WorldWideScience

Sample records for yag laser vaporization

  1. Perspectives of transurethral robotic laser resection of the prostate: vaporization and coagulation effects with the Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Gideon; Teo, Ming Y.; Kwoh, Chee K.; Ng, Wan S.; Cheng, Wai S.

    2000-05-01

    A longer operating time and steeper learning curve in mastering the techniques for transurethral laser resection of the prostate are the main problems faced by surgeons compared to standard transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). However, these disadvantages can be solved with the introduction of a treatment modality designed and developed based on an integrated system of computer, robotics and laser technology. In vitro experiments were carried out to determine variables affecting the vaporization and coagulation lesions, in order to identify the parameters that could optimize this modality. Human cadaveric prostate and fresh chicken breast tissues were irradiated with different parameters using continuous wave Nd:YAG laser fiber in contact with the tissue. The effects of irrigant flowrate, fiber/tissue angle of inclination, number of passes, direction, speed and power of lase on the volume of tissue vaporized and coagulated, were assessed. A non-contact optical coordinate measuring machine was used to measure the depth and width of the vaporized and coagulated lesion. Results reveal that for each directional vaporization path (forward, clockwise and counter-clockwise), power and speed of lase are the most significant parameters influencing the volume of the vaporized and coagulated lesion. Optimized values of the power and speed of lase at 100 W and 1 - 3 mm/s respectively were obtained from the experiments when the tissues were irradiated in the forward, clockwise and counter-clockwise directions. It was concluded from our study to quantify tissue removal and damage, optimized values of irradiation power and speed could be obtained and implemented in the procedure of transurethral robotic laser resection of the prostate.

  2. Cryogenic Yb: YAG Thin-Disk Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-09

    as a 4- level laser. Its absorption and emission cross-sections increase, and its thermal conductivity improves. Yb:YAG thin disk laser performance...Air Force Base, NM USA 87117 4RINI Technologies, 582 South Econ Circle, Oviedo, FL USA 32765 Keywords: Laser materials; Lasers, ytterbium...temperatures, Yb:YAG behaves as a 4- level laser. Its absorption and emission cross-sections increase, and its thermal conductivity improves. Yb:YAG

  3. YAG Laser or bur

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... for the clinical durability of resin-based dental restorations.[1]. Microleakage ... studies evaluating the use of laser systems in primary teeth for cavity ... sealed with glass ionomer restorative material (Fuji. II LC, GC Corporation ...

  4. Laser-diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers; Laser diode reiki Nd:YAG lasear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuasa, H.; Akiyama, Y.; Nakayama, M. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Laser-diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers are expected to be applied to laser processing fields such as welding, cutting, drilling, and marking due to their potential for high efficiency and compactness. We are designing and developing laser-diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers using numerical analysis simulation techniques such as ray tracing and thermal analysis. We have succeeded in achieving a laser power of more than 3 kW with 20% efficiency, which is the best ever obtained. In addition, we have developed a laser-diode pumped green laser by second harmonic generation, for precision machining on silicon wafers. (author)

  5. Tunable, diode side-pumped Er:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, C.E.; Furu, L.H.

    1997-04-22

    A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 {micro}m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 {micro}m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 {micro}m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 {micro}m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems. 4 figs.

  6. Efficiencies of laser dyes for atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Mitsuo; Oki, Yuji; Uchiumi, Michihiro; Takao, Takayuki; Igarashi, Kaoru; Shimamoto, Kojiro.

    1995-01-01

    Efficiencies of 30 laser dyes for the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) are experimentally evaluated with a dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. On the other hand, a simulation code is developed to describe the laser action of Rhodamine 6G, and the dependence of the laser efficiency on the pump wavelength is calculated. Following conclusions are obtained by these considerations:space: 1) Pyrromethene 567 showed 16% higher laser efficiency than Rhodamine 6G by 532 nm pumping, and Pyrromethene 556 has an ability to provide better efficiency by green light pumping with a Cu vapor laser; 2) Kiton red 620 and Rhodamine 640, whose efficiencies were almost the same as Rhodamine 6G by 532 nm pumping, will show better efficiencies by two-wavelength pumping with a Cu vapor laser. (author)

  7. Laser beam diagnostics for kilowatt power pulsed YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yi; Leong, Keng H.

    1992-01-01

    There is a growing need for high power YAG laser beam diagnostics with the recent introduction of such lasers in laser material processing. In this paper, we will describe the use of a commercially available laser beam analyzer (Prometec) to profile the laser beam from a 1600 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser that has a 1 mm fiber optic beam delivery system. The selection of laser pulse frequency and pulse width for the measurement is discussed. Laser beam propagation parameters by various optical components such as fibers and lenses can be determined from measurements using this device. The importance of such measurements will be discussed

  8. Use of the holmium:YAG laser in urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Stefano

    1997-12-01

    The Holmium-YAG is a versatile laser with multiple soft- tissue applications including tissue incision and vaporization, and pulsed-laser applications such as lithotripsy. At 2140 nanometers, the wavelength is highly absorbed by tissue water. Further, like CO2 laser, the Holmium produces immediate tissue vaporization while minimizing deep thermal damage to surrounding tissues. It is an excellent instrument for endopyelotomy, internal urethrotomy, bladder neck incisions and it can be used to resect the prostate. The Holmium creates an acute TUR defect which gives immediate results like the TURP. More than 50 patients were treated from Jan. 1996 to Jan. 1997 for obstructive symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia, bladder neck stricture, urethral stenosis, and superficial bladder tumors.

  9. Nd:YAG laser for holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykovsky, Yu.A.; Evtihiev, N.N.; Larkin, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    Different possibilities to use photonics, holography and optical processing for nuclear physics has been investigated in our works. The paper presents the results of the study of time and spatial coherence of Nd:YAG laser and application in holography. (orig./HSI)

  10. Nd: YAG laser in art works restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, T.; Ponce, L.; Arronte, M.; Moreno, B.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia, C.

    1998-01-01

    Laser cleaning in works of art has a number of advantages over traditional techniques of restoration. In this article, the technique used and the physical mechanisms that explain the process of ablation of pollutants are described. The results obtained in the cleaning of statues of marble and alabaster are exposed as well as oil-painting restoration. In this last specific case, the Nd: YAG laser is used with successful results. (Author) 6 refs

  11. Holmium:YAG laser stapedotomy: preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubig, Ingrid M.; Reder, Paul A.; Facer, G. W.; Rylander, Henry G.; Welch, Ashley J.

    1993-07-01

    This study investigated the use of a pulsed Holmium:YAG ((lambda) equals 2.09 micrometers ) laser- fiber microsurgical system for laser stapedotomy. This system ablates human stapes bones effectively with minimal thermal damage. The study was designed to determine the effectiveness of the Ho:YAG laser (Schwartz Electro Optics, Inc., Orlando, FL) for stapedotomy and to evaluate temperature changes within the cochlea during the ablation process. Human cadaveric temporal bones were obtained and the stapes portion of the ossicular chain was removed. A 200 micrometers diameter low OH quartz fiber was used to irradiate these stapes bones in an air environment. The laser was pulsed at 2 Hz, 250 microsecond(s) ec pulse width and an irradiance range of 100 - 240 J/cm2 was used to ablate holes in the stapes footplate. The resultant stapedotomies created had smooth 300 micrometers diameter holes with a minimum of circumferential charring. Animal studies in-vivo were carried out in chinchillas to determine the caloric spread within the cochlea. A 0.075 mm Type T thermocouple was placed in the round window. Average temperature change during irradiation of the stapes footplate recorded in the round window was 3.6 degree(s)C. The data suggest that stapedotomy using the Ho:YAG laser can result in a controlled ablation of the stapes footplate with minimal thermal damage to the surrounding stapes. Optical coupling using fiberoptic silica fibers is an ideal method for delivering laser energy to the stapes during stapedotomy.

  12. CTE:YAG laser applications in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shori, Ramesh K.; Fried, Daniel; Featherstone, John D. B.; Kokta, Milan R.; Duhn, Clifford W.

    1998-04-01

    The suitability of CTE:YAG laser radiation was investigated for caries preventive laser treatments and caries ablation. Although, CTE:YAG laser radiation at 2.69 micrometer is less highly absorbed by dental hard tissues than other erbium laser wavelengths, namely 2.79 and 2.94 micrometer, it can readily be transmitted through a conventional low hydroxyl fiber with minimal loss. These studies show that reasonable ablation rates and efficiencies are obtainable with both free running (200 microseconds) and Q-switched (100 ns) laser pulses on both dentin and enamel with the application of a relatively thick layer of water to the tissue surface. The water served to remove tissue char and debris from the ablation site leaving a clean crater. However, mechanical forces produced during the energetic ablative process resulted in peripheral mechanical damage to the tissue. Surface dissolution studies on enamel indicated that CTE:YAG radiation inhibited surface dissolution by organic acid by 60 - 70% compared to unirradiated controls, albeit, at fluences an order of magnitude higher than those required for CO2 laser radiation. This layer system may be suitable for dental hard tissue applications if mechanical damage can be mitigated. This work was supported by NIH/NIDR Grants R29DE12091 and R01DE09958.

  13. Self-mode-locked Nd3+:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, A K; Komarov, K P; Kuch'yanov, Aleksandr S

    2003-01-01

    Self-mode-locking was observed in a Nd 3+ :YAG laser with a negative feedback without introducing any nonlinear elements into the laser cavity. The laser generates during pumping 300 - 500-ps single pulses on an axial period. (lasers)

  14. Synthesis of single walled carbon nanotubes by dual laser vaporization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, MK

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Single walled carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the laser vaporization of graphite composite targets in a tube furnace. Two pulsed Nd:Yag lasers operating at fundamental (1064 nm) and 2 nd harmonic (532 nm) were combined, focused and evaporated...

  15. Effects of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser on enamel and dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Terry D.

    1990-06-01

    Enamel and dentin samples were exposed extraorally to a pulsed neodymium yttriuma1uminumgarnet (Nd:YAG) laser. The lased samples were observed using both scanning electron microscopy and histological techniques to determine the effects of the laser. The present study has provided the following points: (1) Properly treated, enamel can be 1aser etched to a depth comparable to that achieved with phosphoric acid etching; and (2) both carious and noncarious dentin can be vaporized by the Nd:YAG laser. No cracking or chipping of any enamel or dentin sample was observed histologically or under the SEM.

  16. High power YAG laser cutting; Koshutsuryoku YAG laser ni yoru setsudan gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owaki, K. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes features of high power YAG cutting. The optical fiber transmission YAG laser machining system has some advantages in which optical path length compensation unit is not required and measures for low power loss and dust are not required, when compared with the CO2 laser system. Its application to the cutting of stainless steel plates has attracted attention. Cutting tests of SUS304 were conducted using high power YAG laser. Cutting of SUS304 plate with a thickness of 40 mm could be successfully done at the power of 3.5 kW. Cutting tests of SUS304 pipes with a thickness of 8 mm in water under the depth of 20 m were also conducted using air as assist gas at the power of 2.5 kW. Excellent results were obtained without scale deposition. For the tests by the composite beam using 3 kW and 4 kW systems, SUS304 plate with a thickness of 50 mm could be cut at the cutting speed of 0.1 m/min. Laser cutting of pipes from the internal surface was conducted using a newly developed small machining head which can rotate in the peripheral direction. Excellent quality for welding was confirmed. Cutting speed and plate thickness were improved by combining water jet cutter and YAG laser unit. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Fractional ablative erbium YAG laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudorf, Elisabeth H; Haak, Christina S; Erlendsson, Andrés M

    2014-01-01

    laser parameters with tissue effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ex vivo pig skin was exposed to a miniaturized 2,940 nm AFXL, spot size 225 µm, density 5%, power levels 1.15-2.22 W, pulse durations 50-225 microseconds, pulse repetition rates 100-500 Hz, and 2, 20, or 50 stacked pulses, resulting in pulse......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Treatment of a variety of skin disorders with ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) is driving the development of portable AFXLs. This study measures micropore dimensions produced by a small 2,940 nm AFXL using a variety of stacked pulses, and determines a model correlating...... 190 to 347 µm. CONCLUSIONS: Pulse stacking with a small, low power 2,940 nm AFXL created reproducible shallow to deep micropores, and influenced micropore configuration. Mathematical modeling established relations between laser settings and micropore dimensions, which assists in choosing laser...

  18. Pulsed Nd-YAG laser in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragot-Roy, Brigitte; Severin, Claude; Maquin, Michel

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish an operative method in endodontics. The effect of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser on root canal dentin has been examined with a scanning electron microscope. Our first experimentation was to observe the impacts carried out perpendicularly to root canal surface with a 200 micrometers fiber optic in the presence of dye. Secondarily, the optical fiber was used as an endodontic instrument with black dye. The irradiation was performed after root canal preparation (15/100 file or 40/100 file) or directly into the canal. Adverse effects are observed. The results show that laser irradiation on root canal dentin surfaces induces a nonhomogeneous modified dentin layer, melted and resolidified dentin closed partially dentinal tubules. The removal of debris is not efficient enough. The laser treatment seems to be indicated only for endodontic and periapical spaces sterilization after conventional root canal preparation.

  19. Tapered diode laser pumped 946 nm Nd:YAG laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2009-01-01

    We successfully implemented a 946 nm Nd:YAG laser based on a 808 nm tapered diode pump laser. The tapered diode is developed at the Ferdinand-Braun-Institute fur Hochstfrequenztechnik in Germany. Figure 2 shows the experimental setup and results of each pump source coupled into a 1.5 mm crystal...... laser, we show that tapered diode laser pumping potentially increase the power of 946 nm lasers by a factor of two and reduce the threshold by a factor of three....

  20. Bond strength of an adhesive system irradiated with Nd:YAG laser in dentin treated with Er:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malta, D A M P; De Andrade, M F; Costa, M M; Lizarelli, R F Z; Pelino, J E P

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to verify through micro tensile bond test the bond strength of an adhesive system irradiated with Nd:YAG laser in dentine previously treated with Er:YAG laser. Twenty caries free extracted human third molars were used. The teeth were divided in four experimental groups (n = 5): (G1) control group; (G2) irradiation of the adhesive system with the Nd:YAG laser; (G3) dentin treatment with Er:YAG laser; (G4) dentin treatment with Er:YAG laser followed by the irradiation of the adhesive system with Nd:YAG laser. The Er:YAG laser fluency parameter for the dentin treatment was of 60 J/cm 2 . The adhesive system was irradiated with the Nd:YAG laser with fluency of 100 J/cm 2 . Dental restorations were performed with Adper Single Bond 2/Z250. One tooth from each group was prepared for the evaluation of the adhesive interface under SEM and bond failure tests were also performed and evaluated. The statistical analysis showed statistical significant difference between the groups G1 and G3, G1 and G4, G2 and G3, and G2 and G4; and similarity between the groups G1 and G2, and G3 and G4. The adhesive failures were predominant in all the experimental groups. The SEM analysis showed an adhesive interface with features confirming the results of the mechanical tests. The Nd:YAG laser on the adhesive system did not influence the bond strength in dentin treated or not with the Er:YAG laser

  1. Influence of temperature on Yb:YAG/Cr:YAG microchip laser operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Jan; Eisenschreiber, Jan; Jelínková, Helena; Nejezchleb, Karel; Å koda, Václav

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this work was an investigation of the temperature influence (in range from 80 up to 320 K) on the laser properties of Yb:YAG/Cr:YAG Q-switched diode-pumped microchip laser. This laser was based on monolith crystal (diameter 3mm) which combines in one piece an active laser part (Yb:YAG crystal, 10 at.% Yb/Y, 3mm long) and saturable absorber (Cr:YAG crystal, 1.36mm long, initial transmission 90% @ 1031 nm). The laser resonator pump mirror (HT for pump radiation, HR for generated radiation) was directly deposited on the Yb:YAG monolith part. The output coupler with reflection 55% for the generated wavelength was placed on the Cr:YAG part. The microchip laser was placed in the temperature controlled cupreous holder inside vacuum chamber of the liquid nitrogen cryostat. For Yb:YAG part longitudinal pulsed pumping (pumping pulse length 2.5 ms, rep-rate 20 Hz, power amplitude 21W) a fibre coupled (core diameter 400 μm, NA= 0:22) laser diode, operating at wavelength 933 nm, was used. The microchip laser mean output power, pulse duration, repetition rate, emission wavelength, and laser beam profile were measured in dependence on temperature. The generated pulse length was in range from 2.2 ns to 1.1 ns (FWHM) with the minimum at 230 K. The single pulse energy was peaking (0.4 mJ) at 180 K. The highest peak power (325 kW) was obtained at 220 K. The highest pulse repetition rate (38 kHz) and output mean power (370mW) was reached for temperature 80 K.

  2. Efficacy of long pulse Nd:YAG laser versus fractional Er:YAG laser in the treatment of hand wrinkles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robati, Reza M; Asadi, Elmira; Shafiee, Anoosh; Namazi, Nastaran; Talebi, Atefeh

    2018-04-01

    There are different modalities for hand rejuvenation. Fractional Er:YAG laser and long pulse Nd:YAG laser were introduced for treating hand wrinkles. We plan to compare fractional Er:YAG laser and long pulse Nd:YAG laser in a randomized controlled double-blind design with multiple sessions and larger sample size in comparison with previous studies. Thirty-three participants with hand wrinkles entered this study. They were randomly allocated to undergo three monthly laser treatments on each hand, one with a fractional Er:YAG laser and the other with a long pulse Nd:YAG laser. The evaluations included assessment of clinical improvement determined by two independent dermatologists not enrolled in the treatment along with measuring skin biomechanical property of hands using a sensitive biometrologic device with the assessment of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT). Moreover, potential side effects and patients' satisfaction have been documented at baseline, 1 month after each treatment, and 3 months after the final treatment session. Clinical evaluation revealed both modalities significantly reduce hand wrinkles (p value lasers. Mean CRRT values also decreased significantly after the laser treatment compared to those of the baseline in both laser groups. There was no serious persistent side effect after both laser treatments. Both fractional Er:YAG and long pulse Nd:YAG lasers show substantial clinical improvement of hand skin wrinkles with no serious side effects. However, combination treatment by these lasers along with the other modalities such as fat transfer could lead to better outcomes in hand rejuvenation. IRCT2016032020468N4.

  3. Analysis of erythema after Er:YAG laser skin resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Na Young; Ahn, Hyo-Hyun; Kim, Soo-Nam; Kye, Young-Chul

    2007-11-01

    Postoperative erythema can be expected to occur in every patient after laser resurfacing, and pigmentary disturbances may be related to the intensity and the duration of erythema. This study was undertaken to assess the clinical features of erythema, the factors that influence its duration, and the relation between the duration of erythema and the incidence of hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation in skin of Asian persons after Er:YAG laser resurfacing. A total of 218 patients (skin phototypes III to V) were recruited and treated with a short-pulsed Er:YAG laser, a variable-pulsed Er:YAG laser, or a dual-mode Er:YAG laser for skin resurfacing. Clinical assessments were performed retrospectively using medical charts and serial photographs. Postoperative erythema was observed in all patients after Er:YAG laser resurfacing with a mean duration of 4.72 months. In 98.2% of patients, erythema faded completely within 12 months. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation was observed in 38.1% of patients after Er:YAG laser resurfacing. Skin phototype, level of ablation, and depth of thermal damage caused by a long-pulsed laser appear to be important factors that affect the duration of erythema. Moreover, prolonged erythema was related to the risk of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation.

  4. Actively Q-switched laser with novel Nd:YAG/YAG polygonal active-mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ye; Chen, Yanzhong; Ge, Wenqi; He, Jianguo; Zhang, Hongbo; Liao, Lifen; Xin, Jianguo; Zhang, Jian; Fan, Zhongwei

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an efficient actively Q-switched laser based on a novel crystal Nd:YAG/YAG polygonal active mirror. A passively cooled crystal Nd:YAG/YAG polygonal active mirror with an end pump scheme was used as the gain medium. For the overlap between the TEM00 laser mode and large gain profile, a cavity was carefully designed with a large fundamental mode volume. With a maximum absorbed power of 3.1 W, a 685 mW average output power with a pulse repetition of 5 kHz was attained, and the corresponding optical-optical and slope efficiency were 22.1% and 27.7%, respectively. The pulse width was 133.9 ns. The beam quality (M 2) was 1.561 in the horizontal direction and 1.261 in the vertical direction.

  5. Analysis of organic vapors with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozari, Hadi; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan; Rezaei, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is utilized in the study of acetone, ethanol, methanol, cyclohexane, and nonane vapors. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atomic emission spectra have been recorded following laser-induced breakdown of the organic vapors that are mixed with air inside a quartz chamber at atmospheric pressure. The plasma is generated with focused, Q-switched Nd:YAG radiation at the wavelength of 1064 nm. The effects of ignition and vapor pressure are discussed in view of the appearance of the emission spectra. The recorded spectra are proportional to the vapor pressure in air. The hydrogen and oxygen contributions diminish gradually with consecutive laser-plasma events without gas flow. The results show that LIBS can be used to characterize organic vapor

  6. Analysis of organic vapors with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozari, Hadi; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C, 1983963113 Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, Fatemeh, E-mail: fatemehrezaei@kntu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, 15875-4416 Shariati, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is utilized in the study of acetone, ethanol, methanol, cyclohexane, and nonane vapors. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atomic emission spectra have been recorded following laser-induced breakdown of the organic vapors that are mixed with air inside a quartz chamber at atmospheric pressure. The plasma is generated with focused, Q-switched Nd:YAG radiation at the wavelength of 1064 nm. The effects of ignition and vapor pressure are discussed in view of the appearance of the emission spectra. The recorded spectra are proportional to the vapor pressure in air. The hydrogen and oxygen contributions diminish gradually with consecutive laser-plasma events without gas flow. The results show that LIBS can be used to characterize organic vapor.

  7. The bactericidal effect of a Genius (R) Nd : YAG laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, A.A.; Reijden, W.A. van der; Winkelhoff, A.J. van; Weijden, G.A. van der

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the 'in vitro' bactericidal effect of the Nd:YAG laser (Genius, MØlsgaard Dental, Copenhagen, Denmark) on six periodontal pathogens. METHODS: Suspensions of six different periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella

  8. Iron bromide vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, V. B.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Trigub, M. V.; Dimaki, V. A.; Evtushenko, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the characteristics of a pulsed gas-discharge laser on iron bromide vapor generating radiation with a wavelength of 452.9 nm at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5-30 kHz. The maximum output power amounted to 10 mW at a PRF within 5-15 kHz for a voltage of 20-25 kV applied to electrodes of the discharge tube. Addition of HBr to the medium produced leveling of the radial profile of emission. Initial weak lasing at a wavelength of 868.9 nm was observed for the first time, which ceased with buildup of the main 452.9-nm line.

  9. Evaluation of erbium:YAG and holmium:YAG laser radiation and dental hard tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrill, David Cameron

    Lasers have become increasingly established in medicine as effective alternatives or adjuncts to conventional techniques. In dentistry, several clinical laser systems have been developed and marketed, but their applications have been limited to soft tissue surgery. To date, no laser has been capable of effectively cutting or modifying the highly mineralised dental tissues of enamel and dentine. The aim of this study was to evaluate two new laser systems for use in dentistry through a series of in vitro experiments. Both generic erbium and holmium lasers have theoretically superior operating characteristics over currently established lasers for applications with dental hard tissues. The two lasers investigated in this study were pulsed Er:YAG (lambda=2.94) a.m. and Cr-Tm-Ho:YAG (lambda=2.1mu.m). Both operated with a macropulse duration of approximately 200lambdas, at pulse repetition rates of 2-8Hz and mean pulse energies up to 230mJ. Radiation was focused using CaF[2] lenses (f=50-120mm). The lasers could be operated with or without the addition of a surface water film at the interaction site. Tissue removal efficiency was expressed as a latent heat of ablation (LHA, kJ/cm[3]) using a modification of the technique described by Charlton et al. (1990). The mean LHA's for the Er:YAG laser were 6.24kJ/cm[3] and 22.99kJ/cm[3] with dentine and enamel respectively without water, and 10.07kJ/cm[3] and 18.73kJ/cm[3] for dentine and enamel with water. The Cr-Tm-Ho:YAG laser was unable to effectively remove enamel at the fluences and pulse energies available; the mean LHA's for the Cr-Tm- Ho:YAG laser with dentine were 82.79kJ/cm3 and 57.57kJ/cm3 with and without water respectively. The Cr-Tm-Ho;YAG was approximately 8-9 times less efficient for tissue removal than the Er:YAG system. Er:YAG tissue removal with water was characterised by clean "surgical" cuts, comparable in histological appearance to those obtained using conventional instrumentation. Some thermal disruption

  10. [Nd-YAG laser photocoagulation of scrotal sebaceous cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco de Castro, A; Truhán, D; Carretero González, P; Alcover García, J

    2002-02-01

    Scrotum's sebaceous cyst is an usual pathology, not life threatening, but susceptible of infection, producing abscess with their associated cosmetic and psychological disturbance. The classical management is the complete excision, under local anaesthesia, to prevent its recidive. Until today, the use of de Nd-YAG laser for the management of the scrotum's sebaceous cysts as not been reported. We report a case of a young man with several scrotum's sebaceous cysts, treated successfully with the use of a Nd-YAG laser.

  11. Hybrid Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sawyer; Trujillo, Skyler; Fort Lewis College Laser Group Team

    This work concerns the novel design of an inexpensive pulsed Nd:YAG laser, consisting of a hybrid Kerr Mode Lock (KLM) and Q-switch pulse. The two pulse generation systems work independently, non simultaneously of each other, thus generating the ability for the user to easily switch between ultra-short pulse widths or large energy density pulses. Traditionally, SF57 glass has been used as the Kerr medium. In this work, novel Kerr mode-locking mediums are being investigated including: tellurite compound glass (TeO2), carbon disulfide (CS2), and chalcogenide glass. These materials have a nonlinear index of refraction orders of magnitude,(n2), larger than SF57 glass. The Q-switched pulse will utilize a Pockels cell. As the two pulse generation systems cannot be operated simultaneously, the Pockels cell and Kerr medium are attached to kinematic mounts, allowing for quick interchange between systems. Pulse widths and repetition rates will vary between the two systems. A goal of 100 picosecond pulse widths are desired for the mode-locked system. A goal of 10 nanosecond pulse widths are desired for the Q-switch system, with a desired repetition rate of 50 Hz. As designed, the laser will be useful in imaging applications.

  12. Densification behavior, doping profile and planar waveguide laser performance of the tape casting YAG/Nd:YAG/YAG ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Lin; Li, Jiang; Qu, Haiyun; Wang, Juntao; Liu, Jiao; Dai, Jiawei; Zhou, Zhiwei; Liu, Binglong; Kou, Huamin; Shi, Yun; Wang, Zheng; Pan, Yubai; Gao, Qingsong; Guo, Jingkun

    2016-10-01

    The sintering behavior and doping concentration profile of the planar waveguide YAG/Nd:YAG/YAG ceramics by the tape casting and solid-state reaction method were investigated on the basis of densification trajectory, microstructure evolution, and Nd3+ ions diffusion. The porosity of the green body by tape casting and cold isostatic pressing is about 38.6%. And the green bodies were consolidated from 1100 °C to 1800 °C for 0.5-20 h to study the densification and the doping diffusion behaviors. At the temperature higher than 1500 °C, pure YAG phase is formed, followed by the densification and grain growth process. With the increase of temperature, two sintering stages occur, corresponding to remarkable densification and significant grain growth, respectively. The mechanism controlling densification at 1550 °C is grain boundary diffusion. The diffusion of Nd3+ ions is more sensitive to temperature than the sintering time, and the minimum temperature required for the obvious diffusion of Nd3+ ions is higher than 1700 °C. Finally, planar waveguide YAG/1.5 at.%Nd:YAG/YAG transparent ceramics with in-line transmittance of 84.8% at 1064 nm were obtained by vacuum-sintering at 1780 °C for 30 h. The fluorescence lifetime of 4F3/2 state of Nd3+ in the specimen is about 259 μs. The prepared ceramic waveguide was tested in a laser amplifier and the laser pulse was amplificated from 87 mJ to 238 mJ, with the pump energy of 680 mJ.

  13. Yb:YAG Lasers for Space Based Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, J.J.; Fan, T. Y.

    1998-01-01

    Diode pumped solid state lasers will play a prominent role in future remote sensing missions because of their intrinsic high efficiency and low mass. Applications including altimetry, cloud and aerosol measurement, wind velocity measurement by both coherent and incoherent methods, and species measurements, with appropriate frequency converters, all will benefit from a diode pumped primary laser. To date the "gold standard" diode pumped Nd laser has been the laser of choice for most of these concepts. This paper discusses an alternate 1 micron laser, the YB:YAG laser, and its potential relevance for lidar applications. Conceptual design analysis and, to the extent possible at the time of the conference, preliminary experimental data on the performance of a bread board YB:YAG oscillator will be presented. The paper centers on application of YB:YAG for altimetry, but extension to other applications will be discussed.

  14. Laser lithotripsy with the Ho:YAG laser: fragmentation process revealed by time-resolved imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, Franz R.; Beghuin, Didier; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Venzi, Giordano; Jichlinski, Patrice; Rink, Klaus; Leisinger, Hans-Juerg; Graber, Peter

    1998-07-01

    Improvements of endoscopic techniques have renewed the interest of urologists in laser lithotripsy in recent years. Laser energy can be easily transmitted through flexible fibers thereby enabling different surgical procedures such as cutting, coagulating and lithotripsy. The Ho:YAG laser offers multiple medical applications in Urology, among them stone fragmentation. However, the present knowledge of its fragmentation mechanism is incomplete. The objective was therefore to analyze the fragmentation process and to discuss the clinical implications related to the underlying fragmentation mechanism. The stone fragmentation process during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy was observed by time resolved flash video imaging. Possible acoustic transient occurrence was simultaneously monitored with a PVDF-needle hydrophone. Fragmentation was performed on artificial and cystine kidney stones in water. We observed that though the fragmentation process is accompanied with the formation of a cavitation bubble, cavitation has only a minimal effect on stone fragmentation. Fragment ejection is mainly due to direct laser stone heating leading to vaporization of organic stone constituents and interstitial water. The minimal effect of the cavitation bubble is confirmed by acoustic transients measurements, which reveal weak pressure transients. Stone fragmentation with the Holmium laser is the result of vaporization of interstitial (stone) water and organic stone constituents. It is not due to the acoustic effects of a cavitation bubble or plasma formation. The fragmentation process is strongly related with heat production thereby harboring the risk of undesired thermal damage. Therefore, a solid comprehension of the fragmentation process is needed when using the different clinically available laser types of lithotripsy.

  15. Nd:YAG Laser Firmware Design under RTOS Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. G.; Kim, W. Y.; Park, G. R.; Moon, D. S.; Hong, J. H.; Kim, H. J.; Cho, J. S. [Pusan National University (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    A pulsed Nd:YAG laser is used widely for materials processing and medical instrument. It's very important to control the laser energy density in those fields using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. A pulse repetition rate and a pulse width are regarded as the most dominant factors to control the energy density of laser beam. In this paper, the alternating charge and discharge system was designed to adjust a pulse repetition rate. This system is controlled by microprocessor and allows to replace an expensive condenser for high frequency to cheap one of low frequency. In addition, The microcontroller monitors the flow of cooling water, short circuit, and miss firing and so on. We designed Nd:YAG laser firmware with smart microcontroller, and want to explain general matters about the firmware from now. (author). 8 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Ho:YAG laser: intervertebral disk cell interaction using three-dimensional cell culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masato; Ishihara, Miya; Arai, Tsunenori; Asazuma, Takashi; Kikuchi, Toshiyuki; Kikuchi, Makoto; Fujikawa, Kyosuke

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence on the intervertebral disc cells after laser irradiation using three- dimensional culture system and to clarify the optimum Ho:YAG laser irradiation condition on percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) for lumbar disc herniation. Since the Ho:YAG laser ablation is characterized by water-vapor bubble dynamics, not only thermal effect but also acoustic effect on cell metabolism might occur in the intervertebral disc. We studied the disc cell reaction from the metabolic point of view to investigate photothermal and photoacoustic effects on three-dimensional cultured disc cell. Intervertebral discs were obtained from female 30 Japanese white rabbits weighing about 1 kg. A pulsed Ho:YAG laser (wavelength: 2.1 micrometer, pulse width: about 200 microseconds) was delivered through a 200 micrometer-core diameter single silica glass fiber. We used the Ho:YAG laser irradiation fluence ranging from 60 to approximately 800 J/cm2 at the fiber end. To investigate acoustic effect, the acoustic transducer constructed with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) film and acoustic absorber was used to detect the stress wave. Thermocouple and thermography were used to investigate thermal effect. Concerning damage of plasma membrane and ability of matrix synthesis, thermal effect might mainly affect cell reaction in total energy of 54 J (closed to practically used condition), but in 27 J, acoustic effect might contribute to it. We found that total energy was key parameter among the optimum condition, so that temperature and/or stress wave may influence Ho:YAG laser-disc cell interactions.

  17. Neodymium-YAG laser vitreolysis in sickle cell retinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrisomalos, N.F.; Jampol, L.M.; Moriarty, B.J.; Serjeant, G.; Acheson, R.; Goldberg, M.F.

    1987-08-01

    Six patients with proliferative sickle cell retinopathy and vitreous bands were treated with the neodymium-YAG (Nd-YAG) laser to accomplish lysis of avascular traction bands or to clear the media in front of the macula. Transection of bands was possible in five of the six cases but in two of these the effect was only partial. Three cases were satisfactorily treated with the Nd-YAG laser application alone, two eventually required conventional vitreoretinal surgery, and one patient's condition stabilized despite failure of the treatment. Complications from the treatment occurred in three cases and included subretinal (choroidal) hemorrhage, preretinal hemorrhage, microperforation of a retinal vein, and focal areas of damage to the retinal pigment epithelium. Neodymium-YAG vitreolysis may be a useful modality in carefully selected patients with proliferative sickle cell retinopathy, but potentially sight-threatening complications may occur.

  18. Next generation Er:YAG fractional ablative laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, A.; Vizhanyo, A.; Krammer, P.; Summer, S.; Gross, S.; Bragagna, T.; Böhler, C.

    2011-03-01

    Pantec Biosolutions AG presents a portable fractional ablative laser system based on a miniaturized diode pumped Er:YAG laser. The system can operate at repetition rates up to 500 Hz and has an incorporated beam deflection unit. It is smaller, lighter and cost efficient compared to systems based on lamp pumped Er:YAG lasers and incorporates a skin layer detection to guarantee precise control of the microporation process. The pulse parameters enable a variety of applications in dermatology and in general medicine, as demonstrated by first results on transdermal drug delivery of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone).

  19. Nd-YAG laser welding of bare and galvanised steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, S.C.; Norris, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    Until recently, one of the problems that has held back the introduction of lasers into car body fabrication has been the difficulty of integrating the lasers with robots. Nd-YAG laser beams can be transmitted through fibre optics which, as well as being considerably easier to manipulate than a mirror system, can be mounted on more lightweight accurate robots. Although previously only available at low powers, recent developments in Nd-YAG laser technology mean that lasers of up to 1kW average power will soon be available, coupled to a fibre optic beam delivery system. The increasing usage of zinc coated steels in vehicle bodies has led to welding problems using conventional resistance welding as well as CO 2 laser welding. The use of Nd-YAG lasers may be able to overcome these problems. This paper outlines work carried out at The Welding Institute on a prototype Lumonics 800W pulsed Nd-YAG laser to investigate its welding characteristics on bare and zinc coated car body steels

  20. Highly efficient solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana

    2011-12-19

    The recent progress in solar-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and Cr:Nd:YAG ceramic medium has revitalized solar laser researches, revealing a promising future for renewable reduction of magnesium from magnesium oxide. Here we show a big advance in solar laser collection efficiency by utilizing an economical Fresnel lens and a most widely used Nd:YAG single-crystal rod. The incoming solar radiation from the sun is focused by a 0.9 m diameter Fresnel lens. A dielectric totally internally reflecting secondary concentrator is employed to couple the concentrated solar radiation from the focal zone to a 4 mm diameter Nd:YAG rod within a conical pumping cavity. 12.3 W cw laser power is produced, corresponding to 19.3 W/m(2) collection efficiency, which is 2.9 times larger than the previous results with Nd:YAG single-crystal medium. Record-high slope efficiency of 3.9% is also registered. Laser beam quality is considerably improved by pumping a 3 mm diameter Nd:YAG rod.

  1. [Experimental results of erbium:YAG laser vitrectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochen, M; Petersen, H; Wüllner, C; Seiler, T

    1998-01-01

    Vitrectomy performed by conventional guillotine devices includes the risk of mechanical damage to retina as well as other ocular structures. The present study aims to investigate the efficacy of the Er:YAG laser for vitreous liquefaction. Vitreous liquefaction by means of Er:YAG laser pulses was performed using a special handpiece. The output of an Er:YAG laser operating at 2.94 microns was coupled into a ZrF optical fibre (length 2 m) which ended inside a cavity located at the quartz tip (diameter 320 microns) of the handpiece where tissue ablation took place. The viscosity of the liquefied vitreous was determined by rotation viscosimetry and compared to liquefied vitreous obtained by mechanical vitrectomy. In addition, the aspiration flow (ml/min) was correlated to the repetition/cutting rate of the laser and the cutter. The temperature rise at the handpiece was recorded with a micro thermocouple. The cutting threshold was determined to 5 mJ +/- 3 mJ at a pulse duration of 200 microseconds. The viscosity of the vitreous liquefied with the Er:YAG laser was 31 +/- 10 mPa s which is similar to the results of mechanical vitrectomy (42 +/- 19 mPa s) but significant less than that of normal vitreous (880 +/- 280 mPa s). The aspiration of the laser handpiece in dependence to the repetition rate increases linear up to 2.6 ml/min at 30 Hz. The temperature increase at the handpiece was < 1 K under vitrectomy conditions (aspiration and irrigation) with an averaged laser power of 0.3 W (10 mJ at 30 Hz). The decreased vacuum forces used by the laser vitrectomy system may result in less mechanical stress to the retina as well as intravitreal structures which may be attached to it. An Er:YAG laser vitrectomy system may offer the potential of fewer complications during vitrectomy.

  2. Suppression of parasitic oscillations in a core-doped ceramic Nd:YAG laser by Sm:YAG cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Rafael; Wilhelm, Ralf; Kolleck, Christian; Neumann, Jörg; Kracht, Dietmar

    2010-06-07

    The onset of parasitic oscillations limits the extraction efficiency and therefore energy scaling of Q-switched lasers. A solid-state laser was end pumped with a fiber-coupled diode laser and operated in q-cw as well as in passively Q-switched operation. For Q-switched operation, we demonstrate the suppression of parasitic oscillations in a core-doped ceramic Nd:YAG laser by Sm:YAG cladding.

  3. Cutting of nonmetallic materials using Nd:YAG laser beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bashir Ahmed Tahir; Rashid Ahmed; M. G. B. Ashiq; Afaq Ahmed; M. A. Saeed

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with Nd:YAG laser cutting nonmetallic materials,which is one of the most important and popular industrial applications of laser.The main theme is to evaluate the effects of Nd:YAG laser beam power besides work piece scanning speed.For approximate cutting depth,a theoretical study is conducted in terms of material property and cutting speed.Results show a nonlinear relation between the cutting depth and input energy.There is no significant effect of speed on cutting depth with the speed being larger than 30 mm/s.An extra energy is utilized in the deep cutting.It is inferred that as the laser power increases,cutting depth increases.The experimental outcomes are in good agreement with theoretical results.This analysis will provide a guideline for laser-based industry to select a suitable laser for cutting,scribing,trimming,engraving,and marking nonmetallic materials.

  4. Cutting of nonmetallic materials using Nd:YAG laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Bashir Ahmed; Ashiq, M.G. B.; Saeed, M.A.; Ahmed, Rashid; Ahmed, Afaq

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with Nd:YAG laser cutting nonmetallic materials, which is one of the most important and popular industrial applications of laser. The main theme is to evaluate the effects of Nd:YAG laser beam power besides work piece scanning speed. For approximate cutting depth, a theoretical study is conducted in terms of material property and cutting speed. Results show a nonlinear relation between the cutting depth and input energy. There is no significant effect of speed on cutting depth with the speed being larger than 30 mm/s. An extra energy is utilized in the deep cutting. It is inferred that as the laser power increases, cutting depth increases. The experimental outcomes are in good agreement with theoretical results. This analysis will provide a guideline for laser-based industry to select a suitable laser for cutting, scribing, trimming, engraving, and marking nonmetallic materials. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  5. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam drilling: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Girish Dutt; Pandey, Arun Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Laser beam drilling (LBD) is one of non contact type unconventional machining process that are employed in machining of stiff and high-strength materials, high strength temperature resistance materials such as; metal alloys, ceramics, composites and superalloys. Most of these materials are difficult-to-machine by using conventional machining methods. Also, the complex and precise holes may not be obtained by using the conventional machining processes which may be obtained by using unconventional machining processes. The laser beam drilling in one of the most important unconventional machining process that may be used for the machining of these materials with satisfactorily. In this paper, the attention is focused on the experimental and theoretical investigations on the pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling of different categories of materials such as ferrous materials, non-ferrous materials, superalloys, composites and Ceramics. Moreover, the review has been emphasized by the use of pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling of different materials in order to enhance productivity of this process without adverse effects on the drilled holes quality characteristics. Finally, the review is concluded with the possible scope in the area of pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling. This review work may be very useful to the subsequent researchers in order to give an insight in the area of pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling of different materials and research gaps available in this area.

  6. Application of YAG laser processing in underwater welding and cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohwaki, Katsura; Morita, Ichiro; Kojima, Toshio; Sato, Shuichi [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    The high-power YAG laser is a new fabrication tool. The laser torch is easy to combine with complex with complex mechanics because of beam delivery through optical fiber. A direct underwater laser welding technology has been developed and applied to the preservation, maintenance and removal of nuclear power plants. For subdividing or removing operations for retirement of plants, the laser cutting properties were confirmed to allow a maximum cutting thickness of 80 mm. For repairing inner surface of stainless steel tanks, an underwater laser welding system using a remote-controlled robot was developed and the high quality of underwater laser welding was confirmed. (author)

  7. CW Yb:YAG LASER FOR PORTABLE MEASURING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Ivashko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and experimental results of longitudinally continuous-wave diode-pumped Yb:Y3Al5O12 (YAG laser performance for compact field-condition measuring systems were demonstrated. Optimization of laser setup in terms of operation condition in the range of -40 ˚С – +65 ˚С without active thermal stabilization was carried out. Using Yb (10 ат.%:YAG crystal with the length of 3 mm the maximal output power more than 2 W was obtained in the whole of temperature range.

  8. CW laser properties of Nd:GdYAG, Nd:LuYAG, and Nd:GdLuAG mixed crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, J. Q.; Xu, X. D.; Li, D. Z.; Zhou, D. H.; Wu, F.; Zhao, Z. W.; Xu, J.; Tang, D. Y.

    2011-10-01

    Three mixed crystals, Nd:GdYAG, Nd:LuYAG, and Nd:GdLuAG, were grown by Czochralski method. We report the continuous-wave (CW) Nd:GdYAG, Nd:LuYAG, and Nd:GdLuAG laser operation under laser diode pumping. The maximum output powers are 4.11, 5.31, and 7.47 W, with slope efficiency of 73.0, 55.3, and 57.1%, respectively. With replacing Lu3+ or Y3+ ions with large Gd3+ ions, the pump efficiency increases.

  9. DEBONDING OF CERAMIC BRACKETS BY ER:YAG LASER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidan ALAKUŞ-SABUNCUOĞLU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effects of Er:YAG laser debonding of ceramic brackets on the bond strength and the amount of adhesive resin remnant. Materials and Methods: Twenty human mandibular incisors were randomly divided into two groups of 10 and polycrystalline ceramic brackets (Transcend series 6000, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA were bonded on enamel surfaces. Group 1 was the control group in which no laser application was performed prior to the shear bond strength (SBS testing. In Group 2, Er:YAG was applied in 3W power for 6 seconds using the scanning method. The brackets were tested for SBS with an Instron universal testing machine and results were expressed in megapascals (MPa. The amount of adhesive remnant was evaluated with Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s post-hoc tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean ± standard deviation of SBS values in the control group was 13.42 ±1.23 MPa and 8.47 ±0.71 MPa in the Er:YAG group and this difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. The evaluation of ARI scores demonstrated more adhesive was left on the enamel surface with Er:YAG group. Conclusion: 3W power Er:YAG laser application with the scanning method to polycrystalline ceramic brackets demonstrated lower bond strengths and higher ARI scores during the debonding procedure.

  10. The possibility of clinical application of the solid state lasers: Nd:YAG, Ho:YAG, and Er:YAG in otolaryngology - head and neck surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, M.; Kukwa, A.; Tulibacki, M.; Wójtowicz, P.; Olędzka, I.; Jeżewska, E.

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize our experiences in clinical application of Nd:YAG, Ho:YAG and Er:YAG in otolaryngology- head and neck surgery. Choosing the laser type and parameters for the particular procedures was based on our previous research on tissue effects of those lasers. During the period of 1993-2006 we performed 3988 surgical procedures with the Nd:YAG laser. Over 87% of those were made for the nasal cavity pathologies as polyps, hyperplasia of inferior nasal turbinate, granulation tissue, postoperative adhesions, vascular malformations, under the local anesthesia conditions. In our experience Nd:YAG laser gives the possibility of good clinical control and low risk of side effects for disorders of high recurrence and frequent interventions necessity, as nasal polyps or respiratory papillomatosis. Nd:YAG assisted uvulopalatoplasty gives an interesting alternative for surgical procedures for snoring and slight/mild OSA-recognized patients. Due to its good hemostatic properties, it is a perfect tool for removal of the chemodectoma from meddle ear. During the period of 1995-2006 we performed 229 surgical procedures with the Ho:YAG laser, mostly for larynx pathologies (adhesion and scar tissue removal). In our experience Ho:YAG laser can serve as a precise laser knife for both soft and bony tissue. The ER:YAG laser still remain under clinical trial. Since 2001 year we performed 24 procedures of removing stone deposits from salivary glands. We believe it may become a promising method to cope with sialolithiasis which allows for glandule function preservation. All of the laser types mentioned above, can be easily coupled with endoscopes, what makes them available for all of the head and necklocalized disorders.

  11. Development of YAG laser cutting system for decommissioning nuclear equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Takeshi; Nitta, Kazuhiko; Hosoda, Hiroshi.

    1995-01-01

    Technology of remote controlled cutting and reduction of generative secondary products have been required to the cutting system for decommissioning nuclear equipments. At a point of view that laser cutting technology by use of a Nd:YAG laser is effective, we have developed the laser cutting machine and carried out cutting tests for several stainless steel plates. As a result, the stainless steel plate with a thickness of 22mm could be cut by using an optical fiber which can flexibly propagate laser power, and possibility of application of this laser cutting system to decommissioning nuclear equipments was verified. (author)

  12. Development of YAG laser cutting system for decommissioning nuclear equipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Takeshi [Fuji Electric Co. Research and Development Ltd., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Nitta, Kazuhiko; Hosoda, Hiroshi

    1995-07-01

    Technology of remote controlled cutting and reduction of generative secondary products have been required to the cutting system for decommissioning nuclear equipments. At a point of view that laser cutting technology by use of a Nd:YAG laser is effective, we have developed the laser cutting machine and carried out cutting tests for several stainless steel plates. As a result, the stainless steel plate with a thickness of 22mm could be cut by using an optical fiber which can flexibly propagate laser power, and possibility of application of this laser cutting system to decommissioning nuclear equipments was verified. (author).

  13. Changes of retinal light sensitivity after YAG-laser capsulotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahor, D.; Gracner, B.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the changes of retinal light sensitivity of central visual field in patients with posterior capsule opacification (PCO) after YAG-laser capsulotomy. Our study includes 18 eyes ( 18 patients) with PCO after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. In all patients YAG-laser capsulotomy was performed. In all patients, a threshold visual field analysis was carried out with the C 30-2 program of the automated Humphrey Field Analyzer before and one month after the procedure. In all patients a significant improvement of visual acuity was observed one month after capsulotomy (p 0.00004). One month after YAG-laser treatment, a significant improvement of retinal light sensitivity in the central visual field was also observed. The average MD (mean deviation) before the procedure was -6.88 db (±3.9, max. -11.7, min. 2.17) and after the procedure --4.58 db (±4.37, max. -10.87, min. +0.51). The improvement in MD was statistically significant (p = 0.00475). No correlation was established between the improvement of retinal light sensitivity and patient age or the size of capsulotomy. Our study shows that the improvement of retinal light sensitivity is significant after YAG-laser capsulotomy and does not depend on patient age or capsulotomy size. (author)

  14. Application of YAG laser cladding to the flange seating surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Koki; Ninomiya, Kazuyuki; Nezaki, Koji

    1999-01-01

    Stainless cladding on carbon steel is usually conducted by shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) or gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). YAG ( Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet) laser welding is superior to these methods of welding in the following respects : (1) The heat affected zone (HAZ) is narrower and there is less distortion. (2) YAG laser cladding has the required chemical compositions, even with possibly fewer welding layers under controlled dilution. (3) Greater welding speed. YAG laser cladding application to vessel flange seating surfaces was examined in this study and the results are discussed. The following objectives were carried out : (1) Determination of welding conditions for satisfactory cladding layers and (2) whether cladding would be adequately possible at a cornered section of a stair-like plate, assuming actual flange shape. (3) Measurement of welding distortion and heat affected zone in carbon steel. The welding conditions for producing no-crack deposit with low dilution in carbon steel were clarified and welding by which cladding at cornered section would be possible was achieved. welding distortion by YAG laser was found less than with GTAW and HAZ made by first layer welding could be tempered appropriately by second layer welding. (author)

  15. Neodymium:YAG laser cutting of intraocular lens haptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorn, R A; Steinert, R F

    1985-11-01

    Neodymium:YAG laser cutting of polymethylmethacrylate and polypropylene anterior chamber and posterior chamber intraocular lens haptics was studied in terms of ease of transection and physical structure of the cut areas as seen by scanning electron microscopy. A marked difference was discovered, with the polymethylmethacrylate cutting easily along transverse planes, whereas the polypropylene resisted cutting along longitudinal fibers. Clinical guidelines are presented.

  16. 3D YAG laser cutting robot. 3 jigen YAG laser setsudan robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, Y. (Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1991-11-01

    The present status was introduced of three-dimensional processing by the YAG laser multi-articulation robot to introduce the focusing system. The lowering in locus accuracy of multi-articulation robot is caused by the accuracy and time of computation to interpolate the locus, response characteristics of servo system, and calibration problem of mechanical/structural system. Also as low in output power of laser, it has problem in focusing the energy in the radiating optical system. A focusing system, high in response velocity, is necessary in the processor to use the optical fiber in the optical transfer system. As processing and measuring at an identical spot, the present system can integrate the detection use electrode and nozzle so as to use an electrostatic capacity type sensor, high in response frequency. To avoid the interference with jig, etc., the nozzle of radiating unit was integrated with the detection use electrode so that development was made of height sensor, capable of executing the three-dimensional processing. The present robot is characterized by a standardized equipment of control system with a sliding shaft, independent of the operational shaft properly of robot in order to be exclusively used for the focusing. 9 figs.

  17. Photo-switch of pulsed Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketta, W.W.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this work passive Q-switching and its effect on the output laser beam from a pulsed Nd:YAG laser was studied. This was achieved using the photochemically stable (BDNI) dye after dissolving it in dichloroethane. The absorption spectra of the dye solution and how suitable to use with Nd:YAG laser was also dealt with. Cooling unit for the laser system, a detector to detect the output pulse, and an electronic counter to measure the pulse duration were constructed. In the free-running regime, the divergence angle was measured. The form of the output, its energy, and how it is affected by the pumping energy were also studied. In the Q-switching regime, the relation between output and pumping energies was studied and compared to the same relation under the free-running regime. 5 tabs.; 33 figs.; 57 refs

  18. Tunable eye-safe Er:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Němec, M; Šulc, J; Indra, L; Fibrich, M; Jelínková, H

    2015-01-01

    Er:YAG crystal was investigated as the gain medium in a diode (1452 nm) pumped tunable laser. The tunability was reached in an eye-safe region by an intracavity birefringent filter. The four tuning bands were obtained peaking at wavelengths 1616, 1632, 1645, and 1656 nm. The broadest continuous tunability was 6 nm wide peaking at 1616 nm. The laser was operating in a pulsed regime (10 ms pulse length, 10 Hz repetition rate). The maximum mean output power was 26.5 mW at 1645 nm. The constructed system demonstrated the tunability of a resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser which could be useful in the development of compact diode-pumped lasers for spectroscopic applications. (paper)

  19. Effects of Er:YAG laser irradiation on human cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinkowski, Wojciech; Brzozowska, Malgorzata; Ciszek, Bogdan; Rowinski, Jan; Strek, Wieslaw

    1996-03-01

    Irradiation of the hyaline or fibrous cartilage excised from the body of a human cadaver with Er:YAG laser beam, single pulse with a dose of 1 J, produces a crater with a depth of approximately 500 micrometers and a diameter varying from 5 to 300 micrometers. Histological examination has revealed that the laser-made craters were surrounded by a thin rim (2-10 micrometer) of charred and coagulated tissue. No damage was observed in the cartilage surrounding the rim. The presence of sharp demarcation between the tissue areas ablated by laser energy and the undamaged areas argues for the potential usefulness of the Er:YAG laser in surgery of cartilages.

  20. Heat treatment of transparent Yb:YAG and YAG ceramics and its influence on laser performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Kana; Mochida, Tetsuo; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Tokita, Shigeki; Kawanaka, Junji; Maruyama, Momoko; Sugiyama, Akira; Miyanaga, Noriaki

    2018-05-01

    Composite transparent ceramic materials are promising for improving the performance of high-average-power lasers. A combination of room-temperature bonding via surface treatment by a fast atom beam and diffusion bonding via heating, which effectively controls the ion diffusion distance near the interface, makes the laser materials suitable for a variety of oscillator/amplifier. During the heat treatment of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramics, the Si ions in the solid solution of the sintering aid incorporated within the grains were seen to segregate at the grain boundary, resulting in an increase of scattering sites. The number density and size of the scattering sites strongly depended on the post-heating temperature rather than the heating time. Specifically, heating at 1300 °C did not affect the transmittance of the YAG ceramic, whereas both the size and number of scattering sites substantially increased with a heat treatment at 1400 °C. The laser oscillation experiment using cryogenically-cooled Yb:YAG ceramics exhibited heating temperature dependence of the slope efficiency owing to the increasing scattering loss.

  1. Pulsed Tm:YAG laser ablation of knee joint tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei-Qiang; Vari, Sandor G.; Duffy, J. T.; Miller, J. M.; Weiss, Andrew B.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1992-06-01

    We investigated the effect of a free-running 2.01 micron pulsed Tm:YAG laser on bovine knee joint tissues. Ablation rates of fresh fibrocartilage, hyaline cartilage, and bone were measured in saline as a function of laser fluence (160 - 640 J/cm2) and fiber core size (400 and 600 microns). All tissues could be effectively ablated and the ablation rate increased linearly with the increasing fluence. Use of fibers of different core sizes, while maintaining constant energy fluence, did not result in significant difference in ablation rate. Histology analyses of the ablated tissue samples reveal average Tm:YAG radiation induced thermal damage (denatunalization) zones ranging between 130 and 540 microns, depending on the laser parameters and the tissue type.

  2. Corrosion Resistant Cladding by YAG Laser Welding in Underwater Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutomi Kochi; Toshio Kojima; Suemi Hirata; Ichiro Morita; Katsura Ohwaki

    2002-01-01

    It is known that stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) will occur in nickel-base alloys used in Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) and Internals of nuclear power plants. A SCC sensitivity has been evaluated by IHI in each part of RPV and Internals. There are several water level instrumentation nozzles installed in domestic BWR RPV. In water level instrumentation nozzles, 182 type nickel-base alloys were used for the welding joint to RPV. It is estimated the SCC potential is high in this joint because of a higher residual stress than the yield strength (about 400 MPa). This report will describe a preventive maintenance method to these nozzles Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and welds by a corrosion resistant cladding (CRC) by YAG Laser in underwater environment (without draining a reactor water). There are many kinds of countermeasures for SCC, for example, Induction Heating Stress Improvement (IHSI), Mechanical Stress Improvement Process (MSIP) and so on. A YAG laser CRC is one of them. In this technology a laser beam is used for heat source and irradiated through an optical fiber to a base metal and SCC resistant material is used for welding wires. After cladding the HAZ and welds are coated by the corrosion resistant materials so their surfaces are improved. A CRC by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) in an air environment had been developed and already applied to a couple of operating plants (16 Nozzles). This method was of course good but it spent much time to perform because of an installation of some water-proof working boxes to make a TIG-weldability environment. CRC by YAG laser welding in underwater environment has superior features comparing to this conventional TIG method as follows. At the viewpoint of underwater environment, (1) an outage term reduction (no drainage water). (2) a radioactive exposure dose reduction for personnel. At that of YAG laser welding, (1) A narrower HAZ. (2) A smaller distortion. (3) A few cladding layers. A YAG laser CRC test in underwater

  3. Compact corner-pumped Nd:YAG/YAG composite slab 1319 nm/1338 nm laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H; Gong, M; Wushouer, X; Gao, S

    2010-01-01

    A corner-pumped type is a new pumping type in the diode-pumped solid-state lasers, which has the advantages of high pump efficiency and favorable pump uniformity. A corner-pumped Nd:YAG/YAG composite slab continuous-wave 1319 nm/1338 nm dual-wavelength laser is first demonstrated in this paper. When the cavity length is 25 mm, the maximal output power is up to 7.62 W with a slope efficiency of 16.6% and an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 17%. The corresponding spectral line widths of 1319 nm laser and 1338 nm laser are 0.11 and 0.1 nm, respectively. The short-term instability of the output power is better than 1% when the pumping power is 39.5 W. The experimental results show that a corner-pumped type is a kind of feasible schedules in the design of diode-pumped solid-state 1.3 μm lasers with low or medium output powers

  4. Bactericidal effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aun, Carlos E.; Barberini, Alexandre F.; Camargo, Selma C. C.; Silva Kfouri, Luciana; Lorenzetti Simionato, Maria R.

    1999-05-01

    The success of endodontic therapy is based on the elimination of bacterial colonization from the endodontic system and periapical tissues. Recent studies have been showing the bactericidal effect of laser in root canal treatment. The propose of the study is to evaluate the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in contaminated root canal treatment. The propose of the study is to evaluate the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in contaminated root canals from upper central incisor. For the experiment 12 teeth were selected, respect at the apical third, sterilized, and 10 μm Streptococcus sanguis liquid culture were inoculated in the root canals. The laser test groups were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser at standard setting of 15Hz, 100mj and 1,5 W for 10, 20 and 30 seconds each in slow helicoidal movements from the apex to the top using a 300 micrometers fiber. After the procedure the specimens were placed in Tryptic Soy Agar, the number of colony forming units was evaluated. The experiment showed a significant reduction on viability of Streptococcus sanguis at the respective time of 20 and 30 seconds.

  5. Clinical application of the Nd-YAG and Ho-YAG lasers in otolaryngology: head and neck surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukwa, Andrzej; Tulibacki, Marek P.; Dudziec, Katarzyna; Wojtowicz, Piotr

    1997-10-01

    The authors present their clinical experience regarding the possibilities of application of Nd:YAG and Ho:YAG lasers for the treatment of disorders in the area of the upper respiratory tract sinuses and ears. This technique makes it possible to perform a number of procedures in local anesthesia which considerably improves the economic effectiveness of the treatment. In case of the Nd:YAG laser they have also utilized the effect of deep coagulation of the soft tissues, whereas the Ho:YAG laser energy was applied for the surgery of bone tissue. The surgeries performed using laser beam enabled very good effect of treatment. They are competitive compared wit the methods used by traditional surgery.

  6. Nd:YAG laser in caries prevention: a clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boari, Heloisa Gomes Dimiranda

    2000-01-01

    The caries prevention by using laser irradiation has been investigated during the last 30 years. The Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride has been shown as a very promising technique for enamel caries prevention. The aim of this work was to clinically evaluate the efficiency of Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride in pit and fissure caries prevention of children and adolescents. In this work it was determined the dye that enhance the effect of Nd: YAG laser in enamel. It was selected 242 pre-molar and molar teeth from 33 children and adolescents, aged from 7 to 15 years old. The selected teeth were free from caries or decalcification marks (active white marks) to the clinical and radiographic exams. The teeth were divided into two groups: the first group was laser irradiated and their homologous remained as a control. The right side teeth were dye-assisted Nd:YAG laser irradiated. The dye solution was a moisture of dust coal and equal parts of water and alcohol. The irradiation conditions were 60 mJ/10 Hz, optical fiber in contact mode, with diameter of 300 μm, resulting in an energy density of 84,9 J/cm 2 . The oclusal surface of the teeth was completely irradiated, specially on the slopes and in the deepest part of the pits and fissures. This procedure was repeated three times. In the sequence it was applied the acidulated phosphate fluoride for 4 minutes. On the left side teeth - control group- only acidulated phosphate fluoride was applied for the same time. The final examination considered the presence of caries and active white marks after a period of one year. There were statistical significant differences (p < 0.01) between the lased + fluoride group and the non irradiated group. The present study concluded that the technique used in this work can be an alternative clinical method for caries prevention. (author)

  7. Q-switched Nd:YAG/V:YAG microchip 1338 nm laser for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena; Nejezchleb, Karel; Škoda, Václav

    2017-12-01

    Q-switched microchip laser emitting radiation at wavelength 1338nm was tested as a radiation source for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). This laser used sandwich crystal which combined in one piece the cooling part (undoped YAG crystal 4mm long), the active laser part (Nd:YAG crystal 12mm long), and the saturable absorber (V:YAG crystal 0.7mm long). The diameter of this crystal was 5 mm. The microchip resonator consisted of dielectric mirrors directly deposited on the monolith crystal surfaces. The pump mirror (HT @ 808 nm, HR @ 1.3 ¹m) was placed on the undoped YAG part. The output coupler (R = 90% @ 1338 nm) was placed on the V:YAG part. The fibre-coupled 808nm pumping laser diode was operating in pulsed regime (rep. rate 250 Hz, pulse width 300 ¹s, pulse energy 6 mJ). Using this pumping, stable and high reproducible Q-switched pulses were generated at wavelength 1338 nm. Pulse length was 6.2 ns (FWHM) and the mean output power was 33mW. The single pulse energy and peak power was 0.13mJ and 21kW, respectively. Laser was operating in fundamental TEM00 mode. The laser radiation was focused on a tested sample using single plano-convex lens (focal length 75 mm). The focal spot radius was 40 ¹m. The corresponding peak-power density was 0.83GW/cm2. The laser induced break-down was successfully reached and corresponding laser-induced plasma spectra were recorded for set of metallic elements (Cu, Ag, Au, In, Zn, Al, Fe, Ni, Cr) and alloys (Sn-Pb solder, duralumin, stainless-steel, brass). To record the spectra, StellarNet BLACK-Comet concave grating CCD-based spectrometer was used without any special collimation optics. Thanks to used laser wavelength far from the detector sensitivity, no special filtering was needed to overcome the CCD dazzling. The constructed laser could significantly improve repletion-rate of up-to-date LIBS devices.

  8. Transmission of Er:YAG laser through different dental ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Tugrul; Tuncel, Ilkin; Usumez, Aslihan; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser transmission ratio through different dental ceramics with different thicknesses. Laser debonding procedure of adhesively luted all-ceramic restorations is based on the transmission of laser energy through the ceramic and the ablation of resin cement, because of the transmitted laser energy. Five different dental ceramics were evaluated in this study: sintered zirconium-oxide core ceramic, monolithic zirconium-oxide ceramic, feldspathic ceramic, leucite-reinforced glass ceramic, and lithium disilicate-reinforced glass ceramic. Two ceramic discs with different thicknesses (0.5 and 1 mm) were fabricated for each group. Ceramic discs were placed between the sensor membrane of the laser power meter and the tip of the contact handpiece of an Er:YAG laser device with the aid of a custom- made acrylic holder. The transmission ratio of Er:YAG laser energy (500 mJ, 2 Hz, 1 W, 1000 μs) through different ceramic discs was measured with the power meter. Ten measurements were made for each group and the results were analyzed with two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) tests. The highest transmission ratio was determined for lithium disilicate-reinforced ceramic with 0.5 mm thickness (88%) and the lowest was determined for feldspathic ceramic with 1 mm thickness (44%). The differences among the different ceramics and between the different thicknesses were significant (pCeramic type and thickness should be taken into consideration to adjust the laser irradiation parameters during laser debonding of adhesively luted all-ceramic restorations.

