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Sample records for yam bean sphenostylis

  1. chitwood on African yam bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... African yam bean is a legume and its production has been reported to be ... determined according to standard methods (IITA, 1989). The .... control experiments were the highest-yielding accession, although ..... Handbook of.

  2. Value addition activities and challenges of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa farmers in Enegu state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Iwuchukwu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the value addition practices and challenges of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa farmers in Enugu State of Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was adopted in selecting a total of seventy-two (72 respondents used for the study. Results revealed that all (100% of the respondents processed African yam bean through sun drying, husking/hulling and preservation/storage while about 88.9% of the respondents processed the crop through frying/baking while 87.5% and 70.8% of the respondents indicated they were involved in winnowing and grinding. Lack of basic physical infrastructure (M=2.39, lack/poor technology on processing, preservation etc (2.35, difficulty in accessing loan (M=2.28 and lack of technology/innovation on production of the crop (M=2.28 were among the constraining factors to value addition in African yam bean. It is recommended that policy makers should work towards providing the necessary technology and basic infrastructure to farmers in order to increase their productivity, income and commercialization of this underutilized but important crop. Research efforts are also required to improve its agronomic characteristics and promote its cultivation.

  3. Effect of partial replacement of fishmeal with african yam bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of partial replacement of fishmeal with african yam bean ( Sphenostylis stenocarpa ) meal on eggs, sperm quality and spawning performance of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) broodstock.

  4. Bivariate analysis of the genetic variability among some accessions of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst ex A. RichHarms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Tayo AKINYOSOYE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Variability is an important factor to consider in crop improvement programmes. This study was conducted in two years to assess genetic variability and determine relationship between seed yield, its components and tuber production characters among twelve accessions of African yam bean. Data collected were subjected to combined analysis of variance (ANOVA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, hierarchical and K-means clustering analyses. Results obtained revealed that genotype by year (G × Y interaction had significant effects on some of variables measured (days to first flowering, days to 50 % flowering, number of pod per plant, pod length, seed yield and tuber yield per plant in this study.The first five principal components (PC with Eigen values greater than 1.0 accounted for about 66.70 % of the total variation, where PC1 and PC 2 accounted for 39.48 % of variation and were associated with seed and tuber yield variables. Three heterotic groups were clearly delineated among genotypes with accessions AY03 and AY10 identified for high seed yield and tuber yield respectively. Non-significant relationship that existed between tuber and seed yield per plant of these accessions was recommended for further test in various agro-ecologies for their suitability, adaptability and possible exploitation of heterosis to further improve the accessions.

  5. Growth and yield responses of Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst ex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... The effects of varying levels (0, 110, 220, 330, 440, and 550 kg P/ha) of phosphate application on some growth and yield parameters of African yam bean were studied. Plant dry weight ... of the control treatment, (12.79 g). Grain yield was ... Key word: Fertilizer, phosphate, Sphenostylis stenocarpa, yield.

  6. morphological characterization and variability study of african yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abc

    Characterisation of Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst ex A. Rich) Harms (African yam bean) was carried out to determine the degree ... the differences in the accessions of S.stenocarpa could be explored in breeding programme for improved crop. KEYWORDS: ... programme for AYB would depend on the genetic variability ...

  7. Microbiological and Physicochemical analysis of African yam bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological and Physicochemical analysis of African yam bean Moi Moi stored at. D. O. DOSUNMU, H. O. NJOKU. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjpas.v7i4.16296 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  8. Thermal properties of African yam bean seeds as influenced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The specific heat capacity of African yam bean seeds, measured using copper calorimeter, increased from 2.035 to 2.816 KJ kg-1 k-1, as the moisture content and temperatures increased from 9.6 to 30 % (w.b) and 30 to 50oC respectively. The thermal conductivity of the seed was determined using the line heat source and ...

  9. Formulation and physicochemical characterization of composite flour from yam (Dioscorea alata) and lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Rohmah Fitri; Praseptiangga, Danar; Affandi, Dian Rachmawanti; Atmaka, Windi

    2018-02-01

    Wheat flour consumption in Indonesia increases annually and this condition may threaten the national food security. Moreover, excessive wheat flour consumption also has some negative health effects due to gluten. On the other side, Indonesia is rich in local food sources that have potential to be developed and national food security can be strengthen. Flour production is one of the best alternative ways to be selected as the downstream stage of the tubers and legumes utilization. Yam and lima beans are examples of Indonesian tubers and legumes that could be developed as materials for composite flour production. The objective of this study is to determine the best formula of composite flour from yam and lima beans based on their physicochemical characteristics. Physical and chemical analyses were conducted and completely randomized design was used. Three different formulations were developed. The ratio of yam flour and lima beans flour, which were 85:15 (F1), 70:30 (F2), 55:45 (F3) respectively, were formulated to produce composite flour. The results showed that F1 demonstrated the highest level in oil holding capacity (1.168 ± 0.009 g/g), water absorption (75.553 ± 0.139%), mineral (ash content) (4.054 ± 0.019%), carbohydrate (76.369 ± 0.094%), amylose (29.824 ± 0.003%), antioxidant activity (69.650 ± 0.705%) and total phenolic compound (1.326 ± 0.002%). On the other hand, F2 have the highest starch content (71.772 ± 0.170%) and amylopectin content (42.136 ± 0.175%). While F3 has the brightest color of composite flour (oHue=78.434 ± 0.123), the highest level of swelling ower (7.228 ± 0.127 g/g), water holding capacity (2.293 ± 0.000 g/g), highest protein content (12.928 ± 0.052%), fat (0.782 ± 0.001%), dietary fiber (12.942 ± 0.109%) and resistant starch (17.591 ± 0.111%) respectively. The highest effectiveness index of three formulas was further evaluated by De Garmo analysis. F1 showed the highest effectiveness index (0.533) among three formulas

  10. mechanism for pollination in african yam bean abstract résumé

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Key Words: Emasculation, self incompatibility, underutilised legume, Sphenostylis ... parents) were chosen with extreme values for days ..... and a plant develops as a maternal clone (Melanie ... one direction but are inhibited in the stigma, style.

  11. EMS induced dwarf and high yielding mutant in yam bean (Pachyrrhizus erosus Linn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, G.; Abraham, Susan

    1990-01-01

    The species Pachyrrhizus erosus Linn., commonly known as yam bean, is cultivated in many countries for its edible underground tubers. The young tubers can be eaten raw, cooked, or can be sliced and made into chips. As genetic variability is limited in this species, a mutation breeding programme, using physical and chemical mutagens, was initiated to induce variability in a locally adapted cultivar. Genetically pure seeds were treated with concentrations of EMS ranging from 0.25 to 2%. Evaluation of M 2 raised from 1.25% treatment revealed a dwarf mutant showing a higher yield than the control. This mutant attained a height of 20 cm only in M 3 as against 82 cm in the controls. Though the starch content of the tuber and rotenone content in the seeds were the same as that in the control, protein content was slightly higher and the sugar content slightly less

  12. gge biplot application for adaptability of african yam bean grain yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    However, Ubiaja was most supportive for grain production of AYB. Some of the accessions identified with high yielding, adaptable/stable in the study included. TSs101, TSs111, TSs93, TSs94, TSs57, TSs104B and TSs109. Key Words: Accessions, mega-environment, principal components, Sphenostylis stenocarpa.

  13. Degradation of rotenone in yam bean seeds ( Pachyrhizus sp.) through food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catteau, Lucy; Lautié, Emmanuelle; Koné, Oumou; Coppée, Marie; Hell, Kerstin; Pomalegni, Charles Bertrand; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2013-11-20

    The purpose of this research is to screen different processes that could potentially decrease or even eliminate rotenone, a toxic isoflavonoid, from Pachyrhizus seeds. Yam bean seeds have very interesting nutritional characteristics, especially their high protein and lipid contents, and could potentially increase food security in under-nourished populations. However, they contain rotenone, a natural molecule previously used as an insecticide inhibiting the respiratory mitochondrial chain. It was also proven to be toxic to mammals as chronic exposure leads to the development of Parkinson-like symptoms in rats. As the thermosensitivity of rotenone had been reported, this study tested different processes (drying, roasting, boiling, frying, alcohol extraction), tegument removal, and traditional Beninese culinary recipes. Rotenone was then quantified in end-products by a validated method, associating microwave extraction, solid phase extraction (SPE), and HPLC-UV. With these processes a rotenone removal of up to 80% was obtained. The most effective methods were the drying and roasting of the seeds and the maceration of their flour in local alcohol. Rotenone degradation and elimination were confirmed by cytotoxic assays, effectively inducing a decrease in sample toxicity.

  14. Determination of the chemical and functional properties of yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) flour for food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, Evelyn S; Oduro, Ibok; Plahar, Wisdom A; Tortoe, Charles

    2018-03-01

    Many plant species that are suitable for food across the world are neglected and underutilized. In order to increase their diversified food uses and thus help enhance food and nutrition security, we studied the chemical and functional properties of Pachyrhizus erosus (yam bean), which is a neglected and underutilized legume species. The chemical properties of flour produced from the yam bean include 5.8% moisture content, 5.7% crude fat, 6.2% crude fiber, and 85% available carbohydrate, indicating appropriate shelf-stable flour, low fat, and abundant energy. The results also showed a reducing sugar content of 2.0% and 21.0% starch. Pasting temperature was 70.6°C with peak viscosity of 14.5 BU, which supports ease of cooking of the flour. The swelling power obtained was 752.9 g/100 g at 85°C with a solubility index of 54%. Water holding capacity (WHC) obtained for the flour was 363.88%, whereas swelling volume was 14.0 ml and makes the flour appropriate for the production of infant foods. The P. erosus flour therefore exhibits good functional and chemical properties that would make the flour quite suitable as a substitute for other flours in food systems.

  15. Sphenostylis stenocarpa (ex. A. Rich.) Harms., a Fading Genetic Resource in a Changing Climate: Prerequisite for Conservation and Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamani, Catherine Veronica; Ajayi, Sunday Adesola; Oselebe, Happiness Ogba; Atkinson, Christopher John; Igboabuchi, Anastasia Ngozi; Ezigbo, Eucharia Chizoba

    2017-07-12

    The southeastern part of Nigeria is one of the major hotspots of useful plant genetic resources. These endemic species are associated with a rich indigenous knowledge and cultural diversity in relation to their use and conservation. Sphenostylis stenocarpa ( e x. A. Rich.) Harms., (African Yam Bean (AYB)), is one such crop within the family of Fabaceae. Its nutritional and eco-friendly characteristics have value in ameliorating malnutrition, hidden hunger and environmental degradation inherent in resource-poor rural and semi-rural communities throughout Africa. However, lack of information from the custodians of this crop is limiting its sustainable development. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys on the diversity, uses, and constraints limiting the cultivation and use of the crop in southeastern Nigeria were carried out. Five-hundred respondents were randomly selected and data collected through oral interviews and focused group discussion (FGD). Semi-structured questionnaires (SSQ) were also used to elicit information from a spectrum of AYB users comprising community leaders, farmers, market women and consumers in five States. Results showed that the majority of the respondents lacked formal education and were of the age group of 40-50 years, while the female gender dominated with limited access to land and extension officers. Seed coat colour largely determined utilization. Long cooking time, requirement for staking materials, aging of farmers and low market demand were among the major constraints limiting further cultivation and utilization of AYB. In-situ conservation was by hanging dried fruits by the fireside, beside the house, storing in earthenware, calabash gourds, cans and bottles. It is concluded that there is urgent need to scale up conservation through robust linkages between contemporary scientific domains and indigenous peoples in order to harness and incorporate the rich indigenous knowledge in local communities for enhanced scientific knowledge

  16. Sphenostylis stenocarpa (ex. A. Rich. Harms., a Fading Genetic Resource in a Changing Climate: Prerequisite for Conservation and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Veronica Nnamani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The southeastern part of Nigeria is one of the major hotspots of useful plant genetic resources. These endemic species are associated with a rich indigenous knowledge and cultural diversity in relation to their use and conservation. Sphenostylis stenocarpa (ex. A. Rich. Harms., (African Yam Bean (AYB, is one such crop within the family of Fabaceae. Its nutritional and eco-friendly characteristics have value in ameliorating malnutrition, hidden hunger and environmental degradation inherent in resource-poor rural and semi-rural communities throughout Africa. However, lack of information from the custodians of this crop is limiting its sustainable development. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys on the diversity, uses, and constraints limiting the cultivation and use of the crop in southeastern Nigeria were carried out. Five-hundred respondents were randomly selected and data collected through oral interviews and focused group discussion (FGD. Semi-structured questionnaires (SSQ were also used to elicit information from a spectrum of AYB users comprising community leaders, farmers, market women and consumers in five States. Results showed that the majority of the respondents lacked formal education and were of the age group of 40–50 years, while the female gender dominated with limited access to land and extension officers. Seed coat colour largely determined utilization. Long cooking time, requirement for staking materials, aging of farmers and low market demand were among the major constraints limiting further cultivation and utilization of AYB. In-situ conservation was by hanging dried fruits by the fireside, beside the house, storing in earthenware, calabash gourds, cans and bottles. It is concluded that there is urgent need to scale up conservation through robust linkages between contemporary scientific domains and indigenous peoples in order to harness and incorporate the rich indigenous knowledge in local communities for enhanced scientific

  17. Infectivity and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infectivity and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood on African yam bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst Ex. A. Rich) Harms accessions as influenced by botanical soil amendments.

  18. African yam bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... seeds of this crop have been determined (Okigbo, 1973; ... 62%, K2O per unit weight of muriate of potash (Beegle, 1990). ... determined. Plant dry weight was determined after drying to constant weight at 70°C. Yield parameters namely: length and number of reproductive branches, length of pod, days to 50 ...

  19. ATIVIDADE ENZIMÁTICA DE MICRORGANISMOS ISOLADOS DO JACATUPÉ (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM YAM BEAN LEGUME (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia L. Montenegro STAMFORD

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available O isolamento e a identificação de microrganismos produtores de enzimas de interesse comercial, utilizando tubérculos de jacatupé (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban, foi o objetivo principal deste trabalho. Isolaram-se microrganismos endofíticos e epifíticos identificados por observação micromorfológica. A avaliação da atividade enzimática das linhagens foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar. As sessenta e oito linhagens isoladas dos tubérculos de jacatupé foram cultivadas em meio sólido específico para amilase, lipase, protease e celulase por 96h a 280 C. Os microrganismos epifíticos encontrados foram Pithomyces (7,3%, Aspergillus (19,2%, Fusarium (5,9% e Trichoderma (5,8%, e os endofíticos foram Mucor (7,3%, Rhizopus (10,3%, Bacillus (19,0%, Staphylococcus (10,3% e Nocardiopsis (15%. As linhagens de Nocardiopsis sp. apresentaram atividade lipolítica superior à do padrão, porém a atividade amilolítica não apresentou diferença significativa comparada com o padrão. As linhagens de Mucor sp., Pithomyces sp. e Staphylococcus sp. produziram atividade proteolítica abaixo do padrão. Nenhum isolado apresentou atividade celulolítica.The isolation and identification of microorganisms that produce enzyme of commercial interest utilizing tubers of yam bean legume (Pachyrrizus erosus L. Urban was the main objective of this work. Endophytic and epiphytic microorganisms were isolated by micromorphologyc observation. The agar diffusion method was used to determine the enzymatic activity. Sixty-eight isolates from yam bean tubers were cultured at 280 C in solid medium specific to amylase, lipase, protease and cellulase for 96h. The epiphytic microorganisms Pithomyces (7,3%, Aspergillus (19,2%, Fusarium (5,9% and Trichoderma (5,8% and the endophytic microorganisms Mucor (7,3%, Rhizopus (10,3% Bacillus (19%, Staphylococcus (10,3% and Nocardiopsis (15% were isolated. Compared to the specific standard culture Nocardiopsis sp. showed

  20. Organoleptic properties and perception of maize, African yam bean, and defatted coconut flour-based breakfast cereals served in conventional forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Grace Ojali; Okafor, Gabriel Ifeanyi

    2016-09-01

    Breakfast cereals were produced by roasting (t = 280°C) - a dry heat treatment process to gelatinize and semidextrinize the starch - in order to generate dry ready-to-eat products from blends of African yam bean (AYB), maize (M), and defatted coconut (DC) flour. Six samples were generated by mixing AYB and maize composite flour with graded levels of DC flour (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%) to obtain the following ratios; 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 50:50 that were added equal quantities of sugar, salt, sorghum malt extract, and water. The obtained products were served dry (without added fluid), with water, milk, and warm milk to 15 panelists along with Weetabix Original (commercial control) to evaluate color, consistency, flavor, taste, aftertaste, mouth feel, and overall acceptability using a nine-point hedonic scale (1 = dislike extremely, 9 = like extremely). The results revealed that the samples were acceptable to the panelists. There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences, between the control (Weetabix) and the formulated samples in terms of overall acceptability, when served with water, whereas significant differences (P fiber-rich sources that could be consumed dry, with water, milk, or warm milk.

  1. Influence of bacterial N-acyl-homoserinelactones on growth parameters, pigments, antioxidative capacities and the xenobiotic phase II detoxification enzymes in barley and yam bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eGoetz-Roesch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria are able to communicate with each other and sense their environment in a population density dependent mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS. N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs are the QS signalling compounds of Gram-negative bacteria which are frequent colonizers of rhizospheres. While cross-kingdom signalling and AHL-dependent gene expression in plants has been confirmed, the responses of enzyme activities in the eukaryotic host upon AHLs are unknown. Since AHL are thought to be used as so-called plant boosters or strengthening agents, which might change their resistance towards radiation and/or xenobiotic stress, we have examined the plants’ pigment status and their antioxidative and detoxifying capacities upon AHL treatment. Because the yield of a crop plant should not be negatively influenced, we have also checked for growth and root parameters.We investigated the influence of three different AHLs, namely N-hexanoyl- (C6-HSL, N-octanoyl- (C8-HSL and N-decanoyl- homoserine lactone (C10-HSL on two agricultural crop plants. The AHL-effects on Hordeum vulgare (L. as an example of a monocotyledonous crop and on the tropical leguminous crop plant Pachyrhizus erosus (L were compared. While plant growth and pigment contents in both plants showed only small responses to the applied AHLs, AHL treatment triggered tissue- and compound-specific changes in the activity of important detoxification enzymes. The activity of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR in barley shoots after C10-HSL treatment for instance increased up to 384% of control plant levels, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in barley roots was decreased down to 23% of control levels upon C6-HSL treatment. Other detoxification enzymes reacted similarly within this range, with interesting clusters of positive or negative answers towards AHL treatment. In general the changes on the enzyme level were more severe in barley than in yam bean which might be due to the different

  2. Influence of In vitro Digestion on Antioxidative Activity of Coconut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: CMPHs are high value-added antioxidants and possess a potential ..... side chain groups were expected to be exposed, ..... enzymatic digestion on antioxidant activity of coffee ... yam bean seed (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) protein.

  3. Estimation of genetic diversity of the Kenyan yam (Dioscorea spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MUTHAMIA

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... The botany, ethnobotany, use and possible future of yams in West Africa. Econ. Bot. 26:301-318. Beebe S, Sckroch PW, Tohme J, Duque MC, Pedraza F, Nienhuis J. (2000). Structure of genetic diversity among common bean landraces of Middle American origin based on correspondence analysis of. RAPD ...

  4. Quantitative replacement of soybean meal with toasted African yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the result, one can conclude that 25% AYB (treatment II) compared favourably with the control diets 0% AYB in starter broiler diets and is hereby recommended as optimal for quantitative replacement of soybean in broiler starter diet. Key words: Broiler Starter diet, African Yam Bean, Soyabean replacement ...

  5. Nutrient improvement of yam pottage meal using African yam bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AYB) seeds were purchased from Orba International market, Udenu LGA of Enugu State, Nigeria. About 300g of the seeds were weighed, washed in distilled water, drained and roasted in an aluminium roasting bowl (Agbada) until cracking set in.

  6. Incidence of Viral Diseases and Occurrence of Three Unreported Viruses in Yams in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong-Hwan Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During 2012 to 2014, a survey for the presence of viral diseases in yam plants was carried out in a field of the Institute for Bioresources Research in Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea. A total of 88 leaf samples were collected and tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using specific primer sets. Eighty-one samples were positive for Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2, Chinese yam necrotic mosaic virus (ChYNMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Japanese yam mosaic virus (JYMV, and Yam mild mosaic virus (YMMV, whereas Yam mosaic virus (YMV was not detected. Additionally, seven samples were negative for all viruses. Several samples exhibited mixed (double and triple infections. Three viruses (CMV, JYMV, and YMMV were detected for the first time in yam plants in Korea. A BLAST search showed that three viruses shared nucleotide identities with CMV-Ca (98%, JYMV-O2 (91%, and YMMV-TG_NH_1 (86%. Thus, our findings confirmed that yam plants cultivated in Korea were infected with multiple viruses with three of these viruses reported for the first time in Korea.

  7. Preservation of yams by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansa, D.; Appiah, V.

    1999-01-01

    Loss of yam in storage due to sprouting is very high. There is the need to investigate the possibility of inhibiting the sprouting of local varieties of yams using gamma radiation. The effect of radiation on the storage yams and the functionality of the irradiated yams in the Ghanaian food system was studied. Yams were purchased from a farm in Nkwanta. Some of the yams were irradiated at an average dose of 120 Gy and a dose rate of 114 Gy/hr. The irradiated yams were stored alongside unirradiated controls in a specially constructed barn and on the ground as is traditionally done by the farmers at ambient temperature for 6 months. The stored yams were processed into some local food products, namely, boiled yam, fried yam and fufu and sensory evaluation carried out on them using the Hedonic Scale Test and analysed by Analysis of variance. Results indicated that all the unirradiated yams sprouted by the 3rd month of storage. 6.2% of the irradiated yams stored on the barn and 18.0% of those stored on the ground sprouted. 2.26% irradiated and 8.0% unirradiated yams stored on the barn compared to 22.0% and 12.0% respectively of the yams stored on the ground got rotten within the storage period. Food products made from irradiated yams were preferred to those made from the unirradiated yams in terms of texture, taste, colour and general acceptability. The results suggest that gamma radiation dose of 120 Gy effectively inhibited the sprouting of yams for 6 months under tropical ambient conditions. There was less rotting in the yams stored in the barn compared to those stored on the ground. There was also less rotting in the irradiated yams stored in the barn in comparison with the unirradiated ones. Food products made from irradiated yams were judged better in quality than those made from the unirradiated ones. (au)

  8. Preservation of yams by gamma radiation | Bansa | Journal of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Loss of yam in storage due to sprouting is very high. There is the need to investigate the possibility of inhibiting the sprouting of local varieties of yams using gamma radiation. The effect of radiation on the storage yams and the functionality of the irradiated yams in the Ghanaian food system was studied. Yams were ...

  9. Plant Products Research Journal - Vol 15 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Host-Parasite Relationship Between African Yam Bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst. Ex. A. Rich) Harms Accessions and Meloidogyne ... Effect of Processing on the Elemental Composition of Selected Leafy Vegetables · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameh, GI. Vol 10 (2006) - Articles Crassulacean acid metabolism in some succulent plants. Abstract · Vol 10 (2006) - Articles Growth analysis studies of some accessions of African yam bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hoechst, ex. A. Rich.) Harms Abstract. ISSN: 1119-2283. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  11. Journal of Aquatic Sciences - Vol 29, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of partial replacement of fishmeal with african yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) meal on eggs, sperm quality and spawning performance of African ... Anaesthetic Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate and its Effects on the Blood Parameters of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) · EMAIL FULL TEXT ...

  12. Nigerian Food Journal - Vol 29, No 2 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Proximate and Functional Properties of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis sternocarpa) Seeds as Affected by Processing · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JN Nwosu, I Ahaotu, C Ayozie, LO Udeozor, NN Ahaotu ...

  13. Heterogeneity in the seed globulin and albumin fractions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Successful fractionation of albumin, globulin and vicilin fractions from dry seeds of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) was achieved using established procedures for preparation of legume seed proteins. The resulting polypeptides were separated by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under both reducing ...

  14. Yam ( Dioscorea spp.) molecular breeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some progress has been made in recent years in germplasm characterization and the development of molecular markers for genome analysis. A genetic linkage map based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers has been constructed for Guinea and water yams. These linkage maps were used to scan ...

  15. Yam (Dioscorea spp.) molecular breeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    identifying candidate loci controlling agronomic traits in yam is by the application of the cDNA/AFLP technique, which generates polymorphic transcript derived fragments (TDFs) between the parents of a mapping cross. Once candidate genes have been identified, they can be employed in gene tagging and QTL mapping.

  16. The day of the yam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, A

    Yam, the staple food in several tropical countries, is a good source of the steroid used in the manufacture of the pill and other sex hormone preparations -- saponin diosgenin. In the early days of production of oral contraceptives (OCs), most yams were gathered from the wild in Mexico. The type richest in steroids takes 3 years to mature and its cultivation has become something of an art. Yams grow best in light, well-drained soil, and for this reason are grown in mounds which have been heavily manured. Propagation is by planting the tops or heads or by small portions of the tuber which is a swollen shoot. Other varieties are planted before the onset of the rains and the crop harvested about 8 months later. In 1970 the Mexican government nationalized the yam industry as a safeguard. This pushed up prices and the drug companies looked elsewhere for a cheap source. Although Mexico still remains the principal grower, India, South Africa, and the Far East supply the industry with plant origin steroids. As more than 90% of the hefty yam tubers consist of water, well over 100,000 tons have to be harvested every year to provide the 600-700 tons of the saponin diosgenin used by the drug companies. In China, where Western corticosteroids are regarded as too expensive for the barefoot doctors, several species of yam are used. Research has been going on to find another source of diosgenin and the most promising seems to be fenugreek, Trigonella foenumgraecum. "Foenum graecum" is Latin for Greek hay and was used by the early Greeks as a culinary and medicinal herb throughout the Mediterranean area. The richness of fenugreek was used to improve the roundness of women's breasts and to stimulate the flow of milk. Bath University has spent 10 years researching the development of a species of fenugreek which will yield large amounts of diosgenin. A certain amount of steroids come from animal sources. Such steroids are given when there is an adverse reaction from the

  17. Sphenostylis stenocarpa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    With increase in world population of humans, food security and its ..... conservation and breeding. Gen. Res. ... Towards the synthesis of graphene azide from graphene oxide. Mol. ... heavy metals in serpentine soil using biochar. J. Soi. Sedim.

  18. Design and construction of a yam pounding machine | Odior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yam is a daily nutritional food requirement for man and in order to facilitate the processing of yam for consumption, a yam pounding machine has been developed using mainly some locally sourced materials. The machine consists of a shaft, pulleys, belt, bearings, electric motor, yam beaters, bowl and the frame.

  19. Utilization of mutagenesis for improvement of yam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokpa, G.

    1997-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is an important vegetable crop in tropical countries of Africa, the Caribbean, South Africa, and South East Asia. The tubers which contain 2-3 times more protein than sweet potato, cassava and plantain, constitute a major staple food for about 200 million people in West Africa. This are contributes 96% to the world production of yam. The goals of this mutation breeding program is to obtain from selected yam varieties, plants are are tolerant to viruses or to mealy bugs, are erect or semi-erect in habit (bushy architecture), are able to grow without staking and have a short growing season. 17 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  20. Utilization of mutagenesis for improvement of yam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokpa, G [IDESSA, Inst. des Savanes, Dept. des Cultures Vivrieres, Bouake (Cote d` Ivoire)

    1997-12-01

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is an important vegetable crop in tropical countries of Africa, the Caribbean, South Africa, and South East Asia. The tubers which contain 2-3 times more protein than sweet potato, cassava and plantain, constitute a major staple food for about 200 million people in West Africa. This are contributes 96% to the world production of yam. The goals of this mutation breeding program is to obtain from selected yam varieties, plants are are tolerant to viruses or to mealy bugs, are erect or semi-erect in habit (bushy architecture), are able to grow without staking and have a short growing season. 17 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Viruses in weeds in Dioscorea yam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    East, Central and Southern Africa (FAOSTAT,. 2009) ... This study was conducted in the Guinea Savanna zone, which is the ... Weed hosts of yam viruses in the wet season of 2009 in northern Nigeria .... be due to differences in the surrounding.

  2. Atuação de Acidithiobacillus na solubilização de fosfato natural em solo de tabuleiro cultivado com jacatupé (Pachyrhizus erosus Effect of Acidithiobacillus on solubilization of natural phosphate in a coastal tableland soil under yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Stamford

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação para avaliar a atuação do enxofre (S inoculado com Acidithiobacillus na disponibilidade de fósforo (P de fosfato natural (FN, em diferentes modos de aplicação do fertilizante, em um Espodossolo Ferrocárbico Órtico, do tabuleiro costeiro da Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, cultivado com jacatupé (Pachyrhizus erosus. As plantas foram inoculadas com rizóbio (NFB 747 e NFB 748 e adicionado tratamento-controle sem inoculação com rizóbio. Os tratamentos com P foram: (1 FN revestindo o enxofre inoculado com Acidithiobacillus (FN S*, (2 FN revestido com S e com Acidithiobacillus (S* FN, (3 mistura FN com S e com Acidithiobacillus (FN + S*, (4 mistura FN com S e sem Acidithiobacillus (FN + S, (5 superfosfato triplo (ST e (6 sem aplicação de fósforo (P0. Os tratamentos foram aplicados: (a na superfície, (b em sulco 10 cm abaixo da semente, e (c em sulco 10 cm abaixo e ao lado da semente. A biomassa nodular foi maior no tratamento (FN + S* com melhor efeito quando aplicado ao lado e abaixo das sementes. O (FN + S* também aumentou a altura das plantas, a biomassa da parte aérea e das túberas e o N total da parte aérea, especialmente quando aplicado 10 cm abaixo das sementes. O P total da parte aérea foi mais elevado com (S* FN aplicado 10 cm abaixo das sementes. Os melhores teores de P no solo foram obtidos com (FN + S* e (S* FN, com efeito mais evidente quando aplicados 10 cm abaixo das sementes.A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of sulphur (S inoculated with Acidithiobacillus on phosphorus (P availability from natural phosphate (NP using different fertilizer application methods on yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus grown in a "Tableland Forest" soil (Podzol Hydromorphic dystrophic of the "Zona da Mata" in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Plants were inoculated with rhizobia strains (NFN 747 and NFB 748 and control treatments added without rhizobia inoculation. The P

  3. Impact of yam mosaic virus (YMV) on tuber yield of white yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of Yam mosaic virus (YMV) on tuber yield of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) in the forest zone of Ghana was assessed under controlled environment and in the field at Kumasi, Ghana. Two field trials were carried out in 2001 and 2002. The experiment under controlled environment was conducted in 2003.

  4. Assessment of the genetic diversity of African yam bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest level of polymorphism (100%) was recorded for two primer combinations (E-AAC/M-CAG and E-ACT/M-CAG). The results of cluster analysis using UPGMA tree, grouped the 40 accessions of AYB into two major clusters with an overall similarity of 67.5%. The level of similarity between the accessions spanned ...

  5. Economics of Mini tuber Seed Yam Production Technique in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marcel

    Socio-economic studies on yam production conducted in Nigeria include Lageman (1977) .... the profitability of the mini tuber seed yam production technique as a guide .... production (with particular reference to Root Crops in the West Indies).

  6. extension communication and farmers' adoption of yam production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ita

    training on seed yam multiplication and small size nature of yam minisett, while ... contact farmers, posters, bulletins and radio served as sources of information to ... KEY WORDS: Adoption, Communication, Channels, Extension, Production, ...

  7. Molecular Characterization of Cocoa, Mango, Banana and Yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular Characterization of Cocoa, Mango, Banana and Yam Isolates of Botryodiplodia theobromae in Ghana. ... A total of 25 fungal isolates were sampled from cocoa, mango, banana and yam within four ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  8. Determinants of marketing efficiency of yam market in Umuahia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of marketing efficiency of yam market in Umuahia North Local Government Area of Abia ... The study analyzed the determinants of yam marketing in Umuahia North Local ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  9. influence of socio-economic characteristics of yam sellers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fff

    Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension,. Faculty of .... economic characteristics of the yam wholesalers and their influence(s) on the marketing margin of on yam trade. ..... Essentials of Agricultural Economics. University of. Ibadan ...

  10. Yam Storability and Economic Benefits of Storage Under the Modern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines yam storability and the economic benefits of storage under the modern (underground) and the traditional (yam barn) storage technologies in Southeastern Nigeria. Data were collected mainly from 55 respondents who were interviewed, as well as from measurement of storage parameters on yam ...

  11. Effect of storage on the pasting characteristics of yam tubers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Storage of yam tubers is an age long practice in yam growing communities of West Africa, while pasting characteristic is an important indicator of potential utilization of yam tubers. The study was carried out to investigate effect of storage of the tubers on their pasting characteristics. Six varieties each of D. alata and D.

  12. Seed yam demand and supply gap in Ghana: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined seed yam supply and demand across four yam producing districts in Ghana. Primary data were obtained from 108 yam farmers who were selected through a multistage random sampling approach. Data collection was done through personal interviews with the use of standardised structured ...

  13. Quality Evaluation of Unripe Plantain and Water Yam Composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rheological and sensory properties of unripe plantain and water yam selected cooked paste blends were investigated. Flour samples (unripe plantain and water yam flours) and the selected blends 90:10 (C), 80:20 (D) and 50:50 (E); water yam flour-WYF: (unripe plantain flour-UPF) were produced from oven dried unripe ...

  14. Agri-Business coordination: A Systems Approach To Yam And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of the study is to examine the “Systems Approach” to yam and cassava marketing in Bende agricultural Zone of Abia State, Nigeria. Data were collected from sixty (60) yam and cassava marketers randomly selected from two popular yam and cassava marketers in the local government area.

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND YIELD OF WHITE YAM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ar1:|neat of Crop Science, Mainezere University,. P.O. Box 7062 .... staking treatment, plants were staked 42 and 56 days after transplanting (DAT) in 1985 and 1986, respectively. Experimental measurements. Crop growth was ... Weekly mean soil temperature (°C) in yam minisetts grown underdifierent mulching materials.

  16. Proximate, Antinutrients and Mineral Composition of Raw and Processed (Boiled and Roasted) Sphenostylis stenocarpa Seeds from Southern Kaduna, Northwest Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndidi, Uche Samuel; Ndidi, Charity Unekwuojo; Olagunju, Abbas; Muhammad, Aliyu; Billy, Francis Graham; Okpe, Oche

    2014-01-01

    This research was aimed at evaluating the proximate composition, level of anti-nutrients, and the mineral composition of raw and processed Sphenostylis stenocarpa seeds and at examining the effect of processing on the parameters. From the proximate composition analysis, the ash content showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the processed and unprocessed (raw) samples. However, there was significant difference (P < 0.05) in the levels of moisture, crude lipid, nitrogen-free extract, gross energy, true protein, and crude fiber between the processed and unprocessed S. stenocarpa. Analyses of the antinutrient composition show that the processed S. stenocarpa registered significant reduction in levels of hydrogen cyanide, trypsin inhibitor, phytate, oxalate, and tannins compared to the unprocessed. Evaluation of the mineral composition showed that the level of sodium, calcium, and potassium was high in both the processed and unprocessed sample (150–400 mg/100 g). However, the level of iron, copper, zinc, and magnesium was low in both processed and unprocessed samples (2–45 mg/100 g). The correlation analysis showed that tannins and oxalate affected the levels of ash and nitrogen-free extract of processed and unprocessed seeds. These results suggest that the consumption of S. stenocarpa will go a long way in reducing the level of malnutrition in northern Nigeria. PMID:24967265

  17. effects of serial planting of seed yam tubers on virus incidence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    FCT) were used in the study. Harvested seed yams were tested for Yam mosaic virus (YMV), Yam mild mottle .... free yam leaves were used for the negative control, while extracts from ..... Development of farmer based seed systems for healthy ...

  18. The Problems of Bulk-Selling Yams in Harvest and Poverty of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    harvest and poverty of yam farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The main ... size of 300 yam farmers and yam business men and women. ... Results from this study show that poor ... the people account for the bulk-selling of yams in the study area. The study .... Benin Republic, Togo and Ghana etc, fifty (50) to Eight (80) percent of.

  19. multilocational evaluation of white yam genotypes using gge bi-plot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    KEYWORDS: Yams, multi-environment trial. GGE biplot, mega-enviroments. INTRODUCTION. The yams are important food crop in Nigeria supplying many with cheap caloric-energy food form. Among the yams, the white yam, Dioscorea rotundata is the most widely cultivated and is believed to be indigenous to West Africa, ...

  20. Production of yam mosaic virus monoclonal antibodies in mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... 4AVRDC-The World Vegetable Center, Shanhua, Taiwan. Accepted 11 August, 2011. Yam mosaic virus (YMV) ... leaves and non-infected tissue culture yam leaves. The antibody produced had a titre of ... systems for in-vitro production of monoclonal antibodies, such as standard tissue culture techniques,.

  1. Farmers' perception of the effect of climate change on yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority (63.0%) reported that unpredictable nature of the sun intensity, temperature, rainfall and relative humility negatively affect yam production. Sixty three percent of the respondents had favourable perception of climate change towards their yam production while thirty seven percent of the respondents did not have ...

  2. Yam diseases and its management in Nigeria | Amusa | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dry rot of yams alone causes a marked reduction in the quantity, marketable value and edible portions of tubers and those reductions are more severe in stored yams. The management strategies adopted and advocated for combating the field diseases includes the use of crop rotation, fallowing, planting of healthy material, ...

  3. Antioxidative ability, dioscorin stability, and the quality of yam chips from various yam species as affected by processing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y-M; Lin, K-W

    2009-03-01

    The antioxidative ability, stability of storage protein dioscorin, and the quality of fried yam chips from different cultivars of Chinese yams influenced by various processing treatments were investigated. Total phenolic content and DPPH free radical scavenging effect were found to be the highest in Mingchien (MC) and the lowest in Keelung (KL) yam. Following processing, freeze-dried yams of all varieties showed the least decrease in total phenolic compounds and DPPH radical scavenging effect, while boiling caused the greatest decrease in both. Fresh yams of all varieties contained the highest dioscorin contents comparing with their counterparts. Boiling and deep-frying caused severe protein denaturation resulting in loss of dioscorin solubility after purification. Freeze-drying resulted in increase in protein surface hydrophobicity (So); nonetheless, it attained higher total phenol content, antioxidative capacity, and dioscorin stability of yams compared with other processing treatments. The peroxide values of all yam chips increased during the initial stage, then declined with advanced storage. Fracturability of all yam chips gradually decreased, due to the absorption of moisture, with increasing storage time.

  4. Influence of plastic mulch on damage and yield of yam tuber by yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design with three treatments: black plastic mulch, white plastic mulch and as unprotected control plot which were replicated three times. Data collected were, the number, depth and diameter of feeding holes on yam tuber (Dioscorea rotundata cv adaka), tuber yield and percentage yield increase over control as well as ...

  5. Effect of pre-plant treatments of yam (Dioscorea rotundata setts on the production of healthy seed yam, seed yam storage and consecutive ware tuber production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Olufunmilayo Claudius-Cole

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous pests and diseases of yams are perpetuated from season to season through the use of infected seed material. Developing a system for generating healthy seed material would disrupt this disease cycle and reduce losses in field and storage. The use of various pre-plant treatments was evaluated in field experiments carried out at three sites in Nigeria. Yam tubers of four preferred local cultivars were cut into 100 g setts and treated with pesticide (fungicide + insecticide mixture, neem extract (1 : 5 w/v, hot water (20 min at 53 °C or wood ash (farmers practice and compared with untreated setts. Pesticide treated setts sprouted better than all other treatments and generally led to lower pest and disease damage of yam tubers. Pesticide treatment increased tuber yields over most treatments, depending on cultivar, but effectively doubled the production as compared to the control. Pesticide and hot water treated setts produced the healthiest seed yams, which had lower storage losses than tubers from other treatments. These pre-treated seed yams produced higher yields corresponding to 700 % potential gain compared to the farmers usual practice. Treatments had no obvious influence on virus incidence, although virus-symptomatic plants yielded significantly less than nonsymptomatic plants. This study demonstrated that pre-plant treatment of setts with pesticide is a simple and effective method that guarantees more, heavier and healthier seed yam tubers.

  6. Consumers' preferences for fresh yam: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlagne, Carla; Cornet, Denis; Blazy, Jean-Marc; Diman, Jean-Louis; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry

    2017-01-01

    In West and Central Africa and in the Caribbean, yam is one of the most important sources of carbohydrates and has a great potential to improve food security. The yam production sector is, however, now challenged by the satisfaction of evolving consumers' preferences. Since little is known about consumers' preferences regarding yams' characteristics, product quality, and the drivers of yam purchase, six focus group discussions were conducted (for a total of 31 participants). Among the purchasing criteria, price was considered more important than the others. It was followed by the external damage, the origin, and the size of the tuber. The most frequently cited consumption criteria were the taste, the texture, and color of flesh after cooking. Taste was considered more important than the other criteria. Three consumers' profiles were established reflecting heterogeneity in preferences, especially as concerns the willingness to pay for yam and consumption habits. They were designated as the Hedonistic, the Thrifty and the Flexible. Our results suggest that innovations can be implemented to sustain and stimulate the development of the yam sector in Guadeloupe. Two main development paths were identified. The first path is the valorization of the great existing diversity of yam varieties and the increase in the level of information for consumers about product attributes such as the cooking mode, the origin, and the mode of production. Building a marketing strategy based on the valorization of this diversity can help maintain and preserve yam's agro-biodiversity and the satisfaction of rapidly evolving consumption habits. The second path is the definition of yam ideotypes that suit consumers' needs. We expect that tailoring the production to consumers' needs will have a positive impact on global food security in the Caribbean region.

  7. EFFECT OF YAM STORAGE TECHNIQUES USAGE ON FARM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    1Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Faculty of ... significant effect on the usage of yam storage techniques, while access to credit ..... study area at subsidized rates so as to encourage them to use such techniques.

  8. Economics of yam marketing in Umuahia, Abia state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics of yam marketing in Umuahia, Abia state, Nigeria. ... N C Ehirim, C S Onyemauwa, E Ikheloa, I E Umezurumba ... with cost of changing form, place and adding time utilities accounting for about 76.8% variations in marketing margin.

  9. Performance of yam microtubers from temporary immersion system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... Irrigation and other cultural practices were developed following the. Yam Technical ... plants in their natural habitat and cleaning obtained through tissue .... Internacional de Recursos Fitogeneticos , Roma, Italia. Jova et al.

