisfactory results.

  20. Preconditioning and Uniform Convergence for Convection-Diffusion Problems Discretized on Shishkin-Type Meshes

    Thái Anh Nhan


    Full Text Available A one-dimensional linear convection-diffusion problem with a perturbation parameter ɛ multiplying the highest derivative is considered. The problem is solved numerically by using the standard upwind scheme on special layer-adapted meshes. It is proved that the numerical solution is ɛ-uniform accurate in the maximum norm. This is done by a new proof technique in which the discrete system is preconditioned in order to enable the use of the principle where “ɛ-uniform stability plus ɛ-uniform consistency implies ɛ-uniform convergence.” Without preconditioning, this principle cannot be applied to convection-diffusion problems because the consistency error is not uniform in ɛ. At the same time, the condition number of the discrete system becomes independent of ɛ due to the same preconditioner; otherwise, the condition number of the discrete system before preconditioning increases when ɛ tends to 0. We obtained such results in an earlier paper, but only for the standard Shishkin mesh. In a nontrivial generalization, we show here that the same proof techniques can be applied to the whole class of Shishkin-type meshes.

  1. Medication-related problem type and appearance rate in ambulatory hemodialysis patients

    Manley, Harold J; Drayer, Debra K; Muther, Richard S


    Background Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at risk for medication-related problems (MRP). The MRP number, type, and appearance rate over time in ambulatory HD patients has not been investigated. Methods Randomly selected HD patients were enrolled to receive monthly pharmaceutical care visits. At each visit, MRP were identified through review of the patient chart, electronic medical record, patient interview, and communications with other healthcare disciplines. All MRP were categorized by type and medication class. MRP appearance rate was determined as the number of MRP identified per month/number of months in study. The number of MRP per patient-drug exposures were determined using: {[(number of patients) × (mean number of medications)]/(number of months of study)} /number of MRP identified. Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation or percentages. Results Patients were 62.6 ± 15.9 years old, had 6.4 ± 2.0 comorbid conditions, were taking 12.5 ± 4.2 medications, and 15.7 ± 7.2 doses per day at baseline. Medication-dosing problems (33.5%), adverse drug reactions (20.7%), and an indication that was not currently being treated (13.5%) were the most common MRP. 5,373 medication orders were reviewed and a MRP was identified every 15.2 medication exposures. Overall MRP appearance rate was 0.68 ± 0.46 per patient per month. Conclusion MRP continue to occur at a high rate in ambulatory HD patients. Healthcare providers taking care of HD patients should be aware of this problem and efforts to avoid or resolve MRP should be undertaken at all HD clinics. PMID:14690549

  2. Medication-related problem type and appearance rate in ambulatory hemodialysis patients

    Drayer Debra K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemodialysis (HD patients are at risk for medication-related problems (MRP. The MRP number, type, and appearance rate over time in ambulatory HD patients has not been investigated. Methods Randomly selected HD patients were enrolled to receive monthly pharmaceutical care visits. At each visit, MRP were identified through review of the patient chart, electronic medical record, patient interview, and communications with other healthcare disciplines. All MRP were categorized by type and medication class. MRP appearance rate was determined as the number of MRP identified per month/number of months in study. The number of MRP per patient-drug exposures were determined using: {[(number of patients × (mean number of medications]/(number of months of study} /number of MRP identified. Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation or percentages. Results Patients were 62.6 ± 15.9 years old, had 6.4 ± 2.0 comorbid conditions, were taking 12.5 ± 4.2 medications, and 15.7 ± 7.2 doses per day at baseline. Medication-dosing problems (33.5%, adverse drug reactions (20.7%, and an indication that was not currently being treated (13.5% were the most common MRP. 5,373 medication orders were reviewed and a MRP was identified every 15.2 medication exposures. Overall MRP appearance rate was 0.68 ± 0.46 per patient per month. Conclusion MRP continue to occur at a high rate in ambulatory HD patients. Healthcare providers taking care of HD patients should be aware of this problem and efforts to avoid or resolve MRP should be undertaken at all HD clinics.

  3. Parental persuasive strategies in the face of daily problems in adolescent type 1 diabetes management.

    Berg, Cynthia A; Butner, Jonathan E; Butler, Jorie M; King, Pamela S; Hughes, Amy E; Wiebe, Deborah J


    The study examined (1) whether daily diabetes problems that adolescents experience were associated with parental persuasive strategies (e.g., persuading the adolescent to do more to manage diabetes), (2) whether this association was mediated through greater parental worry and lower confidence in adolescents' abilities, and (3) how parental persuasive strategies may provide corrections for subsequent blood glucose control but reduce adolescent confidence for adolescents high in self-efficacy. Adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (N = 180, ages 10.50-15.58 years) and their mothers (N = 176) and fathers (N = 139) completed diaries for 14 days reporting on problems experienced with diabetes, maternal and paternal use of persuasive strategies, and confidence in adolescents' ability to manage diabetes. Parents reported their daily worry about diabetes, adolescents reported their general self-efficacy for diabetes management, and blood glucose was downloaded from glucometers. Across reporters, multilevel modeling revealed that parents used more persuasive strategies on days when more diabetes problems were experienced. This association was mediated through parents' greater worry and lower confidence in adolescents' ability to manage diabetes. Lagged analyses revealed that adolescents' perceptions of maternal persuasive strategies were associated with improvements in next-day blood glucose, but also with reductions in adolescents' daily confidence for those high in self-efficacy. Parental persuasive strategies appear responsive to daily problems that adolescents experience in diabetes management. Mothers' persuasive strategies may have the dual effects of correcting blood glucose levels but reducing the more self-efficacious adolescents' confidence in their own ability to manage diabetes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Morozov-type discrepancy principle for nonlinear ill-posed problems under -condition

    M Thamban Nair


    For proving the existence of a regularization parameter under a Morozov-type discrepancy principle for Tikhonov regularization of nonlinear ill-posed problems, it is required to impose additional nonlinearity assumptions on the forward operator. Lipschitz continuity of the Freéchet derivative and requirement of the Lipschitz constant to depend on a source condition is one such restriction (Ramlau P, Numer. Funct. Anal. Optim. 23(1&22) (2003) 147–172). Another nonlinearity condition considered by Scherzer (Computing, 51 (1993) 45–60) was by requiring the forward operator to be close to a linear operator in a restricted sense. A seemingly natural nonlinear assumption which appears in many applications which attracted attention in various contexts of the study of nonlinear problems is the so-called -condition. However, a Morozov-type discrepancy principle together with -condition does not seem to have been studied, except in a recent paper by the author (Bull. Aust. Math. Soc. 79 (2009) 337–342), where error estimates under a general source condition is derived, by assuming the existence of the parameter. In this paper, the existence of the parameter satisfying a Morozov-type discrepancy principle is proved under the -condition on the forward operator, by assuming the source condition as in the papers of Scherzer (Computing, 51 (1993) 45–60) and Ramlau (Numer. Funct. Anal. Optim. 23(1&22) (2003) 147–172). This source condition is, in fact, a special case of the source condition in the author’s paper (Bull. Aust. Math. Soc. 79 (2009) 337–342).

  5. Dual equations and solutions of I-type crack of dynamic problems in Piezoelectric materials

    BIAN Wen-feng; WANG Biao


    This paper firstly works out basic differential equations of piezoelectric materials expressed in terms of potential functions, which are introduced in the very beginning. These equations are primarily solved through Laplace transformation, semiinfinite Fourier sine transformation and cosine transformation. Secondly, dual equations of dynamic cracks problem in 2D piezoelectric materials are established with the help of Fourier reverse transformation and the introduction of boundary conditions. Finally, according to the character of the Bessel function and by making full use of the Abel integral equation and its reverse transform, the dual equations are changed into the second type of Fredholm integral equations. The investigation indicates that the study approach taken is feasible and has potential to be an effective method to do research on issues of this kind.

  6. Maternal communication style, problem-solving and dietary adherence in young children with type 1 diabetes.

    Chisholm, Vivienne; Atkinson, Leslie; Donaldson, Caroline; Noyes, Kathryn; Payne, Anne; Kelnar, Chris


    The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in young children is increasing markedly however young children have been overlooked in paediatric adherence research despite the unique challenges their care presents. We investigated the relation between maternal communication style and adherence to the dietary regimen in 40 children with T1D, aged 2-8 years, and their mothers. Mothers completed measures of children's sugar consumption, parent-child communication quality, and child psychological functioning. Mothers and children engaged in a videotaped problem-solving task related to the dietary regimen, with maternal utterances analysed for behavioural control style (e.g., commands versus suggestions) and cognitive complexity (e.g., provision of labels versus questions). Maternal communications which engaged children, behaviourally and cognitively, in the task were associated with better adherence, medical, communication quality, and child adjustment outcomes. We conclude that adherence and health (medical and psychological) are optimized when young children are given opportunities to participate in their care.

  7. Analysis of Galactic late-type O dwarfs: more constraints on the weak wind problem

    Marcolino, W L F; Martins, F; Hillier, D J; Lanz, T; Escolano, C


    We have investigated the stellar and wind properties of a sample of five late-type O dwarfs in order to address the weak wind problem. A grid of TLUSTY models was used to obtain the stellar parameters, and the wind parameters were determined by using the CMFGEN code. We found that the spectra have mainly a photospheric origin. A weak wind signature is seen in CIV 1549, from where mass-loss rates consistent with previous CMFGEN results regarding O8-9V stars were obtained. A discrepancy of roughly 2 orders of magnitude is found between these mass-loss rates and the values predicted by theory (Mdot(Vink)), confirming a breakdown or a steepening of the modified wind momentum-luminosity relation at log L/Lsun -3.5) (abridged).

  8. The Unfolding of Equivariant Bifurcation Problems with Two Types of State Variables in the Presence of Parameter Symmetry

    Deng Lan CUI; Yang Cheng LI


    The unfolding of equivariant bifurcation problems with two types of state variables under the action of group (ж) (Г, △) is discussed by using DA-algebraic tools. One of the main results is the equivariant versal unfolding theorem.

  9. Personality types in childhood: relations to latent trajectory classes of problem behavior and overreactive parenting across the transition into adolescence

    van den Akker, A.L.; Deković, M.; Asscher, J.J.; Shiner, R.L.; Prinzie, P.


    This study investigated relations among children's personality types, trajectories of internalizing and externalizing problems, and overreactive parenting across 6 years. Latent Class Analysis of the Big 5 personality dimensions (modeled as latent factors, based on mother, father and teacher reports

  10. A Solution to the Doublet-Triplet Splitting Problem in the Type IIB Supergravity

    Watari, T


    The doublet--triplet mass splitting problem is one of the most serious problems in supersymmetric grand unified theories (GUTs). A class of models based on a product gauge group, such as the SU(5)_{GUT} times U(3)_H or the SU(5)_{GUT} times U(2)_H, realize naturally the desired mass splitting that is protected by an unbroken R symmetry. It has been pointed out that various features in the models suggest that these product-group unification models are embedded in a supersymmetric brane world. We show an explicit construction of those models in the supersymmetric brane world based on the Type IIB supergravity in ten dimensions. We consider T^6/(Z_{12} times Z_2) orientifold for the compactified six extra dimensions. We find that all of the particles needed for the GUT-symmetry-breaking sector are obtained from the D-brane fluctuations. The three families of quarks and leptons are introduced at an orbifold singularity, although their origin remains unexplained. This paper includes extensive discussion on anomaly...

  11. Assessment of Tikhonov-type regularization methods for solving atmospheric inverse problems

    Xu, Jian; Schreier, Franz; Doicu, Adrian; Trautmann, Thomas


    Inverse problems occurring in atmospheric science aim to estimate state parameters (e.g. temperature or constituent concentration) from observations. To cope with nonlinear ill-posed problems, both direct and iterative Tikhonov-type regularization methods can be used. The major challenge in the framework of direct Tikhonov regularization (TR) concerns the choice of the regularization parameter λ, while iterative regularization methods require an appropriate stopping rule and a flexible λ-sequence. In the framework of TR, a suitable value of the regularization parameter can be generally determined based on a priori, a posteriori, and error-free selection rules. In this study, five practical regularization parameter selection methods, i.e. the expected error estimation (EEE), the discrepancy principle (DP), the generalized cross-validation (GCV), the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), and the L-curve (LC), have been assessed. As a representative of iterative methods, the iteratively regularized Gauss-Newton (IRGN) algorithm has been compared with TR. This algorithm uses a monotonically decreasing λ-sequence and DP as an a posteriori stopping criterion. Practical implementations pertaining to retrievals of vertically distributed temperature and trace gas profiles from synthetic microwave emission measurements and from real far infrared data, respectively, have been conducted. Our numerical analysis demonstrates that none of the parameter selection methods dedicated to TR appear to be perfect and each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Alternatively, IRGN is capable of producing plausible retrieval results, allowing a more efficient manner for estimating λ.

  12. Problem Types in Synthetic Organic Chemistry Research: Implications for the Development of Curricular Problems for Second-Year Level Organic Chemistry Instruction

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Towns, Marcy H.


    Understanding of the nature of science is key to the development of new curricular materials that mirror the practice of science. Three problem types (project level, synthetic planning, and day-to-day) in synthetic organic chemistry emerged during a thematic content analysis of the research experiences of eight practising synthetic organic…

  13. Serious diabetes-specific emotional problems in patients with type 2 diabetes who have different levels of comorbid depression

    Kokoszka, A; Pouwer, F; Jodko, A


    OBJECTIVE: Depression is a common psychiatric problem in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2). A common view is that the burden of having DM2 contributes to the development of depression in DM2. Aim of the present study was to compare the levels of diabetes-specific emotional problems of DM2 patie...

  14. The relation of emotion recognition and social behavioral problems in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: An explorative study

    Coenen, Maraike; Aarnoudse, Cecilia; Boon, Maartje; Veenstra, Wencke


    OBJECTIVE: Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) often show cognitive and behavioral problems (Martin et al., 2011). Huijbregts et al. (2010) investigated cognitive problems in children with NF1 focusing on social information processing. They found that bottom-up as well as top-down processes

  15. Existence of solutions of the Dirichlet problem for an infinite system of nonlinear differential-functional equations of elliptic type

    Tomasz S. Zabawa


    Full Text Available The Dirichlet problem for an infinite weakly coupled system of semilinear differential-functional equations of elliptic type is considered. It is shown the existence of solutions to this problem. The result is based on Chaplygin's method of lower and upper functions.

  16. Bifocal contact lenses: History, types, characteristics, and actual state and problems

    Hiroshi Toshida


    Full Text Available Hiroshi Toshida, Kozo Takahashi, Kazushige Sado, Atsushi Kanai, Akira MurakamiDepartment of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Since people who wear contact lenses (CL often continue using CL even when they develop presbyopia, there are growing expectations for bifocal CL. To understand actual state and problems, history, types, and their characteristics are summarized in this review. Bifocal CL have a long history over 70 years. Recently, bifocal CL have achieved remarkable progress. However, there still is an impression that prescription of bifocal CL is not easy. It should also be remembered that bifocal CL have limits, including limited addition for near vision, as well as the effects of aging and eye diseases in the aged, such as dry eye, astigmatism, cataract, etc. Analysis of the long-term users of bifocal CL among our patients has revealed the disappearance of bifocal CL that achieved unsatisfactory vision and poor contrast compared with those provided by other types of CL. Changing the prescription up to 3 times for lenses of the same brand may be appropriate. Lenses that provide poor contrast sensitivity, suffer from glare, or give unsatisfactory vision have been weeded out. The repeated replacement of products due to the emergence of improved or new products will be guessed.Keywords: bifocal contact lens, presbyopia, accommodation

  17. Two-phase screw-type engine - problems of the filling process; Zweiphasen-Schraubenmotor - Probleme des Fuellungsvorganges

    Kauder, K.; Kliem, B. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). FG Fluidenergiemaschinen


    The two-phase screw-type engine presents itself as a expansion engine in a trilateral-flash-cycle to use waste heat in the lower temperature range, because this displacement engine is able to expand working fluids with a high proportion of liquid. Due to the low critical velocity and the blocking flow, the two-phase flow in the inlet port of the screw-type engine has a great influence on the quality of energy transformation. A novel filling system with rotating short nozzles is presented. Less dissipation during the filling process is expected by this system, because the flash evaporation of the fluid will occur in the working chamber and not in the inlet port of the screw-type engine. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Zweiphasen-Schraubenmotor besitzt als Expansionsmaschine in Trilateral-Flash-Cycle-Prozessen zur Nutzung von Abwaerme mit niedriger Temperatur deutliche Vorteile, da dieser Maschinentyp in der Lage ist, Arbeitsfluide mit einem hohen Fluessigkeitsanteil zu expandieren. Die Zweiphasenstroemung im Einlassbereich des Schraubenmotors hat aufgrund ihrer geringen kritischen Geschwindigkeit und der damit verbundenen blockierten Stroemung einen signifikanten Einfluss auf die Fuellung der Arbeitskammer und der Energiewandlungsguete des Motors. Ein hier vorgestelltes neuartiges Fuellungssystem mit rotierenden Kurzduesen laesst eine verbesserte Fuellung des Zweiphasen-Schraubenmotors erwarten, da es erst in den Arbeitskammern zur Flashverdampfung kommt. (orig.)

  18. Types, Problems and Their Causes, and Solutions to the Offences against the Environmental Laws by Probationers in Maha Sarakham Province

    Wanlu, Somchai; Singseewo, Adisak; Suksringarm, Paitool


    This study aimed to explore types, problems and their causes, and solutions to the offences against the environmental laws of probationers in Maha Sarakham Province. The study comprised 2 phases: Phase 1 was a study of types of the offences against the environmental laws: and phase 2 was an interview with 25 people directly dealing with the…

  19. The Blow-up Rate for Positive Solutions of Indefinite Parabolic Problems and Related Liouville Type Theorems

    Ruixiang XING


    In this paper,we derive an upper bound estimate of the blow-up rate for positive solutions of indefinite parabolic equations from Liouville type theorems. We also use moving plane method to prove the related Liouville type theorems for semilinear parabolic problems.

  20. Social problem-solving, perceived stress, depression and life-satisfaction in patients suffering from tension type and migraine headaches.

    Eskin, Mehmet; Akyol, Ali; Çelik, Emine Yilmaz; Gültekin, Bülent Kadri


    This study aimed at investigating social problem solving, perceived stress, depression, and life-satisfaction in patients with tension type and migraine headaches. Forty-nine migraine and 42 tension type headache patients (n = 91) consenting to participate were compared to a total of 49 matched healthy control group. Participants filled in a questionnaire consisting self-report measures of problem solving, perceived stress, depression and life satisfaction. They were also asked about headache duration, frequency, pain severity, psychiatric treatment and sense of control in one's life. T-tests, chi-square, analysis of variance, logistic regression analysis and Pearson product moment correlation coefficient procedures were used to analyze the data. Tension type headache patients reported having had more frequent headaches than the migraine patients but migraine patients reported having had more intense pain than the tension type headache patients. Instances of psychiatric treatment were more common among tension type headache patients than the migraine and the control group. Compared to the healthy controls, headache patients displayed a deficiency in problem solving, higher levels of perceived stress and depression. Levels of problem solving skills in headache patients were related inversely to depression, perceived stress and the number of negative life events but problem solving skills of headache patients was related positively to life-satisfaction. The findings from this study suggested that cognitive behavioral problem solving therapy or training might be a viable option for reducing levels of stress and depression, and to increase life-satisfaction in patients suffering from primary headache.

  1. Predictors of major lower limb amputation among type II diabetic patients admitted for diabetic foot problems

    Yusof, Nazri Mohd; Rahman, Jamalludin Ab; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Che-Ahmad, Aminudin; Khalid, Kamarul Ariffin; Sulong, Ahmad Fadzli; Vijayasingham, Naveen


    INTRODUCTION Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common cause of amputations in Malaysia. This study aimed to identify the predictive factors for major lower limb amputation among patients with type 2 DM (T2DM) who were admitted to a hospital, in order to reduce its likelihood. METHODS This cross-sectional study involved 218 patients with T2DM who were admitted to Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Kuantan, Malaysia, for diabetic foot problems from June 2011 to July 2012. A form was developed to document the patients’ profiles, comorbidities, complications, investigations, treatment and clinical outcomes. The predictors for major lower limb amputations were determined using univariate and stepwise logistic regression analysis. RESULTS A total of 31 patients underwent major lower limb amputations (25 transtibial, 6 transfemoral). The following factors were found to be associated with the incidence of major lower limb amputations: T2DM duration ≥ 10 years, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic nephropathy, presentation with gangrene, diabetic foot conditions of Wagner grade 4 or 5, and necrotising fasciitis. Patients who underwent major amputations had significantly lower haemoglobin and albumin levels, and higher total white blood cell counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rates, and C-reactive protein, urea and creatinine levels. However, only T2DM duration ≥ 10 years, positive bacterial culture and albumin levels were significant on stepwise logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION T2DM duration ≥ 10 years, positive bacterial culture and low albumin levels were found to be significant predictive factors for major lower limb amputation among patients with T2DM admitted for diabetic foot problems. PMID:26668408

  2. "Patients' understanding is the problem": physicians' views of nonadherence among Arabs with type 2 diabetes

    Waheedi M


    Full Text Available Mohammad Waheedi,1 Fatima B Jeragh-Alhaddad,1 Abdelmoneim Ismail Awad,1 Hannes Enlund2 1Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University, Kuwait; 2Finnish Medicines Agency, Kuopio, Finland Purpose: Nonadherence to diabetes medication is a significant barrier toward achieving positive treatment outcomes. There is an abundance of research looking at the problem from the patient perspective, but less from the provider perspective. The Middle East region has one of the highest prevalences of type 2 diabetes in the world, with special cultural characteristics, which require research attention. The aim of this study was to explore the views of primary-care physicians on medication nonadherence among type 2 diabetes patients. Materials and methods: A descriptive qualitative study was performed using one-on-one semistructured interviews of 21 primary-care physicians who were selected using stratified and random sampling from polyclinics in the five health districts in Kuwait. The interviews elicited the participants’ views about barriers and facilitators of medication adherence in type 2 diabetes patients. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis with constant comparison was used to generate the codes and themes to arrive at a core category. Results: Patient understanding, including knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes, was identified by respondents as the core determinant of medication nonadherence in type 2 diabetes. This was composed of six major themes: four against understanding and two for understanding. The ones against were “Patients do not understand diabetes”, “Patients do not understand the importance of medications”, “What the patient hears from friends is more important than what the doctor says”, “Patients are in denial (or difficult”. Themes for understanding were “I need to educate more” and “Patients must hear it from other sources”. Conclusion: That lack of understanding among

  3. Basic problems and new potentials in monitoring sediment transport using Japanese pipe type geophone

    Sakajo, Saiichi


    The authors have conducted a lot of series of monitoring of sediment transport by pipe type geophone in a model hydrological channel with various gradients and water discharge, using the various size of particles from 2 to 21 mm in the diameter. In the case of casting soils particle by particle into the water channel, 1,000 test cases were conducted. In the case of casting all soils at a breath into the water channel, 100 test cases were conducted. The all test results were totally analyzed by the conventional method, with visible judgement by video pictures. Then several important basic problems were found in estimating the volume and particle distributions by the conventional method, which was not found in the past similar studies. It was because the past studies did not consider the types of collisions between sediment particle and pipe. Based on these experiments, the authors have firstly implemented this idea into the old formula to estimate the amount of sediment transport. In the formula, two factors of 1) the rate of sensing in a single collision and 2) the rate of collided particles to a cast all soil particles were concretely considered. The parameters of these factors could be determined from the experimental results and it was found that the obtained formula could estimate grain size distribution. In this paper, they explain the prototype formula to estimate a set of volume and distribution of sediment transport. Another finding in this study is to propose a single collision as a river index to recognize its characteristics of sediment transport. This result could characterize the risk ranking of sediment transport in the rivers and mudflow in the mountainous rivers. Furthermore, in this paper the authors explain how the preciseness of the pipe geophone to sense the smaller sediment particles shall be improved, which has never been able to be sensed.

  4. Type-Ia Supernova Rates and the Progenitor Problem: A Review

    Maoz, D.; Mannucci, F.


    The identity of the progenitor systems of type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is a major unsolved problem in astrophysics. SN Ia rates are providing some striking clues. We review the basics of SN rate measurement, preach about some sins of SN rate measurement and analysis, and illustrate one of these sins with an analogy about Martian scientists. We review the recent progress in measuring SN Ia rates in various environments and redshifts, and their use to reconstruct the SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD) - the SN rate versus time that would follow a hypothetical brief burst of star formation. A good number of DTD measurements, using a variety of methods, appear to be converging. At delays 1fairly good agreement (though perhaps some tension), among the various measurements, with a Hubble time-integrated DTD value of about 2+/-1 SNe Ia per 1000Msolar (stellar mass formed with a low-mass turnover initial mass function). The local WD binary population suggests that the WD merger rate can explain the Galactic SN Ia rate, but only if sub-Chandra mergers lead to SN Ia events. We point to some future directions that should lead to progress in the field, including measurement of the bivariate (delay and stretch) SN Ia response function.

  5. The Existence and Uniqueness of a New Boundary Value Problem (Type of Problem “E” for Linear System Equations of the Mixed Hyperbolic-Elliptic Type in the Multivariate Dimension with the Changing Time Direction

    Mahammad A. Nurmammadov


    Full Text Available The existence and uniqueness of the boundary value problem for linear systems equations of the mixed hyperbolic-elliptic type in the multivariate domain with the changing time direction are studied. Applying methods of functional analysis, “ε-regularizing” continuation by the parameter and by means of prior estimates, the existence and uniqueness of generalized and regular solutions of a boundary problem are established in a weighted Sobolev space.

  6. Personality types in childhood: relations to latent trajectory classes of problem behavior and overreactive parenting across the transition into adolescence.

    Van den Akker, Alithe L; Deković, Maja; Asscher, Jessica J; Shiner, Rebecca L; Prinzie, Peter


    This study investigated relations among children's personality types, trajectories of internalizing and externalizing problems, and overreactive parenting across 6 years. Latent Class Analysis of the Big 5 personality dimensions (modeled as latent factors, based on mother, father and teacher reports) for 429 children (mean age 8 years at Time 1) replicated the Resilient, Under-, and Overcontroller types. Latent Class Growth Analysis of externalizing and internalizing problems (modeled as latent factors, based on mother and father reports), revealed that Undercontrollers were at greater risk of belonging to a high/decreasing externalizing problem class and a high/stable co-occurring problem class than were Resilients. Overcontrollers were more likely to be in a high/stable internalizing class and less likely to be in the externalizing problem class, but only at low levels of parental overreactivity. Undercontrollers appeared at double risk as they were at risk for high overreactive parenting, which was an independent risk-factor for the elevated problem trajectories. Because childhood personality types were a risk factor for adjustment problems that persisted into adolescence, Under- and Overcontrollers might be considered as a target for early intervention, with a focus on overreactive parenting for Undercontrollers specifically.

  7. Semilinear Evolution Problems with Ventcel-Type Conditions on Fractal Boundaries

    Maria Rosaria Lancia


    Full Text Available A semilinear parabolic transmission problem with Ventcel's boundary conditions on a fractal interface S or the corresponding prefractal interface Sh is studied. Regularity results for the solution in both cases are proved. The asymptotic behaviour of the solutions of the approximating problems to the solution of limit fractal problem is analyzed.

  8. A New General System of Generalized Nonlinear Mixed Composite-Type Equilibria and Fixed Point Problems with an Application to Minimization Problems

    Pongsakorn Sunthrayuth


    Full Text Available We introduce a new general system of generalized nonlinear mixed composite-type equilibria and propose a new iterative scheme for finding a common element of the set of solutions of a generalized equilibrium problem, the set of solutions of a general system of generalized nonlinear mixed composite-type equilibria, and the set of fixed points of a countable family of strict pseudocontraction mappings. Furthermore, we prove the strong convergence theorem of the purposed iterative scheme in a real Hilbert space. As applications, we apply our results to solve a certain minimization problem related to a strongly positive bounded linear operator. Finally, we also give a numerical example which supports our results. The results obtained in this paper extend the recent ones announced by many others.

  9. Solutions to some of the existing problems with breathing equipment type.

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Jasvinder, Kaur; Nanda, Shetty


    Despite the stringent guidelines laid down by the American Society of Anesthesiologists for equipment checks, there are occasional reports of problems related to the equipment used to administer anesthesia. In this article, we discuss two important, albeit rare, problems associated with breathing equipment that have been reported in the literature. The rarity of these problems in itself may hinder early diagnosis because anesthesiologists do not usually consider these problems to be the cause of an ongoing patient morbidity. The first problem discussed here is the presence of a foreign body within the breathing system used to administer anesthesia. The second problem discussed is a kink in the breathing circuits that can precipitate life-threatening problems if it is not detected early enough. 2010 Taiwan Society of Anesthesiologists. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    S. Iu. Panov


    Full Text Available Summary. This carried out work is aimed enhancing the efficiency of the spray scrubber by combining processes and improving hydraulic conditions in the device. The problem of treating waste gases is often characterized by unique features and the significant factor that makes it difficult to find a solution to the problem of treatment is the low and/or variable concentration of the pollutant. With a removal efficiency of up to 98 %, wet treatment technology in scrubber type devices is the only practical method advantageous to the treatment of waste gases. The set objective is solved by developing a two-stage treatment system for pyrolysis gas based on ejector scrubbers. Their advantage - a central nozzle supply that allows the scrubber to operate on the principle of an ejector pump. A drift eliminator of the developed device is located on the case unit and a chain is suspended from a clamp mounted on the lower part of the tube neck by pins and two detachable joints. The operation of the scrubber was checked in compliance with the absorption gas treatment of sulfur dioxide. A chemical sorbent, calcium carbonate which is produced as a by-product in the manufacture of nitroammophos at JSC “Minudobrenia” factory is used. Preliminary results indicate that the stiochiometric inlet ratio of Ca/S equals about 2.0 and SO2 emissions reduce by 80-90 %, significantly larger than the planned 70 % and subsequently corresponds to the residue concentration of less than 30 mg/m3 . This is explained by the greater degree of capture and deposition of the sorbent on the chain curtain (not more than 20 mg/m3 . The proposed device for treating gases enables: improvement in the efficiency of gas treatment; increased reliability; increase in the degree of treatment of the gas flow without the use of additional equipment; reduction in metal and design complexity; reduction on the cost of the treatment process and simplification in the device design.

  11. Cauchy problem of the generalized Zakharov type system in [Formula: see text].

    You, Shujun; Ning, Xiaoqi


    In this paper, we consider the initial value problem for a two-dimensional generalized Zakharov system with quantum effects. We prove the existence and uniqueness of global smooth solutions to the initial value problem in the Sobolev space through making a priori integral estimates and the Galerkin method.

  12. A Jacobi-Davidson type method for a right definite two-parameter eigenvalue problem

    Hochstenbach, M.; Plestenjak, B.


    We present a new numerical iterative method for computing selected eigenpairs of a right definite two-parameter eigenvalue problem. The method works even without good initial approximations and is able to tackle large problems that are too expensive for existing methods. The new method is similar

  13. Common Types of Reading Problems and How to Help Children Who Have Them

    Spear-Swerling, Louise


    Patterns of reading difficulty provide an educationally useful way to think about different kinds of reading problems, whether those problems are mainly experiential in nature (e.g., those common among English learners) or associated with disabilities (e.g., those typical of children with dyslexia). This article reviews research on three common…

  14. Non-local problems with integral gluing condition for loaded mixed type equations involving the Caputo fractional derivative

    Obidjon Kh. Abdullaev


    Full Text Available In this work, we study the existence and uniqueness of solutions to non-local boundary value problems with integral gluing condition. Mixed type equations (parabolic-hyperbolic involving the Caputo fractional derivative have loaded parts in Riemann-Liouville integrals. Thus we use the method of integral energy to prove uniqueness, and the method of integral equations to prove existence.




    By employing the theory of differential inequality and some analysis methods, a nonlinear boundary value problem subject to a general kind of second-order Volterra functional differential equation was considered first. Then, by constructing the right-side layer function and the outer solution, a nonlinear boundary value problem subject to a kind of second- order Volterra functional differential equation with a small parameter was studied further. By using the differential mean value theorem and the technique of upper and lower solution, a new result on the existence of the solutions to the boundary value problem is obtained, and a uniformly valid asymptotic expansions of the solution is given as well.

  16. A fast semi-implicit algorithm for problems of mixed type. [initial-boundary value problems modeled by partial differential equations

    Frederickson, P. O.; Wessel, W. R.