  9. Heat effect of pulsed Er:YAG laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibst, Raimund; Keller, Ulrich

    1990-06-01

    Pulsed Er:YAG laser radiation has been found to be effective for dental enamel and dentin removal. Damage to the surrounding hard tissue is little, but before testing the Er:YAG laser clinically for the preparation of cavities, possible effects on the soft tissue of the pulp must be known. In order to estimate pulp damage , temperature rise in dentin caused by the laser radiation was measured by a thermocouple. Additionally, temperature distributions were observed by means of a thermal imaging system. The heat effect of a single Er:YAG laser pulse is little and limited to the vicinity of the impact side. Because heat energy is added with each additional pulse , the temperature distribution depends not only on the radiant energy, but also on the number of pulses and the repetition rate. Both irradiation conditions can be found , making irreversible pulp damage either likely or unlikely. The experimental observations can be explained qualitatively by a simple model of the ablation process.

  10. Evaluation in vitro of effects of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers irradiation on root canal wall, by stereoscopy, scanning electron micrography and thermographic camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goya, Claudia

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate in vitro the effects of Nd:YAG laser and Er:YAG laser irradiation in the root canal wall by SEM, evaluating the apical leakage and the temperature changes during the laser irradiation. Seventy four extracted human teeth were used, they were instrumented and divided into seven groups of 10 teeth each. The teeth were evaluated through stereoscopy, by SEM, and with the thermographic camera. The Nd:YAG laser irradiation parameters were 100 mJ/p, 15 Hz, and Er:YAG laser were 160 mJ/p and 10 Hz, the irradiation was 4 times at 2 mm/sec speed, with 20 sec interval. The apical leakage was not observed in the teeth irradiated by Nd:YAG laser alone or in association with Er:YAG laser. However in the teeth irradiated only by the Er:YAG laser we observed a little leakage. By SEM observation the Nd:YAG laser irradiation showed melting and recrystallization in the dentin surface closing dentinal tubules, and in the samples irradiated by Er:Y AG laser a clean surface, opened dentinal tubules, and the combination by two lasers, showed melting covering some dentinal tubules The thermographic study found the temperature increase was not more than 6 deg C. This study showed the safety parameters applications of Er:YAG laser in association with Nd:YAG laser in root canal treatment, in order to not cause thermal damages to the periodontal tissues. (author)

  11. Gingival melanin depigmentation by Er:YAG laser: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlic, Verica; Brkic, Zlata; Marin, Sasa; Cicmil, Smiljka; Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Aoki, Akira

    2018-04-01

    Laser ablation is recently suggested as a most effective and reliable technique for depigmentation of melanin hyperpigmented gingiva. To date, different lasers have been used for gingival depigmentation (CO 2 , diode, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers). The use of Er:YAG laser for depigmentation of melanin hyperpigmented gingiva has gained increasing importance in recent years. The purpose of this study was to report removal of gingival melanin pigmentation using an Er:YAG laser in a literature review. The main outcomes, such as improvement of signs (clinical parameters of bleeding, erythema, swelling and wound healing), symptoms (pain) and melanin recurrence/repigmentation were measured. The literature demonstrated that depigmentation of gingival melanin pigmentation can be performed safely and effectively by Er:YAG laser resulting in healing and an esthetically significant improvement of gingival discoloration. Thus, Er:YAG laser seems to be safe and useful in melanin depigmentation procedure. However, the main issue in giving the final conclusion of the optimal Er:YAG laser use in melanin depigmentation is that, to date, studies are offering completely discrepant Er:YAG laser procedure protocols (complex settings of laser parameters), and different criteria for the assessment of depigmentation and repigmentation (recurrence), thus hampering the comparison of the results. Therefore, further studies are necessary to give an optimal recommendation on the use of Er:YAG laser in gingival melanin hyperpigmentation.

  12. Laser-diode pumped 40-W Yb:YAG ceramic laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiang; Li, Wenxue; Pan, Haifeng; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Jiang, Benxue; Pan, Yubai; Zeng, Heping

    2009-09-28

    We demonstrated a high-power continuous-wave (CW) polycrystalline Yb:YAG ceramic laser pumped by fiber-pigtailed laser diode at 968 nm with 400 mum fiber core. The Yb:YAG ceramic laser performance was compared for different Yb(3+) ion concentrations in the ceramics by using a conventional end-pump laser cavity consisting of two flat mirrors with output couplers of different transmissions. A CW laser output of 40 W average power with M(2) factor of 5.8 was obtained with 5 mol% Yb concentration under 120 W incident pump power. This is to the best of our knowledge the highest output power in end-pumped bulk Yb:YAG ceramic laser.

  13. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements

  14. Laser reduction of specific microorganisms in the periodontal pocket using Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers: a randomized controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzech-Leśniak, K; Sculean, A; Gašpirc, Boris

    2018-05-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological and clinical outcomes following nonsurgical treatment by either scaling and root planing, combination of Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers, or by Er:YAG laser treatment alone. The study involved 60 patients with generalized chronic periodontitis, randomly assigned into one of three treatment groups of 20 patients. The first group received scaling and root planing by hand instruments (SRP group), the second group received Er:YAG laser treatment alone (Er group), and the third group received combined treatment with Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers (NdErNd group). Microbiological samples, taken from the periodontal pockets at baseline and 6 months after treatments, were assessed with PET Plus tests. The combined NdErNd laser (93.0%), followed closely by Er:YAG laser (84.9%), treatment resulted in the highest reduction of all bacteria count after 6 months, whereas SRP (46.2%) failed to reduce Treponema denticola, Peptostreptococcus micros, and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. Full-mouth plaque and bleeding on probing scores dropped after 6 months and were the lowest in both laser groups. The combination of NdErNd resulted in higher probing pocket depth reduction and gain of clinical attachment level (1.99 ± 0.23 mm) compared to SRP (0.86 ± 0.13 mm) or Er:YAG laser alone (0.93 ± 0.20 mm) in 4-6 mm-deep pockets. Within their limits, the present results provide support for the combination of Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers to additionally improve the microbiological and clinical outcomes of nonsurgical periodontal therapy in patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis.

  15. Dynamics of pulsed holmium:YAG laser photocoagulation of albumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfefer, T.J.; Welch, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The pulsed holmium:YAG laser (λ = 2.12 μm, τ p = 250 μs) has been investigated as a method for inducing localized coagulation for medical procedures, yet the dynamics of this process are not well understood. In this study, photocoagulation of albumen (egg white) was analysed experimentally and results compared with optical-thermal simulations to investigate a rate process approach to thermal damage and the role of heat conduction and dynamic changes in absorption. The coagulation threshold was determined using probit analysis, and coagulum dynamics were documented with fast flash photography. The nonlinear computational model, which included a Beer's law optical component, a finite difference heat transfer component and an Arrhenius equation-based damage calculation, was verified against data from the literature. Moderate discrepancies between simulation results and our experimental data probably resulted from the use of a laser beam with an irregular spatial profile. This profile produced a lower than expected coagulation threshold and an irregular damage distribution within a millisecond after laser onset. After 1 ms, heat conduction led to smoothing of the coagulum. Simulations indicated that dynamic changes in absorption led to a reduction in surface temperatures. The Arrhenius equation was shown to be effective for simulating transient albumen coagulation during pulsed holmium:YAG laser irradiation. Greater understanding of pulsed laser-tissue interactions may lead to improved treatment outcome and optimization of laser parameters for a variety of medical procedures. (author)

  16. Palliation of oesophagogastric neoplasms with Nd:YAG laser treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, S.; Fischerman, K. (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1990-01-01

    The palliative effect of endoscopic Nd:YAG laser treatment of malignant strictures of the oesophagus and cardia was prospectively evaluated in 30 patients. Most were primarily treated for dysphagia, and swallowing was improved in 21 and normalized in 14 of these patients. Two patients were successfully treated for bleeding. Six patients developed complications (including two perforations), and four of these were fatal. The median survival was four months. It is concluded that in a great number of patients with inoperable cancer of the oesophagus and cardia, laser treatment is better than other palliative procedures. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Comparison of diode laser and Er:YAG lasers in the treatment of ankyloglossia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Mutan Hamdi; Göregen, Mustafa; Güngörmüş, Metin; Akgül, Hayati Murat

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the tolerance of lingual frenectomy with regard to a local anesthesia requirement and comparison of postsurgical discomfort experienced by patients operated on with both diode and erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) lasers. Ankyloglossia, commonly known as tongue-tie, is a congenital oral anomaly characterized by a short lingual frenulum. A short lingual frenulum may contribute to feeding, speech, and mechanical tongue problems. Sixteen referred patients with tongue mobility complaints were included in this study. A GaAlAs laser device with a continuous wavelength of 808 nm was used in the diode group. Frenulums were incised by applying 2 W of laser power. The Er:YAG laser device with a continuous wavelength of 2940 nm was used in the Er:YAG group. Frenulums were incised by applying 1 W of laser power. The acceptability of the lingual frenectomy without local anesthesia and the degree of the postsurgical discomfort were evaluated. Although the majority of patients (six) could be operated on without local anesthesia in the Er:YAG group, all patients could not be operated on without local anesthetic agent in the diode group. There were no differences between the two groups with regard to pain, chewing, and speaking on the first or seventh day after surgery, whereas patients had more pain in the Er:YAG group than in the diode group the first 3 h after surgery. The results indicate that only the Er:YAG laser can be used for lingual frenectomy without local anesthesia, and there was no difference between the two groups regarding the degree of the postsurgical discomfort except in the first 3 h. In conclusion, these results indicate that the Er:YAG laser is more advantageous than the diode laser in minor soft-tissue surgery because it can be performed without local anesthesia and with only topical anesthesia.

  18. Optical properties and laser oscillations of highly neodymium-doped YAG ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Ichiro; Kurimura, Sunao; Sato, Yoichi; Taira, Takunori [Laser Research Center, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Aichi (Japan); Ikesue, Akio [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Yoshida, Kunio [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka Institute of Technology, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Diode-pumped microchip laser oscillation of highly Nd{sup 3+}-doped polycrystalline YAG ceramics has been succeeded. It is found that the loss of a 2.4 at. % neodymium-doped ceramic YAG is as low as that of a 0.9 at. % Nd:YAG single crystal. From a 4.8 at. % Nd:YAG ceramic microchip, 2.3 times higher laser output power is obtained than that from a 0.9 at. % Nd:YAG single crystal microchip. (author)

  19. Optical properties and laser oscillations of highly neodymium-doped YAG ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Ichiro; Kurimura, Sunao; Sato, Yoichi; Taira, Takunori; Ikesue, Akio; Yoshida, Kunio

    2000-01-01

    Diode-pumped microchip laser oscillation of highly Nd 3+ -doped polycrystalline YAG ceramics has been succeeded. It is found that the loss of a 2.4 at. % neodymium-doped ceramic YAG is as low as that of a 0.9 at. % Nd:YAG single crystal. From a 4.8 at. % Nd:YAG ceramic microchip, 2.3 times higher laser output power is obtained than that from a 0.9 at. % Nd:YAG single crystal microchip. (author)

  20. [Experimental study of brain lesions after combined coaxial exposure to high-peaked pulse wave form CO2 and Nd: YAG lasers on the brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyumu, M; Verasques, G; Yamazaki, S; Kuroiwa, T; Suzuki, R; Takei, H; Suzuki, K; Inaba, Y

    1985-04-01

    The CO2 laser is useful for cutting and vaporization but not for coagulation and hemostasis. On the contrary, YAG laser is effective for coagulation and hemostasis but not for cutting. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the exposure of combined, coaxial CO2 and YAG laser on the animal brain to supplement the advantages and draw-backs of each other. To compare these results, each of non-combined pulse wave form CO2 and YAG lasers was employed separately. The lasers in this study were pulse wave form CO2 and YAG lasers, employed separately or simultaneously using 130 YZ of Nihon Infrared Industries Company. Japanese white rabbits were anesthetized with pentobarbital. Fronto-parietal burr holes were made, the dura was removed and then Evans blue solution was injected intravenously. The lasers were employed to the cerebral cortex without great vessels using a micromanipulator attached to the operative microscope with a distance of 30 cm. The spot size was 700 mu for CO2 laser and 1200 mu for YAG laser. The first experiment was to see the effect of nine combinations of simultaneous coaxial CO2 of 2, 4 and 8 watts and YAG lasers of 10, 20 and 40 watts, 1 sec on the brain. In the second experiment, also combining two lasers, the exposure time of YAG laser was elongated from 1 or 2 seconds into 2 or 4 seconds and the arrangement of powers was the same as that of the first experiment. The lesions were thus made in 18 different conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Thermal effects associated with the Nd/YAG dental laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fraunhofer, J A; Allen, D J

    1993-01-01

    The heat produced at the dentinal pulpal wall opposite the irradiation site was measured during etching of dental enamel with an Nd:YAG laser in preparation for direct bonding of orthodontic appliances. Forty extracted human teeth were randomly divided into four groups of 10 teeth. Within each group, the buccal surfaces of 5 teeth and the lingual surfaces of the other 5 teeth were laser treated for 12 sec. Irradiation was performed with a commercial Nd:YAG laser at the power settings of 80mJ, 1W, 2W and 3W. Prior to irradiation, an occlusal access preparation was made into the pulp in order to facilitate the placement of a thermocouple for measurement of temperature changes at the dentinal pulpal wall opposite the irradiation site. The thermocouple was held against the dentinal pulpal wall and the resulting temperature changes were recorded. Heating effects at the dentinal pulpal wall on both buccal and lingual surfaces showed an increase in heat as a function of the increase in power output from the laser unit (p damage to the pulp tissue immediately opposite the site of laser irradiation.

  2. Single, composite, and ceramic Nd:YAG 946-nm lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Rui-Jun; Yang, Guang; Zheng-Ping, Wang

    2015-06-01

    Single, composite crystal and ceramic continuous wave (CW) 946-nm Nd:YAG lasers are demonstrated, respectively. The ceramic laser behaves better than the crystal laser. With 5-mm long ceramic, a CW output power of 1.46 W is generated with an optical conversion efficiency of 13.9%, while the slope efficiency is 17.9%. The optimal ceramic length for a 946-nm laser is also calculated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61405171), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2012FQ014), and the Science and Technology Program of the Shandong Higher Education Institutions of China (Grant No. J13LJ05).

  3. Precision cutting and drilling with the Nd-YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingenfelter, A.C.; Anglin, C.D.; Westrich, C.N.; Murchie, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Laser Processing Facility of the Materials Fabrication Division of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has two pulsed Nd-YAG lasers mounted on machine tool bases. Over the years the authors have had requirements for cutting a wide variety of materials, frequently to very tight dimensional tolerances. They have found that the laser process is particularly well suited for two application areas; (1) for thin cross sections of most all materials, and (2) for refractory metals and ceramics such as tungsten, tantalum, and molybdenum, silicon wafers, alumina, and graphite foil. Some of these materials are difficult if not impossible to cut and drill in any other manner. Examples of each of these types of applications are sighted. Data are presented to illustrate the effects and interactions of laser parameter variables such as aperturing, choice of lenses, focus, pulse length, and energy level. Examples of applications are shown

  4. Treatment of rosacea with long-pulsed Nd: YAG laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekin Meşe Say

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the face. There is no curative treatment for the disease. Facial flushing and vascular lesions due to rosacea may significantly affect a patient’s quality of life. Topical and oral antibiotics are not effective for treating rosacea. Currently, laser treatment of vascular lesions has been reported in the literature. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of long-pulse 1064-nm neodymium: YAG (Nd: YAG laser in the treatment of vascular lesions (erythema and telangiectasia in rosacea patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine patients (29 women, 10 men with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR were recruited into the study. Severity of the disease (ETR-score: 0-3 was assessed for all patients. We used long-pulsed Nd: YAG laser for vascular lesions at 3-4 weeks intervals. The face was divided into seven anatomic regions for evaluation. Assessment was made by comparing pretreatment and posttreatment photographs by using ETR-scores. For evaluating patient satisfaction, a scale of 0 to 3 was used. Results: The patients were divided into three groups according to the ETR scores [ETR-1 (n=12, ETR-2 (n=9, ETR-3 (n=18]. Following an average of 3.95 (2-8 sessions laser treatments, the clinical improvement was statistically significant in all groups (p<0.05. The mean reduction of ETR-score was 91.70% in patients with ETR-1 and. the clinical improvement was to be decreased in severe forms of ETR. The most common sites for the lesions were the malar region, ala nasi and the nasal dorsum, respectively. The lesions on the ala nasi were more recalcitrant to the treatment than those on the other areas. Regarding to physician assessment of treatment’s success, 97% of the patients was associated with moderate and excellent improvement. According to physicians’ assessment, excellent improvement was noticed in 43.58% and, 61.5% of patients reported a high degree of satisfaction with this

  5. In vitro studies with a pulsed neodymium/YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, S; Guthrie, S; Foulds, W S; Lee, W R; Cruickshank, F R; Bailey, R T

    1985-02-01

    The relationships between the destructive effects of Q-switched Nd/YAG laser pulses and a number of experimental parameters were studied for various target materials including in particular excised, fixed samples of human trabecular meshwork. The laser parameters altered were the pulse energy, the convergence angle of the focused beam, and the position of the focus of the beam relative to the target's axial position. The main finding was that it was possible to make deep holes, of a diameter less than 100 micron, in virtually transparent samples of trabecular meshwork with a laser delivery system of 6 degrees convergence and pulse energies of 14 mJ or more. The relevance of this and the other experimental results to the development of a reliable system for performing internal trabeculotomies for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma is presented.

  6. Numerical simulation of a battlefield Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Markus; Sjoqvist, Lars; Uhrwing, Thomas

    2005-11-01

    A numeric model has been developed to identify the critical components and parameters in improving the output beam quality of a flashlamp pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with a folded Porro-prism resonator and polarization output coupling. The heating of the laser material and accompanying thermo-optical effects are calculated using the finite element partial differential equations package FEMLAB allowing arbitrary geometries and time distributions. The laser gain and the cavity are modeled with the physical optics simulation code GLAD including effects such as gain profile, thermal lensing and stress-induced birefringence, the Pockels cell rise-time and component aberrations. The model is intended to optimize the pumping process of an OPO providing radiation to be used for ranging, imaging or optical countermeasures.

  7. Er:YAG laser for endodontics: efficiency and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibst, Raimund; Stock, Karl; Gall, Robert; Keller, Ulrich

    1997-12-01

    Recently it has been shown that bacterias can be sterilized by Er:YAG laser irradiation. By optical fiber transmission the bactericidal effect can also be used in endodontics. In order to explore potential laser parameters, we further investigated sterilization of caries and measured temperatures in models simulating endodontic treatment. It was found out that the bactericidal effect is cumulative, with single pulses being active. This offers to choose all laser parameters except pulse energy (radiant exposure) from technical, practical or safety considerations. For clinical studies the following parameter set is proposed for efficient and safe application (teeth with a root wall thickness > 1 mm, and prepared up to ISO 50): pulse energy: 50 mJ, repetition rate: 15 Hz, fiber withdrawal velocity: 2 mm/s. With these settings 4 passes must be performed to accumulate the total dose for sterilization.

  8. Evaluation in vitro of effects of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers irradiation on root canal wall, by stereoscopy, scanning electron micrography and thermographic camera; Avaliacao in vitro dos efeitos da irradiacao laser de Er:YAG e Nd:YAG na parede dentinaria do canal radicular, sob observacao do estereoscopio, da micrografia eletronica e da camera termografica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goya, Claudia

    2001-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate in vitro the effects of Nd:YAG laser and Er:YAG laser irradiation in the root canal wall by SEM, evaluating the apical leakage and the temperature changes during the laser irradiation. Seventy four extracted human teeth were used, they were instrumented and divided into seven groups of 10 teeth each. The teeth were evaluated through stereoscopy, by SEM, and with the thermographic camera. The Nd:YAG laser irradiation parameters were 100 mJ/p, 15 Hz, and Er:YAG laser were 160 mJ/p and 10 Hz, the irradiation was 4 times at 2 mm/sec speed, with 20 sec interval. The apical leakage was not observed in the teeth irradiated by Nd:YAG laser alone or in association with Er:YAG laser. However in the teeth irradiated only by the Er:YAG laser we observed a little leakage. By SEM observation the Nd:YAG laser irradiation showed melting and recrystallization in the dentin surface closing dentinal tubules, and in the samples irradiated by Er:Y AG laser a clean surface, opened dentinal tubules, and the combination by two lasers, showed melting covering some dentinal tubules The thermographic study found the temperature increase was not more than 6 deg C. This study showed the safety parameters applications of Er:YAG laser in association with Nd:YAG laser in root canal treatment, in order to not cause thermal damages to the periodontal tissues. (author)

  9. YAG laser cladding to heat exchanger flange in actual plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshio, Kojima

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a sequel to ''Development of YAG Laser Cladding Technology to Heat Exchanger Flange'' presented in ICONE-8. A YAG Laser cladding technology is a permanent repairing and preventive maintenance method for heat exchanger's flange (channel side) seating surface which is degraded by the corrosion in long term operation. The material of this flange is carbon steel, and that of cladding wire is type 316 stainless steel so as to have high corrosion resistance. In former paper above, the soundness of cladding layers were presented to be verified. This channel side flange is bolted with tube sheet (shell side) through metal gasket. As the tube sheet side is already cladded a corrosion resistant material, it needs to apply the repairing and preventive maintenance method to only channel side. In 2000 this technology had been performed to the actual heat exchanger (Residual Heat Removal Heat Exchanger; RHR Hx) flange in domestic nuclear power plant. This paper described the outline, special equipment, and our total evaluation for this actual laser cladding work. And also several technical subjects which we should solve and/or improve for the next project was presented. (author)

  10. Development of underwater YAG laser repair welding robots for tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Yasuhiro; Satoh, Syuichi; Ito, Kosuke; Kochi, Tsutomu; Kojima, Toshio; Ohwaki, Katsura; Morita, Ichiro

    1999-01-01

    A remote-controlled repair welding robot which uses YAG laser welding technology in underwater environment was developed. This is an underwater robot technology combined with a laser welding technology. This report will describe the structure and performance of this robot, and the welding test results. The repair welding robot consists of two parts. The one is driving equipment, and the other is welding unit. It can swim in the tank, move around the tank wall, and stay on the welding area. After that it starts YAG laser repair welding. The target of this technology is inner surface repair of some tanks made of austenitic stainless steel, for example RW (Radioactive Waste) tanks. A degradation by General Corrosion and so on might be occurred at inner surface of these tanks in BWR type nuclear power plants. If the damaged area is wide, repair welding works are done. Some workers go into the tank and set up scaffolding after full drainage. In many cases it spends too much time for draining water and repair welding preparation. If the repair welding works can be done in underwater environment, the outage period will be reduced. This is a great advantage. (author)

  11. LASIK flap breakthrough in Nd:YAG laser treatment of epithelial ingrowth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Hughes, John M.; Nieuwendaal, Carla P.; Mourits, Maarten P.; van der Meulen, Ivanka J. E.

    2015-01-01

    To present two cases with complications after Nd:YAG laser treatment of epithelial ingrowth. Case reports. Dense central recurrent epithelial ingrowth was treated with a Nd:YAG laser directed at the epithelial nests in the LASIK flap interface in one case. Misalignment of the aiming beam after

  12. FT-Raman spectroscopic characterization of enamel surfaces irradiated with Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Shahabi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite recent advances in dental caries prevention, caries is common and remains a serious health problem. Laser irradiation is one of the most common methods in preventive measures in recent years. Raman spectroscopy technique is utilized to study the microcrystalline structure of dental enamel. In this study, FT-Raman spectroscopy was used to evaluate chemical changes in enamel structure irradiated with Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers. Methods. We used 15 freshly-extracted, non-carious, human molars that were treated as follows: No treatment was carried out in group A (control group; Group B was irradiated with Er:YAG laser for 10 seconds under air and water spray; and Group C was irradiated with Nd:YAG laser for 10 seconds under air and water spray. After treatment, the samples were analyzed by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Results. The carbonate content evaluation with regard to the integrated area under the curve (1065/960 cm–1 exhibited a significant reduction in its ratio in groups B and C. The organic content (2935/960 cm-1 area exhibited a significant decrease after laser irradiation in group B and C. Conclusion. The results showed that the mineral and organic matrices of enamel structure were affected by laser irradiation; therefore, it might be a suitable method for caries prevention.

  13. Development of frequency tunable Ti:sapphire laser and dye laser pumped by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Jong Hoon; Horn, Roland; Wendt, K.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated lasing characteristics of two kinds of tunable laser, liquid dye laser and solid Ti:sapphire crystal laser, pumped by high pulse repetition rate Nd:YAG laser. Dye laser showed drastically reduced pulsewidth compared with that of pump laser and it also contained large amount of amplified spontaneous emission. Ti:sapphire laser showed also reduced pulsewidth. But, the laser conversion pump laser and Ti:sapphire laser pulse, we used a Brewster-cut Pockel's cell for Q-switching. The laser was frequency doubled by a type I BBO crystal outside of the cavity.

  14. New pulsed YAG laser performances in cutting thick metallic materials for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfille, J.P.; Prunele, D. de; Pilot, G.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacities of the pulsed YAG laser thick cutting on metallic material and to compare with the CO 2 laser capacities. Stainless steel (304L) cutting tests were made in air and underwater using CO 2 and YAG lasers. A performance assessment was made for each laser and the wastes produced in the cutting operation were measured and the gases and the aerosols analyzed. The results show that the pulsed YAG laser is high performance tool for thick cutting and particularly attractive for nuclear applications

  15. 1.8kW laser diode pumped YAG laser; Shutsuryoku 1.8kW no handotai laser reiki YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Toshiba Corporation, as a participant in Ministry of International Trade and Industry`s `photon measurement and processing technology project` since August, 1997, is engaged in the development of an energy-efficient LD (laser diode) pumped semiconductor YAG (yttrium-aluminum-garnet) laser device to be used for welding and cutting. It is a 5-year project and the goal is a mean output of 10kW and efficiency of 20%. In this article, a simulation program is developed which carries out calculation about element technology items such as the tracking of the beam from the pumping LD and the excitation distribution, temperature distribution, thermal stress distribution, etc., in the YAG rod. An oscillator is constructed, based on the results of the simulation, and it exhibits a world-high class continuous laser performance of a 1.8kW output and 13% efficiency. The record of 13% efficiency is five times higher than that achieved by the conventional lamp-driven YAG laser device. (translated by NEDO)

  16. High-average-power diode-pumped Yb: YAG lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avizonis, P V; Beach, R; Bibeau, C M; Emanuel, M A; Harris, D G; Honea, E C; Monroe, R S; Payne, S A; Skidmore, J A; Sutton, S B

    1999-01-01

    A scaleable diode end-pumping technology for high-average-power slab and rod lasers has been under development for the past several years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This technology has particular application to high average power Yb:YAG lasers that utilize a rod configured gain element. Previously, this rod configured approach has achieved average output powers in a single 5 cm long by 2 mm diameter Yb:YAG rod of 430 W cw and 280 W q-switched. High beam quality (M(sup 2)= 2.4) q-switched operation has also been demonstrated at over 180 W of average output power. More recently, using a dual rod configuration consisting of two, 5 cm long by 2 mm diameter laser rods with birefringence compensation, we have achieved 1080 W of cw output with an M(sup 2) value of 13.5 at an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 27.5%. With the same dual rod laser operated in a q-switched mode, we have also demonstrated 532 W of average power with an M(sup 2) and lt; 2.5 at 17% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency. These q-switched results were obtained at a 10 kHz repetition rate and resulted in 77 nsec pulse durations. These improved levels of operational performance have been achieved as a result of technology advancements made in several areas that will be covered in this manuscript. These enhancements to our architecture include: (1) Hollow lens ducts that enable the use of advanced cavity architectures permitting birefringence compensation and the ability to run in large aperture-filling near-diffraction-limited modes. (2) Compound laser rods with flanged-nonabsorbing-endcaps fabricated by diffusion bonding. (3) Techniques for suppressing amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and parasitics in the polished barrel rods

  17. Nd:YAG laser in art works restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores, T.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser cleaning in works of art has a number of advantages over traditional techniques of restoration. In this article, the technique used and the physical mechanisms that explain the process of ablation of pollutants are described. The results obtained in the cleaning of statues of marble and alabaster are exposed as well as oil-painting restoration. In this last specific case, the Nd:YAG laser is used with successful results.

    La limpieza de obras de arte por láser presenta una serie de ventajas sobre técnicas tradicionales de restauración. En el presente trabajo se describen la técnica empleada y los mecanismos físicos que explican el proceso de ablación de contaminantes. Se reportan los resultados alcanzados en la limpieza de estatuas de mármol y alabastro, así como en la restauración de pintura al óleo. En este último caso, se emplea por primera vez el láser de Nd:YAG con resultados ventajosos.

  18. Intelligent monitoring of YAG laser welding on steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Shigetaka; Nagura, Yasumi; Ishide, Takashi; Nagashima, Tadashi; Akaba, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    The 'KASHIKOKI' intelligent device for monitoring the YAG laser welding of steam generator tubes is described in this paper. The 'KASHIKOKI', it monitors the series of six channels, for example, the reflected laser beam and the welding speed, etc. It learns the normal criteria and the anomalous criteria of welding, and discriminates between normal and anomalous welding using the learned criteria, and distinguishes the anomaly into several types. As the results of evaluation test, the degree of correspondence between this device and an expert is about 90%. This paper describes the new methods the multi-variate analysis model for discriminating between normal and anomalous welding, and a neural network model for distinguishing the types of anomaly. (author)

  19. Nd:YAG Lasers Treating of Carious Lesion and Root Canal In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danqing Xia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a transmissible bacterial disease process, with cavities at the end, and caused by acids from bacterial metabolism. The essence of dental treatment is to clean and disinfect bacterial contamination from the tooth. In this work, we tried to demonstrate the cleaning and disinfecting effects of Nd:YAG laser irradiation on dental carious lesion and root canal in vitro. Acousto-optic Q-switched quasicontinuous and Cr3+:YAG crystal Q-switched pulse Nd:YAG lasers were employed to treat caries lesion and the root canal, respectively. Results showed that acousto-optic Q-switched quasicontinuous Nd:YAG laser irradiation and Cr3+:YAG crystal Q-switched pulse Nd:YAG laser irradiation could rapidly clean decayed material and bacterial contamination from dental carious lesion and the narrow tail end of root canal with minimally invasive in vitro, respectively. It was concluded that acousto-optic Q-switched quasicontinuous laser irradiation may be a rapid and effective alternative caries treatment, and Cr3+:YAG crystal Q-switched pulse Nd:YAG laser irradiation may be an effective method for canal cleaning and disinfecting during root canal therapy.

  20. Noncontact Er:YAG laser ablation: clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostálová, T; Jelínková, H; Kucerová, H; Krejsa, O; Hamal, K; Kubelka, J; Procházka, S

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of laser ablation in comparison with the classical drilling preparation. For the experiment, the Er:YAG laser drilling machine was used. The system had a laser head, water cooler, and power supply with automatic control. Spot size of 300-350 microns was used for the preparation. Repetition rate of 1-4 Hz, and pulse energies of 100-400 mJ with water spray were chosen. Cavity shape in comparison with classical drill, time of preparation, and influence of cavity shape on filling materials retention in accordance with the U.S. Public Health Service System were used. The evaluation criteria for noncontact Er:YAG ablation were done. The cavity shape is irregular, but spot surface has larger area and microretentive appearance. Caries of enamel and dentin were treated with a noncontact preparation. It was possible to remove the old insufficient fillings, except for amalgam or metal alloys. The average number of pulses was 111.22 (SE 67.57). Vibrations of microexplosions during preparation were felt by patients on 14 cavities; however, nobody felt unpleasant pain. The qualities of filling materials in laser cavities were very stable; however, cavo surface margin discoloration of 82-86% of Alfa rating could be a problem. Changes of the color and anatomic form of the tooth were observed in 4-8%. In comparison with the classical treatment, it could be said that the retention and quality of filling materials is the same or very similar.

  1. High-power Nd:YAG lasers using stable-unstable resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Mudge, D; Ottaway, D J; Veitch, P J; Munch, J P; Hamilton, M W

    2002-01-01

    The development of a power-scalable diode-laser-pumped continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser for advanced long-baseline interferometric detectors of gravitational waves is described. The laser employs a chain of injection-locked slave lasers to yield an efficient, frequency-stable, diffraction-limited laser beam.

  2. Comparison of a novel high-power blue diode laser (λ=442 nm) with Ho:YAG (λ=2100 nm), Tm fiber (λ=1940 nm), and KTP (λ=532 nm) lasers for soft tissue ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnichenko, Victoriya; Kovalenko, Anastasiya; Arkhipova, Valeriya; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Altshuler, Gregory; Gapontsev, Valentin

    2018-02-01

    Three lasers were directly compared, including the Ho:YAG laser (λ = 2100 nm), Tm fiber laser (λ = 1940 nm) operating in 3 different modes (CW, regular pulse, and super pulse), and blue diode laser (λ = 442 nm) for vaporization and coagulation efficiency for treating blood-rich soft tissues, ex vivo, in a porcine kidney model at quasi-contact cutting in water. In addition, experimental results were compared with published data on performance of KTP laser (λ = 532 nm) at similar experimental settings (Power = 60 W and cutting speed = 2 mm/s). Tm fiber laser in pulsed mode and blue laser produced highest vaporization rates of 3.7 and 3.4 mm3/s, respectively. Tm fiber laser (in both CW and pulsed modes) also produced the largest coagulation zone among the laser sources tested. A carbonization zone was observed for Tm fiber laser in CW and pulsed modes, as well as for the blue diode laser. Tm fiber laser in super-pulse mode and Ho:YAG laser both resulted in irregular coagulation zones without carbonization. Comparison with known data for KTP laser revealed that tissue effects of the blue laser are similar to that of the KTP laser. These results suggest that the combination of the two lasers (Tm fiber and blue diode) in one system may achieve high cutting efficiency and optimal coagulation for hemostasis during surgical treatment. Ex vivo testing of the combined system revealed feasibility of this approach. The combination of the CW Tm fiber laser (120W) and the blue diode laser (60W) emitting through a combination tip were compared with CW 120 W Tm fiber laser alone and 120 W Ho:YAG laser. Vaporization rates measured 34, 28, and 6 mm3/s, and coagulation zones measured 0.6, 1.3, and 1.7 mm, respectively. A carbonization zone was only observed with CW Tm fiber laser. The vaporization rate of combined CW Tm fiber laser / blue diode laser was comparable to published data for KTP laser for equivalent total power. Thus, high-power blue diode laser, Tm fiber laser, and

  3. Femtosecond laser inscribed cladding waveguides in Nd:YAG ceramics: fabrication, fluorescence imaging and laser performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongliang; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier Rodríguez; Jaque, Daniel; Chen, Feng

    2012-08-13

    We report on the fabrication of depressed cladding waveguide lasers in Nd:YAG (neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet, Nd:Y3Al5O12) ceramics microstructured by femtosecond laser pulses. Full control over the confined light spatial distribution is demonstrated by the fabrication of high contrast waveguides with hexagonal, circular and trapezoidal configurations. The confocal fluorescence measurements of the waveguides reveal that the original luminescence features of Nd3+ ions are well-preserved in the waveguide regions. Under optical pump at 808 nm, cladding waveguides showed continuous wave efficient laser oscillation. The maximum output power obtained at 1064.5 nm is ~181 mW with a slope efficiency as high as 44%, which suggests that the fabricated Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides are promising candidates for efficient integrated laser sources.

  4. Laser vapor phase deposition of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlov, N.V.; Luk' ianchuk, B.S.; Sisakian, E.V.; Shafeev, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    The pyrolytic effect of IR laser radiation is investigated with reference to the initiation and control of the vapor phase deposition of semiconductor films. By selecting the gas mixture composition and laser emission parameters, it is possible to control the deposition and crystal formation processes on the surface of semiconductors, with the main control action achieved due to the nonadiabatic kinetics of reactions in the gas phase and high temperatures in the laser heating zone. This control mechanism is demonstrated experimentally during the laser vapor deposition of germanium and silicon films from tetrachlorides on single-crystal Si and Ge substrates. 5 references.

  5. Improvement of the technique in treatment of internal hemorrhoids with Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiao-qing; Zhu, Jing; Shi, Hong-Min

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To observe and study the improvement of the technique in treatment of internal hemorrhoids with Nd:YAG laser and evaluate the effective rate. Methods: 60 patients of internal hemorrhoids were treated with Nd:YAG laser (10-15mw) irradiating on the mucosa of the lesions. Results: Among 60 patients, 57 patients were primarily cured with one treatment, 3 patients were primarily cured with two treatments. The effective rate was 95% with one treatment, and it reached to 100% with two treatments. Conclusions: the improvement of the technique in treatment of internal hemorrhoids with Nd:YAG laser is effective and easy to operate.

  6. Successful treatment of acne keloidalis nuchae with erbium:YAG laser: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamil, Hend D; Khater, Elsayed M; Khattab, Fathia M; Khalil, Mona A

    2018-05-14

    Acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN) is a chronic inflammatory disease involving hair follicles of the neck. It is a form of keloidal scarring alopecia that is often refractory to medical or surgical management. To evaluate the efficacy of Er:YAG laser in the treatment of AKN as compared to long pulsed Nd:YAG laser. This study was conducted on 30 male patients with AKN. Their ages ranged from 19 to 47 years with a mean age of 36.87 ± 7.8 years. Patients were divided randomly into two groups of 15 patients, each receiving six sessions of either Er:YAG or long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser therapy. A statistically significant decrease in the number of papules was detected at the end of therapy in both groups, with a mean of 91.8% improvement in the Er:YAG group versus 88% in the Nd:YAG group. A significant decrease in plaques count was detected only in the Er: YAG group while a significant decrease in plaques size and consistency was recorded in both groups. The Er: YAG laser proved to be a potentially effective and safe modality both in the early and late AKN lesions.

  7. Shift and broadening of emission lines in Nd 3: YAG laser crystal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 6. Shift and broadening of emission lines in Nd3+:YAG laser crystal influenced by input energy. POURMAND SEYED EBRAHIM REZAEI ... Keywords. Nd3+:YAG crystal; heat generation; three-level emission lines; four-level emission lines; input energy.

  8. Low-Cost Real-Time Gas Monitoring Using a Laser Plasma Induced by a Third Harmonic Q-Switched Nd-YAG Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrun Nur Abdulmadjid

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A gas plasma induced by a third harmonic Nd-YAG laser with relatively low pulsed energy (about 10 mJ has favorable characteristics for gas analysis due to its low background characteristics, nevertheless a high power fundamental Nd-YAG laser (100-200 mJ is widely used for laser gas breakdown spectroscopy. The air plasma can be used as a low-cost real-time gas monitoring system such that it can be used to detect the local absolute humidity, while a helium plasma can be used for gas analysis with a high level of sensitivity. A new technique using a helium plasma to improve laser ablation emission spectroscopy is proposed. Namely, the third harmonic Nd-YAG laser is focused at a point located some distance from the target in the 1-atm helium surrounding gas. By using this method, the ablated vapor from the target is excited through helium atoms in a metastable state in the helium plasma.

  9. Segmental irradiation of the bladder with neodymium YAG laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, M.S.; Mador, D.R.; Tulip, J.; Ritchie, B.; Moore, R.; Lakey, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    The Neodymium YAG laser energy source can be readily adapted for cystoscopic use by some simple modifications of existing urologic equipment. Both the fiberoptic resectoscope and a deflecting cystourethroscope have been adapted for this purpose. Fixation of the fiber tip 1 cm. from the target and use of a divergent beam of 36 degrees allows the delivery of standardized dosage to a relatively large bladder tissue volume. Animal experiments involving 35 mongrel dogs established that repetitive overlapping doses of 200 joules ech can successfully treat a large area of bladder resulting in a full thickness bladder wall injury. This technique has been used in 4 high risk patients with infiltrating bladder cancer without adverse sequelae. The ability to reliably produce a full thickness lesion may give this modality a therapeutic advantage over conventional cautery techniques especially for the treatment of residual infiltrative carcinoma

  10. Combination of CO2 and Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers is more effective than Q-switched Nd:YAG laser alone for eyebrow tattoo removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmanesh, Mohammad; Rafiei, Zohreh

    2015-04-01

    The eyebrow tattoo removal using Q-switched lasers is usually prolonged. Other modalities may be required to enhance the efficacy and shorten the treatment course. To compare the efficacy of Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser alone versus combination of Q-switched Nd:YAG and Ultrapulse CO2 lasers for eyebrow tattoo removal after a single session. After local anesthesia, the right eyebrow of 20 patients was treated with Ultrapulse CO2 laser with the parameters of 4 J/cm(2) and 3.2 J/cm(2) for the first and the second passes. Both eyebrows were then treated with 1064-nm and 532-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The spot size and pulse duration were 3 mm and 5 nanoseconds for both wavelengths, and the fluence was 7 J/cm(2) for 1064 nm and 3 J/cm (2) for 532 nm. The side treated with combination of Q-switched Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers improved 75-100% in 6 of 20 patients versus only 1 of 20 in the side treated with Q-switched Nd:YAG alone. Similarly, the right side in 13 of 20 patients showed more than 50% improvement with combination therapy versus the left side (the monotherapy side), where only 6 of 20 cases showed more than 50% improvement. The Mann-Whitney test was 2.85 for the right side and 1.95 for the left side (P value = 0.007). Using Ultra pulse CO2 laser enhances the efficacy of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in eyebrow tattoo removal.

  11. Effects of neodymium concentration on optical characteristics of polycrystalline Nd:YAG laser materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikesue, A.; Kamata, K.; Yoshida, K.

    1996-01-01

    A neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum garnet (Y 3 Al 5 O 12 , YAG) (Nd:YAG) ceramic that contained 0.3--4.8 at.% neodymium additives and exhibited nearly the same optical properties as those of a single crystal was fabricated by a solid-state reaction method using high-purity powders. Although the integrated absorption intensity of the 2 H 9/2 + 4 F 5/2 bands simply increased as the neodymium concentration in the YAG ceramics decreased, the fluorescence intensity of the 2.4 at.% Nd:YAG ceramic was the strongest among Nd:YAG ceramics with various neodymium concentrations and a 0.9 at.% Nd:YAG single crystal. An oscillation experiment was performed on a continuous-wave (cw) laser with a diode-laser exciting system using those ceramics and the single crystal. The oscillation threshold and slope efficiency in that analysis were 309 mW and 28%, respectively, for the 1.1 at.% Nd:YAG ceramics and 356 mW and 40%, respectively, for the 2.4 at.% Nd:YAG ceramics. The lasing characteristics of the ceramics in the present work were superior to those of a 0.9 at.% Nd:YAG single crystal that was fabricated by the Czochralski (Cz) method

  12. An actively mode-locked Ho: YAG solid laser pumped by a Tm: YLF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, B Q; Cui, Z; Wang, J; Duan, X M; Dai, T Y; Du, Y Q; Yuan, J H; Liu, W

    2015-01-01

    A continuous wave mode-locked (CWML) Ho: YAG laser based on an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) pumped by a 1.9 μm Tm: YLF laser is demonstrated. This is the first time a report on an active CWML Ho: YAG laser has been published. A maximum output power of 1.04 W at 2097.25 nm in the CWML regime is obtained at a pump power of 13.2 W, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 13.3%. The mode-locked pulse repetition frequency is 82.76 MHz and the single pulse energy is 12.57 nJ. The mode-locked pulse width is 102 ps measured through a no-background second harmonic autocorrelation with KTP as the nonlinear crystal. Furthermore, the M 2 factor is calculated to be 1.146. (letter)

  13. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    CERN Document Server

    Olivares, I E

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the sup 6 LiD sub 2 and the sup 7 LiD sub 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  14. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, I.E.; Rojas, C.

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the 6 LiD 2 and the 7 LiD 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  15. Atomic-vapor-laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.I.

    1982-10-01

    This paper gives a brief history of the scientific considerations leading to the development of laser isotope separation (LIS) processes. The close relationship of LIS to the broader field of laser-induced chemical processes is evaluated in terms of physical criteria to achieve an efficient production process. Atomic-vapor LIS processes under development at Livermore are reviwed. 8 figures

  16. Performance and safety of holmium: YAG laser optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Bodo E; Glickman, Randolph D; Stallman, Kenneth J; Maswadi, Saher; Chew, Ben H; Beiko, Darren T; Denstedt, John D; Teichman, Joel M H

    2005-11-01

    Lower-pole ureteronephroscopy requires transmission of holmium:YAG energy along a deflected fiber. Current ureteroscopes are capable of high degrees of deflection, which may stress laser fibers beyond safe limits during lower-pole use. We hypothesized that optical fiber and safety measures differ among manufacturers. Small (200-273-microm) and medium-diameter (300-400-microm) Ho:YAG fibers were tested in a straight and 180 degrees bent configuration. Energy transmission was measured by an energy detector. Fiber durability was assessed by firing the laser in sequentially tighter bending diameters. The fibers were bent to 180 degrees with a diameter of 6 cm and run at 200- to 4000-mJ pulse energy to determine the minimum energy required to fracture the fiber. The bending diameter was decreased by 1-cm increments and testing repeated until a bending diameter of 1 cm was reached. The maximum deflection of the ACMI DUR-8E ureteroscope with each fiber in the working channel was recorded. The flow rate through the working channel of the DUR-8E was measured for each fiber. The mean energy transmission differed among fibers (P < 0.001). The Lumenis SL 200 and the InnovaQuartz 400 were the best small and medium-diameter fibers, respectively, in resisting thermal breakdown (P < 0.01). The Dornier Lightguide Super 200 fractured repeatedly at a bend diameter of 2 cm and with the lowest energy (200 mJ). The other small fibers fractured only at a bend diameter of 1 cm. The Sharplan 200 and InnovaQuartz Sureflex 273T were the most flexible fibers, the Lumenis SL 365 the least. The flow rate was inversely proportional to four times the power of the diameter of the fiber. Optical performance and safety differ among fibers. Fibers transmit various amounts of energy to their cladding when bent. During lower-pole nephroscopy with the fiber deflected, there is a risk of fiber fracture from thermal breakdown and laser-energy transmission to the endoscope. Some available laser fibers

  17. Er:YAG Laser Dental Treatment of Patients Affected by Epidermolysis Bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Galeotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Er:YAG laser used for treating hard dental tissue in patients with epidermolysis bullosa (EB. Methods. We report two cases of EB in which an Er:YAG laser was used for conservative treatments. In the first case, the Er:YAG laser (2,940 μm, 265 mJ, 25 Hz was used to treat caries on a deciduous maxillary canine in an 8-year-old male patient affected by dystrophic EB. In the second case, we treated a 26-year-old female patient, affected by junctional EB, with generalized enamel hypoplasia, and an Er:YAG laser (2,940 μm, 265 mJ, 25 Hz was used to remove the damaged enamel on maxillary incisors. Results. The use of the Er:YAG laser, with the appropriate energy, was effective in the selective removal of carious tissue and enamel hypoplasia. During dental treatment with the Er:YAG laser, patients required only a few interruptions due to the absence of pain, vibration, and noise. Conclusions. Laser treatment of hard dental tissues is a valuable choice for patients affected by EB since it is less invasive compared to conventional treatment, resulting in improved patient compliance.

  18. Continuous-wave ceramic Nd:YAG laser at 1123 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S S; Wang, Q P; Zhang, X Y; Cong, Z H; Fan, S Z; Liu, Z J; Sun, W J

    2009-01-01

    Ceramic Nd:YAG (cNd:YAG) materials are employed to generate 1123-nm laser. A fiber-coupled continuous-wave (CW) 808-nm diode laser is used as the pumping source. With an incident diode power of 26.1 W, a CW output power of up to 10.8 W is obtained with a 10-mm-long ceramic Nd:YAG rod (1.0 at.%-Nd-doped). The conversion efficiency from diode power to 1123-nm laser power is 41.4%. The laser performance of another 10-mm-long cNd:YAG rod with a Nd-doping concentration of 0.6 at.% is studied as a comparison

  19. Marginal microleakage in vitro study on class V cavities prepared with Er:YAG laser and etched with acid or etched with Er:YAG laser and acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Henrique Dutra Simoes

    2001-01-01

    Microleakage at the interface between the teeth and the restorative materials remains a problem with composite resin restorations. Microleakage at the gingival margins of class V cavities restorations still challenge as they are usually placed in dentin and/or cementum. Previous studies have shown that the cavity preparation with Er:YAG laser is possible. It has been reported that Er:YAG laser has ability to create irregular surface providing micromechanical retention for adhesive dental restorative materials and to improve marginal sealing. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal microleakage on class V cavities prepared with Er:YAG laser and etched with acid or with Er:YAG laser and acid, in compared to those prepared and etched conventionally. Thirty human molars were divided into three groups, namely: group I - prepared with Er:YAG laser (KaVo KEY Laser II - Germany) and etched with 37% phosphoric acid; group II - prepared with Er:YAG laser and etched with Er:YAG laser and 37% phosphoric acid; group III (control group) - prepared with high speed drill and etched with 37% phosphoric acid. All cavities were treated with same adhesive system (Single Bond - 3M) and restored with the composite resin (Z100 - 3M), according to the manufacturer's instructions. The specimens were stored at 37 deg C in water for 24 hours, polished with Sof-Lex discs (3M), thermally stressed, sealed with a nail polish coating except for the area of the restoration and 1 mm around it, and immersed in a 50% aqueous solution of silver nitrate for 24 hours. After that, the specimens were rinsed in water, soaked in a photodeveloping solution and exposed to a fluorescent light for 8 hours. The teeth were embedded in an autopolymerizing resin and sectioned longitudinally using a diamond saw microtome under running water. The sections were photographed. The microleakage at the occlusal cavity and at the gingival margins of each specimen was evaluated with scores (0-3) by

  20. Q-switched pulse laser generation from double-cladding Nd:YAG ceramics waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yang; Luan, Qingfang; Liu, Fengqin; Chen, Feng; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier Rodríguez

    2013-08-12

    This work reports on the Q-switched pulsed laser generation from double-cladding Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides. Double-cladding waveguides with different combination of diameters were inscribed into a sample of Nd:YAG ceramic. With an additional semiconductor saturable absorber, stable pulsed laser emission at the wavelength of 1064 nm was achieved with pulses of 21 ns temporal duration and ~14 μJ pulse energy at a repetition rate of 3.65 MHz.

  1. In vitro study of the variable square pulse Er:YAG laser cutting efficacy for apicectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgurević, Josko; Grgurević, Lovro; Miletić, Ivana; Karlović, Zoran; Krmek, Silvana Jukić; Anić, Ivica

    2005-06-01

    Variable square pulse (VSP) Er:YAG laser should be quicker than older Er:YAG lasers. The objectives were: (1) comparison of VSP laser and mechanical handpiece efficacy for apicectomy and (2) determination of optimal pulse width/energy/frequency combination. Sixty extracted, single-rooted mature human teeth with round apical parts were instrumented, root filled, cleaned, and divided into four groups. Apical 2 mm of each root were apicectomized with mechanical handpiece and Er:YAG laser with three different settings (LaserA = 200 mJ/300 microseconds/ 8 Hz; LaserB = 200 mJ/100 microseconds/8 Hz; LaserC = 380 mJ/100 microseconds/20 Hz). Timing results were statistically compared. LaserC was the most efficient setting. Differences between groups were significant except between LaserC-Mechanical and LaserA-LaserC (P < 0.05). VSP Er:YAG laser used for apicectomy is slower by a factor of 7-31 than mechanical handpiece, but treatment outcome is acceptable. Optimal settings for apicectomy with VSP laser are 380 mJ/100 microseconds/20 Hz. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Nd:YAG laser for epithelial ingrowth after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Osama Ali; Mounir, Amr; Hassan, Amin Aboali; Alsmman, Alahmady Hamad; Mostafa, Engy Mohamed

    2018-05-04

    To evaluate the efficacy of neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser for treatment of epithelial ingrowth after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Fifty-eight patients with epithelial ingrowth presented to Sohag refractive center, Sohag, Egypt, between January 2015 and March 2017. Only 41 patients (18 females and 23 males, mean age: 33.4 years) involving 41 eyes were indicated for treatment by Nd:YAG laser as the rest of the eyes were only under observation. Patients with epithelial ingrowth were recognized at a mean of 6 months after primary LASIK procedure (range: 2-16 months). Four eyes had undergone previous LASIK enhancements. Four eyes had the epithelial ingrowth removed by flap lift and scrapping. The mean intensity of the spots used was 0.8 mJ with variable number of shots depending on the size and density of the epithelial ingrowth area. Twenty-eight eyes showed complete regression after one session, while the rest necessitated 2-3 sessions for complete resolution. Mean follow-up period was 8 months (range 5-12 months). Epithelial ingrowth was treated successfully in all 41 eyes. The uncorrected visual acuities were 20/20, and there was no evidence of recurrent epithelial ingrowth after 6 months with no complications reported. YAG laser is a simple, effective outpatient procedure for the management of epithelial ingrowth after LASIK.

  3. High-power pulsed and CW diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Larry R.; Hays, A. D.; Kaz, Alex; Kasinski, Jeff; Burnham, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The operation of both pulsed and CW diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers are presented. The pulsed laser produced 1.0 mJ with pulsewidths of 90 psec at 20 Hz. The CW pumped laser produced 6 W output at 1.064 microns and 3 W output at 532 nm.

  4. Efficient delivery of 60 J pulse energy of long pulse Nd:YAG laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... Most of today's industrial Nd:YAG lasers use fibre-optic beam delivery. ... optical fibre and successfully delivered up to 60 J of pulse energy with .... and electrical pump input to laser output conversion efficiency is about 5%. ... [3] W Koechner, Solid state laser engineering, 5th edn (Springer, Berlin, 1999).

  5. Combined pulsed dye laser and fiberoptic Nd-YAG laser for the treatment of hypertrophic port wine stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmanesh, Mohammed; Radmanesh, Ramin

    2017-10-01

    The hypertrophic Port Wine Stain (PWS) is only partially and superficially treated with the Pulsed dye laser (PDL) because of its limited depth of penetration. We used combined PDL and fiberoptic 1444-nm Nd-YAG laser to treat a case with hypertrophic PWS. After tumescent anesthesia, few holes were made by a 16-gauge needle on different sides of the lesion. The fiberoptic tip of 1444-nm Nd-YAG laser was inserted within the holes and was pushed forward while triggering. In a fan pattern and by a back and forth movement, the subcutaneous and deep dermal areas were coagulated. The skin and outer mucosal surfaces were then treated by PDL. The fiberoptic system used was Accusculpt 1444-nm Nd-YAG laser (Lutronic lasers, South Korea), and the PDL used was 585 nm Nlite system (Chromogenex UK). The parameters used for PDL were fluence = 9 Joules/cm 2 and the spot size was 5 mm. The parameters used for fiberoptic 1444-nm Nd-YAG laser were: Pulse rate = 30 Hz, pulse energy = 300 mJ, power = 6 W, and the total energy = 4000 J for the whole face and mucosa. Little sign of regression and moderate purpura were detected immediately after combined fiberoptic Nd-YAG and PDL therapy. The lesion gradually regressed within 4 months with satisfactory color and volume change. Combined fiberoptic Nd-YAG laser and PDL can be used for the treatment of deeper and superficial layers of hypertrophic PWS.

  6. Vapor-melt Ratio in Laser Fine Cutting of Slot Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuyue; Meng Qingxuan; Kang Renke; Xu Wenji; Guo Dongming; Wang Lianji

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve cut quality for slot arrays, a new method of laser fine cutting under the consideration of the ratio of vapor to melt is presented. Laser cutting of 6063 aluminum alloy sheet, 0.5 mm in thickness, was carried out on a JK701H Nd:YAG pulse laser cutting system. The effects of vapor-melt ratio on kerf width, surface roughness and recast layer were studied which relate cutting qualities. Observation on the cut samples with different vapor-melt ratios (0.687, 1.574, 3.601 varied with laser power increasing, and 1.535, 3.601, 7.661 with decreasing of beam cutting speed) shows that high vapor-melt ratio improves laser cut quality clearly. Kerf width 0.2 mm of smooth area on kerf top area and thickness 2.03 μm of recast layer are obtained. No dross was found on the kerf bottom and the percentage of the smooth area is up to 40% out of whole kerf side. The research on vapor-melt ratio provides a deeper understanding of laser cutting and improves laser cut quality effectively.

  7. UNS S32750 super duplex steel welding using pulsed Nd:YAG laser; Soldagem do aco superduplex UNS S32750 com laser pulsado Nd:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francini, O.D.; Andrade, G.G.; Clemente, M.S.; Gallego, J.; Ventrella, V.A., E-mail: ventrella@dem.feis.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2016-07-01

    Laser is a flexible and powerful tool with many relevant applications in industry, mainly in the welding area. Lasers today provide the welding industry technical solutions to many problems. This work studied the weld metal obtained by pulsed laser welding of Nd: YAG super duplex stainless steel UNS S32750 employed in the oil and natural gas, analyzing the influence of high cooling rate, due to the laser process, the swing phase ferrite / austenite. Were performed weld beads in butt joint with different repetition rates. The different microstructures were obtained by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the effect of varying the welding energy of Nd: YAG laser on the volume fractions of the phases ferrite/austenite in the weld metal was its ferritization and low austenite amount on the grain boundary. (author)

  8. Characterization of Stone Cleaning by Nd:YAG Lasers with Different Pulse Duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, L.; Siano, S.; Salimbeni, R.; Pouli, P.; Fotakis, C.

    2006-01-01

    The present work is a comparative study on the laser cleaning of stonework using Nd:YAG lasers at different pulse durations. The ablation rate, the degree of cleaning, and the appearance of the treated surface were studied irradiating a simulated sample and a real stone artefact using three different Nd:YAG laser systems with pulse duration of 90 microseconds, 15 nanoseconds, and 150 picoseconds. To our knowledge, the picosecond laser is here used for the first time in stone conservation. Differences in efficiency and in cleaning result are shown and discussed.

  9. Moderate high power 1 to 20μs and kHz Ho:YAG thin disk laser pulses for laser lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Günther

    2015-02-01

    An acousto-optically or self-oscillation pulsed thin disk Ho:YAG laser system at 2.1 μm with an average power in the 10 W range will be presented for laser lithotripsy. In the case of cw operation the thin disk Ho:YAG is either pumped with InP diode stacks or with a thulium fiber laser which leads to a laser output power of 20 W at an optical-to-optical efficiency of 30%. For the gain switched mode of operation a modulated Tm-fiber laser is used to produce self-oscillation pulses. A favored pulse lengths for uric acid stone ablation is known to be at a few μs pulse duration which can be delivered by the thin disk laser technology. In the state of the art laser lithotripter, stone material is typically ablated with 250 to 750 μs pulses at 5 to 10 Hz and with pulse energies up to a few Joule. The ablation mechanism is performed in this case by vaporization into stone dust and fragmentation. With the thin disk laser technology, 1 to 20 μs-laser pulses with a repetition rate of a few kHz and with pulse energies in the mJ-range are available. The ablation mechanism is in this case due to a local heating of the stone material with a decomposition of the crystalline structure into calcium carbonate powder which can be handled by the human body. As a joint process to this thermal effect, imploding water vapor bubbles between the fiber end and the stone material produce sporadic shock waves which help clear out the stone dust and biological material.

  10. Management of intermittent angle closure glaucoma with Nd: yag laser iridotomy as a primary procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and complications of Nd: YAG laser iridotomy in patients with intermittent (sub-acute) angle closure glaucoma. Twenty-five eyes of twenty-three patients with periodic (intermittent) angle closure, selected in outpatient department, were kept on pilocarpine until YAG laser iridotomy was performed. After YAG laser iridotomy oral acetazolamide and topical dexamethasone was used to control post laser rise of IOP and inflammation respectively. Patency of iridotomy was confirmed and intra-ocular pressure was measured one hour after the procedure. Immediate complication, if any, was noted. Follow-up was done for six months. Prophylactic laser iridotomy was done in fellow eye with occludable angle. Levene's test for equality of variance and t-test for equality of means were used for statistical analysis. This study revealed a significant difference in IOP before and after YAG laser iridotomy (p = .002). Complete follow-up of 6 months was possible in 25 eyes of 23 subjects. After YAG Laser iridotomy, 21 (84%) eyes showed negative provocative test, intraocular pressure below 19mm Hg without medication and anterior chamber angle no more occludable and were labeled successful. Iridotomy remained patent in 96% of eyes. Iridotomy failed to reduce IOP in 4 (16%) eyes. The complications were minimal and transient. (author)

  11. Histologic evaluation of laser lipolysis: pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser versus cw 980-nm diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordon, Serge; Eymard-Maurin, Anne Françoise; Wassmer, Benjamin; Ringot, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The use of the laser as an auxiliary tool has refined the traditional technique for lipoplasty. During laser lipolysis, the interaction between the laser and the fat produced direct cellular destruction before the suction, reduced bleeding, and promoted skin tightening. This study sought to perform a comparative histologic evaluation of laser lipolysis with the pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser versus a continuous 980-nm diode laser. A pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG (Smart-Lipo; Deka, Italy) and a CW 980-nm diode laser (Pharaon, Osyris, France) were evaluated at different energy settings for lipolysis on the thighs of a fresh cadaver. The lasers were coupled to a 600-microm optical fiber inserted in a 1-mm diameter cannula. Biopsy specimens were taken on irradiated and non-irradiated areas. Hematoxylin-erythrosin-safran staining and immunostaining (anti-PS100 polyclonal antibody) were performed to identify fat tissue damage. In the absence of laser exposures (control specimens), cavities created by cannulation were seen; adipocytes were round in appearance and not deflated. At low energy settings, tumescent adipocytes were observed. At higher energy settings, cytoplasmic retraction, disruption of membranes, and heat-coagulated collagen fibers were noted; coagulated blood cells were also present. For the highest energy settings, carbonization of fat tissue involving fibers and membranes was clearly seen. For equivalent energy settings, 1064-nm and 980-nm wavelengths gave similar histologic results. Laser lipolysis is a relatively new technique that is still under development. Our histologic findings suggest several positive benefits of the laser, including skin retraction and a reduction in intraoperative bleeding. The interaction of the laser with the tissue is similar at 980 nm and 1064 nm with the same energy settings. Because higher volumes of fat are removed with higher total energy, a high-power 980-nm diode laser could offer an interesting alternative to the 1064-nm Nd:YAG

  12. Localization of the pumping reflector for a Nd:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Suk; Kim, Chul Joong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    For the first year plan of this program, the pumping reflectors, which are gold plated reflectors and ceramic diffuse reflectors, of the Nd:YAG laser have been localized. The laser output performances with these reflectors have been investigated. Developed reflectors can be applied successfully to our commercialized Nd:YAG laser which was worked in previous project. We designed the optical pumping system with GaAlAs diode laser bar to improve the pumping efficiency. Moreover, we investigated a simple pumping technique without changing the fleshlamp, which makes the Nd:YAG laser operate in a cw, a pulsed, and a mixed of the two mode. We expert many new applications of this diversification of output pulse shapes in industry and in medicine. 38 figs, 9 tabs, 18 refs. (Author).

  13. Biophysical considerations for optimizing energy delivery during Erbium:YAG laser vitreoretinal surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jeffrey W.; Bochow, Thomas W.; Kim, Rosa Y.; D'Amico, Donald J.

    1996-05-01

    Er:YAG laser-mediated tissue disruption and removal results from both direct ablation and the acousto-mechanical sequelae of explosive vaporization of the tissue water. We investigated the scaling laws for photoablative and photodisruptive interactions, and interpret these results towards optimizing energy delivery for vitreoretinal surgical maneuvers. Experimental studies were performed with a free-running Er:YAG laser (100 - 300 microseconds FWHM, 0.5 - 20 mJ, 1 - 30 Hz). Energy was delivered by fiberoptic to a custom-made handpiece with a 75 - 600 micrometer quartz tip, and applied to excised, en bloc samples of bovine vitreous or model systems of saline solution. Sample temperature was measured with 33 gauge copper- constantan thermocouples. Expansion and collapse of the bubble following explosive vaporization of tissue water was optically detected. The bubble size was calculated from the period of the bubble oscillation and known material properties. A model for bubble expansion is presented based on energy principles and adiabatic gas expansion. Pressure transients associated with bubble dynamics are estimated following available experimental and analytical data. The temperature rise in vitreous and model systems depends on the pulse energy and repetition rate, but is independent of the probe-tip diameter at constant laser power; at moderate repetition rates, the temperature rise depends only on the total energy (mJ) delivered. The maximum bubble diameter increases as the cube root of the pulse energy with a reverberation period of 110 microseconds and a maximum bubble diameter of 1.2 mm following one mJ delivery to saline through a 100 micrometer tip. Our modeling studies generate predictions similar to experimental data and predicts that the maximum bubble diameter increases as the cube root of the pulse energy. We demonstrate that tissue ablation depends on radiant exposure (J/cm2), while temperature rise, bubble size, and pressure depends on total pulse

  14. 10-kW-class YAG laser application for heavy components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishide, Takashi; Tsubota, S.; Nayama, Michisuke; Shimokusu, Yoshiaki; Nagashima, Tadashi; Okimura, K.

