Sample records for yadernaya gamma-spektrometriya keramicheskikh

  1. Nuclear safety, international cooperation and perspectives of Bulgaria; Yadernaya bezopasnost`, mezhdunarodnoe sotrudnichestvo i perspektivy dlya Bolgarii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanev, Y


    The use of atomic energy in Bulgaria is under regulation since 1985 by the Atomic Energy Law. The main points of the Law are discussed and some deficiencies are pointed out. The ratification of the Vienna and Paris conventions has contributed to updating the legislation. The participation in international projects related to the use of atomic energy and nuclear safety in particular is revised. Future development of nuclear energy in Bulgaria depends mainly on successful reconstruction, modernization and safety enhancement of the Kozloduy NPP and development of a national grid of technical and consultant firms.

  2. JPRS Report, Science & Technology USSR: Physics & Mathematics. (United States)


    17 Estimating Constituent Mass of Light Quark by Rules-of-Sums Method [A.A. Pivovarov; YADERNAYA FIZIKA, Vol 51 No 6, Jun 90] 17 Threshold...Effect in Processes Involving Emission of Lepton Pairs From Quark -Gluon Plasma [M.I. Gorenshteyn, O.A. Mogilevskiy; YADERNAYA FIZIKA, Vol 51 No 6, Jun 90... Dark Matter in Universe According to Theory of Broken Generational Symmetry [Z.G. Berezhiani, M.Yu. Khlopov; YADERNAYA FIZIKA, Vol 52 No 1(7), Jul 90

  3. Some physics aspects of cermet and ceramic fast systems; Quelques aspects de la physique des reacteurs a neutrons rapides utilisant des cermets et des ceramiques comme combustibles; Nekotorye fizicheskie aspekty kermetnykh i keramicheskikh sistem na bystrykh nejtronakh; Algunos aspectos fisicos de los sistemas rapidos a base de combustibles cermet y ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codd, J; James, M F; Mann, J E [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Reactor Group (United Kingdom)


    The characteristics of a system using an iron-based oxide cermet as fuel material are discussed. A transport theory investigation to develop methods of predicting the effect of core heterogeneity on reactivity and flux distribution is described. Some preliminary calculations are also given of resonance self-shielding and Doppler temperature effects in a cermet system. (author) [French] Les auteurs etudient les caracteristique s d'un reacteur utilisant comme combustible un cermet d'oxydes a armature de fer. Ils exposent une application de la theorie du transport a la mise au point des methodes permettant de prevoir l'effet de l'heterogeneite du coeur sur la reactivite et sur la distribution du flux. Ils donnent egalement quelques calculs preliminaires d'effets d'autoprotection due a la resonance et d'effet Doppler du a la chaleur dans un reacteur utilisant un cermet. (author) [Spanish] La memoria discute las caracteristicas de un sistema que emplea como combustible un oxido tipo cermet a base de hierro. Describe una investigacion de la teoria de transporte con miras a desarrollar metodos para evaluar el efecto de la heterogeneidad del cuerpo sobre la reactividad y la distribucion de flujo. Tambien da algunos calculos preliminares de los efectos del autoblindaje por resonancia y de la temperatura de Doppler en un sistema de tipo cermet. (author) [Russian] Obsuzhdayutsya kharakteristiki sistemy, ispol'zuyushchej v kachestve toplivnogo materiala oksidnye kermety, razrabotannye na osnove zheleza. Opisyvaetsya issledovanie teorii perenosa, chtoby razvit' metody predskazaniya vliyaniya geterogennosti aktivnoj zony na reaktivnost' i raspredelenie potoka. Dayutsya takzhe nekotorye predvaritel'nye raschety ehffektov rezonansnoj samozashchity i temperaturnogo ehffekta Dopplera v kermetnoj sisteme. (author)

  4. Nuclear geophysics in prospecting for ore and coal deposits; Geophysique nucleaire et prospection des gisements de charbon et autres mineraux; Yadernaya geofizika pri razvedke rudnykh i ugol'nykh mestorozhdenij; Geofisica nuclear u prospeccion de yacimientos de carbon y otros minerales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulashevich, Yu P; Voskobojnikov, G M; Muzyukin, L V


