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Sample records for xylem

  1. Xylem sap proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernonville, Thomas Dugé; Albenne, Cécile; Arlat, Matthieu; Hoffmann, Laurent; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of xylem sap has recently become a major field of interest to understand several biological questions related to plant development and responses to environmental clues. The xylem sap appears as a dynamic fluid undergoing changes in its proteome upon abiotic and biotic stresses. Unlike cell compartments which are amenable to purification in sufficient amount prior to proteomic analysis, the xylem sap has to be collected in particular conditions to avoid contamination by intracellular proteins and to obtain enough material. A model plant like Arabidopsis thaliana is not suitable for such an analysis because efficient harvesting of xylem sap is difficult. The analysis of the xylem sap proteome also requires specific procedures to concentrate proteins and to focus on proteins predicted to be secreted. Indeed, xylem sap proteins appear to be synthesized and secreted in the root stele or to originate from dying differentiated xylem cells. This chapter describes protocols to collect xylem sap from Brassica species and to prepare total and N-glycoprotein extracts for identification of proteins by mass spectrometry analyses and bioinformatics.

  2. Xylem hydraulic safety margins in woody plants: coordination of stomatal control of xylem tension with hydraulic capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick C. Meinzer; Daniel M. Johnson; Barbara Lachenbruch; Katherine A. McCulloh; David R. Woodruff

    2009-01-01

    The xylem pressure inducing 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity due to embolism (P50) is widely used for comparisons of xylem vulnerability among species and across aridity gradients. However, despite its utility as an index of resistance to catastrophic xylem failure under extreme drought, P50 may have no special...

  3. Comparative genomics reveals conservative evolution of the xylem transcriptome in vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinguo; Wu, Harry X; Southerton, Simon G

    2010-06-21

    Wood is a valuable natural resource and a major carbon sink. Wood formation is an important developmental process in vascular plants which played a crucial role in plant evolution. Although genes involved in xylem formation have been investigated, the molecular mechanisms of xylem evolution are not well understood. We use comparative genomics to examine evolution of the xylem transcriptome to gain insights into xylem evolution. The xylem transcriptome is highly conserved in conifers, but considerably divergent in angiosperms. The functional domains of genes in the xylem transcriptome are moderately to highly conserved in vascular plants, suggesting the existence of a common ancestral xylem transcriptome. Compared to the total transcriptome derived from a range of tissues, the xylem transcriptome is relatively conserved in vascular plants. Of the xylem transcriptome, cell wall genes, ancestral xylem genes, known proteins and transcription factors are relatively more conserved in vascular plants. A total of 527 putative xylem orthologs were identified, which are unevenly distributed across the Arabidopsis chromosomes with eight hot spots observed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that evolution of the xylem transcriptome has paralleled plant evolution. We also identified 274 conifer-specific xylem unigenes, all of which are of unknown function. These xylem orthologs and conifer-specific unigenes are likely to have played a crucial role in xylem evolution. Conifers have highly conserved xylem transcriptomes, while angiosperm xylem transcriptomes are relatively diversified. Vascular plants share a common ancestral xylem transcriptome. The xylem transcriptomes of vascular plants are more conserved than the total transcriptomes. Evolution of the xylem transcriptome has largely followed the trend of plant evolution.

  4. Quantification of the xylem-to-phloem transfer of amino acids by use of inulin (14C)carboxylic acid as xylem transfer marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Bel, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Inulin ( 14 C)carboxylic acid and 14 C-labelled amino acid (α-aminoisobutyric acid (aib) and valine) solutions were introduced into the transpiration stream through the cut stem bases of young (4-12 leaves) tomato plants. Inulin carboxylic acid (inu) was translocated exclusively by the xylem, whereas the amino acid distribution resulted from both xylem and phloem import. Comparison of the distribution of inu and aib permitted a quantitative assessment of the xylem-to-phloem transfer in the stem. Of aib, 20.6% traversed from xylem to phloem in a plant with 12 leaves. The phloem import was not evenly distributed over the leaves and varied from 0% (first five leaves) to 95% (top leaf) of the aib import per leaf. Doubling the flow rates in the xylem reduced the aib supply to 25% in the top leaf and 55% in the next leaf, which reflects a reduced xylem-to-phloem transfer. (author)

  5. Ion-mediated changes of xylem hydraulic resistance in planta: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ieperen, Wim

    2007-04-01

    Although xylem provides an efficient transport pathway for water in plants, the hydraulic conductivity of xylem (K(h)) can still influence plant water status. For decades, the K(h) of functional xylem has been assumed to be constant in the short term because xylem consists of a network of dead interconnected capillary elements (conduits). Recent research has shown that K(h) can change in response to the cation content of the xylem fluid. Volume changes of pectin gel in nanometer-sized pores at inter-conduit connections are hypothesized to be the cause, and implications for xylem transport in planta are suggested. However, it seems too early to be conclusive about this phenomenon because the phenomenon has not been measured in planta with xylem fluids that realistically mimic natural xylem sap and the applied methods used to measure ion-mediated changes in K(h) have drawbacks.

  6. Ion-mediated changes of xylem hydraulic resistance in planta: fact or fiction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ieperen, van W.

    2007-01-01

    Although xylem provides an efficient transport pathway for water in plants, the hydraulic conductivity of xylem (Kh) can still influence plant water status. For decades, the Kh of functional xylem has been assumed to be constant in the short term because xylem consists of a network of dead

  7. Xylem and phloem phenology in co-occurring conifers exposed to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas; Oberhuber, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Variability in xylem and phloem phenology among years and species is caused by contrasting temperatures prevailing at the start of the growing season and species-specific sensitivity to drought. The focus of this study was to determine temporal dynamics of xylem and phloem formation in co-occurring deciduous and evergreen coniferous species in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria). By repeated micro-sampling of the stem, timing of key phenological dates of xylem and phloem formation was compared among mature Pinus sylvestris , Larix decidua and Picea abies during two consecutive years. Xylem formation in P. sylvestris started in mid and late April 2011 and 2012, respectively, and in both years about 2 week later in P. abies and L. decidua . Phloem formation preceded xylem formation on average by 3 week in P. sylvestris , and c . 5 week in P. abies and L. decidua . Based on modeled cell number increase, tracheid production peaked between early through late May 2011 and late May through mid-June 2012. Phloem formation culminated between late April and mid-May in 2011 and in late May 2012. Production of xylem and phloem cells continued for about 4 and 5-6 months, respectively. High variability in xylem increment among years and species is related to exogenous control by climatic factors and species-specific sensitivity to drought, respectively. On the other hand, production of phloem cells was quite homogenous and showed asymptotic decrease with respect to xylem cells indicating endogenous control. Results indicate that onset and culmination of xylem and phloem formation are controlled by early spring temperature, whereby strikingly advanced production of phloem compared to xylem cells suggests lower temperature requirement for initiation of the former.

  8. Water filtration using plant xylem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S H Boutilier

    Full Text Available Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees--a readily available, inexpensive, biodegradable, and disposable material--can remove bacteria from water by simple pressure-driven filtration. Approximately 3 cm(3 of sapwood can filter water at the rate of several liters per day, sufficient to meet the clean drinking water needs of one person. The results demonstrate the potential of plant xylem to address the need for pathogen-free drinking water in developing countries and resource-limited settings.

  9. Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, S.; Lloyd, J.; Paiva, R.; Baker, T. R.; Quesada, C. A.; Mercado, L. M.; Schmerler, J.; Schwarz, M.; Santos, A. J. B.; Aguilar, A.; Czimczik, C. I.; Gallo, J.; Horna, V.; Hoyos, E. J.; Jimenez, E. M.; Palomino, W.; Peacock, J.; Peña-Cruz, A.; Sarmiento, C.; Sota, A.; Turriago, J. D.; Villanueva, B.; Vitzthum, P.; Alvarez, E.; Arroyo, L.; Baraloto, C.; Bonal, D.; Chave, J.; Costa, A. C. L.; Herrera, R.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T.; Leal, E.; Luizão, F.; Meir, P.; Monteagudo, A.; Neil, D.; Núñez-Vargas, P.; Peñuela, M. C.; Pitman, N.; Priante Filho, N.; Prieto, A.; Panfil, S. N.; Rudas, A.; Salomão, R.; Silva, N.; Silveira, M.; Soares Dealmeida, S.; Torres-Lezama, A.; Vásquez-Martínez, R.; Vieira, I.; Malhi, Y.; Phillips, O. L.

    2009-04-01

    Xylem density is a physical property of wood that varies between individuals, species and environments. It reflects the physiological strategies of trees that lead to growth, survival and reproduction. Measurements of branch xylem density, ρx, were made for 1653 trees representing 598 species, sampled from 87 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 218 kg m-3 for a Cordia sagotii (Boraginaceae) from Mountagne de Tortue, French Guiana to 1130 kg m-3 for an Aiouea sp. (Lauraceae) from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average ρx across regions and sampled plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that species identity (family, genera and species) accounted for 33% with environment (geographic location and plot) accounting for an additional 26%; the remaining "residual" variance accounted for 41% of the total variance. Variations in plot means, were, however, not only accountable by differences in species composition because xylem density of the most widely distributed species in our dataset varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component, branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing in a predictable manner. Within the analysed taxa, exceptions to this general rule seem to be pioneer species belonging for example to the Urticaceae whose branch xylem density is more constrained than most species sampled in this study. These patterns of variation of branch xylem density across Amazonia suggest a large functional diversity amongst Amazonian trees which is not well understood.

  10. Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Patiño

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Xylem density is a physical property of wood that varies between individuals, species and environments. It reflects the physiological strategies of trees that lead to growth, survival and reproduction. Measurements of branch xylem density, ρx, were made for 1653 trees representing 598 species, sampled from 87 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 218 kg m−3 for a Cordia sagotii (Boraginaceae from Mountagne de Tortue, French Guiana to 1130 kg m−3 for an Aiouea sp. (Lauraceae from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average ρx across regions and sampled plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that species identity (family, genera and species accounted for 33% with environment (geographic location and plot accounting for an additional 26%; the remaining "residual" variance accounted for 41% of the total variance. Variations in plot means, were, however, not only accountable by differences in species composition because xylem density of the most widely distributed species in our dataset varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component, branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing in a predictable manner. Within the analysed taxa, exceptions to this general rule seem to be pioneer species belonging for example to the Urticaceae whose branch xylem density is more constrained than most species sampled in this study. These patterns of variation of branch xylem density across Amazonia suggest a large functional diversity amongst Amazonian trees which is not well understood.

  11. Xylem diameter changes during osmotic stress, desiccation and freezing in Pinus sylvestris and Populus tremula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Anna; Lindfors, Lauri; Nikinmaa, Eero; Hölttä, Teemu

    2017-04-01

    Trees experience low apoplastic water potential frequently in most environments. Low apoplastic water potential increases the risk of embolism formation in xylem conduits and creates dehydration stress for the living cells. We studied the magnitude and rate of xylem diameter change in response to decreasing apoplastic water potential and the role of living parenchyma cells in it to better understand xylem diameter changes in different environmental conditions. We compared responses of control and heat-injured xylem of Pinus sylvestris (L.) and Populus tremula (L.) branches to decreasing apoplastic water potential created by osmotic stress, desiccation and freezing. It was shown that xylem in control branches shrank more in response to decreasing apoplastic water potential in comparison with the samples that were preheated to damage living xylem parenchyma. By manipulating the osmotic pressure of the xylem sap, we observed xylem shrinkage due to decreasing apoplastic water potential even in the absence of water tension within the conduits. These results indicate that decreasing apoplastic water potential led to withdrawal of intracellular water from the xylem parenchyma, causing tissue shrinkage. The amount of xylem shrinkage per decrease in apoplastic water potential was higher during osmotic stress or desiccation compared with freezing. During desiccation, xylem diameter shrinkage involved both dehydration-related shrinkage of xylem parenchyma and water tension-induced shrinkage of conduits, whereas dehydration-related shrinkage of xylem parenchyma was accompanied by swelling of apoplastic ice during freezing. It was also shown that the exchange of water between symplast and apoplast within xylem is clearly faster than previously reported between the phloem and the xylem. Time constant of xylem shrinkage was 40 and 2 times higher during osmotic stress than during freezing stress in P. sylvestris and P. tremula, respectively. Finally, it was concluded that the

  12. Differential expression of genes of Xylella fastidiosa in xylem fluid of citrus and grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiangyang; Bi, Jianlong; Morse, Joseph G; Toscano, Nick C; Cooksey, Donald A

    2010-03-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes a serious Pierce's disease (PD) in grapevine. Xylella fastidiosa cells from a PD strain were grown in a pure xylem fluid of a susceptible grapevine cultivar vs. xylem fluid from citrus, which is not a host for this strain of X. fastidiosa. When grown in grapevine xylem fluid, cells of the PD strain formed clumps and biofilm formed to a greater extent than in citrus xylem fluid, although the PD strain did grow in xylem fluid of three citrus varieties. The differential expression of selected genes of a PD X. fastidiosa strain cultured in the two xylem fluids was analyzed using a DNA macroarray. Compared with citrus xylem fluid, grapevine xylem fluid stimulated the expression of X. fastidiosa genes involved in virulence regulation, such as gacA, algU, xrvA, and hsq, and also genes involved in the biogenesis of pili and twitching motility, such as fimT, pilI, pilU, and pilY1. Increased gene expression likely contributes to PD expression in grapevine, whereas citrus xylem fluid did not support or possibly suppressed the expression of these virulence genes.

  13. Xylem-to-phloem transfer of organic nitrogen in young soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, M.C.; Shelp, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    Xylem-to-phloem transfer in young vegetative soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) plants (V4 stage) was identified as the difference in the distribution of [ 14 C]inulin, a xylem marker, and [ 14 C]aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), a synthetic amino acid, fed via the transpiration stream. Since [ 14 C]AIB was retained in the stem to some extent, whereas [ 14 C]inulin was not, the distribution of these marker compounds in each leaf was expressed as a percentage of the total [ 14 C] radioactivity recovered in the foliage. The developing third trifoliolate was a consistent and reliable indicator of xylem-to-phloem transfer. The phloem stream provided to the developing trifoliolate up to fourfold the relative proportion of solute received from the xylem stream; this was markedly reduced by increased light intensity and consequently water flow through the xylem. Evidence from heat girdling experiments is discussed with respect to the vascular anatomy of the soybean plant, and interpreted to suggest that direct xylem-to-phloem transfer in the stem, in the region of the second node, accounted for about one-half of the AIB supplied to the developing trifoliolate, with the remainder being provided from the second trifoliolate. Since AIB is not metabolized it seems likely that rapid transfer within the second trifoliolate occurred as direct veinal transfer rather than indirect cycling through the mesophyll. This study confirmed that xylem-to-phloem transfer plays a major role in the partitioning of nitrogen for early leaf development

  14. Classifying Taiwan Lianas with Radiating Plates of Xylem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Zehn Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiating plates of xylem are a lianas cambium variation, of which, 22 families have this feature. This study investigates 15 liana species representing nine families with radiating plates of xylem structures. The features of the transverse section and epidermis in fresh liana samples are documented, including shapes and colors of xylem and phloem, ray width and numbers, and skin morphology. Experimental results indicated that the shape of phloem fibers in Ampelopsis brevipedunculata var. hancei is gradually tapered and flame-like, which is in contrast with the other characteristics of this type, including those classified as rays. Both inner and outer cylinders of vascular bundles are found in Piper kwashoense, and the irregularly inner cylinder persists yet gradually diminishes. Red crystals are numerous in the cortex of Celastrus kusanoi. Aristolochia shimadai and A. zollingeriana develop a combination of two cambium variants, radiating plates of xylem and a lobed xylem. The shape of phloem in Stauntonia obovatifoliola is square or truncate, and its rays are numerous. Meanwhile, that of Neoalsomitra integrifolia is blunt and its rays are fewer. As for the features of a stem surface within the same family, Cyclea ochiaiana is brownish in color and has a deep vertical depression with lenticels, Pericampylus glaucus is greenish in color with a vertical shallow depression. Within the same genus, Aristolochia shimadai develops lenticels, which are not in A. zollingeriana; although the periderm developed in Clematis grata is a ring bark and tears easily, that of Clematis tamura is thick and soft.

  15. Xylem development in prunus flower buds and the relationship to deep supercooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, E N

    1984-04-01

    Xylem development in eight Prunus species was examined and the relationship to deep supercooling assessed. Dormant buds of six species, P. armeniaca, P. avium, P. cerasus, P. persica, P. salicina, and P. sargentii deep supercooled. Xylem vessel elements were not observed within the dormant floral primordia of these species. Instead, discrete bundles containing procambial cells were observed. Vascular differentiation resumed and xylem continuity was established during the time that the capacity to deep supercool was lost. In P. serotina and P. virginiana, two species which do not supercool, xylem vessels ran the length of the inflorescence and presumably provided a conduit for the spread of ice into the bud. The results support the hypothesis that the lack of xylem continuity is an important feature of buds which deep supercool.

  16. Analysis of xylem formation in pine by cDNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allona, I.; Quinn, M.; Shoop, E.; Swope, K.; St Cyr, S.; Carlis, J.; Riedl, J.; Retzel, E.; Campbell, M. M.; Sederoff, R.; hide

    1998-01-01

    Secondary xylem (wood) formation is likely to involve some genes expressed rarely or not at all in herbaceous plants. Moreover, environmental and developmental stimuli influence secondary xylem differentiation, producing morphological and chemical changes in wood. To increase our understanding of xylem formation, and to provide material for comparative analysis of gymnosperm and angiosperm sequences, ESTs were obtained from immature xylem of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). A total of 1,097 single-pass sequences were obtained from 5' ends of cDNAs made from gravistimulated tissue from bent trees. Cluster analysis detected 107 groups of similar sequences, ranging in size from 2 to 20 sequences. A total of 361 sequences fell into these groups, whereas 736 sequences were unique. About 55% of the pine EST sequences show similarity to previously described sequences in public databases. About 10% of the recognized genes encode factors involved in cell wall formation. Sequences similar to cell wall proteins, most known lignin biosynthetic enzymes, and several enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism were found. A number of putative regulatory proteins also are represented. Expression patterns of several of these genes were studied in various tissues and organs of pine. Sequencing novel genes expressed during xylem formation will provide a powerful means of identifying mechanisms controlling this important differentiation pathway.

  17. Protein and metabolite composition of xylem sap from field-grown soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Hari B; Natarajan, Savithiry S; Bennett, John O; Sicher, Richard C

    2011-05-01

    The xylem, in addition to transporting water, nutrients and metabolites, is also involved in long-distance signaling in response to pathogens, symbionts and environmental stresses. Xylem sap has been shown to contain a number of proteins including metabolic enzymes, stress-related proteins, signal transduction proteins and putative transcription factors. Previous studies on xylem sap have mostly utilized plants grown in controlled environmental chambers. However, plants in the field are subjected to high light and to environmental stress that is not normally found in growth chambers. In this study, we have examined the protein and metabolite composition of xylem sap from field-grown cultivated soybean plants. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of xylem sap from determinate, indeterminate, nodulating and non-nodulating soybean cultivars revealed similar protein profiles consisting of about 8-10 prominent polypeptides. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of soybean xylem sap resulted in the visualization of about 60 distinct protein spots. A total of 38 protein spots were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and LC-MS/MS. The most abundant proteins present in the xylem sap were identified as 31 and 28 kDa vegetative storage proteins. In addition, several proteins that are conserved among different plant species were also identified. Diurnal changes in the metabolite profile of xylem sap collected during a 24-h cycle revealed that asparagine and aspartate were the two predominant amino acids irrespective of the time collected. Pinitol (D-3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) was the most abundant carbohydrate present. The possible roles of xylem sap proteins and metabolites as nutrient reserves for sink tissue and as an indicator of biotic stress are also discussed.

  18. Overexpression and cosuppression of xylem-related genes in an early xylem differentiation stage-specific manner by the AtTED4 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Satoshi; Iwamoto, Kuninori; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2018-02-01

    Tissue-specific overexpression of useful genes, which we can design according to their cause-and-effect relationships, often gives valuable gain-of-function phenotypes. To develop genetic tools in woody biomass engineering, we produced a collection of Arabidopsis lines that possess chimeric genes of a promoter of an early xylem differentiation stage-specific gene, Arabidopsis Tracheary Element Differentiation-related 4 (AtTED4) and late xylem development-associated genes, many of which are uncharacterized. The AtTED4 promoter directed the expected expression of transgenes in developing vascular tissues from young to mature stage. Of T2 lines examined, 42%, 49% and 9% were judged as lines with the nonrepeat type insertion, the simple repeat type insertion and the other repeat type insertion of transgenes. In 174 T3 lines, overexpression lines were confirmed for 37 genes, whereas only cosuppression lines were produced for eight genes. The AtTED4 promoter activity was high enough to overexpress a wide range of genes over wild-type expression levels, even though the wild-type expression is much higher than AtTED4 expression for several genes. As a typical example, we investigated phenotypes of pAtTED4::At5g60490 plants, in which both overexpression and cosuppression lines were included. Overexpression but not cosuppression lines showed accelerated xylem development, suggesting the positive role of At5g60490 in xylem development. Taken together, this study provides valuable results about behaviours of various genes expressed under an early xylem-specific promoter and about usefulness of their lines as genetic tools in woody biomass engineering. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effects of Age and Size on Xylem Phenology in Two Conifers of Northwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Qiao; Rossi, Sergio; Yang, Bao

    2018-01-01

    The climatic signals that directly affect the trees can be registered by xylem during its growth. If the timings and duration of xylem formation change, xylogenesis can occur under different environmental conditions and subsequently be subject to different climatic signals. An experimental design was applied in the field to disentangle the effects of age and size on xylem phenology, and it challenges the hypothesis that the timings and dynamics of xylem growth are size-dependent. Intra-annual...

  20. Xylem hydraulic properties of roots and stems of nine Mediterranean woody species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Prat, Ester; Oliveras, Imma; Piñol, Josep

    2002-09-01

    We studied the hydraulic architecture and water relations of nine co-occurring woody species in a Spanish evergreen oak forest over the course of a dry season. Our main objectives were to: (1) test the existence of a trade-off between hydraulic conductivity and security in the xylem, and (2) establish the safety margins at which the species operated in relation to hydraulic failure, and compare these safety margins between species and tissues (roots vs. stems). Our results showed that the relationship between specific hydraulic conductivity (K s) and resistance to cavitation followed a power function with exponent ≈-2, consistent with the existence of a trade-off between conductivity and security in the xylem, and also consistent with a linear relationship between vessel diameter and the size of inter-vessel pores. The diameter of xylem conduits, K s and vulnerability to xylem embolism were always higher in roots than in stems of the same species. Safety margins from hydraulic failure were narrower in roots than in stems. Among species, the water potential (Ψ) at which 50% of conductivity was lost due to embolism ranged between -0.9 and Cistus albidus=Ilex aquifolium>Phillyrea latifolia>Juniperus oxycedrus. Gas exchange and seasonal Ψ minima were in general correlated with resistance to xylem embolism. Hydraulic safety margins differed markedly among species, with some of them (J. oxycedrus, I. aquifolium, P. latifolia) showing a xylem overly resistant to cavitation. We hypothesize that this overly resistant xylem may be related to the shape of the relationship between K s and security we have found.

  1. Compositions and methods for xylem-specific expression in plant cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kyung-Hwan; Ko, Jae-Heung

    2017-12-19

    The invention provides promoter sequences that regulate specific expression of operably linked sequences in developing xylem cells and/or in developing xylem tissue. The developing xylem-specific sequences are exemplified by the DX5, DX8, DX11, and DX15 promoters, portions thereof, and homologs thereof. The invention further provides expression vectors, cells, tissues and plants that contain the invention's sequences. The compositions of the invention and methods of using them are useful in, for example, improving the quantity (biomass) and/or the quality (wood density, lignin content, sugar content etc.) of expressed biomass feedstock products that may be used for bioenergy, biorefinary, and generating wood products such as pulp, paper, and solid wood.

  2. Functional water flow pathways and hydraulic regulation in the xylem network of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonghyuk; Kim, Hae Koo; Ryu, Jeongeun; Ahn, Sungsook; Lee, Sang Joon; Hwang, Ildoo

    2015-03-01

    In vascular plants, the xylem network constitutes a complex microfluidic system. The relationship between vascular network architecture and functional hydraulic regulation during actual water flow remains unexplored. Here, we developed a method to visualize individual xylem vessels of the 3D xylem network of Arabidopsis thaliana, and to analyze the functional activities of these vessels using synchrotron X-ray computed tomography with hydrophilic gold nanoparticles as flow tracers. We show how the organization of the xylem network changes dynamically throughout the plant, and reveal how the elementary units of this transport system are organized to ensure both long-distance axial water transport and local lateral water transport. Xylem vessels form distinct clusters that operate as functional units, and the activity of these units, which determines water flow pathways, is modulated not only by varying the number and size of xylem vessels, but also by altering their interconnectivity and spatial arrangement. Based on these findings, we propose a regulatory model of water transport that ensures hydraulic efficiency and safety. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Tolerance to oxidative stress is required for maximal xylem colonization by the xylem-limited bacterial phytopathogen, Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Lee, Yunho; Igo, Michele M; Roper, M Caroline

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial plant pathogens often encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS) during host invasion. In foliar bacterial pathogens, multiple regulatory proteins are involved in the sensing of oxidative stress and the activation of the expression of antioxidant genes. However, it is unclear whether xylem-limited bacteria, such as Xylella fastidiosa, experience oxidative stress during the colonization of plants. Examination of the X. fastidiosa genome uncovered only one homologue of oxidative stress regulatory proteins, OxyR. Here, a knockout mutation in the X. fastidiosa oxyR gene was constructed; the resulting strain was significantly more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) relative to the wild-type. In addition, during early stages of grapevine infection, the survival rate was 1000-fold lower for the oxyR mutant than for the wild-type. This supports the hypothesis that grapevine xylem represents an oxidative environment and that X. fastidiosa must overcome this challenge to achieve maximal xylem colonization. Finally, the oxyR mutant exhibited reduced surface attachment and cell-cell aggregation and was defective in biofilm maturation, suggesting that ROS could be a potential environmental cue stimulating biofilm development during the early stages of host colonization. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  4. Sugars from woody tissue photosynthesis reduce xylem vulnerability to cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baerdemaeker, Niels J F; Salomón, Roberto Luis; De Roo, Linus; Steppe, Kathy

    2017-11-01

    Reassimilation of internal CO 2 via woody tissue photosynthesis has a substantial effect on tree carbon income and wood production. However, little is known about its role in xylem vulnerability to cavitation and its implications in drought-driven tree mortality. Young trees of Populus nigra were subjected to light exclusion at the branch and stem levels. After 40 d, measurements of xylem water potential, diameter variation and acoustic emission (AE) were performed in detached branches to obtain acoustic vulnerability curves to cavitation following bench-top dehydration. Acoustic vulnerability curves and derived AE 50 values (i.e. water potential at which 50% of cavitation-related acoustic emissions occur) differed significantly between light-excluded and control branches (AE 50,light-excluded  = -1.00 ± 0.13 MPa; AE 50,control  = -1.45 ± 0.09 MPa; P = 0.007) denoting higher vulnerability to cavitation in light-excluded trees. Woody tissue photosynthesis represents an alternative and immediate source of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) that confers lower xylem vulnerability to cavitation via sugar-mediated mechanisms. Embolism repair and xylem structural changes could not explain this observation as the amount of cumulative AE and basic wood density did not differ between treatments. We suggest that woody tissue assimilates might play a role in the synthesis of xylem surfactants for nanobubble stabilization under tension. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Direct observation of local xylem embolisms induced by soil drying in intact Zea mays leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jeongeun; Hwang, Bae Geun; Kim, Yangmin X; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-04-01

    The vulnerability of vascular plants to xylem embolism is closely related to their stable long-distance water transport, growth, and survival. Direct measurements of xylem embolism are required to understand what causes embolism and what strategies plants employ against it. In this study, synchrotron X-ray microscopy was used to non-destructively investigate both the anatomical structures of xylem vessels and embolism occurrence in the leaves of intact Zea mays (maize) plants. Xylem embolism was induced by water stress at various soil drying periods and soil water contents. X-ray images of dehydrated maize leaves showed that the ratio of gas-filled vessels to all xylem vessels increased with decreased soil water content and reached approximately 30% under severe water stress. Embolism occurred in some but not all vessels. Embolism in maize leaves was not strongly correlated with xylem diameter but was more likely to occur in the peripheral veins. The rate of embolism formation in metaxylem vessels was higher than in protoxylem vessels. This work has demonstrated that xylem embolism remains low in maize leaves under water stress and that there xylem has characteristic spatial traits of vulnerability to embolism. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Conservation of element concentration in xylem sap of red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the chemistry of xylem sap as a marker of red spruce metabolism and soil chemistry at three locations in northern New England. A Scholander pressure chamber was used to extract xylem sap from roots and branches cut from mature trees in early June and September. Root sap contained significantly greater concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and A1 than branch...