    2000-02-01

    The authors have put the YAG laser of the kW class to practical use for repair welding of nuclear power plant steam generator heat exchanger tubes, all-position welding of pipings, etc. This paper describes following developed methods and systems of high power YAG laser processing. First, we apply the 6 kW to 10 kW YAG lasers for welding and cutting in heavy components. The beam guide systems we have used are optical fibers which core diameter is 0.6 mm to 0.8 mm and its length is 200 m as standard one. Using these system, we can get the 1 pass penetration of 15 mm to 20 mm and multi pass welding for more thick plates. Cutting of 100 mm thickness plate data also described for dismantling of nuclear power plants. In these systems we carried out the in-process monitoring by using CCD camera image processing and monitoring fiber which placed coaxial to the YAG optical lens system. In- process monitoring by the monitoring fiber, we measured the light intensity from welding area. Further, we have developed new hybrid welding with the TIG electrode at the center of lens for high power. The hybrid welding with TIG-YAG system aims lightening of welding groove allowances and welding of high quality. Through these techniques we have applied 7 kW class YAG laser for welding in the components of nuclear power plants.

  15. Carbon dioxide laser versus erbium:YAG laser in treatment of epidermal verrucous nevus: a comparative randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mai Abdel Raouf; Kassab, Ahmed Nazmi

    2017-08-01

    A verrucous epidermal nevus (VEN) is a skin disorder that has been treated using different treatment modalities with varying results. Ablative lasers such as carbon dioxide laser (CO 2 ) and erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser have been considered as the gold standard for the treatment of epidermal nevi. To evaluate and compare the efficacy, postoperative wound healing and side effects of pulsed CO 2 laser and Er:YAG laser for the treatment of verrucous epidermal nevi. Twenty patients with localized VEN were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 was administered CO 2 laser and group 2 underwent Er:YAG laser treatment. A blinded physician evaluated the photographs and dermoscopic photomicrographs for the efficacy and possible side effects. All patients received one treatment session and were followed up over a 6-month period. Both lasers induced noticeable clinical improvement, but there were no significant differences between two lasers in treatment response, patient satisfaction, duration of erythema and side effects. The average time to re-epithelialization was 13.5 days with CO 2 and 7.9 days with Er:YAG laser (plaser group and no lesional recurrence was detected in CO 2 laser group since treatment. Apart from re-epithelialization, both lasers showed equivalent outcomes with respect to treatment response, patient satisfaction, side effects and complications.

  16. Er:YAG Laser and Fractured Incisor Restorations: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fornaini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of an Er:YAG laser on enamel and dentine in cases of dental restorations involving fractured teeth, utilizing the dental fragment. Materials and Methods. Seventy-two freshly extracted bovine incisors were fractured at the coronal level by using a hammer applied with a standardized method, and the fragment was reattached by using three different methods: Er:YAG laser, orthophosphoric acid, and laser plus acid. The different groups were evaluated by a test realized with the dynamometer to know the force required to successfully detach the reattached fragment and by a microinfiltration test by using a 0.5% methylene blue solution followed by the optic microscope observation. Results. The compression test showed only a slight difference between the three groups, without any statistical significance. The infiltration test used to evaluate the marginal seal between the fracture fragment and the tooth demonstrated that etching with Er:YAG laser alone or in combination with orthophosphoric acid gives better results than orthophosphoric acid alone, with a highly significant statistical result. Discussion. Reattaching a tooth fragment represents a clinically proven methodology, in terms of achieving resistance to detachment, and the aim of this work was to demonstrate the advantages of Er:YAG laser on this procedure. Conclusion. This “in vitro” study confirms that Er:YAG laser can be employed in dental traumatology to restore frontal teeth after coronal fracture.

  17. Evaluation of the cavity margins after Er:YAG laser ablation of the enamel and dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Krejsa, Otakar; Jelinkova, Helena; Hamal, Karel

    1994-12-01

    This study investigates the checks of cavity margin after enamel and dentin ablation. The Er:YAG laser enamel and dentin ablation can be directly connected with the danger of cracks originating in the enamel near the cavity. This study evaluates the quality of the enamel edges after Er:YAG laser preparation. The enamel and dentin of buccal surfaces were ablated by the Er:YAG laser radiation. An Erbium:YAG laser system with the energy of 200 mJ was used to generate 200 microsecond(s) long pulses of mid-infrared 2.94 micrometers light in multimode configuration. The laser was operating in a free running mode, the repetition rate being 0.5 Hz with average laser power of 100 mW. Laser radiation was focused on the tooth tissue. Water cooling was used during the procedure in order to prevent tooth tissue destruction. The time of laser preparation was 5 minutes. A cavity of class V was prepared. The teeth were immersed into 0.5% basic fuchsin and then centrifuged at 6000 rev/min for 20 minutes. The microphotographs of the margins stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin were made and then the longitudinal section of the teeth were evaluated. The micrographs of the longitudinal section were checked and measured afterwards. The effect of the investigated laser irradiation on the origin of cracks was analyzed in the scanning electron microscope. Micrographs of each tooth before and after the laser ablation were compared. Micrographs of the intact teeth after extraction present the cracks of the enamel. They depend on the pressure exerted during extraction. The influence of the laser ablation proper is it bears no signs of new cracks. The conclusions of this study demonstrate the non-invasive nature of the Er:YAG laser ablation of the hard dental tissues.

  18. 885-nm laser diode array pumped ceramic Nd:YAG master oscillator power amplifier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Li, Steven X.; Stephen, Mark A.; Seas, Antonios; Troupaki, Elisavet; Vasilyev, Aleksey; Conley, Heather; Filemyr, Tim; Kirchner, Cynthia; Rosanova, Alberto

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop more reliable, higher efficiency diode pumped Nd:YAG laser systems for space applications by leveraging technology investments from the DoD and other commercial industries. Our goal is to design, build, test and demonstrate the effectiveness of combining 885 nm laser pump diodes and the use of ceramic Nd:YAG for future flight missions. The significant reduction in thermal loading on the gain medium by the use of 885 nm pump lasers will improve system efficiency.

  19. Diode-pumped continuous-wave eye-safe Nd:YAG laser at 1415 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Chul; Byeon, Sung Ug; Lukashev, Alexei

    2012-04-01

    We describe the output performance of the 1415 nm emission in Nd:YAG in a plane-concave cavity under traditional pumping into the 4F5/2 level (808 nm) and direct in-band pumping into the 4F3/2 level (885 nm). An end-pumped Nd:YAG laser yielded maximum cw output power of 6.3 W and 4.2 W at 885 nm and 808 nm laser diode (LD) pumping, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power of a LD-pumped 1415 nm laser.

  20. Nd-YAG laser treatment in a patient with complicated pilonidal cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Christine S; Lindholt, Jes S.; Lindholt, Jan

    2009-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman with a recurrent suppurative pilonidal cyst was successfully treated causally with an Nd-YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet) laser, and with no recurrence at 3-month follow-up. A similar success was observed for another 15 consecutively treated patients, including...... suppurative cases. The effect could be attributable to the ability of the YAG laser to operate at a wavelength of 1064 nm and to penetrate the skin to levels deeper than that of most other lasers before the energy is absorbed in melanin and oxyhaemoglobin. Consequently, the contents of the cyst can be reached...

  1. Diode and Nd:YAG laser in a case of refractory acne keloidalis nuchae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Chittoria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN is a disease of unclear etiology that mainly affects males. Medical treatment of AKN is difficult, with refractory cases often requiring ablation by laser or surgical resection. We report herein, a 23-year-old male with refractory AKN treated successfully with combined laser ablation, using an 810-nm diode laser and a 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser.

  2. Physical and optical limitations using ArF-excimer and Er:YAG lasers for PRK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semchishen, Vladimir A.; Mrochen, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    1998-06-01

    The Erbium:YAG laser emitting at a wavelength of 2,94 micrometer have been promised as an alternative laser for the ArF-excimer laser (193 nm) in photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). This report discusses the limitations of laser parameters such as wavelength, energy density and pulse duration for the ablation of the cornea. In addition, the melting process during ablation on the corneal surface roughness may play a role.

  3. [Effects of Nd: YAG laser irradiation on the root surfaces and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanhong, Li; Zhongcheng, Li; Mengqi, Luo; Daonan, Shen; Shu, Zhang; Shu, Meng

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of treatment with different powers of Nd: YAG laser irradiation on root surfaces and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) adhesion. Extracted teeth because of severe periodontal disease were divided into the following four groups: control group, laser group 1, laser group 2, and laser group 3. After scaling and root planning, laser group 1, laser group 2, and laser group 3 were separately treated with Nd: YAG laser irradiation (4/6/8 W, 60 s); however, the control group did not receive the treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the morphology. S. mutans were cultured with root slices from each group. Colony forming unit per mL (CFU·mL⁻¹) was used to count and compare the amounts of bacteria adhesion among groups. SEM was used to observe the difference of bacteria adhesion to root surfaces between control group (scaling) and laser group 2 (6 W, 60 s), thereby indicating the different bacteria adhesions because of different treatments. Morphology alterations indicated that root surfaces in control group contain obvious smear layer, debris, and biofilm; whereas the root surfaces in laser group contain more cracks with less smear layer and debris. The bacteria counting indicated that S. mutans adhesion to laser group was weaker than that of control group (P0.05) was observed. Morphology alterations also verified that S. mutans adhesion to laser group 2 (6 W, 60 s) was weaker than that of control group (scaling). This study demonstrated that Nd: YAG laser irradiation treatment after scaling can reduce smear layer, debris, and biofilm on the root surfaces as compared with conventional scaling. The laser treatment reduces the adhesion of S. mutans as well. However, Nd: YAG laser irradiation can cause cracks on the root surfaces. In this experiment, the optimum laser power of 6 W can thoroughly remove the smear layer and debris, as well as relatively improve the control of thermal damagee.

  4. Resonantly diode-pumped continuous-wave and Q-switched Er:YAG laser at 1645 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, N W H; Simakov, N; Hosken, D J; Munch, J; Ottaway, D J; Veitch, P J

    2010-06-21

    We describe an efficient Er:YAG laser that is resonantly pumped using continuous-wave (CW) laser diodes at 1470 nm. For CW lasing, it emits 6.1 W at 1645 nm with a slope efficiency of 36%, the highest efficiency reported for an Er:YAG laser that is pumped in this manner. In Q-switched operation, the laser produces diffraction-limited pulses with an average power of 2.5 W at 2 kHz PRF. To our knowledge this is the first Q-switched Er:YAG laser resonantly pumped by CW laser diodes.

  5. Nd : YAG surgical laser effects in canine prostate tissue: temperature and damage distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, S. A.; L'Eplattenier, H. F.; Rem, A. I.; van der Lugt, J. J.; Kirpensteijn, J.

    2009-01-01

    An in vitro model was used to predict short-term, laser-induced, thermal damage in canine prostate tissue. Canine prostate tissue samples were equipped with thermocouple probes to measure tissue temperature at 3, 6, 9 and 12 mm depths. The tissue surface was irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser in contact

  6. 5.4W cladding-pumped Nd:YAG silica fiber laser

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, S.; Webb, A.S.; Standish, R.J.; May-Smith, T.C.; Sahu, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the spectroscopy and laser characteristics of Nd-doped fiber, fabricated by rod-in-tube from Nd:YAG as a core material with silica cladding. A cladding-pumped CW laser operation at 1058nm with 52% slope-efficiency is demonstrated.

  7. Efficient delivery of 60 J pulse energy of long pulse Nd:YAG laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... Most of today's industrial Nd:YAG lasers use fibre-optic beam delivery. In such lasers, fibre core diameter is an important consideration in deploying a beam delivery system. Using a smaller core diameter fibre allows higher irradiances at focus position, less degradation of beam quality, and a larger ...

  8. Shift and broadening of emission lines in Nd :YAG laser crystal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Department of Optics and Laser Engineering, Estahban Branch, Islamic Azad ... Nd3+:YAG crystal; heat generation; three-level emission lines; four-level emission ... Modelling of high-power solid-state lasers requires precise knowledge of ...

  9. High efficiency laser action in mildly doped Yb:LuYAG ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirri, A.; Toci, G.; Li, J.; Xie, T.; Pan, Y.; Babin, Vladimir; Beitlerová, Alena; Nikl, Martin; Vannini, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 73, Nov (2017), s. 312-318 ISSN 0925-3467 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser ceramic s * Yb laser * mixed garnets * LuYAG Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.238, year: 2016

  10. Nd:YAG laser therapy for rectal and vaginal venous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurien, Lori A; Jackson, Richard J; Kiser, Michelle M; Richter, Gresham T

    2017-08-01

    Limited therapeutic options exist for rectal and vaginal venous malformations (VM). We describe our center's experience using Nd:YAG laser for targeted ablation of abnormal veins to treat mucosally involved pelvic VM. Records of patients undergoing non-contact Nd:YAG laser therapy of pelvic VM at a tertiary children's hospital were reviewed. Symptoms, operative findings and details, complications, and outcomes were evaluated. Nine patients (age 0-24) underwent Nd:YAG laser therapy of rectal and/or vaginal VM. Rectal bleeding was present in all patients and vaginal bleeding in all females (n = 5). 5/7 patients had extensive pelvic involvement on MRI. Typical settings were 30 (rectum) and 20-25 W (vagina), with 0.5-1.0 s pulse duration. Patients underwent the same-day discharge. Treatment intervals ranged from 14 to 180 (average = 56) weeks, with 6.1-year mean follow-up. Five patients experienced symptom relief with a single treatment. Serial treatments managed recurrent bleeding successfully in all patients, with complete resolution of vaginal lesions in 40% of cases. No complications occurred. Nd:YAG laser treatment of rectal and vaginal VM results in substantial improvement and symptom control, with low complication risk. Given the high morbidity of surgical resection, Nd:YAG laser treatment of pelvic VM should be considered as first line therapy.

  11. SEM evaluation of the morphological changes in hard dental tissues prepared by Er: YAG laser and rotary instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomov Georgi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective ablation of dental hard tissues by means of the erbium:yttrium-aluminum garnet (Er: YAG laser has been reported recently, and its application to caries removal and cavity preparation has been expected. However, few studies have investigated the morphological changes in hard dental tissues after Er: YAG laser caries treatment. In the present study the morphological changes in hard dental tissues after Er: YAG laser caries ablation in vitro was compared with that of conventional mechanical treatment. Thirty extracted human teeth with caries were used. Ten tooth was treated with the Er: YAG laser, and the other was treated with a conventional steel and diamond burs. Laser treatment was performed by means of a non-contact irradiation modes with cooling water spray, with a new Er: YAG laser (LiteTouch. Conventional bur treatment was conducted by means of a low-speed micromotor and air turbine with water cooling. Scanning electron microscope (SEM observations were performed for each treatment. The Er: YAG laser ablated carious dentin effectively with minimal thermal damage to the surrounding intact dentin, and removed infected and softened carious dentin to the same degree as the burtreatment. In addition, a lower degree of vibration was noted with the Er: YAG laser treatment. The SEM examination revealed characteristic micro-irregularities of the lased dentin and enamel surfaces with potential benefits for adhesive restorations. Our results show that the Er: YAG laser is promising as a new technical modality for caries treatment

  12. Changes in nail keratin observed by Raman spectroscopy after Nd:YAG laser treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Kyung; Kim, Tae In; Kim, Wan Sun; Park, Hun-Kuk; Kim, Kyung Sook

    2017-04-01

    Lasers and photodynamic therapy have been considered a convergence treatment for onychomycosis, which is a fungal infection on the nail bed and nail plate. Laser therapies have shown satisfactory results without significant complications for onychomycosis; however, the mechanism of clearing remains unknown. In this work, we investigated changes in the chemical structure of nail keratin induced by Nd:YAG laser using Raman spectroscopy. Toe nails with onychomycosis were treated with 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. After laser treatment, the disulfide band (490-590 cm -1 ) of nail keratin was rarely observed or was reduced in intensity. The amide I band (1500-1700 cm -1 ) also showed changes induced by the laser. The α-helical (1652 cm -1 ) structures dominated the β-sheet (1673 cm -1 ) in nontreated nail, but the opposite phenomenon was observed after laser treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Influence of water content on the ablation of skin with a 532 nm nanosecond Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soogeun; Eom, Tae Joong; Jeong, Sungho

    2015-01-01

    This work reports that the ablation volume and rate of porcine skin changed significantly with the change of skin water content. Under the same laser irradiation conditions (532 nm Nd:YAG laser, pulse width=11.5 ns, pulse energy=1.54 J, beam radius=0.54 mm), the ablation volume dropped by a factor of 4 as the skin water content decreased from 40 wt. % (native) to 19 wt. % with a change in the ablation rate below and above around 25 wt. %. Based on the ablation characteristics observed by in situ shadowgraph images and the calculated tissue temperatures, it is considered that an explosive rupture by rapid volumetric vaporization of water is responsible for the ablation of the high water content of skin, whereas thermal disintegration of directly irradiated surface layer is responsible for the low water content of skin.

  14. Implant Surface Temperature Changes during Er:YAG Laser Irradiation with Different Cooling Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Monzavi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Peri-implantitis is one of the most common reasons for implant failure. Decontamination of infected implant surfaces can be achieved effectively by laser irradiation; although the associated thermal rise may cause irreversible bone damage and lead to implant loss. Temperature increments of over 10ºC during laser application may suffice for irreversible bone damage.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature increment of implant surface during Er:YAG laser irradiation with different cooling systems.Three implants were placed in a resected block of sheep mandible and irradiated with Er:YAG laser with 3 different cooling systems namely water and air spray, air spray alone and no water or air spray. Temperature changes of the implant surface were monitored during laser irradiation with a K-type thermocouple at the apical area of the fixture.In all 3 groups, the maximum temperature rise was lower than 10°C. Temperature changes were significantly different with different cooling systems used (P<0.001.Based on the results, no thermal damage was observed during implant surface decontamination by Er:YAG laser with and without refrigeration. Thus, Er:YAG laser irradiation can be a safe method for treatment of periimplantitis.

  15. Laboratory investigation of the efficacy of holmium:YAG laser irradiation in removing intracanal debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuebler-Moritz, Michael; Gutknecht, Norbert; Sailer, Hermann F.; Hering, Peter; Prettl, Wilhelm

    1997-05-01

    Current endodontic therapy involves debridement and disinfection of the root canal by means of mechanical instrumentation and chemical irrigation. However, several studies have shown that these techniques fail to achieve complete cleansing. Recently, lasers have been suggested for use within root canals. This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of Holmium:YAG laser irradiation in removing intracanal debris and smear layer. Root canal surfaces of freshly-extracted human teeth were exposed to pulsed Ho:YAG laser radiation. Subsequently, laser induced structural changes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Temperature measurements during irradiation were performed by means of thermocouples. The result of this survey give a preliminary indication of the ability of the Ho:YAG laser to improve current endodontic treatment survey give a preliminary indication of the ability of the Ho:YAG laser to improve current endodontic treatment modalities. However, limitations exist with regard to circumscribed and well-quantified irradiation of root canal surfaces, due to the lack of perpendicular delivery of the laser beam. Additional studies will be required to develop suitable optical transmission systems, in order to achieve complete cleansing and to avoid damage to the periradicular tissues, respectively.

  16. Removal effects of the Nd:YAG laser and Carisolv on carious dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Y; Hossain, M; Kawanaka, T; Kinoshita, J; Matsumoto, K

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the removal effect of the Nd:YAG laser irradiation and Carisolv on carious dentin. Many previous studies have reported several simple and alternative techniques, such as lasers and chemicals, for caries removal. Carisolv was applied on the surface of 20 extracted human anterior and molar teeth for 1 min and then the Nd:YAG laser was irradiated with a continuous water spray for another 1 min. The energy densities were varied from 2 to 6W with a repetition rate of 20 pps. As caries removal progressed, the cavity was carefully assessed by DIAGNOdent. Each lesion was photographed before and after treatment, and the treated cavity was observed microscopically using a stereoscope and with scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thermal change at the time of laser irradiation was measured by thermovision. Our results revealed that application of Carisolv followed by Nd:YAG laser irradiation at 4-6W pulse energy effectively removed dentin caries. The total procedure was usually repeated once or twice for complete caries removal. From the SEM study, it was found that the cavity surface treated with the laser revealed various patterns of microirregularity, often accompanied by microfissure propagation. There was also no smear layer. It was revealed that Nd:YAG laser and Carisolv could provide an alternative technique for caries removal instead of the conventional mechanical drilling and cutting.

  17. Laser amplification of optical images using a CW Nd:YAG amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, H

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a scheme for the amplification of optical images is described, using a continuous wave (CW) diode-pumped Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser module. A passively q-switched end-pumped Nd:YAG laser is used as a pump source, which carries the optical image distribution as an input which is transmitted towards the amplifier at a distance of about ten feet. For amplification, a three-side-pumped CW Nd:YAG laser module is utilized without the cavity mirrors. In this way, optical images are amplified by a factor of 3.2 and imaged at a distance of ten feet with a spatial resolution of 500 μm. (paper)

  18. Neodymium-YAG laser core through urethrotomy in obliterative posttraumatic urethral strictures after failed initial urethroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, P N; Nabi, G

    2002-01-01

    To assess the feasibility, problems and results of Nd-YAG laser core through urethrotomy in the management of failed urethroplasty for posttraumatic bulbomembranous urethral strictures. 61 patients with obliterative posttraumatic urethral strictures were treated by Nd-YAG laser core through urethrotomy between May 1997 to April 2000. Of these, 5 patients had failed end-to-end urethroplasty done as an initial procedure at various periods of time. The procedure was performed as day care and patients were discharged within 6 h of procedure. At 24-30 months of follow-up, all patients are voiding well and are continent. Auxiliary procedures were required in 2 cases. Nd-YAG laser core through urethrotomy is a feasible day care option for patients of obliterative urethral strictures following failed initial urethroplasty with successful outcome. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Er:YAG and CTH:YAG laser radiation: contact versus non-contact enamel ablation and sonic-activated bulk composite placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckova, M; Kasparova, M; Dostalova, T; Jelinkova, H; Sulc, J; Nemec, M; Fibrich, M; Bradna, P; Miyagi, M

    2013-01-01

    Laser radiation can be used for effective caries removal and cavity preparation without significant thermal effects, collateral damage of tooth structure, or patient discomfort. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of tissue after contact or non-contact Er:YAG and CTH:YAG laser radiation ablation. The second goal was to increase the sealing ability of hard dental tissues using sonic-activated bulk filling material with change in viscosity during processing. The artificial caries was prepared in intact teeth to simulate a demineralized surface and then the Er:YAG or CTH:YAG laser radiation was applied. The enamel artificial caries was gently removed by the laser radiation and sonic-activated composite fillings were inserted. A stereomicroscope and then a scanning electron microscope were used to evaluate the enamel surface. Er:YAG contact mode ablation in enamel was quick and precise; the cavity was smooth with a keyhole shaped prism and rod relief arrangement without a smear layer. The sonic-activated filling material was consistently regularly distributed; no cracks or microleakage in the enamel were observed. CTH:YAG irradiation was able to clean but not ablate the enamel surface; in contact and also in non-contact mode there was evidence of melting and fusing of the enamel. (paper)

  20. Er:YAG and CTH:YAG laser radiation: contact versus non-contact enamel ablation and sonic-activated bulk composite placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckova, M.; Kasparova, M.; Dostalova, T.; Jelinkova, H.; Sulc, J.; Nemec, M.; Fibrich, M.; Bradna, P.; Miyagi, M.

    2013-05-01

    Laser radiation can be used for effective caries removal and cavity preparation without significant thermal effects, collateral damage of tooth structure, or patient discomfort. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of tissue after contact or non-contact Er:YAG and CTH:YAG laser radiation ablation. The second goal was to increase the sealing ability of hard dental tissues using sonic-activated bulk filling material with change in viscosity during processing. The artificial caries was prepared in intact teeth to simulate a demineralized surface and then the Er:YAG or CTH:YAG laser radiation was applied. The enamel artificial caries was gently removed by the laser radiation and sonic-activated composite fillings were inserted. A stereomicroscope and then a scanning electron microscope were used to evaluate the enamel surface. Er:YAG contact mode ablation in enamel was quick and precise; the cavity was smooth with a keyhole shaped prism and rod relief arrangement without a smear layer. The sonic-activated filling material was consistently regularly distributed; no cracks or microleakage in the enamel were observed. CTH:YAG irradiation was able to clean but not ablate the enamel surface; in contact and also in non-contact mode there was evidence of melting and fusing of the enamel.

  1. Marginal microleakage in vitro study on class V cavities prepared with Er:YAG laser and etched with acid or etched with Er:YAG laser and acid; Estudo in vitro da microinfiltracao marginal em cavidades classe V preparadas com laser de Er:YAG e condicionadas com acido ou com laser de Er:YAG e acido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Henrique Dutra Simoes

    2001-07-01

    Microleakage at the interface between the teeth and the restorative materials remains a problem with composite resin restorations. Microleakage at the gingival margins of class V cavities restorations still challenge as they are usually placed in dentin and/or cementum. Previous studies have shown that the cavity preparation with Er:YAG laser is possible. It has been reported that Er:YAG laser has ability to create irregular surface providing micromechanical retention for adhesive dental restorative materials and to improve marginal sealing. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal microleakage on class V cavities prepared with Er:YAG laser and etched with acid or with Er:YAG laser and acid, in compared to those prepared and etched conventionally. Thirty human molars were divided into three groups, namely: group I - prepared with Er:YAG laser (KaVo KEY Laser II - Germany) and etched with 37% phosphoric acid; group II - prepared with Er:YAG laser and etched with Er:YAG laser and 37% phosphoric acid; group III (control group) - prepared with high speed drill and etched with 37% phosphoric acid. All cavities were treated with same adhesive system (Single Bond - 3M) and restored with the composite resin (Z100 - 3M), according to the manufacturer's instructions. The specimens were stored at 37 deg C in water for 24 hours, polished with Sof-Lex discs (3M), thermally stressed, sealed with a nail polish coating except for the area of the restoration and 1 mm around it, and immersed in a 50% aqueous solution of silver nitrate for 24 hours. After that, the specimens were rinsed in water, soaked in a photodeveloping solution and exposed to a fluorescent light for 8 hours. The teeth were embedded in an autopolymerizing resin and sectioned longitudinally using a diamond saw microtome under running water. The sections were photographed. The microleakage at the occlusal cavity and at the gingival margins of each specimen was evaluated with scores (0-3) by

  2. Marginal microleakage in vitro study on class V cavities prepared with Er:YAG laser and etched with acid or etched with Er:YAG laser and acid; Estudo in vitro da microinfiltracao marginal em cavidades classe V preparadas com laser de Er:YAG e condicionadas com acido ou com laser de Er:YAG e acido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Henrique Dutra Simoes

    2001-07-01

    Microleakage at the interface between the teeth and the restorative materials remains a problem with composite resin restorations. Microleakage at the gingival margins of class V cavities restorations still challenge as they are usually placed in dentin and/or cementum. Previous studies have shown that the cavity preparation with Er:YAG laser is possible. It has been reported that Er:YAG laser has ability to create irregular surface providing micromechanical retention for adhesive dental restorative materials and to improve marginal sealing. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal microleakage on class V cavities prepared with Er:YAG laser and etched with acid or with Er:YAG laser and acid, in compared to those prepared and etched conventionally. Thirty human molars were divided into three groups, namely: group I - prepared with Er:YAG laser (KaVo KEY Laser II - Germany) and etched with 37% phosphoric acid; group II - prepared with Er:YAG laser and etched with Er:YAG laser and 37% phosphoric acid; group III (control group) - prepared with high speed drill and etched with 37% phosphoric acid. All cavities were treated with same adhesive system (Single Bond - 3M) and restored with the composite resin (Z100 - 3M), according to the manufacturer's instructions. The specimens were stored at 37 deg C in water for 24 hours, polished with Sof-Lex discs (3M), thermally stressed, sealed with a nail polish coating except for the area of the restoration and 1 mm around it, and immersed in a 50% aqueous solution of silver nitrate for 24 hours. After that, the specimens were rinsed in water, soaked in a photodeveloping solution and exposed to a fluorescent light for 8 hours. The teeth were embedded in an autopolymerizing resin and sectioned longitudinally using a diamond saw microtome under running water. The sections were photographed. The microleakage at the occlusal cavity and at the gingival margins of each specimen was evaluated with scores (0

  3. SPF-RR sequential photothermal fractional resurfacing and remodeling with the variable pulse Er:YAG laser and scanner-assisted Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Leonardo

    2009-12-01

    Many different lasers, polychromatic high-intensity light sources (PCLs), and RF devices have claimed clinical efficacy in rejuvenating the skin. In this study, the sequential combination of two different laser wavelengths was evaluated to produce reliably significant clinical improvements optimizing treatment parameters. The left volar aspects of the forearms of four volunteers were treated with nine different parameter settings using a variable pulsewidth fractional Er:YAG 2940-nm laser with and without air cooling. The pain perception level was recorded on a 0-10 point scale (0=No pain; 10=Most severe pain). Three evaluations were made: during treatment, immediately after treatment, and 5 minutes after treatment. The same investigation was made on the right volar aspects of the same four volunteers using a short-pulse, random pattern, 3-mm spot, scanner-assisted Nd-YAG 1064-nm laser at 0.3 ms pulsewidth at seven different parameter settings. Clinical evaluations were made concerning erythema and edema 3 days after treatment, as well as pre-operative and 60 days postoperative skin texture plus color uniformity. Considering that the majority of cosmetic patients are willing to accept a relatively short and uneventful downtime (2-4 days according to a study we are presently conducting) and do prefer to limit their intra- and postoperative pain to a minimum, the best combination of clinical improvement matching these two important parameters were selected for our study. A treatment strategy combining two sequential passes of long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (Nd:YAG-LP) at 0.3 and 35 ms followed by two passes of long-pulse fractional Er:YAG laser (Er:YAG-FT) at 600 micros was designed to treat the facial regions of 10 volunteers affected by a combination of intrinsic (chrono-) and extrinsic (mostly photo-) aging. The pain perception level was recorded on a 0-10 scale (0=No pain; 10=Most severe pain). Three evaluations were made: during, immediately after, and 5 minutes after

  4. Effect of Nd:YAG laser on the solvent evaporation of adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Graziela Ribeiro; Barcellos, Daphne Câmara; Rocha Gomes Torres, Carlos; Damião, Álvaro José; de Oliveira, Hueder Paulo Moisés; de Paiva Gonçalves, Sérgio Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of Nd:YAG laser on the evaporation degree (ED) of the solvent components in total-etch and self-etch adhesives. The ED of Gluma Comfort Bond (Heraeus-Kulzer) one-step self-etch adhesive, and Adper Single Bond 2 (3M ESPE), and XP Bond (Dentsply) total-etch adhesives was determined by weight alterations using two techniques: Control--spontaneous evaporation of the solvent for 5 min; Experimental--Nd:YAG laser irradiation for 1 min, followed by spontaneous evaporation for 4 min. The weight loss due to evaporation of the volatile components was measured at baseline and after 10 s, 20 s, 30 s, 40 s, 50 s, 60 s, 70 s, 80 s, 90 s, 100 s, 110 s, 2 min, 3 min, 4 min, and 5 min. Evaporation of solvent components significantly increased with Nd:YAG laser irradiation for all adhesives investigated. Gluma Comfort Bond showed significantly higher evaporation of solvent components than Adper Single Bond 2 and XP Bond. All the adhesives lost weight quickly during the first min of Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The application of Nd:YAG laser on adhesives before light curing had a significant effect on the evaporation of the solvent components, and the ED of Gluma Comfort Bond one-step self-etch adhesive was significantly higher than with Adper Single Bond 2 and XP Bond total-etch adhesives. The use of the Nd:YAG laser on the uncured adhesive technique can promote a greater ED of solvents, optimizing the longevity of the adhesive restorations.

  5. Simulation of medical Q-switch flash-pumped Er:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yanlin; Huang Chuyun; Yao Yucheng; Zou Xiaolin, E-mail: Wangyanlin0@126.com, E-mail: chuyunh@163.com, E-mail: yyuch@soho.com, E-mail: zouxiaol@126.com [Physics school, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan, China 430068 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Er: YAG laser, the wavelength is 2940nm, can be absorbed strongly by water. The absorption coefficient is as high as 13000 cm{sup -1}. As the water strong absorption, Erbium laser can bring shallow penetration depth and smaller surrounding tissue injury in most soft tissue and hard tissue. At the same time, the interaction between 2940nm radiation and biological tissue saturated with water is equivalent to instantaneous heating within limited volume, thus resulting in the phenomenon of micro-explosion to removal organization. Different parameters can be set up to cut enamel, dentin, caries and soft tissue. For the development and optimization of laser system, it is a practical choice to use laser modeling to predict the influence of various parameters for laser performance. Aim at the status of low Erbium laser output power, flash-pumped Er: YAG laser performance was simulated to obtain optical output in theory. the rate equation model was obtained and used to predict the change of population densities in various manifolds and use the technology of Q-switch the simulate laser output for different design parameters and results showed that Er: YAG laser output energy can achieve the maximum average output power of 9.8W under the given parameters. The model can be used to find the potential laser systems that meet application requirements.

  6. Intraoperative localized urticarial reaction during Q-switched Nd:YAG laser tattoo removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Reason; Ho, Derek; Petukhova, Tatyana; Jagdeo, Jared

    2015-03-01

    Q-switched lasers, such as the neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, are the gold standard for tattoo removal. Allergy to tattoo pigment is well-documented, but adverse allergic reactions during or shortly after laser tattoo removal are rare with few reports in the medical literature. Here we describe an intraoperative, localized urticarial reaction that developed during treatment of a tattoo using a 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser. As laser tattoo removal becomes increasingly popular amongst our patients, it is important for dermatologists to be aware of urticarial allergic reactions as well as their management. We outline our recommendations for medical management of this condition and hope that these guidelines will facilitate patient care by dermatologists who encounter this immune skin reaction to laser tattoo removal

  7. Design of a high-power, high-brightness Nd:YAG solar laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana; Garcia, Dário

    2014-03-20

    A simple high-power, high-brightness Nd:YAG solar laser pumping approach is presented in this paper. The incoming solar radiation is both collected and concentrated by four Fresnel lenses and redirected toward a Nd:YAG laser head by four plane-folding mirrors. A fused-silica secondary concentrator is used to compress the highly concentrated solar radiation to a laser rod. Optimum pumping conditions and laser resonator parameters are found through ZEMAX and LASCAD numerical analysis. Solar laser power of 96 W is numerically calculated, corresponding to the collection efficiency of 24  W/m². A record-high solar laser beam brightness figure of merit of 9.6 W is numerically achieved.

  8. Development of surgical CW Nd:YAG laser with optical fiber delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Jeong Mook; Jung, Chin Mann; Kim, Kwang Suk; Kim, Min Suk; Cho, Jae Wan; Kim, Duk Hyun

    1992-06-01

    We developed a surgical CW Nd:YAG laser with optical fiber delivery system. Several commercial models have been investigated in design and performance. We improved its quality to the level of commercial Nd:YAG laser by an endurance test for each parts of laser system. The maximum power of our surgical laser was 150 W and the laser pulse width could be controlled to 99 sec continuously by 0.1 sec. Many optical parts were localized and lowered much in cost. Only few parts were imported and almost 90% in cost were localized. Also, to find out the maintenance problem of this surgical laser, it was applicated to the production line of our joint company. (Author)

  9. Efficient room temperature cw Yb:glass laser pumped by a 946nm Nd:YAG laser

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, R.; Clarkson, W.A.; Hanna, D.C.; Jiang, S.; Myers, M.J.; Rhonehouse, D.; Hamlin, S.J.; Griebner, U.; Schönnagel, H.

    1997-01-01

    By pumping with a cw diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at 946nm laser operation of a new Yb-doped phosphate glass with 440mW cw output power and a slope efficiency of 48% with respect to the absorbed pump power was achieved at room temperature

  10. SEM analysis of enamel surface treated by Er:YAG laser: influence of irradiation distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Gabriel, A E; Chinelatti, M A; Borsatto, M C; Pécora, J D; Palma-Dibb, R G; Corona, S A M

    2008-07-01

    Depending on the distance of laser tip to dental surface a specific morphological pattern should be expected. However, there have been limited reports that correlate the Er:YAG irradiation distance with dental morphology. To assess the influence of Er:YAG laser irradiation distance on enamel morphology, by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sixty human third molars were employed to obtain discs (approximately =1 mm thick) that were randomly assigned to six groups (n=10). Five groups received Er:YAG laser irradiation (80 mJ/2 Hz) for 20 s, according to the irradiation distance: 11, 12, 14, 16, or 17 mm and the control group was treated with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s. The laser-irradiated discs were bisected. One hemi-disc was separated for superficial analysis without subsequent acid etching, and the other one, received the phosphoric acid for 15 s. Samples were prepared for SEM. Laser irradiation at 11 and 12 mm provided an evident ablation of enamel, with evident fissures and some fused areas. At 14, 16 and 17 mm the superficial topography was flatter than in the other distances. The subsequent acid etching on the lased-surface partially removed the disorganized tissue. Er:YAG laser in defocused mode promoted slight morphological alterations and seems more suitable for enamel conditioning than focused irradiation. The application of phosphoric acid on lased-enamel surface, regardless of the irradiation distance, decreased the superficial irregularities.

  11. High-efficiency cavity-dumped micro-chip Yb:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, M.; Maruko, A.; Inoue, M.; Takama, M.; Matsubara, S.; Okunishi, H.; Kato, K.; Kyomoto, K.; Yoshida, T.; Shimabayashi, K.; Morioka, M.; Inayoshi, S.; Yamagata, S.; Kawato, S.

    2014-09-01

    High-efficiency cavity-dumped ytterbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Yb:YAG) laser was developed. Although the high quantum efficiency of ytterbium-doped laser materials is appropriate for high-efficiency laser oscillation, the efficiency is decreased by their quasi-three/four laser natures. High gain operation by high intensity pumping is suitable for high efficiency oscillation on the quasi-three/four lasers without extremely low temperature cooling. In our group, highest efficiency oscillations for continuous wave, nanosecond to picosecond pulse lasers were achieved at room temperature by the high gain operation in which pump intensities were beyond 100 kW/cm2.

  12. Morphological change study on root surfaces treated with curettes, sonic instruments or Er:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes Filho, Arlindo Lopes

    2004-01-01

    Periodontal disease is caused by dental plaque and dental calculus on roots surfaces, specially on cervical areas. As dental plaque is the main cause and dental calculus a secondary one, it is practically impossible to separate one factor to the other one. In order to get periodontal tissue health it is necessary to eliminate dental plaque and calculus from root surfaces. In this sense, Er:YAG laser comes in as an excellent way to control periodontal disease, not only, by removing calculus and dental plaque but also for its bacteria reduction. The aim of this study is to compare, by S.E.M., root surfaces changing when they are treated with curettes and ultrasonic scaling or Er:YAG laser irradiation with two different energy levels of 60 mJ/pulse and 100 mJ/pulse and repetition tax of 10 Hz (in the display). It is also objective of this study to check a possible thermic damage to pulp tissue when the roots surfaces are irradiated with Er:YAG laser. We used for this study, five human dental roots, each one of them were cut into four samples, giving us a total of twenty samples, which were divided in five groups of four samples each one. The control group, we did not indicated any kind of treatment. The first group, the roots samples were scaled and planned with Gracey curettes 5/6 and 7/8. The second group, the roots samples were treated with ultrasonic instruments. The third group was irradiated with Er:YAG laser using 60 mJ/pulse , 10 Hz and energy density of 4 J/cm 2 (approximated). The fourth group was irradiated with Er:YAG laser using 100 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz and energy density of 7 J/cm 2 (approximated). The results analysis showed that roots scaling either with Gracey curettes or with ultrasonic instruments created smear layer covering roots surfaces; roots surfaces irradiated with Er:YAG laser showed few roughness in the third group; roots surfaces irradiated with Er:YAG laser showed no smear layer and the Er:YAG laser irradiation did not bring any thermic damage

  13. Aluminium alloys welding with high-power Nd:YAG lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Orza, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Aluminium alloys have good mechanical properties (high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance) and good workability. their applications are growing up, specially in the transportation industry. Weldability is however poorer than in other materials; recent advances in high power YAG laser are the key to obtain good appearance welds and higher penetration, at industrial production rates. Results of the combination of high power YAG beams with small fiber diameters and specific filler wires are presented. It is also characterized the air bone particulate material, by-product of the laser process: emission rates, size distribution and chemical composition are given for several aluminium alloys. (Author) 6 refs

  14. Investigation of micro-plasma in physiological saline produced by a high-power YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jian; Ni Xiaowu; He Anzhi

    1994-01-01

    Micro-plasma and shock waves in the physiological saline produced by a Q-switched pulse YAG laser with nearby optical breakdown threshold energy are investigated by using optical shadowing exploring method, and a series of optical shadow graphs of micro-plasma and shock waves versus the incident laser energy and the delay time are obtained. Influence of mechanical action of shock waves for the high-power pulse laser on the ophthalmic treatment is discussed

  15. Mode locking of Yb:GdYAG ceramic lasers with an isotropic cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, C W; Tang, D Y; Zhu, H Y; Zhang, J

    2013-01-01

    We report on the passive mode locking of a diode pumped Yb:GdYAG ceramic laser with a near isotropic cavity. It is found that the laser could simultaneously mode lock in the two orthogonal principal polarization directions of the cavity, and the mode locked pulses of the two polarizations have identical features and are temporally perfectly synchronized. However, their pulse energy varies out-of-phase periodically, manifesting the antiphase dynamics of mode locked lasers. (letter)

  16. PRK by Er:YAG laser: in-vitro studies and first in-vivo experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Rudolf W.; Leiacker, Richard; Russ, Detlef; Seiler, Theo

    1996-01-01

    Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) is usually performed by an excimer laser at 193 nm wavelength. Ablatio of corneal tissue is, however, not only possible in the UV region of the optical spectrum but also in the IR where water is an excellent absorber. Therefore, an Er:YAG laser was used at 2.94 micrometer wavelength as an alternative laser light source to perform in vitro studies of corneal ablation and also first clinical experiments to correct myopia of patients with blind eyes.

  17. Instant recording of the duration of a single mode-locked Nd:YAG laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lompre, L.A.; Mainfray, G.; Thebault, J.

    1975-01-01

    An electro-optic streak camera incorporating a storage memory video system has been developed and used to instantly visualize and record the shape of a 1.06-μ-wavelength pulse generated by a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. The duration of a single laser pulse (approximately 30 psec) has been directly measured with and without laser amplification. (U.S.)

  18. Test of remote control cutting equipment by Nd:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Akio [Fuji Electric Corp. Research and Development Ltd., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Hosoda, Hiroshi

    1997-11-01

    Technology of remote controlled cutting and reduction of generative secondary products have been required to the cutting system for decommissioning nuclear equipments. At a point of view that laser cutting technology by use of a Nd:YAG laser is effective, we have developed the laser cutting machine and carried out cutting tests for several stainless steel plates. This report is described the result of experiment by test equipment, about element technology of remote controlled cutting nuclear equipments. (author)

  19. Hot cracking characteristic of welding using Nd:YAG laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Kyoung Bo; Yoo, Young Tae; Oh, Yong Seak; Shin, Ho Jun; Kim, Ji Hwan

    2003-01-01

    The Nd:YAG laser process is known to have high speed and deep penetration capability to become one of the most advanced welding technologies. In spite of its good mechanical characteristics, SM45C carbon steel has a high carbon contents and suffers a limitation in the industrial application due to the poor welding properties. The major process parameters studied in the present laser welding experiment were position of focus, travel speed and laser power

  20. Test of remote control cutting equipment by Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Akio; Hosoda, Hiroshi.

    1997-01-01

    Technology of remote controlled cutting and reduction of generative secondary products have been required to the cutting system for decommissioning nuclear equipments. At a point of view that laser cutting technology by use of a Nd:YAG laser is effective, we have developed the laser cutting machine and carried out cutting tests for several stainless steel plates. This report is described the result of experiment by test equipment, about element technology of remote controlled cutting nuclear equipments. (author)

  1. Discharge characteristics of copper vapor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Koshichi; Fujii, Takashi

    1988-01-01

    This report describes about the copper vapor laser and experimental results of it's discharge characteristics. We measured time varing of plasma regist, and analyzed electron density. (1) The plasma regist is larger than 100Ω at the beginning of discharge, and is rapidly reduced to about 10Ω. (2) The electron density is estimated about 1∼2 x 10 12 /cc at the begining of discharge. (author)

  2. Synthesis of single walled carbon nanotubes by dual laser vaporization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, MK et al.

    2006-02-27

    Full Text Available Single-walled carbon nanotubes were synthesised by the laser vaporisation of graphite composite targets in a tube furnace. Two pulsed Nd:YAG lasers operating at fundamental (1 064 nm) and 2nd harmonic (532 nm) were combined, focused and evaporated...

  3. Design and physical features of inductive coaxial copper vapor lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batenin, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Kazaryan, M. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Karpukhin, V. T. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Lyabin, N. A. [Istok Research and Production Corporation (Russian Federation); Malikov, M. M., E-mail: mmalikov@oivtran.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    A physical model of a copper vapor laser pumped by a pulse-periodic inductive (electrodeless) discharge is considered. The feasibility of efficient laser pumping by an inductive discharge and reaching high output parameters comparable to those of conventional copper vapor lasers pumped by a longitudinal electrode discharge is demonstrated. The design and physical features of an inductive copper vapor laser with an annular working volume are discussed.

  4. Latest MIG, TIG arc-YAG laser hybrid welding systems for various welding products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishide, Takashi; Tsubota, Shuho; Watanabe, Masao

    2003-03-01

    Laser welding is capable of high-efficiency low-strain welding, and so its applications are started to various products. We have also put the high-power YAG laser of up to 10 kW to practical welding use for various products. On the other hand the weakest point of this laser welding is considered to be strict in the welding gap aiming allowance. In order to solve this problem, we have developed hybrid welding of TIG, MIG arc and YAG laser, taking the most advantages of both the laser and arc welding. Since the electrode is coaxial to the optical axis of the YAG laser in this process, it can be applied to welding of various objects. In the coaxial MIG, TIG-YAG welding, in order to make irradiation positions of the YAG laser beams having been guided in a wire or an electrode focused to the same position, the beam transmitted in fibers is separated to form a space between the separated beams, in which the laser is guided. With this method the beam-irradiating area can be brought near or to the arc-generating point. This enables welding of all directions even for the member of a three-dimensional shape. This time we carried out welding for various materials and have made their welding of up to 1 mm or more in welding groove gap possible. We have realized high-speed 1-pass butt welding of 4m/min in welding speed with the laser power of 3 kW for an aluminum alloy plate of approximately 4 mm thick. For a mild steel plate also we have realized butt welding of 1m/min with 5 kW for 6 mm thick. Further, in welding of stainless steel we have shown its welding possibility, by stabilizing the arc with the YAG laser in the welding atmosphere of pure argon, and shown that this welding is effective in high-efficiency welding of various materials. Here we will report the fundamental welding performances and applications to various objects for the coaxial MIG, TIG-YAG welding we have developed.

  5. A comparison of diode laser and Er:YAG lasers in the treatment of gingival melanin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simşek Kaya, Göksel; Yapici Yavuz, Günay; Sümbüllü, Muhammed A; Dayi, Ertunç

    2012-03-01

    This study compared the use of diode and Er:YAG lasers in treating gingival melanin pigmentation (GMP) in terms of gingival depigmentation, local anesthesia requirements, postoperative pain/discomfort, depigmentation effectiveness, and total treatment duration. Twenty patients (13 female, 7 male) referred with GMP were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was treated with a gallium aluminum arsenide diode laser with a continuous wavelength of 808 nm, and group 2 was treated with an Er:YAG laser with a continuous wavelength of 2,940 nm. Gingival depigmentation was performed by applying the laser at 1 W. Treatment was administered on a weekly basis until a normal pink gingival color was observable in clinical examination and photographs. In addition, patients were asked to evaluate the procedure by using a self-administered questionnaire. Procedures were carried out without the need for any topical or local anesthetic, and no unpleasant events occurred during the actual procedure or the healing period. The total length of treatment was significantly shorter with the diode laser (group 1) than with the Er:YAG laser (group 2; P Diode and Er:YAG lasers administered at 1 W both result in satisfactory depigmentation of GMP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. POWER SCALING IN CONTINUOUS-WAVE YB:YAG MICROCHIP LASER FOR MEASURING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Ivashko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics optimization of lasers used in different measuring systems is of great interest up to now. Diode-pumped microchip lasers is one of the most perspective ways for development of solid-state light sources with minimal size and weight together with low energy power consumption. Increasing of output power with good beam quality is rather difficult task for such type of lasers due to thermal effects in the gain crystal under high pump power.The investigation results of continuous-wave longitudinally diode-pumped Yb:YAG microchip laser are presented. In the presented laser radiation from multiple pump laser diodes were focused into the separate zone in one gain crystal that provides simultaneous generation of multiple laser beams. The energy and spatial laser beam characteristics were investigated.Influence of neighboring pumped regions on energy and spatial laser beams parameters both for separate and for sum laser output was observed. The dependences of laser output power from distance between neighboring pumped regions and their number were determined. Decreasing of laser output power was demonstrated with corresponding distance shortening between pumped regions and increasing their quantity with simultaneous improvement of laser beam quality.Demonstrated mutual influence of neighboring pumped regions in the longitudinally diode pumped Yb:YAG microchip laser allow as to generate diffraction limited Gaussian beam with 2W of continuous-wave output power that 30 % higher than in case of one pumped zone. 

  7. Passive Q switching of a solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando, M; Shimony, Y; Noter, Y; Benmair, R M; Yogev, A

    2000-04-20

    Passive Q switching is a preferable choice for switching the Q factor of a solar-pumped laser because it requires neither a driver nor an electrical power supply. The superior thermal characteristics and durability of Cr(4+):YAG single crystals as passive Q switches for lamp and diode-pumped high-power lasers has been demonstrated. Here we report on an average power of 37 W and a switching efficiency of 80% obtained by use of a solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser Q switched by a Cr(4+):YAG saturable absorber. Concentration of the pumping solar energy on the laser crystal was obtained with a three-stage concentrator, composed of 12 heliostats, a three-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) and a two-dimensional CPC. The water-cooled passive Q switch also served as the laser rear mirror. Repetition rates of as much as 50 kHz, at pulse durations between 190 and 310 ns (FWHM) were achieved. From the experimental results, the saturated single-pass power absorption of the Cr(4+):YAG device was estimated as 3 ? 1%.

  8. New long-wavelength Nd:YAG laser at 1.44 micron: effect on brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniuk, R; Bauer, J A; McKean, J D; Tulip, J; Mielke, B W

    1989-02-01

    A wavelength-shifted Nd:YAG laser, tuned to coincide with the infrared absorption peak of water at 1.44 microns, was used to make lesions in normal rabbit brain. A total of 48 lesions were made with power up to 20 W, with energy up to 40 joules, and with two different spot sizes. These lesions were compared to lesions made with 1.06 microns radiation from an Nd:YAG laser under identical operating conditions. Measurements of blood-brain barrier damage and width, depth, and volume of tissue affected were obtained 30 minutes after placement of the lesions. It was found that 1.44-microns lesions produced photoevaporative tissue loss at the highest intensities used. The layer of coagulated tissue remaining after photovaporization had a mean thickness of 0.6 mm irrespective of the volume of tissue removed. There was no photovaporization in the 1.06-microns lesions. In addition, the amount of peripheral edema per unit volume of tissue coagulated was approximately half at the 1.44-microns wavelength. These findings suggest that the 1.44-microns Nd:YAG laser may be a useful surgical instrument since it combines the photoevaporative effect of the CO2 laser while maintaining the advantages of the conventional Nd:YAG laser (quartz fiber delivery and effective hemostasis).

  9. Acute and chronic response of meniscal fibrocartilage to holmium:YAG laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Patrick J.; Popovic, Neven A.; Islinger, Richard B.; Kuklo, Timothy R.; Dick, Edward J.

    1997-05-01

    The acute and chronic (10 week) histological effects of the holmium:YAG laser during partial meniscectomy in an in vivo rabbit model were investigated. Twenty-four adult male New Zealand rabbits underwent bilateral parapatellar medial knee arthrotomies. In the right knee, a partial medial meniscectomy was done through the avascular zone using a standard surgical blade. In the left knee, an anatomically similar partial medial meniscectomy was performed using a Ho:YAG laser (Coherent, USA). This study indicates that the laser creates two zones of damage in the meniscal fibrocartilage and that the zone of thermal change may act as a barrier to healing. The zone of thermal change which is eventually debrided was thought at the time of surgery to be viable. In the laser cut menisci, the synovium appears to have greater inflammation early and to be equivalent with the scalpel cut after three weeks. At all time periods there appeared more cellular damage in the laser specimens.

  10. UNS S32750 super duplex steel welding using pulsed Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francini, O.D.; Andrade, G.G.; Clemente, M.S.; Gallego, J.; Ventrella, V.A.

    2016-01-01

    Laser is a flexible and powerful tool with many relevant applications in industry, mainly in the welding area. Lasers today provide the welding industry technical solutions to many problems. This work studied the weld metal obtained by pulsed laser welding of Nd: YAG super duplex stainless steel UNS S32750 employed in the oil and natural gas, analyzing the influence of high cooling rate, due to the laser process, the swing phase ferrite / austenite. Were performed weld beads in butt joint with different repetition rates. The different microstructures were obtained by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the effect of varying the welding energy of Nd: YAG laser on the volume fractions of the phases ferrite/austenite in the weld metal was its ferritization and low austenite amount on the grain boundary. (author)

  11. Effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation on bonding property of zirconia ceramics to resin cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yihua; Song, Xiaomeng; Chen, Yaming; Zhu, Qingping; Zhang, Wei

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether or not an erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser could improve the bonding property of zirconia ceramics to resin cement. Surface treatments can improve the bonding properties of dental ceramics. However, little is known about the effect of Er:YAG laser irradiated on zirconia ceramics. Specimens of zirconia ceramic pieces were made, and randomly divided into 11 groups according to surface treatments, including one control group (no treatment), one air abrasion group, and nine Er:YAG laser groups. The laser groups were subdivided by applying different energy intensities (100, 200, or 300 mJ) and irradiation times (5, 10, or 15 sec). After surface treatments, ceramic pieces had their surface morphology observed, and their surface roughness was measured. All specimens were bonded to resin cement. Shear bond strength was measured after the bonded specimens were stored in water for 24 h, and additionally aged by thermocycling. Statistical analyses were performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test for shear bond strength, and Dunnett's t test for surface roughness, with α=0.05. Er:YAG laser irradiation changed the morphological characteristics of zirconia ceramics. Higher energy intensities (200, 300 mJ) could roughen the ceramics, but also caused surface cracks. There were no significant differences in the bond strength between the control group and the laser groups treated with different energy intensities or irradiation times. Air abrasion with alumina particles induced highest surface roughness and shear bond strength. Er:YAG laser irradiation cannot improve the bonding property of zirconia ceramics to resin cement. Enhancing irradiation intensities and extending irradiation time have no benefit on the bond of the ceramics, and might cause material defect.

  12. Neodymium:YAG laser cutting of intraocular lens haptics in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, J M; Rosenberg, M A; Farber, M D

    1989-09-01

    Various complications following intraocular lens (IOL) surgery result in explantation of the lenses. Haptic fibrosis may necessitate cutting the IOL haptics prior to removal. In this study we used the neodymium: YAG (Nd:YAG) laser to cut polypropylene and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) haptics in vitro and in rabbit eyes. In vitro we were able to cut 100% of both haptic types successfully (28 PMMA and 30 polypropylene haptics). In rabbit eyes we were able to cut 50% of the PMMA haptics and 43% of the polypropylene haptics. Poly(methyl methacrylate) haptics were easier to cut in vitro and in vivo than polypropylene haptics, requiring fewer shots for transection. Complications of Nd:YAG laser use frequently interfered with haptic transections in rabbit eyes. Haptic transection may be more easily accomplished in human eyes.

  13. Tubular depressed cladding waveguide laser realized in Yb: YAG by direct inscription of femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Wenlong; Zhang, Wenfu; Liu, Xin; Liu, Shuang; Cheng, Guanghua; Stoian, Razvan

    2015-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of tubular depressed cladding waveguides in single crystalline Yb:YAG by the direct femtosecond laser writing technique. Full control over the confined light spatial distribution is demonstrated by the photoinscription of high index contrast waveguides with tubular configuration. Under optical pumping, highly efficient laser oscillation in depressed cladding waveguide at 1030 nm is demonstrated. The maximum output power obtained is 68 mW with a slope efficiency of 35% for an outcoupling transmission of 50%. A slope efficiency as high as 44% is realized when the coupling output ratio is 91% and a low lasing threshold of 70 mW is achieved with the output coupling mirror of 10%. (paper)

  14. Bouveret's syndrome complicated by distal gallstone ileus after laser lithotropsy using Holmium: YAG laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers John B

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bouveret's syndrome is an unusual presentation of duodenal obstruction caused by the passage of a large gallstone through a cholecystoduodenal fistula. Endoscopic therapy has been used as first-line treatment, especially in patients with high surgical risk. Case presentation We report a 67-year-old woman who underwent an endoscopic attempt to fragment and retrieve a duodenal stone using a Holmium: Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet Laser (Ho:YAG which resulted in small bowel obstruction. The patient successfully underwent enterolithotomy without cholecystectomy or closure of the fistula. Conclusion We conclude that, distal gallstone obstruction, due to migration of partially fragmented stones, can occur as a possible complication of laser lithotripsy treatment of Bouveret's syndrome and might require urgent enterolithotomy.

  15. Multiple minimally invasive Erbium:YAG laser mini-peels for skin rejuvenation: An objective assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Domyati, Moetaz; El-Ammawi, Tarek S.; Medhat, Walid; Moawad, Osama; Mahoney, Mỹ G.; Uitto, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background As the demand for minimally invasive rejuvenation is increasing, micro-peel resurfacing using Erbium:Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Er:YAG ) laser 2940 nm has been reported for the treatment of photoaged skin without ablation of the epidermis. However, little is known about the efficacy and underlying histologic changes associated with this type of treatment. Aims The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical effect and objectively quantify the histological changes in response to multiple sessions of Er:YAG laser 2940 nm mini-peels. Patients and methods Six female volunteers of Fitzpatrick skin type III-IV and Glogau’s class I-III wrinkles were subjected to six microresurfacing peels at 2-week intervals using Er:YAG 2940 nm laser at sub-ablative fluences of 2 - 3 J/cm2 to treat periorbital rhytides. Quantitative evaluation of collagen types I, III and VII, newly synthesized collagen, total elastin and tropoelastin was performed by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry coupled with computerized morphometric analysis at base line, end of treatment, and three months post treatment. Results Compared to the base line, evaluation of volunteers revealed obvious clinical improvement in response to Er:YAG mini-peels. Collagen types I, III, and VII, as well as newly synthesized collagen, together with tropoelastin showed a statistically significant increase in response to treatment, while the mean level of total elastin was significantly decreased in response to treatment. However, this was followed by regression of improvement at 3 months post treatment, but was still better than baseline. Conclusions The present study revealed that multiple Er:YAG mini-peels is a promising treatment option for photoaging as it reverses the signs of photoaged skin with little downtime and side effects. However, to maintain the short term improvement achieved after treatment, continued Er:YAG 2940 nm laser mini-peels is required. PMID:22672276

  16. Laser performance and modeling of RE3+:YAG double-clad crystalline fiber waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da; Lee, Huai-Chuan; Meissner, Stephanie K.; Meissner, Helmuth E.

    2018-02-01

    We report on laser performance of ceramic Yb:YAG and single crystal Tm:YAG double-clad crystalline fiber waveguide (CFW) lasers towards the goal of demonstrating the design and manufacturing strategy of scaling to high output power. The laser component is a double-clad CFW, with RE3+:YAG (RE = Yb, Tm respectively) core, un-doped YAG inner cladding, and ceramic spinel or sapphire outer cladding. Laser performance of the CFW has been demonstrated with 53.6% slope efficiency and 27.5-W stable output power at 1030-nm for Yb:YAG CFW, and 31.6% slope efficiency and 46.7-W stable output power at 2019-nm for Tm:YAG CFW, respectively. Adhesive-Free Bond (AFB®) technology enables a designable refractive index difference between core and inner cladding, and designable core and inner cladding sizes, which are essential for single transverse mode CFW propagation. To guide further development of CFW designs, we present thermal modeling, power scaling and design of single transverse mode operation of double-clad CFWs and redefine the single-mode operation criterion for the double-clad structure design. The power scaling modeling of double-clad CFW shows that in order to achieve the maximum possible output power limited by the physical properties, including diode brightness, thermal lens effect, and simulated Brillion scattering, the length of waveguide is in the range of 0.5 2 meters. The length of an individual CFW is limited by single crystal growth and doping uniformity to about 100 to 200 mm lengths, and also by availability of starting crystals and manufacturing complexity. To overcome the limitation of CFW lengths, end-to-end proximity-coupling of CFWs is introduced.

  17. In vitro studies of morphological changes in enamel surface after Er:YAG and Nd:YAG laser irradiation, by SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verlangieri, Eleonora Jaeger

    2001-01-01

    The caries prevention by using laser irradiation has been investigated by many authors using various lasers with different irradiations conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigated the morphological changes in enamel surface after Er:YAG and Nd:YAG laser irradiation, in vitro, by SEM. Fifteen freshly extracted, intact, caries-free, human third molars, were used in this study. The coronary portions were sectioned, from buccal to lingual direction, in two half-parts. Each one was irradiated by a different laser. The first one was irradiated with water-air spray, by a Nd:YAG laser, at 1.084 nm wave length, at 10 W, 10 Hz, 100 mJ for 60 sec., with an optical fiber in contact mode (0,32 mm of diameter); and the other half, with water-air spray by an Er:YAG laser at 2,94 micrometers wave length at the parameters of 4 Hz, 80 mJ, 24.95 J/cm 2 for 60 sec. The results of this study suggested that both lasers promoted morphological changes in the enamel surface enhancing resistance and can be an alternative clinical method for caries preventions. (author)

  18. Basic studies on laser-assisted phacoemulsification using diode-pumped Er:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausladen, Florian; Wurm, Holger; Stock, Karl

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of a novel diode-pumped Er:YAG laser for phacoemulsification in basic experimental investigations. An appropriate experimental setup was created, including a translation stage for sample movement, a sample holder, a water spray for sample humidification and a surgical microscope with a CCD camera for video documentation. The analysis of the laser cuts and histological sections was done by light microscopy. As samples porcine eye lenses hardened by formalin were used. In ablation experiments with different spot diameters and radiant powers and a constant repetition rate νr = 200 Hz the maximum ablation depths of (4.346 +/- 0.044) mm have reached at (Ø = 480 μm, Φ = 24.15 W) with a maximum extend of thermal damage of (0.165 +/- 0.030) mm. The average ablation efficiency is 0.241 mm3/J. With a spot diameter of 308 μm the maximum ablation depth is (4.238 +/- 0.040) mm at 24.65 W with a mean ablation efficiency of 0.293 mm3/J. The extend of the thermally damaged region is (0.171 +/- 0.024) mm at this laser power. Using a sapphire cylinder with a diameter of 412 μm (length 38.5 mm) in direct tissue contact with water spray for sample humidification the ablation depth reaches (1.017 +/- 0.074) mm at 4.93 W and (1.840 +/- 0.092) mm at 9.87 W with a mean efficiency of 0.261 mm3/J. A thermal damage zone of (0.064 +/-0.024) mm at 9.87 W was measured. Additionally, at this high power, a progressive contamination and destruction of the cylinder end facet was observed. In conclusion, the investigations show that the diode-pumped Er:YAG laser has considerable potential for cataract surgery.

  19. Comparison of the ablation ability of nucleus pulposus after 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser and 980 nm diode laser radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jian; Han, Zhengfeng; Guo, Baofeng; Guo, Han; Zhang, Tongtong; Zeng, Yanjun; Ren, Longxi

    2015-07-01

    To compare the ablation ability of nucleus pulposus after 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser and 980 nm diode laser radiation. Goat spine specimen (GSS) was radiated using Nd:YAG laser and 980 nm diode laser and then divided into five groups based on the final energy--200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 J groups. The ablation quality of nucleus pulposus after radiation was recorded. The ablation quality of GSS was greater at higher radiation energies in both lasers. When compared at the same energy level, the ablation quality of GSS was greater in 980 nm diode laser than in 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser. Statistical significance was observed in 200 and 400 J groups (P diode laser showed better ablation ability than 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser.

  20. Physics of zinc vaporization and plasma absorption during CO2 laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, A. K.; Mazumder, J.; Li, P.

