Full Text Available O processo de desintegração de tubérculos de yacon promove a incorporação de oxigênio que favorece a oxidação de compostos fenólicos e decorrente contaminação do extrato aquoso com cores e odores objetáveis que prejudicam a sua utilização. Este estudo buscou verificar uma metodologia simplificada de extração dos carboidratos presentes nos tubérculos de yacon e efetuar uma primeira remoção de resíduos e compostos originários das cores e odores indesejáveis, utilizando processos de coagulação e precipitação, aplicando tecnologias de baixo custo. Após a etapa de trituração e remoção dos restos celulares, o extrato teve seu pH aumentado para 9,5 e a temperatura para 90ºC, seguido de sedimentação. A remoção deste precipitado foi realizada por filtração em papel após a coagulação com diferentes concentrações de sulfato de alumínio comercial. Verificou-se que a melhor concentração de coagulante no extrato foi de 100ppm, removendo 90,6% dos compostos coloridos. O balanço de massa mostrou uma recuperação de 47,5% dos sólidos totais sendo que 35,6% estão na forma de carboidratos, verificado através da concentrção de carbono orgânico. O processo de pré-tratamento químico causou hidrólise nos oligofrutanos, detectado por um aumento na concentração de açúcares redutores totais, diretamente proporcional à concentração de sulfato de alumínio utilizado no tratamento de coagulação. Análises cromatográficas indicaram o perfil dos açúcares no hidrolisado e a extensão desta hidrólise que foi considerada pequena. A metodologia aplicada mostrou-se fácil, de baixo custo, eficiente e aplicável em agroindústrias nas zonas produtoras desta espécie de raiz tropical.The process of disintegration of yacon roots promotes the oxygen incorporation that favors the phenolic oxidation and current contamination of the aqueous extract with undesirable colors and scents that damage its use. This work aims
Activity of the aqueous extract from Polymnia sonchifolia leaves on growth and production of aflatoxin B1 by Aspergillus flavus Atividade do extrato aquoso de folhas de Polymnia sonchifolia no crescimento e produção de aflatoxina B1 por Aspergillus flavus
Marina M. Pinto
Full Text Available The aqueous extract from Polymnia sonchifolia leaves (AE was tested for inhibitory activity on aflatoxin B1(AFB1 production and growth of Aspergillus flavus. The cytotoxicity of AE on Vero cells was also performed. Suspensions of A. flavus spores were inoculated into 50 mL of YES medium together with different concentrations of the AE. The aflatoxin B1 was extracted, analyzed by thin layer chromatography and quantified by photodensitometry. All the concentrations of AE induced inhibition of AFB1 production. The aqueous extract showed in vitro cytotoxicity to Vero cells only at concentrations above 500 µg/mL.Neste trabalho verificou-se a atividade do extrato aquoso de folhas de Polymnia sonchifolia no crescimento e na produção de aflatoxinas B1 por Aspergillus flavus. Suspensões de esporos de A. flavus foram inoculadas em 50 mL de meio de YES com diferentes concentrações do extrato aquoso. A aflatoxina B1 foi extraída e analisada por cromatografia de camada delgada e quantificada por fotodensitometria. Todas as concentrações testadas inibiram a produção de aflatoxina B1. O extrato aquoso apresentou citotoxicidade em células Vero somente em concentrações acima de 500 µg/mL.
Janaína Andréa Moscatto
Full Text Available Novos ingredientes têm sido investigados para que possam atender às exigências do mercado consumidor atual que deseja produtos com qualidade sensorial e nutricional associada a benefícios para a saúde. Os frutooligossacarídeos (FOS presentes no yacon (Polymnia sonchifolia, e a inulina apresentam propriedades promotoras de saúde (fibra alimentar e efeito prebiótico e podem melhorar aspectos sensoriais em alimentos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos utilizar a inulina e/ou farinha de yacon como ingredientes do bolo de chocolate. Os bolos obtidos das formulações padrão (P, da formulação (A contendo a farinha de trigo substituída em 20% por farinha de yacon e da formulação (B contendo a farinha de trigo substituída em 40% por farinha de yacon e em 6% por inulina, foram avaliados quanto às suas propriedades químicas e físicas, preferência e estabilidade de armazenamento em relação ao bolo padrão de chocolate. Os bolos das formulações A e B apresentaram propriedades químicas, físicas, preferência e estabilidade comparáveis ao da formulação padrão. Como vantagens, apresentaram menores valores de dureza, maiores teores em fibra alimentar total (12,35% e 23,6% em relação ao P (9,02%. O valor calórico foi semelhante (2,09kal para A e menor (1,62kal para B que do padrão (2,13kcal, além da presença de frutooligossacarídeos e ou inulina. Portanto, a farinha de yacon e inulina podem ser utilizadas como ingredientes para formular bolo de chocolate, fornecendo produtos com características que atendem às exigências do mercado consumidor.The high consumer's needs for food with sensorial and nutritional qualities besides nutritional benefits to health, makes new ingredients search necessary in order to meet the consumer's. The fructooligosaccharides of yacon and inulin have properties that improve health (alimentary fiber and prebiotic effect and they can improve sensorial aspects in food. This work aims at
Claudia Severo da Rosa
Full Text Available A batata Yacon apresenta carboidratos na forma de frutooligossacarídeos (FOS. Estudos comprovam que os FOS aumentam a saciedade e reduzem o índice glicêmico. Os produtos da fermentação podem minimizar a resposta glicêmica, além de estimular a glicólise, e ainda resultam em uma porção reduzida de energia. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram elaborar a farinha de Yacon, avaliar a composição química de diferentes concentrações de farinha de Yacon na elaboração de bolos e analisar sensorialmente as preparações elaboradas. A farinha de Yacon apresentou potencial como ingrediente na formulação de bolos, uma vez que teve boa aceitabilidade.The Yacon potatoes present carbohydrates in the form of fructo oligosaccharides (FOS. There are studies proving that the FOS delays the gastric emptying, increase the alimentary fiber,have prebiotic and hypoglycemic effects. They stimulate glycolysis, resulting in a reduced amount of energy. The objective of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition of cakes formulated with different concentrations of Yacon flour and to evaluate their sensory characteristics. The Yacon flour presented potential to be a cake ingredient.
Wagner de Souza Tavares
Full Text Available The Zona da Mata region is located in southeastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil with fauna and flora diversified, including herbivorous insects and Solanaceae plants. Ithomiinae caterpillars were observed damaging tree of Solanum granuloso-leprosum Dunal (Solanaceae, used for different purposes and abundant in secondary forest. The objective of this study was to identify defoliating caterpillars of S. granuloso-leprosum at the campus of Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil and review host plants of Mechanitis polymnia L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae. Thirteen caterpillars found damaging a tree of S. granuloso-leprosum at the campus of UFV were collected and maintained in the Laboratório de Controle Biológico de Insetos (LCBI from UFV until adult emergence. These caterpillars were of two species, being ten of the first and three of the second species. Adult specimens of the latter species were identified as Ithomia lichyi lichyi D'Almeida, 1939 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in the Departamento de Zoologia of Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil and of the group of ten caterpillars as Mechanitis polymnia casabranca Haensch, 1905 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in the Museu de Zoologia of Universidade de São Paulo (USP in São Paulo State, Brazil. This is the first report of M. polymnia casabranca and I. lichyi lichyi together damaging plant of S. granuloso-leprosum in the Zona da Mata region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil and 57 plants are recorded as host of M. polymnia.
Caroline Fenner Scher
Full Text Available ABSTRACTYacon roots contain inulin, which has prebiotic properties and it may be used as sucrose or fat substitutes. However, inulin is very soluble in water. The loss of this important nutrient during blanching is caused mainly by diffusion or leaching, which might be diminished if blanching temperature - time conditions are correctly employed. The aim of this study was to determine the leaching of the sugars inulin, glucose and fructose, present in yacon roots, during hot water blanching under different time/temperature conditions. The samples were cleaned and peeled and cut into geometric forms of 1.75 ± 0.35 mm thick disks. A complete factorial experimental design was used, and the treatments of the samples were compared using the Tukey test. The results indicated that the time and temperature were significant in the dissolution of the sugars. The lowest inulin losses occurred at temperatures and times lower than 60 ºC and 3 minutes. For all temperatures, the lowest glucose and fructose losses were obtained at time lower than 3 and 5 minutes, respectively.
Jimenez, María Eugenia; Rossi, Analia; Sammán, Norma
Andean roots and tubers are underexploited crops; many contain compounds beneficial to health, so a greater knowledge of their properties is important for encouraging their consumption. The aim of this work was to study the content of bioactive compounds of yacon and oca and their effect on intestinal health using as a model rats of the Wistar strain. Two varieties of ocas (Overa and Rosada) and yacon, which contain significant amounts of fructooligosaccharides and phenolic compounds, were chosen. Rats of the Wistar strain were fed for two months with diets containing these foods in amounts sufficient to provide 8% of fiber. A significant decrease in pH values and an increment in lactobacilli and bifidobacteria counts in the cecum of rats fed with inulin, oca Rosada and Overa were observed; there was no significant decrease in enterobacteriaceae and enterococci counts. The cecum antioxidant activity was incremented in rats fed with the experimental foods with respect to the control diets. The components of dietary fiber and phenolic compound contents in yacon and oca produce effects that contribute to the intestinal health of the experimental animals.
Vivianne Montarroyos Padilha
Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliado o uso de farinha de yacon na formulação de bolos de chocolate para se verificar a influência deste constituinte sobre a qualidade sensorial e cromaticidade do produto. Foram analisadas amostras de bolos, formulados com farinha de yacon, denominadas: amostra P (bolo padrão, sem farinha de yacon, amostra A (bolo com 20% de farinha de yacon e amostra B (bolo com 40% de farinha de yacon. Para a avaliação sensorial, foi realizada a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ, utilizando 15 provadores treinados, os quais definiram 9 atributos sensoriais (cor, estrutura do miolo, aroma, gosto doce, sabor de chocolate, sabor residual, umectância, maciez e qualidade global. A análise física dos bolos foi realizada através da caracterização cromática. Os dados sensoriais foram submetidos à análise de variância ANOVA, sendo realizado o teste de Duncan para comparação entre as médias de Duncan, ao nível de 5% de significância. Para verificar as correlações entre as amostras e os atributos, foi realizada a Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. Na ACP, a soma de componentes principais 1 e 2 foi de 83,3%, ou seja, a variabilidade entre as amostras foi explicada por estes dois componentes. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a adição de 40% de farinha de yacon resultou em maiores notas para o aroma (10,16, gosto doce (7,60, sabor de chocolate (10,52, maciez (11,44 e qualidade global (11,64. Com relação ao atributo estrutura não houve diferença significativa entre as notas dos bolos P, A e B. Independente da quantidade de farinha de yacon adicionada, o perfil sensorial dos bolos de chocolate foi influenciado e, em particular, o bolo com maior teor de farinha de yacon apresentou as melhores notas.This study evaluated the use of yacon flour in the formulation of chocolate cakes by investigating its influence on the sensory quality and chromaticity of the product. The following samples were prepared and
Watanabe, Felipe Miguel Farion
Resumo: A maioria dos produtos probióticos são elaborados à base de leite, com desvantagens aos consumidores intolerantes à lactose, tornando assim produtos probióticos não lácteos vantajosos. O yacon é uma planta que acumula em suas raízes compostos prebióticos conhecidos como frutooligossacarídeos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir o suco de yacon e utilizá-lo como matriz não láctea para a bactéria probiótica Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis. O yacon apresentou rápido escurecimento...