    Nuclear geophysics is applied to ore and coal deposits principally in the form of exploratory bore-hole logging. The following types of radioactive or nuclear logging (RL) are in wide industrial use at Soviet ore and coal deposits: density or gamma-gamma logging (GGL) with a Co{sup 60} source; selective gamma-gamma logging (SGGL) with a soft-radiation source of the Se{sup 75} type; neutron-neutron logging (NNL) and neutron-gamma logging with a Po-Be neutron source; activation (particularly continuous activation) logging with the same source; and photo-neutron logging with the gamma-emitter Sb{sup 124}. The chief purpose of RL at ore deposits is to distinguish ore bodies in the borehole section, thus reducing assaying intervals, and to furnish on the site an approximate estimate of the useful content. In coal deposits RL is used to determine the depth of the occurrence and the thickness and structure of the coal seams. The GGL and SGGL methods are based on recording the scattered gamma-radiation emitted by the source. Where the source emits sufficiently hard radiation and the sensitivity of the detector is low, the intensity of the scattered radiation is governed only by the density of the rock strata and the distance between source and detector. This applies to GGL, with which coal seams are distinguished by the maximum scattered-radiation levels. The essential feature of SGGL is the recording of the soft portion of the scattered-radiation spectrum, the intensity of which falls off steeply with an increase in the average atomic number of the elements in the medium. Its sensitivity is of the order of 0.01%, and it can be used successfully to distinguish ore bodies containing heavy elements (lead, tungsten, mercury etc.), and also at iron ore (siderite) deposits. The exceptionally large thermal neutron capture cross-section of boron enables boron ore bodies in the bore-hole section to be distinguished by the NGL and NNL methods. Interference by water can be eliminated by inverse probes. These neutron methods, and similarly neutron-activation logging, have also been applied at deposits of copper, manganese, aluminium and various other ores. Continuous-activation logging is appropriate where the occurring radioisotope has a suitable half-life. It is then possible to determine the optimum logging conditions (rate, length of probe, etc.) theoretically. Neutron recording during photo-neutron logging makes it possible to distinguish ore bodies containing beryllium, and to estimate the beryllium content from 0.001% upwards. Experience is confirming the effectiveness and economic expediency of nuclear geophysical methods in prospecting for ore and coal deposits. (author) [French] Les methodes de geophysique nucleaire s'emploient surtout pour l'exploration des gisements de charbon et autres mineraux par radiosondage. Dans le cas des gisements de charbon et d'autres mineraux de l'Union sovietique, les types suivants de prospection par sondage radioactif ou nucleaire (SR) trouvent une large application pratique : determination de la densite ou sondage gamma-gamma (S.G.G.) avec le {sup 60}cO comme source de rayonnements, sondage gamma-gamma selectif (S.G.G.S.) avec une source de rayonnements mous du type {sup 75}Se, sondage neutronsneutrons (S.N.N.) et sondage gamma-neutrons (S.G.N.) avec une source de neutrons Po-Be, sondage par activation - surtout par activation continue - avec emploi de la meme source, et sondage photo-neutronique avec l'emetteur gamma {sup 124}Sb. L'objet essentiel du S.R., dans les gisements de minerais, est de reconnaitre les differentes couches de minerais que l'on rencontre dans le trou de sonde, ce qui reduit le temps d'analyse, ainsi que d'evaluer approximativement, sur place, la teneur en elements utiles. Dans les gisements de charbon, le S.R. permet de determiner la profondeur, l'importance et la structure des veines. Les methodes dites S.G.G. et S.G.G.S. sont fondees sur l'enregistrement du rayonnement gamma diffuse provenant de la source. Lorsque le rayonnement emanant de la source est suffisamment dur et le detecteur peu sensible, l'intensite du rayonnement diffuse depend uniquement de la densite des strates et de la distance entre la source et le detecteur. C'est le cas pour le S.G.G., ou les veines de charbon sont delimitees d'apres les valeurs maxima du rayonnement diffuse. Le S.G.G.S. consiste surtout a enregistrer la partie molle du spectre des rayonnements diffuses, dont l'intensite tombe brusquement avec l'augmentation du nombre atomique moyen des elements du milieu etudie. Cette methode, dont la sensibilite est de l'ordre de 0,01 %, permet de determiner l'existence de minerais qui renferment des elements lourds (plomb, tungstene, mercure, etc), et l'on peut l'utiliser aussi pour les gisements de minerais de fer (siderite). Le bore ayant une section efficace de capture des neutrons thermiques exceptionnellement grande, on peut determiner dans le trou de sonde la presence de zones boriferes par les methodes du S.G.N. et du S.N.N. L'interference de l'eau peut etre eliminee par des sondages inverses. Ces methodes neutroniques, de meme que le sondage par activation neutronique, ont ainsi trouve une application dans les gisements de cuivre, de maganese, d'aluminium et de certains autres minerais. La methode du sondage par activation continue est utilisable lorsque la periode du radioisotope forme s'y prete. On peut alors determiner en theorie les conditions optima du sondage (taux d'activation, duree du sondage, etc.). L'enregistrement neutronique effectue lors du sondage photo-neutronique permet de determiner