  10. effect of climate on yam tuberization in the guinea savanna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    The response of yam tuber development to its micro-climate was monitored at the National. Centre for Agricultural .... when the sky isusually overcast by a low cumulus cloud thus blocking the earth surface from direct impact of solar radiation.

  11. Sensory evaluation of amala from improved water yam (Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... Production of improved water yam (Dioscorea alata) genotypes that are .... 25% grey ... The colour shades of the prepared (cooked) amala .... 41-50. Ukpabi UJ, Omodamiro RM (2007). Potential use of polyethylene film in.

  12. Small Yams, Big Deal; Name pequeno, grandes posibilidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, Sasha [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Public Information, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-09-15

    The Dioscorea esculenta, or Chinese Yam as it's called in Ghana, is one of the smallest varieties still in existence. It's being affected by the destruction of natural ecosystems, as well as socio-economic changes.

  13. Economic Analysis Of Yam Marketing In Obubra Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Analysis Of Yam Marketing In Obubra Local Government Area Of Cross River State, Nigeria. ... Characteristics of the sellers, marketing channels, marketing margin and efficiency were also ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  14. Economic Analyses of Ware Yam Production in Orlu Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Analyses of Ware Yam Production in Orlu Agricultural Zone of Imo State. ... International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development ... statistics, gross margin analysis, marginal analysis and multiple regression analysis. Results ...

  15. Profit inefficiency and its determinants among yam producers in Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farm profit inefficiency in yam production in Imo State, Nigeria was estimated using stochastic translog profit frontier model. The mean output of yam producers was 10.3tons/ha, while the mean level of profit inefficiency was 63.7 percent with a wide range of 23.41 – 94.23 percent. Mean loss of profit was N76061 per hectare.

  16. Effects of Curing and Humidity on the Storage Stability of Yams (D ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experimental study was made of the hygroscopic characteristics as well as the response of yam (D.SPP) tuber to a curing treatment prior to storage. The results indicate that the yam tuber possesses a sigmoidal isotherm dominated by the local isotherm LI – II. The yam tissue responds favorably to proper curing ...

  17. NUTRITIONAL AND ANTINUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF WILD YAM (Dioscorea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerabahu Ramasamy Mohan

    2011-05-01

    The wild yam tubers consumed by the tribes Kanikkars / Palliyars of South- Eastern slopes of Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu (Dioscorea alata, D. bulbifera var vera, D. esculenta, D. oppositifolia var dukhumensis, D.oppositifolia var. oppositifolia, D. pentaphylla var. pentaphylla, D. spicata, D. tomentosa and D. wallichi were evaluated for its nutritional quality. From the present investigation, it is observed that most of the wild edible yams were found to be a good source of protein, lipid, crude fibre, starch, vitamins and minerals. Antinutritional substances like total free phenolics, tannins, hydrogen cyanide, total oxalate, amylase and trypsin inhibitor activities were quantified. Â

  18. [Study on Rapid Micropropagation in Vitro Technique of Guangfeng Medicinal Yam (Dioscorea opposita) Plantlets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ming-Hua; Xu, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Sheng-qin; Lv, Si-Jie; Zeng, Yan-hong; Fu, You-zhang; Hong, Sen-rong

    2015-11-01

    In order to provide methodology reference for virus-free and germplasm conservation of Guangfeng medicinal yam (Dioscorea opposita) plantlets, rapid micropropagation in vitro technique of Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets was studied. Using the method of plant tissue culture, single factor test and flow-cytometry, the basic procedure of Guangfeng medicinal yam tissue culture was established and the DNA content of Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets and its potted seedlings was detected. The best disinfection procedure of stems with a bud of Guangfeng medicinal yam was washed with sterile water for three times after sterilized with 70% alcohol for 20 - 30 s and then washed with sterile water for three times again after sterilized with 0.1% mercuric chloride for 10 - 12 min; The best explants of stems with a bud of Guangfeng medicinal yam was slightly woody and more mature stems witha bud; The best proliferation culture medium of stems with a bud of Guangfeng medicinal yam was MS + 6-BA 2.0 mg/L + NAA 0.1 mg/L; The best rooting culture medium of stems with a bud of Guangfeng medicinal yam was MS + NAA 0.5 mg/L; The best culture method of Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets was liquid culture; The best transplanting matrix of Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets was the mixture of paddy clay and fine sand (1: 2) or the mixture of perlite and vermiculite (1: 2); The DNA content between Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets and its potted seedlings had no significant difference. A fast and efficient micropropagation in vitro technological system of stems with a bud of Guangfeng medicinal yam is established, and the flow cytometry detect results also show the genetic stability of Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets, whose results provide the technical and theoretical basis for the large-scale production of Guangfeng medicinal yam plantlets.

  19. Germination of beans and snap beans seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Milan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate germination of good bean seed of the variety Galeb and the bad bean seed of the same variety. We were also interested in germination of bean and snap bean seed damaged by grain weevil, and in germination of the seed treated by freezing which was aimed at controlling grain weevil by cold. We also recorded the differences between bean and snap bean seed, which was or was not treated by freezing in laboratory conditions. This investigation was carried out by applying the two factorial block system. The obtained results were evaluated by the variance analysis and x2 test These results suggest that the bean seed of a bad fraction had low levels of germination, but still it was present. Although the seed of good appearance was carefully selected, germination was slightly lower than it should have been. The seed with the large amount of grain weevils performed a high level germination in laboratory conditions. There were no differences in germination between the seed injured by grain weevil either in beans or in snap beans. As for the seed treated or untreated by freezing, there also were no differences between beans and snap beans. .

  20. Somatic Embryogenesis in Yam (Dioscorea rotundata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Elías Suárez Padrón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenic yam (Dioscorea rotundata cultures were induced from petioles of leaves of in vitro grown plants on medium supplemented with different 2.4-D concentrations. Cultures were maintained either on semisolid or in liquid MS medium supplemented with 4.52 µM 2.4-D. The effect of sucrose concentration on somatic embryo development was also evaluated and the effects of different BAP concentrations on somatic embryo conversion were determined. Treatments were distributed using a complete randomized design. The highest rate of induction occurred with 4.52 µM 2.4-D. Sucrose at 131.46 mM significantly enhanced somatic embryo development. The conversion rate was not affected by BAP.Cultivos embriogénicos de ñame (Dioscorea rotundata fueron inducidos a partir de explantes consistentes de hojas con peciolos, aisladas de plantas establecidas en condiciones in vitro, en presencia de diferentes concentraciones de 2,4-D. Los cultivos inducidos fueron mantenidos en medio MS líquido o semisólido suplido con 4,52 µM 2,4-D. El efecto de las concentraciones de sacarosa sobre el desarrollo de embriones somáticos y el efecto de varias concentraciones de BAP sobre la tasa de conversión de embriones somáticos en plantas también fueron evaluados. Todos los tratamientos fueron distribuidos usando un diseño completamente al azar. El mayor porcentaje de inducción de tejidos embriogénicos ocurrió con 4,52 µM de 2,4-D. La adición de 131,46 mM de sacarosa incrementó significativamente el desarrollo de embriones somáticos. La tasa de conversión de embriones somáticos en plantas no fue afectada por las concentraciones de BAP.

  1. Mutagenesis in yam, Discorea rotundata: Clonal evaluation of M1V3 yam plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwachukwu, E.C.; Mbanso, E.N.; Ene, L.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    Ten thousand plants of M 1 V 3 population of the white guinea yam, Dioscorea rotundata Poir, were evaluated. There was no consistent trends in variations in plant height, number of branches, branching heights and number of leaves of the treated tubers. However, plant height were lower in the irradiated than in the control. The coefficients of variations (C.V.) were higher in the irradiated than in the control populations, indicating wider variations in the former population. Based on yield performance, 110 tubers were selected for preliminary yield trials, Considering that diplontic selection may occur in the irradiated micro-tubers, the experiment will also be carried out using nodal cultures in vitro. (author). 2 tabs

  2. Growth characteristics of Dayak Borneo yam (Dioscorea hispida and detoxification techniques as alternative food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUDITO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Rudito, Suwarto, Azkiyah L, Witono Y, Saragih B, Arung ET. 2017. Growth characteristics of Dayak Borneo yam (Dioscorea hispida and detoxification techniques as alternative food. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 99-103. Finding of local food sources to enhance food security areas. This study focuses on the characteristics of growth Dayak Borneo yam observation, toxic substances and detoxification techniques development of non nutritional. The objective of the research was to find out a more concrete picture, as well as comparing it with Java yam non nutritional components as a basis for further exploration of alternative food. Observations indicate that the plant growth of Dayak Borneo yam had specific characteristics, and can be grown in intercropping with other crops. Yam tubers have negative image due to the toxins contained by this commodity, as well as technology management (detoxification and processing of yam products that have not been controlled by the community. But based on the results of physical and chemical detoxification, indicates that the Dayak Borneo yam can be exploited further as food. Dayak Borneo yam need to be developed modification process in raw materials of Dayak Borneo yam as modified starch through fermentation techniques which also intended to obtain intermediate product from which Dayak Borneo yam has a larger functionality as a food ingredient.

  3. Stability of yam starch gels during processing | Amani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate their aptitude to be used as functional ingredients, twenty one varieties of yam starches of Côte d'Ivoire were submitted to different technological stress such as high temperature treatment, long term freezing and refrigeration, high speed shearing and acidic treatment, in comparison with commercial modified ...

  4. Site Suitability For Yam, Rice And Cotton Production In Adamawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper demonstrated the potentials of GIS technique for mapping and delineating the suitable sites for Yam, Rice and Cotton production in Adamawa State. Site suitability mapping is necessary to create data bank and to guide the farmers in decision making on sites for crop production in the state. The use of GIS for this ...

  5. Glycaemic Index and Glycaemic Load of Pounded yam in Diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incremental area under the blood glucose curve (IAUC) was used to determine the glycaemic index. Glycaemic load was determined using the percentage of available carbohydrate in the meal multiplied by the glycaemic index. Result: The glycaemic index of pounded yam was 61 and 59 in the diabetic type-2 and healthy ...

  6. and maturity-related traits in white yam ( Dioscorea rotundata )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tuber fresh weight (tuber yield), tuber number/plant, tuber parenchyma colour, tuber dry matter content and tuber dormancy period were assessed in eight accessions of D. rotundata (white Guinea yam) on the field in 2008 and 2009. Shoot dry weight and plant height were identified as the major tuber yield-related traits.

  7. `Assessment of Hybrid White Yam (Discorea Rotundata) Genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ako-Isu had black colour while the remaining amala samples had varying shades of grey colouration. Though all the elubo samples from the experimental yam genotypes were found to be usable in amala preparation, only the amala sample made from TDr 89/02677 compared favourably (especially in the handfeel sensory ...

  8. Yield of ethanol from enzyme-hydrolyzed yam (Dioscorea rotundata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fresh whole yam tubers and cocoyam corms were separately processed into flours by washing, peeling, blanching, slicing,drying and milling. The flours were enzyme-hydrolyzed by mixing 500g of flour with 2Lof water followed by treatment with a combination of bacterial alpha amylase, limit dextrinase and fungal alpha ...

  9. Analysis of yam marketable surplus in Imo state, Nigeria | Onyenobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in Imo State in the southeastern agricultural zone of Nigeria, to determine socio-economic characteristics of farmers; cost and return of farmers and factors that determine the marketable surplus of farmers. Among the farm enterprises in the state, yam has high- income elasticity of demand by ...

  10. Distribution, incidence and severity of yam (Dioscorea spp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toualy

    2014-01-15

    Jan 15, 2014 ... incidence, severity of viral diseases, and viruses associated with the infected plants. Incidence and severity of the viral diseases were estimated based on symptoms. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques were used for the detection of Yam.

  11. An Analysis Of Guinea Worm Infection On Yam Productivity In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guinea worm infection has been reported to be one of the external diseconomies factors that limit agricultural productivity of the rural farm households. The study examined the determinants of farmers' vulnerability to guineaworm infection and the effect of guinea worm infection on yam yield in the study area. A stratified ...

  12. Distribution, incidence and severity of viral diseases of yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in major yam cultivation zones in Côte d'Ivoire in 2009 to determine the incidence, severity of viral diseases, and viruses associated with the infected plants. Incidence and severity of the viral diseases were estimated based on symptoms. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and ...

  13. determinants of marketing efficiency of yam market in umuahia north

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that yam business in the study area is profitable. A ... desired goals through the provision of time, place, ... encouraging specialization, generation of foreign ... products. An efficient market is that in which the marketing costs are sufficient enough to cover ... food production with little or no consideration given.

  14. Exploring storage protocols for yam (Dioscorea spp.) pollen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... Therefore, the “wet-cold” storage procedure appears to be the most promising method for the .... effects of genotype and storage treatments on arc-sine equivalents .... ving the haploid level genetic diversity of yam in the form.

  15. Identification of a thermal stable allergen in yam (Dioscorea opposita) to cause anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying-Yang; Yin, Jia

    2018-01-01

    Yam ( Dioscorea opposita ) is commonly consumed in East Asia, but allergic reaction to this plant food is rare. To date, there is no report of anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of cooked yam. We described 3 cases with anaphylaxis after eating boiled yam and 1 present with oral allergy syndrome as well. Basophil activation test in patients showed positive reactivity to boiled yam extract. In immunoblotting, a 30-kDa protein was recognized by all patients' sera and a 17-kDa band was detected by 1 patient. N-terminal amino acid revealed the 30-kDa IgE reacted band was DB3S, dioscorin in Dioscorea tuber. It promoted us that DB3S was a thermal stable oral allergen to trigger anaphylactic reaction and oral allergy syndrome in cooked yam ( D. opposita ) allergy. Patients with this plant food allergy should avoid both raw and well-cooked yam.

  16. Trade Potential Determinants of the Adoption of Seed Yam Innovations in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moro Seidu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the factors that influence the adoption of seed yam innovations in Kpandai District in Northern Ghana. In contrast to most empirical studies on innovation adoption in which a specific technology is analyzed, this study covers several seed yam technologies (such as minisett, milked seeds, small setts, traditional setts. The paper estimate a logit model with data from 510 sampled yam farm households. It was identified that households’ ability and willingness to address consumer complaints, export, and integration into market economy positively and significantly influence the adoption of seed yam innovation. However, farm size and cost of transportation significantly influences the adoption of seed yam innovation negatively. The results therefore call for policies aimed at ensuring means to promote integration of households into local and international markets by bridging the gap of trust between farmers and yam exporters or middlemen.

  17. Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Dried Synbiotics Yoghurt from Lesser Yam Tubers (Dioscoreaesculenta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarti Sri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many variations of Yam (Dioscorea spp. which spread out in the world including Indonesia. Those variations could be categorized based on their shape, size, colour, and flavour of their tuber. The genus of Dioscorea spp. has more than 600 species, such as Dioscorea hispida, Dioscorea esculenta (lesser yam, Discorea bulbifera, Dioscorea alata (purple yam, Dioscorea opposita (white yam, Dioscorea villosa (yellow yam, Dioscorea altassima, and Dioscorea elephantipes. At the present, the utilization of yam tubers is seen to be limited. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the properties/characteristics of dried synbiotics yoghurt from lesser yam tubers. The treatment on this study was performed by the number of substitution of lesser yam tubers and the fermentation time. The results show that the dried synbiotics yoghurt that most preferred by consumers was G2F3 (lesser yam 40% and fermentation time 22 hours with an average value 3.65. It is followed by the total LAB (lactic acid bacteria 8,15 log cfu/g, pH 4.27, total lactic acid 1.02%, yield of dried synbiotic yoghurt 32.30%, and total soluble protein 4.53%.

  18. Identification of a thermal stable allergen in yam (Dioscorea opposita) to cause anaphylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ying-Yang; Yin, Jia

    2018-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea opposita) is commonly consumed in East Asia, but allergic reaction to this plant food is rare. To date, there is no report of anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of cooked yam. We described 3 cases with anaphylaxis after eating boiled yam and 1 present with oral allergy syndrome as well. Basophil activation test in patients showed positive reactivity to boiled yam extract. In immunoblotting, a 30-kDa protein was recognized by all patients' sera and a 17-kDa band was detected ...

  19. Nutrient and antinutrient composition of yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladejo Thomas Adepoju

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to research article titled “Effects of processing methods on nutrient and antinutrient composition of yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis products” (Adepoju et al., 2016 [1]. This article documented information on nutrient and antinutrient composition as well as nutrient retention of Dioscorea cayenensis products. Fresh Dioscorea cayenensis tubers obtained from Bodija market were prepared into raw sample and local delicacies and analysed for proximate, mineral, vitamin and antinutrient composition using AOAC methods [2]. Data obtained were analysed using ANOVA, and level of significance set at p<0.05. Processing significantly improved macronutrients and energy content of yam products, and led to significant reduction in values of all antinutrient content of the products (p<0.05.

  20. Evaluation of phytonutrients and vitamin contents in a wild yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The species studied was found to contain bioactive compounds comprising saponins (18.46 mg 100-1g), alkaloids (0.68 mg 100-1 g), flavonoids (8.84 mg 100-1 g), tannins (4.2 x102 mg 100-1 g) and phenols (2.8x103 mg 100-1 g). This yam contained vitamins such as ascorbic acid, riboflavin and thiamin. The importance of ...

  1. Modelling of hydration kinetics of brown and grey African yam bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Peleg constant (K1) decreased from 6.66 x 10-2 to 1.5 x 10-2 h %-1 for the grey AYB, and from 4.89 x 10-2 to 1.21 x 10-2 h %-1 for the brown AYB seeds as the hydration temperature increased from 30 to 60oC, suggesting a corresponding increase in the initial water absorption rate. The temperature dependence of K1 ...

  2. Effect of yam storage techniques usage on farm income in Kwara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yam is an important tuber crop in Nigeria. However, its availability is affected by rate of deterioration arising from poor postharvest handling. Hence, farmers use various techniques to minimize the loss. Therefore, this study examined the effect of the usage of various yam storage techniques on farm income in Kwara State, ...

  3. Yam pests in the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo regions of Ghana: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana, yam is a very important indigenous subsistence and cash crop that is now the most popular nontraditional export food crop, despite years of scientific neglect. There is a general paucity of technical information on yam production and marketing constraints, but especially so for pests and their management.

  4. Effect of some botanical extracts on post-harvest losses of yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR EZE

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... losses of yam (Dioscorea rotundata) in improved yam ... two locations followed by A. indica while mean rot incidence was highest with no treatment control. In ... dissolved in 24 L of deionized water in a plastic bowl giving a.

  5. Evaluation of colour in white and yellow trifoliate yam flours in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colour is one of the important sensory properties that determine the acceptability of food products. Therefore, this work determines the colour in white and yellow trifoliate yam flours in relation to harvesting periods and pre-processing methods. Freshly harvested trifoliate yam tubers were prepared into flour using four ...

  6. Multilocational evaluation of white yam genotypes using GGE bi-plot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five new white yam genotypes were evaluated in different locations of major yam producing areas; Umudike, Nsukka, Ubiaja, Abuja and Katsina-Ala, to test the performance and stability of these genotypes across the environments using GGE bi-plot software. The GGE bi-plot generated several graphic bi-plots which ...

  7. Costs and Returns of Yam/Maize Production in Bosso Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, yam is the most important stable food crop while maize is the third most important cereal crop. However, small scale farmers do not always realize appreciable net returns from their combined production. Therefore, this study examined the costs and returns of yam/maize (mixed cropping) production in Bosso ...

  8. Socio-cultural factors influencing and maintaining yam and cowpea diversity in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zannou, A.; Tossou, R.C.; Vodouhè, S.; Richards, P.; Struik, P.C.; Zoundjihékpon, J.; Ahanchédé, A.; Agbo, V.

    2007-01-01

    Yam and cowpea are important elements in the food culture of local communities in the Transitional Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin. Yam and cowpea serve to satisfy vital needs in households and in communities, but also play an essential role in the rituals and ceremonies of the agrarian civilizations of

  9. Effect of some botanical extracts on post-harvest losses of yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two storage experiments in an improved yam barn were carried out simultaneously at two locations in southern Nigeria to determine the influence of cultivar, botanical storage treatments and storage environments on the shelf life of yam (Dioscorea rotundata). The experiments were conducted from January to July.

  10. Antifungal Effects Of Botanical Leaf Extracts On Tuber Rots Of Yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fungicidal effects of dry and fresh leaf extracts of Axardirachta indica (L) and Ocimum grattissimum on the rot of yam tubers were investigated. Fusaruim oxysporium, Rhjzopus stolonifer, Botryodiplodia theobromae and Aspergillus Niger (root pathogens) were isolated from the rotted yam. Both dry and fresh leaf extracts ...

  11. Resistance to post-harvest microbial rot in yam: Integration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-harvest microbial rot is an important disease that causes severe losses in yam (Dioscorea spp.) storage. Rot from microbial infection of healthy yam tubers reduces their table quality and renders them unappealing to consumers. A study was carried out at Bimbilla in the Nanumba North District of Ghana to evaluate ...

  12. Bayesian Methods for Predicting the Shape of Chinese Yam in Terms of Key Diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsunori Kayano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes Bayesian methods for the shape estimation of Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita using a few key diameters of yam. Shape prediction of yam is applicable to determining optimal cutoff positions of a yam for producing seed yams. Our Bayesian method, which is a combination of Bayesian estimation model and predictive model, enables automatic, rapid, and low-cost processing of yam. After the construction of the proposed models using a sample data set in Japan, the models provide whole shape prediction of yam based on only a few key diameters. The Bayesian method performed well on the shape prediction in terms of minimizing the mean squared error between measured shape and the prediction. In particular, a multiple regression method with key diameters at two fixed positions attained the highest performance for shape prediction. We have developed automatic, rapid, and low-cost yam-processing machines based on the Bayesian estimation model and predictive model. Development of such shape prediction approaches, including our Bayesian method, can be a valuable aid in reducing the cost and time in food processing.

  13. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants...

  14. an analysis of yam storage strategy to promote food security in asa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-10-17

    Oct 17, 2012 ... with information regarding improved storage strategies as well as exposed to training on their use. .... be need to improve or develop new storage strategy. It is ... i. determine the various methods of yam storage strategy.

  15. Control of yam tuber rot with leaf extracts of Xylopia aethiopica and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JOHN

    Investigation was carried out to test the potency of some plant extracts for the control of yam tuber rot caused by Fusarium ... The extracts of suppressed the growth of these fungi in culture ..... Methodolgy for analysis of Vegetable drug. Practical.

  16. an analysis of yam storage strategy to promote food security in asa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-10-17

    Oct 17, 2012 ... plant materials (27.3%) were the common storage strategy used which are not capable of ensuring good storage for ... faced in marketing yam produce. .... characteristics. Frequency. Percentage. Gender. Male. Female. 80. 30.

  17. Class A dioscorins of various yam species suppress ovalbumin-induced allergic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-Chi; Lin, Kuo-Chih

    2014-06-01

    Dioscorins, the primary storage proteins in yam tubers, of different species exhibited varying immunomodulatory activities in mice. We inferred that this might be attributed to the various isoforms in the yam tubers. We aimed to investigate the antiallergic potential of the Class A dioscorins of various yam species using the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine allergy model. We purified the recombinant Class A dioscorins (rDioscorins) of various yam species from Escherichia coli and evaluated their antiallergic potential by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The Class A rDioscorins of various yam species suppressed allergic reactions by significantly decreasing the serum IgE and histamine levels. The serum IFN-γ and IgG2a levels significantly increased in all rDioscorin-treated mice. The splenocytes of the rDioscorin-treated mice also exhibited upregulated IFN-γ secretion in response to ConA stimulation. By contrast, the serum IL-5 levels decreased to basal levels in mice treated with Class A rDioscorins and the amount of IL-5 produced by splenocytes decreased in response to ConA stimulation. The Class A rDioscorins suppress allergic reactions, possibly through modulating an imbalanced Th1/Th2 immune response to OVA by promoting Th1 cell responses. Furthermore, the Class A rDioscorins of various yam species exhibited similar immunomodulatory activities in OVA-sensitized mice, which were different from the activities demonstrated by native dioscorins, suggesting that distinct immunomodulatory effects of native dioscorins on mice were attributed to the various isoforms in the yam tubers. The Class A dioscorins of various yam species exhibit antiallergic activity and are potential immunotherapeutic agents for treating IgE-mediated hypersensitivity.

  18. Biological control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) in yam by Streptomyces sp.MJM5763.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, S A; Yang, S H; Cheng, J H; Meng, L; Suh, J-W

    2011-08-01

    To find a suitable biocontrol agent for yam anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. An actinobacterial strain, MJM5763, showing strong antifungal activity, multiple biocontrol and plant growth-promoting traits was isolated from a yam cultivation field in Yeoju, South Korea. Based on morphological and physiological characteristics and analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence, strain MJM5763 was identified as a novel strain of Streptomyces and was designated as Streptomyces sp. MJM5763. Treatment with MJM5763 and the crude culture filtrate extract (CCFE) was effective in suppressing anthracnose in detached yam leaves in vitro and reduced incidence and severity of anthracnose in yam plants under greenhouse conditions. The CCFE treatment was the most effective of all the treatments and reduced the anthracnose severity by 85-88% and the incidence by 79-81%, 90 days after inoculation with the pathogen. CCFE treatment was also effective under field conditions and showed a reduction of 86 and 75% of anthracnose severity and incidence, respectively. Streptomyces sp. strain MJM5763 was effective in biocontrolling anthracnose in yam caused by C. gloeosporioides. Streptomyces sp. MJM5763 is a potential alternative to chemical fungicides for reducing yield losses to anthracnose in yam. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Plant regeneration from organ culture in white Guinea Yam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwachukwu, E.C.; Mbanaso, E.N.A.; Sonnino, A.

    1997-01-01

    Explants from leaves, leaf segments, petioles and internodal stem of in vitro grown seedlings of white guinea yam, Dioscorea rotundata Poir, cv. 'Obiaoturugo' were cultured on defined media. NAA at concentrations of 0.5-1.0 mg/1 induced shoot regeneration from petiolar and inter-nodal stem pieces, and rooting occurred with little or no callusing from whole leaves or leaf segments. With concentration of 3.0-10.0 m/1 NAA, explants from petioles, inter-nodal stem, whole leaves and leaf segments formed callus which produced roots. These explants developed plantlets when subcultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/1 BAP and 0.1 mg/1 NAA. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab

  20. Plant regeneration from organ culture in white Guinea Yam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, E C; Mbanaso, E N.A. [National Root Crops Research Inst., Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State (Nigeria); Sonnino, A [Centro Recerche Energia, ENEA, Rome (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    Explants from leaves, leaf segments, petioles and internodal stem of in vitro grown seedlings of white guinea yam, Dioscorea rotundata Poir, cv. `Obiaoturugo` were cultured on defined media. NAA at concentrations of 0.5-1.0 mg/1 induced shoot regeneration from petiolar and inter-nodal stem pieces, and rooting occurred with little or no callusing from whole leaves or leaf segments. With concentration of 3.0-10.0 m/1 NAA, explants from petioles, inter-nodal stem, whole leaves and leaf segments formed callus which produced roots. These explants developed plantlets when subcultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/1 BAP and 0.1 mg/1 NAA. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab.

  1. Oxalates in oca (New Zealand yam) (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A B; Savage, G P; Martin, R J; Vanhanen, L

    1999-12-01

    Oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.) or New Zealand yam, in common with other members of this genus, contains oxalate, an antinutritive factor. Twelve South American and two New Zealand cultivars of oca were analyzed for total and soluble oxalate contents of the tubers. The range of total oxalate levels was 92-221 mg/100 g of fresh weight. Levels of soluble and total oxalate extracted from the tubers were not significantly different, suggesting that no calcium oxalate is formed in the tubers. The oxalate concentrations obtained in this study for oca suggest that previously reported values are too low and that oca is a moderately high oxalate-containing food. This is the first report of a tuber crop containing moderate to high levels of soluble oxalates in the tubers and no insoluble oxalates.

  2. Mutagenesis in yam, Discorea rotundata: Clonal evaluation of M{sub 1}V{sub 3} yam plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, E C; Mbanso, E N; Ene, L S.O. [Plant Breeding Div., National Root Crops Research Inst., Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State (Nigeria)

    1997-12-01

    Ten thousand plants of M{sub 1}V{sub 3} population of the white guinea yam, Dioscorea rotundata Poir, were evaluated. There was no consistent trends in variations in plant height, number of branches, branching heights and number of leaves of the treated tubers. However, plant height were lower in the irradiated than in the control. The coefficients of variations (C.V.) were higher in the irradiated than in the control populations, indicating wider variations in the former population. Based on yield performance, 110 tubers were selected for preliminary yield trials, Considering that diplontic selection may occur in the irradiated micro-tubers, the experiment will also be carried out using nodal cultures in vitro. (author). 2 tabs.

  3. Molecular characterisation of Colombian yam germplasm by "DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF" in radioactivo conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L. Bustamante

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Samples from the Universidad de Córdoba's yam collection (Dioscorea spp. and others originating from IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria were molecularly characterised to complement existing information about them. The yam (Diosocorea spp. represents a basic crop for small-scale farmers on the Colombian Atlantic Coast who sow around 20,000 hectares per year. Even though they are dioecious species, only one sex is represented in Colombia; it must also be stated that climatic conditions are not propitious for its flowering. This situation has caused difficulty for work in yam breeding. The yam species and varieties used in the Colombian ABP (Agricultural Biotechnology Programme have been molecularly characterised by AFLPs in a previous publication describing a preliminary study emerging from the need to broaden the characterisation of those accessions kept at the Universidad de Córdoba. Comparisons have also been done with some African accessions donated by IITA. In this article, samples were molecularly characterised by another fingerprinting technique, the DAF technique (DNA Amplification Fingerprinting based on PCR, using random oligonucleotides for generating characteristic band patterns from each individual. The results showed 0.0413 population diversity with 0.9587 average similarity, indicating that the yam collection studied had very little genetic diversity and, probably, this could be why the crop is vulnerable to plagues and diseases, as happened at the end of the 1980s when anthracnose practically devastated the crop on the Colombian Atlantic coast. Similarity was also found between those Colombian and African samples analysed, agreeing with low diversity and less distance between common ancestors. The molecular results suggest the need for using other molecular techniques having a greater power of discrimination and also the need to broaden the genetic diversity in yam crops for providing greater

  4. Effects of Defatted Jack Bean Flour and Jack Bean Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of substituting wheat flour with defatted Jack bean flour and Jack bean protein concentrate on bread quality. Jack bean flour milled from the seed nibs was defatted with n-hexane and part of the defatted flour (DJF) extracted in acid medium (pH; 4.5) for protein concentrate (JPC). Both the DJF ...

  5. Compositional and conformational analysis of yam proteins by near infrared fourier transform Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yu-Hsiu; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Tseng, Chin-Yin; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Lin, Long-Liu; Chen, Wenlung

    2004-12-29

    Fourier transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy was employed to study the molecular structure of yam proteins isolated from three commonly consumed yam species including Dioscorea alata L., D. alata L. var. purpurea, and Dioscorea japonica. Although D. alata L. and D. alata L. var. purpurea consisted of similar amino acid residues, they still exhibited significant differences in conformational arrangement. The secondary structure of D. alata L. was mainly an alpha-helix, while D. alata L. var. purpurea was mostly in antiparallel beta-sheets. In contrast, D. japonica, which belongs to a different species, exhibited explicit differences in amino acid compositions and molecular structures of which the conformation was a mixed form of alpha-helices and antiparallel beta-sheets. FT-Raman directly proved the existence of S-S in yam proteins, implying that oligomer formation in yam proteins might be due to disulfide linking of dioscorin (32 kDa). The microenvironment of aromatic amino acids and the state of S-S in yam proteins were also discussed.

  6. Textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour and stiff dough 'amala'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, O A; Akinoso, R

    2015-05-01

    The use of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour for stiff dough 'amala' production is one of the ways to curb under-utilization of the tuber. The study evaluates the textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam flour and stiff dough. Freshly harvested trifoliate yam tubers were peeled, washed, sliced and blanched (60 (°)C for 10 min). The sliced yam were soaked in water for 12 h, dried and milled into flour. Pasting viscosities, functional properties, brown index and sensory attributes of the flour and stiff dough were analyzed. Peak, holding strength and final viscosities ranged from 84.09 to 213.33 RVU, 81.25 to 157.00 RVU and 127.58 to 236.17 RVU respectively. White raw flour had higher viscosity than the yellow flours. The swelling index, water absorption capacity and bulk density ranged from 1.46 to 2.28, 2.11 to 2.92 ml H2O/g and 0.71 to 0.88 g/cm(3) respectively. Blanching method employed improved the swelling index and water absorption capacity of flour. The brown index values of flour and stiff dough ranged from 6.73 to 18.36 and 14.63-46.72 respectively. Sensory evaluation revealed significant differences in the colour, odour and general acceptability of the product when compared with the stiff dough from white yam.

  7. Extraction and properties of starches from the non-traditional vegetables Yam and Taro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Luan Alberto; Barbosa, Natalia Alves; Pereira, Joelma, E-mail: luandrade87@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Lavras, MG (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the chemical, physical, morphological, crystalline and thermal properties of starch from two non-traditional vegetables, yam and taro. The analyses included proximate composition percent, amylose and mineral content, water absorption capacity, absolute density, morphological properties, X-ray diffractometry, thermal properties, pasting properties and infrared spectrum. The extracted starch exhibited a high purity level with low lipid, fiber and ash contents. The electron micrographs suggested that the taro starch granules were smaller than the yam starch granules. The results for the experimental conditions used in this study indicated that the studied starches differed, especially the amylose content, granule size and crystallinity degree and the pattern of the starches. Due to the high amylose content of yam starch, this type of starch can be used for film preparation, whereas the taro starch can be used as a fat substitute due to its small granule size. (author)

  8. Irradiation for sprouting inhibition of Kponan yams in Cote d'Ivoire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodia, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Yams of the Kponan variety were transported from Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, to Accra, Ghana, irradiated at the facility operated by the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission and brought back to Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. The law no 98-593 on radiation protection and nuclear safety was promulgated on 10 November 1998. In its article 8 it is said that food and industrial products irradiation facilities shall comply with the requirements of the International Code of Practice. The regulations on food irradiation based on this main law are now being considered for promulgation. The lack of regulations makes it difficult to legally conduct test marketing of irradiated yams. The economic feasibility of irradiating yams in Ghana and selling them in Cote d'Ivoire has been investigated. (author)

  9. Development of Chloroplast Genomic Resources in Chinese Yam (Dioscorea polystachya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junling Cao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese yam has been used both as a food and in traditional herbal medicine. Developing more effective genetic markers in this species is necessary to assess its genetic diversity and perform cultivar identification. In this study, new chloroplast genomic resources were developed using whole chloroplast genomes from six genotypes originating from different geographical locations. The Dioscorea polystachya chloroplast genome is a circular molecule consisting of two single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats. Comparative analyses of six D. polystachya chloroplast genomes revealed 141 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Seventy simple sequence repeats (SSRs were found in the six genotypes, including 24 polymorphic SSRs. Forty-three common indels and five small inversions were detected. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete chloroplast genome provided the best resolution among the genotypes. Our evaluation of chloroplast genome resources among these genotypes led us to consider the complete chloroplast genome sequence of D. polystachya as a source of reliable and valuable molecular markers for revealing biogeographical structure and the extent of genetic variation in wild populations and for identifying different cultivars.

  10. Sharing Beans with Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Clare V.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have known for decades that the use of storybooks can have a positive impact on students' experiences with mathematics. This article describes how first graders in an urban public school actively engage with mathematics by using the story "Bean Thirteen" as a context for developing number sense. This…

  11. Chemical purification of Gunungpati elephant foot yam flour to improve physical and chemical quality on processed food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramita, Octavianti; Wahyuningsih, Ansori, Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    This study was aimed at improving the physicochemical quality of elephant foot yam flour in Gunungpati, Semarang by chemical purification. The utilization of elephant foot yam flour in several processed food was also discussed in this study. The flour purification discussed in this study was expected to become a reference for the manufacturers of elephant foot yam flour and its processed food in Gunungpati. This study modified the elephant foot yam flour using pre - gelatinization method. The physical and chemical quality of each elephant foot yam flour purification sample were assessed using proximate analysis. The likability test was conducted for its processed food. 20 grams of elephant foot yam flour was put into a beaker glass, then 60 ml of water was added. The suspension was then heated at a temperature of 60 ° C and 70 ° C while stirred until it was homogeneous and thickened for 10, 30 and 60 minutes. The flour which had been heated was then cooled at room temperature for 1 hour and then at a temperature of 0 ° C until it was frozen. Furthermore, flour was dried in an oven at a temperature of 60 ° C for 9 hours. The dried flour was sifted with a 80 mesh sieve. Chemical test was conducted after elephant foot yam was pre-gelatinized to determine changes in the quality flour: test levels of protein, fat, crude fiber content, moisture content, ash content and starch content. In addition, color tests and granular test on elephant foot yam flour were also conducted. The pre-gelatinization as chemical treatment on elephant foot yam flour in this study was able to change the functional properties of elephant foot yam flour towards a better processing characterized by a brighter color (L = 70, a = 6 and b = 12), the hydrolysis of polysaccharides flour into shorter chain (flour content decreased to 44%), the expansion of granules in elephant foot yam resulting in a process - ready flour, and better monolayer water content of 9%. The content of protein and fiber

  12. Effects of false yam tuber meals and charcoal on broiler chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors investigated the effects of replacing a portion of a commercial broiler feed with false yam tuber meals on broiler growth performance, feed conversion rate (FCR) and blood parameters. Furthermore, wood charcoal was added at various levels to the meals to explore their potential to attenuate toxic effects.

  13. Influence of spatial arrangements on performance of a yam-maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of spatial arrangements on performance of a yam-maize-pepper intercrop. JA Manu-Aduening, K Boa-Amponsem. Abstract. No Abstract. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science No. 1, 2005: 29-35. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. Some thermo-physical properties of yam cuts of two geometries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of variation of temperature (-18 to 33°C) and geometries (slab and cylinder) on some thermo-physical properties of white yam were investigated. The measured parameters were density, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity at constant moisture level of 72.7% ± 0.69 (wet basis) using transient heat transfer method ...

  15. Atomic resolution structure of the E. coli YajR transporter YAM domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Daohua [National Laboratory of Macromolecules, National Center of Protein Science-Beijing, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); School of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zhao, Yan [National Laboratory of Macromolecules, National Center of Protein Science-Beijing, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Fan, Junping; Liu, Xuehui; Wu, Yan; Feng, Wei [National Laboratory of Macromolecules, National Center of Protein Science-Beijing, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang, Xuejun C., E-mail: zhangc@ibp.ac.cn [National Laboratory of Macromolecules, National Center of Protein Science-Beijing, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • We report the crystal structure of the YAM domain of YajR transporter at 1.07 Å. • The YAM dimerization is related to the halogen-dependent high thermal stability. • A belt of poly-pentagonal water molecules was observed in the dimer interface. - Abstract: YajR is an Escherichia coli transporter that belongs to the major facilitator superfamily. Unlike most MFS transporters, YajR contains a carboxyl terminal, cytosolic domain of 67 amino acid residues termed YAM domain. Although it is speculated that the function of this small soluble domain is to regulate the conformational change of the 12-helix transmembrane domain, its precise regulatory role remains unclear. Here, we report the crystal structure of the YAM domain at 1.07-Å resolution, along with its structure determined using nuclear magnetic resonance. Detailed analysis of the high resolution structure revealed a symmetrical dimer in which a belt of well-ordered poly-pentagonal water molecules is embedded. A mutagenesis experiment and a thermal stability assay were used to analyze the putative role of this dimerization in response to changes in halogen concentration.

  16. Cost structure of yam farmers in Ghana: The case of the forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the cost functions and the determinants of cost inefficiencies among yam farmers in Ghana using the stochastic frontier cost approach. The stochastic frontier cost approach estimates the general and inefficiency models simultaneously. Farm-level data and socio-economic variables on a sample of ...

  17. Nutritional Evaluation of Yam Peel Meal for Pullet Chickens: 1. Effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % dietary maize with yam peel meal (YPM) on performance characteristics of pullet starter and grower chicks. Consequently, five experimental diets were fed to 150 Anak pullet chicks from day-old to point-of-lay to cover the starter phase (1 to ...

  18. Effect of different combination levels of palm kernel cake, yam peel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety six unsexed day old Marshall broiler chickens were divided into 4 groups of 3 replicates each on weight equalization basis (42.87 – 43.24g). The chicks were used to determine the effect of partial replacement of maize with combinations of palm kernel cake (PKC), yam peel meal (YPM) and plantain peel meal (PPM) ...

  19. The Problems of Bulk-Selling Yams in Harvest and Poverty of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simple percentages and frequency tables were used in analyzing the data. Results from this study show that poor storage facilities, poor marketing strategy, problem of income and culture of the people account for the bulk-selling of yams in the study area. The study recommends that there is need for the provision of modern ...

  20. Evolution and Phylogenetic Diversity of Yam Species (Dioscorea spp.: Implication for Conservation and Agricultural Practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Florence Sandrine Ngo Ngwe

    Full Text Available Yams (Dioscorea spp. consist of approximately 600 species. Presently, these species are threatened by genetic erosion due to many factors such as pest attacks and farming practices. In parallel, complex taxonomic boundaries in this genus makes it more challenging to properly address the genetic diversity of yam and manage its germplasm. As a first step toward evaluating and preserving the genetic diversity yam species, we use a phylogenetic diversity (PD approach that has the advantage to investigate phylogenetic relationships and test hypotheses of species monophyly while alleviating to the problem of ploidy variation within and among species. The Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 62 accessions from 7 species from three regions of Cameroon showed that most Dioscorea sections were monophyletic, but species within sections were generally non-monophyletic. The wild species D. praehensilis and cultivated D. cayenensis were the species with the highest PD. At the opposite, D. esculenta has a low PD and future studies should focus on this species to properly address its conservation status. We also show that wild species show a stronger genetic structure than cultivated species, which potentially reflects the management of the yam germplasm by farmers. These findings show that phylogenetic diversity is a promising approach for an initial investigation of genetic diversity in a crop consisting of closely related species.

  1. determination of a basis for design of a yam (dioscorea spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    uniformity ... production is consumed as human food [1]. .... and tail regions. The results showed that the densities of the minisetts depend on the region of the yam tuber from which they were cut, and were highest for the middle and lowest for the.