  7. Comparative interrogation of the developing xylem transcriptomes of two wood-forming species: Populus trichocarpa and Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefer, Charles A; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Myburg, Alexander A; Douglas, Carl J; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2015-06-01

    Wood formation is a complex developmental process governed by genetic and environmental stimuli. Populus and Eucalyptus are fast-growing, high-yielding tree genera that represent ecologically and economically important species suitable for generating significant lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analysis of the developing xylem and leaf transcriptomes of Populus trichocarpa and Eucalyptus grandis together with phylogenetic analyses identified clusters of homologous genes preferentially expressed during xylem formation in both species. A conserved set of 336 single gene pairs showed highly similar xylem preferential expression patterns, as well as evidence of high functional constraint. Individual members of multi-gene orthologous clusters known to be involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis also showed conserved xylem expression profiles. However, species-specific expression as well as opposite (xylem versus leaf) expression patterns observed for a subset of genes suggest subtle differences in the transcriptional regulation important for xylem development in each species. Using sequence similarity and gene expression status, we identified functional homologs likely to be involved in xylem developmental and biosynthetic processes in Populus and Eucalyptus. Our study suggests that, while genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis show high levels of gene expression conservation, differential regulation of some xylem development genes may give rise to unique xylem properties. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Organic geochemical studies of the transformation of gymnospermous xylem during peatification and coalification to subbituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.; Verheyen, T.V.

    1990-01-01

    It is generally recognized that xylem from trees that are buried in peat swamps is transformed first to huminite macerals in brown coal and then to vitrinite macerals in bituminous coal by processes collectively known as coalification. In order to understand the chemical nature of coalification of xylem and the chemical structures that eventually evolve in coal, we examined a series of gymnospermous xylem samples coalified to varying degrees. The samples included modern fresh xylem, modern degraded xylem in peat, and xylem coalified to ranks of brown coal (lignite B), lignite A, and subbituminous coal. The organic geochemical methods used in this study included solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The NMR method provided average compositional information, and the pyrolysis provided detailed molecular information. Although the samples examined include different plants of different geologic ages, they all share a common feature in that they are gymnospermous and presumably have or had a similar kind of lignin. The data obtained in this study provide enough details to allow delineation of specific coalification pathway for the xylem is microbial degradation in peat (peatification), leading to selective removal of cellulosic components. These components constitute a large fraction of the total mass of xylem, usually greater than 50%. Although cellulosic components can survive degradation under certain conditions, their loss during microbial degradation is the rule rather than exception during peatification. As these components of xylem are degraded and lost, lignin, another major component of xylem, is selectively enriched because it is more resistant to microbial degradation than the cellulosic components. Thus, lignin survives peatification in a practically unaltered state and becomes the major precursor of coalified xylem. During its transformation to brown coal and lignite A, lignin in xylem is altered

  9. Wound-induced and bacteria-induced xylem blockage in roses, Astilbe and Viburnum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubaud, M.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    We previously concluded that the xylem blockage that prevents water uptake into several cut flowers is mainly due to the presence of bacteria, whilst in chrysanthemum and Bouvardia we observed a xylem occlusion that was mainly due to a wound-reaction of the plant. We have further tested which of

  10. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbohydrate pools in phloem and xylem of two alpine timberline conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, A; Pirkebner, D; Oberhuber, W

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies on non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) reserves in trees focused on xylem NSC reserves, while still little is known about changes in phloem carbohydrate pools, where NSC charging might be significantly different. To gain insight on NSC dynamics in xylem and phloem, we monitored NSC concentrations in stems and roots of Pinus cembra (L.) and Larix decidua (Mill.) growing at the alpine timberline throughout 2011. Species-specific differences affected tree phenology and carbon allocation during the course of the year. After a delayed start in spring, NSC concentrations in L. decidua were significantly higher in all sampled tissues from August until the end of growing season. In both species, NSC concentrations were five to seven times higher in phloem than that in xylem. However, significant correlations between xylem and phloem starch content found for both species indicate a close linkage between long-term carbon reserves in both tissues. In L. decidua also, free sugar concentrations in xylem and phloem were significantly correlated throughout the year, while a lack of correlation between xylem and phloem free sugar pools in P. cembra indicate a decline of phloem soluble carbohydrate pools during periods of high sink demand.

  11. Effects of Age and Size on Xylem Phenology in Two Conifers of Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The climatic signals that directly affect the trees can be registered by xylem during its growth. If the timings and duration of xylem formation change, xylogenesis can occur under different environmental conditions and subsequently be subject to different climatic signals. An experimental design was applied in the field to disentangle the effects of age and size on xylem phenology, and it challenges the hypothesis that the timings and dynamics of xylem growth are size-dependent. Intra-annual dynamics of xylem formation were monitored weekly during the growing seasons 2013 and 2014 in Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis and Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii with different sizes and ages in a semi-arid region of northwestern China. Cell differentiation started 3 weeks earlier in 2013 and terminated 1 week later in 2014 in small-young pines than in big-old pines. However, differences in the timings of growth reactivation disappeared when comparing the junipers with different sizes but similar age. Overall, 77 days were required for xylem differentiation to take place, but timings were shorter for older trees, which also exhibited smaller cell production. Results from this study suggest that tree age does play an important role in timings and duration of growth. The effect of age should also be considered to perform reliable responses of trees to climate.

  12. Effects of Age and Size on Xylem Phenology in Two Conifers of Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiao; Rossi, Sergio; Yang, Bao

    2017-01-01

    The climatic signals that directly affect the trees can be registered by xylem during its growth. If the timings and duration of xylem formation change, xylogenesis can occur under different environmental conditions and subsequently be subject to different climatic signals. An experimental design was applied in the field to disentangle the effects of age and size on xylem phenology, and it challenges the hypothesis that the timings and dynamics of xylem growth are size-dependent. Intra-annual dynamics of xylem formation were monitored weekly during the growing seasons 2013 and 2014 in Chinese pine ( Pinus tabulaeformis ) and Qilian juniper ( Juniperus przewalskii ) with different sizes and ages in a semi-arid region of northwestern China. Cell differentiation started 3 weeks earlier in 2013 and terminated 1 week later in 2014 in small-young pines than in big-old pines. However, differences in the timings of growth reactivation disappeared when comparing the junipers with different sizes but similar age. Overall, 77 days were required for xylem differentiation to take place, but timings were shorter for older trees, which also exhibited smaller cell production. Results from this study suggest that tree age does play an important role in timings and duration of growth. The effect of age should also be considered to perform reliable responses of trees to climate.

  13. Some considerations on the effect of xylem embolism in conductivity Hydraulic plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socorro, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    From the physical characteristics of the elements that make up the xylem tissue in the stems of plants, a hypotheses is proposed to obtain a mathematical expression that defines Water flows through these conductors systems, depending on the potential difference water between the top and bottom of the stem. It raises an expression for the number of air bubbles formed from the imperfections (pores) in the walls of the tracheids forming xylem vessels and high stresses to which it is subjected in this transpiration high activity situations. This leads to an equation for conductivity hydraulic function of water potential in the presence of xylem embolism. using data from the literature and estimated values ​​simulated values ​​is performed stream and the percentage loss of conductivity. These results are compared with evidence and practice is discussed on the basis of physiological mechanisms relating to vulnerability of plants to xylem cavitation. It analyzes how this situation can be be corrected, also valued as this phenomenon affects situations of water stress

  14. Measurement of xylem translocation of weak electrolytes with the pressure chamber technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciucani, Giovannella; Trevisan, M.; Sacchi, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    and triasulfuron). The compounds covered a wide range of log K-OW and pK(a) values. Concentrations in external solution and in xylem sap were measured by HPLC at pH values in external solution of 4.5, 6.5 and 8.5. For weak bases, translocation was higher at low pH and the transpiration stream concentration factors...... (TSCF) were in the range 0.31-0.95. At pH 8.5, the concentrations in leaking xylem sap were very low for fenpropimorph, and steady-state was probably not reached. For weak acids, TSCF values derived with external pH from 4.5 to 8.5 were in the range 0.55-1.50 for primisulfuron-methyl, 0...... to regulate their xylem sap pH, which was almost identical to the pH in external solution. Without pH differences, the ion-trap process, which is responsible for accumulation or exclusion of weak acids and bases in the xylem of living plants, does not take place. Model simulations carried out for intact...

  15. The effector repertoire of Fusarium oxysporum determines the tomato xylem proteome composition following infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur eGawehns

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens secrete small proteins, of which some are effectors that promote infection. During colonization of the tomato xylem vessels the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol secretes small proteins that are referred to as SIX (Secreted In Xylem proteins. Of these, Six1 (Avr3, Six3 (Avr2, Six5 and Six6 are required for full virulence, denoting them as effectors. To investigate their activities in the plant, the xylem sap proteome of plants inoculated with Fol wild-type or either AVR2, AVR3, SIX2, SIX5 or SIX6 knockout strains was analyzed with nano-Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (nLC-MSMS. Compared to mock-inoculated sap 12 additional plant proteins appeared while 45 proteins were no longer detectable in the xylem sap of Fol-infected plants. Of the 285 proteins found in both uninfected and infected plants the abundance of 258 proteins changed significantly following infection. The xylem sap proteome of plants infected with four Fol effector knockout strains differed significantly from plants infected with wild-type Fol, while that of the SIX2-knockout inoculated plants remained unchanged. Besides an altered abundance of a core set of 24 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs, each of the four effector knockout strains affected specifically the abundance of a subset of DAPs. Hence, Fol effectors have both unique and shared effects on the composition of the tomato xylem sap proteome.

  16. Arsenic speciation in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihucz, Victor G. [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko [Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Virag, Istvan [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Plant Physiology, Budapest (Hungary); Zaray, Gyula [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-10-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-DF-ICP-MS) were used for total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation of xylem sap of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in hydroponics containing 2 {mu}mol dm{sup -3} arsenate or arsenite, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were identified in the sap of the plants. Arsenite was the predominant arsenic species in the xylem saps regardless of the type of arsenic treatment, and the following concentration order was determined: As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The amount of total As, calculated taking into consideration the mass of xylem sap collected, was almost equal for both treatments. Arsenite was taken up more easily by cucumber than arsenate. Partial oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (<10% in 48 h) was observed in the case of arsenite-containing nutrient solutions, which may explain the detection of arsenate in the saps of plants treated with arsenite. (orig.)

  17. Arsenate impact on the metabolite profile, production and arsenic loading of xylem sap in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle eUroic

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the concentration and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap metabolite profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (AsV and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analysed including a metabolite profiling under arsenate stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and absolute arsenic transported was determined. AsV exposure has a significant impact on the metabolite profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up regulated, one compound down regulated by arsenate exposure. The compound down regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, arsenate has a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96 % sap production when plants are exposed to 1000 μg kg-1 arsenate. No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg-1 DMA. Absolute arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high arsenate exposure. These results show that AsV has a significant impact on the production and metabolite profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention.

  18. Arsenate Impact on the Metabolite Profile, Production, and Arsenic Loading of Xylem Sap in Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroic, M. Kalle; Salaün, Pascal; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the concentration and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap metabolite profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (AsV) and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analyzed including a metabolite profiling under AsV stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and absolute arsenic transported was determined. AsV exposure had a significant impact on the metabolite profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up-regulated, one compound down-regulated by AsV exposure. The compound down-regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, AsV exposure had a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96% sap production when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg−1 AsV. No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg−1 DMA. Absolute arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high AsV exposure. These results show that AsV has a significant impact on the production and metabolite profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention. PMID:22536187

  19. Changes in the Proteome of Xylem Sap in Brassica oleracea in Response to Fusarium oxysporum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zijing; Ino, Yoko; Kimura, Yayoi; Tago, Asumi; Shimizu, Motoki; Natsume, Satoshi; Sano, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Ryo; Kaneko, Kentaro; Shea, Daniel J; Fukai, Eigo; Fuji, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Hisashi; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conlutinans (Foc) is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change > = 2-fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and 10 of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  20. Changes in the proteome of xylem sap in Brassica oleracea in response to Fusarium oxysporum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijing ePu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conlutinans (Foc is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change >=2 fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and ten of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  1. Isolation of developing secondary xylem specific cellulose synthase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study aimed at identifying developing secondary xylem specific cellulose synthase genes from .... the First strand cDNA synthesis kit (Fermentas, Pittsburgh,. USA). .... ing height of the rooted cutting, girth of the stem, leaf area.

  2. The effector repertoire of Fusarium oxysporum determines the tomato xylem proteome composition following infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gawehns, Fleur; Ma, Lisong; Bruning, Oskar; Houterman, Petra M.; Boeren, Sjef; Cornelissen, B.J.C.; Rep, Martijn; Takken, Frank L.W.

    2015-01-01

    Plant pathogens secrete small proteins, of which some are effectors that promote infection. During colonization of the tomato xylem vessels the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) secretes small proteins that are referred to as SIX (Secreted In Xylem) proteins. Of these, Six1

  3. Palaeo-adaptive properties of the xylem of Metasequoia: mechanical/hydraulic compromises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagels, Richard; Visscher, George E; Lucas, John; Goodell, Barry

    2003-07-01

    The xylem of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is characterized by very low density (average specific gravity = 0.27) and tracheids with relatively large dimensions (length and diameter). The microfibril angle in the S2 layer of tracheid walls is large, even in outer rings, suggesting a cambial response to compressive rather than tensile stresses. In some cases, this compressive stress is converted to irreversible strain (plastic deformation), as evidenced by cell wall corrugations. The heartwood is moderately decay resistant, helping to prevent Brazier buckling. These xylem properties are referenced to the measured bending properties of modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity, and compared with other low-to-moderate density conifers. The design strategy for Metasequoia is to produce a mechanically weak but hydraulically efficient xylem that permits rapid height growth and crown development to capture and dominate a wet site environment. The adaptability of these features to a high-latitude Eocene palaeoenvironment is discussed.

  4. Palaeo‐adaptive Properties of the Xylem of Metasequoia: Mechanical/Hydraulic Compromises

    Science.gov (United States)

    JAGELS, RICHARD; VISSCHER, GEORGE E.; LUCAS, JOHN; GOODELL, BARRY

    2003-01-01

    The xylem of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is characterized by very low density (average specific gravity = 0·27) and tracheids with relatively large dimensions (length and diameter). The microfibril angle in the S2 layer of tracheid walls is large, even in outer rings, suggesting a cambial response to compressive rather than tensile stresses. In some cases, this compressive stress is converted to irreversible strain (plastic deformation), as evidenced by cell wall corrugations. The heartwood is moderately decay resistant, helping to prevent Brazier buckling. These xylem properties are referenced to the measured bending properties of modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity, and compared with other low‐to‐moderate density conifers. The design strategy for Metasequoia is to produce a mechanically weak but hydraulically efficient xylem that permits rapid height growth and crown development to capture and dominate a wet site environment. The adaptability of these features to a high‐latitude Eocene palaeoenvironment is discussed. PMID:12763758

  5. Dissolved atmospheric gas in xylem sap measured with membrane inlet mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, H Jochen; Espino, Susana; Visser, Ate; Esser, Bradley K

    2016-04-01

    A new method is described for measuring dissolved gas concentrations in small volumes of xylem sap using membrane inlet mass spectrometry. The technique can be used to determine concentrations of atmospheric gases, such as argon, as reported here, or for any dissolved gases and their isotopes for a variety of applications, such as rapid detection of trace gases from groundwater only hours after they were taken up by trees and rooting depth estimation. Atmospheric gas content in xylem sap directly affects the conditions and mechanisms that allow for gas removal from xylem embolisms, because gas can dissolve into saturated or supersaturated sap only under gas pressure that is above atmospheric pressure. The method was tested for red trumpet vine, Distictis buccinatoria (Bignoniaceae), by measuring atmospheric gas concentrations in sap collected at times of minimum and maximum daily temperature and during temperature increase and decline. Mean argon concentration in xylem sap did not differ significantly from saturation levels for the temperature and pressure conditions at any time of collection, but more than 40% of all samples were supersaturated, especially during the warm parts of day. There was no significant diurnal pattern, due to high variability between samples. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Growth of Verticillium longisporum in Xylem Sap of Brassica napus is Independent from Cultivar Resistance but Promoted by Plant Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopisso, Daniel Teshome; Knüfer, Jessica; Koopmann, Birger; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    As Verticillium stem striping of oilseed rape (OSR), a vascular disease caused by Verticillium longisporum, is extending into new geographic regions and no control with fungicides exists, the demand for understanding mechanisms of quantitative resistance increases. Because V. longisporum is strictly limited to the xylem and resistance is expressed in the systemic stage post root invasion, we investigated a potential antifungal role of soluble constituents and nutritional conditions in xylem sap as determinants of cultivar resistance of OSR to V. longisporum. Assessment of biometric and molecular genetic parameters applied to describe V. longisporum resistance (net area under disease progress curve, stunting, stem thickness, plant biomass, and V. longisporum DNA content) showed consistent susceptibility of cultivar 'Falcon' in contrast to two resistant genotypes, 'SEM' and 'Aviso'. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed a consistently stronger in vitro growth of V. longisporum in xylem sap extracted from OSR compared with the water control. Further comparisons of fungal growth in xylem sap of different cultivars revealed the absence of constitutive or V. longisporum induced antifungal activity in the xylem sap of resistant versus susceptible genotypes. The similar growth of V. longisporum in xylem sap, irrespective of cultivar, infection with V. longisporum and xylem sap filtration, was correlated with about equal amounts of total soluble proteins in xylem sap from these treatments. Interestingly, compared with younger plants, xylem sap from older plants induced significantly stronger fungal growth. Growth enhancement of V. longisporum in xylem sap of aging plants was reflected by increased contents of carbohydrates, which was consistent in mock or V. longisporum-infected plants and independent from cultivar resistance. The improved nutritional conditions in the xylem of more mature plants may explain the late appearance of disease symptoms, which are observed only in

  7. Proteomics approach to identify unique xylem sap proteins in Pierce's disease-tolerant Vitis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Sheikh M; Mazhar, Hifza; Vasanthaiah, Hemanth K N

    2010-03-01

    Pierce's disease (PD) is a destructive bacterial disease of grapes caused by Xylella fastidiosa which is xylem-confined. The tolerance level to this disease varies among Vitis species. Our research was aimed at identifying unique xylem sap proteins present in PD-tolerant Vitis species. The results showed wide variation in the xylem sap protein composition, where a set of polypeptides with pI between 4.5 and 4.7 and M(r) of 31 kDa were present in abundant amount in muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia, PD-tolerant), in reduced levels in Florida hybrid bunch (Vitis spp., PD-tolerant) and absent in bunch grapes (Vitis vinifera, PD-susceptible). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis of these proteins revealed their similarity to beta-1, 3-glucanase, peroxidase, and a subunit of oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1, which are known to play role in defense and oxygen generation. In addition, the amount of free amino acids and soluble sugars was found to be significantly lower in xylem sap of muscadine genotypes compared to V. vinifera genotypes, indicating that the higher nutritional value of bunch grape sap may be more suitable for Xylella growth. These data suggest that the presence of these unique proteins in xylem sap is vital for PD tolerance in muscadine and Florida hybrid bunch grapes.

  8. Xylem resistance to embolism: presenting a simple diagnostic test for the open vessel artefact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Ruiz, José M; Cochard, Hervé; Choat, Brendan; Jansen, Steven; López, Rosana; Tomášková, Ivana; Padilla-Díaz, Carmen M; Badel, Eric; Burlett, Regis; King, Andrew; Lenoir, Nicolas; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas K; Delzon, Sylvain

    2017-07-01

    Xylem vulnerability to embolism represents an essential trait for the evaluation of the impact of hydraulics in plant function and ecology. The standard centrifuge technique is widely used for the construction of vulnerability curves, although its accuracy when applied to species with long vessels remains under debate. We developed a simple diagnostic test to determine whether the open-vessel artefact influences centrifuge estimates of embolism resistance. Xylem samples from three species with differing vessel lengths were exposed to less negative xylem pressures via centrifugation than the minimum pressure the sample had previously experienced. Additional calibration was obtained from non-invasive measurement of embolism on intact olive plants by X-ray microtomography. Results showed artefactual decreases in hydraulic conductance (k) for samples with open vessels when exposed to a less negative xylem pressure than the minimum pressure they had previously experienced. X-Ray microtomography indicated that most of the embolism formation in olive occurs at xylem pressures below -4.0 MPa, reaching 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity at -5.3 MPa. The artefactual reductions in k induced by centrifugation underestimate embolism resistance data of species with long vessels. A simple test is suggested to avoid this open vessel artefact and to ensure the reliability of this technique in future studies. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Surface tension phenomena in the xylem sap of three diffuse porous temperate tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. K. Christensen-Dalsgaard; M. T. Tyree; P. G. Mussone

    2011-01-01

    In plant physiology models involving bubble nucleation, expansion or elimination, it is typically assumed that the surface tension of xylem sap is equal to that of pure water, though this has never been tested. In this study we collected xylem sap from branches of the tree species Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Sorbus...

  10. Xylem-to-phloem transfer of boron in broccoli and lupin during early reproductive growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelp, B J; Kitheka, A M; Cauwenberghe, O.R. Van [Univ. of Guelph, Dept. of Horticultural Science, Guelph, ON (Canada); Vanderpool, R A [Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research service, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Spiers, G A [Univ. of Guelph, Dept. of Land Resource Science, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that newly-acquired boron (B) undergoes rapid xylem-to-phloem transfer in plants with restricted mobility. Analysis of the element accumulation and water usage by shoots of intact broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck cv. Commander) and lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Ultra) plants provided with a non-deficient supply of B, revealed that the concentration of various mineral elements (K, P, Mg, Ca, B, Fe, Zn, Mo, Cu, Mn) in xylem sap of intact plants ranged from 0.3 {mu}M to 3.5 mM, with B being present at 2.9-3.5 {mu}M. For each element assayed, the concentration was higher in phloem exudate (1.6 {mu}M to 91 mM) than in xylem sap; B was present at about 0.4 mM. Intact broccoli and lupin plants or detached transpiring broccoli shoots were supplied simultaneously with enriched {sup 10}B, strontium (a xylem marker) and rubidium (a xylem/phloem marker) during early reproductive growth. The contents of these three compounds were determined in foliage and florets or fruits as a function of time (i.e. up to 12 h and 4 days for broccoli and lupin plants, respectively), and the content in florets or fruits was expressed as a percent of the total recovered. In general, the percent recovery of both {sup 10}B and rubidium in florets or fruits was similar and markedly greater than that for strontium, even at the earliest harvest times (within 2 h for broccoli and 1 day for lupin). The data indicate that in plants with restricted B mobility, B is supplied to sink tissues in the phloem, and the extent of B xylem-to-phloem transfer is closely determined by current uptake. (au) 35 refs.

  11. Xylem-to-phloem transfer of boron in broccoli and lupin during early reproductive growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelp, B.J.; Kitheka, A.M.; Cauwenberghe, O.R. Van; Vanderpool, R.A.; Spiers, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that newly-acquired boron (B) undergoes rapid xylem-to-phloem transfer in plants with restricted mobility. Analysis of the element accumulation and water usage by shoots of intact broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck cv. Commander) and lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Ultra) plants provided with a non-deficient supply of B, revealed that the concentration of various mineral elements (K, P, Mg, Ca, B, Fe, Zn, Mo, Cu, Mn) in xylem sap of intact plants ranged from 0.3 μM to 3.5 mM, with B being present at 2.9-3.5 μM. For each element assayed, the concentration was higher in phloem exudate (1.6 μM to 91 mM) than in xylem sap; B was present at about 0.4 mM. Intact broccoli and lupin plants or detached transpiring broccoli shoots were supplied simultaneously with enriched 10 B, strontium (a xylem marker) and rubidium (a xylem/phloem marker) during early reproductive growth. The contents of these three compounds were determined in foliage and florets or fruits as a function of time (i.e. up to 12 h and 4 days for broccoli and lupin plants, respectively), and the content in florets or fruits was expressed as a percent of the total recovered. In general, the percent recovery of both 10 B and rubidium in florets or fruits was similar and markedly greater than that for strontium, even at the earliest harvest times (within 2 h for broccoli and 1 day for lupin). The data indicate that in plants with restricted B mobility, B is supplied to sink tissues in the phloem, and the extent of B xylem-to-phloem transfer is closely determined by current uptake. (au)

  12. Two Complementary Mechanisms Underpin Cell Wall Patterning during Xylem Vessel Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Rene; Tang, Lu; Lampugnani, Edwin R; Barkwill, Sarah; Lathe, Rahul; Zhang, Yi; McFarlane, Heather E; Pesquet, Edouard; Niittyla, Totte; Mansfield, Shawn D; Zhou, Yihua; Persson, Staffan

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of the plant vasculature was essential for the emergence of terrestrial life. Xylem vessels are solute-transporting elements in the vasculature that possess secondary wall thickenings deposited in intricate patterns. Evenly dispersed microtubule (MT) bands support the formation of these wall thickenings, but how the MTs direct cell wall synthesis during this process remains largely unknown. Cellulose is the major secondary wall constituent and is synthesized by plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthases (CesAs) whose catalytic activity propels them through the membrane. We show that the protein CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTING1 (CSI1)/POM2 is necessary to align the secondary wall CesAs and MTs during the initial phase of xylem vessel development in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice ( Oryza sativa ). Surprisingly, these MT-driven patterns successively become imprinted and sufficient to sustain the continued progression of wall thickening in the absence of MTs and CSI1/POM2 function. Hence, two complementary principles underpin wall patterning during xylem vessel development. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  13. Coordination and transport of water and carbohydrates in the coupled soil-root-xylem-phloem leaf system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katul, Gabriel; Huang, Cheng-Wei

    2017-04-01

    In response to varying environmental conditions, stomatal pores act as biological valves that dynamically adjust their size thereby determining the rate of CO2 assimilation and water loss (i.e., transpiration) to the atmosphere. Although the significance of this biotic control on gas exchange is rarely disputed, representing parsimoniously all the underlying mechanisms responsible for stomatal kinetics remain a subject of some debate. It has been conjectured that stomatal control in seed plants (i.e., angiosperm and gymnosperm) represents a compromise between biochemical demand for CO2 and prevention of excessive water loss. This view has been amended at the whole-plant level, where xylem hydraulics and sucrose transport efficiency in phloem appear to impose additional constraints on gas exchange. If such additional constraints impact stomatal opening and closure, then seed plants may have evolved coordinated photosynthetic-hydraulic-sugar transporting machinery that confers some competitive advantages in fluctuating environmental conditions. Thus, a stomatal optimization model that explicitly considers xylem hydraulics and maximum sucrose transport is developed to explore this coordination in the leaf-xylem-phloem system. The model is then applied to progressive drought conditions. The main findings from the model calculations are that (1) the predicted stomatal conductance from the conventional stomatal optimization theory at the leaf and the newly proposed models converge, suggesting a tight coordination in the leaf-xylem-phloem system; (2) stomatal control is mainly limited by the water supply function of the soil-xylem hydraulic system especially when the water flux through the transpiration stream is significantly larger than water exchange between xylem and phloem; (3) thus, xylem limitation imposed on the supply function can be used to differentiate species with different water use strategy across the spectrum of isohydric to anisohydric behavior.