les zones riches en beryllium et d'evaluer la teneur en beryllium a partir de 0,001%. L'experience confirme l'efficacite technique et economique des methodes de geophysique nucleaire pour la prospection des gisements de charbon et d'autres mineraux. (author) [Spanish] La exploracion de perfiles por sondeo constituye la principal aplicacion de la geofisica nuclear en los yacimientos de carbon y otros minerales. Los siguientes tipos de exploracion radiactiva, o nuclear (E.R.), encuentran una vasta aplicacion industrial en las minas de la Union Sovietica : exploracion de densidades, o gamma-gamma (E.G.G.), con una fuente de {sup 60}Co ; exploracion gamma-gamma selectiva (E.G.G.S.) con una fuente de radiaciones blandas que emplea {sup 75}Se; exploracion neutron-neutron (E.N.N.) y exploracion gamma-neutron con una fuente neutronica de Po-Be; exploracion por activacion (sobre todo por activacion continua) empleando la misma fuente, y exploracion foton-neutron con el emisor gamma {sup 124}Sb. El empleo de la E R en los yacimientos de mineral tiene por principal objeto detectar criaderos en masa en la zona de sondeo, con lo que se consigue reducir los intervalos entre los analisis, asi como valorar aproximadamente los elementos utiles que contiene el sector. La E.R. permite determinar la presencia, el espesor y la estructura de los filones en los yacimientos de carbon. Los metodos denominados E.G.G. y E.G.G.S. consisten en registrar las radiaciones gamma dispersas. Cuando la fuente emite radiaciones de dureza suficiente y el detector es poco sensible, la intensidad de las radiaciones dispersas depende solamente de la densidad de los estratos rocosos y de la distancia entre la fuente y el detector. Este es el caso de la E.G.G., en la que se localizan las capas de carbon por las intensidades maximas de las radiaciones dispersas. La caracteristica fundamental de la E.G.G.S. es que registra la zona blanda del espectro de las radiaciones dispersas, cuya intensidad se debilita bruscamente al aumentar el numero atomico medio de los elementos presentes en la region explorada. La sensibilidad de este metodo es del orden del 0,01 por ciento y permite localizar con nitidez los criaderos en masa que contienen elementos pesados (plomo, wolframio, mercurio, etc.), asi como aycimientos de mineral de hierro (siderita). La elevada seccion eficaz de captura de neutrones termicos del boro hace posible determinar estratos boriferos en la zona del sondeo empleando los metodos E.G.N. y E.N.N. La influencia del agua se elimina mediante sondeos inversos. Este metodo, asi como otros sistemas de exploracion por activacion neutronica, han sido aplicados tambien en diversos yacimientos de cobre, manganeso, aluminio y otros minerales. La exploracion por activacion continua esta indicada cuando el periodo de semi [Russian] Na rudnykh i ugol'nykh mestorozhdeniyakh metody yadernoj geofiziki primenyayutsya glavnym obrazom pri karotazhe razvedochnykh skvazhin. Na rudnykh i ugol'nykh mestorozhdeniyakh Sovetskogo Soyuza nakhodyat shirokoe proizvodstvennoe primenenie sleduyushchie vidy radioaktivnogo ili yadernogo karotazha (RK): plotnostnoj ili gamma-gamma karotazh (GGK) s istochnikom izlucheniya Co{sup 60}, selektivnyj gamma-gamma karotazh (SGGK) s istochnikom myagkogo izlucheniya tipa S75, nejtron-nejtronnyj karotazh (NNK) i nejtronnyj gamma karotazh s Ro-Ve istochnikom nejtronov, akti- vatsionnyj, v chastnosti nepreryvnyj, karotazh s tem zhe istochnikom, a takzhe foto-nej- tronnyj karotazh s gamma-izluchatelem Sb{sup 124}. Osnovnaya zadacha RK na rudnykh mestorozhdeniyakh - vydelenie rudnykh zon v razreze skvazhin, chto sokrashchaet intervaly oprobovaniya, i orientirovochnaya otsenka soderzhaniya poleznogo komponenta in situ. Na ugol'nykh mestorozhdeniyakh RK reshaet zadachu opredeleniya glubiny zaleganiya, moshchnosti i stroeniya ugol'nykh plastov. ' Metody GGK i SGGK osnovany na registratsii rasseyannogo gamma-izlucheniya istochnika. Pri dostatochnoj zhestkosti izlucheniya istochnika i slaboj chuvstvitel'nosti indikatora intensivnost' rasseyannogo izlucheniya zavisit tol'ko ot plotnosti porody i rasstoyaniya mezhdu istochnikom i indikatorom. EHto sluchaj GGK, kotorym ugol'nye plasty vydelyayutsya po maksimumam rasseyannogo izlucheniya. V SGGK sushchestvenna registratsiya myagkoj chasti spektra rasseyannogo izlucheniya, intensivnost' kotoroj rezko oslablyaetsya s uvelicheniem srednego atomnogo nomera ehlementov sredy. EHtim metodom uspeshno vydelyayutsya rudnye zony s tyazhelymi ehlementami (svinets, vol'fram, rtut' i dr.). CHuvstvitel'nost' metoda poryadka 0,01 % SGGK uspeshno primenyaetsya na zhelezorudnykh (sideritovykh) mestorozhde- niyakh. Anomal'no bol'shoe sechenie zakhvata teplovykh nejtronov borom pozvolyaet vydelyat' v razreze skvazhin boronosnye zony metodami NGK i NNK. Meshayushchee vliyanie vody isklyuchaetsya inversionnymi zondami. EHti nejtronnye metody, a takzhe nejtronno-aktivatsionnyj karotazh nashli primenenie takzhe na mestorozhdeniyakh medi, margantsa, alyuminiya i nekotorykh drugikh. Nepreryvnyj aktivatsionnyj karotazh tselesoobrazen pri podkhodyashchem periode poluraspada voznikayushchego radioaktivnogo izotopa. Pri ehtom teoriya pozvolyaet ustanovit' optimal'nye usloviya karotazha (skorost', dlina zonda i t.d.). Registratsiya nejtronov pri foto-nejtronnom karotazhe pozvolyaet vydelyat' zony, obogashchennye berilliem, i otsenivat' soderzhaniya ehtogo ehlementa, nachinaya s 0,001%. Opyt podtverzhdaet ehffektivnost' i ehkonomicheskuyu tselesoobraznost' primeneniya metodov yadernoj geofiziki pri razvedke rudnykh i ugol'nykh mestorozhdenij. (author)