    2007-01-01

    A number of mathematical models have been developed earlier for single-material laser welding processes considering one-, two-, and three-dimensional heat and mass transfers. However, modeling of laser welding of materials with multiple compositions has been a difficult problem. This paper addresses a specific case of this problem where CO 2 laser welding of zinc-coated steel, commonly used in automobile body manufacturing, is mathematically modeled. The physics of a low boiling point material, zinc, is combined with a single-material (steel) welding model, considering multiple physical phenomena such as keyhole formation, capillary and thermocapillary forces, recoil and vapor pressures, etc. The physics of laser beam-plasma interaction is modeled to understand the effect on the quality of laser processing. Also, an adaptive meshing scheme is incorporated in the model for improving the overall computational efficiency. The model, whose results are found to be in close agreement with the experimental observations, can be easily extended for studying zinc-coated steel welding using other high power, continuous wave lasers such as Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG

  1. Bioceramic hydroxyapatite coating fabricated on TI-6Al-4V using Nd:YAG Laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Driven Innovation, 15th Annual International Conference, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 6-7 November 2014 Bioceramic hydroxyapatite coating fabricated on TI-6Al-4V using Nd:YAG Laser M. Tlotleng1, 4*, E. Akinlabi1, M. Shukla2, 3, S. Pityana4, T...

  2. Passively model-locked Nd: YAG laser with a component GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhuhong; Qian Liejia; Chen Shaohe; Fan Dianyuan; Mao Hongwei

    1992-01-01

    An all solid-state passively mode-locked Nd: YAG laser with a 400 μm, (100) oriented GaAs component is reported for the first time and model locked pulses with a duration of 16 ps, average energy of 10 μJ were obtained with a probability of 90%

  3. Nd:YAG laser in urogenital surgery of the dog and cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the fiber-guided Nd:YAG laser with its incisional and hemostatic action, could be useful for meticulous tissue dissection in a subcapsular partial prostatectomy in dogs, and in laparoscopic surgery of dogs and cats. Prior to clinical use, its action was investigated in

  4. Generation of ultra short pulses by auto injection in the Nd: YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, I.C. de.

    1986-01-01

    Yhe work presented here, was concerned to the construction of a coherent light source in the near infrared region with pulses of 10 -10 seconds. The auto-injection technique was employed for generating these short pulses with posterior extraction of the pulse applied to a Nd=YAG-pulsed laser. (author) [pt

  5. Cutting and coagulation during intraoral soft tissue surgery using Er: YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onisor, I; Pecie, R; Chaskelis, I; Krejci, I

    2013-06-01

    To find the optimal techniques and parameters that enables Er:YAG laser to be used successfully for small intraoral soft tissue interventions, in respect to its cutting and coagulation abilities. In vitro pre-tests: 4 different Er:YAG laser units and one CO2 unit as the control were used for incision and coagulation on porcine lower jaws and optimal parameters were established for each type of intervention and each laser unit: energy, frequency, type, pulse duration and distance. 3 different types of intervention using Er:YAG units are presented: crown lengthening, gingivoplasty and maxillary labial frenectomy with parameters found in the in vitro pre-tests. The results showed a great decrease of the EMG activity of masseter and anterior temporalis muscles. Moreover, the height and width of the chewing cycles in the frontal plane increased after therapy. Er:YAG is able to provide good cutting and coagulation effects on soft tissues. Specific parameters have to be defined for each laser unit in order to obtain the desired effect. Reduced or absent water spray, defocused light beam, local anaesthesia and the most effective use of long pulses are methods to obtain optimal coagulation and bleeding control.

  6. Thermal lensing effects in cw-pumped Nd3: YAG laser rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.

    Thermal lensing effects were investigated in cw-pumped Nd 3+ : YAG laser rods. For identically specified rods very different thermally induced focal lengths were measured. Thus compensation of thermal lensing by applying curved end faces should be done individually for each rod. (orig.) 891 HT/orig. 892 HIS

  7. [Comparison of validity and safety between holmium: YAG laser and traditional surgery in partial nephrectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Sheng; Xia, Ming

    2015-08-11

    To compare the validity and safety between holmium: YAG laser and traditional surgery in partial nephrectomy. A total of 28 patients were divided into two groups (holmium: YAG laser group without renal artery clamping and traditional surgery group with renal artery clamping). The intraoperative blood loss, total operative time, renal artery clamping time, postoperative hospital stay, separated renal function, postoperative complications and depth of tissue injury were recorded. The intraoperative blood loss, total operative time, renal artery clamping time, postoperative hospital stay, separated renal function, postoperative complications and depth of tissue injury were 80 ml, 77 min, 0 min, 7.4 days, 35 ml/min, 0, 0.9 cm, respectively, in holmium: YAG laser group. And in traditional surgery group were 69 ml, 111 min, 25.5 min, 7.3 days, 34 ml/min, 0, 2.0 cm, respectively. The differences of total operative time, renal artery clamping time and depth of tissue injury between two groups were statistically significant. The others were not statistically significant. Holmium: YAG laser is effective and safe in partial nephrectomy. It can decrease the total operative time, minimize the warm ischemia time and enlarge the extent of surgical excision.

  8. Depigmentation therapy with Q-switched Nd: YAG laser in universal vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Majid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Any residual pigment left in patients of universal vitiligo is managed with topical treatments, cryotherapy, and lasers. Aim: The study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of Q-switched Nd: YAG laser in treating the residual pigmentation in patients with universal vitiligo. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients of universal vitiligo with residual pigmentation on the face, hands, or feet, resistant to topical treatments, were treated with single or multiple sessions of Q-switched Nd: YAG laser treatment. Topical treatments were continued in between the laser sessions and the depigmentation achieved was monitored by clinical examination and repeat digital photographs. Response to the treatment was labelled as excellent if the residual pigment could be reduced by at least 90% while 50-90% resolution of pigmentation was labelled as a partial response. Adverse effects to the treatment offered were also monitored. Results: Thirteen of the 15 patients enrolled for the study showed an excellent response to the treatment offered. Two other patients showed a poor response with less than 50% resolution of pigmentation. The number of laser sessions needed at a particular site ranged from 1 to 3 and no patient was offered more than three sessions of laser treatment at any site. No significant adverse events were reported by any patient. Conclusions: Residual pigmentation in patients with universal vitiligo that does not respond to topical treatment options alone can be managed quite effectively with Q-switched Nd: YAG laser without any significant adverse effects.

  9. Inhibition of enamel demineralisation using "Nd-YAG and diode laser assisted fluoride therapy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, B R; Kulkarni, S; Mishra, P

    2016-02-01

    This in vitro study was to evaluate the irradiation efficacy of the Diode laser and the Nd-YAG laser either un-assisted or assisted by acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) treatment on enamel's acid resistance. Seventy-two enamel samples, obtained from 12 extracted human molars, were randomly assigned to 6 groups as follows: (1) Control (C); (2) Exposed to APF gel (F); (3) Diode laser (DL); (4) Irradiated with Diode laser through APF gel (DL/F); (5) Nd-YAG laser (NL) and (6) Irradiated with Nd-YAG laser through APF gel (NL/F). The specimens were individually demineralised in an acidified hydroxyethylcellulose system, and the acid resistance was evaluated by determining the calcium ion dissolution using atomic absorption spectrometry. The average concentration of the calcium ion determined in groups 1 to 6 was 901, 757, 736, 592, 497 and 416 parts per million micrograms/gram, respectively. The results showed that demineralisation in the NL/F group was significantly less than the other groups and the control group was significantly greater than the other groups (P laser irradiation, used alone or in combination with APF, in decreasing the enamel demineralisation was greater than all the other groups.

  10. High-efficient Nd:YAG microchip laser for optical surface scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena; Nejezchleb, Karel; Škoda, Václav

    2017-12-01

    A CW operating, compact, high-power, high-efficient diode pumped 1064nm laser, based on Nd:YAG active medium, was developed for optical surface scanning and mapping applications. To enhance the output beam quality, laser stability, and compactness, a microchip configuration was used. In this arrangement the resonator mirrors were deposited directly on to the laser crystal faces. The Nd-doping concentration was 1 at.% Nd/Y. The Nd:YAG crystal was 5mm long. The laser resonator without pumping radiation recuperation was investigated {the output coupler was transparent for pumping radiation. For the generated laser radiation the output coupler reflectivity was 95%@1064 nm. The diameter of the samples was 5 mm. For the laser pumping two arrangements were investigated. Firstly, a fibre coupled laser diode operating at wavelength 808nm was used in CW mode. The 400 ¹m fiber was delivering up to 14W of pump power amplitude to the microchip laser. The maximum CW output power of 7.2W @ 1064nm in close to TEM00 beam was obtained for incident pumping power 13.7W @ 808 nm. The differential efficiency in respect to the incident pump power reached 56 %. Secondly, a single-emitter, 1W laser diode operating at 808nm was used for Nd:YAG microchip pumping. The laser pumping was directly coupled into the microchip laser using free-space lens optics. Slope efficiency up to 70% was obtained in stable, high-quality, 1064nm laser beam with CW power up to 350mW. The system was successfully used for scanning of super-Gaussian laser mirrors reflectivity profile.

  11. Influence of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG wavelengths on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements under air or helium atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detalle, Vincent; Sabsabi, Mohamad; St-Onge, Louis; Hamel, Andre; Heon, Rene

    2003-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is widely dependent on the conditions of its implementation in terms of laser characteristics (wavelength, energy, and pulse duration), focusing conditions, and surrounding gas. In this study two wavelengths, 1.06 and 2.94 μm, obtained with Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers, respectively, were used for LIBS analysis of aluminum alloy samples in two conditions of surrounding gas. The influence of the laser wavelength on the laser-produced plasma was studied for the same irradiance by use of air or helium as a buffer gas at atmospheric pressure. We used measurements of light emission to determine the temporally resolved space-averaged electron density and plasma temperature in the laser-induced plasma. We also examined the effect of laser wavelength in two different ambient conditions in terms of spectrochemical analysis by LIBS. The results indicate that the effect of the surrounding gas depends on the laser wavelength and the use of an Er:YAG laser could increase linearity by limiting the leveling in the calibration curve for some elements in aluminum alloys. There is also a significant difference between the plasma induced by the two lasers in terms of electron density and plasma temperature

  12. Experimental analysis of Nd-YAG laser cutting of sheet materials - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit; Yadava, Vinod

    2018-01-01

    Cutting of sheet material is considered as an important process due to its relevance among products of everyday life such as aircrafts, ships, cars, furniture etc. Among various sheet cutting processes (ASCPs), laser beam cutting is one of the most capable ASCP to create complex geometries with stringent design requirements in difficult-to-cut sheet materials. Based on the recent research work in the area of sheet cutting, it is found that the Nd-YAG laser is used for cutting of sheet material in general and reflective sheet material in particular. This paper reviews the experimental analysis of Nd-YAG laser cutting process, carried out to study the influence of laser cutting parameters on the process performance index. The significance of experimental modeling and different optimization approaches employed by various researchers has also been discussed in this study.

  13. Injection seeded, diode pumped regenerative ring Nd:YAG amplifier for spaceborne laser ranging technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, D. Barry; Kay, Richard B.; Degnan, John J.; Krebs, Danny J.; Seery, Bernard D.

    1992-01-01

    A small, all solid state, regenerative ring amplifier designed as a prototype for space application is discussed. Novel features include dual side pumping of the Nd:YAG crystal and a triangular ring cavity design which minimizes the number of optical components and losses. The amplifier is relatively small (3 ns round trip time) even though standard optical elements are employed. The ring regeneratively amplifies a 100 ps single pulse by approximately 10(exp 5) at a repetition rate of 10 to 100 Hz. The amplifier is designed to be injection seeded with a pulsed, 100 ps laser diode at 1.06 microns, but another Nd:YAG laser system supplying higher pulse energies was employed for laboratory experiment. This system is a prototype laser oscillator for the Geoscience Laser Ranging System (GLRS) platform. Results on measurements of beam quality, astigmatism, and gain are given.

  14. Numerical Simulation of the Micro-explosion during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yucheng; Huang Chuyun; Xu Guowang; Yan Xudong; Wang Yanlin

    2011-01-01

    The micro-explosion during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy may cause calculus fragmentation and migration. It plays an important role to the surgery. A numerical simulation of the micro-explosion during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy has been developed. The explosion problem in water environment was solved by the Euler algorithm and the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) was selected in the calculation. This simulation investigated the explosion dynamics evolution in the lithotripsy area. The pressure and intensity of the calculus surface were calculated for different laser pulse energy and different distance between calculus and fiber tip. The calculation results indicate that the micro-explosion's properties are determined by the pulse energy, pulse duration and the water distance. Though Short pulse duration and large pulse energy cause high ablation efficiency, it mains more calculus retropulsion at the same time. The ideal surgery results need property laser parameters.

  15. BLEPHAROPLASTY AND PERIOCULAR SKIN RESURFACING WITH NEW GENERATION ER:YAG LASER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Drnovšek-Olup

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. In this study, a new type of Er:YAG laser, emitting irradiation with variable pulse duration, has been used for blepharoplasty and skin resurfacing in periocular region.More than 40 patients have been treated with second generation Er:YAG laser (Fotona Fidelis for blepharoplasty and skin resurfacing. A focused laser beam (diameter 0.4 mm with very short pulse width (100 µs, that is significantly below the thermal relaxation time of skin, leads to a precise cut with no observable thermal effect on surrounding tissue. The depth of the cut is approximately 1–2 mm, precision comparable to a surgical scalpel. The high repetition rate of consecutive laser pulses (50 Hz at 120 mJ energy accounts for accumulation of thermal load in tissue, and thus leads to complete hemostasis of the cut tissue. Due to improved cutting abilities of the Er:YAG laser, excision of orbital fat is also performed with one pass of the laser beam. By changing the laser parameters to short pulses (300 µs, energy 500 mJ, spot diameter 5 mm and repetition rate 12–15 Hz, skin resurfacing was performed. No special pretreatment therapy was used. Anesthesia: 2% Xylocain inj. subcutaneously. Non adhesive dressing for 24 hours was applied after surgery.Epithelisation was complete after ten days. Redness persists up to 5 weeks. Discomfort of patients was mild. Cosmetic results are satisfying.Conclusions. New generation of Er:YAG laser offers a possibility to cut and coagulate the tissue simultaneously, and by changing the parameters to ablate the tissue with heating influence on skin collagen.

  16. High-efficiency diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:YAG ceramic laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Wei, Z.Y.; Zou, Y.W.

    2010-01-01

    A highly efficient diode-end-pumped femtosecond Yb:yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramic laser was demonstrated. Pumped by a 968 nm fiber-coupled diode laser, 1.9 W mode-locked output power at a repetition rate of 64.27 MHz was obtained with 3.5 W absorbed pump power, corresponding to a slope...... efficiency of 76%. Our measurement showed that the pulse duration was 418 fs with the central wavelength of 1048 nm....

  17. A diode-pumped Tm:YAG laser with an elliptical cavity mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipnicki, E.; Dawes, J.M.; Browne, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: A cavity consisting of cylindrical mirrors/lenses resulting in an elliptical cavity mode is being applied to a 3-level laser; Tm:YAG which lases near 2μm. This arrangement allows the use of simple pump beam optics but also ensures efficient mode matching with good output beam quality. This cavity has been designed and modelled with experiments under way to explore the advantages of this laser design

  18. 2940-nm Er:YAG fractional laser enhanced the effect of topical drug for psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruilian; Zhou, Jun; Su, Hui; Wang, Mei; Wang, Yongxian; Xiao, Shengxiang; Ma, Huiqun

    2017-08-01

    We observed the promoting effects of the 2940-nm erbium:YAG (Er:YAG) fractional laser in topical drug delivery for psoriasis. A total of five (four males and one female) recalcitrant psoriasis patients were given laser treatment eight times at 1-week intervals with the following parameters: 5-11% spot density and 100-μm energy depth. The psoriatic skin lesions on the left knee and the corresponding lesions at the right ones of each psoriasis patient were randomly divided into two groups: laser + topical drug group (L) and drug alone group (D). The psoriatic lesions in both groups were treated with the same topical treatment (calcipotriol ointment). The corresponding psoriatic lesions in the L group received extra 2940-nm Er:YAG laser irradiation before topical treatment. The photos of psoriatic lesions were taken before each treatment. The final photos were obtained from the patients at the seventh day after the final treatment. Drug alone or in combination with laser Er:YAG both reduced psoriatic lesions. However, with the increase in the number of treatments, increasing differences were observed between the treatment and the control sides. The therapeutic outcomes in the L groups were better than those in the D groups. Psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) scores for five cases of both groups were decreased. However, the scores in the L groups were lower than those in the D groups. The use of 2940 nm Er:YAG promoted the absorption of topical drugs for psoriasis, improving the therapeutic effect.

  19. Enamel resistance to demineralization following Er:YAG laser etching for bonding orthodontic brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrari, Farzaneh; Poosti, Maryam; Motahari, Pourya

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown that laser-etching of enamel for bonding orthodontic brackets could be an appropriate alternative for acid conditioning, since a potential advantage of laser could or might be caries prevention. This study compared enamel resistance to demineralization following etching with acid phosphoric or Er:YAG laser for bonding orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: Fifty sound human premolars were divided into two equal groups. In the first group, enamel was etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds. In the second group, Er:YAG laser (wavelength, 2 940 nm; 300 mJ/pulse, 10 pulses per second, 10 seconds) was used for tooth conditioning. The teeth were subjected to 4-day PH-cycling process to induce caries-like lesions. The teeth were then sectioned and the surface area of the lesion was calculated in each microphotographs and expressed in pixel. The total surface of each specimen was 196 608 pixels. Results: Mean lesion areas were 7 171 and 7532 pixels for Laser-etched and Acid-etched groups, respectively. The two sample t-test showed that there was no significant difference in lesion area between the two groups (P = 0.914). Conclusion: Although Er:YAG laser seems promising for etching enamel before bonding orthodontic brackets, it does not reduce enamel demineralization when exposed to acid challenge. PMID:23162591

  20. In vitro study of temperature changes in root during Er:YAG laser application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, Redson Vilela

    2001-01-01

    The temperature increase in root dentine irradiated by Er:YAG laser beam was analyzed, for different dentine thickness and different energy and frequency conditions, aiming the evaluation of Er:YAG laser in endodontic therapy, without causing any damages to close tissues. Twenty four human teeth were separated in four groups with six teeth each, and longitudinally sectioned in thickness of 0.5 mm (first group), 1,0 mm (second group), 1,5 mm (third group) and 2,0 mm (fourth group). Those samples were irradiated with the Er:YAG laser, emitting at the wavelength of 2.94μm, by using a sapphire optic fiber with diameter of 0.375 mm, and forming an angle of 5 deg with the irradiated dentine surface. Three different laser energies were used in this study, 180 mJ, 160 mJ and 140 mJ, with frequencies of 10 Hz and 15 Hz. The temperature data were collected in a digital-analog system and sent to a computer for analysis. It was verified that the time for temperature increases of 5 deg in the external root walls varies according to the laser energy, repetition rate and dentine root thickness. Thus, in this work we could obtain laser parameters to avoid thermal damages in periodontal tissues. (author)

  1. Pore formation during C.W.Nd: YAG laser welding of aluminum alloys for automotive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, M.; Zhao, H.; DebRoy, T.

    2000-01-01

    Pore formation is an important concern in laser welding of automotive aluminum alloys. This paper investigates the influence of the laser beam defocusing on pore formation during continuous wave Nd:YAG laser welding of aluminum automotive alloys 5182 and 5754. It was found that the instability of the keyhole during welding was a dominant cause of pore formation while hydrogen rejection played an insignificant role. The defocusing of the laser beam greatly affected the stability of the keyhole. Finally, the mechanism of the collapse of the keyhole and pore formation is proposed. (Author) 45 refs

  2. The measurement of capillary waves on a weldpool formed by a Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deam, R.T.; Brandt, M.; Harris, J.

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were performed using an on-line pyrometer to measure the capillary waves on a weldpool formed by a Nd: YAG laser. The surface temperature measurements taken from the weldpool revealed strong temporal fluctuations. Fourier transform of the pyrometer data revealed distinct peaks, consistent with calculated resonant frequencies for capillary surface waves on the weldpool formed by the laser. The possibility of using on-line measurement of surface temperature fluctuations to control weldpool depth in laser welds is discussed. The work forms part of an on-going programme to develop closed loop control for laser processing at Swinburne University

  3. Development of a 100 W, single frequency, CW Nd:YAG Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitch, P.J.; Mudge, D.; Munch, J.; Hamilton, M.W.; Ostermeyer, M.; Hosken, D.; Brooks, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: High power, diode-laser-pumped, continuous wave (cw) solid-state lasers with excellent beam quality, efficiency and reliability are required for demanding applications, including gravitational wave interferometry, where current additional requirements include single frequency, low noise and Nd:YAG. Our approach is a chain of injection locked laser oscillators, theoretically capable of achieving the lowest noise possible. We use a single-frequency (100 mW) master laser to injection lock a medium-power (10 W) laser that in turn injection locks a 100 W laser. Injection locking requires an optimized, single mode, power slave laser at each stage. We shall describe the nearly completed 10 W brass-board laser, which will also be deployed at the ACIGA Test Facility at Gingin. We shall also describe our 100 W laser using a scalable diode pumping scheme, an active control of thermal lensing and a stable-unstable resonator. Initial tests showed mode control to be limited by thermal focusing and thermally induced birefringence in the Nd:YAG medium at 70 W output. Recent efforts have identified the source of the thermal lens and significantly reduced its magnitude, leading to a modified design. We shall present our latest results from the experiments to demonstrate single mode, single frequency laser at 100 W

  4. New application of a bipolar Nd:YAG handpiece in laser cardiac surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Katayama, Yoshihiko

    1997-05-01

    A bipolar Nd-YAG laser (1.064 micrometer) handpiece was experimentally examined for a venous dissection without scissors and sutures and clinically introduced for the vein graft harvesting in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Experimental study: One hundred and thirty-five segments of the mongrel dog veins were employed. Nd-YAG laser was irradiated on the vein held by the bipolar Nd-YAG handpiece at the power of 5, 9, 13, and 17 watts, and success defined as a complete vein citing without bleeding at the laser-applied sites were gained in all except three; 97.8% of success rate. Laser exposure time for cutting the vein decreased in order to an increase of the applied laser power, and the veins of bigger diameter needed more longer exposure time in the group of the same laser power. An average exposure time was 4.4 seconds for the veins of 1 mm diameter at 13 watts. In histological examination, a vascular lumen at the cutting site was diminished and covered with a degenerated vascular wall, and bleeding was not seen in all specimen. Clinical study: In 18 cases of CABG the bipolar Nd-YAG handpiece was applied to cut the branches of the great saphenous vein without scissors and sutures. Forty-two grafts harvested by this handpiece were used for aortocoronary bypass grating. All were survived and the angiographic examination demonstrated a 90% of graft patency at an average period of 3.5 years after the operation. Laser-induced morphological change such as aneurysmal formation or graft stenosis was not recognized.

  5. A 1J LD pumped Nd:YAG pulsed laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xue-bin; Wang, Bin; Yang, Feng; Li, Jing; Liu, Ya-Ping; Li, Hui-Jun; Wang, Yu; Chen, Ren

    2017-11-01

    A 1J LD pumped Nd;YAG pulsed laser was designed. The laser uses an oscillation and two-staged amplification structure, and applies diode bar integrated array as side-pump. The TEC temperature control device combing liquid cooling system is organized to control the temperature of the laser system. This study also analyzed the theoretical threshold of working material, the effect of thermal lens and the basic principle of laser amplification. The results showed that the laser system can achieve 1J, 25Hz pulse laser output, and the laser pulse can be output at two width: 6-7ns and 10ns, respectively, and the original beam angle is 1.2mrad. The laser system is characterized by small size, light weight, as well as good stability, which make it being applied in varied fields such as photovoltaic radar platform and etc

  6. 11-GHz waveguide Nd:YAG laser CW mode-locked with single-layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhrimchuk, Andrey G; Obraztsov, Petr A

    2015-06-08

    We report stable, passive, continuous-wave (CW) mode-locking of a compact diode-pumped waveguide Nd:YAG laser with a single-layer graphene saturable absorber. The depressed cladding waveguide in the Nd:YAG crystal is fabricated with an ultrafast laser inscription method. The saturable absorber is formed by direct deposition of CVD single-layer graphene on the output coupler. The few millimeter-long cavity provides generation of 16-ps pulses with repetition rates in the GHz range (up to 11.3 GHz) and 12 mW average power. Stable CW mode-locking operation is achieved by controlling the group delay dispersion in the laser cavity with a Gires-Tournois interferometer.

  7. Black phosphorus saturable absorber for Q-switched Er:YAG laser at 1645 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Li, Tao; Zhang, Shuaiyi; Wang, Mingjian; Yang, Kejian; Fan, Mingqi; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Ming

    2018-03-01

    A Q-switched Er:YAG solid-state laser at 1645 nm based on black phosphorus (BP) saturable absorbers (SAs) was demonstrated firstly to our knowledge. The BP-SA was fabricated by drop-casting BP nanoplatelets dispersion on a YAG substrate and corresponding saturable absorption properties were characterized at 1.6 μm. By employing as-prepared BP-SAs, stable Q-switched laser operations were achieved with a pulse width of 2.8 μs and a repetition rate of 34 kHz, corresponding to the average output power of 0.33 W. The results verify that BP-SAs have great potential for pulsed 1.6 μm lasers.

  8. Diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked femtosecond Yb:YAG ceramic laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi-Ye, Gao; Jiang-Feng, Zhu; Ke, Wang; Jun-Li, Wang; Zhao-Hua, Wang; Zhi-Yi, Wei

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked femtosecond laser based on an Yb:YAG ceramic. Stable laser pulses with 97-fs duration, 2.8-nJ pulse energy, and 320-mW average power were obtained. The femtosecond oscillator operated at a central wavelength of 1049 nm and a repetition rate of 115 MHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a Kerr-lens mode-locked operation in a diode-pumped Yb:YAG ceramic laser with sub-100 fs pulse duration. Project supported by the National Major Scientific Instrument Development Project of China (Grant No. 2012YQ120047), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61205130), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. JB140502).

  9. Er:YAG laser pulse for small-dose splashback-free microjet transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-ae; Jang, Hun-jae; Sirotkin, Fedir V; Yoh, Jack J

    2012-09-15

    The microjet injector system accelerates drugs and delivers them without a needle, which is shown to overcome the weaknesses of existing jet injectors. A significant increase in the delivered dose of drugs is reported with multiple pulses of laser beam at lower laser energy than was previously used in a Nd:YAG system. The new injection scheme uses the beam wavelength best absorbable by water at a longer pulse mode for elongated microjet penetration into a skin target. A 2.9 μm Er:YAG laser at 250 μs pulse duration is used for fluorescent staining of guinea pig skin and for injection controllability study. Hydrodynamic theory confirms the nozzle exit jet velocity obtained by the present microjet system.

  10. Endoscopic palliation of esophageal and cardial cancer: Nd:YAG laser and prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberto, Lorenzo; Ranzato, Riccardo; Marino, Saverio; Angriman, Imerio; Vella, Vincenzo; Donadi, Michele; D'Amico, D. F.

    1997-12-01

    From November 1, 1992 to January 31, 1997, 227 patients with inoperable esophageal and cardial carcinomas were treated with Nd:YAG laser therapy and prosthesis intubation. The retrograde technique was used in most cases. The tumor involved in 75 pts the Cardia, in 65 the middle thoracic esophagus, in 47 pts the lower thoracic esophagus, in 23 in the upper thoracic esophagus and in 17 in the cervical esophagus. The indications for palliative Nd:YAG laser and prosthesis intubation were a locally advanced or metastatic tumor in 146 pts (64.4%) and poor surgical risk in 81 pts (35.6%). The quality of palliation was evaluated according to the ability to swallow. The mean survival rate of the patients during the follow up was 22 weeks for the laser therapy and 16 weeks for the prosthesis intubation.

  11. Impact of pulse duration on Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy: fragmentation and dusting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Markus J; Pongratz, Thomas; Khoder, Wael; Stief, Christian G; Herrmann, Thomas; Nagele, Udo; Sroka, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    In vitro investigations of Ho:YAG laser-induced stone fragmentation were performed to identify potential impacts of different pulse durations on stone fragmentation characteristics. A Ho:YAG laser system (Swiss LaserClast, EMS S.A., Nyon, Switzerland) with selectable long or short pulse mode was tested with regard to its fragmentation and laser hardware compatibility properties. The pulse duration is depending on the specific laser parameters. Fragmentation tests (hand-held, hands-free, single-pulse-induced crater) on artificial BEGO stones were performed under reproducible experimental conditions (fibre sizes: 365 and 200 µm; laser settings: 10 W through combinations of 0.5, 1, 2 J/pulse and 20, 10, 5 Hz, respectively). Differences in fragmentation rates between the two pulse duration regimes were detected with statistical significance for defined settings. Hand-held and motivated Ho:YAG laser-assisted fragmentation of BEGO stones showed no significant difference between short pulse mode and long pulse mode, neither in fragmentation rates nor in number of fragments and fragment sizes. Similarly, the results of the hands-free fragmentation tests (with and without anti-repulsion device) showed no statistical differences between long pulse and short pulse modes. The study showed that fragmentation rates for long and short pulse durations at identical power settings remain at a comparable level. Longer holmium laser pulse duration reduces stone pushback. Therefore, longer laser pulses may result in better clinical outcome of laser lithotripsy and more convenient handling during clinical use without compromising fragmentation effectiveness.

  12. Effect of Er:YAG Laser and Sandblasting in Recycling of Ceramic Brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaei, Soghra; Aghili, Hossein; Hosseinzadeh Firouzabadi, Azadeh; Meshkani, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study was performed to determine the shear bond strength of rebonded mechanically retentive ceramic brackets after recycling with Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) laser or sandblasting. Methods: Twenty-eight debonded ceramic brackets plus 14 intact new ceramic brackets were used in this study. Debonded brackets were randomly divided into 2 groups of 14. One group was treated by Er:YAG laser and the other with sandblasting. All the specimens were randomly bonded to 42 intact human upper premolars. The shear bond strength of all specimens was determined with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until bond failure occurred. The recycled bracket base surfaces were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests were used to compare the shear bond strength of the 3 groups. Fisher exact test was used to evaluate the differences in adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores. Results: The highest bond strength belonged to brackets recycled by Sandblasting (16.83 MPa). There was no significant difference between the shear bond strength of laser and control groups. SEM photographs showed differences in 2 recycling methods. The laser recycled bracket appeared to have as well-cleaned base as the new bracket. Although the sandblasted bracket photographs showed no remnant adhesives, remarkable micro-roughening of the base of the bracket was apparent. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, both Er:YAG laser and sandblasting were efficient to mechanically recondition retentive ceramic brackets. Also, Er:YAG laser did not change the design of bracket base while removing the remnant adhesives which might encourage its application in clinical practice.

  13. Shear Bond Strength of Composite and Ceromer Superstructures to Direct Laser Sintered and Ni-Cr-Based Infrastructures Treated with KTP, Nd:YAG, and Er:YAG Lasers: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorler, Oguzhan; Hubbezoglu, Ihsan; Ulgey, Melih; Zan, Recai; Guner, Kubra

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the shear bond strength (SBS) of ceromer and nanohybrid composite to direct laser sintered (DLS) Cr-Co and Ni-Cr-based metal infrastructures treated with erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG), neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG), and potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser modalities in in vitro settings. Experimental specimens had four sets (n = 32) including two DLS infrastructures with ceromer and nanohybrid composite superstructures and two Ni-Cr-based infrastructures with ceromer and nanohybrid composite superstructures. Of each infrastructure set, the specimens randomized into four treatment modalities (n = 8): no treatment (controls) and Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, and KTP lasers. The infrastructures were prepared in the final dimensions of 7 × 3 mm. Ceromer and nanohybrid composite was applied to the infrastructures after their surface treatments according to randomization. The SBS of specimens was measured to test the efficacy of surface treatments. Representative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images after laser treatments were obtained. Overall, in current experimental settings, Nd:YAG, KTP, and Er:YAG lasers, in order of efficacy, are effective to improve the bonding of ceromer and nanohybrid composite to the DLS and Ni-Cr-based infrastructures (p laser is more effective in the DLS/ceromer infrastructures (p laser, as second more effective preparation, is more effective in the DLS/ceromer infrastructures (p laser modalities, in order of success, Nd:YAG, KTP, and Er:YAG, are effective to increase bonding of these structures.

  14. Comparative study of excimer and erbium:YAG lasers for ablation of structural components of the knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vari, Sandor G.; Shi, Wei-Qiang; van der Veen, Maurits J.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Miller, J. M.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1991-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficiency and thermal effect of a 135 ns pulsed-stretched XeCl excimer laser (308 nm) and a free-running Erbium:YAG laser (2940 nm) with 200 microsecond(s) pulse duration for ablation of knee joint structures (hyaline and fibrous cartilage, tendon and bone). The radiant exposure used for tissue ablation ranged from 2 to 15 J/cm2 for the XeCl excimer and from 33 to 120 J/cm2 for Er:YAG. The excimer and Er:YAG lasers were operated at 4 and 5 Hz respectively. The ablative laser energy was delivered to tissue through fibers. Ablation rates of soft tissues (hyaline and fibrous cartilage, tendon) varied from 8.5 to 203 micrometers /pulse for excimer and from 8.2 to 273 micrometers /pulse for Er:YAG lasers. Ablation rates of soft tissues are linearly dependent on the radiant exposure. Within the range of parameters tested all the tissues except the bone could be rapidly ablated by both lasers. Bone ablation was much less efficient, requiring 15 J/cm2 and 110 J/cm2 radiant exposure for excimer and Er:YAG lasers to ablate 9.5 and 8.2 micrometers tissue per pulse. However, excimer laser ablation produced less thermal damage in the tissues studied compared to Er:YAG at the same laser parameters. The authors conclude that both lasers are capable of efficient knee joint tissue ablation. XeCl excimer laser requires an order of magnitude less energy than Er:YAG laser for comparable tissue ablation.

  15. Nd:YAG laser in endodontics: filling-material edge bordering on a root channel laser cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, Andrei V.; Sinelnik, Yuri A.; Moroz, Boris T.; Pavlovskaya, Irina V.

    1997-12-01

    For the very first time it is represented a study of filling material edge bordering upon root channel cavity modified with a laser. As a filling material it is used a glass ionomer cement. It is demonstrated that Nd:YAG laser radiation effects on increase of grade of edge bordering on the average of 20 - 30% at temperature rise of no more than 2 - 3 degrees in periodontium area in a period of operation.

  16. [A case of polypoid bronchial neurofibroma originating from right B2b successfully treated by bronchoscopic snaring forceps and Nd-YAG laser therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Y; Uchiyama, T; Sato, K; Tatsumi, K; Kimura, H; Nagao, K; Fujisawa, T; Ohwada, H; Hiroshima, K; Kuriyama, T

    1993-12-01

    A 34-year-old man with persistent cough was admitted to our hospital. Bronchoscopic examination revealed a polypoid tumor with smooth surface which almost completely obstructed the right main bronchus. The tumor was removed by transbronchial snaring forceps and histologically confirmed as neurofibroma. Residual tumor was excised by biopsy forceps and further endoscopic Nd-YAG laser vaporization was performed. This is the first case in our country in which bronchoscopic treatment was performed for bronchial neurofibroma. Bronchoscopic removal might be the preferred treatment in the present case, although long-term follow-up is also required.

  17. A highly efficient Ho:YAG laser in-band pumped by a linewidth-narrowed Tm:YLF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, X M; Yang, C H; Yao, B Q; Wang, Y Z; Zhang, W S

    2013-01-01

    A highly efficient Tm:YLF-Ho:YAG laser system is presented in this paper. To obtain the narrow linewidth 1908 nm laser output, a volume Bragg grating combined with a Fabry–Perot (FP) etalon were used as wavelength selection devices. The maximum output power of 28.7 W was obtained with a slope efficiency of 42.3% in the Tm:YLF laser. An output wavelength of 1908.1 nm and FWHM linewidth of 60 pm were achieved at the maximum output level. Using this Tm:YLF laser as the pump source, high efficiency continuous wave and Q-switched operation of a Ho:YAG laser was demonstrated. Operating at continuous wave mode, up to 73.3% slope efficiency and 67.4% optical conversion efficiency were obtained in the Ho:YAG laser, corresponding to a diode-to-Ho optical conversion efficiency of 23.7%. For the Q-switched mode, when the incident Tm power was 27.3 W, the maximum single pulse energy of 3.4 mJ, pulse width of 15 ns and peak power of 229.3 kW were achieved at the pulse repetition rate of 5 kHz. The maximum average power of 18.3 W, pulse width of 18 ns and peak power of 103.6 kW were obtained at the pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz. (paper)

  18. Advantages of fulguration of posterior urethral valves by Nd: YAG laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D K Gupta

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Posterior Urethral Valves (PUV are one of the com-monest urolgical problems seen in children and the electro-coagulation, which is the most widely preferred modality to ablate the valves, may not be feasible in small-for-date and low-birth-weight neonates as the suitable size resec-toscope/cystoscope may not available. With the availa-bility of Nd: YAG laser at our institute recently, we started performing the laser fulguration instead of electrocoagu-lation of the valves. We reviewed our experience with the emerging role of the Nd: YAG laser in the fulguration of PUV, comparing the results with a historical control group who underwent the classical electrocoagulation of the PUV. The boys (n=50 diagnosed to have PUV by VCUG were confirmed by Wolf 8.5 size cystoscope, underwent Nd: YAG laser fulguration of the valves with a bare fiber, as a day-care procedure without postoperative catheteri-zation. Historical controls (n=50 who had undergone classical electrocoagulation using 9.5 size Wolf resectos-cope served as the controls. The mean age was 1.3 y and 2.6 y in laser and electrocoagulation group respectively. The mean hospital stay of the electrocoagulation group was 3.8 d. Three patients after electrocoagulation devel-oped hematuria and 4 required refulguration whereas in the laser group 5 required refulguration and none devel-oped hematuria. In conclusion, endoscopic laser fulgura-tion of PUV is technically feasible even in neonates and small children. Laser offers excellent results that are com-parable to the time-honored electrocoagulation procedure. This has the additional advantage forfulgurating the PUV in smaller caliber urethra as this can be performed with the smaller available cystoscope that has a side channel, admitting the laser fiber.

  19. Effect of laser peripheral iridotomy using argon and neodymium-YAG lasers on corneal endothelial cell density: 7-year longitudinal evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takashi; Iida, Masaharu; Sakisaka, Toshihiro; Minami, Keiichiro; Miyata, Kazunori

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the changes in corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) over a 7-year period after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) using argon and neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers. Retrospective case series. Eyes that underwent prophylactic LPI using argon and Nd:YAG lasers were followed up for 7 years. Central corneal endothelial cells were observed by use of noncontact specular microscopy preoperatively and at 1 and 7 years postoperatively. Changes in ECD and the associations between preoperative ECD and the total energy of the Nd:YAG laser were evaluated. Fifty-one eyes of 51 patients were followed up for 7 years. The ECD significantly decreased after LPI (P laser energy. Long-term evaluation indicated that the reduction in ECD after argon-Nd:YAG laser LPI was present but small during the initial year and was negligible after 1 year.

  20. Versatility of erbium YAG laser: from fractional skin rejuvenation to full-field skin resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, J David

    2011-05-01

    For the laser surgeon, the Er-YAG laser is an invaluable tool that delivers unsurpassed ablation efficiency, and with appropriate functionality (quasi long-pulse feature) provides sufficient tissue coagulation to remodel deep rhytids. As such, the 2940-nm wavelength is well suited for routine laser skin rejuvenation in full-field, fractional, and point-beam modes with additional benefits, including applicability to diverse skin types, short healing times, and a low likelihood of energy-related complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bone Ablation at 2.94 mm Using the Free-Electron Laser and Er:YAG Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Borislav; Hakimian, Arman; Peavy, G. M.; Haglund, Richard

    2002-03-01

    Bone Ablation at 2.94 microns Using the Free-Electron Laser and Er:YAG Laser in Perfluorocarbon Compounds B. Ivanov^1, A. M. Hakimian^1, G. M. Peavy^2, R. F. Haglund, Jr.1 1Department of Physics and Astronomy, W. M. Keck Foundation Free-Electron Laser Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 2Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA 92612 We report studies on the efficiency of mid-IR laser ablation of cow cortical bone using the Vanderbilt free-electron laser (FEL), when irrigating the ablation zone with an inert and biocompatible perfluorocarbon compounds (PFC). At 2.94 microns, the bone matrix (mainly by water) absorbs the radiation while the PFCs transmit this wavelength, dissipate heat and acoustical stress, and prevent carbonization of the bone sample. The ablation rate, as a function of laser fluence, scanning speed and the type of PFC, was investigated. The laser fluence was estimated to be 5 J/cm^2 - 100 J/cm^2 with a laser focal spot diameter of 160 microns 500 microns and a scanning speed of 40 microns/s 2960 microns/s. The ablation rate was estimated from scanning electron microscopy to be 0.5 mm/s 2.4 mm/s. Comparisons of ablation rates with the FEL and a Er:YAG laser at 2.94 microns are being evaluated.

  2. Long-term remission of folliculitis decalvans after treatment with the long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, Arne A; Van der Veen, J P Wietze; Wolkerstorfer, Albert

    2014-04-01

    Folliculitis decalvans (FD) is a rare inflammatory scalp disorder presenting with tufted folliculitis, follicular papules and pustules, progressing to cicatricial alopecia. Current treatments mainly consist of antibiotic and immunomodulatory therapies and are often disappointing. FD has previously shown to respond to treatment with neodymium:yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser in one case. We present a case of recalcitrant FD, successfully treated with a long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser.

  3. Flaw evaluation of Nd:YAG laser welding based plume shape by infrared thermal camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Yeol; Yoo, Young Tae; Yang, Dong Jo; Song, Kyung Seol; Ro, Kyoung Bo

    2003-01-01

    In Nd:YAG laser welding evaluation methods of welding flaw are various. But, the method due to plume shape is difficult to classification od welding flaw. The Nd:YAG laser process is known to have high speed and deep penetration capability to become one of the most advanced welding technologies. At the present time, some methods are studied for measurement of plume shape by using high-speed camera and photo diode. This paper describes the machining characteristics of SM45C carbon steel welding by use of an Nd:YAG laser. In spite of its good mechanical characteristics, SM45C carbon steel has a high carbon contents and suffers a limitation in the industrial application due to the poor welding properties. In this study, plume shape was measured by infrared thermal camera that is non-contact/non-destructive thermal measurement equipment through change of laser generating power, speed, focus. Weld was performed on bead-on method. Measurement results are compared as two equipment. Here, two results are composed of measurement results of plume quantities due to plume shape by infrared thermal camera and inspection results of weld bead include weld flaws by ultrasonic inspector.

  4. Utilization of Nd-YAG (1064 nm) laser for female hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Ahlam Hassan

    2013-05-01

    The Cutera. Inc, cool Glide system laser is along pulsed Nd-YAG 1064 nm, of energy density 25 to 30 J/cm 2 and pulse duration 25 ms in all individual sessions.This study was held in Medical Arms Service Hospital. The period of study taken was three month. The study sample consisted of five patients base line photographs were taken before treatments and also after treatments. Photos show the satisfactory results of the laser treatment. In this study the hair removal treat went was conducted for female middle age group of 25-40 years. The Nd-YAG (1064 nm) laser was found to more effective in treatment of the hair removal, and complications can be minimized by using anesthesia and anti bio tics. The Nd-YAG laser therapy should be considered as a good and dependable alternative to other treatment radiation techniques. And effectiveness of treatment can be increased by using optimum power and duration.(Author)

  5. Holmium:YAG laser effects on articular cartilage metabolism: in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Lane; Montgomery, L.; Fanton, G.; Dillingham, M.; Schurman, D. J.

    1994-09-01

    We report effects of applying variable doses of Holmium:YAG laser energy to bovine articular cartilage in vitro. The response of the cartilage to the Holmium:YAG laser energy was determined by quantification of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan synthesis. This study demonstrates that articular cartilage cell metabolism was maintained at a normal level following treatment of cartilage at a dose of 0.6 joules/pulse. The laser energy was applied at 10 Hz for 10 seconds at 1 mm distance from the cartilage. Under these conditions and at a dose of 0.6 joules/pulse, the total energy density was calculated to be 240 joules/cm2, assuming minimal loss of energy due to water absorption. Energy levels grater than 0.8 joules/pulse corresponding to calculated energy densities greater than 320 joules/cm2 proved harmful to cartilage. Our data demonstrate that low levels of Holmium:YAG laser energy can be applied to articular cartilage under conditions that maintain and/or stimulate cell metabolism.

  6. Sub ablative Er: YAG laser irradiation on surface roughness of eroded dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curylofo-Zotti, Fabiana Almeida; Lepri, Taísa Penazzo; Colucci, Vivian; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Er:YAG laser irradiation applied at varying pulse repetition rate on the surface roughness of eroded enamel. Bovine enamel slabs (n = 10) were embedded in polyester resin, ground, and polished. To erosive challenges, specimens were immersed two times per day in 20mL of concentrated orange juice (pH = 3.84) under agitation, during a two-day period. Specimens were randomly assigned to irradiation with the Er:YAG laser (focused mode, pulse energy of 60 mJ and energy density of 3.79 J/cm(2) ) operating at 1, 2, 3, or 4 Hz. The control group was left nonirradiated. Surface roughness measurements were recorded post erosion-like formation and further erosive episodes by a profilometer and observed through atomic force microscopy (AFM). Analysis of variance revealed that the control group showed the lowest surface roughness, while laser-irradiated substrates did not differ from each other following post erosion-like lesion formation. According to analysis of covariance, at further erosive episodes, the control group demonstrated lower surface roughness (P > 0.05), than any of the irradiated groups (P enamel eroded. The AFM images showed that the specimens irradiated by the Er:YAG laser at 1 Hz presented a less rough surface than those irradiated at 2, 3, and 4 Hz. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Treatment of recurrent pilonidal cysts with nd-YAG laser: report of our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoni, F; Moretti, S; Cannarozzo, G; Campolmi, P

    2018-02-01

    Surgical treatment remains the first-line therapy of pilonidal cyst but is associated with high levels of postoperative pain, adverse events and a recurrence rate of 30%. We report our experience with laser hair removal using the Nd-YAG laser for the treatment of pilonidal cyst. Ten patients affected by pilonidal cyst were examined and treated from October 2011 to November 2016. Treatments were carried out using the Nd-YAG laser (Deka M.E.L.A, Calenzano, Florence, Italy) at a wavelength of 1064 nm at 30-day interval. Nine patients were asymptomatic after the second treatment, while in one case the symptom disappeared after the fourth session. After 4-8 treatments, the pilonidal cyst had clinically disappeared and patients subjectively felt healed. In all cases, the soft-tissue ultrasounds performed before the first and after the last session showed the disappearance of the pilonidal cyst. In the follow-up, all the patients remained asymptomatic without any disease recurrence. Nd-YAG laser is an effective treatment for pilonidal cysts, providing excellent results with quick healing and no risk of serious adverse side-effects. It could be a very attractive alternative to open surgery, enabling patients to prevent the frequent and severe postoperative issues associated with surgery.

  8. Performance of Er:YAG laser ablation of hard bone under different irrigation water cooling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán Bernal, Lina M.; Shayeganrad, Gholamreza; Kosa, Gabor; Zelechowski, Marek; Rauter, Georg; Friederich, Niklaus; Cattin, Philippe C.; Zam, Azhar

    2018-02-01

    The biological applicability of the Erbium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) laser in surgical processes is so far limited to hard dental tissues. Using the Er:YAG laser for bone ablation is being studied since it has shown good performance for ablating dental hard tissues at the wavelength 2.94 μm, which coincides with the absorption peak of water, one of the main components of hard tissue, like teeth and bone. To obtain a decent performance of the laser in the cutting process, we aim at examining the influence of sequenced water jet irrigation on both, the ablation rate and the prevention of carbonization while performing laser ablation of bone with fixed laser parameters. An Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm wavelength, 940 mJ energy per pulse, 400 μs pulse width, and 10 Hz repetition rate is used for the ablation of a porcine femur bone under different pulsed water jet irrigation conditions. We used micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scans to determine the geometry of the ablated areas. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used for qualitative observations for the presence of carbonization and micro-fractures on the ablated surfaces. We evaluate the performance of the laser ablation process for the different water jet conditions in terms of the ablation rate, quantified by the ablated volume per second and the ablation efficiency, calculated as the ablated volume per pulse energy. We provide an optimized system for laser ablation which delivers the appropriate amount of water to the bone and consequently, the bone is ablated in the most efficient way possible without carbonization.

  9. Cleaning of the first mirrors and diagnostic windows by YAG laser on HL-2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y; Zheng, L; Li, Y G; Li, L C; Jiao, Y M; Gao, H; Zhao, G

    2009-01-01

    A laser cleaning system for HL-2A tokamak first mirrors and diagnostic windows has been developed recently. A detailed description of the laser cleaning procedure is presented. The optical transmission performance measured before and after the laser cleaning of the impurity film deposited on the optical elements is investigated. HL-2A deposited layers on metal mirrors and glass windows with thicknesses of about 1 and 4 μm, respectively, are clearly removed by irradiation with a single pulse of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with energy density of 0.4 and 2.8 J cm -2 , respectively. The feasibility of cleaning ECE windows is demonstrated. A cleaning time of about 5 min is suitable for application in fusion devices. The comparison of results obtained at different laser wavelengths shows that there is a greater probability of damage to the metallic mirror surface with a short laser wavelength than with longer wavelength.

  10. Alternative Treatment of Osteoma Using an Endoscopic Holmium-YAG Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ba Leun Han

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoma is one of the most common tumors of the cranial vault and the facial skeleton. For osteoma in the facial region, endoscopic resection is widely used to prevent surgical scarring. Tumors in a total of 14 patients were resected using an endoscopic holmium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Ho:YAG laser with a long flexible fiber. Aside from having the advantage of not leaving a scar due to the use of endoscopy, this procedure allowed resection at any position, was minimally invasive, and caused less postoperative pain. This method yielded excellent cosmetic results, so the endoscopic Ho:YAG laser is expected to emerge as a good treatment option for osteoma.

  11. YAG laser in the treatment of hemorrhoids: a report of 700 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-xun; Zhang, Xinrong

    1993-03-01

    The results of treating hemorrhoids in 700 cases with a YAG laser knife is reported. Since 1988, the author introduced the YAG laser into the treatment of various kinds of hemorrhoids. The satisfactory results were achieved with 100% cure rate. Some related problems also are discussed in this paper. Hemorrhoid is a kind of common disease. It usually appears in the superior or inferior rectal venous plexus covered with mucosa. The hemorrhoids are divided into internal, external, and mixed types according to their location and origination. The internal hemorrhoid is superior to the dentate line and caused by varicosity of superior rectal venous plexus covered with mucosa, the most common presentation is a bleeding and prolapse mass out of the anus. The external hemorrhoid arises from varicosity of inferior rectal venous plexus, the most important clinical finding is a painful mass covered with skin of the anal canal. The characteristics of mixed type are the combination of the two types as mentioned above.

  12. Development of remote bore tools for pipe welding/cutting by YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Kakudate, Satoshi; Tada, Eisuke; Obara, Kenjiro; Taguchi, Kou; Nakamori, Naokazu

    1996-07-01

    In D-T burning reactors such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), an internal access welding/cutting of blanket cooling pipe with bend sections is inevitably required because of spatial constraint due to nuclear shield and available port opening space. For this purpose, an internal access pipe welding/cutting using YAG laser beam is being developed according to the agreement of the ITER R and D task (T44). A design concept of welding/cutting processing head with a flexible optical fiber has been developed and the basic feasibility studies on welding, cutting and rewelding are performed using stainless steel plate (SS316L). In this report, the details of a welding/cutting head with a flexible optical fiber for YAG laser are described, together with the basic experiment results relating to the welding/cutting and rewelding. (author)

  13. Freeze frame analysis on high speed cinematography of Nd/YAG laser explosions in ocular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, S A; Cheng, H

    1986-01-01

    High speed colour cinematography at 400 frames per second was used to photograph both single and train burst Nd/YAG laser applications in ox eyes at threshold energy levels. Measurements of the extent and speed of particle scatter and tissue distortion from the acoustic transient were made from a sequential freeze frame analysis of the films. Particles were observed to travel over 8 mm from the site of Nd/YAG application 20 milliseconds after a single pulse at initial speeds in excess of 20 km/h. The use of train bursts of pulses was seen to increase the number of particles scattered and project the wavefront of particles further from the point of laser application. Images PMID:3754458

  14. Inner structure detection by optical tomography technology based on feedback of microchip Nd:YAG lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxin; Zhang, Shulian; Tan, Yidong; Zhao, Shijie

    2013-05-20

    We describe a new optical tomography technology based on feedback of microchip Nd:YAG lasers. In the case of feedback light frequency-shifted, light can be magnified by a fact of 10(6) in the Nd:YAG microchip lasers, which makes it possible to realize optical tomography with a greater depth than current optical tomography. The results of the measuring and imaging of kinds of samples are presented, which demonstrate the feasibility and potential of this approach in the inner structure detection. The system has a lateral resolution of ~1 μm, a vertical resolution of 15 μm and a longitudinal scanning range of over 10mm.

  15. High Power Q-Switched Dual-End-Pumped Ho:YAG Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao-Ming, Duan; Ying-Jie, Shen; Tong-Yu, Dai; Bao-Quan, Yao; Wang Yue-Zhu, E-mail: xmduan@hit.edu.cn [National Key Laboratory of Tunable Laser Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2012-09-15

    We report the high power acousto-optically Q-switched operation of a dual-end-pumped Ho:YAG laser at room temperature. For the Q-swithched mode, a maximum pulse energy of 2.4 mJ and a minimum pulse width of 23 ns at the repetition rate of 10 kHz are achieved, resulting in a peak power of 104.3 kW. The beam quality factor of M{sup 2} {approx} 1.5, which is demonstrated by a knife-edge method. In addition, the Ho:YAG laser is employed as a pumping source of ZGP optical parametric oscillator, and its total average output power is 13.2 W at 3.9 {mu}m and 4.4 {mu}m with a slope efficiency of 68.4%.

  16. Freeze frame analysis on high speed cinematography of Nd/YAG laser explosions in ocular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, S A; Cheng, H

    1986-05-01

    High speed colour cinematography at 400 frames per second was used to photograph both single and train burst Nd/YAG laser applications in ox eyes at threshold energy levels. Measurements of the extent and speed of particle scatter and tissue distortion from the acoustic transient were made from a sequential freeze frame analysis of the films. Particles were observed to travel over 8 mm from the site of Nd/YAG application 20 milliseconds after a single pulse at initial speeds in excess of 20 km/h. The use of train bursts of pulses was seen to increase the number of particles scattered and project the wavefront of particles further from the point of laser application.

  17. Polycarbonate surface cell's adhesion examination after Nd:YAG laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramazani, S.A. Ahmad, E-mail: Ramazani@sharif.ir [Polymer Group, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, Seyyed Abbas, E-mail: Musavi@che.sharif.ir [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seyedjafari, Ehsan [Department of Biotechnology, University College of Science, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poursalehi, Reza [Department of Physics, University of Shahed, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sareh, Shohreh [Research Center of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Silakhori, Kaveh [Laser Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poorfatollah, Ali Akbar [Research Center of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamkhali, Amir Nasser [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-05-05

    Nd:YAG laser treatment was used in order to increase surface cell adhesion aspects of polycarbonate (PC) films prepared via melt process. The treatment was carried out under different wavelengths and beam diameters. ATR-FTIR and UV spectra obtained from different samples before and after laser treatment in air showed that laser irradiation has induced some chemical and physical changes in surface properties. The irradiated films were also characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurements. Effect of pulse numbers on the surface properties was also investigated. Cell culture test was used to evaluate cell adhesion property on the PC films before and after treatment. The results obtained from this test showed that after laser treatment, the cells were attached and proliferated extensively on the Nd:YAG laser treated films in comparison with the unmodified PC. Moreover, it was revealed that a decrease in the laser beam diameter and an increase in the irradiated pulse numbers increased surface wettability and caused a better cell attachment on the polymer surface. The obtained results also showed that a decrease in the laser beam diameter and an increase in the irradiated pulse numbers increased surface wettability and caused a better cell attachment on the polymer surface.

  18. Corneal photoablation in vivo with the erbium:YAG laser: first report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Benedikt J.; Bende, Thomas; Matallana, Michael; Kriegerowski, Martin

    1995-05-01

    As an alternative to far-UV lasers for corneal refractive surgery, the Erbium:YAG laser may be used in TEM00 mode. The resulting gaussian beam profile leads to a certain amount of myopic correction per laser pulse. Although animal data suggest that the clinical outcome should be comparable to the UV-lasers, no human data were available until now. We performed Erbium:YAG laser areal ablation in 5 blind human eyes. In TEM00 mode, the laser parameters were: effective diameter of laser spot equals 3.4 mm, fluence equals 380 mJ/cm2, pulse duration equals 250 microsecond(s) , Repetition rate equals 4 Hz, Number of applied laser pulses equals 15. Four patients with no light perception, one with intact light projection on one eye (some of them scheduled for enucleation) were treated under topical anaesthesia. Patient selection and informed consent were agreed to by the University's independent Ethics Committee. Prior to laser irradiation, corneal epithelium was removed. A postoperative silicone cast of the cornea was analyzed with a confocal laser micro-topometer for the ablation profile. The eyes were treated with antibiotic ointment until the epithelium was closed. Clinical appearance and, where possible, profilometry of the ablated area was observed. The ablation profile in cornea was gaussian shaped with a maximal depth of 30 micrometers . During laser treatment, the corneal surface becomes opaque, clearing in a matter of seconds. Epithelial healing and clinical appearance was similar to excimer laser treatment. However, during the first week, the irradiated area shows subepithelial irregularities, resembling small bubbles, disappearing thereafter.

  19. A 526 W Diode-Pumped Nd:YAG Ceramic Slab Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan-Zhong; Bo Yong; Xu Jian; Xu Yi-Ting; Xu Jia-Lin; Guo Ya-Ding; Yang Feng-Tu; Peng Qin-Jun; Cui Da-Fu; Xu Zu-Yan; Liu Wen-Bin; Jiang Ben-Xue; Kou Hua-Min; Pan Yu-Bai; Jiang Dong-Liang

    2011-01-01

    A diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic slab laser with a high power output is presented. An average power of 526 W is achieved at 1064 nm with a repetition rate of 120 Hz and a pulse width of 180 μs from a 93mm × 52mm × 8 mm ceramic slab at a pump power of 1928 W, corresponding to an optical-to-optical efficiency of 27.3%. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  20. CdS thin films prepared by continuous wave Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Tenpas, Eric W.; Vuong, Khanh D.; Williams, James A.; Schuesselbauer, E.; Bernstein, R.; Fagan, J. G.; Wang, Xing W.

    1995-08-01

    We report new results on continuous wave Nd:YAG laser deposition of cadmium sulfide thin films. Substrates were soda-lime silicate glass, silica glass, silicon, and copper coated formvar sheets. As deposited films were mixtures of cubic and hexagonal phases, with two different grain sizes. As revealed by SEM micrographs, films had smooth surface morphology. As revealed by TEM analysis, grain sizes were extremely small.

  1. The therapeutic effects of the endolaryngeal use of neodymium: YAG-laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karduck, A.; Blank, M.; Essen Univ.

    1979-01-01

    A short review of experiences in animal usage is made, and the first clinical experiences with the endolaryngeal application of the Neodymium: YAG laser MediLas in the treatment of benign vocal cord lesions are reported. The initial results are favourable, but final judgement of this microsurgical technique must be based upon a larger number of patients and a longer for follow-up. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 CKA [de

  2. Interpreting coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra measured with multimode Nd:YAG pump lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrow, R.L.; Rahn, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    We report comparisons of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements using single-axial-and multiaxial-mode Nd:YAG lasers. Our results demonstrate the validity of a recently proposed convolution expression for unresolved CARS spectra. The results also support the use of a relative delay of several coherence lengths between pump-beam paths for reducing the effects of pump-field statistics on the CARS spectral profile

  3. A pilot study of treatment of striae distensae with variable square pulse Erbium: YAG laser resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Meeprathom, Walailak; Manuskiatti, Woraphong

    2017-12-01

    Striae distensae (SD) are a frequent skin condition for which treatment remains a challenge. Various laser treatments have been employed to remove the epidermis and cause dermal wound and heating with subsequent dermal collagen remodeling. To determine the efficacy and safety of a variable square pulse Erbium: YAG (VSP Er:YAG) laser for the treatment of striae in skin phototypes III-IV. Twenty-one women with SD were treated monthly for 2 months with VSP Er:YAG laser resurfacing using a 7-mm spot size. One side of their striae was randomly treated with one pass of 400 mJ in short pulse (SP) mode with 50% overlapping and one pass of 2.2 J/cm 2 in smooth (SM) mode with nonoverlapping. The other side of their striae was treated with two passes of 400 mJ in SP mode with 50% overlapping. Objective and subjective assessments were obtained at baseline and 1-, 3-, and 6-month after treatment. In both SP&SM and SP only group, volume of SD measured by Visioscan VC98 reduced significantly at 6-month follow-up visit (P=.017 and P=.034, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in skin roughness (SER), skin smoothness (SESM), and surface measured by Visioscan VC98. Transient postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is the common side effect found in patients with darker skin tone even in nonsun exposure areas and can last as long as 6 months. VSP Er:YAG laser resurfacing is a promising treatment option for SD. Lower fluence should be used in patients with darker skin phototype to avoid the risk of PIH. In addition, pre- and post-treatment with topical preparations for PIH prevention may be needed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Stabilization of the quasi-periodic motion of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chil-Min; Rim, Sunghwan; Kye, Won-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Moog; Lee, Kang-Soo

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a stabilization method of quasi-periodicity based on a return map. The method is explained in the forced Van der Pol oscillator, and applied experimentally to a quasi-periodic output of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Even though the attractors have no unstable periodic orbit, we were able to stabilize them to an arbitrarily chosen orbit by targeting the trajectory into it

  5. Effect of Nd: YAG laser irradiation on surface properties and bond strength of zirconia ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Liu, Suogang; Song, Xiaomeng; Zhu, Qingping; Zhang, Wei

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG) laser irradiation on surface properties and bond strength of zirconia ceramics. Specimens of zirconia ceramic pieces were divided into 11 groups according to surface treatments as follows: one control group (no treatment), one air abrasion group, and nine laser groups (Nd: YAG irradiation). The laser groups were divided by applying with different output power (1, 2, or 3 W) and irradiation time (30, 60, or 90 s). Following surface treatments, the morphological characteristics of ceramic pieces was observed, and the surface roughness was measured. All specimens were bonded to resin cement. After, stored in water for 24 h and additionally aged by thermocycling, the shear bond strength was measured. Dunnett's t test and one-way ANOVA were performed as the statistical analyses for the surface roughness and the shear bond strength, respectively, with α = .05. Rougher surface of the ceramics could be obtained by laser irradiation with higher output power (2 and 3 W). However, cracks and defects were also found on material surface. The shear bond strength of laser groups was not obviously increased, and it was significantly lower than that of air abrasion group. No significant differences of the shear bond strength were found among laser groups treated with different output power or irradiation time. Nd: YAG laser irradiation cannot improve the surface properties of zirconia ceramics and cannot increase the bond strength of the ceramics. Enhancing irradiation power and extending irradiation time cannot induce higher bond strength of the ceramics and may cause material defect.

  6. Clinical and bacteriological study of the effect of Nd:YAG laser in gingivitis therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colojoara, Carmen; Mavrantoni, Androniki; Miron, Mariana I.

    2000-06-01

    The relationship between dental plaque and gingivitis was verified. Nonspecific gingivitis is an inflammatory process, frequently caused by enzymes and toxins liberate by bacteria form dental plaque. Loose plaque has come under a great deal of investigation because of its role in attachment loss. The current methods used in the treatment of non specific gingivitis encompass the use of antibiotics and conventional surgical techniques. Treating gingivitis with laser energy may further reduce the gingival inflammation and decrease the wound healing time. The lack of correlation between the quantity of dental plaque and the intensity of gingivitis determined us to study the effect of Nd:YAG pulsed laser in reduction of gingival inflammation and wound healing. The aim of this work is to evaluate clinically the anti- inflammatory and wound healing effect of pulsed Nd:YAG laser and to compare the appearance and the levels of the bacteria in the supergingival and subgingival plaque in adolescents with tooth crowding after Nd:YAG laser. The experimental procedure consisted of a clinical and bacteriological study which was undertaken in 20 patients presenting moderate gingivitis. A group of 10 patients was the subject of a bacteriological study and the other group of 10 was used for clinical and histological examination. For each group the clinical criteria of evaluation were: the gingival index, papillary bleeding index, spontaneous aches. Each patient was tested before and after laser exposure or conventional therapy for bacteriological analyses. The results prove that early gingivitis exposure to laser registers a decrease of bacterial colony number and absence of loss of attachment as compared to the application of the conventional treatment. Clinical study has shown that the combination of scaling and root planning with laser therapy is enough to provide improvement in clinical indices and reduction in the number of bacterial colonies.