  14. Uptake of water via branches helps timberline conifers refill embolized xylem in late winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Stefan; Schmid, Peter; Laur, Joan; Rosner, Sabine; Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Dämon, Birgit; Hacke, Uwe G

    2014-04-01

    Xylem embolism is a limiting factor for woody species worldwide. Conifers at the alpine timberline are exposed to drought and freeze-thaw stress during winter, which induce potentially lethal embolism. Previous studies indicated that timberline trees survive by xylem refilling. In this study on Picea abies, refilling was monitored during winter and spring seasons and analyzed in the laboratory and in situ experiments, based on hydraulic, anatomical, and histochemical methods. Refilling started in late winter, when the soil was frozen and soil water not available for the trees. Xylem embolism caused up to 86.2% ± 3.1% loss of conductivity and was correlated with the ratio of closed pits. Refilling of xylem as well as recovery in shoot conductance started in February and corresponded with starch accumulation in secondary phloem and in the mesophyll of needles, where we also observed increasing aquaporin densities in the phloem and endodermis. This indicates that active, cellular processes play a role for refilling even under winter conditions. As demonstrated by our experiments, water for refilling was thereby taken up via the branches, likely by foliar water uptake. Our results suggest that refilling is based on water shifts to embolized tracheids via intact xylem, phloem, and parenchyma, whereby aquaporins reduce resistances along the symplastic pathway and aspirated pits facilitate isolation of refilling tracheids. Refilling must be taken into account as a key process in plant hydraulics and in estimating future effects of climate change on forests and alpine tree ecosystems.

  15. Phloem as Capacitor: Radial Transfer of Water into Xylem of Tree Stems Occurs via Symplastic Transport in Ray Parenchyma[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Justine; Tjoelker, Mark G.; Salih, Anya

    2015-01-01

    The transfer of water from phloem into xylem is thought to mitigate increasing hydraulic tension in the vascular system of trees during the diel cycle of transpiration. Although a putative plant function, to date there is no direct evidence of such water transfer or the contributing pathways. Here, we trace the radial flow of water from the phloem into the xylem and investigate its diel variation. Introducing a fluorescent dye (0.1% [w/w] fluorescein) into the phloem water of the tree species Eucalyptus saligna allowed localization of the dye in phloem and xylem tissues using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Our results show that the majority of water transferred between the two tissues is facilitated via the symplast of horizontal ray parenchyma cells. The method also permitted assessment of the radial transfer of water during the diel cycle, where changes in water potential gradients between phloem and xylem determine the extent and direction of radial transfer. When injected during the morning, when xylem water potential rapidly declined, fluorescein was translocated, on average, farther into mature xylem (447 ± 188 µm) compared with nighttime, when xylem water potential was close to zero (155 ± 42 µm). These findings provide empirical evidence to support theoretical predictions of the role of phloem-xylem water transfer in the hydraulic functioning of plants. This method enables investigation of the role of phloem tissue as a dynamic capacitor for water storage and transfer and its contribution toward the maintenance of the functional integrity of xylem in trees. PMID:25588734

  16. Interaction of xylem and phloem during exudation and wound occlusion in Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Matthias R; Hafke, Jens B; van Bel, Aart J E; Furch, Alexandra C U

    2013-01-01

    Collection of cucurbit exudates from cut petioles has been a powerful tool for gaining knowledge on phloem sap composition without full notion of the complex exudation mechanism. Only few publications explicitly mentioned that exudates were collected from the basal side of the cut, which exudes more copiously than the apical side. This is surprising since only exudation from the apical side is supposedly driven by phloem pressure gradients. Composition of carbohydrates and pH values at both wounding sides are equal, whereas protein concentration is higher at the basal side. Apparently, exudation is far more complex than just the delivery of phloem sap. Xylem involvement is indicated by lower protein concentrations after elimination of root pressure. Moreover, dye was sucked into xylem vessels owing to relaxation of negative pressure after cutting. The lateral water efflux from the vessels increases turgor of surrounding cells including sieve elements. Simultaneously, detached parietal proteins (PP1/PP2) induce occlusion of sieve plates and cover wound surface. If root pressure is strong enough, pure xylem sap can be collected after removal of the occlusion plug at the wound surface. The present findings provide a mechanism of sap exudation in Cucurbita maxima, in which the contribution of xylem water is integrated. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Physical analysis of the process of cavitation in xylem sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fanyi; Gao, Rongfu; Liu, Wenji; Zhang, Wenjie

    2002-06-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that cavitation in xylem is caused by air bubbles. We analyzed expansion of a preexistent bubble adhering to a crack in a conduit wall and a bubble formed by the passage of air through a pore of a pit membrane, a process known as air seeding. We consider that there are two equilibrium states for a very small air bubble in the xylem: one is temporarily stable with a bubble radius r1 at point s1 on the curve P(r) relating pressure within the bubble (P) with bubble radius (r); the other is unstable with a bubble radius r2 at point s2 on Pr (where r1 equilibrium state, the bubble collapse pressure (2sigma/r, where sigma is surface tension of water) is balanced by the pressure difference across its surface. In the case of a bubble from a crack in a conduit wall, which is initially at point s1, expansion will occur steadily as water potential decreases. The bubble will burst only if the xylem pressure drops below a threshold value. A formula giving the threshold pressure for bubble bursting is proposed. In the case of an air seed entering a xylem conduit through a pore in a pit membrane, its initial radius may be r2 (i.e., the radius of the pore by which the air seed entered the vessel) at point s2 on Pr. Because the bubble is in an unstable equilibrium when entering the conduit, it can either expand or contract to point s1. As water vaporizes into the air bubble at s2, P rises until it exceeds the gas pressure that keeps the bubble in equilibrium, at which point the bubble will burst and induce a cavitation event in accordance with the air-seeding hypothesis. However, other possible perturbations could make the air-seeded bubble contract to s1, in which case the bubble will burst at a threshold pressure proposed for a bubble expanding from a crack in a conduit wall. For this reason some cavitation events may take place at a xylem threshold pressure (Pl'*) other than that determined by the formula, Plp'* = -2sigma/rp, proposed by Sperry and

  18. Metabolomics of tomato xylem sap during bacterial wilt reveals Ralstonia solanacearum produces abundant putrescine, a metabolite that accelerates wilt disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowe-Power, Tiffany M.; Hendrich, Connor G.; Roepenack-Lahaye, von Edda; Li, Bin; Wu, Dousheng; Mitra, Raka; Dalsing, Beth L.; Ricca, Patrizia; Naidoo, Jacinth; Cook, David; Jancewicz, Amy; Masson, Patrick; Thomma, Bart; Lahaye, Thomas; Michael, Anthony J.; Allen, Caitilyn

    2018-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum thrives in plant xylem vessels and causes bacterial wilt disease despite the low nutrient content of xylem sap. We found that R. solanacearum manipulates its host to increase nutrients in tomato xylem sap, enabling it to grow better in sap from infected plants than in sap from

  19. A closed-form solution for steady-state coupled phloem/xylem flow using the Lambert-W function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A J; Minchin, P E H

    2013-12-01

    A closed-form solution for steady-state coupled phloem/xylem flow is presented. This incorporates the basic Münch flow model of phloem transport, the cohesion model of xylem flow, and local variation in the xylem water potential and lateral water flow along the transport pathway. Use of the Lambert-W function allows this solution to be obtained under much more general and realistic conditions than has previously been possible. Variation in phloem resistance (i.e. viscosity) with solute concentration, and deviations from the Van't Hoff expression for osmotic potential are included. It is shown that the model predictions match those of the equilibrium solution of a numerical time-dependent model based upon the same mechanistic assumptions. The effect of xylem flow upon phloem flow can readily be calculated, which has not been possible in any previous analytical model. It is also shown how this new analytical solution can handle multiple sources and sinks within a complex architecture, and can describe competition between sinks. The model provides new insights into Münch flow by explicitly including interactions with xylem flow and water potential in the closed-form solution, and is expected to be useful as a component part of larger numerical models of entire plants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Plant GSK3 proteins regulate xylem cell differentiation downstream of TDIF-TDR signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yuki; Ito, Tasuku; Nakagami, Hirofumi; Hirakawa, Yuki; Saito, Masato; Tamaki, Takayuki; Shirasu, Ken; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2014-03-01

    During plant radial growth typically seen in trees, procambial and cambial cells act as meristematic cells in the vascular system to self-proliferate and differentiate into xylem cells. These two processes are regulated by a signalling pathway composed of a peptide ligand and its receptor; tracheary element differentiation inhibitory factor (TDIF) and TDIF RECEPTOR (TDR). Here we show that glycogen synthase kinase 3 proteins (GSK3s) are crucial downstream components of the TDIF signalling pathway suppressing xylem differentiation from procambial cells. TDR interacts with GSK3s at the plasma membrane and activates GSK3s in a TDIF-dependent fashion. Consistently, a specific inhibitor of plant GSK3s strongly induces xylem cell differentiation through BRI1-EMS SUPPRESSOR 1 (BES1), a well-known target transcription factor of GSK3s. Our findings provide insight into the regulation of cell fate determination in meristem maintenance.

  1. Optical measurement of stem xylem vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Brodribb, Timothy J.; Carriqui, Marc; Delzon, Sylvain; Lucani, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The vulnerability of plant water transport tissues to a loss of function by cavitation during water stress is a key indicator of the survival capabilities of plant species during drought. Quantifying this important metric has been greatly advanced by noninvasive techniques that allow embolisms to be viewed directly in the vascular system. Here, we present a new method for evaluating the spatial and temporal propagation of embolizing bubbles in the stem xylem during imposed water stress. We de...

  2. Effects of Xylem-Sap Composition on Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Egg Maturation on High- and Low-Quality Host Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisterson, Mark S; Wallis, Christopher M; Stenger, Drake C

    2017-04-01

    Glassy-winged sharpshooters must feed as adults to produce mature eggs. Cowpea and sunflower are both readily accepted by the glassy-winged sharpshooter for feeding, but egg production on sunflower was reported to be lower than egg production on cowpea. To better understand the role of adult diet in egg production, effects of xylem-sap chemistry on glassy-winged sharpshooter egg maturation was compared for females confined to cowpea and sunflower. Females confined to cowpea consumed more xylem-sap than females held on sunflower. In response, females held on cowpea produced more eggs, had heavier bodies, and greater lipid content than females held on sunflower. Analysis of cowpea and sunflower xylem-sap found that 17 of 19 amino acids were more concentrated in cowpea xylem-sap than in sunflower xylem-sap. Thus, decreased consumption of sunflower xylem-sap was likely owing to perceived lower quality, with decreased egg production owing to a combination of decreased feeding and lower return per unit volume of xylem-sap consumed. Examination of pairwise correlation coefficients among amino acids indicated that concentrations of several amino acids within a plant species were correlated. Principal component analyses identified latent variables describing amino acid composition of xylem-sap. For females held on cowpea, egg maturation was affected by test date, volume of excreta produced, and principal components describing amino acid composition of xylem-sap. Principal component analyses aided in identifying amino acids that were positively or negatively associated with egg production, although determining causality with respect to key nutritional requirements for glassy-winged sharpshooter egg production will require additional testing. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of the phytobacterium Xylella fastidiosa growing under xylem-based chemical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciraulo, Maristela Boaceff; Santos, Daiene Souza; Rodrigues, Ana Claudia de Freitas Oliveira; de Oliveira, Marcus Vinícius; Rodrigues, Tiago; de Oliveira, Regina Costa; Nunes, Luiz R

    2010-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium responsible for important plant diseases, like citrus-variegated chlorosis (CVC) and grapevine Pierce's disease (PD). Interestingly, in vitro growth of X. fastidiosa in chemically defined media that resemble xylem fluid has been achieved, allowing studies of metabolic processes used by xylem-dwelling bacteria to thrive in such nutrient-poor conditions. Thus, we performed microarray hybridizations to compare transcriptomes of X. fastidiosa cells grown in 3G10-R, a medium that resembles grape sap, and in Periwinkle Wilt (PW), the complex medium traditionally used to cultivate X. fastidiosa. We identified 299 transcripts modulated in response to growth in these media. Some 3G10R-overexpressed genes have been shown to be upregulated in cells directly isolated from infected plants and may be involved in plant colonization, virulence and environmental competition. In contrast, cells cultivated in PW show a metabolic switch associated with increased aerobic respiration and enhanced bacterial growth rates.

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of the Phytobacterium Xylella fastidiosa Growing under Xylem-Based Chemical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Boaceff Ciraulo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium responsible for important plant diseases, like citrus-variegated chlorosis (CVC and grapevine Pierce's disease (PD. Interestingly, in vitro growth of X. fastidiosa in chemically defined media that resemble xylem fluid has been achieved, allowing studies of metabolic processes used by xylem-dwelling bacteria to thrive in such nutrient-poor conditions. Thus, we performed microarray hybridizations to compare transcriptomes of X. fastidiosa cells grown in 3G10-R, a medium that resembles grape sap, and in Periwinkle Wilt (PW, the complex medium traditionally used to cultivate X. fastidiosa. We identified 299 transcripts modulated in response to growth in these media. Some 3G10R-overexpressed genes have been shown to be upregulated in cells directly isolated from infected plants and may be involved in plant colonization, virulence and environmental competition. In contrast, cells cultivated in PW show a metabolic switch associated with increased aerobic respiration and enhanced bacterial growth rates.

  5. Diversity, Biocontrol, and Plant Growth Promoting Abilities of Xylem Residing Bacteria from Solanaceous Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri A. Achari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. is one of the solanaceous crops of economic and cultural importance and is widely cultivated in the state of Goa, India. Eggplant cultivation is severely affected by bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum that colonizes the xylem tissue. In this study, 167 bacteria were isolated from the xylem of healthy eggplant, chilli, and Solanum torvum Sw. by vacuum infiltration and maceration. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA grouped these xylem residing bacteria (XRB into 38 haplotypes. Twenty-eight strains inhibited growth of R. solanacearum and produced volatile and diffusible antagonistic compounds and plant growth promoting substances in vitro. Antagonistic strains XB86, XB169, XB177, and XB200 recorded a biocontrol efficacy greater than 85% against BW and exhibited 12%–22 % increase in shoot length in eggplant in the greenhouse screening. 16S rRNA based identification revealed the presence of 23 different bacterial genera. XRB with high biocontrol and plant growth promoting activities were identified as strains of Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Streptomyces sp., Enterobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp. This study is the first report on identity of bacteria from the xylem of solanaceous crops having traits useful in cultivation of eggplant.

  6. Uptake of water via branches helps timberline conifers refill embolized xylem in late winter

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Peter; Laur, Joan; Rosner, Sabine; Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Daemon, Birgit; Hacke, Uwe G.

    2014-01-01

    Xylem embolism is a limiting factor for woody species worldwide. Conifers at the alpine timberline are exposed to drought and freeze-thaw stress during winter, which induce potentially lethal embolism. Previous studies indicated that timberline trees survive by xylem refilling. In this study on Picea abies, refilling was monitored during winter and spring seasons and analyzed in the laboratory and in situ experiments, based on hydraulic, anatomical, and histochemical methods. Refilling starte...

  7. Functional adjustments of xylem anatomy to climatic variability: insights from long-term Ilex aquifolium tree-ring series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Angelo; Cherubini, Paolo; Leonardi, Stefano; Todaro, Luigi; Borghetti, Marco

    2015-08-01

    The present study assessed the effects of climatic conditions on radial growth and functional anatomical traits, including ring width, vessel size, vessel frequency and derived variables, i.e., potential hydraulic conductivity and xylem vulnerability to cavitation in Ilex aquifolium L. trees using long-term tree-ring time series obtained at two climatically contrasting sites, one mesic site in Switzerland (CH) and one drought-prone site in Italy (ITA). Relationships were explored by examining different xylem traits, and point pattern analysis was applied to investigate vessel clustering. We also used generalized additive models and bootstrap correlation functions to describe temperature and precipitation effects. Results indicated modified radial growth and xylem anatomy in trees over the last century; in particular, vessel frequency increased markedly at both sites in recent years, and all xylem traits examined, with the exception of xylem cavitation vulnerability, were higher at the CH mesic compared with the ITA drought site. A significant vessel clustering was observed at the ITA site, which could contribute to an enhanced tolerance to drought-induced embolism. Flat and negative relationships between vessel size and ring width were observed, suggesting carbon was not allocated to radial growth under conditions which favored stem water conduction. Finally, in most cases results indicated that climatic conditions influenced functional anatomical traits more substantially than tree radial growth, suggesting a crucial role of functional xylem anatomy in plant acclimation to future climatic conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Salivary enzymes are injected into xylem by the glassy-winged sharpshooter, a vector of Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Elaine A; Andrews, Kim B; Shugart, Holly J; Carl Greve, L; Labavitch, John M; Alhaddad, Hasan

    2012-07-01

    A few phytophagous hemipteran species such as the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, (Germar), subsist entirely on xylem fluid. Although poorly understood, aspects of the insect's salivary physiology may facilitate both xylem-feeding and transmission of plant pathogens. Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium that causes Pierce's disease of grape and other scorch diseases in many important crops. X. fastidiosa colonizes the anterior foregut (precibarium and cibarium) of H. vitripennis and other xylem-feeding vectors. Bacteria form a dense biofilm anchored in part by an exopolysaccharide (EPS) matrix that is reported to have a β-1,4-glucan backbone. Recently published evidence supports the following, salivation-egestion hypothesis for the inoculation of X. fastidiosa during vector feeding. The insect secretes saliva into the plant and then rapidly takes up a mixture of saliva and plant constituents. During turbulent fluid movements in the precibarium, the bacteria may become mechanically and enzymatically dislodged; the mixture is then egested back out through the stylets into plant cells, possibly including xylem vessels. The present study found that proteins extracted from dissected H. vitripennis salivary glands contain several enzyme activities capable of hydrolyzing glycosidic linkages in polysaccharides such as those found in EPS and plant cell walls, based on current information about the structures of those polysaccharides. One of these enzymes, a β-1,4-endoglucanase (EGase) was enriched in the salivary gland protein extract by subjecting the extract to a few, simple purification steps. The EGase-enriched extract was then used to generate a polyclonal antiserum that was used for immunohistochemical imaging of enzymes in sharpshooter salivary sheaths in grape. Results showed that enzyme-containing gelling saliva is injected into xylem vessels during sharpshooter feeding, in one case being carried by the transpiration stream away

  9. Lead mobility within the xylem of red spruce seedlings: Implications for the development of pollution histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Donnelly; John B. Shane; Paul G. Schaberg

    1990-01-01

    Development of Pb pollution histories using tree ring analyses has been troubled by possible mobility of Pb within stem xylem. In a 2-yr study, we exposed red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) seedlings to Pb during one growing season, with Pb excluded in either the previous or following growing season. Lead levels within xylem rings and bark were...

  10. Plasticity in variation of xylem and phloem cell characteristics of Norway spruce under different local conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozica eGricar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on intra-annual plasticity of secondary tissues of tree species growing under different environmental conditions. To increase the knowledge about the plasticity of secondary growth, which allows trees to adapt to specific local climatic regimes, we examined climate–radial growth relationships of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. H. Karst. from three contrasting locations in the temperate climatic zone by analyzing tree-ring widths for the period 1932–2010, and cell characteristics in xylem and phloem increments formed in the years 2009–2011. Variation in the structure of xylem and phloem increments clearly shows that plasticity in seasonal dynamics of cambial cell production and cell differentiation exists on xylem and phloem sides. Anatomical characteristics of xylem and phloem cells are predominantly site-specific characteristics, because they varied among sites but were fairly uniform among years in trees from the same site. Xylem and phloem tissues formed in the first part of the growing season seemed to be more stable in structure, indicating their priority over latewood and late phloem for tree performance. Long-term climate and radial growth analyses revealed that growth was in general less dependent on precipitation than on temperature; however, growth sensitivity to local conditions differed among the sites. Only partial dependence of radial growth of spruce on climatic factors on the selected sites confirms its strategy to adapt the structure of wood and phloem increments to function optimally in local conditions.

  11. The amino acid distribution in rachis xylem sap and phloem exudate of Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourieroux, Aude M; Holzapfel, Bruno P; Scollary, Geoffrey R; McCully, Margaret E; Canny, Martin J; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2016-08-01

    Amino acids are essential to grape berry and seed development and they are transferred to the reproductive structures through the phloem and xylem from various locations within the plant. The diurnal and seasonal dynamics of xylem and phloem amino acid composition in the leaf petiole and bunch rachis of field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon are described to better understand the critical periods for amino acid import into the berry. Xylem sap was extracted by the centrifugation of excised leaf petioles and rachises, while phloem exudate was collected by immersing these structures in an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) buffer. Glutamine and glutamic acid were the predominant amino acids in the xylem sap of both grapevine rachises and petioles, while arginine and glycine were the principal amino acids of the phloem exudate. The amino acid concentrations within the xylem sap and phloem exudate derived from these structures were greatest during anthesis and fruit set, and a second peak occurred within the rachis phloem at the onset of ripening. The concentrations of the amino acids within the phloem and xylem sap of the rachis were highest just prior to or after midnight while the flow of sugar through the rachis phloem was greatest during the early afternoon. Sugar exudation rates from the rachis was greater than that of the petiole phloem between anthesis and berry maturity. In summary, amino acid and sugar delivery through the vasculature to grape berries fluctuates over the course of the day as well as through the season and is not necessarily related to levels near the source. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Uncoupling between soil and xylem water isotopic composition: how to discriminate mobile and tightly-bound water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Gómez, Paula; Aguilera, Mònica; Pemán, Jesús; Gil Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2014-05-01

    As a general rule, no isotopic fractionation occurs during water uptake and water transport, thus, xylem water reflects source water. However, this correspondence does not always happen. Isotopic enrichment of xylem water has been found in several cases and has been either associated to 'stem processes' like cuticular evaporation 1 and xylem-phloem communication under water stress 2,3 or to 'soil processes' such as species-specific use of contrasting water sources retained at different water potential forces in soil. In this regard, it has been demonstrated that mobile and tightly-bound water may show different isotopic signature 4,5. However, standard cryogenic distillation does not allow to separate different water pools within soil samples. Here, we carried out a study in a mixed adult forest (Pinus sylvestris, Quercus subpyrenaica and Buxus sempervirens) growing in a relatively deep loamy soil in the Pre-Pyrenees. During one year, we sampled xylem from twigs and soil at different depths (10, 30 and 50 cm). We also sampled xylem from trunk and bigger branches to assess whether xylem water was enriched in the distal parts of the tree. We found average deviations in the isotopic signature from xylem to soil of 4o 2o and 2.4o in δ18O and 18.3o 7.3o and 8.9o in δ2H, for P.sylvestris, Q.subpyrenaica and B.sempervirens respectively. Xylem water was always enriched compared to soil. In contrast, we did not find clear differences in isotopic composition between xylem samples along the tree. Declining the hypothesis that 'stem processes' would cause these uncoupling between soil and xylem isotopic values, we tested the possibility to separate mobile and tightly-bound water by centrifugation. Even though we could separate two water fractions in soils close to saturation, we could not recover a mobile fraction in drier soils. In this regard, we welcome suggestions on alternatives to separate different soil fractions in order to find the correspondence between soil and

  13. Trade-offs between xylem hydraulic properties, wood anatomy and yield in Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Peter; Leuschner, Christoph; Hertel, Dietrich; Delzon, Sylvain; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2014-07-01

    Trees face the dilemma that achieving high plant productivity is accompanied by a risk of drought-induced hydraulic failure due to a trade-off in the trees' vascular system between hydraulic efficiency and safety. By investigating the xylem anatomy of branches and coarse roots, and measuring branch axial hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to cavitation in 4-year-old field-grown aspen plants of five demes (Populus tremula L. and Populus tremuloides Michx.) differing in growth rate, we tested the hypotheses that (i) demes differ in wood anatomical and hydraulic properties, (ii) hydraulic efficiency and safety are related to xylem anatomical traits, and (iii) aboveground productivity and hydraulic efficiency are negatively correlated to cavitation resistance. Significant deme differences existed in seven of the nine investigated branch-related anatomical and hydraulic traits but only in one of the four coarse-root-related anatomical traits; this likely is a consequence of high intra-plant variation in root morphology and the occurrence of a few 'high-conductivity roots'. Growth rate was positively related to branch hydraulic efficiency (xylem-specific conductivity) but not to cavitation resistance; this indicates that no marked trade-off exists between cavitation resistance and growth. Both branch hydraulic safety and hydraulic efficiency significantly depended on vessel size and were related to the genetic distance between the demes, while the xylem pressure causing 88% loss of hydraulic conductivity (P88 value) was more closely related to hydraulic efficiency than the commonly used P50 value. Deme-specific variation in the pit membrane structure may explain why vessel size was not directly linked to growth rate. We conclude that branch hydraulic efficiency is an important growth-influencing trait in aspen, while the assumed trade-off between productivity and hydraulic safety is weak. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

  14. Circadian patterns of xylem sap properties and their covariation with plant hydraulic traits in hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitern, Annika; Õunapuu-Pikas, Eele; Sellin, Arne

    2017-06-01

    Physiological processes taking place in plants are subject to diverse circadian patterns but some of them are poorly documented in natural conditions. The daily dynamics of physico-chemical properties of xylem sap and their covariation with tree hydraulic traits were investigated in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L.×P. tremuloides Michx) in field conditions in order to clarify which environmental drivers govern the daily variation in these parameters. K + concentration ([K + ]), electrical conductivity (σ sap ), osmolality (Osm) and pH of the xylem sap, as well as branch hydraulic traits, were measured in the field over 24-h cycles. All studied xylem sap properties and hydraulic characteristics including whole-branch (K wb ), leaf blade (K lb ) and petiole hydraulic conductances (K P ) showed clear daily dynamics. Air temperature (T A ) and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), but also water vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and relative humidity (RH), had significant impacts on K wb K lb , K P , [K + ] and σ sap . Osm varied only with light intensity, while K B varied depending on atmospheric evaporative demand expressed as T A , VPD or RH. Xylem sap pH depended inversely on soil water potential (Ψ S ) and during daylight also on VPD. Although soil water content was close to saturation during the study period, Ψ S influenced also [K + ] and σ sap . The present study presents evidence of coupling between circadian patterns of xylem sap properties and plant hydraulic conductance providing adequate water supply to foliage under environmental conditions characterised by diurnal variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Xylem monoterpenes of pines: distribution, variation, genetics, function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Smith

    2000-01-01

    The monoterpenes of about 16,000 xylem resin samples of pine (Pinus) speciesand hybrids—largely from the western United States—were analyzed in this long-term study of the resistance of pines to attack by bark beetles (Coleoptera:Scolytidae), with special emphasis on resistance to the western pine beetle(Dendroctonus brevicomis). The samples were analyzed by gas liquid...

  16. Symplasmic, long-distance transport in xylem and cambial regions in branches of Acer pseudoplatanus (Aceraceae) and Populus tremula x P. tremuloides (Salicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, Katarzyna; Zagórska-Marek, Beata

    2012-11-01

    The picture of how long-distance transport proceeds in trees is still far from being complete. Beside the apoplasmic pathway, transport undoubtedly also takes place within the system of living cells in the secondary xylem and cambial region. Because detailed, thorough studies of the symplasmic routes in woody branches, using direct localization with fluorescent tracers, had not been done, here we focused on the main routes of long-distance symplasmic transport in xylem and cambial tissues and analyzed in detail tracer distribution in the rays on the extended cambial surface in branches of Acer pseudoplatanus and Populus tremula ×P. tremuloides. Fluorescent tracers were loaded into branches through the vascular system, then their distribution in xylem and cambial regions was analyzed. Tracer signal was present in the symplast of axial and radial xylem parenchyma cells and in both types of cambial cells. The living cells of xylem parenchyma and of the cambium were symplasmically interconnected via xylem rays. Tracer distribution in rays was uneven on the extended cambial surface; cambial regions with intensively or sparsely dyed rays alternated along the vertical axis of analyzed branches. Symplasmic, long-distance transport is present between the living cells of xylem and the cambial region in woody branches. The uneven distribution of fluorescent tracers in cambial rays along the stems is surprising and suggests the presence of an intrinsic pattern caused by an unknown mechanism.