    Certain physical processes are modeled by partial differential equations which are parabolic over part of the domain and elliptic over the remainder. A family of semi-implicit algorithms which are well suited to initial-boundary value problems of this mixed type is discussed. One important feature of these algorithms is the use of an approximate inverse for the solution of the implicit linear system. A strong error analysis results in an estimate of the total error as a function of approximate inverse error e and time step h.

  17. One Type of Postman Problem%一类邮递员送信问题



    本文讨论了一类有约束的邮递员送信问题,不同于经典的TSP( Travelling Salesman Problem )问题,它要求经过部分顶点一次且仅一次,回到初始点的最短路径。这里建立了0-1规划模型,给出了求解此问题的一种方法,对于类似邮路问题有一定的借鉴意义。%This paper discusses a kind of constraint postman problem , which differs from typical TSP problem , requiring a shortest path that passes certain vertexes once and once only , and finally goes back to the initial vertex . We have presented a 0-1 programming model for solving this kind of postman problem , which has certain reference value for similar postman problems .

  18. On the solving of one type of problems of mathematical physics

    Chebakova, V. J.; Gerasimov, A. V.; Kirpichnikov, A. P.


    A relationship between generalized hypergeometric functions of a special type and modified Bessel functions has been established. Using this relationship the solution of inhomogeneous differential equations of Bessel type containing even degrees of an independent variable in the right-hand part can be expressed in a form convenient for engineering and technical applications.

  19. Factors that affect the problem solving skills of preschool teacher candidates: academic achievement and types of anxiety

    Esra Dereli


    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of academic achievement and types of anxiety of the preschool teacher candidates on their problem solving skills. In this research academic achievements and anxiety types (trait and state anxiety were taken as independent variables. The universe of the study is composed of the students attending Pre-school Education Department at Faculty of Vocational Education, Selcuk University. The sample was determined with random classification sampling method and is composed of 300 students. The research was carried out with survey model. The data of the research was collected by using personal information sheet, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, The Problem Solving Inventory. As a criterion of academic success, students GPAs were used. The analysis of the data was done with Pearson Moments Multiplication Correlation Coefficient, t test, one-way anova, LSD test and Reggression Analyze. As the result of the research, it was found that there is significant difference between academic achievement and problem solving skills average points and class level and state anxiety average points It was determined that academic achievement and trait anxiety points predicted problem solving ability points. When t-test results about significance level of regression coefficient are examined, it is seen that the most important explanatory for problem solving skills is trait anxiety, then academic success.

  20. Modeling of type-2 fuzzy cubic B-spline surface for flood data problem in Malaysia

    Bidin, Mohd Syafiq; Wahab, Abd. Fatah


    Malaysia possesses a low and sloping land areas which may cause flood. The flood phenomenon can be analyzed if the surface data of the study area can be modeled by geometric modeling. Type-2 fuzzy data for the flood data is defined using type-2 fuzzy set theory in order to solve the uncertainty of complex data. Then, cubic B-spline surface function is used to produce a smooth surface. Three main processes are carried out to find a solution to crisp type-2 fuzzy data which is fuzzification (α-cut operation), type-reduction and defuzzification. Upon conducting these processes, Type-2 Fuzzy Cubic B-Spline Surface Model is applied to visualize the surface data of the flood areas that are complex uncertainty.

  1. Severe vulvovaginitis as a presenting problem of type 2 diabetes in adolescent girls: a case series.

    Curran, Jacqueline; Hayward, Jenette; Sellers, Elizabeth; Dean, Heather


    This article describes the presentation of 4 adolescent girls who sought medical attention for severe vulvovaginitis and were subsequently found to have type 2 diabetes. Symptomatic vulvovaginitis is rare in adolescent girls, and its presence should alert health care providers to test for underlying hyperglycemia. These 4 girls represent 8.5% of the females with new-onset type 2 diabetes during a 3-year period (2007-2009). The 4 cases fulfilled the current Canadian Diabetes Association screening criteria for type 2 diabetes in youth, yet none of these girls had been screened. These cases highlight the need for better awareness of screening criteria for type 2 diabetes in adolescents. Consideration should be given in clinical practice guidelines to including the presence of unusual or severe infections as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in youth.

  2. Long-time behavior of a Hele-Shaw type problem in random media

    Pozar, Norbert


    We study the long-time behavior of an exterior Hele-Shaw problem in random media with a free boundary velocity that depends on position in dimensions $n \\geq 2$. A natural rescaling of solutions that is compatible with the evolution of the free boundary leads to homogenization of the free boundary velocity. By studying a limit obstacle problem for a Hele-Shaw system with a point source, we are able to show uniform convergence of the rescaled solution to a self-similar limit profile and we deduce that the rescaled free boundary uniformly approaches a sphere.

  3. The Relationship between Students' Mathematical Thinking Types and Representation Preferences in Definite Integral Problems

    Sevimli, Eyup; Delice, Ali


    Students' cognitive differences in problem solving have been the focus of much research. One classification of these differences is related to whether visualisation is used. Like mathematical thinking differences, multiple representation preferences are important when considering individual differences. Choosing an appropriate representation is an…

  4. Newton-type method for the variational discretization of topology optimization problems

    Evgrafov, Anton


    We present a locally quadratically convergent optimization algorithm for solving topology optimization problems. The distinguishing feature of the algorithm is to treat the design as a smooth function of the state and not vice versa as in the traditional nested approach to topology optimization, ...

  5. Types of Motivating Operations in Interventions with Problem Behavior: A Systematic Review

    Simo-Pinatella, David; Font-Roura, Josep; Planella-Morato, Joaquima; McGill, Peter; Alomar-Kurz, Elisabeth; Gine, Climent


    A motivating operation (MO) alters both the effectiveness of a stimulus as a reinforcer and the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced by that particular stimulus. This article reviews studies that have manipulated a MO during interventions with school-age participants with intellectual disabilities and problem behavior. A…

  6. Testing Boundary Conditions for the Conjunction Fallacy: Effects of Response Mode, Conceptual Focus, and Problem Type

    Wedell, Douglas H.; Moro, Rodrigo


    Two experiments used within-subject designs to examine how conjunction errors depend on the use of (1) choice versus estimation tasks, (2) probability versus frequency language, and (3) conjunctions of two likely events versus conjunctions of likely and unlikely events. All problems included a three-option format verified to minimize…

  7. The Nehari problem for infinite-dimensional linear systems of parabolic type

    Curtain, RF; Ichikawa, A


    A complete solution is obtained to the suboptimal Nehari extension problem for transfer functions of parabolic systems with Dirichlet boundary control and smooth observations. The solutions are given in terms of the realization (-A, B, C), where A is a uniformly strongly elliptic operator of order t

  8. The comparison of critical thinking and problem solving disposition of athletes according to gender and sport type

    Hakan Kolayiş


    Full Text Available The terms “critical thinking and problem solving” are crucial for cognitive processes of athletes. It could also be said that these two concepts are likely to affect athletic performance of individuals. Therefore, the aim of this research is to investigate critical thinking and problem solving disposition of athletes. For this purpose 432 athletes (Xage: 20.53±3.85; Xsportexperience: 9.47±4.22 who comprise of 261 males (60.4% and 171 females (39.6% participated to the research. Problem Solving Inventory and California Scale of Disposition to Think Critically. The data was analysed by SPSS 17.0 by using descriptive statistics and t-test Level of significance was determined to be 0.05. Results showed that mean score for critical thinking was 3,82±,41 and the mean was 3,83±,46 for problem solving skill of the athletes. It was also found that there was not a significant difference between males and females according to critical thinking (p>0,05. However, males’ and females’ scores for problem solving significantly differed (p<0,05. Any significant difference was not obtained according to sport type. Overall, it could be said that gender can act as a determiner role among athletes in terms of problem solving disposition.

  9. Carlin-Type Gold Deposits in Qinling and Some Related Problems


    The sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits in the Oinling region are of sedimentation-slight-metamorphic origin superimposed by hydrothermal reworking at moderate-low temperatures and are well comparable with the typical Carlin gold deposits in the United States.In view of the confusing concept concerning the “sediment-hosted”and “Carlin-type” gold deposits,the authors propose that the term“sediment-hosted gold deposit”should be used in a broad sense which encompasses at least the four subtypes,i.e.,the Carlin type,the metamorphic fine clastic type,the hydrothermal sedimentary type and the vein type.In oter words,the “Carlin-type”should not be used as a synonym for “sediment-hosted”but is recommended as a subtype under the general category of “sediment-hosted gold deposits”

  10. A review of results and open problems on mathematical models of motion of viscoelastic media of Jeffreys' type

    Vorotnikov, Dmitry A


    The Jeffreys model (also associated with the names of Lethersich and Oldroyd) is one of the crucial conceptions in the theory of viscoelastic fluids. The models of Jeffreys type describe behaviour of bitumens, blood, polymers and their solutions, dough, the earth's crust, concrete, lubricants etc. Study of BVPs corresponding to their statics and dynamics meets a lot of mathematical difficulties, which turn out to be much harder than the ones that are related to the celebrated Navier-Stokes system. In this work, we make an attempt to review the recent results and main unsolved problems for equations of motion for the mediums of Jeffreys' type.

  11. Wecken type problems for self-maps of the Klein bottle

    Kelly MR


    Full Text Available We consider various problems regarding roots and coincidence points for maps into the Klein bottle . The root problem where the target is and the domain is a compact surface with non-positive Euler characteristic is studied. Results similar to those when the target is the torus are obtained. The Wecken property for coincidences from to is established, and we also obtain the following 1-parameter result. Families which are coincidence free but any homotopy between and , , creates a coincidence with . This is done for any pair of maps such that the Nielsen coincidence number is zero. Finally, we exhibit one such family where is the constant map and if we allow for homotopies of , then we can find a coincidence free pair of homotopies.

  12. The Dynamics of Schelling-Type Segregation Models and a Nonlinear Graph Laplacian Variational Problem

    Pollicott, M


    In this paper we analyze a variant of the famous Schelling segregation model in economics as a dynamical system. This model exhibits, what appears to be, a new clustering mechanism. In particular, we explain why the limiting behavior of the non-locally determined lattice system exhibits a number of pronounced geometric characteristics. Part of our analysis uses a geometrically defined Lyapunov function which we show is essentially the total Laplacian for the associated graph Laplacian. The limit states are minimizers of a natural non-linear, non-homogeneous variational problem for the Laplacian, which can also be interpreted as ground state configurations for the lattice gas whose Hamiltonian essentially coincides with our Lyapunov function. Thus we use dynamics to explicitly solve this problem for which there is no known analytic solution. We prove an isoperimetric characterization of the global minimizers on the torus which enables us to explicitly obtain the global minimizers for the graph variational prob...

  13. A Model for Bus Crew Scheduling Problem with Multiple Duty Types

    Mingming Chen


    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach for solving the bus crew scheduling problem which considers early, day, and late duty modes with time shift and work intensity constraints. Furthermore, the constraint with the least crew number of a certain duty (e.g., day duty has also been considered. An optimization model is formulated as a 0-1 integer programming problem to improve the efficiency of crew scheduling at the minimum expense of total idle time of crew for a circle bus line. Correspondingly, a heuristic algorithm utilizing the tabu search algorithm has been proposed to solve the model. Finally, the proposed model and algorithm are successfully tested by a case study.

  14. On Conservation Forms and Invariant Solutions for Classical Mechanics Problems of Liénard Type

    Gülden Gün Polat


    Full Text Available In this study we apply partial Noether and λ-symmetry approaches to a second-order nonlinear autonomous equation of the form y′′+fyy′+g(y=0, called Liénard equation corresponding to some important problems in classical mechanics field with respect to f(y and g(y functions. As a first approach we utilize partial Lagrangians and partial Noether operators to obtain conserved forms of Liénard equation. Then, as a second approach, based on the λ-symmetry method, we analyze λ-symmetries for the case that λ-function is in the form of λ(x,y,y′=λ1(x,yy′+λ2(x,y. Finally, a classification problem for the conservation forms and invariant solutions are considered.

  15. General Disinfection in Medical and Dental Hospitals, Selection of Disinfectant Type and Problems Encountered

    Akça, Gülin


    Hospitals are the places where, either the patients or other health workers can encounter with dangerous problem of several bacterial, fungal, viral, parasitic infectious agents, especially the emerging and life threatening ones such as, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), Stenotrophomonas sp., and multi drug resistant Acinetobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp.. The reasons of these resistant microorganisms that can threaten the life o...

  16. R3GMRES: including prior information in GMRES-type methods for discrete inverse problems

    Dong, Yiqiu; Garde, Henrik; Hansen, Per Christian


    Lothar Reichel and his collaborators proposed several iterative algorithms that augment the underlying Krylov subspace with an additional low-dimensional subspace in order to produce improved regularized solutions. We take a closer look at this approach and investigate a particular Regularized Ra...... Range-Restricted GMRES method, R3GMRES, with a subspace that represents prior information about the solution. We discuss the implementation of this approach and demonstrate its advantage by means of several test problems....

  17. Figure "8" Type Solutions for Planar Circular Restricted 3-body Problems



    @@ We study planar restricted 3-body problems[1]. Suppose point masses m1 and m2 move around their center of mass in circular orbits. Choose units of length, time and mass so that the angular velocity of rotation, the sum of masses of mi and m2, and the gravitational constant are all equal to one. Then for this choice the distance between m1 and m2 is also equal to 1.

  18. A Laplace type problem for regular lattices with circular section obstacles

    D. Barilla


    Full Text Available In this paper, we compute the probability that a segment of random position and of constant length intersects a side of a regular lattice with circular sections obstacles. In particular, we obtain the formula of a probability already computed by Caristi and Stoka, as well as the formula of the Laplace probability. The results can be used for possible applications in economy and engineering, in particular for transportation problems.

  19. Using Two Types of Computer Algebra Systems to Solve Maxwell Optics Problems

    Kulyabov, D. S.


    To synthesize Maxwell optics systems, the mathematical apparatus of tensor and vector analysis is generally employed. This mathematical apparatus implies executing a great number of simple stereotyped operations, which are adequately supported by computer algebra systems. In this paper, we distinguish between two stages of working with a mathematical model: model development and model usage. Each of these stages implies its own computer algebra system. As a model problem, we consider the prob...

  20. Solving fractional Schrödinger-type spectral problems: Cauchy oscillator and Cauchy well

    Żaba, Mariusz; Garbaczewski, Piotr


    This paper is a direct offspring of the work of Garbaczewski and Stephanovich ["Lévy flights and nonlocal quantum dynamics," J. Math. Phys. 54, 072103 (2013)] where basic tenets of the nonlocally induced random and quantum dynamics were analyzed. A number of mentions were made with respect to various inconsistencies and faulty statements omnipresent in the literature devoted to so-called fractional quantum mechanics spectral problems. Presently, we give a decisive computer-assisted proof, for an exemplary finite and ultimately infinite Cauchy well problem, that spectral solutions proposed so far were plainly wrong. As a constructive input, we provide an explicit spectral solution of the finite Cauchy well. The infinite well emerges as a limiting case in a sequence of deepening finite wells. The employed numerical methodology (algorithm based on the Strang splitting method) has been tested for an exemplary Cauchy oscillator problem, whose analytic solution is available. An impact of the inherent spatial nonlocality of motion generators upon computer-assisted outcomes (potentially defective, in view of various cutoffs), i.e., detailed eigenvalues and shapes of eigenfunctions, has been analyzed.

  1. A Two-Phase Heuristic Algorithm for the Common Frequency Routing Problem with Vehicle Type Choice in the Milk Run

    Yu Lin


    Full Text Available High frequency and small lot size are characteristics of milk runs and are often used to implement the just-in-time (JIT strategy in logistical systems. The common frequency problem, which simultaneously involves planning of the route and frequency, has been extensively researched in milk run systems. In addition, vehicle type choice in the milk run system also has a significant influence on the operating cost. Therefore, in this paper, we simultaneously consider vehicle routing planning, frequency planning, and vehicle type choice in order to optimize the sum of the cost of transportation, inventory, and dispatch. To this end, we develop a mathematical model to describe the common frequency problem with vehicle type choice. Since the problem is NP hard, we develop a two-phase heuristic algorithm to solve the model. More specifically, an initial satisfactory solution is first generated through a greedy heuristic algorithm to maximize the ratio of the superior arc frequency to the inferior arc frequency. Following this, a tabu search (TS with limited search scope is used to improve the initial satisfactory solution. Numerical examples with different sizes establish the efficacy of our model and our proposed algorithm.

  2. Ventilation behaviour and indoor air problems in different types of newly built dwellings

    Dongen, J.E.F. van; Phaff, J.C.


    In four types of newly built single family dwellings and in apartments of a block of flats in the Netherlands, the behaviour and motivations of the occupants are studied with respect to their response to heating and ventilation, as well as their judgment on indoor air and climate variables such as t

  3. Ventilation behaviour and indoor air problems in different types of newly built dwellings

    Dongen, J.E.F. van; Phaff, J.C.


    In four types of newly built single family dwellings and in apartments of a block of flats in the Netherlands, the behaviour and motivations of the occupants are studied with respect to their response to heating and ventilation, as well as their judgment on indoor air and climate variables such as

  4. Nonlocal Cauchy problem for time varying delay integrodifferential equations of Sobolev type in Banach spaces

    K. Balachandran


    Full Text Available In this paper we prove the existence of mild and strong solutions of nonlinear time varying delay integrodifferential equations of Sobolev type with nonlocal conditions in Banach spaces. The results are obtained by using the theory of compact semigroups and Schaefer's fixed point theorem.

  5. Measuring and mapping knowledge types - Problems of knowledge transfer in an IT company

    Cijsouw, R; Jorna, R; Gazendam, HWM; Jorna, RJ; Cijsouw, RS


    In this chapter we formulate a cognitive-semiotic perspective on knowledge and knowledge management. The focus is especially on types of knowledge and not on contents (domains) of knowledge. As domain of knowledge in this research the management of IT projects is chosen. In this domain we focus on h

  6. Child maltreatment among boy and girl probationers: does type of maltreatment make a difference in offending behavior and psychosocial problems?

    van der Put, Claudia E; Lanctôt, Nadine; de Ruiter, Corine; van Vugt, Eveline


    This study examined differences in offending behavior and psychosocial problems between juvenile offenders who have been sexually abused (n=231), physically abused (n=1,568), neglected (n=1,555), exposed to multiple forms of maltreatment (n=1,767), and non-victims (n=8,492). In addition, the moderating effect of gender in the association between type of maltreatment and offending behavior/psychosocial problems was examined. Results showed that violent offenses were more common in victims of physical abuse and victims of multiple forms of abuse than in non-victims, both in boys and girls. In boys, sexual offenses were far more common in victims of sexual abuse than in victims of other or multiple forms of maltreatment or in non-victims. In girls, no group differences were found in sexual offending behavior. For both boys and girls, externalizing problems were relatively common in victims of physical abuse and neglect whereas internalizing problems were relatively common in victims of sexual abuse. In victims of multiple forms of maltreatment, both internalizing and externalizing problems were relatively common. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  7. Extension Theory and Krein-type Resolvent Formulas for Nonsmooth Boundary Value Problems

    Abels, Helmut; Grubb, Gerd; Wood, Ian Geoffrey


    The theory of selfadjoint extensions of symmetric operators, and more generally the theory of extensions of dual pairs, was implemented some years ago for boundary value problems for elliptic operators on smooth bounded domains. Recently, the questions have been taken up again for nonsmooth domains....... In the present work we show that pseudodifferential methods can be used to obtain a full characterization, including Kreĭn resolvent formulas, of the realizations of nonselfadjoint second-order operators on View the MathML source

  8. Implementation Weather-Type Models of Capacitated Arc Routing Problem via Heuristics

    Zuhaimy Ismail


    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study, we introduced a new and real-life condition of Capacitated Arc Routing Problem (CARP, a model that represents vehicles operation in waste collection. In general, we studied the element of rain drops that affected the collected waste weight in total by imposed a new variable namely rainy weight age. In rainy days, the household refusals did not increase in volumes, but in weights due to rain drops. Consequently, this matter thus burdened vehicles capacity and prolonged its operation time. This dynamic variable thus changes the initial CARP model where the existing model did not consider other external elements that have effected onto the model. Approach: Then we developed and enhanced CARP by integrating stochastic demand and time windows to suit the models with our specific case. Results: Objectively, CARP with stochastic demand (CARPSD and CARP with time windows (CARPTW were designed to minimize the total routing cost and number of trips for a vehicle. Our approach is to design CARP models in almost likely to road layout in residential area and graphically this model is called mesh network. We also developed a constructive heuristic that is called nearest procedure based on highest demand/cost (NPHDC and work in conjunction with switching rules to search the feasible solution. Conclusion: Our preliminary results show a higher cost and more trips are needed when the vehicle operates in rainy day compared to normal day operation.


    Marina Miguez


    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng have been classified serologically on the basis of the antigenicity of the major porin (Por. Por! occurs in two immunochemically distinct serogroups: PorlA and Porffi. Because the diagnostic, therapeutic, social, and legal corisequences of misidentification of a nongonococcal Neisseria isolate as Ng can be substantial, the accurate and rapid identification of this organism is important. Typifying of Ng is done by techniques baséd on phenotypic characteristics and plasmidic content that individually don't reach an adequate discrimination, and so combination of techniques ·must be used. The aim of this work is to obtain polyclonal specificAb that discriminate Ng types Por!Aand Porffi. For this purpose, weimmunized two rabbits with sonicated PorlA and Porm strains ofNg (isolated from clínica! samples and serologically classified. The Ab response was analyzed along the protocol by ELISAand by direct agglutination with latex coated with sonicated Ng. With these data, we selected the bleeding providing the serum with maximum specific Ab ti ter to prepare the typing reagents. Unwanted Ab directed against shared epitopes were removed by adsorption with Ng latex. The typing reagents were obtained by coating latex with each depleted sera. Our results suggest that high titers of specific Ab be obtained for both strains ofNg and the depleted sera be discriminated between both strains. These results suggest that these diagnostic reagents could be useful to confirrn presumptive identification by a simple and rapid method.

  10. A new Liu-Storey type nonlinear conjugate gradient method for unconstrained optimization problems

    Zhang, Li


    Although the Liu-Storey (LS) nonlinear conjugate gradient method has a similar structure as the well-known Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP) and Hestenes-Stiefel (HS) methods, research about this method is very rare. In this paper, based on the memoryless BFGS quasi-Newton method, we propose a new LS type method, which converges globally for general functions with the Grippo-Lucidi line search. Moreover, we modify this new LS method such that the modified scheme is globally convergent for nonconvex minimization if the strong Wolfe line search is used. Numerical results are also reported.

  11. Modification of Method for Solution of Direct Kinematic Problem for the Type of Platform Manipulators with Six Degrees of Freedom

    A. L. Lapikov


    Full Text Available This paper considers creation of methods for research of multi-section manipulators of parallel structure. To solve this task it is necessary, firstly, to carry out generalization, systematization, and enhancement of existing models of platform manipulators with six degrees of freedom; secondly, it is necessary to modify previously suggested methods for solving the kinematic tasks for the specified type of manipulation mechanisms. The paper presents detailed domain analysis, describes major issues appearing in the course of research, and suggests basic methods of their solution. The paper demonstrates the necessity for modification of existing models through supplementing new parameters. Modification and generalization of the previously suggested method for solution of direct kinematic problem for the specified type of manipulators were carried out. Method for solution of this problem consists in establishing the dependence of functional relationship of Cartesian coordinates and orientation of the moving platform center on the values of generalized coordinates of manipulator (in case of platform manipulators, these are the lengths of telescopic legs connecting the base and the moving platform of the manipulator. The method is created in such a way that solution of direct kinematic problem results in finding of the analytical equation of the plane where the moving platform lies. The equation of the required plane is described through three points (attachment points of the moving platform joints. To define coordinate values of the joints, the system of nine non-linear equations is generated. It should be noted that the system of equations is composed of one-type equations with the same type of nonlinearity. The physical meaning of all the nine equations of the system is Euclidean distance between the points of the manipulator. The location and orientation of the manipulator are depicted as a homogenous transformation matrix. Vectors of translation

  12. Diversity of phage infection types and associated terminology: the problem with 'Lytic or lysogenic'.

    Hobbs, Zack; Abedon, Stephen T


    Bacteriophages, or phages, are viruses of members of domain Bacteria. These viruses play numerous roles in shaping the diversity of microbial communities, with impact differing depending on what infection strategies specific phages employ. From an applied perspective, these especially are communities containing undesired or pathogenic bacteria that can be modified through phage-mediated bacterial biocontrol, that is, through phage therapy. Here we seek to categorize phages in terms of their infection strategies as well as review or suggest more descriptive, accurate or distinguishing terminology. Categories can be differentiated in terms of (1) whether or not virion release occurs (productive infections versus lysogeny, pseudolysogeny and/or the phage carrier state), (2) the means of virion release (lytic versus chronic release) and (3) the degree to which phages are genetically equipped to display lysogenic cycles (temperate versus non-temperate phages). We address in particular the use or overuse of what can be a somewhat equivocal phrase, 'Lytic or lysogenic', especially when employed as a means of distinguishing among phages types. We suggest that the implied dichotomy is inconsistent with both modern as well as historical understanding of phage biology. We consider, therefore, less ambiguous terminology for distinguishing between 'Lytic' versus 'Lysogenic' phage types.

  13. Distribution Based Change-Point Problem With Two Types of Imperfect Debugging in Software Reliability

    P. K. Kapur


    Full Text Available Software testing is an important phase of softwaredevelopment life cycle. It controls the quality of softwareproduct. Due to the complexity of software system andincomplete understanding of software, the testing team maynot be able to remove/correct the fault perfectly onobservation/detection of a failure and the original fault mayremain resulting in a phenomenon known as imperfectdebugging, or get replaced by another fault causing faultgeneration. In case of imperfect debugging, the fault contentof the software remains same while in case of faultgeneration, the fault content increases as the testingprogresses and removal/correction results in introduction ofnew faults while removing/correcting old ones. Duringsoftware testing fault detection /correction rate may not besame throughout the whole testing process, but it maychange at any time moment. In the literature varioussoftware reliability models have been proposedincorporating change-point concept. In this paper wepropose a distribution based change-point problem with twotypes of imperfect debugging in software reliability. Themodels developed have been validated and verified usingreal data sets. Estimated Parameters and comparisoncriteria results have also been presented

  14. The present status and problems in document retrieval system : document input type retrieval system

    Inagaki, Hirohito

    The office-automation (OA) made many changes. Many documents were begun to maintained in an electronic filing system. Therefore, it is needed to establish efficient document retrieval system to extract useful information. Current document retrieval systems are using simple word-matching, syntactic-matching, semantic-matching to obtain high retrieval efficiency. On the other hand, the document retrieval systems using special hardware devices, such as ISSP, were developed for aiming high speed retrieval. Since these systems can accept a single sentence or keywords as input, it is difficult to explain searcher's request. We demonstrated document input type retrieval system, which can directly accept document as an input, and can search similar documents from document data-base.

  15. Type Ia Supernovae Progenitor Problem and the Variation of Fundamental Constants

    Rybicki M.


    Full Text Available Cosmological observations strongly suggest our universe is the interior of an expanding black hole. If the constant mass of the universe is assumed then from the equation for Schwarzschild radius: r S = 2 Gmc it follows that proportionality constant Gc depends linearly on the universe’s radius R u , identified with r S , i.e. Gc Because the Chandrasekhar limit M Ch relates to the speed of light and to the Newton’s constant as M Ch ( c = G 3 = 2 so expansion involves gradual decrease of M Ch . In result, a single white dwarf can alone become the Type Ia supernova progenitor, which provides a complementary solution to single-degenerate and double-degenerate models for SNe Ia. Both alternative scenarios: G R u and c R are analyzed in regard of their consistence with observations, and their consequences to cosmology.

  16. The Problems of Semantic Equivalence in Different Types of Ukrainian-Polish and Polish-Ukrainian Dictionaries

    Iryna Kononenko


    Full Text Available The Problems of Semantic Equivalence in Different Types of Ukrainian-Polish and Polish-Ukrainian Dictionaries This article deals with the problems of semantic equivalence that authors of various types of dictionaries, including bilingual ones, are faced with. Words and phraseological units of common Polish and Ukrainian origin separately developed their systems of meanings in both languages, making it difficult to identify analogues that adequately reflect the semantic structure of linguistic units. In general, the author’s assumptions are based on experience of publishing Polish-Ukrainian and Ukrainian-Polish dictionaries of various types.   Problemy ekwiwalencji semantycznej w ukraińsko-polskich i polsko-ukraińskich słownikach różnych typów Artykuł porusza problem ekwiwalencji semantycznej, który napotykają autorzy słowników różnych typów, w tym dwujęzycznych. Polskie i ukraińskie wyrazy i jednostki frazeologiczne o wspólnym pochodzeniu rozwijają w każdym języku swoje własne systemy znaczeń, utrudniając określenie odpowiedników i adekwatne odzwierciedlenie struktury semantycznej jednostek. Ogólne założenia autorki są oparte na jej doświadczeniu w publikowaniu polsko-ukraińskich i ukraińsko-polskich słowników różnych typów.

  17. Exercise and type 2 diabetes: new prescription for an old problem.

    Bird, Stephen R; Hawley, John A


    During the past 50 years, the prevalence of a cluster of chronic, inactivity-related diseases including obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), collectively referred to as 'metabolic syndrome' (MetS) has reached global epidemic proportions. Appropriate exercise training is a clinically proven, cost-effective, primary intervention that delays and in many cases prevents the health burdens associated with MetS. Indeed, there is no single intervention with greater efficacy than physical exercise to reduce the risk of virtually all chronic diseases simultaneously. However compliance to National guidelines for physical activity remains low, with "a lack of time" the most frequently cited barrier to exercise participation by adults, irrespective of age, sex and ethnic background. Part of the growing apathy to modify lifestyle habits is that current public health recommendations may be unrealistic and unattainable for the majority of the populace. Hence, there is an urgent need for innovations in exercise prescription that can be incorporated into daily living and induce clinically beneficial health outcomes. Here we focus attention on a novel form of exercise prescription, high-intensity interval training (HIT), and provide evidence that HIT is a time-efficient and well-tolerated therapeutic intervention to improve cardio-metabolic health in a number of pre-clinical and clinical populations.

  18. The effects of type of knowledge upon human problem solving in a process control task

    Morris, N. M.; Rouse, W. B.


    The question of what the operator of a dynamic system needs to know was investigated in an experiment using PLANT, a simulation of a generic dynamic production process. Knowledge of PLANT was manipulated via different types of instruction, so that four different groups were created: (1) minimal instructions only; (2) minimal instructions and guidelines for operation (procedures); (3) minimal instructions and dynamic relationships (principles); and (4) minimal instructions, and procedures, and principles. Subjects controlled PLANT in a variety of situations which required maintaining production while also diagnosing familiar and unfamiliar failures. Despite the fact that these manipulations resulted in differences in subjects' Knowledge, as assessed via a written test at the end of the experiment, instructions had no effect upon achievement of the primary goal of production, or upon subjects' ability to diagnose unfamiliar failures. However, those groups receiving procedures controlled the system in a more stable manner. Possible reasons for the failure to find an effect of principles are presented, and the implications of these results for operator training and aiding are discussed.

  19. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children--an increasing health problem in Mexico.

    Cruz, Miguel; Torres, Margarita; Aguilar-Herrera, Blanca; Pérez-Johnston, Rocío; Guzmán-Juárez, Nora; Aranda, Martha; Kumate, Jesús


    The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in children has increased worldwide and is commonly associated with overweight. Forty-four children with DM2 were studied by clinical histories, anthropometric measurements, and biochemical analysis. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were determined to evaluate insulin resistance. Only five patients presented normal body mass index (BMI); the remainder were overweight, and 76% had acanthosis nigricans. Laboratory results yielded hyperglycemia, elevated glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin and C-peptide. Elevated HOMA-IR and decreased QUICKI values suggest insulin resistance. No significant difference was found between sexes, although overweight in girls had more influence over blood pressure and lipid levels (p <0.05). Time from diagnosis and HOMA-IR yielded relevant values (p = 0.010). Laboratory results, QUICKI, and HOMA-IR values suggested that these patients present DM2 and decreased insulin sensitivity. We recommend prevention of overweight and sedentary life-style.