  7. Argon green-Nd: YAG dual laser posterior hyaloidotomy: An innovative approach toward treatment of premacular hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neodymium: YAG (Nd: YAG laser and argon laser has been used to treat premacular hemorrhage either alone or rarely in combination. Materials and Methods: We describe a new technique of treating premacular hemorrhage by performing hyaloidotomy using a combination of argon green-Nd: YAG laser. We utilized subthreshold energy levels of Nd: YAG laser of 2.0 mJ as compared to the normal recommendation of 3.6-50 mJ. Results and Conclusions: This technique is easy, effective, and safe to manage premacular hemorrhage. The principle behind this combined laser treatment was to make the internal limiting membrane (ILM taut by initial exposure to argon green laser, which allowed us to employ the subthreshold energy levels of Nd: YAG laser. We would like to assess the role of this combined treatment modality in comparison to other modalities, including solitary laser therapy in the management of premacular hemorrhage by performing a prospective, randomized long-term study.

  8. Fluorescence imaging of lattice re-distribution on step-index direct laser written Nd:YAG waveguide lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez de Mendívil, Jon; Pérez Delgado, Alberto; Lifante, Ginés; Jaque, Daniel [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Ródenas, Airán [Departament de Química Física i Inorgànica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Benayas, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.benayas@emt.inrs.ca [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre – Énergie Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650, Boul. Lionel Boulet Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Aguiló, Magdalena; Diaz, Francesc [Departament de Química Física i Inorgànica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Kar, Ajoy K. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-14

    The laser performance and crystalline micro-structural properties of near-infrared step-index channel waveguides fabricated inside Neodymium doped YAG laser ceramics by means of three-dimensional sub-picosecond pulse laser direct writing are reported. Fluorescence micro-mapping of the waveguide cross-sections reveals that an essential crystal lattice re-distribution has been induced after short pulse irradiation. Such lattice re-distribution is evidenced at the waveguide core corresponding to the laser written refractive index increased volume. The waveguides core surroundings also present diverse changes including slight lattice disorder and bi-axial strain fields. The step-index waveguide laser performance is compared with previous laser fabricated waveguides with a stress-optic guiding mechanism in absence of laser induced lattice re-distribution.

  9. Single session of Nd:YAG laser intracanal irradiation neutralizes endotoxin in dental root dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archilla, José R F; Moreira, Maria S N A; Miyagi, Sueli P H; Bombana, Antônio C; Gutknecht, Norbert; Marques, Márcia M

    2012-11-01

    Endotoxins released in the dental root by Gram-negative microorganisms can be neutralized by calcium hydroxide, when this medication is applied inside the root canal for at least seven days. However, several clinical situations demand faster root canal decontamination. Thus, for faster endotoxin neutralization, endodontists are seeking additional treatments. The in vitro study tested whether or not intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation would be able to neutralize endotoxin within the human dental root canal in a single session. Twenty-four human teeth with one root were mounted between two chambers. After conventional endodontic treatment, root canals were contaminated with Escherichia coli endotoxin. Then they were irradiated or not (controls) in contact mode with an Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 15 Hz, 100 mJ and pulse fluency of 124  J/cm2). The endotoxin activity was measured using the limulus lysate technique and data were statistically compared (p≤0.05). The concentration of active endotoxin measured in the negative control group was significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.04). The concentrations of endotoxin in both irradiated groups were significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.027) and similar to that of negative control group (p=0.20). A single session of intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation is able to neutralize endotoxin in the dental root tissues.

  10. Single session of Nd:YAG laser intracanal irradiation neutralizes endotoxin in dental root dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archilla, José R. F.; Moreira, Maria S. N. A.; Miyagi, Sueli P. H.; Bombana, Antônio C.; Gutknecht, Norbert; Marques, Márcia M.

    2012-11-01

    Endotoxins released in the dental root by Gram-negative microorganisms can be neutralized by calcium hydroxide, when this medication is applied inside the root canal for at least seven days. However, several clinical situations demand faster root canal decontamination. Thus, for faster endotoxin neutralization, endodontists are seeking additional treatments. The in vitro study tested whether or not intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation would be able to neutralize endotoxin within the human dental root canal in a single session. Twenty-four human teeth with one root were mounted between two chambers. After conventional endodontic treatment, root canals were contaminated with Escherichia coli endotoxin. Then they were irradiated or not (controls) in contact mode with an Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 15 Hz, 100 mJ and pulse fluency of 124 J/cm2). The endotoxin activity was measured using the limulus lysate technique and data were statistically compared (p≤0.05). The concentration of active endotoxin measured in the negative control group was significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.04). The concentrations of endotoxin in both irradiated groups were significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.027) and similar to that of negative control group (p=0.20). A single session of intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation is able to neutralize endotoxin in the dental root tissues.

  11. Morphological changes produced by acid dissolution in Er:YAG laser irradiated dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuela Díaz-Monroy, Jennifer; Contreras-Bulnes, Rosalía; Fernando Olea-Mejía, Oscar; Emma Rodríguez-Vilchis, Laura; Sanchez-Flores, Ignacio

    2014-06-01

    Several scientific reports have shown the effects of Er:YAG laser irradiation on enamel morphology. However, there is lack of information regarding the morphological alterations produced by the acid attack on the irradiated surfaces. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes produced by acid dissolution in Er:YAG laser irradiated dental enamel. Forty-eight enamel samples were divided into four groups (n = 12). GI (control); Groups II, III, and IV were irradiated with Er:YAG at 100 mJ (12.7 J/cm(2) ), 200 mJ (25.5 J/cm(2) ), and 300 mJ (38.2 J/cm(2) ), respectively, at 10 Hz without water irrigation. Enamel morphology was evaluated before-irradiation, after-irradiation, and after-acid dissolution, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sample coating was avoided and SEM analysis was performed in a low-vacuum mode. To facilitate the location of the assessment area, a reference point was marked. Morphological changes produced by acid dissolution of irradiated enamel were observed, specifically on laser-induced undesired effects. These morphological changes were from mild to severe, depending on the presence of after-irradiation undesired effects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Er:YAG laser-assisted hair transplantation in cicatricial alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podda, M; Spieth, K; Kaufmann, R

    2000-11-01

    Autologous hair transplantation and its combination with flap or reduction procedures is a common surgical approach to cover defects in cicatricial alopecias. Due to the poor recipient conditions present in scar tissue, it is crucial to minimize the trauma exerted on implantation holes in order to achieve good transplantation results. We sought to evaluate the "cold"-ablative properties of the Er:YAG laser for the generation of recipient holes in cicatricial alopecia. Patients with cicatricial alopecia of diverse etiology were treated with Er:YAG laser-assisted hair transplantation. Mini- or micrografts were inserted into recipient holes ablated with a pulse energy of 900-1200 mJ and a spot size of 1.0-1.6 mm. A fluence of 80-120 J/cm2 and 8-12 pulses gave an almost ideal combination of minimal thermal damage and tissue ablation down to the subcutis. With an apparent mini- and micrograft survival of 95% we achieved good cosmetic results after two to five transplant sessions in all patients. The Er:YAG laser is a novel effective tool to ablate recipient holes for autologous hair transplantation in cicatricial alopecia.

  13. In vitro studies of morphological changes in enamel surface after Er:YAG and Nd:YAG laser irradiation, by SEM; Estudo in vitro do efeito do laser Nd:YAG e Er:YAG sobre o esmalte dental humano atraves de microscopia eletronica de varredura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verlangieri, Eleonora Jaeger

    2001-07-01

    The caries prevention by using laser irradiation has been investigated by many authors using various lasers with different irradiations conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigated the morphological changes in enamel surface after Er:YAG and Nd:YAG laser irradiation, in vitro, by SEM. Fifteen freshly extracted, intact, caries-free, human third molars, were used in this study. The coronary portions were sectioned, from buccal to lingual direction, in two half-parts. Each one was irradiated by a different laser. The first one was irradiated with water-air spray, by a Nd:YAG laser, at 1.084 nm wave length, at 10 W, 10 Hz, 100 mJ for 60 sec., with an optical fiber in contact mode (0,32 mm of diameter); and the other half, with water-air spray by an Er:YAG laser at 2,94 micrometers wave length at the parameters of 4 Hz, 80 mJ, 24.95 J/cm{sup 2} for 60 sec. The results of this study suggested that both lasers promoted morphological changes in the enamel surface enhancing resistance and can be an alternative clinical method for caries preventions. (author)

  14. High Efficient LGp0 End Pumped Nd:YAG Laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available the slope efficiency of the laser due to the increased in the fundamental mode volume of the laser. The beam shaping is achieved by using an annular binary Diffractive Optical Element whose geometry is in connection with the location of the Laguerre...

  15. Neodymium: YAG laser damage threshold. A comparison of injection-molded and lathe-cut polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S E; Brubaker, R F

    1987-01-01

    The possibility that injection-molded intraocular lenses (IOLs) with imperfections called iridescent clefts could have a decreased threshold to neodymium: YAG (Nd:YAG) laser-induced damage was investigated. Thresholds for Nd:YAG laser-induced damage were determined for injection-molded and lathe-cut polymethylmethacrylate lenses. When aimed at a membrane in contact with a posterior convex surface, the average thresholds were 0.96 +/- 0.18 mJ (Standard deviation [SD]) and 1.80 +/- 0.55 mJ, respectively. The difference was significant at P = 0.001. When injection-molding polymethylmethacrylate was used to make lathe-cut IOLs, very few iridescent clefts were present, and the threshold to Nd:YAG laser-induced damage was 0.94 +/- 0.25 mJ. Iridescent clefts are therefore produced during the injection-molding process but they do not lower the threshold to Nd:YAG laser-induced damage. Rather, the reduced threshold in injection-molded lenses is most probably a result of the polymethylmethacrylate used in their manufacture. Clinically, iridescent clefts in a lens suggest that it has been manufactured by an injection-molding process and that Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy must be performed at the lowest possible energy level to avoid damage.

  16. Evaluation of the permeability and morphological alteration of the dental surface after apicoectomy, treatment and preparation with Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Guerra de

    2001-01-01

    One of the objectives of endodontic treatment is to resolve pathological periapical processes caused by microbial contamination of the dental pulp. Correct execution of the necessary chemical preparation prior to surgery generally results in positive outcomes. However, a percentage of cases do not respond favorably and therefore require retreatment, a conservative therapeutic option. There are meanwhile a number of treatment failures which do not respond to these conservative measures and must therefore be subjected to paraendodontic surgical procedures. One of the principal problems of this therapeutic conduct is linked to the surface permeability of the dentin after apicoectomy and the lack of adequate marginal adaptation between the retrofilling material and the cavity walls. This permits the percolation of microorganisms and their metabolic by products from the system of root canals to the periapical region, thereby compromising the necessary tissue repair. The present work proposes the evaluation of the surface and marginal permeability of cut dentin after apicoectomy and treatment with Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers with fiber optics and then retrofilled with intermediate restorative material (IRM). A total of 24 single rooted teeth whose canals were endodontically treated were divided into 3 experimental groups: group I, whose apices were sectioned with an Er:YAG laser and the resulting cavity and the cut dental surface were irradiated with this laser via a 50/10 type fiber; in group II the apicoectomy was conducted with an Er:YAG laser and the resulting cavity and the cut surface were irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser; in group III, the samples were apicoectomized and the cavities were treated with a high speed bur (control group). Analysis of the infiltration of the dye methylene blue throughout the cut dental surface and the reconstruction demonstrated that the samples in the irradiated groups presented lower indices of infiltration than the control group. The

  17. Study on Dental Treatment with YAG Laser (1st Report): Temperature of Dental Tissue Irradiated with Laser Beam

    OpenAIRE

    上田, 隆司; 山田, 啓司; 古本, 達明

    2000-01-01

    The flash temperature of a dental hard tissue irradiated with pulsed Nd:YAG laser is measured using a two-color pyrometer with an optical fiber. This pyrometer consists of a chalcogenide optical fiber and a laminated infrared detector. The influence of the laser power on the temperature of the dental tissue is investigated, and the relationship between the laser power and the removal volume of the dental tissue is obtained. In order to examine the thermal damage on the dental tissue, hardness...

  18. Hypopigmentation Induced by Frequent Low-Fluence, Large-Spot-Size QS Nd:YAG Laser Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yisheng; Lee, Siong See Joyce; Goh, Chee Leok

    2015-12-01

    The Q-switched 1064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (QS 1064-nm Nd:YAG) laser is increasingly used for nonablative skin rejuvenation or "laser toning" for melasma. Multiple and frequent low-fluence, large-spot-size treatments are used to achieve laser toning, and these treatments are associated with the development of macular hypopigmentation as a complication. We present a case series of three patients who developed guttate hypomelanotic macules on the face after receiving laser toning treatment with QS 1064-nm Nd:YAG.

  19. High-power diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG laser at 2.07 μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caili; Niu, Yanxiong; Du, Shifeng; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Zhichao; Li, Fangqin; Xu, Jialin; Bo, Yong; Peng, Qinjun; Cui, Dafu; Zhang, Jingyuan; Xu, Zuyan

    2013-11-01

    We report a high-power diode-laser (LD) side-pumped rod Tm:YAG laser of around 2 μm. The laser was water-cooled at 8°C and yielded a maximum output power of 267 W at 2.07 μm, which is the highest output power for an all solid-state cw 2.07 μm rod Tm:YAG laser reported as far as we know. The corresponding optical-optical conversion efficiency was 20.7%, and the slope efficiency was about 29.8%, respectively.

  20. Use of contact Nd:YAG sapphire-laser system for performing partial hepatectomy and splenectomy in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chibing; Jing, Shujuan; Cai, Huimin; Shao, Lanxing; Zou, Hegui

    1993-03-01

    An Nd:YAG Sapphire laser blade was used for performing hepatectomy and splenectomy in dogs. The results suggest that a laser blade provides a new way to reduce intraoperative bleeding and to minimize tissue damage. In recent years, there have been some reports on performing surgical procedures using a contact Nd:YAG Sapphire laser system. The current animal study was conducted in order to explore the capability of incision and excision of the laser tip, the damage to the tissue, and the recovery course.

  1. Experimental investigation on cleaning of corroded ancient coins using a Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huazhong; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu; Shen, Zhonghua

    2017-05-01

    The objective of the work reported is to study experimentally on the removal of corrosion layer from the ancient coins using laser beam as the conservation tool. With the use of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser radiation at 1064 nm, dry laser cleaning, steam laser cleaning and chemical-assisted laser cleaning were used to find out a more suitable and efficient laser treatment for corrosion removal. Cleaning tests were performed on ancient Chinese coins. Experimental results shows that the dry laser cleaning was not successful at removing all types of corrosion crust. It was possible to remove the outer thicker layer of the corrosion products (typically known as patina), but failed on the thinner layer of cuprite. The steam laser cleaning could decrease the initial removal threshold and improve the removal efficiency especially for the oxidation with powdery structure. As for chemical-assisted laser treatment, the cleaning results demonstrate that the combination of laser and chemical reagent could provide a considerable improvement in corrosion removal compared with the conventional laser treatments. Most of the corrosion contaminant was stripped, even the cuprite layer. Moreover, no secondary pollution was formed on the cleaned surface. X-ray fluorescence was applied to determine the variation of composition of surface layer and bulk metal before and after the coins cleaned. It shows that all of the three laser treatments were efficient to reduce the chlorine concentration on the surface of the coins more than 75%.

  2. Ultrasound imaging of Nd:YAG laser-induced tissue coagulation in porcine livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzel, U; Wietzke-Braun, P; Brinck, U; Leonhardt, U; Ramadori, G

    2001-12-01

    Absorption of laser light energy induces denaturation of proteins and thermocoagulation of irradiated tissue. Recently, MRI-guided laser coagulation in combination with MR thermometry was reported as a treatment of liver tumours. In the present study ultrasonographic imaging was evaluated for its suitability in laser induced tissue thermocoagulation. Fresh porcine livers were used for ex vivo examinations. Placement of the laser catheter and tissue coagulation during laser light emission were online monitored by ultrasonography. Nd:YAG laser-induced tissue damage was evaluated by macroscopical and microscopical examinations of histological sections. During laser light emission a marked hyperdense signal enhancement was observed by ultrasonography which strongly correlated with the extent of macroscopic tissue damage. The size of laser-induced coagulation zone depended on both the power setting and total energy delivered. Carbonization of the tissue surrounding the laser tip is a limiting factor because of laser light absorption. However our data indicate that using appropriate laser energy and exposure time prevent carbonization although carbonization can not be visualized by ultrasonography. It is concluded from the present ex vivo studies that laser coagulation can be effectively performed under ultrasonographic guidance.

  3. Marginal microleakage in vitro study of occlusal fissures sealing prepared and etched or not with Er: YAG laser; Avaliacao in vitro da microinfiltracao marginal em selamentos oclusais preparados e condicionados ou nao pelo laser de Er:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youssef, Fernanda de Almeida

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the degree of marginal microleakage in occlusal sealing by invasive techniques, after preparation with Er:YAG laser followed or not by Er:YAG laser etching and compared to the conventional technique. Thirty human premolars were divided into three groups: A (control group) - cavities were prepared with high speed and etched with 37% orthophosphoric acid; group B - cavities were prepared with Er:YAG (350 mJ, 4 Hz and 112 J /cm{sup 2}) and etched with 37% orthophosphoric acid; group C - cavities were prepared with Er:YAG laser (350 mJ, 4 Hz and 112 J/cm{sup 2}), and etched with Er:YAG laser (80 mJ, 4 Hz and 25 m/cm{sup 2}). All cavities were treated with the same adhesive system and restored with flow composite according to manufacturer instructions. Teeth were submitted to thermal cycling procedures and immersed in 50% Silver Nitrate Solutions for 8 hours in total darkness. Teeth were sectioned longitudinally in the bucco-lingual direction, in slices of 1 mm thick. Each slice was immersed into photo developing solution under 16 hours of fluorescent light. Slices were photographed and microleakage was scored from 0 to 7 J by three standard examiners. Results showed statistically significant differences for group C (Er:YAG laser preparation and etching). We concluded that Er:YAG laser can be used for cavity preparation of occlusal sealing, like the conventional high speed method. However, this laser, used as enamel etching agent, could not promote an adequate surface for adhesive procedures. (author)

  4. Comparison of Dentin Permeability After Tooth Cavity Preparation with Diamond Bur and Er:YAG Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Hasani Tabatabaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the permeability of dentin after using diamond bur and Er:YAG laser.Materials and Methods: Seventy-two recently extracted, intact, and restoration-free human permanent molars were used in this study. The samples were randomly divided into three groups of 24 each and class I cavities were prepared as follows. Group 1: High speed diamond bur with air and water spray. Group 2: Er:YAG laser. Group 3: Er:YAG laser followed by additional sub-ablative laser treatment. Each group consisted of two subgroups with different cavity depths of 2mm and 4mm.  The entire cavity floor was in dentin. Two samples from each subgroup were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM. The external surfaces of other samples were covered with nail varnish (except the prepared cavity and immersed in 0.5% methylene blue solution for 48 hours.  After irrigation of samples with water, they were sectioned in bucco-lingual direction. Then, the samples were evaluated under a stereomicroscope at ×160 magnification. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test.Results: Two-way ANOVA showed significant difference in permeability between groups 2 and 3 (laser groups with and without further treatment and group 1 (bur group. The highest permeability was seen in the group 1. There was no significant difference in dentin permeability between groups 2 and 3 and no significant difference was observed between different depths (2mm and 4mm.Conclusion: Cavities prepared by laser have less dentin permeability than cavities prepared by diamond bur.

  5. An in-vitro morphological study of Q-switched neodymium/YAG laser trabeculotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, S; Lee, W R; Guthrie, S; Cruickshank, F R; Foulds, W S; Quigley, R J; Bailey, R T

    1986-02-01

    Laser trabeculotomies produced by directing a pulsed neodymium/YAG laser beam at specimens of human anterior chamber angle obtained post mortem or after enucleation were studied by light microscopy and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy to assess the dimensions of the openings created in the trabecular meshwork, their penetrance to the canal of Schlemm, and the extent or absence of laser induced cellular damage in immediately adjacent tissue. A pulse duration of 40-50 ns at energy levels of around 30 mJ was used and the laser cavity carefully tuned to give a Gaussian spatial mode pattern. Openings in the trabecular meshwork typically of 100 microns in diameter and penetrating through to the canal of Schlemm could be regularly created with only minimal damage to adjacent tissue as judged by transmission electron microscopy. The information so gained may be useful in determining the parameters required for successful laser trabeculotomy as a treatment for primary open-angle glaucoma.

  6. Apraclonidine effects on ocular responses to YAG laser irradiation to the rabbit iris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, K.; Kitazawa, Y.; Kawai, K.

    1990-01-01

    Apraclonidine (p-aminoclonidine) ophthalmic solution effectively reduces the rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) following anterior segment laser surgery. We tested the effect of topical 0.5% apraclonidine on intraocular pressure and on protein and prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations in aqueous humor following Q-switched Nd:YAG laser irradiation to the iris of albino rabbits, at an energy level of 2 to 200 mJ. IOP was measured prior to and for 24 hr after irradiation. Aqueous humor was withdrawn before and 1 hr after laser irradiation for determining protein (Lowry method) and PGE2 (radioimmunoassay). Four to seven rabbits were used for each experiment. The increase in IOP and protein concentration following laser irradiation was demonstrated to be dependent on the amount of laser energy. Apraclonidine completely abolished the IOP rise, and significantly reduced the elevation of protein content. Apraclonidine failed to affect the increase in PGE2

  7. Solar-Pumped TEM₀₀ Mode Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana

    2013-10-21

    Here we show a significant advance in solar-pumped laser beam brightness by utilizing a 1.0 m diameter Fresnel lens and a 3 mm diameter Nd:YAG single-crystal rod. The incoming solar radiation is firstly focused by the Fresnel lens on a solar tracker. A large aspheric lens and a 2D-CPC concentrator are then combined to further compress the concentrated solar radiation along the thin laser rod within a V-shaped pumping cavity. 2.3 W cw TEM₀₀ (M² ≤ 1.1) solar laser power is finally produced, attaining 1.9 W laser beam brightness figure of merit, which is 6.6 times higher than the previous record. For multimode operation, 8.1 W cw laser power is produced, corresponding to 143% enhancement in collection efficiency.

  8. Compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for the MESSENGER mission to Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Danny J; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Li, Steven X; Lindauer, Steven J; Afzal, Robert S; Yu, Anthony W

    2005-03-20

    A compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been developed for the Mercury Laser Altimeter, an instrument on the Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging mission to the planet Mercury. The laser achieves 5.4% efficiency with a near-diffraction-limited beam. It passed all space-flight environmental tests at subsystem, instrument, and satellite integration testing and successfully completes a postlaunch aliveness check en route to Mercury. The laser design draws on a heritage of previous laser altimetry missions, specifically the Ice Cloud and Elevation Satellite and the Mars Global Surveyor, but incorporates thermal management features unique to the requirements of an orbit of the planet Mercury.

  9. Wavelength switchable high-power diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG Laser around 2µm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caili; Du, Shifeng; Niu, Yanxiong; Wang, Zhichao; Zhang, Chao; Bian, Qi; Guo, Chuan; Xu, Jialin; Bo, Yong; Peng, Qinjun; Cui, Dafu; Zhang, Jingyuan; Lei, Wenqiang; Xu, Zuyan

    2013-03-25

    We report a high-power diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG laser operated at either 2.07 or 2.02 µm depending on the transmission of pumped output coupler. The laser yields 115W of continuous-wave output power at 2.07 µm with 5% output coupling, which is the highest output power for all solid-state 2.07 μm cw rod Tm:YAG laser reported so far. With an output coupler of 10% transmission, the center wavelength of the laser is switched to 2.02 μm with an output power of 77.1 W. This is the first observation of high-power wavelength switchable diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG laser around 2 µm.

  10. Nd:YAG Laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding: Effects on shear bond strength and enamel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xianglong; Liu, Xiaolin; Bai, Ding; Meng, Yao; Huang, Lan

    2008-11-01

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of Nd:YAG laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding technique, both ceramic brackets and metallic brackets were bonded with orthodontic adhesive to 30 freshly extracted premolars. The specimens were divided into three groups, 10 in each, according to the brackets employed and the debonding techniques used: (1) metallic brackets with shear debonding force, (2) ceramic brackets with shear debonding force, and (3) ceramic brackets with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The result showed that laser irradiation could diminish shear bond strength (SBS) significantly and produce the most desired ARI scores. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy investigation displayed that laser-aided technique induced little enamel scratch or loss. It was concluded that Nd:YAG laser could facilitate the debonding of ceramic brackets and diminish the amount of remnant adhesive without damaging enamel structure.

  11. Nd:YAG Laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding: Effects on shear bond strength and enamel surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xianglong; Liu Xiaolin; Bai Ding; Meng Yao; Huang Lan

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of Nd:YAG laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding technique, both ceramic brackets and metallic brackets were bonded with orthodontic adhesive to 30 freshly extracted premolars. The specimens were divided into three groups, 10 in each, according to the brackets employed and the debonding techniques used: (1) metallic brackets with shear debonding force, (2) ceramic brackets with shear debonding force, and (3) ceramic brackets with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The result showed that laser irradiation could diminish shear bond strength (SBS) significantly and produce the most desired ARI scores. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy investigation displayed that laser-aided technique induced little enamel scratch or loss. It was concluded that Nd:YAG laser could facilitate the debonding of ceramic brackets and diminish the amount of remnant adhesive without damaging enamel structure

  12. Effects of Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers on cerebral microvasculature. Study in normal rabbit brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroiwa, T; Tsuyumu, M; Takei, H; Inaba, Y

    1986-01-01

    The effect of Nd:YAG and CO2 laser beams on cerebral microvasculature was examined in experimental animals. Soft x-ray microangiography and histological examination of the brain after Nd:YAG laser exposure revealed broad avascular or oligovascular zones in the irradiated and the surrounding edematous tissue, in which the surviving vessels were narrowed and tapered without significant leakage of blood. After CO2 laser exposure, a wedge-shaped tissue defect surrounded by layers of charring, coagulation, and edema was observed. The main finding in the surrounding coagulation and edematous layers was dilatation of the vessels. Hemorrhage was sometimes observed, mainly in the edematous layer. These findings seem to explain the effective hemostatic capability of the Nd:YAG laser and the occasional hemorrhage following CO2 laser exposure, especially at high energy output.

  13. Nd:YAG Laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding: Effects on shear bond strength and enamel surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Xianglong [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu Xiaolin [Department of Orthodontics, Stomatology Hospital, Dalian University, Dalian 116021 (China); Bai Ding [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)], E-mail: baiding88@hotmail.com; Meng Yao; Huang Lan [Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2008-11-15

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of Nd:YAG laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding technique, both ceramic brackets and metallic brackets were bonded with orthodontic adhesive to 30 freshly extracted premolars. The specimens were divided into three groups, 10 in each, according to the brackets employed and the debonding techniques used: (1) metallic brackets with shear debonding force, (2) ceramic brackets with shear debonding force, and (3) ceramic brackets with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The result showed that laser irradiation could diminish shear bond strength (SBS) significantly and produce the most desired ARI scores. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy investigation displayed that laser-aided technique induced little enamel scratch or loss. It was concluded that Nd:YAG laser could facilitate the debonding of ceramic brackets and diminish the amount of remnant adhesive without damaging enamel structure.

  14. Efficient second harmonics generation of a laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and its applications. Laser diode reiki Nd:YAG laser no kokoritsu daini kochoha hassei to sono oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, S.; Oka, M. (Sony Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-08-10

    Stabilization of the second harmonics in a laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and its application are described. The laser is a quantum noise limiting laser, in which a mode competing noise is generated from an interaction between the laser medium Nd:YAG and the type II nonlinear optical crystal KTiOPO{sub 4} when generating a second harmonics in the resonator. However, the quantum noise limiting second harmonics was obtained by means of inserting (1/4) wave length plate in the resonator to release the bond between two intersecting inherent polarization modes. This stabilized green laser is of a single lateral mode is nearly free of aberration. Therefore, an optical disc prototype having three times as much of the currently used density was made using an objective lens having high number of openings to collect lights, which was verified capable of regeneration at a high signal to noise ratio. In addition, higher output is possible by means of parallelizing the excitation, and high output is realized from edge excitation at a fiber bundle. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Marginal microleakage in vitro study of occlusal fissures sealing prepared and etched or not with Er: YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Fernanda de Almeida

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the degree of marginal microleakage in occlusal sealing by invasive techniques, after preparation with Er:YAG laser followed or not by Er:YAG laser etching and compared to the conventional technique. Thirty human premolars were divided into three groups: A (control group) - cavities were prepared with high speed and etched with 37% orthophosphoric acid; group B - cavities were prepared with Er:YAG (350 mJ, 4 Hz and 112 J /cm 2 ) and etched with 37% orthophosphoric acid; group C - cavities were prepared with Er:YAG laser (350 mJ, 4 Hz and 112 J/cm 2 ), and etched with Er:YAG laser (80 mJ, 4 Hz and 25 m/cm 2 ). All cavities were treated with the same adhesive system and restored with flow composite according to manufacturer instructions. Teeth were submitted to thermal cycling procedures and immersed in 50% Silver Nitrate Solutions for 8 hours in total darkness. Teeth were sectioned longitudinally in the bucco-lingual direction, in slices of 1 mm thick. Each slice was immersed into photo developing solution under 16 hours of fluorescent light. Slices were photographed and microleakage was scored from 0 to 7 J by three standard examiners. Results showed statistically significant differences for group C (Er:YAG laser preparation and etching). We concluded that Er:YAG laser can be used for cavity preparation of occlusal sealing, like the conventional high speed method. However, this laser, used as enamel etching agent, could not promote an adequate surface for adhesive procedures. (author)

  16. Water content contribution in calculus phantom ablation during Q-switched Tm:YAG laser lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian J; Rajabhandharaks, Danop; Xuan, Jason Rongwei; Wang, Hui; Chia, Ray W J; Hasenberg, Tom; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Q-switched (QS) Tm:YAG laser ablation mechanisms on urinary calculi are still unclear to researchers. Here, dependence of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance was investigated. White gypsum cement was used as a calculus phantom model. The calculus phantoms were ablated by a total 3-J laser pulse exposure (20 mJ, 100 Hz, 1.5 s) and contact mode with N=15 sample size. Ablation volume was obtained on average 0.079, 0.122, and 0.391  mm3 in dry calculus in air, wet calculus in air, and wet calculus in-water groups, respectively. There were three proposed ablation mechanisms that could explain the effect of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance, including shock wave due to laser pulse injection and bubble collapse, spallation, and microexplosion. Increased absorption coefficient of wet calculus can cause stronger spallation process compared with that caused by dry calculus; as a result, higher calculus ablation was observed in both wet calculus in air and wet calculus in water. The test result also indicates that the shock waves generated by short laser pulse under the in-water condition have great impact on the ablation volume by Tm:YAG QS laser.

  17. Single-mode, All-Solid-State Nd:YAG Laser Pumped UV Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Armstrong, Darrell, J.; Edwards, William C.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the status of a high-energy, all solid-state Nd:YAG laser pumped nonlinear optics based UV converter development is discussed. The high-energy UV transmitter technology is being developed for ozone sensing applications from space based platforms using differential lidar technique. The goal is to generate greater than 200 mJ/pulse with 10-50 Hz PRF at wavelengths of 308 nm and 320 nm. A diode-pumped, all-solid-state and single longitudinal mode Nd:YAG laser designed to provide conductively cooled operation at 1064 nm has been built and tested. Currently, this pump laser provides an output pulse energy of >1 J/pulse at 50 Hz PRF and a pulsewidth of 22 ns with an electrical-to-optical system efficiency of greater than 7% and a M(sup 2) value of UV converter arrangement basically consists of an IR Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) and a Sum Frequency Generator (SFG) setups that are pumped by 532 nm wavelength obtained via Second Harmonic Generation (SHG). In this paper, the operation of an inter cavity SFG with CW laser seeding scheme generating 320 nm wavelength is presented. Efforts are underway to improve conversion efficiency of this mJ class UV converter by modifying the spatial beam profile of the pump laser.

  18. Applications of Nd:YAG laser micromanufacturing in high temperature gas reactor research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooyen, I.J. van; Smal, C.A.; Steyn, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two innovative applications of Nd:YAG laser micromachining techniques demonstrated. ► Firstly an alumina jig to contain multiple 500 μm diameter ZrO 2 spheres. ► Secondly the manufacture of a sealing system using laser micromachining. ► ZrO 2 micro plugs isolate the openings of micro-machined cavities to produce a gas-tight seal. ► Manufacturing processes for both the tapered seating cavity and the plug are demonstrated. - Abstract: Two innovative applications of Nd:YAG laser micromachining techniques are demonstrated in this publication. Research projects to determine the fission product transport mechanisms in TRISO coated particles necessitate heat treatment studies as well as the manufacturing of a unique sealed system for experimentation at very high temperatures. This article describes firstly the design and creation of an alumina jig designed to contain 500 μm diameter ZrO 2 spheres intended for annealing experiments at temperatures up to 1600 °C. Functional requirements of this jig are the precision positioning of spheres for laser ablation, welding and post weld heat treatment in order to ensure process repeatability and accurate indexing of individual spheres. The design challenges and the performance of the holding device are reported. Secondly the manufacture of a sealing system using laser micromachining is reported. ZrO 2 micro plugs isolate the openings of micro-machined cavities to produce a gas-tight seal fit for application in a high temperature environment. The technique is described along with a discussion of the problems experienced during the sealing process. Typical problems experienced were seating dimensions and the relative small size (∼200 μm) of these plugs that posed handling challenges. Manufacturing processes for both the tapered seating cavity and the plug are demonstrated. In conclusion, this article demonstrates the application of Nd-YAG micromachining in an innovative way to solve practical research

  19. Endoscopic Nd-YAG laser treatment and adjuvant therapy for metastatic lesions of airway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okitsu, Hiroshi; Oho, Kenkichi; Naitoh, Jun; Tajika, Eishiro; Amemiya, Ryuta; Hayata, Yoshihiro [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1989-06-01

    Endoscopic Nd-YAG laser treatment and adjuvant therapy were performed in 44 cases with metastatic lesions of airway. The best results were obtained in 31 cases (93.9%) out of 33 cases complaining of ventilatory disturbance in which endoscopic Nd-YAG laser treatment was indicated as an emergency procedure. In most of these cases with metastatic lesions of airway consisted of respiratory tract invasion from mediastinal lymph nodes in cases of esophageal cancer or lung cancer. In these cases, after laser treatment for ventilatory disturbance, the patients condition improved to the extent that adjuvant therapy could be performed. Adjuvant therapy was performed in 38 cases, there were 7 cases treated surgically resection of the metastatic lesions of airway in 3 cases, tracheal tube stent operation in 4 cases 0, 28 radiotherapy in 28 cases Linac irradiation in 24 cases, /sup 60/Co intraluminal irradiation of the trachea in 4 cases 0, and 32 cases were treated with chemotherapy. Tracheal tube stent operation was useful for maintenance of the tracheal lumen following laser treatment, and /sup 60/Co intraluminal irradiation was effective for the residual intratracheal tumor. The 1-year survival rate of 44 cases with metastatic lesions of airway was 42% and the 2-year survival rate was 22%, so this result suggested endoscopic Nd-YAG laser treatment and adjuvant therapy for metastatic lesions of airway was useful to prolong survival time. However the main value of this modality is for the rapid relief of severe ventilatory disturbance due to obstructive airway lesions. (author).

  20. New application of the long-pulsed Nd-YAG laser as an ablative resurfacing tool for skin rejuvenation: a 7-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshami, Mohammad Ali

    2013-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet (Er-YAG) lasers are the gold standards in ablative skin resurfacing. Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG) laser is considered a nonablative skin resurfacing laser whose usage is limited due to its high cost. To assess the efficacy and safety of Nd-YAG as an ablative resurfacing laser and to compare the results with those previously published for CO2 and Erbium-YAG lasers. A total of 296 patients (251 female and 45 male) with Fitzpatrick skin types III-IV and dermatological conditions amenable to ablative skin resurfacing participated in this study. Nd-YAG laser parameters assessed were wavelength (1064 nm), pulse duration (5 ms), fluence (10 J/cm(2) ), and spot size (8-10 mm). Efficacy of Nd-YAG laser was assessed by comparing pre- and posttreatment photographs. An improvement of 30-80% was observed in treated patients. The degree of improvement correlated positively with the number of laser sessions. The most common side effect was hyperpigmentation. Other side effects were less common and mild in intensity compared with published results for gold standard ablative lasers. Not only was the Nd-YAG laser found to be as effective as Er-YAG and CO2 lasers, but treated patients also had shorter recovery and treatment times, and at lower cost. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Optical spectroscopy in channel waveguides made in Nd:YAG crystals by femtosecond laser writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torchia, G.A.; Mendez, C.; Roso, L.; Tocho, J.O.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we present an optical characterization of channel waveguides fabricated by means of femtosecond laser writing on Nd:YAG substrates. These guiding structures show a refractive index increment of about 1x10 -3 which allows TE propagation. By pumping with a CW solid-state laser at 532 nm reaching the 2 G 9/2 and 4 G 7/2 manifolds of Nd 3+ ions, we have explored the emission band corresponding to 4 F 3/2 → 4 I 9/2 optical transitions (peaked at 890 nm). From data, we have found that emission showed similar characteristics for waveguide and bulk. On the other hand, the lifetime corresponding to the 4 F 3/2 metaestable level was determined to be 240 μs for bulk and waveguide. Summarizing, we have made suitable channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals, by fs interaction, with similar spectroscopic properties to those of the bulk, a fact that boosters the photonics application of these devices. For the first time to our knowledge, a direct index increment waveguide made by interaction with ultra-short intense pulses in YAG crystals has been performed. This fabrication procedure can be an efficient tool to make several optical circuits in active materials by means of the one-step, fast and low-cost processing

  2. Femtosecond laser irradiation on Nd:YAG crystal: Surface ablation and high-spatial-frequency nanograting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yingying; Zhang, Limu; Romero, Carolina; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Chen, Feng

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we systematically study the surface modifications of femtosecond (fs) laser irradiated Nd:YAG crystal in stationary focusing case (i.e., the beam focused on the target in the steady focusing geometry) or dynamic scanning case (i.e., focused fs-laser beam scanning over the target material). Micro-sized structures (e.g. micro-craters or lines) are experimentally produced in a large scale of parameters in terms of pulse energy as well as (effective) pulse number. Surface ablation of Nd:YAG surface under both processing cases are investigated, involving the morphological evolution, parameter dependence, the ablation threshold fluences and the incubation factors. Meanwhile, under specific irradiation conditions, periodic surface structures with high-spatial-frequency (Investigations on the evolution of nanograting formation and fluence dependence of period are performed. The experimental results obtained under different cases and the comparison between them reveal that incubation effect plays an important role not only in the ablation of Nd:YAG surface but also in the processes of nanograting formation.

  3. YAG laser peripheral iridotomy for the prevention of pigment dispersion glaucoma a prospective, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew; Kotecha, Aachal; Bunce, Catey; Balidis, Miltos; Garway-Heath, David F; Miller, Michael H; Wormald, Richard

    2011-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) significantly reduces the incidence of conversion from pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) with ocular hypertension (OHT) to pigmentary glaucoma (PG). Prospective, randomized, controlled 3-year trial. One hundred sixteen eyes of 116 patients with PDS and OHT. Patients were assigned randomly either to Nd:YAG LPI or to a control group (no laser). The primary outcome measure was conversion to PG within 3 years, based on full-threshold visual field (VF) analysis using the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study criteria. Secondary outcome measures were whether eyes required topical antiglaucoma medications during the study period and the time to conversion or medication. Fifty-seven patients were randomized to undergo laser treatment and 59 were randomized to no laser (controls). Age, gender, spherical equivalent refraction, and intraocular pressure at baseline were similar between groups. Outcome data were available for 105 (90%) of recruited subjects, 52 in the laser treatment group and 53 in the no laser treatment group. Patients were followed up for a median of 35.9 months (range, 10-36 months) in the laser arm and 35.9 months (range, 1-36 months) in the control arm. Eight eyes (15%) in the laser group and 3 eyes (6%) in the control group converted to glaucoma in the study period. The proportion of eyes started on medical treatment was similar in the 2 groups: 8 eyes (15%) in the laser group and 9 eyes (17%) in the control group. Survival analyses showed no evidence of any difference in time to VF progression or commencement of topical therapy between the 2 groups. Cataract extraction was performed on 1 patient in the laser group and in 1 patient in the control group during the study period (laser eye at 18 months; control eye at 34 months). This study suggests that there was no benefit of Nd:YAG LPI in preventing progression from PDS with OHT to PG within 3 years of

  4. Laser welding by dental Nd:YAG device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaini, Carlo; Bertrand, Caroline; Merigo, Elisabetta; Bonanini, Mauro; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Nammour, Samir

    2009-06-01

    Welding laser was introduced in jewellery during years 70 and, just after, was successfully used also by dental technicians. Welding laser gives a great number of advantages, versus traditional welding and, for this reason, this procedure had a great diffusion in the technician laboratories and stimulated the companies to put in the market more and more evolutes appliances. Some aspects, such great dimensions, high costs and delivery system today still characterize these machines by fixed lenses, which have strictly limited its use only to technician laboratories. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the possibility, by using a fibber-delivered laser normally utilized in the dental office, to make, by dentist himself in his office, welding on different metals and to evaluate advantages and possibilities of this new technique.

  5. Graphene Q-Switched Compact Yb:YAG Laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Serres, J.M.; Jambunathan, Venkatesan; Mateos, X.; Loiko, P.; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, Tomáš; Yumashev, K.; Petrov, V.; Griebner, U.; Aguilo, M.; Diaz, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2015), s. 1-8, č. článku 1503307. ISSN 1943-0655 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143; GA ČR GA14-01660S Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : graphene * saturable absorber * Q-switched laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2015

  6. High power Nd:YAG laser welding in manufacturing of vacuum vessel of fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, Tommi E-mail: tommi.jokinen@vtt.fi; Kujanpaeae, Veli E-mail: veli.kujanpaa@lut.fi

    2003-09-01

    Laser welding has shown many advantages over traditional welding methods in numerous applications. The advantages are mainly based on very precise and powerful heat source of laser light, which change the phenomena of welding process when compared with traditional welding methods. According to the phenomena of the laser welding, penetration is deeper and thus welding speed is higher. Because of the precise power source and high-welding speed, the heat input to the workpiece is small and distortions are reduced. Also, the shape of laser weld is less critical for distortions than traditional welds. For welding thick sections, the usability of lasers is not so practical than with thin sheets, because with power levels of present Nd:YAG lasers depth of penetration is limited up to about 10 mm by single-pass welding. One way to overcome this limitation is to use multi-pass laser welding, in which narrow gap and filler wire is applied. By this process, thick sections can be welded with smaller heat input and then smaller distortions and the process seems to be very effective comparing 'traditional' welding methods, not only according to the narrower gap. Another way to increase penetration and fill the groove is by using the so-called hybrid process, in which laser and GMAW (gas metal arc welding) are combined. In this paper, 20-mm thick austenitic stainless steel was welded using narrow gap configuration with a multi-pass technique. Two welding procedures were used: Nd:YAG laser welding with filler wire and with addition of GMAW, the hybrid process. In the welding experiments, it was noticed that both processes are feasible for welding thicker sections with good quality and with minimal distortions. Thus, these processes should be considered when the evaluation of the welding process is done for joining vacuum vessel sectors of ITER.

  7. Performance study of highly efficient 520 W average power long pulse ceramic Nd:YAG rod laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Ambar; Vishwakarma, S. C.; Ali, Sabir; Jain, R. K.; Upadhyaya, B. N.; Oak, S. M.

    2013-10-01

    We report the performance study of a 2% atomic doped ceramic Nd:YAG rod for long pulse laser operation in the millisecond regime with pulse duration in the range of 0.5-20 ms. A maximum average output power of 520 W with 180 J maximum pulse energy has been achieved with a slope efficiency of 5.4% using a dual rod configuration, which is the highest for typical lamp pumped ceramic Nd:YAG lasers. The laser output characteristics of the ceramic Nd:YAG rod were revealed to be nearly equivalent or superior to those of high-quality single crystal Nd:YAG rod. The laser pump chamber and resonator were designed and optimized to achieve a high efficiency and good beam quality with a beam parameter product of 16 mm mrad (M2˜47). The laser output beam was efficiently coupled through a 400 μm core diameter optical fiber with 90% overall transmission efficiency. This ceramic Nd:YAG laser will be useful for various material processing applications in industry.

  8. Effects of various parameters of the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser for the treatment of enlarged facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Mi Ryung; Chung, Hye Jin; Chung, Kee Yang

    2009-01-01

    A variety of treatment modalities have been used to reduce the size of enlarged facial pores without obvious success. To assess and compare the effects of various parameters of a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of enlarged facial pores. This was a prospective intra-individual left-right comparative study. A total of 40 individuals with enlarged facial pores were recruited for this study. Ten individuals were respectively treated on one half of the face with a quasi long-pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser (method 1), a Q-switched 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser (method 2), both quasi long-pulsed and Q-switched 1064 nm Nd:YAG lasers without carbon-suspended lotion (method 3), and both quasi long-pulsed and Q-switched 1064 nm Nd:YAG lasers with carbon-suspended lotion (method 4). The other half of the face was left untreated as a control. Five laser sessions were performed with a 3-week interval. The pore sizes were measured using an image analysis program and the sebum level was measured with a Sebumeter before and after the treatments. The pore size and sebum level decreased in all four methods on the treated side compared to the control (p pore size and sebum level.

  9. Efficient quasi-three-level Nd:YAG laser at 946 nm pumped by a tunable external cavity tapered diode laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Using a tunable external cavity tapered diode laser (ECDL) pumped quasi-three-level Nd:YAG laser, a fivefold reduction in threshold and twofold increase in slope efficiency is demonstrated when compared to a traditional broad area diode laser pump source. A TEM00 power of 800 mW with 65% slope...... efficiency is obtained, the highest reported TEM00 power from any 946 nm Nd:YAG laser pumped by a single emitter diode laser pump source. A quantum efficiency of 0.85 has been estimated from experimental data using a simple quasi-three-level model. The reported value is in good agreement with published...

  10. Single-Frequency Nd:YAG Ring Lasers with Corner Cube Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke-Ying; Yang, Su-Hui; Zhao, Chang-Ming; Wei, Guang-Hui

    2000-10-01

    We put forward another form of the non-planar ring lasers, in which the corner cube prism is the key element and the Nd:YAG crystal is used as a Porro prism to enclose the ring resonator. The phase shift due to the total internal reflections of the three differently orientated reflection planes of the corner cube prism, Faraday rotation in the Nd:YAG crystal placed in a magnetic field and the different output coupling in S and P polarization form an optical diode and enforce the single-frequency generating power. A round trip analysis of the polarization properties of the resonator is made by the evaluation of Jones matrix.

  11. Iron plasma generation using a Nd:YAG laser pulse of several hundred picoseconds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Jun, E-mail: jtamura@post.j-parc.jp [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kumaki, Masafumi [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kondo, Kotaro [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Kanesue, Takeshi; Okamura, Masahiro [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    We investigated the high intensity plasma generated by using a Nd:YAG laser to apply a laser-produced plasma to the direct plasma injection scheme. The capability of the source to generate high charge state ions strongly depends on the power density of the laser irradiation. Therefore, we focused on using a higher power laser with several hundred picoseconds of pulse width. The iron target was irradiated with the pulsed laser, and the ion current of the laser-produced iron plasma was measured using a Faraday cup and the charge state distribution was investigated using an electrostatic ion analyzer. We found that higher charge state iron ions (up to Fe{sup 21+}) were obtained using a laser pulse of several hundred picoseconds in comparison to those obtained using a laser pulse of several nanoseconds (up to Fe{sup 19+}). We also found that when the laser irradiation area was relatively large, the laser power was absorbed mainly by the contamination on the target surface.

  12. Comparative in vitro study of tissue welding using a 808 nm diode laser and a Ho:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, B; Züger, B J; Erni, D; Banic, A; Schaffner, T; Weber, H P; Frenz, M

    2001-01-01

    In vitro porcine arteries and veins have been welded end-to-end using either a 808 nm diode laser combined with an indocyanine green enhanced albumin solder, or with a continuous-wave (cw) Ho:YAG laser without biological solder. The vascular stumps were approached to each other over a coronary dilatation catheter in order to obtain a precise alignment and good coaptation. Standard histology revealed for both welding techniques lateral tissue damage between 2 and 3 mm caused by laser-induced heat. Good solder attachment to the tissue was observed by the use of a scanning electron microscope. The vessels soldered with the 808 nm diode laser using albumin solder showed considerably higher tensile strength (1 N compared to 0.3 N) than vessels welded exclusively by Ho:YAG laser radiation. In contrast, leaking pressure (350 +/- 200 mmHg) and bursting pressure (457 +/- 200 mmHg) were found to be independent of the welding technique used. This study demonstrates that fast (total welding time about 2-5 min), stable and tight microvascular anastomosis can be achieved with the use of a dye-enhanced albumin laser soldering technique and an ancillary coronary dilatation catheter.

  13. Spectral investigation of highly ionized bismuth plasmas produced by subnanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Li, Bowen; Arai, Goki; Hara, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Yoshiki; Miyazaki, Takanori; Dinh, Thanh-Hung; Dunne, Padraig; O'Reilly, Fergal; Sokell, Emma; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2016-02-01

    The unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) emitted from laser produced bismuth (Bi) plasma sources show potential for single-shot live cell imaging. We have measured extreme ultraviolet spectra from bismuth laser produced plasmas in the 1-7 nm region using a λ = 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 150 ps. Comparison of spectra obtained under different laser power densities with calculations using the Hartree-Fock with configuration interaction Cowan suite of codes and the UTA formalism, as well as consideration of previous predictions of isoelectronic trends, are employed to identify lines and a number of new features in spectra from Bi XXIII to Bi XLVII. The results show that Δn = 0, n = 4-4 emission from highly charged ions merges to form intense UTAs in the 4 nm region and Δn = 1, n = 4-5 resonance transitions UTAs dominate the 1-3 nm region of the Bi spectrum.

  14. Micro-Welding of Copper Plate by Frequency Doubled Diode Pumped Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashiba, Shin-Ichi; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Sakagawa, Tomokazu; Takai, Sunao; Okada, Akira

    A pulsed laser of 532 nm wavelength with ms range pulse duration was newly developed by second harmonic generation of diode pumped pulsed Nd:YAG laser. High electro-optical conversion efficiency more than 13% could be achieved, and 1.5 kW peak power green laser pulse was put in optical fiber of 100 μm in diameter. In micro- welding of 1.0 mm thickness copper plate, a keyhole welding was successfully performed by 1.0 kW peak power at spot diameter less than 200 μm. The frequency doubled pulsed laser improved the processing efficiency of copper welding, and narrow and deep weld bead was stably obtained.

  15. Precise alignment of a longitudinal Pockels Cell for Q-switch operation Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisperuza, D.; Botero, G.; Bastidas, A.

    2009-01-01

    The failure to accurately center optical components may, especially in the case of high gain of the Nd:YAG lasers, produce strong parasitic off-axis laser action capable of causing severe component damage typically to the Pockels cell. We report a precise longitudinal alignment of the Pockels cell by modulating the laser polarization using an experimental setup of circular dichroism. This procedure is based on the use of an analyzer at 0 o or 45 o of the Pockels cell axes, and it allows us to adjust the Q-switching delay for best pulse shape, maximum output energy and to reduce the lack of symmetry of the spot laser considerably. (Author)

  16. Spectral investigation of highly ionized bismuth plasmas produced by subnanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tao; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Arai, Goki; Hara, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Yoshiki; Miyazaki, Takanori; Dinh, Thanh-Hung; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O’Reilly, Fergal; Sokell, Emma; O’Sullivan, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    The unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) emitted from laser produced bismuth (Bi) plasma sources show potential for single-shot live cell imaging. We have measured extreme ultraviolet spectra from bismuth laser produced plasmas in the 1–7 nm region using a λ = 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 150 ps. Comparison of spectra obtained under different laser power densities with calculations using the Hartree–Fock with configuration interaction Cowan suite of codes and the UTA formalism, as well as consideration of previous predictions of isoelectronic trends, are employed to identify lines and a number of new features in spectra from Bi XXIII to Bi XLVII. The results show that Δn = 0, n = 4–4 emission from highly charged ions merges to form intense UTAs in the 4 nm region and Δn = 1, n = 4–5 resonance transitions UTAs dominate the 1–3 nm region of the Bi spectrum. (paper)

  17. Time-dependent preparation of gelatin-stabilized silver nanoparticles by pulsed Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroudi, Majid; Ahmad, M. B.; Zamiri, Reza; Abdullah, A. H.; Ibrahim, N. A.; Sadrolhosseini, A. R.

    2011-03-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were successfully prepared using a nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser, λ = 1064 nm, with laser fluence of approximately about 360 mJ/pulse, in an aqueous gelatin solution. In this work, gelatin was used as a stabilizer, and the size and optical absorption properties of samples were studied as a function of the laser ablation times. The results from the UV-vis spectroscopy demonstrated that the mean diameter of Ag-NPs decrease as the laser ablation time increases. The Ag-NPs have mean diameters ranging from approximately 10 nm to 16 nm. Compared with other preparation methods, this work is clean, rapid, and simple to use.

  18. Effects of Q-switched and long-pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser on enlarged facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Nam; Kim, You Jeong; Lee, Hyun Seung; Kim, Hei Sung

    2009-12-01

    'Enlarged facial pore' is a subjective term, which is not clearly defined but often complained by many. A diverse range of treatments are used though evidence of efficacy remains largely anecdotal. We report a series of nine patients who underwent a split face trial with Q-switched 1064 nm Nd:YAG and long-pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser to treat enlarged facial pores.

  19. Effect of neodymium:YAG laser capsulotomy on visual function in patients with posterior capsule opacification and good visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsukura, Erisa; Torii, Hidemasa; Saiki, Megumi; Negishi, Kazuno; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser capsulotomy on the visual function in patients with posterior capsule opacification (PCO) and good visual acuity. Keio University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. Observational case series. Eyes were evaluated that had previous cataract surgery with a clinical diagnosis of PCO requiring Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy regardless of a good corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) (at least 20/20). The CDVA, 10% low contrast visual acuity (LCVA), wavefront aberrations from the 3rd to 6th order, and retinal straylight were measured before and after Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. The study included 16 eyes of 16 patients (10 men, 6 women; mean age 69.5 years ± 9.3 [SD]). The mean CDVA, LCVA, and straylight after Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy improved significantly (P The root mean square (RMS) of the 3rd Zernike coefficients (S3) and the RMS of the total higher-order aberrations (HOAs) from the 3rd to 6th order decreased significantly after capsulotomy (P The straylight correlated significantly with the total HOAs (r = 0.727, P = .002) and S3 (r = 0.748, P = .001) before capsulotomy. Subjective symptoms resolved after capsulotomy in all cases. Neodymium:YAG laser capsulotomy enabled a significant improvement in visual function even in patients with PCO with good visual acuity. Straylight measurements might be useful to determine the indications for Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy when patients report visual disturbances without decreased visual acuity. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical estimation of phase transformations in solid state during Yb:YAG laser heating of steel sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiak, Marcin, E-mail: kubiak@imipkm.pcz.pl; Piekarska, Wiesława; Domański, Tomasz; Saternus, Zbigniew [Institute of Mechanics and Machine Design Foundations, Częstochowa University of Technology, Dąbrowskiego 73, 42-200 Częstochowa (Poland); Stano, Sebastian [Welding Technologies Department, Welding Institute, Błogosławionego Czesława 16-18, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    This work concerns the numerical modeling of heat transfer and phase transformations in solid state occurring during the Yb:YAG laser beam heating process. The temperature field is obtained by the numerical solution into transient heat transfer equation with convective term. The laser beam heat source model is developed using the Kriging interpolation method with experimental measurements of Yb:YAG laser beam profile taken into account. Phase transformations are calculated on the basis of Johnson - Mehl - Avrami (JMA) and Koistinen - Marburger (KM) kinetics models as well as continuous heating transformation (CHT) and continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams for S355 steel. On the basis of developed numerical algorithms 3D computer simulations are performed in order to predict temperature history and phase transformations in Yb:YAG laser heating process.

  1. A study on the clinical characteristics of treating nevus of Ota by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liu; Di, Li; Weihua, Wang; Feng, Liu; Ruilian, Li; Jun, Zhou; Hui, Su; Zhaoxia, Ying; Weihui, Zeng

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the clinical characteristics of treating nevus of Ota by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in Laser Cosmetology Center of Department of Dermatology, the Second Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University. The data of 1168 patients of nevus of Ota were analyzed retrospectively, which included the correlation among lesion color, treatment sessions, sex, age, lesion types, and effect. The Q-switched (QS) Nd:YAG laser system had a higher number of treatment sessions which were positively associated with a better response to treatment. Other variables, including gender, age, the categorization of the lesion according to Tanino's classification, and the color of the lesion, were not associated with the response to treatment. The treatment of nevus of Ota with QS Nd:YAG laser is safe and effective, with rare complications.

  2. Experimental erbium: YAG laser photoablation of trabecular meshwork in rabbits: an in-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietlein, T S; Jacobi, P C; Schröder, R; Krieglstein, G K

    1997-05-01

    Photoablative laser trabecular surgery has been proposed as an outflow-enhancing treatment for open-angle glaucoma. The aim of the study was to investigate the time course of repair response following low-thermal Erbium: YAG laser trabecular ablation. In 20 anaesthetized rabbits gonioscopically controlled ab-interno photoablation of the ligamenta pectinata and underlying trabecular meshwork (TM) was performed with a single-pulsed (200 microseconds) Erbium: YAG (2.94 microns) laser. The right eye received 12-15 single laser pulses (2 mJ) delivered through an articulated zirconium fluoride fiberoptic and a 200 microns (core diameter) quartz fiber tip, the left unoperated eye served as control. At time intervals of 30 minutes, 2, 10, 30, and 60 days after laser treatment, eyes were processed for light- and scanning electron microscopy. The applied energy density of 6-4 J cm-2 resulted in visible dissection of the ligamenta pectinata and reproducible microperforations of the TM exposing scleral tissue accompanied by blood reflux from the aqueous plexus. The initial ablation zones measured 154 +/- 36 microns in depth and 45 +/- 6 microns in width. Collateral thermal damage zones were 22 +/- 8 microns. At two days post-operative, ablation craters were still blood- and fibrin-filled. The inner surface of the craters were covered with granulocytes. No cellular infiltration of the collateral thermal damage zone was observed. At 10 days post-operative, progressive fibroblastic proliferation was observed, resulting in dense scar tissue formation with anterior synechiae, proliferating capillaries and loss of intertrabecular spaces inside the range of former laser treatment at 60 days post-operative. Trabecular microperforations were closed 60 days after laser treatment in all rabbits. IOP in treated and contralateral eyes did not significantly change its level during whole period of observation. Low-thermal infrared laser energy with minimal thermal damage to collateral

  3. Microchannel fabrication on cyclic olefin polymer substrates via 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, Ronán [Advanced Processing Technology Research Centre, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Irish Separation Science Cluster, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Bagga, Komal; Groarke, Robert [Advanced Processing Technology Research Centre, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Irish Separation Science Cluster, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Stalcup, Apryll [Irish Separation Science Cluster, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Vázquez, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.vazquez@dcu.ie [Advanced Processing Technology Research Centre, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Irish Separation Science Cluster, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Brabazon, Dermot [Advanced Processing Technology Research Centre, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Irish Separation Science Cluster, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Rapid single-step microchannel fabrication on optically transparent cyclic olefin polymer using IR Nd:YAG laser. • Ability to tailor channel depth between 12–47 μm demonstrated for single laser pass. • Use of multiple laser passes showed capability for finer depth control. • Potential applications in lab-on-chip and microfluidic devices. - Abstract: This paper presents a method for fabrication of microchannels on cyclic olefin polymer films that have application in the field of microfluidics and chemical sensing. Continuous microchannels were fabricated on 188-μm-thick cyclic olefin polymer substrates using a picosecond pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. The effect of laser fluence on the microchannel morphology and dimensions was analysed via scanning electron microscopy and optical profilometry. Single laser passes were found to produce v-shaped microchannels with depths ranging from 12 μm to 47 μm and widths from 44 μm to 154 μm. The ablation rate during processing was lower than predicted theoretically. Multiple laser passes were applied to examine the ability for finer control over microchannel morphology with channel depths ranging from 22 μm to 77 μm and channel widths from 59 μm to 155 μm. For up to five repeat passes, acceptable reproducibility was found in the produced microchannel morphology. Infrared spectroscopy revealed oxidation and dehydrogenation of the polymer surface following laser ablation. These results were compared to other work conducted on cyclic olefin polymers.

  4. Facial microcirculatory and biomechanical skin properties after single high energy (Er):YAG laser application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medved, Fabian; Wurm, Antonia; Held, Manuel

    2017-12-01

    Owing to skin aging and the growing demand for skin rejuvenation, minimal invasive aesthetic treatments such as laser procedures are increasingly coming into focus. However, until now, little has been known about the objective effects of these procedures with respect to skin microcirculation or changes in skin elasticity. Facial skin rejuvenation was performed on 32 volunteers using ablative Erbium: YAG laser. Skin microcirculation and skin elasticity have then been evaluated objectively. Microcirculation (flow, SO 2 , velocity, and rHB) has been analyzed before and directly after the laser session by using the O2C device. Skin elasticity has been evaluated by using the Cutometer device (Uf, Ua, Ur, and Ue) before and directly after the laser treatment, as well as 1 week and then 1, 3, and 6 months post treatment. Further, the outcome for the volunteers regarding their satisfactory level after laser treatment was evaluated. Twenty volunteers were available for a complete follow-up. Microcirculation displayed statistically significant increase in all values to 2 mm depth. The biomechanical skin parameter of firmness of skin displayed statistically significant improvement in superficial skin layer after 6 months. Concerning microcirculation and skin elasticity the ablative Erbium: YAG laser treatment revealed similar effects on the skin like a superficial burn injury. In contrast to the determined skin elasticity parameters, firmness of skin objectively revealed a skin tightening effect after 6 months. Along with the important epidermal effect, the suitability of ablative laser treatment for skin rejuvenation has been proved in a long-term follow-up. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:891-898, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Microchannel fabrication on cyclic olefin polymer substrates via 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, Ronán; Bagga, Komal; Groarke, Robert; Stalcup, Apryll; Vázquez, Mercedes; Brabazon, Dermot

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Rapid single-step microchannel fabrication on optically transparent cyclic olefin polymer using IR Nd:YAG laser. • Ability to tailor channel depth between 12–47 μm demonstrated for single laser pass. • Use of multiple laser passes showed capability for finer depth control. • Potential applications in lab-on-chip and microfluidic devices. - Abstract: This paper presents a method for fabrication of microchannels on cyclic olefin polymer films that have application in the field of microfluidics and chemical sensing. Continuous microchannels were fabricated on 188-μm-thick cyclic olefin polymer substrates using a picosecond pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. The effect of laser fluence on the microchannel morphology and dimensions was analysed via scanning electron microscopy and optical profilometry. Single laser passes were found to produce v-shaped microchannels with depths ranging from 12 μm to 47 μm and widths from 44 μm to 154 μm. The ablation rate during processing was lower than predicted theoretically. Multiple laser passes were applied to examine the ability for finer control over microchannel morphology with channel depths ranging from 22 μm to 77 μm and channel widths from 59 μm to 155 μm. For up to five repeat passes, acceptable reproducibility was found in the produced microchannel morphology. Infrared spectroscopy revealed oxidation and dehydrogenation of the polymer surface following laser ablation. These results were compared to other work conducted on cyclic olefin polymers.