  17. Metabolomics of tomato xylem sap during bacterial wilt reveals Ralstonia solanacearum produces abundant putrescine, a metabolite that accelerates wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe-Power, Tiffany M; Hendrich, Connor G; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Li, Bin; Wu, Dousheng; Mitra, Raka; Dalsing, Beth L; Ricca, Patrizia; Naidoo, Jacinth; Cook, David; Jancewicz, Amy; Masson, Patrick; Thomma, Bart; Lahaye, Thomas; Michael, Anthony J; Allen, Caitilyn

    2018-04-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum thrives in plant xylem vessels and causes bacterial wilt disease despite the low nutrient content of xylem sap. We found that R. solanacearum manipulates its host to increase nutrients in tomato xylem sap, enabling it to grow better in sap from infected plants than in sap from healthy plants. Untargeted GC/MS metabolomics identified 22 metabolites enriched in R. solanacearum-infected sap. Eight of these could serve as sole carbon or nitrogen sources for R. solanacearum. Putrescine, a polyamine that is not a sole carbon or nitrogen source for R. solanacearum, was enriched 76-fold to 37 µM in R. solanacearum-infected sap. R. solanacearum synthesized putrescine via a SpeC ornithine decarboxylase. A ΔspeC mutant required ≥ 15 µM exogenous putrescine to grow and could not grow alone in xylem even when plants were treated with putrescine. However, co-inoculation with wildtype rescued ΔspeC growth, indicating R. solanacearum produced and exported putrescine to xylem sap. Intriguingly, treating plants with putrescine before inoculation accelerated wilt symptom development and R. solanacearum growth and systemic spread. Xylem putrescine concentration was unchanged in putrescine-treated plants, so the exogenous putrescine likely accelerated disease indirectly by affecting host physiology. These results indicate that putrescine is a pathogen-produced virulence metabolite. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Contrasting xylem vessel constraints on hydraulic conductivity between native and non-native woody understory species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Smith

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined the hydraulic properties of 82 native and non-native woody species common to forests of Eastern North America, including several congeneric groups, representing a range of anatomical wood types. We observed smaller conduit diameters with greater frequency in non-native species, corresponding to lower calculated potential vulnerability to cavitation index. Non-native species exhibited higher vessel-grouping in metaxylem compared with native species, however, solitary vessels were more prevalent in secondary xylem. Higher frequency of solitary vessels in secondary xylem was related to a lower potential vulnerability index. We found no relationship between anatomical characteristics of xylem, origin of species and hydraulic conductivity, indicating that non-native species did not exhibit advantageous hydraulic efficiency over native species. Our results confer anatomical advantages for non-native species under the potential for cavitation due to freezing, perhaps permitting extended growing seasons.

  19. Upward translocation of 14C-amino compounds in xylem and phloem of citrus trees (citrus unshiu marc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tadashi; Yamagata, Makoto; Tsukahara, Sadao

    1985-01-01

    Upward and lateral movements of 14 C-amino compounds in intact trees and excised shoots, and upward translocation of major amino compounds in intact shoots were examined in the early stage of new shoot development. The results were summarized as follows. 1. Uniformly 14 C-labelled arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid and proline were steadily taken up by roots of intact trees, translocated to old leaves and new shoots, and appeared in the fed compound and its metabolized products in these organs. 2. 14 C-arginine, asparagine and proline were translocated upward not only via the xylem but also via the phloem. Lateral movements, from the xylem to the pholoem and from the phloem to the xylem, also occurred. These compounds showed different patterns in their movements. 14 C-arginine and its metabolic products tended to accumulate in the xylem and translocate upward in the xylem. This was in contrast to 14 C-proline and its metabolic products, which tended to accumulate in the phloem and translocate upward in the phloem. These findings were supported by the results obtained in intact shoots. 3. The 14 C-amino compounds were metabolized to soluble and insoluble compounds during the translocation and in the new shoots. However, they differed significantly in the extent of metabolic conversion during translocation; proline was hardly metabolized, arginine and asparagine were moderately metabolized, and aspartic acid was almost completely metabolized. (author)

  20. Influence of Drought on the Hydraulic Efficiency and the Hydraulic Safety of the Xylem - Case of a Semi-arid Conifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentine, P.; Guerin, M. F.; von Arx, G.; Martin-Benito, D.; Griffin, K. L.; McDowell, N.; Pockman, W.; Andreu-Hayles, L.

    2017-12-01

    Recent droughts in the Southwest US have resulted in extensive mortality in the pinion pine population (Pinus Edulis). An important factor for resiliency is the ability of a plant to maintain a functional continuum between soil and leaves, allowing water's motion to be sustained or resumed. During droughts, loss of functional tracheids happens through embolism, which can be partially mitigated by increasing the hydraulic safety of the xylem. However, higher hydraulic safety is usually achieved by building narrower tracheids with thicker walls, resulting in a reduction of the hydraulic efficiency of the xylem (conductivity per unit area). Reduced efficiency constrains water transport, limits photosynthesis and might delay recovery after the drought. Supporting existing research on safety-efficiency tradeoff, we test the hypothesis that under dry conditions, isohydric pinions grow xylem that favor efficiency over safety. Using a seven-year experiment with three watering treatments (drought, control, irrigated) in New Mexico, we investigate the effect of drought on the xylem anatomy of pinions' branches. We also compare the treatment effect with interannual variations in xylem structure. We measure anatomical variables - conductivities, cell wall thicknesses, hydraulic diameter, cell reinforcement and density - and preliminarily conclude that treatment has little effect on hydraulic efficiency while hydraulic safety is significantly reduced under dry conditions. Taking advantage of an extremely dry year occurrence during the experiment, we find a sharp increase in vulnerability for xylem tissues built the same year.

  1. Seasonal embolism and xylem vulnerability in deciduous and evergreen Mediterranean trees influenced by proximity to a carbon dioxide spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tognetti, R.; Raschi, A. [Consiglio Nazionale della Ricerche, Firenze (Italy); Longobucco, A. [Centro Studi per l`Informatica applicata all`Agricoltura, Firenze (Italy)

    1999-04-01

    The effect of proximity to natural CO{sub 2} springs on seasonal patterns of xylem embolism in various species of Quercus (oak), Fraxinus, Populus (poplar) and Arbutus was studied. Xylem embolism was evaluated in both artificially dehydrated branches and in hydrated apical branches collected at monthly intervals over a 20-month period. Species-dependent differences in xylem hydraulic properties in response to elevated CO{sub 2} were noted. Populus tremula was the most embolized, an Arbutus unedo was the least embolized among the species examined. The actual differences in xylem vulnerability between trees growing near the CO{sub 2} spring and those growing in control area were small, however, these differences combined with the interaction of seasonal stress events, may be of great importance in determining future community composition in Mediterranean forest ecosystems. Causes and ecological significance of such differences are discussed vis-a-vis elevated carbon dioxide concentration and other environmental factors. 48 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. Hierarchical statistical modeling of xylem vulnerability to cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Kiona; Barber, Jarrett J; Willson, Cynthia; Thompson, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Cavitation of xylem elements diminishes the water transport capacity of plants, and quantifying xylem vulnerability to cavitation is important to understanding plant function. Current approaches to analyzing hydraulic conductivity (K) data to infer vulnerability to cavitation suffer from problems such as the use of potentially unrealistic vulnerability curves, difficulty interpreting parameters in these curves, a statistical framework that ignores sampling design, and an overly simplistic view of uncertainty. This study illustrates how two common curves (exponential-sigmoid and Weibull) can be reparameterized in terms of meaningful parameters: maximum conductivity (k(sat)), water potential (-P) at which percentage loss of conductivity (PLC) =X% (P(X)), and the slope of the PLC curve at P(X) (S(X)), a 'sensitivity' index. We provide a hierarchical Bayesian method for fitting the reparameterized curves to K(H) data. We illustrate the method using data for roots and stems of two populations of Juniperus scopulorum and test for differences in k(sat), P(X), and S(X) between different groups. Two important results emerge from this study. First, the Weibull model is preferred because it produces biologically realistic estimates of PLC near P = 0 MPa. Second, stochastic embolisms contribute an important source of uncertainty that should be included in such analyses.

  3. Vestured pits: a diagnostic character in the secondary xylem of Myrtales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Pletsers, A.; Rabaey, D.; Lens, F.

    2008-01-01

    Vestures are small projections from the secondary cell wall associated with tracheary elements of the secondary xylem. They are usually associated with bordered pits and characterize various angiosperm families, including important timber species such as Dipterocarpaceae and Eucalyptus trees. The

  4. Are phloem-derived amino acids the origin of the elevated malate concentration in the xylem sap following mineral N starvation in soybean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitor, Simone C; do Amarante, Luciano; Sodek, Ladaslav

    2018-05-16

    A substantial increase in malate in the xylem sap of soybean subjected to mineral N starvation originates mainly from aspartate, a prominent amino acid of the phloem. A substantial increase in xylem malate was found when non-nodulated soybean plants were transferred to a N-free medium. Nodulated plants growing in the absence of mineral N and, therefore, dependent on symbiotic N 2 fixation also contained elevated concentrations of malate in the xylem sap. When either nitrate or ammonium was supplied, malate concentrations in the xylem sap were low, both for nodulated and non-nodulated plants. Evidence was obtained that the elevated malate concentration of the xylem was derived from amino acids supplied by the phloem. Aspartate was a prominent component of the phloem sap amino acids and, therefore, a potential source of malate. Supplying the roots of intact plants with 13 C-aspartate revealed that malate of the xylem sap was readily labelled under N starvation. A hypothetical scheme is proposed whereby aspartate supplied by the phloem is metabolised in the roots and the products of this metabolism cycled back to the shoot. Under N starvation, aspartate metabolism is diverted from asparagine synthesis to supply N for the synthesis of other amino acids via transaminase activity. The by-product of aspartate transaminase activity, oxaloacetate, is transformed to malate and its export accounts for much of the elevated concentration of malate found in the xylem sap. This mechanism represents a new additional role for malate during mineral N starvation of soybean, beyond that of charge balance.

  5. Interplay of growth rate and xylem plasticity for optimal coordination of carbon and hydraulic economies in Fraxinus ornus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Giai; Savi, Tadeja; Consolini, Martina; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Nardini, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Efficient leaf water supply is fundamental for assimilation processes and tree growth. Renovating the architecture of the xylem transport system requires an increasing carbon investment while growing taller, and any deficiency of carbon availability may result in increasing hydraulic constraints to water flow. Therefore, plants need to coordinate carbon assimilation and biomass allocation to guarantee an efficient and safe long-distance transport system. We tested the hypothesis that reduced branch elongation rates together with carbon-saving adjustments of xylem anatomy hydraulically compensate for the reduction in biomass allocation to xylem. We measured leaf biomass, hydraulic and anatomical properties of wood segments along the main axis of branches in 10 slow growing (SG) and 10 fast growing (FG) Fraxinus ornus L. trees. Branches of SG trees had five times slower branch elongation rate (7 vs 35 cm year -1 ), and produced a higher leaf biomass (P trees in terms of leaf-specific conductivity (P > 0.05) and xylem safety (Ψ 50 ≈ -3.2 MPa). Slower elongation rate coupled with thinner annual rings and larger vessels allows the reduction of carbon costs associated with growth, while maintaining similar leaf-specific conductivity and xylem safety. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Transport and use of CO2 in the xylem sap of Populus deltoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, J.W.; Kimmerer, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    Results of recent experiments indicate an internal cycling of respiratory CO 2 in woody plants. The CO 2 concentration of xylem sap expressed from the twigs of field grown Populus deltoides ranged from .14 to .50 mM. The pH of the xylem sap was 5.7 to 6.7, providing a significant bicarbonate concentration in many samples. Total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC = CO 2 + H 2 CO 3 + HCO 3 - ) was 0.5 mM to 1.3 mM. Results from the analysis of xylem sap of 10 other species of woody plants were similar. To determine the fate of DIC delivered to the leaves of Populus deltoides, excised leaves were fed 1mM NaHCO 3 (2 μCi NaH 14 CO 3 ml -1 ). Less than 0.4% of the label escaped from the leaves, and ≥93% was fixed. Of the carbon fixed 56% of the 14 C was found in the petiole and midrib, and 14% was in the major veins, with the remaining 30% in the minor veins and lamina. Shading of the peptiole and midrib of leaves decreased the amount of fixed carbon in these tissues to 38% and increased the amount in the lamina to 55%

  7. Spatial and temporal patterns of xylem sap pH derived from stems and twigs of Populus deltoides L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doug Aubrey; Justin Boyles; Laura Krysinsky; Robert Teskey

    2011-01-01

    Xylem sap pH (pHX) is critical in determining the quantity of inorganic carbon dissolved in xylem solution from gaseous [CO2] measurements. Studies of internal carbon transport have generally assumed that pHX derived from stems and twigs is similar and that pHX remains constant through time; however, no empirical studies have investigated these assumptions. If any of...

  8. Moving beyond the cambium necrosis hypothesis of post-fire tree mortality: cavitation and deformation of xylem in forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.T. Michaletz; E.A. Johnson; M.T. Tyree

    2012-01-01

    It is widely assumed that post-fire tree mortality results from necrosis of phloem and vascular cambium in stems, despite strong evidence that reduced xylem conductivity also plays an important role. In this study, experiments with Populus balsamifera were used to demonstrate two mechanisms by which heat reduces the hydraulic conductivity of xylem:...

  9. Infection processes of xylem-colonizing pathogenic bacteria: possible explanations for the scarcity of qualitative disease resistance genes against them in crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chungyun; Han, Sang Wook; Song, Yu-Rim; Kim, Bo-Young; Lee, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Je-Min; Yeam, Inhwa; Heu, Sunggi; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2015-07-01

    Disease resistance against xylem-colonizing pathogenic bacteria in crops. Plant pathogenic bacteria cause destructive diseases in many commercially important crops. Among these bacteria, eight pathogens, Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. campestris pv. campestris, Erwinia amylovora, Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, and Xylella fastidiosa, infect their host plants through different infection sites and paths and eventually colonize the xylem tissues of their host plants, resulting in wilting symptoms by blocking water flow or necrosis of xylem tissues. Noticeably, only a relatively small number of resistant cultivars in major crops against these vascular bacterial pathogens except X. oryzae pv. oryzae have been found or generated so far, although these pathogens threaten productivity of major crops. In this review, we summarize the lifestyles of major xylem-colonizing bacterial pathogens and then discuss the progress of current research on disease resistance controlled by qualitative disease resistance genes or quantitative trait loci against them. Finally, we propose infection processes of xylem-colonizing bacterial pathogens as one of possible reasons for why so few qualitative disease resistance genes against these pathogens have been developed or identified so far in crops.

  10. Xylem vulnerability to cavitation can be accurately characterised in species with long vessels using a centrifuge method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, M F; Pratt, R B; Jacobsen, A L; De Guzman, M E

    2013-05-01

    Vulnerability to cavitation curves describe the decrease in xylem hydraulic conductivity as xylem pressure declines. Several techniques for constructing vulnerability curves use centrifugal force to induce negative xylem pressure in stem or root segments. Centrifuge vulnerability curves constructed for long-vesselled species have been hypothesised to overestimate xylem vulnerability to cavitation due to increased vulnerability of vessels cut open at stem ends that extend to the middle or entirely through segments. We tested two key predictions of this hypothesis: (i) centrifugation induces greater embolism than dehydration in long-vesselled species, and (ii) the proportion of open vessels changes centrifuge vulnerability curves. Centrifuge and dehydration vulnerability curves were compared for a long- and short-vesselled species. The effect of open vessels was tested in four species by comparing centrifuge vulnerability curves for stems of two lengths. Centrifuge and dehydration vulnerability curves agreed well for the long- and short-vesselled species. Centrifuge vulnerability curves constructed using two stem lengths were similar. Also, the distribution of embolism along the length of centrifuged stems matched the theoretical pressure profile induced by centrifugation. We conclude that vulnerability to cavitation can be accurately characterised with vulnerability curves constructed using a centrifuge technique, even in long-vesselled species. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. The study of Cr(III) complexation in the xylem sap using ion exchange and radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juneja, Shikha; Prakash, Satya

    2003-01-01

    Radiotracer was employed to carry out ion exchange experiments to study the chromium speciation in the in vitro samples of xylem sap of maize stem of 60 days old plants. Cr(III) radiolabelled with its radioactive isotope ( 51 Cr) was mixed with both the ion exchange fraction of the sap which represented the carboxylic acids, as well as the whole sap and was analysed for complexation after 10 and 30 days at 25 degC. Prior to this, the ion exchange elution chromatography of Cr(III), and the Cr(III) complexes with oxalic and citric acid were used to compare the complexes being formed in the in vitro studies. The in vitro Cr(III) complexation results indicated that Cr(III) was vitally present as anionic species. The elution curve trend was similar to that of citric acid complexation. Citric acid was also found to be the major complexing acid in the xylem sap as determined by HPLC. The results indicate the transportation of Cr(III) as a citrate complex in the xylem sap of maize plants. (author)

  12. Data on xylem sap proteins from Mn- and Fe-deficient tomato plants obtained using shotgun proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos-Laita, Laura; Gutierrez-Carbonell, Elain; Takahashi, Daisuke; Abadía, Anunciación; Uemura, Matsuo; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana Flor

    2018-04-01

    This article contains consolidated proteomic data obtained from xylem sap collected from tomato plants grown in Fe- and Mn-sufficient control, as well as Fe-deficient and Mn-deficient conditions. Data presented here cover proteins identified and quantified by shotgun proteomics and Progenesis LC-MS analyses: proteins identified with at least two peptides and showing changes statistically significant (ANOVA; p ≤ 0.05) and above a biologically relevant selected threshold (fold ≥ 2) between treatments are listed. The comparison between Fe-deficient, Mn-deficient and control xylem sap samples using a multivariate statistical data analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA) is also included. Data included in this article are discussed in depth in the research article entitled "Effects of Fe and Mn deficiencies on the protein profiles of tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum) xylem sap as revealed by shotgun analyses" [1]. This dataset is made available to support the cited study as well to extend analyses at a later stage.

  13. Genotypic difference in salinity tolerance in quinoa is determined by differential control of xylem Na+ loading and stomatal density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabala, Sergey; Hariadi, Yuda; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2013-01-01

    old seedlings. Six weeks after the treatment commenced, leaf sap Na and K content and osmolality, stomatal density, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, and xylem sap Na and K composition were measured. Responses to salinity differed greatly among the varieties. All cultivars had substantially...... increased K+ concentrations in the leaf sap, but the most tolerant cultivars had lower xylem Na+ content at the time of sampling. Most tolerant cultivars had lowest leaf sap osmolality. All varieties reduced stomata density when grown under saline conditions. All varieties clustered into two groups...... to the xylem, and reduced stomata density are important physiological traits contributing to genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa, a halophyte species from Chenopodium family....

  14. Robustness of xylem properties in conifers: analyses of tracheid and pit dimensions along elevational transects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losso, Adriano; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Ganthaler, Andrea; Kofler, Werner; Markl, Yvonne; Nardini, Andrea; Oberhuber, Walter; Purin, Gerhard; Mayr, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    In alpine regions, tree hydraulics are limited by low temperatures that restrict xylem growth and induce winter frost drought and freezing stress. While several studies have dealt with functional limitations, data on elevational changes in functionally relevant xylem anatomical parameters are still scarce. In wood cores of Pinus cembra L. and Picea abies (L.) Karst. trunks, harvested along five elevational transects, xylem anatomical parameters (tracheid hydraulic diameter dh, wall reinforcement (t/b)2), pit dimensions (pit aperture Da, pit membrane Dm and torus Dt diameters) and respective functional indices (torus overlap O, margo flexibility) were measured. In both species, tracheid diameters decreased and (t/b)2 increased with increasing elevation, while pit dimensions and functional indices remained rather constant (P. cembra: Dt 10.3 ± 0.2 μm, O 0.477 ± 0.005; P. abies: Dt 9.30 ± 0.18 μm, O 0.492 ± 0.005). However, dh increased with tree height following a power trajectory with an exponent of 0.21, and also pit dimensions increased with tree height (exponents: Dm 0.18; Dt 0.14; Da 0.11). Observed elevational trends in xylem structures were predominantly determined by changes in tree size. Tree height-related changes in anatomical traits showed a remarkable robustness, regardless of the distributional ranges of study species. Despite increasing stress intensities towards the timberline, no adjustment in hydraulic safety at the pit level was observed. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) branches show acclimation of xylem anatomy and hydraulic properties to increased light after thinning

    OpenAIRE

    Lemoine, D.; Jacquemin, S.; Granier, A.

    2002-01-01

    International audience; Hydraulic acclimation of Fagus sylvatica L. was analysed in response to forest thinning. Several months after thinning, leaf and xylem water potential and stomatal conductance of thinned branches were compared to sun-exposed and shade branches. We characterised vulnerability to cavitation for branches taken from these three treatments. We compared effect of thinning on xylem anatomy (mean vessel diameter, vessel density). Thinned branches exhibited higher stomatal cond...

  16. Cell Wall Amine Oxidases: New Players in Root Xylem Differentiation under Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip A. Ghuge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyamines (PAs are aliphatic polycations present in all living organisms. A growing body of evidence reveals their involvement as regulators in a variety of physiological and pathological events. They are oxidatively deaminated by amine oxidases (AOs, including copper amine oxidases (CuAOs and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD-dependent polyamine oxidases (PAOs. The biologically-active hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is a shared compound in all of the AO-catalyzed reactions, and it has been reported to play important roles in PA-mediated developmental and stress-induced processes. In particular, the AO-driven H2O2 biosynthesis in the cell wall is well known to be involved in plant wound healing and pathogen attack responses by both triggering peroxidase-mediated wall-stiffening events and signaling modulation of defense gene expression. Extensive investigation by a variety of methodological approaches revealed high levels of expression of cell wall-localized AOs in root xylem tissues and vascular parenchyma of different plant species. Here, the recent progresses in understanding the role of cell wall-localized AOs as mediators of root xylem differentiation during development and/or under stress conditions are reviewed. A number of experimental pieces of evidence supports the involvement of apoplastic H2O2 derived from PA oxidation in xylem tissue maturation under stress-simulated conditions.

  17. Investigating differences in the root to shoot transfer and xylem sap solubility of organic compounds between zucchini, squash and soybean using a pressure chamber method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Naho; Doucette, William J; White, Jason C

    2015-07-01

    A pressure chamber method was used to examine differences in the root to shoot transfer and xylem sap solubility of caffeine (log Kow=-0.07), triclocarban (log Kow=3.5-4.2) and endosulfan (log Kow=3.8-4.8) for zucchini (cucurbita pepo ssp pepo), squash (cucurbita pepo ssp ovifera), and soybean (glycine max L.). Transpiration stream concentration factors (TSCF) for caffeine (TSCF=0.8) were statistically equivalent for all plant species. However, for the more hydrophobic endosulfan and triclocarban, the TSCF values for zucchini (TSCF=0.6 and 0.4, respectively) were 3 and 10 times greater than the soybean and squash (TSCF=0.2 and 0.05, respectively). The difference in TSCF values was examined by comparing the measured solubilities of caffeine, endosulfan and triclocarban in deionized water to those in soybean and zucchini xylem saps using a modified shake flask method. The measured solubility of organic contaminants in xylem sap has not previously been reported. Caffeine solubilities in the xylem saps of soybean and zucchini were statistically equal to deionized water (21500mgL(-1)) while endosulfan and triclocarban solubilities in the zucchini xylem sap were significantly greater (0.43 and 0.21mgL(-1), respectively) than that of the soybean xylem sap (0.31 and 0.11mgL(-1), respectively) and deionized water (0.34 and 0.11mgL(-1), respectively). This suggests that the enhanced root to shoot transfer of hydrophobic organics reported for zucchini is partly due to increased solubility in the xylem sap. Further xylem sap characterization is needed to determine the mechanism of solubility enhancement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Xylem Resin in the Resistance of the Pinaceae to Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Smith

    1972-01-01

    Xylem resin of Pinaceae is closely linked with their resistance and suseptibility to tree-killing bark beetles. This review of the literature on attacking adults suggests that all three resistance mechanisms proposed by Painter -- preference, antibiosis, and tolerance -- are active in this relationship: preference by attraction, repellency, and synergism; antibiosis...

  19. Quantitative Evaluation of Hybrid Aspen Xylem and Immunolabeling Patterns Using Image Analysis and Multivariate Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sandquist

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new method is presented for quantitative evaluation of hybrid aspen genotype xylem morphology and immunolabeling micro-distribution. This method can be used as an aid in assessing differences in genotypes from classic tree breeding studies, as well as genetically engineered plants. The method is based on image analysis, multivariate statistical evaluation of light, and immunofluorescence microscopy images of wood xylem cross sections. The selected immunolabeling antibodies targeted five different epitopes present in aspen xylem cell walls. Twelve down-regulated hybrid aspen genotypes were included in the method development. The 12 knock-down genotypes were selected based on pre-screening by pyrolysis-IR of global chemical content. The multivariate statistical evaluations successfully identified comparative trends for modifications in the down-regulated genotypes compared to the unmodified control, even when no definitive conclusions could be drawn from individual studied variables alone. Of the 12 genotypes analyzed, three genotypes showed significant trends for modifications in both morphology and immunolabeling. Six genotypes showed significant trends for modifications in either morphology or immunocoverage. The remaining three genotypes did not show any significant trends for modification.

  20. Response pattern of amino compounds in phloem and xylem of trees to soil drought depends on drought intensity and root symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X-P; Gong, C-M; Fan, Y-Y; Eiblmeier, M; Zhao, Z; Han, G; Rennenberg, H

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify drought-mediated differences in amino nitrogen (N) composition and content of xylem and phloem in trees having different symbiotic N(2)-fixing bacteria. Under controlled water availability, 1-year-old seedlings of Robinia pseudoacacia (nodules with Rhizobium), Hippophae rhamnoides (symbiosis with Frankia) and Buddleja alternifolia (no such root symbiosis) were exposed to control, medium drought and severe drought, corresponding soil water content of 70-75%, 45-50% and 30-35% of field capacity, respectively. Composition and content of amino compounds in xylem sap and phloem exudates were analysed as a measure of N nutrition. Drought strongly reduced biomass accumulation in all species, but amino N content in xylem and phloem remained unaffected only in R. pseudoacacia. In H. rhamnoides and B. alternifolia, amino N in phloem remained constant, but increased in xylem of both species in response to drought. There were differences in composition of amino compounds in xylem and phloem of the three species in response to drought. Proline concentrations in long-distance transport pathways of all three species were very low, below the limit of detection in phloem of H. rhamnoides and in phloem and xylem of B. alternifolia. Apparently, drought-mediated changes in N composition were much more connected with species-specific changes in C:N ratios. Irrespective of soil water content, the two species with root symbioses did not show similar features for the different types of symbiosis, neither in N composition nor in N content. There was no immediate correlation between symbiotic N fixation and drought-mediated changes in amino N in the transport pathways. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. A Plumber's-Eye View of Xylem Water Transport in Woody Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Vilalta, Jordi; Pinol, Josep

    2004-01-01

    We present a practical for university-level students aimed at measuring and comparing xylem hydraulic properties of co-existing plant species. After sampling branches of several woody species in the field, their main hydraulic properties were measured using a simple set-up. Hydraulic conductivity ("K[subscript h]") was calculated as the ratio…

  2. Altitudinal variations of ground tissue and xylem tissue in terminal shoot of woody species: implications for treeline formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Wang, Haiyang; Liu, Yanfang; Dong, Li

    2013-01-01

    1. The terminal shoot (or current-year shoot), as one of the most active parts on a woody plant, is a basic unit determining plant height and is potentially influenced by a variety of environmental factors. It has been predicted that tissues amount and their allocation in plant stems may play a critical role in determining plant size in alpine regions. The primary structure in terminal shoots is a key to our understanding treeline formation. The existing theories on treeline formation, however, are still largely lacking of evidence at the species level, much less from anatomy for the terminal shoot. 2. The primary structures within terminal shoot were measured quantitatively for 100 species from four elevation zones along the eastern slope of Gongga Mountain, southwestern China; one group was sampled from above the treeline. An allometric approach was employed to examine scaling relationships interspecifically, and a principal components analysis (PCA) was performed to test the relation among primary xylem, ground tissue, species growth form and altitude. 3. The results showed that xylem tissue size was closely correlated with ground tissue size isometrically across species, while undergoing significant y- or/and x-intercept shift in response to altitudinal belts. Further, a conspicuous characteristic of terminal shoot was its allocation of contrasting tissues between primary xylem and ground tissues with increasing elevation. The result of the PCA showed correlations between anatomical variation, species growth form/height classes and environment. 4. The current study presents a comparative assessment of the allocation of tissue in terminal shoot across phylogenically and ecologically diverse species, and analyzes tissue, function and climate associations with plant growth forms and height classes among species. The interspecific connection between primary xylem ratio and plant size along an elevation gradient suggests the importance of primary xylem in explaining

  3. Altitudinal variations of ground tissue and xylem tissue in terminal shoot of woody species: implications for treeline formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    Full Text Available 1. The terminal shoot (or current-year shoot, as one of the most active parts on a woody plant, is a basic unit determining plant height and is potentially influenced by a variety of environmental factors. It has been predicted that tissues amount and their allocation in plant stems may play a critical role in determining plant size in alpine regions. The primary structure in terminal shoots is a key to our understanding treeline formation. The existing theories on treeline formation, however, are still largely lacking of evidence at the species level, much less from anatomy for the terminal shoot. 2. The primary structures within terminal shoot were measured quantitatively for 100 species from four elevation zones along the eastern slope of Gongga Mountain, southwestern China; one group was sampled from above the treeline. An allometric approach was employed to examine scaling relationships interspecifically, and a principal components analysis (PCA was performed to test the relation among primary xylem, ground tissue, species growth form and altitude. 3. The results showed that xylem tissue size was closely correlated with ground tissue size isometrically across species, while undergoing significant y- or/and x-intercept shift in response to altitudinal belts. Further, a conspicuous characteristic of terminal shoot was its allocation of contrasting tissues between primary xylem and ground tissues with increasing elevation. The result of the PCA showed correlations between anatomical variation, species growth form/height classes and environment. 4. The current study presents a comparative assessment of the allocation of tissue in terminal shoot across phylogenically and ecologically diverse species, and analyzes tissue, function and climate associations with plant growth forms and height classes among species. The interspecific connection between primary xylem ratio and plant size along an elevation gradient suggests the importance of primary

  4. Assessing inter- and intraspecific variability of xylem vulnerability to embolism in oaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, Albin; Torres-Ruiz, José M.; Burlett, Regis

    2018-01-01

    for future afforestation. However, the presence of long vessels makes it difficult to assess xylem vulnerability to embolism in these species. Thanks to the development of a flow centrifuge equipped with a large rotor, we quantified (i) the between species variability of embolism resistance in four native...