  20. Problems in diabetes managment in school setting in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in Serbia.

    Jesić, Maja D; Milenković, Tatjana; Mitrović, Katarina; Todorović, Sladjana; Zdravković, Vera; Jesić, Milos M; Bosnjović-Tucaković, Tatjana; Marković, Slavica; Vorguin, Ivana; Stanković, Sandra; Sajić, Silvija


    The obtained results show that not all children test blood glucose levels at school (50% of children in the 6-10-year-old age group and 67.3% in the age group over 11 years) and that not all children receive insulin at school (81.1% vs. 18.9%, and 57.7% vs. 42.3%, respectively). The frequency of severe hypoglycemia was 2.7% in children and 3.3% in adolescents. A high proportion of teachers did not have diabetes training. This brief report about problems in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes at school in Serbia indicates what happens in the school setting and suggests how to improve control of this disease and facilitate the complete integration of children with diabetes at school. Children with type 1 diabetes typically spend one-third of the day in school and they should achieve the same level of diabetes management there as they do outside the school environment. The aim of this study was to identify problems in diabetes management in children with type 1 diabetes at school according to the perceptions reported by children and parents. This cross-sectional survey was carried out at nine public hospitals in Serbia with a cohort of 6-18-year old children/adolescents. The parents were personally informed about the objectives of the survey and the necessity to involve their children. The self-reporting questionnaire included demographic information as well as some questions that helped to evaluate the general situation of children with type 1 diabetes at school.

  1. [Insulin-using woman with type 2 diabetes and weight problems].

    Hexeberg, Sofie; Lindberg, Fedon A


    A 61-year-old overweight woman had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypothyreosis. Treatment with antidiabetic and antihypertensive medication and thyroxine had been started. Blood sugar had been increasing despite medication and she had started using insulin. In 2003 she used 150 IE insulin per day. She tried hard to adhere to a recommended diet, but gradually became fatter, maximum weight was 120 kg. She started on a low carbohydrate diet on her own and lost 14 kg during 5 months. She had some hypoglycemic episodes and sought advice at Dr. Fedon Lindberg's Clinic. Her low carbohydrate diet was continued, endurance exercise was included, medication with metformin was started and during 8 months she was off insulin and showed much lower blood sugar values than before. She lost 14 kg during this period. She was motivated for loosing more weight and starter on a VLCD (very low caloric diet). She lost another 9 kg on this diet. She than started regular resistance training and her weight stabilized on 80 kg. Her HbA1c value has been reduced from 8.9 to 5.4% and her total/HDL cholesterol ratio has been reduced from 5.4 to 1.7. Her C-peptide value increased in the period when insulin was reduced, but is now reduced to 700 pmol/L. Micro-CRP has been reduced from 9.0 mg/L to 0.4 mg/L. With a low carbohydrate diet and exercise this woman no longer has diabetes or severe overweight. It is our opinion that many patients with type 2 diabetes can manage without medication (especially insulin) by reducing the intake of carbohydrates considerably.

  2. Stability of the classical type of relative equilibria of a rigid body in the J2 problem

    Wang, Yue


    The motion of a point mass in the J2 problem is generalized to that of a rigid body in a J2 gravity field. The linear and nonlinear stability of the classical type of relative equilibria of the rigid body, which have been obtained in our previous paper, are studied in the framework of geometric mechanics with the second-order gravitational potential. Non-canonical Hamiltonian structure of the problem, i.e., Poisson tensor, Casimir functions and equations of motion, are obtained through a Poisson reduction process by means of the symmetry of the problem. The linear system matrix at the relative equilibria is given through the multiplication of the Poisson tensor and Hessian matrix of the variational Lagrangian. Based on the characteristic equation of the linear system matrix, the conditions of linear stability of the relative equilibria are obtained. The conditions of nonlinear stability of the relative equilibria are derived with the energy-Casimir method through the projected Hessian matrix of the variationa...

  3. Analysis of MUSIC-type imaging functional for single, thin electromagnetic inhomogeneity in limited-view inverse scattering problem

    Ahn, Chi Young; Jeon, Kiwan; Park, Won-Kwang


    This study analyzes the well-known MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm to identify unknown support of thin penetrable electromagnetic inhomogeneity from scattered field data collected within the so-called multi-static response matrix in limited-view inverse scattering problems. The mathematical theories of MUSIC are partially discovered, e.g., in the full-view problem, for an unknown target of dielectric contrast or a perfectly conducting crack with the Dirichlet boundary condition (Transverse Magnetic-TM polarization) and so on. Hence, we perform further research to analyze the MUSIC-type imaging functional and to certify some well-known but theoretically unexplained phenomena. For this purpose, we establish a relationship between the MUSIC imaging functional and an infinite series of Bessel functions of integer order of the first kind. This relationship is based on the rigorous asymptotic expansion formula in the existence of a thin inhomogeneity with a smooth supporting curve. Various results of numerical simulation are presented in order to support the identified structure of MUSIC. Although a priori information of the target is needed, we suggest a least condition of range of incident and observation directions to apply MUSIC in the limited-view problem.

  4. Numerical Analysis of Boundary Value Problem of Elliptic Type by Means Penalty and the Finite Difference and Its Application to Free Boundary Problem.


    e.g., phase transition problems including slag flow in 7’ .the hearth , a wave or jet problem, the equilibrium of plasma, optimal shape design and...theory of asymp- , totic expansion in this respect. * The method of penalization used here (see (1.2)) belongs to the family of artificial domains

  5. The Solution of Two-Point Boundary Value Problem of a Class of Duffing-Type Systems with Non-C1 Perturbation Term

    Jiang Zhengxian


    Full Text Available This paper deals with a two-point boundary value problem of a class of Duffing-type systems with non-C1 perturbation term. Several existence and uniqueness theorems were presented.

  6. A Computer Game as a Context for Non-Routine Mathematical Problem Solving: The Effects of Type of Question Prompt and Level of Prior Knowledge

    Lee, Chun-Yi; Chen, Ming-Puu.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of type of question prompt and level of prior knowledge on non-routine mathematical problem solving. A computer game was blended within the pattern reasoning tasks, along with question prompts, in order to demonstrate and enhance the connections between viable problem-solving strategies and…

  7. Cerebral volumetric abnormalities in Neurofibromatosis type 1: associations with parent ratings of social and attention problems, executive dysfunction, and autistic mannerisms

    Huijbregts, S.C.; Loitfelder, M.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Swaab, H.; Verbist, B.M.; Arkink, E.B.; Buchem, M.A. van; Veer, I.M.


    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a single-gene neurodevelopmental disorder, in which social and cognitive problems are highly prevalent. Several commonly observed central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities in NF1 might underlie these social and cognitive problems. Cerebral volumetric abnormalities

  8. The influence of types of war experiences on conduct problems in war-affected youth in Northern Ugandan: Findings from the WAYS study.

    Amone-P Olak, Kennedy; Ovuga, Emilio


    Exposure to war is associated with poor psychosocial outcomes. Yet the effects of different types of war events on various psychosocial outcomes such as conduct problems remain unknown. This study aims to assess whether various war events differ in predicting conduct problems. Using data from an on-going longitudinal research project, the WAYS study, the current article examined the relationship between specific war events and conduct problems in war-affected youth in Northern Uganda (N=539, baseline age=22.39; SD=2.03, range 18-25). Regression analyses were conducted to relate each type of war experience to conduct problems. War categories of "witnessing violence", "deaths", "threat to loved ones" and "sexual abuse" were associated with reporting conduct problems. Multivariable models yielded independent effects of ''witnessing violence'' (β=0.09, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.18) and ''Sexual abuse'' (β=0.09, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.19) on conduct problems while "duration in captivity" independently and negatively predicted conduct problems (β=-0.14, 95% CI: -0.23, -0.06). Types of war events vary in predicting conduct problems and should be considered when designing interventions to alleviate negative consequences of exposure to war. Moreover, longer duration in captivity appear to protect war-affected youth from conduct problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Relationship Between the Number of Types of Legal Gambling and the Rates of Gambling Behaviors and Problems Across U.S. States.

    Welte, John W; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O; Barnes, Grace M; Hoffman, Joseph H; Wieczorek, William F


    In this article, we examine the relationship between the total number of types of gambling that are legal in a state and the gambling involvement of state residents. Of particular interest is whether more types of legal gambling are associated with higher rates of problem gambling. Telephone surveys of U.S. adults were conducted in 1999-2000 and 2011-2013. The same questions were used and the data sets were combined for most of the analyses. Gambling exposure was defined as the sum of the number of years that all types were legal. Results tabulated by state showed progressively higher rates of problem gambling, frequent gambling and any past year gambling as the number of legal types of gambling increased. Holding constant the number of legal types, problem gambling rates increased as exposure increased. States with longer exposure to legal lotteries or casinos tended to have higher rates of problem gambling. An analysis was also conducted in which the data sets from 1999 to 2000 and from 2011 to 2013 were compared. Among the states, there was a striking positive relationship between changes in the number of legal types of gambling between the two studies and changes in rates of frequent gambling between the two studies. For states that had fewer types of legal gambling in 2011 than in 1999, the rates of frequent gambling went down. For states that increased their types of legal gambling, rates of frequent gambling typically, but not always, went up. Possible explanations for these results were discussed.

  10. Poor medication adherence in type 2 diabetes: recognizing the scope of the problem and its key contributors

    Polonsky WH


    Full Text Available William H Polonsky,1,2 Robert R Henry2,3 1Behavioral Diabetes Institute, San Diego, 2University of California, San Diego, 3Center for Metabolic Research, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: At least 45% of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D fail to achieve adequate glycemic control (HbA1c <7%. One of the major contributing factors is poor medication adherence. Poor medication adherence in T2D is well documented to be very common and is associated with inadequate glycemic control; increased morbidity and mortality; and increased costs of outpatient care, emergency room visits, hospitalization, and managing complications of diabetes. Poor medication adherence is linked to key nonpatient factors (eg, lack of integrated care in many health care systems and clinical inertia among health care professionals, patient demographic factors (eg, young age, low education level, and low income level, critical patient beliefs about their medications (eg, perceived treatment inefficacy, and perceived patient burden regarding obtaining and taking their medications (eg, treatment complexity, out-of-pocket costs, and hypoglycemia. Specific barriers to medication adherence in T2D, especially those that are potentially modifiable, need to be more clearly identified; strategies that target poor adherence should focus on reducing medication burden and addressing negative medication beliefs of patients. Solutions to these problems would require behavioral innovations as well as new methods and modes of drug delivery. Keywords: glycemic control, HbA1c, hypoglycemia, medication adherence, psychosocial, type 2 diabetes

  11. Renormalized Volume

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew


    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  12. Type D personality is associated with sleep problems in adolescents. Results from a population-based cohort study of Swedish adolescents.

    Condén, Emelie; Ekselius, Lisa; Aslund, Cecilia


    Sleep problems are associated with an increased risk of psychiatric and somatic diseases. Type D personality, or the distressed personality, refers to the joint tendency to experience negative emotions and to inhibit self-expression in social interaction. Type D personality is associated with an increased number of health complaints including cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated whether type D personality was associated with sleep problems among adolescents. The study was part of the Survey of Adolescent Life in Västmanland 2008 (SALVe 2008). A total of 5012 adolescents (age 15-18 years old) completed a questionnaire including the type D measurement DS14 and questions on sleep disturbances, sleep hours during school nights, and sleep hours during weekend nights. Adolescents with a type D personality had an approximately four times increased risk of having sleep disturbances. Moreover, type D personality was associated with sleeping fewer hours. As adolescence represents a formative period for development it is critical to identify sleep disorders early. The presence of type D personality associated with poor sleep demands attention because sleep problems may be an early stage in the development of later diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing the Direction of Longitudinal Paths between Victimization, Peer Rejection, and Different Types of Internalizing Problems in Adolescence

    M. Sentse (Miranda); P.J. Prinzie (Peter); C. Salmivalli (Christina)


    textabstractThe transition to secondary school is accompanied by the fragmentation of peer groups, while adolescents are also confronted with heightened incidents of bullying and increased levels of internalizing problems. Victimization, peer rejection, and internalizing problems are known to be int

  14. Type D personality in the general population: a systematic review of health status, mechanisms of disease, and work-related problems.

    Mols, Floortje; Denollet, Johan


    The objective was to review all available literature concerning Type D (distressed) personality among the general population and to discuss its implications for research on health status, disease-promoting mechanisms and work-related problems in non-clinical populations. A computerized search of the literature was performed independently and in duplicate by both investigators on December 21st, 2009. Published research reports were included if they studied Type D personality among the general population. Nineteen articles were selected and they were subjected to an 11-item standardised quality checklist by both investigators. The methodological quality of the selected studies was adequate to high. The studies included in this review showed that the presence of Type D characteristics had a negative impact on mental health status (more symptoms of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, mental distress, passive coping, and less social support) and physical health status (more somatic complaints, lower health status, more influenza-like illness reporting). Other studies reported on behavioral and biological mechanisms of disease in apparently healthy individuals with a Type D personality. Finally, some studies also showed a negative effect of Type D personality on work-related problems (higher absence-leave, higher levels of vital exhaustion and burnout, and more work-related stress). Type D personality is a vulnerability factor for general psychological distress that affects mental and physical health status and is associated with disease-promoting mechanisms and work-related problems in apparently healthy individuals.

  15. The theory of discrete barriers and its applications to linear boundary-value problems of the 'Dirichlet type'; Theorie des barrieres discretes et applications a des problemes lineaires elliptiques du ''type de dirichlet''

    Jamet, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This report gives a general presentation of barrier theory for finite difference operators, with its applications to some boundary value problems. (author) [French] Ce rapport est un expose synthetique de la theorie des barrieres pour les operateurs aux differences finies et ses applications a certaines classes de problemes lineaires elliptiques du 'type de Dirichlet'. (auteur)

  16. A cross-sectional analysis of women's mental health problems: examining the association with different types of violence among a sample of Brazilian mothers.

    Avanci, Joviana; Assis, Simone; Oliveira, Raquel


    Mental health problems are the major cause of disability in poor countries, and women are the individuals most affected. The World Health Organization points out that violence against women is the leading cause of mental health problems. This study seeks to identify explanatory factors for women's mental health problems, highlighting situations of violence suffered by them during childhood, when living with a partner and in the community. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted with 389 mothers with schoolchildren in a city in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Profile variables and childhood and adult life experiences were researched and organized in three analytical blocks. A binary logistic regression model was used, divided into hierarchical blocks. The final model shows that women who were the victims of severe physical violence by their partner were more likely (OR = 8.2) to suffer from mental health problems than those who had never been exposed to this type of violence. The mothers of children with behavior problems are more likely to have mental health problems (OR = 3.0) than mothers whose children do not manifest behavioral problems. This study shows that women's mental health problems are particularly related to the experience of physical violence, especially that occurring in intimate partner relationships. Based on this premise, this work recommends that multidimensional issues need to be included in women's health assistance programs duly incorporating the specificity of victimization by violence.

  17. Factors influencing the type of health problems presented by women in general practice: differences between women's health care and regular health care.

    Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Bensing, J.M.


    Objective: Differences between health problems presented by women (aged 20-45) to female "women's health care" doctors and both female and male regular health care doctors were investigated. This article explores the relationship of patients' roles (worker, partner, or parent) and the type of health

  18. Hamiltonian矩阵特征值问题的Lanczos-型算法%Lanczos Algorithms-Type for Hamiltonian Eigenvalue Problems



    In the paper,we applicate Lanczos algorithms-type to Hamiltonian eigenvalue problems and give an error analysis in iterative procedure.%应用Lanczos-型算法求Hamiltonian矩阵的特征根问题,并且给出了在迭代过程中的误差估计.

  19. A Stieltjes type convolution for integrated semigroups of bounded strong variation and $L_p$-solutions to the abstract Cauchy problem

    Thieme, Horst R.; Vosseler, Hauke


    A convolution of Stieltjes type is introduced for operator families of bounded strong variation and vector valued $L_1$-functions. Using this tool, perturbation theorems for integrated semigroups of bounded strong variation are derived, and improved results on $L_p$-solutions to the inhomogeneous Cauchy problem are obtained.

  20. Do Type of Childcare and Age of Entry Predict Behavior Problems during Early Childhood? Results from a Large Norwegian Longitudinal Study

    Lekhal, Ratib


    Associations between type and age of entry into Norwegian universally-accessible childcare and children's behavior problems at age 3 years were examined in this study. Data from 73,068 children in the large population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) were used, and included information about childcare arrangements,…

  1. Method for solving an inverse problem of wing type by using a simple panel method; Kanbenna panel ho ni yoru yokugata gyaku mondai no ichikaiho

    Ando, J.; Matsumoto, D.; Maita, S.; Nakatake, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper describes one method for solving an inverse problem of wing type based on the source and quasi continuous vortex lattice method (SQCM) in designing marine propellers and underwater wings. With the SQCM, vortices and control points are distributed on wing camber according to the QCM, and wing surface is divided into certain number of panels. This is the method to decide vortex intensity and blow-out intensity simultaneously from the condition that vertical speed on the camber and the wing surface is zero, upon having distributed blow-out with certain intensity inside the panel. The method solves the inverse problem with the following process: specific point distribution is so determined that the targeted velocity on the wing surface is satisfied when wing surface pressure distribution and uniform flow velocity are given; and then the panels are so rearranged as in parallel with direction of the flow on the surface of the wing calculated by using these specific points to derive the targeted wing shape. This paper describes the problem solving procedure in great detail. It also introduces examples of numerical calculations. It shows one method for solving the inverse problem in wing type using the SQCM as a simple panel method, whereas its good convergence and stability were verified. Considerations on effects of free surface and expansion of the method into three-dimensional problems will be implemented in the future. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  2. The residual velocity method applied to a steady free boundary-value problem of vector Laplacian type

    Chen, Wan; Wetton, Brian


    We consider a free boundary-value problem based on a simplified model of two-phase flow in porous media. The model has two independent variables on each side of the free interface. At the interface at steady state, five mixed Dirichlet and Neumann conditions are given. The movement of the interface in time-dependent situations can be reduced to a normal motion proportional to the residual in one of the steady-state interface conditions (the elliptic interior problems and the other interface conditions are satisfied at each time). Following previous work, we consider the use of other residuals for the normal velocity that have superior numerical properties. The well-posedness criteria for this vector example are particularly clear. The advantages of the correctly chosen, non-physical residual velocities are demonstrated in numerical computations. Although the finite-difference implementation in this work is not applicable to general problems, it has superior performance to previous implementations.

  3. Solvability of boundary value problems in the geometrically and physically nonlinear theory of shallow shells of Timoshenko type

    Timergaliev, S. N.


    This paper deals with the proof of the existence of solutions of a geometrically and physically nonlinear boundary value problem for shallow Timoshenko shells with the transverse shear strains taken into account. The shell edge is assumed to be partly fixed. It is proposed to study the problem by a variational method based on searching the points of minimum of the total energy functional for the shell-load system in the space of generalized displacements. We show that there exists a generalized solution of the problemon which the total energy functional attains its minimum on a weakly closed subset of the space of generalized displacements.

  4. Polynomial-time algorithm for the legal firing sequences problem of a type of synchronous composition Petri nets


    As far as we know, the testing problem of legal firing sequence is NP-complete for general Petri net, the related results of this problem on the polynomial-time solvability are limited only to some special net classes, such as persistent Petri nets, conflict-free Petri nets and state machine Petri nets. In this paper, the language properties of synchronous composition net are discussed. Based on these results, the testing algorithm polynomial-time complexity for legal firing sequence is proposed. Therefore, net classification of polynomial-time solvability for testing legal firing sequence is extended.

  5. Self-esteem and illness self-concept in emerging adults with Type 1 diabetes: Long-term associations with problem areas in diabetes

    Luyckx, Koen; Rassart, Jessica; Aujoulat, Isabelle; Goubert, Liesbet; Weets, Ilse


    This long-term prospective study examined whether illness self-concept (or the degree to which chronic illness becomes integrated in the self) mediated the pathway from self-esteem to problem areas in diabetes in emerging adults with Type 1 diabetes. Having a central illness self-concept (i.e. feeling overwhelmed by diabetes) was found to relate to lower self-esteem, and more treatment, food, emotional, and social support problems. Furthermore, path analyses indicated that self-esteem was neg...

  6. Child maltreatment among boy and girl probationers: Does type of maltreatment make a difference in offending behavior and psychosocial problems?

    C.E. van der Put; N. Lanctot; C. de Ruiter; E. van Vugt


    This study examined differences in offending behavior and psychosocial problems between juvenile offenders who have been sexually abused (n = 231), physically abused (n = 1,568), neglected (n = 1,555), exposed to multiple forms of maltreatment (n = 1,767), and non-victims (n = 8,492). In addition, t




    Some necessary and sufficient conditions for convergence of Ishikawa Mann and steepest descent iterative sequence for accretive and pseudo-contractive type mapping in Banech spaces were obtained. The results improve, extend and include some recent results.

  8. On the solution of Dirichlet problem of complex Monge-Ampère equation on Cartan-Hartogs domain of the second type

    YIN WeiPing; YIN XiaoLan


    Complex Monge-Amlère equation is a nonlinear equation with high degree,so its solutio nis very difficult to get. How to get the plurisubharmonic solution of Dirichlet problem of complex MongeAmpere equation on the Cartan-Hartogs domain of the second type is discussed by using the analytic order ordinary differential equation (ODE) by using quite different method. Secondly,the solution of the Dirichlet problem is given in semi-explicit formula,and under a special case the exact solution is obtained. These results may be helpful for the numerical method of Dirichlet problem of complex Monge-Ampere equation on the Cartan-Hartogs domain.

  9. Self-esteem and illness self-concept in emerging adults with Type 1 diabetes: Long-term associations with problem areas in diabetes.

    Luyckx, Koen; Rassart, Jessica; Aujoulat, Isabelle; Goubert, Liesbet; Weets, Ilse


    This long-term prospective study examined whether illness self-concept (or the degree to which chronic illness becomes integrated in the self) mediated the pathway from self-esteem to problem areas in diabetes in emerging adults with Type 1 diabetes. Having a central illness self-concept (i.e. feeling overwhelmed by diabetes) was found to relate to lower self-esteem, and more treatment, food, emotional, and social support problems. Furthermore, path analyses indicated that self-esteem was negatively related to both levels and relative changes in these problem areas in diabetes over a period of 5 years. Illness self-concept fully mediated these associations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Overview of Crane Control Systems and the Related Problems: Analysis of Container Oscillation Using Different Types of Cargoes

    Tomas Eglynas


    Full Text Available Growing international trading increased cargo transportation in containers, therefore the port cranes have higher loads. Increased cargo flows can influence transportation safety. It is therefore necessary to review the crane systems and determine what factors might influence the volatility of the container and its cargo during transportation. The paper includes consideration and analysis of crane control systems and related problems. The authors consider the reasons of problems, probable damage and solution methods. The paper also provides the analysis of the relationship between different container cargoes and container oscillations occurring during handling operations using a container crane prototype. The analysis of the effect of different cargoes in containers on loading process and the results of occurring oscillations are presented.

  11. Xeon Phi - A comparison between the newly introduced MIC architecture and a standard CPU through three types of problems.

    Kristiansen, Joakim


    As Moore s law continues, processors keep getting more cores packed together on the chip. This thesis is an empirical study of the rather newly introduced Intel Many Integrated Core (IMIC) architecture found in the Intel Xeon Phi. With roughly 60 cores connected by a high performance on-die interconnect, the Intel Xeon Phi makes an interesting candidate for High Performance Computing. By digging into parallel algorithms solving three well known problems, our goal is to optimize, test and comp...

  12. Testing the Direction of Longitudinal Paths between Victimization, Peer Rejection, and Different Types of Internalizing Problems in Adolescence.

    Sentse, Miranda; Prinzie, Peter; Salmivalli, Christina


    The transition to secondary school is accompanied by the fragmentation of peer groups, while adolescents are also confronted with heightened incidents of bullying and increased levels of internalizing problems. Victimization, peer rejection, and internalizing problems are known to be interrelated, but how they influence each other over time remains unclear. We tested the direction of these associations by applying a cross-lagged path model among a large sample of Finnish adolescents (N = 5645; 49.1 % boys; M age at T1 = 14.0 years) after they transitioned to secondary school (grades 7-9). Self-reported depression, anxiety, and victimization and peer-reported rejection were measured 3 times over the course of 1 year. Results showed that depression was predictive of subsequent victimization for both boys and girls, in line with a symptoms-driven model; for girls, anxiety was reciprocally related to victimization, in line with a transactional model; for boys, victimization was related to subsequent anxiety, in line with an interpersonal risk model. Peer rejection was not directly related to depression or anxiety, but among girls peer rejection was bi-directionally related to victimization. Overall, our results suggest that associations between internalizing problems and peer relations differ between depression and anxiety and between genders. Implications for practice and directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Study on unidirectional circuit problem in multi-fan-station ventilation type of Jinchuan No.2 mine

    LIU Jian; LI Yan-chang; ZHAO Qian-li


    The calculating methods for path number and path matrix of ventilation networks without unidirectional circuits were introduced, and the inapplicability problem of the matrix algorithm to determine paths in a ventilation network with unidirectional circuit was brought forward, and a depth-first search method based algorithm to determine path matdx by means of modifying search strategies was discussed. The method is suitable for ventilation networks with unidirectional circuits and ventilation networks without unidirectional circuits, moreover the complexity is less than the complexities of matrix based algorithms. A series of methods and means to avoid and to reduce the negative effects of unidirectional circuits such as the optimum of the positions of fan stations, the increase or de-crease of fan station numbers, the optimum regulation of network and the analysis of diagonal structures were put forward.

  14. Some problems of the theory of quantum statistical systems with an energy spectrum of the fractional-power type

    Alisultanov, Z. Z.; Meilanov, R. P.


    We consider the problem of the effective interaction potential in a quantum many-particle system leading to the fractional-power dispersion law. We show that passing to fractional-order derivatives is equivalent to introducing a pair interparticle potential. We consider the case of a degenerate electron gas. Using the van der Waals equation, we study the equation of state for systems with a fractional-power spectrum. We obtain a relation between the van der Waals constant and the phenomenological parameter α, the fractional-derivative order. We obtain a relation between energy, pressure, and volume for such systems: the coefficient of the thermal energy is a simple function of α. We consider Bose—Einstein condensation in a system with a fractional-power spectrum. The critical condensation temperature for 1 ideal system, where α = 2.

  15. Inverse spectral-scattering problem for the Sturm-Liouville operator on a noncompact star-type graph

    Sergey Buterin


    Full Text Available We study the Sturm-Liouville operator on a noncompact star-type graph consisting of a finite number of compact and noncompact edges under standard matching conditions in the internal vertex. We introduce and investigate the so-called spectral-scat\\-tering data, which generalize the classical spectral data for the Sturm-Liouville operator on the half-line and the scattering data on the line. Developing the idea of the method of spectral mappings we prove that the specification of the spectral-scattering data uniquely determines the Sturm-Liouville operator on the graph.

  16. Poor medication adherence in type 2 diabetes: recognizing the scope of the problem and its key contributors

    Polonsky WH; Henry RR


    William H Polonsky,1,2 Robert R Henry2,3 1Behavioral Diabetes Institute, San Diego, 2University of California, San Diego, 3Center for Metabolic Research, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: At least 45% of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) fail to achieve adequate glycemic control (HbA1c <7%). One of the major contributing factors is poor medication adherence. Poor medication adherence in T2D is well documented to be very common and is associated w...

  17. $K(\\pi,1)$ and word problems for infinite type Artin-Tits groups, and applications to virtual braid groups

    Godelle, Eddy


    Let $\\Gamma$ be a Coxeter graph, let $(W,S)$ be its associated Coxeter system, and let $(A,\\Sigma$) be its associated Artin-Tits system. We regard $W$ as a reflection group acting on a real vector space $V$. Let $I$ be the Tits cone, and let $E_\\Gamma$ be the complement in $I +iV$ of the reflecting hyperplanes. Recall that Charney, Davis, and Salvetti have constructed a simplicial complex $\\Omega(\\Gamma)$ having the same homotopy type as $E_\\Gamma$. We observe that, if $T \\subset S$, then $\\Omega(\\Gamma_T)$ naturally embeds into $\\Omega (\\Gamma)$. We prove that this embedding admits a retraction $\\pi_T: \\Omega(\\Gamma) \\to \\Omega (\\Gamma_T)$, and we deduce several topological and combinatorial results on parabolic subgroups of $A$. From a family $\\SS$ of subsets of $S$ having certain properties, we construct a cube complex $\\Phi$, we show that $\\Phi$ has the same homotopy type as the universal cover of $E_\\Gamma$, and we prove that $\\Phi$ is CAT(0) if and only if $\\SS$ is a flag complex. We say that $X \\subset...

  18. Signaling of noncomprehension by children and adolescents with mental retardation: effects of problem type and speaker identity.

    Abbeduto, L; Short-Meyerson, K; Benson, G; Dolish, J


    Previous research has demonstrated considerable within-individual and within-group variability in the signaling of noncomprehension by persons with mental retardation. The first purpose of this study was to determine whether within-individual variability in such signaling was related to differences in the nature of the inadequate message and the identity of the speaker. The second purpose was to evaluate the relationship between within-group variability in noncomprehension signaling and measures of cognition, receptive and excessive language ability, speech intelligibility, and social cognition. Participants were school-age individuals with mild mental retardation and typically developing children matched to them on nonverbal MA. Noncomprehension signaling was examined in a direction-following task in which inadequate message type and speaker were manipulated. It was found that message type, but not speaker, influenced noncomprehension signaling, with no difference between the two groups. We also found that performance on a test of receptive language ability was the best predictor of noncomprehension signaling for persons with mental retardation.

  19. Asymptotic behavior of the solution to the Cauchy problem for the Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity of type III

    Rahali, Radouane


    In this paper, we investigate the decay property of a Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity of type III in the whole space where the heat conduction is given by the Green and Naghdi theory. Surprisingly, we show that the coupling of the Timoshenko system with the heat conduction of Green and Naghdi\\'s theory slows down the decay of the solution. In fact we show that the L-2-norm of the solution decays like (1 + t)(-1/8), while in the case of the coupling of the Timoshenko system with the Fourier or Cattaneo heat conduction, the decay rate is of the form (1 + t)(-1/4) [25]. We point out that the decay rate of (1 + t)(-1/8) has been obtained provided that the initial data are in L-1 (R) boolean AND H-s (R); (s >= 2). If the wave speeds of the fi rst two equations are di ff erent, then the decay rate of the solution is of regularity-loss type, that is in this case the previous decay rate can be obtained only under an additional regularity assumption on the initial data. In addition, by restricting the initial data to be in H-s (R) boolean AND L-1,L-gamma (R) with gamma is an element of [0; 1], we can derive faster decay estimates with the decay rate improvement by a factor of t(-gamma/4).

  20. An enhancement to the Bees Algorithm with slope angle computation and Hill Climbing Algorithm and its applications on scheduling and continuous-type optimisation problem

    B. Yuce


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on improvements to the Bees Algorithm (BA with slope angle computation and Hill Climbing Algorithm (SACHCA during the local search process. First, the SAC was employed to determine the inclination of the current sites. Second, according to the slope angle, the HCA was utilised to guide the algorithm to converge to the local optima. This enabled the global optimum of the given problem to be found faster and more precisely by focusing on finding the available local optima first before turning the attention on the global optimum. The proposed enhancements to the BA have been tested on continuous-type benchmark functions and compared with other optimisation techniques. The results show that the proposed algorithm performed better than other algorithms on most of the benchmark functions. The enhanced BA performs better than the basic BA, in particular on higher dimensional and complex optimisation problems. Finally, the proposed algorithm has been used to solve the single machine scheduling problem and the results show that the proposed SAC and HCA-BA outperformed the basic BA in almost all the considered instances, in particular when the complexity of the problem increases.


    闻国椿; 杨丕文


    This paper deals with discontinuous boundary value problems for first order linear systems of mixed (elliptic-hyperbolic) type equations in a simply connected domain.Firstly, we derive the representation of solutions of the above boundary value problems for the mixed system, and then by using the method of successive iteration, the existence and uniqueness of solutions for the above problems are proved. From these results, we can derive the result on the Tricomi problem for Lavrent'ev-Bitsadze equation uxx+sgnyuyy=0 obtained by A.V.Bitsadze.%本文论讨单连通区域上一阶线性混合型(椭圆—双曲型)方程组的间断边值问题.我们首先给出混合型方程组特别是最简单的混合型方程组解的表示式,然后使用逐次逼近法,证明上述边值问题解的存在性与唯一性.由以上结果,可导出A.V.Bitsadze所得的Lavrent’ev-Bitsadze方程:uxx+sgnyuyy=0的Tricomi问题的可解性.