Irene Duarte Gandica
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio con el fin de determinar la estructura demográfica de Emilia sonchifolia (L. DC en una finca cafetera del Municipio de Armenia, Quindío, Colombia, donde se recolectaron datos durante 4 semanas, en tres sitios: exterior, borde e interior del cultivo. Usando parámetros calculados a partir de los datos de campo, se construyó un modelo logístico para describir el comportamiento poblacional en el tiempo. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en las variables: número de individuos por estado etario en el tiempo, porcentaje de mortalidad, tiempo de cambio del estado plántula a juvenil y de juvenil a adulto, número de hojas y de ramas; no se encontraron diferencias significativas en la densidad poblacional, número de inflorescencias e infrutescencias en los sitios de estudio. En general, se puede atribuir este comportamiento a la estrategia de reproducción r que sigue E. sonchifolia. Finalmente, las simulaciones hechas a partir del modelo logístico sugieren que la especie tiende a desaparecer si alguno de los estados etarios no está presente inicialmente; así, una alternativa plausible para el control sería su eliminación en el estado juvenil. Los resultados ofrecen alternativas con respecto al manejo de poblaciones de arvenses. ABSTRACT A research study was conducted to determine the demographic structure of Emilia sonchifolia L. in a coffee plantation in Armenia, Quindío, Colombia. Data were collected over a period of four weeks on three sites: inside, at the border and outside a coffee farm. A logistic population model was built to describe the population behavior of E. sonchifolia over time. Statiscally significant differences were found between: number of individuals per life stage in time, mortality rate, transition time from seedling to juvenile and from juvenile to adult; and number of leaves and branches. There was no evidence for statistically significant differences in population density or in number
Full Text Available The human gut is densely populated with diverse microbial communities that are essential to health. Prebiotics and fiber have been shown to possess the ability to modulate the gut microbiota. One of the plants being considered as a potential source of prebiotic is yacon. Yacon is an underutilized plant consumed as a traditional root-based fruit in South America. Yacon mainly contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS and inulin. Therefore, it has bifidogenic benefits for gut health, because FOS are not easily broken down by digestive enzymes. Bioactive chemical compounds and extracts isolated from yacon have been studied for their various nutrigenomic properties, including as a prebiotic for intestinal health and their antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. This article reviewed scientific studies regarding the bioactive chemical compounds and nutrigenomic properties of extracts and isolated compounds from yacon. These findings may help in further research to investigate yacon-based nutritional products. Yacon can be considered a potential prebiotic source and a novel functional food. However, more detailed epidemiological, animal, and human clinical studies, particularly mechanism-based and phytopharmacological studies, are lacking for the development of evidence-based functional food products.
Cao, Yang; Zhang, Hongxia; Jin, Yifan; Zhang, Yihe; Hayford, Frank
The human gut is densely populated with diverse microbial communities that are essential to health. Prebiotics and fiber have been shown to possess the ability to modulate the gut microbiota. One of the plants being considered as a potential source of prebiotic is yacon. Yacon is an underutilized plant consumed as a traditional root-based fruit in South America. Yacon mainly contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin. Therefore, it has bifidogenic benefits for gut health, because FOS are not easily broken down by digestive enzymes. Bioactive chemical compounds and extracts isolated from yacon have been studied for their various nutrigenomic properties, including as a prebiotic for intestinal health and their antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. This article reviewed scientific studies regarding the bioactive chemical compounds and nutrigenomic properties of extracts and isolated compounds from yacon. These findings may help in further research to investigate yacon-based nutritional products. Yacon can be considered a potential prebiotic source and a novel functional food. However, more detailed epidemiological, animal, and human clinical studies, particularly mechanism-based and phytopharmacological studies, are lacking for the development of evidence-based functional food products. PMID:29649123
Cao, Yang; Ma, Zheng Feei; Zhang, Hongxia; Jin, Yifan; Zhang, Yihe; Hayford, Frank
The human gut is densely populated with diverse microbial communities that are essential to health. Prebiotics and fiber have been shown to possess the ability to modulate the gut microbiota. One of the plants being considered as a potential source of prebiotic is yacon. Yacon is an underutilized plant consumed as a traditional root-based fruit in South America. Yacon mainly contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin. Therefore, it has bifidogenic benefits for gut health, because FOS are not easily broken down by digestive enzymes. Bioactive chemical compounds and extracts isolated from yacon have been studied for their various nutrigenomic properties, including as a prebiotic for intestinal health and their antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. This article reviewed scientific studies regarding the bioactive chemical compounds and nutrigenomic properties of extracts and isolated compounds from yacon. These findings may help in further research to investigate yacon-based nutritional products. Yacon can be considered a potential prebiotic source and a novel functional food. However, more detailed epidemiological, animal, and human clinical studies, particularly mechanism-based and phytopharmacological studies, are lacking for the development of evidence-based functional food products.
de Oliveira, Rejane Barbosa; de Paula, Daniela Aparecida Chagas; Rocha, Bruno Alves; Franco, João José; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Uyemura, Sérgio Akira; dos Santos, Wagner Ferreira; Da Costa, Fernando Batista
Yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl.) H. Robinson, Asteraceae] is an Andean species that has traditionally been used as an anti-diabetic herb in several countries around the world, including Brazil. Its hypoglycaemic action has recently been demonstrated in normal and diabetic rats. However, studies about the safety of prolonged oral consumption of yacon leaf extracts are lacking. Thus, this work was undertaken to evaluate the repeated-dose toxicity of three extracts from yacon leaves: the aqueous extract (AE) prepared as a tea infusion; the leaf-rinse extract (LRE), which is rich in sesquiterpene lactones (STLs); and a polar extract from leaves without trichomes, or polar extract (PE), which lacks STLs but is rich in chlorogenic acids (CGAs). The major classes of the compounds were confirmed in each extract by IR spectra and HPLC-UV-DAD profiling as well as comparison to standard compounds. The toxicity of each extract was evaluated in a repeated-dose toxicity study in Wistar rats for 90 days. The PE was rich in CGAs, but we did not detect any STLs. The AE and LRE showed the presence of STLs. The polar extract caused alterations in some biochemical parameters, but the animals did not show signs of behavioural toxicity or serious lesions in organs. Alterations of specific biochemical parameters in the blood (creatinine 7.0 mg/dL, glucose 212.0 mg/dL, albumin 2.8 g/dL) of rats treated with AE (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg) and LRE (10 and 100 mg/kg) pointed to renal damage, which was confirmed by histological analysis of the kidneys. The renal damage was associated with increased blood glucose levels after prolonged oral administration of the AE. This observation suggested that the hypoglycaemic effect observed after treatment for 30 days in an earlier study is reversible and was likely the result of renal injury caused by the toxicity of yacon. Because STLs were detected in both AE and LRE, there is strong evidence that these terpenoids are the main toxic
Full Text Available Due to the growing consumer interest in functional food, sorbets containing yacon root powder as a source of many valuable compounds, especially fructans, may be a desirable alternative to traditional ice cream desserts. The aim of this work was to evaluate organoleptic quality (taste, color, aroma as well as consistency and structure of fruit sorbets containing Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl. root powder in dependence on kind of fruit (orange, cherry, strawberry, and its share in sorbet’s recipe, using a 9-point hedonic scale (1 point =„I do not like it at all“, 9 = „I like it very much“. The results showed that organoleptic quality was depended on the kind and the share of fruit used to the sorbet production. Strawberry sorbets gained over 80% of maximal scores. One can conclude that yacon root powder can be used as the ingredient of fruit sorbet, with increased consumer liking.
Camila Augusto Perussello
Full Text Available The knowledge about thermophysical properties of foods is especially important in thermal processing, influencing the design, optimization and cost reduction of the process, as well as the quality and safety of the final product. This article deals with the determination of some thermophysical properties of yacon, namely, specific mass, specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity during the osmo-convective drying. Yacon is a root with approximately 90% w.b. of moisture content, whose high concentration of fructooligosacharydes and antioxidants has gained attention in the food research field. Yacon slices were osmotically dehydrated for 2 hours in a sucralose solution and then dried in a convective tray dryer for 2 hours, varying the osmotic solution’s temperature and stirring rate and temperature of the drying air. All thermophysical properties were determined during the drying process at 30-minute intervals. The thermophysical properties were determined not only experimentally but also calculated by models available in literature based on the product’s centesimal composition. A satisfactory agreement between experimental and predicted results was obtained. Further, empirical models obtained by nonlinear regression were successfully fitted to the experimental data, as a function of moisture content, within a 94% - 3% w.b. range.
Full Text Available Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. leaves are a potentially rich source of bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids and flavonoids. In this study, the effect of the extraction method (ohmic-assisted decoction (OH-DE and decoction (DE, yacon cultivar (red and white, and leaf age (young and old on the quality/quantity of extracted phytochemicals were investigated. Extraction yield, energy consumption, total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP were determined. Additionally, HPLC-DAD was used to identify the major individual phenolic and flavonoid compounds of yacon leaves. The results showed that a three-way interaction of process-variables (extraction method×yacon cultivar×age of leaves influenced the extraction yield, TPC, TFC, ABTS, and DPPH radical scavenging activity, and FRAP, significantly (p < 0.05. However, energy consumption of the extraction process was only affected by method of extraction (p < 0.05 and was halved when OH-DE was applied as compared to DE alone. Additionally, the phytochemical quality of extracts was either improved or comparable when OH-DE was used for extraction. Also, it was shown that yacon leaves contained considerable amounts of caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferrulic acid, myricetin, p-coumaric acid, and rutin, while leaves of the red cultivar had higher contents of each compound compared to leaves of the white cultivar.
Pizetta, Leticia Calvi
O yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) é uma espécie originária dos Andes e atualmente tem sido produzido em países como o Brasil. As raízes do yacon possuem entre 10% e 14% de matéria seca, sendo que desse teor 90% corresponde a carboidratos como os fruto-oligossacarídeos (FOS) (40% a 70%). O yacon pode ser considerado um alimento funcional, principalmente pela presença dos FOS que possuem características prebióticas. Os FOS resistem a temperaturas de cerca de 140ºC e são resistentes a pH acima ...
Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Gasco, Manuel
We investigated the effect of two extracts from Peruvian plants given alone or in a mixture on sperm count and glycemia in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Normal or diabetic mice were divided in groups receiving vehicle, black maca (Lepidium meyenii), yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) or three mixtures of extracts black maca/yacon (90/10, 50/50 and 10/90%). Normal or diabetic mice were treated for 7 d with each extract, mixture or vehicle. Glycemia, daily sperm production (DSP), epididymal and vas deferens sperm counts in mice and polyphenol content, and antioxidant activity in each extract were assessed. Black maca (BM), yacon and the mixture of extracts reduced glucose levels in diabetic mice. Non-diabetic mice treated with BM and yacon showed higher DSP than those treated with vehicle (p maca/yacon increased DSP, and sperm count in vas deferens and epididymis with respect to non-diabetic and diabetic mice treated with vehicle (p maca, and this was associated with higher antioxidant activity. The combination of two extracts improved glycemic levels and male reproductive function in diabetic mice. Streptozotocin increased 1.43 times the liver weight that was reversed with the assessed plants extracts. In summary, streptozotocin-induced diabetes resulted in reduction in sperm counts and liver damage. These effects could be reduced with BM, yacon and the BM+yacon mixture.
Campos, D.; Betalleluz-Pallardel, I.; Chirinos, R.; Aguilar-Glalvez, A.; Noratto, G.; Pedreschi, R.