  5. A low cost apparatus for measuring the xylem hydraulic conductance in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant yield and resistance to drought are directly related to the efficiency of the xylem hydraulic conductance and the ability of this system to avoid interrupting the flow of water. In this paper we described in detail the assembling of an apparatus proposed by TYREE et al. (2002, and its calibration, as well as low cost adaptations that make the equipment accessible for everyone working in this research area. The apparatus allows measuring the conductance in parts of roots or shoots (root ramifications or branches, or in the whole system, in the case of small plants or seedlings. The apparatus can also be used to measure the reduction of conductance by embolism of the xylem vessels. Data on the hydraulic conductance of eucalyptus seedlings obtained here and other reports in the literature confirm the applicability of the apparatus in physiological studies on the relationship between productivity and water stress.

  6. Mixed xylem and phloem sap ingestion in sheath-feeders as normal dietary behavior: Evidence from the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuche, Julien; Sauvion, Nicolas; Thiéry, Denis

    2017-10-01

    In phytophagous piercing-sucking insects, salivary sheath-feeding species are often described as xylem- or phloem-sap feeding specialists. Because these two food sources have very different characteristics, two feeding tactics are often associated with this supposed specialization. Studying the feeding behavior of insects provides substantial information on their biology, ecology, and evolution. Furthermore, study of feeding behavior is of primary importance to elucidate the transmission ability of insects that act as vectors of plant pathogens. In this study, we compared the durations of ingestion performed in xylem versus phloem by a leafhopper species, Scaphoideus titanus Ball, 1932. This was done by characterizing and statistically analyzing electrical signals recorded using the electropenetrography technique, derived from the feeding behaviors of males and females. We identified three groups of S. titanus based on their feeding behavior: 1) a group that reached the phloem quickly and probed for a longer time in phloem tissue than the other groups, 2) a group that reached the xylem quickly and probed for a longer time in xylem tissue than the other groups, and 3) a group where individuals did not ingest much sap. In addition, the numbers and durations of waveforms representing ingestion of xylem and phloem saps differed significantly depending on the sex of the leafhopper, indicating that the two sexes exhibit different feeding behaviors. Males had longer phloem ingestion events than did females, which indicates that males are greater phloem feeders than females. These differences are discussed, specifically in relation to hypotheses about evolution of sap feeding and phytoplasma transmission from plant to plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of combined drought and heavy metal stresses on xylem structure and hydraulic conductivity in red maple (Acer rubrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Nayana Dilini Gardiyehewa; Cholewa, Ewa; Ryser, Peter

    2012-10-01

    The effects of heavy metal stress, drought stress, and their combination on xylem structure in red maple (Acer rubrum) seedlings were investigated in an outdoor pot experiment. As metal-contaminated substrate, a mixture of 1.5% slag with sand was used, with Ni, Cu, Co, and Cr as the main contaminants. Plants grown on contaminated substrate had increased leaf metal concentrations. The two stresses reduced plant growth in an additive manner. The effects of metal and drought stresses on xylem characteristics were similar to each other, with a reduced proportion of xylem tissue, reduced conduit density in stems, and reduced conduit size in the roots. This resulted, in both stems and roots, in reductions in hydraulic conductance, xylem-specific conductivity, and leaf-specific conductivity. The similarity of the responses to the two stresses suggests that the plants' response to metals was actually a drought response, probably due to the reduced water uptake capacity of the metal-exposed roots. The only plant responses specific to metal stress were decreasing trends of stomatal density and chlorophyll content. In conclusion, the exposure to metals aggravates water stress in an additive manner, making the plants more vulnerable to drought.

  8. Effects of Fe and Mn deficiencies on the protein profiles of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) xylem sap as revealed by shotgun analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos-Laita, Laura; Gutierrez-Carbonell, Elain; Takahashi, Daisuke; Abadía, Anunciación; Uemura, Matsuo; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana Flor

    2018-01-06

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of Fe and Mn deficiencies on the xylem sap proteome of tomato using a shotgun proteomic approach, with the final goal of elucidating plant response mechanisms to these stresses. This approach yielded 643 proteins reliably identified and quantified with 70% of them predicted as secretory. Iron and Mn deficiencies caused statistically significant and biologically relevant abundance changes in 119 and 118 xylem sap proteins, respectively. In both deficiencies, metabolic pathways most affected were protein metabolism, stress/oxidoreductases and cell wall modifications. First, results suggest that Fe deficiency elicited more stress responses than Mn deficiency, based on the changes in oxidative and proteolytic enzymes. Second, both nutrient deficiencies affect the secondary cell wall metabolism, with changes in Fe deficiency occurring via peroxidase activity, and in Mn deficiency involving peroxidase, Cu-oxidase and fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins. Third, the primary cell wall metabolism was affected by both nutrient deficiencies, with changes following opposite directions as judged from the abundances of several glycoside-hydrolases with endo-glycolytic activities and pectin esterases. Fourth, signaling pathways via xylem involving CLE and/or lipids as well as changes in phosphorylation and N-glycosylation also play a role in the responses to these stresses. Biological significance In spite of being essential for the delivery of nutrients to the shoots, our knowledge of xylem responses to nutrient deficiencies is very limited. The present work applies a shotgun proteomic approach to unravel the effects of Fe and Mn deficiencies on the xylem sap proteome. Overall, Fe deficiency seems to elicit more stress in the xylem sap proteome than Mn deficiency, based on the changes measured in proteolytic and oxido-reductase proteins, whereas both nutrients exert modifications in the composition of the primary and secondary

  9. Tissue-type-specific transcriptome analysis identifies developing xylem-specific promoters in poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae-Heung; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Hwang, Ildoo; Han, Kyung-Hwan

    2012-06-01

    Plant biotechnology offers a means to create novel phenotypes. However, commercial application of biotechnology in crop improvement programmes is severely hindered by the lack of utility promoters (or freedom to operate the existing ones) that can drive gene expression in a tissue-specific or temporally controlled manner. Woody biomass is gaining popularity as a source of fermentable sugars for liquid fuel production. To improve the quantity and quality of woody biomass, developing xylem (DX)-specific modification of the feedstock is highly desirable. To develop utility promoters that can drive transgene expression in a DX-specific manner, we used the Affymetrix Poplar Genome Arrays to obtain tissue-type-specific transcriptomes from poplar stems. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified 37 transcripts that are specifically or strongly expressed in DX cells of poplar. After further confirmation of their DX-specific expression using semi-quantitative PCR, we selected four genes (DX5, DX8, DX11 and DX15) for in vivo confirmation of their tissue-specific expression in transgenic poplars. The promoter regions of the selected DX genes were isolated and fused to a β-glucuronidase (GUS)-reported gene in a binary vector. This construct was used to produce transgenic poplars via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The GUS expression patterns of the resulting transgenic plants showed that these promoters were active in the xylem cells at early seedling growth and had strongest expression in the developing xylem cells at later growth stages of poplar. We conclude that these DX promoters can be used as a utility promoter for DX-specific biomass engineering. © 2012 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Identification of Xylem Occlusions Occurring in Cut Clematis (Clematis L., fam. Ranunculaceae Juss. Stems during Their Vase Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Jedrzejuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the vase life of cut stems obstruction of xylem vessels occurs due to microbial growth, formation of tyloses, deposition of materials in the lumen of xylem vessels and the presence of air emboli in the vascular system. Such obstructions may restrict water uptake and its transport towards upwards thus lowering their ornamental value and longevity of cut flowers. Clematis is a very attractive plant material which may be used as cut flower in floral compositions. Nothing is known about the histochemical or cytological nature of xylem blockages occurring in cut stems of this plant. This study shows that in clematis, tyloses are the main source of occlusions, although bacteria and some amorphic substances may also appear inside the vessels. A preservative composed of 200 mg dm−3 8-HQC (8-hydroxyquinolin citrate and 2% sucrose arrested bacterial development and the growth of tyloses. This information can be helpful in the development of new treatments to improve keeping qualities of cut clematis stems.

  11. Xylem anatomy correlates with gas exchange, water-use efficiency and growth performance under contrasting water regimes: evidence from Populus deltoides x Populus nigra hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichot, Régis; Laurans, Françoise; Monclus, Romain; Moreau, Alain; Pilate, Gilles; Brignolas, Franck

    2009-12-01

    Six Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. x P. nigra L. genotypes were selected to investigate whether stem xylem anatomy correlated with gas exchange rates, water-use efficiency (WUE) and growth performance. Clonal copies of the genotypes were grown in a two-plot common garden test under contrasting water regimes, with one plot maintained irrigated and the other one subjected to moderate summer water deficit. The six genotypes displayed a large range of xylem anatomy, mean vessel and fibre diameter varying from about 40 to 60 microm and from 7.5 to 10.5 microm, respectively. Decreased water availability resulted in a reduced cell size and an important rise in vessel density, but the extent of xylem plasticity was both genotype and trait dependent. Vessel diameter and theoretical xylem-specific hydraulic conductivity correlated positively with stomatal conductance, carbon isotope discrimination and growth performance-related traits and negatively with intrinsic WUE, especially under water deficit conditions. Vessel diameter and vessel density measured under water deficit conditions correlated with the relative losses in biomass production in response to water deprivation; this resulted from the fact that a more plastic xylem structure was generally accompanied by a larger loss in biomass production.

  12. Source of sustained voltage difference between the xylem of a potted Ficus benjamina tree and its soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Love

    Full Text Available It has long been known that there is a sustained electrical potential (voltage difference between the xylem of many plants and their surrounding soil, but the mechanism behind this voltage has remained controversial. After eliminating any extraneous capacitive or inductive couplings and ground-mediated electric current flows, we have measured sustained differences of 50-200 mV between the xylem region of a Faraday-caged, intact, potted Ficus benjamina tree and its soil, as well as between its cut branches and soils and ionic solutions standardized to various pH values. Using identical platinum electrodes, no correlation between the voltage and time of day, illumination, sap flow, electrode elevation, or ionic composition of soil was found, suggesting no direct connection to simple dissimilar-metal redox reactions or transpirational activity. Instead, a clear relationship between the voltage polarity and magnitude and the pH difference between xylem and soil was observed. We attribute these sustained voltages to a biological concentration cell likely set up by the homeostatic mechanisms of the tree. Potential applications of this finding are briefly explored.

  13. Interpreting the Climatic Effects on Xylem Functional Traits in Two Mediterranean Oak Species: The Role of Extreme Climatic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Angelo; Borghetti, Marco; Todaro, Luigi; Saracino, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, the widely predicted rise in temperature, change in the precipitation pattern, and increase in the frequency of extreme climatic events are expected to alter the shape of ecological communities and to affect plant physiological processes that regulate ecosystem functioning. Although change in the mean values are important, there is increasing evidence that plant distribution, survival, and productivity respond to extremes rather than to the average climatic condition. The present study aims to assess the effects of both mean and extreme climatic conditions on radial growth and functional anatomical traits using long-term tree-ring time series of two co-existing Quercus spp. from a drought-prone site in Southern Italy. In particular, this is the first attempt to apply the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale, and Shape (GAMLSS) technique and Bayesian modeling procedures to xylem traits data set, with the aim of (i) detecting non-linear long-term responses to climate and (ii) exploring relationships between climate extreme and xylem traits variability in terms of probability of occurrence. This study demonstrates the usefulness of long-term xylem trait chronologies as records of environmental conditions at annual resolution. Statistical analyses revealed that most of the variability in tree-ring width and specific hydraulic conductivity might be explained by cambial age. Additionally, results highlighted appreciable relationships between xylem traits and climate variability more than tree-ring width, supporting also the evidence that the plant hydraulic traits are closely linked to local climate extremes rather than average climatic conditions. We reported that the probability of extreme departure in specific hydraulic conductivity (Ks) rises at extreme values of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Therefore, changing frequency or intensity of extreme events might overcome the adaptive limits of vascular transport, resulting

  14. Interpreting the climatic effects on xylem functional traits in two Mediterranean oak species: the role of extreme climatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Rita

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Mediterranean region, the widely predicted rise in temperature, change in the precipitation pattern and increase in the frequency of extreme climatic events are expected to alter the shape of ecological communities and to affect plant physiological processes that regulate ecosystem functioning. Although change in the mean values are important, there is increasing evidence that plant distribution, survival and productivity respond to extremes rather than to the average climatic condition. The present study aims to assess the effects of both mean and extreme climatic conditions on radial growth and functional anatomical traits using long-term tree-ring time series of two co-existing Quercus spp. from a drought-prone site in Southern Italy. In particular, this is the first attempt to apply the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS technique and Bayesian modeling procedures to xylem traits data set, with the aim of i detecting non-linear long-term responses to climate and ii exploring relationships between climate extreme and xylem traits variability in terms of probability of occurrence. This study demonstrates the usefulness of long-term xylem trait chronologies as records of environmental conditions at annual resolution. Statistical analyses revealed that most of the variability in tree-ring width and specific hydraulic conductivity might be explained by cambial age. Additionally, results highlighted appreciable relationships between xylem traits and climate variability more than tree-ring width, supporting also the evidence that the plant hydraulic traits are closely linked to local climate extremes rather than average climatic conditions. We reported that the probability of extreme departure in specific hydraulic conductivity (Ks rises at extreme values of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI. Therefore, changing frequency or intensity of extreme events might overcome the adaptive limits of vascular transport

  15. Soil water and xylem chemistry in declining sugar maple stands in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. DeWalle; Bryan R. Swistock; William E. Sharpe

    1999-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that decline of sugar maple, Acer saccharum Marsh., in northern Pennsylvania may be related to overall site fertility as reflected in the chemistry of soil water and bolewood xylem. In this paper we discuss factors related to varying site fertility, including effects of soil liming, past glacialion, topographic position and...

  16. Processes and xylem anatomical properties involved in rehydration dynamics of cut flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Ieperen, van W.; Nijsse, J.; Scheenen, T.W.J.; As, van H.; Keijzer, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    In cut flowers, which are harvested in air and transported dry, all cut xylem vessels in the basal part of the stem contain air instead of water. These air-emboli initially block water transport at the start of vase life, but usually (partly) disappear during the first hours of vase life, resulting

  17. Are needles of Pinus pinaster more vulnerable to xylem embolism than branches? New insights from X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouche, Pauline S; Delzon, Sylvain; Choat, Brendan; Badel, Eric; Brodribb, Timothy J; Burlett, Regis; Cochard, Hervé; Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Lavigne, Bruno; Li, Shan; Mayr, Stefan; Morris, Hugh; Torres-Ruiz, José M; Zufferey, Vivian; Jansen, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Plants can be highly segmented organisms with an independently redundant design of organs. In the context of plant hydraulics, leaves may be less embolism resistant than stems, allowing hydraulic failure to be restricted to distal organs that can be readily replaced. We quantified drought-induced embolism in needles and stems of Pinus pinaster using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). HRCT observations of needles were compared with the rehydration kinetics method to estimate the contribution of extra-xylary pathways to declining hydraulic conductance. High-resolution computed tomography images indicated that the pressure inducing 50% of embolized tracheids was similar between needle and stem xylem (P50 needle xylem  = -3.62 MPa, P50 stem xylem  = -3.88 MPa). Tracheids in both organs showed no difference in torus overlap of bordered pits. However, estimations of the pressure inducing 50% loss of hydraulic conductance at the whole needle level by the rehydration kinetics method were significantly higher (P50 needle  = -1.71 MPa) than P50 needle xylem derived from HRCT. The vulnerability segmentation hypothesis appears to be valid only when considering hydraulic failure at the entire needle level, including extra-xylary pathways. Our findings suggest that native embolism in needles is limited and highlight the importance of imaging techniques for vulnerability curves. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Static and dynamic bending has minor effects on xylem hydraulics of conifer branches (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Stefan; Bertel, Clara; Dämon, Birgit; Beikircher, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    The xylem hydraulic efficiency and safety is usually measured on mechanically unstressed samples, although trees may be exposed to combined hydraulic and mechanical stress in the field. We analysed changes in hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism during static bending of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris branches as well as the effect of dynamic bending on the vulnerability. We hypothesized this mechanical stress to substantially impair xylem hydraulics. Intense static bending caused an only small decrease in hydraulic conductance (-19.5 ± 2.4% in P. abies) but no shift in vulnerability thresholds. Dynamic bending caused a 0.4 and 0.8 MPa decrease of the water potential at 50 and 88% loss of conductivity in P. sylvestris, but did not affect vulnerability thresholds in P. abies. With respect to applied extreme bending radii, effects on plant hydraulics were surprisingly small and are thus probably of minor eco-physiological importance. More importantly, results indicate that available xylem hydraulic analyses (of conifers) sufficiently reflect plant hydraulics under field conditions. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Xylem sap nitrogen compounds of some Crotalaria species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Angela Pierre

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen species of Crotalaria were analysed for nitrogen compounds in the xylem root bleeding sap. Amino acids were the main form of organic nitrogen found, but only traces of ureides were present. Of the four species analysed for amino acid composition, asparagine was found to be the major amino acid, accounting for over 68% of the nitrogen transported. No striking deviations from this general pattern was found between species, between vegetative and floral stages of development, or between nodulated and non-nodulated plants. It was concluded that the Crotalaria species studied here have an asparagine-based nitrogen metabolism, consistent with many other non-ureide-producing legume species.

  20. Xylem anisotropy and water transport--a model for the double sawcut experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul J. Schulte; David G. Costa

    2010-01-01

    Early experiments with overlapping cuts to the stems of trees demonstrated that lateral flow within the stem must be possible to allow such trees to maintain water flow to their leaves. We present a mathematical approach to considering lateral flow in stems by treating the xylem as an anisotropic medium for flow and develop an expression of its conductivity in the form...

  1. Analyzing 3D xylem networks in Vitis vinifera using High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent developments in High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) have made it possible to visualize three dimensional (3D) xylem networks without time consuming, labor intensive physical sectioning. Here we describe a new method to visualize complex vessel networks in plants and produce a quantitat...

  2. Transgenic poplars with reduced lignin show impaired xylem conductivity, growth efficiency and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Voelker; Barbara Lachenbruch; Frederick C. Meinzer; Peter Kitin; Steven H. Strauss

    2011-01-01

    We studied xylem anatomy and hydraulic architecture in 14 transgenic insertion events and a control line of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) that varied in lignin content. Transgenic events had different levels of down-regulation of two genes encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL). Two-year-old trees were characterized after...

  3. Anti-transpirant activity in xylem sap from flooded tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants is not due to pH-mediated redistributions of root- or shoot-sourced ABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Mark A; Taylor, June M; Atkinson, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    In flooded soils, the rapid effects of decreasing oxygen availability on root metabolic activity are likely to generate many potential chemical signals that may impact on stomatal apertures. Detached leaf transpiration tests showed that filtered xylem sap, collected at realistic flow rates from plants flooded for 2 h and 4 h, contained one or more factors that reduced stomatal apertures. The closure could not be attributed to increased root output of the glucose ester of abscisic acid (ABA-GE), since concentrations and deliveries of ABA conjugates were unaffected by soil flooding. Although xylem sap collected from the shoot base of detopped flooded plants became more alkaline within 2 h of flooding, this rapid pH change of 0.5 units did not alter partitioning of root-sourced ABA sufficiently to prompt a transient increase in xylem ABA delivery. More shoot-sourced ABA was detected in the xylem when excised petiole sections were perfused with pH 7 buffer, compared with pH 6 buffer. Sap collected from the fifth oldest leaf of "intact" well-drained plants and plants flooded for 3 h was more alkaline, by approximately 0.4 pH units, than sap collected from the shoot base. Accordingly, xylem [ABA] was increased 2-fold in sap collected from the fifth oldest petiole compared with the shoot base of flooded plants. However, water loss from transpiring, detached leaves was not reduced when the pH of the feeding solution containing 3-h-flooded [ABA] was increased from 6.7 to 7.1 Thus, the extent of the pH-mediated, shoot-sourced ABA redistribution was not sufficient to raise xylem [ABA] to physiologically active levels. Using a detached epidermis bioassay, significant non-ABA anti-transpirant activity was also detected in xylem sap collected at intervals during the first 24 h of soil flooding.

  4. Direct micro-CT observation confirms the induction of embolism upon xylem cutting under tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used two different Synchrotron-based micro-CT facilities (SLS: Swiss Light Source, Villigen, Switzerland, and ALS: Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, CA USA) to test the excision artifact described by Wheeler et al. (2013). Specifically, we examined the impact of cutting xylem under tension and und...

  5. Mass spectrometric identification of isoforms of PR proteins in xylem sap of fungus-infected tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rep, Martijn; Dekker, Henk L.; Vossen, Jack H.; de Boer, Albert D.; Houterman, Petra M.; Speijer, Dave; Back, Jaap W.; de Koster, Chris G.; Cornelissen, Ben J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The protein content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) xylem sap was found to change dramatically upon infection with the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Peptide mass fingerprinting and mass spectrometric sequencing were used to identify the most abundant proteins appearing during

  6. Effects of dormancy progression and low-temperature response on changes in the sorbitol concentration in xylem sap of Japanese pear during winter season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akiko; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-04-01

    In order to elucidate which physiological event(s) are involved in the seasonal changes of carbohydrate dynamics during winter, we examined the effects of different low temperatures on the carbohydrate concentrations of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai). For four winter seasons, large increases in the sorbitol concentration of shoot xylem sap occurred during mid- to late December, possibly due to the endodormancy completion and low-temperature responses. When trees were kept at 15 °C from 3 November to 3 December in order to postpone the initiation and completion of chilling accumulation that would break endodormancy, sorbitol accumulation in xylem sap was always higher from trees with sufficient chilling accumulation than from trees that received insufficient chilling. However, an additional increase in xylem sap sorbitol occurred around late December in trees regardless of whether their chilling accumulation naturally progressed or was postponed. To examine different temperature effects more closely, we compared the carbohydrate concentrations of trees subjected to either 6 or 0 °C treatment. The sorbitol concentration in xylem sap tremendously increased at 0 °C treatment compared with 6 °C treatment. However, an additional increase in xylem sap sorbitol occurred at both the temperatures when sufficient chilling accumulated with a peak coinciding with the peak expression in shoots of the sorbitol transporter gene (PpSOT2). Interestingly, the total carbohydrate concentration of shoots tremendously increased with exposure to 0 °C compared with exposure to 6 °C, but was not affected by the amount of accumulated chilling. Instead, as chilling accumulated the ratio of sorbitol to total soluble sugars in shoots increased. We presumed that carbohydrates in the shoot tissues may be converted to sorbitol and loaded into the xylem sap so that the sorbitol accumulation patterns were synchronized with the progression of dormancy, whereas the total

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of water ascent in embolized xylem vessels of grapevine stem segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingtao Wang; Melvin T. Tyree; Roderick E. Wasylishen

    2013-01-01

    Temporal and spatial information about water refilling of embolized xylem vessels and the rate of water ascent in these vessels is critical for understanding embolism repair in intact living vascular plants. High-resolution 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments have been performed on embolized grapevine stem segments while they were...

  8. Dynamic control of osmolality and ionic composition of the xylem sap in two mangrove species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Portillo, Jorge; Ewers, Frank W; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Paredes López, Claudia L; Angeles, Guillermo; Alarcón Jiménez, Ana Luisa; Lara-Domínguez, Ana Laura; Torres Barrera, María Del Carmen

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Xylem sap osmolality and salinity is a critical unresolved issue in plant function with impacts on transport efficiency, pressure gradients, and living cell turgor pressure, especially for halophytes such as mangrove trees.• Methods: We collected successive xylem vessel sap samples from stems and shoots of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa using vacuum and pressure extraction and measured their osmolality. Following a series of extractions with the pressure chamber, we depressurized the shoot and pressurized again after various equilibration periods (minutes to hours) to test for dynamic control of osmolality. Transpiration and final sap osmolality were measured in shoots perfused with deionized water or different seawater dilutions.• Key results: For both species, the sap osmolality values of consecutive samples collected by vacuum extraction were stable and matched those of the initial samples extracted with the pressure chamber. Further extraction of samples with the pressure chamber decreased sap osmolality, suggesting reverse osmosis occurred. However, sap osmolalities increased when longer equilibration periods after sap extraction were allowed. Analysis of expressed sap with HPLC indicated a 1:1 relation between measured osmolality and the osmolality of the inorganic ions in the sap (mainly Na + , K + , and Cl - ), suggesting no contamination by organic compounds. In stems perfused with deionized water, the sap osmolality increased to mimic the native sap osmolality.• Conclusions: Xylem sap osmolality and ionic contents are dynamically adjusted by mangroves and may help modulate turgor pressure, hydraulic conductivity, and water potential, thus being important for mangrove physiology, survival, and distribution. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  9. N. plumbaginifolia zeaxanthin epoxidase transgenic lines have unaltered baseline ABA accumulations in roots and xylem sap, but contrasting sensitivities of ABA accumulation to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, C; Audran, C; Frey, A; Marion-Poll, A; Tardieu, F; Simonneau, T

    2001-03-01

    A series of transgenic lines of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia with modified expression of zeaxanthin epoxidase gene (ZEP) provided contrasting ABA accumulation in roots and xylem sap. For mild water stress, concentration of ABA in the xylem sap ([ABA](xylem)) was clearly lower in plants underexpressing ZEP mRNA (complemented mutants and antisense transgenic lines) than in wild-type. In well-watered conditions, all lines presented similar [ABA](xylem) and similar ABA accumulation rates in detached roots. Plants could, therefore, be grown under normal light intensities and evaporative demand. Both ZEP mRNA abundance and ABA accumulation rate in roots increased with water deficit in all transgenic lines, except in complemented aba2-s1 mutants in which the ZEP gene was controlled by a constitutive promoter which does not respond to water deficit. These lines presented no change in root ABA content either with time or dehydration. The increase in ZEP mRNA abundance in roots with decreasing RWC was more pronounced in detached roots than in whole plants, suggesting a difference in mechanism. In all transgenic lines, a linear relationship was observed between predawn leaf water potential and [ABA](xylem), which could be reproduced in several experiments in the greenhouse and in the growth chamber. It is therefore possible to represent the effect of the transformation by a single parameter, thereby allowing the use of a quantitative approach to assist understanding of the behaviour of transgenic lines.