  2. Parallelization of Memetic Algorithms and ElectromagnetismMetaheuristics for the Problem of Scheduling in the productionSystems of HFS type

    Kadda Zerrouki


    Full Text Available The metaheuristics are approximation methods which deal with difficult optimization problems. The Work that we present in this paper has primarily as an objective the adaptation and the implementation of two advanced metaheuristics which are the Memetic Algorithms (MA and the Electromagnetism Metaheuristic (EM applied in the production systems of Hybrid Flow Shop (HFS type for the problem of scheduling. The Memetic Algorithms or hybrid genetic algorithms are advanced metaheuristic ones introduced by Moscato in 1989. Electromagnetism Metaheuristic (EM draws its inspiration in the electromagnetic law of Coulomb on the particles charged. We will propose an adaptation of two methods to the discrete case on the problems of scheduling with the production systems (HFS. We present then a comparison between the Memetic Algorithms (MA, the Parallel Memetic Algorithms with Migration (PMA_MIG and then we present a comparison between Electromagnetism Metaheuristic (EM and Parallel Electromagnetism Metaheuristic with migration (PEM_MIG. Finally we give the results obtained by its algorithms applied to HFSs (HFS4: FH3 (P4, P2, P3 | | Cmax and HFS4: FH2 (P3, P2 | | Cmax for the two problems: scheduling and assignment.

  3. Exploration of Differences in Types of Sleep Disturbance and Severity of Sleep Problems between Individuals with Cri du Chat Syndrome, Down's Syndrome, and Jacobsen Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    Maas, Anneke P. H. M.; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Curfs, Leopold M. G.


    The prevalence of sleep problems in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) seems to vary between genetic syndromes associated with ID. Different types of sleep disturbances may indicate underlying causes of sleep problems and these types of sleep disturbances may vary between different genetic syndromes. We examined and compared five types…

  4. Distinctive effects between cognitive stimulation and reminiscence therapy on cognitive function and quality of life for different types of behavioural problems in dementia.

    Lin, Hsiu-Ching; Yang, Ya-Ping; Cheng, Wen-Yun; Wang, Jing-Jy


    Among the various complementary therapies for patients with dementia (PwD), cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) and reminiscence therapy (RT) are frequently used to improve cognitive function and quality of life. However, no studies have examined the use of complementary therapies applied to different types of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in PwD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distinctive effects of CST and RT on cognitive function and quality of life for PwD with three types of behavioural problems - the dispute, return and dissociate types. A quasi-experimental design was employed. A total of PwD residing in 10 long-term care institutions participated in the study and were divided into three groups. The CST and RT groups received 50-minute sessions of intervention therapy once a week for 10 continuous weeks, and the control group participated in regular activities. The pretest (week 1), post-test (week 12) and follow-up (week 24) data were collected using the Mini-Mental State Examination and Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease. Two-way analysis of variance was used for data analysis. The results of our study revealed CST and RT interventions had positive effects on cognition and quality of life of PwD. For short-term effects on cognitive function, CST was the most positive intervention for the dispute type. With regard to short-term effects on quality of life, CST was greater than RT for PwD. For follow-up effects, CST and RT may have potentially sustained effects. This study suggests that CST and RT could be applied to improve the cognitive function and quality of life for PwD, as well as contribute to the effectiveness of nonpharmacological approaches to PwD with certain types of behavioural problems. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  5. Comparison of solutions of a problem of Cauchy-Poisson type under discontinuous and smooth initial values with the marigrams of Tsunami 2011 obtained from DART stations

    Sekerzh-Zen'kovich, S. Ya.


    The problem of Cauchy-Poisson type is considered in the framework of potential tsunami model with impulse cylindical compactly supported source discontinuous with respect to the radial horizontal coordinate under the assumption that the depth of the liquid is constant. An analytical solution of the problem for a special choice of values of the parameters of the source is given. The connection the solution thus obtained with nonstandard characteristics introduced by Maslov is discussed. The graphs of the time history of the free surface elevation are compared with the marigrams, received for the 2011 tsunami from the DART stations 21418, 21413, and 51407, and also with graphs calculated for the well-known model with a "simple" source.

  6. Problems in differential equations

    Brenner, J L


    More than 900 problems and answers explore applications of differential equations to vibrations, electrical engineering, mechanics, and physics. Problem types include both routine and nonroutine, and stars indicate advanced problems. 1963 edition.

  7. Efficient method of solving the problems of steady-state oscillations of symmetric rectangular domains of general type

    Олена Валентинівна Лупаренко


    Full Text Available When the wave processes in bounded elastic bodies are examined, we are faced with a significant complication of the structure of the wave field compared to the case of infinite bodies. This is due to the complex nature of the reflection of elastic waves from the boundaries of the body because the direction of the general flow of energy is changed. Even more complicated the structure of the wave field is, if there are inner boundaries between fields with different elastic properties. This entails the emergence of new wave effects associated with the dynamic stress concentration in the vicinity of the internal and external boundaries of the field. The nature of edge effects is changed too. They will depend not only from the size of the field but also from the geometric and elastic parameters defining the nature of heterogeneity. At the forefront are the questions of systematization of the results for the purpose of extradition of practical recommendations for optimal design of heterogeneous section details in particular conditions of its operation. Urgent enough is the question of the possibility of neglecting of structural heterogeneity and anisotropy of the section of the body in strengthening calculations and evaluation of possible errors. The mathematical basis for the study will be the expressions for particular solutions of equations of motion, constructed for infinite layers, which are sets of plane standing waves. When choosing the form of partial solutions, we must take into account not only the opportunity to satisfy the boundary conditions at the exterior boundary of the field, but also the mechanical properties at the interface of the sphere. This entails the complication of numerical-analytical algorithm of solving the problem

  8. Haploinsufficiency of HDAC4 causes brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome, with brachydactyly type E, developmental delays, and behavioral problems.

    Williams, Stephen R; Aldred, Micheala A; Der Kaloustian, Vazken M; Halal, Fahed; Gowans, Gordon; McLeod, D Ross; Zondag, Sara; Toriello, Helga V; Magenis, R Ellen; Elsea, Sarah H


    Brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome (BDMR) is associated with a deletion involving chromosome 2q37. BDMR presents with a range of features, including intellectual disabilities, developmental delays, behavioral abnormalities, sleep disturbance, craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities (including brachydactyly type E), and autism spectrum disorder. To date, only large deletions of 2q37 have been reported, making delineation of a critical region and subsequent identification of candidate genes difficult. We present clinical and molecular analysis of six individuals with overlapping deletions involving 2q37.3 that refine the critical region, reducing the candidate genes from >20 to a single gene, histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). Driven by the distinct hand and foot anomalies and similar cognitive features, we identified other cases with clinical findings consistent with BDMR but without a 2q37 deletion, and sequencing of HDAC4 identified de novo mutations, including one intragenic deletion probably disrupting normal splicing and one intragenic insertion that results in a frameshift and premature stop codon. HDAC4 is a histone deacetylase that regulates genes important in bone, muscle, neurological, and cardiac development. Reportedly, Hdac4(-/-) mice have severe bone malformations resulting from premature ossification of developing bones. Data presented here show that deletion or mutation of HDAC4 results in reduced expression of RAI1, which causes Smith-Magenis syndrome when haploinsufficient, providing a link to the overlapping findings in these disorders. Considering the known molecular function of HDAC4 and the mouse knockout phenotype, taken together with deletion or mutation of HDAC4 in multiple subjects with BDMR, we conclude that haploinsufficiency of HDAC4 results in brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome.

  9. 一种求解Robin反问题的边界型无网格方法%A boundary-type meshless method for the Robin inverse problem



    给出一种求解非齐次稳态热传导方程Robin反问题的边界型无网格方法.该方法首先利用Newton法则将Robin反问题转化为Cauchy问题,然后用边界粒子法处理非齐次项以避免区域内部的离散节点,并结合基本解方法分别求得近似特解以及相应齐次问题的近似解.鉴于所考虑问题的不适定性,引入截断奇异值分解和L-曲线准则来求解离散后得到的高度病态的线性方程组.最后给出数值例子说明该方法的稳定性和有效性.%A boundary-type meshless method is proposed to solve the Robin inverse problem associated with inhomogeneous steady-state heat conduction.In the present method,the problem is transformed into the inverse Cauchy problem by Newton's law of convective heat transfer; the boundary particle method is used to handle the inhomogeneous term in order to avoid the requirement of inner nodes; a method of fundamental solutions is then employed to evaluate the particular solution and the corresponding homogenous solution.Since the inverse problem is ill-posed,the truncated singular value decomposition with the regularization parameter given by the L-curve method is introduced to solve the resultant highly ill-conditioned system of linear equations.Numerical results are presented to verify the reliability and efficiency of the proposed method.




    For solving linear variational inequalities (LVI), the projection and contraction method of Levenberg-Marquardt type needs less iterations than an elementary projection and contraction method. However, the method of Levenberg-Marquardt type has to calculate the inverse of a matrix and hence it is unsuitable for large problems. In this paper, using the special structure of the constraint matrix, we present a PC method of Levenberg-Marquardt type for LVI arising from transportation problem without calculating any inverse matrices.Several computational experiments are presentded to indicate that the methods is good for solving the transportation problem.

  11. The research on multi-depot and multi-vehicle-type related vehicle routing problem%类电磁机制算法的应用研究

    段熙鹏; 蔡延光; 汤雅连


    The iwproved electromagnetism-like mechanism algorithm (EMA) was introduced, and this algorithm was applied to solve multi-depot and multi-vehicle-type related vehicle routing problem. Local search can improve the ability of fine search in the local area, moreover, mobile coefficient can improve the convergence rate. The results show that improved EMA is feasible and flexible to solve this type of RVRP and its better than traditional EMA.%摘要:针对多车场多车型的关联运输调度问题(Multi-depot and Multi—vehicle—type Related Vehi—cle Routing Problem),对传统的类电磁机制算法进行改进,局部搜索可以提高算法在局部区域精细搜索的能力,并引入了移动系数来提高算法的收敛速度。实验结果证明,改进的算法有效地解决了此类问题且优于传统类电磁机制算法。

  12. PyFR: An open source framework for solving advection-diffusion type problems on streaming architectures using the flux reconstruction approach

    Witherden, F. D.; Farrington, A. M.; Vincent, P. E.


    High-order numerical methods for unstructured grids combine the superior accuracy of high-order spectral or finite difference methods with the geometric flexibility of low-order finite volume or finite element schemes. The Flux Reconstruction (FR) approach unifies various high-order schemes for unstructured grids within a single framework. Additionally, the FR approach exhibits a significant degree of element locality, and is thus able to run efficiently on modern streaming architectures, such as Graphical Processing Units (GPUs). The aforementioned properties of FR mean it offers a promising route to performing affordable, and hence industrially relevant, scale-resolving simulations of hitherto intractable unsteady flows within the vicinity of real-world engineering geometries. In this paper we present PyFR, an open-source Python based framework for solving advection-diffusion type problems on streaming architectures using the FR approach. The framework is designed to solve a range of governing systems on mixed unstructured grids containing various element types. It is also designed to target a range of hardware platforms via use of an in-built domain specific language based on the Mako templating engine. The current release of PyFR is able to solve the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on grids of quadrilateral and triangular elements in two dimensions, and hexahedral elements in three dimensions, targeting clusters of CPUs, and NVIDIA GPUs. Results are presented for various benchmark flow problems, single-node performance is discussed, and scalability of the code is demonstrated on up to 104 NVIDIA M2090 GPUs. The software is freely available under a 3-Clause New Style BSD license (see Catalogue identifier: AETY_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: New style BSD license No. of lines in

  13. Application of hopfield-type neural network to switch planning problem of power distribution system. Denryoku keito no fuka yuzu mondai ni okeru hopfield kei neural network no tekiyo

    Fukui, C.; Kawakami, J. (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    Reserches are actively carried on for neural computing which employs neural network. Hopfield-type neural network is attracting attention as a solution mechanism for combinatorial optimization problems. Most of the reports made on the application of Hopfield-type neural network deal only with equality conditions as the constraints for the optimization problems. Adopting auxiliary variables, a method for the solution, by regular Hopfield-type neural networks, of combinatorial optimization problems including inequality constraints was developed. With the switch planning problem as an example, stability analysis of the energy functions was performed, and conditions for the stabilization were clarified although they are partial. To deal with the inequality constraints, special neurons were introduced which converge to intermediate values between 0 and 1. This method was applied to the switch planning problem of the power distribution system. It was made clear that reasonable solution can be obtained by this method. 10 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. PyFR: An Open Source Framework for Solving Advection-Diffusion Type Problems on Streaming Architectures using the Flux Reconstruction Approach

    Witherden, Freddie D; Vincent, Peter E


    High-order numerical methods for unstructured grids combine the superior accuracy of high-order spectral or finite difference methods with the geometric flexibility of low-order finite volume or finite element schemes. The Flux Reconstruction (FR) approach unifies various high-order schemes for unstructured grids within a single framework. Additionally, the FR approach exhibits a significant degree of element locality, and is thus able to run efficiently on modern streaming architectures, such as Graphical Processing Units (GPUs). The aforementioned properties of FR mean it offers a promising route to performing affordable, and hence industrially relevant, scale-resolving simulations of hitherto intractable unsteady flows within the vicinity of real-world engineering geometries. In this paper we present PyFR, an open-source Python based framework for solving advection-diffusion type problems on streaming architectures using the FR approach. The framework is designed to solve a range of governing systems on mi...

  15. La venta de vino en la provincia de León en el siglo XVIII: modalidades y problemática Wine sellin in the province of Leon in the eighteenth Century: types and problems



    Full Text Available Estudio de las modalidades de venta de vino en la provincia de León en el siglo XVIII, fijándonos en la importancia de los productores de vino, «gremios de cosecheros», a la hora de controlar y monopolizar el comercio del vino, sobre todo el que se vende al por menor. Donde los cosecheros tienen menor presencia se establece el sistema de los obligados abastecedores, como ocurre en la ciudad de Astorga y las localidades rurales próximas. Además, también se han analizado los conflictos que se producen entre los cosecheros y los poderes municipales, motivados por la venta de vino al por menor, los cuales son más frecuentes en la villa de Ponferrada y sobre todo en la ciudad de León.Wine trade in the province of León in the Eighteenth Century: types and problems. Study of the types of the wine sales in the province of León in the Eighteenth Century, focusing on the importance of wine producers, «wine producers’ guilds» and how they controlled this trade, especially retail sales. The study also includes other kinds of wine trade organized with forced suppliers such as those in the of Astorga and its surroundings. We have also analyzed the conflicts which happened between the producers and the local authorities, caused by the retail sale which were more frecuent in the cities of Ponferrada and León.

  16. Revisiting the problem of the Gulf Stream separation: on the representation of topography in ocean models with different types of vertical grids

    Ezer, Tal


    The difficulty of simulating a realistic Gulf Stream (GS) that separates from the coast at Cape Hatteras has troubled numerical ocean modelers for a long time, and the problem is evident in different models, from the early models of the 1980s to the modern models of today. The source of the problem is not completely understood yet, since GS simulations are sensitive to many different factors, such as numerical parameterization, model grid, treatment of topography and forcing fields. A curious result of early models is that models with terrain-following vertical grids (e.g., "sigma" or "s" coordinates) seem to achieve a better GS separation than z-level models of similar resolution, so the impact of the vertical grid type on GS simulations is revisited here. An idealized generalized coordinate numerical model is used to compare between a sigma-coordinate grid and a z-level grid while maintaining the same numerical code and model parameters. Short-term diagnostic-prognostic calculations focus on the initial dynamic adjustment of the GS from a given initial condition and imposed boundary conditions. In diagnostic calculations, wherein the three-dimensional flow field is adjusted to time-invariant temperature and salinity data, the GS is quite realistic independent of the grid type. However, when switching to prognostic calculations, the GS in the z-level model tends to immediately develop an unrealistic GS branch that continues along the continental slope instead of separating from the coast at Cape Hatteras. The GS is more realistic in either a sigma-coordinate model or in a z-level model with a vertical wall replacing the continental slope. Increasing the vertical resolution in the z-level model reduces numerical noise, but it does not solve the GS separation problem. Vorticity balance analysis shows that the Joint Effect of Baroclinicity and bottom Relief (JEBAR) and its associated bottom pressure torque are very sensitive to the choice of vertical grid. A stepped

  17. Assessment of psychosocial problems in children with type 1 diabetes and their families: the added value of using standardised questionnaires in addition to clinical estimations of nurses and paediatricians

    Boogerd, E.A.; Damhuis, A.M.; Velden, J.A.M. van der; Steeghs, M.C.C.H.; Noordam, C.; Verhaak, C.M.; Vermaes, I.P.


    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the assessment of psychosocial problems in children with type 1 diabetes by means of clinical estimations made by nurses and paediatricians and by using standardised questionnaires. BACKGROUND: Although children with type 1 diabetes and their parents show increase

  18. Assessment of psychosocial problems in children with type 1 diabetes and their families: The added value of using standardised questionnaires in addition to clinical estimations of nurses and paediatricians

    Boogerd, E.A.; Damhuis, A.M.A.; Alfen-van der Velden, A.A.E.M. van; Steeghs, M.C.C.H.; Noordam, C.; Verhaak, C.M.; Vermaes, I.P.R.


    Aims and objectives: To investigate the assessment of psychosocial problems in children with type 1 diabetes by means of clinical estimations made by nurses and paediatricians and by using standardised questionnaires. Background Although children with type 1 diabetes and their parents show increased


    Anna Mikhailovna Erokhina


    Full Text Available The problem of ontology of fiction text still remains one of the unsolvable riddles in philology. Numerous definitions of fiction text, often associated only with method of creating a fiction text, in particular with principles of its form and structure or the language and style, are certainly an evidence of the interest aroused by the nature of fiction text. If we consider a fiction text as a single whole, we can note on the one hand that it is an embodiment of the content expressed by certain (linguistic signs, i.e. its nature lies in a sign system of coordinates. On the other hand, fiction text, like any other text, is a kind of one common informational message associated with perception of reality on a sensual and imagery level. From this point of view, the nature of fiction text lies outside the sign system and is a way of cognition through direct visual- sensual perception. The purpose of the article is to identify features and qualities of fiction text relevant to the common method of modeling and to identify differences in methods of modeling fiction texts depending on the type of literature (classical, mass etc..

  20. A Survey of Transportation Problems


    This paper aims at being a guide to understand the different types of transportation problems by presenting a survey of mathematical models and algorithms used to solve different types of transportation modes (ship, plane, train, bus, truck, Motorcycle, Cars, and others) by air, water, space, cables, tubes, and road. Some problems are as follows: bus scheduling problem, delivery problem, combining truck trip problem, open vehicle routing problem, helicopter routing problem, truck loading p...

  1. Problem Solving

    Kinsella, John J.


    Discussed are the nature of a mathematical problem, problem solving in the traditional and modern mathematics programs, problem solving and psychology, research related to problem solving, and teaching problem solving in algebra and geometry. (CT)

  2. Types of Diabetes

    ... Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your ... is serious. What are the different types of diabetes? The most common types of diabetes are type ...

  3. Problem Order Implications for Learning

    Li, Nan; Cohen, William W.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.


    The order of problems presented to students is an important variable that affects learning effectiveness. Previous studies have shown that solving problems in a blocked order, in which all problems of one type are completed before the student is switched to the next problem type, results in less effective performance than does solving the problems…

  4. A Semi-linear Backward Parabolic Cauchy Problem with Unbounded Coefficients of Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman Type and Applications to Optimal Control

    Addona, Davide, E-mail: [Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, (MILANO BICOCCA) Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)


    We obtain weighted uniform estimates for the gradient of the solutions to a class of linear parabolic Cauchy problems with unbounded coefficients. Such estimates are then used to prove existence and uniqueness of the mild solution to a semi-linear backward parabolic Cauchy problem, where the differential equation is the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation of a suitable optimal control problem. Via backward stochastic differential equations, we show that the mild solution is indeed the value function of the controlled equation and that the feedback law is verified.

  5. Type-indexed data types

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.


    A polytypic function is a function that can be instantiated on many data types to obtain data type specific functionality. Examples of polytypic functions are the functions that can be derived in Haskell, such as show, read, and ‘==’.More advanced examples are functions for digital searching, pattern matching, unification, rewriting, and structure editing. For each of these problems, we not only have to define polytypic functionality, but also a type-indexed data type: a data type that is con...

  6. The effect of problem solving and decision making skills on tendency to depression and anxiety in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Elaheh Abazarian


    Conclusion: The results showed that teaching problem solving and decision making skills was very effective in reducing diabetic patients′ depression and anxiety and resulted in reducing their depression and anxiety.


    张荣; 何雪明


    A numerical perturbation expansion method is developed, analysed and implemented for the numerical solution of a second-order initial-value problem. The differential equation in this problem exhibits cubic damping, a cubic restoring force and a decaying forcing-term which is periodic with constant frequency. The method is compared with the numerical method by Twizell [1]. In fact, the later is first perturbation approximate solution in the present paper.

  8. Team Learning on Messy Problems

    Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Vennix, J.A.M.


    Concentrates on procedures used to foster group learning for a particular type of problem, the so-called messy problem. The distinctive feature of messy problems is that the people involved have different ideas on what the problem is or whether there even is a problem. Nevertheless, those involved

  9. Team Learning on Messy Problems

    Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Vennix, J.A.M.


    Concentrates on procedures used to foster group learning for a particular type of problem, the so-called messy problem. The distinctive feature of messy problems is that the people involved have different ideas on what the problem is or whether there even is a problem. Nevertheless, those involved i

  10. Nonexistence of Global Solutions to the Initial Boundary Value Problem for the Singularly Perturbed Sixth-Order Boussinesq-Type Equation

    Song, Changming; Li, Jina; Gao, Ran


      We are concerned with the singularly perturbed Boussinesq-type equation including the singularly perturbed sixth-order Boussinesq equation, which describes the bidirectional propagation of small...

  11. Session Types = Intersection Types + Union Types

    Padovani, Luca


    We propose a semantically grounded theory of session types which relies on intersection and union types. We argue that intersection and union types are natural candidates for modeling branching points in session types and we show that the resulting theory overcomes some important defects of related behavioral theories. In particular, intersections and unions provide a native solution to the problem of computing joins and meets of session types. Also, the subtyping relation turns out to be a pre-congruence, while this is not always the case in related behavioral theories.

  12. Balance Problems

    ... you are having balance problems, see your doctor. Balance disorders can be signs of other health problems, such ... cases, treating the illness that is causing the disorder will help with the balance problem. Exercises, a change in diet, and some ...


    Klaus Krumbiegel


    Full Text Available We develop sufficient optimality conditions for a Moreau-Yosidaregularized optimal control problem governed by a semilinear ellipticPDE with pointwise constraints on the state and the control. We makeuse of the equivalence of a setting of Moreau-Yosida regularization to a special setting of the virtual control concept,for which standard second order sufficient conditions have been shown. Moreover, we present a numerical example,solving a Moreau-Yosida regularized model problem with an SQP method.

  14. Hemiequilibrium problems

    Muhammad Aslam Noor


    Full Text Available We consider a new class of equilibrium problems, known as hemiequilibrium problems. Using the auxiliary principle technique, we suggest and analyze a class of iterative algorithms for solving hemiequilibrium problems, the convergence of which requires either pseudomonotonicity or partially relaxed strong monotonicity. As a special case, we obtain a new method for hemivariational inequalities. Since hemiequilibrium problems include hemivariational inequalities and equilibrium problems as special cases, the results proved in this paper still hold for these problems.

  15. 最小二乘法求解三类卫星重力梯度边值问题%Solving Three Types of Satellite Gravity Gradient Boundary Value Problems by Least-Squares

    徐新禹; 李建成; 邹贤才; 褚永海


    The principle and method for solving three types of satellite gravity gradient boundary value problems by least-squares are discussed in detail. Also, kernel function expressions of the least-squares solution of three geodetic boundary value problems with the observations {Γzz},{Γxz,Γyz} and {Γzz -Γyy,2Γxy} are presented. From the results of recovering gravity field using simulated gravity gradient tensor data, we can draw a conclusion that satellite gravity gradient integral formulas derived from least-squares are valid and rigorous for recovering the gravity field.

  16. 在pseudo-invexity条件下的一个Wolfe-型对偶问题%A Wolfe-type dual problem under the condition of pseudo-invexity

    金爱莲; 姜今锡; 尹仑


    利用有效性和真有效性概念,证明了在pseudo-invexity条件下与Wolfe-型对偶问题相关的弱对偶定理、强对偶定理及逆对偶定理.%The aim of this paper is to consider duality for multiobjective variational problem involving pseudo-invexity function. Weak, strong and converse duality theorems for Wolfe-type dual problem under the condition of pseudo-invexity are proved by using the concept of efficiency and proper efficiency, respectively.

  17. Global convergence of the Polak-Ribiere-Polyak conjugate gradient method with an Armijo-type inexact line search for nonconvex unconstrained optimization problems

    Wei, Zeng Xin; Li, Guo Yin; Qi, Li Qun


    We propose two algorithms for nonconvex unconstrained optimization problems that employ Polak-Ribiere-Polyak conjugate gradient formula and new inexact line search techniques. We show that the new algorithms converge globally if the function to be minimized has Lipschitz continuous gradients. Preliminary numerical results show that the proposed methods for particularly chosen line search conditions are very promising.

  18. Low Self-Confidence and Diabetes Mismanagement in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes Mediate the Relationship between Behavioral Problems and Elevated HbA1c

    Eilander, Minke M. A; de Wit, Maartje; Rotteveel, Joost; Snoek, Frank J


    ... (internalizing, externalizing) and glycemic control (HbA1c) in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of this study is to examine if this association is mediated by self-confidence and mismanagement of diabetes...

  19. Genetic correlations of clinical mastitis and feet and legs problems with milk yield and type traits in Dutch Black and White dairy cattle.

    Groen, A.F.; Hellinga, I.; Oldenbroek, J.K.


    Direct selection for decreased disease incidence is difficult given low hsuperscript 2s and the absence of disease recording. Genetic correlations between diseases and type traits indicate possibilities for indirect selection; however, correlations often include experimentally instead of routinely s

  20. The effect of problem solving and decision making skills on tendency to depression and anxiety in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Abazarian, Elaheh; Baboli, M Teimourzadeh; Abazarian, Elham; Ghashghaei, F Esteki


    Diabetes is the most prevalent disease that has involved 177 million people all over the world and, due to this, these patients suffer from depression and anxiety and they should use special methods for controlling the same. The aim of this research is the study of the effect of problem solving and decision making skill on the rate of the tendency to depression and anxiety. This research is a quasi-experimental (case-control) study. Statistically, the population of the present study was all diabetic patients of Qaemshahr who were controlled by physicians in 2011-2012. Thirty files were selected randomly from them and divided into two 15 patients' groups (control and subject group) randomly. The measurement tools were Back depression inventory (21 items) and Zank anxiety questionnaire that were distributed among two groups. Then, the subject group participated in eight sessions of teaching problem solving and decision making courses separately, and the second group (control group) did not receive any instruction. Finally, both groups had passed post-test and the data obtained from the questionnaires were studied by variance analysis statistical methods. The results showed that teaching problem solving and decision making skills was very effective in reducing diabetic patients' depression and anxiety and resulted in reducing their depression and anxiety.

  1. Approximation of a Common Element of the Fixed Point Sets of Multivalued Strictly Pseudocontractive-Type Mappings and the Set of Solutions of an Equilibrium Problem in Hilbert Spaces

    F. O. Isiogugu


    Full Text Available The strong convergence of a hybrid algorithm to a common element of the fixed point sets of multivalued strictly pseudocontractive-type mappings and the set of solutions of an equilibrium problem in Hilbert spaces is obtained using a strict fixed point set condition. The obtained results improve, complement, and extend the results on multivalued and single-valued mappings in the contemporary literature.

  2. A computational procedure to detect a new type of high-dimensional chaotic saddle and its application to the 3D Hill’s problem

    Waalkens, H.; Burbanks, A.; Wiggins, S.


    A computational procedure that allows the detection of a new type of high-dimensional chaotic saddle in Hamiltonian systems with three degrees of freedom is presented. The chaotic saddle is associated with a so-called normally hyperbolic invariant manifold (NHIM). The procedure allows us to compute

  3. The Use of Application Test, a Novel Type of Problem-solving Exercise as a Tool of Teaching and Assessment of Competence in Medical Biology.

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef; Tigyi, Andras


    A new type of multiple-choice test was developed and used in the teaching and assessment of knowledge of medical biology at a university in Hungary. The test includes experimental data and requires students to interpret data and to draw conclusions from results. A description of the test, experiences with the test, and one test are included. (RH)

  4. On the existence of solutions of one nonlinear boundary-value problem for shallow shells of Timoshenko type with simply supported edges

    Timergaliev, S. N.; Kharasova, L. S.


    Solvability of one system of nonlinear second order partial differential equations with given initial conditions is considered in an arbitrary field. Reduction of the initial system of equations to one nonlinear operator equation is used to study the problem. The solvability is established with the use of the principle of contracting mappings. The method used in these studies is based on the integral representations for the displacements. These representations are constructed with the use of general solutions to the inhomogeneous Cauchy-Riemann equation.

  5. Obstacle problems in mathematical physics

    Rodrigues, J-F


    The aim of this research monograph is to present a general account of the applicability of elliptic variational inequalities to the important class of free boundary problems of obstacle type from a unifying point of view of classical Mathematical Physics.The first part of the volume introduces some obstacle type problems which can be reduced to variational inequalities. Part II presents some of the main aspects of the theory of elliptic variational inequalities, from the abstract hilbertian framework to the smoothness of the variational solution, discussing in general the properties of the free boundary and including some results on the obstacle Plateau problem. The last part examines the application to free boundary problems, namely the lubrication-cavitation problem, the elastoplastic problem, the Signorini (or the boundary obstacle) problem, the dam problem, the continuous casting problem, the electrochemical machining problem and the problem of the flow with wake in a channel past a profile.

  6. Learning Problems

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Learning Problems KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning Problems Print A ... for how to make it better. What Are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities aren't contagious, but they ...

  7. Walking Problems

    ... your legs or feet Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease Diseases such as arthritis or multiple sclerosis Vision or balance problems Treatment of walking problems depends on the cause. Physical therapy, surgery, or mobility aids may help.

  8. JianPingXian drinking water type fluorosis monitoring problem analysis%建平县饮水型氟中毒监测问题分析



    目的:掌握建平县饮水型氟中毒改水工程运行情况以及监测效果,为饮水型氟中毒的防治工作提供科学依据。方法:对建平县2004年~2013年的氟斑牙病情监测情况、水氟检测情况以及饮水工程运行情况进行分析研究。结果:2004年~2013年建平县氟斑牙病检出率逐年递减,水氟检测情况也有所改善,饮水工程的运行情况每年都保持平稳态势。结论:建平县饮水型氟中毒病区通过改水降氟病情得到了一定的控制,但还需要各相关部门加大监测和防治工作的力度。%objective: to master the JianPingXian drinking water type fluorosis improvement of water project operation and monitoring effect, for drinking water type fluorosis will provide a scientific basis for prevention and control work. Methods: the JianPingXian in 2004 ~ 2013 years of dental fluorosis illness monitoring, fluorine water detection and water engineering operation situation analysis. Results: 2004 ~ 2013 JianPingXian dental fluorosis was decreasing year by year, water fluoride detection is improved, the operation of water engineering maintained steady momentum every year. Conclusion: JianPingXian drinking water type fluorosis ward through the change of water decreasing fluorine disease got some control, but also need each related department to strengthen monitoring and prevention and control work.

  9. A look back at an ongoing problem: Shigella dysenteriae type 1 epidemics in refugee settings in Central Africa (1993-1995.

    Solen Kernéis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (Sd1 is a cause of major dysentery outbreaks, particularly among children and displaced populations in tropical countries. Although outbreaks continue, the characteristics of such outbreaks have rarely been documented. Here, we describe the Sd1 outbreaks occurring between 1993 and 1995 in 11 refugee settlements in Rwanda, Tanzania and Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC. We also explored the links between the different types of the camps and the magnitude of the outbreaks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Number of cases of bloody diarrhea and deaths were collected on a weekly basis in 11 refugee camps, and analyzed retrospectively. Between November 1993 and February 1995, 181,921 cases of bloody diarrhea were reported. Attack rates ranged from 6.3% to 39.1% and case fatality ratios (CFRs from 1.5% to 9.0% (available for 5 camps. The CFRs were higher in children under age 5. In Tanzania where the response was rapidly deployed, the mean attack rate was lower than in camps in the region of Goma without an immediate response (13.3% versus 32.1% respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This description, and the areas where data is missing, highlight both the importance of collecting data in future epidemics, difficulties in documenting outbreaks occurring in complex emergencies and most importantly, the need to assure that minimal requirements are met.