  6. The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report provides the finding and recommendations on the audit of the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program. The status of the program was assessed to determine whether the Department was achieving objectives stated in its January 1990 Plan for the Demonstration, Transition and Deployment of AVLIS Technology. Through Fiscal Year 1991, the Department had spent about $1.1 billion to develop AVLIS technology. The January 1990 plan provided for AVLIS to be far enough along by September to enable the Department to make a determination of the technical and economic feasibility of deployment. However, the milestones needed to support that determination were not met. An estimated $550 million would be needed to complete AVLIS engineering development and related testing prior to deployment. The earliest possible deployment date has slipped to beyond the year 2000. It is recommended that the Department reassess the requirement for AVLIS in light of program delays and changes that have taken place in the enrichment market since January 1990. Following the reassessment, a decision should be made to either fully support and promote the actions needed to complete AVLIS development or discontinue support for the program entirely. Management's position is that the Department will successfully complete the AVLIS technology demonstration and that the program should continue until it can be transferred to a Government corporation. Although the auditors recognize that AVLIS may be transferred, there are enough technical and financial uncertainties that a thorough assessment is warranted

  7. [Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program from January through July, 1992. Each of the tasks assigned during this period is described, and results are presented. Section I details work on sensitivity matrices for the UDS relay telescope. These matrices show which combination of mirror motions may be performed in order to effect certain changes in beam parameters. In Section II, an analysis is given of transmission through a clipping aperture on the launch telescope deformable mirror. Observed large transmission losses could not be simulated in the analysis. An EXCEL spreadsheet program designed for in situ analysis of UDS optical systems is described in Section III. This spreadsheet permits analysis of changes in beam first-order characteristics due to changes in any optical system parameter, simple optimization to predict mirror motions needed to effect a combination of changes in beam parameters, and plotting of a variety of first-order data. Optical systems may be assembled directly from OSSD data. A CODE V nonsequential model of the UDS optical system is described in Section IV. This uses OSSD data to build the UDS model; mirror coordinates may thus be verified. Section V summarizes observations of relay telescope performance. Possible procedures which allow more accurate assessment of relay telescope performance are given

  8. Microbiological effects and recolonization patterns after adjunctive subgingival debridement with Er:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Sánchez, Ignacio; Ortiz-Vigón, Alberto; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the microbiological effects and recolonization patterns after non-surgical periodontal treatment protocol based on the adjunctive use of erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser. Patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned to two different treatment protocols: test, full-mouth subgingival ultrasonic instrumentation followed by Er-YAG laser application 1 week later to sites with initial probing pocket depth ≥4.5 mm; and control, full-mouth ultrasonic subgingival instrumentation within 1 week. Clinical (at sampled sites) and microbiological (culture-based) parameters were recorded at baseline and 3 and 12 months. Microbiological variables included total counts, frequency of detection, proportions and counts of target species. Results from 19 test and 21 control patients were compared. Minor changes were observed for total colony-forming units, with no differences between groups. For the frequency of detection, a limited and similar impact in both groups was observed for the most prevalent (over 80 %) periodontal pathogens (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum). For proportions, reductions in P. gingivalis occurred at 3 months, both in the test and control groups (from 16.3 to 10 % and 16 to 14.8 %, respectively), although these differences were not statistically significant. At 12 months, the test group showed a statistically significant greater reduction in probing depth for the sampled sites. The adjunctive use of Er:YAG laser when compared with conventional ultrasonic debridement did not provide a microbiological added benefit. Even though some clinical benefits with the adjunctive laser application were identified when comparing both treatment protocols, there were no differences in microbiological outcomes or in the bacterial recolonization patterns.

  9. High-frequency ultrasound evaluation of cellulite treated with the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet-Rouaud, Regine; Bazan, Marie; Chaintreuil, Jean; Echague, Agustina Vila

    2009-03-01

    To investigate non-invasive laser treatment for cellulite using the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser and to correlate clinical results with high-frequency skin ultrasound images. Twelve individuals of normal weight were treated on either the left or right posterior side of the thigh with the following parameters: fluence 30 J/cm, 18 mm spot size and dynamic cooling device pulse duration of 30 ms. Three treatments were performed at intervals of 3-4 weeks, and followed-up 1 and 3 months after the last session. Photographs and ultrasound imaging were assessed before each session. The 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser resulted in a tightening of the skin and an improvement in cellulite. No side effects were reported. High-resolution ultrasound imaging showed a significant improvement in dermis density and a reduction of dermis thickness. The method is described in detail in Appendix 1. Infra-red lasers may constitute a safe and effective treatment for cellulite and high-frequency ultrasound imaging provides a quantitative and objective measurement of the treatment efficacy.

  10. A high-power diode-laser-pumped CW Nd:YAG laser using a stable-unstable resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudge, M.; Ostermeyer, P.; Veitch, J.; Munch, J.; Hamilton, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The design and operation of a power-scalable diode-laser-pumped CW Nd:YAG zigzag slab laser that uses a stable-unstable resonator with a graded reflectivity mirror as an output coupler is described. We demonstrate control of the thermal lens strength in the unstable plane and weak thermal lensing in the stable plane that is independent of pump power, vital for efficient scalability. This enabled CW operation of the stable-unstable resonator with excellent near- and far-field beam quality

  11. Mathematical simulation of the thermal diffusion in dentine irradiated with Nd:YAG laser using finite difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Eduardo H.; Zangaro, Renato A.; Lobo, Paulo D. d. C.; Villaverde, Antonio G. J. B.; Watanabe-Sei, Ii; Pacheco, Marcos T. T.; Otsuka, Daniel K.

    2002-06-01

    Thermal damage in dental pulp during Nd:YAG laser irradiation have been studied by several researchers; but due to dentin inhomogeneous structure, laser interaction with dentin in the hypersensitivity treatment are not fully understood. In this work, heat distribution profile on human dentine samples irradiated with Nd:YAG laser was simulated at surface and subjacent layers. Calculations were carried out using the Crank-Nicolson's finite difference method. Sixteen dentin samples with 1,5 mm of thickness were evenly distributed into four groups and irradiated with Nd:YAG laser pulses, according to the following scheme: (I) 1 pulse of 900 mJ, (II) 2 pulses of 450 mJ, (III) 3 pulses of 300 mJ, (IV) 6 pulses of 150 mJ; corresponding to a total laser energy of 900 mJ. The pulse interval was 300ms, the pulse duration of 900 ms and irradiated surface area of 0,005 mm2. Laser induced morphological changes in dentin were observed for all the irradiated samples. The heat distribution throughout the dentin layer, from the external dentin surface to the pulpal chamber wall, was calculated for each case, in order to obtain further information about the pulsed Nd:YAG laser-oral hard tissue interaction. The simulation showed significant differences in the final temperature at the pulpal chamber, depending on the exposition time and the energy contained in the laser pulse.

  12. Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser Removal of Facial Amateur Tattoos in Patients With Fitzpatrick Type VI: Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haik, Josef; Kornhaber, Rachel; Harats, Moti; Israeli, Hadar; Orenstein, Arie

    2016-11-01

    Q-switched neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) lasers are reported to be gold standard for laser tattoo removal. In particular, the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm is widely recognized for the removal of blue/black amateur tattoos. However, treatment modalities in Fitzpatrick Type VI skin carry a greater risk of complications including alterations in pigmentation compared to fairer skin (Fitzpatrick Type I-IV skin). Therefore, the aim of this case series was to describe with the use of the Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser, the removal of carbon-based amateur tattoos on patients with Fitzpatrick Type VI skin as an effective and safe method. Twenty- five patients with Fitzpatrick type VI skin, from Ethiopian origins, with facial tribal tattoos, were treated with the Q- Switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm. Digital images were taken upon every treatment and the clearance rates of the tattoo was evalu- ated by imaging software. We observed an average tattoo clearance rate of 95% among the 45 facial tattoos in 25 patients presented in the case series with minimal pigmentary and textual changes evident. These positive aesthetic results have a signi cant psychosocial impact on the lives of those with Fitzpatrick Type VI skin, in particular the Ethiopian Jewish population. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1448-1452..

  13. Comparison of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser alone versus its combination with ultrapulse CO2 laser for the treatment of black tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanarase, Mithila; Gautam, Ram Krishan; Arora, Pooja; Bajaj, Sonali; Meena, Neha; Khurana, Ananta

    2017-10-01

    Q-switched lasers are conventionally used for the treatment of black tattoo. However, they require multiple sittings, and the response may be slow due to competing epidermal pigment in dark skin. To compare the efficacy of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser alone with its combination with ultrapulse CO 2 for the removal of black tattoo. Sixty patients with black tattoo were randomized into two groups viz., group A and group B. Group A was treated with QS Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) alone, and group B received combination of ablative ultrapulse CO 2 followed by fixed-dose QS Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), at 6-week interval for a maximum of 6 sittings. After each sitting, 3 independent physicians noted percentage of improvement that was evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS) and grading system for tattoo ink lightening (TIL). Combination laser (group B) showed statistically significant improvement in mean VAS score in the last 2 noted visits as compared to 1st session (p tattoos, combination of ultrapulse CO 2 laser and QS Nd:YAG laser is superior to QS Nd:YAG laser alone.

  14. Characteristics of a laser beam produced by using thermal lensing effect compensation in a fiber-coupled laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Duck-Lae; Kim, Byung-Tai

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of a laser beam produced by using thermal lensing effect compensation in a fiber-coupled laser-diode Nd:YAG ceramic laser were investigated. The thermal lensing effect was compensated for by using a compensator, which was 25 mm away from the laser rod, with a focal length of 30 mm and an effective clear aperture of 22 mm. Using a compensator, the divergence and the beam propagation factor M 2 of the output beam were 5.5 mrad and 2.4, respectively, under a pump power of 12W. The high-frequency components in the compensated laser beam were removed.

  15. Nd:YAG laser associated with metal salts solutions in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glauche, Carlos Eugenio Correia

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the ultrastructural changes caused by the radiation of Nd:YAG laser on the tooth tissue and determine qualitatively the presence of Sn ++ , Sr ++ and F - , inside the dentin, being it irradiated or not. Ten molar teeth recently extracted were cut into 2 mm discs. The samples were soaked in a EDTA solution at 17% for 2 minutes and divided into five groups. Group I: the samples were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser (1,5 W, 100 mJ, 15 Hz, 150 μs and 125 J/cm 2 ) and after that, a treatment with an SnF 2 aqueous solution at 10% for 30 minutes. Group II: the samples got laser irradiation with the same parameters and then a treatment with an SrCl 2 solution at 10% as a toothpaste (Sensodyne TM ) for 30 minutes. Group III: the samples just got a treatment with a SnF 2 aqueous solution at 10% for 30 minutes. Group IV: the samples just got a treatment with a SrCl 2 toothpaste (Sensodyne TM ) for 30 minutes. Group V: samples that just got laser irradiation in the parameters above mentioned. Then, all samples were prepared for scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and the samples of groups I, II, III and IV for energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The ultrastructure aspect of the dentin showed the surface totally altered by the irradiation. Pits and whitish globules were found amidst an heterogenous and rough structure, due to the melting and resolidification of the dental structure. Craters were also observed. Carbonization areas were absent. Ions Sn ++ were found at a depth of 250 μm in the samples of group I (Nd:YAG + SnF 2 ), whereas in the samples of group III, Sn ++ were not found deeper than 100 μm. Sr ++ could be detected at least at 500 μm in the inner dentin in the samples of group II (Nd:YAG + SrCl 2 ). However, Sn ++ were not found at 50 μm in group IV samples. Ions F - were just found in the irradiated samples of group I. According to the study results we observed that through ultrastructural changes, caused by

  16. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Daniel J; Hughes, Ifan G; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L

    2007-09-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D(2) transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude.

  17. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarron, Daniel J.; Hughes, Ifan G.; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L.

    2007-01-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D 2 transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude

  18. Evaluation of surface topography of zirconia ceramic after Er:YAG laser etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turp, Volkan; Akgungor, Gokhan; Sen, Deniz; Tuncelli, Betul

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser with different pulse lengths on the surface roughness of zirconia ceramic and airborne particle abrasion. Er:YAG laser treatment is expected to be an alternative surface treatment method for zirconia ceramics; however, the parameters and success of the application are not clear. One hundred and forty zirconia discs (diameter, 10 mm; thickness, 1.2 mm) were prepared by a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system according to the manufacturer's instructions. Specimens were divided into 14 groups (n=10). One group was left as polished control, one group was air-particle abraded with Al2O3 particles. For the laser treatment groups, laser irradiation was applied at three different pulse energy levels (100, 200, and 300 mJ) and for each energy level at four different pulse lengths; 50, 100, 300, and 600 μs. Surface roughness was evaluated with an optical profilometer and specimens were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests (α=0.05). For the 100 and 200 mJ laser etching groups, 50 and 100 μs laser duration resulted in significantly higher surface roughness compared with air-particle abrasion (p0.05). For the 300 mJ laser etching groups; there was no statistically significant difference among the Ra values of 50 μs, 100 μs, 300 μs, 600 μs, and air-particle abrasion groups (p>0.05). In order to increase surface roughness and promote better bonding to resin luting agents, Er:YAG laser etching may be an alternative to air-particle abrasion for zirconia ceramics. However, high levels of pulse energy and longer pulse length may have an adverse effect on micromechanical locking properties, because of a decrease in surface roughness.

  19. Comparative study of diode-pumping self-injection and injection-locking Tm:YAG lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C T; Chen, F; Ju, Y L; Wang, Y Z

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of the laser characteristics of self-injection and injection-locking Tm:YAG lasers is given in this paper. At a pump energy of 145 mJ and Q-switched repetition rate of 100 Hz, an output energy of 2.39 mJ was obtained for an injection-locking Tm:YAG laser, with a pulse width of 403.2 ns and a pulse building-up time of 2.12 μs. Under the same conditions, the output energy, pulse width and pulse build-up time for a self-injection Tm:YAG laser were 2.21 mJ, 407.0 ns and 3.95 μs, respectively. The threshold of the Q-switched injection-locking Tm:YAG laser was much lower than that of the self-injection laser, and the pulse width was narrower and the pulse build-up time shorter. Additionally, the output spectrum was much purer for the injection-locking laser. (paper)

  20. Development of high average power industrial Nd:YAG laser with peak power of 10 kW class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Jeong Mook; Jung, Chin Mann; Kim, Soo Sung; Kim, Kwang Suk; Kim, Min Suk; Cho, Jae Wan; Kim, Duk Hyun

    1992-03-01

    We developed and commercialized an industrial pulsed Nd:YAG laser with peak power of 10 kW class for fine cutting and drilling applications. Several commercial models have been investigated in design and performance. We improved its quality to the level of commercial Nd:YAG laser by an endurance test for each parts of laser system. The maximum peak power and average power of our laser were 10 kW and 250 W, respectively. Moreover, the laser pulse width could be controlled from 0.5 msec to 20 msec continuously. Many optical parts were localized and lowered much in cost. Only few parts were imported and almost 90% in cost were localized. Also, to accellerate the commercialization by the joint company, the training and transfer of technology were pursued in the joint participation in design and assembly by company researchers from the early stage. Three Nd:YAG lasers have been assembled and will be tested in industrial manufacturing process to prove the capability of developed Nd:YAG laser with potential users. (Author)

  1. Nd:YAG laser combined with gold nanorods for potential application in port-wine stains: an in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Linzhuang; Chen, Bin; Li, Dong; Wu, Wenjuan; Wang, Guoxiang

    2017-11-01

    Neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers exhibit considerable potential for treating deeply buried port-wine stains. However, the application of Nd:YAG laser is limited by its weak absorption to blood. This in vivo study tested the efficacy and safety of utilizing thiol-terminated methoxypolyethylene glycol-modified gold nanorods (PEG-GNRs) to enhance the absorption of Nd:YAG laser to blood. Mouse mesentery and dorsal skinfold chamber (DSC) model were prepared to analyze the thermal responses of a single venule without anatomic structures, as well as blood vessels in the complex structure of the skin, to laser light. After the injection of 0.44 mg of PEG-GNRs, the required threshold density of laser energy for blood coagulation and complete vasoconstriction decreased from 24 to 18 J/cm2 in the mesentery model and from 36 to 31 J/cm2 in the DSC model. The laser pulse required for blood coagulation and complete vasoconstriction decreased by 67.75% and 62.25% on average in the mesentery model and by 67.55% and 54.45% on average in the DSC model. Histological and histochemical results confirmed that PEG-GNRs are nontoxic in the entire mouse life span. Therefore, combining PEG-GNRs with Nd:YAG laser may be effective and safe for inducing an obvious thermal response of blood vessels under low energy density and minimal pulse conditions.

  2. Investigations on the potential of a low power diode pumped Er:YAG laser system for oral surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Karl; Wurm, Holger; Hausladen, Florian; Wagner, Sophia; Hibst, Raimund

    2015-02-01

    Flash lamp pumped Er:YAG-lasers are used in clinical practice for dental applications successfully. As an alternative, several diode pumped Er:YAG laser systems (Pantec Engineering AG) become available, with mean laser power of 2W, 15W, and 30W. The aim of the presented study is to investigate the potential of the 2W Er:YAG laser system for oral surgery. At first an appropriate experimental set-up was realized with a beam delivery and both, a focusing unit for non-contact tissue cutting and a fiber tip for tissue cutting in contact mode. In order to produce reproducible cuts, the samples (porcine gingiva) were moved by a computer controlled translation stage. On the fresh samples cutting depth and quality were determined by light microscopy. Afterwards histological sections were prepared and microscopically analyzed regarding cutting depth and thermal damage zone. The experiments show that low laser power ≤ 2W is sufficient to perform efficient oral soft tissue cutting with cut depth up to 2mm (sample movement 2mm/s). The width of the thermal damage zone can be controlled by the irradiation parameters within a range of about 50μm to 110μm. In general, thermal injury is more pronounced using fiber tips in contact mode compared to the focused laser beam. In conclusion the results reveal that even the low power diode pumped Er:YAG laser is an appropriate tool for oral surgery.

  3. Diode-pumped cw Nd:YAG three-level laser at 869 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yanfei; Xia, Jing; Cheng, Weibo; Chen, Jifeng; Ning, Guobin; Liang, Zuoliang

    2010-11-01

    We report for the first time (to our knowledge) a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser emitting at 869 nm based on the (4)F(3/2)-(4)I(9/2) transition, generally used for a 946 nm emission. Power of 453 mW at 869 nm has been achieved in cw operation with a fiber-coupled laser diode emitting 35.4 W at 809 nm. Intracavity second-harmonic generation in the cw mode has also been demonstrated with power of 118 mW at 435 nm by using a BiB(3)O(6) nonlinear crystal. In our experiment, we used a LiNbO(3) crystal lens to complement the thermal lens of the laser rod, and we obtained good beam quality and high output power stability.

  4. Diode-side-pumped 131 W, 1319 nm single-wavelength cw Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiyong, Zhu; Ge, Zhang; Chenghui, Huang; Yong, Wei; Lingxiong, Huang; Jing, Chen; Weidong, Chen; Zhenqiang, Chen

    2007-01-20

    A diode-side-pumped high-power 1319 nm single-wavelength Nd:YAG continuous wave (cw) laser is described. Through reasonable coating design of the cavity mirrors, the 1064 nm strongest line as well as the 1338 nm one have been successfully suppressed. The laser output powers corresponding to four groups of different output couplers operating at 1319 nm single wavelength have been compared. The output coupler with the transmission T=5.3% has the highest output power, and a 131 W cw output power was achieved at the pumping power of 555 W. The optical-optical conversion efficiency is 23.6%, and the slope efficiency is 46%. The output power is higher than the total output power of the dual-wavelength laser operating at 1319 nm and 1338 nm in the experiment.

  5. Beam splash effects on ATLAS silicon microstrip detectors evaluated using 1-w Nd YAG laser

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; Kohriki, T; Kuwano, T; Moorhead, G F; Terada, S; Unno, Y

    2005-01-01

    On an incident of accelerator beam loss, the tracking detector located close to the beam line is subjected to receive intensive radiation in a short period. We used a 1-W focused Nd: YAG laser and simulated the effects on the ATLAS microstrip detector. The laser corresponds to intensity of up to 1 multiplied by 109mips/pulse with a pulse width of about 10 ns. We observed breaks on Al strips on extreme conditions, depending on the laser intensity and bias voltage applied to the silicon sensor. The break can be interpreted as the oxide breakdown due to a large voltage locally created across the oxide by the intensive signal charges. The robustness of the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) module including readout ASICs is also evaluated.

  6. Design and Construction of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser for LIBS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Villarreal, A.; Sobral, H.

    2015-01-01

    A multi-pulse Nd:YAG laser was designed and built, that can be used as an excitation source for Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) experiments. A trigger and a power supply for the flash lamp has been successfully developed. A cooling system that uses a distilled water flow for the active medium was implemented. The laser has an output energy of 306 ± 7 mJ for 1 Hz repetition rate and its temporal profile is multi-pulse with 1 ps of average separation between them. To validate the system, the output was used as an ablation source of an aluminum target and the emission was investigated by spectroscopy analysis.

  7. Low loss depressed cladding waveguide inscribed in YAG:Nd single crystal by femtosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhrimchuk, Andrey; Mezentsev, Vladimir; Shestakov, Alexander; Bennion, Ian

    2012-02-13

    A depressed cladding waveguide with record low loss of 0.12 dB/cm is inscribed in YAG:Nd(0.3at.%) crystal by femtosecond laser pulses with an elliptical beam waist. The waveguide is formed by a set of parallel tracks which constitute the depressed cladding. It is a key element for compact and efficient CW waveguide laser operating at 1064 nm and pumped by a multimode laser diode. Special attention is paid to mechanical stress resulting from the inscription process. Numerical calculation of mode distribution and propagation loss with the elasto-optical effect taken into account leads to the conclusion that the depressed cladding is a dominating factor in waveguide mode formation, while the mechanical stress only slightly distorts waveguide modes.

  8. High stable electro-optical cavity-dumped Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y F; Yu, X; Zhang, J W; Li, H

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an electro-optical cavity-dumped 10 Hz Nd:Y 3 Al 5 O 12 (Nd:YAG) laser was demonstrated. We designed an optimized high stable concavo-convex cavity according to the thermal-insensitive theory that the cavity could be deep stable and be insensitive to the change of thermal lens of laser crystal when g 1 *g 2 = 1/2. The output pulse width was constant at 6.0±0.1 ns. The maximum output energy was 40 mJ. The laser had outstanding stability of output characteristics. The fluctuations of average output energy and divergence angle within 8 cycles were 1.24% and 0.06 mrad, respectively

  9. A frequency-type optically controllable YAG:Nd(3+) laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baliasnyi, L.M.; Groznov, M.A.; Gubanov, B.S.; Zoria, A.V.; Myl' nikov, V.S.

    1990-06-01

    The paper demonstrates the feasibility of using MOS-LC modulators based on the s-effect with an internal dividing mirror as the optically controllable mirrors of frequency-type YAG:Nd(3+) lasers. It is shown that the maximum energy of the laser in free-runnig operation of 10 mJ/sq cm is limited by the radiation resistance (not greater than 70 mJ/sq cm) of the orienting fluid, i.e., polyvinyl alcohol. The optical inhomogeneity of the modulator amounts to 20-40 percent, which is connected with the presence of a bonded single-crystal GaAs layer. The working frequency of the laser was about 20 Hz.

  10. Morphological change study on root surfaces treated with curettes, sonic instruments or Er:YAG laser; Estudo in vitro da alteracao morfologica em superficie radicular tratada com curetas, aparelho ultrasonico ou com laser de Er:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes Filho, Arlindo Lopes

    2004-07-01

    Periodontal disease is caused by dental plaque and dental calculus on roots surfaces, specially on cervical areas. As dental plaque is the main cause and dental calculus a secondary one, it is practically impossible to separate one factor to the other one. In order to get periodontal tissue health it is necessary to eliminate dental plaque and calculus from root surfaces. In this sense, Er:YAG laser comes in as an excellent way to control periodontal disease, not only, by removing calculus and dental plaque but also for its bacteria reduction. The aim of this study is to compare, by S.E.M., root surfaces changing when they are treated with curettes and ultrasonic scaling or Er:YAG laser irradiation with two different energy levels of 60 mJ/pulse and 100 mJ/pulse and repetition tax of 10 Hz (in the display). It is also objective of this study to check a possible thermic damage to pulp tissue when the roots surfaces are irradiated with Er:YAG laser. We used for this study, five human dental roots, each one of them were cut into four samples, giving us a total of twenty samples, which were divided in five groups of four samples each one. The control group, we did not indicated any kind of treatment. The first group, the roots samples were scaled and planned with Gracey curettes 5/6 and 7/8. The second group, the roots samples were treated with ultrasonic instruments. The third group was irradiated with Er:YAG laser using 60 mJ/pulse , 10 Hz and energy density of 4 J/cm{sup 2} (approximated). The fourth group was irradiated with Er:YAG laser using 100 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz and energy density of 7 J/cm{sup 2} (approximated). The results analysis showed that roots scaling either with Gracey curettes or with ultrasonic instruments created smear layer covering roots surfaces; roots surfaces irradiated with Er:YAG laser showed few roughness in the third group; roots surfaces irradiated with Er:YAG laser showed no smear layer and the Er:YAG laser irradiation did not bring any

  11. Development of blue lasers, from second harmonic generation using a Nd:YAG laser emitting at 946 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Gustavo Bernardes

    2010-01-01

    Blue lasers have attracted much attention for applications such as blue-ray, displays and as pumped source for the Ti:sapphire laser. A Nd:YAG crystal with diffusion bonded end-caps was used together with a pump wavelength of 802,3 nm, detuned from the absorption peak at 808 nm in order to minimize the thermal lens effect by providing for a better temperature distribution inside the crystal. Using different input mirror radii, the best relation between pump waist and laser was achieved in a linear cavity and resulted in 6.75W cw (continuous wave) laser power at 946 nm and slope efficiency of 48%. In a second step, a second harmonic generation crystal for blue emission at 473 nm was inserted into different types of resonators, and the blue output power at 473 nm was measured as a function of absorbed pump power. (author)

  12. Nd:YAG laser hyaloidotomy for valsalva pre-macular haemorrhage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kirwan, R P

    2012-02-01

    AIM: To report a case of successful drainage of a large pre-macular haemorrhage using laser photo-disruption of the posterior hyaloid membrane. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case report. RESULTS: A 47-year-old man presented acutely to our emergency department complaining of a 24-h history of sudden onset, painless and persistent loss of vision in his left eye. Immediately before noticing this loss of vision, he had been vomiting violently from excessive alcohol intake. The left visual acuity was counting fingers. Dilated fundoscopy of the left eye revealed a large pre-macular haemorrhage which was 14 disc diametres in size. Clotting investigations were normal. A diagnosis of valsalva retinopathy was made and the patient elected to receive a prompt neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser posterior hyaloidotomy as an outpatient. At 1 week follow-up, the haemorrhage had drained completely into the vitreous space revealing a healthy macula and the visual acuity had improved to 6\\/12 unaided. At 6-month follow-up the left visual acuity stabilised at 6\\/9 unaided. CONCLUSION: Nd:YAG laser posterior hyaloidotomy is a useful outpatient procedure for successful clearance of large pre-macular haemorrhages that offers patients rapid recovery of visual acuity and the avoidance of more invasive intraocular surgery.

  13. Nd:YAG 1.44 laser ablation of human cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Robert S.; Prodoehl, John A.; Rhodes, Anthony L.; Black, Johnathan D.; Sherk, Henry H.

    1993-07-01

    This study determined the effectiveness of a Neodymium:YAG 1.44 micrometers wavelength laser on human cartilage. This wavelength is strongly absorbed by water. Cadaveric meniscal fibrocartilage and articular hyaline cartilage were harvested and placed in normal saline during the study. A 600 micrometers quartz fiber was applied perpendicularly to the tissues with a force of 0.098 N. Quantitative measurements were then made of the ablation rate as a function of fluence. The laser energy was delivered at a constant repetition rate of 5 Hz., 650 microsecond(s) pulsewidth, and energy levels ranging from 0.5 joules to 2.0 joules. Following the ablation of the tissue, the specimens were fixed in formalin for histologic evaluation. The results of the study indicate that the ablation rate is 0.03 mm/mj/mm2 for hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage. Fibrocartilage was cut at approximately the same rate as hyaline cartilage. There was a threshold fluence projected to be 987 mj/mm2 for hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage. Our results indicate that the pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.44 micrometers has a threshold fluence above which it will ablate human cartilage, and that its ablation rate is directly proportional to fluence over the range of parameters tested. Fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage demonstrated similar threshold fluence and ablation rates which is related to the high water content of these tissues.

  14. Evaluation in vitro of pulpal chamber temperature of deciduous teeth during Er:YAG laser application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sznajder, Alexandre Joseph

    2001-01-01

    The Er:YAG laser technology has been thoroughly studied, since its invention, and has been increasingly recommended in Dentistry. However, its use in deciduous teeth has not been deserving the equivalent attention to its counterpart in permanent teeth, despite of the deciduous teething occur in a phase of life in which it has a far more importance than its substitutes. For that reason, this study aims to identify the suitable parameters to the clinic procedures in deciduous teeth, using the already established protocols in permanent teeth. The study was lead in a way to resemble the most the conditions of the clinical use of the laser. Five groups were analyzed using different energy densities and repetition rates. Each group was composed of 10 first superior right deciduous molars randomly selected. The energy densities and repetition rates used for each group were: 60 mJ 15 Hz, 250 mJ 2 Hz, 250 mJ 15 Hz, 400 mJ 6 Hz and 500 mJ 2 Hz. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that the use of the Er:YAG laser in Odontopediatrics is effective, safe and secure and the main reason for its recommendation is the low transfer of heat to the adjacent tissues of the applied surfaces. (author)

  15. Dynamics of trivalent rare earth molecular vapor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupke, W.F.

    1976-01-01

    Radiative transition probabilities in neodymium bearing vapors are reviewed and calculations are extended to visible laser transitions in terbium bearing vapor. Nonradiative relaxation processes in the pure and complexed halides are treated in greater detail. While precise, quantitative relaxation probabilities cannot be calculated on the basis of information presently available, plausibility arguments can be established which indicate the order of magnitude of relevant nonradiative decay probabilities. Reference to solid and liquid state nonradiative relaxation data for rare earth ions is reviewed to support the plausibility arguments for the vapor state. Having established the likelihood of high fluorescence yields in the vapor phase, various methods of laser pumping are discussed: optical pumping via parity allowed 4f-5d transitions; optical pumping via charge transfer bands of the vapor complex; and direct electron beam pumping

  16. Efficient continuous-wave 1112 nm Nd:YAG laser operation under direct diode pumping at 885 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, J; Dai, X J; Zhang, L; Wu, X D

    2013-01-01

    We report compact diode-end-pumped continuous-wave laser operation at 1112 nm under 885 nm diode-direct pumping for the first time. On the basis of the R 2 →Y 6 transition in a conventional Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) single crystal, the maximum output power of 12.5 W is achieved, with an optical to optical efficiency of 46.6% and a slope efficiency of 52.9%. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest output at 1112 nm generated by a diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG laser. Furthermore, it is the highest optical to optical efficiency ever reported for 1112 nm Nd:YAG lasers. The short term power stability is ∼0.32% at 12.0 W output. (letter)

  17. Design of a high-power Nd:YAG Q-switched laser cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ikbal; Kumar, Avinash; Nijhawan, O. P.

    1995-06-01

    An electro-optically Q-switched Nd:YAG laser resonator that uses two end prisms placed orthogonally perpendicular to each other has been designed. This configuration improves the stability of the resonator and does not alter the characteristics of the electro-optical Q switch. The outcoupling ratio of the cavity is optimized by a change in the azimuthal angle of a phase-matched Porro prism placed at one end of the cavity. The prism placed at the other end of the cavity is designed so that it introduces a phase change of Pi , regardless of its orientation and index of refraction, resulting in a more efficient and stable cavity.

  18. Lumbar endoscopic percutaneous discolisis, with Holmium YAG laser - four years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez L, Jorge Felipe; Rugeles O, Jose G

    2001-01-01

    we have designed a prospective study over 220 patients with lumbar hernia. our purpose is to show the results that we have obtained with endoscopic percutaneous holmium YAG laser lumbar disc decompression. In all cases, ambulatory surgery was performed using local anesthesia, follow up based on Mac Nab criteria was made with excellent and good results in 75% of patients this is a useful safety outpatient procedure with good results, fewer complications, reduced costs and with the same or better results than traditional procedures

  19. Comparison of pulsed Nd : YAG laser welding qualitative features with plasma plume thermal characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbaghzadeh, J; Dadras, S; Torkamany, M J

    2007-01-01

    A spectroscopic approach was used to study the effects of different operating parameters on st14 sheet metal welding with a 400 W maximum average power pulsed Nd : YAG laser. The parameters included pulse duration and peak power and type and flow rate of the assist gas and welding speed. Weld quality, including penetration depth and melt width, has been compared with the FeI electron temperature obtained from spectroscopic observations of a plasma plume. A correlation between the standard deviation of the electron temperature and the quality of welding has also been found

  20. Analysis 'in vivo' of the employ of the Er:YAG laser and conventional method to remove carious tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Rafael Cardoso

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of carious tissue employing the use of Er:YAG laser in comparison with the conventional burr rotary instrument. The wavelength of this laser is 2,64 μm and have a good absorption by the water and hydroxyapatite present in dental hard tissue. For this purpose were selected 24 molar teeth with occlusal carious, which were divided in random in two groups. For enamel, the laser energy used was in the interval from 250 mJ to 400 mJ, and the frequency range from 2 Hz to 4 Hz; for the dentine the energy laser range was from 150 mJ to 200 mJ and the laser frequency was in the range from 2 Hz to 6 Hz. For the evaluation of the results was used a questionaire to critical evaluation of the professional and another one to evaluation of the patient. The results have shown that the Er:YAG laser is able to remove carious enamel and dentin, without cause crunch or fracture and the irradiated surface was creasy. The patients reported greatest comfort when the cavity preparation was done with the Er:YAG laser than the conventional burr and all the patients treated reported prefer to future treatments the use of the Er:YAG laser. In conclusion, for the critical evaluation of the professional the treatment with the Er:YAG laser is a safe and effective method, and for the critical evaluation of the patient the treatment is one alternative more comfortable than the conventional method to remove caries. (author)

  1. Femtosecond-laser inscribed double-cladding waveguides in Nd:YAG crystal: a promising prototype for integrated lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongliang; Chen, Feng; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Jaque, D

    2013-09-01

    We report on the design and implementation of a prototype of optical waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG crystals by using femtosecond-laser irradiation. In this prototype, two concentric tubular structures with nearly circular cross sections of different diameters have been inscribed in the Nd:YAG crystals, generating double-cladding waveguides. Under 808 nm optical pumping, waveguide lasers have been realized in the double-cladding structures. Compared with single-cladding waveguides, the concentric tubular structures, benefiting from the large pump area of the outermost cladding, possess both superior laser performance and nearly single-mode beam profile in the inner cladding. Double-cladding waveguides of the same size were fabricated and coated by a thin optical film, and a maximum output power of 384 mW and a slope efficiency of 46.1% were obtained. Since the large diameters of the outer claddings are comparable with those of the optical fibers, this prototype paves a way to construct an integrated single-mode laser system with a direct fiber-waveguide configuration.

  2. Kinetics of excited levels in copper-vapor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilanski, I.

    1981-10-01

    A full and representative description of the excited copper level kinetics in a copper-vapor laser is presented. The research was carried out in three stages. The first stage was the development of a representative and reliable measurement cell. A laser tube constructed of refractory materials and an excitation circuit which provides short pulses at a high repetition rate to heat the tube and excite the copper atoms were developed. This stage was also dedicated to characterizing the laser and studying its scaling laws. In the second stage a rapid neasuring system which avoids the problem of spectral line shape was developed. The system is based on the 'hook' method, which utilizes the anomalous dispersion in the vicinity of an atomic line. The light source, a wide band nitrogen-laser-pumped dye laser, ensures a short sampling time, and the recording system, with a television camera face as the recording medium, allows precise data reduction. In the third stage the excited copper level kinetics in a copper vapor laser is measured. The principal conclusions, that only a small part of the energy in the discharge is utilized to populate the upper laser levels and that the lower laser level population is very large at the end of the excitation pulse and cannot be attributed to relaxation of the upper levels, necessitate a new kinetic description of the copper-vapor laser. The laser is not self-terminating; it is activated and terminated by the electrical discharge

  3. Microcomponents manufacturing for precise devices by copper vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorny, Sergey; Nikonchuk, Michail O.; Polyakov, Igor V.

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents investigation results of drilling of metal microcomponents by copper vapor laser. The laser consists of master oscillator - spatial filter - amplifier system, electronics switching with digital control of laser pulse repetition rate and quantity of pulses, x-y stage with computer control system. Mass of metal, removed by one laser pulse, is measured and defined by means of diameter and depth of holes. Interaction of next pulses on drilled material is discussed. The difference between light absorption and metal evaporation processes is considered for drilling and cutting. Efficiency of drilling is estimated by ratio of evaporation heat and used laser energy. Maximum efficiency of steel cutting is calculated with experimental data of drilling. Applications of copper vapor laser for manufacturing is illustrated by such microcomponents as pin guide plate for printers, stents for cardio surgery, encoded disks for security systems and multiple slit masks for spectrophotometers.

  4. Root planing with Er:YAG laser X Gracey curette, a study in vitro in scanning electron microscopic study; Avaliacao em microscopia eletronica de varredura da superficie radicular, raspada e alisada com Er: YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Fabiano Augusto Sfier de

    2000-07-01

    The Er:YAG laser has been studied as a periodontal therapies, used to remove subgingival calculus and its bactericidal effects. The proposal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Er:YAG laser in root planing in comparison to the traditional method, not surgical. Six recently extracted due to the disease periodontal, were cut longitudinally, tends like this two half of the root. These half were separate in four groups. The first group is the natural tooth (group controls negative), the second group (group controls) was accomplished to root planing with Gracey curette. And in the third to Er:YAG laser with a contact tip, using a 45 deg angle in relation to the root; in the fourth group was scraped and planned with Er:YAG laser and complemented root planing with Gracey curette. The used energy was of 100 mJ (out put) and the frequency of 10 Hz accomplished with irrigation. The obtained results were similar in the groups 2 and 3 in comparison to the amount of smear-layer. In group 4 however, better result was obtained, because the image (SEM) was much more regular and with less amount of smear-layer. The conclusion of the work is that with the association of the laser technique and Gracey curette the results are superior to the conventional treatment. (author)

  5. Effect of laser-assisted bleaching with Nd:YAG and diode lasers on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhashemi, Amirhossein; Emadian Razavi, Elham Sadat; Behboodi, Sara; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of laser-assisted bleaching with neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) and diode lasers on shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. One hundred and four extracted human premolars were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: No bleaching applied (control group); group 2: Teeth bleached with 40 % hydrogen peroxide; group 3: Teeth treated with 30 % hydrogen peroxide activated with Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 2.5 W, 25 Hz, pulse duration of 100 μs, 6 mm distance); and group 4: Teeth treated with 30 % hydrogen peroxide activated with diode laser (810 nm, 1 W, CW, 6 mm distance). Equal numbers of teeth in groups 2, 3, and 4 were bonded at start, 1 h, 24 h, and 1 week after bleaching. A universal testing machine measured the SBS of the samples 24 h after bonding. After bracket debonding, the amount of residual adhesive on the enamel surface was observed under a stereomicroscope to determine the adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores. The SBS in the unbleached group was significantly higher than that in the bleached groups bonded immediately and 1 h after laser-assisted bleaching (P laser-assisted bleaching, the SBS was found to be significantly lower than that in the control group. Significant differences in the ARI scores existed among groups as well. The SBS of brackets seems to increase quickly within an hour after laser-assisted bleaching and 24 h after conventional bleaching. Thus, this protocol can be recommended if it is necessary to bond the brackets on the same day of bleaching.

  6. Intrapulpal Temperature Increase During Er:YAG Laser-Aided Debonding of Ceramic Brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilanci, Hilal; Yildirim, Zeynep Beyza; Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature changes in the pulp chamber while using a newly introduced application of Er:YAG laser to debond ceramic brackets in a study model with a pulpal circulation with and without thermocycled samples. An esthetic alternative to stainless steel brackets, ceramic brackets have been proposed. However, because of their low fracture resistance and high bond strengths, ceramic brackets can cause a problem when they are being removed using conventional techniques. Experimental Groups A and B were established for samples with or without thermocycling. The same 20 maxillary central incisor and 20 premolar teeth were used in both groups. Pulpal blood microcirculation was simulated using an apparatus described in a previous study. Monocrystalline brackets were bonded by using Transbond XT. In Group A, brackets were debonded using the Er:YAG laser (600 mJ, 2 Hz, long pulse, and no air or water spray) after being stored in distilled water for 24 h. In Group B, brackets were debonded using the same laser system as that used in Group A after being stored in distilled water for 24 h and then thermocycled for a total of 5000 cycles between 5°C and 55°C. The laser irradiation duration and intrapulpal temperature changes were measured. In Group B, the intrapulpal temperature increase of the central incisors was significantly higher than that of the premolar teeth. In the central incisor and premolar teeth groups, there were no statistically significant difference between Groups A and B (p > 0.05). A positive correlation was found between laser irradiation duration and temperature increase (p brackets. This method can be used safely under the consideration of intrapulpal temperature changes.

  7. Selective laser vaporization of polypropylene sutures and mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, David; Rosenbury, Sarah B.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2012-02-01

    Complications from polypropylene mesh after surgery for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) may require tedious surgical revision and removal of mesh materials with risk of damage to healthy adjacent tissue. This study explores selective laser vaporization of polypropylene suture/mesh materials commonly used in SUI. A compact, 7 Watt, 647-nm, red diode laser was operated with a radiant exposure of 81 J/cm2, pulse duration of 100 ms, and 1.0-mm-diameter laser spot. The 647-nm wavelength was selected because its absorption by water, hemoglobin, and other major tissue chromophores is low, while polypropylene absorption is high. Laser vaporization of ~200-μm-diameter polypropylene suture/mesh strands, in contact with fresh urinary tissue samples, ex vivo, was performed. Non-contact temperature mapping of the suture/mesh samples with a thermal camera was also conducted. Photoselective vaporization of polypropylene suture and mesh using a single laser pulse was achieved with peak temperatures of 180 and 232 °C, respectively. In control (safety) studies, direct laser irradiation of tissue alone resulted in only a 1 °C temperature increase. Selective laser vaporization of polypropylene suture/mesh materials is feasible without significant thermal damage to tissue. This technique may be useful for SUI procedures requiring surgical revision.

  8. Evaluation of the permeability and morphological alteration of the dental surface after apicoectomy, treatment and preparation with Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers; Avaliacao da permeabilidade e da alteracao morfologica da superficie dentinaria apos apicectomia, tratamento e retropreparo com os lasers de Er:YAG e Nd:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Guerra de

    2001-07-01

    One of the objectives of endodontic treatment is to resolve pathological periapical processes caused by microbial contamination of the dental pulp. Correct execution of the necessary chemical preparation prior to surgery generally results in positive outcomes. However, a percentage of cases do not respond favorably and therefore require retreatment, a conservative therapeutic option. There are meanwhile a number of treatment failures which do not respond to these conservative measures and must therefore be subjected to paraendodontic surgical procedures. One of the principal problems of this therapeutic conduct is linked to the surface permeability of the dentin after apicoectomy and the lack of adequate marginal adaptation between the retrofilling material and the cavity walls. This permits the percolation of microorganisms and their metabolic by products from the system of root canals to the periapical region, thereby compromising the necessary tissue repair. The present work proposes the evaluation of the surface and marginal permeability of cut dentin after apicoectomy and treatment with Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers with fiber optics and then retrofilled with intermediate restorative material (IRM). A total of 24 single rooted teeth whose canals were endodontically treated were divided into 3 experimental groups: group I, whose apices were sectioned with an Er:YAG laser and the resulting cavity and the cut dental surface were irradiated with this laser via a 50/10 type fiber; in group II the apicoectomy was conducted with an Er:YAG laser and the resulting cavity and the cut surface were irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser; in group III, the samples were apicoectomized and the cavities were treated with a high speed bur (control group). Analysis of the infiltration of the dye methylene blue throughout the cut dental surface and the reconstruction demonstrated that the samples in the irradiated groups presented lower indices of infiltration than the control group. The

  9. Enamel pretreatment with Er:YAG laser: effects on the microleakage of fissure sealant in fluorosed teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Memarpour,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microleakage and penetration of fissure sealant in permanent molar teeth with fluorosis after pretreatment of the occlusal surface. Materials and Methods A total of 120 third molars with mild dental fluorosis were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 20. The tooth surfaces were sealed with an unfilled resin fissure sealant (FS material. The experimental groups included: 1 phosphoric acid etching (AE + FS (control; 2 AE + One-Step Plus (OS, Bisco + FS; 3 bur + AE + FS; 4 bur + AE + OS + FS; 5 Er:YAG laser + AE + FS; and 6 Er:YAG laser + AE + OS + FS. After thermocycling, the teeth were immersed in 0.5% fuchsin and sectioned. Proportions of mircoleakage (PM and unfilled area (PUA were measured by digital microscope. Results Overall, there were significant differences among all groups in the PM (p = 0.00. Group 3 showed the greatest PM, and was significantly different from groups 2 to 6 (p < 0.05. Group 6 showed the lowest PM. Pretreatment with Er:YAG with or without adhesive led to less PM than bur pretreatment. There were no significant differences among groups in PUA. Conclusions Conventional acid etching provided a similar degree of occlusal seal in teeth with fluorosis compared to those pretreated with a bur or Er:YAG laser. Pretreatment of pits and fissures with Er:YAG in teeth with fluorosis may be an alternative method before fissure sealant application.

  10. Efficient 10 kW diode-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Yasuhiro; Takada, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Mitsuo; Yuasa, Hiroshi; Nishida, Naoto

    2003-03-01

    As a tool for high speed and high precision material processing such as cutting and welding, we developed a rod-type all-solid-state laser with an average power of more than 10 kW, an electrical-optical efficiency of more than 20%, and a laser head volume of less than 0.05 m3. We developed a highly efficient diode pumped module, and successfully obtained electrical-optical efficiencies of 22% in CW operation and 26% in QCW operation at multi-kW output powers. We also succeeded to reduce the laser head volume, and obtained the output power of 12 kW with an efficiency of 23%, and laser head volume of 0.045 m3. We transferred the technology to SHIBAURA mechatronics corp., who started to provide the LD pumped Nd:YAG laser system with output power up to 4.5 kW. We are now continuing development for further high power laser equipment.

  11. Study on surface properties of gilt-bronze artifacts, after Nd:YAG laser cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeyoun [Division of Restoration Technology, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Namchul, E-mail: nam1611@hanmail.net [Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Science, Kongju National University, Gongju, 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jongmyoung [Laser Engineering Group, IMT Co. Ltd, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    As numerous pores are formed at plating gilt-bronze artifacts, the metal underlying the gold is corroded and corrosion products are formed on layer of gold. Through this study, the surfaces of gilt-bronze are being investigated before and after the laser irradiation to remove corrosion products of copper by using Nd:YAG laser. For gilt-bronze specimens, laser and chemical cleaning were performed, and thereafter, surface analysis with SEM-EDS, AFM, and XPS were used to determine the surface characteristics. Experimental results show that chemical cleaning removes corrosion products of copper through dissolution but it was not removed uniformly and separated the metal substrate and the gold layer. Nevertheless, through laser cleaning, some of the corrosions were removed with some damaged areas due to certain conditions and brown residues remained. Brown residues were copper corrosion products mixed with soil left within the gilt layer. It was due to surface morphology of uneven and rough gilt layer. Hence, they did not react effectively to laser beams, and thus, remained as residues. The surface properties of gilt-bronze should be thoroughly investigated with various surface analyses to succeed in laser cleaning without damages or residues.

  12. Highly-efficient, frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser for spaceborne LIDARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treichel, R.; Hoffmann, H.-D.; Luttmann, J.; Morasch, V.; Nicklaus, K.; Wührer, C.

    2017-11-01

    For a spaceborne lidar a highly reliable, long living and efficient laser source is absolutely essential. Within the frame of the development of a laser source for the backscatter lidar ATLID, which will be flown on EarthCare mission, we setup and tested a predevelopment model of an injection-seeded, diode pumped, frequency tripled, pulsed high power Nd:YAG MOPA laser operating nominally at 100 Hz pulse repetition frequency. We also tested the burst operation mode. The excellent measured performance parameter will be introduced. The oscillator rod is longitudinally pumped from both sides. The oscillator has been operated with three cavity control methods: "Cavity Dither", "Pound-Drever-Hall" and "Adaptive Ramp & Fire". Especially the latter method is very suitable to operate the laser in harsh vibrating environment such in airplanes. The amplifier bases on the InnoSlab design concept. The constant keeping of a moderate fluence in the InnoSlab crystal permits excellent possibilities to scale the pulse energy to several 100 mJ. An innovative pump unit and optics makes the laser performance insensitive to inhomogeneous diode degradation and allows switching of additional redundant diodes. Further key features have been implemented in a FM design concept. The operational lifetime is extended by the implementation of internal redundancies for the most critical parts. The reliability is increased due to the higher margin onto the laser induced damage threshold by a pressurized housing. Additionally air-to-vacuum effects becomes obsolete. A high efficient heat removal concept has been implemented.

  13. Shear bond strength of two bonding systems on dentin surfaces prepared with Er:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Magro, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the shear bond strength of two bonding dentin systems, one 'one step' (Single Bond - 3M) and one 'self-etching' (Prompt-L-ESPE), when applied on dentin surfaces prepared with Er:YAG laser (2,94μm) that underwent ar not, acid etched. Forty one human molars just extracted were selected and after the cut with diamond disc and included in acrylic resin, resulting in 81 specimens (hemi crowns). After, the specimens were divided in one group treated with sand paper and another two groups treated with Er:YAG laser with 200 mJ and 250 mJ of energy and 2 Hz of frequency. Next, the prepared surfaces received three treatments with following application: 1) acid + Single Bond + Z 250 resin, 2) prompt-L-Pop + Z 250 resin, and 3) acid without, Single Bond + Z 250 resin. The Z 250 resin was applied and photopolymerized in increments on a Teflon matrix that belonged to an apparatus called 'Assembly Apparatus' machine producing cylinders of 3,5 mm of diameter and 5 mm of height. After these specimens were submitted to thermo cycling during 1 minute the 55 deg C and during 1 minute with 5 deg C with a total of 500 cycles for specimen, and the measures of shear bond strength were abstained using EMIC model DL 2000 rehearsed machine, with speed of 0,5 mm/min, measuring the final rupture tension (Mpa). The results showed an statistic superiority of 5% of probability level in dentin flattened with sandpaper and with laser using 200 mJ of energy with aspect to the ones flattened with laser using 250 mJ of energy. It was observed that using 'Single Bond' bonding dentin system the marks were statistically superior at 5% of probability with reference to the use of the Prompt-L-Pop adhesive system. So, it was concluded that Er:YAG Laser with 200 mJ of energy produced similar dentin cavity prepare than sandpaper and Single Bond seemed the best bonding agent system between restorative material and dentin. (author)

  14. Root planing with Er:YAG laser X Gracey curette, a study in vitro in scanning electron microscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, Fabiano Augusto Sfier de

    2000-01-01

    The Er:YAG laser has been studied as a periodontal therapies, used to remove subgingival calculus and its bactericidal effects. The proposal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Er:YAG laser in root planing in comparison to the traditional method, not surgical. Six recently extracted due to the disease periodontal, were cut longitudinally, tends like this two half of the root. These half were separate in four groups. The first group is the natural tooth (group controls negative), the second group (group controls) was accomplished to root planing with Gracey curette. And in the third to Er:YAG laser with a contact tip, using a 45 deg angle in relation to the root; in the fourth group was scraped and planned with Er:YAG laser and complemented root planing with Gracey curette. The used energy was of 100 mJ (out put) and the frequency of 10 Hz accomplished with irrigation. The obtained results were similar in the groups 2 and 3 in comparison to the amount of smear-layer. In group 4 however, better result was obtained, because the image (SEM) was much more regular and with less amount of smear-layer. The conclusion of the work is that with the association of the laser technique and Gracey curette the results are superior to the conventional treatment. (author)

  15. Morphological evaluation of cavity preparation surface after duraphat and Er:YAG laser treatment by scanning electronic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Luciane Borelli

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of dental surface using different lasers to prevent dental caries has been studied for several on last years. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the morphological changes on dentin surface from pulpal wall of cavity preparations performed by high-speed drill, treated with 2,26% fluoride varnish (Duraphat) and Er:YAG laser, and then submitted after receiving or not to EDTA 15% treatment. Twenty Class V cavities were performed on ten humans molars. The specimens were randomly divided in to 4 groups: group 1- treatment with Duraphat followed by Er:YAG laser irradiation (120 mJ/ 4 Hz); group 2: Er:YAG laser irradiation, same parameters, followed by Duraphat treatment; group 3- same group 1 followed by immersion in EDTA (5 min); group 4 - same as group 2 followed by immersion in EDTA (5 min). The specimens were processed for SEM analysis. The micrographs showed that Duraphat treatment promoted morphological changes on dentin, closing dentinal tubules; the specimens treated by Duraphat and Er:YAG laser and immersed in EDTA (group 3) showed homogeneous surface, closed and protected dentinal tubules, maintenance of the fluoride varnish on the dentin surface and around the dentinal tubules, showing feasible and efficiency of these therapies the feasibility.(author)

  16. Nd:Yag laser iridotomy in Shaffer-Etienne grade 1 and 2:angle widening in our case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cinzia Carlesimo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To obtain widening of a potentially occludable angle, in according to Kanski’s indications, through preventive Nd:Yag laser iridotomy. The observational study was performed by using gonioscopy for the selection and follow-up of 1165 treated eyes and exploiting Shaffer-Etienne gonioscopic classification as a quality/quantity test of the angle recession.METHODS:Between September 2000 and July 2012, 586 patients were selected at the Outpatients’ Ophthalmological Clinic of the Policlinico Umberto I of Rome in order to undergo Nd:Yag laser iridotomy. A Goldmann type contact lens, Q-switched mode, 2-3 defocus, and 7-9 mJ intensity with 2-3 impulse discharges were used for surgery.RESULTS:From as early as the first week, a whole 360° angle widening were evident in the patients, thus showing the success of Nd:Yag laser iridotomy in solving relative pupil block. The angle remained narrow by 270° in 14 eyes only, despite repetitions of further treatment with laser iridotomy in a different part of the iris, twice in 10 eyes and three times in 4 eyes.CONCLUSION:Nd:Yag laser iridotomy revealed itself as being a safe and effective treatment in widening those critical Shaffer-Etienne grade 1 and 2 potentially occludable angles.

  17. Analysis of Shear Bond Strength and Morphology of Er:YAG Laser-Recycled Ceramic Orthodontic Brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruo-qiao; Yang, Kai; Ji, Ling-fei; Ling, Chen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the recycling of deboned ceramic brackets via an Er:YAG laser or via the traditional chairside processing methods of flaming and sandblasting; shear bond strength and morphological changes were evaluated in recycled brackets versus new brackets. 3M Clarity Self-Ligating Ceramic Brackets with a microcrystalline base were divided into groups subjected to flaming, sandblasting, or exposure to an Er:YAG laser. New ceramic brackets served as a control group. Shear bond strengths were determined with an Electroforce test machine and tested for statistical significance through analysis of variance. Morphological examinations of the recycled ceramic bracket bases were conducted with scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Residue on the bracket base was analyzed with Raman spectroscopy. Faded, dark adhesive was left on recycled bracket bases processed via flaming. Adhesive was thoroughly removed by both sandblasting and exposure to an Er:YAG laser. Compared with new brackets, shear bond strength was lower after sandblasting (p bracket. Er:YAG lasers effectively remove adhesive from the bases of ceramic brackets without damaging them; thus, this method may be preferred over other recycling methods.

  18. Comparison of Microleakage of Glass Ionomer Restoration in Primary Teeth Prepared by Er: YAG Laser and the Conventional Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghandehari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the main criteria in evaluating the restorative materials is the degree of microleakage. The aim of this study was to compare the microleakage of glass ionomer restored cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser or turbine and bur.Materials and Methods: Twenty extracted caries-free deciduous posterior teeth were selected for this study. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups for cavity preparation. Cavities in group one were prepared by high speed turbine and bur. In the second group, Er:YAG laser with a 3W output power, 300 mJ energy and 10 Hz frequency was used. Cavities were restored with GC Fuji II LC. After thermocycling, the samples were immersed into 0.5% methylene blue solution. They were sectioned for examination under optic microscope.Results: The Wilcoxon signed ranks test showed no significant difference between microleakage of the laser group and the conventional group (P>0.05.Conclusion: Er:YAG laser with its advantages in pediatric dentistry may be suggested as an alternative device for cavity preparation.Key Words: Er:YAG laser, Glass ionomer, Microleakage

  19. Comparison of pulsed dye laser versus combined pulsed dye laser and Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of inflammatory acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah El Din, Manal Mohamed; Samy, Nevien Ahmed; Salem, Amira Eid

    2017-06-01

    Both pulsed dye laser and combined 585/1064-nm (sequential dual-wavelength PDL and Nd:YAG) laser improves inflammatory skin disorders including acne vulgaris. To compare the efficacy of 585-nm pulsed dye laser versus sequential dual-wavelength PDL and Nd:YAG in treatment of acne vulgaris. Thirty patients with acne vulgaris were treated by PDL alone on half of the face while contra lateral half was treated by combined 585/1064 nm laser. The study showed that inflammatory acne lesions count was significantly reduced by 82.5% (p 0.0001) on PDL sides and by 83.5% (p 0.00001) on combined 585/1064-nm side after 8 weeks, while reduction of non-inflammatory acne lesions was observed at 8 weeks by 58.4% and 71.5% respectively. However, difference between the two modalities was not statistically significant. PDL and combined PDL/Nd:YAG laser treatment were found to be an effective, safe and well-tolerated treatment option for inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne vulgaris.

  20. Resonantly diode pumped Er:YAG laser systems emitting at 1645 nm for methane detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, H; Lux, O; Wang, X; Zhao, Z; Eichler, H J

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of compact and frequency-stable Er:YAG laser systems emitting in the eye-safe spectral region. Resonant cw diode pumping provides 4.5 W output power in cw operation and 2.2 mJ in Q-switched operation with pulse duration of about 140 ns. The application of intra-cavity etalons allows for wavelength tuning from 1645.22 to 1646.33 nm while the frequency stability accounts for less than 50 MHz. The potential of the erbium laser sources in terms of methane detection was evaluated under laboratory conditions by absorption measurements employing a multi-pass absorption cell. The experimental investigations were accompanied by theoretical studies on the influence of pressure broadening on the absorption behavior of methane. (letter)

  1. Detection and Investigation of Carbon Ions Induced by Nd:YAG laser using SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qindeel, Rabia; Ali, Jalil Bin; Chaudhary, K. T.; Hussain, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    A Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser pulse of pulsed width of 9∼14 ns, wavelength of 1064 nm, repetition rate of 0.5 Hz, power of 1.1 MW and energy of 10 mJ has been used to ablate the 4N pure graphite target through IR lens. Solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) CR-39 has been used to calculate the energy of carbon ions produced as a result of laser ablation and the whole experiment has been performed under pressure ∼10 -3 Torr in stainless steel vacuum chamber. The minimum and maximum energy of carbon ions observed are 0.2 KeV to 250 KeV respectively.

  2. Heating of multi-layered samples by a Nd: YAG pulsed laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz Neto, O.O.

    1998-01-01

    In the work we examine the heating of multi-layered samples by a powerful Nd-YAG pulsed laser. The samples are made of two and three layers, conductor-isolator (Al-Al 2 O 3 ). conductor-conductor (Al-Ag: Al-Au) an conductor-conductor-conductor (Al-Au-Ag:Ag-Au-Al). The transient behaviour of the temperature distribution throughout the samples is computed. We carry out three dimensional model calculations for the heating process in which we consider not only the temperature dependence of the sample thermal and optical parameters but also the space and time characteristics of the laser beams as the heating source. We showed the influence of the substrate in the thermal profile, in space and time, and maximum temperature on the multi-layered samples. (Author) 11 refs

  3. Novel methotrexate soft nanocarrier/fractional erbium YAG laser combination for clinical treatment of plaque psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramez, Shahenda A; Soliman, Mona M; Fadel, Maha; Nour El-Deen, Faisal; Nasr, Maha; Youness, Eman R; Aboel-Fadl, Dalea M

    2018-02-15

    Psoriasis is a commonly encountered chronic dermatological disease, presenting with inflammatory symptoms in patients. Systemic treatment of psoriasis is associated with several adverse effects, therefore the development of a customized topical treatment modality for psoriasis would be an interesting alternative to systemic delivery. The therapeutic modality explored in this article was the comparative treatment of psoriatic patients using nanoparticulated methotrexate in the form of jojoba oil-based microemulsion with or without fractional erbium YAG laser. Assessment parameters included follow-up photography for up to 8 weeks of treatment, estimation of the psoriasis severity [TES (thickness, erythema, scales)] score, and histopathological skin evaluation. The prepared methotrexate microemulsion was clinically beneficial and safe in treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. The concomitant use of the fractional laser provided improvement in the psoriatic plaques within shorter time duration (3 weeks compared to 8 weeks of treatment), presenting an alternative topical treatment modality for psoriasis vulgaris.

  4. Retinal hemorrhage thresholds for Q-switched neodymium-Yag laser exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenstein, M.F.; Zuclich, J.; Allen, R.G.; Davis, H.; Thomas, S.J.; Harrison, R.F.

    1986-07-01

    Thresholds for retinal vitreal and contained hemorrhages were determined for 1064 nm laser light at 30-nsec and 4-nsec pulsewidths. Rhesus monkeys received graded exposures from a neodymium-yag laser onto either the macular or extramacular region of the retina. Contained hemorrhages appeared as concentric ring structures with white punctate centers. The vitreal hemorrhage was characterized by the presence of choroidal blood in the vitreal chamber at the exposure site. The 30-nsec contained hemorrhage threshold (ED50) was 1.7 mJ on the macula and 2.1 mJ for an extramacular exposure. The 30-nsec vitreal hemorrhage macular threshold was 2.3 mJ, and the extramacular threshold was 6.6 mJ. The threshold for the 4-nsec pulsewidths to produce a hemorrhage (vitreal or contained) on the retina (macula or extramacular) was 340 microJ.

  5. Retinal-hemorrhage thresholds for Q-switched neodymium-YAG laser exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenstein, M.F.; Zuclich; Allen, R.G.; Davis; Thomas, S.J.

    1986-07-01

    Thresholds for retinal vitreal and contained hemorrhages were determined for 1064-nm laser light at 30-ns and 4-ns pulsewidths. Rhesus monkeys received graded exposures from a neodymium-YAG laser onto either the macular or extramacular region of the retina. Contained hemorrhages appeared as concentric-ring structures with white punctuate centers. The vitreal hemorrhage was characterized by the presence of choroidal blood in the vitreal chamber at the exposure site. The 30-ns contained-hemorrhage threshold (ED50) was 1.7 mJ on the macula and 2.1 mJ for an extramacular exposure. The 30-ns vitreal-hemorrhage macular threshold was 2.3 mJ, and the extramacular threshold was 6.6 Mj. The threshold for the 4-ns pulse widths to produce a hemorrhage (vitreal or contained) on the retina (macula or extramacular) was 340 uJ.

  6. Diode-pumped dual-frequency microchip Nd : YAG laser with tunable frequency difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren Cheng; Zhang Shulian, E-mail: ren-c06@mails.tsinghua.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Department of Precision Instruments and Mechanology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-08-07

    The diode-pumped dual-frequency microchip Nd : YAG laser with tunable frequency difference is presented. The gain medium used is a microchip 2 mm in thickness for miniaturized and integrated design. Two quarter-wave plates are placed into the laser cavity and the intra-cavity birefringence produces two orthogonally linearly polarized modes. The rotation of one of the two quarter-wave plates introduces a controlled and variable cavity birefringence which causes a variable frequency difference between the two orthogonally polarized modes. The frequency difference can be tuned through the whole cavity free spectral range. The obtained frequency difference ranges from 14 MHz to 1.5 GHz. The variation of the beat frequency over a period of 10 min is less than 10 kHz. The lock-in between modes is not found. Experimental results are presented, which match well with the theoretical analysis based on Jones matrices.

  7. Study of Laser Created Metal Vapor Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-16

    Leventhal(1 indicate a value closer to 10-1 cm. might be expected. In the case of’ laser induced penniinf, ionization., wec -,;4-,rit LIP 32 LIP L J where...modified Kramer’s formulae.(25) In figure 11 we demonstrate the impact of associative ionization and laser induced penning ionization upon the temporal...34Laser Induced Fluorescence and Environmental Sensing", Invited paper for Optical Society of America, Topical Mcetixg on "Applications of Laser

  8. Comparative laser-tissue interaction effects at 1.96 and 2.01 um of Cr; Tm:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Michail M.; Perrault, Donald F., Jr.; Shapshay, Stanley M.; Pinto, Joseph F.; Esterowitz, Dina; Aretz, H. Thomas

    1992-08-01

    A pulsed spiking and nonspiking Cr; thulium (Tm):YAG flash lamp pumped laser operating at 1.96 and 2.01 μm was investigated in vitro in the clinically relevant power range for its basic laser-tissue interaction with soft, cartilaginous, and bone tissues. Some explanations of the differences and possible medical applications are discussed.