  10. Intervessel connectivity and relationship with patterns of lateral water exchange within and between xylem sectors in seven xeric shrubs from the great Sahara desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halis, Youcef; Mayouf, Rabah; Benhaddya, Mohamed Lamine; Belhamra, Mohamed

    2013-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the role of intervessel contacts in determining the patterns of hydraulic integration both within and between xylem sectors. The degree of intervessel contacts and the lateral exchange capability within and between sectors were examined and correlated in different xeric shrubs. A dye injection method was used to detect the connections between vessels; an apoplastic dye was sucked through a known number of vessels and its distribution in the xylem network was followed. Hydraulic techniques were used to measure axial and tangential conductivity both within and between xylem sectors. The intra- and inter-sector integration indexes were then determined as the ratio of tangential to axial conductance. Species differed significantly in the degree of intervessel contacts, intra- and inter-sector integration index. In all cases, hydraulic integration was observed to be higher within sector than between sectors. From the correlation analyses, the intervessel contacts showed a very weak relationship with inter-sector integration index and a strong positive relationship with intra-sector integration index. Results suggested that (1) the factors affecting patterns of lateral flow within xylem sectors might be relatively different from those between sectors. (2) The degree of intervessel contacts was a major determinant of hydraulic integration within the same xylem sector. (3) Intervessel connectivity alone was a poor predictor of hydraulic integration between different sectors, implying a significant contribution of other anatomical, physiological and environmental factors in determining the patterns of integrated-sectored transport within woody stems.

  11. A comprehensive strategy for identifying long-distance mobile peptides in xylem sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Satoru; Suzuki, Takamasa; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu

    2015-11-01

    There is a growing awareness that secreted pemediate organ-to-organ communication in higher plants. Xylem sap peptidomics is an effective but challenging approach for identifying long-distance mobile peptides. In this study we developed a simple, gel-free purification system that combines o-chlorophenol extraction with HPLC separation. Using this system, we successfully identified seven oligopeptides from soybean xylem sap exudate that had one or more post-transcriptional modifications: glycosylation, sulfation and/or hydroxylation. RNA sequencing and quantitative PCR analyses showed that the peptide-encoding genes are expressed in multiple tissues. We further analyzed the long-distance translocation of four of the seven peptides using gene-encoding peptides with single amino acid substitutions, and identified these four peptides as potential root-to-shoot mobile oligopeptides. Promoter-GUS analysis showed that all four peptide-encoding genes were expressed in the inner tissues of the root endodermis. Moreover, we found that some of these peptide-encoding genes responded to biotic and/or abiotic factors. These results indicate that our purification system provides a comprehensive approach for effectively identifying endogenous small peptides and reinforce the concept that higher plants employ various peptides in root-to-shoot signaling. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Differences in xylem and leaf hydraulic traits explain differences in drought tolerance among mature Amazon rainforest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Thomas L; Wheeler, James K; de Oliveira, Alex A R; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Saleska, Scott R; Meir, Patrick; Moorcroft, Paul R

    2017-10-01

    Considerable uncertainty surrounds the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on the composition and structure of Amazon forests. Building upon results from two large-scale ecosystem drought experiments in the eastern Brazilian Amazon that observed increases in mortality rates among some tree species but not others, in this study we investigate the physiological traits underpinning these differential demographic responses. Xylem pressure at 50% conductivity (xylem-P 50 ), leaf turgor loss point (TLP), cellular osmotic potential (π o ), and cellular bulk modulus of elasticity (ε), all traits mechanistically linked to drought tolerance, were measured on upper canopy branches and leaves of mature trees from selected species growing at the two drought experiment sites. Each species was placed a priori into one of four plant functional type (PFT) categories: drought-tolerant versus drought-intolerant based on observed mortality rates, and subdivided into early- versus late-successional based on wood density. We tested the hypotheses that the measured traits would be significantly different between the four PFTs and that they would be spatially conserved across the two experimental sites. Xylem-P 50 , TLP, and π o , but not ε, occurred at significantly higher water potentials for the drought-intolerant PFT compared to the drought-tolerant PFT; however, there were no significant differences between the early- and late-successional PFTs. These results suggest that these three traits are important for determining drought tolerance, and are largely independent of wood density-a trait commonly associated with successional status. Differences in these physiological traits that occurred between the drought-tolerant and drought-intolerant PFTs were conserved between the two research sites, even though they had different soil types and dry-season lengths. This more detailed understanding of how xylem and leaf hydraulic traits vary between co-occuring drought-tolerant and

  13. Immunogold scanning electron microscopy can reveal the polysaccharide architecture of xylem cell walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuliang; Juzenas, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) and immunogold transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are the two main techniques commonly used to detect polysaccharides in plant cell walls. Both are important in localizing cell wall polysaccharides, but both have major limitations, such as low resolution in IFM and restricted sample size for immunogold TEM. In this study, we have developed a robust technique that combines immunocytochemistry with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study cell wall polysaccharide architecture in xylem cells at high resolution over large areas of sample. Using multiple cell wall monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), this immunogold SEM technique reliably localized groups of hemicellulosic and pectic polysaccharides in the cell walls of five different xylem structures (vessel elements, fibers, axial and ray parenchyma cells, and tyloses). This demonstrates its important advantages over the other two methods for studying cell wall polysaccharide composition and distribution in these structures. In addition, it can show the three-dimensional distribution of a polysaccharide group in the vessel lateral wall and the polysaccharide components in the cell wall of developing tyloses. This technique, therefore, should be valuable for understanding the cell wall polysaccharide composition, architecture and functions of diverse cell types. PMID:28398585

  14. Effects of environmental conditions on onset of xylem growth in Pinus sylvestris under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas; Kofler, Werner; Oberhuber, Walter

    2011-05-01

    We determined the influence of environmental factors (air and soil temperature, precipitation, photoperiod) on onset of xylem growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) within a dry inner Alpine valley (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) by repeatedly sampling micro-cores throughout 2007-10 at two sites (xeric and dry-mesic) at the start of the growing season. Temperature sums were calculated in degree-days (DD) ≥5 °C from 1 January and 20 March, i.e., spring equinox, to account for photoperiodic control of release from winter dormancy. Threshold temperatures at which xylogenesis had a 0.5 probability of being active were calculated by logistic regression. Onset of xylem growth, which was not significantly different between the xeric and dry-mesic sites, ranged from mid-April in 2007 to early May in 2008. Among most study years, statistically significant differences (Pdrought stress forces P. sylvestris to draw upon water reserves in the stem for enlargement of first tracheids after cambial resumption in spring. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  15. Repression of BLADE-ON-PETIOLE genes by KNOX homeodomain protein BREVIPEDICELLUS is essential for differentiation of secondary xylem in Arabidopsis root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerlen, Natalie; Allam, Gamalat; Popescu, Adina; Corrigan, Laura; Pautot, Véronique; Hepworth, Shelley R

    2017-06-01

    Repression of boundary genes by KNOTTED1-like homeodomain transcription factor BREVIPEDICELLUS promotes the differentiation of phase II secondary xylem in Arabidopsis roots. Plant growth and development relies on the activity of meristems. Boundaries are domains of restricted growth that separate forming organs and the meristem. Class I KNOX homeodomain transcription factors are important regulators of meristem maintenance. Members of this class including BREVIDICELLUS also called KNOTTED-LIKE FROM ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA1 (BP/KNAT1) fulfill this function in part by spatially regulating boundary genes. The vascular cambium is a lateral meristem that allows for radial expansion of organs during secondary growth. We show here that BP/KNAT1 repression of boundary genes plays a crucial role in root secondary growth. In particular, exclusion of BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1/2 (BOP1/2) and other members of this module from xylem is required for the differentiation of lignified fibers and vessels during the xylem expansion phase of root thickening. These data reveal a previously undiscovered role for boundary genes in the root and shed light on mechanisms controlling wood development in trees.

  16. BRANCH JUNCTIONS AND THE FLOW OF WATER THROUGH XYLEM IN DOUGLAS-FIR AND PONDEROSA PINE STEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water flowing through the xylem of most plants from the roots to the leaves must pass through junctions where branches have developed from the main stem. These junctions have been studied as both flow constrictions and components of a hydraulic segmentation mechanism to protect ...

  17. Stem girdling affects the quantity of CO2 transported in xylem as well as CO2 efflux from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemen, Jasper; Agneessens, Laura; Van Meulebroek, Lieven; Aubrey, Doug P; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O; Steppe, Kathy

    2014-02-01

    There is recent clear evidence that an important fraction of root-respired CO2 is transported upward in the transpiration stream in tree stems rather than fluxing to the soil. In this study, we aimed to quantify the contribution of root-respired CO2 to both soil CO2 efflux and xylem CO2 transport by manipulating the autotrophic component of belowground respiration. We compared soil CO2 efflux and the flux of root-respired CO2 transported in the transpiration stream in girdled and nongirdled 9-yr-old oak trees (Quercus robur) to assess the impact of a change in the autotrophic component of belowground respiration on both CO2 fluxes. Stem girdling decreased xylem CO2 concentration, indicating that belowground respiration contributes to the aboveground transport of internal CO2 . Girdling also decreased soil CO2 efflux. These results confirmed that root respiration contributes to xylem CO2 transport and that failure to account for this flux results in inaccurate estimates of belowground respiration when efflux-based methods are used. This research adds to the growing body of evidence that efflux-based measurements of belowground respiration underestimate autotrophic contributions. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. The dynamic pipeline: hydraulic capacitance and xylem hydraulic safety in four tall conifer species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. McCulloh; Daniel M. Johnson; Frederick C. Meinzer; David R. Woodruff

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that plants differ in their relative reliance on structural avoidance of embolism versus maintenance of the xylem water column through dynamic traits such as capacitance, but we still know little about how and why species differ along this continuum. It is even less clear how or if different parts of a plant vary along this spectrum. Here we...

  19. Elevated temperature and CO2 concentration effects on xylem anatomy of Scots pine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpelainen, A.; Gerendiain, A.Z.; Luostarinen, K.; Peltola, H.; Kellomaki, S.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations and elevated temperatures on the xylem anatomy of 20-year old Scots pine trees were investigated. The experiment was conducted in 16 chambers containing 4 trees each with a factorial combination of both ambient and elevated CO 2 concentrations and 2 different temperature regimes. CO 2 concentrations were doubled with a corresponding increase of between 2 and 6 degrees C according to each season over a period of 6 years. The study showed that elevated CO 2 concentrations increased the ring width in 4 of the 6 analyzed treatment years. Earlywood width increased during the first 2 years of the experiment, while latewood width increased during the third year of the study. The study also showed that the tracheid walls in both the latewood and earlywood samples were thicker when either temperature levels or CO 2 levels were increased. It was noted that combined CO 2 and temperature elevations resulted in thinner tracheid walls. However, latewood tracheid lumen diameters were larger in all CO 2 and temperature treatments than trees grown in ambient conditions. It was concluded that xylem anatomy was impacted more by increases in temperature than by elevated CO 2 concentrations. 48 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  20. Exogenous GA3 Application Enhances Xylem Development and Induces the Expression of Secondary Wall Biosynthesis Related Genes in Betula platyphylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Guo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellin (GA is a key signal molecule inducing differentiation of tracheary elements, fibers, and xylogenesis. However the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of GA on xylem elongation and secondary wall development in tree species remain to be determined. In this study, Betula platyphylla (birch seeds were treated with 300 ppm GA3 and/or 300 ppm paclobutrazol (PAC, seed germination was recorded, and transverse sections of hypocotyls were stained with toluidine blue; the two-month-old seedlings were treated with 50 μM GA3 and/or 50 μM PAC, transverse sections of seedling stems were stained using phloroglucinol–HCl, and secondary wall biosynthesis related genes expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Results indicated that germination percentage, energy and time of seeds, hypocotyl height and seedling fresh weight were enhanced by GA3, and reduced by PAC; the xylem development was wider in GA3-treated plants than in the control; the expression of NAC and MYB transcription factors, CESA, PAL, and GA oxidase was up-regulated during GA3 treatment, suggesting their role in GA3-induced xylem development in the birch. Our results suggest that GA3 induces the expression of secondary wall biosynthesis related genes to trigger xylogenesis in the birch plants.

  1. Spatial distribution of xylem embolisms in the stems of Pinus thunbergii at the threshold of fatal drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umebayashi, Toshihiro; Morita, Toshimitsu; Utsumi, Yasuhiro; Kusumoto, Dai; Yasuda, Yuko; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Fukuda, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    Although previous studies have suggested that branch dieback and whole-plant death due to drought stress occur at 50-88% loss of stem hydraulic conductivity (P 50 and P 88 , respectively), the dynamics of catastrophic failure in the water-conducting pathways in whole plants subjected to drought remain poorly understood. We examined the dynamics of drought stress tolerance in 3-year-old Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.). We nondestructively monitored (i) the spatial distribution of drought-induced embolisms in the stem at greater than P 50 and (ii) recovery from embolisms following rehydration. Stem water distributions were visualized by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The percentages of both embolized area and loss of hydraulic conductivity showed similar patterns of increase, although the water loss in xylem increased markedly at -5.0 MPa or less. One seedling that had reached 72% loss of the water-conducting area survived and the xylem water potential recovered to -0.3 MPa. We concluded that Japanese black pines may need to maintain water-filled tracheids within earlywood of the current-year xylem under natural conditions to avoid disconnection of water movement between the stem and the tops of branches. It is necessary to determine the spatial distribution of embolisms around the point of the lethal threshold to gain an improved understanding of plant survival under conditions of drought. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. 78 FR 77649 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Xylem Water Systems USA LLC, Subzone 37D...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... inputs noted below and in the existing scope of authority. Customs duties also could possibly be deferred... December 2, 2013. Xylem already has authority to produce centrifugal pumps, submersible pumps, and related... components to the scope of authority. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), FTZ activity would be limited to the...

  3. Potassium co-transport and antiport during the uptake of sucrose and glutamic acid from the xylem vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bel, A.J.E. van; Erven, A.J. van

    Perfusion experiments with excised internodes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv Moneymaker) showed that the uptake of glutamic acid and sucrose from the xylem vessels is accompanied with coupled proton co-transport and potassium antiport at low pH (<5.5). At high pH (5.5) both proton and

  4. Apical control of xylem formation in the pine stem. II. Responses of differentiating tracheids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Porandowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of auxin supplied to the main stem of 5-year-old Pinus silvestris trees during various periods after decapitation upon differentiation of the secondary xylem tracheids was investigated. The results revealed the complexity of auxin involvement in the regulatory system of tracheid differentiation of secondary xylem. It is manifested both as the inductive effect to which the cells respond in the meristematic phase and in the continuous control during the consecutive stages of radial growth and maturation. A lack of auxin during the meristematic phase resulted in smaller cell diameters and reduced the daily rate of cell wall deposition even though these cells progressively grew and matured in the presence of auxin. The intensity of these two processes increased and the cells deposited thicker walls when auxin was supplied during all stages of tracheid differentiation even though the period of maturation decreased. Under these conditions tracheids of compression wood type differentiated. Continuous availability of auxin causes earlier termination of tracheid maturation while lack of auxin results in a delay of autolysis of protoplasts. In this case auxin probably functions in a system specifying information concerning the position of the cells in respect to the cambial layer.

  5. Elevated temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration effects on xylem anatomy of Scots pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpelainen, A.; Gerendiain, A.Z.; Luostarinen, K.; Peltola, H.; Kellomaki, S. [Joensuu Univ., Joensuu (Finland). Faculty of Forestry

    2007-09-15

    The effects of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations and elevated temperatures on the xylem anatomy of 20-year old Scots pine trees were investigated. The experiment was conducted in 16 chambers containing 4 trees each with a factorial combination of both ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations and 2 different temperature regimes. CO{sub 2} concentrations were doubled with a corresponding increase of between 2 and 6 degrees C according to each season over a period of 6 years. The study showed that elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations increased the ring width in 4 of the 6 analyzed treatment years. Earlywood width increased during the first 2 years of the experiment, while latewood width increased during the third year of the study. The study also showed that the tracheid walls in both the latewood and earlywood samples were thicker when either temperature levels or CO{sub 2} levels were increased. It was noted that combined CO{sub 2} and temperature elevations resulted in thinner tracheid walls. However, latewood tracheid lumen diameters were larger in all CO{sub 2} and temperature treatments than trees grown in ambient conditions. It was concluded that xylem anatomy was impacted more by increases in temperature than by elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations. 48 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  6. Golgi enrichment and proteomic analysis of developing Pinus radiata xylem by free-flow electrophoresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet T Parsons

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the contribution of Golgi proteins to cell wall and wood formation in any woody plant species is limited. Currently, little Golgi proteomics data exists for wood-forming tissues. In this study, we attempted to address this issue by generating and analyzing Golgi-enriched membrane preparations from developing xylem of compression wood from the conifer Pinus radiata. Developing xylem samples from 3-year-old pine trees were harvested for this purpose at a time of active growth and subjected to a combination of density centrifugation followed by free flow electrophoresis, a surface charge separation technique used in the enrichment of Golgi membranes. This combination of techniques was successful in achieving an approximately 200-fold increase in the activity of the Golgi marker galactan synthase and represents a significant improvement for proteomic analyses of the Golgi from conifers. A total of thirty known Golgi proteins were identified by mass spectrometry including glycosyltransferases from gene families involved in glucomannan and glucuronoxylan biosynthesis. The free flow electrophoresis fractions of enriched Golgi were highly abundant in structural proteins (actin and tubulin indicating a role for the cytoskeleton during compression wood formation. The mass spectrometry proteomics data associated with this study have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000557.

  7. Structure of the secondary xylem of Aniba Aubl. species from the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Viana Urbinati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the wood of Aniba species from the Brazilian Amazon, on the basis of specimens in the wood collection of the Herbarium of the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, in the city of Belém, Brazil. The species were found to present a homogeneous structure in the secondary xylem, as defined by the location of oil cells; the presence of tyloses and crystals; and singularities of the radial and axial parenchyma.

  8. Effect of gamma-irradiation and colchicine on cell division and differentiation of xylem elements in citrus limon juice vesicle cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Aysha; Chauhan, Y.S.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of varying doses of gamma irradiation on cell division and cytodifferentiation of tracheary elements in cultured juice vesicles of Citrus limon (L) Burmann var. Assam lemon were investigated. Low radiation doses stimulated cell division and differentiation of xylem fibres, sclereids and tracheids in explants given up to 10 Gy of gamma rays. Although cell division and cytodifferentiation of fibers and sclereids occurred in explants exposed to 150 dose of Gy radiation, the intensity of differentiation was much less than that induced by 10 Gy radiation dose. Amongst the differential elements, tracheids were more sensitive to radiation than fibres and sclereids. The requirement of cell division for differentiation of xylem cells was also studied by using different concentrations of colchicine in Citrus limon juice vesicle cultures. It was found that the low concentrations of colchicine permitted normal cell division and also resulted in normal differentiation of xylem cells; higher colchicine concentration, however, inhibited cell division as well as differentiation and resulted in an abnormal differentiation of tracheary element. A positive correlation between intensity of nucleic acid staining and cell division in both the above-mentioned experiments was qualitatively confirmed by Azur B staining test of nucleic acid. Thus, it was concluded that juice vesicle parenchyma cells go through nucleic acid synthesis, followed by cell division before differentiation. (author)

  9. Avoiding transport bottlenecks in an expanding root system: xylem vessel development in fibrous and pioneer roots under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka; Byczyk, Julia; Eissenstat, David M; Oleksyn, Jacek; Zadworny, Marcin

    2012-09-01

    Root systems develop to effectively absorb water and nutrients and to rapidly transport these materials to the transpiring shoot. In woody plants, roots can be born with different functions: fibrous roots are primarily used for water and nutrient absorption, whereas pioneer roots have a greater role in transport. Because pioneer roots extend rapidly in the soil and typically quickly produce fibrous roots, they need to develop transport capacity rapidly so as to avoid becoming a bottleneck to the absorbed water of the developing fibrous roots and, as we hypothesized, immediately activate a specific type of autophagy at a precise time of their development. Using microscopy techniques, we monitored xylem development in Populus trichocarpa roots in the first 7 d after emergence under field conditions. Newly formed pioneer roots contained more primary xylem poles and had larger diameter tracheary elements than fibrous roots. While xylogenesis started later in pioneer roots than in fibrous, it was completed at the same time, resulting in functional vessels on the third to fourth day following root emergence. Programmed cell death was responsible for creating the water conducting capacity of xylem. Although the early xylogenesis processes were similar in fibrous and pioneer roots, secondary vascular development proceeded much more rapidly in pioneer roots. Compared to fibrous roots, rapid development of transport capacity in pioneer roots is not primarily caused by accelerated xylogenesis but by larger and more numerous tracheary elements and by rapid initiation of secondary growth.

  10. Overexpression of the cytosolic cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX7) from Arabidopsis causes specific changes in root growth and xylem differentiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kollmer, I.; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Schmülling, T.; Werner, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 3 (2014), s. 359-371 ISSN 0960-7412 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : xylem differentiation * Arabidopsis thaliana * cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.972, year: 2014

  11. Do quantitative vessel and pit characters account for ion-mediated changes in the hydraulic conductance of angiosperm xylem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Gortan, E.; Lens, F.; Assunta Lo Gullo, M.; Salleo, S.; Scholtz, A.; Stein, A.; Trifilò, P.; Nardini, A.

    2011-01-01

    • The hydraulic conductance of angiosperm xylem has been suggested to vary with changes in sap solute concentrations because of intervessel pit properties. • The magnitude of the ‘ionic effect’ was linked with vessel and pit dimensions in 20 angiosperm species covering 13 families including six

  12. Ralstonia solanacearum uses inorganic nitrogen metabolism for virulence, ATP production, and detoxification in the oxygen-limited host xylem environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsing, Beth L; Truchon, Alicia N; Gonzalez-Orta, Enid T; Milling, Annett S; Allen, Caitilyn

    2015-03-17

    Genomic data predict that, in addition to oxygen, the bacterial plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum can use nitrate (NO3(-)), nitrite (NO2(-)), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O) as terminal electron acceptors (TEAs). Genes encoding inorganic nitrogen reduction were highly expressed during tomato bacterial wilt disease, when the pathogen grows in xylem vessels. Direct measurements found that tomato xylem fluid was low in oxygen, especially in plants infected by R. solanacearum. Xylem fluid contained ~25 mM NO3(-), corresponding to R. solanacearum's optimal NO3(-) concentration for anaerobic growth in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that R. solanacearum uses inorganic nitrogen species to respire and grow during pathogenesis by making deletion mutants that each lacked a step in nitrate respiration (ΔnarG), denitrification (ΔaniA, ΔnorB, and ΔnosZ), or NO detoxification (ΔhmpX). The ΔnarG, ΔaniA, and ΔnorB mutants grew poorly on NO3(-) compared to the wild type, and they had reduced adenylate energy charge levels under anaerobiosis. While NarG-dependent NO3(-) respiration directly enhanced growth, AniA-dependent NO2(-) reduction did not. NO2(-) and NO inhibited growth in culture, and their removal depended on denitrification and NO detoxification. Thus, NO3(-) acts as a TEA, but the resulting NO2(-) and NO likely do not. None of the mutants grew as well as the wild type in planta, and strains lacking AniA (NO2(-) reductase) or HmpX (NO detoxification) had reduced virulence on tomato. Thus, R. solanacearum exploits host NO3(-) to respire, grow, and cause disease. Degradation of NO2(-) and NO is also important for successful infection and depends on denitrification and NO detoxification systems. The plant-pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum causes bacterial wilt, one of the world's most destructive crop diseases. This pathogen's explosive growth in plant vascular xylem is poorly understood. We used biochemical and genetic approaches to show

  13. Analysis of spatial and temporal dynamics of xylem refilling in Acer rubrum L. using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Melcher, Peter J; Ahrens, Eric T

    2013-01-01

    We report results of an analysis of embolism formation and subsequent refilling observed in stems of Acer rubrum L. using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is one of the very few techniques that can provide direct non-destructive observations of the water content within opaque biological materials at a micrometer resolution. Thus, it has been used to determine temporal dynamics and water distributions within xylem tissue. In this study, we found good agreement between MRI measures of pixel brightness to assess xylem liquid water content and the percent loss in hydraulic conductivity (PLC) in response to water stress (P50 values of 2.51 and 2.70 for MRI and PLC, respectively). These data provide strong support that pixel brightness is well correlated to PLC and can be used as a proxy of PLC even when single vessels cannot be resolved on the image. Pressure induced embolism in moderately stressed plants resulted in initial drop of pixel brightness. This drop was followed by brightness gain over 100 min following pressure application suggesting that plants can restore water content in stem after induced embolism. This recovery was limited only to current-year wood ring; older wood did not show signs of recovery within the length of experiment (16 h). In vivo MRI observations of the xylem of moderately stressed (~-0.5 MPa) A. rubrum stems revealed evidence of a spontaneous embolism formation followed by rapid refilling (~30 min). Spontaneous (not induced) embolism formation was observed only once, despite over 60 h of continuous MRI observations made on several plants. Thus this observation provide evidence for the presence of naturally occurring embolism-refilling cycle in A. rubrum, but it is impossible to infer any conclusions in relation to its frequency in nature.

  14. Lignin depletion enhances the digestibility of cellulose in cultured xylem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine I Lacayo

    Full Text Available Plant lignocellulose constitutes an abundant and sustainable source of polysaccharides that can be converted into biofuels. However, the enzymatic digestion of native plant cell walls is inefficient, presenting a considerable barrier to cost-effective biofuel production. In addition to the insolubility of cellulose and hemicellulose, the tight association of lignin with these polysaccharides intensifies the problem of cell wall recalcitrance. To determine the extent to which lignin influences the enzymatic digestion of cellulose, specifically in secondary walls that contain the majority of cellulose and lignin in plants, we used a model system consisting of cultured xylem cells from Zinniaelegans. Rather than using purified cell wall substrates or plant tissue, we have applied this system to study cell wall degradation because it predominantly consists of homogeneous populations of single cells exhibiting large deposits of lignocellulose. We depleted lignin in these cells by treating with an oxidative chemical or by inhibiting lignin biosynthesis, and then examined the resulting cellulose digestibility and accessibility using a fluorescent cellulose-binding probe. Following cellulase digestion, we measured a significant decrease in relative cellulose content in lignin-depleted cells, whereas cells with intact lignin remained essentially unaltered. We also observed a significant increase in probe binding after lignin depletion, indicating that decreased lignin levels improve cellulose accessibility. These results indicate that lignin depletion considerably enhances the digestibility of cellulose in the cell wall by increasing the susceptibility of cellulose to enzymatic attack. Although other wall components are likely to contribute, our quantitative study exploits cultured Zinnia xylem cells to demonstrate the dominant influence of lignin on the enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. This system is simple enough for quantitative image analysis

  15. Xylem formation can be modeled statistically as a function of primary growth and cambium activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Guo; Deslauriers, Annie; Rossi, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    Primary (budburst, foliage and shoot) growth and secondary (cambium and xylem) growth of plants play a vital role in sequestering atmospheric carbon. However, their potential relationships have never been mathematically quantified and the underlying physiological mechanisms are unclear. We monitored primary and secondary growth in Picea mariana and Abies balsamea on a weekly basis from 2010 to 2013 at four sites over an altitudinal gradient (25-900 m) in the eastern Canadian boreal forest. We determined the timings of onset and termination through the fitted functions and their first derivative. We quantified the potential relationships between primary growth and secondary growth using the mixed-effects model. We found that xylem formation of boreal conifers can be modeled as a function of cambium activity, bud phenology, and shoot and needle growth, as well as species- and site-specific factors. Our model reveals that there may be an optimal mechanism to simultaneously allocate the photosynthetic products and stored nonstructural carbon to growth of different organs at different times in the growing season. This mathematical link can bridge phenological modeling, forest ecosystem productivity and carbon cycle modeling, which will certainly contribute to an improved prediction of ecosystem productivity and carbon equilibrium. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Drought-induced xylem cavitation and hydraulic deterioration: risk factors for urban trees under climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Tadeja; Bertuzzi, Stefano; Branca, Salvatore; Tretiach, Mauro; Nardini, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    Urban trees help towns to cope with climate warming by cooling both air and surfaces. The challenges imposed by the urban environment, with special reference to low water availability due to the presence of extensive pavements, result in high rates of mortality of street trees, that can be increased by climatic extremes. We investigated the water relations and xylem hydraulic safety/efficiency of Quercus ilex trees growing at urban sites with different percentages of surrounding impervious pavements. Seasonal changes of plant water potential and gas exchange, vulnerability to cavitation and embolism level, and morpho-anatomical traits were measured. We found patterns of increasing water stress and vulnerability to drought at increasing percentages of impervious pavement cover, with a consequent reduction in gas exchange rates, decreased safety margins toward embolism development, and increased vulnerability to cavitation, suggesting the occurrence of stress-induced hydraulic deterioration. The amount of impermeable surface and chronic exposure to water stress influence the site-specific risk of drought-induced dieback of urban trees under extreme drought. Besides providing directions for management of green spaces in towns, our data suggest that xylem hydraulics is key to a full understanding of the responses of urban trees to global change. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Measurement of imidacloprid in xylem fluid from eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) by derivitization/GC/MS and ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony Lagalante; Peter Greenbacker; Jonathan Jones; Richard Turcotte; Bradley Onken

    2007-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a nonvolatile insecticide and its direct quantification is not possible by gas chromatography. In order to ascertain imidacloprid levels in soil and trunk injection treated trees, a sensitive and selective method has been developed using GC/MS to measure the imidacloprid levels in xylem fluid exudates. In May 2005, a stand of hemlock trees in West...