Thirty-five different yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. & Endl) accessions were evaluated as potential alternative sources of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and phenolic type natural antioxidants. FOS, total phenolics (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) contents in the ranges of 6.4–65 g/100
Ellem Waleska Nascimento da Fonseca CONTADO
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver duas formulações de apresuntado contendo farinha de yacon e extrato de frutanos de yacon visando obter produtos de melhor qualidade nutricional e ricos em fibras alimentares. Os apresuntados foram elaborados substituindo-se a fécula de mandioca (1,73% pela farinha de yacon e a água da formulação (37,85% pelo extrato aquoso de frutanos. Os efeitos dessas substituições nas qualidades tecnológicas e sensoriais dos apresuntados foram avaliados comparando-os com um controle. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram existirem diferenças significativas entre as formulações e evidenciaram que a adição da farinha de yacon ao apresuntado originou uma formulação com menor teor de sódio, índice de amarelo, tonalidade, dureza, flexibilidade, adesividade e menores notas nos quesitos sabor e impressão global. Entretanto revelaram que o apresuntado elaborado com extrato de frutanos apresentou uma aceitabilidade semelhante ao controle, porém com menor dureza e maiores teores de potássio e fibras, originando um produto cárneo benéfico à saúde.
Veselý, V.; Sobek, J.; Hanika, J.; Punčochář, M.
Recommendable torrefaction conditions were specified on the grounds of GT and DTA curves for the specimen of crushed stems of Yacon and Jerusalem artichoke. The impact of the size of crushed stems particle on the torrefaction process was monitored. The stem crushing process was optimized based on the results. We tested the effect of torrefaction performed on pellets made of raw material and wood chips, of which the pellets were made afterwards. It has been unambiguously proven that it was sensible to pelletize torrefied chips, otherwise the pellets were losing their coherence and crumbled. We calculated the fuel calorific value and its dependence on the residence time in the reactor. The economic benefit of torrefaction is that the power necessary for evaporation and leaching artichoke cuttings in water is obtained by combusting torrefied crushed stems.
Avaliação do tempo de secagem e da atividade de óxido-redutases de yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius sob tratamento químico Drying evaluation time and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius enzymatic activity inhibition under chemical treatment
Vivianne Montarroyos Padilha
Full Text Available Evidências científicas reconhecem o yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius como fonte promissora de frutanos, tais como inulina e frutooligossacarídeos (FOS. No entanto, a presença de compostos fenólicos torna-o suscetível à reação de escurecimento enzimático. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o emprego de agentes químicos no processamento de yacon, para obtenção de farinha, a fim de inibir o escurecimento enzimático do produto e favorecer o tempo de secagem. Amostras de yacon sem inibição química, de yacon submetido à solução de cloreto de cálcio 1,0g 100g-1 por 30 minutos e de yacon submetido à solução de metabissulfito de potássio 0,5g 100g-1 por 5 minutos foram secas a 55°C, em estufa ventilada, e o teor de água e curvas de secagem foram determinados. As atividades das enzimas peroxidase (POD e polifenoloxidase (PPO foram determinadas antes e após a secagem como um possível marcador bioquímico do escurecimento enzimático desse tubérculo. No parâmetro umidade, os três tratamentos apresentaram-se semelhantes; porém, o tratamento 2 (cloreto de cálcio reduziu a umidade no menor tempo. Antes e após o tratamento térmico, a atividade enzimática foi maior no tratamento 3 (metabissulfito de potássio. As atividades enzimáticas não foram inativadas completamente pela ação térmica. Para a obtenção da farinha de yacon, o tratamento com cloreto de cálcio 1,0g 100g-1 por 30 minutos foi o que apresentou melhor resultado. Apesar de não inibir totalmente a atividade das enzimas POD e PPO foi o melhor tratamento de inativação, propiciando menor tempo de secagem e melhor firmeza da matéria-prima e facilitando o processamento para obtenção da farinha.Scientific evidences acknowledged the yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius like a promise source of fructans, as inulin and fructooligosaccharides - FOS, meanwhile, the presence of phenolic coumpounds became this susceptible to enzimatic browning reaction. This
Vivianne Montarroyos PADILHA
Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was check the effects of sugar, yacon pulp and skimmed milk powder in the aroma, flavour, texture, appearance, overall impression and intent to purchase on synbiotic yogurts to optimize the formulation using Response Surface Methodology. The most accepted formulations were subjected to viability tests during 21 days by counting traditional and probiotic bacteria. Were constructed a complete 23 factorial design, totalling 17 experiments, and considered independent variables (percentage of ingredients and dependent variables (sensory attributes. All attributes were graded using an acceptability assessment, for this balanced incomplete block was applied. The number of viable cells was determined using specific culture medium for each species. The percentage of yacon pulp had a pronounced negative influence on flavour, texture, appearance, overall impression and intent to purchase. Model predictions adjusted to the variables aroma, flavour, texture, appearance, overall impression and intent to purchase exhibited good predictive ability and hence could be used as tools for process control. Traditional bacterial strains and probiotic remained viable throughout the storage period. The counts of probiotic bacterial in the formulations were above 6 log CFU/g. The addition of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei LBC 81 and yacon pulp to yogurt increased product acceptability.
Della Lucia, Ceres M; Vaz Tostes, Maria das Graças; Silveira, Carlos Mário M; Bordalo, Lívia A; Rodrigues, Fabiana C; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Martino, Hércia S D; Costa, Neuza Maria B
This study aimed to evaluate iron (Fe) bioavailability in Wistar rats fed with rice fortified with micronized ferric pyrophosphate (FP) by Ultra Rice (UR) technology with or without addition of yacon flour as a source of 7.5% of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Diets were supplied with 12 mg iron/kg from the following sources: ferrous sulfate (FS - control diet), fortified rice with micronized ferric pyrophosphate (Ultra Rice) (UR diet), ferrous sulfate + yacon flour (FS + Y diet) or Ultra Rice + yacon flour (UR + Y diet). Blood samples were collected at the end of depletion and repletion stages for determination of hemoglobin concentration and calculation of the relative biological value (RBV). Also, the content of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) (acetic, propionic and butyric acids) from animals' stools and caecum weight were determined. The UR diet showed high iron bioavailability (RBV = 84.7%). However, the addition of yacon flour in the diet containing fortified rice (UR + Y diet) decreased RBV (63.1%) significantly below the other three groups (p flour showed higher acetic acid values compared to those who did not. In conclusion, fortified UR with micronized ferric pyrophosphate showed high iron bioavailability but the addition of yacon flour at 7.5% FOS reduced iron bioavailability despite increased caecum weight and SCFA concentration.
Estudos anatômicos de folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas: II - Bidens pilosa, Emilia sonchifolia, Ageratum conyzoides e Sonchus asper Leaf anatomical studies in weed species: II - Bidens pilosa, Emilia sonchifolia, Ageratum conyzoides and Sonchus asper
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi de estudar a anatomia das folhas das espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: Bidens pilosa, Emilia sonchifolia, Ageratum conyzoides e Sonchus asper, visando aprofundar o conhecimento sobre as barreiras que cada espécie impõe à penetração dos herbicidas e, assim, fornecer subsídios para a busca de estratégias para superar esses obstáculos. As folhas completamente expandidas do terceiro ao quinto nó foram coletadas de plantas de ocorrência espontânea no campo. Das folhas de cada espécie foram obtidas três amostras da região central mediana, com aproximadamente 1 cm². Foram realizados estudos de estrutura e clarificação e observações em microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV. Todas as espécies avaliadas são anfiestomáticas. As principais barreiras potenciais foliares à penetração de herbicidas constatadas na planta daninha B. pilosa foram a alta densidade tricomática, a baixa densidade estomática na face adaxial e o alto teor de cera epicuticular, principalmente na face adaxial. Alto teor de cera epicuticular, grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial e baixa densidade estomática nas duas faces foram os obstáculos constatados nas folhas de E. sonchifolia. Já em relação a A. conizoides, a baixa densidade estomática na face adaxial foi o principal obstáculo detectado. S. asper apresentou como principais barreiras foliares à penetração de herbicidas a baixa densidade estomática na face adaxial e a grande espessura da epiderme da face adaxial.This research aimed to study leaf anatomy in the widely common Brazilian weed species Bidens pilosa, Emilia sonchifolia, Ageratum conyzoides and Sonchus asper, to acquire a better understanding of the barriers each species imposes upon herbicide penetration, and provide information on how to overcome these obstacles. The completely expanded leaves from the third to the fifth nodes were collected from plants
Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography in Combination with Chemometric Methods to Evaluate the Holistic Quality Consistency and Predict the Antioxidant Activity of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge Hance Injection.
Full Text Available In this paper, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC fingerprints combined with quantification were successfully developed to monitor the holistic quality consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge. Hance Injection (ISHI. ISHI is a Chinese traditional patent medicine used for its anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effects. The effects of five crucial experimental variables on MEEKC were optimized by the central composite design. Under the optimized conditions, the MEEKC fingerprints of 28 ISHIs were developed. Quantitative determination of seven marker compounds was employed simultaneously, then 28 batches of samples from two manufacturers were clearly divided into two clusters by the principal component analysis. In fingerprint assessments, a systematic quantitative fingerprint method was established for the holistic quality consistency evaluation of ISHI from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, by which the qualities of 28 samples were well differentiated. In addition, the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between the fingerprints and the antioxidant activities was established utilizing orthogonal projection to latent structures, which provided important medicinal efficacy information for quality control. The present study offered a powerful and holistic approach to evaluating the quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations.
Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. & Endl. as a Novel Source of Health Promoting Compounds: Antioxidant Activity, Phytochemicals and Sugar Content in Flesh, Peel, and Whole Tubers of Seven Cultivars
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics of seven yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. and Endl. cultivars (Cajamarca, Cusco, Early White, Late Red, Morado, New Zealand and Quinault cultivated in the southwest of Germany. The following phyto/chemical traits were investigated in different yacon tuber parts (flesh, peel, and whole tubers: total dry matter, sugar content (fructose, glucose, and sucrose content, total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, 2,20-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging activity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The results indicated a significant interaction between cultivar and tuber part on all of the examined traits (p < 0.0001. Of flesh and whole tuber, cv. Late Red, cv. Morado, and cv. Cajamarca had the highest TPC, TFC, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and FRAP. They also had relatively higher total sugar content. Cv. New Zealand had the lowest amount of sugars, TPC, TFC, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and FRAP, but the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity content in its flesh and whole tuber. Moreover, the results indicated that the peel of yacon tubers contained considerably high amounts of phytochemicals while possessing low sugar contents. Overall, this study provides a broad insight into the phyto/chemical content of yacon tubers from different cultivars, which can be used for further breeding programs, and the selection of proper cultivars for specific food product development.