  10. Closing the gap in the solutions of the strong explosion problem: An expansion of the family of second-type self-similar solutions

    Kushnir, Doron


    Shock waves driven by the release of energy at the center of a cold ideal gas sphere of initial density rho\\propto r^{-omega} approach a self-similar (SLS) behavior, with velocity \\dot{R}\\propto R^delta, as R->\\infty. For omega>3 the solutions are of the second type, i.e. delta is determined by the requirement that the flow should include a sonic point. No solution satisfying this requirement exists, however, in the 3\\leq omega\\leq omega_{g}(gamma) "gap" (omega_{g}=3.26 for adiabatic index gamma=5/3). We argue that second type solutions should not be required in general to include a sonic point. Rather, it is sufficient to require the existence of a characteristic line r_c(t), such that the energy in the region r_c(t)\\infty, and an asymptotic solution given by the SLS solution at r_c(t)omega_g, and the latter identifies delta=0 solutions as the asymptotic solutions for 3\\leq omega\\leq omega_{g} (as suggested by Gruzinov 2003). In these solutions, r_c is a C_0 characteristic. It is difficult to check, using nu...

  11. Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.

    Ouellette, Hugh


    A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)

  12. On a class of functional equations of the Wiener-Hopf type and their applications in n-part scattering problems

    Idemen, Mithat; Alkumru, Ali


    An asymptotic theory for the functional equation K{phi} = f, where K : X [->] Y stands for a matrix-valued linear operator of the form K = K1P1 + K2P2 + ... + KnPn, is developed. Here X and Y refer to certain Hilbert spaces, {P{alpha}} denotes a partition of the unit operator in X while K{alpha} are certain operators from X to Y. One assumes that the partition {P{alpha}} as well as the operators K{alpha} depend on a complex parameter {nu} such that all K{alpha} are multi-valued around certain branch points at {nu} = k+ and {nu} = k- while the inverse operators K-1{alpha} exist and are bounded in the appropriately cut {nu}-plane except for certain poles. Then, for a class of {P{alpha}} having certain analytical properties, an asymptotic solution valid for |k{+/-}| [->] {infty} is given. The basic idea is the decomposition of {phi} into a sum of projections on n mutually orthogonal subspaces of X. The results can be extended in a straightforward manner to the cases of no or more branch points. If there is no branch point or n = 2, then the results are all exact. The theory may have effective applications in solving some direct and inverse multi-part boundary-value problems connected with high-frequency waves. An illustrative example shows the applicability as well as the effectiveness of the method.

  13. Herpes bovino tipo 1 (BHV 1: I. Sorologia de rebanhos com problemas reprodutivos Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1: I. Sorologic survey in herds with reproductive problems

    Telmo Vidor


    Full Text Available A presença de anticorpos neutralizantes contra o BHV-1, foi pesquisada pelo teste de soroneutralização (SN em 2.341 soros, dos quais 747 apresentaram resultado positivo, representando 31,9% de bovinos infectados pelo BHV-1. Os soros foram enviados de 112 propriedades da Região Sul, sendo na maioria rebanhos de gado de corte com problemas reprodutivos. Foram detectados bovinos sorologicamente positivos em 80 propriedades, representando 71,3%, demonstrando a expressiva disseminação do vírus nos rebanhos desta região.Serum antibodies against BHV-1 were studied, by the serum neutralization test, in cattle from Southem Brazil. Samples were collected from 2341 cattie from 112 farms that had reprodution problems. Positive results were obtained in 747 (31.9 cattie from 80 (71.31% farms, given evidence of the expressivo vírus dissemination in cattie from this region.

  14. A multi-objective genetic algorithm for a mixed-model assembly U-line balancing type-I problem considering human-related issues, training, and learning

    Rabbani, Masoud; Montazeri, Mona; Farrokhi-Asl, Hamed; Rafiei, Hamed


    Mixed-model assembly lines are increasingly accepted in many industrial environments to meet the growing trend of greater product variability, diversification of customer demands, and shorter life cycles. In this research, a new mathematical model is presented considering balancing a mixed-model U-line and human-related issues, simultaneously. The objective function consists of two separate components. The first part of the objective function is related to balance problem. In this part, objective functions are minimizing the cycle time, minimizing the number of workstations, and maximizing the line efficiencies. The second part is related to human issues and consists of hiring cost, firing cost, training cost, and salary. To solve the presented model, two well-known multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, namely non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm and multi-objective particle swarm optimization, have been used. A simple solution representation is provided in this paper to encode the solutions. Finally, the computational results are compared and analyzed.

  15. What type of computer-assisted exercise supports young less skilled spellers in resolving problems in open and closed syllable words?

    Hilte, Maartje; Reitsma, Pieter


    Dutch bisyllabic words containing open and closed syllables are particularly difficult to spell for children. What kind of support in spelling exercises improves the spelling of these words the most? Two extensions of a commonly used dictation exercise were tested: less skilled spellers in grade 2 (n = 50; 7 years and 10 months) either received explicit syllabic segmentation cues or received spelling cues by means of a visual preview. Comparisons between pre-, post-, and retention tests of spelling skill showed that extra syllabic cues did not show a significant improvement beyond normal spelling dictation and that visual preview was most effective as compared to the other types of training. The findings suggest that word-specific knowledge can effectively be improved by exposure to the correct letter pattern during exercises in spelling and seems to result in lasting improvement of word-specific orthographic representations, at least for 5 weeks.

  16. Sociale problemer

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove; Bundesen, Peter Verner

    Sociale problemer kan betragtes som selve udgangspunktet for socialt arbejde, hvor ambitionen er at råde bod på problemerne og sikre, at udsatte borgere får en bedre tilværelse. Det betyder også, at diskussionen af sociale problemer er afgørende for den sociale grundfaglighed. I denne bog sætter en...... række fagfolk på tværs af det danske socialfaglige felt fokus på sociale problemer. Det diskuteres, hvad vi overhovedet forstår ved sociale problemer, hvordan de opstår, hvilke konsekvenser de har, og ikke mindst hvordan man som fagprofessionel håndterer sociale problemer i det daglige arbejde. Bogen er...... skrevet som lærebog til professionsuddannelser, hvor sociale problemer udgør en dimension, bl.a. socialrådgiver-, pædagog- og sygeplejerskeuddannelserne....


    Terent'eva Elena Olegovna


    Full Text Available Inner and outer Lamb problems are of extreme importance for various applications in geophysics, as these problems are often used for simulation of wave fields accompanying earthquakes. Solutions of the outer Lamb problem of concentrated force impact applied to the free surface of an elastic half-plane are analyzed in this article. Two solutions are compared: the analytical solution obtained in 1984 and the solution obtained in a modern FEM complex Abaqus.


    Terent'eva Elena Olegovna


    Inner and outer Lamb problems are of extreme importance for various applications in geophysics, as these problems are often used for simulation of wave fields accompanying earthquakes. Solutions of the outer Lamb problem of concentrated force impact applied to the free surface of an elastic half-plane are analyzed in this article. Two solutions are compared: the analytical solution obtained in 1984 and the solution obtained in a modern FEM complex Abaqus.

  19. Knee Problems

    ... BMI Calculator myhealthfinder Immunization Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Knee ProblemsPain, swelling, stiffness and "water" on the knee are common symptoms. Follow this chart for more ...

  20. Revival of an old problem: an increase in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type 8 infections in 2010 in England and Northern Ireland linked to duck eggs.

    Noble, D J; Lane, C; Little, C L; Davies, R; De Pinna, E; Larkin, L; Morgan, D


    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 8 is uncommon in humans in the UK. In July 2010, the Health Protection Agency reported an excess isolation rate of pan-susceptible S. Typhimurium DT8 in England and Northern Ireland. By the end of October, this amounted to 81 laboratory-confirmed human cases for all regions of England and Northern Ireland in 2010, an increase of 26% and 41% on 2009 and 2008, respectively. Descriptive epidemiological investigation found a strong association with infection and consumption of duck eggs. Duck eggs contaminated with S. Typhimurium DT8 were collected from a patient's home and also at farms in the duck-egg supply chain. Although duck eggs form a small part of total UK eggs sales, there has been significant growth in sales in recent years. This is the first known outbreak of salmonellosis linked to duck eggs in the UK since 1949 and highlighted the impact of a changing food source and market on the re-emergence of salmonellosis linked to duck eggs. Control measures by the duck-egg industry should be improved along with a continued need to remind the public and commercial caterers of the potential high risks of contracting salmonellosis from duck eggs.

  1. 阻抗式过环空找水仪校准问题分析%Calibration Problem Analysis on Annular Water Detector of Impedance Type

    姜兆宇; 杨韵桐


    There are many factors that influence the impedance type annular water detector calibration efficiency. In order to improve the calibra-tion efficiency and value transfer, through the field calibration and maintenance, find out the major factors affecting the calibration efficiency are umbrella cloth size, water cut meter fault, the center tube sealing. Arrived at when the umbrella cloth width in 190-193mm, umbrella opening and contact length of casing rules in 30-50mm, the central tube and the thin wall cylinder loaded umbrella opaque are more appropriate.%影响阻抗式过环空找水仪校准效率的因素有很多,为了提高校准效率,实现量值传递,通过现场边校准边维修,发现集流伞布大小、含水率计故障、中心管密封程度是影响校准效率的主要因素。得出伞布宽度在190 mm~193 mm、集流伞开度与套管规接触段长度在30 mm~50 mm,中心管与薄壁筒装完伞不透光时比较合适。

  2. 钢构打字路径优化中旅行商问题的解决%Steel structural typing path in the process of optimization traveling salesman problem solving

    刘萍; 高军; 丁筱玲


    针对工业钢构打字加工路径的组合优化目标,为尽量减少换刀次数和优化刀具移动轨迹,使走刀时间最短,提出建立基于旅行商问题(TSP)的非确定型多项式数学模型,并应用遗传算法(GA)对钢构打字刀具路径的优化问题进行分析、研究和解答。通过合理安排工序和换刀、走刀路径,在不改变机床硬件的前提下,尽可能缩短加工时间。经MATLAB工具箱仿真实验证明,该研究能很好地解决目前我国钢构打字路径寻优问题,使打字过程中的定位精度和加工效率都得到较大提高。%Industrial steel typing processing path optimization goal, to minimize the number of tool changing and optimizing tool moving trajectory, so that the tool path with the shortest time, proposed the establishment based on the traveling salesman problem (TSP) of nondeterministic polynomial mathematical models, and the application of genetic algorithms (GA) on steel typing tool path optimization of analysis, research and solve. Through reasonable arrangement of process and tool, tool path, without changing the machine hardware under the premise, as far as possible to shorten the processing time. The MATLAB toolbox simulation experiments, the study can well solve at present our country steel typing route optimization problem, so that the typing process precision and processing efficiency has been greatly improved.

  3. Popular Problems

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie


    This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the "What's the problem represented to be" (WPR) approach. Forty-nine…

  4. Popular Problems

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie


    This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the "What's the problem represented to be" (WPR) approach. Forty-nine…

  5. Research on the Effect of Different Thinking Types in Solving Mathematics Problems%不同思维类型对数学解题的影响研究



    美国学者安东尼·格里高提出了4种不同的思维类型,即具体而有序、抽象而有序、具体而随机、抽象而随机的思维.不同的思维类型对数学解题理当产生不同的影响,通过对240名学生进行的相关调查研究,获得了一些初步的结论,并由此提出了相应的发展性策略建议,即具体而有序的思维需要提高抽象概括能力,抽象而有序的思维需要提高发散思维能力,具体而随机的思维需要提高集中概括能力,抽象而随机的思维需要提高集中思维能力.%U.S. scholar Anthony Gregory has proposed four thinking types which contained Specific and Ordered (SO), Abstract and Ordered (AO), Specific and Random (SR) and Abstract and Random (AR). It is believed that different thinking types can exert different influences in mathematics problem-solving. Based on an investigation involving 240 students, this paper concluded some preliminary findings, and therefore proposed corresponding developmental strategies: students with SO thinking type should promote abstract generalization ability; students with AO thinking type should promote divergent thinking ability; students with SR thinking type should promote concentrated generalization ability and students with AR thinking type should promote concentrated thinking ability.

  6. 集值优化问题Benson真有效解的高阶Fritz John型最优性条件%Higher-Order Fritz John Type Optimality Conditions for Benson Proper Efficient Solutions in Set-Valued Optimization Problems



    This paper deals with higher-order Fritz John type optimality conditions for Benson proper efficient solutions of set-valued optimization problems. By virtue of the higher-order tangent sets introduced by Aubin and Frankowska and the separation theorem of convex sets, we obtained higher-order Fritz John type necessary and suffi-cient optimality conditions for Benson proper efficient solutions of set-valued optimization problems with generalized inequality constraints under the assumption of cone-convexlike maps.%本文讨论的是集值优化问题Benson真有效解的高阶Fritz John型最优性条件,利用Aubin和Fraukowska引入的高阶切集和凸集分离定理,在锥-似凸映射的假设条件下,获得了带广义不等式约束的集值优化问题Benson真有效解的高阶Fritz John型必要和充分性条件.

  7. 具有模糊时间约束的城市配送多车型车辆调度问题%Multi-type Vehicle Scheduling Problem in City Distribution with Fuzzy Time Restraints

    卢冰原; 吴义生; 程八一


    针对城市物流配送中广泛存在的有时间窗多车型问题,以及由于交通路况与人力因素导致的相关时间参数模糊化现象,以梯形模糊数表征时间参数,利用梯形模糊代数、有符号距离和区间数距离公式,构造出一种具有较高精度的提前/滞后惩罚函数,继而在此基础上给出了一种以最小化配送费用和客户时间窗提前/滞后惩罚为目标的具有模糊时间约束的多车型车辆调度问题模型.在车辆调度问题求解方面,针对经典粒子群算法容易陷入局部最优的问题,给出了一种具有量子行为的改进粒子群算法来改善粒子群算法的性能.最后通过仿真试验表明,该算法不仅具有较高的搜索效率与搜索质量,而且具有较快的收敛速度,验证了其可行性与有效性.%For the widespread multi-type vehicle scheduling problem with time window in city distribution and fuzzy time parameters problem caused by traffic and human factors, using trapezoidal fuzzy number to denote time parameter, a earliness/tardiness penalty function based on trapezoidal fuzzy number algebra, singed distance and interval number distance which has higher accuracy was illustrated. On this basis, a multi-type vehicle scheduling problem ( MVSP) model with fuzzy time restraints for minimized delivery cost and earliness/tardiness penalty according to fuzzy time window of customer was introduced. After that, aimed at the problem of classic particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm easily getting into the local optimum in solving process, a quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) algorithm was proposed for the MVSP problem, which help the algorithm to improve its performance. At last, the result of simulating experiment indicates that this algorithm not only has good search efficiency and quality, but also has the quick convergence rate, the feasibility and efficiency of the QPSO algorithm were also verified.

  8. Prostate Problems

    ... do to help diagnose your prostate problem. Physical Exam A physical exam may help diagnose the cause ... sleep avoid or drink fewer liquids that have caffeine or alcohol in them avoid medicines that may ...

  9. Popular Problems

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie


    This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the ‘What's the problem represented...... to be’ (WPR) approach. Forty-nine empirical studies on Danish youth career guidance were included in the study. An analysis of the issues in focus resulted in nine problem categories. One of these, ‘targeting’, is analysed using the WPR approach. Finally, the article concludes that the WPR approach...... provides a constructive basis for a critical analysis and discussion of the collective empirical knowledge production on career guidance, stimulating awareness of problems and potential solutions among the career guidance community....

  10. Kidney Problems

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... the production of red blood cells. What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  11. Tongue problems

    ... Tongue pain may also occur with: Diabetic neuropathy Leukoplakia Mouth ulcers Oral cancer After menopause, some women ... problem. Medicine may be prescribed for mouth ulcers, leukoplakia, oral cancer, and other mouth sores. Anti-inflammatory ...

  12. Erection problems

    ... monitoring to test how strong your erection is Psychological tests to check for depression and other emotional problems ... the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation ( The information provided herein should ...

  13. Breathing Problems

    ... getting enough air. Sometimes you can have mild breathing problems because of a stuffy nose or intense ... panic attacks Allergies If you often have trouble breathing, it is important to find out the cause.

  14. Sleep Problems

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  15. Eyelid Problems

    ... Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ... an irregular shape (astigmatism), it will threaten normal vision development and must be corrected as early as ...

  16. Knapsack problems

    Kellerer, Hans; Pisinger, David


    Thirteen years have passed since the seminal book on knapsack problems by Martello and Toth appeared. On this occasion a former colleague exclaimed back in 1990: "How can you write 250 pages on the knapsack problem?" Indeed, the definition of the knapsack problem is easily understood even by a non-expert who will not suspect the presence of challenging research topics in this area at the first glance. However, in the last decade a large number of research publications contributed new results for the knapsack problem in all areas of interest such as exact algorithms, heuristics and approximation schemes. Moreover, the extension of the knapsack problem to higher dimensions both in the number of constraints and in the num­ ber of knapsacks, as well as the modification of the problem structure concerning the available item set and the objective function, leads to a number of interesting variations of practical relevance which were the subject of intensive research during the last few years. Hence, two years ago ...

  17. Student-Posed Problems

    Harper, Kathleen A.; Etkina, Eugenia


    As part of weekly reports,1 structured journals in which students answer three standard questions each week, they respond to the prompt, If I were the instructor, what questions would I ask or problems assign to determine if my students understood the material? An initial analysis of the results shows that some student-generated problems indicate fundamental misunderstandings of basic physical concepts. A further investigation explores the relevance of the problems to the week's material, whether the problems are solvable, and the type of problems (conceptual or calculation-based) written. Also, possible links between various characteristics of the problems and conceptual achievement are being explored. The results of this study spark many more questions for further work. A summary of current findings will be presented, along with its relationship to previous work concerning problem posing.2 1Etkina, E. Weekly Reports;A Two-Way Feedback Tool, Science Education, 84, 594-605 (2000). 2Mestre, J.P., Probing Adults Conceptual Understanding and Transfer of Learning Via Problem Posing, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 23, 9-50 (2002).

  18. Calculus problems

    Baronti, Marco; van der Putten, Robertus; Venturi, Irene


    This book, intended as a practical working guide for students in Engineering, Mathematics, Physics, or any other field where rigorous calculus is needed, includes 450 exercises. Each chapter starts with a summary of the main definitions and results, which is followed by a selection of solved exercises accompanied by brief, illustrative comments. A selection of problems with indicated solutions rounds out each chapter. A final chapter explores problems that are not designed with a single issue in mind but instead call for the combination of a variety of techniques, rounding out the book’s coverage. Though the book’s primary focus is on functions of one real variable, basic ordinary differential equations (separation of variables, linear first order and constant coefficients ODEs) are also discussed. The material is taken from actual written tests that have been delivered at the Engineering School of the University of Genoa. Literally thousands of students have worked on these problems, ensuring their real-...

  19. 任务类型与信息清晰度对社会比较中认知偏差的影响%Effects of Different Types of Problems and Information on Cognitive Bias in Social Comparison

    周爱保; 赵鑫


    Cognitive bias in social comparison refers to the phenomenon in which an individual shows over-confidence and lacks self-confidence. Based on previous research, university students were chosen to probe the reason of cognitive bias and its the impaet on judgment and decision-making by 2 series of experiments. The results are as follows: Different types of problems lead to different cognitive biases; Different types of problems and information jointly affect cognitive bias and cause interaction; Cognitive bias affects individual decision-making and behavior.%社会比较中的认知偏差是指个体在社会比较中表现出的过度自信与不自信现象.本研究在前人研究的基础之上,以在校大学生为被试,采用两个系列实验,探讨了社会比较中认知偏差现象的原因以及对判断和决策的影响.研究结果发现:在社会比较中,面对不同类型的问题,会出现不同的认知偏差;在社会比较中,不同类型的问题和信息清晰度共同影响认知偏差,且二者之间存在交互作用;社会比较中的认知偏差会影响个体的决策意图.

  20. Multi-depot and multi-task and multi-type Vehicle Routing Problem in city dis-tribution%配送中多车场多任务多车型车辆调度研究

    杨浩雄; 胡静; 何明珂


      多车场多车型多任务的车辆调度优化是城市配送中的典型问题。针对该问题从空驶成本、运输成本和时间成本三个维度构建了一个VRP的数学模型,并采用自适应多态蚁群算法对模型加以求解。通过实例仿真,将仿真优化结果与未优化的随机结果进行了比较。结果发现优化后的成本比未优化的成本低,并且证明了对多车场多车型多任务的VRP模型进行优化非常必要。%The multi-depot and multi-task and multi-type vehicle routing problem is the typical problem in city distribution. For this issue, a VRP model is constructed based on deadheading cost, transport cost and time cost. To solve this mathematical model, a self-Adaptive and Polymorphic Ant Colony Algorithm(APACA)has been introduced. A case study is presented to compare the results based on APACA with that under stochastic condition.

  1. A Note on the Existence of Solutions for Kirchhoff Type Problems without Ambrosetti-Rabinowitz Condition%一个关于Kirchhoff方程解的存在性的注记



      对如下形式的Kirchhoff 型非局部问题进行了研究:ïíì-+( a bò||)ÑD=u u g x u x 2(,),ÎW,Wïîu=0, xζW,其中:W是 N¡中的光滑有界区域,,0a b>,(,):g x t W´®¡¡上的连续实函数。通过变分计算得到了无经典Ambrosetti-Rabinowitz条件下这类问题的多重解的存在性。%In this paper we consider the Kirchhoff type nonlocal problem in the form ofïíì- +( a bò| | )Ñ D =u u g x u x 2 ( , ),ÎW,Wïîu=0, xζW, where W is a smooth bounded domain of¡ , , 0a b> and ( , ):g x t W´ ®¡ ¡ is a real continuous function. N We obtain the existence of multiplicity of solutions through variational methods for this problem without the classical Ambrosetti-Rabinowitz condition.

  2. Ear Problems

    ... have cold or flu symptoms?YesNoDo you have tooth pain on the same side as the ear pain ... or 2 days, see your doctor.Start OverDiagnosisA tooth problem can radiate pain to the ear on the same side.Self ...

  3. Vehicle ROuting Problem with Tw0 Type Vehicles n the Case Of StOchastic Demand%两种类型车辆随机需求路由问题

    刘浩; 袁健; 卢厚清


    主要研究两种类型车辆随机需求路由问题。因为两种类型车辆随机需求路由问题的处理不同于单类型车辆随机需求路由问题,引进了单位容积和路程的花费的新概念,在服务仅能失败一次的情况下,结合车辆的容积和最大服务结点数,根据平均花费和最大服务结点数之间的关系,得到了两个派车策略,节约了计算量,使得两阶段的模拟退火算法能更有效地解决问题。对需求为二项分布下的VRP(Vehicle routing problem)问题作了数值实验.给出了派车方案和总的平均花费,得到了较好的结果。%The vehicle routing problem (VRP) with two different types of vehicles in the case of stochastic demand is studied. Because this problem is different from the VRP with one type vehicle in the case of stochastic demand, this paper introduces a new conception, the cost of unit capacity and distance. Provided that there is only one chance of failure, we connect the capacity of the vehicles with the maximum nodes of service. According to the mean cost, the paper discusses the strategy of dispatching vehicles. On the basis of the relation between the maximum nodes of service, we get two strategies and decrease the amount of calculation, making the two-phase simulated annealing algorithm solve the prob lem effectively. Under the binomial distribution the digital experiment is done. The experiment gives the dispatching plan and the total mean cost. A good result is obtained.

  4. Balance Problems

    ... fall may affect an older adult's life. BPPV (Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo) There are many types of balance disorders. One of the most common is benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, or BPPV. In BPPV, you experience a brief, ...

  5. Generalized emissivity inverse problem.

    Ming, DengMing; Wen, Tao; Dai, XianXi; Dai, JiXin; Evenson, William E


    Inverse problems have recently drawn considerable attention from the physics community due to of potential widespread applications [K. Chadan and P. C. Sabatier, Inverse Problems in Quantum Scattering Theory, 2nd ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1989)]. An inverse emissivity problem that determines the emissivity g(nu) from measurements of only the total radiated power J(T) has recently been studied [Tao Wen, DengMing Ming, Xianxi Dai, Jixin Dai, and William E. Evenson, Phys. Rev. E 63, 045601(R) (2001)]. In this paper, a new type of generalized emissivity and transmissivity inverse (GETI) problem is proposed. The present problem differs from our previous work on inverse problems by allowing the unknown (emissivity) function g(nu) to be temperature dependent as well as frequency dependent. Based on published experimental information, we have developed an exact solution formula for this GETI problem. A universal function set suggested for numerical calculation is shown to be robust, making this inversion method practical and convenient for realistic calculations.

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... instead of going into cells, it can cause two problems: Right away, your cells may be starved ... Materials — Taking Care of Type 2 Diabetes This two-page introduction to type 2 diabetes is in ...

  7. Eigenvalue Problems.


    and f. Let us consider the problem of finding the minimal constant C. We are thus interested in 2~ IVA u dx (1.24) C = sup . u2u (0 (F =0 (u dx"<u(O...fournir des bornes superieures ou inferieures, C.R. Acad. Sci., Paris 235, 995-997. .V Prodi, G. (1962]: Theoremi di tipo locale per il sistema de Navier

  8. Optimization Problems

    Yaping Hu


    the nonsmooth convex optimization problem. First, by using Moreau-Yosida regularization, we convert the original objective function to a continuously differentiable function; then we use approximate function and gradient values of the Moreau-Yosida regularization to substitute the corresponding exact values in the algorithm. The global convergence is proved under suitable assumptions. Numerical experiments are presented to show the effectiveness of this algorithm.

  9. Seventh Grade Students' Problem Solving Success Rates on Proportional Reasoning Problems

    Pelen, Mustafa Serkan; Artut, Perihan Dinç


    This research was conducted to investigate 7th grade students' problem solving success rates on proportional reasoning problems and whether these success rates change with different problem types. 331 randomly selected students of grade seven participated in this study. A problem test which contains three different types of missing value (direct…

  10. Types and Automata

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Meineche Smidt, Erik

    to have well-known automata analogues, such as language equality, language inclusion, etc. This provides optimal or best known algorithms for the type system, by a process of translating type equations to automata, solving the analogous problem, and translating the result back to type equations. Apart......A hierarchical type system for imperative programming languages gives rise to various computational problems, such as type equivalence, type ordering, etc. We present a particular class of finite automata which are shown to be isomorphic to type equations. All the relevant type concepts turn out...... from suggesting an implementation, this connection lends a certain naturality to our type system. We also introduce a very general form of extended (recursive) type equations which are explained in terms of (monotone) alternating automata. Since types are simply equationally defined trees...

  11. Renormalized Volume

    Gover, A Rod


    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  12. Renormalized Volumes with Boundary

    Gover, A Rod


    We develop a general regulated volume expansion for the volume of a manifold with boundary whose measure is suitably singular along a separating hypersurface. The expansion is shown to have a regulator independent anomaly term and a renormalized volume term given by the primitive of an associated anomaly operator. These results apply to a wide range of structures. We detail applications in the setting of measures derived from a conformally singular metric. In particular, we show that the anomaly generates invariant (Q-curvature, transgression)-type pairs for hypersurfaces with boundary. For the special case of anomalies coming from the volume enclosed by a minimal hypersurface ending on the boundary of a Poincare--Einstein structure, this result recovers Branson's Q-curvature and corresponding transgression. When the singular metric solves a boundary version of the constant scalar curvature Yamabe problem, the anomaly gives generalized Willmore energy functionals for hypersurfaces with boundary. Our approach ...

  13. Urban Air Pollution Problems

    Sivertsen, B.


    This document focuses on the specific problems of urban air pollution related to emissions, urban climate, meteorology, smog potential, specific locations, air pollution measurements and trends. Examples are given with cases from European cities in particular. The north south differences, coastal and inland problems and data from various parts of Europe are presented. Global trends and results from the UNEP programme are used to illustrate the magnitude of the problem. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of different sources and their importance in selected cities. Different types of atmospheric dispersion models, their development and use, is outlined. The importance of local and regional meteorological data for explanation purposes and for estimating and forecasting urban air quality is presented. Finally, monitoring programmes, mapping, impact assessment and optimum abatement strategy planning are illustrated with examples from different areas in the world. 9 refs., 56 figs., 1 table

  14. Open-Start Mathematics Problems: An Approach to Assessing Problem Solving

    Monaghan, John; Pool, Peter; Roper, Tom; Threlfall, John


    This article describes one type of mathematical problem, open-start problems, and discusses their potential for use in assessment. In open-start problems how one starts to address the problem can vary but they have a correct answer. We argue that the use of open-start problems in assessment could positively influence classroom mathematics…

  15. The Human Mind As General Problem Solver, Is Observed To Find ``Best'' Solutions, That Correspond To Highest Mental Coherence: Will Discuss ``sing Glass Type Theory'' of Princeton Physicist J J Hopfield, Points To How Best Use Our Own Human Mind!!

    Gurr, Henry


    Princeton Physicist J. J. Hopfield's Mathematical Model of the Mammalian Brain, (Similar To Ising Glass Model of a crystal of magnetic spin particles) says our Brain-Work for Memory, Perception, Language, Thinking, etc, (Even the AHA-EUREKA-Flash Of Insight Type Problem Solving), is achieved by our massively inter-connected CNS Neurons ... working together ... MINIMIZING an analog of physical energy ... thus yielding Optimal Solutions: These ``best'' answers, correspond to highest mental coherence, for most facets organism response, beit mental (eg: perception, memory, ideas, thinking, etc) or physical-muscular-actions (eg speaking, tool using, trail following, etc). Our brain is this way, because living creature, MUST be evolved, so they will find & use the best actions, for survival!!! Our human heritage, is to instantly compute near optimal future plans, (mental & physical-muscular), and be able to accomplish plans reliably & efficiently. If you know of book or articles in these topic areas, please email to How to work well, with your own ``self'', called mind-body, will follow!! Conjectures: Who is the ``I'' that appears to make decisions? Am ``I'' the master of my domain? Is there an ``I'' or am ``I'' merely an illusion of reality.

  16. Complementarity Problems

    Xin-He Miao


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the Lipschitz continuity of the solution mapping of symmetric cone (linear or nonlinear complementarity problems (SCLCP or SCCP, resp. over Euclidean Jordan algebras. We show that if the transformation has uniform Cartesian P-property, then the solution mapping of the SCCP is Lipschitz continuous. Moreover, we establish that the monotonicity of mapping and the Lipschitz continuity of solutions of the SCLCP imply ultra P-property, which is a concept recently developed for linear transformations on Euclidean Jordan algebra. For a Lyapunov transformation, we prove that the strong monotonicity property, the ultra P-property, the Cartesian P-property, and the Lipschitz continuity of the solutions are all equivalent to each other.

  17. New types of port engineering structures on soft ground and related problems%软土地基上新型港工结构及其相关问题研究

    王元战; 龙俞辰; 王禹迟


    Soft soil grounds are widely distributed in China coastal regions, such as the coast of Bohai Bay, coastal areas of North Jiangsu in the south of Lianyungang, Yangtze River estuary, Hangzhou Bay, Minjiang Estuary, Hanjiang Estuary, Pearl River Estuary and Northwest Hainan Island, etc. In order to adapt to the conditions of deep-water and soft soil grounds, many new types of port and coastal engineering structures were developed in recent years, which could be divided into the types of light gravity type structure, cylindrical foundation structure, all-verti-cal-piled structure in deep-water and pipe wall-pile foundation structure. In this paper, the finite element numerical models were presented to simulate the mechanical properties of those structures. The loading factor method and the strength reduction method for analyzing the ultimate bearing capacity of structures were proposed, and the bearing characteristics and failure modes of those structures were investigated. Then the problems needed further study were suggested.%在我国渤海湾沿岸、连云港以南苏北沿海、长江口、杭州湾、闽江口、韩江口、珠江口和海南岛西北部等很多沿海地区,广泛分布着软弱土地基。为适应深水、软土地基条件,近些年来研究开发了一些新型港口海岸工程结构,主要可分为轻型重力式结构、筒型基础结构、深水全直桩结构和导管-桩基结构等几类。论文给出了模拟这些结构力学特性的有限元数值模型,提出了结构极限承载力分析的加载系数法、土体强度折减法及相关简化计算方法,分析了各类结构的承载特性及其破坏模式,建议了有待进一步研究的问题。

  18. Problem-solving and Cognitive Style.

    Garrett, Roger M.