  5. IAEA Technical co-operation. A partner in development. Nuclear science serving people; La cooperation technique de l`AIEA. Un partenariat pour le developpement. La science nucleaire au service de l`humanite; La cooperacion tecnica del OIEA. Un socio para el desarrollo. La ciencia nuclear al servicio de la gente; Tekhnicheskoe sotrudnichestvo magateh. Partner v tselyakh razvitiya. Yadernaya nauka na sluzhbe chelovechestva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinley, D; Perez Vargaz, J


    This issue contains descriptions of IAEA technical cooperation programs in a variety of disciplines and locations. It includes articles on the eradication of Tsetse flies in Africa, biofertilizers for agriculture, new strains of rice, water resource management, pollution control for a sustainable environment, nuclear medicine, and ensuring nuclear reactor safety

  6. USSR Report, Physics and Mathematics. (United States)


    10), Aug 86) 3A Occurrence of Boson Resonances During pp-Interactions at 32 GeV/s (Ye. A. Kozlovskiy, V. A. Bumazhnov, et. al.; YADERNAYA FIZIKA... BOSON RESONANCES DURING pp-INTERACTIONS AT 32 GeV/s Moscow YADERNAYA FIZIKA in Russian Vol 44, No A(10), Aug 86 (manuscript received 14 Oct 85) pp 968...scalar leptons with gauge and Higgs fermions. Omission of mixing has been found to result in appreciable errors. With constraints on the masses of

  7. Activity of CAJAD for the IAEA Meeting, France, Issy-les-Moulineuax, 16-19 April 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babykina, S.


    Our Exfor activity had main direction. 1. Compilation A-Library. After last meeting 2011 year A070-A073, A075-A077 trans file were prepared. The number of new entries of charged-particles induced data was 74 and 133 corrected entries, which were updated according new exfor rules and last meeting conclusions. Basically the new entries contains the experimental data on elastic and inelastic scattering, fission cross sections and isotope production cross sections. The compilation of SHE papers, recommended by NRDC was performed by CAJAD (Trans A073) and represented by Dr. Mohini Gupta on SHE meetings at Manipal (February 2012). Following Action 33 of the last meeting, english translations of articles published in 'Yadernaya Fizika' (YF) coded in EXFOR REFERENCE has been checked, the result was represented in WP-2012. 2. Team-work with NEA DATA-BANK. During 2011-2012 years 93 new and 11 old entries were compiled and included in O-library. These entries contain mainly differential data for elastic and inelastic scattering, fission and spallation cross sections. 3. Checking Codes and Exfor Editor. CAJAD uses to input and check our TRANS and ENTRIES: -Exfor Editor (G.Pikulina, Sarov) -CHEX (V.Zerkin, IAEA) -CHECKER (N.Soppera, NEA DATA BANK). 4. Digitizing program. CAJAD uses Graph Digitizing System GSYS-2.4.0, created by Nuclear Reaction Data Centre (JCPRG) for digitizing plots. 5. Future plans. - Compilation of the new experimental CPND, measured in Russia and countries of former Soviet Union (except Ukraine), also compilation of experimental data on charged particle induced nuclear reactions (voluntary compilation - Category B) in coordination with IAEA NDS.