Sugahara, Shintaro; Ueda, Yuto; Fukuhara, Kumiko; Kamamuta, Yuki; Matsuda, Yasushi; Murata, Tatsuro; Kuroda, Yasuhiro; Kabata, Kiyotaka; Ono, Masateru; Igoshi, Keiji; Yasuda, Shin
Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), a native Andean plant, has been cultivated as a crop and locally used as a traditional folk medicine for the people suffering from diabetes and digestive/renal disorders. However, the medicinal properties of this plant and its processed foods have not been completely established. This study investigates the potent antioxidative effects of herbal tea leaves from yacon in different free radical models and a ferric reducing model. A hot-water extract exhibited the highest yield of total polyphenol and scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical among four extracts prepared with hot water, methanol, ethanol, and ethylacetate. In addition, a higher reducing power of the hot-water extract was similarly demonstrated among these extracts. Varying concentrations of the hot-water extract resulted in different scavenging activities in four synthetic free radical models: DPPH radical (EC50 28.1 μg/mL), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) cation radical (EC50 23.7 μg/mL), galvinoxyl radical (EC50 3.06 μg/mL), and chlorpromazine cation radical (EC50 475 μg/mL). The yacon tea-leaf extract further demonstrated superoxide anion (O2(-)) radical scavenging effects in the phenazine methosulfate-NADH-nitroblue tetrazolium (EC50 64.5 μg/mL) and xanthine oxidase assay systems (EC50 20.7 μg/mL). Subsequently, incubating human neutrophilic cells in the presence of the tea-leaf extract could suppress the cellular O2(-) radical generation (IC50 65.7 μg/mL) in a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-activated cell model. These results support yacon tea leaves may be a good source of natural antioxidants for preventing O2(-) radical-mediated disorders. Yacon has been considered to be a potent alternative food source for patients who require a dietary cure in regional area, while the leaf part has been provided and consumed as an herbal tea in local markets. We demonstrated here potent antioxidative effects of the tea
Activations of Both Extrinsic and Intrinsic Pathways in HCT 116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Contribute to Apoptosis through p53-Mediated ATM/Fas Signaling by Emilia sonchifolia Extract, a Folklore Medicinal Plant
Full Text Available Emilia sonchifolia (L. DC (Compositae, an herbaceous plant found in Taiwan and India, is used as folk medicine. The clinical applications include inflammation, rheumatism, cough, cuts fever, dysentery, analgesic, and antibacteria. The activities of Emilia sonchifolia extract (ESE on colorectal cancer cell death have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study explored the induction of apoptosis and its molecular mechanisms in ESE-treated HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. The methanolic ESE was characterized, and γ-humulene was formed as the major constituent (63.86%. ESE induced cell growth inhibition in a concentration- and time-dependent response by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells (DNA fragmentation, an apoptotic catachrestic were found after ESE treatment by TUNEL assay and DNA gel electrophoresis. Alternatively, ESE stimulated the activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and their specific caspase inhibitors protected against ESE-induced cytotoxicity. ESE promoted the mitochondria-dependent and death-receptor-associated protein levels. Also, ESE increased ROS production and upregulated the levels of ATM, p53, and Fas in HCT 116 cells. Strikingly, p53 siRNA reversed ESE-reduced viability involved in p53-mediated ATM/Fas signaling in HCT 116 cells. In summary, our result is the first report suggesting that ESE may be potentially efficacious in the treatment of colorectal cancer.
Tormena, Marcela Marta Lazaretti; de Medeiros, Luana Tabalipa; de Lima, Patrícia Casarin; Possebon, Gabriela; Fuchs, Renata Hernandez Barros; Bona, Evandro
In this study, a chocolate cake formulation was developed with partial substitution of wheat flour by yacon and maca flour. A simplex-centroid design was applied to determine the proportions of the three flours, and the amount of water was included as a process variable at three distinct levels. According to the overall acceptability of the cakes, the tasters were separated into two groups using k-means. After segmentation, regression models were constructed for overall acceptability of each group; R 2 adjusted values of 92.5% for group 1 and 98.9% for group 2 were obtained. Using the sequential simplex method an optimized formulation was determined for group 1 (0.49 kg wheat kg -1 total flour , 0.37 kg yacon kg -1 total flour , 0.14 kg maca kg -1 total flour and 140.0 mL of water) and another for group 2 (0.35 kg wheat kg -1 total flour , 0.65 kg yacon kg -1 total flour and 120.0 mL of water). In addition to these formulations, a third formulation was proposed with a greater maca proportion (0.32 kg maca kg -1 total flour ), which does not significantly alter the overall acceptability of both groups. The three optimized formulations and two control formulations were evaluated through free-choice profiling. The data were evaluated using the multi-block method common components and specific weights analysis (CCSWA). It was observed that a greater proportion of maca intensified brownness and burnt aroma and taste, whereas a larger proportion of yacon produced a better appearance, softness, sweetness and chocolate flavor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Full Text Available An efficient, rapid, and selective method for sample pretreatment, namely, molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MI-MSPD coupled with gas chromatography (GC, was developed for the rapid isolation of four phosphorothioate organophosphorus pesticides (tolclofos-methyl, phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and parathion-methyl from carrot and yacon samples. New molecularly imprinted polymer nanomicrospheres were synthesized by using typical structural analogue tolclofos-methyl as a dummy template via surface grafting polymerization on nanosilica. Then, these four pesticides in carrot and yacon were extracted and adsorbed using the imprinted nanomicrospheres and further determined by gas chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, a good linearity of four pesticides was obtained in a range of 0.05–17.0 ng·g−1 with R varying from 0.9971 to 0.9996, and the detection limit of the method was 0.012~0.026 ng·g−1 in carrot and yacon samples. The recovery rates at two spiked levels were in the range of 85.4–105.6% with RSD ≤9.6%. The presented MI-MSPD method combined the advantages of MSPD for allowing the extraction, dispersion, and homogenization in two steps and the advantages of MIPs for high affinity and selectivity towards four phosphorothioate pesticides, which could be applied to the determination of pesticide residues in complicated vegetal samples.
Julio Rojas Naccha
Full Text Available The predictive ability of Artificial Neural Network (ANN on the effect of the concentration (30, 40, 50 y 60 % w/w and temperature (30, 40 y 50°C of fructooligosaccharides solution, in the mass, moisture, volume and solids of osmodehydrated yacon cubes, and in the coefficients of the water means effective diffusivity with and without shrinkage was evaluated. The Feedforward type ANN with the Backpropagation training algorithms and the Levenberg-Marquardt weight adjustment was applied, using the following topology: 10-5 goal error, 0.01 learning rate, 0.5 moment coefficient, 2 input neurons, 6 output neurons, one hidden layer with 18 neurons, 15 training stages and logsig-pureline transfer functions. The overall average error achieved by the ANN was 3.44% and correlation coefficients were bigger than 0.9. No significant differences were found between the experimental values and the predicted values achieved by the ANN and with the predicted values achieved by a statistical model of second-order polynomial regression (p > 0.95.
Pereira, Juciane de Abreu Ribeiro
Muitas pesquisas têm sido realizadas na busca de terapias alternativas para a obesidade, a qual caracteriza-se por estado inflamatório que interfere em vários processos metabólicos, modificando perfil lipídico e glicêmico, podendo causar dislipidemias e resistência à insulina. Os alimentos com alegação de propriedades funcionais se destacam nesse contexto, a exemplo de iogurtes probióticos e raiz tuberosa de yacon (Smallanthus sonchinfolius). O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos d...
Sant'anna, Mônica de Souza Lima
O yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) é uma planta originária da região dos Andes, composto principalmente por água (85 a 90 % do peso fresco) e carboidratos (90 % da matéria seca), sendo que a maioria são representados pelos fructooligossacarideos (FOS) e inulina, sendo então considerado um alimento prebiótico. Os FOS e a inulina atuam melhorando a microbiota intestinal e os metabólitos benéficos produzidos por essa microbiota atuam positivamente na motilidade intestinal. A constipação intestin...
Paredes, Larry Ladislao Ramos
Orientador : Prof. Dr. Guilherme Lanzi Sassaki Co-orientador : Prof. Dr. Marcello Iacomini Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências : Bioquímica. Defesa: Curitiba, 13/04/2015 Inclui referências : f. 92-106 Resumo: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) é uma planta da família Astereacea cuja raíz fez parte da dieta dos povos Pré-Incas e Incas nos Andes da América do Sul, e suas folhas são utilizadas no preparo...
Vasconcelos, Christiane Mileib
O Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) é uma espécie originária da região dos Andes, composto principalmente por água (85 a 90 % do peso fresco) e carboidratos (90 % da matéria seca), especialmente glicose, frutose, sacarose e frutooligossacarídeos (FOS), sendo este último considerado um prebiótico. Os FOS atuam melhorando a microbiota intestinal, reduzindo a concentração de lipídios do sangue, inibindo estágios iniciais de câncer de cólon, dentre outros. Tendo em vista que, atualmente as indústr...
Regilane Marques Feitosa
Full Text Available A batata yacon tornou-se popular devido aos inúmeros benefícios que proporciona à saúde, porém seu tempo de vida útil é curto, aliado ao escurecimento enzimático, comum em alimentos ricos em compostos fenólicos, que reduz e restringe o seu consumo. Em virtude de ser um produto de alto valor, e com o intuito de se evitar o seu desperdício, justifica-se o estudo de meios de conservação do mesmo. A secagem seguida por transformação do produto em pó se apresenta como uma alternativa conveniente, segura e capaz de proporcionar longa vida útil ao material processado. Diante do exposto, objetivou-se verificar o comportamento higroscópico do pó obtido pela liofilização do mix de batata yacon e suco de lima ácida Tahiti nas temperaturas de 20, 30 e 40 ºC. Elaborou-se um mix de batata yacon com suco de lima ácida Tahiti, aproveitando a propriedade deste suco de atuar na inativação enzimática da enzima polifenoloxidase, além de ser fonte de vitamina C. O mix com maltodextrina foi seco por liofilização e o pó resultante foi submetido à análise de comportamento higroscópico, determinando-se as isotermas de adsorção de umidade nas temperaturas de 20, 30 e 40 ºC e ajustando-se os modelos matemáticos de Peleg, GAB, Halsey, Oswin e Smith às isotermas. O modelo de Peleg foi o que melhor se ajustou às isotermas de adsorção de umidade do pó da batata yacon com suco de lima ácida Tahiti. As isotermas foram classificadas como Tipo II e a umidade na monocamada molecular apresentou valor em torno de 7% b.s.Application of mathematical models in the prediction of the hygroscopic dehavior of the potato mix yacon powder and lemon juiceAbstract: The yacon potato became popular because of the numerous benefits it provides to health, but their life span is short, combined with enzymatic browning, common in foods rich in phenolic compounds, which reduces and limits its consumption. By virtue of being a product of high value and in
Naiara Lourenço Mari
A Síndrome metabólica (SM) é caracterizada pela associação de fatores de riscos para doenças cardiovasculares e Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2, tais como adiposidade abdominal, resistência à insulina, dislipidemia, hipertensão e disfunção endotelial. A presente investigação avaliou o efeito do prebiótico yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), e do probiótico Lactobacillus plantarum Lp115, individualmente e em simbiose, nos parâmetros metabólicos e de estresse oxidativo em ratos com SM. A SM foi induzida...
Avaliação do simbiótico fermentado com Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 e Lactobacillus helveticus ssp jugurti 416, à base de extratos aquosos de soja e de yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) no controle do desenvolvimento do Diabetes Mellitus
Roselino, Mariana Nougalli [UNESP
O presente trabalho avaliou os efeitos do simbiótico fermentado com Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 e Lactobacillus helveticus ssp jugurti 416, à base de extratos de soja e de yacon produzidos em ratos com Diabetes mellitus, cuja indução foi feita quimicamente pela administração intraperitoneal de estreptozotocina (50mg/kg de peso corporal). Os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos experimentais (n=10): I - animais não diabéticos que receberam somente ração (controle negativo); II - animais d...
Stefani, Angelo; Felício, Joanna D'Arc; de Andréa, Mara M
As toxic pesticide residues may persist in agricultural soils and cause environmental pollution, research on natural fungicides to replace the synthetic compounds is currently increasing. The effect of the synthetic fungicide chlorothalonil and a natural potential fungicide on the soil microbial activity was evaluated here by the substrate-induced respiration by addition of glucose (SIR), as bioindicator in two soils (Eutrophic Humic Gley-GHE and Typic Eutroferric Chernosol-AVEC). The induced soil respiration parameter was followed during 28 days after soil treatment either with chlorathalonil (11 μg·g(-1)), or the methanolic fraction from Polymnia sonchifolia extraction (300 μg·g(-1)), and (14)C-glucose (4.0 mg and 5.18 Bq of (14)C-glucose g(-1)). The (14)C-CO(2) produced by the microbial respiration was trapped in NaOH (0.1 M) which was changed each two hours during the first 10 h, and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the treatments. The methanolic fraction of the plant extract inhibited (2.2%) and stimulated (1.8%) the respiration of GHE and AVEC, respectively, but the synthetic chlorothalonil caused 16.4% and 2.6% inhibition of the respiration, respectively of the GHE and AVEC soils. As the effects of the natural product were statistically small, this bioindicator indicates that the methanolic fraction of the Polymnia sonchifolia extract, which has fungicide properties, has no environmental effects.