    Reviewed are 15 studies on cognitive style and problem solving in science education. The effects of problem context, problem type, and three kinds of cognitive style on subjects' abilities to encounter and solve problems are investigated. Three protocols of the subjects' encountering activities are provided. (YP)




    We consider a backward parabolic problem arising in the description of the behavior of the toroidal part of the magenetic field in a dynamo problem. In our backward time problem, the media parameters are spatial distributed and the boundary conditions are of the Robin type. For this ill-posed problem, we prove that the solution depends continuously on the initial-time geometry.

  20. What is a problem?: On problem-oriented interdisciplinarity.

    Schmidt, Jan C


    Among others, the term "problem" plays a major role in the various attempts to characterize interdisciplinarity or transdisciplinarity, as used synonymously in this paper. Interdisciplinarity (ID) is regarded as "problem solving among science, technology and society" and as "problem orientation beyond disciplinary constraints" (cf. Frodeman et al.: The Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2010). The point of departure of this paper is that the discourse and practice of ID have problems with the "problem". The objective here is to shed some light on the vague notion of "problem" in order to advocate a specific type of interdisciplinarity: problem-oriented interdisciplinarity. The outline is as follows: Taking an ex negativo approach, I will show what problem-oriented ID does not mean. Using references to well-established distinctions in philosophy of science, I will show three other types of ID that should not be placed under the umbrella term "problem-oriented ID": object-oriented ID ("ontology"), theory-oriented ID (epistemology), and method-oriented ID (methodology). Different philosophical thought traditions can be related to these distinguishable meanings. I will then clarify the notion of "problem" by looking at three systematic elements: an undesired (initial) state, a desired (goal) state, and the barriers in getting from the one to the other. These three elements include three related kinds of knowledge: systems, target, and transformation knowledge. This paper elaborates further methodological and epistemological elements of problem-oriented ID. It concludes by stressing that problem-oriented ID is the most needed as well as the most challenging type of ID.

  1. Heuristics for Multidimensional Packing Problems

    Egeblad, Jens

    In this thesis we consider solution methods for packing problems. Packing problems occur in many different situations both directly in the industry and as sub-problems of other problems. High-quality solutions for problems in the industrial sector may be able to reduce transportation and production...... costs significantly. For packing problems in general are given a set of items and one of more containers. The items must be placed within the container such that some objective is optimized and the items do not overlap. Items and container may be rectangular or irregular (e.g. polygons and polyhedra......) and may be defined in any number of dimensions. Solution methods are based on theory from both computational geometry and operations research. The scientific contributions of this thesis are presented in the form of six papers and a section which introduces the many problem types and recent solution...

  2. Bicriteria network design problems

    Marathe, M.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ravi, R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Sundaram, R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Ravi, S.S.; Rosenkrantz, D.J.; Hunt, H.B. III [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Dept. of Computer Science


    The authors study a general class of bicriteria network design problems. A generic problem in this class is as follows: Given an undirected graph and two minimization objectives (under different cost functions), with a budget specified on the first, find a subgraph from a given subgraph class that minimizes the second objective subject to the budget on the first. They consider three different criteria -- the total edge cost, the diameter and the maximum degree of the network. Here, they present the first polynomial-time approximation algorithms for a large class of bicriteria network design problems for the above mentioned criteria. The following general types of results are presented. First, they develop a framework for bicriteria problems and their approximations. Second, when the two criteria are the same they present a black box parametric search technique. This black box takes in as input an (approximation) algorithm for the criterion situation and generates an approximation algorithm for the bicriteria case with only a constant factor loss in the performance guarantee. Third, when the two criteria are the diameter and the total edge costs they use a cluster based approach to devise approximation algorithms. The solutions violate both the criteria by a logarithmic factor. Finally, for the class of treewidth-bounded graphs, they provide pseudopolynomial-time algorithms for a number of bicriteria problems using dynamic programming. The authors show how these pseudopolynomial-time algorithms can be converted to fully polynomial-time approximation schemes using a scaling technique.

  3. Colored Traveling Salesman Problem.

    Li, Jun; Zhou, MengChu; Sun, Qirui; Dai, Xianzhong; Yu, Xiaolong


    The multiple traveling salesman problem (MTSP) is an important combinatorial optimization problem. It has been widely and successfully applied to the practical cases in which multiple traveling individuals (salesmen) share the common workspace (city set). However, it cannot represent some application problems where multiple traveling individuals not only have their own exclusive tasks but also share a group of tasks with each other. This work proposes a new MTSP called colored traveling salesman problem (CTSP) for handling such cases. Two types of city groups are defined, i.e., each group of exclusive cities of a single color for a salesman to visit and a group of shared cities of multiple colors allowing all salesmen to visit. Evidences show that CTSP is NP-hard and a multidepot MTSP and multiple single traveling salesman problems are its special cases. We present a genetic algorithm (GA) with dual-chromosome coding for CTSP and analyze the corresponding solution space. Then, GA is improved by incorporating greedy, hill-climbing (HC), and simulated annealing (SA) operations to achieve better performance. By experiments, the limitation of the exact solution method is revealed and the performance of the presented GAs is compared. The results suggest that SAGA can achieve the best quality of solutions and HCGA should be the choice making good tradeoff between the solution quality and computing time.

  4. A Cauchy problem in nonlinear heat conduction

    De Lillo, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Lupo, G [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Via Vanvitelli, 1, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Sanchini, G [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy)


    A Cauchy problem on the semiline for a nonlinear diffusion equation is considered, with a boundary condition corresponding to a prescribed thermal conductivity at the origin. The problem is mapped into a moving boundary problem for the linear heat equation with a Robin-type boundary condition. Such a problem is then reduced to a linear integral Volterra equation of II type which admits a unique solution.

  5. Seventh Grade Students’ Problem Solving Success Rates on Proportional Reasoning Problems

    Pelen, Mustafa Serkan; Dinc Artut, Perihan


    his research was conducted to investigate 7th grade students’ problem solving success rates on proportional reasoning problems and whether these success rates change with different problem types. 331 randomly selected students of grade seven participated in this study. A problem test which contains three different types of missing value (direct proportional, inverse proportional and additive/non-proportional) word problems was designed as a data collecting tool for the research. Descriptive d...

  6. Effects of problem characteristics, capturing problem structure and using analogies on high school students’ success on problem-solving

    Pedro GARCÍA GALLEGO; Sanjosé López, Vicente; SOLAZ-PORTOLÉS, Joan Josep


    This study analyses the influence of academic level, academic itinerary, word problem’s context and structure, capturing problem structure, and using analogies on problem-solving. A factorial design was used with one within-subjects variable and several between-subjects variables, which have been selected depending on the hypothesis in question. Two types of booklets containing two word problems and questions about capturing problem structure and using analogies in problem solving, were admin...

  7. Sexual Problems in Men

    Many men have sexual problems. They become more common as men age. Problems can include Erectile dysfunction Reduced or lost interest in sex ... problems may also be factors. Occasional problems with sexual function are common. If problems last more than ...

  8. 糖尿病问题量表测评2型糖尿病患者的效度和信度%Validity and reliability of the Problem Area in Diabetes Scale in patients with type 2 diabetes

    任洁; 洪霞; 赵维纲; 段艳平; 熊娜娜; 李涛; 赵晓晖; 史丽丽; 魏镜


    Objective:To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Problem Area in Diabetes Scale (PAID) for assessing diabetes-related distress in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods:Totally 203 outpatients with type 2 diabetes from a tertiary hospital in Beijing were selected. They were assessed with PAID,Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17),Patient Health Questionaire-9(PHQ-9),World Health Organization Five item Well-Being Index (WHO-5 ),Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)and HbA1 C. Item analysis and exploratory factoranalysis were conducted to test constructive validity. Concurrent validity was evaluated by the correlation coeffi-cients with the other instruments mentioned above. Totally 3 1 subjects were retested 4 weeks later to obtain the test-retest reliability. Results:Exploratory factor analysis produced 4 factors,including emotional,therapeutic,diet and perceived society support problems specific to diabetics. The total variance contribution ratio was 64. 33%. Except i-tem 7 and 20,no item was across two factors. The correlation coefficients of each item with relevant subscale score ranged from 0. 67 to 0. 86. The PAID scores were positively correlated with the scores of HAMD-17,PHQ-9 and HbA1C (r=0. 48,0. 43,0. 21,P<0. 001 or 0. 01),and negatively correlated with WHO-5 scores (r=-0. 46,P<0. 001). The Cronbach's αcoefficients were 0. 94 for the total scale and 0. 81 -0. 88 for the 4 subscales. The test-retest reliability coefficient was 0. 65 for the total scale and 0. 53-0. 73 for the 4 subscales. Conclusion:The validi-ty and reliability of the Problem Area in Diabetes Scale are acceptable in Chinese mainland,and can be available to assess the stress related to diabetics.%目的:在2型糖尿病患者中,对糖尿病问题量表(PAID)的效度和信度进行检验,用以测量2型糖尿病患者的疾病压力问题。方法:在北京市某综合三甲医院内分泌科门诊搜集2型糖尿病患者203例。采用条目分析

  9. Scattering problems in elastodynamics

    Diatta, Andre; Kadic, Muamer; Wegener, Martin; Guenneau, Sebastien


    In electromagnetism, acoustics, and quantum mechanics, scattering problems can routinely be solved numerically by virtue of perfectly matched layers (PMLs) at simulation domain boundaries. Unfortunately, the same has not been possible for general elastodynamic wave problems in continuum mechanics. In this Rapid Communication, we introduce a corresponding scattered-field formulation for the Navier equation. We derive PMLs based on complex-valued coordinate transformations leading to Cosserat elasticity-tensor distributions not obeying the minor symmetries. These layers are shown to work in two dimensions, for all polarizations, and all directions. By adaptative choice of the decay length, the deep subwavelength PMLs can be used all the way to the quasistatic regime. As demanding examples, we study the effectiveness of cylindrical elastodynamic cloaks of the Cosserat type and approximations thereof.

  10. Scattering problems in elastodynamics

    Diatta, Andre; Wegener, Martin; Guenneau, Sebastien


    In electromagnetism, acoustics, and quantum mechanics, scattering problems can routinely be solved numerically by virtue of perfectly matched layers (PMLs) at simulation domain boundaries. Unfortunately, the same has not been possible for general elastodynamic wave problems in continuum mechanics. In this paper, we introduce a corresponding scattered-field formulation for the Navier equation. We derive PMLs based on complex-valued coordinate transformations leading to Cosserat elasticity-tensor distributions not obeying the minor symmetries. These layers are shown to work in two dimensions, for all polarizations, and all directions. By adaptative choice of the decay length, the deep subwavelength PMLs can be used all the way to the quasi-static regime. As demanding examples, we study the effectiveness of cylindrical elastodynamic cloaks of the Cosserat type and approximations thereof.

  11. Problem discourse of textbook

    Pešić Jelena M.


    Full Text Available This paper deals with various reasons for treating the problematisation of textbook discourse as an important aspect of its educational design. These reasons are derived from: the nature of learning process, the nature of scientific knowledge and both motivational and cognitive saint achieved through a problematisation of learning material. Implications drawn from these considerations, along with textbook genre possibilities and constrains, lead us to define some basic strategies of textbook discourse problematisation. They refer to: way of presenting knowledge (problem structuring of text, presenting the history of knowledge and different perspectives; use of specific questions and tasks; metacognitive support of the learning process and specific type of textbook language (dialogical problem focused, language of thinking.

  12. 新型城镇化进程中失地农民权益保障法律问题研究%Law Problems of New Type of Urbanization for Farmers’ Rights and Interests Protection

    张昊; 隋想


    At present,our country has entered the high speed development period of urbanization,However,In the process of rapid urbanization,grad-ually developed a multiple deep contradiction ,The problems for protection of rights and interests of the broad masses of farmers is growing .How to maintain in the urbanization process and respect for the fundamental interests of the farmers、Protecting legitimate rights and interests of farmers is the practice scientific development concept 、To break the urban and rural dual structure and To deepen rural reform to build a well-off society in an all-round way of the key problems.This is an important historical mission to Promoting a new type of urbanization in China .This article through to the urbanization causes loss of land -lost farmers rights and interests of the present situation and causes are analyzed ,Combined with our country urbanization construction’s actual condition,At the same time to absorb domestic and foreign scholars in the research results of the land -lost farm-ers rights and interests protection issue,Looking forward to further for improve the urbanization that the Land -lost farmer’s social security system.%现阶段我国城镇化已进入高速发展时期,然而在迅速推进城镇化的进程中,逐渐引发出多重深层次的矛盾,其中广大失地农民权益保障问题正日益凸显。如何在城镇化进程中切实维护和尊重农民根本利益、保护失地农民合法权益是实践科学发展观、破除城乡二元结构、深化农村改革,从而建成全面小康社会的关键问题,对于我国依法推进新型城镇化具有重要意义。本文通过对城镇化失地农民权益流失的现状及成因进行分析,结合我国城镇化的实际状况,同时吸收国内外学者在失地农民权益保障问题上的研究成果,对完善城镇化建设过程中失地农民的社会保障体系进行深入探讨。

  13. Analysis of Power Quality Problems in a Regional Grid with Many Types of Disturbing Loads%多种特殊负荷集中区域电网的电能质量问题分析

    郑伟; 丁宁; 周喜超; 刘颖英; 智勇; 杨勇


    甘肃电网作为西北电网的中心,其负荷分布具有特殊性.一方面,丰富的风力资源使千万千瓦级风电基地坐落于河西区域,另一方面,其在东西部交通运输中所承载的特殊地位使多条电气化铁路横贯整个甘肃电网.此外,各种大型钢铁企业也在甘肃区域电网集中分布.风力发电、电气化铁路以及冶炼负荷这些非线性、冲击性负荷在区域电网中的集中分布,可能给电网带来更加严重的电能质量问题,甚至影响电网的供电可靠性.系统对这三类特殊负荷的主要电能质量特性进行了介绍,利用PSCAD/EMTDC对甘肃电网某特殊负荷集中区域的电能质量问题进行仿真分析,对稳态极端工况以及暂态不同工况的仿真结果表明了这些特殊负荷接入对甘肃电网可能造成的影响,从而为电能质量治理及管理提供了参考依据,避免其可能带来的损失.%As the centre of northwest grid, the load distribution in Gansu grid has its specific characteristics.On the one hand, the kilowatts-level wind power bases are seated in Hexi area on account of its abundant wind resources; on the other hand, several electric railways cross over Gansu grid for its spectial position in traffic.Besides, various kinds of large steel enterprises are intensive distributed in the reginal grid.The concentrated distribution of nonliner and impact loads such as wind power generation, electric railway and smelting loads will bring more serious power quality problems, even reduce the power supply reliability.The power quality characters of the three kinds of special loads mentioned above are introduced systematicly firstly.Then the power quality problems in a regional grid of Gansu which has many types of disturbing loads are analysed using PSCAD/EMTDC.The simulation results of steady state analysis in extreme conditions and transient state analysis in different operating modes show the possible power quality impacts caused

  14. Type Inference for Session Types in the Pi-Calculus

    Graversen, Eva Fajstrup; Harbo, Jacob Buchreitz; Huttel, Hans


    In this paper we present a direct algorithm for session type inference for the π-calculus. Type inference for session types has previously been achieved by either imposing limitations and restriction on the π-calculus, or by reducing the type inference problem to that for linear types. Our approach...

  15. Type Inference for Session Types in the Pi-Calculus

    Huttel, Hans; Graversen, Eva Fajstrup; Wahl, Sebastian


    In this paper we present a direct algorithm for session type inference for the π-calculus. Type inference for session types has previously been achieved by either imposing limitations and restriction on the π-calculus, or by reducing the type inference problem to that for linear types. Our approa...

  16. The Container Stowage Problem

    Janstrup, Kira; Rose, Trine Høyer; Andersen, Kent Høj

    The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  17. The Container Stowage Problem

    Janstrup, Kira


    The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  18. Astronomical problems an introductory course in astronomy

    Vorontsov-Vel'Yaminov, B A


    Astronomical Problems: An Introductory Course in Astronomy covers astronomical problems, together with a summary of the theory and the formula to be exercised. The book discusses the types of problems solved with the help of the celestial globe and how to solve astronomical problems. The text tackles problems on interpolation, the celestial sphere, systems of celestial coordinates, and culmination. Problems about the rising and setting of a heavenly body, precession, planetary movement, and parallax and aberration are also considered. The book presents problems about refraction, the apparent m

  19. Banach空间中二阶混合型脉冲积分-微分方程初值问题解的存在性%The Existence of Solutions of Initial Value Problems for Nonlinear Second Order Impulsive Integro-Differential Equations of Mixed Type in Banach Spaces

    俞卫琴; 陈芳启


    By the use of Monch fixed point theorem and a new comparison result, the solutions of initial value problems for nonlinear second order impulsive integro-differential equations of mixed type in Banach spaces are investigated and the existence theorem is obtained.

  20. Musculoskeletal problems of performing artists.

    Greer, J M; Panush, R S


    We have reviewed the frequency and variety of rheumatic problems among performing artists. For instrumentalists, injuries are related to the type of instrument played, the technique used and the effort expended in the quest for excellence. For dancers, musculoskeletal problems too reflect technique and effort. We should not be surprised at the frequency of these problems. Rheumatologists, as well as orthopaedic surgeons, physiotherapists, neurologists and other physicians, encounter performing artists as patients. We should be familiar with their problems and be able to knowledgeably diagnose and manage them. This may include observing the artist during actual performances. How is the instrument being held? What is the posture of the artist? What are the comments of the coach or teacher. What type of shoes does the ballerina wear? What movements in particular cause discomfort? These and similar observations will have direct bearing on the musculoskeletal problems of these artists. Published studies have related the variety, frequency and disabling nature of performance-related musculoskeletal problems. Unfortunately few if any of these are controlled, blinded or prospective. We need more and better information. We will want clear information about prevalence of problems, better definition of the musculoskeletal ailments, classification of the relationship of problems with performance and individual biomechanical features, information about response of specific problems to interventions, and data about the long-term consequences, if any, of these rheumatic problems to the musculoskeletal system. Artists as patients are unique. Minor problems can become potentially career-ending disabilities. Making music or performing dance may provide us with delightful entertainment but represents a source of livelihood to artists. Understanding their medical needs and enabling them to continue to perform is the challenge before us.

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's ... going into cells, it can cause two problems: Right away, your cells may be starved for energy. ...

  2. A Problem Solving Framework for Managing Poor Readers in Classrooms.

    Beck, Judith S.


    Points out that poor readers may exhibit behavioral, cognitive, and emotional problems. Offers a problem-solving framework for intervention in poor readers' nonacademic problems, and describes several possible types of intervention. (ARH)

  3. Problems and Issues Raised by Returning Adults.

    Oski, Katharine


    The problems and needs of adults returning for higher education are discussed. It is important for learning institutions and nontraditional programs to investigate the types and the scope of these problems and needs and the availability of support the student will receive from others to help overcome the problems. (Author/MLW)

  4. Math word problems for dummies

    Sterling, Mary Jane


    Covers percentages, probability, proportions, and moreGet a grip on all types of word problems by applying them to real lifeAre you mystified by math word problems? This easy-to-understand guide shows you how to conquer these tricky questions with a step-by-step plan for finding the right solution each and every time, no matter the kind or level of problem. From learning math lingo and performing operations to calculating formulas and writing equations, you''ll get all the skills you need to succeed!Discover how to: * Translate word problems into plain English* Brush up on basic math skills* Plug in the right operation or formula* Tackle algebraic and geometric problems* Check your answers to see if they work

  5. Methods of solving nonstandard problems

    Grigorieva, Ellina


    This book, written by an accomplished female mathematician, is the second to explore nonstandard mathematical problems – those that are not directly solved by standard mathematical methods but instead rely on insight and the synthesis of a variety of mathematical ideas.   It promotes mental activity as well as greater mathematical skills, and is an ideal resource for successful preparation for the mathematics Olympiad. Numerous strategies and techniques are presented that can be used to solve intriguing and challenging problems of the type often found in competitions.  The author uses a friendly, non-intimidating approach to emphasize connections between different fields of mathematics and often proposes several different ways to attack the same problem.  Topics covered include functions and their properties, polynomials, trigonometric and transcendental equations and inequalities, optimization, differential equations, nonlinear systems, and word problems.   Over 360 problems are included with hints, ...

  6. Quantum Counterfeit Coin Problems

    Iwama, Kazuo; Raymond, Rudy; Teruyama, Junichi


    The counterfeit coin problem requires us to find all false coins from a given bunch of coins using a balance scale. We assume that the balance scale gives us only ``balanced'' or ``tilted'' information and that we know the number k of false coins in advance. The balance scale can be modeled by a certain type of oracle and its query complexity is a measure for the cost of weighing algorithms (the number of weighings). In this paper, we study the quantum query complexity for this problem. Let Q(k,N) be the quantum query complexity of finding all k false coins from the N given coins. We show that for any k and N such that k < N/2, Q(k,N)=O(k^{1/4}), contrasting with the classical query complexity, \\Omega(k\\log(N/k)), that depends on N. So our quantum algorithm achieves a quartic speed-up for this problem. We do not have a matching lower bound, but we show some evidence that the upper bound is tight: any algorithm, including our algorithm, that satisfies certain properties needs \\Omega(k^{1/4}) queries.

  7. Preventing Diabetes Problems

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Preventing Diabetes Problems View or Print All Sections Heart Disease & ... prevent or delay sexual and urologic problems. Depression & Diabetes Depression is common among people with a chronic, ...

  8. Delaying or Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    ... Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Perhaps you have learned that you have a ... I lower my chances of developing type 2 diabetes? Research such as the Diabetes Prevention Program shows ...

  9. Class and Home Problems: Optimization Problems

    Anderson, Brian J.; Hissam, Robin S.; Shaeiwitz, Joseph A.; Turton, Richard


    Optimization problems suitable for all levels of chemical engineering students are available. These problems do not require advanced mathematical techniques, since they can be solved using typical software used by students and practitioners. The method used to solve these problems forces students to understand the trends for the different terms…

  10. Class and Home Problems: Optimization Problems

    Anderson, Brian J.; Hissam, Robin S.; Shaeiwitz, Joseph A.; Turton, Richard


    Optimization problems suitable for all levels of chemical engineering students are available. These problems do not require advanced mathematical techniques, since they can be solved using typical software used by students and practitioners. The method used to solve these problems forces students to understand the trends for the different terms…

  11. Polyomino Problems to Confuse Computers

    Coffin, Stewart


    Computers are very good at solving certain types combinatorial problems, such as fitting sets of polyomino pieces into square or rectangular trays of a given size. However, most puzzle-solving programs now in use assume orthogonal arrangements. When one departs from the usual square grid layout, complications arise. The author--using a computer,…

  12. Typed combinators for generic traversal

    Lämmel, R.; Vonk, J.


    Lacking support for generic traversal, functional programming languages suffer from a scalability problem when applied to large-scale program transformation problems. As a solution, we introduce emph{functional strategies: typeful generic functions that not only can be applied to terms of any type,

  13. Narcissistic interpersonal problems in clinical practice.

    Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S


    Pathological narcissism is associated with significant interpersonal problems, which are unlikely to be acknowledged by narcissistic patients as clinical issues. Although a substantial clinical and theoretical literature deals with narcissism, a succinct overview of core narcissistic interpersonal problems is lacking, particularly in terms of their presentation in clinical settings. This article provides a descriptive overview of the major types of interpersonal problems associated with pathological narcissism: dominance, vindictiveness, and intrusiveness. We outline how these problems can manifest in patients' relations with others and in treatment situations. Clinical vignettes are provided to highlight the presentation of narcissistic interpersonal dysfunction in various types of clinical encounters, and to facilitate discussion of treatment implications.

  14. The Chicken Problem.

    Reeves, Charles A.


    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  15. Constipation and Defecation Problems

    ... Home / Digestive Health Topic / Constipation and Defecation Problems Constipation and Defecation Problems Basics Resources Overview Constipation is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal complaints ...

  16. Inverse minimum spanning tree problem and reverse shortest-path problem with discrete values

    LIU Longcheng; HE Yong


    In this paper, we consider two network improvement problems with given discrete values: the inverse minimum spanning tree problem and the reverse shortest-path problem, where the decrements of the weight of the edges are given discrete values. First,for the three models of the inverse minimum spanning tree problem (the sum-type, the bottleneck-type and the constrained bottlenecktype), we present their respective strongly polynomial algorithms. Then, we show that the reverse shortest-path problem is strongly NP-complete.

  17. [Mitochondrial DNA typing--a new level for solving identification problems in forensic medical expert identification of unidentified remains of victims of terrorist acts in Moscow and the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic].

    Ivanov, P L; Frolova, S A; Orekhov, V A; Iankovskiĭ, N K; Zemskova, E Iu


    Two large-scale episodes described in this paper reflect the first in Russia use of molecular genetic matrilinear markers (analysis of polymorphism of sequences of amplified fragments of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable locuses) in solution of a complex identification problem: forensic medical identification of unidentified fragments of victims of explosions of houses in Moscow in September, 1999, and of soldiers dead in the war conflict in the Chechen Republic in 1994-1996. The results of this work and methodological experience gained in it essentially extend the potentialities of expert studies as regards forensic medical identification of victims of large scale disasters, terroristic acts, and war conflicts.

  18. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Kimmo Eriksson

    Full Text Available Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  19. On generalized operator quasi-equilibrium problems

    Kum, Sangho; Kim, Won Kyu


    In this paper, we will introduce the generalized operator equilibrium problem and generalized operator quasi-equilibrium problem which generalize the operator equilibrium problem due to Kazmi and Raouf [K.R. Kazmi, A. Raouf, A class of operator equilibrium problems, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 308 (2005) 554-564] into multi-valued and quasi-equilibrium problems. Using a Fan-Browder type fixed point theorem in [S. Park, Foundations of the KKM theory via coincidences of composites of upper semicontinuous maps, J. Korean Math. Soc. 31 (1994) 493-519] and an existence theorem of equilibrium for 1-person game in [X.-P. Ding, W.K. Kim, K.-K. Tan, Equilibria of non-compact generalized games with L*-majorized preferences, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 164 (1992) 508-517] as basic tools, we prove new existence theorems on generalized operator equilibrium problem and generalized operator quasi-equilibrium problem which includes operator equilibrium problems.

  20. Thoughts of Solving Problems on Judging Internal and External Orbital Type of Complexes by Magnetic Moment%通过磁矩判断配合物内外轨型的解题思路



    Judging internal and external orbital type of complexes by magnetic moment is a kind ofcommom titles in inorganic chemistry. At first, the number of unpaired electrons should be judged by magnetic moment, then based on the arrangement principle of extranuclear electrons, internal and external orbital type of complexes may be deduced, combined with the position of central atom (ion) in element periodic table.%通过磁矩判断配合物内外轨型是一类无机化学中的常见题目。首先通过磁矩推断出未成对电子数,然后根据核外电子的排布原则,结合中心原子(离子)在元素周期表中的位置,推断出配合物的内外轨型。




  2. Diagnosing plant problems

    Cheryl A. Smith


    Diagnosing Christmas tree problems can be a challenge, requiring a basic knowledge of plant culture and physiology, the effect of environmental influences on plant health, and the ability to identify the possible causes of plant problems. Developing a solution or remedy to the problem depends on a proper diagnosis, a process that requires recognition of a problem and...

  3. Quadratic eigenvalue problems.

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Day, David Minot


    In this report we will describe some nonlinear eigenvalue problems that arise in the areas of solid mechanics, acoustics, and coupled structural acoustics. We will focus mostly on quadratic eigenvalue problems, which are a special case of nonlinear eigenvalue problems. Algorithms for solving the quadratic eigenvalue problem will be presented, along with some example calculations.

  4. Research on Multi-type Vehicle Scheduling Problem in Urban Logistics with Dynamic Delivery Cost and Fuzzy Delivery Mileage%具有模糊行程的城市物流动态费用多车型车辆调度问题研究

    卢冰原; 程八一


    针对城市物流配送中广泛存在的多车型问题,以及由于交通路况等因素导致的配送行程模糊化现象,给出了一种基于梯形模糊数的,以最小化行程费用为目标的具有模糊行程的动态费用多车型车辆调度问题模型.在问题求解方面,针对基本粒子群算法容易陷入局部最优的情况,引入混沌局部搜索策略,给出了一种基于混沌优化技术的混合粒子群算法.仿真实验表明,该算法具有可行性和有效性.%For the multi-type vehicle scheduling problem in city distribution, and fuzzy delivery mileage problem caused by traffic and road factors, based on trapezoidal fuzzy number, a multi-type vehicle scheduling problem (MVSP) model having dynamic delivery cost and fuzzy delivery mileage for minimized delivery cost is introduced firstly. After that, aiming at the problems of easily getting into the local optimum of basic particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, a hybrid PSO algorithm based on chaotic local optimizer is proposed for the MVSP problem above,which help the algorithm to improve its resulting precision and convergence rate. At last, through the analysis of the simulating experiment results, the feasibility and efficency of the algorithm are approved.

  5. 浅谈问题向导式教学法在口腔预防保健教学中的有效性%Introduction to problem wizard type teaching method in the teaching of oral preventive care effectiveness



    Objective Study on prevention of the effectiveness of implementation problem oriented teaching method in the teaching of oral health care in. Methods Randomly selected 80 students in our school of Stomatology, were randomly divided into control group and observation group, in preventive oral health in the process of teaching, the control group used traditionalteaching oriented teaching mode, the observation group adopt the problem oriented teaching method,comparative analysis of two groups of students to master the knowledge. Results Through the stages of testing the theory achievements, the observation group of prevention and health careknowledge of oral master degree higher than that of the control group, the questionnaire also has the obvious difference, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion The application of problem oriented teaching method in preventive oral health instruction to improve the effect of classroom teaching and students' comprehensive quality has an important role, is worthy to be popularized in the prevention of oral health care teaching sections.%目的:研究在口腔预防保健教学中实施问题向导式教学法的有效性。方法随机选取我校口腔专业学生80名,随机分为对照组和观察组,在进行口腔预防保健教学过程中,对照组采用传统的授课式为主的教学模式,观察组采取问题向导式教学法,比较分析两组学生知识掌握情况。结果通过阶段性理论测试成绩看,观察组对口腔预防保健知识的掌握程度高于对照组,问卷调查结果也有明显的比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论将问题向导式教学法应用在口腔预防保健教学中对提高课堂教学效果和学生综合素质有着重要作用,值得在部分口腔预防保健教学章节中推广使用。

  6. Behavioural problems among schoolchildren in Nigeria

    or deviant behaviour among children predict later psychiatric referral.15-17 ... sickle cell anaemia, epilepsy, diabetes mellitus and bronchial asthma. Information .... and age did not significantly influence the type of behavioural problems noted ...

  7. Scattering series in mobility problem for suspensions

    Makuch, Karol


    The mobility problem for suspension of spherical particles immersed in an arbitrary flow of a viscous, incompressible fluid is considered in the regime of low Reynolds numbers. The scattering series which appears in the mobility problem is simplified. The simplification relies on the reduction of the number of types of single-particle scattering operators appearing in the scattering series. In our formulation there is only one type of single-particle scattering operator.

  8. Riemann Boundary Value Problems for Koch Curve

    Zhengshun Ruanand


    Full Text Available In this study, when L is substituted for Koch curve, Riemann boundary value problems was defined, but generally speaking, Cauchy-type integral is meaningless on Koch curve. When some analytic conditions are attached to functions G (z and g (z, through the limit function of a sequence of Cauchytype integrals, the homogeneous and non-homogeneous Riemann boundary problems on Koch curve are introduced, some similar results was attained like the classical boundary value problems for analytic functions.

  9. The nonlinear fixed gravimetric boundary value problem

    于锦海; 朱灼文


    The properly-posedness of the nonlinear fixed gravimetric boundary value problem is shown with the help of nonlinear functional analysis and a new iterative method to solve the problem is also given, where each step of the iterative program is reduced to solving one and the same kind of oblique derivative boundary value problem with the same type. Furthermore, the convergence of the iterative program is proved with Schauder estimate of elliptic differential equation.

  10. Sensitivity analysis for large-scale problems

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Whitworth, Sandra L.


    The development of efficient techniques for calculating sensitivity derivatives is studied. The objective is to present a computational procedure for calculating sensitivity derivatives as part of performing structural reanalysis for large-scale problems. The scope is limited to framed type structures. Both linear static analysis and free-vibration eigenvalue problems are considered.