  8. Commissioning Experience from the Agesta Nuclear Power Plant; Experience acquise lors des essais de mise en service de la centrale nucleaire d'Agesta; Opyt po vvedeniyu v ehkspluatatsiyu yadernoj ehnergeticheskoj ustanovki Agesta; Experiencia adquirida con la puesta en marcha de la central nucleoelectrica de Agesta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydell, N. [Aagesta Kraftvarmewerk, Farsta (Sweden)


    The Agesta Nuclear Power Plant is a pressurized heavy water reactor of the pressure vessel type, fuelled with natural uranium. It was commissioned with light water from December 1962 to May 1963. Observations of a more general interest were made during this commissioning essentially on the following topics; (a) cleanliness of primary circuit (b) valve operation (c) pressurization of the primary circuit (d) water leakage (e) refuelling machinery (f) containment testing. (author) [French] Il s'agit d'un reacteur a uranium naturel et a eau lourde pressurisee, du type a caisson sous pression. Les essais de mise en service ont ete faits avec de l'eau ordinaire, de decembre 1962 a mai 1963. La mise en service a permis de faire des observations d'interet general sur les sujets suivants: a) non-contamination du circuit primaire; b) fonctionnement des vannes; c) maintien sous pression du circuit primaire; d) fuites d'eau; e) appareils de chargement du combustible; f) essais d'isolement. (author) [Spanish] La central nucleoelectrica de Agesta posee un reactor de agua pesada del tipo de recipiente de presion, con combustible de uranio natural. Se mantuvo en funcionamiento con agua ligera entre diciembre de 1962 y mayo de 1963. Durante esta prueba, se efectuaron observaciones de interes mas general, relacionadas esencialmente con las siguientes cuestiones: a) limpieza del circuito primario; b) funcionamiento de las valvulas; c) presion del circuito primario; d) perdidas de agua; e) dosposiciones de reposicion del Combustible; f) ensayos de confinamiento. (author) [Russian] Yadernaya ehnergeticheskaya ustanovka Agesta predstavlyaet soboj tyazhelovodnyj reaktor pod davleniem, ispol'zuyushchij prirodnyj uran v kachestve topliva. Reaktor byl vveden v ehkspluatatsiyu na obychnoj vode v period s dekabrya 1962 goda po maj 1963 goda. Zamechaniya bolee obshchego kharaktera byli sdelany vo vremya ehkspluatatsii v osnovnom po sledukhshchim temam: a) chistota pervichnogo kontura; b

  9. Center of Nuclear Physics Data (CNPD), RFNC-VNIIEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taova, S.


    Full text: Compilation activity. Three transmission files TRANS.F039, TRANS.F040 and PRELIM.F041 were prepared for the EXFOR data library within the past period. Much attention was paid to the work on error correction. 32 old entries were revised. Besides, there was introduced a set of corrections into entries with index 'A'. Scanning of home journals 'Yadernaya Fizika', 'Izvestiya Academii Nauk' was continued. Articles from old issues of and were also reviewed. Last year the works on the development of the Reference Database for Ion Beam Analysis (IBANDL) performed within the ISTC frames were successfully completed. For three year approximately 800 files including the sets of experimental data on charged particle interaction with nuclei were introduced into the library. Software EXFOR-Editor: Intensive development of EXFOR - Editor is being continued. The software improvement is based mainly on the numerous comments and feedbacks of the users. Lately many new functions and additional service were implemented to the EXFOR - Editor. Constant work on error correction is being performed. In August last year G. Pikulina and S. Taova took part in the Workshop on the development of the Exfor library organized by NDS. Technical reports describing the main steps of the software improvement were presented. On the basis of different comments and advises of the Workshop participants a new version of EXFOR - Editor was prepared. The distributive and a file describing the main changes made in the program were placed at the NDS open area. Optical Model calculations. Last year the works on designing the program code on the basis of optical model for the analysis of elastic scattering cross sections of neutrons, protons, deuterons and alpha particles were completed in general. At present the active testing of this program code is being performed. When designing the program some innovations contributing to accuracy improvement and calculating speed increase were introduced into