EXTRACCIÓN, CRISTALIZACIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE INULINA A PARTIR DE YACÓN (Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl. PARA SU UTILIZACIÓN EN LA INDUSTRIA ALIMENTARIA Y FARMACÉUTICA EXTRACTION, CRYSTALIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF INULIN FROM YACON (Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl. FOR TO BE USED IN FOOD AND FARMACEUTIC INDUSTRY
OSCAR ARANGO BEDOYA
Full Text Available La tendencia hacia la adopción de una alimentación sana y balanceada que incluya elementos naturales y benéficos es creciente. Se plantea el aprovechamiento del yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl., planta silvestre de la región andina de Nariño, por su alto contenido de inulina, fructooligosacárido utilizado en la industria alimentaria y farmacéutica para la elaboración de edulcorantes para diabéticos y como fibra en alimentos refinados. Este estudio reporta la optimización del proceso de extracción sólido-líquido, con agua caliente, de inulina a partir de raíces de yacón. La cuantificación de inulina presente en el extracto se hizo a través de refractometría. Varias combinaciones de tiempo, temperatura y relación solvente-materia prima fueron analizadas empleando un diseño experimental compuesto 2³ más puntos estrella. Se alcanzó un rendimiento óptimo de 20.7% de inulina bajo unas condiciones de extracción de 23 min a 82.2°C y relación solvente-materia prima de 4.5 l/500 g. La técnica para la separación de los cristales a partir de la solución rica en inulina tuvo un rendimiento del 17.3% con relación al peso en fresco del material experimental. Los cristales fueron caracterizados bajo propiedades físicas, químicas y organolépticasThe tendency toward a healt and balanced feeding, wich include natural and beneficent elements is growing. Was stablished the use of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl., an uncultivated plant of the andina región in Nariño, wich for his high level of inulin, fructoligosaccharide use in the food and farmaceutic industry for the edulcorant manufacture for diabetics and as fiber in refined food. This estudy report the optimization of the solid-liquid extraction process, with hot water, of inulin provided by yacon root. The quantification of inulin in the extract is made through refractometry. Several combinations of time, temperature and solvent-raw material
fication process, ice water was added to absorb the generated heat. Samples were .... on pH, TBARS, and RN contents during storage are pre- sented in Table 1 .... In view of the growing consumer demand for food with ... cooked meat product.
Valentová, K.; Stejskal, D.; Bartek, J.; Dvořáčková, S.; Křen, Vladimír; Ulrichová, J.; Šimánek, V.
Roč. 46, č. 3 (2008), s. 1003-1013 ISSN 0278-6915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : food supplement * volunteers * blood pressure Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.321, year: 2008
Viehmannová, I.; Bortlová, Z.; Vítámvás, J.; Čepková, P.; Eliášová, Kateřina; Svobodová, E.; Trávníčková, M.
Roč. 17, č. 2 (2014) ISSN 0717-3458 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : DNA polymorphism * Molecular markers * Ploidy level Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2014
Bunge) Hance by highspeed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Methods: I. sonchifolia was extracted with water and then loaded on a glass column (10 ~ 1500 cm containing 3000g D101 macroporous resin) where various ...
University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China. *For correspondence: ... Methods: I. sonchifolia was extracted with water and then loaded on a glass column (10 × 1500 cm containing ... phase deactivation, and contamination, and has.
Silvina Maldonado; Judith del Carmen Singh
El yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius) es un tubérculo andino cultivado en las laderas de los Andes. Es una planta perenne que llega a su madurez entre 6-7 meses hasta 1 año, según la altura sobre el nivel del mar. Este trabajo propone la formulación de un producto alimenticio a partir de yacón por agregado de solutos: glucosa y sacarosa y combinación de barreras de estrés. Se estudió el efecto de gelificantes: agar-agar, pectina y goma arábiga, en tres concentraciones: 0,30, 0,41 y 0,48%. Se ag...
Full Text Available El yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius es un tubérculo andino cultivado en las laderas de los Andes. Es una planta perenne que llega a su madurez entre 6-7 meses hasta 1 año, según la altura sobre el nivel del mar. Este trabajo propone la formulación de un producto alimenticio a partir de yacón por agregado de solutos: glucosa y sacarosa y combinación de barreras de estrés. Se estudió el efecto de gelificantes: agar-agar, pectina y goma arábiga, en tres concentraciones: 0,30, 0,41 y 0,48%. Se agregó benzoato de sodio, metabisulfito de sodio y ácido cítrico. Se desarrolló un dulce tipo pan. Se registró la evolución de temperatura durante la cocción. Se empacó y envasó el dulce en bandejas. Se analizaron parámetros de textura principales y secundarios. La formulación que alcanzó valores de textura similares a la referencia fue: 0,48% de agar-agar; 12% de sacarosa; 17% de glucosa; 23% de agua; 996,75 ppm de metabisulfito; 498,50 ppm de ácido cítrico y 1435,7 ppm de benzoato de sodio. Se realizó una prueba sensorial a través de la evaluación de los parámetros más representativos de la textura, utilizando para ello una escala hedónica, determinando la aceptación de la formulación seleccionada.O yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius é um tubérculo andino cultivado nas encostas Dos Andes. É uma planta perene que chega a sua maduração entre 6 meses e 1 ano. Este trabalho propõe a formulação de um produto alimentício a partir do yacón agregando solutos: glicose, sacarose e combinação de barreiras de estresse. Estudou-se o efeito de gelificantes: ágar-ágar e arábica, em três concentrações 0.30, 0.41 e 0.48%. Agregou-se benzoato de sódio, metabisulfito de sódio, e ácido cítrico. Desenvolveu-se um doce tipo pão. Registrou-se a evolução da temperatura durate cozimento. Empacotou-se e envasou-se o doce em bandejas. Analisaram-se parâmetros de textura principais e secundários. A formulação que atingiu os valores de textura, similares à referência foi: ágar-ágar 0,48%, com 12% de sacarose, 17% de glicose, 23% de água, 996,75ppm de metabisulfito, 498,50 ppm de ácido cítrico e 1435,7 ppm de benzoato de sódio. Analisaram-se parâmetros primários e secundários de textura. Realizou-se uma prova sensorial através da avaliação dos parâmetros mais representativos da textura, utilizando para isso uma escala hedônica, determinando a aceitação da formulação selecionada.
Carneiro, R.M.D.G.; Lourdes Mendes, de M.; Almeida, M.R.A.; Santos, Dos M.F.A.; Gomes, A.C.M.M.; Karssen, G.
A root-knot nematode parasitising yakon (Polymia sonchifolia) in São Paulo State, Brazil, is identified as Meloidogyne inornata. The species is redescribed from this material and compared with the original description of M. inornata. The female perineal patterns have a distinct, high, dorsal arch
EXTRACCIÓN, CRISTALIZACIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE INULINA A PARTIR DE YACÓN (Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl.) PARA SU UTILIZACIÓN EN LA INDUSTRIA ALIMENTARIA Y FARMACÉUTICA EXTRACTION, CRYSTALIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF INULIN FROM YACON (Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl.) FOR TO BE USED IN FOOD AND FARMACEUTIC INDUSTRY
OSCAR ARANGO BEDOYA; GINNA PAOLA CUARÁN; JUAN CAMILO FAJARDO
La tendencia hacia la adopción de una alimentación sana y balanceada que incluya elementos naturales y benéficos es creciente. Se plantea el aprovechamiento del yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl.)), planta silvestre de la región andina de Nariño, por su alto contenido de inulina, fructooligosacárido utilizado en la industria alimentaria y farmacéutica para la elaboración de edulcorantes para diabéticos y como fibra en alimentos refinados. Este estudio reporta la optimización del ...
Roselino Mariana N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies showed that intake of yacon or some lactic acid bacteria was able to inhibit the development of diabetes mellitus, by reducing glucose and associated symptoms, for example, the lipid profile. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the consumption influence of a potential symbiotic product of soybean and yacon extract and fermented Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus ssp jugurti 416 in reducing blood glucose and lipid levels in an animal model. Methods Diabetes mellitus was chemically induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight. The rats were divided into four groups (n=10: GI – non-diabetic animals that received only a standard chow diet (negative control, GII – diabetic animals that received only chow diet (positive control, GIII – diabetic animals that received the chow diet + 1 mL/kg body weight/day of soybean and yacon unfermented product, GIV – diabetic rats that received the chow diet + 1 mL/kg body weight/day of soybean and yacon fermented product. There was a seven-week treatment period and the following parameters were evaluated: animal body weight, food and water intake, blood glucose, enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, triglycerides levels, total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL-C. Cell viability of the fermented product was checked weekly for a seven-week period. Results The product average viable population was 108-109 CFU/mL, by ensuring both the rods and cocci regular intake. No difference was observed between the water and feed intake and body weight of groups that received unfermented and fermented products and the untreated diabetic group. The same was observed for the blood glucose and AST and ALT activities, while some improvement was observed for a lipid profile, represented by reduction of triglycerides level by 15.07% and 33.50% in groups III and IV
Dirlene Aparecida de Andrade
Full Text Available The monitoring Lepidoptera populations provides important information to assess the dynamics and ecological changes in ecosystems. In this work, it was evaluated and characterized the Lepidoptera fauna of forest fragment of the IFSULDEMINAS - Campus Muzambinho, MG state. Throughout 12 months, 590 Individuals of 69 species belonging to 10 families were captured. The most abundant family was Nymphalidae (73.56% of subjects. The most abundant species were Godartiana muscosa , Mechanitis lysimnia , Hermeuptychia sp and Mechanitis polymnia casabranca , which are bio-indicators of disturbed and/or urban environments. On the other hand, it was found rare species, such as Notascea brevispula . Different species were constant and others occurred in only a short period of the year. The diversity and abundance were higher in hot and rainy months. The diversity index Shannon-Wiener and Simpsom indicate a median diversity and equitability index point absence of dominance.
Full Text Available Trehalose-based (TBT-PAR additive was tested in order to optimize PCR amplification for DNA isolated from recalcitrant plants. Retrotransposon-based inter-primer binding site reactions were significantly improved with TBT-PAR solution using genomic DNA isolated from flax (Linum usitatissimum L., genotypes Kyivskyi, Bethune grown in radio-contaminated and non-radioactive remediated Chernobyl experimental fields. Additionally, similar improvements were observed using 19 recalcitrant genotypes of maize (Zea mays L. and three genotypes of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Poepp. et Endl., genotypes PER05, ECU45, BOL22 grown in standard field conditions.