  2. A Comparative Study of the Syneresis of Yam Starches and other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The syneresis of starch gels from 19 yam cultivars (belonging to 4 Dioscorea species and complex of species) and 5 modified starches were studied during refrigeration (4°C) and freezing (-20°C). Syneresis of starch gels evolved on refrigeration at the onset from zero and remained constant between 20% to 60% after 8 ...

  3. Screening of new yam clones (D. alata and D. rotundata) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-01-31

    Jan 31, 2013 ... in nematode prone ecology of guinea savanna zone in. West Africa. Jean Baptiste ..... Figure 2: Mean values of score for nematode (Mel and Brady) occurrences in yam field (D. rotundata and D. alata) in. 2000 and 2001 (a and b ..... NERICA rice (Jones et al., 1997) was drawn from such a strategy: crossing ...

  4. Bio-Chemical Evaluation of Yam Peel Meal for Broiler Chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional properties and inclusion levels of yam peel meal (YPM) in broiler diets were investigated. Four diets in which YPM substituted maize at 0, 25, 50 and 75% were fed to 180 Anak broiler-type chickens over a 63-day period. Results indicated that YPM contained 89.74% dry matter (DM), 12.03% crude protein ...

  5. Industrial processing of canned beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderleia Schoeninger

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Beans are popular as a protein-filled legume of high nutritional value, being one of the most planted species in the world. However, recent years have seen a decrease in the consumption of beans, owing to the time necessary to cook it domestically. Thus, it is being replaced in people’s diets by other foods. An alternative preparation that supplies modern consumers’ demands is industrially processed beans. This article aimed to provide a literature review on the processing of canned beans. Few recent studies have been performed in Brazil on this subject, as most studies have focused instead on the technological quality of dry bean grains processing. In this article industrial processing concepts and features, production unit operations, and canned beans quality standards will be discussed. These efforts are expected to contribute to the Brazilian beans production chain, and consequently to increase consumption of canned beans and the demand for industrial processing of beans in both the domestic market and future product exports.

  6. QUALITY OF MINIMALLY PROCESSED YAM (Dioscorea sp. STORED AT TWO DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANO DO NASCIMENTO SIMÕES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the physical, chemical and bio chemical alterations in minimally processed yam stored at two different temperatures, as well a s the incidence of bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas . The experimental design was completely randomised in a 2x8 factorial design, with two storage temperature s (5 and 10°C and eight storage times (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 1 0, 12 and 14 days. Experiments were in triplicate. Yam was selected, peeled and cut into slices of approximate ly 3 cm thickness. The slices were rinsed with wate r, sanitised and then drained in kitchen strainers. Ap proximately 300 g of the processed product were pac ked in nylon multilayers 15 μ m thick, 15 cm wide and 20 cm long. The packs were sealed, weighed and kept at 5 and 10 ± 2°C for 14 days. Fresh weight loss, baking tim e, enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidases, perox idases and catalases, total soluble phenol content, and an tioxidant capacity were evaluated, as well as visua l analysis and incidence of Pseudomonas sp. Means of temperatures were compared by Tukey ́s test at 5% significance. Yam storage at 5°C reduced weight loss and kept vis ual quality for longer; it also reduced cooking tim e and the activity of the enzymes polyphenol oxidase and pero xidase. In contrast, it promoted higher content of total soluble phenols, as well as a higher catalase activ ity and antioxidant capacity. During the storage ti me, there was no incidence of Pseudomonas sp. Minimally processed yam stored at 10°C may be sold for up to six days, and yam stored at 5ºC for up to 14 days.

  7. Improved production of an enzyme that hydrolyses raw yam starch by Penicillium sp. S-22 using fed-batch fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-Yan; Ge, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2006-11-01

    A newly isolated strain, Penicillium sp. S-22, was used to produce an enzyme that hydrolyses raw yam starch [raw yam starch digesting enzyme (RYSDE)]. The enzyme activity and overall enzyme productivity were respectively 16 U/ml and 0.19 U/ml h in the batch culture. The enzyme activity increased to 85 U/ml by feeding of partially hydrolyzed raw yam starch. When a mixture containing partially hydrolyzed raw yam starch and peptone was fed by a pH-stat strategy, the enzyme activity reached 366 U/ml, 23-fold of that obtained in the batch culture, and the overall productivity reached 3.4 U/ml h, which was 18-fold of that in the batch culture.

  8. Modification of whole flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea by steam jet cooking and drum drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole bean flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea were processed by excess steam jet cooking, drum drying, and milling to a state resembling the raw flours. Analysis of the structure and size of the particles, color, solubility and pasting characteristics, dietary fiber, and protei...

  9. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  10. Interactions between youth and mental health professionals: The Youth Aware of Mental health (YAM) program experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Camilla; Postuvan, Vita; Herta, Dana; Iosue, Miriam; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    The Youth Aware of Mental health (YAM) experience Youth stand at the core of much mental health promotion, yet little is written about their experiences of such efforts. We aimed to take this on by interviewing youth after they participated in Youth Aware of Mental Health (YAM), a universal mental health promotion program. YAM has a non-anticipatory methodology that provides youth with a safe space for reflection, role-play, and discussion. Addressing everyday mental health, YAM invites the experiences and issues relevant to the youth present to influence the program in a slightly different direction every time. The YAM instructor guides the participants but does not present the youth with given formulas on how to solve their problems. Like any mental health promotion, YAM appeals to some more than others in its intended audience and individuals engage with the program in many different ways. We set out to learn more about these experiences. Conversations about mental health Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15–17 year olds in Estonia, Italy, Romania and Spain. In these interviews, the researchers made an effort to discuss mental health in terms relevant to youth. Still, wide-ranging levels of motivation, ease with engaging in dialogue with mental health professionals, and comfort with the format and content of YAM were detected. The youth were clustered in five different groups relating to their positioning vis-à-vis the researcher during the interview. The following evocative labels were used: “interested”, “foot in the door”, “respect for authority”, “careful”, and “not my topic”. Corresponding labels were devised for their YAM experience: “engaged”, “initially hesitant”, “cautious”, “eager to please”, or “disengaged”. We also observed that the researchers brought their own expectations and employed a variety of approaches that led to anticipating answers, stating the obvious, or getting along

  11. Irradiated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F 0 animals and growth and development of the F 1 offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment. (orig.)

  12. Healthy food trends - beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a side dish at breakfast, lunch, or dinner. Mash them up for dips and spreads. Use bean flour to bake them. To reduce the gas caused by eating beans: Always soak dried beans. If you do not eat a lot of beans, gradually add them to ...

  13. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  14. Biological activities and applications of dioscorins, the major tuber storage proteins of yam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yeh-Lin; Chia, Cho-Yun; Liu, Yen-Wenn; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Yam tubers, a common tuber crop and an important traditional Chinese medicine in Taiwan, have many bioactive substances, including phenolic compounds, mucilage polysaccharides, steroidal saponins and proteins. Among the total soluble proteins, 80% of them are dioscorins. In the past two decades, many studies showed that dioscorins exhibited biological activities both in vitro and in vivo, including the enzymatic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory, lectin activities and the protecting role on airway epithelial cells against allergens in vitro. Some of these activities are survived after chemical, heating process or enzymatic digestion. Despite of lacking the intact structural information and the detail action mechanisms in the cells, yam dioscorins are potential resources for developing as functional foods and interesting targets for food protein researchers.

  15. Biological Activities and Applications of Dioscorins, the Major Tuber Storage Proteins of Yam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh-Lin Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Yam tubers, a common tuber crop and an important traditional Chinese medicine in Taiwan, have many bioactive substances, including phenolic compounds, mucilage polysaccharides, steroidal saponins and proteins. Among the total soluble proteins, 80% of them are dioscorins. In the past two decades, many studies showed that dioscorins exhibited biological activities both in vitro and in vivo, including the enzymatic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory, lectin activities and the protecting role on airway epithelial cells against allergens in vitro. Some of these activities are survived after chemical, heating process or enzymatic digestion. Despite of lacking the intact structural information and the detail action mechanisms in the cells, yam dioscorins are potential resources for developing as functional foods and interesting targets for food protein researchers.

  16. Interactions between youth and mental health professionals: The Youth Aware of Mental health (YAM) program experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Camilla; Postuvan, Vita; Herta, Dana; Iosue, Miriam; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Youth stand at the core of much mental health promotion, yet little is written about their experiences of such efforts. We aimed to take this on by interviewing youth after they participated in Youth Aware of Mental Health (YAM), a universal mental health promotion program. YAM has a non-anticipatory methodology that provides youth with a safe space for reflection, role-play, and discussion. Addressing everyday mental health, YAM invites the experiences and issues relevant to the youth present to influence the program in a slightly different direction every time. The YAM instructor guides the participants but does not present the youth with given formulas on how to solve their problems. Like any mental health promotion, YAM appeals to some more than others in its intended audience and individuals engage with the program in many different ways. We set out to learn more about these experiences. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15-17 year olds in Estonia, Italy, Romania and Spain. In these interviews, the researchers made an effort to discuss mental health in terms relevant to youth. Still, wide-ranging levels of motivation, ease with engaging in dialogue with mental health professionals, and comfort with the format and content of YAM were detected. The youth were clustered in five different groups relating to their positioning vis-à-vis the researcher during the interview. The following evocative labels were used: "interested", "foot in the door", "respect for authority", "careful", and "not my topic". Corresponding labels were devised for their YAM experience: "engaged", "initially hesitant", "cautious", "eager to please", or "disengaged". We also observed that the researchers brought their own expectations and employed a variety of approaches that led to anticipating answers, stating the obvious, or getting along better with some of the youth. These modes of interaction were categorized under: "favoritism", "familiarity", "frustration

  17. Scho d chara ots of ott) infe acteriz cocoy ected w zation yam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    defen eins extracted fr. 1054 (Wi) and blotted on PVD specific for PR-3 extracted from th ose of their res s following SDS ased resistan. ,3-glucanase activity was ction. Я-1,3- essed in RO1 w accumulati. The low leve e tolerant c me may not h defense agai itinase in the yam at 8 dp nse-related in. Nyoche rom the roots of.

  18. Effect of temperature on the luminescence of Sm{sup 3+} ions in YAM crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczkan, M. [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics PW, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Boruc, Z., E-mail: z.boruc@stud.elka.pw.edu.pl [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics PW, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Turczyński, S. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Malinowski, M. [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics PW, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-11-05

    Highlights: • Different concentration Sm{sup 3+}-doped Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} crystals are fabricated by μ-pulling down method. • Thermally activated {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 5/2} emission of Sm{sup 3+} in YAM is studied. • Temperature dependent quenching mechanism of the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} luminescence is proposed. - Abstract: The spectroscopic features of samarium Sm{sup 3+} activated Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} (YAM) crystals are presented and discussed. Temperature sensing properties of Sm{sup 3+}:YAM phosphor was demonstrated over the 300–1200 K range. Temperature dependent luminescence spectra and decay curves for the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} level of Sm{sup 3+} in YAM were measured. Ratio of the fluorescence intensities arising from the two close lying {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} levels (with energy separation of ΔE ∼ 1000 cm{sup −1}) followed a straight line pattern, which confirms the Boltzmann distribution of the population, and can be used to measure temperature. The lifetime for the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} level in 1% Sm doped sample decreases from 1.65 to 0.08 ms with heating from room temperature to 1200 K. This behavior of decays is discussed in terms of radiative and multiphonon decays as well as cross-relaxation dependence on temperature.

  19. The influence of chemical methods (acid modification) on elephant foot yam flour to improve physical and chemical quality on processed food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramita, Octavianti; Wahyuningsih, Ansori, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    This study was aimed at improving the physicochemical quality of elephant foot yam flour in Gunungpati, Semarang by acid modification. The utilization of elephant foot yam flour in several processed food was also discussed in this study. The flour of the experimental result discussed in this study was expected to become a reference for the manufacturers of elephant foot yam flour and its processed food in Gunungpati. This study modified the elephant foot yam flour using acid modification method. The physical and chemical quality of each elephant foot yam flour of the experimental result sample were assessed using proximate analysis. The resulting tuber flour weighed 50 grams and the soaked in acid solution with various concentrations 5 %, 10 % and 15 % with soaking duration 30, 60 and 90 minutes at temperature 35 °C. The resulting suspension was washed 3 times, filtered and then dried by cabinet dryer using 46 °C for 2 days. The dried flour was sifted with a 80 mesh sieve. Chemical test was conducted after elephant foot yam was acid modification to determine changes in the quality flour: test levels of protein, fat, crude fiber content, moisture content, ash content and starch content. In addition, color tests and granular test on elephant foot yam flour were also conducted. The acid modification as chemical treatment on elephant foot yam flour in this study was able to change the functional properties of elephant foot yam flour towards a better processing characterized by a brighter color (L = 80, a = 8 and b = 12), the hydrolysis of polysaccharides flour into shorter chain (flour content decreased to 72%), the expansion of granules in elephant foot yam resulting in a process - ready flour, and better monolayer water content of 11%. The content of protein and fiber on the elephant foot yam flour also can be maintained at a level of 8% and 1.9% levels.

  20. LABOUR-USE EFFICIENCY BY SMALLHOLDER YAM FARMERS IN ABIA STATE NIGERIA: A LABOUR-USE REQUIREMENT FRONTIER APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidozie Onyedikachi Anyiro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Production of yam is a labour intensive set of activities especially in the Tropics. In Eastern Nigeria this is done by small farmers at subsistent level due to inadequate and short supply of labour. This study examined labour-use efficiency by smallholder yam farmers in Abia State, Nigeria. A two-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 smallholder yam farmers from Ikwuano and Umuahia North Local Government Areas of the state. Data were collected during a survey with a wellstructured questionnaire administered by personal interview method with the farmers. The result revealed that farm households provided an average of 336 man-days used in yam production activities, with 36.66% using hired labour while family labour, share croppers, and exchange labour provided the balance labour (63.34% required. The Cobb-Douglas functional form of labour-use frontier estimates shows that the quantity of harvested yam, size of cleared farm land and quantity of fertilizer applied significantly affected the amount of labour used in yam production at 10.0%, 5.0% and 1.0% level of significance respectively. The socio-economic determinants of labour use efficiency were age, education, farm size, gender, labour wage and household size which were statistically significant at 1.0% risk level except the coefficient of age which was significant at 5.0% risk level. The result showed that the estimated farm labour-use efficiency ranged from 0.20 to 0.97 with a mean labour-use efficiency value of 0.76. Policies aimed at increasing yam farmers’ scale of operation through improved access to production inputs like fertilizer, agrochemical and capital are required for increasing labour use efficiency in the area.

  1. Chemical and sensory characteristics of frozen wheygurt with the addition of taro and lesser yam flours as thickening agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Widowati, E.; Karunawati, B. M.

    2018-01-01

    Cheese whey is a waste product from cheese processing. It has low solid contents thus required the addition of a thickening agent. Lactic acid bacteria could utilize it in the fermented drink. This research aims to study the effect of taro and lesser yam flour addition as a thickening agent on chemical and sensory characteristics of frozen wheygurt. This research used Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with one factor that is variation ratio of taro and lesser yam flour F1 (4: 0), F2 (3: 1), F3 (2: 2), F4 (1: 3), F5 (0: 4). The number of lactic acid bacteria cell determined by using hemocytometer. The lactic acid content determined by the titrimetric method by using 0.1 N NaOH and phenolphthalein as indicator. pH value measured with pH meter. Sensory characteristics evaluated using hedonic test. The result showed that the addition of taro and lesser yam flour have a significant effect on the number of lactic acid bacteria in frozen wheygurt. The higher lesser yam flour addition, the higher lactic acid bacteria count on frozen wheygurt, due to lesser yam higher glucose and fructo-oligosaccharide content than taro. The higher lesser yam addition, the higher the lactic acid produced. The higher the total bacteria and higher levels of lactic acid, the lower the pH obtained. The conclusion of this study is addition ratio of taro and lesser yam flour effect on the chemical characteristics of frozen wheygurt. There is no difference in the level of acceptance of the panelists in sensory evaluation.

  2. Structural characterization of dioscorin, the major tuber protein of yams, by near infrared Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Y-H; Tseng, C-Y; Chen Wenlung

    2006-01-01

    As very little is known about the molecular structure of dioscorin, the major storage protein of yam tuber, we report here FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation of this yam protein isolated from D. alata L., for the first time. According to a series of purification and identification by ion-exchange chromatography, gel chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF-MS, it shows that the major storage protein is made up of dioscorin A (M.W. ∼33 kDa) and dioscorin B (M.W. ∼31 kDa). Raman spectral results indicate that the secondary structure of dioscorin A is major in α-helix, while dioscorin B belongs to anti-parallel β- sheet. It also shows that the microenvironment of major amino acids including tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, and cysteine exhibit explicit differences between these two components. The conformation of disulfide bonding in dioscorin A predominates in Gauche-Gauche-Trans form, while Gauche-Gauche-Gauche and Trans-Gauche-Trans share the conformation in dioscorin B. Structural resemblance between dioscorin A and crude yam proteins implies that dioscorin A exhibits structural preference even though its content is lower than dioscorin B

  3. Structural characterization of dioscorin, the major tuber protein of yams, by near infrared Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Y-H [300 University Road, Department of Food Science, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Tseng, C-Y [300 University Road, Department of Food Science, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Chen Wenlung [Department of Chemistry, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China)

    2006-01-01

    As very little is known about the molecular structure of dioscorin, the major storage protein of yam tuber, we report here FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation of this yam protein isolated from D. alata L., for the first time. According to a series of purification and identification by ion-exchange chromatography, gel chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF-MS, it shows that the major storage protein is made up of dioscorin A (M.W. {approx}33 kDa) and dioscorin B (M.W. {approx}31 kDa). Raman spectral results indicate that the secondary structure of dioscorin A is major in {alpha}-helix, while dioscorin B belongs to anti-parallel {beta}- sheet. It also shows that the microenvironment of major amino acids including tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, and cysteine exhibit explicit differences between these two components. The conformation of disulfide bonding in dioscorin A predominates in Gauche-Gauche-Trans form, while Gauche-Gauche-Gauche and Trans-Gauche-Trans share the conformation in dioscorin B. Structural resemblance between dioscorin A and crude yam proteins implies that dioscorin A exhibits structural preference even though its content is lower than dioscorin B.

  4. Structural characterization of dioscorin, the major tuber protein of yams, by near infrared Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yu-Hsiu; Tseng, Chi-Yin; Chen, Wenlung

    2006-01-01

    As very little is known about the molecular structure of dioscorin, the major storage protein of yam tuber, we report here FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation of this yam protein isolated from D. alata L., for the first time. According to a series of purification and identification by ion-exchange chromatography, gel chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF-MS, it shows that the major storage protein is made up of dioscorin A (M.W. ~33 kDa) and dioscorin B (M.W. ~31 kDa). Raman spectral results indicate that the secondary structure of dioscorin A is major in α-helix, while dioscorin B belongs to anti-parallel β- sheet. It also shows that the microenvironment of major amino acids including tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, and cysteine exhibit explicit differences between these two components. The conformation of disulfide bonding in dioscorin A predominates in Gauche-Gauche-Trans form, while Gauche-Gauche-Gauche and Trans-Gauche-Trans share the conformation in dioscorin B. Structural resemblance between dioscorin A and crude yam proteins implies that dioscorin A exhibits structural preference even though its content is lower than dioscorin B.

  5. Clonal diversity and estimation of relative clone age: application to agrobiodiversity of yam (Dioscorea rotundata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcelli, Nora; Couderc, Marie; Baco, Mohamed N; Egah, Janvier; Vigouroux, Yves

    2013-11-13

    Clonal propagation is a particular reproductive system found in both the plant and animal kingdoms, from human parasites to clonally propagated crops. Clonal diversity provides information about plant and animal evolutionary history, i.e. how clones spread, or the age of a particular clone. In plants, this could provide valuable information about agrobiodiversity dynamics and more broadly about the evolutionary history of a particular crop. We studied the evolutionary history of yam, Dioscorea rotundata. In Africa, Yam is cultivated by tuber clonal propagation. We used 12 microsatellite markers to identify intra-clonal diversity in yam varieties. We then used this diversity to assess the relative ages of clones. Using simulations, we assessed how Approximate Bayesian Computation could use clonal diversity to estimate the age of a clone depending on the size of the sample, the number of independent samples and the number of markers. We then applied this approach to our particular dataset and showed that the relative ages of varieties could be estimated, and that each variety could be ranked by age. We give a first estimation of clone age in an approximate Bayesian framework. However the precise estimation of clone age depends on the precision of the mutation rate. We provide useful information on agrobiodiversity dynamics and suggest recurrent creation of varietal diversity in a clonally propagated crop.

  6. Locomotion of Mexican jumping beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Daniel M; K Lal, Ishan; Leamy, Michael J; Hu, David L

    2012-01-01

    The Mexican jumping bean, Laspeyresia saltitans, consists of a hollow seed housing a moth larva. Heating by the sun induces movements by the larva which appear as rolls, jumps and flips by the bean. In this combined experimental, numerical and robotic study, we investigate this unique means of rolling locomotion. Time-lapse videography is used to record bean trajectories across a series of terrain types, including one-dimensional channels and planar surfaces of varying inclination. We find that the shell encumbers the larva's locomotion, decreasing its speed on flat surfaces by threefold. We also observe that the two-dimensional search algorithm of the bean resembles the run-and-tumble search of bacteria. We test this search algorithm using both an agent-based simulation and a wheeled Scribbler robot. The algorithm succeeds in propelling the robot away from regions of high temperature and may have application in biomimetic micro-scale navigation systems. (paper)

  7. africa bean research alliance (pabra)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    (NARS), public and private sector actors along the varied bean product value chains, and technology end-users. This model .... centralised information and decision-processing is inefficient ... technologies to farmers, as illustrated by the case.

  8. NetBeans GUI Builder

    OpenAIRE

    Pusiankova, Tatsiana

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at making readers familiar with the powerful tool NetBeans IDE GUI Builder and helping them make their first steps to creation of their own graphical user interface in the Java programming language. The work includes theoretical description of NetBeans IDE GUI Builder, its most important characteristics and peculiarities and also a set of practical instructions that will help readers in creation of their first GUI. The readers will be introduced to the environment of this tool ...

  9. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphiou Maliki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow often result in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM production (tubers, shoots, nutrients removed and recycled, and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders’ traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus-yam rotation, maize-yam rotation with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix/maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/maize intercropping-yam rotation. The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA using the general linear model (GLM procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM production (tubers, shoots, nutrient contribution to the systems, and soil properties at depths 0–10 and 10–20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems.

  10. Foliar Application of Extract from an Azalomycin-Producing Streptomyces malaysiensis Strain MJM1968 Suppresses Yam Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam Palaniyandi, Sasikumar; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Woh

    2016-06-28

    Yam anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C.g) is the most devastating disease of yam (Dioscorea sp.). In the present study, we evaluated the culture filtrate extract (CFE) of azalomycin-producing Streptomyces malaysiensis strain MJM1968 for the control of yam anthracnose. MJM1968 showed strong antagonistic activity against C.g in vitro. Furthermore, the MJM1968 CFE was tested for inhibition of spore germination in C.g, where it completely inhibited spore germination at a concentration of 50 μg/ml. To assess the in planta efficacy of the CFE and spores of MJM1968 against C.g, a detached leaf bioassay was conducted, which showed both the treatments suppressed anthracnose development on detached yam leaves. Furthermore, a greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the CFE from MJM1968 as a fungicide for the control of yam anthracnose. The CFE non-treated plants showed a disease severity of >92% after 90 days of artificial inoculation with C.g, whereas the disease severity of CFE-treated and benomyl-treated yam plants was reduced to 26% and 15%, respectively, after 90 days. Analysis of the yam tubers from the CFE-treated and non-treated groups showed that tubers from the CFE-treated plants were larger than that of non-treated plants, which produced abnormal smaller tubers typical of anthracnose. This study demonstrated the utility of the CFE from S. malaysiensis strain MJM1968 as a biofungicide for the control of yam anthracnose.

  11. Effects of selected process parameters in extrusion of yam flour (Dioscorea rotundata) on physicochemical properties of the extrudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebio, L; Chang, Y K

    2000-04-01

    Raw yam (Dioscorea rotundata) flour was cooked and extruded in a Brabender single-screw laboratory scale extruder. Response surface methodology using an incomplete factorial design was applied with various combinations of barrel temperature [100, 125, 150 degrees C], feed moisture content [18, 22, 26%] and screw speed [100, 150, 200 rpm]. Initial viscosity at 30 degrees C, water solubility index, expansion and hardness were determined. The highest values of initial viscosity were at the highest barrel temperatures and the highest moisture contents. At high feed moisture content and high barrel temperatures the yam extrudate flour showed the greatest values of water solubility index. The physical properties of the extruded product showed that at high temperature the lower the moisture content the greater the expansion index. Hardness was influenced directly by moisture content and inversely by extrusion temperature. The extrusion of yam flour led to the production of snacks and pre-gelatinized flours of diverse properties. Also extruded yam flour can be successfully used in the preparation of 'futu' (pre-cooked compact dough), a yam-based food, popular in Western Africa.

  12. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    .... APHIS-2010-0101] RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States. As a condition of entry... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States while continuing to...

  13. Evaluation of Novel Inoculation Strategies for Solid State Anaerobic Digestion of Yam Peelings in Low-Tech Digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiske, Stefan; Jurgutis, Linas; Kádár, Zsófia

    2015-01-01

    (SSAD) can be operated with low process water demands, but the technology involves operational challenges, as e.g., risk of process acidification or low degradation rates. This study aimed at developing simple methods to perform SSAD of yam peelings in low-tech applications by testing different...... inoculation strategies and evaluating the necessity of dung addition as a supportive biomass. In initial lab scale trials 143 +/- 4 mL CH4/g VS (volatile solids) were obtained from a mixture of yam peelings and dung digested in a multi-layer-inoculated batch reactor. In a consecutive incubation cycle in which...... adapted inoculum was applied, bottom inoculated digesters loaded without dung reached a yield of 140 +/- 16 mL CH4/g VS. This indicates that SSAD of yam peelings is possible with simple inoculation methods and dung addition is unnecessary after microbial adaptation. A comparison with a conventional fixed...

  14. Characteristics of water absorption of beans

    OpenAIRE

    上中, 登紀子; 森, 孝夫; 豊沢, 功; Tokiko, Uenaka; Takao, Mori; Isao, Toyosawa

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of water absorption of soybean, azuki bean and kidney beans (cv. Toramame and Taishokintoki) were investigated. The way of water absorption of soybean was different from that of other beans, because soybeans absorbed water from whole surface of seed coat immediately after the immersion. Azuki beans absorbed extremely slowly water from only strophiole, and then the water absorption in other tissue was induced by a certain amount of water absorption playing a role of trigger. Th...

  15. Effect of feed composition, moisture content and extrusion temperature on extrudate characteristics of yam-corn-rice based snack food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Dibyakanta; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Ganapathy, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Blends of yam, rice and corn flour were processed in a twin-screw extruder. Effects of yam flour (10-40 %), feed moisture content (12-24 %) and extruder barrel temperature (100-140 °C) on the characteristics of the dried extrudates was investigated using a statistical technique response surface methodology (RSM). Radial expansion ratio differed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with change in all the independent variables. Highest expansion (3.97) was found at lowest moisture content (12 %) and highest barrel temperature (140 °C). Increased yam flour level decreased the expansion ratio significantly. Water absorption index (WAI) increased significantly with increase of all variables. However, water solubility index (WSI) did not change with change in yam flour percent. Hardness of extrudates that varied from 3.86 to 6.94 N was positively correlated with yam flour level and feed moisture content, however it decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.001) with increase of barrel temperature. Yam percent of 15.75 with feed moisture and barrel temperature at 12.00 % and 140 °C respectively gave an optimized product of high desirability (> 0.90) with optimum responses of 3.29 expansion ratio, 5.64 g/g dry solid water absorption index, 30.39 % water solubility index and 3.86 N hardness. The predicted values registered non-significant (p extruded snacks and little emphasis on the chemistry of interaction between different components.

  16. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  17. Functional properties of dioscorin, a soluble viscous protein from Japanese yam (Dioscorea opposita thunb.) tuber mucilage Tororo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takeshi; Nagashima, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    A soluble viscous protein was purified from yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) tuber mucilage tororo by chromatographic steps, and its functional properties were estimated. The purified dioscorin having the molecular weight of about 200 kDa exhibited high scavenging activities against hydroxyl radicals (IC50 = 195.1 microg/ml) and superoxide anion radicals (IC50 = 92.7 microg/ml). Moreover, it showed extremely high angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity (IC50 = 41.1 microg/ml). The results suggested that yam D. opposita tuber has a wide spectrum of strong antioxidative and antihypertensive activities and it could be utilized as a source of natural antioxidant.

  18. Effects of yam dioscorin interventions on improvements of the metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Shen-Liang; Lin, Yin-Shiou; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Background The metabolic syndrome (MS) is termed a cluster of multiple metabolic risk criteria which is positively correlated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Yam dioscorins have been reported to exhibit biological activities, however, little is known their preventive effects on the MS. Therefore, a high-fat (HF) diet was used to induce Wistar rat obesity and then yam dioscorin (50?mg/kg, dio50) was intervened daily concurrent HF diet (HF diet?+?dio50) for five w...

  19. Yam: a neglected and underutilized crop in Brazil Inhame: uma cultura negligenciada e subutilizada no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MVBM Siqueira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil current studies and investments on yams are incipient. Similarly, the literature in recent decades lacks adequate information on this group of plants. The existing literature, on its turn, requires more than ever to be revised and organized. Yams have joined the so-called "neglected" group of crops for several reasons, but particularly because they are associated with poor and traditional communities. Many vegetables introduced in Brazil during the colonization period have adapted to different cropping systems, yams being an excellent example. This diversity resulted very widespread, yet poorly recognized in the country. In turn, the gardens using traditional farming systems continue to maintain and enhance yam local varieties. Studies from other countries, with an emphasis on characterization and genetic breeding, brought to light an urgent need for Brazil to invest in yams as a food rich in carbohydrates, even to the point of alterations in food public policy. Reversal of the yam's current stigma is both a challenge to the scientific community and to the population as a whole. This paper aims to raise pertinent questions about Dioscorea species, an important key group for many communities in tropical countries, yet still unrecognized as so in Brazil.No Brasil, estudos e investimentos ao inhame são incipientes. Similarmente, a literatura nas últimas décadas apresenta informações insuficientes para este grupo de plantas. A literatura existente, por sua vez, exige mais que nunca ser revisada e organizada. O inhame tem-se unido ao grupo de culturas ditas "negligenciadas" por diversas razões, mas particularmente devido ao fato de estar associado às comunidades pobres e tradicionais. Muitos vegetais introduzidos no Brasil durante o período da colonização têm-se adaptado a diferentes sistemas de cultivo, sendo o inhame um excelente exemplo. Esta diversidade é resultado de uma ampla dispersão, ainda pouco conhecida no país. Por

  20. Molecular cloning, structural analysis and mass spectrometric identification of native dioscorins of various yam species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Yi; Jheng, Yi-Jyun; Chen, Kuo-Hsuan; Lin, Kuo-Wei; Ho, Yen-Pen; Yang, Ching-Chi; Lin, Kuo-Chih

    2013-03-15

    Dioscorins are the major storage proteins of yam tubers. However, the molecular nature of their heterogeneity in tubers has not been fully elucidated. In this study the authors isolated the dioscorin gene families of Dioscorea japonica and Dioscorea pseudojaponica, performed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and elucidated which dioscorin isoforms are the major constituents in tubers. The dioscorin gene families of D. japonica (Dj-dioA1-Dj-dioA4, Dj-dioB1 and Dj-dioB2) and D. pseudojaponica (Dp-dioA1-Dp-dioA5 and Dp-dioB1) were cloned from cDNA libraries of yam tubers. The dioscorins isolated from Dioscorea alata (Da-dioscorins), D. japonica (Dj-dioscorins) and D. pseudojaponica (Dp-dioscorins) were mainly monomers, with a few dimers. The monomers contained one intramolecular disulfide bond (Cys(28)-Cys(187)) and belonged to Class A dioscorins with two cysteine residues. The dimers consisted of Class B dioscorins with one intermolecular disulfide bond (Cys(40)-Cys(40)). Results of MALDI-TOF-MS revealed that the Da-dioscorins were mainly encoded by Da-dioA2, Da-dioA3 and Da-dioA4. The majority of the Dj-dioscorins were encoded by Dj-dioA1, Dj-dioA2, Dj-dioA3 and Dj-dioB2. The Dp-dioscorins mainly comprised proteins encoded by Dp-dioA1, Dp-dioA3, Dp-dioA4, Dp-dioB1 and Dp-dioB2. Determination of the constituents of dioscorin isoforms in yam tubers provides a basis for future studies of their physiological and biomedical functions. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Antioxidant activities of dioscorin, the storage protein of yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne) tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, W C; Lee, M H; Chen, H J; Liang, W L; Han, C H; Liu, Y W; Lin, Y H

    2001-10-01

    Dioscorin, the storage protein of yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne) tuber (which is different from dioscorine found in tubers of Dioscorea hirsuta), was purified to homogeneity after DE-52 ion exchange column according to the methods of Hou et al. (J. Agric. Food Chem. 1999, 47, 2168-2172). A single band of 32 kDa dioscorin was obtained on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel with 2-mercaptoethanol treatment. This purified dioscorin was shown by spectrophotometric method to have scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in a pH-dependent manner. There is a positive correlation between scavenging effects against DPPH (8-46%) and amounts of 32 kDa dioscorin (5.97-47.80 nmol) added in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.9), which are comparable to those of glutathione at the same concentrations. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry for DPPH radical detection, it was found that the intensities of the EPR signal were decreased by 28.6 and 57 nmol of 32 kDa dioscorin in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.9) more than in distilled water compared to controls. EPR spectrometry was also used for hydroxyl radical detection. It was found that 32 kDa dioscorin could capture hydroxyl radical, and the intensities of the EPR signal were significantly decreased dose-dependently by 1.79-14.32 nmol of 32 kDa dioscorin (r = 0.975) compared to the control. It is suggested that 32 kDa dioscorin, the storage protein of yam tuber, may play a role as antioxidant in tubers and may be beneficial for health when people take it as a food additive or consume yam tubers.

  2. KARAKTERISTIK DAN PROFIL INULIN BEBERAPA JENIS UWI (Dioscorea spp. Characteristic and Inulin Profil of Wild Yam (Dioscorea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Winarti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Wild yams (Dioscorea spp. grow well in Indonesia known as Uwi, is the kind of tubers that grow in the community,but they have not been used optimally. Publicity about the characteristics and types has been limited. The tubers contain inulin, but also there have been no publication related.The purpose of this study was to uncover the characteristics of wild yam and inulin profiles contained in the tubers.The yams were obtained from various regions in East Java, among others Pacet Mojokerto, Karang Ploso and Kawi Mountains in Malang, Nganjuk, and traditional markets in Surabaya.The tubers were characterized for shape and size of tubers, skin color and flesh tubers, average weight and texture of the tuber, moisture content, ash content and levels of inulin, texture and flavor. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and further test Duncan’t Multiple Range Test (DMRT.Based on the characteristics of tubers, there were 10 types of wild yams, namely D1 (Dioscororea alata/ white yam, D2 (Dioscorea pinthaphylla/frog yam, D3 (Dioscorea hispida /Gadung, D4 (Dioscorea alata /purple yam with yellow skin, D5 (Dioscorea alata /purple yam, D6 (Dioscorea esculenta/gembili, D7 (Dioscorea alata/yellow yam, D8 (Dioscorea opposita/white yam with yellow skin, D9 (Dioscorea bulbifera/gembolo and D10 (Dioscorea rotundata/ white yam with brown skin. The highest levels of inulin obtained in Dioscororea esculenta (gembili ie 14.77 % (db. The water content rangedbetween 71.89- 85.07 % (wb, ash content 0.59- 1.83 % and texture between 0.012 to 0.055 (mm/g.dt. Organoleptic score was 2.75 to 4.55 texture and taste is from 3.20 to 5.00. ABSTRAK Uwi merupakan jenis umbi-umbian yang tumbuh di Indonesia, namun belum dimanfaatkan secara optimal dan belumbanyak publikasi mengenai kharakteristik dan jenis-jenisnya. Uwi mengandung inulin, namun belum banyak publikasi yang mengungkap kadar inulin pada berbagai jenis umbi uwi tersebut.Tujuan dari penelitian ini

  3. Interaction between beans and objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction between the X-ray beans and objects are studied, with the modification in the intensity. The kilovolt, the bundle filtration, the structure and composition of the patient and the quantity of scattered radiation are also described, as the main parameters for the contrast and for the dose of the patient. (C.G.C.) [pt

  4. Angus McBean - Portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepper, T.

    2007-01-01

    Angus McBean (1904-90) was one of the most extraordinary British photographers of the twentieth century. In a career that spanned the start of the Second World War through the birth of the 'Swinging Sixties' to the 1980s, he became the most prominent theatre photographer of his generation and, along

  5. Genomic resources for water yam (Dioscorea alata L.): analyses of EST-Sequences, De Novo sequencing and GBS libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reducing cost and rapid progress in next-generation sequencing techniques coupled with high performance computational approaches have resulted in large-scale discovery of advanced genomic resources such as SSRs, SNPs and InDels in several model and non-model plant species. Yam (Dioscorea spp.) i...

  6. [Manaca, sweet potato and yam: possible substitutes of wheat in foods for two ethnic population in Venezuelan Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangronis, Elba; Teixeira, Patricia; Otero, Mariana; Guerra, Marisa; Hidalgo, Glida

    2006-03-01

    In this study, flours from manaca or acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart), sweet potato (Ipomea batatas), and yam (Dioscorea spp.), species grown in the Venezuelan Amazon, were obtained. The proximal composition, water activity (a(w)), Fe, Ca, Zn, Mg, Cu, Na and K content were determined for the flours of manaca, sweet potato and yam. These flours were used as ingredients of products for the inhabitants of the indigenous populations of the Venezuelan Amazon (Piaroa and Hiwi). Two types of products that traditionally contain wheat flour in their formulation (ingredient they know by transculturation) were formulated; an attempt to substitute it totally or partially by the manaca, sweet potato and/or yam flours was made. For the selection of the products to be formulated, the preferences and eating habits of the indigenous communities and ease and simplicity of the preparations to be developed, were considered. The two products formulated were cookies and "small cakes". To decide on the formulation(s) of the final product(s), sensorial evaluations were made in the laboratory and in the indigenous communities Piaroa and Hiwi. High fat content (16%), dietetic fiber (59.7%) and iron (25 mg / 100 g) in manaca or acai flour were remarkable. Two types of cookies and two of "small cakes" were equally accepted by the indigenous communities. Cookies supply a high iron amount (about 24%). The feasibility of substituting the wheat flour by manaca, sweet potato and yam flour in products accepted by two ethnic populations of the Venezuelan Amazon was demonstrated.

  7. Characterization and evaluation of acid-modified starch of Dioscorea oppositifolia (Chinese yam as a binder in chloroquine phosphate tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenike Okunlola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chinese yam (Dioscorea oppositifolia starch modified by acid hydrolysis was characterized and compared with native starch as a binder in chloroquine phosphate tablet formulations. The physicochemical and compressional properties (using density measurements and the Heckel and Kawakita equations of modified Chinese yam starch were determined, and its quantitative effects as a binder on the mechanical and release properties of chloroquine phosphate were analyzed using a 2³ full factorial design. The nature (X1, concentration of starch (X2 and packing fraction (X3 were taken as independent variables and the crushing strength-friability ratio (CSFR, disintegration time (DT and dissolution time (t80 as dependent variables. Acid-modified Chinese yam starch showed a marked reduction (p<0.05 in amylose content and viscosity but increased swelling and water-binding properties. The modified starch had a faster onset and greater amount of plastic flow. Changing the binder from native to acid-modified form led to significant increases (p<0.05 in CSFR and DT but a decrease in t80. An increase in binder concentration and packing fraction gave similar results for CSFR and DT only. These results suggest that acid-modified Chinese yam starches may be useful as tablet binders when high bond strength and fast dissolution are required.

  8. Distribution, management and diversity of yam local varieties in Brazil: a study on Dioscorea alataL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MVBM Siqueira

    Full Text Available Widely spread in the tropics, yams were introduced into Brazil during the colonial period and are currently grown throughout the country. Despite its importance as a pharmacological and food source, there is a lack of studies describing how and where this tuber is grown in Brazil. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the cultivation and distribution of Dioscorea alata in different Brazilian regions. A total of 63 farmers were visited in different municipalities and communities in four regions in the country: South, Southeast, Northeast and Midwest. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect socio-economic, use, management and diversity data for this crop. The majority of interviewers were men, married, with children, using retirement benefits and agriculture as income and family labour as the main support in the yam cultivation. A wide distribution of this species was found, with the occurrence of D. alata in the four sampled regions. A variety of vernacular names for this species was collected, differing according to the region where it is cultivated. Most farmers cultivate yams in fields, however an increased usage of home gardens for the cultivation of this tuber was found. Also, most farmers cultivate yams in association with other crops in areas of different sizes and slash and burn practices, although mostly disappearing, are still being used by many farmers. The results of this study provide more concrete data on the distribution and diversity of this important crop.

  9. Induction and evaluation of useful mutants in cassava (Manihot esculenta) and yam (Diascorea sp.) by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klu, G.Y.P.

    1987-11-01

    Stem cuttings of the cassava cultivar ''Bosom'' were irradiated with gamma rays. A dose of 5000 rad was lethal, but a dose of 3000 rad was found to allow sprouting of 50% of the buds. For tuber cuttings of yam, the LD50 was found to be around 2000 rad. 6 refs, 1 tab

  10. Effects of Planting and Processing Modes on the Degradation of Dithianon and Pyraclostrobin in Chinese Yam (Dioscorea spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kaiwei; Wu, Xujin; Ma, Jingwei; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhou, Ling; Wang, Hong; Li, Li

    2017-12-06

    The yam (Dioscorea spp.) is widely cultivated in China. The degradation of dithianon and pyraclostrobin in yams with different planting and processing treatments was investigated in this article. An analytical method for two pesticides in yam and yam plant was developed, and recoveries were between 77% and 93%, with relative standard deviations from 0.8% to 7.4%, respectively. On the basis of this method, half-lives for plants grown on stakes versus plants grown without stakes were compared. The results indicated that the half-life for pesticide residues for plants grown on stakes versus plants grown without stakes differed as 6.7 versus 3.1 days for dithianon and 5.4 versus 5.2 days for pyraclostrobin. Dithianon was significantly influenced by planting mode because of its low stability under sunlight. The processing factors of various processing treatments (hot air-drying, vacuum freeze-drying, microwave vacuum-drying, infrared-drying, steaming, and boiling) were all <1, indicating that those processes can reduce residues of two pesticides at different levels. Significant amounts of residues were removed during the boiling treatment, whereas the others showed less effect.