  10. Post-Construction Testing of the Elk River, Hallam and Piqua Power Reactor Plants; Essais apres construction des centrales nucleaires d'Elk River, de Hallam et de Piqua; Predehkspluatatsionnoe ispytanie Ehlk-riverskoj, Khehlpemskoj i Pikuaskoj ehnergeticheskikh reaktornykh ustanovok; Ensayos posteriores a la construccion de las centrales nucleoelectricas de Elk River, Hallam y Piqua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pursel, C. A. [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Argonne, IL (United States)


    defectos hallados: Reactor de Elk River. Se descubrieron grietas en parte del revestimiento superficial del recipiente del reactor; ello obligo a efectuar una serie de investigaciones y analisis, asi como ciertas reparaciones y modificaciones del recipiente. La insuficiente capacidad de separacion de vapor obligo a sustituir y modificar algunas piezas metalicas en el interior del recipiente del reactor. Central nucleoelectrica de Hallam. Debido al arrastre de helio, hubo que modificar los circuitos secundarios de sodio. La falla de un tubo del intercambiador de calor intermedio (sodio-sodio) obligo a llevar a cabo una serie de analisis para descubrir su causa y extraer y reparar el intercambiador. Central nucleoelectrica de Piqua. Durante la limpieza de las tuberias con agentes quimicos, se dallaron varias valvulas que fue preciso reparar o sustituir. Las fugas en el circuito del refrigerante organico y del vapor secundario provocaron demoras repetidas. Una vez concluidas las reparaciones e introducidas las modificaciones necesarias, se comprobo que las caracteristicas de rendimiento reales de cada uno de los tres reactores se ajustaban estrictamente a las previstas en el proyecto. (author) [Russian] Fakticheskij opyt, nakoplennyj vo vremya predehkspluatatsionnykh ispytanij trekh yadernykh ehnergeticheskikh ustanovok, postroennykh po demonstratsionnoj programme ehnergeticheskikh reaktorov Komissii po atomnoj ehnergii Soedinennykh Shtatov, pozvolyaet sdelat' nekotorye obobshcheniya v otnoshenii ehtoj fazy stroitel'stva i ehkspluatatsii ustanovok. Tri ustanovki, a imenno Ehlk-riverskij reaktor (ERR), Khehllemskaya yadernaya ehnergeticheskaya ustanovka (HNPF) i Pikuaskaya yadernaya ehnergeticheskaya ustanovka (PNPF), predstavlyayut tri razlichnykh tipa reaktorov: reaktor s kipyashej vodoj s estestvennoj tsirkulyatsiej, natrievo-grafitovyj reaktor i reaktor s organicheskim teplonositelem i zamedlitelem sootvetstvenno. Period predehkspluatatsionnykh ispytanij okhvatyvaet vremya

  11. New processing techniques for radioisotopes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Production de radioisotopes: nouvelles techniques employees au Laboratoire national d'Oak Ridge; Novye tekhnologicheskie metody polucheniya radioizotopov v Okridzhskoj natsional'noj laboratorii; Nuevos metodos de preparacion de radioisotopos aplicados en el Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, T A; Lamb, E; Rupp, A F [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    vozmozhnost' otdeleniya i ochistki strontsiya-90 ot obshchej massy zagryaznitelej putem nepreryvnogo promyvaniya tonkim ehkstragiruyushchim sloem rastvoritelya. Udalos' dostich' proizvodstva 98-protsentnogo strontsiya iz iskhodnogo materiala, soderzhavshego 95 % inertnogo kal'tsievogo zagryaznitelya. Dalee strontsij-90 pererabatyvalsya dlya polucheniya keramicheskikh ehlementov titanata strontsiya. (author)

  12. Preparation of Ceramic-Grade Thorium-Uranium Oxide; Preparation d'un melange d'oxydes de thorium et d'uranium propre a la fabrication de combustible ceramique; Izgotovlenie keramicheskogo torievo-uranovogo okisla; Preparacion de mezclas de oxidos de uranio y torio, de tipo ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogliati, G.; De Leone, R.; Ferrari, S.; Gabaglio, M.; Liscia, A. [Centro Studi Nucleari della Casaccia, Rome (Italy)