Why do the ithomiines (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae aggregate? Notes on a butterfly pocket in central Brazil Por que os Ithomiinae (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae se agregam? Observações sobre um bolsão de borboletas no Brasil central
Carlos E. G. Pinheiro
Full Text Available This study provides information on the species composition and the number of butterflies in different phases of an ithomiine aggregation during the 2004 dry season in central Brazil, and tests some hypotheses concerning the pocket formation. The results obtained suggest that ithomiine pockets constitute primarily an adaptation of butterflies to the adverse climatic conditions of the dry season, such as high temperatures and low air relative humidity, rather than the occurrence of large concentrations of adult food resources (flowers visited for nectar were not found in the pocket site or defense against visually hunting predators (contrary to the prediction tested, the frequency of butterflies bearing birds beak marks on the wings significantly increased along the period of pocket formation, especially in the case of Mechanitis polymnia, the most abundant species in the pocket. Other hypotheses concerning the pocket formation are also discussed.Este trabalho apresenta dados sobre a composição de espécies e o número de indivíduos encontrados em diferentes fases de formação de um bolsão de Ithomiinae investigado na estação seca de 2004 em uma floresta de galeria do Brasil central, e testa algumas hipóteses relacionadas à formação do bolsão. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que o bolsão constitui primariamente uma adaptação das borboletas às condições adversas da estação seca, tais como altas temperaturas e baixa umidade relativa do ar, e não como conseqüência de grande concentração de recursos alimentares dos adultos (flores visitadas para obtenção de néctar não foram encontradas na área do bolsão, ou simples defesa contra predadores visualmente orientados (contrariamente à predição testada, a freqüência de borboletas apresentando marcas de bicadas de aves sobre as asas aumentou significativamente ao longo do período de formação do bolsão, especialmente no caso de Mechanitis polymnia, a borboleta mais
Jiménez, María Eugenia; Sammán, Norma
There is great interest in consuming foods that can provide the nutrients for a good nutrition and other health beneficial compounds. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of native foods of the Andean region and to quantify some functional com-ponents. Proximal composition, vitamin C, total phenolic compounds, antiradical activity (DPPH) in peel and pulp, dietary fiber soluble and insoluble, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), total and resistant starch (in tubers and raw roots, boiled and boiled and stored) of 6 varieties of Oca (Oxalis tuberosa), 4 clones of manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius were determined. The results showed greater amount of bioactive compounds and antiradical activity in the skin of these products. The highest content was found in the oca peel. In all cases, the content of insoluble fiber was greater than the soluble. The manioc had higher total starch than Andean roots and tubers. The boiling process decreased the resistant starch content of ocas and maniocs, but when these are stored for 48 h at 5 ° C, the resistant starch content increased. The FOS content of the ocas was similar for all varieties (7%). The main component of yacon carbohydrates were FOS (8.89%). The maniocs did not contain FOS. It can be concluded that the roots and tubers studied, in addition to provide nutrients, contain functional compounds that confer additional helpful value for preventing no communicable diseases.
Abstract. This study investigated the dynamics of pollination of Lantana fucata Lindley by Parides ascanius Cramer in the restinga place of Environmental Protection Area of Grumari, located in western Rio de Janeiro. The study was conducted from january to december 2009, recording the flowering period, the number of open flowers per day and data on morphology, color and odor of flowers. The occurrence of floral visitors was recorded throughout the day, observing the time of visit and conduct intra-floral played. The flowers of L. fucata are organized into chapters and have diurnal anthesis, starting at 6 am and ending as 5 pm. The flowers are 1.0 cm in length, are colored purple, tubular and exude odor mild and pleasant. The species has a continuous flowering and has floral attributes typical of psicophily (pollination by butterflies. Butterflies observed visiting flowers of L. fucata were Mechanitis polymnia Bates, P. ascanius and Mimoides lysithous harrisianus Swainson. Of these, P. ascanius stood out as effective pollinator because of the attendance of visits to flowers during the whole year. This study highlights the mutualistic relationship between L. fucata and P. ascanius established between the supply of nectar as a food resource to the butterfly, while this is responsible for pollinating the flowers and the formation of fruits and seeds.
Lock, Olga; Perez, Eleucy; Villar, Martha; Flores, Diana; Rojas, Rosario
It is estimated that there are as many as 1400 plant species currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine; however, only a few have undergone scientific investigation. In this paper, we make a review of the botanical, chemical, pharmacological and clinical propierties of the most investigated Peruvian medicinal plants. The plant species selected for this review are: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), Croton lechleri (sangre de grado), Uncaria tomentosa/U. guianensis (uña de gato), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), Minthostachys mollis (muña), Notholaena nivea (cuti-cuti), Maytenus macrocarpa (chuchuhuasi), Dracontium loretense (jergon sacha), Gentianella nitida (hercampuri), Plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) and Zea mays (maiz morado). For each of these plants, information about their traditional uses and current commercialization is also included.
Zaparolli, Marília Rizzon
Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar o conhecimento e o consumo de alimentos funcionais que auxiliam no controle da Diabetes mellitus em pacientes de um hospital público de Curitiba - PR. Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal e quantitativo, realizado com pacientes diabéticos hospitalizados (Hospital de Clínicas/UFPR, no período de dezembro de 2011 a março de 2012. Para a coleta de dados foi utilizado um questionário, através do qual se obteve informações sobre o conhecimento de alimentos funcionais e consumo de cinco alimentos funcionais importantes no controle da diabetes: alho, batata yacon, cebola, farinha de casca de maracujá e linhaça. Os dados coletados foram tabulados no programa Libre Office 3. 5® e após isso se realizou análise estatística descritiva. Resultados: Observou-se que somente 12 pacientes (35,29% da amostra haviam recebido informações anteriormente sobre alimentos funcionais e apenas 11 (32,35% responderam saber da importância desses alimentos no controle da diabetes. Dos cinco alimentos funcionais estudados, o alho e a batata yacon foram os que apresentaram maior consumo entre os diabéticos. Conclusão: O conhecimento de alimentos funcionais bem como seu consumo é pequeno por parte de pacientes diabéticos. Há a necessidade de uma maior intervenção por parte dos profissionais da Nutrição na orientação do consumo desses alimentos na dieta habitual dos diabéticos, visando promover um melhor controle da diabetes mellitus
Full Text Available Estructura, dimensiones y producción de propágulos sexuales de malezas del trópico húmedo. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron determinar las dimensiones promedio, describir la estructura externa de las semillas, frutos o espiguillas y estimar el número producido por planta y por gramo, de doce especies de malezas. Se elaboraron esquemas de los propágulos. En las dicotiledóneas estudiadas, el número promedio de semillas por planta varió de 1290 en Asclepias curassavica hasta 195008 en Ludwigia sp. La segunda especie con más elevado número promedio de semillas por planta fue Sida rhombifolia (7962 seguida por Ipomoea sp.(2876. Hyptis capitata mostró mayor número promedio de cabezuelas por planta (341 que Bidens pilosa (106 y que Emilia sonchifolia (61. Mimosa pudica produjo un promedio de 3.3 semillas por fruto. En las Poaceae, Paspalum conjugatum y P. Virgatum produjeron mayor número de espiguillas por rama floral (381 y 1185 respectivamente que Ischaemum indicum (81 y que Rottboellia cochinchinensis (14. Se menciona la anemocoria, la hidrocoria y la zoocoria como mecanismos que contribuyen en la dispersión de estas especies
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate ethanolic extracts of phytochemical screening, in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activities of 15 plants used as antimalarial in Sei Kepayang, North Sumatra. Methods: Extraction was done through maceration with 70% ethanol and screened against chemical content, in vitro test anti-plasmodium against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain and in vivo test in mice infected Plasmodium berghei. Results: The results showed that the plant extract contained a group of saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinone, sterols, triterpene, tannins and cumarine. However, extract of Momordica charantia, Carica papaya, Garcinia atroviridis, Alstonia scholaris, Smallanthus sonchifolia and Cassia siamea had strong anti-plasmodium activity both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions: In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activities of 15 plants are used as antimalarial in Sei Kepayang, North Sumatra. All the plants have in vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodium activity except Orthosiphon stamineus and Luffa cylindrica (ED50 > 1 000 mg/kg body weight and IC50 > 100 μg/mL, respectively.
Christiane Mileib Vasconcelos
Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou desenvolver uma sobremesa láctea potencialmente simbiótica contendo o probiótico Lactobacillus acidophilus e calda de yacon como alimento prebiótico, e verificar sua aceitabilidade sensorial. Para a produção do flan, inicialmente preparou-se um iogurte com leite integral acrescido de 10 % de açúcar, 3 % de leite em pó desnatado e 2% da cultura termofílica. Atingida acidez titulável de 0,75% o mesmo foi refrigerado a 10 ºC até o momento da mistura. Paralelamente foi preparada uma pasta base de amido (1 % m/v e gelatina sem sabor (0,6 %. Para preparo da cultura probiótica, Lactobacillus acidophilus foi centrifugado e concentrado em 10 vezes. Por último, foi preparada a calda de yacon que foi acondicionada em copos descartáveis, para posterior adição da cultura probiótica, iogurte e a pasta base previamente homogeneizados. Foram avaliados 59 consumidores quanto à aceitabilidade sensorial com uso da escala hedônica de 9 pontos e intenção de compra do produto. O Teste de Correlação de Spearman verificou a existência da associação entre variáveis categóricas e as variáveis do teste de aceitação. O Flan simbiótico apresentou 108 UFC/g, quantidade acima do recomendado e índice de aceitabilidade maior que 70 % para os atributos sabor, aroma, aparência e textura. Quanto à intenção de compra, 65 % dos consumidores declararam que comprariam esse produto se estivesse disponível no mercado. A Correlação de Spearman foi positiva (p<0,05 entre intenção de compra e os atributos sensoriais sabor, aroma e textura, sugerindo que essas características agem conjuntamente durante a percepção sensorial pelos consumidores.
Full Text Available Em um solo aluvião eutrófico de classificação textural argilo siltoso, com 2,75% de M.O. foram estudados os efeitos de doses do herbicida bentazon (3 - isopropi l - 2,1,3 - benzotio-diazinona - (4 - 2,2 - dióxido aplicado em pós-emergência. no controle de plantas daninhas dicotiledôneas na cultura da cebola. O delineamento experimental adotado foi um fatorial 2 x 5 x 2 + 4. constituído por duas cultivares: 'Baia Pe ri forme' e 'Texas Grano': cinco épocas de aplicação do produto: aos 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 dias após a emergência das plantas daninhas: duas doses de bentazon: 0,46kg. i.a./ha e 0,96 kg. i.a./ha e quatro tratamentos adicionais: 'Baia Periforme' capinada e sem capina e 'Texas Grano'. capinada e sem capina. . As plantas daninhas predominantes no experimento foram: botão -de-ouro (Galinsoga parviflora Cav., picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia prunifoiia Jacq.(, mostarda (Brassica campestris L., joá (Physalis angulata L. fedegoso (Cassia tora L.(, serralha falsa (Emilia sonchifolia (L . DC e mentruz (Lepidium virginicum L. Nas condições em que foi realizado o ensaio, o herbicida bentazon nas duas doses aplicadas mostrou-se eficiente no controle das plantas daninhas até 60 dias após o transplante. Nas doses empregadas o bentazon não apresentou efeito fitotóxico sobre a produção das cultivares 'Baia Periforme' e 'Texas Grano'.The effects of doses of the herbicide bentazon applied at post-emergence in the control of dycotiledonous weeds in onion crops were studied on a alluvial eutrophic soil with a clay silt texture. and 2.75%% of organic matter. The experiment was set according to a complete randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 5 x 2- 4 (two onion varieties: 'Bala Periforme' and 'Texas Grano': five herbicide application dates: 10. 20. 30, 40 and 50 days after emergence of the weeds: bentazon doses were 0,46g a.i./ha and 0.96 g a.i./ha: and four more tre atments: 'Baia Periforme
Zhu, Pingyang; Lu, Zhongxian; Heong, Kongluen; Chen, Guihua; Zheng, Xusong; Xu, Hongxing; Yang, Yajun; Nicol, Helen I; Gurr, Geoff M
Ecological engineering for pest management involves the identification of optimal forms of botanical diversity to incorporate into a farming system to suppress pests, by promoting their natural enemies. Whilst this approach has been extensively researched in many temperate crop systems, much less has been done for rice. This paper reports the influence of various plant species on the performance of a key natural enemy of rice planthopper pests, the predatory mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis. Survival of adult males and females was increased by the presence of flowering Tagetes erecta, Trida procumbens, Emilia sonchifolia (Compositae), and Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae) compared with water or nil controls. All flower treatments resulted in increased consumption of brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and for female C. lividipennis, S. indicum was the most favorable. A separate study with a wider range of plant species and varying densities of prey eggs showed that S. indicum most strongly promoted predation by C. lividipennis. Reflecting this, S. indicum gave a relatively high rate of prey search and low prey handling time. On this basis, S. indicum was selected for more detailed studies to check if its potential incorporation into the farming system would not inadvertently benefit Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia patnalis, serious Lepidoptera pests of rice. Adult longevity and fecundity of both pests was comparable for S. indicum and water treatments and significantly lower than the honey solution treatment. Findings indicate that S. indicumis well suited for use as an ecological engineering plant in the margins of rice crops. Sesame indicum can be a valuable crop as well as providing benefits to C. lividipennis whilst denying benefit to key pests.