  11. Yam storage protein dioscorins from Dioscorea alata and Dioscorea japonica exhibit distinct immunomodulatory activities in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Lan; Lin, Kuo-Wei; Weng, Ching-Feng; Lin, Kuo-Chih

    2009-06-10

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of the major storage protein dioscorin isolated from two different yam species, Tainong No. 1 (TN1-dioscorins) and Japanese yam (Dj-dioscorins), on the immune activities of mice. Dj-dioscorins, like TN1-dioscorins, could induce expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and stimulate phagocytosis of RAW 264.7. Intraperitoneal injection of the TN1-dioscorins into mice stimulated phagocytosis of bone marrow, spleen, and thymic cells. In contrast, the T and B cells in bone marrow, spleen, and thymus isolated from mice injected with Dj-dioscorins had higher proliferative responses to mitogens. Furthermore, Dj-dioscorins enhanced proliferation of CD4(+), CD8(+), and Tim3(+) (Th1) cells in spleen and CD19(+) cells in both spleen and thymus. Supplement of Dj-dioscorins in the lymphoid cells isolated from Dj-dioscorins primed mice induced cell proliferation of both spleen and thymic cells. These findings indicated that TN1-dioscorins have a higher ability to stimulate the phagocytic activity of the lymphoid cells than Dj-dioscorins, whereas Dj-dioscorins possess more abilities than TN1-dioscorins to enhance the proliferation of the lymphoid cells.

  12. Sweetening syrup production by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch variety yam (Dioscorea rotundata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ramón Vidal Tovar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sweeteners syrups produced by enzymatic hydrolysis from starch of hawthorn yam (Dioscorea rotundata. The starch was extracted by a scratched, washed, sedimented and drying; the yield was quantified taking into account the amount of initial raw material and was determined the concentration of starch, amylose, amylopectin, crude fiber, ash, protein, fat and humidity in accordance with the requirements of the AOAC standards, and ICONTEC COVENIN. Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch was conducted using ∂-amylase, glucoamylase and pullulanase in starch solutions at 36 and 46 % w/w varying the order of application of glucoamylase and pullulanase were determined pH, Brix, moisture, reducing sugars (AR, total sugar (TS and the dextrose equivalent (ED in the syrups obtained. In the liquefaction were obtained with an intermediate syrups sweeteners ED 18.81% and 22.15%. Syrups low and medium conversion with an ED between 34-45% in the first saccharification and high conversion syrups with a DE between 75-79% as a final product. The above values allow the use of hawthorn yam starch syrup production for multiple uses in different food industry processes.

  13. Understanding the genetic diversity and population structure of yam (Dioscorea alata L.) using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, Gemma; MN, Sheela; Chair, Hana; Lebot, Vincent; K, Abraham; Perrier, Xavier; Petro, Dalila; Penet, Laurent; Pavis, Claudie

    2017-01-01

    Yams (Dioscorea sp.) are staple food crops for millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions. Dioscorea alata, also known as greater yam, is one of the major cultivated species and most widely distributed throughout the tropics. Despite its economic and cultural importance, very little is known about its origin, diversity and genetics. As a consequence, breeding efforts for resistance to its main disease, anthracnose, have been fairly limited. The objective of this study was to contribute to the understanding of D. alata genetic diversity by genotyping 384 accessions from different geographical regions (South Pacific, Asia, Africa and the Caribbean), using 24 microsatellite markers. Diversity structuration was assessed via Principal Coordinate Analysis, UPGMA analysis and the Bayesian approach implemented in STRUCTURE. Our results revealed the existence of a wide genetic diversity and a significant structuring associated with geographic origin, ploidy levels and morpho-agronomic characteristics. Seventeen major groups of genetically close cultivars have been identified, including eleven groups of diploid cultivars, four groups of triploids and two groups of tetraploids. STRUCTURE revealed the existence of six populations in the diploid genetic pool and a few admixed cultivars. These results will be very useful for rationalizing D. alata genetic resources in breeding programs across different regions and for improving germplasm conservation methods. PMID:28355293

  14. Studies on the steroid hormone precursors of two tropical wild yams (Dioscorea bulbifera and Dioscorea manganotiana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oboh, G.; Ekperigin, M.M.; Akindahunsi, A.A.

    2001-09-01

    Dioscorea bulbifera and Dioscorea manganotiana were evaluated for their potential as a source of saponin and sapogenin. The levels of these steroid hormone precursors were determined by solvent extraction and characterized by froth test, haemolytic test, colour, taste and TLC analysis. The saponin content of both yams were 1.04±0.08% (dioscorea bulbifera) and 1.58±0.26% (Dioscorea manganotiana). The sapogenin content of Dioscorea manganotiana was 6.04±0.06mg/g, while that of dioscerea bulbifera was 3.36±0.37mg/g. The saponin had a dark-brown colour, bitter taste, frothing ability and haemolysed blood. TLC analysis gave a purple spot with R f ranging from 0.55 to 0.56. Since the wild yams used for the present study are neither consumed by man nor used for livestock feeding, coupled with their relative abundance and low cost, they hold a good promise with respect to sourcing precursors for commercial production of steroid hormones. (author)

  15. Determinants of Yam Postharvest Management in the Zabzugu District of Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Gershon Kodwo Ansah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Postharvest loss reduction has received attention in many policy documents across nations to ensure global food security, particularly in developing countries. Many researchers have examined various options for reducing postharvest losses. We contribute our quota to this scientific discourse by using a different approach. We argue that the human element of managing postharvest loss is central and therefore poses the question of what are the characteristics of the farmer who manages postharvest losses better. We examine this question by using a cross section of yam farmers in the Zabzugu district in Northern Ghana and generate a proportional variable called postharvest management, which measures how effective a farmer works to reduce storage losses. We then use a fractional logistic regression model to examine the determinants of postharvest management. A significant result is that subsistence farmers manage postharvest losses better than commercial farmers. Characteristically, the farmer who effectively manages postharvest losses is a young, subsistence farmer, living in or close to a district capital with fewer household members, has attained formal education, and produces more yam. Efforts to reduce postharvest losses require the provision of access roads to remote towns or providing effective storage techniques and training on postharvest management practices.

  16. Genetic and functional characterization of culturable plant-beneficial actinobacteria associated with yam rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam Palaniyandi, Sasikumar; Yang, Seung Hwan; Damodharan, Karthiyaini; Suh, Joo-Won

    2013-12-01

    Actinobacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of yam plants from agricultural fields from Yeoju, South Korea and analyzed for their genetic and plant-beneficial functional diversity. A total of 29 highly occurring actinobacterial isolates from the yam rhizosphere were screened for various plant-beneficial traits such as antimicrobial activity on fungi and bacteria; biocontrol traits such as production of siderophore, protease, chitinase, endo-cellulase, and β-glucanase. The isolates were also screened for plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits such as auxin production, phosphate solubilization, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, and in vitro Arabidopsis growth promotion. 16S rDNA sequence-based phylogenetic analysis was carried out on the actinobacterial isolates to determine their genetic relatedness to known actinobacteria. BOX-PCR analysis revealed high genetic diversity among the isolates. Several isolates were identified to belong to the genus Streptomyces and a few to Kitasatospora. The actinobacterial strains exhibited high diversity in their functionality and were identified as novel and promising candidates for future development into biocontrol and PGP agents. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. BEAN CULTURE IN CHERNOZEM ZONE OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Balashova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beans (Vicia faba L. is the one of the ancient crops which have been cultivated and used for food. The historical note about bean utilization in ancient world and in Russia, and the information aboutcenters of origin, food value of seeds are presented in this review. Botanical characteristics of three bean varieties of VNIISSOK breeding are described.

  18. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  19. The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5): Correlations with anxiety, fear, and depression scales in non-clinical children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Mannens, Janne; Peters, Lisanne; Meesters, Cor

    2017-10-01

    The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5) is a newly developed rating scale for assessing anxiety disorder symptoms of children and adolescents in terms of the contemporary classification system. In the present study, 187 children aged 8-12 years completed the new measure as well as the trait version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), the Short Form of the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (FSSC-R-SF), the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ), and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Results indicated that part one of the YAM-5, which measures symptoms of the major anxiety disorders, was most substantially linked with the trait anxiety scale of the STAIC, whereas part two, which measures phobic symptoms, was most clearly associated with the FSSC-R-SF. The correlation between the YAM-5 and the SCAS was also robust, and particularly strong correlations were found between subscales of both questionnaires that assessed similar symptoms. Further, the selective mutism subscale of the YAM-5 was most clearly linked to the SMQ. Finally, the YAM-5 was also significantly correlated with depression symptoms as indexed by the CDI. These findings provide further support for the concurrent validity of the YAM-5. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Dioscorea opposita Thunb. (yam) supplementation on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S H; Lee, S Y; Palanivel, G; Kwak, H S

    2011-04-01

    A study was conducted to examine the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of yogurt made by supplementing powdered yam Dioscorea opposita Thunb. (YPT) at different concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8%, wt/vol) into milk, which was pasteurized and then fermented at 43°C for 6 h and stored for 16 d. The pH values of all samples decreased, whereas viscosity values and mean microbial counts increased during storage. The L* and a* color values (indicators of lightness and redness, respectively) of yogurt samples were not remarkably influenced by adding YPT, whereas the b* values (indicating yellowness) significantly increased with the addition of YPT at all concentrations at 0 d of storage, probably due to the original yellow color of yam powder. In functional component analyses, when the concentration of YPT increased, the amount of allantoin and diosgenin proportionally increased. The content of allantoin was 3.22 and diosgenin 4.69 μg/mL when 0.2% (wt/vol) YPT was supplemented and did not change quantitatively during the storage period (16 d). The sensory test revealed that the overall acceptability scores of YPT-supplemented yogurt samples (0.2 to 0.6%, wt/vol) were quite similar to those of the control throughout the storage period of 16 d. Based on the data obtained from the present study, it was concluded that the concentrations (0.2 to 0.6%, wt/vol) of YPT could be used to produce YPT-supplemented yogurt without significant adverse effects on physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties, and enhance functional components from the supplementation. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunomodulatory activity of dioscorin, the storage protein of yam (Dioscorea alata cv. Tainong No. 1) tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yen-Wenn; Shang, Huey-Fang; Wang, Chung-Kwe; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2007-11-01

    The purified dioscorin from yam (Dioscorea alata L. cv. Tainong 1) tuber was previously reported (Hsu et al., 2002. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 6109-6113). In this report, we evaluated its immunomodulatory ability in vitro in the presence of polymyxin B (50 microg/ml) to eliminate lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination. Dioscorin (5-100 microg/ml) was able to stimulate nitric oxide production (expressed as nitrite concentrations) in RAW264.7 cells. The stimulation index on the phagocytosis of RAW264.7 cells against E. coli and the oxidative burst (determined by the intensity of rhodamine fluorescence) of RAW264.7 cells were both enhanced by different concentrations of dioscorin (5-100 microg/ml). The cytokine production, including IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta in dioscorin-treated RAW264.7 cells or human monocytes, was measured in the cultured medium. Dioscorin (5-100 microg/ml) was found able to induce IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta production in RAW264.7 cells and human monocytes. To evaluate the effects of dioscorin on the proliferation of spleen cells from BALB/c mice, phytohemagglutinin (PHA, 2 microg/ml) alone or PHA mixed with different concentrations of dioscorin (10, 25, and 50 microg/ml) was used to treat spleen cells for 24h. The stimulated proliferation index of splenic cells ranged from 1.38- to 1.48-fold of PHA alone for PHA mixed with different concentrations of dioscorin (10, 25, and 50 microg/ml). We suggest that the tuber storage protein of yam dioscorin functions as an immunomodulatory substance.

  2. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF DRIED YAM CHIPS (Dioscorea rotundata DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia F. Omojasola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological and physico-chemical analyses of dried yam chips (gbodo retailed in four markets in Ilorin and its environs alongside a laboratory – prepared control were carried out over a six month period. Microbiological assay consisted of total viable and coliform counts as well as microbial isolation. A total of 11 fungi and 5 bacteria were isolated from the different samples which included Acremonium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus., A. niger, A. ochraceus, Fusarium solani, Mucor hiemalis, Mucor racemosus, Penicillum notatum, Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Syncephalastrum racemosum and Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Erwinia carotovora, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus respectively. Total Viable Counts ranged from 3.0-120.0 cfu g-1 and coliform counts ranged from 0.00 - 18.80 cfu g-1 pre-storage to 0.10-219 cfu g-1 and 0.0-31.0 cfu g-1 post storage respectively. The physico-chemical parameters analysed were moisture content which ranged between 14.38-17.10% pre-storage to 13.43-24.96% post-storage; crude protein: 5.81-7.53% and 2.11-6.75%; crude fat: 0.35-0.71% and 0.07-0.61%; ash content: 3.30-5.18% and 1.17-4.77%; crude fibre: 0.77-1.45%; carbohydrate: 70.18-74.00% and 70.93-75.17% pre-storage and post-storage content respectively. Levels of Aflatoxin B1 were also monitored throughout the storage period. Insect infestation of the samples occurred during the storage period. Four species were identified; these were Tribolium casteneum, Dinoderus porcellus, Rhyzopertha dominica and Sitophilus zeamais. The traditional practice of open air sun-drying of yam chips should be discouraged, rather oven drying is recommended to minmize microbial contamination. In addition, sorting to exclude extreneous material and minimize mouldiness and insect infestation is suggested.

  3. NPK Fertilizers for Elephant Foot Yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst. Nicolson Intercropped with Coffee Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Santosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTFertilizer application in elephant foot yams (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst. Nicolson intercropping system is rare in Indonesia, therefore, NPK fertilizers experiment was conducted under the shade of 10-year-old coffee plantation at Leuwikopo Experimental Farm, Bogor, Indonesia, in order to increase the productivity of elephant foot yam intercropped with coffee trees. Prior to planting, 20 ton ha-1 of goat manure was applied. Four NPK combinations, i.e., N, P2O5, K2O at the rate of 0, 0 and 0; 100, 60 and 80; 125, 60 and 100; and 150, 60 and 120 kg ha-1, were applied. Results showed that there were no significant differences in leaf number per plant, petiole size and rachis length among treatments. Application of NPK decreased photosynthetic rates, while increasing rate of N and K2O had no effect on photosynthetic rates. NPK application at the 100 N, 60 P2O5 and 80 K2O kg ha-1 (N100P60K80 treatment or larger prolonged growth duration regardless of NPK levels, and there was a close relationship between corm yield and growth duration. As a result, corm fresh mass was higher in the 100:60:80 kg ha-1 treatment than in control. In the N125P60K100 and N150P60K120 kg ha-1 treatments, leaves were damaged by heavy rains and winds, counteracting beneficial effect of NPK on growth duration and corm yield. These results suggested the importance of delay of entering dormancy for an increase in productivity of A. paeoniifolius.Keywords: NPK fertilizers, photosynthesis, productivity, prolong growth, tuber crop

  4. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  5. Vasorelaxing and antihypertensive activities of synthesized peptides derived from computer-aided simulation of pepsin hydrolysis of yam dioscorin

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yin-Shiou; Lu, Yeh-Lin; Wang, Guei-Jane; Liang, Hong-Jen; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Background We reported that yam dioscorin and its peptic hydrolysates exhibited ACE inhibition and antihypertensive effects on SHRs, however, the active peptides are not really isolated until now. Using ACE inhibitory screenings, two penta-peptides, KTCGY and KRIHF, were selected for ex vivo and in vivo experiments. Results KTCGY, KRIHF, and captopril were shown to have similar vasodilating effects against phenylephrine (PE)-induced tensions in rat endothelium-dependent thoracic aortic rings,...

  6. Enterprise JavaBeans 31

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to code, package, deploy, and test functional Enterprise JavaBeans with the latest edition of this bestselling guide. Written by the developers of JBoss EJB 3.1, this book not only brings you up to speed on each component type and container service in this implementation, it also provides a workbook with several hands-on examples to help you gain immediate experience with these components. With version 3.1, EJB's server-side component model for building distributed business applications is simpler than ever. But it's still a complex technology that requires study and lots of practi

  7. Comparison of Structural and Functional Properties of Starches from the Rhizome and Bulbil of Chinese Yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chinese yam is an important edible starch plant and widely cultivated in China. Its rhizome and bulbil are starch storage tissues below and above ground, respectively. In this paper, starches were isolated from the rhizome and bulbil of Chinese yam, and their structural and functional properties were compared. Both starches had an oval shape with an eccentric hilum and a CA-type crystalline structure. Their short-range ordered structure and lamellar structure had no significant difference. However, the rhizome starch had a significantly bigger granule size and lower amylose content than the bulbil starch. The swelling power and water solubility were significantly lower in the rhizome starch than in the bulbil starch. The onset and peak gelatinization temperatures were significantly higher in the rhizome starch than in the bulbil starch. The rhizome starch had a significantly higher breakdown viscosity and a lower setback viscosity than the bulbil starch. The thermal stability was lower in the rhizome starch than in the bulbil starch. The rhizome starch had a significantly lower resistance to hydrolysis and in vitro digestion than the bulbil starch. The above results provide important information for the utilization of rhizome and bulbil starches of Chinese yam.

  8. Dioscorin, the major tuber storage protein of yam (Dioscorea batatas decne) with carbonic anhydrase and trypsin inhibitor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, W C; Liu, J S; Chen, H J; Chen, T E; Chang, C F; Lin, Y H

    1999-05-01

    Dioscorin, the tuber storage protein of yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne), was purified successively by ammonium sulfate fractionation, DE-52 ion exchange chromatography, and Sephadex G-75 column. Two protein bands (82 and 28 kDa) were found under nonreducing conditions after SDS-PAGE; but only one band (32 kDa) was detected under reducing conditions. The first 21 amino acids in the N-terminal region of the 28 kDa form were VEDEFSYIEGNPNGPENWGNL, which was highly homologous to deductive sequence of dioscorin from cDNA of another yam species (Dioscoreacayenensis Lam) reported by Conlan et al. (Plant Mol. Biol. 1995, 28, 369-380). Hewett-Emmett and Tashian (Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 1996, 5, 50 -77) mentioned that, according to DNA alignments, dioscorin from yam (D. cayenensis) was alpha-carbonic anhydrase (alpha-CA) related. In this report, we found that the purified dioscorin showed both CA dehydration activity using sodium bicarbonate as a substrate and CA activity staining after SDS-PAGE. A polyclonal antibody, which was raised against trypsin inhibitor (TI), a storage protein of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam var. Tainong 57), cross-reacted with dioscorin, which also showed TI activity determined by both activity staining after SDS-PAGE and trypsin inhibition determination.

  9. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Yam (Dioscorea spp.) Crops and Their Derived Foodstuffs: Safety, Security and Nutritional Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Piccirillo, Clara; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Manuela E

    2016-12-09

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and yam (Dioscorea spp.) are tropical crops consumed by ca. 2 billion people and represent the main source of carbohydrate and energy for the approximately 700 million people living in the tropical and sub-tropical areas. They are a guarantee of food security for developing countries. The production of these crops and the transformation into food-derived commodities is increasing, it represents a profitable business and farmers generate substantial income from their market. However, there are some important concerns related to the food safety and food security. The high post-harvest losses, mainly for yam, the contamination by endogenous toxic compounds, mainly for cassava, and the contamination by external agents (such as micotoxins, pesticides, and heavy metal) represent a depletion of economic value and income. The loss in the raw crops or the impossibility to market the derived foodstuffs, due to incompliance with food regulations, can seriously limit all yam tubers and the cassava roots processors, from farmers to household, from small-medium to large enterprises. One of the greatest challenges to overcome those concerns is the transformation of traditional or indigenous processing methods into modern industrial operations, from the crop storage to the adequate package of each derived foodstuff.

  10. Effect of shade on photosynthetic pigments in the tropical root crops: yam, taro, tannia, cassava and sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, M.; Onwueme, I.C.

    1998-01-01

    Plants of yam, taro, tannia, cassava and sweet potato were raised under shade or in full sunlight and the effect of shade on leaf chlorophyll and carotenoids was examined to determine and compare the relative shade tolerance and adaptability of the var ious species. All five species of root crops adapted to shade. The chlorophyll concentration was higher, while the chlorophyll a:b ratio, carotenoids per unit chlorophyll and the weight per unit area of leaf were lower in the shade than in the sun in yam, tannia, taro, cassava and sweet potato. All species had larger leaves and more chlorophyll per leaf in the shade. The extent of the changes, however, differed between species. The aroids (taro and tannia) appeared to be shade-tolerant species as their chlorophyll a:b ratios changed less than those of the other species in the shade, suggesting that their light-harvesting systems may be normally adapted to shade conditions. Taro and tannia also adapted to shade by a greater proportional increase in leaf size, a smaller reduction in leaf weight per unit area and a greater proportional increase in chlorophyll and carotenoids per leaf than the other species. Yam compensated for shade by having a large proportional increase in leaf size and appeared to be moderately tolerant of shade. Sweet potato and cassava appeared to be the least tolerant of shade of the major tropical root crops. (author)

  11. Table 5 Mineral content of ashed bean samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Mamiro

    2012-08-05

    Aug 5, 2012 ... vegetables; dry bean grains are used in various food preparations, and both are used as relish or side dishes together ... Eastern Africa and Latin America. Zinc content of beans is one of the ... Kidney bean leaves and fresh bean grains, which are prepared as relish and consumed by a number of families in ...

  12. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  13. Influência da primeira alimentação na larvicultura e alevinagem do yamú Brycon siebenthalae (Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2092 First feeding influence on yamú, Brycon siebenthalae (Characidae larval rearing - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2092

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pardo-Carrasco

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a influência da primeira alimentação na alevinagem do yamú, Brycon siebenthalae, no Instituto de Acuicultura/Universidad de Los Llanos (Villavicencio, Colômbia, foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos. No experimento 1, testaram-se, durante vinte e quatro horas, diferentes tipos de alimento vivo como primeira alimentação das pós-larvas (PL de yamú: náuplios de Artemia sp. (NA, zooplâncton silvestre (ZS e larvas de pirapitinga (LP (Piaractus brachypomus. No tratamento controle as pós-larvas foram mantidas em jejum. O alimento que proporcionou melhores resultados em ganho de peso e comprimento total foi larvas de pirapitinga (p Two experiments were carried out at Instituto de Acuicultura de Los Llanos/Universidad de Los Llanos (Villavicencio, Colômbia to evaluate first feeding influence on yamú larval rearing. In the first experiment, the following prey types were tested to first feeding for yamú larvae during 24 hours: Artemia sp. nauplii, wild zooplankton and pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus larvae. In the control yamú larvae were subjected to starvation. Pirapitinga larva was the prey item that offered the best results for weight and total length gain (p < 0.05. In the second experiment, yamú larvae performance was compared when stocked into fertilized ponds during 15 days either at the onset feeding or after first feeding with pirapitinga larvae prey item. Survival rate was lower in the larvae that were stocked into rearing ponds at the onset of feeding (13.4% when compared to survival of yamú larvae that were stocked after receiving pirapitinga larvae (74.1%. These results indicate that the use of pirapitinga larvae at first feeding increases performance of yamú larval rearing.

  14. 76 FR 68057 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    .... APHIS-2010-0101] RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya.... SUMMARY: We are amending the fruits and vegetables regulations to allow the importation of French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States. As a condition of entry, both...

  15. Application of molecular markers in germplasm enhancement of Cassava (Manihot esculenta L. Crantz) and Yams (Dioscorea spp.) at IITA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignouna, H.D.; Asiedu, R.; Dixon, A.G.O.; Tonukari, J.; Ng, N.Q.; Thottappilly, G.; Knox, M.; Ellis, T.H.N.

    1998-01-01

    The genetic variation among 28 varieties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L. Crantz), collected from different parts of the Republic of Benin was determined using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A set of ten primers out of the one hundred that were screened, detected polymorphisms. Thirty-five cassava landraces from three countries of West Africa, along with five improved varieties and one genetic stock (58308), were analysed using both micro satellite markers and nine selected random primers which generated fifty-four polymorphic markers. Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), six major groups of clusters were identified among the forty one genotypes. Clone 58308, the original source of resistance to African Cassava Mosaic Disease (ACMD) in IITA's cassava breeding program, and TMS 30572, an improved cultivar derived from clone 58308, were found in the same cluster group. All 34 of the landraces that are known to be resistant to ACMD were genetically distant from 58308 and TMS 30572. A diallel mating programme has been initiated to elucidate the genetics of these new sources of resistance to ACMD and determine their complementarity as well as allellism for resistance. A set of eight random primers for RAPD and two combinations of enzymes and specific primers for AFLP were used to generate DNA fingerprinting of twenty varietal groups among the 32 described for cultivated yams in the region. The results obtained confirm that a given varietal group is a mixture of different genotypes. The molecular taxonomy of 30 accessions of cultivated yams, D. rotundata and D. cayenensis, and 35 accessions of wild yams from Nigeria was established using RAPD and micro satellite markers. The cultivated yams separated into two distinct groups corresponding to the two species. D. rotundata genotypes showed relationship to the wild species D. abyssinica and D. praehensilis, whereas D. cayenensis

  16. Application of molecular markers in germplasm enhancement of Cassava (Manihot esculenta L. Crantz) and Yams (Dioscorea spp.) at IITA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignouna, H D; Asiedu, R; Dixon, A G.O.; Tonukari, J; Ng, N Q; Thottappilly, G [International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan (Nigeria); Knox, M; Ellis, T H.N. [John Innes Centre, Norwich (United Kingdom)

    1998-10-01

    The genetic variation among 28 varieties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L. Crantz), collected from different parts of the Republic of Benin was determined using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A set of ten primers out of the one hundred that were screened, detected polymorphisms. Thirty-five cassava landraces from three countries of West Africa, along with five improved varieties and one genetic stock (58308), were analysed using both micro satellite markers and nine selected random primers which generated fifty-four polymorphic markers. Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), six major groups of clusters were identified among the forty one genotypes. Clone 58308, the original source of resistance to African Cassava Mosaic Disease (ACMD) in IITA`s cassava breeding program, and TMS 30572, an improved cultivar derived from clone 58308, were found in the same cluster group. All 34 of the landraces that are known to be resistant to ACMD were genetically distant from 58308 and TMS 30572. A diallel mating programme has been initiated to elucidate the genetics of these new sources of resistance to ACMD and determine their complementarity as well as allellism for resistance. A set of eight random primers for RAPD and two combinations of enzymes and specific primers for AFLP were used to generate DNA fingerprinting of twenty varietal groups among the 32 described for cultivated yams in the region. The results obtained confirm that a given varietal group is a mixture of different genotypes. The molecular taxonomy of 30 accessions of cultivated yams, D. rotundata and D. cayenensis, and 35 accessions of wild yams from Nigeria was established using RAPD and micro satellite markers. The cultivated yams separated into two distinct groups corresponding to the two species. D. rotundata genotypes showed relationship to the wild species D. abyssinica and D. praehensilis, whereas D. cayenensis

  17. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE RESISTANCE OF SOME BULGARIAN COMMON BEAN GENOTYPES TOWARDS BEAN WEEVIL (ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS SAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dimitrova Apostolova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The most effective, environmentally sound and safety way to fight pests with biological means is the use of resistant varieties to them. In the present study were indicated the reactions of 30 Bulgarian common bean genotypes to the most economically important enemy – bean weevil (Acanthoscelidis obtectus Say. For this purpose, the following indicators were traced – seed damages and young adult insects, which largely characterized the response of different common bean genotypes to that biological pest enemy. The results of this investigation present a sensitive response to the sustainability of different genotypes to the bean weevil. The Bulgarian common bean varieties Plovdiv 11M, Abritus, Crystal and Bulgari can be used in breeding programs as donors of resistance to the bean weevil.

  18. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Stability of tetrachlorvinphos residues in faba beans and soya bean oil towards different processing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghaly, M.

    1987-01-01

    Cooking of contaminated faba beans did not degrade the originally present potentially toxic residues, namely, tetrachlorvinphos and its desmethyl derivative to any appreciable extent. Processing of contaminated soya bean oil, on the other hand, led to degradation of tetrachlorvinphos and its metabolites to give mono and dimethyl phosphates. Feeding of mice with bound residues of tetrachlorvinphos in beans for 90 days led to an apparent decrease in the rate of body weight gain. (author)

  20. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Characterization of the yam tuber storage proteins from Dioscorea batatas exhibiting unique lectin activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidamashvili, Mariam; Ohizumi, Yuki; Iijima, Shinichiro; Takayama, Tomo; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Muramoto, Koji

    2004-06-18

    Four major proteins designated DB1, DB2, DB3, and DB4 were isolated and characterized from the yam tuber Dioscorea batatas. The ratios of their yields were 20:50:20:10. DB1 was a mannose-binding lectin (20 kDa) consisting of 10-kDa subunits and was classified as the monocot mannose-binding lectin family. DB2, accounting for 50% of the total protein, was the storage protein, commonly called dioscorins consisting of a 31-kDa subunit. On the basis of amino acid sequence, DB2 was classified to be dioscorin A. DB3 was a maltose-binding lectin, having an apparent molecular mass of 120 kDa and composed of a 66-kDa subunit and two 31-kDa subunits (DB3S). The 66-kDa subunit was further composed of two 31-kDa subunits (DB3L) cross-linked by disulfide bonds. DB3L and DB3S (242 and 241 amino acid residues, respectively) were homologous with each other with 72% sequence identity. They showed a sequence homology to dioscorin B and dioscorin A from Dioscorea alata, with 90 and 93% identity, respectively, and to carbonic anhydrase from Arabidopsis thaliana with about 45% identity. DB3S had one intrachain disulfide bond located at Cys(28)-Cys(187), whereas DB3L had one interchain disulfide bond (Cys(40)-Cys(40)') in addition to the intrachain disulfide bond (Cys(28)-Cys(188)) to form a 66-kDa subunit. DB1 and DB3 agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes at 2.7 and 3.9 microg/ml, respectively. Despite the structural homology between DB2 and DB3, DB2 had no lectin activity. The 66-kDa subunit itself revealed the full hemagglutinating activity of DB3, indicating that DB3L but not DB3S was responsible for the activity. The hemagglutinating activity of DB3 required Ca(2+) ions and was exclusively inhibited by maltose and oligomaltoses (e.g. maltopentaose and maltohexaose) but not by d-glucose. DB3 could not be classified into any known plant lectin family. DB4 was a chitinase, homologous to an acidic chitinase from Dioscorea japonica. DB1, DB2, and DB3 did not show any activity of carbonic

  2. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  3. Synthesis of epoxidised soya bean oil acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussin bin Mohd Nor; Mohamad Hilmi bin Mahmood; Dahlan bin Haji Mohd.

    1988-10-01

    An epoxy acrylate was synthesized from Asahi's epoxy resin AER 331 which is an epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO). Triethylamine (TEA) and Hydroquinone (HQ) were used as catalyst and inhibitor respectively. Observations of the experiment are described. (author)

  4. 7804 PERFORMANCE OF IMPROVED BEAN VARIETIES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... 3. June 2013. ABSTRACT. A project aimed at improving bean production in Kigoma Region was carried out ... Some rain is required during the flowering and pod setting stages [2]. ..... library.ciat.cgiar.org/articulos/ciat/paperb.

  5. PROCESSING AND UTILIZATION OF AFRICAN LOCUST BEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    (2012) P. biglobosa has important socio-economic and cultural values .... It is a common knowledge that Parkia bean processing is a chain activity which is ... that P. biglobosa trees are not productive even when found in the study area.

  6. MedlinePlus: Quinoa Black Bean Salad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/quinoablackbeansalad.html Quinoa Black Bean Salad To use the sharing features ... a side dish. Ingredients 1/2 cup dry quinoa 1 and 1/2 cups water 1 and ...

  7. Evaluation of the effects of bitter yam tuber supplementation on serum parameters used to assess hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWAYNE K. STENNETT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Jamaican bitter yam (Dioscorea polygonoides (ITIS is known to possess potent antidiabetic and hypocholesterolemic properties and can therefore be exploited for associated nutraceutical/pharmaceutical purposes. It however possesses bioactive compounds known to promote organ damage when ingested in excess. This study investigates the effects of bitter yam consumption at a concentration of 5% on liver and kidney damage/function parameters. Normocholesterolemic mice fed bitter yam supplemented diets experienced significant increases in serum aspartate aminotransferase activity and bilirubin, magnesium and phosphorus concentrations. Significant increases were also observed in serum aspartate aminotransferase activity and blood urea nitrogen concentration of the genetically modified hypercholesterolemic mice fed supplemented diets. These results suggest mild kidney damage in both mice species and a significant increase in the rate of erythrocyte haemolysis in the normocholesterolemic mice.

  8. Cryopreservation of yamú (Brycon amazonicus) sperm for large scale fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Medina-Robles, Mauricio; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2006-01-01

      To determine the effect of straw size and thawing temperature on cryopreserved sperm quality of yamú (Brycon amazonicus), ovulation and spermiation were induced in sexually mature broodstock using Carp Pituitary Extract. Sperm quality was evaluated by motility, activation time and fertility...... assays consisted of 40 g eggs inseminated with approximately 5.0 mL (ca. 75,000 motile spermatozoa/egg) of cryopreserved sperm in large straws thawed at 35 °C. The fertilization rate was estimated 6 h post-insemination. In all straws, postthaw motility was significantly lower than for fresh sperm (pb0.......05) to sperm frozen in 0.5-mL straws (48±2%, 51±2%, 52±2% and 54±3%, respectively). In large scale fertilization trials, fresh sperm showed a higher (pb0.05) fertilization rate (83±1%) than frozen-thawed sperm (68±1%). Although the fertility percentage with fresh sperm was significantly higher than with frozen...

  9. Recombinant dioscorins of the yam storage protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibit antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jheng, Yi-Jyun; Tsai, Wei-Yi; Chen, Kuo-Hsuan; Lin, Kuo-Wei; Chyan, Chia-Lin; Yang, Ching-Chi; Lin, Kuo-Chih

    2012-09-01

    Dioscorins, the major storage proteins in yam tubers, exhibit biochemical and immunomodulatroy activities. To investigate the potential application of dioscorins in biomedical research, we expressed the dioscorin genes Dj-dioA3 and Dp-dioA2 from Dioscorea japonica and Dioscorea pseudojaponica, respectively, in E. coli and routinely obtained approximately 15 mg proteins per liter Escherichia coli culture (mg/L) to 30 mg/L of rDj-dioscorinA3 and 4 to 8 mg/L of rDp-dioscorinA2. Western blot analyses revealed that both recombinant dioscorins contained epitopes with similar antigenicities to those of the native dioscorins. Results from dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment followed by monobromobimane (mBBr) staining showed that both recombinant dioscorins, like the native dioscorins, contain an intramolecular disulfide bond between Cys(28) and Cys(187) residues. Circular dichroism spectroscopy findings indicated that the secondary structural contents of the recombinant dioscorins showed high similarity to those of their corresponding native dioscorins. Both recombinant dioscorins, like the native dioscorins, exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling activities, and stimulated the phagocytosis of E. coli by macrophage. Overall, our results indicated that substantial amounts of recombinant dioscorins can be purified easily from E. coli and that these recombinant dioscorins are appropriate for application in future investigations of the biomedical functions of dioscorins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Study on physico-chemical properties of dialdehyde yam starch with different aldehyde group contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liming; Liu, Peng; Wang, Yugao; Gao, Wenyuan

    2011-01-01

    Dialdehyde yam starches (DASs) are prepared and characterized. Compared with native starch, viscosity average molecular weight of DASs decreases, and the extent of degradation depends on content of the aldehyde groups. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirm that the characteristic peak for C=O group at 1732 cm -1 is enhanced with the increasing of content of the aldehyde groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs show that the surface of starch granules becomes wrinkled. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly indicate that their crystallinity decreases with the increasing content of the aldehyde groups before they become amorphous at higher oxidation states. The experimental results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) show that DASs have poor stability as compared to native starch. With the increase in content of the aldehyde groups, the thermal stability of DAS declines gradually. According to the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), gelatinization temperature (T o and T p ) of DASs are increased, whereas the gelatinization enthalpy decreased.

  11. Effect of the acetylation process on native starches of yam (Dioscorea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Salcedo Mendoza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, it is necessary to produce native and modified starches for the use of amylaceous raw materials of major socioeconomic importance. In this study, the effects of the acetylation process on structural, morphological and functional properties of native starches yam, Dioscorea spp. (D. alata and D. rotundata were evaluated. Chemical modification by esterification with acetic anhydride was performed at different reaction times, and morphological and structural changes were assessed using the following techniques: infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Acetylation produced slight changes in the granule morphology, and a decreased degree of crystallinity (DC associated with a slight increase in the amylose content was observed. The introduction of acetyl groups into the starch structure caused a decrease in the gelatinization temperature and an increased retro gradation tendency. The acetylated starches had low degrees of substitution (DS<0.2, meaning they can be used in the food industry, considering that they showed greater stability, greater water absorption capacity and better solubility than native starches.

  12. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  13. Distribution, management and diversity of the endangered Amerindian yam (Dioscorea trifida L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WF. Nascimento

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the occurrence of Dioscorea trifida in Brazil and to obtain information concerning its distribution, management and diversity. Farmers from 21 communities were interviewed in the states of São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Mato Grosso. During the visits, semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect socio-economic, management and diversity data for this crop. Fifty-one collected accessions, plus two accessions obtained at local markets of Amazonas, were characterized using 12 morphological traits. Most the interviewed farmers were men (75% with a mean age of 59.5 years. Just a few young people and labor force were available for agricultural activities, with an average of only three individuals per farm. Most farmers (56% grew only one variety of D. trifida, although 44% had more than one variety in their fields, which aims to provide greater assurance at harvest. Many popular names were observed for D. trifida, and cará roxo (purple yam was the name most used by farmers (43.4%. Characters referring to the tuber, such as skin and flesh color, were most relevant for the distinction of the accessions. The results of this study may collaborate to develop strategies for conservation, both ex situ and in situ, within the view of on farm conservation.

  14. [Formation of protodioscin and deltoside isomers in suspension cultures of Nepal yam (Dioscorea deltoidea Wall.) cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandy, M T; Titova, M V; Konstantinova, S V; Kochkin, D V; Ivanov, I M; Nosov, A M

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the content of the furostanol glycosides protodioscin and deltoside, particularly that of the (25S)-isomers of the glycosides, during suspension cultivation of different lines of Nepal yam (Dioscorea deltoidea Wall.) cells of the strain IFR-DM-0.5 has been investigated. The composition of furostanol glycosides has been characterized, and the dynamics of the accumulation of individual glycosides during lengthy subcultivation of cells maintained in flasks or in a barbotage bioreactor has been analyzed. A positive correlation between the growth and accumulation of substances that belonged to the class of furostanol glycosides has been demonstrated for cultured dioscorea cells, whereas the content of some of the individual glycosides varied considerably between the lines of the strain, cultures maintained under different conditions, and even between cells in different phases of the growth cycle. The increased content of (25R)-forms of the glycosides (protodioscin and deltoside) was correlated with a decrease in the cellular growth rate, whereas an increase in culture growth intensity occurred concomitantly to an increase of the amount of (25S)-isomers. This may be indicative of the specific stimulatory effect of (25S)-glycosides, but not the (25R)-forms, on cell proliferation in vitro. Thus, the concentration of (25S)-forms may increase due to the autoselection of cells capable of intensive division during prolonged cultivation.

  15. Final report of the amended safety assessment of Dioscorea Villosa (Wild Yam) root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Dioscorea Villosa (Wild Yam) Root Extract is an extract of the rhizomes of the wild yam, D. villosa. A manufacturing process was described in which cut up and ground rhizomes are combined with an eluant (e.g., oleyl alcohol), the plant material precipitated with addition of a miscible solvent, washed, and redissolved in the original eluant. The extract contains glycoside and steroidal saponins (Food and Drug Administration (in a body and hand preparation), industry reported uses in body and hand creams, lotions, powders, and sprays at a concentration of 0.00001% (equivalent to 0.000002% plant solids), and in moisturizing creams, lotions, powders, and sprays at concentrations up to 15% (equivalent to 0.5% plant solids). Preparations fromD. villosaare used in herbal medicine for treatment of a variety of ailments and by the pharmaceutical industry in the preparation of steroids. Using Dioscorea Villosa (Wild Yam) Root Extract prepared via a specified process, it is possible to produce a stable extract with a narrow range of diosgenin content. The extract produced using this methodology was tested in acute and short-term toxicity tests, dermal irritation tests, a sensitization test, an ocular irritation test, a rat uterotropic assay, and genotoxicity tests. An acute oral toxicity test produced hypoactivity, piloerection, and dyspnea and a death in 1 of 10 rats at 2 g/kg using the specified extract, but no toxicity in rats given 0.5 g/kg. A dermal toxicity test using the specified extract demonstrated no acute toxicity in rats. Both a 7-day local tolerance test and a 28-day dermal toxicity test in rats produced no significant adverse effects at the maximum tested concentration of 10%. A single application of undiluted extract to the intact and abraded skin of rabbits produced sufficient irritation for the test material to be rated"irritant,"but a 10% dilution was not irritating. Undiluted extract was only mildly irritating to the conjuctiva of the rabbit eye

  16. Effects of packaging materials on the aroma stability of Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder as determined by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelaphiwat, Pattarin; Harte, Janice B; Auras, Rafael A; Ong, Peter Kc; Chonhenchob, Vanee

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the aroma characteristics of Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder, containing lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf, as affected by different packaging materials were assessed using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The descriptive aroma attributes for lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf powders were developed by the QDA panel. The mixed herb and spice seasoning powder was kept in glass jars closed with different packaging materials (Nylon 6, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA)) stored at 38 °C (accelerated storage condition), and evaluated by the trained QDA panel during storage for 49 days. The descriptive words for Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder developed by the trained panelists were lemongrass, vinegary and leafy for lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf dried powder, respectively. The aroma intensities significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased with increased storage time. However, the intensity scores for aroma attributes were not significantly (P > 0.05) different among the packaging materials studied. The major components in Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder, quantified by GC-MS, were estragole, bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane, β-bisabolene, benzoic acid and 2-ethylhexyl salicylate. The concentrations of major aroma compounds significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased with storage time. Aroma stability of Thai 'tom yam' powder can be determined by descriptive sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis. Nylon, PET and PLA exhibited similar aroma barrier properties against key aroma compounds in Thai 'tom yam'. This information can be used for prediction of aroma loss through packaging materials during storage of Thai 'tom yam'. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Uptake, degradation and chiral discrimination of N-acyl-D/L-homoserine lactones by barley (Hordeum vulgare) and yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Götz, C.; Fekete, A.; Gebefuegi, I.; Forczek, Sándor; Fuksová, Květoslava; Li, X.; Englmann, M.; Gryndler, Milan; Hartmann, A.; Matucha, Miroslav; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 389, č. 5 (2007), s. 1447-1457 ISSN 1618-2642 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : UPLC * FTICR-MS * tritium autoradiography Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.867, year: 2007

  18. Effects of yam dioscorin interventions on improvements of the metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Shen-Liang; Lin, Yin-Shiou; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2015-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) is termed a cluster of multiple metabolic risk criteria which is positively correlated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Yam dioscorins have been reported to exhibit biological activities, however, little is known their preventive effects on the MS. Therefore, a high-fat (HF) diet was used to induce Wistar rat obesity and then yam dioscorin (50 mg/kg, dio50) was intervened daily concurrent HF diet (HF diet + dio50) for five weeks to check the changes of weights of body and tissues, blood pressures, and impaired glucose tolerances. The in vitro peptic hydrolysates of dioscorin with molecular mass between 3 kDa and 10 kDa and less than 3 kDa were used to determine dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) inhibitory activities which DPP IV inhibitor has been reported to prevent and treat type 2 DM. There were no significant difference in body weights, feed intakes, feed conversion, and weights of adipose tissues of obese rats in groups of HF and (HF diet + dio50). However, the systolic blood pressures in obese rats of 2-, 3- and 4-week dioscorin interventions were showed significantly lower (P dioscorin intervention (HF+ dio50) was showed significantly different (P dioscorin peptic hydrolysates (5 mg/ml) showed inhibitory activities against DPP IV using sitagliptin phosphate as positive controls. Yam dioscorins exhibit improved MS activities in obese rats which the related mechanisms may need further investigations.