    izgotovleniya toplivnykh ehlementov, tak i dlya regeneratsii materialov takogo roda. Na pervoj stadii protsessa nitrat uranila vosstanavlivaetsya do nitrata urana (IV). V kachestve vosstanovitelya ispol'zuyutsya kak gazoobraznyj vodorod, tak i murav'inaya kislota; mochevina dobavlyaetsya dlya predotvrashcheniya obrazovaniya azotistoj kisloty, kotoraya uskoryaet povtornoe okislenie urana (IV). V kachestve katalizatora mogut primenyat'sya platina i palladij. Privodyatsya dannye dlya nepreryvnogo protsessa, v kotorom murav'inaya kislota i mochevina dobavlyayutsya k rastvoru, poslednij zatem podogrevaetsya i podaetsya v kolonku, zapolnennuyu alyuminievymi tabletkami razmerom 3,87 x 3,17 mm, 0,5% kotorykh sostavlyaet platina. Izucheny vliyaniya skorosti potoka, temperatury, kontsentratsii murav'inoj kisloty i mocheviny, a takzhe prodolzhitel'nost' sluzhby i otravlenie katalizatora. Vtoraya stadiya protsessa zaklyuchaetsya v osazhdenii oksalato'v toriya i urana (IV). Opisyvaetsya vliyanie shchavelevoj kisloty na otnoshenie torij/uran, temperatury i vremeni stareniya na otstaivanie i fil'tratsionnye kharakteristiki osadka i na keramicheskie svojstva poluchennykh poroshkov. Prokalka proizvodilas' kak v vosstanovitel'noj, tak i v okislitel'noj atmosferakh. Posle predvaritel'nykh ispytanij byli prinyaty dva standartnykh metoda izgotovleniya keramicheskikh izdelij, a imenno: kholodnaya pressovka i spekanie, ehkstruziya i spekanie. Spekaemost' razlichnykh poroshkov byla ispytana s pomoshch'yu ehtikh oboikh standartnykh metodov. S nekotorymi poroshkami byli polucheny plotnosti svyshe 95% teoreticheski dopustimoj. Uspeshno byli provedeny ispytaniya na vosproizvodimost'. (author)

  13. Transmutation doping and recoil effects in semiconductors exposed to thermal neutrons; Transmutations provoquees et effets de recul dans les semi-conducteurs exposes aux neutrons thermiques; Prisadka i sdacha v rezul'tate prevrashcheniya poluprovodnikov pod dejstviem teplovykh nejtronov; Impurificacion por transmutacion y efectos de retroceso en los semiconductores expuestos a neutrones termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Jr, J H; Cleland, J W [Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    ,2, 39 chasov. Poehtomu okolo 3 aktseptorov (Ca{sup 71}) vvodyatsya na kazhdyj donor (As{sup 75} i Se{sup 77}), i putem vybora prodolzhitel'nosti oblucheniya mozhno sokratit' kontsentratsiyu ehlektronov Se tipa ''n'' do ves'ma malykh znachenij ili prevratit' Se tipa ''n'' v tip ''p''. Period poluraspada, vedushchij k obrazovaniyu Ga71, dostatochno prodolzhitelen, tak chto podrobnaya ''radioaktivnaya titratsiya'' mozhet soprovozhdat'sya opredeleniem koehffitsienta KHolla i ehlektroprovodnosti. Opyty pokazyvayut takzhe, chto priblizitel'no odin ehlektron na kazhdyj zakhvat nejtrona udalyaetsya defektom reshetki, sozdannym otdachej yadra pri zakhvate ispuskaemykh gamma-luchej. EHti vytesnennye atomy mogut byt' vozvrashcheny obratno na svoe mesto v normal'noj reshetke putem otzhiga pri 450 Degree-Sign C. Byli proizvedeny takzhe nablyudeniya nad dejstviem otdachi v kremnie, prichem bylo ustanovleno, chto na kazhdyj zakhvat ustranyaetsya priblizitel'no 2 nositelya zaryada. Posledstviya ehtikh rezul'tatov, a takzhe rezul'taty v otnoshenii germaniya obsuzhdayutsya v funktsii ot zakhvata spektra gamma-luchej. V sur'myanistom indii zakhvat gamma-luchej iz In{sup 115} nedostatochen dlya togo, chtoby vytesnit' bol'shoe chislo yader, tak chto glavnym vozdejstviem yavlyaetsya obrazovanie Sn{sup 116}, kotoryj stanovitsya donorom pri zamene mesta v reshetke indiya. YAdernaya prisadka predstavlyaetsya perspektivnoj dlya izucheniya mnogochislennykh slozhnykh poluprovodnikov, vvedenie v kotorye primesej khimicheskim sposobom predstavlyaetsya zatrudnitel'nym. (author)