  9. 80-W cw TEM{sub 00} IR beam generation by use of a laser-diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, Susumu; Fujikawa, Shuichi; Yasui, Koji [Mitsubishi Electric Corp. Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan). Advanced Technology R and D Center

    1998-03-01

    We have demonstrated high-efficient and high-power operation of a diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser. The laser has a simple and scalable configuration consisting of a diffusive pumping reflector and an advanced cavity configuration for polarization-dependent bifocusing compensation. (author)

  10. Effect of Cr4+ impurities in Nd:Cr:GSGG and Nd:Cr:YAG laser materials on parameters of lasers at solar pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payziyev, Sh.D.; Bakhramov, S.A.; Shayimov, F.F.; Fayziev, A.Sh.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of an effect of Cr 4+ impurity ions, existent in Nd 3+ :Cr 3+ :GSGG and Nd 3+ :Cr 3+ :YAG laser materials on output parameters of solar pumped lasers is carried out by modeling of lasing process at solar pumping. (authors)

  11. Effect of bracket bonding with Er: YAG laser on nanomechanical properties of enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Shiva; Birang, Reza; Hajizadeh, Fatemeh; Banimostafaee, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of conventional acid etching and laser etching on the nano-mechanical properties of the dental enamel using nano-indentation test. In this experimental in vitro study, buccal surfaces of 10 premolars were divided into three regions. One of the regions was etched with 37% phosphoric acid and another etched with Er:YAG laser, the third region was not etched. The brackets were bonded to both of etched regions. After thermocycling for 500 cycles, the brackets were removed and the teeth were decoronated from the bracket bonding area. Seven nano-indentations were applied at 1-31 μm depth from the enamel surface in each region. Mean values of the hardness and elastic modulus were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests, using the SPSS software (SPSS Inc., version16.0, Chicago, Il, USA). P < 0.05 was considered as significant. The hardness up to 21 μm in depth and elastic modulus up to 6 μm in depth from the enamel surface for laser-etched enamel had significantly higher values than control enamel and the hardness up to 11 μm in depth and elastic modulus up to 6 μm in depth for acid-etched enamel had significantly lower values than the control enamel. The mechanical properties of the enamel were decreased after bracket bonding with conventional acid etching and increased after bonding with Er:YAG laser.

  12. Effect of bracket bonding with Er: YAG laser on nanomechanical properties of enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Alavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of conventional acid etching and laser etching on the nano-mechanical properties of the dental enamel using nano-indentation test. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, buccal surfaces of 10 premolars were divided into three regions. One of the regions was etched with 37% phosphoric acid and another etched with Er:YAG laser, the third region was not etched. The brackets were bonded to both of etched regions. After thermocycling for 500 cycles, the brackets were removed and the teeth were decoronated from the bracket bonding area. Seven nano-indentations were applied at 1-31 μm depth from the enamel surface in each region. Mean values of the hardness and elastic modulus were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests, using the SPSS software (SPSS Inc., version16.0, Chicago, Il, USA. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The hardness up to 21 μm in depth and elastic modulus up to 6 μm in depth from the enamel surface for laser-etched enamel had significantly higher values than control enamel and the hardness up to 11 μm in depth and elastic modulus up to 6 μm in depth for acid-etched enamel had significantly lower values than the control enamel. Conclusion: The mechanical properties of the enamel were decreased after bracket bonding with conventional acid etching and increased after bonding with Er:YAG laser.

  13. Two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy of rabbit nasal septal cartilage following Nd:YAG-laser-mediated stress relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Charlton C.; Wallace, Vincent P.; Coleno, Mariah L.; Dao, Xavier; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Wong, Brian J.

    2000-04-01

    Laser irradiation of hyaline cartilage result in stable shape changes due to temperature dependent stress relaxation. In this study, we determined the structural changes in chondrocytes within rabbit nasal septal cartilage tissue over a 12-day period using a two-photon laser scanning microscope (TPM) following Nd:YAG laser irradiation. During laser irradiation surface temperature, stress relaxation, and diffuse reflectance, were measured dynamically. Each specimen received one or two sequential laser exposures. The cartilage reached a peak surface temperature of about 61 degrees C during irradiation. Cartilage denatured in 50 percent EtOH was used as a positive control. TPM was performed to detect the fluorescence emission from the chondrocytes. Images of chondrocytes were obtained at depths up to 150 microns, immediately following laser exposure, and also following 12 days in culture. Few differences in the pattern or intensity of fluorescence was observed between controls and irradiated specimens imaged immediately following exposure, regardless of the number of laser pulses. However, following twelve days in tissue culture, the irradiated specimens increase, whereas the native tissue diminishes, in intensity and distribution of fluorescence in the cytoplasm. In contrast, the positive control shows only extracellular matrices and empty lacuna, feature consistent with cell membrane lysis.

  14. Compact, Passively Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser for the MESSENGER Mission to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Danny J.; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Li, Steven X.; Lindauer, Steven J.; Afzal, Robert S.; Yu, Antony

    2004-01-01

    A compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been developed for the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument which is an instrument on the MESSENGER mission to the planet Mercury. The laser achieves 5.4 percent efficiency with a near diffraction limited beam. It has passed all space flight environmental tests at system, instrument, and satellite integration. The laser design draws on a heritage of previous laser altimetry missions, specifically ISESAT and Mars Global Surveyor; but incorporates thermal management features unique to the requirements of an orbit of the planet Mercury.

  15. Application of YAG Laser TIG Arc Hybrid Welding to Thin AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewon; Kim, Jongcheol; Hasegawa, Yu; Suga, Yasuo

    A magnesium alloy is said to be an ecological material with high ability of recycling and lightweight property. Especially, magnesium alloys are in great demand on account of outstanding material property as a structural material. Under these circumstances, research and development of welding process to join magnesium alloy plates are of great significance for wide industrial application of magnesium. In order to use it as a structure material, the welding technology is very important. TIG arc welding process is the most ordinary process to weld magnesium alloy plates. However, since the heat source by the arc welding process affects the magnesium alloy plates, HAZ of welded joint becomes wide and large distortion often occurs. On the other hand, a laser welding process that has small diameter of heat source seems to be one of the possible means to weld magnesium alloy in view of the qualitative improvement. However, the low boiling point of magnesium generates some weld defects, including porosity and solidification cracking. Furthermore, precise edge preparation is very important in butt-welding by the laser welding process, due to the small laser beam diameter. Laser/arc hybrid welding process that combines the laser beam and the arc is an effective welding process in which these two heat sources influence and assist each other. Using the hybrid welding, a synegistic effect is achievable and the disadvantages of the respective processes can be compensated. In this study, YAG laser/TIG arc hybrid welding of thin magnesium alloy (AZ31B) sheets was investigated. First of all, the effect of the irradiation point and the focal position of laser beam on the quality of a weld were discussed in hybrid welding. Then, it was confirmed that a sound weld bead with sufficient penetration is obtained using appropriate welding conditions. Furthermore, it was made clear that the heat absorption efficiency is improved with the hybrid welding process. Finally, the tensile tests

  16. Efficacy of holmium. Yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Ho: YAG) laser therapy for arthroscopic synovectomy of rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yasuo; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Kanbe, Katsuaki

    2008-01-01

    To clarify the efficacy of holmium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Ho: YAG) laser therapy for arthroscopic synovectomy of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we treated 13 shoulders of 11 RA patients of whom 1 was stage I, 7 stage II, 2 stage III, and 1 stage IV. The duration of RA is 4.6 years on average and the follow-up period is an average of 14 months. The Ho: YAG laser was set at 10 Watt (W) to treat the bone erosion areas so as to reach the deep zones of the pannus in order to resect the synovium. We compared C-reactive protein (CRP), Disease activity score (DAS) 28 and magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings before and after surgery. We cultured primary synovial cells to assay cytokine production of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Morphological examination was performed after treatment with the Ho: YAG laser at 0, 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 W. We found villous synovium proliferation with vascularity in the rotator interval and supra spinatus tendon in the shoulder joints. In the subacromial bursa, yellow fat tissue and white fibrous soft tissue were detected in almost all shoulders. After synovectomy using the Ho: YAG laser, CRP decreased from an average of 3.6 to 0.8 and DAS28 also decreased from an average of 5.4 to 3.7 at 14 months after surgery. MRI showed decreased panni with synovium and did not precede joint destruction after 14 months in 10 shoulders out of 13 (77%). At 20 W of the Ho: YAG laser treatment, the synovial cells shrank as in apoptosis and the number of cells also decreased. Laser treatment also resulted in the following significant changes: TNF-α production increased at 1, 10, 15 and 20 W (compared with 0 W) but not dose dependently; IL-1β and IL-6 increased up to 10 W (compared with 0 W) but decreased at 15 and 20 W (compared with 10 W). In morphological examination, after treatment with the Ho: YAG laser at 15 W, the synovial cells expanded and the number of cells decreased. Therefore, Ho: YAG laser therapy is effective

  17. Biostimulative effects of Nd:YAG Q-switch dye on normal human fibroblast cultures: study of a new chemosensitizing agent for the Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, D.J.; Saxton, R.E.; Fetterman, H.R.; Castro, D.J.; Ward, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    Kodak Q-switch II is a new chemical with an absorption maxima at 1051 nm, designed to be used as an Nd:YAG dye laser. The potential for this dye as a new chemosensitizing agent in the treatment of connective tissue diseases and wound healing with low energy Nd:YAG laser was examined. Two normal fibroblast cell lines were tested for sensitivity to various levels of this dye in vitro. These cells were exposed to Q-switch II dye at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 50, and 100 micrograms/ml for 1 and 24 hours. Cell viability was assessed by the trypan blue exclusion test. Cell duplication and DNA synthesis were measured by the incorporation of [ 3 H]-thymidine at 6 and 24 hours postexposure to Q-switch II dye. At concentrations up to 10 micrograms/ml, both cell lines tested showed no changes in cell viability. However, at concentrations equal or higher than 50 micrograms/ml, more than 40% of the fibroblasts incorporated trypan blue after 24 hours of exposure to this dye, indicating significant cell destruction. The results indicate that Q-switch II dye is nontoxic to normal human fibroblast cultures and showed significant biostimulative effects on cell duplication at concentrations equal to or lower than 10 micrograms/ml. Further studies will be required to determine the usefulness of Q-switch II dye as a new photochemosensitizing agent for potential biostimulation of wound healing and/or treatment of connective tissue diseases with the Nd:YAG laser (near infrared, 1060 nm) at nonthermal levels of energies

  18. 183-W, M2 = 2.4 Yb:YAG Q -switched laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honea, E.C.; Beach, R.J.; Mitchell, S.C.; Avizonis, P.V.

    1999-01-01

    We have fabricated a diode-array end-pumped Yb:YAG rod laser with output powers greater than 200thinspthinspW cw and 195thinspthinspW Q -switched at 5thinspthinspkHz. At an output power of 183thinspthinspW and a repetition rate of 5thinspthinspkHz, the beam quality was measured to be M 2 =2.4 . The laser design incorporates a hollow lens duct to concentrate the diode pump light for delivery to the end of the laser rod while maintaining access to the laser beam. This configuration provides increased flexibility for the resonator design and permits the use of birefringence compensation in the cavity to yield polarized output with increased efficiency. Using the recently described birefringence compensation method of Clarkson et al.thinspthinsp[in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper CTuI3], we obtained 112thinspthinspW of cw power with a polarized beam of M 2 =3.2 . copyright 1999 Optical Society of America

  19. Effects of process variables on characteristics of Nd:YAG laser welds of Inconel 600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    This report described a basic study of the pulse shaping effects on weld dimension and weld discontinuities in the continuous seam welds of STS 310S using Nd:YAG laser. Further, laser weldability tests for STS 310S and Inconel 600 was carried out. Pulse shapes used in this experiment were general type, which has been applied generally in laser material processing, ramped-up type (3 steps) and ramped-down type (3 steps). The pulse energy was constant regardless of types of pulse shape. The penetration of laser welds became deeper as the pulse width was longer and the peak power was increased. The pulse of ramped-up type was most effective for deep penetration compared with others. With regard to the laser weldability and reduction of weld discontinuities such as porosity and hot cracking, the general type pulse was the worst and the ramped-down type pulse was the best among 3 types of pulse shape studied in this investigation. (author). 36 refs., 25 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Welding of Thin Steel Plates by Hybrid Welding Process Combined TIG Arc with YAG Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewon; Suga, Yasuo; Koike, Takashi

    TIG arc welding and laser welding are used widely in the world. However, these welding processes have some advantages and problems respectively. In order to improve problems and make use of advantages of the arc welding and the laser welding processes, hybrid welding process combined the TIG arc with the YAG laser was studied. Especially, the suitable welding conditions for thin steel plate welding were investigated to obtain sound weld with beautiful surface and back beads but without weld defects. As a result, it was confirmed that the shot position of the laser beam is very important to obtain sound welds in hybrid welding. Therefore, a new intelligent system to monitor the welding area using vision sensor is constructed. Furthermore, control system to shot the laser beam to a selected position in molten pool, which is formed by TIG arc, is constructed. As a result of welding experiments using these systems, it is confirmed that the hybrid welding process and the control system are effective on the stable welding of thin stainless steel plates.

  1. Study of CW Nd-Yag laser welding of Zn-coated steel sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbro, Remy; Coste, Frederic; Goebels, Dominique; Kielwasser, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    The welding of Zn-coated steel thin sheets is a great challenge for the automotive industry. Previous studies have defined the main physical processes involved. For non-controlled conditions, the zinc vapour expelled from the interface of the two sheets violently expands inside the keyhole and expels the melt pool. When using CO 2 lasers, we have previously shown that an elongated laser spot produces an elongated keyhole, which is efficient for suppressing this effect. We have adopted a similar approach for CW Nd : Yag laser welding and we observe that an elongated spot is not necessary for achieving good weld seams. Several diagnostics were used in order to understand these interesting results. High-speed video camera visualizations of the top and the bottom of the keyhole during the process show the dynamics of the keyhole hydrodynamic behaviour. It appears that the role of the reflected beam on the front keyhole wall for generating a characteristic rear wall deformation is crucial for an efficient stabilization of the process. Our dynamic keyhole modelling, which includes ray tracing, totally confirms this interpretation and explains the results for very different experimental conditions (effect of welding speed, laser intensity, variable sheet thickness, laser beam intensity distribution) that will be presented

  2. Stress corrosion cracking behavior of Nd:YAG laser-treated aluminum alloy 7075

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, T.M.; Yan, L.J.; Chan, C.P.

    2006-01-01

    Nd-YAG laser surface treatment was conducted on 7075-T651 aluminum alloy with the aim of improving the stress corrosion cracking resistance of the alloy. Laser surface treatment was performed under two different gas environments, air and nitrogen. After the laser treatment, coarse constituent particles were removed and fine cellular/dendritic structures had formed. In addition, for the N 2 -treated specimen, an AlN phase was detected. The results of the stress corrosion test showed that after 30 days of immersion, the untreated specimen had been severely attacked by corrosion, with intergranular cracks having formed along the planar grain boundaries of the specimen. For the air-treated specimen, some relatively long stress corrosion cracks and a small number of relatively large corrosion pits were found. The cracks mainly followed the interdendritic boundaries; the fusion boundary was found to be acting as an arrestor to corrosion attacks. In contrast, only few short stress corrosion cracks appeared in the N 2 -treated specimen, indicating an improvement in corrosion initiation resistance. The superior corrosion resistance was attributed to the formation of the AlN phase in the surface of the laser-melted layer, which is an electrical insulator. The electrochemical impedance measurements taken during the stress corrosion test showed that the film resistance of the laser-treated specimens was always higher than that of the untreated specimen, with the N 2 -treated specimen showing the highest resistance

  3. Pulsed Nd-YAG laser welding of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Varma, P.V.; Gupta, Amit; Amit, K.; Bhatt, R.B.; Afzal, Mohd.; Panakkal, J.P.; Kamath, H.S.

    2009-02-01

    End plug welding of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) fuel elements involves welding of fully Austenitic Stainless Steel (ASS) of grade D9 clad tube with 316M end plug. Pulsed Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) is being used for the production of PFBR fuel elements at Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility (AFFF). GTAW is an established process for end plug welding and hence adopted by many countries. GTAW has got certain limitations like heat input, arc gap sensitivity and certain sporadic defects like tungsten inclusion. Experiments have been carried out at AFFF to use Laser Beam Welding (LBW) technique as LBW offers a number of advantages over the former process. This report mainly deals with the optimization of laser parameters for welding of PFBR fuel elements. To facilitate pulsed Nd-YAG laser spot welding, parameters like peak power, pulse duration, pulse energy, frequency and defocusing of laser beam on to the work piece have been optimized. On the basis of penetration requirement laser welding parameters have been optimized. (author)

  4. Amplification of pressure waves in laser-assisted endodontics with synchronized delivery of Er:YAG laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukač, Nejc; Jezeršek, Matija

    2018-05-01

    When attempting to clean surfaces of dental root canals with laser-induced cavitation bubbles, the resulting cavitation oscillations are significantly prolonged due to friction on the cavity walls and other factors. Consequently, the collapses are less intense and the shock waves that are usually emitted following a bubble's collapse are diminished or not present at all. A new technique of synchronized laser-pulse delivery intended to enhance the emission of shock waves from collapsed bubbles in fluid-filled endodontic canals is reported. A laser beam deflection probe, a high-speed camera, and shadow photography were used to characterize the induced photoacoustic phenomena during synchronized delivery of Er:YAG laser pulses in a confined volume of water. A shock wave enhancing technique was employed which consists of delivering a second laser pulse at a delay with regard to the first cavitation bubble-forming laser pulse. Influence of the delay between the first and second laser pulses on the generation of pressure and shock waves during the first bubble's collapse was measured for different laser pulse energies and cavity volumes. Results show that the optimal delay between the two laser pulses is strongly correlated with the cavitation bubble's oscillation period. Under optimal synchronization conditions, the growth of the second cavitation bubble was observed to accelerate the collapse of the first cavitation bubble, leading to a violent collapse, during which shock waves are emitted. Additionally, shock waves created by the accelerated collapse of the primary cavitation bubble and as well of the accompanying smaller secondary bubbles near the cavity walls were observed. The reported phenomena may have applications in improved laser cleaning of surfaces during laser-assisted dental root canal treatments.

  5. Efectividad del Nd- Yag láser en la capsulotomía posterior Effectiveness of Nd-Yag laser in posterior capsulotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Pedroso Llanes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propuso determinar la efectividad del neodimio YAG láser (Nd-YAG láser en la realización de capsulotomía posterior a 150 pacientes (ojos operados de catarata senil o presenil en el centro de Microcirugía Ocular en Serie del Hospital Oftalmológico Docente "Ramón Pando Ferrer" en el período comprendido de febreroa diciembre de 1999. En este grupo se analizaron como variables la edad, sexo, raza, implante o no de lente intraocular, tipo de opacidad de cápsula posterior, agudeza visual con corrección pre y postratamiento, complicaciones encontradas, comportamiento de la presión intraocular, así como la energía empleada para realizar dicho proceder. Estos datos se analizaron a través de tablas de contingencias Chi cuadrado. Como resultado de esta investigación se encontró que el láser es altamente efectivo para el mejoramiento de la agudeza visual en los pacientes afectados de catarata secundaria (74,7 %. Se observó además aumento transitorio de la presión intraocular en las dos primeras horas posteriores al láser (60,7 %, y no se encontró ninguna complicación que afectara la visión de los ojos estudiadosThe aim of this paper was to determine the effectiveness of neodymium YAG laser (Nd-YAG laser on performing the posterior capsulotomy in 150 patients (eyes operated on of senile or presenile cataract at the Center of Serial Ocular Microsurgery (CSOM of "Ramón Pando Ferrer" Ophthalmological Teaching Hospital from February to December 1999. Age, sex, race, implantation or not of the intraocular lens (IOL, type of opacity of the posterior capsule, visual acuity with pre- and posttreatment correction (Avcc, complications found, behavior of the intraocular pressure (IOP, as well as the energy used to carry out such procedure, were analyzed. The Chi square contingency tables were used to this end. As a result of this research, it was found that the laser is highly effective for improving visual acuity in patients

  6. A Q-switched Ho:YAG laser with double anti-misalignment corner cubes pumped by a diode-pumped Tm:YLF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. P.; Dai, T. Y.; Wu, J.; Ju, Y. L.; Yao, B. Q.

    2018-06-01

    We report the acousto-optically Q-switched Ho:YAG laser with double anti-misalignment corner cubes pumped by a diode-pumped Tm:YLF laser. In the continuous-wave operation of Ho:YAG laser, the maximum s-polarized output power of 3.2 W at 2090.3 nm was obtained under the absorbed pump power of 12.9 W by rotating the fast axis of quarter-wave plate to change the output transmission of laser cavity. The corresponding optical-to-optical conversion efficiency was 24.8% and the slope efficiency was 55.7%. When one of the corner cubes was rotated to 11.8° around vertical direction or 6.7° around horizontal direction, the laser could still operate stably. For the Q-switched operation, the pulse energy of Ho:YAG laser was 9.9 mJ with a pulse width of 53 ns at the repetition rate of 100 Hz, resulting in a peak power of 186.8 kW. The beam quality factor M2 of Ho:YAG laser was 1.3.

  7. End-pumped Nd:YAG Q-switched laser with high energy and narrow pulse for glass carving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Ming; Jin, Guang-yong; Tan, Xue-chun; Wu, Zhi-chao; Liang, Zhu

    2009-05-01

    In order to raise the accuracy of glass carving and improve deep cutting, a novel diode end-pumed solid-state laser is researched. Selecting proper volume of laser crytal, one continue wave laser diode which longitudinally pumped Nd:YAG crystal is performed and an applied optics coupling system is designed with self focusing.Computing with ray trace software and MATLAB software, the best parameter is obtained, so pumping beam is coupled efficiently to Nd:YAG.Used a Cr4+:YAG crystal with the singnal transmission of 82% and a line plane-concave cavity, nanosecond narrow pulse is gotten. After two thermal-electrical coolers kept the laser to work at constant temperature instead of water cooling, the volume of laser is markedly reduced. The method of thermal-electrical cooling could increase the system efficiency,achieve the effect of low mode output.Experimental results indicate that the maximum laser output energy in 1064 nm is 118mJ,pulse width is 5 ns, conversion efficiency from light to light is 15.7% under the condition of the incident power of 5 W and the diameter of the output laser spot is less than 1 mm. This end-pumped Nd:YAG Q-switched laser with the light output of high quality and long life, which has 0.01 mm accuracy after lens focusing can satisfy the glass carving with higher precision, rapid speed as well as easy control. It can be used in carving all kinds of glass and replace current CO2 laser.

  8. Er:YAG laser in defocused mode for scaling of periodontally involved root surfaces: an in vitro pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crespi, R.; Romanos, G.E.; Barone, A.; Sculean, A.; Covani, U.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Er:YAG laser may be used on periodontally involved teeth in combination with conventional periodontal therapy in order to improve the efficacy of root instrumentation. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of hand instrumentation on root surfaces of periodontally involved

  9. High average power 1314 nm Nd:YLF laser, passively Q-switched with V:YAG

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, RC

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A 1314 nm Nd:YLF laser was designed and operated both CW and passively Q-switched. Maximum CW output of 10.4 W resulted from 45.2 Wof incident pump power. Passive Q-switching was obtained by inserting a V:YAG saturable absorber in the cavity...

  10. Treatment of pigmented keratosis pilaris in Asian patients with a novel Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangeun

    2011-06-01

    Treatment for most cases of keratosis pilaris requires simple reassurance and general skin care recommendations. Many Asian patients find lesions due to pigmented keratosis pilaris to be cosmetically unappealing. Treatment of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation using a 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with low fluence is reported. To investigate the efficacy of a novel Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for the treatment of pigmented keratosis pilaris in Asian patients. Ten patients with pigmented keratosis pilaris underwent five weekly treatments using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (RevLite(®); HOYA ConBio(®), Freemont, CA, USA) at 1064 nm with a 6-mm spot size and a fluence of 5.9 J/cm(2). Photographic documentation was obtained at baseline and 2 months after the final treatment. Clinical improvement was achieved in all 10 patients with minimal adverse effects. For the treatment of keratosis pilaris, the use of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser can be helpful for improving cosmetic appearance as it can improve pigmentation.

  11. Hollow fiber optics with improved durability for high-peak-power pulses of Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yuji; Tsuchiuchi, Akio; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

    2007-03-10

    To improve the damage threshold of hollow optical waveguides for transmitting Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses, we optimize the metallization processes for the inner coating of fibers. For silver-coated hollow fiber as the base, second, and third Nd:YAG lasers, drying silver films at a moderate temperature and with inert gas flow is found to be effective. By using this drying process, the resistance to high-peak-power optical pulse radiation is drastically improved for fibers fabricated with and without the sensitizing process. The maximum peak power transmitted in the fiber is greater than 20 MW. To improve the energy threshold of aluminum-coated hollow fibers for the fourth and fifth harmonics of Nd:YAG lasers, a thin silver film is added between the aluminum film and the glass substrate to increase adhesion of the aluminum coating. By using this primer layer, the power threshold improves to 3 MW for the fourth harmonics of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser light.

  12. Comparison of two Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy: cruciate pattern vs circular pattern with vitreous strand cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Choi, Jung Yeol; Kwon, Ji-Won; Wee, Won Ryang; Han, Young Keun

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effects and safety of neodymium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser posterior capsulotomy with vitreous strand cutting. A total of 40 eyes of 37 patients with symptomatic posterior capsular opacity (PCO) were included in this prospective randomized study and were randomly subjected to either cruciate pattern or round pattern Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy with vitreous strand cutting (modified round pattern). The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), refractive error, endothelial cell count (ECC), anterior segment parameters, including anterior chamber depth (ACD) and anterior chamber angle (ACA) were measured before and 1mo after the laser posterior capsulotomy. In both groups, the BCVA improved significantly ( P <0.001 for the modified round pattern group, P =0.001 for the cruciate pattern group); the IOP and ECC did not significantly change. The ACD significantly decreased ( P <0.001 for both) and the ACA significantly increased ( P =0.001 for the modified round pattern group and P =0.034 for the cruciate group). The extent of changes in these parameters was not significantly different between the groups. Modified round pattern Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy is an effective and safe method for the treatment of PCO. This method significantly changes the ACD and ACA, but the change in refraction is not significant. Modified round pattern Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy can be considered a good alternative procedure in patients with symptomatic PCO.

  13. Comparison of two Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy: cruciate pattern vs circular pattern with vitreous strand cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Soo Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects and safety of neodymium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy with vitreous strand cutting METHODS: A total of 40 eyes of 37 patients with symptomatic posterior capsular opacity (PCO were included in this prospective randomized study and were randomly subjected to either cruciate pattern or round pattern Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy with vitreous strand cutting (modified round pattern. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, intraocular pressure (IOP, refractive error, endothelial cell count (ECC, anterior segment parameters, including anterior chamber depth (ACD and anterior chamber angle (ACA were measured before and 1mo after the laser posterior capsulotomy. RESULTS: In both groups, the BCVA improved significantly (P<0.001 for the modified round pattern group, P=0.001 for the cruciate pattern group; the IOP and ECC did not significantly change. The ACD significantly decreased (P<0.001 for both and the ACA significantly increased (P=0.001 for the modified round pattern group and P=0.034 for the cruciate group. The extent of changes in these parameters was not significantly different between the groups. CONCLUSION: Modified round pattern Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy is an effective and safe method for the treatment of PCO. This method significantly changes the ACD and ACA, but the change in refraction is not significant. Modified round pattern Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy can be considered a good alternative procedure in patients with symptomatic PCO.

  14. Holographic cinematography of time-varying reflecting and time-varying phase objects using a Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a Nd:YAG laser to record holographic motion pictures of time-varying reflecting objects and time-varying phase objects is discussed. Sample frames from both types of holographic motion pictures are presented. The holographic system discussed is intended for three-dimensional flow visualization of the time-varying flows that occur in jet-engine components.

  15. Optimized fiber delivery system for Q-switched, Nd:YAG lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setchell, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in the transmission of high intensities through optical fibers is being motivated by an increasing number of applications. Using different laser types and fiber materials, various studies are encountering transmission limitations due to laser-induced damage processes. For a number of years we have been investigating these limiting processes during the transmission of Q-switched, multimode, Nd:YAG laser pulses through step-index, multimode, fused-silica fiber. We have found that fiber transmission is often limited by a plasma-forming breakdown occurring at the fiber entrance face. This breakdown can result in subtle surface modifications that leave the entrance face more resistant to further breakdown or damage events. Catastrophic fiber damage can also occur as a result of a variety of mechanisms, with damage appearing at fiber entrance and exit faces, within the initial entry segment of the fiber path, and at other internal sites due to fiber fixturing and routing effects. System attributes that will affect breakdown and damage thresholds include laser characteristics, the design and alignment of laser-to-fiber injection optics, and fiber end-face preparation. In the present work we have combined insights gained in past studies in order to establish what thresholds can be achieved if all system attributes can be optimized to some degree. Our multimode laser utilized past modifications that produced a relatively smooth, quasi-Gaussian profile. The laser-to-fiber injection system achieved a relatively low value for the ratio of peak-to-average fluences at the fiber entrance face, incorporated a mode scrambler to generate a broad mode power distribution within the initial segment of the fiber path, and had improved fixturing to insure that the fiber axis was collinear with the incident laser beam. Test fibers were from a particular production lot for which initial-strength characteristics were established and a high-stress proof test was performed

  16. Chemical and physical analysis on hard tissues after irradiation with short pulse Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Andrea Antunes

    2003-01-01

    This work reports on a study that was designed to investigate chemical, physical and morphological alterations in the dental enamel surface. The influence of application of laser in enamel surface by microscopic technical, X-ray fluorescence for chemical analysis, physical property as well as hardness and thermal analysis with Nd:YAG laser is also pointed out. A prototype of Nd:YAG (Q-switched) laser developed at the Center of Lasers and Applications - Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research, aiming applications in the Medical Sciences that typical wavelength of 1.064 nm was used. The modifications in human dental enamel chemical composition for major and trace elements are here outlined. The accuracy of procedures was performed by analysis of natural hydroxyapatite as standard reference material. The identification and quantification of the chemical elements presented in the dental tissue samples were performed trough EDS, XRF and INAA. We determined the rate Calcium/Phosphorus (Ca/P) for different techniques. We performed an analysis in different regions of the surface and for different areas allowing a description of the chemical change in the total area of the specimen and the assessment of the compositional homogeneity of the each specimen. A comparison between XRF and INAA is presented. Based on morphological analysis of the irradiated surfaces with short pulse Nd:YAG laser we determined the area surrounded by the irradiation for the parameters for this thesis, and this technique allowed us to visualize the regions of fusion and re-solidification. The energy densities ranged from 10 J/cm 2 to 40 J/cm 2 , with pulse width of 6, 10 e 200 ns, and repetition rates of 5 and 7 Hz. In this thesis, FTIR-spectroscopy is used to analyze powder of mineralized tissue as well as enamel, dentine, root and cementum for human and bovine teeth after irradiation with short-pulse Nd:YAG laser. Characteristic spectra were obtained for the proteins components and mineral

  17. The influence of the Nd:YAG laser bleaching on physical and mechanical properties of the dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, Maurem; Paranhos, Maria Paula Gandolfi; Spohr, Ana Maria; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; da Silva, Isaac Newton Lima; Souto, André Arigony; Burnett, Luiz Henrique

    2009-07-01

    The Nd:YAG laser can be used in Dentistry to remove soft tissue, disinfect canals in endodontic procedures and prevent caries. However, there is no protocol for Nd:YAG laser application in dental bleaching. The aims of this in vitro study were: (a) to observe the tooth shade alteration when hydrogen peroxide whitening procedures are associated with dyes with different wavelengths and irradiated with Nd:YAG laser or halogen light; (b) to measure the Vickers (VHN) enamel microhardness before and after the whitening procedure; (c) to evaluate the tensile bond strength of two types of adhesive systems applied on bleached enamel; (d) to observe the failure pattern after bond strength testing; (e) to evaluate the pulpal temperature during the bleaching procedures with halogen light or laser; (f) to measure the kinetic reaction of hydrogen peroxide. Extracted sound human molar crowns were sectioned in the mesiodistal direction to obtain 150 fragments that were divided into five groups for each adhesive system: WL (H(2)O(2) + thickener and Nd:YAG), WH (H(2)O(2) + thickener and halogen light), QL (H(2)O(2) + carbopol + Q-switch and Nd:YAG), QH (H(2)O(2) + carbopol + Q-switch and halogen light), and C (Control, without whitening agent). Shade assessment was made with a shade guide and the microhardness tests were performed before and after the bleaching procedures. Immediately afterwards, the groups were restored with the adhesive systems Adper Single Bond 2 or Solobond M plus composite resin, and the tensile bond strength test was performed. The temperature was measured by thermocouples placed on the enamel surface and intrapulpal chamber. The kinetics of hydrogen peroxide was observed by ultraviolet analysis. The shade changed seven levels for Nd:YAG laser groups and eight levels for halogen light. According to the student's t-test, there was no statistical difference between the VHN before and after the whitening protocols (p > 0.05). The tensile bond strength showed no

  18. In vitro study of temperature changes in root during Er:YAG laser application; Estudo in vitro da alteracao da temperatura durante a aplicacao do Er:YAG laser intracanal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Redson Vilela

    2001-07-01

    The temperature increase in root dentine irradiated by Er:YAG laser beam was analyzed, for different dentine thickness and different energy and frequency conditions, aiming the evaluation of Er:YAG laser in endodontic therapy, without causing any damages to close tissues. Twenty four human teeth were separated in four groups with six teeth each, and longitudinally sectioned in thickness of 0.5 mm (first group), 1,0 mm (second group), 1,5 mm (third group) and 2,0 mm (fourth group). Those samples were irradiated with the Er:YAG laser, emitting at the wavelength of 2.94{mu}m, by using a sapphire optic fiber with diameter of 0.375 mm, and forming an angle of 5 deg with the irradiated dentine surface. Three different laser energies were used in this study, 180 mJ, 160 mJ and 140 mJ, with frequencies of 10 Hz and 15 Hz. The temperature data were collected in a digital-analog system and sent to a computer for analysis. It was verified that the time for temperature increases of 5 deg in the external root walls varies according to the laser energy, repetition rate and dentine root thickness. Thus, in this work we could obtain laser parameters to avoid thermal damages in periodontal tissues. (author)

  19. Multi-Fresnel lenses pumping approach for improving high-power Nd:YAG solar laser beam quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana

    2013-07-20

    To significantly improve the present-day high-power solar laser beam quality, a three-stage multi-Fresnel lenses approach is proposed for side-pumping either a Nd:YAG single-crystal or a core-doped Sm(3+)Nd:YAG ceramic rod. Optimum pumping and laser beam parameters are found through ZEMAX and LASCAD numerical analysis. The proposed scheme offers a uniform absorption profile along the rod. 167 W laser power can be achieved, corresponding to 29.3 W/m(2) collection efficiency. High brightness figure of merit of 8.34 W is expected for the core-doped rod within a convex-concave resonator, which is 1300 times higher than that of the most-recent high-power solar laser.

  20. Optical and electronic properties of HWCVD and PECVD silicon films irradiated using excimer and Nd:Yag lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.Z.; O'Neill, K.A.; Anthony, S.; Persheyev, S.K.; Rose, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Thin silicon film samples were deposited using HWCVD and PECVD techniques to study the influence of laser annealing on their optical and electronic properties. Samples were annealed in air using a XeCl excimer and Nd:Yag lasers. Excimer laser annealing (ELA) at 50 to 222 mJ/cm 2 increased conductivity in PECVD films by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude and in HWCVD films by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. ELA was also seen to decrease the optical gap in PECVD films by 0.5 eV and HWCVD films by 0.15 eV. Silicon-oxygen bond content was higher in as-deposited HWCVD films than PECVD films. Hydrogen content (at.%) in PECVD films was higher than HWCVD for higher H dilution ratios. A Nd:Yag laser 3-beam interference pattern was used to produce a periodic array of crystals in both PECVD and HWCVD films

  1. A comparative study of pulsed dye laser versus long pulsed Nd:YAG laser treatment in recalcitrant viral warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yo Sup; Cho, Eun Byul; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Kwang Joong

    2017-08-01

    Viral warts are common infectious skin disease induced by human papillomavirus (HPV). But the treatment of recalcitrant warts is still challenging. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of pulsed dye laser (PDL) and long pulsed Nd:YAG (LPNY) laser in the treatment of recalcitrant viral warts. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients with recalcitrant warts treated with laser therapy between January 2013 and February 2016. Seventy-two patients with recalcitrant warts were evaluated. Thirty-nine patients were treated with pulsed dye laser and thirty-three patients were treated with LPNY laser. The following parameters were used: PDL (spot size, 7 mm; pulse duration, 1.5 ms; and fluence, 10-14 J/cm 2 ) and LPNY (spot size, 5 mm; pulse duration, 20 ms; and fluence, 240-300 J/cm 2 ). Complete clearance of two patients (5.1%) in PDL group, and three patients (9.1%) in LPNY group were observed without significant side effects. The patients who achieved at least 50% improvement from baseline were 20 (51.3%) in PDL and 22 (66.7%) in LPNY, respectively. This research is meaningful because we compared the effectiveness of the PDL and LPNY in the recalcitrant warts. Both PDL and LPNY laser could be used as a safe and alternative treatment for recalcitrant warts.

  2. Are lasers superior to lights in the photoepilation of Fitzpatrick V and VI skin types? - A comparison between Nd:YAG laser and intense pulsed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bs, Bibilash; Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad; Mt, Friji; S, Dineshkumar; Pandey, Sandhya

    2017-10-01

    There are no large volume comparative studies available to compare the efficacy of lasers over lights for hair removal in Fitzpatrick V and VI skin types. This study is designed to compare the efficacy of Nd:YAG laser versus IPL in the darker skin types. Thirty-nine patients included in Group-1 were treated with Nd:YAG and 31 in Group-2 with IPL. Both groups received 5 sessions of treatment. The hair counts were assessed using digital photography and manual counting method before and after treatment and the results were analysed. Patient satisfaction scores and pain scores were recorded in each session and compared. Mean hair reduction in the IPL group was 25.70 and Nd:YAG group was 24.12 (95% CI). In the Nd:YAG group, 59% of subjects had burning sensation while the figure was 32.3% in IPL group. Burning was less in IPL group (p < 0.023). There were no statistically significant differences noticed regarding hyperpigmentation in both the groups (p < 0.115). Both Nd:YAG and IPL are equally effective for epilation of the darker skin types. Nd:YAG is associated with mild burning sensation in a significant number of patients. Patient satisfaction scores were comparable in both the groups.

  3. Characteristics of a Ti:sapphire laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser and its analysis. Nd:YAG laser reiki Ti:sapphire laser no dosa tokusei to sono kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, T.; Masumoto, J.; Mizunami, T.; Maeda, M.; Muraoka, K. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-06-29

    Although Ti: Sapphire expects of a possibility of being a light source much superior to a dye laser having been used as a wavelength variable laser for spectral analyses, it has a limitation that it does not oscillate directly in the visible and ultraviolet regions. In order to develop a light source that is synchronizable over ultraviolet-near infrared regions, by means of combining a Ti: Sapphire laser of a high peak power, comprising an oscillator and a multistage amplifier, with a non-linear frequency conversion method for harmonic generation and Raman conversion, a prototype Ti:Sapphire laser that is excited by YAG laser second harmonic, and that synchronizes with a prism was fabricated, and its operational characteristics were investigated. As a result, an output energy of 35.6 mJ at a maximum was obtained at a wavelength of 773 nm against an excitation energy of 129 mJ, a conversion efficiency of 38.2% was obtained against the absorption energy of the crystals, and a continuous synchronism was achieved over 750 to 900 nm. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Characterization of caries progression on dentin after irradiation with Nd:YAG laser by FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana, P. A.; Brito, A. M. M.; Zezell, D. M.; Lins, E. C. C. C.

    2015-06-01

    Considering the use of high intensity lasers for preventing dental caries, this blind in vitro study evaluated the compositional and fluorescence effects promoted by Nd:YAG laser (λ=1064 nm) when applied for prevention of progression of dentin caries, in association or not with topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF). Sixty bovine root dentin slabs were prepared and demineralized by 32h in order to create early caries lesions. After, the slabs were distributed into six experimental groups: G1- untreated and not submitted to a pH-cycling model; G2- untreated and submitted to a pH-cycling model; G3- acidulated phosphate fluoride application (APF); G4- Nd:YAG irradiation (84.9 J/cm2, 60 mJ/pulse); G5- treated with Nd:YAG+APF; G6- treated with APF+Nd:YAG. After treatments, the samples of groups G2 to G6 were submitted to a 4-day pH-cycling model in order to simulate the progression of early caries lesions. All samples were characterized by the micro-attenuated total reflection technique of Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (μATR-FTIR), using a diamond crystal, and by a fluorescence imaging system (FIS), in which it was used an illuminating system at λ= 405±30 nm. Demineralization promoted reduction in carbonate and phosphate contents, exposing the organic matter; as well, it was observed a significant reduction of fluorescence intensity. Nd:YAG laser promoted additional chemical changes, and increased the fluorescence intensity even with the development of caries lesions. It was concluded that the compositional changes promoted by Nd:YAG, when associated to APF, are responsible for the reduction of demineralization progression observed on root dentin.

  5. Features of YAG-laser treatment of posterior capsule opacification in eyes with intraocular comorbidities ext

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Borzunov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: is to evaluate the effectiveness of YAG laser posterior lens capsule dissection in patients with secondary cataract with concurrent intraocular pathology. Patients and methods: retro- and prospective analysis of the results of the YAGlaser treatment of secondary cataract in the 196 eyes, including the intraocular concomitant pathology (myopia, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinitis pigmentosa operated retinal detachment, chronic uveitis in remission, peripheral chorioretinal degeneration. Effectiveness of treatment was evaluated by checking visual acuity and dynamics of complaints as aberration, glare, distortion in the central field of view without proper disease of the macula. Complex preoperative studies included: refractometry, visometry with correction, perimetry, tonometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, ultrasound examination of the eyeball (if necessary. The examination results should demonstrate convincing evidence that posterior capsular opacification is the main reason for the decrease of visual acuity. Results:, Visual acuity, at average increased from 0.4‑0.6 to 0.8‑1.0 in 50 cases after dissection, Visual acuity improved to 2‑3 lines in 66‑4–5, 24‑6‑7 lines in 74 cases. Visual acuity remains the same, but contrast sensitivity was increased in 6 cases. The IOL location after disruption was evaluated by β-scanning and biomicroscopy. In case of the initial correct IOL position in all 195 (100 % cases, there were no dislocation in the postoperative period. Complications that can be identified were single microcraters on the IOL surface in cases of its full contact with the posterior capsule. These injuries did not affect the visual functions.Conclusion: YAG -Laser dissection of secondary cataract is effective, less traumatic, and the optimal treatment of secondary cataract, including patients with concomitant intraocular pathology, and helps to avoid over

  6. Diode-pumped laser amplifiers: application to 0.946 {mu}m Nd:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Norman P [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Axenson, Theresa J [Science and Technology Corporation, 10 Basil Sawyer Drive, Hampton, VA 23666 (United States); Jr, Donald J Reichle [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Walsh, Brian M [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States)

    2003-03-14

    A diode-pumped laser amplifier model is derived from first principles and applied to a Nd:YAG amplifier operating on the {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} to {sup 4}I{sub 9/2} transition at 0.946 {mu}m. The effects of amplified spontaneous emission are included in the model and the addition of this effect is shown to produce better agreement with the data. The amplifier model includes effects of the transverse and longitudinal variation of the pump beam, transverse and longitudinal variation of the probe beam, and multiple passes of the probe beam. Experimental results obtained with a quasi four-level Nd:YAG amplifier operating at 0.946 {mu}m are used to validate the model. The amplifier was evaluated as a function of the pump energy, the probe energy, the probe beam radius, the pulse repetition frequency and the temperature. For all of the experimental conditions, the experimental results and the model agree.

  7. Computational model of dual q-switching and lasing processes of the pulsed Cr4+:YAG laser pumped by Nd-glass laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Ghani, B.; Hammadi, M.

    2007-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the absorption and oscillation processes of intracavity Cr 4+ : YAG crystal pumped by Nd-glass laser has been developed, in order to describe the temporal behavior of laser-absorber system. The model has been assumed that the Cr 4+ ions excited to a higher level by excited state absorption, followed by relaxation directly to the upper laser level through fast channel, and indirectly through slow proposed intermediate channel at different lifetimes. The model offers simple kinetic mechanisms for pulsed solid state lasers and also the influence of the variations of the laser input parameters (pumping rate, maximum amplification coefficient and loss coefficient) on the output pulse characteristics of the passive Q-switched Nd-glass and pulsed Cr 4+ : YAG lasers. The model estimates the temporal behavior of the population densities of different levels and laser beam densities as well as predicts the nanosecond output laser pulses of passive Q-switched Nd-glass laser and pulsed Cr 4+ : YAG laser. The calculated results are in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data in the literature. (author)

  8. Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benayas, A.; Jaque, D. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Madrid (Spain); Silva, W.F.; Jacinto, C. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Grupo de Fotonica e Fluidos Complexos, Instituto de Fisica, Maceio, Alagoas (Brazil); Rodenas, A.; Thomsom, R.R.; Psaila, N.D.; Reid, D.T.; Kar, A.K. [Heriot-Watt University, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Vazquez de Aldana, J. [Universidad de Salamanca, Grupo de Optica, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Salamanca (Spain); Chen, F.; Tan, Y. [Shandong University, School of Physics, Jinan (China); Torchia, G.A. [CONICET-CIC, Centro de Investigaciones Opticas, La Plata (Argentina)

    2011-07-15

    We report the improvement of ultrafast laser written optical waveguides in Yb:YAG ceramics by tailoring the presence of heat accumulation effects. From a combination of ytterbium micro-luminescence and micro-Raman structural analysis, maps of lattice defects and stress fields have been obtained. We show how laser annealing can strongly reduce the concentration of defects and also reduce compressive stress, leading to an effective 50% reduction in the propagation losses and to more extended and symmetric propagation modes. (orig.)

  9. Table of laser lines in gases and vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, R; Englisch, W; Guers, K

    1980-01-01

    Numerous applications of lasers require use of specific wavelengths (gas analysis including remote sensing, Raman spectroscopy, optical pumping, laser chemistry and isotope separation). Scientists active in these fields have been compelled to search, in addition to the available, mostly obsolete, laser-line tables, the entire recent literature in order to find suitable laser transitions. Over 6100 laser transitions are presented. An additional list of the lines arranged in order of wavelength should greatly facilitate the search for a laser material that generates a specific wavelength. Further information has also been supplied by listing the pump transition for each of the FIR lines obtained with the optically pumped organic vapors. In addition to the laser lines, the operating conditions under which emission has been achieved are briefly specified at the top of the list for each active medium. The order in which the atomic laser media are listed is based on the periodic system, beginning with the noble gases, continuing with hydrogen and the alkalies to the halogens and the rare earths. The molecular laser media are arranged in order of chemical composition, beginning with the compounds of noble gases (the excimers), then other diatomic molecules, triatomic molecules, and ending with the more complex molecules of organic vapors. (WHK).

  10. A comparative investigation of bone surface after cutting with mechanical tools and Er:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kyung-Won; Deibel, Waldemar; Marinov, Dilyan; Griessen, Mathias; Dard, Michel; Bruno, Alfredo; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Cattin, Philippe; Juergens, Philipp

    2015-07-01

    Despite of the long history of medical application, laser ablation of bone tissue became successful only recently. Laser bone cutting is proven to have higher accuracy and to increase bone healing compared to conventional mechanical bone cutting. But the reason of subsequent better healing is not biologically explained yet. In this study we present our experience with an integrated miniaturized laser system mounted on a surgical lightweight robotic arm. An Erbium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Er:YAG) laser and a piezoelectric (PZE) osteotome were used for comparison. In six grown up female Göttingen minipigs, comparative surgical interventions were done on the edentulous mandibular ridge. Our laser system was used to create different shapes of bone defects on the left side of the mandible. On the contralateral side, similar bone defects were created by PZE osteotome. Small bone samples were harvested to compare the immediate post-operative cut surface. The analysis of the cut surface of the laser osteotomy and conventional mechanical osteotomy revealed an essential difference. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed biologically open cut surfaces from the laser osteotomy. The samples from PZE osteotomy showed a flattened tissue structure over the cut surface, resembling the "smear layer" from tooth preparation. We concluded that our new finding with the mechanical osteotomy suggests a biological explanation to the expected difference in subsequent bone healing. Our hypothesis is that the difference of surface characteristic yields to different bleeding pattern and subsequently results in different bone healing. The analyses of bone healing will support our hypothesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Pulsed 1064 nm Nd-YAG Laser Deposition of Titanium on Silicon in a Nitrogen Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Garcia

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed laser deposition (PLD technique was demonstrated for the deposition of titanium nitride (TiN thin films on Si (100 substrates. A 1064 nm pulsed Nd-YAG laser is focused on a titanium (99.5% target in a nitrogen environment to generate the atomic flux needed for the film deposition. Spectroscopic analysis of the plasma emission indicates the presence of atomic titanium and nitrogen, which are the precursors of TiN. Images of the films grown at different laser pulse energies show an increase in the number and size of deposited droplets and clusters with increasing laser pulse energy. A decrease in cluster and droplet size is also observed, with an increase in substrate temperature. EDS data show an increase in the titanium peak relative to the silicon as the ambient nitrogen pressure is decreased. An increase in deposition time was found to result in large clusters and irregularly shaped structures on the substrate. Post-deposition annealing of the samples enhanced the crystallinity of the film.

  12. Nd:YAG (2 omega) pumped dye laser using self-filtering unstable resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Rahimian, K; Hariri, H

    2002-01-01

    A self-filtering unstable resonator with a magnification of M=-3 in a Nd:YAG (2 omega) dye laser has been studied. The dye solution is Rhodamine 6 G in alcohol with the concentration of 5*10 sub - 3 Mol/lit. The spatial intensity distribution of the resonator has been compared has been compared with that of a plane-parallel resonator of equal length. The output energy in both configurations are comparable (20 mu J ,and 26 mu J ,respectively). A significant difference between these two resonators is the laser beam divergence, where beam divergences of 0.77 mrad for the self-filtering unstable resonator and 1.6 mrad for the plane-parallel resonator have been measured. The brightness corresponding to these two resonators are 1.5* 10 sub 1 1 and 2.2* 10 sub 1 0W.cm sub - 2.Sr sub - 1, and the pulse widths are 7 and 17 ns, respectively. These figures show clearly that laser resonator based on the self-filtering unstable resonator design an increase the laser brightness a factor of 10, with a beam divergence of a f...

  13. Distributed Nd-YAG laser welding and process control in inert glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milewski, J.O.; Lewis, G.K.; Barbe, M.R.; Cremers, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    We have fabricated and assembled a fiber optic delivered ND-YAG laser welding work station that consists of three glove boxes served by a single 1kw laser. Processing considerations related to the welding of special nuclear materials, toxic materials and complex part geometry are addressed within each work cell. We are proceeding with a development effort to integrate the equipment capabilities with remote sensing, process monitoring and control systems. These systems will provide real time data acquisition during welding, monitoring and verification of weld parameters, and CAD/CAM to CNC generated positioning paths. Computerized information storage, retrieval and network methods are used for weld process documentation and data analysis. A virtual control panel is being configured to integrate the monitoring and control operation of individual subsystems, such as laser and motion control into a single graphical interface. Development work on sensors to monitor laser beam characteristics and weld depth in real time with potential for adaptive control is in progress. System capabilities and results of these development efforts are presented

  14. Low-energy electron-helium scattering in a Nd–YAG laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajana, I.; Makhoute, A.; Khalil, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser assisted electron helium excitation is studied at low incident energies. • The inclusion of the second-order Born contributions is significant at low incident energies. • The target distortion induced by the laser field should be taken into account. • The effect of the second term of the Born series is reduced as the energy increases. - Abstract: We study the electron-impact excitation of atomic helium, in the presence of a linearly polarized Nd–YAG laser field, accompanied by the transfer of ℓ photons, for low collision energy of 25 eV and laser intensity of 5.3 × 10 11 W cm −2 . The second-order Born approximation has been used to calculate the differential cross sections. Detailed calculations of the scattering amplitudes are performed by using the Sturmian basis expansion. A detailed analysis is made of the excitation of the 1 1 S → 2 1 S and 1 1 S → 2 1 P transitions. We discuss the behavior and the variation of the cross sections corresponding to the excitation process for various geometrical configurations

  15. SBS pulse compression applied to a commercial Q-switch Nd-YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliaga-Rossel, R.; Bayley, J.; Mamin, A.; Nizienko, Y.

    1997-01-01

    In optical diagnosis of dense Z-pinches, sub-nanosecond laser pulses are required in order to freeze the movement of the plasma during the probing. Commercial lasers can provide such type of pulses but they are either very expensive, or they have a very low energy per pulse. A technique that uses Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) to compress a 8 ns pulse of a commercial Q-switched Nd-YAG laser is reported here. To carry out this passive compression technique, a frequency doubled laser pulse of 10 ns was focused into a single SBS gas cell, 2 m long, filled with a mixture of argon and sulphurhexafluoride (SF 6 ) at a total pressure of 40 bar. A shorter and high intensity pulse was reflected from the cell (created by SBS) and it travelled back along its original path until it was separated from its original direction by using a dichroic polariser. The pumping volume of the SBS cell, the convergence of the incident beam and the pressure of the gas cell, were optimised to maximise both temporal compression and the output energy. Pulses of 10 ns were compressed to less than 400 ps with a conversion efficiency of 80%. This SBS pulse compression system has been used to make most of the optical measurements of a dense fibre pinch plasma produced in the MAGPIE generator

  16. Changes in surface morphology of enamel after Er:YAG laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Goldin, Dan S.; Hennig, Thomas

    1998-04-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate the surface and subsurface structure of enamel after irradiation with an Er:YAG laser (wavelength 2.94 micrometer, pulse duration 250 - 500 microseconds, free running, beam profile close to tophead, focus diameter 600 micrometer, focus distance 13 mm, different power settings, air-water spray 2 ml/min; KAVO Key Laser 1242, Kavo Biberach, Germany). The surface of more than 40 freshly extracted wisdom teeth were irradiated using a standardized application protocol (pulse repetition rate 4 and 6 Hz, moving speed of the irradiation table 2 mm/sec and 3 mm/sec, respectively). On each surface between 3 and 5 tracks were irradiated at different laser energies (60 - 500 mJ/pulse) while each track was irradiated between one and ten times respectively. For the scanning electron microscope investigation teeth were dried in alcohol and sputtered with gold. For light microscopic examinations following laser impact, samples were fixed in formaldehyde, dried in alcohol and embedded in acrylic resin. Investigations revealed that at subsurface level cracks can not be observed even at application of highest energies. Borders of the irradiated tracks seem to be sharp while melted areas of different sizes are observed on the bottom of the tracks depending on applied energy. Small microcracks can be seen on the surface of these melted areas.

  17. A feasibility study of H{sup -} beam extraction technique using YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ikeda, Yujiro; Oigawa, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Aoki, Nobutada [Toshiba Power System Co., Ltd. (Japan); Nakagawa, Satoshi [Toshiba Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Under a framework of JAERI-KEK joint project of high intensity proton accelerator, as for research and develop of the accelerator driven nuclear transmutation of the long lived radioactive nuclide, it is planed to built the Transmutation Physics Experiment Facility (TEF-P) and the Transmutation Engineering Experiment Facility (TEF-E). The TEF-P is used for the experiments for subcritical system coupled with a spallation neutron target bombarded with 600-MeV proton beam accelerated by the LINAC. To limit the maximum thermal power less than 500 W at the TEF-P, an incident beam power should be less than 10 W. On the contrary, at the TEF-E, high power beam of 200 kW is requested. Both high and low power beams are demanded for the transmutation facilities. It is difficult to deliver a low power beam to the TEF-P. Conventional beam extraction technique with a thin foil, is not desirable because the scattering of the beam at the foil requires the massive shield. Therefore, we study a new technique to extract a small portion of the beam precisely from the high intensity beam by using a laser beam. By a laser beam, H{sup -} in the beam from LINAC is partially changed to H{sup 0} beam so that a low current H{sup 0} beam can be obtained. As the cross section of the charge exchange reaction for H{sup -} ions has a peak around at a wave length of 1 {mu}m for photons, YAG laser is suitable for this charge exchange because of its 1.06 {mu}m wave length. It is derived that 10 W beam for 600-MeV proton can be extracted by the YAG laser with power of 2 J for each pulse of 25 Hz. By this technique, the pulse width for the extracted beam can be controlled by changing the time width of laser irradiation. When a charge exchanger having the beam collide point existing in straight section, a background beam current of projectile, however, will be increased due to the interaction with the residual gas in the beam duct. Thus, a charge exchanger is devised having the beam collide point in a

  18. Enthalpy model for heating, melting, and vaporization in laser ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilios Alexiades; David Autrique

    2010-01-01

    Laser ablation is used in a growing number of applications in various areas including medicine, archaeology, chemistry, environmental and materials sciences. In this work the heat transfer and phase change phenomena during nanosecond laser ablation of a copper (Cu) target in a helium (He) background gas at atmospheric pressure are presented. An enthalpy model is outlined, which accounts for heating, melting, and vaporization of the target. As far as we know, this is the first model th...

  19. An injection seeded single frequency Nd:YAG Q-switched laser with precisely controllable laser pulse firing time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Frank F.; Khizhnyak, Anatoliy; Markov, Vladimir

    2010-02-01

    We have realized a single frequency Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with precisely controllable lasing time and thus enabled synchronization of multi-laser systems. The use of injection seeding to the slave ring oscillator results in unidirectional Q-switched laser oscillation with suppression of bidirectional Q-switched oscillation that otherwise would be initiated from spontaneous emission if the seeding laser is not present. Under normal condition, the cavity is high in loss during the pumping period; then a Pockels cell opens the cavity to form the pulse build up, with a second Pockels cell to perform cavity dumping, generating the Q-switched pulse output with optimized characteristics. The two Pockels cells can be replaced by a single unit if an adjustable gated electrical pulse is applied to the Pockels cell in which the pulse front is used to open the cavity and the falling edge to dump the laser pulse. Proper selection of the pump parameters and Pockels-cell gating enables operation of the system in a mode in which the Q-switched pulse can be formed only under the seeding condition. The advantage of the realized regime is in stable laser operation with no need in adjustment of the seeded light wavelength and the mode of the cavity. It is found that the frequency of the Q-switched laser radiation matches well to the injected seeded laser mode. By using two-stage amplifiers, an output energy better than 300 mJ has been achieved in MOPA configuration without active control of the cavity length and with pulse width adjustability from several nanoseconds to 20 ns. The Q-switched oscillator operates not only at precisely controlled firing time but also can be tuned over wide range. This will enable multi-laser systems synchronization and frequency locking down each other if necessary.

  20. Combined 1.06- and 1.32-um Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of rectosigmoideal tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Ladislav; Fanta, J.; Marek, Jan

    1993-07-01

    Since January 1988 we have been using the combined Nd:YAG laser Medicalas. The laser operates on the wavelength of 1.06 micrometers with maximum output power of 100 W, and a wavelength of 1.32 micrometers with maximum output power of 30 W. Introduction of the laser into clinical practice was preceded by experimental operation, where we verified the interaction of laser emittance on both wavelengths with the tissues of colon, stomach, esophagus, and open surgery of the abdominal and thoracic cavities.

  1. Do We Really Need to Wear Proper Eye Protection When Using Holmium:YAG Laser During Endourologic Procedures? Results from an Ex Vivo Animal Model on Pig Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Luca; Cloutier, Jonathan; Compérat, Eva; Kronemberg, Peter; Charlotte, Frederic; Berthe, Laurent; Rouchausse, Yann; Salonia, Andrea; Montorsi, Francesco; Traxer, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    We sought to evaluate the effect of holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser exposure on ex vivo pig eyes and to test the protective action of different glasses in preventing eye lesions in case of accident. We pointed the tip of a Ho:YAG laser fiber from different distances (0, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 20 cm, respectively) toward the center of the pupil of the pig eye. The Ho:YAG laser was activated for 1 or 5 seconds at three different settings (0.5 J-20 Hz, 1 J-10 Hz, and 2 J-10 Hz, respectively). The experiment was repeated using laser safety glasses and eyeglasses. A total of 78 pig eyes were used. The effects of the Ho:YAG laser on pig eyes were assessed by histopathology. Comparable laser emission experiments were performed on thermal paper at different distances using different pulse energies. Ho:YAG laser-induced corneal lesions were observed in unprotected eyes, ranging from superficial burning lesions to full-thickness necrotic areas, and were directly related to pulse energy and time of exposure and inversely related to the distance from the eye. When the laser was placed 5 cm or more, no corneal damage was observed regardless of the laser setting and the time of exposure. Similar distance/energy level relationships were observed on thermal paper. No damage was observed to the lens or the retina in any of the Ho-YAG laser-treated eyes or in any of the eyes protected by laser safety and eyeglasses. Ho:YAG lasers can cause damage when set to high energy, but only to the cornea, from close distances (0-5 cm) and in the absence of eye protection. Eyeglasses are equally effective in preventing laser damage as laser safety glasses.

  2. Ação do laser de Nd:YAG intracanal sobre endotoxinas na dentina radicular

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Ricardo de Freitas Archilla

    2007-01-01

    As endotoxinas são responsáveis por importantes reações sistêmicas e locais, podendo comprometer o sucesso do tratamento endodôntico. O hidróxido de cálcio, mesmo com limitações, mostra-se como opção única efetiva entre as soluções irrigadoras e as medicações intracanal na redução das endotoxinas nos túbulos dentinários. O experimento realizado avaliou a eficiência do laser de Nd:YAG frente à uma endotoxina inoculada no canal radicular pela utilização de duas cinemáticas de irradiação. Após u...

  3. Growth of large microcones in steel under multipulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgaev, S.I. [University of Barcelona, Department of Applied Physics and Optics, Barcelona (Spain); A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Wave Research Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fernandez-Pradas, J.M.; Morenza, J.L.; Serra, P. [University of Barcelona, Department of Applied Physics and Optics, Barcelona (Spain); Shafeev, G.A. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Wave Research Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-06-15

    We report the growth of conical microstructure arrays on a stainless steel substrate under multi-pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation (wavelength of 1.064 {mu}m, pulse duration of 300 ns, repetition rate of 5 kHz) at atmospheric air pressure. The average period of microcones is 70 {mu}m, and they protrude 50-60 {mu}m above the substrate. At an air pressure of 1 Pa, the well-defined conical shape is lost and the resulting microstructure shows a smaller period and height. At 10{sup -3} Pa, only small protrusions separated by about 5 {mu}m are observed. The different mechanisms involved in the growth of conical microstructures are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Refractory Pigmentation Associated with Laugier-Hunziker Syndrome following Er:YAG Laser Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Sertan; Saruhanoğlu, Alp; Migliari, Dante-Antonio; Maden, Ilay; Tanyeri, Hakkı

    2013-01-01

    The present report describes a case of Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS), a rare benign condition. A patient with LHS develops acquired melanotic pigmentation of the lips and buccal mucosa, often with pigmentation of the nails occurring. No systemic symptoms are associated with this syndrome. Normally, no treatment is required for this condition, unless for aesthetic reason, mainly due to pigmentation on the lip mucosa. We present a case of LHS, 37-year-old female, whose pigmentations on her lip and in the oral cavity were treated with an Er:YAG laser. At the postoperative 12th month followup, the lesions recurred. The effects of any surgical attempt to treat pigmentations associated with LHS were discussed.

  5. Tissue effects of Ho:YAG laser with varying fluences and pulse widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vari, Sandor G.; van der Veen, Maurits J.; Pergadia, Vani R.; Shi, Wei-Qiang; Duffy, J. T.; Weiss, Andrew B.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1994-02-01

    We investigated the effect of varying fluence and pulse width on the ablation rate and consequent thermal damage of the Ho:YAG (2.130 micrometers ) laser. The rate of ablation on fresh bovine knee joint tissues, fibrous cartilage, hyaline cartilage, and bone in saline was determined after varying the fluence (160 - 640 J/cm2) and pulse width (150, 250, 450 microsecond(s) ec, FWHM) at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. A 400/440 micrometers fiber was used. The ablation rate increased linearly with the fluence. In fibrocartilage, different pulse durations generated significant changes in the ablation rates, but showed minor effects on hyaline cartilage and bone. The heat of ablation for all three tissue types decreased after lengthening the pulse.

  6. High Power 1443.5 nm Laser with Nd:YAG Single Crystal Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Rao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A high-power eye-safe 1443.5 nm laser was demonstrated with an Nd:YAG single crystal fiber (SCF as the gain medium. For continuous wave (CW operation, a maximum output power of 13.3 W was obtained under an absorbed pump power of 95.0 W, corresponding to an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 14.0%. For acousto-optically (AO Q-switched regime, an output power of 1.95 W was obtained at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF of 10 kHz. The pulse duration was 69.5 ns. The pulse energy and peak power were calculated to be 195 µJ and 2.81 kW, respectively.