  19. Antidiabetic Effects of Yam (Dioscorea batatas and Its Active Constituent, Allantoin, in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Kyu Go

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacies of crude yam (Dioscorea batatas powder (PY, water extract of yam (EY, and allantoin (the active constituent of yam in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats with respect to glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc, lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress. For this purpose, 50 rats were divided into five groups: normal control (NC, diabetic control (STZ, and STZ plus treatment groups (STZ + PY, STZ + EY, and STZ + allantoin. After treatment for one-month, there was a decrease in blood glucose: 385 ± 7 in STZ, 231 ± 3 in STZ + PY, 214 ± 11 in STZ + EY, and 243 ± 6 mg/dL in STZ + allantoin, respectively. There were significant statistical differences (p < 0.001 compared to STZ (100%: 60% in STZ + PY, 55% in STZ + EY, and 63% in STZ + allantoin. With groups in the same order, there were significant decreases (p < 0.001 in HbAlc (100% as 24.4 ± 0.6 ng/mL, 78%, 75%, and 77%, total cholesterol (100% as 122 ± 3 mg/dL, 70%, 67%, and 69%, and low-density lipoprotein (100% as 29 ± 1 mg/dL, 45%, 48%, and 38%. There were also significant increases (p < 0.001 in insulin (100% as 0.22 ± 0.00 ng/mL, 173%, 209%, and 177%, GLP-1 (100% as 18.4 ± 0.7 pmol/mL, 160%, 166%, and 162%, and C-peptide (100% as 2.56 ± 0.10 ng/mL, 129%, 132%, and 130%. The treatment effectively ameliorated antioxidant stress as shown by a significant decrease (p < 0.001 in malondialdehyde (100% as 7.25 ± 0.11 nmol/mL, 87%, 86%, and 85% together with increases (p < 0.01 in superoxide dismutase (100% as 167 ± 6 IU/mL, 147%, 159%, and 145% and reduced glutathione (100% as 167 ± 6 nmol/mL, 123%, 141%, and 140%. The results indicate that yam and allantoin have antidiabetic effects by modulating antioxidant activities, lipid profiles and by promoting the release of GLP-1, thereby improving the function of β-cells maintaining normal insulin and glucose levels.

  20. faba bean and field pea seed proportion for intercropping system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    reduced with increase in the seeding rate of field pea. ... productivity of the Faba bean/field pea was obtained from intercropping system. Growing Faba bean both as a ..... Management: Proceedings of the First and ... Population, time and crop.

  1. Beans and Other Legumes: Types and Cooking Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition and healthy eating Want to add nutritious beans and legumes to your diet but aren't ... Staff Legumes — a class of vegetables that includes beans, peas and lentils — are among the most versatile ...

  2. The Effect of Processing Method of Dolichos Bean (Lablob Growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four diets were formulated to contain the control diet with 0.09 soybean meal or ... nutrient availability and overall utilisation of dolichos bean meal for pigs. ..... quick-cooking moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolius Jacq.). The Indian Journal of Nu-.

  3. Growth Performance of Five Bean (Phaseolus spp) Varieties as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    had significant (P≤ 0.05) effect on bean plant girth, number of leaves, number of branches, mean number of flowers, total fresh ... Beans (Phaseolus spp) belong to one of several genera .... Meng (2016), that found that applying coffee pulp.

  4. New bean products to improve food security | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    ... Agricultural Research Organisation and the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research ... New bean products to improve food security. April 21, 2016. Image ... more lucrative market for smallholder bean farmers, most of whom are women.

  5. Effects of Kidney Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris Meal on the Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Oreochromis niloticus (mean weight 1.36 + 0.05 g) fed diets containing varying levels of the kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris were investigated under laboratory conditions. The kidney bean was incorporated at separate levels of 60, 40, ...

  6. Java EE 7 development with NetBeans 8

    CERN Document Server

    Heffelfinger, David R

    2015-01-01

    The book is aimed at Java developers who wish to develop Java EE applications while taking advantage of NetBeans functionality to automate repetitive tasks. Familiarity with NetBeans or Java EE is not assumed.

  7. Evaluation of Fermentation Parameters of Elephant foot Yam (Amorphophalluspaeoniifolius for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejie C. Magnaye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol successfully finds its role in the development of renewable energy sources to supplement the world’s increasing demand in energy supply. In this study, elephant foot yam (Amorphophalluspeoniifolius, a starch-based crop, abundantly grown in tropical countries like Philippines, was used for the evaluation of the effect of substrate concentration and yeast loading (Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF. In SSF, the optimum condition was observed at10% w/v substrate concentration in 20 mL yeast loadingwith an ethanol yield of 12.02 ± 0.21 %. As substrate concentration decreases and yeast loading increases, percent ethanol yield increases. Best mathematical model was generated to describe the relationship of the substrate concentration and yeast loading to ethanol yield. The generated quadratic model, 2.47= 80.63 −84.46 +126.73 −17.49+65.592 + 91.022,can explain 99.96 % (R2 of the variability in the yield. The statistical significance of the model was evaluated by F-test for analysis of variance (p<0.05. The results showed that the production of ethanol was more strongly affected by the variation of yeast loading. Using the best substrate concentration and yeast loading, ethanol yield was determined in SSF coupled with Acid Hydrolysis (SSF-AH having an ethanol yield of 19.1952%. The results revealed that subjecting first the substrate to acid hydrolysis could increase the ethanol yield for it increased the reducing sugar of the substrate.

  8. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  9. Evaluation of the recycle of nitrogen in a succession bean - corn -bean By means of the isotopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duennas Graciela; Munniz, Olegario; Sanchez, Tamara; Gomez, Luis

    1999-01-01

    To determine the recycle of Nitrogen in a succession bean - corn - bean a was developed I experience under field conditions, on Red Ferralitic soils (Rhodic Ferrasols) with the one I use of the stable isotope 15 Nitrogen

  10. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  11. The anticancer potential of steroidal saponin, dioscin, isolated from wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract in invasive human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we observed that wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract (WYRE) was able to activate GATA3 in human breast cancer cells targeting epigenome. This study aimed to 'nd out if dioscin (DS), a bioactive compound of WYRE, can modulate GATA3 functions and cellular invasion in human breast can...

  12. The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5) : Development and First Psychometric Evidence of a New Scale for Assessing Anxiety Disorders Symptoms of Children and Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, Peter; Simon, Ellin; Lijphart, Hester; Bos, Arjan; Hale, William; Schmeitz, Kelly; Albano, Anne Marie; Bar-Haim, Yair; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Beidel, Deborah; Bender, Patrick; Borelli, Jessica; Broeren, Suzanne; Cartwright-Hatton, Sam; Craske, Michelle; Crawford, Erika; Creswell, Cathy; DeSousa, Diogo; Dodd, Helen; Eley, Thalia; Hoff Esbjørn, Barbara; Hudson, Jennifer; de Hullu, Eva; Farrell, Lara; Field, Andy; Fliek, Lorraine; Garcia-Lopez, Luis Joaquin; Grills, Amie; Hadwin, Julie; Hogendoorn, Sanne; Holly, Lindsay; Huijding, Jorg; Ishikawa, Shin ichi; Kendall, Philip; Knappe, Susanne; LeBeau, Richard; Leikanger, Einar; Lester, Kathryn; Loxton, Helene; McLellan, Lauren; Meesters, Cor; Nauta, Maaike; Ollendick, Thomas; Pereira, Ana; Pina, Armando; Rapee, Ron; Sadeh, Avi; Spence, Susan; Storch, Eric A.; Vreeke, Leonie; Waite, Polly; Wolters, Lidewij

    The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5) is a new self- and parent-report questionnaire to assess anxiety disorder symptoms in children and adolescents in terms of the contemporary classification system. International panels of childhood anxiety researchers and clinicians were used to construct a

  13. Molecular Characterization of Colombian Yam Germoplasm by "Selective Amplificaron of M i c rósate l lite Polymorphic Loci" (SAMPL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bustamante R.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, yam (Dioscoreu spp. has been a basic and traditional crop for small-and medium-scale farmers. It has been an important source of family employment in the Colombian Atlantic Coast for the past several centuries. However, yam is the most fragüe crop regarding market issues and disease susceptibility (e.g. to anthracnose and viruses. At present, the crop is under progressive recovery from a previous drastic reduction in área and production, and apparently allows high profits. Is imperative for the future of the crop, that the rural farmers are supplied with selected varieties, thereby increasing their sustainability and economic yield. However, such varieties are not available, but have to be bred. Breeding of yam in turn is difficult, and presupposes knowledge about the genetic diversity in the breeding germplasm, which is not known. For these reasons, we characterized the Colombian yam varieties used in the fields as well as wild relatives with a molecular marker technique: SAMPL (Selective Amplification of Microsatellite Polymorphic Loci. Positions of 160 unequivocally scorable bands (of which 56 were monomorphic, 35% of total, with an average of 2.8 polymorphic bands per assay were transformed into a binary character matrix and analyzed. The resulting similarity matrix was transformed into a dendrogram with the UPGMA algorithm. The diversity of the collections with this technique was 0.0471 with a mean similarity of 0.9529. Key Words: Dioscorea spp, microsatellites, DNA

  14. Scintillation properties of μPD-grown Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}:Pr (YAM:Pr) crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdowski, Winicjusz, E-mail: wind@fizyka.umk.pl [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Brylew, Kamil [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Malinowski, Michał [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Turczyński, Sebastian [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • YAM:Pr crystals do scintillate and as such deserve further interest. • Fast d–f luminescence of Pr{sup 3+} ions appears in X-ray excited spectra. • Two components (24 and 790 ns) constitute scintillation time profiles. - Abstract: Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}:Pr (YAM:Pr) crystals have been grown by the micro-pulling-down method and their scintillation properties have been investigated. YAM:0.1%Pr displays a light yield of about 2000 ph/MeV and its scintillation time profile contains a prompt component with a decay time of 23.5 ns and a contribution of 20%. Radioluminescence spectra show both fast d–f and slow f–f praseodymium emissions. Low temperature glow curves are complex, consisting of discrete peaks and broad bands related to quasi-continuous trap distributions. Overall scintillation performance of YAM:Pr deteriorates with increasing praseodymium concentration.

  15. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  16. Agronomic description of new improved climbing bean varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . 21. David, S and Hoogendijk,M. 1997. Bean production systems in MbaJe district, Uganda with emphasis on varietal diversity and the adoption of new climbing beans. Network on bean research in Africa. CIA T. CIA T, occasional publication ...

  17. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This

  18. Vasorelaxing and antihypertensive activities of synthesized peptides derived from computer-aided simulation of pepsin hydrolysis of yam dioscorin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Shiou; Lu, Yeh-Lin; Wang, Guei-Jane; Liang, Hong-Jen; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2014-12-01

    We reported that yam dioscorin and its peptic hydrolysates exhibited ACE inhibition and antihypertensive effects on SHRs, however, the active peptides are not really isolated until now. Using ACE inhibitory screenings, two penta-peptides, KTCGY and KRIHF, were selected for ex vivo and in vivo experiments. KTCGY, KRIHF, and captopril were shown to have similar vasodilating effects against phenylephrine (PE)-induced tensions in rat endothelium-dependent thoracic aortic rings, however, KTCGYKTCGY (two-repeated KTCGY) and TCGYTCGY (two-repeated TCGY) were showed endothelium-independent vasodilating effects against PE-induced tensions. KTCGY, KRIHF (10 or 20 mg/kg), and captopril (10 mg/kg) were used to evaluate antihypertensive activity during 24-h after a single oral administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The KTCGY and KRIHF showed significantly different and reduced the systolic blood pressure of SHRs compared to the blank. These results suggest that KTCGY and KRIHF may contribute important roles in yam dioscorin for regulating blood pressure in vivo.

  19. A Two-stage Empirical Analysis of Market Participation in Yam-growing Areas of West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mignouna, DB.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition from semi-subsistence to commercialized agriculture has been subject of global debates in Africa for more than a half century. This is the reminiscence of the necessity to formulate policies and programs to increase the yields and stimulate the investments in agriculture. Participation in agricultural markets could be a viable channel to transform subsistence agriculture thereby lifting millions of poor farmers out of hunger and poverty traps. Unfortunately, most of the potential beneficiaries are hindered by several factors in their quest to participate in yam market. This study investigated the underpinning drivers of market participation among small-scale farmers in the yam belt of West Africa. Using a multistage random sample of 1,400 households form Nigeria and Ghana, the study tested the hypothesis that factors affecting the farmers' decision to participate are not necessarily the same as those affecting the level of participation. Non-price constraints played a significant role in decision-making concerning market participation. Creation of an enabling environment and strengthening the social institutions should be considered in order to generate adequate marketable surplus to make market participation possible and valuable. Policies that reduce transaction costs and encourage farmers to commercialise their production could be alternatives to price-based policies. Moreover, improving the productivity of farmers will not only increase the likelihood of market participation but also the volumes offered for sale.

  20. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-01-01

    The 14 C activity in unroasted [ 14 C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH 3 Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH 3 Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH 3 Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14 C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14 C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14 C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  1. Effects of gamma radiation and irradiated bean seeds on the dry bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.; Brzostek, G.

    1988-01-01

    Low dosages of gamma radiation affected the development of immature stages of the bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus Say. Radiosensitivity of the bean weevils decreased during their development, and adults seemed to be the most resistant stage for gamma radiation. There were no significant differences in mortality of immature stages of the pest during their development in beans treated with gamma radiation at dosages up to 1.06 kGy. Moreover, the females showed no ovipositional preference for untreated or irradiated beans

  2. Foliar absorption of phosphorus by common bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaretto, A.E.; Rosa, J.P.P.

    1984-01-01

    The effet of urea and/or sucrose on P uptake from H 3 PO 4 and monoammonium phosphate by bean leaves. A solution containing 0.145% P and specific activity 10μ Ci/ml is sprayed early in the morning or late afternoon. Besides the treatment without urea and sucrose, these substances are added in two concentrations 0.66% N + sucrose, and 1.32% N + sucrose. Twenty four hous after application, 52% of the applied P is absorved by the bean trifoliate leaf. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. The Definitive Guide to NetBeans Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    The Definitive Guide to NetBeans(t) Platform is a thorough and definitive introduction to the NetBeans Platform, covering all its major APIs in detail, with relevant code examples used throughout. The original German book on which this title is based was well received. The NetBeans Platform Community has put together this English translation, which author Heiko Bock updated to cover the latest NetBeans Platform 6.5 APIs. With an introduction by known NetBeans Platform experts Jaroslav Tulach, Tim Boudreau, and Geertjan Wielenga, this is the most up-to-date book on this topic at the moment. All

  4. Final Comments from Professors George and Beane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, James; George, Paul S.

    1996-01-01

    Concludes this journal focus section on curriculum integration with transcripts of questions asked by conference attendees and answers by Professors Beane and George. Areas addressed included experience levels with children and teachers, studies that point to the failure of curriculum integration, and how teachers can continue curriculum…

  5. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, W.J.; Hemandez, H.; Blair, M.; Beebe, S.; Gepts, P.; Vanderleyden, J.

    2001-01-01

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  6. Wild beans (Phaseolus L.) of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wild relatives of the five domesticated species of bean (Phaseolus L.) are widely distributed across the tropics and subtropics of the New World, with taxa extending to the Canadian border, the Caribbean islands and Bermuda, the Galapagos Islands, and south to Argentina. Mesoamerica holds the la...

  7. Synthesis of a jojoba bean disaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, A; Marnera, G; d'Alarcao, M

    1998-08-01

    A synthesis of the disaccharide recently isolated from jojoba beans, 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-chiro-inositol, has been achieved. The suitably protected chiro-inositol unit was prepared by an enantiospecific synthesis from L-xylose utilizing SmI2-mediated pinacol coupling as a key step.

  8. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  9. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  10. Determination of physicomechanical properties of velvet bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected physical and mechanical properties of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) were studied at two moisture content levels of 13% and 20% (db). Compression strength characteristics were conducted under quasi-static compressive force at longitudinal and latitudinal (lateral) loading positions and the rupture forces, ...

  11. Registration of ‘Alpena' navy bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Alpena’ navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI -), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2014 as an upright, midseason cultivar with uniform dry down and excellent canning quality. Alpena was developed using pedigree breeding method to the F3 generation ...

  12. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  13. Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P

    2015-09-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijão (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronômico do Paraná was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding.

  14. Insecticide Efficacy and Timing for Control of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Dry and Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudis, L A; Trueman, C L; Baute, T S; Hallett, R H; Gillard, C L

    2016-02-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a recent pest of corn, dry,and snap beans, in the Great Lakes region, and best practices for its management in beans need to be established.Insecticide efficacy and application timing field studies, conducted in 2011–2013, determined that lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole were capable of reducing western bean cutworm feeding damage in dry beans from 2.3 to 0.4% in preharvest samples, and in snap beans from 4.8 to 0.1% of marketable pods, respectively. The best application timing in dry beans was determined to be 4–18 d after 50% egg hatch. No economic benefit was found when products were applied to dry beans, and despite high artificial inoculation rates, damage to marketable yield was relatively low. Thiamethoxam, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram were also found to be effective at reducing western bean cutworm damage in dry bean to as low as 0.3% compared to an untreated control with 2.5% damaged pods. In snap beans, increased return on investment between CAD$400 and CAD$600 was seen with multiple applications of lambda-cyhalothrin, and with chlorantraniliprole applied 4 d after egg mass infestation.

  15. In vitro and genetic diversity studies of twelve accessions of aerial yams (D. bulbifera and D. alata) in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsekpor, C.

    2014-07-01

    Aerial yams (D. bulbifera and D. alata) are usually among the dioscoreaceae, in that they are cultivated not only for their tubers but also for the bulbils that develop at the leaf axils of the vine. Twelve accessions collected from five geographic regions were evaluated for morphological characteristics. The results indicate that the 12 accessions exhibited similarity with respect to 11 traits but were variable with respect to 5. Bulbils from the twelve accessions of aerial yams collected from the experimental field, were analysed for proximate composition including moisture, crude protein, crude ash, crude fat, crude fibre and carbohydrate content using the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC) method. Elemental composition of the bulbils was also determined through instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Accession S recorded the highest crude protein (6.77 %), crude fibre (3.38 %) and carbohydrate (25.39 %) contents. Bulbils from D, G and T recorded the highest crude fat (0.56 %), moisture (72.97 %) and crude ash (7.96 %) content respectively. Accession V recorded the highest amount of magnesium (143.43 mg/100g), potassium (2644.4 mg/100g), chlorine (3272.2 mg/100g) and copper (1.116 mg/100g). Bulbils from accession F also recorded the highest amount of aluminum (5.26 mg/100g) and manganese (0.43 mg/100g), while accession B, C, E and R also recorded highest percentages of vanadium (0.037 mg/100g), sodium (26.63 mg/100g), calcium (333.5 mg/100g) and zinc (4.53 mg/100g) respectively. Nodal explants of 12 accessions of the aerial yam were cultured in vitro on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with varying concentrations of kinetin with or without activated charcoal, as assessed for ability to regenerate plantlets with distinct shoots, leaves and roots. The highest regeneration of plantlets was achieved at kinetin concentration of 2.0 mg/l with activated charcoal. Kinetin concentration beyond 2.0 mg/l proved to be phytotoxic and

  16. Acceptability and characterization of extruded pinto, navy and black beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Courtney W; Hall, Clifford; Tulbek, Mehmet; Mendis, Mihiri; Heck, Taylor; Ogunyemi, Samuel

    2015-08-30

    Consumption of dry beans has been relatively flat over the last decade. Creating new bean products may increase the consumption of beans and allow more consumers to obtain the health benefits of beans. In this study, pinto, navy and black beans were milled and the resulting flours extruded into puffs. Unflavored extruded puffs were evaluated by untrained panelists using a hedonic scale for appearance, flavor, texture and overall acceptability. The compositions of raw flours and extrudates were characterized. Sensory results indicated that all beans met or exceeded the minimum requirement for acceptability. Overall acceptability of navy and pinto beans was not significantly different, while acceptability of black bean puffs was significantly lower. Total protein (198-217 g kg(-1)) in extrudates was significantly different among the three beans. Total starch ranged from 398 to 406 g kg(-1) and was not significantly different. Resistant starch, total extractable lipid and raffinose contents were significantly reduced by extrusion. Extrusion did not affect crude fiber and phytic acid contents. The minimal effects on protein and fiber contents, the significant reduction in raffinose content and the acceptability of the unflavored extruded puffs support using various bean flours as ingredients in extruded puffed products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Evaluation of Novel Inoculation Strategies for Solid State Anaerobic Digestion of Yam Peelings in Low-Tech Digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiske, Stefan; Jurgutis, Linas; Kádár, Zsófia

    2015-01-01

    The operation of household scale anaerobic digesters is typically based on diluted animal dung, requiring stabled livestock and adequate water availability. This excludes many rural households in low-income countries from the benefits of a domestic biogas digester. Solid state anaerobic digestion...... inoculation strategies and evaluating the necessity of dung addition as a supportive biomass. In initial lab scale trials 143 +/- 4 mL CH4/g VS (volatile solids) were obtained from a mixture of yam peelings and dung digested in a multi-layer-inoculated batch reactor. In a consecutive incubation cycle in which...... dome digester indicated that SSAD can reduce process water demand and the digester volume necessary to supply a given biogas demand....

  18. Growth and Nutrient Use Efficiencies of Yams (Dioscorea spp. Grown in Two Contrasting Soils of West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucien N'Guessan Diby

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization is an important management strategy of yams (Dioscorea spp. especially when grown in degraded soils. A field study evaluated the leaf numbers, leaf area indices, crop growth, yields, and nitrogen (N and potassium (K use efficiencies of D. alata and D. rotundata in Côte d'Ivoire when grown in two contrasting soils with and without fertilizer. D. alata had a lower number of leaves per vine, although leaf area indices were higher, and the leaves were retained for a longer period than in D. rotundata. In all situations, the yields of D. alata were significantly higher, and fertilizers promoted growth of shoots, roots, tubers, and, thus, final yields especially in the low fertile savanna soil. The beneficial impact of fertilizer on yields was significantly lower in the fertile forest soils. The nutrient use agronomic efficiencies indicated the impact of both N and K in promoting yields especially under nonfertilized conditions.

  19. Toxicological parameters of albino rats fed with extruded snacks from Aerial yam (Dioscoria bulbifera) and African breadfruit seed (Treculia africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatoye, Kazeem K; Arueya, Gibson L

    2018-01-01

    In this study, safety of novel food from aerial yam and Treculia africana , underutilized food materials with high-nutritive value and health benefits were investigated. Animal experiment involving the use of thirty (30) male albino rats was conducted for 28 days.Thereafter, rats in all groups were sacrificed and blood samples collected for biochemical analysis and hematological assay. Some vital organs were harvested and used for histological analysis. Biochemical and hematological parameters were not significantly p  ≤ .05 different among the treatment and controls. However there was an increase in monocytes, which is a reflection of immune boosting potential of the novel snack. No significant pathological changes were observed in liver and kidney of rats fed with this snack. Rats showed no signs of toxicity within the study period. These findings suggest that product may be safe and useful as an Immune adjuvant.

  20. Methylxanthine and catechin content of fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, and cocoa liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theobromine and catechin content can affect the quality of cocoa liquor and is influenced by cacao variety, production area (PA, and fermentation, as well as the method of drying beans (FDB and cocoa liquor production (CLP. This study examined variationsin methylxanthine and catechin levels in fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa grains, and in cocoa liquor from Trinitario, Criollo, and Forastero cacao varieties. A total of 123 cocoa bean samples from three Peruvian PAs at different altitudes, Tingo María (TM, San Alejandro (SA, and Curimana (CU, were evaluated. The theobromine (Tb and caffeine (Cf contents in fresh cocoa beans were affected by both cocoa type and PA. The caffeine content was higher in Trinitario cacao than in Criollo and Forastero varieties (p ≤ 0.05. The Tb and CF contents decreased in dry cocoa grain and was affected by FDB (p ≤ 0.05 (1.449 ± 0.004 to 1.140 ± 0.010 and 0.410 ± 0.03 to 0.165 ± 0.02 g Tb and C, respectively, per 100 g dry weight. Cocoa beans from Tingo María, which has thehighest altitude, had higher Tb and CF contents than those from other PAs. The catechin (C and epicatechin (EC contents were affected by the FDB and CLP, and were highestin fresh cocoa beans from the Tingo María area (range: 0.065 ± 0.01 to 0.020 ± 0.00 g C/100 g. The C and EC contents decreased during FDB and CLP (0.001 g C/100 g of cocoa liquor. Taken together, these results show that higher concentrations of Tb, Cf, C,and EC are present in fresh cocoa beans. Moreover, the cocoa variety influenced cocoa liquor quality. Overall, cocoa from the Tingo María PA had the most desirable chemical composition.

  1. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  2. Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laras Cempaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is a crucial step in the post-harvest processing of cocoa beans. This process comprises mixed culture microbial activities on the cocoa bean pulp, producing metabolites that act as important precursors for cocoa flavour development. Variations in the microbial population dynamics during the fermentation process may induce changes in the overall process. Thus, the introduction of a specific microbial starter culture may improve the quality of the fermentation. This article discusses the effects ofthe addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae var. Chevalieri starter culture on cocoa bean fermentation. The dynamics in the yeast concentration, sugary pulp compounds and metabolic products were measured during fermentation. The alterations in the dynamic metabolite profile were significant, although only a slight difference was observed in the yeast population. A higher fermentation index was measured for the cocoa bean fermentation with yeast starter culture, 1.13 compared to 0.84. In conclusion, this method can potentially be applied to shorten the cocoa bean fermentation time.

  3. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans

  4. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R., E-mail: rafa_debas@yahoo.com.br; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  5. Puffing, a novel coffee bean processing technique for the enhancement of extract yield and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooki; Kim, Sang-Youn; Kim, Dae-Ok; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2018-02-01

    Puffing of coffee beans, which induces heat- and pressure-derived physicochemical changes, was applied as an alternative to roasting. Roasted or puffed coffee beans with equivalent lightness values were compared. The moisture content was higher while the crude fat and protein compositions were lower in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The pH was lower and the acid content was higher in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The roasted beans exhibited greater specific volumes, while the puffed beans displayed greater extraction yields. The trigonelline and total phenolic contents were greater in puffed beans than in roasted beans resulting in an enhanced antioxidant capacity. Sensory evaluation of roasted and puffed coffee bean brews revealed that puffing did not affect the flavor or overall acceptance. The current study provides evidence that puffing is an alternative to roasting coffee beans with various benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesized Peptides from Yam Dioscorin Hydrolysis in Silico Exhibit Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitory Activities and Oral Glucose Tolerance Improvements in Normal Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Shiou; Han, Chuan-Hsiao; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2016-08-24

    RRDY, RL, and DPF were the top 3 of 21 peptides for inhibitions against dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) from the pepsin hydrolysis of yam dioscorin in silico and were further investigated in a proof-of-concept study in normal ICR mice for regulating glucose metabolism by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The sample or sitagliptin (positive control) was orally administered by a feeding gauge; 30 min later, the glucose loads (2.5 g/kg) were performed. RRDY, yam dioscorin, or sitagliptin preload, but not DPF, lowered the area under the curve (AUC0-120) of blood glucose and DPP-IV activity and elevated the AUC0-120 of blood insulin, which showed significant differences compared to control (P dioscorin might be beneficial in glycemic control in normal mice and need further investigations in diabetic animal models.

  7. Bean grain hysteresis with induced mechanical damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mechanical damage on the hysteresis of beans with induced mechanical damage under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. harvested manually with 35% water content (w.b. were used. Part of this product was subjected to induced mechanical damage by Stein Breakage Tester and controlled drying (damaged and control sample, for sorption processes. The sorption isotherms of water were analyzed for different temperature conditions: 20, 30, 40 and 50 oC; and relative humidity: 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.7 and 0.9 (decimal. Equilibrium moisture content data were correlated with six mathematical models, and the Modified Oswin model was the one that best fitted to the experimental data. According to the above mentioned isotherms, it was possible to observe the phenomenon of hysteresis of damaged and control samples, and this phenomenon was more pronounced in control ones.

  8. Elemental characterization of Brazilian beans using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilian Seiko Kato; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. De; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Gabriel Adrian Sarries; Andres Enrique Lai Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Beans are important for many developing countries as a source of protein and mineral nutrients. Here, ten commercial types of Brazilian beans, from the species Phaseolus vulgaris (common beans) and Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas), were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. There were statistical differences (p/0.05) amongst the commercial types, except for Br, Rb and Sc. In general, non-essential elements showed high variability, indicating that the origin of beans had a strong influence on the mass fraction of such elements. (author)

  9. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A.

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of 210 Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of 210 Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of 210 Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg -1 fresh wt. obtained here is according to 210 Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg -1 . (author)

  10. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  11. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A., E-mail: mingote@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh wt. obtained here is according to {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  12. Mung bean proteins and peptides: nutritional, functional and bioactive properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yi-Shen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To date, no extensive literature review exists regarding potential uses of mung bean proteins and peptides. As mung bean has long been widely used as a food source, early studies evaluated mung bean nutritional value against the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO/the World Health Organization (WHO amino acids dietary recommendations. The comparison demonstrated mung bean to be a good protein source, except for deficiencies in sulphur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine. Methionine and cysteine residues have been introduced into the 8S globulin through protein engineering technology. Subsequently, purified mung bean proteins and peptides have facilitated the study of their structural and functional properties. Two main types of extraction methods have been reported for isolation of proteins and peptides from mung bean flours, permitting sequencing of major proteins present in mung bean, including albumins and globulins (notably 8S globulin. However, the sequence for albumin deposited in the UniProt database differs from other sequences reported in the literature. Meanwhile, a limited number of reports have revealed other useful bioactivities for proteins and hydrolysed peptides, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity, anti-fungal activity and trypsin inhibitory activity. Consequently, several mung bean hydrolysed peptides have served as effective food additives to prevent proteolysis during storage. Ultimately, further research will reveal other nutritional, functional and bioactive properties of mung bean for uses in diverse applications.

  13. Effects of yam tuber protein, dioscorin, on attenuating oxidative status and learning dysfunction in d-galactose-induced BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chuan-Hsiao; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Lin, Yin-Shiou; Lee, Tai-Lin; Huang, Wei-Jan; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2014-03-01

    The yam tuber is a traditional Chinese medicine used in long-term treatment as a juvenescent substance. The purified yam tuber's major water-soluble protein, dioscorin, and its protease hydrolysates have been reported to have several biological activities. In this study, d-galactose (Gal) was subcutaneously injected into the dorsal necks of BALB/c mice daily for 10weeks (Gal group) to induce oxidative stress. By the fifth week, 20 or 80mg dioscorin/kg was orally administered daily combined with a daily Gal injection until the end of the study. The plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) level and advanced glycation end-products obtained after dioscorin oral administrations were lower compared to the Gal group. In addition, the latency and swimming distance in the mice that received dioscorin administration were significantly improved compared to the Gal group in the Morris water maze. Dioscorin administration resulted in higher GSH levels and oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) activity and lower MDA and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels in the brain compared to mice in the Gal group. These elevated antioxidant activities following oral administration of yam dioscorin in vivo may reflect traditional juvenescent uses with the potential for anti-aging treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Can arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and NPK fertilizer suppress nematodes and improve tuber yield of yam (Dioscorea rotundata ‘cv’ ewuru?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gani Oladejo Kolawole

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Poor soil fertility and nematodes limit yam tuber yield and quality. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and fertilizers may suppress nematodes and improve yam productivity. We evaluated the extent AMF and fertilizer suppressed nematodes and improved yam performance. Tuber weight, mycorrhizal colonization of roots and nematode populations were evaluated with eight treatments; Control (No amendments, 90-50-75, kg N- P2O5-K2O ha-1 (NPK, (AMF (2g/kg soil, nematodes (5000 juvenile/pot, and their combinations. Tuber weight was higher in NPK+AMF and NPK+nematode treatments than AMF+nematode. NPK+AMF improved tuber weight by 17.5% and 32% compared with sole NPK or AMF respectively. Compared with control, nematodes did not reduce tuber weight but, AMF+nematode reduced it by 49.4%. NPK reduced AMF colonization of roots and reduced nematode population on tuber, in roots and soil by 34%, 42.6% and 41% respectively. NPK+AMF treatment was superior to either NPK or AMF in improving tuber yield while NPK was superior to AMF in suppressing nematodes in roots, soil, and tuber.

  15. Caffeine Extraction from Raw and Roasted Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Donyau; Lin, Chih-Yang; Hu, Chen-Ti; Lee, Sanboh

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is a stimulant, psychoactive, popular daily beverage, and its caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior. These important issues prompted us to study caffeine extraction from both the raw and roasted coffee beans of 3 types at different temperatures. A hemispheric model is developed to simulate the extraction process of the caffeine from the coffee beans of hemisphere is proposed. The experimental data are in good agreement with the predicted model. The effective diffusivities of caffeine in both the raw and roasted beans increase with temperature in all 3 types. An incubation period, decreasing with increasing temperature, is observed in all samples studied. Caffeine extraction in roasted beans is more rapid than that for the raw beans and the time difference is significant at low temperatures. In both the raw and roasted samples, caffeine diffusion in the raw beans and the incubation behavior are thermally activated processes. Single activation energies are obtained for diffusion within the extraction temperature range for all beans tested with the exception of one type of the coffee beans, Mandheling, which exhibits 2 activation energies in raw samples. The surface energies of the epidermis of the raw beans and roasted beans obtained from the contact angle measurements are used to interpret the difference of incubation periods. This study has a potential application to the decaffeinated coffee industry.Caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior so that caffeine extraction from coffee beans of different types at different temperatures is important for product refining and customers. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  17. Psychometric properties of the social anxiety subscale of the Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5-I-SAD) in a clinical sample of Spanish-speaking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Rodriguez, Gema; Saez-Castillo, Antonio J; Garcia-Lopez, Luis-Joaquin

    2018-08-01

    The Youth Anxiety Measure-I for DSM-5 has recently been developed to assess youth's anxiety symptomatology. As social anxiety is one of the most common disorders in adolescence, this scale includes a subscale measuring social anxiety. However, psychometric properties of the YAM-5-I social anxiety subscale (YAM-5-I-SAD) in clinical samples are lacking. This paper aims to bridge the gap. The sample comprised 24 clinically diagnosed and 24 healthy control Spanish-speaking adolescents aged 14-17 years. Data revealed that the YAM-5- I-SAD yielded excellent sensitivity, which makes it particularly useful as a screening tool to early detect socially anxious adolescents. In addition, the YAM-5-I-SAD evidenced good internal consistency and construct validity. Data are limited to the social anxiety subscale. The YAM-5-I-SAD is a sensitive and specific measure to screen for adolescents with social anxiety. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Salt tolerance analysis of chickpea, faba bean and durum wheat varieties. I. Chickpea and faba bean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Oweis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Two varieties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba), differing in drought tolerance according to the classification of the International Center for Agronomic Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), were irrigated with waters of three different salinity levels in a lysimeter experiment

  19. Registration of ‘Long’s Peak’ Pinto Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to harvest dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have changed dramatically in the past 20 years to accommodate direct harvest systems that eliminate the need to undercut and windrow the crop before it can be threshed. Direct harvest systems cut the bean plant with a sickle bar on the comb...

  20. Incentives for cocoa bean production in Ghana: Does quality matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Asante, F.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional factors that constrain farmers’ incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans in Ghana. Data were collected at three levels of aggregation in the cocoa bean value chain: village, district, and national level. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to

  1. Quality and market chain of Aceh Cocoa Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan; Sulaiman, I.; Ikhsan, CN; Faizun, N.

    2018-05-01

    After long-lasting conflict and tsunami on December 26, 2004, some international donors/NGOs supported Aceh on cocoa development. Aceh cocoa sector has experienced tremendous growth in Indonesia. This study aims to investigate quality and market chain of Aceh cocoa beans. The survey was conducted in Pidie District. A number of 21 farmers and 1 exporter were interviewed; the beans from farmer’s warehouses were analyzed and compared to Indonesia National Standard (INS). The result showed that the beans were generally produced from 6 Sub-Districts: Keumala, Titeue, Glumpang Tiga, Padang Tiji, and Tangse. They were not fermented; most were exported to the USA. Based on bean count, quality was mainly included in I/A and II/B. The main quality problem was high moisture content. Presumably, the beans were bought by wholesalers with lower price although not been sufficiently dried. Other quality parameters were good: no moldy bean and contaminant, very low insect damage/hollow-/germinated beans, and tiny broken beans (quality I)

  2. Some engineering properties of white kidney beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... ... (physical and mechanical) properties, white kidney beans, moisture content, thousand grain mass, static coefficient of friction. INTRODUCTION. White kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a culti- vated plant grown for fresh and dry consumption and a common raw material in the canned food industry.

  3. relative performance of staking techniques on yield of climbing bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important staple grain legume in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. In addition, it is a major source of proteins, energy and micro-nutrients (e.g. Fe and Zn), especially for smallholder farmers. The climbing bean is particularly more productive, an efficient land user and tolerant to ...

  4. Root rots of common and tepary beans in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rots are a disease complex affecting common bean and can be severe in bean growing areas in the tropics and subtropics. The presence of several pathogens makes it difficult to breed for resistance because of the synergistic effect of the pathogens in the host and the interaction of soil factors...

  5. Assessment of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris l.) Seed quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major causes of low yield of common bean in Ethiopia is the shortage and/or inaccessibility of high quality seed. In the Hararghe highlands of eastern Ethiopia, farmers often use common bean seeds produced both under sole crop and intercrop systems. This study was carried out to investigate the physical, ...

  6. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed

  7. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Luseko

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola and Bean common mosaic and necrosis virus (BCMV/BCMNV) are important diseases of common bean in Tanzania that can cause severe yield reduction when uncontrolled. This study was conducted to incorporate resistant genes ...

  8. Effect of soya bean diet preparations on some haematological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Soya bean diet preparations on the hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, plasma albumin, sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations were studied in male albino rats. The animals were fed diets containing 75%, 50% and 25% Soya bean in groups II, III and IV respectively. Group I rats ...

  9. Large-area dry bean yield prediction modeling in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the importance of dry bean in Mexico, crop yield predictions before harvest are valuable for authorities of the agricultural sector, in order to define support for producers. The aim of this study was to develop an empirical model to estimate the yield of dry bean at the regional level prior t...

  10. identification of common bean genotypes with dual leaf and pod

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2018-02-08

    Feb 8, 2018 ... bean. Although various sources of resistance have been developed around the world, none of the varieties grown in Uganda is ... with a common bean production of 876,576 ..... Coffee Glittering. 5.0. 5.2 ..... chains in Uganda.

  11. Feeding value of processed horse eye bean ( Mucuna urens ) meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the performance of pullet chicks fed graded levels of processed horse eye bean meal (HEBM) as partial replacement for soybean meal. The cracked beans were subjected to three processing methods viz: soaking in plain water for 48 hours, cooking for 90 minutes, and toasting on open ...

  12. Coffee Bean Grade Determination Based on Image Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ferdiansjah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality standard for coffee as an agriculture commodity in Indonesia uses defect system which is regulated in Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI for coffee bean, No: 01-2907-1999. In the Defect System standard, coffee bean is classified into six grades, from grade I to grade VI depending on the number of defect found in the coffee bean. Accuracy of this method heavily depends on the experience and the expertise of the human operators. The objective of the research is to develop a system to determine the coffee bean grading based on SNI No: 01-2907-1999. A visual sensor, a webcam connected to a computer, was used for image acquisition of coffee bean image samples, which were placed under uniform illumination of 414.5+2.9 lux. The computer performs feature extraction from parameters of coffee bean image samples in the term of texture (energy, entropy, contrast, homogeneity and color (R mean, G mean, and B mean and determines the grade of coffee bean based on the image parameters by implementing neural network algorithm. The accuracy of system testing for the coffee beans of grade I, II, III, IVA, IVB, V, and VI have the value of 100, 80, 60, 40, 100, 40, and 100%, respectively.

  13. Efficacy of vegetable oils against dry bean beetles Acanthoscelides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) is a major pest of stored dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and other legumes world wide. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of castor (Ricinus communis L.) and cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum) oils against A. obtectus on stored dry beans under laboratory conditions.

  14. effect of fermented and unfermented mucuna bean seed, on growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    0.05) ... for carnivorous fish and are higher for fish reared in high .... average body weight of 2.0g and average length of ... (fortnightly) intervals. .... Mucuna bean based diets is as good as Soya bean ... Lecture presented at the FAO/UNDP Training.