Qian, Xiaoli; Wu, Yonggui; Zhou, Hongyun; Xu, Xiaohang; Xu, Zhidong; Shang, Lihai; Qiu, Guangle
Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MMHg) were investigated in 259 wild plants belonging to 49 species in 29 families that grew in heavily Hg-contaminated wastelands composed of cinnabar ore mine tailings (calcines) in the Wanshan region, southwestern China, the world's third largest Hg mining district. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of THg and MMHg from soil to roots ([THg] root /[THg] soil , [MMHg] root /[MMHg] soil ) were evaluated. The results showed that THg and MMHg in both plants and soils varied widely, with ranges of 0.076-140 μg/g THg and 0.19-87 ng/g MMHg in roots, 0.19-106 μg/g THg and 0.06-31 ng/g MMHg in shoots, and 0.74-1440 μg/g THg and 0.41-820 ng/g MMHg in soil. Among all investigated species, Arthraxon hispidus, Eremochloa ciliaris, Clerodendrum bunge, and Ixeris sonchifolia had significantly elevated concentrations of THg in shoots and/or roots that reached 100 μg/g, whereas Chenopodium glaucum, Corydalisedulis maxim, and Rumex acetosa contained low values below 0.5 μg/g. In addition to the high THg concentrations, the fern E. ciliaris also showed high BCF values for both THg and MMHg exceeding 1.0, suggesting its capability to extract Hg from soils. Considering its dominance and the tolerance identified in the present study, E. ciliaris is suggested to be a practical candidate for phytoextraction, whereas A. hispidus is identified as a potential candidate for phytostabilization of Hg mining-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aryecha Arruda Silva
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n2p93 Asteraceae, com aproximadamente 2.000 espécies registradas no Brasil, destaca-se nos estudos etnobotânicos, posicionando-se quase sempre entre as quatro famílias com maior número de espécies na flora útil, principalmente para fins medicinais. Neste estudo investigou-se a importância dessa família em quatro comunidades rurais do município de Camocim de São Félix, em um brejo de altitude, no agreste de Pernambuco. Os trabalhos de campo foram realizados no período de dezembro de 2010 a maio de 2011. Para a coleta dos dados etnobotânicos, foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com 50 moradores, de ambos os sexos, na maioria agricultores, com renda familiar inferior a um salário-mínimo, sendo coletadas as espécies por eles citadas. Os entrevistados mostraram um diversificado conhecimento sobre as Asteraceae, citando 19 espécies, nas seguintes categorias: medicinal (12, ornamental (6, tecnológica (3 e alimentícia (2, algumas delas incluídas em mais de uma categoria. Acanthospermum hispidum DC., espécie ruderal conhecida como espinho-de-cigano, foi a planta mais citada como medicinal, indicada para o tratamento de problemas respiratórios, infecções, doenças renais e odontalgias. As espécies Dahlia pinnata Cav., Tagetes erecta L. e Zinnia elegans Jacq. são utilizadas como ornamentais. Lactuca sativa L. (cultivada e Emilia sonchifolia (L. DC. (daninha foram as únicas citadas como alimentícias e Conyza bonariensis (L. Cronquist, Egletes viscosa Less. e Parthenium hysterophorus L. foram citadas para fins tecnológicos.
Full Text Available Ecological engineering for pest management involves the identification of optimal forms of botanical diversity to incorporate into a farming system to suppress pests, by promoting their natural enemies. Whilst this approach has been extensively researched in many temperate crop systems, much less has been done for rice. This paper reports the influence of various plant species on the performance of a key natural enemy of rice planthopper pests, the predatory mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis. Survival of adult males and females was increased by the presence of flowering Tagetes erecta, Trida procumbens, Emilia sonchifolia (Compositae, and Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae compared with water or nil controls. All flower treatments resulted in increased consumption of brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and for female C. lividipennis, S. indicum was the most favorable. A separate study with a wider range of plant species and varying densities of prey eggs showed that S. indicum most strongly promoted predation by C. lividipennis. Reflecting this, S. indicum gave a relatively high rate of prey search and low prey handling time. On this basis, S. indicum was selected for more detailed studies to check if its potential incorporation into the farming system would not inadvertently benefit Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia patnalis, serious Lepidoptera pests of rice. Adult longevity and fecundity of both pests was comparable for S. indicum and water treatments and significantly lower than the honey solution treatment. Findings indicate that S. indicumis well suited for use as an ecological engineering plant in the margins of rice crops. Sesame indicum can be a valuable crop as well as providing benefits to C. lividipennis whilst denying benefit to key pests.
Russo, Daniela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Fernandez, Eloy C; Milella, Luigi
The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile of leaf methanol extracts of fourteen Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) landraces and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antidiabetic activities that could lead to the finding of more effective agents for the treatment and management of Alzheimer's disease and diabetes. For this purpose, antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (˙NO) and superoxide (O2˙-) scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Anticholinesterase activity was investigated by quantifying the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities, whereas antidiabetic activity was investigated by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition tests. To understand the contribution of metabolites, phytochemical screening was also performed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) system. Among all, methanol extract of PER09, PER04 and ECU44 landraces exhibited the highest relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI). ECU44 was found to be rich in 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) and 3,5-di-O-CQA and displayed a good α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, showing the lowest IC50 values. Flavonoids, instead, seem to be involved in the AChE and BChE inhibition. The results of this study revealed that the bioactive compound content differences could be determinant for the medicinal properties of this plant especially for antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.
Mônica de Lucena Lira Aguiar Dias
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop a symbiotic lacteous drink, evaluate its physicochemical and sensory characteristics, and verify the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the drink. The milk serum-based drink consisted of 50% milk serum containing 10% saccharose, 25% powdered milk, 15% yacon pulp, and cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus-La 5E and Bifidobacterium bifidum BB12. It was stored for up to 21 days under refrigeration. The milk serum-based drink was analyzed for protein, ether extract, total dietary fiber, total frutans, carbohydrate content, color, pH, acidity, and contamination by coliforms, and Salmonella sp. Coliforms and Salmonella sp were not detected, and L. acidophilus and B. bifidum provided satisfactory probiotic counts up to 21 days of storage under refrigeration. Lactobacillus acidophilus resistance to gastric acids and bile salts was detected only up to seven days of storage when evaluated in vitro. Sensory analysis and purchase viability were evaluated by consumers at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days of storage. Based on the analytical results and consumer evaluation, the drink was acceptable up to seven days of storage.
Flores, Adriana C; Morlett, Jesús A; Rodríguez, Raúl
Oligosaccharides have been marketed since the 80s as low-calorie agents and recently have gained interest in the pharmaceutical and food industry as functional sweeteners and prebiotic enriching population of Bifidobacteria. Currently, they have an approximated value of $200 per kg and recently, inulin has been proposed as a feedstock for production of oligosaccharides through selective hydrolysis by action of endoinulinase. High optimum temperature (60°C) and thermostability are two important criteria that determine suitability of this enzyme for industrial applications as well as enzyme cost, a major limiting factor. Significant reduction in cost can be achieved by employing low-value and abundant inulin-rich plants as Jerusalem artichoke, dahlia, yacon, garlic, and onion, among others. In general, the early harvested tubers of these plants contain a greater amount of highly polymerized sugar fractions, which offer more industrial value than late-harvested tubers or those after storage. Also, development of recombinant microorganisms could be useful to reduce the cost of enzyme technology for large-scale production of oligosaccharides. In the case of fungal inulinases, several studies of cloning and modification have been made to achieve greater efficiency. The present paper reviews inulin from vegetable sources as feedstock for oligosaccharides production through the action of inulinases, the impact of polymerization degree of inulin and its availability, and some strategies to increase oligosaccharide production.
Full Text Available Microbiota in the gut play essential roles in human health. Prebiotics are non-digestible complex carbohydrates that are fermented in the colon, yielding energy and short chain fatty acids, and selectively promote the growth of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillae in the gastro-intestinal tract. Fructans and inulin are the best-characterized plant prebiotics. Many vegetable, root and tuber crops as well as some fruit crops are the best-known sources of prebiotic carbohydrates, while the prebiotic-rich grain crops include barley, chickpea, lentil, lupin, and wheat. Some prebiotic-rich crop germplasm have been reported in barley, chickpea, lentil, wheat, yacon, and Jerusalem artichoke. A few major quantitative trait loci and gene-based markers associated with high fructan are known in wheat. More targeted search in genebanks using reduced subsets (representing diversity in germplasm is needed to identify accessions with prebiotic carbohydrates. Transgenic maize, potato and sugarcane with high fructan, with no adverse effects on plant development, have been bred, which suggests that it is feasible to introduce fructan biosynthesis pathways in crops to produce health-imparting prebiotics. Developing prebiotic-rich and super nutritious crops will alleviate the widespread malnutrition and promote human health. A paradigm shift in breeding program is needed to achieve this goal and to ensure that newly-bred crop cultivars are nutritious, safe and health promoting.
Ibañez, M S; Mercado, M I; Coll Aráoz, M V; Zannier, M L; Grau, A; Ponessa, G I
Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae) is an ancient andean crop that has numerous dietary and medicinal properties. Morphological and anatomical features and developmental changes of the capitulum were studied. A ray floret is a pistillate, female flower, while a disc floret is a staminate male flower, and the former opens before the latter, being pseudanthium protogynous. The capitulum presents interesting attributes for pollinators such as flower structure, nectaries and pollenkitt. Gynoecial nectaries were found on undeveloped ovary in the disc floret, but not in the ray floret. Glandular trichomes were observed on the abaxial epidermis of corolla in the ray floret, but not in the disc floret. Capitulum development was divided into eight stages. Stigma receptivity varied with these stages. Pollen viability was low (15%). In accordance with low viability, pollen grains exhibit diverse sizes and shapes, reduction in length of spines, and abnormal protoplasm. Examination of ovary development in the ray floret showed that a mature ovule was formed, but fertilization did not occur. In advanced developmental stages, the capitulum showed proliferation of the endothelium, degeneration of the embryo sac, and all harvested cypselae had aborted seeds. Problems found in pollen viability and aborted cypselae could be the result of a history of vegetative propagation in the domestication process.