  11. Complex Problem Solving in a Workplace Setting.

    Middleton, Howard


    Studied complex problem solving in the hospitality industry through interviews with six office staff members and managers. Findings show it is possible to construct a taxonomy of problem types and that the most common approach can be termed "trial and error." (SLD)

  12. Problem solving III: factors influencing classroom problem

    Sayonara Salvador Cabral da Costa


    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the literature in the area of problem solving, particularly in physics, focusing only on factors that influence classroom problem solving. Fifty-seven papers have been analyzed in terms of theoretical basis, investigated factors/methodology and findings/relevant factors, which were organized in a table that served as support for a synthesis made by the authors. It is the third of a four-paper series reviewing different aspects of the problem solving subject.

  13. Coping with persistent environmental problems

    Varjopuro, Riku; Andrulewicz, Eugeniusz; Brandt, Urs Steiner;


    involved in the implementation are keys to improve understanding of the systemic delays. The improved understanding is necessary for the adaptive management of a persistent environmental problem. In addition to the state of the environment, the monitoring and analysis should be targeted also......ABSTRACT In this paper we focus on systemic delays in the Baltic Sea that cause the problem of eutrophication to persist. These problems are demonstrated in our study by addressing three types of delays: (1) decision delay: the time it takes for an idea or perceived need to be launched as a policy...... is to analyze these systemic delays and especially to discuss how the critical delays can be better addressed in marine protection policies by strengthening the adaptive capacity of marine protection. We conclude that the development of monitoring systems and reflexive, participatory analysis of dynamics...

  14. Type inference for COBOL systems

    Deursen, A. van; Moonen, L.M.F.


    Types are a good starting point for various software reengineering tasks. Unfortunately, programs requiring reengineering most desperately are written in languages without an adequate type system (such as COBOL). To solve this problem, we propose a method of automated type inference for these lang

  15. Differential equations problem solver

    Arterburn, David R


    REA's Problem Solvers is a series of useful, practical, and informative study guides. Each title in the series is complete step-by-step solution guide. The Differential Equations Problem Solver enables students to solve difficult problems by showing them step-by-step solutions to Differential Equations problems. The Problem Solvers cover material ranging from the elementary to the advanced and make excellent review books and textbook companions. They're perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.The Differential Equations Problem Solver is the perfect resource for any class, any exam, and

  16. 高校“失衡型”贫困生心理问题分析与激励对策%Mental Problems Analysis and Incentive Measures on the Imbalance-typed Poor Students in Higher Vocational Colleges

    施玉青; 杨超灵; 罗达


    When it comes to helping poor college students,the people who currently engages in the students management will think to help their economy influenced by the traditional poor-helping perspective and the thinking inertia,but rarely think a-bout the causes analysis of"imbalances type"poor students and motivation strategies from the perspective of psychology and management.This paper analyzes the "brutal and benevolent type of spiritual brainwashing","wishful material support","simple and repeated work -study"and other traditional funding misunderstanding.according to Maslow's hierarchy of needs content type incentive motivation theory,one of the effective knowledge transfer theories,this passage puts forward the principle of equality of education for special students groups,to strengthen incentives to become conditional funding from free financing, to make out effective incentive countermeasures to encourage poor students to organize themselves and to participate in substan-tive work-study activities.%传统的助困视角和惯性思维使当前高校学生工作者一说到帮助贫困生,就是在经济上帮助,却很少从心理学和管理学的角度思考“失衡型”贫困生的成因分析与激励对策。本文分析了“粗暴怜悯型的精神洗脑”、“一厢情愿式的物质资助”、“简单重复性的勤工助学”等传统的资助误区,依据内容型激励理论之一的马斯洛需要层次激励理论知识的有效迁移,提出了以平等原则实施对特殊群体学生的专门教育;强化激励机制,变无偿资助为有条件资助;鼓励贫困生自行组织并参加实质性的勤工助学活动等实效性激励对策。

  17. Type extension trees

    Jaeger, Manfred


    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  18. Type extension trees

    Jaeger, Manfred


    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  19. Smoothing Newton Algorithm for Solving Generalized Complementarity Problem

    刘晓红; 倪铁


    The generalized complementarity problem includes the well-known nonlinear complementarity problem and linear complementarity problem as special cases.In this paper, based on a class of smoothing functions, a smoothing Newton-type algorithm is proposed for solving the generalized complementarity problem.Under suitable assumptions, the proposed algorithm is well-defined and global convergent.


    M Ali; 罗定军


    To continue the discussion in (Ⅰ) and (Ⅱ),and finish the study of the limit cycle problem for quadratic system (Ⅲ)m=0 in this paper.Since there is at most one limit cycle that may be created from critical point O by Hopf bifurcation,the number of limit cycles depends on the different situations of separatrix cycle to be formed around O.If it is a homoclinic cycle passing through saddle S1 on 1+ax-y=0,which has the same stability with the limit cycle created by Hopf bifurcation,then the uniqueness of limit cycles in such cases can be proved.If it is a homoclinic cycle passing through saddle N on x=0,which has the different stability from the limit cycle created by Hopf bifurcation,then it will be a case of two limit cycles.For the case when the separatrix cycle is a heteroclinic cycle passing through two saddles at infinity,the discussion of the paper shows that the number of limit cycles will change from one to two depending on the different values of parameters of system.

  1. Study on Several Important Problems of the Transformation from Higher Vocational Education to the Application Type Undergraduate Education%从高职教育到应用型本科教育转型中几个重要问题的研究



    探索从高职教育到应用型本科教育转型中人才培养目标的定位、人才培养模式的确定、课程体系开发、师资队伍建设、实验实训基地建设等转型中需重点解决的几个问题。针对这几个问题提出了解决问题的方法。%Several problems to be solved in the transformation from higher vocational education to the application type undergraduate education are explored in this paper, including talents localization, talent education mode, curriculum development, the construction of teachers’ team, experimental training base construction. In view of these questions, the paper presents some approaches to solve these problems.

  2. Phase Transitions in Planning Problems: Design and Analysis of Parameterized Families of Hard Planning Problems

    Hen, Itay; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Do, Minh; Venturelli, Davide


    There are two common ways to evaluate algorithms: performance on benchmark problems derived from real applications and analysis of performance on parametrized families of problems. The two approaches complement each other, each having its advantages and disadvantages. The planning community has concentrated on the first approach, with few ways of generating parametrized families of hard problems known prior to this work. Our group's main interest is in comparing approaches to solving planning problems using a novel type of computational device - a quantum annealer - to existing state-of-the-art planning algorithms. Because only small-scale quantum annealers are available, we must compare on small problem sizes. Small problems are primarily useful for comparison only if they are instances of parametrized families of problems for which scaling analysis can be done. In this technical report, we discuss our approach to the generation of hard planning problems from classes of well-studied NP-complete problems that map naturally to planning problems or to aspects of planning problems that many practical planning problems share. These problem classes exhibit a phase transition between easy-to-solve and easy-to-show-unsolvable planning problems. The parametrized families of hard planning problems lie at the phase transition. The exponential scaling of hardness with problem size is apparent in these families even at very small problem sizes, thus enabling us to characterize even very small problems as hard. The families we developed will prove generally useful to the planning community in analyzing the performance of planning algorithms, providing a complementary approach to existing evaluation methods. We illustrate the hardness of these problems and their scaling with results on four state-of-the-art planners, observing significant differences between these planners on these problem families. Finally, we describe two general, and quite different, mappings of planning

  3. 多车型车辆路径问题的量子遗传算法研究%Study on Multi-types Vehicle Routing Problem and Its Quantum Genetic Algorithm

    葛显龙; 许茂增; 王伟鑫


    本文在分析现有文献中多车型车辆路径问题中车辆使用优先原则的基础上,将车辆使用费用分为固定费用和油耗费用,并建立以配送总费用最小为优化目标的数学模型.设计量子遗传算法对模型进行求解,采用量子比特位设计染色体结构,改进遗传算法中交叉与变异算子,避免优秀基因不被破坏,设计快速寻优机制与最优保留机制,增强的求解效率.最后,结合算例对模型和算法进行了检验与分析.%Based on analysis of using the priority principle in the problem of multi-vehicle scheduling in the available literature, the using cost of vehicle is divided into consumption costs and fixed costs. A mathematical model is established for the target of minimum total distribution cost. Then Quantum genetic algorithm is designed to solve the model, the chromosome structure is designed by quantum bits, and the crossover and mutation operators are improved in the genetic algorithm to avoid the destruction of good genes. The rapid searching mechanism and best preservation mechanism are designed in the evolution of the quantum rotation gate to accelerate the convergence speed. Finally, the model and algorithm are analyzed and tested by examples.

  4. Development and existing problems of longitudinal and torsional hybrid type ultrasonic motors%纵扭型超声电机的研发进展与现存问题

    陶征; 赵淳生


    The ultrasonic motors are high products which have the fire-new structure based on fire-new theory. The longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic motors have become an research issue because they have larger momental and better controllability. The research of the longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic motors begin from the compound longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic motors at the end of 1980s and developed into the modal transformation ultrasonic motor,one of the most representative motors. Though they develped quickly, the research history of longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic motors is shorter. So they are not ripe in theory and technology. Problems of theory, friction and wear, preloading spring performance and motor structure development will become the research emphasis in the future.%超声电机是基于全新原理具有全新结构的高技术电机产品,而纵扭型超声电机更因其具有更大的扭矩、更好的可控性而备受业界重视从而成为研究热点.从1980年代末的纵扭复合型超声电机到最具代表性的模态转换型超声电机,国内外纵扭型超声电机的研制虽不断推陈出新,但由于研究历史尚短,理论上、技术上尚不成熟,其所面对的理论问题、摩擦磨损问题、预压力弹簧性能问题、电机结构改进问题亟待解决.

  5. Health Problems in Pregnancy

    Every pregnancy has some risk of problems. The causes can be conditions you already have or conditions you develop. ... pregnant with more than one baby, previous problem pregnancies, or being over age 35. They can affect ...

  6. Menstrual Cycle Problems

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Menstrual Cycle ProblemsFrom missed periods to painful periods, menstrual cycle problems are common, but usually not serious. Follow ...

  7. Challenging problems in algebra

    Posamentier, Alfred S


    Over 300 unusual problems, ranging from easy to difficult, involving equations and inequalities, Diophantine equations, number theory, quadratic equations, logarithms, more. Detailed solutions, as well as brief answers, for all problems are provided.

  8. Pseudo almost periodic solutions to parabolic boundary value inverse problems


    We first define the pseudo almost periodic functions in a more general setting.Then we show the existence,uniqueness and stability of pseudo almost periodic solutions of parabolic inverse problems for a type of boundary value problems.

  9. Use of Interactive Computer Graphics to Solve Routing Problems.

    Gillett, B. E.; Lawrence, J. L.


    Discusses vehicle routing problems and solutions. Describes testing of an interactive computer graphics package combining several types of solutions that allows users with little or no experience to work out routing problems. (Author/RW)

  10. Chimpanzee Problem-Solving: A Test for Comprehension.

    Premack, David; Woodruff, Guy


    Investigates a chimpanzee's capacity to recognize representations of problems and solutions, as well as its ability to perceive the relationship between each type of problem and its appropriate solutions using televised programs and photographic solutions. (HM)

  11. Problem Solving and Reasoning.


    6 here Acquisition of Problem - Solving Skill . An imporrant qLestinn is how the knowledge required For solving problems in a domain such as geometry is...Neves, 0. 4. (1981). Acquisition of problem - solving skill . In J. R. Anderson (Eds), Cognitive skills and their acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum...NJ: Erlbaum. Voss, J. F., Greene, T. R., Post, T. A., & Penner, B. C. (1983). Problem solving skill in the social sciences. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The

  12. The landslide problem

    G. Shanmugam


    The synonymous use of the general term“landslide”, with a built-in reference to a sliding motion, for all varieties of mass-transport deposits (MTD), which include slides, slumps, debrites, topples, creeps, debris avalanches etc. in subaerial, sublacustrine, sub-marine, and extraterrestrial environments has created a multitude of conceptual and nomen-clatural problems. In addition, concepts of triggers and long-runout mechanisms of mass movements are loosely applied without rigor. These problems have enormous implications for studies in process sedimentology, sequence stratigraphy, palaeogeography, petroleum geol-ogy, and engineering geology. Therefore, the objective of this critical review is to identify key problems and to provide conceptual clarity and possible solutions. Speciifc issues are the fol-lowing:(1) According to“limit equilibrium analyses”in soil mechanics, sediment failure with a sliding motion is initiated over a shear surface when the factor of safety for slope stability (F) is less than 1. However, the term landslide is not meaningful for debris lfows with a lfowing mo-tion. (2) Sliding motion can be measured in oriented core and outcrop, but such measurement is not practical on seismic proifles or radar images. (3) Although 79 MTD types exist in the geological and engineering literature, only slides, slumps, and debrites are viable depositional facies for interpreting ancient stratigraphic records. (4) The use of the term landslide for high-velocity debris avalanches is inappropriate because velocities of mass-transport processes cannot be determined in the rock record. (5) Of the 21 potential triggering mechanisms of sediment failures, frequent short-term events that last for only a few minutes to several hours or days (e.g., earthquakes, meteorite impacts, tsunamis, tropical cyclones, etc.) are more relevant in controlling deposition of deep-water sands than sporadic long-term events that last for thousands to millions of years (e

  13. Classifying IS Project Problems

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas


    The literature contains many lists of IS project problems, often in the form of risk factors. The problems sometimes appear unordered and overlapping, which reduces their usefulness to practitioners as well as theoreticians. This paper proposes a list of criteria for formulating project problems...

  14. Vehicle Routing Problem Models

    Tonči Carić


    Full Text Available The Vehicle Routing Problem cannot always be solved exactly,so that in actual application this problem is solved heuristically.The work describes the concept of several concrete VRPmodels with simplified initial conditions (all vehicles are ofequal capacity and start from a single warehouse, suitable tosolve problems in cases with up to 50 users.

  15. Optimal obstacle control problem

    ZHU Li; LI Xiu-hua; GUO Xing-ming


    In the paper we discuss some properties of the state operators of the optimal obstacle control problem for elliptic variational inequality. Existence, uniqueness and regularity of the optimal control problem are established. In addition, the approximation of the optimal obstacle problem is also studied.

  16. Mathematics as Problem Solving.

    Soifer, Alexander

    This book contains about 200 problems. It is suggested that it be used by students, teachers or anyone interested in exploring mathematics. In addition to a general discussion on problem solving, there are problems concerned with number theory, algebra, geometry, and combinatorics. (PK)

  17. 1型糖尿病青少年儿童心理行为问题研究进展%Psychological problems in adolescents and children with type 1 diabetes

    刘媛; 刘超


    For youth with type 1 diabetes (T1DM),the transition into adolescence is often associated with poorer adherence to treatment,deterioration of metabolic control,and increased risk for psychological disorders.Depression,eating disorder,family conflict and fear of hypoglycemia are often presented,which will further deteriorate the adherence to treatment and glycemic control.Early screening and intervention should be taken into consideration.%逐步走向青春期的1型糖尿病青少年儿童,容易出现治疗依从性差、代谢控制不良等问题,更是心理障碍的高危人群.其常常表现出抑郁、进食行为问题、家庭冲突、恐惧低血糖等心理问题,这些问题会进一步恶化糖尿病治疗的依从性以及血糖控制,故需要尽早筛查和干预.

  18. Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DeFronzo, Ralph A; Ferrannini, Ele; Groop, Leif


    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an expanding global health problem, closely linked to the epidemic of obesity. Individuals with T2DM are at high risk for both microvascular complications (including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (such as cardiovascular...

  19. Sonet Network Design Problems

    Pelleau, Marie; Truchet, Charlotte


    This paper presents a new method and a constraint-based objective function to solve two problems related to the design of optical telecommunication networks, namely the Synchronous Optical Network Ring Assignment Problem (SRAP) and the Intra-ring Synchronous Optical Network Design Problem (IDP). These network topology problems can be represented as a graph partitioning with capacity constraints as shown in previous works. We present here a new objective function and a new local search algorithm to solve these problems. Experiments conducted in Comet allow us to compare our method to previous ones and show that we obtain better results.

  20. Path Problems in Networks

    Baras, John


    The algebraic path problem is a generalization of the shortest path problem in graphs. Various instances of this abstract problem have appeared in the literature, and similar solutions have been independently discovered and rediscovered. The repeated appearance of a problem is evidence of its relevance. This book aims to help current and future researchers add this powerful tool to their arsenal, so that they can easily identify and use it in their own work. Path problems in networks can be conceptually divided into two parts: A distillation of the extensive theory behind the algebraic path pr

  1. Sonet Network Design Problems

    Marie Pelleau


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method and a constraint-based objective function to solve two problems related to the design of optical telecommunication networks, namely the Synchronous Optical Network Ring Assignment Problem (SRAP and the Intra-ring Synchronous Optical Network Design Problem (IDP. These network topology problems can be represented as a graph partitioning with capacity constraints as shown in previous works. We present here a new objective function and a new local search algorithm to solve these problems. Experiments conducted in Comet allow us to compare our method to previous ones and show that we obtain better results.

  2. TBM大件公路运输遭遇问题及对策%Problems in Highway Transporting Large-Type Equipment of TBM and Our Counter-Measures to Them



    Upon the basis of our rich experience of many years in the transportation of large-type equipments, many difficulties arising in the course of transporting TBM, which may restrain the transportation of TBM on highways, are systematically summed up in the paper,with greater stress placed on the handling of extra-large parts of TBM, such as the cutting head, the main beam, cutting head supports and so on. The retraining factors include the width of the road,height limits, requirements in traffic loads, continuous slope uphill or downhill, taking a turn, etc. All those above-mentioned difficulties are technically solved, with some useful methods or suggestions put forward. The results of our practice may provide good references for peers so as to facilitate the transportation of extra-large equipments.%根据多年大件运输的经验,针对TBM运输过程中刀盘、主轴承、主梁及刀盘支撑等超大超限件,系统地总结了可能制约TBM公路运输的诸多难题,例如路面宽度、高度限制,通行荷载要求,连续大坡度上下坡及转弯困扰等,从技术角度提出相应解决办法和措施,可供同行参考,以期顺利实施大件运输。

  3. The seismite problem

    G. Shanmugam


    Full Text Available During a period of 82 years (1931–2013, 39 genetic terms were introduced for various deposits. Of the 39 terms, only ten are meaningful in understanding the true depositional origin (e.g., turbidites, the remaining 29 are just jargons (e.g., seismites, tsunamites, etc.. The genetic term “seismites”, introduced by Seilacher (1969 for recognizing palaeoearthquakes in the sedimentary record, is a misnomer. The term was introduced in haste, based on an examination of a single exposure of the Miocene Monterey Formation (10 m in California, without a rigorous scientific analysis. The fundamental problem is that earthquake is a triggering mechanism, not a depositional process. Type of triggers cannot be recognized in the ancient sedimentary record because evidence for triggers is not preserved by nature. Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS, commonly used as the criteria for interpreting seismites, are a product of liquefaction. However, liquefaction can be induced by any one of 21 triggers, which include earthquakes, meteorite impacts, tsunamis, sediment loading, among others. Brecciated clasts, typically associated with earthquake-induced deposits in the Dead Sea Basin, are also common depositional products of debris flows (i.e., synsedimentary product unrelated to earthquakes. Also, various types of SSDS, such as duplex-like structures and clastic injections, can be explained by synsedimentary processes unrelated to earthquakes. Case studies of sandstone petroleum reservoirs worldwide, which include Gulf of Mexico, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Bay of Bengal, reveal that there is compelling empirical evidence for sediment loading being the primary cause of SSDS. The Krishna–Godavari Basin, located on the eastern continental margin of India, is ideal for sediment failures by multiple triggering mechanisms where overpressure and liquefaction have led to multi-origin SSDS. Because tsunamis and meteorite

  4. Blood Types

    ... blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. The ABO Blood Group System ... that provided by the ABO positive/negative blood typing. For example, sometimes if the donor and recipient ...

  5. Blood typing

    A blood sample is needed. The test to determine your blood group is called ABO typing. Your blood sample is mixed with antibodies against type A and B blood. Then, the sample is checked to see whether ...

  6. Matrix interdiction problem

    Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.

  7. The Accelerated Kepler Problem

    Namouni, Fathi


    The accelerated Kepler problem is obtained by adding a constant acceleration to the classical two-body Kepler problem. This setting models the dynamics of a jet-sustaining accretion disk and its content of forming planets as the disk loses linear momentum through the asymmetric jet-counterjet system it powers. The dynamics of the accelerated Kepler problem is analyzed using physical as well as parabolic coordinates. The latter naturally separate the problem's Hamiltonian into two unidimensional Hamiltonians. In particular, we identify the origin of the secular resonance in the accelerated Kepler problem and determine analytically the radius of stability boundary of initially circular orbits that are of particular interest to the problem of radial migration in binary systems as well as to the truncation of accretion disks through stellar jet acceleration.

  8. Problems and Possible Solutions in Reading Comprehension Testing

    Yun Zong


    The paper deals with the problems in reading testing papers. The author proposes some possible solutions, such as covering more cognitive skills being tested, increasing more text types, adding some other testing item types.

  9. Problems in real analysis

    Rǎdulescu, Teodora-Liliana T.; Andreescu, Titu; Rǎdulescu, Vicenţiu


    This book ontains a collection of challenging problems in elementary mathematical analysis, uses competition-inspired problems as a platform for training typical inventive skills, develops basic valuable techniques for solving problems in mathematical analysis on the real axis, assumes only a basic knowledge of the topic but opens the path to competitive research in the field, includes interesting and valuable historical accounts of ideas and methods in analysis, presents a connection between...

  10. Group Problem Solving

    Laughlin, Patrick R


    Experimental research by social and cognitive psychologists has established that cooperative groups solve a wide range of problems better than individuals. Cooperative problem solving groups of scientific researchers, auditors, financial analysts, air crash investigators, and forensic art experts are increasingly important in our complex and interdependent society. This comprehensive textbook--the first of its kind in decades--presents important theories and experimental research about group problem solving. The book focuses on tasks that have demonstrably correct solutions within mathematical

  11. Creativity for Problem Solvers

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui


    This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes specially related to problem solving. Central publications related to the theme are briefly reviewed. Creative tools and approaches suitable to support problem solving are also presented. Finally......, the paper outlines the author’s experiences using creative tools and approaches to: Facilitation of problem solving processes, strategy development in organisations, design of optimisation systems for large scale and complex logistic systems, and creative design of software optimisation for complex non...

  12. Problems with plastered external heat insulation. Probleme mit verputzter Aussenwaermedaemmung

    Epple, H.; Foglia, A.; Preisig, H.; Pfefferkorn, J.


    Concerning execution, maintenance and service life, walls with plastered external heat insulation constitute an economic method. Owing to experience gained with plastered external heat insulation, it is possible today to provide reliable information on requirements made on ground material and operational execution. The author intends to contribute to a prevention of defects by giving concise examples. A survey on different types of external heat insulation is followed by a treatment of the problem areas of roof-edge connection, base end under ground, modernization of old buildings and cracks in plaster. Principal statements are made concerning steam diffusion, planning, materials and execution.

  13. Art as metontological problem

    Radovanović Saša Ž.


    Full Text Available The author explains the link between fundamental ontology and metontology in Heidegger's thought. In this context, he raises the question about art as a metontological problem. Then he goes to show that the problem of metontology stems from imanent transformation of fundamental ontology. In this sense, two aspects of the problem of existence assume relevance, namely, universality and radicalism. He draws the conclusion that metontology and art as its problem, as opposed to fundamental ontology, were not integrated into Heidegger's later thought.

  14. Known TCP Implementation Problems

    Paxson, Vern (Editor); Allman, Mark; Dawson, Scott; Fenner, William; Griner, Jim; Heavens, Ian; Lahey, K.; Semke, J.; Volz, B.


    This memo catalogs a number of known TCP implementation problems. The goal in doing so is to improve conditions in the existing Internet by enhancing the quality of current TCP/IP implementations. It is hoped that both performance and correctness issues can be resolved by making implementors aware of the problems and their solutions. In the long term, it is hoped that this will provide a reduction in unnecessary traffic on the network, the rate of connection failures due to protocol errors, and load on network servers due to time spent processing both unsuccessful connections and retransmitted data. This will help to ensure the stability of the global Internet. Each problem is defined as follows: Name of Problem The name associated with the problem. In this memo, the name is given as a subsection heading. Classification one or more problem categories for which the problem is classified: "congestion control", "performance", "reliability", "resource management". Description A definition of the problem, succinct but including necessary background material. Significance A brief summary of the sorts of environments for which the problem is significant.

  15. Numerical problems in physics

    Singh, Devraj


    Numerical Problems in Physics, Volume 1 is intended to serve the need of the students pursuing graduate and post graduate courses in universities with Physics and Materials Science as subject including those appearing in engineering, medical, and civil services entrance examinations. KEY FEATURES: * 29 chapters on Optics, Wave & Oscillations, Electromagnetic Field Theory, Solid State Physics & Modern Physics * 540 solved numerical problems of various universities and ompetitive examinations * 523 multiple choice questions for quick and clear understanding of subject matter * 567 unsolved numerical problems for grasping concepts of the various topic in Physics * 49 Figures for understanding problems and concept

  16. Specific Pronunciation Problems.

    Avery, Peter; And Others


    Reviews common pronunciation problems experienced by learners of English as a second language who are native speakers of Vietnamese, Cantonese, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Polish, Greek, and Punjabi. (CB)

  17. Location-routing problems

    Laporte, G.


    Location-routing problems involve simultaneously locating a number of facilities among candidate sites and establishing delivery routes to a set of users in such a way that the total system cost is minimized. This paper presents a survey of such problems. It includes some applications and examples of location-routing problems, a description of the main heuristics that have been developed for such problems, and reviews of various formulations and algorithms used in solving these problems. A more detailed review is given of exact algorithms for the vehicle routing problem, three-index vehicle flow formulations, and two-index vehicle flow formulations and algorithms for symmetrical and non-symmetrical problems. It is concluded that location-routing problem research is a fast-growing area, with most developments occurring over the past few years; however, research is relatively fragmented, often addresses problems which are too specific and contains several voids which have yet to be filled. A number of promising research areas are identified. 137 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Combinatorial problems and exercises

    Lovász, László


    The main purpose of this book is to provide help in learning existing techniques in combinatorics. The most effective way of learning such techniques is to solve exercises and problems. This book presents all the material in the form of problems and series of problems (apart from some general comments at the beginning of each chapter). In the second part, a hint is given for each exercise, which contains the main idea necessary for the solution, but allows the reader to practice the techniques by completing the proof. In the third part, a full solution is provided for each problem. This book w

  19. Using reflection techniques for flexible problem solving (with examples from diagnosis)

    Teije, A. ten; Harmelen, van F.A.H.


    Flexible problem solving consists of the dynamic selection and configuration of problem solving methods for a particular problem type, depending on the particular problem and the goal of problem solving. In this paper, we propose an architecture that supports such flexible problem solving automatic

  20. A general framework for coloring problems: old results, new results, and open problems

    Broersma, Haitze J.


    In this survey paper we present a general framework for coloring problems that was introduced in a joint paper which the author presented at WG2003. We show how a number of different types of coloring problems, most of which have been motivated from frequency assignment, fit into this framework. We

  1. Problem visits to a family planning clinic.

    Blumenthal, P D; Jacobson, J; Gaffikin, L


    In order to obtain information necessary for optimum delivery of services, data were collected on the nature of the services provided at a family planing clinic. Clinic visits were divided into initial, annual, routine, problem, supply, educational and unknown. An analysis of the "problem" visits was undertaken to assess various epidemiologic aspects of such visits and to identify areas of clinic efficiency that could be improved. Problem visits were defined as any visits for which the patient had a presenting complaint. Age, level of education, method of contraception and parity were statistically associated with problem visits. When compared to Pill users, diaphragm users, intrauterine device users and non-users had a higher-than-expected number of problem visits. Less educated women and teenagers had a lower-than-expected number of problem visits when compared to more educated and older women. Socioeconomic status and problem visits were not statistically associated. Problem visits required more time, utilized more medical services and resulted in more referrals to the gynecology clinic than did other visit types. As a result of this analysis, we have increased our educational efforts for patients at high risk of problem visits and have instituted a special problem-oriented family planning clinic in which a full complement of house staff and ancillary personnel are available. This arrangement makes the uncomplicated family planning clinic run more smoothly and efficiently and obviates the need for time-consuming and cost-ineffective referrals.

  2. 农村新型社区建设中存在的问题和解决思路——以四川成都和山东济宁为例%Problems in Building New-Type Rural Communities and Their Solutions: Based on Cases from Chengdu, Sichuan Province and Jining, Shandong Province



    我国城镇化进程的加快,农村城市化、农业产业化快速发展的趋势,对乡村治理和公共服务的提供提出了挑战。2009年农村新型社区建设的提出正是作为推动这一发展的主要途径。目前,农村新型社区建设尚处于试验示范阶段,在各地社区建设中,不可避免会遇到如何处理新型社区与村民自治、双层经营体制之间关系的两大问题,成都和济宁的探索提供了可借鉴的经验,但改革仍面临体制困境和自组织程度低的问题。而此次乡村社会的变革能否全面顺利推进,还需要国家在法律层面对农村新型社区进行清晰定位,理清它与农村原有基本制度的关系,以切实保障村民权利。%The acceleration of urbanization in our country and the trend of rapid development of village urbani- zation and agriculture industrialization pose challenges for governance and public service provision in rural areas. Building new-type rural communities was introduced in 2009 exactly as a primary approach to promote such devel- opment. At present, building new-type rural communities is still in the stage of experiment and demonstration. Two major problems inevitably occur in community building across the country: how to handle the relationship be- tween the new-type communities and villager self-governance, and how to handle the relationship between the new -type communities and the two-tier management system. Although the experiments in Chengdu and Jining provide beneficial experience, the reform still faces problems of system predicaments and low degree of self-organization. Whether or not the current change of rural society can develop comprehensively and smoothly still depends on the state to clearly define the status of the new-type rural communities and clarify their relationship with the existing basic systems in villages in order to solidly protect the villagers' rights.

  3. Type inference for correspondence types

    Hüttel, Hans; Gordon, Andy; Hansen, Rene Rydhof


    We present a correspondence type/effect system for authenticity in a π-calculus with polarized channels, dependent pair types and effect terms and show how one may, given a process P and an a priori type environment E, generate constraints that are formulae in the Alternating Least Fixed-Point (A...

  4. Solving complex problems a handbook

    Schönwandt, Walter; Grunau, Jens; Utz, Jürgen; Voermanek, Katrin


    When you're planning something big, problems appear rather quickly. We hear of them on a daily basis. The bigger or more complex a task, the more we have to deal with complicated, multidisciplinary task formulations. In many cases it is architecture, including urban and spatial planning, but also politics and all types of organizational forms, irrespective of whether they are public authorities or private enterprises, which are expected to deliver functional solutions for such challenges. This is precisely where this book is helpful. It introduces a methodology for developing target-specific,

  5. On some nonlinear potential problems

    M. A. Efendiev


    Full Text Available The degree theory of mappings is applied to a two-dimensional semilinear elliptic problem with the Laplacian as principal part subject to a nonlinear boundary condition of Robin type. Under some growth conditions we obtain existence. The analysis is based on an equivalent coupled system of domain--boundary variational equations whose principal parts are the Dirichlet bilinear form in the domain and the single layer potential bilinear form on the boundary, respectively. This system consists of a monotone and a compact part. Additional monotonicity implies convergence of an appropriate Richardson iteration.


    María del Rosario Ayala-Carrillo


    Full Text Available School violence is one type of violence that reflects the breakdown of current society. It is impossible to speak of school violence as an isolated phenomenon without establishing nexuses between public and private life, between collective and individual behaviors, between family and community aspects, without making reference to differences in gender and the life stories of those who are the aggressors or the victims, and without considering the patriarchal culture and interpersonal relationships. When all these factor are interrelated, they make the problem of violence a very complex one that requires us to know the different factors in order to understand it and deal with it.