  15. Screening of spontaneous castor bean accesses for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... discriminant power between the castor bean accesses, being the multivariate analysis efficient in this process. The castor bean accesses ACS-001 CRSP and ACS-001-MASP are promising for introduction in genetic improvement programs of this culture. Keywords: Ricinus communis L., genotype, multivariate statistics, ...

  16. Methionine in Velvet Bean ( Mucuna pruriens ) Based Broiler Starter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of broiler chicks fed starter diets containing 30% raw or heat treated, and 20% heat treated velvet beans with varying levels of methionine was determined. The influence of varying levels of heat treated velvet beans on growth and carcass characteristics of finishing broilers was also investigated. There was ...

  17. Grouping of Environments for Testing Navy Bean in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kassaye

    bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines was tested in a multi-environment variety trial ... of methods available for the analysis of GEI and stability. .... parameters in the kth bilinear term are obtained as the kth component of the .... AMMI ANOVA of grain yield for 16 navy bean lines at fourteen environments during 2010 – 2011 main ...

  18. Factors influencing smallholder farmers' bean production and supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) is a major staple food in Burundi; thus increasing its production and marketing has the potential for raising incomes of the farming households. In the country, bean outputs have been declining for decades, yet demand for the crop in East Africa has surged considerably. This study was ...

  19. Development and use of microsatellite markers in Marama bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the development of SSR enrichment techniques has increased the efficiency of SSR characterisation in new species. The aim of the study was to develop SSR's for detection of polymorphisms in Marama bean. The microsatellite regions of the genome were the main focus for potential to be used in Marama bean ...

  20. Correlation between caffeine contents of green coffee beans and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A moderate negative correlation (R = 0.5463) was found between the caffeine contents of green coffee beans and the altitudes at which the coffee plants were grown. The caffeine contents of 9 of the green coffee bean samples analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) provided comparable results in the ...

  1. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola and Bean common mosaic and necrosis virus (BCMV/BCMNV) are important diseases of common bean in Tanzania that can cause severe yield reduction when uncontrolled. This study was conducted to incorporate resistant genes for ALS and ...

  2. Determination of radioactivity in maize and mung beans grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two staple foods (maize and mung beans) which were cultivated in Minjingu village, where there is phosphate deposit in Tanzania, were collected directly from the farms. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Th and 40K were determined in the maize and mung beans samples using γ ray spectrometry employing HPGe ...

  3. Effects of irradiation on the physicochemical properties of carioca beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Damaris Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    The common bean is an important component in the diet of the average Brazilian person. Each harvest of beans, losses occur due to attacks of insects and rodents. One of the ways to preserve the beans, and at the same time keep its nutritional characteristics, is the use of gamma radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different doses of gamma radiation on the physical and chemical properties of the carioca variety of common beans subject to cooking of soaked and unsoaked beans. Portions of raw beans were used as control and the other was subject to ionizing radiation at doses of 1, 5 and 10 kGy. Following irradiation, a portion of the samples (control and irradiated) were soaked and the other was not, then all beans were cooked. The cooked samples were lyophilized, milled and then accommodated in pots and stored at -23 deg C temperatures. The analysis of chemical composition, determination of protein digestibility, condensed tannin and phytic acid content were performed using the milled samples. Using whole grains, were performed analysis of expansion capability and hydration, cooking time and instrumental color. Irradiation did not alter the chemical composition of soaked and unsoaked samples. The condensed tannin levels did not reduce according to increased doses. The phytic acid concentrations were reduced at the doses of 5 and 10 kGy for soaked samples, whereas for the not soaked beans, gamma irradiation did not influence the phytate content. The protein digestibility decreased on soaked samples, at doses of 1 kGy and in the other doses, the reduction was not significant. As for not soaked beans, increases in digestibility were observed at dose of 10 kGy. As the doses increased, reduction in cooking time on soaked and unsoaked beans was noted. At a dose of 10 kGy, the bean expansion capability increased. The samples' color did not change significantly, as the doses increased. Therefore, it is concluded that ionizing radiation has no effect

  4. Sensory analysis of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz-Calvo M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of sensory profiling constitutes the basis of a descriptive quantitative analysis, defining a product with the minimum number of words and with maximum efficiency, using a precise tasting sheet, which can be reproduced and is understood by all. In this work, the texture profiling for different bean varieties that are characteristic of the Spanish market was carried out. Optimum conditions for samples and a tasting card were established, and a panel was trained. The texture profile results show significant differences amongst varieties and even amongst different origins for the same variety.

  5. Induced leaf variations in faba bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, M.

    1996-01-01

    The frequency and spectrum of M2 chlorophyll and other leaf mutations after gamma ray, ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and nitrous oxide (N2O) seed treatment in two varieties of faba bean were studied. In general, cv JV1 was more sensitive and EMS treatment was most effective. The frequency of chlorina-type mutations was higher than that of xantha and chlorotica type chlorophyll mutations. The highest frequency of variations was observed in leaflet texture, followed by arrangement, shape and size in both varieties. The use of these leaf mutations in formulating an ideotype of Vicia faba L. are discussed

  6. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Cowpea, Common Bean And Mung Bean Radiation Use Efficiency, Light Extinction Coefficient And Radiation Interception In Double Cropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimadadi, A.; Rostamza, M.; Jahansooz, M.R.; Ahmadi, A.; Tavakol Afshari, R.

    2006-01-01

    Crop growth modeling for forecasting various plant's functions and their contribution to yield, is one of the ways to improve field management. This trial was set up to evaluate radiation use efficiency of mung bean, common bean and cowpea cultivars in a double cropping system. Field experiment was conducted at Research Farm of College of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Karaj. A 4-replicate group balanced block field experiment was set up. Results showed that the differences among three pulses were significant in terms of biomass (p0.05). Cowpea, producing 5876.8 Kg/ha, had the highest yield among the species used in this study. Comparison of grain yield observed in this experiment with mono crop yield potential, showed that cowpea, common bean and mung bean produced 40%, 37% and 58% of their mono crop grain yield potential, respectively. In the late vegetative growth period, cowpea, mung bean and common bean absorbed 90%, 33% and 36% of photosynthetic active radiation, respectively. There was a significant difference among pulses, in terms of their radiation use efficiency and light extinction coefficient (p0.05 and p0.01, respectively). Cowpea, common bean and mung bean had radiation use efficiencies of 0.84, 0.82 and 0.99, g/MJ and light extinction coefficients of 0.605, 0.344 and 0.458, respectively. Results indicated that in some cultivars, when K decreases and LAI increases, LUE might be increased twice

  8. Effects of bioprocessed antinutritional factors on bean protein quality : with special emphasis on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, F.

    1994-01-01

    Legumes, e.g. beans and peas, can contain antinutritional factors. Some varieties of faba beans (Vicia faba), soya beans (Glycine max ) and white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can contain in their raw state antinutritional

  9. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  10. Development of Yam Dioscorin-Loaded Nanoparticles for Paracellular Transport Across Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cell Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hung-Ling; Lee, Chia-Hung; Lin, Kuo-Chih

    2018-02-07

    Dioscorins, the major storage proteins of yam tubers, exert immunomodulatory activities. To improve oral bioavailability of dioscorins in the intestine, recombinant dioscorin (rDioscorin) was coated with N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) and tripolyphosphate (TPP), resulting in the formation of TMC-rDio-TPP nanoparticles (NPs). The loading capacity and entrapment efficiency of rDioscorin in the NPs were 26 ± 0.7% and 61 ± 1.4%, respectively. The NPs demonstrated a substantial release profile in the pH environment of the jejunum. The rDioscorin released from the NPs stimulated proliferation and phagocytosis of the macrophage RAW264.7 and activated the gene expression of IL-1β and IL-6. Incubation of the NPs in the Caco-2 cell monolayer led to a 5.2-fold increase of P app compared with rDioscorin alone, suggesting that rDioscorin, with the assistance of TMC, can be promptly transported across the intestinal epithelia. These results demonstrate that the TMC-rDio-TPP NPs can be utilized for elucidating the immunopharmacological effects of dioscorins through oral delivery.

  11. [Microstructural changes in hardened beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica, Maria Virginia; Granito, Marisela; Soto, Naudy

    2015-06-01

    (Phaseolus vulgaris). The hardening of Phaseolus vulgaris beans stored at high temperature and high relative humidity is one of the main constraints for consumption. The objective of this research was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy, structural changes in cotyledons and testa of the hardened beans. The freshly harvested grains were stored for twelve months under two conditions: 5 ° C-34% RH and 37 ° C-75% RH, in order to promote hardening. The stored raw and cooked grains were lyophilized and fractured. The sections of testa and cotyledons were observed in an electron microscope JSM-6390. After twelve months, grains stored at 37 ° C-75% RH increased their hardness by 503%, whereas there were no significant changes in grains stored at 5 ° C-34% RH. At the microstructural level, the cotyledons of the raw grains show clear differences in appearance of the cell wall, into the intercellular space size and texture matrix protein. There were also differences in compaction of palisade and sub-epidermal layer in the testa of raw grains. After cooking, cotyledon cells of the soft grains were well separated while these ofhard grains were seldom separated. In conclusion, the found differences in hard and soft grains showed a significant participation of both structures, cotyledons and testa, in the grains hardening.

  12. Identification of biochemical features of defective Coffea arabica L. beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, María I; Vaughan, Michael J; Bonello, Pierluigi; McSpadden Gardener, Brian; Grotewold, Erich; Alonso, Ana P

    2017-05-01

    Coffee organoleptic properties are based in part on the quality and chemical composition of coffee beans. The presence of defective beans during processing and roasting contribute to off flavors and reduce overall cup quality. A multipronged approach was undertaken to identify specific biochemical markers for defective beans. To this end, beans were split into defective and non-defective fractions and biochemically profiled in both green and roasted states. A set of 17 compounds in green beans, including organic acids, amino acids and reducing sugars; and 35 compounds in roasted beans, dominated by volatile compounds, organic acids, sugars and sugar alcohols, were sufficient to separate the defective and non-defective fractions. Unsorted coffee was examined for the presence of the biochemical markers to test their utility in detecting defective beans. Although the green coffee marker compounds were found in all fractions, three of the roasted coffee marker compounds (1-methylpyrrole, 5-methyl- 2-furfurylfuran, and 2-methylfuran) were uniquely present in defective fractions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of hybrid variety cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonfia-Essien, W A; West, G; Alderson, P G; Tucker, G

    2008-06-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a major, economically important, international crop and has been associated with several nutritional benefits including high antioxidant capacity. New cocoa hybrids have been developed in Ghana that exhibit resistance to pest damage during storage. The aim of this work was to assess the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these new hybrids in comparison to more traditional cocoa varieties. Total extractable phenolics were similar in all the four hybrids tested ranging from 69.9 to 81.6FAEg(-1). These levels were very similar to that extracted from traditional beans (73.8±2.5FAEg(-1)). The "phenolic profile" was determined by HPLC. A total of 25 peaks was observed but there were only minor differences in this profile between traditional and hybrid bean extracts. Antioxidant capacity was determined using the FRAP assay and traditional beans were found to possess 12.4μmolTEg(-1). In comparison the hybrid beans had antioxidant capacities ranging from 21.6 to 45.5μmolTEg(-1), and these were significantly higher than in the traditional beans for three out of the four hybrids. Since the phenolic and antioxidant levels and in these hybrid varieties were either similar to, or higher than, that obtained from traditional beans, the introduction of these new varieties would be unlikely to impact detrimentally on these nutritional components of the beans. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Study on the Relationship between Cooking Properties of Adzuki Bean and Storage Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Isao; Breene, William M.; 早川, 功

    1982-01-01

    Adzuki bean (Phaseolus angularis) has been used for many cooking purposes in Japan. The basic method for adzuki bean cooking is heating in the presence of moisture, it seems that the differences of moisture content between the beans before cooking and between cooking methods have influence on the qualities of cooking products. But there is a general complaint about the poor cooking properties of these beans. Since the cooking properties depend, both on the moisture contents of bean before coo...

  15. Diversification and Population Structure in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W.; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J.

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans

  16. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  17. STUDIES ON THE OCCURRENCE AND DAMAGE BY YAM TUBER BEETLES (HETEROLIGUS SPP IN ANIOCHA AND OSHIMILI AREAS OF DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F TOBIH

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A two-year (2001 and 2002 studies to evaluate the occurrence, population distribution and damage by yam beetles: Heteroligus spp was undertaken in four Local Government Areas in Delta State, Nigeria namely: Oshimili South and North, Aniocha South and North. Beetle population were sampled from farmers fields using light traps in selected locations in the Council areas. Sampling period was April to December for both years. Data collected were number of beetles caught per month, damage indices such as number and size of beetle feeding holes, percentage tuber attacked and tuber yield. Beetle occurrence began in May and were encountered till November. Peak population of beetle occurred in August across the location for the two-year trials. Beetle species comprised of H. meles Billb and H. appiusBurm with the former, the most abundant species regarding the number caught across the locations. Oshimili North and South had higher beetle feeding holes significant at (P < 0.05 than Aniocha South and North for both years and across the locations. No significant difference in size of feeding hole but in terms of percentage tuber attacked, Oshimili South showed higher attack significantly different than Aniocha North both in 2001 and 2002 but not significantly higher than attacked in Oshimili North and Aniocha South in 2001. However, there were no significant difference in the yield of tuber across the locations and for the two-year period. Yam beetle is still a serious insect pest of yam and the two species responsible for tuber damages are H. meles Billb and H. appius Burm in these areas.

  18. The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5): Development and First Psychometric Evidence of a New Scale for Assessing Anxiety Disorders Symptoms of Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Simon, Ellin; Lijphart, Hester; Bos, Arjan; Hale, William; Schmeitz, Kelly

    2017-02-01

    The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5) is a new self- and parent-report questionnaire to assess anxiety disorder symptoms in children and adolescents in terms of the contemporary classification system. International panels of childhood anxiety researchers and clinicians were used to construct a scale consisting of two parts: part one consists of 28 items and measures the major anxiety disorders including separation anxiety disorder, selective mutism, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, whereas part two contains 22 items that focus on specific phobias and (given its overlap with situational phobias) agoraphobia. In general, the face validity of the new scale was good; most of its items were successfully linked to the intended anxiety disorders. Notable exceptions were the selective mutism items, which were frequently considered as symptoms of social anxiety disorder, and some specific phobia items especially of the natural environment, situational and other type, that were regularly assigned to an incorrect category. A preliminary investigation of the YAM-5 in non-clinical (N = 132) and clinically referred (N = 64) children and adolescents indicated that the measure was easy to complete by youngsters. In addition, support was found for the psychometric qualities of the measure: that is, the internal consistency was good for both parts, as well as for most of the subscales, the parent-child agreement appeared satisfactory, and there was also evidence for the validity of the scale. The YAM-5 holds promise as a tool for assessing anxiety disorder symptoms in children and adolescents.

  19. Advances in faba bean genetics and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal Martin O'Sullivan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centres of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favoured plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea.However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fuelled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990’s and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are

  20. Characterisation of a haemagglutinin from Hokkaido red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido red bean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jack H; Wan, Chung T; Ng, Tzi B

    2010-01-15

    A haemagglutinin was purified from Japanese Hokkaido red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido red bean) with a procedure that included three chromatographic media. Haemagglutinating activity was adsorbed on DEAE cellulose, Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S. The pure haemagglutinin was a homodimer and each subunit was around 30 kDa in molecular mass. The haemagglutinating activity of this agglutinin could not be inhibited by a variety of simple sugars at 200 mmol L(-1) concentration including alpha-L-fucose, D(+)-galactose, D(+)-glucose, D(+)-glucosamine, D(-)galactosamine, galacturonic acid, (+)-lactose, D(+)-melibose, L(-)-mannose, D(+)-mannose, D-mannosamine, D(+)-raffinose, L-rhamnose, (+)-xylose and galacturonic acid. The haemagglutinating activity was fully retained at pH 4-11 and at 0-80 degrees C, but was completely lost at extreme pH values (0-2 and 13-14) and at very high temperatures (90 degrees C and 100 degrees C). The haemagglutinin exhibited a weak mitogenic activity toward mouse splenocytes, a stronger anti-proliferative activity than Con A toward HepG2 (human hepatoma) cells and inhibited >80% of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity at 3.3 micromol L(-1). It was devoid of anti-fungal activity. Hokkaido red bean haemagglutinin possesses a potent anti-proliferative effect on HepG2 cells. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Phytic acid concentration influences iron bioavailability from biofortified beans in Rwandese women with low iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Egli, Ines; Gahutu, Jean B; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Boy, Erick; Hurrell, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The common bean is a staple crop in many African and Latin American countries and is the focus of biofortification initiatives. Bean iron concentration has been doubled by selective plant breeding, but the additional iron is reported to be of low bioavailability, most likely due to high phytic acid (PA) concentrations. The present study evaluated the impact of PA on iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans. Iron absorption, based on erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes, was measured in 22 Rwandese women who consumed multiple, composite bean meals with potatoes or rice in a crossover design. Iron absorption from meals containing biofortified beans (8.8 mg Fe, 1320 mg PA/100 g) and control beans (5.4 mg Fe, 980 mg PA/100 g) was measured with beans containing either their native PA concentration or with beans that were ∼50% dephytinized or >95% dephytinized. The iron concentration of the cooked composite meals with biofortified beans was 54% higher than in the same meals with control beans. With native PA concentrations, fractional iron absorption from the control bean meals was 9.2%, 30% higher than that from the biofortified bean meals (P bean meals (406 μg) was 19% higher (P bean meals. With ∼50% and >95% dephytinization, the quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals increased to 599 and 746 μg, respectively, which was 37% (P bean meals. PA strongly decreases iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans, and a high PA concentration is an important impediment to the optimal effectiveness of bean iron biofortification. Plant breeders should focus on lowering the PA concentration of high-iron beans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01521273. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. [Faba bean fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum )control and its mechanism in different wheat varieties and faba bean intercropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Dong, Kun; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li; Yang, Zhi-Xian

    2014-07-01

    Field experiment and hydroponic culture were conducted to investigate effects of three wheat varieties (Yunmai 42, Yunmai 47 and Mianyang 29) and faba bean intercropping on the shoot biomass, disease index of fusarium wilt, functional diversity of microbial community and the amount of Fusarium oxysporum in rhizosphere of faba bean. Contents and components of the soluble sugars, free amino acids and organic acids in the root exudates were also examined. Results showed that, compared with monocropped faba bean, shoot biomass of faba bean significantly increased by 16.6% and 13.4%, disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt significantly decreased by 47.6% and 23.3% as intercropped with Yunmai 42 and Yunmai 47, but no significant differences of both shoot biomass and disease index were found as intercropped with Mianyang 29. Compared with monocropped faba bean, the average well color development (AWCD value) and total utilization ability of carbon sources of faba bean significantly increased, the amount of Fusarium oxysporum of faba bean rhizosphere significantly decreased, and the microbial community structures of faba bean rhizosphere changed as intercropped with YM42 and YM47, while no significant effects as intercropped with MY29. Total contents of soluble sugar, free amino acids and organic acids in root exudates were in the trend of MY29>YM47>YM42. Contents of serine, glutamic, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, lysine in root exudates of MY29 were significantly higher than that in YM42 and YM47. The arginine was detected only in the root exudates of YM42 and YM47, and leucine was detected only in the root exudates of MY29. Six organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, t-aconitic acid were detected in root exudates of MY29 and YM47, and four organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid were detected in root exudates of YM42. Malic acid content in root exudates of YM47 and MY29 was

  3. Emulsification properties of soy bean protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WENPU CHEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chen W, Li X, Rahman MRT, Al-Hajj NQM, Dey KC, Raqib SM. 2014. Emulsification properties of soy bean protein. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 196-202. Emulsion stability and emulsifying ability are two important factors in food industry. Soy protein has the great of interest because of its amphilic structure. β-Conglycinnin and glycinin are main components in soy protein which can be used as emulsifiers in food processing. However, due to its size and molecular weight, the emulsifying ability of soy protein is limited. By chemical, physical and enzymatic modification, the emulsifying ability of soy protein can be improved. The addition of polysaccharides in emulsion is common. The interaction of polysaccharides and proteins are being discussed in this review. In some complex food emulsion, the function of soy protein molecules and emulsifier at the interface need to be investigated in the future study.

  4. Gamma radiosensitivity of a common bean cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colaco, W.; Martinez, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary experiment was conducted to evaluate the radiosensitivity of common bean (Phaseolous vulgaris L.), cultivar to gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Sets of seeds (60 seed/sample) irradiated with 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 Gy, were compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction, determined at 15 days after emergence (DAE), and also through seedling survival, root length, and dry matter production of leaves, shoots and roots. Seedling height was significantly reduced for the treatments with 150 and 250 Gy, in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height was between 150 and 200 Gy. Survival rates corresponding to these doses, were, respectively, 85% and 60%. Root length and dry matter of leaves, shoots and roots, were inversely related to the doses. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  5. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  6. Magnet systems for ''Bean-Shaped'' tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.; Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Mendelsohn, S.; Okabayashi, M.; Raynes, D.; Stiner, D.J.; Todd, A.M.; Williams, J.E.C.

    1983-01-01

    Bean-shaping of tokamak plasmas offers a method of reaching stable operation at (beta) > 10%. In order to establish the indentation of the ''bean'', a set of high- current ''pushing coils'' (> 5 MA in a reactor) must be located at the midplane as close as possible to the inboard edge of the plasma. If located in the bore of the TF coils, then maintenance of the pushing coils may be impossible, and the interlocking coils may prevent reactor modularity. If located outside, the required pushing-coil current may be unacceptably large. This dilemma is overcome with a unique TF coil design in which the inboard leg is bent outward in the form of an arc. The pushing coils are housed in the midplane indentation of this arc, just outside the TF coils but adequately close to the plasma. The arched coil transfers forces to the top and bottom legs, where it can be reacted by a clamp structure if necessary. This technique would allow demountable joints to be placed near the inoard leg (for copper TF coils). Another design approach to the pushing coils is to use liquid Li or Na as the conductor and coolant. The liquid metal ''coils'' can be placed immediately adjacent to the plasma, giving optimal control of the plasma shape with minimal coil current, although modularity of the reactor may have to be surrendered. Conceptual designs are presented of PF and TF coil systems for an ignition test reactor with about 14% and for a full-scale demonstration reactor with about 20%, both using copper TF coils

  7. Effectiveness of Locust Bean Pod Solution (LBPS) in the Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    KEYWORDS: Cement, compressive strength, locust bean, sandcrete blocks, building. [Received ... necessitates the need for alternative low cost walling material. (Aguwa, 2010) ... of 1920 to 2080 kg/m2 and may be solid or hollow. Dense solid.

  8. Simulated radiation disinfestation of infested cocoa beans in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako-Atta, B.

    1979-01-01

    Four major insect pests persistently affect the cocoa industry in Ghana, the world's leading exporter of cocoa, despite the conventional methods of chemical control in practice. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission currently is investigating the possible use of radiation for the control of both insect attack and microbial spoilage of cocoa beans in storage. Radiation response studies of the four major insect pests that significantly affect the quality of dried cocoa beans in storage have been evaluated. Results herein reported were based on simulated bulk infestation radiation disinfestation of dried cocoa under field and laboratory conditions at ambient temperature (25 to 32 0 C). The comparative efficiency of locally available packaging materials best suited for bagging of the dried cocoa beans at and after irradiation have been assessed concurrently. The author concludes by identifying and discussing possible factors that could affect the technology of radiation disinfestation of cocoa beans under the Ghanaian context. (author)

  9. Plants growth, water relations and photosynthesis of two bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... almost all physiological activities were suppressed. The superiority of the genotype Tema against Djadida genotype was attributed to quantitative rather than qualitative physiological response differences. Keywords: Salinity, fluridone, bean, growth, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  10. Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed irradiation and associated molecular changes. Sonia Mejri, Yassine Mabrouk, Marie Voisin, Philippe Delavault, Philippe Simier, Mouldi Saidi, Omrane Belhadj ...

  11. THE EFFECT OF REPLACING SOYA BEAN MEAL WITH COOKED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... performance, carcass characteristics and blood indices of finisher broilers. Mucuna sloanei seeds were ... that is rich in protein and used for both human and ... The over dependence on soya bean as major protein source for ...

  12. In vitro root induction of faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Roba M; Elazab, Heba E M; Hussein, Gihan M H; Metry, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge for regeneration of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants is the difficulty of in vitro root induction. In the present study, in vitro rooting and its architecture have been studied. Adventitious root formation was successfully induced from regenerated faba bean shoots of four Egyptian cultivars, i.e., Giza 461, Giza 40, Giza 834 and Giza 716 on hormone free MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l silver nitrate. Among the four cultivars, Giza 461 and Giza 40 were recorded as the highest root formation response (75 % and 65) followed by cultivars Giza716 and Giza843 (20%, and 10%). Anatomical study proved that the produced roots are initiated as the adventitious lateral root (LR) with tri-arch xylem strands as compared with the penta-arch of the primary roots of the intact faba bean seedling. The obtained results overcome the root induction problem in faba bean.

  13. Effectiveness of rapid neutrons on small hoarse bean seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlek, S.; Janiszewski, T.

    1986-01-01

    The small hoarse bean seeds were irradiated. The radiation doses 100-300 rads were used. The obtained mutants were applied in the breeding. The use of fast neutrons was successful and shortened the breeding cycle. (A.S.)

  14. reaction of selected common bean genotypes to physiological races

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Department of Biological Sciences, Egerton University, P. O. Box 536, Egerton, Kenya. 1Department of Plant ... order to identify potential sources of resistance to angular leaf spot. Selected bean ...... phaseolicola (Burk, 1926) Young, Dye and.

  15. Detection of metabolites in Flor de Mayo common beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    katia

    2012-07-10

    Jul 10, 2012 ... beans involves beneficial effects of inoculation on plant growth and development parameters and can be taken ..... deficit as a driver of the mutualistic relationship between the fungus ... Utilization of the plant hormone indole-.

  16. Genetic diversity study of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... small black wild type to the large white, brown, red and spotted types (Cobley and ..... Accession. North Omo. (A). Hadiya. (B). Metekel. (Dan gure. )(C. ) Shinile (D) .... Origin, domestication and evolution of the common bean ...

  17. Induced mutants in beans and peas resistant to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, F.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and peas (Pisum sativum) are important leguminous vegetable crops in Egypt. The area planted with beans is about 40,000 acres and peas 22,000 acres. These crops suffer from several diseases, particularly rusts, (Uromyces phaseoli/Uromyces pisi), which are mainly spread in northern Egypt. In our mutation induction programme we used 60 Co gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for two hours before exposure to 8, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical treatments, bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for eight hours and then treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. The M 1 was cultivated in 1978

  18. Economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Iwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Iwo local government, Osun state. ... Majority (78.3%) of the processors and marketers were making profit; 95.0% operate ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  19. Putative storage root specific promoters from cassava and yam: cloning and evaluation in transgenic carrots as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Jacobo; Salazar, Bertha; Welsch, Ralf; Sarmiento, Felipe; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim

    2010-06-01

    A prerequisite for biotechnological improvements of storage roots is the availability of tissue-specific promoters enabling high expression of transgenes. In this work, we cloned two genomic fragments, pMe1 and pDJ3S, controlling the expression of a gene with unknown function from cassava (Manihot esculenta) and of the storage protein dioscorin 3 small subunit gene from yam (Dioscorea japonica), respectively. Using beta-glucuronidase as a reporter, the activities of pMe1 and pDJ3S were evaluated in independent transgenic carrot lines and compared to the constitutive CaMV35S and the previously described cassava p15 promoters. Activities of pMe1 and pDJ3S in storage roots were assessed using quantitative GUS assays that showed pDJ3S as the most active one. To determine organ specificities, uidA transcript levels in leaves, stems and roots were measured by real-time RT-PCR analyses showing highest storage root specificity for pDJ3S. Root cross sections revealed that pMe1 was highly active in secondary xylem. In contrast, pDJ3S was active in all root tissues except for the central xylem. The expression patterns caused by the cassava p15 promoter in carrot storage roots were consistent with its previously described activities for the original storage organ. Our data demonstrate that the pDJ3S and, to a lesser extent, the pMe1 regulatory sequences represent feasible candidates to drive high and preferential expression of genes in carrot storage roots.

  20. Facing herbivory on the climb up: Lost opportunities as the main cost of herbivory in the wild yam Dioscorea praehensilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giusto, Bruno; Dounias, Edmond; McKey, Doyle B

    2017-08-01

    Plants with simple architecture and strong constraints on their growth may offer critical insights into how growth strategies affect the tolerance of plants to herbivory. Although Dioscorea praehensilis, a wild yam of African forests, is perennial, both aerial apparatus and tuber are annually renewed. Each year, the tuber produces a single stem that climbs from the ground to the forest canopy. This stem bears no leaves and no branches until it reaches optimal light conditions. Once in the canopy, the plant's production fuels the filling of a new tuber before the plant dies back to the ground. We hypothesized that if deprived of ant defense, the leafless growth phase is a vulnerable part of the cycle, during which a small amount of herbivory entails a high cost in terms of loss of opportunity. We compared the growth of stems bearing ants or not as well as of intact stems and stems subjected to simulated or natural herbivory. Ants reduce herbivory; herbivory delays arrival to the canopy and shortens the season of production. Artificially prolonging the stem growth to the canopy increased plant mortality in the following year and, in surviving plants, reduced the stem diameter and likely the underground reserves produced. Tuber size is a key variable in plant performance as it affects both the size of the aerial apparatus and the duration of its single season of production. Aerial apparatus and tuber are thus locked into a cycle of reciprocal annual renewal. Costs due to loss of opportunity may play a major role in plant tolerance to herbivory, especially when architectural constraints interact with ecological conditions to shape the plant's growth strategy.

  1. Preparation and characterization of soaps made from soya bean oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work deals with the preparation of soaps from neem oil and soya bean oil blends and analyses the soap produced. The soaps were produced using cold process technique by varying the percentage of oils; (soya bean oil and neem oil) in the ratio of 100%, 90/10%, 80/20%, 70/30%, 60/40%, 50/50%, 40/60%, ...

  2. Tvorba pluginů pro NetBeans

    OpenAIRE

    Vondráček, Ladislav

    2017-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is an analysis of plugin technology. The goal of the thesis is to characterization of basics of this technology in common and with focus on application on NetBeans platform and its integrated development environment and further demonstration of the technology in form developing exemplary NetBeans plugin. Opening part is dedicated to theoretical analysis of plugin principals, its purposes in soft-ware development and use cases for current software applications. The t...

  3. Beta limit of crescent and bean shaped tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitou, H.; Yamazaki, K.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum attainable beta values which can be expected in tokamaks with crescent (BEAN 1) and rounded (BEAN 2) bean shaped cross-sections are obtained numerically by using the linear ideal MHD stability analysis code ERATO. The current profiles are optimized with a fixed pressure profile for high values of beta, keeping Mercier, high-n ballooning and n=1 kink modes stable. The poloidal plasma cross-sections are inscribed in a rectangle with an aspect ratio of three and an ellipticity of two. A confocal wall, the distance of which from the plasma surface is equal to the horizontal minor plasma radius, is present to stabilize against the kink mode. Depending on the shape and triangularity (indentation), a beta value of 10 to 17% is obtained. It is also shown that the coefficient of the Troyon-type beta scaling increases for an indented plasma. In the case of small indentation, the BEAN 1 type tokamaks show higher beta values than the BEAN 2 type. For strong indentation, the BEAN 2 type gives the highest beta value. (author). 29 refs, 15 figs

  4. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-05

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales.

  5. Variation in caffeine concentration in single coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Glen P; Wu, Alex; Yiran, Liang; Force, Lesleigh

    2013-11-13

    Twenty-eight coffee samples from around the world were tested for caffeine levels to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for whole and ground coffee. Twenty-five individual beans from five of those coffees were used to develop a NIRS calibration for caffeine concentration in single beans. An international standard high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze for caffeine content. Coffee is a legal stimulant and possesses a number of heath properties. However, there is variation in the level of caffeine in brewed coffee and other caffeinated beverages. Being able to sort beans on the basis of caffeine concentration will improve quality control in the level of caffeine in those beverages. The range in caffeine concentration was from 0.01 mg/g (decaffeinated coffee) to 19.9 mg/g (Italian coffee). The majority of coffees were around 10.0-12.0 mg/g. The NIRS results showed r(2) values for bulk unground and ground coffees were >0.90 with standard errors coffee beans. One application of this calibration could be sorting beans on caffeine concentration to provide greater quality control for high-end markets. Furthermore, bean sorting may open new markets for novel coffee products.

  6. Biological nitrogen fixation in common bean and faba bean using N-15 methodology and two reference crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvache, Marcelo.

    1989-01-01

    A field was conducted on a Typic ustropepts soil located at 'La Tola', the experimental campus of the Agricultural Sciences Faculty at Tumbaco, Ecuador. The objectives were to quantify faba bean (Vicia faba) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) biological nitrogen fixation, using quinoa (chenopodium quinoa) and maize (Zea mays) as reference crops. The average values were 80 and 70 per cent for faba bean and 42 and 14 per cent for common bean, respectively. It was assumed that nitrogen use eficiency was the same for fixing crops but observed that a crop with high nitrogen use efficiency overestimates legume biological nitrogen fixation. Results suggests that greater caution is needed when selecting reference crops for legumes with nitrogen fixation

  7. Evaluation of bean and soy tempeh influence on intestinal bacteria and estimation of antibacterial properties of bean tempeh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuligowski, Maciej; Jasińska-Kuligowska, Iwona; Nowak, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effect of bean tempeh on the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus paracasei bacteria was investigated. Antibacterial activity was observed only in relation to the bacteria Bacillus subtilis. The effect of tempeh products on human intestinal microflora was also assessed. Bean and soy tempeh were culinarily processed and next digested in conditions simulating the human digestive tract (one of the digestive tracts was equipped with a mechanism simulating absorption). Soy tempeh stimulated most the growth of bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium, while bean tempeh that of Escherichia coli. Using simulation of absorption for the digestion of fried soy tempeh resulted in a higher rise in the bacteria count of the genus Lactobacillus, while after digestion of fried bean tempeh the highest increase was recorded for Bifidobacterium and E. coli.

  8. Effects of tempering (annealing), acid hydrolysis, low-citric acid substitution on chemical and physicochemical properties of starches of four yam (Dioscorea spp.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falade, Kolawole O; Ayetigbo, Oluwatoyin E

    2017-05-01

    The effects of tempering (annealing), acid hydrolysis and low-citric acid substitution on chemical and physicochemical properties of starches of four Nigerian yam cultivars were investigated. Crude fat and protein contents of the native starches decreased significantly after the modifications, while nitrogen-free extract increased significantly with acid hydrolysis and citric acid substitution. Acid hydrolysis and low-citric acid substitution reduced the least concentration for gel formation of the starches from 4 to 2% w/v, but tempering had no effect. Swelling power of the starches reduced significantly, and water solubility increased significantly at 75 and 85 °C, especially with acid hydrolysis and low-citric acid substitution. However, tempering significantly reduced starch solubility in the four cultivars. Paste clarity of starches of white (29.17%), water (18.90%), yellow (30.90%) and bitter (10.57%) yams reduced significantly with tempering to 14.43, 11.83, 16.93 and 7.27%, but increased significantly with acid hydrolysis to 41.40, 35.37, 28.77 and 32.33%, and low-citric acid substitution to 36.60, 44.17, 50.67 and 14.33%, respectively. Pasting properties such as peak, trough, breakdown, final, and setback viscosities and peak time of native starches reduced significantly with acid hydrolysis and low-citric acid substitution, however, tempering significantly increased their pasting temperature, peak time, setback and final viscosities.

  9. Both dioscorin, the tuber storage protein of yam (Dioscorea alata cv. Tainong No. 1), and its peptic hydrolysates exhibited angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Feng-Lin; Lin, Yaw-Huei; Lee, Mei-Hsien; Lin, Chien-Liang; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2002-10-09

    Dioscorin, the tuber storage protein of yam (Dioscorea alata cv. Tainong No. 1), was purified to homogeneity by DE-52 ion-exchange chromatography. This purified dioscorin was shown by spectrophotometric methods to inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in a dose-dependent manner (12.5-750 microg, respectively, 20.83-62.5% inhibitions) using N-[3-(2-furyl)acryloyl]-Phe-Gly-Gly (FAPGG) as substrates. The 50% inhibition (IC(50)) of ACE activity was 6.404 microM dioscorin (250 microg corresponding to 7.81 nmol) compared to that of 0.00781 microM (0.0095 nmol) for captopril. The commercial bovine serum albumin and casein (bovine milk) showed less ACE inhibitory activity. The use of qualitative TLC also showed dioscorin as ACE inhibitors. Dioscorin showed mixed noncompetitive inhibitions against ACE; when 31.25 microg of dioscorin (0.8 microM) was added, the apparent inhibition constant (K(i)) was 2.738 microM. Pepsin was used for dioscorin hydrolysis at 37 degrees C for different times. It was found that the ACE inhibitory activity was increased from 51.32% to about 75% during 32 h hydrolysis. The smaller peptides were increased with increasing pepsin hydrolytic times. Dioscorin and its hydrolysates might be a potential for hypertension control when people consume yam tuber.

  10. Antioxidant and antiglycation activities of the synthesised dipeptide, Asn-Trp, derived from computer-aided simulation of yam dioscorin hydrolysis and its analogue, Gln-Trp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chuan-Hsiao; Lin, Yin-Shiou; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2014-03-15

    Previous studies have shown that the Trp residue contributes to a high oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Therefore, in this study, a Trp-containing dipeptide derived from a computer-aided simulation of pepsin hydrolysis of the yam tuber, dioscorin-namely, Asn-Trp (NW), and its analogue, Gln-Trp (QW)-were synthesised to compare their antioxidant and antiglycation activities with carnosine, homocarnosine, or glutathione (GSH). The antioxidant assays included hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, anti-AAPH-induced hemolysis, and ORAC activity. NW had a significantly higher antioxidant activity than had QW and performed much better than carnosine, homocarnosine, or GSH. Using bovine serum albumin (BSA)/galactose or BSA/glucose as experimental models, NW had better antiglycation effects than had QW, as detected by an anti-N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (anti-CML) antibody. Moreover, NW and QW (50-200 μM) showed protection against methylglyoxal-induced cell deaths in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These results suggest that NW, derived from computer-aided simulation of dioscorin hydrolysis, exhibits antioxidant and antiglycation activities, which thus shows the benefits of the yam tuber as an antioxidant-rich food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant activities of the synthesized thiol-contained peptides derived from computer-aided pepsin hydrolysis of yam tuber storage protein, dioscorin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chuan-Hsiao; Liu, Ju-Chi; Fang, Sheng-Uei; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2013-06-01

    Our previous report showed that yam dioscorin and its peptic hydrolysates exhibit radical scavenging activities; however, the functions of these peptic hydrolases are still under investigation. In this study, the thiol-containing peptides derived from computer-aided simulation of pepsin hydrolysis of dioscorin, namely, KTCGNGME (diotide1), PPCSE (diotide2), CDDRVIRTPLT (diotide3), KTCGY (diotide4), and PPCTE (diotide5) were synthesized to compare their antioxidant activities with GSH and/or carnosine by examining hydroxyl radical scavenging activity by electron spin resonance spectrometry, anti-low-density lipoprotein peroxidation, anti-AAPH-induced hemolysis, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity activity. We found that while all the synthesized diotides showed antioxidant activity, diotide4 exhibited the highest levels. Moreover, all diotides (100 μM) showed protective effects against methylglyoxal-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell death. These results suggest that thiol-containing diotides derived from dioscorin hydrolysis exhibit antioxidant activities and reveal the benefits of yam tuber as an antioxidant-rich food. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. “By his wind, he put Yam into his net” – (R. H. [Chaim] Cohen correction proposal of the BHS text of Job 26:13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Luiz Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Is formulated as a proposed textual criticism the suggestion of correction of the text of Job 26.13 of the Hebrew Bible Stuttgartensia, constant of dissertation by Harold R. (Chaim Cohen , 1975, published in 1978, with the title of Biblical Hapax in the Light of Akkadian and Ugaritic . Cohen presents two statements: 1 retrieves the recommendation of Tur-Sinai ( 1941, that the word hrpX in Job 26.13 should be translated from Akkadian cognate , "saparru", playing to him as "network", so that , then, would treat a case of hapax legomena. Also, 2 Cohen says there were copyist error in the transmission of the Hebrew verse - two independent original vocabulary - ~X and ~y - have been mistakenly clumped by the scribe and processed in the now constant standard text of BHS , ~yIm:åv'. The Cohen’s suggestions recover the condition of the four parallel synonymic verses in Job 26.12-13, since Yam, appearing in if and then corrected v . 13a, compose parallel with the other dragons mentioned in v. 12a, 12b and 13b. Job 26.13 should then be read as follows: " with his wind, he put Yam on your network". Not identified any version or comment that had heeded the suggestion of Cohen.

  13. Growth of Clostridium perfringens during cooling of refried beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; Akins, E Deann; Friedrich, Loretta M; Danyluk, Michelle D; Simonne, Amarat H

    2012-10-01

    Outbreaks of Clostridium perfringens have been associated with dishes containing refried beans from food service establishments. However, growth of C. perfringens in refried beans has not been investigated, and predictive models have not been validated in this food matrix. We investigated the growth of C. perfringens during the cooling of refried beans. Refried beans (pinto and black, with and without salt added) were inoculated with 3 log CFU/g C. perfringens spores and incubated isothermally at 12, 23, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50°C. The levels of C. perfringens were monitored 3, 5, 8, and 10 h after inoculation, and then fitted to the Baranyi primary model and the Rosso secondary model prior to solving the Baranyi differential equation. The final model was validated by dynamic cooling experiments carried out in stockpots, thus mimicking the worst possible food service conditions. All refried beans samples supported the growth of C. perfringens, and all models fit the data with pseudo-R(2) values of 0.95 or greater and mean square errors of 0.3 or lower. The estimated maximum specific growth rates were generally higher in pinto beans, with or without salt added (2.64 and 1.95 h(-1), respectively), when compared with black beans, with or without salt added (1.78 and 1.61 h(-1), respectively). After 10 h of incubation, maximum populations of C. perfringens were significantly higher in samples with no salt added (7.9 log CFU/g for both pinto and black beans) than in samples with salt added (7.3 and 7.2 log CFU/g for pinto and black beans, respectively). The dynamic model predicted the growth of C. perfringens during cooling, with an average root mean squared error of 0.44. The use of large stockpots to cool refried beans led to an observed 1.2-log increase (1.5-log increase predicted by model) in levels of C. perfringens during cooling. The use of shallower pans for cooling is recommended, because they cool faster, therefore limiting the growth of C. perfringens.