  18. Leaf water stable isotopes and water transport outside the xylem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, M M; Farquhar, G D; Buckley, T N

    2017-06-01

    How water moves through leaves, and where the phase change from liquid to vapour occurs within leaves, remain largely mysterious. Some time ago, we suggested that the stable isotope composition of leaf water may contain information on transport pathways beyond the xylem, through differences in the development of gradients in enrichment within the various pathways. Subsequent testing of this suggestion provided ambiguous results and even questioned the existence of gradients in enrichment within the mesophyll. In this review, we bring together recent theoretical developments in understanding leaf water transport pathways and stable isotope theory to map a path for future work into understanding pathways of water transport and leaf water stable isotope composition. We emphasize the need for a spatially, anatomically and isotopically explicit model of leaf water transport. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Testing the plant pneumatic method to estimate xylem embolism resistance in stems of temperate trees

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ya; Lamarque, Laurent J.; Torres-Ruiz, José Manuel; Schuldt, Bernhard; Karimi, Zohreh; Li, Shan; Qin, De-Wen; Bittencourt, Paulo; Burlett, Régis; Cao, Kun-Fang; Delzon, Sylvain; Oliveira, Rafael; Pereira, Luciano; Jansen, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Methods to estimate xylem embolism resistance generally rely on hydraulic measurements, which can be far from straightforward. Recently, a pneumatic method based on air flow measurements of terminal branch ends was proposed to construct vulnerability curves by linking the amount of air extracted from a branch with the degree of embolism. We applied this novel technique for 10 temperate tree species, including six diffuse, two ring-porous and two gymnosperm species, and compared the pneumatic ...

  20. Up-regulation of abscisic acid signaling pathway facilitates aphid xylem absorption and osmoregulation under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huijuan; Sun, Yucheng; Peng, Xinhong; Wang, Qinyang; Harris, Marvin; Ge, Feng

    2016-02-01

    The activation of the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway reduces water loss from plants challenged by drought stress. The effect of drought-induced ABA signaling on the defense and nutrition allocation of plants is largely unknown. We postulated that these changes can affect herbivorous insects. We studied the effects of drought on different feeding stages of pea aphids in the wild-type A17 of Medicago truncatula and ABA signaling pathway mutant sta-1. We examined the impact of drought on plant water status, induced plant defense signaling via the abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) pathways, and on the host nutritional quality in terms of leaf free amino acid content. During the penetration phase of aphid feeding, drought decreased epidermis/mesophyll resistance but increased mesophyll/phloem resistance of A17 but not sta-1 plants. Quantification of transcripts associated with ABA, JA and SA signaling indicated that the drought-induced up-regulation of ABA signaling decreased the SA-dependent defense but increased the JA-dependent defense in A17 plants. During the phloem-feeding phase, drought had little effect on the amino acid concentrations and the associated aphid phloem-feeding parameters in both plant genotypes. In the xylem absorption stage, drought decreased xylem absorption time of aphids in both genotypes because of decreased water potential. Nevertheless, the activation of the ABA signaling pathway increased water-use efficiency of A17 plants by decreasing the stomatal aperture and transpiration rate. In contrast, the water potential of sta-1 plants (unable to close stomata) was too low to support xylem absorption activity of aphids; the aphids on sta-1 plants had the highest hemolymph osmolarity and lowest abundance under drought conditions. Taken together this study illustrates the significance of cross-talk between biotic-abiotic signaling pathways in plant-aphid interaction, and reveals the mechanisms leading to alter

  1. Effect of root pruning and irrigation regimes on leaf water relations and xylem ABA and ionic concentrations in pear trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yufei; Bertelsen, Marianne G.; Petersen, Karen Koefoed

    2014-01-01

    relation characteristics, stomatal conductance and xylem sap abscisic acid (ABA) and ionic concentrations. Results showed that leaf water potential, leaf turgor and stomatal conductance of root pruning (RP) treatment was significantly lower than those of non-root pruning (NP) treatment indicating that root...

  2. Microtubule-dependent targeting of the exocyst complex is necessary for xylem development in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vukašinović, Nemanja; Oda, Y.; Pejchar, Přemysl; Synek, Lukáš; Pečenková, Tamara; Rawat, Anamika; Sekereš, Juraj; Potocký, Martin; Žárský, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 213, č. 3 (2017), s. 1052-1067 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14886S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LO1417 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : secondary cell-wall * tracheary element differentiation * cortical microtubules * plasma-membrane * vesicle trafficking * secretory pathways * auxin transport * exocytosis * deposition * thaliana * conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex * exocyst * microtubules * secondary cell wall * tracheary elements * xylem Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 7.330, year: 2016

  3. Introducing wood anatomical and dendrochronological aspects of herbaceous plants: applications of the Xylem Database to vegetation science

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Büntgen, Ulf; Psomas, A.; Schweingruber, F. H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2014), s. 967-977 ISSN 1100-9233 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : dendrochronology * dicotyledon * environmental change * functional traits * herbs * life form * non-forest vegetation * secondary growth * shrub * vegetation cover * wood anatomy * Xylem formation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.709, year: 2014

  4. Analysis of spatial and temporal dynamics of xylem refilling in Acer rubrum L. using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Andrzej Zwieniecki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report results of an analysis of embolism formation and subsequent refilling observed in stems of Acer rubrum L. using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. MRI is one of the very few techniques that can provide direct non-destructive observations of the water content within opaque biological materials at a micrometer resolution. Thus, it has been used to determine temporal dynamics and water distributions within xylem tissue. In this study, we found good agreement between MRI measures of pixel brightness to assess xylem liquid water content and the percent loss in hydraulic conductivity (PLC in response to water stress (P50 values of 2.51 and 2.70 for MRI and PLC, respectively. These data provide strong support that pixel brightness is well correlated to PLC and can be used as a proxy of PLC even when single vessels cannot be resolved on the image. Pressure induced embolism in moderately stressed plants resulted in initial drop of pixel brightness. This drop was followed by brightness gain over 100 minutes following pressure application suggesting that plants can restore water content in stem after induced embolism. This recovery was limited only to current year wood ring; older wood did not show signs of recovery within the length of experiment (16 hours. In vivo MRI observations of the xylem of moderately stressed (~-0.5 MPa A. rubrum stems revealed evidence of a spontaneous embolism formation followed by rapid refilling (~30 minutes. Spontaneous (not induced embolism formation was observed only once, despite over 60 hours of continuous MRI observations made on several plants. Thus this observation provide evidence for presence of naturally occurring embolism-refilling cycle in A. rubrum, but it is impossible to infer any conclusions in relation to its frequency in nature.

  5. A rhamnose-rich O-antigen mediates adhesion, virulence, and host colonization for the xylem-limited phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Jennifer C; Rapicavoli, Jeannette N; Roper, M Caroline

    2013-06-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterium that causes a lethal disease of grapevine called Pierce's disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) composes approximately 75% of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria and, because it is largely displayed on the cell surface, it mediates interactions between the bacterial cell and its surrounding environment. LPS is composed of a conserved lipid A-core oligosaccharide component and a variable O-antigen portion. By targeting a key O-antigen biosynthetic gene, we demonstrate the contribution of the rhamnose-rich O-antigen to surface attachment, cell-cell aggregation, and biofilm maturation: critical steps for successful infection of the host xylem tissue. Moreover, we have demonstrated that a fully formed O-antigen moiety is an important virulence factor for Pierce's disease development in grape and that depletion of the O-antigen compromises its ability to colonize the host. It has long been speculated that cell-surface polysaccharides play a role in X. fastidiosa virulence and this study confirms that LPS is a major virulence factor for this important agricultural pathogen.

  6. Fast-growing Acer rubrum differs from slow-growing Quercus alba in leaf, xylem and hydraulic trait coordination responses to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Tomeo, Nicholas J; Hewins, Charlotte R; Rosenthal, David M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of historic soil chemistry changes associated with acid rain, i.e., reduced soil pH and a shift from nitrogen (N)- to phosphorus (P)-limitation, on the coordination of leaf water demand and xylem hydraulic supply traits in two co-occurring temperate tree species differing in growth rate. Using a full-factorial design (N × P × pH), we measured leaf nutrient content, water relations, leaf-level and canopy-level gas exchange, total biomass and allocation, as well as stem xylem anatomy and hydraulic function for greenhouse-grown saplings of fast-growing Acer rubrum (L.) and slow-growing Quercus alba (L.). We used principle component analysis to characterize trait coordination. We found that N-limitation, but not P-limitation, had a significant impact on plant water relations and hydraulic coordination of both species. Fast-growing A. rubrum made hydraulic adjustments in response to N-limitation, but trait coordination was variable within treatments and did not fully compensate for changing allocation across N-availability. For slow-growing Q. alba, N-limitation engendered more strict coordination of leaf and xylem traits, resulting in similar leaf water content and hydraulic function across all treatments. Finally, low pH reduced the propensity of both species to adjust leaf water relations and xylem anatomical traits in response to nutrient manipulations. Our data suggest that a shift from N- to P-limitation has had a negative impact on the water relations and hydraulic function of A. rubrum to a greater extent than for Q. alba We suggest that current expansion of A. rubrum populations could be tempered by acidic N-deposition, which may restrict it to more mesic microsites. The disruption of hydraulic acclimation and coordination at low pH is emphasized as an interesting area of future study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The application of carbon-isotope measurements to dendro- and xylem-chronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Hattori, Yoshiaki; Kikata, Yoji; Mitsutani, Takumi; Nakamura, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    We measured 14 C/ 13 C Ratio of the Teak. The 14 C excess, which reflects the execution of the tropospheric nuclear tests, is stamped in the Teak trunk. In place of the annual rings this stamp can estimate the xylem-chronologies and more accurate growth rates of tropical trees which have no annual rings. And replacing the shot-pinning method we can estimate the growing period in an annual ring formed especially in 1963-1966, when the 14 C concentration in the tropospheric air changes dramatically. And we measured 14 C-chronologies of the annual rings of O-Hinoki, 14 C-chronologies agree well with dendrochronologies for the past 600 years. And the 14 C chronologies support more determinative cross-dating of the archaeological samples. (author)

  8. Xylem anatomy of the Caesalpiniaceae registered in wood collection of the Universidad Distrital Francisco Jose de Caldas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulido Rodriguez, Esperanza N; Mateus, Durley; Lozano D, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    The anatomical study of the xylem of 21 species of Caesalpiniaceae registered in the wood collection Jos Anatolio Lastra Rivera (JALR), of the Universidad Distrital Francisco Jose de Caldas, included the macroscopic, microscopic and biometric characterization of the cellular elements that constitute the xylematic tissue. These analyses were developed following parameters defined by the International Association Wood Anatomist Committee (IAWA Committee 1989) and methods established by the Wood Technology Laboratory of Universidad Distrital. Measurements and descriptions were used to prepare identification keys and similarity analysis. The wood of Caesalpiniaceae family illustrated common characteristics in growth rings differentiation, porosity, vessel arrangement, deposits, diameter and length, plates perforation type, alternate and vestured intervessel pits; fibers wall thickness and length; paratracheal axial vasicentric parenchyma, aliform and banded parenchyma and presence of prismatic crystals. Also, variations in anatomical features such us longitudinal channels were found as diagnostic for some genera like Copaifera. The variation and analysis of anatomical characteristics of the xylem tissue allowed to verify some taxonomic relations of the family Caesalpiniaceae, like the observed with the species Mora megistosperma, Mora oleofera, Peltogyne pubescens, Peltogyne paniculata, Sclerolobium odoratissimum and Tachigali polyphylla .

  9. Water transport through tall trees: A vertically-explicit, analytical model of xylem hydraulic conductance in stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Valentin; Ledder, Glenn; Manzoni, Stefano; Way, Danielle A; Muller, Erik B; Russo, Sabrina E

    2018-05-08

    Trees grow by vertically extending their stems, so accurate stem hydraulic models are fundamental to understanding the hydraulic challenges faced by tall trees. Using a literature survey, we showed that many tree species exhibit continuous vertical variation in hydraulic traits. To examine the effects of this variation on hydraulic function, we developed a spatially-explicit, analytical water transport model for stems. Our model allows Huber ratio, stem-saturated conductivity, pressure at 50% loss of conductivity, leaf area, and transpiration rate to vary continuously along the hydraulic path. Predictions from our model differ from a matric flux potential model parameterized with uniform traits. Analyses show that cavitation is a whole-stem emergent property resulting from nonlinear pressure-conductivity feedbacks that, with gravity, cause impaired water transport to accumulate along the path. Because of the compounding effects of vertical trait variation on hydraulic function, growing proportionally more sapwood and building tapered xylem with height, as well as reducing xylem vulnerability only at branch tips while maintaining transport capacity at the stem base, can compensate for these effects. We therefore conclude that the adaptive significance of vertical variation in stem hydraulic traits is to allow trees to grow tall and tolerate operating near their hydraulic limits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Linking xylem water storage with anatomical parameters in five temperate tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupa, Radek; Plavcová, Lenka; Gloser, Vít; Jansen, Steven

    2016-06-01

    The release of water from storage compartments to the transpiration stream is an important functional mechanism that provides the buffering of sudden fluctuations in water potential. The ability of tissues to release water per change in water potential, referred to as hydraulic capacitance, is assumed to be associated with the anatomy of storage tissues. However, information about how specific anatomical parameters determine capacitance is limited. In this study, we measured sapwood capacitance (C) in terminal branches and roots of five temperate tree species (Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies L., Quercus robur L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Tilia cordata Mill.). Capacitance was calculated separately for water released mainly from capillary (CI; open vessels, tracheids, fibres, intercellular spaces and cracks) and elastic storage compartments (CII; living parenchyma cells), corresponding to two distinct phases of the moisture release curve. We found that C was generally higher in roots than branches, with CI being 3-11 times higher than CII Sapwood density and the ratio of dead to living xylem cells were most closely correlated with C In addition, the magnitude of CI was strongly correlated with fibre/tracheid lumen area, whereas CII was highly dependent on the thickness of axial parenchyma cell walls. Our results indicate that water released from capillary compartments predominates over water released from elastic storage in both branches and roots, suggesting the limited importance of parenchyma cells for water storage in juvenile xylem of temperate tree species. Contrary to intact organs, water released from open conduits in our small wood samples significantly increased CI at relatively high water potentials. Linking anatomical parameters with the hydraulic capacitance of a tissue contributes to a better understanding of water release mechanisms and their implications for plant hydraulics. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  11. Xylem and Leaf Functional Adjustments to Drought in Pinus sylvestris and Quercus pyrenaica at Their Elevational Boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Uña, Laura; Rossi, Sergio; Aranda, Ismael; Fonti, Patrick; González-González, Borja D; Cañellas, Isabel; Gea-Izquierdo, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Climatic scenarios for the Mediterranean region forecast increasing frequency and intensity of drought events. Consequently, a reduction in Pinus sylvestris L. distribution range is projected within the region, with this species being outcompeted at lower elevations by more drought-tolerant taxa such as Quercus pyrenaica Willd. The functional response of these species to the projected shifts in water availability will partially determine their performance and, thus, their competitive success under these changing climatic conditions. We studied how the cambial and leaf phenology and xylem anatomy of these two species responded to a 3-year rainfall exclusion experiment set at their elevational boundary in Central Spain. Additionally, P. sylvestris leaf gas exchange, water potential and carbon isotope content response to the treatment were measured. Likewise, we assessed inter-annual variability in the studied functional traits under control and rainfall exclusion conditions. Prolonged exposure to drier conditions did not affect the onset of xylogenesis in either of the studied species, whereas xylem formation ceased 1-3 weeks earlier in P. sylvestris . The rainfall exclusion had, however, no effect on leaf phenology on either species, which suggests that cambial phenology is more sensitive to drought than leaf phenology. P. sylvestris formed fewer, but larger tracheids under dry conditions and reduced the proportion of latewood in the tree ring. On the other hand, Q. pyrenaica did not suffer earlywood hydraulic diameter changes under rainfall exclusion, but experienced a cumulative reduction in latewood width, which could ultimately challenge its hydraulic performance. The phenological and anatomical response of the studied species to drought is consistent with a shift in resource allocation under drought stress from xylem to other sinks. Additionally, the tighter stomatal control and higher intrinsic water use efficiency observed in drought-stressed P. sylvestris

  12. Xylem and Leaf Functional Adjustments to Drought in Pinus sylvestris and Quercus pyrenaica at Their Elevational Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández-de-Uña

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Climatic scenarios for the Mediterranean region forecast increasing frequency and intensity of drought events. Consequently, a reduction in Pinus sylvestris L. distribution range is projected within the region, with this species being outcompeted at lower elevations by more drought-tolerant taxa such as Quercus pyrenaica Willd. The functional response of these species to the projected shifts in water availability will partially determine their performance and, thus, their competitive success under these changing climatic conditions. We studied how the cambial and leaf phenology and xylem anatomy of these two species responded to a 3-year rainfall exclusion experiment set at their elevational boundary in Central Spain. Additionally, P. sylvestris leaf gas exchange, water potential and carbon isotope content response to the treatment were measured. Likewise, we assessed inter-annual variability in the studied functional traits under control and rainfall exclusion conditions. Prolonged exposure to drier conditions did not affect the onset of xylogenesis in either of the studied species, whereas xylem formation ceased 1–3 weeks earlier in P. sylvestris. The rainfall exclusion had, however, no effect on leaf phenology on either species, which suggests that cambial phenology is more sensitive to drought than leaf phenology. P. sylvestris formed fewer, but larger tracheids under dry conditions and reduced the proportion of latewood in the tree ring. On the other hand, Q. pyrenaica did not suffer earlywood hydraulic diameter changes under rainfall exclusion, but experienced a cumulative reduction in latewood width, which could ultimately challenge its hydraulic performance. The phenological and anatomical response of the studied species to drought is consistent with a shift in resource allocation under drought stress from xylem to other sinks. Additionally, the tighter stomatal control and higher intrinsic water use efficiency observed in drought

  13. Pattern of xylem phenology in conifers of cold ecosystems at the Northern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Čufar, Katarina; Cuny, Henri E; Deslauriers, Annie; Fonti, Patrick; Frank, David; Gričar, Jožica; Gruber, Andreas; Huang, Jian-Guo; Jyske, Tuula; Kašpar, Jakub; King, Gregory; Krause, Cornelia; Liang, Eryuan; Mäkinen, Harri; Morin, Hubert; Nöjd, Pekka; Oberhuber, Walter; Prislan, Peter; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Saracino, Antonio; Swidrak, Irene; Treml, Václav

    2016-11-01

    The interaction between xylem phenology and climate assesses forest growth and productivity and carbon storage across biomes under changing environmental conditions. We tested the hypothesis that patterns of wood formation are maintained unaltered despite the temperature changes across cold ecosystems. Wood microcores were collected weekly or biweekly throughout the growing season for periods varying between 1 and 13 years during 1998-2014 and cut in transverse sections for assessing the onset and ending of the phases of xylem differentiation. The data set represented 1321 trees belonging to 10 conifer species from 39 sites in the Northern Hemisphere and covering an interval of mean annual temperature exceeding 14 K. The phenological events and mean annual temperature of the sites were related linearly, with spring and autumnal events being separated by constant intervals across the range of temperature analysed. At increasing temperature, first enlarging, wall-thickening and mature tracheids appeared earlier, and last enlarging and wall-thickening tracheids occurred later. Overall, the period of wood formation lengthened linearly with the mean annual temperature, from 83.7 days at -2 °C to 178.1 days at 12 °C, at a rate of 6.5 days °C -1 . April-May temperatures produced the best models predicting the dates of wood formation. Our findings demonstrated the uniformity of the process of wood formation and the importance of the environmental conditions occurring at the time of growth resumption. Under warming scenarios, the period of wood formation might lengthen synchronously in the cold biomes of the Northern Hemisphere. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Investigation on the Assimilation of Nitrogen by Maize Roots and the Transport of Some Major Nitrogen Compounds by Xylem Sap. III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanko, S.; Ingversen, J.

    1971-01-01

    Xylem sap was collected from nitrogen-starved maize plants and investigations were made on the nitrogen transported. It appears from the results that several pools for different amino acids exist, which have different relations to the transport of nitrogen taken up. While in maize roots Glu, Glu...

  15. Effects of Fe and Mn deficiencies on the protein profiles of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) xylem sap as revealed by shotgun analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of Fe and Mn deficiencies on the xylem sap proteome of tomato using a shotgun proteomic approach, with the final goal of elucidating plant response mechanisms to these stresses. This approach yielded 643 proteins reliably identified and quantified with 7...

  16. Bordered pit structure and function determine spatial patterns of air-seeding thresholds in xylem of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii; Pinaceae) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.C. Domec; B. Lachenbruch; F.C. Meinzer

    2006-01-01

    The air-seeding hypothesis predicts that xylem embolism resistance is linked directly to bordered pit functioning. We tested this prediction in trunks, roots, and branches at different vertical and radial locations in young and old trees of Pseudotsuga menziesii. Dimensions of bordered pits were measured from light and scanning electron micrographs...

  17. Tyloses and phenolic deposits in xylem vessels impede water transport in low-lignin transgenic poplars: a study by cryo-fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Kitin; Steven L. Voelker; Frederick C. Meinzer; Hans Beekman; Steven H. Strauss; Barbara. Lachenbruch

    2010-01-01

    Of 14 transgenic poplar genotypes (Populus tremula x Populus alba) with antisense 4-coumarate:coenzynle A ligase that were grown in the field for 2 years, five that had substantial lignin reductions also had greatly reduced xylem-specific conductivity compared with that of control trees and those transgenic events with small...

  18. Specific Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) Test to Highlight Colonization of Xylem Vessels by Xylella fastidiosa in Naturally Infected Olive Trees (Olea europaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Luvisi, Andrea; Meyer, Joana B.; Sabella, Erika; De Bellis, Luigi; Cruz, Albert C.; Ampatzidis, Yiannis; Cherubini, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The colonization behavior of the Xylella fastidiosa strain CoDiRO, the causal agent of olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS), within the xylem of Olea europaea L. is still quite controversial. As previous literature suggests, even if xylem vessel occlusions in naturally infected olive plants were observed, cell aggregation in the formation of occlusions had a minimal role. This observation left some open questions about the whole behavior of the CoDiRO strain and its actual role in OQDS pathogenesis. In order to evaluate the extent of bacterial infection in olive trees and the role of bacterial aggregates in vessel occlusions, we tested a specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe (KO 210) for X. fastidiosa and quantified the level of infection and vessel occlusion in both petioles and branches of naturally infected and non-infected olive trees. All symptomatic petioles showed colonization by X. fastidiosa, especially in the larger innermost vessels. In several cases, the vessels appeared completely occluded by a biofilm containing bacterial cells and extracellular matrix and the frequent colonization of adjacent vessels suggested a horizontal movement of the bacteria. Infected symptomatic trees had 21.6 ± 10.7% of petiole vessels colonized by the pathogen, indicating an irregular distribution in olive tree xylem. Thus, our observations point out the primary role of the pathogen in olive vessel occlusions. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the KO 210 FISH probe is suitable for the specific detection of X. fastidiosa. PMID:29681910

  19. Drought resistance in early and late secondary successional species from a tropical dry forest: the interplay between xylem resistance to embolism, sapwood water storage and leaf shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-García, Fernando; Paz, Horacio; Meinzer, Frederick C

    2013-02-01

    The mechanisms of drought resistance that allow plants to successfully establish at different stages of secondary succession in tropical dry forests are not well understood. We characterized mechanisms of drought resistance in early and late-successional species and tested whether risk of drought differs across sites at different successional stages, and whether early and late-successional species differ in resistance to experimentally imposed soil drought. The microenvironment in early successional sites was warmer and drier than in mature forest. Nevertheless, successional groups did not differ in resistance to soil drought. Late-successional species resisted drought through two independent mechanisms: high resistance of xylem to embolism, or reliance on high stem water storage capacity. High sapwood water reserves delayed the effects of soil drying by transiently decoupling plant and soil water status. Resistance to soil drought resulted from the interplay between variations in xylem vulnerability to embolism, reliance on sapwood water reserves and leaf area reduction, leading to a tradeoff of avoidance against tolerance of soil drought, along which successional groups were not differentiated. Overall, our data suggest that ranking species' performance under soil drought based solely on xylem resistance to embolism may be misleading, especially for species with high sapwood water storage capacity. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Dynamics of leaf gas exchange, xylem and phloem transport, water potential and carbohydrate concentration in a realistic 3-D model tree crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikinmaa, Eero; Sievänen, Risto; Hölttä, Teemu

    2014-09-01

    Tree models simulate productivity using general gas exchange responses and structural relationships, but they rarely check whether leaf gas exchange and resulting water and assimilate transport and driving pressure gradients remain within acceptable physical boundaries. This study presents an implementation of the cohesion-tension theory of xylem transport and the Münch hypothesis of phloem transport in a realistic 3-D tree structure and assesses the gas exchange and transport dynamics. A mechanistic model of xylem and phloem transport was used, together with a tested leaf assimilation and transpiration model in a realistic tree architecture to simulate leaf gas exchange and water and carbohydrate transport within an 8-year-old Scots pine tree. The model solved the dynamics of the amounts of water and sucrose solute in the xylem, cambium and phloem using a fine-grained mesh with a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. The simulations predicted the observed patterns of pressure gradients and sugar concentration. Diurnal variation of environmental conditions influenced tree-level gradients in turgor pressure and sugar concentration, which are important drivers of carbon allocation. The results and between-shoot variation were sensitive to structural and functional parameters such as tree-level scaling of conduit size and phloem unloading. Linking whole-tree-level water and assimilate transport, gas exchange and sink activity opens a new avenue for plant studies, as features that are difficult to measure can be studied dynamically with the model. Tree-level responses to local and external conditions can be tested, thus making the approach described here a good test-bench for studies of whole-tree physiology.