  7. 基于分区的多配送中心多车型车辆调度问题与遗传算法设计%Multi-delivery Centre Multi-type Vehicle Scheduling Problem Based on the Partition and the Design of Genetic Algorithm

    马宇红; 姚婷婷; 张浩庆


    A large scale multi-delivery centre multi-type vehicle scheduling problem is considered. Firstly, based on the method of gravity center partition, the multi-delivery centre multi-type vehicle scheduling problem is transformed into the single-delivery centre multi-type vehicle scheduling problem, the partition method is simple, and reduces the amount of computations. Then based on the minimum delivery cost, a mathematical model of multi-delivery centre multi-type vehicle scheduling problem is established; the model considers not only the basic transportation cost, but also the driver's salary expenses, including the basic wage and overtime pay. In the model of multi-delivery centre multi-type vehicle scheduling, one car is able to provide service for more customers, however a customer must be served only by one car. According these characteristics, a new chromosomal hybrid encoding scheme is put forward, and the techniques of segmented crossover and mutation is used, the method effectively retains the father's generation superiority of chromosome fragments, therefore remarkably improves the convergence speed of the genetic algorithm. The results of numerical simulation verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the algorithm.%研究大规模的多配送中心多车型车辆调度问题,首先基于配送中心几何重心分区方法将多配送中心多车型车辆调度问题转化为单配送中心多车型车辆调度问题,该分区方法简单、直观,大大降低了运算量.建立了一种基于完整配送费用的多配送中心多车型车辆调度问题的数学模型,配送费用在考虑基本运输费的基础上又引入了司机的工资支出,包括基本工资和加班费.在多配送中心多车型车辆调度模型中,一个配送中心的一辆车可以为多个客户服务,但一个客户只能由某个配送中心的一辆车提供服务.根据模型的这些特点,提出了一种新的多片段染色体混合编




  9. A Stochastic Employment Problem

    Wu, Teng


    The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…

  10. Problems in baryon spectroscopy

    Capstick, S. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)


    Current issues and problems in the physics of ground- and excited-state baryons are considered, and are classified into those which should be resolved by CEBAF in its present form, and those which may require CEBAF to undergo an energy upgrade to 8 GeV or more. Recent theoretical developments designed to address these problems are outlined.

  11. Problem Solving Techniques Seminar.

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. Six problem-solving techniques are developed in the booklet to assist individuals and groups in making better decisions: problem identification, data gathering, data analysis, solution analysis,…

  12. Simon on problem solving

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul


    as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organisational issues, specifically new organisational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organisational forms and to point to some design problems that characterise these forms....

  13. The Problem Revisited

    Ovesen, Nis


    Problem-based learning (PBL) is becoming increasingly popular in design educations, but how is it taught and practiced? This paper presents a case study of a three-day workshop that has the purpose of introducing PBL to design students. A theoretical background on PBL and problems in design is es...

  14. Dynamical inverse problems

    Gladwell, Graham ML


    The papers in this volume present an overview of the general aspects and practical applications of dynamic inverse methods, through the interaction of several topics, ranging from classical and advanced inverse problems in vibration, isospectral systems, dynamic methods for structural identification, active vibration control and damage detection, imaging shear stiffness in biological tissues, wave propagation, to computational and experimental aspects relevant for engineering problems.

  15. The Problem of Meaning.

    Barrell, Arthur Rex


    The study of semantics, the study of meaning, promises more complete communicative thought transfer if several problem areas can be solved or at least generally agreed upon. The problem of exact definition of words arises from the fact that no one work is the exact equivalent of another. However, the study of many languages forces the mind to…




  17. Wicked Problems: Inescapable Wickedity

    Jordan, Michelle E.; Kleinsasser, Robert C.; Roe, Mary F.


    The article explores the concept of wicked problems and proposes a reinvigorated application of this concept for wider educational use. This recommendation stems from the contributions of a number of scholars who frame some of the most contentious and recalcitrant educational issues as wicked problems. The present authors build upon these previous…

  18. Hip Problems in Infants

    ... hip problems later in life? ResourcesScreening for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip by LM French, M.D., and FR Dietz, ... 2014 Categories: Family Health, Infants and ToddlersTags: dislocation, dysplasia, external, femoral, hip, infants, internal, problems, socket, torsion Family Health, Infants ...

  19. Problems in quantum mechanics

    Goldman, Iosif Ilich; Geilikman, B T


    This challenging book contains a comprehensive collection of problems in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of varying degrees of difficulty. It features answers and completely worked-out solutions to each problem. Geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students, it provides an ideal adjunct to any textbook in quantum mechanics.

  20. Reconfigurable layout problem

    Meng, G.; Heragu, S.S.; Zijm, H.


    This paper addresses the reconfigurable layout problem, which differs from traditional, robust and dynamic layout problems mainly in two aspects: first, it assumes that production data are available only for the current and upcoming production period. Second, it considers queuing performance measure

  1. Reconfigurable layout problem

    Meng, G.; Heragu, S.S.; Heragu, S.S.; Zijm, Willem H.M.


    This paper addresses the reconfigurable layout problem, which differs from traditional, robust and dynamic layout problems mainly in two aspects: first, it assumes that production data are available only for the current and upcoming production period. Second, it considers queuing performance measure

  2. Current Social Problem Novels.

    Kenney, Donald J.

    This review of social problem novels for young adults opens with a brief background of the genre, then lists the dominant themes of social problem fiction and nonfiction novels that have been published in the last two years, such as alcoholism, alienation, death, growing up and self-awarness, drugs, and divorce. Other themes mentioned are…

  3. Problems in equilibrium theory

    Aliprantis, Charalambos D


    In studying General Equilibrium Theory the student must master first the theory and then apply it to solve problems. At the graduate level there is no book devoted exclusively to teaching problem solving. This book teaches for the first time the basic methods of proof and problem solving in General Equilibrium Theory. The problems cover the entire spectrum of difficulty; some are routine, some require a good grasp of the material involved, and some are exceptionally challenging. The book presents complete solutions to two hundred problems. In searching for the basic required techniques, the student will find a wealth of new material incorporated into the solutions. The student is challenged to produce solutions which are different from the ones presented in the book.

  4. The road coloring problem

    Trahtman, A N


    The synchronizing word of deterministic automaton is a word in the alphabet of colors (considered as letters) of its edges that maps the automaton to a single state. A coloring of edges of a directed graph is synchronizing if the coloring turns the graph into deterministic finite automaton possessing a synchronizing word. The road coloring problem is a problem of synchronizing coloring of directed finite strongly connected graph with constant outdegree of all its vertices if the greatest common divisor of lengths of all its cycles is one. The problem was posed by Adler, Goodwyn and Weiss over 30 years ago and evoked a noticeable interest among the specialists in theory of graphs, deterministic automata and symbolic dynamics. The problem is described even in "Vikipedia" - the popular Internet Encyclopedia. The positive solution of the road coloring problem is presented.

  5. The Guderley problem revisited

    Ramsey, Scott D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kamm, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolstad, John H [NON LANL


    The self-similar converging-diverging shock wave problem introduced by Guderley in 1942 has been the source of numerous investigations since its publication. In this paper, we review the simplifications and group invariance properties that lead to a self-similar formulation of this problem from the compressible flow equations for a polytropic gas. The complete solution to the self-similar problem reduces to two coupled nonlinear eigenvalue problems: the eigenvalue of the first is the so-called similarity exponent for the converging flow, and that of the second is a trajectory multiplier for the diverging regime. We provide a clear exposition concerning the reflected shock configuration. Additionally, we introduce a new approximation for the similarity exponent, which we compare with other estimates and numerically computed values. Lastly, we use the Guderley problem as the basis of a quantitative verification analysis of a cell-centered, finite volume, Eulerian compressible flow algorithm.

  6. Simplifying Complex Problems

    Dan Ophir


    Full Text Available The process of making complex and controversial decisions, that is, dealing with moral or ethical dilemmas, have intrigued people and inspired writers from time immemorial. Dilemmas give both color and depth to characters in good literary works. But beyond literary fiction, dilemmas occupy society in every day issues such as in introducing legislation or solving current political problems. One example of a current political dilemma is how to deal with Iran’s quest for nuclear weapons. If it were possible to assess and quantify each of the alternative solutions for a given problem, the process of decision making would be much easier. If a problem involves only two optional solutions, game theory techniques can be used. However, real life problems are usually multi-unit, multi-optional problems, as in Iran

  7. Problems in abstract algebra

    Wadsworth, A R


    This is a book of problems in abstract algebra for strong undergraduates or beginning graduate students. It can be used as a supplement to a course or for self-study. The book provides more variety and more challenging problems than are found in most algebra textbooks. It is intended for students wanting to enrich their learning of mathematics by tackling problems that take some thought and effort to solve. The book contains problems on groups (including the Sylow Theorems, solvable groups, presentation of groups by generators and relations, and structure and duality for finite abelian groups); rings (including basic ideal theory and factorization in integral domains and Gauss's Theorem); linear algebra (emphasizing linear transformations, including canonical forms); and fields (including Galois theory). Hints to many problems are also included.

  8. Two-Manifold Problems

    Boots, Byron


    Recently, there has been much interest in spectral approaches to learning manifolds---so-called kernel eigenmap methods. These methods have had some successes, but their applicability is limited because they are not robust to noise. To address this limitation, we look at two-manifold problems, in which we simultaneously reconstruct two related manifolds, each representing a different view of the same data. By solving these interconnected learning problems together and allowing information to flow between them, two-manifold algorithms are able to succeed where a non-integrated approach would fail: each view allows us to suppress noise in the other, reducing bias in the same way that an instrumental variable allows us to remove bias in a {linear} dimensionality reduction problem. We propose a class of algorithms for two-manifold problems, based on spectral decomposition of cross-covariance operators in Hilbert space. Finally, we discuss situations where two-manifold problems are useful, and demonstrate that sol...

  9. The interval ordering problem

    Dürr, Christoph; Spieksma, Frits C R; Nobibon, Fabrice Talla; Woeginger, Gerhard J


    For a given set of intervals on the real line, we consider the problem of ordering the intervals with the goal of minimizing an objective function that depends on the exposed interval pieces (that is, the pieces that are not covered by earlier intervals in the ordering). This problem is motivated by an application in molecular biology that concerns the determination of the structure of the backbone of a protein. We present polynomial-time algorithms for several natural special cases of the problem that cover the situation where the interval boundaries are agreeably ordered and the situation where the interval set is laminar. Also the bottleneck variant of the problem is shown to be solvable in polynomial time. Finally we prove that the general problem is NP-hard, and that the existence of a constant-factor-approximation algorithm is unlikely.

  10. Structural Identification Problem

    Suvorov Aleksei


    Full Text Available The identification problem of the existing structures though the Quasi-Newton and its modification, Trust region algorithms is discussed. For the structural problems, which could be represented by means of the mathematical modelling of the finite element code discussed method is extremely useful. The nonlinear minimization problem of the L2 norm for the structures with linear elastic behaviour is solved by using of the Optimization Toolbox of Matlab. The direct and inverse procedures for the composition of the desired function to minimize are illustrated for the spatial 3D truss structure as well as for the problem of plane finite elements. The truss identification problem is solved with 2 and 3 unknown parameters in order to compare the computational efforts and for the graphical purposes. The particular commands of the Matlab codes are present in this paper.

  11. The Interaction Programming Problem

    LI Rong-sheng; CHENG Ying


    Based upon the research to the economic equilibrium problems, we present a kind of new mathematical programming problem-interaction programming problem (abbreviated by IPP). The IPP is composed of two or multiple parametric programming problems which is interrelated with each other. The IPP reflects the equality and mutual benefit relationship between two (or among multiple) economic planners in an economic system. In essence, the IPP is similar to the generalized Nash equilibria (GNE) game which has been given several names in the literature: social equilibria games, pseudo-Nash equilibria games, and equilibrium programming problems. In this paper, we establish the mathematical model and some basic concepts to the IPP. We investigate the structure and the properties of the IPP. We also give a necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the equilibrium points to a kind of linear IPP.

  12. Problem Solving and Learning

    Singh, Chandralekha


    One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for metacognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.

  13. Gribov problem and BRST symmetry

    Fujikawa, K


    After a brief historical comment on the study of BRS(or BRST) symmetry , we discuss the quantization of gauge theories with Gribov copies. A path integral with BRST symmetry can be formulated by summing the Gribov-type copies in a very specific way if the functional correspondence between \\tau and the gauge parameter \\omega defined by \\tau (x) = f( A_{\\mu}^{\\omega}(x)) is ``globally single valued'', where f( A_{\\mu}^{\\omega}(x)) = 0 specifies the gauge condition. As an example of the theory which satisfies this criterion, we comment on a soluble gauge model with Gribov-type copies recently analyzed by Friedberg, Lee, Pang and Ren. We also comment on a possible connection of the dynamical instability of BRST symmetry with the Gribov problem on the basis of an index notion.

  14. Problems of energy supply. Probleme der Energieversorgung

    Frank, W.


    Political education is to enable judgement of present-day questions. This requires knowledge of the essential facts in the field of energy supply. The brochure on hand is meant to make it easier for the reader to put forward his own arguments. The reader is to see that it is due to the many motives determining energy policy which aggravate an understanding about ways of solving problems of energy supply. This brochure is designed to enhance political education by giving a survey of tasks in energy policy to be solved on an international level and in Austria.

  15. Service-Adaptive Multi-Type Repairman Problems


    Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943 John A. Morrison, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974 Rogerio Silveira Centre de AnAlises de Sistemas Navais...some 2 "VtMr .,da -3/22/91,12:01 PM contexts switching back and forth between partially completed services is severely penalized by substantial




    In the article the analysis of different concepts of "team" from the point of view of sociology, which today can be divided into two large groups. The first affects his symptoms and descriptions, and the second structure of the definition. Summarizing them all, the author highlighted that currently the "team" can only be called an effectively functioning social group. Despite the fact that "command" is a kind of small social group, described the differences between these concepts. The article...

  17. A Matlab program for the residual type error estimate of EQ1^rot element for the Possion eigenvalue problem%Possion方程特征值问题EQ1^rot优元基于残差型后验误差估计的Matlab实验

    马龙; 刘杰


    This paper discusses the residual type a posterior error estimate of EQ1^rot element for the Possion eigenvalue problem. The posterior error estimator is obtained by using the properties in nonconforming EQ1^rot element space and the unified framework of Carstensen et al. ( in SIAM. J. Numer. Anal. 2007,45 (1):68- 82). The results of numerical experiments confirm the posterior error estimator is reliable and effective.%把Carstensen和Jun Hu(见SIAM JNumer Anal,2007,107:473—502)建立的残差型误差指示子,移植到特征值问题EQ1^not元近似。给出了Matlab程序,计算结果说明该指示子是有效和可靠的。

  18. Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problems

    Kara, &#;mdat; Kara, Bahar Yeti&#;; Yeti&#;, M. Kadri


    This paper proposes a new objective function and corresponding formulations for the vehicle routing problem. The new cost function defined as the product of the distance of the arc and the flow on that arc. We call a vehicle routing problem with this new objective function as the Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problem (CumVRP). Integer programming formulations with O(n2) binary variables and O(n2) constraints are developed for both collection and delivery cases. We show that the CumVRP is a gener...

  19. Toward Modeling the Intrinsic Complexity of Test Problems

    Shoufan, Abdulhadi


    The concept of intrinsic complexity explains why different problems of the same type, tackled by the same problem solver, can require different times to solve and yield solutions of different quality. This paper proposes a general four-step approach that can be used to establish a model for the intrinsic complexity of a problem class in terms of…

  20. Problem Gambling Associated with Violent and Criminal Behaviour

    Laursen, Bjarne; Plauborg, Rikke; Ekholm, Ola


    This study compares the number of criminal charges among problem gamblers (N = 384) and non-problem gamblers including non-gamblers (N = 18,241) and examines whether problem gambling is more strongly associated with income-generating crimes like theft, fraud and forgery than other types of crimes...

  1. Human Performance on Insight Problem Solving: A Review

    Chu, Yun; MacGregor, James N.


    The article provides a review of recent research on insight problem-solving performance. We discuss what insight problems are, the different types of classic and newer insight problems, and how we can classify them. We also explain some of the other aspects that affect insight performance, such as hints, analogs, training, thinking aloud, and…

  2. Epidemiological Study of Mental Health Problems among Handicapped School Children.

    Bahadur Singh, Tej


    Indian teachers rating the prevalence of psychiatric problems in 79 school children with visual handicaps, 91 with hearing handicaps, and 105 nonhandicapped identified a higher prevalence than did psychiatrists. Although similar percentages of children in the 3 groups were diagnosed as having psychiatric problems, the types of problems experienced…

  3. Benchmarking Problems Used in Second Year Level Organic Chemistry Instruction

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Towns, Marcy H.


    Investigations of the problem types used in college-level general chemistry examinations have been reported in this Journal and were first reported in the "Journal of Chemical Education" in 1924. This study extends the findings from general chemistry to the problems of four college-level organic chemistry courses. Three problem typologies were…

  4. Disruption management of the vehicle routing problem with vehicle breakdown

    Mu, Q; Fu, Z; Lysgaard, Jens


    This paper introduces a new class of problem, the disrupted vehicle routing problem (VRP), which deals with the disruptions that occur at the execution stage of a VRP plan. The paper then focuses on one type of such problem, in which a vehicle breaks down during the delivery and a new routing...

  5. Evolution problems in materials with fading memory

    Sandra Carillo


    Full Text Available Evolution problems in materials with memory are here considered.Thus, linear integro-differential equations with Volterra type kernel areinvestigated. Specifically, initial boundary value problems are studied;physical properties of the material under investigation are shown to induce the choice of a suitable function space, where solutions are looked for. Then, combination with the application of Fourier transforms, allows to prove existence and uniquenes of the solution. Indeed, the original evolution problem is related to an elliptic one: existence and uniqueness results are proved for the latter and, thus, for the original problem. Two different evolution initial boundary value problems with memory which arise, in turn, in the framework of linear heat conduction and of linear viscoelasticity are compared.


    Zheng-su Wan; Ben-yu Guo; Zhong-qing Wang


    In this paper, we investigate Jacobi pseudospectral method for fourth order problems.We establish some basic results on the Jacobi-Gauss-type interpolations in non-uniformly weighted Sobolev spaces, which serve as important tools in analysis of numerical quadratures, and numerical methods of differential and integral equations. Then we propose Jacobi pseudospectral schemes for several singular problems and multiple-dimensional problems of fourth order. Numerical results demonstrate the spectral accuracy of these schemes,and coincide well with theoretical analysis.

  7. Type Tricks

    Beier, Sofie


    an expert as a typography professor, Sofie Beier knows exactly what the students need to know and how they can improve their skills. ‘Type Tricks’ is not only perfect for students, it also comes in handy for every type designer. It gives them the opportunity to reread information they were thaught at during...

  8. Problems in optics

    Rousseau, Madeleine; Ter Haar, D


    This collection of problems and accompanying solutions provide the reader with a full introduction to physical optics. The subject coverage is fairly traditional, with chapters on interference and diffraction, and there is a general emphasis on spectroscopy.

  9. The Congruence Subgroup Problem

    M S Raghunathan


    This is a short survey of the progress on the congruence subgroup problem since the sixties when the first major results on the integral unimodular groups appeared. It is aimed at the non-specialists and avoids technical details.

  10. Overcoming breastfeeding problems

    Plugged milk ducts; Nipple soreness when breastfeeding; Breastfeeding - overcoming problems; Let-down reflex ... no clear cause of nipple soreness. A simple change in your baby's position while feeding may ease ...

  11. Menstruation and Menstrual Problems

    ... and Menstrual Problems: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is menstruation? What is the menstrual cycle? When happens when a pregnancy occurs? What is menstruation? Menstruation (pronounced men-stroo- ...

  12. Creative Problem Solving



    There have considerable number of design philosophies and design methods in this world,but today I’d like to intorduce a new design problem solving system which comes from Chinese traditonal religion Dao.

  13. Open problems in mathematics

    Nash, Jr, John Forbes


    The goal in putting together this unique compilation was to present the current status of the solutions to some of the most essential open problems in pure and applied mathematics. Emphasis is also given to problems in interdisciplinary research for which mathematics plays a key role. This volume comprises highly selected contributions by some of the most eminent mathematicians in the international mathematical community on longstanding problems in very active domains of mathematical research. A joint preface by the two volume editors is followed by a personal farewell to John F. Nash, Jr. written by Michael Th. Rassias. An introduction by Mikhail Gromov highlights some of Nash’s legendary mathematical achievements. The treatment in this book includes open problems in the following fields: algebraic geometry, number theory, analysis, discrete mathematics, PDEs, differential geometry, topology, K-theory, game theory, fluid mechanics, dynamical systems and ergodic theory, cryptography, theoretical computer sc...

  14. Problems Digesting Dairy Products?

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Problems Digesting Dairy Products? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... the natural sugar found in milk and other dairy products. People who cannot digest lactose have a ...

  15. Problems, Prospects And Challenges.

    Urban Road Transportation in Nigeria From 1960 To 2006: Problems, Prospects And Challenges. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... The paper suggested the construction of more motor-able roads within cities ...

  16. Diabetic Eye Problems

    ... damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause of blindness ... You need a healthy retina to see clearly. Diabetic retinopathy damages the tiny blood vessels inside your ...

  17. Nail Problems (Toenails)

    ... part of an infected walking barefoot, such as swimming pools, nail or the use of over-the-counter ... a chronic problem, your podiatrist may be a history of athlete's foot and can perform a procedure ...

  18. Enuresis: A Social Problem.

    McDonald, James E.


    Several theories and treatments of enuresis are described. The authors conclude that enuresis is a social problem (perhaps due to maturational lag, developmental delay or faulty learning) which requires teacher and parental tolerance and understanding. (SE)

  19. Spanning Tree Problem

    Yen Hung Chen


    minimum cost spanning tree T in G such that the total weight in T is at most a given bound B. In this paper, we present two polynomial time approximation schemes (PTASs for the constrained minimum spanning tree problem.

  20. The Problem of Heroin

    Wilson, James Q.; And Others


    Argues that most of the underlying assumptions of presently recommended solutions to the problem of heroin addiction are unreasonable, unwarranted, or at least open to more than one interpretation. (DM)

  1. [Oral problems in divers].

    Scheper, W A; Lobbezoo, F; Eijkman, M A J


    Divers can have several oral problems. Firstly, problems caused by pressure changes. These are barodontalgia and odontocrexis. Barodontalgia is toothache by barotrauma. Odontocrexis is restorations coming lose or breaking or tooth fractures by expansion of air beneath restorations. Other problems can occur by cements used to fix casted restorations, by inflammations in the orofacial region, and by not yet fully healed oral wounds. Secondly, there are problems related to the diver's mouthpiece. To keep the mouthpiece in place, the mandible has to be forced in a forward position. Holding this position often and for long periods of time, may develop or aggravate temporomandibular dysfunction. Insufficient fit of the mouthpiece may induce oral mucosal lesions. Therefore, it is recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces. It is also recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces for complete dentures wearing divers and for divers with fixed orthodontic appliances.

  2. Escape in Hill's Problem

    Heggie, D C


    This didactic paper is motivated by the problem of understanding how stars escape from globular star clusters. One formulation of this problem is known, in dynamical astronomy, as Hill's problem. Originally intended as a model for the motion of the moon around the earth with perturbations by the sun, with simple modifications it also serves as a model for the motion of a star in a star cluster with perturbations by the galaxy. The paper includes introductory sections on the derivation of the equations of motion of Hill's problem, their elementary properties, and extensions to deal with non-point masses and non-circular orbits. We then show how the rate of escape may be calculated numerically and estimated theoretically, and discuss how this simple picture is modified if the stars in a cluster are also undergoing two-body relaxation. Finally we introduce some established ideas for obtaining the distribution of escape times.

  3. Problem Based Learning

    Paola Cappola


    Full Text Available In this current work, I am proposing a general close examination of Problem Based Learning as a student centered educational method in which a problem constitutes  the starting point of the learning process. Such a method provides students with the suitable knowledge for problem solving and presents numerous and significant differences compared to traditional education.In particular, I analyze the theoretic aspects of problem learning by tracing a history and presenting its structure, clarifying the role of the tutor in the various phases of the learning process. The method has found a wide diffusion since the beginning of the 70s and numerous studies have confirmed the advantages. The effectiveness of PBL is construable and is based on principles of constructivism and cognitivism.

  4. Translating a wicked problem

    Tietjen, Anne; Jørgensen, Gertrud


    In a time of increasing globalisation and urbanisation, shrinking peripheral rural areas have become a truly wicked planning problem in many European countries. Although a problem can be easily perceived and measured by various indicators, the precise definition of the problem is problematic. Based...... on the case of a Danish planning process which was carried out in collaboration with a charitable trust, this paper discusses an emerging strategic planning approach at the municipal level. We use the concept of wicked problems, strategic planning theory and Actor-Network-Theory to study a collaborative......, place-based and project-oriented process directed at concrete physical outcomes. We frame strategic planning as a translation process where the interaction between human and non-human actors translates a unique, complex and contested situation into an innovated situation. We find that local physical...

  5. Problem/science/society

    Dr Jane Gregory


    Full Text Available Framing ‘science and society’ as a conflict has diverted us from more important problems. Our economic environment urges the commercialisation and social acceptance of new technologies, and science communicators and their publics contribute work to these ends. These activities neglect existing, uncontroversial technologies that, in a collaboration between responsible scientists and their publics, could be deployed to address global problems.

  6. The Byzantine Brides Problem

    Dubois, Swan; Zhu, Nini


    We investigate the hardness of establishing as many stable marriages (that is, marriages that last forever) in a population whose memory is placed in some arbitrary state with respect to the considered problem, and where traitors try to jeopardize the whole process by behaving in a harmful manner. On the negative side, we demonstrate that no solution that is completely insensitive to traitors can exist, and we propose a protocol for the problem that is optimal with respect to the traitor containment radius.

  7. The basketball problem

    Schröer, H.

    In basketball there is the problem of hitting a basket at a determined distance and a determined height. The quantities that can be changed during the inclined throw are the initial velocity and the angle of throw. At first we neglect the air resistance. Then we treat the same problem in a medium (liquid, gas) with constant density. We obtain two differential equations. Then we view special cases of the retarding force. There is an english and a german edition.

  8. Distributed Storage Allocation Problems

    Leong, Derek; Dimakis, Alexandros G.; Ho, Tracey


    We investigate the problem of using several storage nodes to store a data object, subject to an aggregate storage budget or redundancy constraint. It is challenging to find the optimal allocation that maximizes the probability of successful recovery by the data collector because of the large space of possible symmetric and nonsymmetric allocations, and the nonconvexity of the problem. For the special case of probability-l recovery, we show that the optimal allocatio...

  9. Adaptive Problem Solving


    the "SAS+-level Changes" section. Many modern heuristics use a technique called "delete- relaxation ". Delete relaxation does not handle counts and...use the same algorithm, representation, and use the same technique to generate their heuristics. The drawback of this is that there is almost problem solving technique , one representation, or one way to create heuristics that works well on all problems/domains. There is a tradeoff

  10. Complexity of some problems concerning L systems

    Jones, Neil D.; Skyum, Sven


    We determine the computational complexity of membership, emptiness and infiniteness for several types ofL systems. TheL systems we consider are ED0L, E0L, EDT0L, and ET0L, with and without empty productions. For each problem and each type of system we establish both upper and lower bounds...... on the time or memory required for solution by Turing machines....

  11. Type-indexed data types

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.


    A polytypic function is a function that can be instantiated on many data types to obtain data type specific functionality. Examples of polytypic functions are the functions that can be derived in Haskell, such as show, read, and ‘==’.More advanced examples are functions for digital searching, patter

  12. Current status and problems of the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus by laparoscopic (Roux-en-Y) gastric bypass surgery%腹腔镜胃旁路手术治疗2型糖尿病的现状及存在问题

    胡友主; 喻海波


    Laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery was proved to be safe, effective and durable in treating obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure was the mainstream approach applied to the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the article, different bariatric procedures were compared in terms of the mechanism, patient selection criteria, treatment effect and postoperative complications. Current status and problems of the surgeries were discussed.%腹腔镜Roux-en-Y分流胃旁路手术在肥胖症及2型糖尿病的外科治疗中已被证明是一种疗效显著、持久的安全手术方式,也是治疗2型糖尿病的主流术式.该文通过几种减肥术式的比较,阐述了该手术的相关机制、患者的选择、疗效及并发症等,并对其现状及存在问题进行了讨论.

  13. Inverse problem in hydrogeology

    Carrera, Jesús; Alcolea, Andrés; Medina, Agustín; Hidalgo, Juan; Slooten, Luit J.


    The state of the groundwater inverse problem is synthesized. Emphasis is placed on aquifer characterization, where modelers have to deal with conceptual model uncertainty (notably spatial and temporal variability), scale dependence, many types of unknown parameters (transmissivity, recharge, boundary conditions, etc.), nonlinearity, and often low sensitivity of state variables (typically heads and concentrations) to aquifer properties. Because of these difficulties, calibration cannot be separated from the modeling process, as it is sometimes done in other fields. Instead, it should be viewed as one step in the process of understanding aquifer behavior. In fact, it is shown that actual parameter estimation methods do not differ from each other in the essence, though they may differ in the computational details. It is argued that there is ample room for improvement in groundwater inversion: development of user-friendly codes, accommodation of variability through geostatistics, incorporation of geological information and different types of data (temperature, occurrence and concentration of isotopes, age, etc.), proper accounting of uncertainty, etc. Despite this, even with existing codes, automatic calibration facilitates enormously the task of modeling. Therefore, it is contended that its use should become standard practice. L'état du problème inverse des eaux souterraines est synthétisé. L'accent est placé sur la caractérisation de l'aquifère, où les modélisateurs doivent jouer avec l'incertitude des modèles conceptuels (notamment la variabilité spatiale et temporelle), les facteurs d'échelle, plusieurs inconnues sur différents paramètres (transmissivité, recharge, conditions aux limites, etc.), la non linéarité, et souvent la sensibilité de plusieurs variables d'état (charges hydrauliques, concentrations) des propriétés de l'aquifère. A cause de ces difficultés, le calibrage ne peut êtreséparé du processus de modélisation, comme c'est le

  14. Ranking Very Many Typed Entities on Wikipedia

    Zaragoza, Hugo; Rode, Henning; Mika, Peter; Atserias, Jordi; Ciaramita, Massimiliano; Attardi, Guiseppe


    We discuss the problem of ranking very many entities of different types. In particular we deal with a heterogeneous set of types, some being very generic and some very specific. We discuss two approaches for this problem: i) exploiting the entity containment graph and ii) using a Web search engine t

  15. The Expansion Postponement in Pure Type Systems



    The expansion postponement problem in Pure Type Systems is an open problem raised by R.Pollack in 1992.In this paper,the author presents a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for this problem and a set of sufficient conditions for it.The author also gives some properties for pure typ systems without the expansion rule.

  16. Pollutant Types

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  17. Multisplitting for linear, least squares and nonlinear problems

    Renaut, R.


    In earlier work, presented at the 1994 Iterative Methods meeting, a multisplitting (MS) method of block relaxation type was utilized for the solution of the least squares problem, and nonlinear unconstrained problems. This talk will focus on recent developments of the general approach and represents joint work both with Andreas Frommer, University of Wupertal for the linear problems and with Hans Mittelmann, Arizona State University for the nonlinear problems.

  18. Comparison of Types of Generalizations and Problem-Solving Schemas Used to Solve a Mathematical Problem

    Hodnik Cadež, Tatjana; Manfreda Kolar, Vida


    A cognitive schema is a mechanism which allows an individual to organize her/his experiences in such a way that a new similar experience can easily be recognised and dealt with successfully. Well-structured schemas provide for the knowledge base for subsequent mathematical activities. A new experience can be assimilated into a previously existing…

  19. A Novel Method for Solving Unbounded Knapsack Problem

    CHEN Rung-Ching; LIN Ming-Hsian


    Knapsack problem is one kind of NP-Complete problem. Unbounded knapsack problems are more complex and harder than general knapsack problem. In this paper, we apply QGAs (Quantum Genetic Algorithms) to solve unbounded knapsack problem and then follow other procedures. First, present the problem into the mode of QGAs and figure out the corresponding genes types and their fitness functions. Then, find the perfect combination of limitation and largest benefit. Finally, the best solution will be found. Primary experiment indicates that our method has well results.

  20. The Steiner tree problem

    Hwang, FK; Winter, P


    The Steiner problem asks for a shortest network which spans a given set of points. Minimum spanning networks have been well-studied when all connections are required to be between the given points. The novelty of the Steiner tree problem is that new auxiliary points can be introduced between the original points so that a spanning network of all the points will be shorter than otherwise possible. These new points are called Steiner points - locating them has proved problematic and research has diverged along many different avenues. This volume is devoted to the assimilation of the rich field of intriguing analyses and the consolidation of the fragments. A section has been given to each of the three major areas of interest which have emerged. The first concerns the Euclidean Steiner Problem, historically the original Steiner tree problem proposed by Jarník and Kössler in 1934. The second deals with the Steiner Problem in Networks, which was propounded independently by Hakimi and Levin and has enjoyed the most...