  14. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-05-01

    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritional value of dry beans. Specifically to: develop protocols for production of fast cooking bean flours and assess the effect of processing on the nutritional characteristics of the flours. Dry beans (K131 variety) were soaked for 12 h; sprouted for 48 h; dehulled and steamed for 25 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively or roasted at 170°C for 45 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively. Dehulling eliminated phytates and tannins and increased protein digestibility. In vitro protein digestibility and mineral (iron and zinc) extractability were negatively correlated with tannin and phytate content. Total available carbohydrates were highest in moist heat-treated bean flours. Overall, combined processing of beans improved the nutritional quality of dry beans and the resulting precooked flours need less cooking time compared to whole dry beans.

  15. Induced mutations of winged bean in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klu, G Y.P.; Quaynor-Addy, M; Dinku, E; Dikumwin, E [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Legon (Ghana)

    1989-07-01

    Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) D.C.) was introduced into Ghana about two decades ago and not long after a high quality baby food was compounded from it. Germplasm collections are established at the Kade Agricultural Research Station of the University of Ghana and the University of Cape Coast. In 1980 a mutation breeding project was initiated at the University of Cape Coast under FAO/IAEA research contract and among various mutants a single erect stem mutant, a multiple branched bush type and a mutant with extra long pods were obtained. A similar programme was started at the National Nuclear Research Centre Kwabenya in 1982. Seeds of accessions UPS 122 and Kade 6/16 were gamma irradiated (100-400 Gy). In M{sub 2} a mutant was obtained that did not flower throughout a growing period of five months. This mutant had very few leaves but developed an underground tuber weighing ca. 100 g. The parent, UPS 122, although normally tuber producing did not form tubers at Kwabenya within the period studied. In M{sub 3}, mutants with variations in seed size and seed coat colour have been detected.

  16. Immunoregulatory activities of polysaccharides from mung bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Zhu, Yingying; Ren, Guixing

    2016-03-30

    Ultrasonic treatment was performed on water-extractable polysaccharides from the seed of mung beans. Purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography, MWP-1' and MWP-2' were obtained. Average molecular weights (Mws) of MWP-1' and MWP-2' were 68.4 kDa, and 52.4 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharides components analysis indicated that MWP-1' was composed of Rha, Ara, Man and Gal in a molar percent of 0.4:2.6:5.3:0.7. MWP-2' was composed of Ara, Man, Gal and Glc in a molar percent of 0.5:1.4:2.1:0.4. In vitro study showed that both polysaccharides samples were able to stimulate the production of secretory molecules (NO, TNF-α and IL-6) of RAW264.7 murine macrophages in a dosage dependent manner. MWP-2' seemed to be the most potent and induced significantly higher the NO production. These findings suggest that the ultrasonic treatment polysaccharides isolated in our study have immune potentiation effects on macrophages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 78 FR 8698 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COOL BEANS; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2013 0005] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COOL BEANS; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... BEANS is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: Sightseeing and sunset cruises. Geographic Region: Florida...

  18. Yield and Quality of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata (l. R. Wilczek Seeds Produced in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil MISIAK

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to do field and laboratory assessments of yield and quality of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek seeds cultivated in Western Poland. Mean yield of seeds per plant was higher for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. than for mung one: 13.1 g and 2.58 g, respectively. The mean 1000 mung seeds weight was 50.9 g and their germination – 78 %. Germination capacities of seeds of both beans in the field were similar. Mung beans, compared to common bean, had much smaller seeds, started to bloom later and produced mature seeds later than the latter. Mung bean seeds had more total proteins and Magnesium and Copper than common bean seeds. In Western Poland, production of high quality mung bean seeds was possible.

  19. Simultaneous determination of levodopa and carbidopa from fava bean, green peas and green beans by high performance liquid gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran S M, Mohseni; B, Golshani

    2013-06-01

    According to many studies, sprouted fava beans are a rich source of levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) the precursor of dopamine, and they are now being investigated for use in the management of Parkinson's disease. The addition of Carbidopa (C-dopa) can reduce the daily use of the L-dopa dosage requirements and it can also reduce the side effects which are associated with the L-dopa administration. The present research was conducted to find the levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) and Carbidopa (C-dopa) in fava beans, green peas and green beans by High Performance Gas Chromatography (HPLC). Carbidopa (C-dopa) is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor. As a substitution therapy, it used in combination to treat Parkinson's disease. We obtained L-dopa and C-dopa from fava beans which were in the fresh and dry sprouted form, whose concentrations were 1.4,1.5 and 2.6,2.4 mg/ml respectively. The maximal stimulation of the L-DOPA content was seen on day 8 for the fava beans, which was 100% higher than that of the control level. The results of this study indicate that faba beans are a good source of natural L-dopa and C-dopa. The quantification of this capacity according to the stage and the plant part could be suitable for applications in the food industry and in plant medicine. The consumption of fava beans can increase the levels of L-dopa and C-dopa in the blood, with a marked improvement in the motor performance of the patients with parkinson disease, without any side effects.

  20. Effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Vestergaard, Jannie Steensig; Fretté, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover: maize silage ratio on milk production, milk composition and the sensory quality of the milk was investigated in a 2   2 factorial experiment. Toasting of field beans resulted in lower milk contents of both fat (44.2 versus 46.1 g/kg, P = 0.......02) and protein (33.5 versus 34.2 g/kg, P = 0.008), whereas milk production, urea and somatic cell contents were unaffected compared with the untreated field beans. Increasing the proportion of maize silage (from 9 to 21% of DM) in the ration decreased the content of urea in milk (P = 0.002), whereas milk......-β-carotene (P = 0.04) and β-carotene (P = 0.05). Toasting of field beans compared with untreated field beans did not affect the milk content of carotenoids and had only small effects on fatty acid composition. Regarding the sensory quality, the four treatments resulted in milk being characterized...

  1. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Shelby H; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-06-05

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km(2) soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) (30 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs.

  2. Induced mutations in beans and peas for resistance to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, F.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma rays and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) were applied in a mutation-induction programme for rust resistance in bean and pea. Bean and pea seeds were pre-soaked 2 hours before irradiation with 9, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical mutagen treatments bean and pea seeds were pre-soaked for 8 hours and treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. M 2 seeds of beans and peas were planted in 1979. Resistant M 2 plants were selected for their rust resistance and other morphological characters. M 3 seeds of selected plants were planted in 1980. In 1980 more seeds of the same varieties of beans and peas were treated with 0.1 and 0.3% EMS with the aim to produce rust-resistant mutants. Seed germination was reduced by gamma rays or EMS. Dwarf, malformed and abnormal plants were noticed. Some resistant M 2 plants selected gave high grain yields. Some were different in morphological characters. In the M 3 of selected plants various other mutant characters appeared, such as different height of plants, early and late flowering, resistance to powdery mildew in peas, altered grain yield, thickness of stem, pod shape and flower colour. (author)

  3. Amylolytic treatment on faba bean for producing emulsions and emulsion gels

    OpenAIRE

    Suryanarayanan, Tilak

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the thesis was to investigate the effect of carbohydrates on solubility, emulsifying, gelling and water holding properties of proteins. Faba bean is a readily available pulse crop with high protein content similar to soy bean and there is a lot of potential for a novel, high protein fermented gel product to be made from a pulse crop like faba bean. This is mainly due to its remarkable nutritional properties, functional properties and low cost, the demand for faba bean protein...

  4. Effect of fermented soya beans on diarrhoea and feed efficiency in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Meijer, J.C.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal and growth enhancing properties of fermented soya beans in weaned piglets. Methods and Results: In a first phase piglet diet, toasted full-fat soya beans (20%) were replaced with either cooked soya beans or Rhizopus microsporus or Bacillus subtilis fermented soya

  5. Chemometric dissimilarity in nutritive value of popularly consumed Nigerian brown and white common beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyib, Oluwasayo Kehinde; Alashiri, Ganiyy Olasunkanmi; Adejoye, Oluseyi Damilola

    2015-01-01

    Brown beans are the preferred varieties over the white beans in Nigeria due to their assumed richer nutrients. This study was aimed at assessing and characterising some popular Nigerian common beans for their nutritive value based on seed coat colour. Three varieties, each, of Nigerian brown and white beans, and one, each, of French bean and soybean were analysed for 19 nutrients. Z-statistics test showed that Nigerian beans are nutritionally analogous to French bean and soybean. Analysis of variance showed that seed coat colour varied with proximate nutrients, Ca, Fe, and Vit C. Chemometric analysis methods revealed superior beans for macro and micro nutrients and presented clearer groupings among the beans for seed coat colour. The study estimated a moderate genetic distance (GD) that will facilitate transfer of useful genes and intercrossing among the beans. It also offers an opportunity to integrate French bean and soybean into genetic improvement programs in Nigerian common beans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 75 FR 43142 - United States Standards for Grades of Refried Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ...] United States Standards for Grades of Refried Beans AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... comments on the possible establishment of voluntary United States Standards for Grades of Refried Beans... industry requested that USDA develop grade standards for canned refried beans to be used by the industry...

  7. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry bean powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to investigate the impacts of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four bean varieties. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size = 0.5 mm)...

  8. Physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarharum, W. B.; Yuwono, S. S.; Pangestu, N. B. S. W.; Nadhiroh, H.

    2018-03-01

    Demand on high quality coffee for consumption is continually increasing not only in the consuming countries (importers) but also in the producing countries (exporters). Coffee quality could be affected by several factors from farm to cup including the post-harvest processing methods. This research aimed to investigate the influence of different post-harvest processing methods on physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans. The two factors being evaluated were three different post-harvest processing methods to produce green coffee beans (natural/dry, semi-washed and fully-washed processing) under sun drying. Physical quality evaluation was based on The Indonesian National Standard (SNI 01-2907-2008) while sensory quality was evaluated by five expert judges. The result shows that less defects observed in wet processed coffee as compared to the dry processing. The mechanical drying was also proven to yield a higher quality green coffee beans and minimise losses.

  9. Knowing beans: Human mirror mechanisms revealed through motor adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M Glenberg

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Human mirror mechanisms (MMs respond during both performed and observed action and appear to underlie action goal recognition. We introduce a behavioral procedure for discovering and clarifying functional MM properties: Blindfolded participants repeatedly move beans either toward or away from themselves to induce motor adaptation. Then, the bias for perceiving direction of ambiguous visual movement in depth is measured. Bias is affected by a number of beans moved, b movement direction, and c similarity of the visual stimulus to the hand used to move beans. This cross-modal adaptation pattern supports both the validity of human MMs and functionality of our testing instrument. We also discuss related work that extends the motor adaptation paradigm to investigate contributions of MMs to speech perception and language comprehension.

  10. Stable isotope composition of cocoa beans of different geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Matteo; Bontempo, Luana; Ziller, Luca; Barbero, Alice; Caligiani, Augusta; Camin, Federica

    2016-09-01

    The isotopic profile (δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(18) O, δ(2) H, δ(34) S) was used to characterise a wide selection of cocoa beans from different renowned production areas (Africa, Asia, Central and South America). The factors most influencing the isotopic signatures of cocoa beans were climate and altitude for δ(13) C and the isotopic composition of precipitation water for δ(18) O and δ(2) H, whereas δ(15) N and δ(34) S were primarily affected by geology and fertilisation practises. Multi-isotopic analysis was shown to be sufficiently effective in determining the geographical origin of cocoa beans, and combining it with Canonical Discriminant Analysis led to more than 80% of samples being correctly reclassified. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Rhizosphere acidification of faba bean, soybean and maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.L. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100094 (China); Cao, J. [School of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, F.S. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Li, L., E-mail: lilong@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China)

    2009-07-01

    Interspecific facilitation on phosphorus uptake was observed in faba bean/maize intercropping systems in previous studies. The mechanism behind this, however, remained unknown. Under nitrate supply, the difference in rhizosphere acidification potential was studied by directly measuring pH of the solution and by visualizing and quantifying proton efflux of roots between faba bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Lincan No.5), soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Zhonghuang No. 17) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Zhongdan No.2) in monoculture and intercrop, supplied without or with 0.2 mmol L{sup -1} P as KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. The pH of the nutrient solution grown faba bean was lower than initial pH of 6.0 from day 1 to day 22 under P deficiency, whereas the pH of the solution with maize was declined from day 13 after treatment. Growing soybean increased solution pH irrespective of P supply. Under P deficiency, the proton efflux of faba bean both total (315.25 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1}) and specific proton efflux (0.47 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}) was greater than that those of soybean (21.80 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1} and 0.05 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, respectively). Faba bean had much more ability of rhizosphere acidification than soybean and maize. The result can explain partly why faba bean utilizes sparingly soluble P more effectively than soybean and maize do, and has an important implication in understanding the mechanism behind interspecific facilitation on P uptake by intercropped species.

  12. Kinetics, mass transport characteristics, and structural changes during air-drying of purple yam (Dioscorea Alata L.) at different process conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vera, Flordeliza C.; Comaling, Leif Anthony B.; Lao, Iya Ray Alyanna M.; Caparanga, Alvin R.; Sauli, Zaliman

    2017-11-01

    This experiment was designed to follow the 2k factorial design to study the effects of the three drying parameters on the drying characteristics and effective moisture diffusivity and to fit each run performed on the best thin-layer drying kinetics model. Raw purple yam samples were pre-treated and undergone the designed drying procedures at which the weight of the samples were recorded every minute until such time that the sample weights become constant. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is utilized for qualitative analysis of the dried samples. The number of pores per unit area and the overall aesthetics of the surface of the dried samples were compared also using SEM. Considering the qualitative analysis conducted on the samples from the images of SEM, dried samples from run 2 has the most desirable conditions such as high temperature and low air velocity for drying because the samples from this run have large pore diameters with minimal cell breakages.

  13. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Donna M; Armstrong Florian, Traci L; Thompson, Sharon V

    2016-01-01

    Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States. A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70%) low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA. The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471). Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65%) and were satiating (62%). Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%), control blood glucose (56%) or reduce cancer risk (56%), indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation. Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  14. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M Winham

    Full Text Available Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States.A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70% low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA.The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471. Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65% and were satiating (62%. Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%, control blood glucose (56% or reduce cancer risk (56%, indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation.Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  15. Development of Texturized Vegetable Protein from Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus and African Oil Bean Seed [Pentaclethrama crophylla (Benth]: Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arueya Gibson. L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of measures to combat protein shortages in form of meat analogues, extrusion processing conditions for the development of Texturized Vegetable Protein (TVP from under-utilized sources (Lima bean and African oil bean seed are analysed. Optimum parameters for processing were established as being: barrel temperature (92.45°C, screw speed (101.48 rpm, feed moisture (59.63% and African oil bean seed protein concentrates (AOBSPC of 1%. Concentrations of essential amino-acids were also found to be significant (0.90-7.3% with a near absence of anti-nutritional factors (0.0022–1.0008 g/kg. Sensory evaluation showed that TVP5 (100% LBPC compared favourably with the control sample (cooked meat in overall acceptability. An Acceptable and nutritious meat analogue had been developed.

  16. White light generation from YAG/YAM:Ce{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+} nanophosphors mixed with a blue dye under 340 nm excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, J. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.P. 1-948, León, Gto 37150, México (Mexico); De la Rosa, E., E-mail: elder@cio.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.P. 1-948, León, Gto 37150, México (Mexico); Diaz-Torres, L.A [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.P. 1-948, León, Gto 37150, México (Mexico); Torres, A. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, A.P. 126-F, Monterrey, NL 66450, México (Mexico); Salas, P. [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. 76000, México (Mexico); Meza, O. [Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 4 Sur 104 Centro Historico, 72000 Puebla, México (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The structural and luminescent properties of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}/Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}:Ce{sup 3+}(0.1%)–Pr{sup 3+}(0.1%) –Cr{sup 3+} (trace impurities) nanophosphors synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method were studied. The crystalline phase was composed of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) and Yttrium Aluminum Monoclinic (YAM) depending on the ammonia concentration and annealing temperature. Ammonia increased the stabilization of YAG from 55 wt% to 63 wt% in the samples annealed at 900 °C, and an increment of 83% of the overall emission under 460 nm excitation was observed. Quenching of the emitted signal after annealing at 1100 °C was observed in spite of single YAG crystalline phase stabilization, due to the formation of Ce{sup 4+}, Pr{sup 4+}, and color centers. In addition to the green–yellow emission from Ce{sup 3+}, all samples present a broad red emission band produced by the relaxations from the broad band {sup 4}T{sub 2} toward the {sup 4}A{sub 2} energy level of Cr{sup 3+} impurities, under 340 nm excitation. By taking advantage of this broad green–yellow–red emission and using a blue dye, white light with CIE coordinates of (0.30, 0.36) under 340 nm excitation was produced. - Highlights: • YAG/YAM:Ce{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+} nanophosphors were synthesized with a hydrothermal method. • Ammonia introduced during the synthesis increased the emission of nanophosphors. • White light was obtained by combining the emissions of a blue dye and nanophosphors. • The CIE coordinates for this white light are (0.30, 0.36)

  17. The preparation of soy-bean foods for use in rural communities of the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, T

    1998-08-01

    Since the beginning of 1970, there has been a great breakthrough in the popularization of soy-bean-based food in Nigeria and in many parts of the developing world, especially for use in the prevention of kwashiorkor. Since 1975, soy bean has become a main source of daily dietary protein in many parts of Nigeria as a result of the successful incorporation of soy-bean products into almost all traditional Nigerian foods. This is a review of previous work in Nigeria on eliminating the beany flavour, bitter taste, and flatus factors in soy-bean milk and cooked soy-bean paste preparations.

  18. Management of crotalaria and pigeon pea for control of yam nematode diseases Manejo da crotalária e do guandu no controle de nematoses do inhame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon da Silva Garrido

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Management of plant-parasitic nematodes with the use of nematicides has not been recommended for small farmers that grow yam in the Northeastern region of Brazil, due to its high cost and residue toxicity. The use of plants with antagonistic effect to nematodes and green manure which improves soil chemical, physical and biological characteristics can be a viable and low cost alternative to control parasitic nematodes. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan plants on the control of yam nematodes. Three experiments were carried out. The first was conducted under in vitro conditions to evaluate the nematostatic and nematicide effect of extracts from fresh and dry matter of the above ground parts of crotalaria, pigeon pea, and the combination of both. The second experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the effect of soil amendment with crotalaria, pigeon pea, and the combination of both in the infectivity of Scutellonema bradys, using tomato plants as the host plant. The third experiment was conducted under field conditions to evaluate the effect of crotalaria, pigeon pea, and the combination of both, cultivated between yam planting rows and incorporated to soil surface, on yam nematodes. The aqueous extract obtained form fresh matter of crotalaria had a nematicide effect of 100% for S. bradys. Extracts from dry matter of both crotalaria and pigeon pea did not have any nematicide effect, but had a nematostatic effect. Incorporation of crotalaria to soil inhibited infectivity of S. bradys in tomato seedlings. These results showed that planting crotalaria alone or in combination with pigeon pea, between the yam planting rows, is an efficient method for controlling S. bradys and Rotylenchulus reniformis associated with yams. Crotalaria can be used for controlling these plant-parasitic nematodes in soil.O manejo de fitomenatóides com o uso de nematicidas não tem

  19. A Quantitative Method to Screen Common Bean Plants for Resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausbaugh, C A; Myers, J R; Forster, R L; McClean, P E

    2003-11-01

    ABSTRACT A quantitative method to screen common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants for resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) is described. Four parameters were assessed in developing the quantitative method: symptoms associated with systemic virus movement, plant vigor, virus titer, and plant dry weight. Based on these parameters, two rating systems (V and VV rating) were established. Plants from 21 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a Sierra (susceptible) x Olathe (partially resistant) cross inoculated with the BCMNV-NL-3 K strain were used to evaluate this quantitative approach. In all, 11 RILs exhibited very susceptible reactions and 10 RILs expressed partially resistant reactions, thus fitting a 1:1 susceptible/partially resistant ratio (chi(2) = 0.048, P = 0.827) and suggesting that the response is mediated by a single gene. Using the classical qualitative approach based only on symptom expression, the RILs were difficult to separate into phenotypic groups because of a continuum of responses. By plotting mean percent reduction in either V (based on visual symptoms) or VV (based on visual symptoms and vigor) rating versus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) absorbance values, RILs could be separated clearly into different phenotypic groups. The utility of this quantitative approach also was evaluated on plants from 12 cultivars or pure lines inoculated with one of three strains of BCMNV. Using the mean VV rating and ELISA absorbance values, significant differences were established not only in cultivar and pure line comparisons but also in virus strain comparisons. This quantitative system should be particularly useful for the evaluation of the independent action of bc genes, the discovery of new genes associated with partial resistance, and assessing virulence of virus strains.

  20. Determination of trace elements in various kinds of bean by X-ray spectrometric techniques (1995-96)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U Tin Maung Kyi; U Wai Zin Oo

    2001-01-01

    Various kinds of bean such as Peanut, Gram Whole, Black Eye Bean, Small Red Bean, Lab Lab Bean, Green Mung Bean, Filed Pea, Seasame Seed, Sultani, Maize, Butter Bean, Dolichos Lab Lab, Toor Whole, Small Yellow Bean, Cow Pea have been collected and analysed by EDXRF analysis for trace elements. The measurement system consists of a Cd-109 annual excitation source, a Si (Li) detector, H V power supply, a spectrometry amplifier, a multichannel analyser and a personal computer. The samples were prepared as pressed pellets and measured by Emission Transmission Technique. The accuracy was determined by analysing standard reference material, SOIL-7 form IAEA. (author)

  1. In Rwandese Women with Low Iron Status, Iron Absorption from Low-Phytic Acid Beans and Biofortified Beans Is Comparable, but Low-Phytic Acid Beans Cause Adverse Gastrointestinal Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Rohner, Fabian; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Campion, Bruno; Boy, Erick; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Zimmerman, Michael Bruce; Zwahlen, Christian; Wirth, James P; Moretti, Diego

    2016-05-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is a major inhibitor of iron bioavailability from beans, and high PA concentrations might limit the positive effect of biofortified beans (BBs) on iron status. Low-phytic acid (lpa) bean varieties could increase iron bioavailability. We set out to test whether lpa beans provide more bioavailable iron than a BB variety when served as part of a composite meal in a bean-consuming population with low iron status. Dietary iron absorption from lpa, iron-biofortified, and control beans (CBs) (regular iron and PA concentrations) was compared in 25 nonpregnant young women with low iron status with the use of a multiple-meal crossover design. Iron absorption was measured with stable iron isotopes. PA concentration in lpa beans was ∼10% of BBs and CBs, and iron concentration in BBs was ∼2- and 1.5-fold compared with CBs and lpa beans, respectively. Fractional iron absorption from lpa beans [8.6% (95% CI: 4.8%, 15.5%)], BBs [7.3% (95% CI: 4.0%, 13.4%)], and CBs [8.0% (95% CI: 4.4%, 14.6%)] did not significantly differ. The total amount of iron absorbed from lpa beans and BBs was 421 μg (95% CI: 234, 756 μg) and 431 μg (95% CI: 237, 786 μg), respectively, and did not significantly differ, but was >50% higher (P beans were hard to cook, and their consumption caused transient adverse digestive side effects in ∼95% of participants. Gel electrophoresis analysis showed phytohemagglutinin L (PHA-L) residues in cooked lpa beans. BBs and lpa beans provided more bioavailable iron than control beans and could reduce dietary iron deficiency. Digestive side effects of lpa beans were likely caused by PHA-L, but it is unclear to what extent the associated digestive problems reduced iron bioavailability. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02215278. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  3. Persistence of pirimiphos-methyl in stored sultana raisins, common beans and their processed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidemetriou, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    When radiolabelled pirimiphos-methyl was applied to sultana raisins and common beans, the total residues decreased from 86 to 68% for raisins in 8 months and from 89 to 44% for beans in 4 months. The major part of the residue was found inside the raisins whereas in beans it was concentrated on the surface. Pirimiphos-methyl was considerably more persistent on raisins than on beans. After the initial penetration of the pesticide, the surface residues remained constant in raisins, while in beans they decreased from 77 to 23%. The bound residues in beans reached a maximum of 1.3%. The reduction of radioactivity during processing was 11% and 9% on prewashed raisins and beans, respectively. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  4. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  5. Genetic diversity and population structure of common bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ethiopian genetic center is considered to be one of the secondary centers of diversity for the common bean. This study was conducted to characterize the distribution of genetic diversity between and within ecological/geographical regions of Ethiopia. A germplasm sample of 116 landrace accessions was developed, ...

  6. The genetic diversity and population structure of common bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The STRUCTURE result was confirmed by Principal Coordinate analysis (PCoA) which also clustered beans in three groups. Most Andean genotypes were included in K3.1 and Mesoamerican genotypes belonged to the K3.2 and K3.3 subgroups. This study sets the stage for further analyses for agronomic traits such as ...

  7. Lima Bean Starch-Based Hydrogels | Oladebeye | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrogels were prepared by crosslinking native lima bean starch and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with glutaraldehyde (GA) at varying proportions in an acidic medium. The native starch (N-LBS) and hydrogels (L-GA (low glutaraldehyde) and H-GA (high glutaraldehyde)) were examined for their water absorption capacity (WAC) ...

  8. Genetic diversity studies in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of thirteen common bean genotypes was done with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Initially, 15 primers were screened out of which only seven were selected which generated a total of 65 amplification products out of which 63 bands (96.62%) were polymorphic indicating fair ...

  9. Action spectrum of peroxyacetyl nitrate damage to bean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugger, W M; Taylor, O C; Klein, W H; Shropshire, W

    1963-04-06

    For plant damage from peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) there is absolute requirement for light prior to, during, and after fumigation of plants with the oxidant. Pinto beans were fumigated with PAN and exposed to a variety of light intensities and wavelengths. Maximum damage to plants was found when PAN fumigation was contemporaneous with incident light of 370, 419, 480, and 641 m..mu...

  10. POP levels in beans from Mediterranean and tropical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Haddaoui, Imen; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Fede, Maria Rita; Dugo, Giacomo

    2017-06-01

    Despite the importance of beans as food, few studies are conducted to control their contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), compounds of great importance because of their toxicity and tendency to accumulate in food chains. In order to evaluate the human exposure to POPs by the consumption of beans a monitoring programme was conducted on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in samples coming from Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast. All beans were extracted with an accelerated solvents extractor in triplicate; the clean-up step was done with a Florisil column; identification and quantification was carried out using a TSQ Quantum XLS Ultra GC-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring mode. Results revealed concentrations of ∑PAHs ranged from 7.31 µg kg -1 to 686 µg kg -1 , ∑PCBs between 1.85 µg kg -1 and 43.1 µg kg -1 and ∑OCPs ranged from 1.37 µg kg -1 to 71.8 µg kg -1 . Our results showed that beans coming from Ivory Coast are the most exposed to the risk of contamination by all the pollutants investigated. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Utilization of half-embryo test to identify irradiated beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1996-01-01

    Germination tests were carried out in irradiated and non-irradiated bean seeds which allow to observe characteristically variations on the shoots and roots. The methodology used in this work, is based upon biological changes which occur in two Brazilian beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar, irradiated in a 60 Co source, with doses of 0,0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy. The shoots and roots were observed during 3 days of culturing period under specified conditions. The differences observed in these two varieties were analysed immediately after irradiation and after 6 months of storage period at room temperature. Irradiated half-embryos showed markedly reduced root grow and almost totally retarded shoot elongation. Differences between irradiated and nonirradiated half-embryo could be observed after irradiation when different beans and storage time were varied. The shoots of half-embryos irradiated with more than 2.5 kGy did not undergo any elongation, whereas, the shoots of non-irradiated or those beans irradiated under 1.0 kGy elongated significantly within the 3 day test period. (author)

  12. Evaluation of essential minerals in carioquinha beans by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, Ellen Cristina Alves de; Aquino, Reginaldo R.; Scapin, Marcos A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the levels of essential minerals in the carioquinha beans were analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF), searching determine the possible minerals, quantities and the correlation among different sources of same variety and the possible contribution of each to the human diet

  13. Yield performance of dwarf bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Entries SDDT-54-C5, PC490-D8 and DOR 715 were stable across all sites and between the two seasons. DOR 715 was also high yielding entry in Thondwe and Ntchenachena sites followed by BCMV B2 though the latter was unstable. Among sites, Thondwe was the best because yields of most of the bean entries were ...

  14. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Luseko

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... indicating high reliability for markers. In selection, it was ... Generation of breeding lines. Planting was .... the variances from the distribution of the score data for ALS disease. ... were distributed along the scale but it skewed to the left side showing ..... Standard system for the evaluation of bean germplasm.

  15. Metabolic changes associated with ozone injury of bean leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craker, L.E.; Starbuck, J.S.

    1972-07-01

    Metabolic processes in primary leaves of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were altered by ozone stress. Decreases in levels of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein, and increases in ribonuclease (RNase) and free amine groups were associated with visible oxidant injury to the leaves. It appears that some air pollution injury to plants may result from changes in metabolic processes. 23 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Enhancing faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genome resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, James W.; Wilson, Michael H.; Derks, M.F.L.; Smit, Sandra; Kunert, Karl J.; Cullis, Christopher; Foyer, C.H.

    2017-01-01

    Grain legume improvement is currently impeded by a lack of genomic resources. The paucity of genome information for faba bean can be attributed to the intrinsic difficulties of assembling/annotating its giant (~13 Gb) genome. In order to address this challenge, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed

  17. Enhancing faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genome resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James W; Wilson, Michael H; Derks, Martijn F L; Smit, Sandra; Kunert, Karl J; Cullis, Christopher; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-04-01

    Grain legume improvement is currently impeded by a lack of genomic resources. The paucity of genome information for faba bean can be attributed to the intrinsic difficulties of assembling/annotating its giant (~13 Gb) genome. In order to address this challenge, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed on faba bean (cv. Wizard) leaves. Read alignment to the faba bean reference transcriptome identified 16 300 high quality unigenes. In addition, Illumina paired-end sequencing was used to establish a baseline for genomic information assembly. Genomic reads were assembled de novo into contigs with a size range of 50-5000 bp. Over 85% of sequences did not align to known genes, of which ~10% could be aligned to known repetitive genetic elements. Over 26 000 of the reference transcriptome unigenes could be aligned to DNA-sequencing (DNA-seq) reads with high confidence. Moreover, this comparison identified 56 668 potential splice points in all identified unigenes. Sequence length data were extended at 461 putative loci through alignment of DNA-seq contigs to full-length, publicly available linkage marker sequences. Reads also yielded coverages of 3466× and 650× for the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes, respectively. Inter- and intraspecies organelle genome comparisons established core legume organelle gene sets, and revealed polymorphic regions of faba bean organelle genomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Recovery of herbicide-resistant Azuki bean [ Vigna angularis (Wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the bar gene as determined by assaying for resistance to bialaphos applied directly to leaves. This result demonstrates the feasibility of introducing potentially useful agronomic traits into azuki bean through genetic engineering. Key Words: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, bar gene, bialaphos, transgenic, Vigna angulazris.

  19. Performance Evaluation of Rotating Cylinder Type Coffee Bean Roaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarsi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One strategy attempts to reduce dependence on primary commodity markets are overseas market expansion and development of secondary products. In the secondary product processing coffee beans is required of supporting equipment to facilitate these efforts. Research Center for Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa has developed coffee bean roaster. However, there are still many people who do not know about the technical aspects of roaster machine type of rotating cylinder so that more people use traditional ways to roast coffee beans. In order for the benefits of this machine is better known society it is necessary to study on the technical aspects. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the technical performance of the coffee beans roaster machine type of rotating cylinder. These include the technical aspects of work capacity of the machine, roasting technical efficiency, fuel requirements, and power requirements of using roaster machine. Research methods are including data collection, calculation and analysis. The results showed that the roaster machine type of a rotating cylinder has capacity of 12.3 kg/hour. Roasting efficiency is 80%. Fuel consumption is 0.6 kg. The calculated amount of the used power of current measurement is the average of 0.616 kW.

  20. multiple disease resistance in snap bean genotypes in kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 29053- ... Agriculture (CIAT), National Agricultural Research Laboratories Institute, ... Climbing snap bean lines had thick pods that could reduce pod quality. ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... were harvested in sterile distilled water and spore.

  1. Bean nodulation patterns in soils of different texture at Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, nodulation success by the inoculum was total in the clay but only dismal in the sandy soil. The unexpected discrepancy between inoculum success on the one hand and nodulation plus plant growth response on the other, is discussed. Keywords: Bean nodulation, ELISA typing of nodules, phaseolus vulgaris

  2. Control of Bean Rust using Antibiotics Produced by Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic culture filtrates produced by Bacillus (CA5) and Streptomyces spp. were tested for translocation and persistence when applied on snap beans inoculated with rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) in greenhouse pot experiments. The antibiotics were applied on the first trifoliate leaves and translocation was assessed as ...

  3. Enterotoxicity of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from beans pudding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    36 samples of beans pudding from selected sources were analysed for Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus using standard protocols aimed at assessing its bacteriological quality. Samples obtained from restaurant showed slightly lower value for total plate count (1.3 x 104 - 1.6 x 106 cfu/gm) compared to samples ...

  4. Characterization of pre-gelatinized rice and bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a pre-gelatinized flour using a mixture of broken rice and split beans by thermoplastic extrusion, and to evaluate the physicochemical, nutritional, and technological quality of the final product. The extrusion parameters were maintained using three heating zones with temperatures of 30 ºC, 40 ºC, and 70 ºC; screw speed of 177 rpm; feed rate of 257 g/m, and circular matrix of 3.85 mm. The following characterization analyses were performed: physicochemical, nutritional, water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI, and paste viscosity. The pre-gelatinized rice and bean flour had an intermediate value of WAI, 7.51 g/g, and high WSI value, 24.61%. Regarding proteins, it was verified an average content of 12.9% in the final product. The amino acid contents found in the pre-gelatinized flour indicate that the mixture has the essential amino acids. It was also found that the pre-gelatinized flour supplies more than 60% of the essential amino acids recommended for children aged one to three years old. The gelatinized flour composed of broken rice and split beans is an alternative to the use of these by-products of the manufacture process of rice and beans to obtain a product with viable technological characteristics and high nutritional value.

  5. Determination Of Lipid Contents Of Two New Soy Bean Cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of fatty acids and sterols in oil is very important as they serve as the vital indicators of the activity and purity, respectively of the oils. A qualitative Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry study of oils from soy beans of two varieties (TGX 1802-1F, and TGX 1019-2EB) was done to determine their fatty acid, ...

  6. Some engineering properties of white kidney beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... projected area from 128.13 to 198.83 mm2, the true density from 1128.05 to 1290.85 kgm-3, the .... The white kidney bean grains used in the study were obtained from .... For each experiment, a sample was dropped into the.

  7. Flow cytometry determination of ploidy level in winged bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ploidy determination and mutation breeding of crop plants are inseparable twins given that mutation breeding is hinged majorly on polyploidization of crop's chromosome number. The present research was aimed at determining the ploidy level of 20 accessions of winged bean (Psophoscarpus tetragonolobus) using known ...

  8. Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight dough bread formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto beans were milled and then air-classified to obtain a raw high protein fraction (RHPF) followed by extrusion to texturize the protein fraction. The texturized high protein fraction (THPF) was then milled to obtain flour, and combined with wheat flour at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels to make bread. A...

  9. Evaluation of Some Pesticide Residues in Stored Beans in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis were performed by gas chromatography with electron capture and flame ionization. All the 3 samples (100%) contained pesticide residues beyond the allowed beans maximum residue levels (MRLs) of 0.01 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively, for chlorpyrifos and endosulfan. The present ...

  10. Iron beans in Rwanda: crop development and delivery experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HarvestPlus and its partners have successfully developed and delivered iron bean varieties to more than one million farming households in Rwanda, DRC, and Uganda to help combat the adverse health effects of iron deficiency widespread in these countries. Focusing primarily on Rwanda, this chapter summarizes the ...

  11. clustering common bean mutants based on heterotic groupings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2015-02-19

    Feb 19, 2015 ... Blair, W.M., Porch, T., Cichy, K., Galeano, H. C,. Lariguet, P., Pankhurst, C. and Broughton, W. 2007a. Induced mutants in common bean. (Phaseolus vulgaris) and their potential use in nutrition quality, breeding and gene discovery. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences. 55:191 - 200. Blair, W.M., Fregene, A.M., ...

  12. Relative Importance of Common Bean Attributes and Variety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work assessed the relative importance of production and consumption attributes of different wealth groups of households and tested the effect of attribute preference and that of other factors on common bean variety demand in the drought areas of Eastern Kenya. Variety demand was conceptualized within the ...

  13. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Food and Drug Administration or other public health organizations of the United States as being... area to the extent feasible. We may obtain prices from any buyer of our choice. If we obtain prices... additional costs required to deliver the dry beans to those buyers. Discounts used to establish the net price...

  14. The Number of Genes Controlling Resistance in Beans to Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten crosses were made between resistant (R), susceptible (S), RxS susceptible and Intermediate (I), SxI and RxR bean lines to common bacterial blight. The F1 were advanced to F2 and in each cross over 250 F2 plants were used to evaluate for the number of genes controlling resistance using Mendelian genetics and ...

  15. From beans to breams: how participatory workshops can contribute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From beans to breams: how participatory workshops can contribute to marine conservation planning. ... conservation plan. We report on how this data void was filled using information provided by marine resource users, managers and scientists during participatory workshops. Participants described the distribution of reefs, ...

  16. The growth promotion of mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... HPP16, mung bean, abscisic acid, phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). ... solubilization, PSB may also produce other secondary metabolites to improve the plant productivity. ...... Funding from the Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine. Biology ... biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai1295-22.

  17. Performance and risk assessment of Bambara beans grown on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safe levels of exposure to contaminants were further investigated using albino Wistar rats for 28 feeding trial days to trace inherent biomagnifications. Bambara beans extracted up to 88.88 and 43.38 mg/kg into its shoot and root respectively at 10% contaminant dose while achieving 63.17% Cu removal unamended. Poultry

  18. identification of common bean genotypes with dual leaf and pod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2018-02-08

    Feb 8, 2018 ... IDENTIFICATION OF COMMON BEAN GENOTYPES WITH DUAL LEAF AND. POD RESISTANCE TO COMMON BACTERIAL BLIGHT DISEASE IN UGANDA. B.M.E. ALLADASSI, S.T. NKALUBO1, C. MUKANKUSI2, H.N. KAYAGA, P. GIBSON, R. EDEMA,. C.A. URREA3, J.D. KELLY4 and P.R. RUBAIHAYO.

  19. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mamadou Gueye

    Nodulation and nitrogen fixation of field grown common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as influenced by fungicide seed treatment. Ndeye Fatou Diaw GUENE, Adama DIOUF and Mamadou GUEYE*. MIRCEN/ Laboratoire commun de microbiologie IRD-ISRA-UCAD, BP 1386, DAKAR, Senegal. Accepted 23 June 2003.

  20. Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus ): A Limiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reactions of twenty soybean varieties to infection with Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus) disease were studied for 2 consecutive years in the Department of Crop Science University of Nigeria, Nsukka Farm (Latitude 060 25N; Longitude 070 24N; attitude 447.26 m above sea level). Factorial arrangement ...

  1. Lipase Activity in Fermented Oil Seeds of Africa Locust Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    was determined. The peak lipase activity for fermented Africa locust bean, Castor seed, and African ..... Lipase by Penicillium restrictum in solid state ... sp. Rev. Microbiol. 28(2): 90-95. Martinek, G.H. (1969). Microbiology and amino acid ...

  2. Uptake studies of environmentally hazardous 51Cr in Mung beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Anupam; Nayak, Dalia; Chakrabortty, Dipanwita; Lahiri, Susanta

    2008-01-01

    Attempt has been made to study the accumulation behaviour of a common plant, Mung bean (Vigna radiata) towards Cr(III) and Cr(VI) to have an insight on the migration and bio-magnification of Cr. For this purpose healthy germinated Mung bean seeds were sown in the sand in the presence of Hoagland's nutrient solution containing measured amount of K 2 51 Cr 2 O 7 and 51 Cr(NO 3 ) 3 .9H 2 O. Growth rate was also studied in the presence and absence of phosphate salts in the medium. It has been found that the transfer of chromium from soil to plant is significantly low (maximum 5% for both Cr(III) and Cr(VI)). Maximum accumulation of Cr occurs in the root with respect to the total chromium accumulation by the plant. Other parts of the Mung bean plant, e.g. cotyledons, shoot and leaves, show negligible accumulation. Therefore, the chance of direct intake of Cr through food as well as through the grazing animals to human body is less. - The chance of bio-magnification of Cr(III) or Cr(VI) to human body via direct or indirect intake of Mung bean is negligible

  3. Phosphorus use efficiency in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tripartite symbiosis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) 147 with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed in sand culture by comparing the effects of three AMF species on the mycorrhizal root colonization, rhizobial nodulation, plant growth and phosphorus use ...

  4. Making chocolate from beans: what’s involved?

    OpenAIRE

    Sundara, Ramana; Manez, Angel; Coutel, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Industry differentiates between cocoa processing and chocolate manufacturing. Cocoa processing covers the activity of converting the beans into nib, liquor, butter, cake and powder. Chocolate manufacturing covers the blending and refining of cocoa liquor, cocoa butter and various optional ingredients, such as milk and sugar.

  5. Agronomic performance of some haricot bean varieties (haseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Significant variations were observed among haricot bean varieties for number ... 2011). The crop grows well between 1400 and 2000m above sea level (Fikru, 2007). ... northern Ethiopia particularly the study areas are depleted of nutrients because of the long years ... also better water resources for irrigable crop production.

  6. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of fresh leaf castor beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allelopathy defines the production of specific biomolecules (allelochemical) by a plant that can induce positive or negative impacts on another culture. The crop of castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) is being economically valued and receiving attention, mainly by the biodiesel production, castor oil and animal feeding.

  7. Characterisation of bacterial brown spot pathogen from dry bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss) causes bacterial brown spot (BBS) of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with yield losses of up to 55% in South Africa. Pss has a wide host range and for many of these, the pathogen has been biochemically and genetically characterised. However, few studies have been conducted on ...