  14. Initial Operating Experience with the ''NPD'' Reactor; Experience recueillie pendant les premiers mois de fonctionnement du reacteur NPD; Pervyj opyt po ehkspluatatsii reaktora NPD; Experiencia inicial de funcionamiento del reactor NPD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, L. G. [Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)


    fueron satisfactorios-, el primer ensayo de explotacion, que duro seis semanas, permitio alcanzar un factor de potencia del 70%. Los perfeccionamientos introducidos han permitido mejorar el grado de seguridad y el rendimiento, y han revelado la posibilidad de reducir los gastos de inversion en centrales futuras. Por ejemplo, se han modificado las empaquetaduras de las bombas del circuito primario de refrigeracion para alcanzar mayor rendimiento; el equipo de recuperacion de vapor por congelacion ha sido sustituido por columnas de absorcion a fin de reducir las perdidas de vapor de agua pesada; se estan instalando limitadores de flujo en algunas tuberias para disminuir las perdidas de agua pesada en el caso de averias en las juntas. En diciembre de 1962, dos escapes simultaneos que se produjeron en el aparato de realimentacion del reactor en marcha dieron origen a una serie de incidentes poco comunes; una cantidad considerable de agua pesada a alta presion y temperatura se derramo en el recinto del reactor, alterandose ligeramente su pureza isotopica. Luego de purificarse el agua, el reactor pudo reiniciar su funcionamiento a fines del mes. Todos los dispositivos de seguridad y en especial los destinados a evitar los escapes de agua pesada funcionaron correctamente durante el incidente. (author) [Russian] Rassmatrivaetsya pervaya yadernaya ehlektrostantsiya Kanady, demonstratsionnaya ehlektrostantsiya, prednaznachennaya dlya ispytaniya ehkspluatatsionnykh kachestv stantsij kanadskogo tipa, ispol'zuyushchikh v kachestve topliva prirodnyj uran, a v kachestve zamedlitelya i teplonositelya - tyazheluyu vodu. 28 iyunya 1962 goda ehta stantsiya dostigla polnoj moshchnosti. Nesmotrya na to, chto ona proektirovalas' dlya raooty na bazovoj nagruzke, v techenie pervykh stadij ona budet chast' vremeni rabotat' na vysokikh urovnyakh moshchnosti i chast' vremeni - na ponizhennykh moshchnostyakh dlya v-neseniya usovershenstvovanij. Do sikh por nablyudalsya progress; pervyj period

  15. Production of Strontium-90 Thermal Power Sources; Fabrication de sources d'energie thermique au strontium-90; Proizvodstvo istochnikov ''teplovoj ehnergii iz Sr''9''0; Preparacion de fuentes de energia termica con estroncio-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J. S.; Bloom, J. L.; Schneider, A. [Martin Company, Nuclear Division, Baltimore 3, MD (United States)


    rajonakh. V ehtom smysle Sr{sup 90} priobretaet bol'shoe znachenie iz-za ego shirokoj dostupnosti, aktivnosti i toj sravnitel'noj legkosti, s kotoroj ego mozhno prevrashchat' v kompaktnye istochniki tepla. Generatory, rabotayushchie na Sr{sup 90} sluzhat v kachestve istochnikov pitaniya avtomaticheskikh meteorologicheskikh i navigatsionnykh stantsij; rassmatrivaetsya vozmozhnost' primeneniya Sr{sup 90} v kachestve istochnika ehnergii dlya dvigatelej kosmicheskikh korablej. Pri sravnitel'noj otsenke ryada strontsievykh soedinenij okazalos', chto naibolee tselesoobrazno ispol'zovat' titanat, tak kak on obladaet naibolee tsennymi svojstvami. Sr{sup 90}, otdelennyj ot drugikh produktov deleniya, ochishchaetsya do trebuemoj stepeni chistoty na predpriyatii Komissii po atomnoj ehnergii SSHA v Khehnforde i trasportiruetsya v vide karbonata v ''gorya- chuyu'' kameru(firmy ''Martin''), gde prevrashchaetsya v granulirovannyj titanat. V ehtom protsesse ispol'zuetsya distantsionnoe upravlenie, analogichnoe primenyaemomu v obychnom khimicheskom i keramicheskom proizvodstve. Granuly, zaklyuchennye v kapsuly, pomeshchayutsya v kontejnery tipa ''Khastellou C'' dlya primeneniya v ehnergeticheskikh ustanovkakh s termoehlektricheskim preobrazovaniem ehnergii. Zdes' prikhoditsya stalkivat'sya s neobychnymi ehkspluatatsionnymi problemami, tak kak bol'shie kolichestva obrabatyvaemogo Sr{sup 90} (milliony kyuri v god) obladayut strashnoj radioaktivnost'yu i sozdayut opasnost' zarazheniya. Opisano ustrojstvo prisposoblenij, oborudovaniya, kharakterizuyutsya tekhnologiya i tekhnika bezopasnosti. Opisyvayutsya dannye opyta, priobretennogo vo vremya nedavnej pererabotki pervykh 250 000 kyuri Sr{sup 90} v toplivo dlya generatora SNAP-7 (yadernaya batareya). Privodyatsya takzhe dannye po germetizatsii granul v kontejnerakh, po kalorimetrii, dezaktivatsii i metodike udaleniya otkhodov. (author)