Russo, Daniela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B.; Fernandez, Eloy C.; Milella, Luigi
The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile of leaf methanol extracts of fourteen Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) landraces and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antidiabetic activities that could lead to the finding of more effective agents for the treatment and management of Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes. For this purpose, antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (˙NO) and superoxide (O2˙−) scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Anticholinesterase activity was investigated by quantifying the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities, whereas antidiabetic activity was investigated by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition tests. To understand the contribution of metabolites, phytochemical screening was also performed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) system. Among all, methanol extract of PER09, PER04 and ECU44 landraces exhibited the highest relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI). ECU44 was found to be rich in 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) and 3,5-di-O-CQA and displayed a good α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, showing the lowest IC50 values. Flavonoids, instead, seem to be involved in the AChE and BChE inhibition. The results of this study revealed that the bioactive compound content differences could be determinant for the medicinal properties of this plant especially for antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. PMID:26263984
Kitai, Yurika; Zhang, Xia; Hayashida, Yushi; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Tamura, Hirotoshi
Dimer sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), uvedafolin and enhydrofolin, against four monomer SLs isolated from yacon, Smallanthus sonchifolius, leaf were the most cytotoxic substances on HeLa cells (IC 50 values 2.96-3.17 μM at 24 hours). However, the cytotoxic mechanism of dimer SL has not been elucidated yet. Therefore, in this study, we clarified the in vitro cytotoxic mechanism of uvedafolin on the HeLa cells, and evaluated the cytotoxicity against NIH/3T3 cells which were used as normal cells. In consequence, the dimer SLs had low toxicity for the NIH/3T3 cells (IC 50 4.81-4.98 μM at 24 hours) and then the uvedafolin mediated cell cycle arrest at the G 2 /M phase and induced apoptosis on the HeLa cells evidenced by appearance of a subG1 peak. Uvedafolin induced apoptosis was attributed to caspase-9 and caspase-3/7 activities. An effectively induced apoptosis pathway was demonstrated from mitochondria membrane potential change and cytochrome c release to cytosol. These results reveal that uvedafolin induced apoptosis via the mitochondria pathway. The present results indicate the potential of uvedafolin as a leading compound of new anticancer agents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile of leaf methanol extracts of fourteen Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon landraces and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antidiabetic activities that could lead to the finding of more effective agents for the treatment and management of Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes. For this purpose, antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: ferric reducing ability power (FRAP, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, nitric oxide (˙NO and superoxide (O2˙− scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Anticholinesterase activity was investigated by quantifying the acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE inhibitory activities, whereas antidiabetic activity was investigated by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition tests. To understand the contribution of metabolites, phytochemical screening was also performed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD system. Among all, methanol extract of PER09, PER04 and ECU44 landraces exhibited the highest relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI. ECU44 was found to be rich in 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA and 3,5-di-O-CQA and displayed a good α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, showing the lowest IC50 values. Flavonoids, instead, seem to be involved in the AChE and BChE inhibition. The results of this study revealed that the bioactive compound content differences could be determinant for the medicinal properties of this plant especially for antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.
Weed control in young coffee plantations through post emergence herbicide application onto total area Controle de plantas daninhas em cafezais recém-implantados, com herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência em área total
Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the efficiency of several herbicides under field conditions, by post-emergence application onto the entire area, their effect on the control of weeds in young coffee plantations and commercial coffee and bean intercropping system, as well as on both crops. Seedlings of Coffea arabica cv. Red Catuaí with four to six leaf pairs were transplanted to the field and treated according to conventional agronomic practices. A bean and coffee intercropping system was established by sowing three lines of beans in the coffee inter-rows. At the time the herbicides were sprayed, the coffee plants had six to ten leaf pairs; the bean plants, three leaflets; and the weeds were at an early development stage. Fluazifop-p-butyl and clethodim were selective for coffee plants and controlled only Brachiaria plantaginea and Digitaria horizontalis efficiently. Broad-leaved weeds (Amaranthus retroflexus, Bidens pilosa, Coronopus didymus, Emilia sonchifolia, Galinsoga parviflora, Ipomoea grandifolia, Lepidium virginicum, and Raphanus raphanistrum were controlled with high efficiency by sole applications of fomesafen, flazasulfuron, and oxyfluorfen, except B. pilosa, C. didymus, and R. raphanistrum for oxyfluorfen. Sequential applications in seven-day intervals of fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butyl, or clethodim, and two commercial mixtures of fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butyl simultaneously controlled both types of weed. Cyperus rotundus was only controlled by flazasulfuron. Except for fluazifop-p-butyl and clethodim, all herbicide treatments caused only slight injuries on younger coffee leaves. However, further plant growth was not impaired and coffee plant height and stem diameter were therefore similar in the treatments, as evaluated four months later. Fomesafen, fluazifop-p-butyl, and clethodim, at sole or sequential application, and the commercial mixtures of fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butyl were also highly selective for bean crop; thus
A.C. De Barros
Full Text Available Foi conduzido em Serranópolis, GO, um ensaio objetivando avaliar a eficiência e a seletividade de herbicidas no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja (Glycine max (L. Merril, utilizando-se os seguintes tratamentos: A 100 g/ha de imazethapyr (ácido 2-[4,5-dihidro-4-metil-4(1-metiletil-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-ilo]-5-etil-3-piridinacarboxilico + surfactante, a 0,25% v/v; B tratamento A e 15 dias após, 230 g/ha de sethoxydim (2-1-etoximino-butil-5-2(etiltio-propil-3-hidroxi-2-ciclohexeno-1-ona + óleo mineral, a 0,25% v/v; C 230 g/ha de sethoxydim + óleo mineral, a 0,25% v/v; D 480 + 200 + 230 g/ha de bentazon (3-isopropil-2,1,3-benzotiadiazinona-(4-2,2-dióxido + fomesafen (5-2-cloro-4-(trifluorometil-fenoxiN-metilsulfonil-2-nitrobenzamida + sethoxydim + óleo mineral, 0,25% v/v; E 150 g/ha de imazaquim (2-[4,5-dihidro-4-metil-4-(1-metiletil-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-ilo]-3-quinolinacarboxílico pré-e e 230 g/ha de sethoxydim + óleo mineral, 0,25% v/v; F 250 g/ha de fomesafen + 187 g/ha de fluazipop-p-butil (butil-(R-2-(4-(5-trifluorometil-2-piridiloxi-fenoxi-propionato + surfactante a 0,2% v/v; G 120 g/ha de imazethapyr + surfactante a 0,2% v/v; H testemunha capinada; I testemunha não capinada. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O capim-custódio (Pennisetum setosum (Swartz L. Rich foi eficientemente controlado por todos os tratamentos químicos, enquanto a falsa-serralha (Emilia sonchifolia DC. foi somente pelo tratamento D. O capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L. por C, D, E e F. O joá-de-capote (Nicandra physaloides (L. Pers. por D.F. e G. Ocorreram injúrias iniciais às plantas de soja, nos tratamentos D, E. e F. As alturas de plantas e de inserção da primeira vagem, além do rendimento de grãos, não foram influenciados significativamente pelos herbicidas.An experiment was carried out in Serranópolis, State of Goiás, Brazil, aiming to evaluate herbicides efficiency in weeds control
Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Jouyandeh, Zahra; Abdollahi, Mohammad
Obesity is the most prevalent health problem affecting all age groups, and leads to many complications in the form of chronic heart disease, diabetes mellitus Type 2 and stroke. A systematic review about safety and efficacy of herbal medicines in the management of obesity in human was carried out by searching bibliographic data bases such as, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex, for studies reported between 30th December 2008 to 23rd April 2012 on human or animals, investigating the beneficial and harmful effects of herbal medicine to treat obesity. Actually we limited our search to such a narrow window of time in order to update our article published before December of 2008. In this update, the search terms were "obesity" and ("herbal medicine" or "plant", "plant medicinal" or "medicine traditional") without narrowing or limiting search items. Publications with available abstracts were reviewed only. Total publications found in the initial search were 651. Total number of publications for review study was 33 by excluding publications related to animals study.Studies with Nigella Sativa, Camellia Sinensis, Crocus Sativus L, Seaweed laminaria Digitata, Xantigen, virgin olive oil, Catechin enriched green tea, Monoselect Camellia, Oolong tea, Yacon syrup, Irvingia Gabonensi, Weighlevel, RCM-104 compound of Camellia Sinensis, Pistachio, Psyllium fibre, black Chinese tea, sea buckthorn and bilberries show significant decreases in body weight. Only, alginate-based brown seaweed and Laminaria Digitata caused an abdominal bloating and upper respiratory tract infection as the side effect in the trial group. No other significant adverse effects were reported in all 33 trials included in this article.In conclusion, Nigella Sativa, Camellia Synensis, Green Tea, and Black Chinese Tea seem to have satisfactory anti-obesity effects. The effect size of these medicinal plants is a critical point that should be considered for interpretation. Although there
Efeitos da aplicação de vinhaça sobre a população e controle químico de plantas daninhas na cultura da cana-de-açucar (Saccharum SPP. Effects of vinasse application on the population and chemical control of weeds in the sugarcane (Saccharum spp.
intensamente os tratamentos que receberam 150 m3 /ha de vinhaça e aumentou sua população com a diminuição da dose. O melhor controle foi obtido com alachlor e o menos satisfatório com o tebuthiuron. A beldroega (Portulaca oleracea L., guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia L. e falsa-serralha (Emilia sonchifolia D.C. tiveram suas populações alteradas em função da interação entre doses de vinhaça e herbicidas. Verificou-se que as diferentes doses de vinhaça influenciaram a população de capim-colchão, tiririca, beldroega, guanxuma e falsa-serralha. As doses de 100 e 150 m3 /ha, exerceram influência sobre o comportamento dos herbicidas, em especial alachlor e diuron, nas condições do presente experimento.To evaluate the chemical control and the influence of weed population occurring in the sugarcane culture (3rd ratoon, variety NA56-79, with different vinasse dosages, an experiment was installed at Santa Lúcia Sugar and Alcohol Mill, in Araras-SP. The soil was distrophic Red Yellow Latossol, loam texture, Haplorthox. No rainfall level occurred during the 10 days following herbicide application . The experiment was installed in 10/08/83, being the soil dry at the moment of vinasse application, which was through tank truck, with pump discharge without pressure. Herbicides were applied with knapsac at constant pressure CO2 , using Teejet 110.04 nozzle, at an outflow of 370 1/ha. Experimental design was constituted by randomized blocks with split plots and 3 replications. Treatments were 0, 50, 100 and 150 m3/ha vinasse and mineral fertilization. Subtreatments were constituted by the herbicides alachlor at 2.40 kg a.i/ha; diuron at 1.60 kg a.i/ha; ametrin at 2.40 a.i/ha and tebuthiuron at 0.96 kg a.i/ha. Infestation of crabgrass (Digitaria horizontalis Willd was highter in the areas which received only mineral fertilization, however, in the treatments receiving increasing vinasse dosages, crabgrass population was higher with the increase of doses. The most efficient control
Comportamento do algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum latifolium Hutch. e controle de plantas daninhas com o uso dos herbicidas diuron e sethoxydim The behavior of upland-type cotton (G. hirsutum latifolium Hutch. and the control of weeds after the use of diuron and sethoxydim herbicides
N.E. de M. Beltrão
agressividade.To verify the behavior of the c. IAC -17, as well as, the control of weeds and competitive aspects of the infesting floristic complexes over the cotton culture under the presence of the herbicides, diuron and sethoxydium, atrial was contucted in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The soil at the experimental site, Podzolic Red-yellow, had a clay texture wi th 1,38% of organic carbon an low natural fertility. Diuron was applied at pre -emergence time at the rates of 0, 0; 0, 8; 1,6 and 2,4 kg a.i. /ha and sethoxyd im at post-emergence at the rates of 0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 g a.i./ha. The trial was setup in a randomized blocks design with 2 1 treament sunder a factorial scheme (x 5 + 1 . Out of them, 20 composed all the combinations with different dosis of the two herbicides under study plus a relative control weeded with the aind of a mattock. Several traits concerning growth and plant development were evaluated, such as leaf area, leaf area in dex, seed -cotton yield, plant height, stem diameter. By means of syn ecological methods, th e population density, hydrated epigeous phytomase of dominant weed species, and the total of all species were evaluated. Diuron exerted a high control overlati foliates such as Galinsoga parviflora Cav . and Bidens pilosa L., at the rates of 1, 6 an d 2,4 kg a. i. /ha, seth oxydim, even using the lowvest tested rate (150 g. a. i. /h a fully controled Brachiaria plantaginea (Link. Hitch. None of th e herbicides was able to control Emilia sonchifolia DC. Th is species although being considered an important weed did not affect the normal crop development because of its low competition ability. The weeds showing highes trates of competition were G. parviflora (due to high population density an d B. plantaginea, because of its greater aggresivity.