  8. Germination test for identification of gamma-irradiated bean seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesolowska, B.; Ignatowicz, S.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of germination test for the practical detection of irradiated beans has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if the relationship between the root growth rate and radiation dose could be used to produce a rapid analytical method for identification of irradiated beans. Such detection method could be potentially used for both (a) identification of irradiated food, and (b) for quarantine inspection (to certify that the agricultural product has been irradiated, and the pests present in it do not pose a quarantine risk). Results presented in this paper indicate that the germination test is not always capable of discriminating satisfactorily between irradiated and unirradiated samples of bean seeds, because the sensitivity of the test is often higher than the low doses which are suggested for disinfestation purposes. However, using the germination test, an unexperienced person can easily discriminate untreated bean seeds from those irradiated with 0.3-1.5 kGy doses of gamma radiation. (orig./vhe)

  9. Response of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) may occur due to boron (B) deficiency when the susceptible cultivars are grown in calcareous boron deficient soils. The study was therefore aimed at investigating the effects of three B doses: control (0.0 kg ha-1), soil application (3.0 kg ha-1) and foliar fertilization (0.3 kg ...

  10. Variability in yield of faba beans (Vicia faba L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grashoff, C.

    1992-01-01

    Yield variability is one of the major problems in growing faba beans. In this thesis, the effect of water supply pattern on yield variability of the crop is studied with experiments in the field and under controlled conditions, and with a simulation model. In a series of field experiments,

  11. Strengthening local seed systems within the bean value chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening local seed systems within the bean value chain: Experience of agricultural innovation platforms in the Democratic Republic of Congo. ... associations, local grain/seed traders, private and public extension agents, researchers, finance and credit cooperatives and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs).

  12. Epiphytic bacteria from various bean genotypes and their potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Naturally occurring epiphytic non-pathogeni bacteria were isolated from reproductive tissue of various bean genotypes grown in the field and screened for both in vitro and in vivo antagonism to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (formely X. campestris pv phaseoli). Of the 22 potential bacterial antagonists screened in ...

  13. COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF BEAN CULTIVARS WITH HAIRY BEGGARTICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO GALON

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Weed interference is a factor that limits the productivity of beans and, among these, hairy beggarticks is one of the main species competing with the crop for environmental resources. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the competitive ability of black bean cultivars (BRS Campeiro, IPR Uirapuru, SCS204 Predileto and BRS Supremo in the presence of a biotype of hairy beggarticks. The experimental design is a completely randomized block with four replications. Treatments were arranged in a replacement series, consisting of a proportion of the crop and the hairy beggarticks: 100:0; 75:25; 50:50: 24:75, and 0:100, which corresponds to 40:0, 30:10, 20:20, 10:30, and 0:40 plant pots1. We accomplished competitive analysis through diagrams applied to the replacement series, as well as using relative competitive indices. The leaf area and shoot dry mass were evaluated at 40 days after emergence of the species. There was competition between bean cultivars and hairy beggarticks for the same environmental resources, causing negative interference in the growth of the species, independent of the proportion of plants. Bean cultivars had a lower relative loss by reducing the morphological variables of the hairy beggarticks, thereby demonstrating superiority in its competitive ability in relation to the weed. Interspecific competition is less damaging than intraspecific competition for both species.

  14. A sample for biodiversity in Turkey: Common bean ( Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artvin province located in north-east region of Turkey is small province but has rich plant diversity due to its different geographical and ecological formation. Significant part of this province has been flooded by the dams which have been built. The common bean is a very important crop for Artvin's farmers. This study was ...

  15. Functional properties of unmodified and modified Jack bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The native Jack bean (Canavalia eniformis) starch was chemically modified through oxidation and acetylation. Proximate composition analysis revealed higher moisture, protein, fat and ash contents 'native unmodified than modified starches and higher yield in modified starches. Swelling capacity and solubility of all the ...

  16. Performance characteristics of broiler chicks fed kidney bean as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal and groundnut cake meal with cooked and decorticated kidney bean seed meals on the performance characteristics of broilers. One hundred and eighty day old broiler chicks of Anak strain were raised on six experimental diets.

  17. Allelopathic potential of a noxious weed on mung bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthapratim Maiti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Eupatorium odoratum have invaded the waste lands of South West Bengal, India. A field study indicated a gradual and also significant increase in Eupatorium odoratum accompanied with significant decrease in other coexisting species. Considering the above in mind, a study was undertaken to evaluate the existence of inhibitory effect of leaf extracts and leaf leachates noxious weed Eupatorium odoratum using fully viable seeds of mung bean (Vigna radiata as the bioassay material. The study showed the reduced the percentage germination and TTC stainability along with extended T50 values of mung bean seeds. The levels of protein, DNA and RNA, activities of dehydrogenase and catalase enzymes were significantly retarded in pretreated seed samples. Amino acid and sugar levels were increased in the leachates of seeds pretreated with leaf extracts and leaf leachates. Thus, from the overall results it can be concluded that various inhibitors present in E. odoratum can impart strong inhibitory effect on mung bean. The study suggests that the leaves of E. odoratum possess phytotoxic or allelopathic chemicals which potentially rendered the inhibitory action on mung bean seeds.

  18. Evaluation of seed yield and competition indices of corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with different bean (Phaseolus spp. types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakime Ziaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the intercropping of corn (Zea mays L. and bean cultivars (Phaseolus spp. an experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replicaties at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during growing season of 2010. The experimental treatments consisted of sole cropping of corn, white bean, bush bean, red bean, pinto bean and sword bean and 50:50 ratio of corn and bean types. In this experiment, the corn-bush bean and corn-pinto bean intercropping had the highest seed yield (5734.4 and 5674.3 kg/ha-1, respectively and land equivalent ratio (LER=1.13 and 1.21, respectively. Evaluated intercropping indices indicated that red bean (k= 1.85, pinto bean (k= 2.41 and sword bean (k= 2.80 had the highest crowding coefficient whereas the maximum aggressivity value was belonged to pinto bean intercropped with corn (A= -0.02. Also, both the red bean and pinto bean (CR=0.75 and CR=0.98, respectively had the maximum competitive ratio. Furthermore, the most corn crowding coefficient (K=1.15 was belonged to corn and sword bean intercropping and maximum corn aggressivity value was observed in corn intercropped with white bean (A=+0.60 and bush bean (A=+0.69. In conclusion, according to competition indices, intercropping of 50% corn + 50 % red bean and pinto bean plants were superior as compared to other combinations.Also, both the red bean and pinto bean (CR=0.75 and CR=0.98, respectively had the maximum competitive ratio. Furthermore, the most corn crowding coefficient (K=1.15 was belonged to corn and sword bean intercropping and maximum corn aggressivity value was observed in corn intercropped with white bean (A=+0.60 and bush bean (A=+0.69. In conclusion, according to competition indices, intercropping of 50% corn + 50 % red bean and pinto bean plants were superior as compared to other combinations.

  19. Yam Varieties 1. Introducti

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tosheba

    yields and other good agronomic performances and test quality (Table 2). Table 2. Yield performance of tested accessions at different locations over years. Acc. 2006/07. 2007/08. Bako. Gute. Tsige. Bako. Gute. Tsige. Roba. 143.21 q-t. 394.90 d-h. 300.67 g-o. 366.33 e-j. 231.47 j-s. 65.91 t. Haro. 113.53 q-t. 365.20 e-j.

  20. Evaluation of some bean lines tolerance to alkaline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. Radi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In less arid climates, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. The development and identification of salt-tolerant crop cultivars or lines would complement salt management programs to improve the productivity and yields of salt stressed plants.Materials and methods: This work was to study the evaluation of alkalinity tolerance of some bean lines grown under different levels of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to select the most alkalinity tolerant lines versus the most-sensitive ones out of 6 lines of the test plants.Results: The symptoms induced by alkalinity included reduction in root, shoot growth, and leaf area which were more severe in some bean lines. Potassium leakage was severely affected by alkalinity in some lines at all tested levels, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher levels. The increase in Na2CO3 level was associated with a gradual fall in chlorophyll a and b biosynthesis of all the test bean lines. However, alkalinity at low and moderate levels had a favorable effect on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in all the test bean lines. The increase in Na2CO3 supply had a considerable stimulatory effect on sodium accumulation, while potassium accumulation fluctuated in organs of bean lines.Conclusion: Assiut 1104 out of all the different lines investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to alkalinity stress, while Assiut 12/104 was the most sensitive one.

  1. Beans, Boats and Archaeobotany : A New Translation of Phasolus, or why the Romans ate neither Kidney beans nor Cow peas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrich, Frits; Wilkins, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Among classicists, archaeobotanists and agricultural historians, the meaning of the word phasolus (ϕασηλος in Greek) is ambiguous. While Latin scholars have agreed that the word refers to a type of pulse or bean, there are various interpretations and subsequent identifications as to which botanical

  2. Effect of pea, pea hulls, faba beans and faba bean hulls on the ileal microbial composition in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Panneman, H.; Jansman, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Grain legumes produced in Europe such as pea, faba beans and lupins are alternative vegetable protein sources for imported soy protein in animal feeds. These legume seeds contain constituents that are not digested and may act as a substrate for microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract,

  3. Nutritional composition and cooking characteristics of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray) in comparison with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepary bean is a highly abiotic stress tolerant orphan crop, however, there has been limited research on its nutritional value and cooking characteristics, key aspects when considering the potential for broader adoption globally. The goal of this study was to evaluate a large set of seed composition...

  4. AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES, MORPHOLOGIC, PROTEINIC AND CULINARY DESCRIPTION OF THE GRAIN OF BEAN CULTIVARS SOWED IN THE REGION OF TLATZALA, GUERRERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Solano Cervantes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The research had for object describe the productive process of the of bean culture in the community of Tlatzala, Guerrero and the species diversity by means of the morphologic characteristics of the grain, protein content and the culinary quality. 30 questionnaires were applied to bean producers and 20 varieties of bean were collected from which the morphologic characters of the grain, protein content and the culinary characters were obtained. The production cycle of bean initiates in May and finishes in October. The technology used is traditional, characterized by the use of the yoke in the labors of the culture that demands workforce to realize the activities of manual form. The biological cycle of the varieties begins in June, the variation at time is determinated for the cultivated genotype. The determinate or indeterminate bush beans are predominant (65 %. The sowing systems are intercalated (50 % and associated with maize (30 % and monoculture (20 %. The varieties Rojito and Blanco have special uses, the first one has the attribute of being consumed as green-bean all the year around and the second one is used to prepare the dish called Chile-ajo. The Black beans were the most frequent (45 % followed by the Red beans (35 % and the least frequent were the Striped one (5 % and Muddy-like (5 %. The kidney shape of grain was the most abundant (85 % and the oval one was the least frequent (5 %. The grain weight changed from 14.4 up to 38.5 g. The sizes of grains founded were medium (50 % and small (50 %. The protein content registered was: White beans 24.68 %, Red bean 24.64 %, Black beans 23.5 % and Striped beans of guide 22.27 %. The Rojito Enano had the major protein content (27.6 %. The cooking times were: Red beans 73 minutes, Striped of guide bean 65.5, Blacks bean 64.6 and Whites bean 59. The Black bean Enano-1 used less time (54 minutes. The Striped of guide bean registered the major amount of solid (0.32 %, followed by the Black beans

  5. Influence of the environment in 40K concentration in Brazilian common beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingote, R.M.; Nogueira, R.A.; Edison Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of beans constitutes an important dietary habit in many Latin American, Asian and African countries. Carioca beans and the black type stand out among the many consumed common beans in Brazil. 40 K was used as a natural radiotracer to evaluate the influence of the season growing and the bean type in the potassium content into grain. The activity concentrations of 40 K and 137 Cs were evaluated on samples of beans by γ-ray spectrometry. 137 Cs was less than 1.3 Bq kg -1 . The highest potassium content in the grain were observed in the dry and winter seasons. The black beans showed higher potassium content than the carioca type. The potassium levels were compared with that of beans grown and consumed in other regions of the world. A method to estimate the bean consumption rates in Brazil independently of the location of the meal is proposed. The ingestion of common beans was estimated in 14.6 kg year -1 per person. The two regions with the highest consumption are the Southeast (19.2 kg year -1 ) and the Middle West (18.7 kg year -1 ), whose account for about 60 % of the intake of common beans is related to consumption out home. (author)

  6. Agronomic performance of naked oat (Avena nuda L. and faba bean intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The most common cereals for faba bean (Vicia faba L. used in intercrops is conventional oat (Avena sativa L. An alternative to oat may be naked oat (Avena nuda L., whose oil content and quality is double. Here, intercropping of naked oat with two different faba bean cultivars (determinate-high tannin and indeterminate-low tannin was compared with sole crops of each species in 2006-2008. The treatments were: sole naked oat at 500 kernels m², indeterminate sole faba bean at 50 seeds m², determinate sole faba bean at 70 seeds m², and an additive series of 25%, 50%, and 75% of faba bean seeding rate mixed with the naked oat seeding rate. Our results demonstrated that intercropping increased the Land Equivalent Ratio by +3% to +9% over sole cropping. Raising the faba bean seeding rate in a mixture from 25% to 75% reduced oat grain yield from 630 (determinate cultivar to 760 kg ha-1 (indeterminate cultivar but increased faba bean grain yield from 760 kg ha-1. Higher yield and leaf area index (LAI and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR values show that the indeterminate cultivar of faba bean is more suitable in mixture with naked oat. The high value of competition index (CR > 1 indicates domination and aggressiveness of faba bean towards naked oat. Regardless of cultivar type, mixture of faba bean with naked oat is less productive than pure sowing.

  7. Evaluation of vegetable-faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping under Latvian agro-ecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepse, Līga; Dane, Sandra; Zeipiņa, Solvita; Domínguez-Perles, Raul; Rosa, Eduardo As

    2017-10-01

    Monoculture is used mostly in conventional agriculture, where a single crop is cultivated on the same land for a period of at least 12 months. In an organic and integrated growing approach, more attention is paid to plant-environment interactions and, as a result, diverse growing systems applying intercropping, catch crops, and green manure are being implemented. Thus, field experiments for evaluation of vegetable/faba bean full intercropping efficiency, in terms of vegetable and faba bean yield and protein content, were set up during two consecutive growing seasons (2014 and 2015). Data obtained showed that the most efficient intercropping variants were cabbage/faba bean (cabbage yield 1.27-2.91 kg m -2 , immature faba bean pods 0.20-0.43 kg m -2 ) and carrot/faba bean (carrot yield 1.67-2.28 kg m -2 , immature faba bean pods 0.10-0.52 kg m -2 ), whilst onion and faba bean intercrop is not recommended for vegetable growing since it induces a very low onion yield (0.66-1.09 kg m -2 ), although the highest immature faba bean pod yield was found in the onion/faba bean intercropping scheme (up to 0.56 kg m -2 ). Vegetable/faba bean intercropping can be used in practical horticulture for carrot and cabbage growing in order to ensure sustainable farming and environmentally friendly horticultural production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Toxicity Assessment of Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Widely Consumed by Tunisian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ismail, Hanen; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed at assessing the content and the functional properties of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in different varieties of beans widely consumed in Tunisia through soaking, cooking, autoclaving, germination, and their combinations. This study was carried out on three varieties of white beans grown in different localities of Tunisia, namely Twila, Coco, and Beldia, as well as on imported and local canned beans. All bean samples underwent biochemical and immunological evaluation by employing several techniques such as indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), hemagglutinating assay, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Biochemical and immunological analyses indicated that raw dry beans contained a considerable amount of proteins and PHAs. ELISA demonstrated that soaking, either in plain water or in alkaline solution, caused an increase in the concentration of PHA. A slight increase of PHA was produced equally by germination during 4 days in all bean varieties. Cooking or autoclaving of presoaked beans resulted in a complete disappearance of PHA. ELISA test also proved that both imported and local canned beans contained fingerprints of PHA. Hemagglutination assays showed that not only cooked and autoclaved presoaked beans lacked the ability to agglutinate red blood cells but also autoclaved unsoaked beans did. In agar gel immunodiffusion using rabbit anti-PHA serum, raw, soaked, cooked unsoaked, and sprouted beans gave precipitin arc reactions, indicating that PHA existed in immunoreactive form in the tested seeds. SDS-PAGE electrophoretograms showed protein isolates of Twila and Beldia beans to have different profiles through soaking, cooking, and autoclaving processes. This work revealed that the combination of soaking and cooking/autoclaving was the best way in reducing PHA content and its activity in all bean varieties when compared with germination.

  9. High-throughput metabolic profiling of diverse green Coffea arabica beans identified tryptophan as a universal discrimination factor for immature beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoyama, Daiki; Iwasa, Keiko; Seta, Harumichi; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Chifumi; Nakahara, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The maturity of green coffee beans is the most influential determinant of the quality and flavor of the resultant coffee beverage. However, the chemical compounds that can be used to discriminate the maturity of the beans remain uncharacterized. We herein analyzed four distinct stages of maturity (immature, semi-mature, mature and overripe) of nine different varieties of green Coffea arabica beans hand-harvested from a single experimental field in Hawaii. After developing a high-throughput experimental system for sample preparation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurement, we applied metabolic profiling, integrated with chemometric techniques, to explore the relationship between the metabolome and maturity of the sample in a non-biased way. For the multivariate statistical analyses, a partial least square (PLS) regression model was successfully created, which allowed us to accurately predict the maturity of the beans based on the metabolomic information. As a result, tryptophan was identified to be the best contributor to the regression model; the relative MS intensity of tryptophan was higher in immature beans than in those after the semi-mature stages in all arabica varieties investigated, demonstrating a universal discrimination factor for diverse arabica beans. Therefore, typtophan, either alone or together with other metabolites, may be utilized for traders as an assessment standard when purchasing qualified trading green arabica bean products. Furthermore, our results suggest that the tryptophan metabolism may be tightly linked to the development of coffee cherries and/or beans.

  10. Changes of sour taste and the composition of carboxylic acids induced in brewed coffee by γ-irradiation on green beans and storage of roast beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomoda, Goro; Matsuyama, Jun; Nagano, Akiko; Namatame, Mitsuko; Morita, Yoshiaki.

    1980-01-01

    Brazil santos green coffee beans were irradiated with 60 Co-γ rays at doses of 0, 0.05, 0.5 and 1.5 Mrad respectively and changes of the composition of carboxylic acids in roast beans were analyzed by means of GLC together with those of the organoleptic properties of roast beans during storage by use of the cup testing. The total acid content immediately after roasting was about 6,000 mg/100 g (roast beans) and the composition of carboxylic acids was as follows. Chlorogenic acid: hydroxy-carboxylic acids: mono-carboxylic acid: others = 73 : 18 : 7 : 2. Fresh coffee flavour was influenced markedly especially in acid taste by both irradiation of γ-rays on green beans and storage of roast beans, because of the change of above acids composition. On γ-ray irradiation, the change of the acid composition were more clear than that of stored roast beans. Therefore, the quality of γ-irradiated coffee beans seems to be closely associated with the ratio of hydroxy-carboxylic acids mg/ monocarboxylic acids mg, but little with total acid content. (author)

  11. Application of in silico bulked segregant analysis for rapid development of markers linked to Bean common mosaic virus resistance in common bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean was one of the first crops that benefited from the development and utilization of molecular markers in tagging major disease resistance genes for marker-assisted selection (MAS). Efficiency of MAS breeding in common bean is still hampered; however, due to the dominance, linkage phase, an...

  12. Effect of irradiation and insect pest control on rots and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coffee bean weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus Degeer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is associated with rots in stored yam tubers. The current study was designed to assess the effect of irradiation and other insect pest control strategies on rots and sensory quality of stored yams. 450 tubers each of two varieties of white yam ...

  13. Identification and Molecular Analysis of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV in Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Moradi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among legume crops, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is one of the most important worldwide crops, because of its cultivation area and nutritional value. The closely related potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV are the most common and most destructive viruses that infect common beans throughout the world. The viruses induced similar symptoms in numerous bean genotypes, including mosaic, leaf distortion, stunting, and lethal necrosis. Like all potyviruses, BCMV and BCMNV have non-enveloped flexuous filamentous virions of 750 nm long and 11–13 nm wide, which encapsidate a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA molecule of approximately 10,000 nt long. Both are naturally transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent manner and by seed, which explains their worldwide distribution. These viruses are major constraints on bean production and can cause serious crop losses. Mazanadaran province in north of Iran is one of the major producing areas of legumes, so identification of these viruses is a concern. However, so far, no studies have been done with these viruses in this province. The aim of this research was to study the existence of BCMV and BCMNV in research areas and determining of their phylogenetic relationship. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR with degenerate primers for conserved sequences of the viral genomes has facilitated the rapid detection of many potyviruses and enabled partial genomic sequencing. In the absence of complete genomic sequences of potyviruses, CI-coding region is more suitable for diagnostic and taxonomy purposes, rather than the coat protein (CP usually used. The CI gene most accurately reflects the taxonomic status according to the complete ORF. Materials and Methods: From July to September 2013 and 2014, a total of 50 leaf samples of beans showing virus symptoms were collected from different bean fields in Mazandaran province. Total RNA was extracted from all

  14. Molecular characterisation of Colombian yam germplasm by "DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF" in radioactivo conditions Caracterización molecular del germoplasma de ñame colombiano utilizando "DNA Amplificaron Fingerprinting (DAF" en condiciones radiactivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante Silvia L.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples from the Universidad de Córdoba's yam collection (Dioscorea spp. and others originating from IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria were molecularly characterised to complement existing information about them. The yam (Diosocorea spp. represents a basic crop for small-scale farmers on the Colombian Atlantic Coast who sow around 20,000 hectares per year. Even though they are dioecious species, only one sex is represented in Colombia; it must also be stated that climatic conditions are not propitious for its flowering. This situation has caused difficulty for work in yam breeding. The yam species and varieties used in the Colombian ABP (Agricultural Biotechnology Programme have been molecularly characterised by AFLPs in a previous publication describing a preliminary study emerging from the need to broaden the characterisation of those accessions kept at the Universidad de Córdoba. Comparisons have also been done with some African accessions donated by IITA. In this article, samples were molecularly characterised by another fingerprinting technique, the DAF technique (DNA Amplification Fingerprinting based on PCR, using random oligonucleotides for generating characteristic band patterns from each individual. The results showed 0.0413 population diversity with 0.9587 average similarity, indicating that the yam collection studied had very little genetic diversity and, probably, this could be why the crop is vulnerable to plagues and diseases, as happened at the end of the 1980s when anthracnose practically devastated the crop on the Colombian Atlantic coast. Similarity was also found between those Colombian and African samples analysed, agreeing with low diversity and less distance between common ancestors. The molecular results suggest the need for using other molecular techniques having a greater power of discrimination and also the need to broaden the genetic diversity in yam crops for providing greater

  15. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of raw, roasted and puffed cacao beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, SuJung; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2016-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity and attributable bioactive compounds of puffed cacao beans were investigated. Roasting was carried out at 190°C for 15min and puffing was performed at 4-7kgf/cm(2). Cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) showed the highest total polyphenols (23.16mgGAE/gsample) and total flavonoids (10.65mgCE/gsample) (pbeans reflected the total polyphenols and flavonoids measured. The quantities of theobromine, catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 were higher in cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) than in roasted cacao beans. Puffed cacao beans received a good sensory score in flavor, but sourness increased as puffing pressure increased. Thus, these results suggest that, in cacao bean processing, puffing could be an alternative to roasting, which provide a rich taste and high antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High levels of whole raw soya beans in dairy cow diets: digestibility and animal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Freitas Junior, J E; Verdurico, L C; Mingoti, R D; Bettero, V P; Benevento, B C; Vilela, F G; Rennó, F P

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high levels of whole raw soya beans in the diets of lactating cows. Twelve Holstein dairy cows were used, randomized in three 4 ×  4 balanced and contemporary Latin squares and fed the following diets: (i) control (C), without including whole raw soya beans; (ii) 80 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G80); (iii) 160 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G160); and (iv) 240 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G240). There was significant reduction (p beans in dairy cow diets improves the unsaturated fatty acid profile in milk, and the diets (G80 and G160) led to minor alterations in the digestive processes and animal metabolism. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Developing a prebiotic yogurt enriched by red bean powder: Microbiological, physi-cochemical and sensory aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyoningrum, Fitri; Priadi, Gunawan; Afiati, Fifi

    2017-01-01

    Red bean is widely known as a prebiotic, but addition of it into yogurt is rare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of red bean powder addition on microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory of yogurt. Skim milk also added into yogurt formula to optimize the quality of yogurt. The treatment of concentrations, either red bean and skim milk, did not effect on the viability of lactic acid bacteria of yogurt (8.35 - 9.03 log cfu/ml) and the crude fiber content (0.04 - 0.08%). The increasing of red bean concentration induced the increase of protein content significantly. The increasing of level concentration, either red bean or skim milk, induced the increasing of carbohydrate content. Opposite phenomenon was occurred on the moisture content. Based on the sensory test result, the addition of 3% of skim milk and 2%of red bean into yogurt still accepted by panelist.

  18. Effect of different nitrogen sources on plant characteristics and yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Luqueño, F; Reyes-Varela, V; Martínez-Suárez, C; Salomón-Hernández, G; Yáñez-Meneses, J; Ceballos-Ramírez, J M; Dendooven, L

    2010-01-01

    Wastewater sludge can be used to fertilize crops, especially after vermicomposting (composting with earthworms to reduce pathogens). How wastewater sludge or vermicompost affects bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) growth is still largely unknown. In this study the effect of different forms of N fertilizer on common bean plant characteristics and yield were investigated in a Typic Fragiudepts (sandy loam) soil under greenhouse conditions. Beans were fertilized with wastewater sludge, or wastewater sludge vermicompost, or urea, or grown in unamended soil, while plant characteristics and yield were monitored (the unamended soil had no fertilization). Yields of common bean plants cultivated in unamended soil or soil amended with urea were lower than those cultivated in wastewater sludge-amended soil. Application of vermicompost further improved plant development and increased yield compared with beans cultivated in wastewater amended soil. It was found that application of organic waste products improved growth and yield of bean plants compared to those amended with inorganic fertilizer.

  19. Italian Common Bean Landraces: History, Genetic Diversity and Seed Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela R. Piergiovanni

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The long tradition of common bean cultivation in Italy has allowed the evolution of many landraces adapted to restricted areas. Nowadays, in response to market demands, old landraces are gradually being replaced by improved cultivars. However, landraces still survive in marginal areas of several Italian regions. Most of them appear severely endangered with risk of extinction due to the advanced age of the farmers and the socio-cultural context where they are cultivated. The present contribution is an overview of the state of the art about the knowledge of Italian common bean germplasm, describing the most important and recent progresses made in its characterization, including genetic diversity and nutritional aspects.

  20. MHD stability properties of bean-shaped tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, R.C.; Chance, M.S.; Todd, A.M.M.

    1984-03-01

    A study of the MHD stability properties of bean-shaped tokamak plasmas is presented. For ballooning modes, while increased indentation gives larger β stable configurations, the existence and accessibility of the second stable region is sensitive to the pressure and safety factor profiles. The second stable region appears at lower β values for large aspect ratio and moderately high q-values. Finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) kinetic effects can significantly improve the stability properties. For low q (< 1) operation, long wavelength (n approx. 2,3) internal pressure driven modes occur at modest β/sub p/ values and accessibility to higher β operation is unlikely. Indentation modifies the nature of the usually vertical axisymmetric instability, but the mode can be passively stabilized by placing highly conducting plates near to the tips of the plasma bean. At constant q, indentation has a stabilizing effect on tearing modes

  1. A Novel Evolutionary Algorithm Inspired by Beans Dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the transmission of beans in nature, a novel evolutionary algorithm-Bean Optimization Algorithm (BOA is proposed in this paper. BOA is mainly based on the normal distribution which is an important continuous probability distribution of quantitative phenomena. Through simulating the self-adaptive phenomena of plant, BOA is designed for solving continuous optimization problems. We also analyze the global convergence of BOA by using the Solis and Wetsarsquo; research results. The conclusion is that BOA can converge to the global optimization solution with probability one. In order to validate its effectiveness, BOA is tested against benchmark functions. And its performance is also compared with that of particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The experimental results show that BOA has competitive performance to PSO in terms of accuracy and convergence speed on the explored tests and stands out as a promising alternative to existing optimization methods for engineering designs or applications.

  2. Ecotoxicological study of insecticide effects on arthropods in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Emerson Cristi; Ventura, Hudson Vaner; Gontijo, Pablo Costa; Pereira, Renata Ramos; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    Arthropods are an important group of macroorganisms that work to maintain ecosystem health. Despite the agricultural benefits of chemical control against arthropod pests, insecticides can cause environmental damage. We examined the effects of one and two applications of the insecticides chlorfenapyr (0.18 liters a.i. ha-1) and methamidophos (0.45 liters a.i. ha-1), both independently and in combination, on arthropods in plots of common bean. The experiment was repeated for two growing seasons. Principal response curve, richness estimator, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index analyses were performed. The insecticides generally affected the frequency, richness, diversity, and relative abundance of the arthropods. In addition, the arthropods did not experience recovery after the insecticide applications. The results suggest that the insecticide impacts were sufficiently drastic to eliminate many taxa from the studied common bean plots. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  3. Performance of Rotary Cutter Type Breaking Machine for Breakingand Deshelling Cocoa Roasted Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Sukrisno Widyotomo; Sri Mulato; Edi Suharyanto

    2005-01-01

    Conversion of cocoa beans to chocolate product is, therefore, one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. On the other hand, the development of chocolate industry requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale of business. Breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans is one important steps in cocoa processing to ascertain good chocolate quality. The aim of this research is to study performance of rotary cutter type...

  4. Evaluating the Competitive Ability of Different Common Bean Genotypes Against The Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of weeds interference on yield and yield components of different genotypes of common bean, an experiment was conducted as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station of Tabriz University, in 2011. The main plots were eight genotypes of different types of common bean including red bean, (cv. Gholi, Sayad, Derakhshan and Akhtar; pinto bean, (cv. Khomein and Sadri and white bean (cv. Shokufa and Pak and the sub-plots were two levels of weed including weed-free and weed-infested. Results indicated that the effect of bean genotype was significant on yield and yield components. The effect of weed treatment was significant on all traits of common bean, except 100-seeds weight. The pod number per plant of all common bean genotypes reduced significantly under weed-infested treatment. The interaction effect of weed treatment× genotype was significant on bean seed number per pod, grain and biological yield. Among the genotype, the cv. Gholi had the highest pod number per plant and the cultivars Gholi and Shokufa had the highest seed number per pod. The cultivars of Gholi and Khomein produced the highest and lowest seed yield, respectively in both weed-free and weed-infested treatment. The common bean genotype showed different competitive ability as the genotypes Gholi and Pak had the higher competitive ability against the weeds than other genotypes. Therefore by cultivating the bean genotypes with high competitive ability against the weeds, the yield loss of common bean could be reduced as well as the growth of weed species will be suppressed.

  5. Effect of Superheated Steam Roasting on Radical Scavenging Activity and Phenolic Content of Robusta Coffee Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi Ee Shan; Wahidu Zzaman; Tajul A. Yang

    2015-01-01

    Robusta coffee is one of the coffee species grown in Malaysia. However, there is little research conducted on Robusta coffee beans as Arabica coffee is more popular among the consumers. Coffee is a rich source of antioxidants, therefore research on antioxidant properties of Robusta coffee beans is important to explore its market value. Nowadays, most of coffee analysis is on conventional roasted coffee which reduces their antioxidant properties. In this study, Robusta coffee beans (Coffea can...

  6. Some engineering properties of white kidney beans ( Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... d.b. The static coefficient of friction of white kidney bean grains increased linearly against surfaces of six structural materials, namely, rubber (0.501 to 0.727), stainless steel (0.384 to 0.468), aluminium (0.345 to 0.499), galvanized iron (0.346 to 0.489), medium density fibreboard (MDF) (0.325 to 0.426) and glass (0.287 to ...

  7. How Many Jelly Beans Are in the Jar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, George J.; Hodges, Thomas E.; Graul, LuAnn

    2016-01-01

    Who will make a better estimate concerning the number of jelly beans in a jar, a single person or a group of people? On one side of the debate is the notion that a person would make a better decision because he or she uses unique knowledge that the group may not possess. On the opposite side of the argument is the claim that because of their…

  8. Abscisic acid protects bean leaves from ozone-induced phytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, R.A.; Adedipe, N.O.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1972-01-01

    Abscisic acid treatment of primary bean leaves caused a partial closure of stomates and thus considerably reduced the phytotoxicity of ozone. The symptoms of ozone-induced phytotoxicity in the water-treated leaves are a marked decrease in chlorophyll and slight decreases in the levels of protein and RNA. The evidence indicates that ozone injury to leaves is not metabolically related to normal leaf senescence.

  9. Protein determination in soya bean by fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szegedi, S.; Mosbah, D.S.; Varadi, M.; Szaloki, I.

    1988-01-01

    For a non-destructive determination of the protein content in soya bean samples, 14-MeV neutron activation analysis was applied. To check the method, the results obtained by X-ray fluorescence analysis and the Kjeldahl procedure were compared. For pressed pellet samples of about 1 g with 15 min irradiation and 10 min measuring times the accuracy of the protein determination was found to be 15%. (author) 7 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  10. Trichoderma spp. decrease Fusarium root rot in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of six Trichoderma-based commercial products (TCP in controlling Fusarium root rot (FRR in common bean was assessed under field conditions. Three TCP, used for seed treatment or applied in the furrow, increased seedling emergence as much as the fungicide fludioxonil. FRR incidence was not affected, but all TCP and fludioxonil reduced the disease severity, compared to control. Application of Trichoderma-based products was as effective as that of fludioxonil in FRR management.

  11. Nutritional composition of the African locust bean ( Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of the African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) fruit pulp were determined using standard methods. Results showed a moisture content of 8.41%, protein 6.56%, fat 1.80%, crude fibre 11.75%, ash. 4.18% and carbohydrate of 67.30%. Sugar content was found to be 9.00 °Brix; total ...

  12. Conservation of Genetic Diversity in Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Maxim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, both on International and European level a series of treaties and laws have been devised in order to save local varieties of crop plants. The most important methods of traditional seed conservation are on farm and ex situ (Maxim et al., 2010; Kontoleonet al., 2009. The identification of local Romanian varieties of bean, their morphological and agronomic description, seed production and its spreading in the purpose of genetic erosion reduction. Their have been taken into study 13 local varieties of bean. For the morphological description descriptors have been used accordingly to the IPGRI (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. For the evaluation of the diseases attack, frequency (F%, intensity (I% and degree of attack (GA% have been calculated.The exchanges of seed between farmers were facilitated through the online catalog edited by the Eco Ruralis Association that promotes traditional seeds. Of the 13 local varieties of beean taken into study, two are with determined growth(15.3%, and 11 are with undetermined growth(84.7%. The most significant production of pods on the plant was documented on local variety MM 1039 (2.736kg, and the most significant production of beans on plant was documented on local variety HD 904 (1.156kg. The most resistant varieties against bacterian attack, anthracnose, aphids and rust were: SJ 890, CJ 909, CV 917 şi HD 1159. The growing phenomenon of genetic erosion implies the indentification and the conservation of crop plants. In the year 2015, 13 local varieties of bean have been taken into study that were used for conservation in seeds’ genbank and for the exchange of seeds between farmers.

  13. Phytochemical analysis of Tephrosia vogelii (fish poison bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was carried out to determine the chemical constituents of Tephrosia vogelii (Fish poison bean), in order to test the extracts of the plant for use as fish tranquilizer. Fresh samples of T. vogelii were collected separately, air-dried for 21 days and oven-dried at 60o C for 3-4 hours to constant weight. The dried samples ...

  14. Physicochemical Properties of Flaxseed Fortified Extruded Bean Snack

    OpenAIRE

    Vadukapuram, Naveen; Hall, CliffordIII; Tulbek, Mehmet; Niehaus, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0?20%) into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As ...

  15. Detection of Seed-Borne Fungal pathogens on Soya beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanyera, R

    2002-01-01

    Soya beans (Glycine max max L.) are propagated by seed and are vulnerable to devastating seed-borne diseases where the importance of each disease varies greatly. Seed-borne diseases cause significant losses in seed, food production and quality of seed and grain. Studies on seed borne diseases in Kenya have not been given emphasis on very important seed crops among the soya beans. The identification and rejection of the seed crop is mainly based on visual appraisal in the field with little or no laboratory work undertaken. Three methods were used to analyse the health status of fifty two soyabean seed samples collected from the National Plant Breeding Research Centre-Njoro and farmers' fields in Bahati division of Nakuru district. The analysis was carried out in the laboratory. The objective of the analysis was to identify and inventory seed-borne fungal pathogens of soya beans grown in Kenya. The normal blotter, herbicide and germination test methods were used. The tests revealed the presence of several important fungal pathogens on soyabean seed samples. Among the pathogens recorded Phoma sp, phomopsis sp, fusarium sp, Hainesia lyhri and Cercospora kikuchii were frequently recorded on the seed samples. Results of the germination test between paper method showed low germination (0-6.7%) on the normal sedlings in all the test samples. Hainesia lyhri was a new record on the soyabean seeds

  16. Root distribution and its association with bean growth habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS P.S. VELHO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Associations between root distribution and bean growth habit may contribute to the selection of genotypes adapted to restrictive environments. The present work aimed to relate and compare root distribution with the growth habit in beans. 10 bean genotypes of different growth habits (I, II and III were evaluated for root distribution in two agricultural years (2014/15 and 2015/16. The genotypes responded similarly for the trait root distribution throughout the agricultural years, without any simple effect of the genotype x year interaction. The factors genotype and years were significant for the trait. The genotypes of a determinate habit showed significant differences compared to other genotypes (II and III, which were ascribed to their poor performance in the average of years. They include the Carioca Precoce, which showed a behavior similar to the other habits. It could be considered a “plastic” genotype under restrictive conditions. The contrasts revealed significant differences between the growth habits II vs I (2.87 and III vs I (3.64 for root distribution. The differences were also significant for grain yield. Thus, genotypes of indeterminate growth habit show greater root distribution than those of a determinate habit, regardless of the agricultural years. Therefore, they are promising for use in blocks of crosses, when the purpose is the selection of cultivars adapted to low input environments.

  17. Induction of mutants with higher protein content in soy bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraiwa, S.; Tanaka, S.; Nakamura, S.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to examine the effects of ionizing radiation on protein content of soy beans and to estimate the potential value of ionizing radiation in soy bean breeding. In the first experiment seeds of three cultivars were acutely irradiated by gamma ray doses of 8 krad and 16 krad. Seeds of M 3 plants were analysed for protein content by the Biuret method. Selection within each variety was made to isolate plants having about 2% higher protein content than the control populations. In the second experiment growing plants of a soy bean cultivar were irradiated with 2.9 krad and 6.1 krad, from germination to maturation, in a 60 Co gamma field. Seeds on individual lines in M 5 , M 6 and M 7 plants were determined for their protein contents by the Kjeldahl method and the upper 10% of the treated lines were selected for progeny testing. From the results of the analysis of variance for each trait, significant differences were observed between the control variety and selected lines for all the traits. Six out of 19 lines showed significant increases in both 100 seed weight and protein content, and four lines promising. The mean protein content of selected lines increased 0.68% compared with the control variety. Genetic gain expected from selection for high protein content was therefore considered at about 1%; however, the likelihood of a large increase in protein content would greatly increase if large populations derived from irradiated seeds were observed

  18. Changes in flavour and taste of irradiated coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, M.; Loaharanu, S.; Vokac, L.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of changes in the smell and taste of coffee from beans submitted to irradiation for preservation is a significant gap in the programme devoted to increasing the product life time with such a process. Therefore, the main objective of the paper was to evaluate changes in aroma and flavour that can be noticed by the consumer. Coffee beans were given disinfestation doses of 50krad, producing an insect mortality rate of 98.33% +-2.89 in Araecerus fasciculatus (adult stage). The samples, provided by IBC, were from the same crop and free from pesticides. Some of the material was kept by that Institute for organoleptic tests. The remainder was sent to the National Institute of Technology for gas-chromatographic analysis. Should any significant changes be noticed, it could be assumed that the gamma-irradiation process would be rejected by the consumer. However, no significant change was observed in the most important characteristics, flavour and aroma, that might induce the consumer to reject irradiated coffee beans. (author)

  19. Faba beans and peas in poultry feed: economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskina, Liga; Cerina, Sallija

    2017-10-01

    Broiler diets mainly consist of cereals and protein-rich feed sources; in the EU-27, poultry farming consumes 24% of the total amount of protein-rich feedstuffs. Since the EU produces only 30% of the total quantity of protein crops used for feed, it is necessary to promote the use of traditional European protein crops (beans, peas) for feed in livestock farming. The research aim is to identify economic gains from the production of broiler chicken meat, replacing soybean meal with domestic faba beans and field peas in broiler chicken diets. Adding field peas and faba beans to the broiler feed ration resulted in a significant live weight increase (5.74-11.95%) at the selling age, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio by 0.61-6.06%, and decrease in the product unit cost (15.34-37.06%) as well as an increase in the production efficiency factor (8.70-48.54), compared with the control group. The optimum kind of legume species used in the broiler diet was peas, which were added in the amount of 200 g kg -1 , resulting in live weight gain, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio and an increase in the production efficiency factor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Weed Control in White Bean with Various Halosulfuron Tankmixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Soltani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four field trials were conducted over a three-year period (2011–2013 in southwestern Ontario to evaluate the level of weed control provided by various halosulfuron tankmixes applied preplant incorporated (PPI in white bean. Trifluralin, s-metolachlor, halosulfuron, and imazethapyr applied alone or in combination caused 4% or less visible injury 1 and 4 weeks after emergence (WAE in white bean. Trifluralin, s-metolachlor, halosulfuron, and imazethapyr applied PPI provided 80–96%, 84–95%, 83–100%, and 75–92% control of redroot pigweed; 19–28%, 30–40%, 97–99%, and 73–84% control of common ragweed; 94–96%, 63–82%, 96–100%, and 96–100% control of common lambsquarters; 14-15%, 12–35%, 100%, and 96–97% control of wild mustard; and 96–97%, 95–97%, 53–56%, and 80–82% control of green foxtail, respectively. The two- and three-way tankmixes of halosulfuron with trifluralin, s-metolachlor, or imazethapyr provided 85–100% control of redroot pigweed, 90–98% control of common ragweed, 97–100% control of common lambsquarters, 100% control of wild mustard, and 93–98% control of green foxtail. Weed density, weed biomass and white bean seed yields reflected the level of visible weed control.