  7. Nd:YAG laser combined with gold nanorods for potential application in port-wine stains: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Linzhuang; Chen, Bin; Li, Dong; Wu, Wenjuan; Wang, Guoxiang

    2017-11-01

    Neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers exhibit considerable potential for treating deeply buried port-wine stains. However, the application of Nd:YAG laser is limited by its weak absorption to blood. This in vivo study tested the efficacy and safety of utilizing thiol-terminated methoxypolyethylene glycol-modified gold nanorods (PEG-GNRs) to enhance the absorption of Nd:YAG laser to blood. Mouse mesentery and dorsal skinfold chamber (DSC) model were prepared to analyze the thermal responses of a single venule without anatomic structures, as well as blood vessels in the complex structure of the skin, to laser light. After the injection of 0.44 mg of PEG-GNRs, the required threshold density of laser energy for blood coagulation and complete vasoconstriction decreased from 24 to 18  J/cm2 in the mesentery model and from 36 to 31  J/cm2 in the DSC model. The laser pulse required for blood coagulation and complete vasoconstriction decreased by 67.75% and 62.25% on average in the mesentery model and by 67.55% and 54.45% on average in the DSC model. Histological and histochemical results confirmed that PEG-GNRs are nontoxic in the entire mouse life span. Therefore, combining PEG-GNRs with Nd:YAG laser may be effective and safe for inducing an obvious thermal response of blood vessels under low energy density and minimal pulse conditions. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  8. Bond strength of resin cement to CO2 and Er:YAG laser-treated zirconia ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Kasraei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives It is difficult to achieve adhesion between resin cement and zirconia ceramics using routine surface preparation methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CO2 and Er:YAG laser treatment on the bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramics. Materials and Methods In this in-vitro study 45 zirconia disks (6 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness were assigned to 3 groups (n = 15. In control group (CNT no laser treatment was used. In groups COL and EYL, CO2 and Er:YAG lasers were used for pretreatment of zirconia surface, respectively. Composite resin disks were cemented on zirconia disk using dual-curing resin cement. Shear bond strength tests were performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min after 24 hr distilled water storage. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's HSD tests. Results The means and standard deviations of shear bond strength values in the EYL, COL and CNT groups were 8.65 ± 1.75, 12.12 ± 3.02, and 5.97 ± 1.14 MPa, respectively. Data showed that application of CO2 and Er:YAG lasers resulted in a significant higher shear bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramics (p < 0.0001. The highest bond strength was recorded in the COL group (p < 0.0001. In the CNT group all the failures were adhesive. However, in the laser groups, 80% of the failures were of the adhesive type. Conclusions Pretreatment of zirconia ceramic via CO2 and Er:YAG laser improves the bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramic, with higher bond strength values in the CO2 laser treated samples.

  9. Continuous-wave generation and tunability of eye-safe resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němec, Michal; Indra, Lukás.; Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena

    2016-03-01

    Laser sources generating radiation in the spectral range from 1.5 to 1.7 μm are very attractive for many applications such as satellite communication, range finding, spectroscopy, and atmospheric sensing. The goal of our research was an investigation of continuous-wave generation and wavelength tuning possibility of diode pumped eye-safe Er:YAG laser emitting radiation around 1645 nm. We used two 0.5 at. % doped Er:YAG active media with lengths of 10 mm and 25 mm (diameter 5 mm). As a pumping source, a fibre-coupled 1452 nm laser-diode was utilized, which giving possibility of the in-band pumping with a small quantum defect and low thermal stress of the active bulk laser material. The 150 mm long resonator was formed by a pump mirror (HT @ 1450 nm, HR @ 1610 - 1660 nm) and output coupler with 96 % reflectivity at 1610 - 1660 nm. For continuous-wave generation, the maximal output powers were 0.7 W and 1 W for 10 mm and 25 mm long laser crystals, respectively. The corresponding slope efficiencies with respect to absorbed pump power for these Er:YAG lasers were 26.5 % and 37.8 %, respectively. The beam spatial structure was close to the fundamental Gaussian mode. A wavelength tunability was realized by a birefringent plate and four local spectral maxima at 1616, 1633, 1645, and 1657 nm were reached. The output characteristics of the designed and realized resonantly diode-pumped eye-safe Er:YAG laser show that this compact system has a potential for usage mainly in spectroscopic fields.

  10. Water vapor-nitrogen absorption at CO2 laser frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, J. C.; Thomas, M. E.; Nordstrom, R. J.; Damon, E. K.; Long, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a series of pressure-broadened water vapor absorption measurements at 27 CO2 laser frequencies between 935 and 1082 kaysers. Both multiple traversal cell and optoacoustic (spectrophone) techniques were utilized together with an electronically stabilized CW CO2 laser. Comparison of the results obtained by these two methods shows remarkable agreement, indicating a precision which has not been previously achieved in pressure-broadened studies of water vapor. The data of 10.59 microns substantiate the existence of the large (greater than 200) self-broadening coefficients determined in an earlier study by McCoy. In this work, the case of water vapor in N2 at a total pressure of 1 atm has been treated.

  11. Nd:YAG laser in caries prevention: a clinical study; Avaliacao clinica da eficiencia do laser de Nd:YAG associado ao fluor fosfato acidulado na prevencao de caries de sulcos e fissuras de criancas e adolescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boari, Heloisa Gomes Dimiranda

    2000-07-01

    The caries prevention by using laser irradiation has been investigated during the last 30 years. The Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride has been shown as a very promising technique for enamel caries prevention. The aim of this work was to clinically evaluate the efficiency of Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride in pit and fissure caries prevention of children and adolescents. In this work it was determined the dye that enhance the effect of Nd: YAG laser in enamel. It was selected 242 pre-molar and molar teeth from 33 children and adolescents, aged from 7 to 15 years old. The selected teeth were free from caries or decalcification marks (active white marks) to the clinical and radiographic exams. The teeth were divided into two groups: the first group was laser irradiated and their homologous remained as a control. The right side teeth were dye-assisted Nd:YAG laser irradiated. The dye solution was a moisture of dust coal and equal parts of water and alcohol. The irradiation conditions were 60 mJ/10 Hz, optical fiber in contact mode, with diameter of 300 {mu}m, resulting in an energy density of 84,9 J/cm{sup 2}. The oclusal surface of the teeth was completely irradiated, specially on the slopes and in the deepest part of the pits and fissures. This procedure was repeated three times. In the sequence it was applied the acidulated phosphate fluoride for 4 minutes. On the left side teeth - control group- only acidulated phosphate fluoride was applied for the same time. The final examination considered the presence of caries and active white marks after a period of one year. There were statistical significant differences (p < 0.01) between the lased + fluoride group and the non irradiated group. The present study concluded that the technique used in this work can be an alternative clinical method for caries prevention. (author)

  12. Effects of Different Combinations of Er:YAG Laser-Adhesives on Enamel Demineralization and Bracket Bond Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çokakoğlu, Serpil; Nalçacı, Ruhi; Üşümez, Serdar; Malkoç, Sıddık

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the demineralization around brackets and shear bond strength (SBS) of brackets bonded to Er:YAG laser-irradiated enamel at different power settings with various adhesive systems combinations. A total of 108 premolar teeth were used in this study. Teeth were assigned into three groups according to the etching procedure, then each group divided into three subgroups based on the application of different adhesive systems. There were a total of nine groups as follows. Group 1: Acid + Transbond XT Primer; group 2: Er:YAG (100 mJ, 10 Hz) etching + Transbond XT Primer; group 3: Er:YAG (200 mJ, 10 Hz) etching + Transbond XT Primer; group 4: Transbond Plus self-etching primer (SEP); group 5: Er:YAG (100 mJ, 10 Hz) etching + Transbond Plus SEP; group 6: Er:YAG (200 mJ, 10 Hz) etching + Transbond Plus SEP; group 7: Clearfil Protect Bond; group 8: Er:YAG (100 mJ, 10 Hz) etching + Clearfil Protect Bond; group 9: Er:YAG (200 mJ, 10 Hz) etching + Clearfil Protect Bond. Brackets were bonded with Transbond XT Adhesive Paste in all groups. Teeth to be evaluated for demineralization and SBS were exposed to pH and thermal cyclings, respectively. Then, demineralization samples were scanned with micro-CT to determine lesion depth values. For SBS test, a universal testing machine was used and adhesive remnant was index scored after debonding. Data were analyzed statistically. No significant differences were found among the lesion depth values of the various groups, except for G7 and G8, in which the lowest values were recorded. The lowest SBS values were in G7, whereas the highest were in G9. The differences between the other groups were not significant. Er:YAG laser did not have a positive effect on prevention of enamel demineralization. When two step self-etch adhesive is preferred for bonding brackets, laser etching at 1 W (100 mJ, 10 Hz) is suggested to improve SBS of brackets.

  13. Highly efficient end-side-pumped Nd:YAG solar laser by a heliostat-parabolic mirror system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, J; Liang, D; Vistas, C R; Guillot, E

    2015-03-10

    We report a large improvement in the collection and slope efficiency of an Nd:YAG solar laser pumped by a heliostat-parabolic mirror system. A conical fused silica lens was used to further concentrate the solar radiation from the focal zone of a 2 m diameter primary concentrator to a Nd:YAG single-crystal rod within a conical pump cavity, which enabled multipass pumping to the active medium. A 56 W cw laser power was measured, corresponding to 21.1  W/m2 record-high solar laser collection efficiency with the heliostat-parabolic mirror system. 4.9% slope efficiency was calculated, corresponding to 175% enhancement over our previous result.

  14. Quasi-three-level thin-disk laser at 1024 nm based on diode-pumped Yb:YAG crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A G; Li, Y L; Fu, X H

    2011-01-01

    We present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a Yb:YAG laser operating in a continuous wave (CW) on the quasi-three-level laser at 1024 nm, based on the 2 F 5/2 – 2 F 7/2 transition, generally used for a 1030 nm emission. The use of a pump module with 16 passes through the crystal allowed the realization of a Yb:YAG thin-disk laser with 370 mW of CW output power at 1024 nm. Moreover, intracavity second-harmonic generation (SHG) has also been achieved with a power of 45 mW at 512 nm by using a LiB 3 O 5 (LBO) nonlinear crystal

  15. Numerical Modelling Of Thermal And Structural Phenomena In Yb:YAG Laser Butt-Welded Steel Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubiak M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The numerical model of thermal and structural phenomena is developed for the analysis of Yb:YAG laser welding process with the motion of the liquid material in the welding pool taken into account. Temperature field and melted material velocity field in the fusion zone are obtained from the numerical solution of continuum mechanics equations using Chorin projection method and finite volume method. Phase transformations in solid state are analyzed during heating and cooling using classical models of the kinetics of phase transformations as well as CTA and CCT diagrams for welded steel. The interpolated heat source model is developed in order to reliably reflect the real distribution of Yb:YAG laser power obtained by experimental research on the laser beam profile.

  16. High-energy azimuthally polarized laser beam generation from an actively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with c-cut YVO4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Zhang, Baofu; Jiao, Zhongxing; He, Guangyuan; Wang, Biao

    2018-05-01

    A high-energy, azimuthally polarized (AP) and actively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is demonstrated. The thermal bipolar lensing effect in the Nd:YAG laser rod is used as a polarization discriminator, and a c-cut YVO4 crystal is inserted into the laser cavity to increase the mode-selecting ability of the cavity for AP mode. The laser generated AP pulses with maximum pulse energy as high as 4.2 mJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest pulse energy obtained from an actively Q-switched AP laser. The pulse energy remained higher than 1 mJ over a wide range of repetition rates from 5 kHz to 25 kHz.

  17. Cutting performances with new industrial continuous wave ND:YAG high power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagnot, C.; Dinechin, G. de; Canneau, G.

    2010-01-01

    Dismantling is a great challenge for nuclear companies which are facing with the cleaning of former nuclear sites. Among the available cutting processes is the multi-kilowatts laser whose power is transmitted through optical fibers. Unlike other cutting processes such as the plasma arc cutting process or the oxy-cutting process, the laser process can be easily implemented by robotic equipments. The mechanised robotic arm carries a laser cutting head to perform, with remote-controlled equipments, the cutting operation. The present study deals with the performances which can be reached with high power continuous wave ND:YAG lasers. The cutting tests were carried out up to 8 kW. The laser power was delivered through a specific power supply chain: a 0.4 mm fiber was transporting the power from the laser to a first interface (coupler) then a second 0.6 mm fiber was bringing the laser power to the cutting head. This solution allowed a power delivery chain whose length could be as high as 100 + 20/50 m. Another advantage of this kind of power supply is that the first fiber can be set in a non-contaminated environment whereas the second fiber lies in the contaminated area. The cutting head used for these tests was a specific tool developed for this laser dismantling work: it is a laser cutting head cooled by pressurized air. This tool was developed with the requirement to be able to sustain a laser power of 14 kW. The pressurized air used to cool the head is also used as cutting gas. The cutting capability was about 10 mm by kW. At the power of 8 kW, austenitic steel plates of thickness 100 mm were cut. These performances were reached with the cut started on the plate's edge. If the cut started in the middle of the plate, the cutting performances were not so high: 8 kW became the power to drill and to cut plates of thickness 40 mm.

  18. Effects of Nd:YAG laser pulse frequency on the surface treatment of Ti 6Al 4V alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gursel, Ali [International University of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-07-01

    The desirable properties of titanium and titanium alloys, including excellent corrosion resistance, high strength to weight ratio and high operating temperature, have led to their successful application in various fields such as the medical and aerospace industries. Among the reliable treatment techniques, laser welding can provide significant advantages for the titanium alloys because of its precision, rapid processing capability and ability to control the welding parameters and their effects. The morphology and the quality of pulsed seam welds are directly or synergistically influenced by the Nd:YAG laser parameters of pulse shape, energy, duration, travel speed, peak power and frequency of repetition. In this study, a 1.5 mm thick Ti-6Al-4V alloy sheet surface was treated by SigmaLaser {sup registered} 300 Nd:YAG pulsed laser. The influence of the pulse frequency on seam morphology and surface effects was then investigated. The seam and surface quality were characterized in terms of weld morphology and microhardness. The results showed that, for Nd:YAG laser seams used for surface treatment, pulse repetition was more effective on the cooling rate than had been expected.

  19. Local Effects on Lung Parenchyma Using a 600 µm Bare Fiber with the Diode-Pumped Nd:YAG Laser LIMAX® 120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rexin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung metastases are frequently removed with an Nd:YAG laser. The aim is to perform a non-anatomic resection of all intraoperatively palpable lung metastases completely in order to preserve the largest possible amount of healthy lung parenchyma. The surgeon can either work with a focusing handpiece or use a laser fiber of the so-called bare fiber with direct contact to the lung parenchyma. We currently use a 600 µm bare fiber for applications involving the lung parenchyma. Precise data on the local effect of the laser fiber on the lung parenchyma are not available, especially with regard to an increase in the laser energy. We want to study this question within the scope of an experimental model in pig lungs by means of systematic and reproducible tests. The lung lobes were removed from animals recently slaughtered in the abattoir and taken to the laboratory immediately, where the lobes were stored such that the surface of the lungs was parallel to the floor. A 600 µm bare fiber was attached to a mounting bracket vertically above the lung surface at a distance of either 0, 5, or 10 mm. This mounting bracket was in turn connected to a hydraulic feed motor. The feed motor is capable of moving the bare fiber forward across the lungs consistently at three different speeds (5 mm/s, 10 mm/s, or 20 mm/s. The bare fiber itself was connected to the diode-pumped Nd: YAG Laser LIMAX® 120 (Gebrüder Martin GmbH & Co KG, Tuttlingen, Germany. We carried out the tests using three different laser powers: 20 W, 60 W, and 120 W. The lung lesions caused by the laser in each of the lungs were resected and sent in for histological analysis. The exact size of the vaporization and coagulation zone was measured using the HE sections, and the respective mean values (with standard deviations were ascertained. For all laser powers, the extent of the vaporization was greatest with a motion speed of 5 mm/s for the respective laser power: 756.4 ± 1.2 µm (20 W, 1411.0 ± 2

  20. Q-switch Nd:YAG laser welding of AISI 304 stainless steel foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P' ng, Danny [Laboratory for Lasers, MEMS and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2161 (United States); Molian, Pal [Laboratory for Lasers, MEMS and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2161 (United States)], E-mail: molian@iastate.edu

    2008-07-15

    Conventional fusion welding of stainless steel foils (<100 {mu}m thickness) used in computer disk, precision machinery and medical device applications suffer from excessive distortion, formation of discontinuities (pore, void and hot crack), uncontrolled melting (melt-drop through) and poor aesthetics. In this work, a 15 ns pulsed, 400 mJ Nd:YAG laser beam was utilized to overcome these barriers in seam welding of 60 {mu}m thin foil of AISI 304 stainless steel. Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the microstructures while hardness and tensile-shear tests were used to evaluate the strengths. Surface roughness was measured using a DekTak profilometer while porosity content was estimated using the light microscope. Results were compared against the data obtained from resistance seam welding. Laser welding, compared to resistance seam welding, required nearly three times less heat input and produced welds having 50% narrower seam, 15% less porosity, 25% stronger and improved surface aesthetics. In addition, there was no evidence of {delta}-ferrite in laser welds, supporting the absence of hot cracking unlike resistance welding.

  1. Acute and chronic response of articular cartilage to Ho:YAG laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauner, Kenneth B.; Nishioka, Norman S.; Flotte, Thomas J.; Patel, Dinesh K.

    1992-06-01

    A Ho:YAG laser system operating at a wavelength of 2.1 microns has recently been introduced for use in arthroscopic surgery. The acceptability of this new tool will be determined not only by its ability to resect tissue, but also by its long term effects on articular surfaces. In order to investigate these issues further, we performed two studies to evaluate the acute and chronic effects of the laser on cartilaginous tissue. We evaluated the acute, in vitro effects of 2.1 micron laser irradiation on articular and fibrocartilage. This included the measurement of ablation efficiency, ablation threshold and thermal damage in both meniscus and articular cartilage. To document the chronic effects on articular cartilage in vivo, we next performed a ten week healing study. Eight sheep weighing 30 - 40 kg underwent bilateral arthrotomy procedures. Multiple full thickness and partial thickness defects were created. Animals were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, and 10 weeks. The healing study demonstrated: (1) no healing of full or partial thickness defects at 10 weeks with hyaline cartilage; (2) fibrocartilaginous granulation tissue filling full thickness defects at two and four weeks, but no longer evident at ten weeks; (3) chondrocyte necrosis extending to greater than 900 microns distal to ablation craters at four weeks with no evidence of repair at later dates; and (4) chondrocyte hyperplasia at the borders of the damage zone at two weeks but no longer evident at later sacrifice dates.

  2. Temperature changes in the pulp chamber during dentin ablation with Er:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianzeng; Zhao, Haibin; Zhan, Zhenlin; Guo, Wenqing; Xie, Shusen

    2012-12-01

    To examine the temperature changes in the pulp chamber during cavity preparation in dentin with the Er:YAG laser (2940 nm), a total 20 intact premolars teeth were divided into 4 groups for dentin ablation with different radiant exposures at 4Hz and 8Hz with and without water spray. A K-type thermocouple was used to monitor the temperature changes in pulp chamber during laser treatment. The total time of irradiation was 70 sec. the water spray rate was 3 mL/min. It showed that maximum temperature rise increases with the increasing of radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate and the additional water cooling during laser ablation can significantly reduce the temperature rise in pulp chamber which will benefit to avoid or reduce thermal damage to tooth structure and dental pulp. The highest rise of temperature in the pulp was achieved with 20 J/cm2 and 8 Hz (19.83°C ). For all sample without water spray, the rise of temperature was exceed 5 °C . In contrast, with water spray, the temperature rise in the pulp can be firmly controlled under 1°C. The results also indicated that ablation rate and efficiency can be enhanced by increasing the incident radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate, which simultaneously producing more heat accumulation in dental tissue and causing thermal damage to dental tissue. By applying an additional water spray, thermal damage can be significantly reduced in clinical application.

  3. Short-pulse-width micromachining of hard materials using DPSS Nd:YAG lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heglin, Michael; Govorkov, Sergei V.; Scaggs, Michael J.; Theoharidis, Haris; Schoelzel, T.

    2002-06-01

    The material processing of an industrial, short-pulse duration DPPS YAG laser producing peak powers greater than 0.2MW is discussed in this paper. This peak power provides sufficient materials processing capability to meet the micro machining needs in the automotive, semiconductor, micro- electronic, medical and telecommunication industries. All hard and soft materials including: plastics, metals, ceramics, diamond and other crystalline materials are suitable candidates for the processing capability of this laser. Micro level features can be machined in these materials to a depth in excess of 1mm with high quality results. In most applications feature sizes can be achieved that are not possible or economical with existing technologies. The optical beam delivery system requirements, and overall micro-machining set-up are also described. The drilling and cutting versatility down to feature sizes of less than 7 micrometers , as well as, complex shapes are shown. The wavelength, pulse length, and peakpower are described and relate to their effect on recast, micro-cracking and material removal rates. Material removal effects related to progressive penetration into the material will be reviewed. The requirements of this DPSS laser technology to meet the operational requirements for high duty cycle operation in industrial environments is covered along with processing flexibility and lower operating cost.

  4. Bioceramic coating of hydroxyapatite on titanium substrate with Nd-YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Gary J.; Pirzada, Daniel; Cai, M.; Mohanty, Pravansu; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2005-01-01

    The ability to bond to bone tissue is a unique property of bioactive ceramics. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is one of the potential bioceramics candidates due to its superior bio-compatibility. Significant effort has been devoted to coat HAp ceramics on metallic substrates. Most of these processes, such as ion-beam sputter coating, thermal spraying, and flame spraying, are high temperature line of sight processes, which suffer from undesirable phase formation and weak metal/HAP bonding strength. This paper presents a unique process to coat HAp powders on titanium substrates at low temperature and enhance the coating/substrate interface by laser surface engineering. Nd-YAG laser transmits HAp powders and the laser power is absorbed by titanium substrate to produce a thin layer of molten region. During coating process, HAp powders are kept at low temperature before they are entrapped in metallic layer. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate the microstructure of coating; the chemical composition of the coating is determined by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Mechanical properties of the interface between coating and Ti substrate were investigated by nanoindentation

  5. Mechanical behaviour of Nd:YAG laser welded superelastic NiTi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, L. Alberty; Fernandes, F.M. Braz; Miranda, R.M.; Silva, R.J.C.; Quintino, L.; Cuesta, A.; Ocana, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The main innovations claimed are: understand rolling direction effect on mechanical cycling of laser welded NiTi. → Functionality confirmed by stabilization of hysteretic response up to 8% strain. → Welds tensile cycled exhibited superior functional mechanical behaviour. → For applied stresses of 50 MPa below UTS the joints showed superelastic behaviour. - Abstract: Joining techniques for shape memory alloys (SMA) has become of great interest, as their functional properties, namely shape memory effect (SME) and superelasticity (SE), present unique solutions for state-of-the-art applications, although limited results concerning mechanical properties are reported. This paper reports experimental work performed with Nd:YAG continuous wave laser welding of superelastic cold-rolled plates of NiTi 1 mm thick. The mechanical behaviour was evaluated by means of tensile tests performed both to failure and to cycling. The superelastic behaviour of the welded joints was observed for applied stresses close to about 50 MPa below the ultimate tensile strength of the welds. The functionality was confirmed by analyzing the stabilization of the mechanical hysteretic response to strain levels up to 8%. For tensile cycling involving strain levels larger than 6%, welded specimens were found to exhibit superior functional mechanical behaviour presenting larger recoverable strain levels. The fracture surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the effect of the rolling direction on mechanical properties was evaluated and discussed, reinforcing the importance of joint design when laser welding these alloys.

  6. Nd:YAG laser incision of the vesical neck in obstructive BPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Peter T. O.

    2003-06-01

    From February, 1995 through June, 2002, 68 patients underwent laser incision of the prostate at our clinic. By means of a 23 F cytoscope and a 600 micrometer lateral firing quartz fiber the vesical neck was incised at the 5 and 7 o'clock position at 60 W power. Total energy averaged 13648 J. Operative time did not exceed 15 minutes. General anesthesia was employed in all but one patient. 38 patients remained catheter-free whereas 30 patients were catheterized for two hours. Except for three cases, all patients were discharged on the same day, usually after the first micturition. Anti-inflammatory treatment was administered for two weeks, Cotrimoxazole for 5 days. No serious complications were encountered. Minor side effects included urinary retention (1 pat.), urinary infection (3 pat.) and retrograde ejaculation (1 pat.). Considering a mean follow-up of 21 months, the average Qmax improved enormously (25.4 ml/s versus 10.9 ml/s), as did residual urine volume (35 ml versus 95 ml) and IPSS (7.1 versus 20.5). Three patients required TUR-P 2-3 years after laser surgery and one patient underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy for prostate cancer 2 years later. In conclusion, Nd:YAG laser incision of the prostate is a simple, safe, reliable and cost-effective outpatient procedure.

  7. A novel dual-wavelength, Nd:YAG, picosecond-domain laser safely and effectively removes multicolor tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Eric F; Schomacker, Kevin T; Basilavecchio, Lisa D; Plugis, Jessica M; Bhawalkar, Jayant D

    2015-07-14

    Although nanosecond-domain lasers have been the mainstay of laser tattoo removal for decades, recent disruptive innovations in laser design have introduced a new class of commercial Q-switched lasers that generate picosecond-domain pulses. A picosecond-domain, Nd:YAG laser with a KTP frequency-doubling crystal was used to treat 31 decorative tattoos in 21 subjects. Safety and effectiveness were determined by blinded evaluation of digital images in this prospective clinical study. The average clearance overall as evaluated by blinded observers evaluating randomized digital photographs was 79 ± 0.9% (mean ± sem) after an average of 6.5 treatments. Of the 31 tattoos completing treatment, 6 had evidence of mild hyper- or hypo-pigmentation by evaluation of photographs. The 350 picosecond, 532 nm, and 450 picosecond 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser is safe and effective for removing decorative tattoos. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2015 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Laser-induced chemical vapor deposition reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teslenko, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of investigation of chemical reactions of deposition of different substances from the gas phase when using the energy of pulse quasicontinuous and continuous radiation of lasers in the wave length interval from 0.193 to 10.6 μm are generalized. Main attetion is paid to deposition of inorganic substances including nonmetals (C, Si, Ge and others), metals (Cu, Au, Zn, Cd, Al, Cr, Mo, W, Ni) and some simple compounds. Experimental data on the effect of laser radiation parameters and reagent nature (hydrides, halogenides, carbonyls, alkyl organometallic compounds and others) on the deposition rate and deposit composition are described in detail. Specific features of laser-chemical reactions of deposition and prospects of their application are considered

  9. The sealing of second mandibular temporary molar pits and fissure with the laser of Nd: YAG, phosphoric acid and the glass ionomer cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Maria Aparecida

    2003-01-01

    The main of our study was to check the sealing of second mandibular temporary molar pits and fissure, in vitro, with the laser of Nd: YAG, phosphoric acid at 37% and the glass ionomer cement (CIV, Fuji IX GC).The proposal was to check the structural morphologic changes in the laser irradiation upon the enamel surface to watch the pits and fissure sealing with the glass ionomer cement use after the laser irradiation and to verify the efficiency of the 'double conditioning' (phosphoric acid + Nd: YAG). At the same time we watch the evolution of the temperature in the pulp chamber's inside. Our desire was to achieve a therapeutic alternative technic to prevent the dental caries. The Nd: YAG laser parameters were the same: 79 mJ of energy per pulse; frequency of 5 Hz; mean power of 0,4 W; optical fiber on contact of 320 μm diameter; fluency of 99,52 J/ cm 2 , assuming that the only differential was the time of the laser application on the enamel surface. The samples were prepared with this way: Laser Nd: YAG (53 second) + acid + CIV (Fuji IX); Laser Nd: YAG (53 s); Laser Nd: YAG (20 s + 20 s) + acid + CIV; Laser Nd: YAG (20 s + 20 s); Acid + CIV; Control. Through the scanning electron microscopy (MEV) we noticed fusion and resolidification regions due to the laser irradiation and a better adaptation of the glass ionomer cement when we did the 'double conditioning'. Concerning the temperature increase we can conclude that the echeloned period was the best recommended because the temperature was found in a pattern that would not cause any damage to the dental pulp. For future studies we suggest a longer relaxing time between the laser irradiation, a comparative study of this method with other lasers, the use of other sealing materials and the study with the permanent teeth. (author)

  10. Growth of superconducting MgB2 films by pulsed-laser deposition using a Nd-YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badica, P; Togano, K; Awaji, S; Watanabe, K

    2006-01-01

    Thin films of MgB 2 on r-cut Al 2 O 3 substrates have been grown by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) using a Nd-YAG laser (fourth harmonic-266 nm) instead of the popular KrF excimer laser. The growth window to obtain superconducting films is laser energy 350-450 mJ and vacuum pressure with Ar-buffer gas of 1-8/10 Pa (initial background vacuum 0.5-1 x 10 -3 Pa). Films were deposited at room temperature and post-annealed in situ and ex situ at temperatures of 500-780 0 C and up to 1 h. Films are randomly oriented with maximum critical temperature (offset of resistive transition) of 27 K. SEM/TEM/EDS investigations show that they are mainly composed of small sphere-like particles (≤20 nm), and contain oxygen and some carbon, uniformly distributed in the flat matrix, but the amount of Mg and/or oxygen is higher in the aggregates-droplets (100-1000 nm) observed on the surface of the film's matrix. Some aspects of the processing control and dependences on film characteristics are discussed. The technique is promising for future development of coated conductors

  11. Distributed feedback dye laser pumped with copper-vapor laser emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, S Yu; Soldatov, A N; Sukhanov, V B

    1983-10-01

    The power-spectrum characteristics of the emission of a distributed feedback dye laser pumped with a copper vapor laser have been studied. Laser action has been observed in five dyes over a tuning range of 530-723 nm with an efficiency of 12.4%. The specfic features of the distributed feedback dye laser operating at pulse repetition rates of 4 kHz are discussed.

  12. An expanded study of long-pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Arisa E; Anderson, R Rox; DiGiorgio, Catherine; Jiang, Shang I Brian; Shafiq, Faiza; Avram, Mathew M

    2018-02-13

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an indolent form of skin cancer that is rarely life threatening, but can cause significant cosmetic and functional morbidity. Surgical treatments often result in disfiguring scars, while topical therapies frequently result in recurrence. The need for a more effective nonsurgical alternative has led to the investigation of laser treatment of BCC. We have previously conducted a pilot study which showed 100% histologic clearance at high fluences. Treatments were well tolerated with no significant adverse events. The objective of this larger study was to confirm preliminary results that the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser is a safe and effective method for treating non-facial BCC. This is an IRB-approved, prospective, multi-center study evaluating the safety and efficacy of the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser for the treatment of BCC on the trunk and extremities. Thirty-three subjects seeking treatment for biopsy-proven BCC that did not meet the criteria for Mohs surgery were recruited. Subjects on current anticoagulation therapy, or with a history of immunosuppression were excluded. Subjects received one treatment with the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser as follows: 5-6 mm spot, fluence of 125-140 J/cm 2 and a pulse duration of 7-10 ms. Standard excision with 5 mm clinical margins was performed at 30 days after laser treatment to evaluate clinical and histologic clearance of BCC. Standardized photographs and adverse assessments were taken at the baseline visit, immediately after laser treatment and on the day of excision. Thirty-one subjects completed the study. BCC tumors had a 90% (28 of 31 BCC tumors) histologic clearance rate after one treatment with the long-pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. Treatments were generally well tolerated without any anesthesia. Immediate side effects included edema and erythema. At 1-month follow-up, some patients had residual crusting. No significant adverse events occurred. The 1064 nm long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser is an

  13. Comparison of levobunolol and brimonidine in prophylaxis of intraocular pressure (iop|) rise following nd: yag laser capsulotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, M.; Akram, A

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of topical 0.5% Levobunolol and 0.2% Brimonidine in preventing intraocular pressure rise after Nd: YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Setting and Duration of Study: Ophthalmology Department Combined Military Hospital Multan, from September 2010 to March 2011. Patients and Methods: A total of 82 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected from out-patient department and randomly divided into two equal groups. Topical 0.5% levobunolol was instilled in group A while 0.2% brimonidine was instilled in group B one hour before and immediately after doing Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. The intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured using Goldmann applanation tonometer 1, 3 and 24 hours later. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in mean IOP between 0.5% Levobunolol group (Group A) and 0.2% Brimonidine group (Group B) at 1 hour, 3 hours and 24 hours after Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. The mean intraocular pressure (IOP) one hour after Nd:YAG laser and topical treatment in group A was 16.10 ± 1.60 mmHg while in group B was 15.65 ± 3.01 mmHg (P=0.401). Mean IOP after three hours in group A was 15.80 ± 1.35 mm Hg and in group B was 15.05 ± 2.15 mmHg (p=0.062). Mean IOP after 24 hours in group A was 15.13 ± 2.05 mmHg while in group B was 14.32 ± 1.62 mmHg (p=0.058). Conclusion: Both 0.5% Levobunolol and 0.2% Brimonidine are equally effective in controlling the IOP spike after Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy. Either of these medicines can be used as a prophylaxis to prevent rise in IOP after Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. (author)

  14. Influence of the incidence angle on the morphology of enamel and dentin under Er:YAG laser irradiation; Estudo da influencia da angulacao do feixe laser na morfologia de esmalte e dentina irradiados com laser de Er:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira Junior, Duilio Naves

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to make an in vitro evaluation, using scanning electron microscopy, of the influence of the laser beam irradiation angle on the enamel and dentin morphology. These tissues were both irradiated by Er:YAG Laser, with the same energy parameter. Twenty-four incisive bovine teeth were used, separated in eight groups, four of enamel, and four of dentin, with three specimens in each group. Each specimen was submitted to three laser applications, varying the incidence angle, between the laser and the tooth surface, at 90, 50 and 20 degrees. The applied frequency was 2 Hz, with 20 pulses in each application. The KaVo Key Laser 3 was employed, wavelength at 2940 nm, adjustable energy from 40 to 600 mJ and repetition rate from 1 to 25 Hz. The groups were distributed according to the energy parameter as follows - enamel: 250 mJ; 300 mJ; 350 mJ and 400 mJ; dentin: 200 mJ; 250 mJ; 300 mJ and 350 mJ. The results evidenced the Laser incidence angle importance; it is an essential parameter in the protocol of utilization and it should not be disregarded. The observations of this study allow to conclude that the Laser incidence angle has direct influence on the morphological aspect of the alterations produced in enamel and dentin. (author)

  15. Study of welding characteristics of inconel 600 alloy using a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Seong Wook; Yoo, Young Tae; Shin, Ho Jun

    2004-01-01

    Laser beam welding is increasingly being used in welding of structural steels. The laser welding process is one of the most advanced manufacturing technologies owing to its high speed and deep penetration. The thermal cycles associated with laser welding are generally much faster than those involved in conventional arc welding processes, leading to a rather small weld zone. Experiments are performed for Inconel 600 plates changing several process parameter such as laser power, welding speed, shielding gas flow rate, presence of surface pollution, with fixed or variable gap and misalignment between plate and plate, etc. The follow conclusions can be drawn that laser power and welding speed have a pronounced effect on size and shape of the fusion zone. Increase in welding speed resulted in an increase in weld depth/ aspect ratio and hence a decrease in the fusion zone size. The penetration depth increased with the increase in laser power. Welding characteristics of austienite Inconel 600 using a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser are experimentally investigated. This paper describes the weld ability of inconel 600 for machine structural use by Nd:YAG laser

  16. A novel dual‐wavelength, Nd:YAG, picosecond‐domain laser safely and effectively removes multicolor tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomacker, Kevin T.; Basilavecchio, Lisa D.; Plugis, Jessica M.; Bhawalkar, Jayant D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although nanosecond‐domain lasers have been the mainstay of laser tattoo removal for decades, recent disruptive innovations in laser design have introduced a new class of commercial Q‐switched lasers that generate picosecond‐domain pulses. Study A picosecond‐domain, Nd:YAG laser with a KTP frequency‐doubling crystal was used to treat 31 decorative tattoos in 21 subjects. Safety and effectiveness were determined by blinded evaluation of digital images in this prospective clinical study. Results The average clearance overall as evaluated by blinded observers evaluating randomized digital photographs was 79 ± 0.9% (mean ± sem) after an average of 6.5 treatments. Of the 31 tattoos completing treatment, 6 had evidence of mild hyper‐ or hypo‐pigmentation by evaluation of photographs. Conclusion The 350 picosecond, 532 nm, and 450 picosecond 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser is safe and effective for removing decorative tattoos. Lasers Surg. Med. 47:542–548, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26175187

  17. Single-treatment skin tightening by radiofrequency and long-pulsed, 1064-nm Nd: YAG laser compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Douglas J

    2007-02-01

    To compare single-treatment facial skin tightening achieved with the current radiofrequency (RF) protocol with single-treatment tightening achieved with the long-pulsed, 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser. A total of 12 patients were treated with RF energy on one side of the face and laser energy on the other. Results were evaluated on a numerical scale (0-12 with 12 = greatest enhancement) from pre- and posttreatment photographs by a blinded panel. Upper face improvement (posttreatment score minus pretreatment score) was essentially the same on both sides (30.2 and 31.3% improvement for laser and RF, respectively, P=0.89). Lower face improvement was greater in the laser-treated side (35.7 and 23.8% improvement for laser and RF, respectively), but the difference was not significant (P=0.074). Overall face improvement was significantly greater on the laser-treated side (47.5 and 29.8% improvement for laser and RF, respectively, P=0.028). A single high-fluence treatment with the long-pulse 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser may improve skin laxity more than a single treatment with the RF device. Further controlled split-face or very large non-self controlled studies are needed to conclusively determine the relative efficacies of the two technologies. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Water vapor absorption of carbon dioxide laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumate, M. S.; Menzies, R. T.; Margolis, J. S.; Rosengren, L.-G.

    1976-01-01

    An optoacoustic detector or spectrophone has been used to perform detailed measurements of the absorptivity of mixtures of water vapor in air. A (C-12) (O-16)2 laser was used as the source, and measurements were made at forty-nine different wavelengths from 9.2 to 10.7 microns. The details of the optoacoustic detector and its calibration are presented, along with a discussion of its performance characteristics. The results of the measurements of water vapor absorption show that the continuum absorption in the wavelength range covered is 5-10% lower than previous measurements.

  19. Etude expérimentale du soudage par laser YAG de l'alliage base nickel Hastelloy X Experimental study of YAG laser welding of nickel base alloy Hastelloy X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graneix Jérémie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Le procédé de soudage laser YAG est envisagé pour remplacer le procédé de soudage TIG manuel pour la réalisation de pièces de turboréacteur en alliage nickel-chrome-molybdène Hastelloy X. Cette étude expérimentale a permis de définir un domaine de soudabilité de cet alliage répondant aux critères spécifiques du secteur aéronautique. The YAG laser welding process is contemplated to replace the manual TIG welding process for the production of parts of turbojet in Hastelloy X. This experimental study has identified the field of weldability of this alloy to meet the specific requirements of the aerospace industry.

  20. Effect of Irradiation Parameters on Morphology of Polishing DF2 (AISI-O1 Surface by Nd:YAG Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulse Nd:YAG laser was used to polish DF2 cold work steel. Influence of irradiation parameters on the 3D surface morphology was studied by 3D profilometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and atomic force microscope (AFM. Results among the tests showed when DF2 specimens were irradiated with parameters of (i laser input energy P=1 J, (ii pulse feedrate=300 mm/min, (iii pulse duration (PD =3 milliseconds, and (iv pulse frequency f=20∼25 Hz, laser polishing of DF2 cold work steel seemed to be successful.

  1. Effects of electrocautery, CO/sub 2/ laser, and contact Nd:YAG laser scalpel on the healing of intestinal incision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puolakkainen, P.; Brackett, K.; Sankar, M.Y.; Joffe, S.; Schroeder, T.

    1987-01-01

    Leakage after intestinal resection is a serious complication with a high mortality rate. A recent study claims that cutting the intestine with the CO/sub 2/ laser improves the healing of intestinal anastomoses. The present study was undertaken to analyze the effects of electrocautery, CO/sub 2/ laser, and contact Nd:YAG laser on the healing of intestinal incisions. Fifteen piglets were used and the cutting and reanastomosing were performed by using all cutting methods in each animal in randomized order. Resection sites were 50 cm, 100 cm, and 150 cm distal to the ligament of Treitz. On the seventh day the bursting pressures were measured for each anastomosis. They were 172 +/- 17 mmHg for normal bowel segment and 133 +/- 12, 135 +/- 40, and 139 +/- 17 mmHg for electrocautery, CO/sub 2/ laser, and Nd:YAG laser, respectively. There were no mortality, no anastomotic leaks, and no statistically significant differences in the bursting pressures, in histology, or in the healing of anastomotic sites, indicating that electrocautery, CO/sub 2/ laser, and contact Nd:YAG laser scalpel can safely be used in the surgery of small intestine.

  2. Comparison of treatment with an Alexandrite picosecond laser and Nd:YAG nanosecond laser for removing blue-black Chinese eyeliner tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengli; Huang, Yuqing; Lin, Tong; Wu, Qiuju

    2018-02-28

    To retrospectively evaluate the efficacy of an Alexandrite picosecond laser versus Nd:YAG nanosecond laser for removing blue-black eyeliner tattoos which have existed more than 10 years. A total of 40 patients were treated with an Alexandrite picosecond laser in our department from August 2015 to July 2017, with a fluence of 1.96-6.37J/cm 2 , spot size of 2.0-3.6 mm, and pulse width of 750 ps. Another 32 patients were treated with an Nd:YAG nanosecond laser, with a fluence of 2.80-7.00 J/cm 2 , spot size of 3 mm, and pulse width of 5-20 ns. All analysed patients completed at least one treatment and follow-up. The median number of treatment for all the patients was 1 (range, 1-4). After a single session, no difference was found between the two lasers for the eyeliner removal (p > 0.05). For the people who achieved an excellent response of tattoo clearance, there was still no difference between the two groups (p > 0.05). Transient side effects were observed in two groups, but neither group had significant adverse reactions. To treat blue-black Chinese eyeliner tattoos over 10 years, Alexandrite picosecond laser does not provide better clearance than the Nd:YAG nanosecond laser.

  3. Evaluation of Nd:YAG laser on partial oxygen saturation of pulpal blood in anterior hypersensitive teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birang, Reza; Kaviani, Naser; Mohammadpour, Mehdi; Abed, Ahmad Moghareh; Gutknecht, Norbert; Mir, Maziar

    2008-07-01

    Dentine hypersensitivity has of long been known to be a common clinical problem in dental practices. Lasers have recently come to play a prominent role in the treatment of this disorder. They might, however, cause dental pulp damage. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser on partial oxygen saturation of pulpal blood in sensitive anterior teeth. In this clinical trial, 65 hypersensitive teeth were selected and randomly allocated to two groups. The study group involved Nd:YAG laser treatment, while no treatment was employed for the control group. Using a pulse oximetry system, evaluations were preformed of the partial oxygen saturation in the pulpal blood before, immediately after, 1 week after, and 1 month after the treatment. The results were analyzed using the SPSS software and repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired-samples t tests. The mean partial oxygen saturation of the blood was found to be 85.4% in the study group, which was not significantly different from that of the control group. No significant differences were observed in the control group between the means obtained from pretreatment and post-treatment intervals (P > 0.05). The Post-treatment partial oxygen saturation mean rose to 89.3% (P = 0.001) and remained constant throughout the following week after it. However, no significant differences were found between the pretreatment partial oxygen saturation mean and the same measurement 1 month after treatment (P = 0.702). Nd:YAG laser therapy for dentine desensitization of anterior teeth caused no persistent changes in the partial oxygen saturation of pulpal blood. It may, therefore, be concluded that the diffusion of heat induced by the Nd:YAG laser into the pulp within the limit of the desensitization parameters cause no irreversible damages in the dental pulp.

  4. Histological and ultrastructural effect of an Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam on dental hard tissue and pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignato, Costantino; Vignato, Giuseppe; Nardelli, Antonella; Baldan, Arianna; Mason, Pier N.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine histological and ultrastructural modifications produced by an Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam after an in vivo exposure of human molars. Using a Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam delivered by a 600 micrometers optical fiber and concurrent air and water cooling spray, 14 human third molars with artificial first class cavities were exposed at different power levels (6, 7, and 8 W). All the teeth were extracted at different time periods between 10 and 25 days and prepared for histological examination. The results of the histological examination showed no evidence of degeneration or necrosis of the pulpar tissue. Analysis of the dentinal surfaces after exposure demonstrated that the dentinal tubules are completely closed due to the melted dentin. In conclusion a Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam with an air and water cooling spray is safe for treatments of class I decay and no necrosis or degeneration of the pulp was found for laser powers of 6, 7, and 8 W.

  5. Bond strengths of brackets bonded to enamel surfaces conditioned with femtosecond and Er:YAG laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglarci, Cahide; Demir, Necla; Aksakalli, Sertac; Dilber, Erhan; Sozer, Ozlem Akinci; Kilic, Hamdi Sukur

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare femtosecond and Er:YAG laser systems with regard to enamel demineralization and bracket bond strength. Human-extracted premolars were randomized to three groups (n = 17) depending on the conditioning treatment used for the buccal surfaces: 37 % orthophosphoric acid, Er:YAG laser etching (MSP mode 120 mJ, 10 Hz, 1.2 W), and femtosecond laser etching (0.4 W, 800 nm, 90 fs/pulse, 1 kHz). Metal brackets were bonded with Transbond XT to the conditioned surfaces and light cured for 20 s. The samples were thermocycled (5000 cycles, 5-55 °C) and subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) testing using a universal testing machine. Failure types were analyzed under an optical stereomicroscope and SEM. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was evaluated to assess residual adhesive on the enamel surface. The results revealed no significant differences in SBS between the Er:YAG laser (7.2 ± 3.3 MPa) and acid etching groups (7.3 ± 2.7 MPa; p enamel interface.

  6. Low-power holmium:YAG laser urethrotomy for treatment of urethral strictures: functional outcome and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Stefan; Knoll, Thomas; Osman, Mahmoud M; Köhrmann, Kai Uwe; Michel, Maurice S; Alken, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of endourethrotomy with the holmium:YAG laser as a minimally invasive treatment for urethral stricture. Between January 2002 and January 2004, 32 male patients with symptomatic urethral strictures (8 bulbar, 9 penile, 9 combined) were treated with Ho:YAG-laser urethrotomy in our department. The stricture was iatrogenic in 60% (N = 18), inflammatory in 16.6% (N = 5), traumatic in 13.3% (N = 4), and idiopathic in 7% (N = 3). The stricture was incised under vision at the 12 o'clock location or the site of maximum scar tissue or narrowing in asymmetric strictures. Laser energy was set on 1200 to 1400 mJ with a frequency of 10 to 13 Hz. Postoperatively, drainage of the bladder was performed for 4 days using a 18F silicone catheter. Triamcinolone was instilled intraurethrally after removal of the catheter in all patients. Patients were followed up by mailed questionnaire, including International Prostate Symptom Score and quality of life. Retrograde endoscopic Ho:YAG laser urethrotomy could be performed in all 32 patients. Most patients (22; 68.7%) did not need any reintervention. Ten patients developed recurrent strictures that were treated by another laser urethrotomy in 4 patients (12.5%), while 6 patients (18.7%) needed open urethroplasty with buccal mucosa. Including 2 patients treated with repeat laser urethrotomy, 24 patients (75%) were considered successful after a mean follow-up of 27 months (range 13-38 months). No intraoperative complications were encountered, although in 5% of patients, a urinary-tract infection was diagnosed postoperatively. No gross hematuria occurred. The Ho:YAG laser urethrotomy is a safe and effective minimally invasive therapeutic modality for urethral stricture with results comparable to those of conventional urethrotomy. Further data from long-time follow-up are necessary to compare the success rate with that of conventional urethrotomy and urethroplasty. Nevertheless, the Ho:YAG laser urethrotomy might at

  7. Laser-induced ionization of Na vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, R.C.Y.; Judge, D.L.; Roussel, F.; Carre, B.; Breger, P.; Spiess, G.

    1982-01-01

    The production of Na 2 + ions by off-resonant laser excitation in the 5800-6200A region mainly results from two-photon absorption by the Na 2 molecule to highly excited gerade states followed by (a) direct ionization by absorbing a third photon or (b) coupling to the molecular Na 2 D 1 PIμ Rydberg state which is subsequently ionized by absorbing a third photon. This mechanism, i.e., a two-photon resonance three photon ionization process, explains a recent experimental observation of Roussel et al. It is suggested that the very same mechanism is also responsible for a similar observation reported by Polak-Dingels et al in their work using two crossed Na beams. In the latter two studies the laser-induced associative ionization processes were reported to be responsible for producing the Na 2 + ion. From the ratio of molecular to atomic concentration in the crossed beam experiment of Polak-Dingels et al we estimate that the cross section for producing Na 2 + through laser-induced associative ionization is at least four orders of magnitude smaller than ionization through the two-photon resonance three photon ionization process in Na 2 molecules

  8. Growth and annealing effect of SrTiO{sub 3} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition using fourth harmonic Nd:YAG pulsed laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamura, Koji; Fujiwara, Takumi; Yokota, Akinobu; Nakamura, Motonori; Yoshimoto, Ken' ichi [National Institute of Technology, Asahikawa College, 2-2-1-6 Shunkodai, Asahikawa 071-8142 (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    SrTiO{sub 3} homoepitaxial films were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using a fourth harmonic Nd:YAG pulsed laser. The substrate temperature was kept constant at 600, 700, or 800 C. The laser energy was set at 9-25 mJ on the polycrystal SrTiO{sub 3} target. Post-procedure annealing was performed in the air for 24 h. The X-ray diffraction measurement results showed that the lattice constant of the film was only 0.010 Aa larger than that of the substrate and was not dependent on the annealing temperature. We demonstrated the possibility of growing near-stoichiometric SrTiO{sub 3} film by PLD using an Nd:YAG laser. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Phase transformations on the surface of YAG composite ceramics under the action of directed laser treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasova, M., E-mail: vlasovamarina@inbox.ru; Márquez Aguilar, P.A.; Escobar Martinez, A.; Kakazey, M.; Guardian Tapia, R.; Trujillo Estrada, A.

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • During directed laser treatment of the surface of the composite ceramics consisting of predominantly Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the oriented crystallization of YAG and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} takes place. • As a result of high-temperature heating, in the surface layer of tracks, the partial dissociation of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}, Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}, and Al{sub 2}Y{sub 4}O{sub 9} and enrichment in YAlO{sub 3} occur. • The content of YAlO{sub 3}, the size of YAG crystallites, and their crystallographic texturing depend on the irradiation mode. • After laser treatment, the ceramic material transforms into a three-layer macrostructure consisting of the basic ceramic material, near-surface textured layer, and surface layer. - Abstract: The laser treatment of composite ceramics based on Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} with Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}, Al{sub 2}Y{sub 4}O{sub 9}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} additives is accompanied by the melting of the surface layer and formation of tracks. In the volume of tracks, the partial dissociation of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}, Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}, and Al{sub 2}Y{sub 4}O{sub 9}, and the formation of new phases such as YAlO{sub 3} of orthorhombic and hexagonal modifications along with the appearance of additional content of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are observed. The content of all these phases depends on the irradiation mode and the phase composition of the ceramics. With increase in the corundum content in ceramic specimens, in the tracks, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content increases, and the Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} content decreases. In the volume of tracks, Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} crystallites are textured. The size of YAG crystallites and their crystallographic texturing depend on the irradiation mode and Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase ratio. On the surface of tracks, a layer enriched in YAlO{sub 3} forms. Thus, as a result of laser

  10. Estudo morfométrico e morfológico da cicatrização após uso do laser erbium: YAG em tecidos cutâneos de ratos Morphometrical and morphological study of cicatricial effects caused by application of laser erbium: YAG on the skin of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia de Noronha

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa o efeito da reparação cutânea do laser erbium:yttrium aluminunn garnet (YAG (Er:YAG em pele de ratos através de estudo histológico e morfométrico. Tatuaram-se duas figuras no dorso de cada animal (n = 35, denominadas controle e experimento. Na figura experimento, aplicaram-se três passadas de laser Er:YAG com parâmetros padronizados. Cinco animais foram eutanasiados nos dias 0, 7, 14, 28, 56, 84 e 112 de pós-operatório. O estudo histológico demonstrou no dia 0 dano de ablação médio de 215,24 micrômetros (mm, sendo homogêneo com vaporização da epiderme e porções superficiais da derme. O dano térmico residual foi pequeno (média de 41,45mm, observando-se áreas onde estava praticamente ausente. A fibroplasia cicatricial já estava presente no dia 7 (média de 55,58mm, aumentando rapidamente até o dia 28 (média de 209,49mm, quando atingiu um platô e se manteve até o dia 112. Não houve sinais de processo inflamatório agudo no dia 7 e a reepitelização já estava completa. Concluiu-se que a aplicação de laser na pele de ratos induz reparação cutânea ao longo de 112 dias nas condições do experimento.This study analyses the skin contracture effect of the erbium:YAG (Er:YAG laser on the skin of rats by light microscopic histological and morphometrical evaluations. Two squares of back skin were precision tattooed on each of the animals (n = 35, that were termed control and experimental skin. The experimental skin was treated with three passes of the Er:YAG laser with standardized parameters. Five animals were killed and skin specimens were analyzed at 00, 07, 14, 28, 56, 84 and 112 days. Histologic examination demonstrated a mean of 215.24 micrometers ablative damage that was homogeneous with complete vaporization of the epidermis and superficial dermis. The residual thermal damage was small (mean of 41.45 micrometers observing areas where it was absent. The cicatritial fibroplasy was present at

  11. Microprocessor-controlled Nd:YAG laser for hyperthermia induction in the RIF-1 tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldow, S M; Russell, G E; Wallner, P E

    1992-01-01

    Near-infrared radiation from a Nd:YAG laser at 1,064 nm was used interstitially or superficially to induce hyperthermia in RIF-1 tumors in C3H male mice. A single 600-microns quartz fiber with a 0.5-cm cylindrical diffusor or a weakly diverging microlens at its distal end was used to deliver laser energy to tumors in the hind leg (mean volume = 100 mm3). Two thermocouples were inserted into each tumor. One thermocouple controlled a microprocessor-driven hyperthermia program (maximum output of 3.5 Watts) to maintain the desired temperature. Tumors were exposed to various temperature-time combinations (42-45 degrees C/30 min). Our initial results indicated that excellent temperature control to within 0.2 degrees C of the desired temperature at the feedback thermocouple was achievable during both superficial and interstitial heat treatments. Temperatures at the second thermocouple, however, were found to be lower by as much as 2.3 degrees C (using the cylindrical diffusor) or higher by up to 4.6 degrees C (using the microlens) when compared to the feedback thermocouple temperature. Several correlations were seen between total dose, tumor growth delay, percent skin necrosis, and temperature at the second thermocouple after several superficial and interstitial treatments. Statistically significant improvements in tumor growth delay (at 42 and 45 degrees C) and increased percent skin necrosis at all temperatures were observed after superficial versus interstitial treatment.

  12. Process optimization in Nd:YAG laser microdrilling of alumina–aluminium interpenetrating phase composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjib Biswas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In laser beam micromachining process, the quality of the drilled hole is of great importance. The quality of the microdrilled hole mainly depends on appropriate selection of process parameters. Predefined diameter of hole with minimum taper is of today's demand. The composite used for microdrilling operation is alumina–aluminium (Al2O3–Al interpenetrating phase composite (IPC, which is widely used in aircraft and space stations. Until date, no experimental study has been done to obtain microdrilled hole of desired diameter. In the present paper three hole qualities such as hole diameter at entry, at exit and hole taper have been optimized individually as well as simultaneously using a central composite design (CCD based on response surface methodology (RSM during pulsed Nd:YAG laser microdrilling operation on alumina–aluminium IPC sheet of 1.14 mm thickness. The analysis of variance (ANOVA test has also been done to identify the process parameters that contributed the most to get desired hole quality.

  13. Chemical, morphological and chromatic behavior of mural paintings under Er:YAG laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striova, J.; Camaiti, M.; Castellucci, E. M.; Sansonetti, A.

    2011-08-01

    Several pigments (malachite CuCO3ṡCu(OH)2, azurite 2CuCO3ṡCu(OH)2, yellow ochre (goethite α-FeOOH, gypsum CaSO4ṡ2H2O), St. John's white CaCO3 formed from slaked lime) and respective mural paintings specimens were subjected to the free-running Er:YAG laser radiation in order to study their damage thresholds, in a broad range of laser fluences, both in dry and wet conditions. The specimens' damage thresholds were evaluated by spectroscopic methods, colorimetric measurements and microscopic observation. The pigments containing -OH groups were found to be more sensitive than St. John's white; hence the most sensitive paint layers in dry conditions are those containing malachite, azurite (both 1.3 J/cm2) and yellow ochre (2.5 J/cm2) as compared to the ones containing St. John's white (15.2 J/cm2). The presence of wetting agents (w.a.) attenuated the pigments chemical alteration. The damage thresholds of all the paint layers, in presence of w.a., were found to be around 2.5 J/cm2. The alteration was caused by thermo-mechanical damage and by binding medium ablation of a fresco and a secco prepared specimens, respectively.

  14. Characterization of lap joints laser beam welding of thin AA 2024 sheets with Yb:YAG disk-laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Alfieri, Vittorio; Cardaropoli, Francesco; Sergi, Vincenzo

    2012-06-01

    Lap joints obtained by overlapping two plates are widely diffused in aerospace industry. Nevertheless, because of natural aging, adhesively bonded and riveted aircraft lap joints may be affected by cracks from rivets, voids or corrosion. Friction stir welding has been proposed as a valid alternative, although large heat affected zones are produced both in the top and the bottom plate due to the pin diameter. Interest has therefore been shown in studying laser lap welding as the laser beam has been proved to be competitive since it allows to concentrate the thermal input and increases productivity and quality. Some challenges arise as a consequence of aluminum low absorptance and high thermal conductivity; furthermore, issues are due to metallurgical challenges such as both micro and macro porosity formation and softening in the fused zone. Welding of AA 2024 thin sheets in a lap joint configuration is discussed in this paper: tests are carried out using a recently developed Trumpf TruDisk 2002 Yb:YAG disk-laser with high beam quality which allows to produce beads with low plates distortion and better penetration. The influence of the processing parameters is discussed considering the fused zone extent and the bead shape. The porosity content as well as the morphological features of the beads have been examined.

  15. Stable polarization short pulse passively Q-switched monolithic microchip laser with [110] cut Cr4+:YAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y; Gong, M; Yan, P; Huang, L; Li, D

    2009-01-01

    A monolithic Nd:YAG microchip laser with [110] cut Cr 4+ :YAG is presented. The output beam is linearly polarized with polarization ratio higher than 100:1. The polarization direction is stable, independent of pump power, crystal temperature, LD temperature. In single longitudinal mode operation, stable 259 ps pulses at 2.5 kHz with 82 kW peak power and diffraction limited beam mode are output. With a simple and compact one-pass Nd:YVO 4 amplifier, 144 kW peak power is achieved. Single longitudinal and fundamental transverse mode is kept after passing through the amplifier stage. The microchip laser can be operated in two longitudinal modes with two sets of output pulses by increasing the pump power

  16. Evaluation of Long Pulsed-ND: Yag Laser in The Treatment of Onychomycosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, E.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    topical or systemic treatment (Donald et al., 2002). The choice of therapy is influenced by the presentation and severity of the disease, other medications that the patient is taking, physician and patient preference, and cost (Gupta et al., 2003). A novel non-invasive approach for treatment of onychomycosis is the application of laser energy to the nail plate targeting the fungal cells themselves. By using a laser with a specific wavelength of laser light energy, the fungus could be directly targeted in the nail and heated to the point it is killed, but without burning the surrounding tissue and with leaving the skin and nail intact (Kozarev and Vizintin, 2010). The Nd-Yag (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet; Nd: Y 3 Al 5 O 12 ) laser is such a device with a wavelength 1064 nm that will pass through the nail plate and into the nail bed resulting in superheating of the fungal material. Exposure of fungi to high temperatures inhibits their growth as well as causing cell damage and death (Hashimoto and Blumenthal, 1978). Several other types of lasers are introduced for the treatment of onychomycosis including diode laser (Landsman et al., 2010) femtosecond infrared titanium sapphire laser (Manevitch et al., 2010). A novel 0.65-millisecond pulsed Nd:YAG is also introduced for the treatment of onychomycosis (Mozena and Haverstock, 2010).

  17. Investigation on Nd:YAG laser weldability of zircaloy-4 end cap closure for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo Sung; Lee, Chul Yung; Yang, Myung Seung

    2001-01-01

    Various welding processes are now available for end cap closure of nuclear fuel element such as TIG(Tungsten Inert Gas) welding, magnetic resistance welding and laser welding. Even though the resistance and TIG welding processes are widely used for manufacturing commercial fuel elements, they can not be recommended for the remote seal welding of a fuel element at a hot cell facility due to the complexity of electrode alignment, difficulty in the replacement of parts in the remote manner and a large heat input for a thin sheath. Therefore, the Nd:YAG laser system using optical fiber transmission was selected for Zircaloy-4 end cap welding inside hot cell. The laser welding apparatus was developed using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 500 watt average power with optical fiber transmission. The weldability of laser welding was satisfactory with respect to the microstructures and mechanical properties comparing with TIG and resistance welding. The optimum operation processes of laser welding and the optical fiber transmission system for hot cell operation in a remote manner have been developed. The effects of irradiation on the properties of the laser apparatus were also being studied

  18. High peak power Q-switched Er:YAG laser with two polarizers and its ablation performance for hard dental tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingwei; Wang, Li; Wu, Xianyou; Cheng, Tingqing; Jiang, Haihe

    2014-06-30

    An electro-optically Q-switched high-energy Er:YAG laser with two polarizers is proposed. By using two Al(2)O(3) polarizing plates and a LiNbO(3) crystal with Brewster angle, the polarization efficiency is significantly improved. As a result, 226 mJ pulse energy with 62 ns pulse width is achieved at the repetition rate of 3 Hz, the corresponding peak power is 3.6 MW. To our knowledge, such a high peak power has not been reported in literature. With our designed laser, in-vitro teeth were irradiated under Q-switched and free-running modes. Results of a laser ablation experiment on hard dental tissue with the high-peak-power laser demonstrates that the Q-switched Er:YAG laser has higher ablation precision and less thermal damage than the free-running Er:YAG laser.

  19. Effect of mitomycin combined with Nd-YAG laser on cell proliferation and invasion as well as MEK/ERK signaling pathway in obstructive lacrimal duct model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of mitomycin (MMC combined with Nd-YAG laser on cell proliferation and invasion as well as MEK/ERK signaling pathway in obstructive lacrimal duct model. Methods: New Zealand rabbits were selected as experimental animals and divided into model group, laser group and MMC + laser group; obstructive lacrimal duct model was established, then laser group were given Nd-YAG laser intervention, and MMC + laser group were given Nd-YAG laser combined with mitomycin intervention. 2 months after intervention, the expression of proliferation molecules, invasion molecules and MEK-ERK signaling molecules in lacrimal duct tissue were measured. Results: TGF-β, CTGF, PCNA, Ki-67, Col-I, Col-III, MEK, ERK1/2, MMP2 and MMP9 protein levels in lacrimal duct tissue of laser group were significantly higher than those of model group while TSG-6, Cthrc1 and TIMP1 protein levels were significantly lower than those of model group; TGF-β, CTGF, PCNA, Ki- 67, Col-I, Col-III, MEK, ERK1/2, MMP2 and MMP9 protein levels in lacrimal duct tissue of MMC + laser group were significantly lower than those of laser group while TSG-6, Cthrc1 and TIMP1 protein levels were significantly higher than those of laser group. Conclusion: Mitomycin can inhibit cell proliferation and invasion as well as MEK/ERK signaling pathway activation in obstructive lacrimal duct model after Nd-YAG laser treatment.

  20. Long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of facial hypertrichosis during topical minoxidil therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmously Mlika, Rym; Ben Hamida, Myriam; Hammami, Houda; Dorbani Ben Thabet, Imen; Rouatbi, Mondher; Mokhtar, Inçaf

    2013-08-01

    Hypertrichosis is a well-recognized adverse effect of therapy with either oral or topical minoxidil. We report a case of fronto-temporal hypertrichosis occurring in an 8-year-old girl treated for patchy alopecia areata of the frontal area of the scalp with 2% minoxidil solution. After failure of 5-months minoxidil-discontinuation, hair removal with Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm line) (Smartepil II, Deka) was tested leading to complete resolution within 2 sessions.