  1. Influence of xylem ray integrity and degree of polymerization on bending strength of beech wood decayed by Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan Bari; Reza Oladi; Olaf Schmidt; Carol A. Clausen; Katie Ohno; Darrel D. Nicholas; Mehrdad Ghodskhah Daryaei; Maryam Karim

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this research was to evaluate the influence of xylem ray (XR) and degree of polymerization (DP) of holocellulose in Oriental beech wood (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) on impact bending strength against two white-rot fungi. Beech wood specimens, exposed to Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor, were evaluated for...

  2. Genomic insights into strategies used by Xanthomonas albilineans with its reduced artillery to spread within sugarcane xylem vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieretti Isabelle

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xanthomonas albilineans causes leaf scald, a lethal disease of sugarcane. X. albilineans exhibits distinctive pathogenic mechanisms, ecology and taxonomy compared to other species of Xanthomonas. For example, this species produces a potent DNA gyrase inhibitor called albicidin that is largely responsible for inducing disease symptoms; its habitat is limited to xylem; and the species exhibits large variability. A first manuscript on the complete genome sequence of the highly pathogenic X. albilineans strain GPE PC73 focused exclusively on distinctive genomic features shared with Xylella fastidiosa—another xylem-limited Xanthomonadaceae. The present manuscript on the same genome sequence aims to describe all other pathogenicity-related genomic features of X. albilineans, and to compare, using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH, genomic features of two strains differing in pathogenicity. Results Comparative genomic analyses showed that most of the known pathogenicity factors from other Xanthomonas species are conserved in X. albilineans, with the notable absence of two major determinants of the “artillery” of other plant pathogenic species of Xanthomonas: the xanthan gum biosynthesis gene cluster, and the type III secretion system Hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity. Genomic features specific to X. albilineans that may contribute to specific adaptation of this pathogen to sugarcane xylem vessels were also revealed. SSH experiments led to the identification of 20 genes common to three highly pathogenic strains but missing in a less pathogenic strain. These 20 genes, which include four ABC transporter genes, a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein gene and an oxidoreductase gene, could play a key role in pathogenicity. With the exception of hypothetical proteins revealed by our comparative genomic analyses and SSH experiments, no genes potentially involved in any offensive or counter-defensive mechanism

  3. How does climate influence xylem morphogenesis over the growing season? Insights from long-term intra-ring anatomy in Picea abies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagneri, Daniele; Fonti, Patrick; von Arx, Georg; Carrer, Marco

    2017-04-01

    During the growing season, the cambium of conifer trees produces successive rows of xylem cells, the tracheids, that sequentially pass through the phases of enlargement and secondary wall thickening before dying and becoming functional. Climate variability can strongly influence the kinetics of morphogenetic processes, eventually affecting tracheid shape and size. This study investigates xylem anatomical structure in the stem of Picea abies to retrospectively infer how, in the long term, climate affects the processes of cell enlargement and wall thickening. Tracheid anatomical traits related to the phases of enlargement (diameter) and wall thickening (wall thickness) were innovatively inspected at the intra-ring level on 87-year-long tree-ring series in Picea abies trees along a 900 m elevation gradient in the Italian Alps. Anatomical traits in ten successive tree-ring sectors were related to daily temperature and precipitation data using running correlations. Close to the altitudinal tree limit, low early-summer temperature negatively affected cell enlargement. At lower elevation, water availability in early summer was positively related to cell diameter. The timing of these relationships shifted forward by about 20 (high elevation) to 40 (low elevation) d from the first to the last tracheids in the ring. Cell wall thickening was affected by climate in a different period in the season. In particular, wall thickness of late-formed tracheids was strongly positively related to August-September temperature at high elevation. Morphogenesis of tracheids sequentially formed in the growing season is influenced by climate conditions in successive periods. The distinct climate impacts on cell enlargement and wall thickening indicate that different morphogenetic mechanisms are responsible for different tracheid traits. Our approach of long-term and high-resolution analysis of xylem anatomy can support and extend short-term xylogenesis observations, and increase our

  4. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from six developing xylem libraries in Pinus radiata D. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillon Shannon K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wood is a major renewable natural resource for the timber, fibre and bioenergy industry. Pinus radiata D. Don is the most important commercial plantation tree species in Australia and several other countries; however, genomic resources for this species are very limited in public databases. Our primary objective was to sequence a large number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from genes involved in wood formation in radiata pine. Results Six developing xylem cDNA libraries were constructed from earlywood and latewood tissues sampled at juvenile (7 yrs, transition (11 yrs and mature (30 yrs ages, respectively. These xylem tissues represent six typical development stages in a rotation period of radiata pine. A total of 6,389 high quality ESTs were collected from 5,952 cDNA clones. Assembly of 5,952 ESTs from 5' end sequences generated 3,304 unigenes including 952 contigs and 2,352 singletons. About 97.0% of the 5,952 ESTs and 96.1% of the unigenes have matches in the UniProt and TIGR databases. Of the 3,174 unigenes with matches, 42.9% were not assigned GO (Gene Ontology terms and their functions are unknown or unclassified. More than half (52.1% of the 5,952 ESTs have matches in the Pfam database and represent 772 known protein families. About 18.0% of the 5,952 ESTs matched cell wall related genes in the MAIZEWALL database, representing all 18 categories, 91 of all 174 families and possibly 557 genes. Fifteen cell wall-related genes are ranked in the 30 most abundant genes, including CesA, tubulin, AGP, SAMS, actin, laccase, CCoAMT, MetE, phytocyanin, pectate lyase, cellulase, SuSy, expansin, chitinase and UDP-glucose dehydrogenase. Based on the PlantTFDB database 41 of the 64 transcription factor families in the poplar genome were identified as being involved in radiata pine wood formation. Comparative analysis of GO term abundance revealed a distinct transcriptome in juvenile earlywood formation compared to other stages of

  5. First insights into the functional role of vasicentric tracheids and parenchyma in eucalyptus species with solitary vessels: do they contribute to xylem efficiency or safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barotto, Antonio José; Fernandez, María Elena; Gyenge, Javier; Meyra, Ariel; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Monteoliva, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between hydraulic specific conductivity (k s ) and vulnerability to cavitation (VC) with size and number of vessels has been studied in many angiosperms. However, few of the studies link other cell types (vasicentric tracheids (VT), fibre-tracheids, parenchyma) with these hydraulic functions. Eucalyptus is one of the most important genera in forestry worldwide. It exhibits a complex wood anatomy, with solitary vessels surrounded by VT and parenchyma, which could serve as a good model to investigate the functional role of the different cell types in xylem functioning. Wood anatomy (several traits of vessels, VT, fibres and parenchyma) in conjunction with maximum k s and VC was studied in adult trees of commercial species with medium-to-high wood density (Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.). Traits of cells accompanying vessels presented correlations with functional variables suggesting that they contribute to both increasing connectivity between adjacent vessels-and, therefore, to xylem conduction efficiency-and decreasing the probability of embolism propagation into the tissue, i.e., xylem safety. All three species presented moderate-to-high resistance to cavitation (mean P 50 values = -2.4 to -4.2 MPa) with no general trade-off between efficiency and safety at the interspecific level. The results in these species do not support some well-established hypotheses of the functional meaning of wood anatomy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Chemical and anatomical changes in Liquidambar styraciflua L. xylem after long term exposure to elevated CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keonhee; Labbé, Nicole; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Elder, Thomas; Rials, Timothy G.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical and chemical characteristics of sweetgum were studied after 11 years of elevated CO 2 (544 ppm, ambient at 391 ppm) exposure. Anatomically, branch xylem cells were larger for elevated CO 2 trees, and the cell wall thickness was thinner. Chemically, elevated CO 2 exposure did not impact the structural components of the stem wood, but non-structural components were significantly affected. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to detect differences between the CO 2 treatments by considering numerous structural and chemical variables, as well as tree size, and data from previously published sources (i.e., root biomass, production and turnover). The PCA results indicated a clear separation between trees exposed to ambient and elevated CO 2 conditions. Correlation loadings plots of the PCA revealed that stem structural components, ash, Ca, Mg, total phenolics, root biomass, production and turnover were the major responses that contribute to the separation between the elevated and ambient CO 2 treated trees. - Highlights: • First study of wood properties after 11 years of higher level of CO 2 treatment. • Elevated CO 2 exposure does not impact structural components of wood. • Total phenolics content and some inorganics were significantly affected. • Branch xylem cells were larger under elevated CO 2 . • Cell wall thickness was thinner under elevated CO 2 . - Elevated CO 2 in atmosphere did not impact the structural components yet altered some of non-structural components and anatomical properties after 11 years of exposure on sweetgum

  7. The poplar basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor BEE3 – Like gene affects biomass production by enhancing proliferation of xylem cells in poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Seol Ah, E-mail: s6022029@korea.ac.kr; Choi, Young-Im, E-mail: yichoi99@forest.go.kr; Cho, Jin-Seong, E-mail: jinsung3932@gmail.com; Lee, Hyoshin, E-mail: hslee@forest.go.kr

    2015-06-19

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles in many aspects of plant growth and development, including regulation of vascular cambium activities and cell elongation. BR-induced BEE3 (brassinosteroid enhanced expression 3) is required for a proper BR response. Here, we identified a poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa) BEE3-like gene, PagBEE3L, encoding a putative basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcription factor. Expression of PagBEE3L was induced by brassinolide (BL). Transcripts of PagBEE3L were mainly detected in stems, with the internode having a low level of transcription and the node having a relatively higher level. The function of the PagBEE3L gene was investigated through phenotypic analyses with PagBEE3L-overexpressing (ox) transgenic lines. This work particularly focused on a potential role of PagBEE3L in stem growth and development of polar. The PagBEE3L-ox poplar showed thicker and longer stems than wild-type plants. The xylem cells from the stems of PagBEE3L-ox plants revealed remarkably enhanced proliferation, resulting in an earlier thickening growth than wild-type plants. Therefore, this work suggests that xylem development of poplar is accelerated in PagBEE3L-ox plants and PagBEE3L plays a role in stem growth by increasing the proliferation of xylem cells to promote the initial thickening growth of poplar stems. - Highlights: • We identify the BEE3-like gene form hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). • We examine effects of overexpression of PagBEE3L on growth in poplar. • We found that 35S:BEE3L transgenic plants showed more rapid growth than wild-type plants. • BEE3L protein plays an important role in the development of plant stem.

  8. The poplar basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor BEE3 – Like gene affects biomass production by enhancing proliferation of xylem cells in poplar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Seol Ah; Choi, Young-Im; Cho, Jin-Seong; Lee, Hyoshin

    2015-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles in many aspects of plant growth and development, including regulation of vascular cambium activities and cell elongation. BR-induced BEE3 (brassinosteroid enhanced expression 3) is required for a proper BR response. Here, we identified a poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa) BEE3-like gene, PagBEE3L, encoding a putative basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcription factor. Expression of PagBEE3L was induced by brassinolide (BL). Transcripts of PagBEE3L were mainly detected in stems, with the internode having a low level of transcription and the node having a relatively higher level. The function of the PagBEE3L gene was investigated through phenotypic analyses with PagBEE3L-overexpressing (ox) transgenic lines. This work particularly focused on a potential role of PagBEE3L in stem growth and development of polar. The PagBEE3L-ox poplar showed thicker and longer stems than wild-type plants. The xylem cells from the stems of PagBEE3L-ox plants revealed remarkably enhanced proliferation, resulting in an earlier thickening growth than wild-type plants. Therefore, this work suggests that xylem development of poplar is accelerated in PagBEE3L-ox plants and PagBEE3L plays a role in stem growth by increasing the proliferation of xylem cells to promote the initial thickening growth of poplar stems. - Highlights: • We identify the BEE3-like gene form hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). • We examine effects of overexpression of PagBEE3L on growth in poplar. • We found that 35S:BEE3L transgenic plants showed more rapid growth than wild-type plants. • BEE3L protein plays an important role in the development of plant stem

  9. Scapoidus titanus performs a dual-meaning, sharpshooter-style EPG X wave in xylem and phloem: Could S. titanus be a potential vector of Xylella fastidiosa in European vineyards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In phytophagous hemipterans, salivary sheath-feeding species are described as xylem or phloem sap-ingesting specialists. Because these two food sources have different characteristics, two different feeding tactics are associated with this supposed specialization. Study of feeding behavior is crucial...

  10. Effect of auxin on xylem tracheids differentiation in decapitated stems of Pinus silvestris L. and its interaction with some vitamins and growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Wodzicki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of several vitamins and substances known as important agents in regulation of cell metabolism upon secondary xylem differentiation were studied in interaction with auxin (IAA as applied in lanoline to decapitated stems of 5-year-old Pinus silvestris trees in early and late-summer. Tested substances were: gibberellic acid, kinetin, nicotinic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine, calcium panthotenate, choline chloride, riboflavin, inositol, ascorbic acid, vitamin, A (alcohol, vitamin A (ester, saponin. None of the effects of these substances appeared significant enough to indicate the involvement in the seasonal variation of the response of cambium or differentiating tracheids to auxin. However, several effects, especially those of inositol, vitamin A and pyridoxine upon cambial xylem production and further stages of tracheid differentiation were observed. Auxin (IAA affected cambial activity and subsequent differentiation of tracheids during the earliest stages of cell ontogenesis. At these stages auxin treatment induced quantitative expression of the developmental processes involving radial growth and secondary wall formation by tracheids. In this respect, auxin did not affect cells advanced in differentiation, however, it proved to be an essential factor in the completion of the full cycle of tracheid ontogenesis.

  11. Divergence in strategies for coping with winter embolism among co-occurring temperate tree species: the role of positive xylem pressure, wood type and tree stature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cun-Yang Niu; Frederick C. Meinzer; Guang-You. Hao

    2017-01-01

    1. In temperate ecosystems, freeze-thaw events are an important environmental stress that can induce severe xylem embolism (i.e. clogging of conduits by air bubbles) in overwintering organs of trees. However, no comparative studies of different adaptive strategies among sympatric tree species for coping with winter embolism have examined the potential role of the...

  12. Impacts of long-term precipitation manipulation on hydraulic architecture and xylem anatomy of piñon and juniper in Southwest USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, P J; Limousin, J M; Krofcheck, D J; Boutz, A L; Pangle, R E; Gehres, N; McDowell, N G; Pockman, W T

    2018-02-01

    Hydraulic architecture imposes a fundamental control on water transport, underpinning plant productivity, and survival. The extent to which hydraulic architecture of mature trees acclimates to chronic drought is poorly understood, limiting accuracy in predictions of forest responses to future droughts. We measured seasonal shoot hydraulic performance for multiple years to assess xylem acclimation in mature piñon (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) after 3+ years of precipitation manipulation. Our treatments consisted of water addition (+20% ambient precipitation), partial precipitation-exclusion (-45% ambient precipitation), and exclusion-structure control. Supplemental watering elevated leaf water potential, sapwood-area specific hydraulic conductivity, and leaf-area specific hydraulic conductivity relative to precipitation exclusion. Shifts in allocation of leaf area to sapwood area enhanced differences between irrigated and droughted K L in piñon but not juniper. Piñon and juniper achieved similar K L under ambient conditions, but juniper matched or outperformed piñon in all physiological measurements under both increased and decreased precipitation treatments. Embolism vulnerability and xylem anatomy were unaffected by treatments in either species. Absence of significant acclimation combined with inferior performance for both hydraulic transport and safety suggests piñon has greater risk of local extirpation if aridity increases as predicted in the southwestern USA. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Intra-Annual Xylem Growth of Larix principis-rupprechtii at Its Upper and Lower Distribution Limits on the Luyashan Mountain in North-Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Altitude-related climatic factors, especially temperature, are important factors that affect tree growth in mountain forest ecosystems. The aims of this study were to estimate the intra-annual radial growth differences of Larix principis-rupprechtii (L. principis-rupprechtii between its upper and lower distribution limits, at 2740 and 2040 m a.s.l, respectively. Dynamics of xylem growth were observed by collecting microcore samples weekly during the 2011 growth season. The result indicated that different strategies were adopted at the two selected sites. Trees at the upper distribution limit adopted an “intensive strategy” with higher maximum growth rates (0.69 cell·day−1 within a shorter duration of 95 days, producing 21 new tracheids. By contrast, trees at the lower distribution limit exhibited an “extensive strategy” with lower maximum growth rates (0.53 cell·day−1 over a longer duration of 135 days, producing 50 tracheids. The soil temperature was probably the main factor limiting the onset of cambial activity for L. principis-rupprechtii, its daily mean thresholds for onset were 0 °C and 1.4 °C at the upper and lower distribution limits, respectively. These results indicate that L. principis-rupprechtii is able to adjust its xylem growth according to environmental conditions.

  14. Investigating water transport through the xylem network in vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Koo; Park, Joonghyuk; Hwang, Ildoo

    2014-04-01

    Our understanding of physical and physiological mechanisms depends on the development of advanced technologies and tools to prove or re-evaluate established theories, and test new hypotheses. Water flow in land plants is a fascinating phenomenon, a vital component of the water cycle, and essential for life on Earth. The cohesion-tension theory (CTT), formulated more than a century ago and based on the physical properties of water, laid the foundation for our understanding of water transport in vascular plants. Numerous experimental tools have since been developed to evaluate various aspects of the CTT, such as the existence of negative hydrostatic pressure. This review focuses on the evolution of the experimental methods used to study water transport in plants, and summarizes the different ways to investigate the diversity of the xylem network structure and sap flow dynamics in various species. As water transport is documented at different scales, from the level of single conduits to entire plants, it is critical that new results be subjected to systematic cross-validation and that findings based on different organs be integrated at the whole-plant level. We also discuss the functional trade-offs between optimizing hydraulic efficiency and maintaining the safety of the entire transport system. Furthermore, we evaluate future directions in sap flow research and highlight the importance of integrating the combined effects of various levels of hydraulic regulation.

  15. Quantifying the impact of daily and seasonal variation in sap pH on xylem dissolved inorganic carbon estimates in plum trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erda, F G; Bloemen, J; Steppe, K

    2014-01-01

    In studies on internal CO2 transport, average xylem sap pH (pH(x)) is one of the factors used for calculation of the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon in the xylem sap ([CO2 *]). Lack of detailed pH(x) measurements at high temporal resolution could be a potential source of error when evaluating [CO2*] dynamics. In this experiment, we performed continuous measurements of CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and stem temperature (T(stem)), complemented with pH(x) measurements at 30-min intervals during the day at various stages of the growing season (Day of the Year (DOY): 86 (late winter), 128 (mid-spring) and 155 (early summer)) on a plum tree (Prunus domestica L. cv. Reine Claude d'Oullins). We used the recorded pH(x) to calculate [CO2*] based on T(stem) and the corresponding measured [CO2]. No statistically significant difference was found between mean [CO2*] calculated with instantaneous pH(x) and daily average pH(x). However, using an average pH(x) value from a different part of the growing season than the measurements of [CO2] and T(stem) to estimate [CO2*] led to a statistically significant error. The error varied between 3.25 ± 0.01% under-estimation and 3.97 ± 0.01% over-estimation, relative to the true [CO2*] data. Measured pH(x) did not show a significant daily variation, unlike [CO2], which increased during the day and declined at night. As the growing season progressed, daily average [CO2] (3.4%, 5.3%, 7.4%) increased and average pH(x) (5.43, 5.29, 5.20) decreased. Increase in [CO2] will increase its solubility in xylem sap according to Henry's law, and the dissociation of [CO2*] will negatively affect pH(x). Our results are the first quantifying the error in [CO2*] due to the interaction between [CO2] and pH(x) on a seasonal time scale. We found significant changes in pH(x) across the growing season, but overall the effect on the calculation of [CO2*] remained within an error range of 4%. However, it is possible that the error could be more

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SECONDARY WALL OF THE XYLEM IN ACER PSEUDOPLATANUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, F. B. P.; Northcote, D. H.

    1964-01-01

    The development of the spirally thickened xylem element from a cambium initial of sycamore Acer pseudoplatanus has been traced by means of electron microscopy. The narrow elongated cambial initial undergoes considerable expansion in all dimensions. The cytoplasm at this stage is distributed in a thin skin between the cell wall and a large vacuole. No correlation has been observed between the distribution of any organelle and the pattern of the eventual thickenings. After the sites of thickening deposition have become apparent, the most conspicuous feature of the cell is the proliferation of Golgi bodies and vesicles. It is suggested that the material of the developing thickenings stems from direct apposition of the material in the Golgi vesicles. After glutaraldehyde fixation, microtubules (200 to 220 A in diameter) are seen to be sited in specific relation to the thickenings, the orientation of the tubules mirroring that of the fibrils seen in the thickenings. Possible reasons for absence of an observable pattern in the expanded but relatively undifferentiated cell are given, and the possible roles of the Golgi apparatus and microtubules in the thickening production are discussed PMID:14222817

  17. Spatial variation of vessel grouping in the xylem of Betula platyphylla Roth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Vessel grouping in angiosperms may improve hydraulic integration and increase the spread of cavitations through redundancy pathways. Although disputed, it is increasingly attracting research interest as a potentially significant hydraulic trait. However, the variation of vessel grouping in a tree is poorly understood. I measured the number of solitary and grouped vessels in the xylem of Betula platyphylla Roth. from the pith to the bark along the water flow path. The vessel grouping parameters included the mean number of vessels per vessel group (VG), percentage of solitary vessels (SVP), percentage of radial multiple vessels (MVP), and percentage of cluster vessels (CVP). The effects of cambial age (CA) and flow path-length (PL) on the vessel grouping were analyzed using a linear mixed model.VG and CVP increased nonlinearly, SVP decreased nonlinearly with PL. In trunks and branches, VG and CVP decreased nonlinearly, and SVP increased nonlinearly with CA. In roots, the parameters had no change with CA. MVP was almost constant with PL or CA. The results suggest that vessel grouping has a nonrandom variation pattern, which is affected deeply by cambial age and water flow path.

  18. Changes in wood density, wood anatomy and hydraulic properties of the xylem along the root-to-shoot flow path in tropical rainforest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Bernhard; Leuschner, Christoph; Brock, Nicolai; Horna, Viviana

    2013-02-01

    It is generally assumed that the largest vessels are occurring in the roots and that vessel diameters and the related hydraulic conductance in the xylem are decreasing acropetally from roots to leaves. With this study in five tree species of a perhumid tropical rainforest in Sulawesi (Indonesia), we searched for patterns in hydraulic architecture and axial conductivity along the flow path from small-diameter roots through strong roots and the trunk to distal sun-canopy twigs. Wood density differed by not more than 10% across the different flow path positions in a species, and branch and stem wood density were closely related in three of the five species. Other than wood density, the wood anatomical and xylem hydraulic traits varied in dependence on the position along the flow path, but were unrelated to wood density within a tree. In contrast to reports from conifers and certain dicotyledonous species, we found a hump-shaped variation in vessel diameter and sapwood area--specific conductivity along the flow path in all five species with a maximum in the trunk and strong roots and minima in both small roots and twigs; the vessel size depended on the diameter of the organ. This pattern might be an adaptation to the perhumid climate with a low risk of hydraulic failure. Despite a similar mean vessel diameter in small roots and twigs, the two distal organs, hydraulically weighted mean vessel diameters were on average 30% larger in small roots, resulting in ∼ 85% higher empirical and theoretical specific conductivities. Relative vessel lumen area in percent of sapwood area decreased linearly by 70% from roots to twigs, reflecting the increase in sclerenchymatic tissue and tracheids in acropetal direction in the xylem. Vessel size was more closely related to the organ diameter than to the distance along the root-to-shoot flow path. We conclude that (i) the five co-occurring tree species show convergent patterns in their hydraulic architecture despite different growth

  19. A 6-year-long manipulation with soil warming and canopy nitrogen additions does not affect xylem phenology and cell production of mature black spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjelia Cangre Ebou eDAO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The predicted climate warming and increased atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition are expected to have dramatic impacts on plant growth. However, the extent of these effects and their interactions remains unclear for boreal forest trees. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of increased soil temperature and nitrogen (N depositions on stem intra-annual growth of two mature stands of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill. BSP] in Quebec, Canada. During 2008-2013, the soil around mature trees was warmed up by 4 °C with heating cables during the growing season and precipitations containing three times the current inorganic N concentration were added by frequent canopy applications. Xylem phenology and cell production were monitored weekly from April to October. The 6-year-long experiment performed in two sites at different altitude showed no substantial effect of warming and N-depositions on xylem phenological phases of cell enlargement, wall thickening and lignification. Cell production, in terms of number of tracheids along the radius, also did not differ significantly and followed the same patterns in control and treated trees. These findings allowed the hypothesis of a medium-term effect of soil warming and N depositions on the growth of mature black spruce to be rejected.

  20. Two phloem nitrate transporters, NRT1.11 and NRT1.12, are important for redistributing xylem-borne nitrate to enhance plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Po-Kai; Tsay, Yi-Fang

    2013-10-01

    This study of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) nitrate transporters NRT1.11 and NRT1.12 reveals how the interplay between xylem and phloem transport of nitrate ensures optimal nitrate distribution in leaves for plant growth. Functional analysis in Xenopus laevis oocytes showed that both NRT1.11 and NRT1.12 are low-affinity nitrate transporters. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analysis showed higher expression of these two genes in larger expanded leaves. Green fluorescent protein and β-glucuronidase reporter analyses indicated that NRT1.11 and NRT1.12 are plasma membrane transporters expressed in the companion cells of the major vein. In nrt1.11 nrt1.12 double mutants, more root-fed (15)NO3(-) was translocated to mature and larger expanded leaves but less to the youngest tissues, suggesting that NRT1.11 and NRT1.12 are required for transferring root-derived nitrate into phloem in the major veins of mature and larger expanded leaves for redistributing to the youngest tissues. Distinct from the wild type, nrt1.11 nrt1.12 double mutants show no increase of plant growth at high nitrate supply. These data suggested that NRT1.11 and NRT1.12 are involved in xylem-to-phloem transfer for redistributing nitrate into developing leaves, and such nitrate redistribution is a critical step for optimal plant growth enhanced by increasing external nitrate.

  1. Metabolite profiling reveals a role for atypical cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase CAD1 in the synthesis of coniferyl alcohol in tobacco xylem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Isabelle; Morreel, Kris; Danoun, Saïda; Goeminne, Geert; Yahiaoui, Nabila; Marque, Christiane; Kopka, Joachim; Messens, Eric; Goffner, Deborah; Boerjan, Wout; Boudet, Alain-Michel; Rochange, Soizic

    2005-11-01

    In angiosperms, lignin is built from two main monomers, coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol, which are incorporated respectively as G and S units in the polymer. The last step of their synthesis has so far been considered to be performed by a family of dimeric cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CAD2). However, previous studies on Eucalyptus gunnii xylem showed the presence of an additional, structurally unrelated, monomeric CAD form named CAD1. This form reduces coniferaldehyde to coniferyl alcohol, but is inactive on sinapaldehyde. In this paper, we report the functional characterization of CAD1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Transgenic tobacco plants with reduced CAD1 expression were obtained through an RNAi strategy. These plants displayed normal growth and development, and detailed biochemical studies were needed to reveal a role for CAD1. Lignin analyses showed that CAD1 down-regulation does not affect Klason lignin content, and has a moderate impact on G unit content of the non-condensed lignin fraction. However, comparative metabolic profiling of the methanol-soluble phenolic fraction from basal xylem revealed significant differences between CAD1 down-regulated and wild-type plants. Eight compounds were less abundant in CAD1 down-regulated lines, five of which were identified as dimers or trimers of monolignols, each containing at least one moiety derived from coniferyl alcohol. In addition, 3-trans-caffeoyl quinic acid accumulated in the transgenic plants. Together, our results support a significant contribution of CAD1 to the synthesis of coniferyl alcohol in planta, along with the previously characterized CAD2 enzymes.

  2. Comparison of ecosystem water flux measured with the Eddy covariance- and the direct xylem sap flux method in a mountainous forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanicki, G; Geissbuehler, P; Siegwolf, R [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The Eddy covariance technique allows to measure different components of turbulent air fluxes, including the flow of water vapour. Sap flux measurements determine directly the water flow in tree stems. We compared the water flux just above the crowns of trees in a forest by the technique of Eddy covariance and the water flux by the xylem sap flux method. These two completely different approaches showed a good qualitative correspondence. The correlation coefficient is 0.8. With an estimation of the crown diameter of the measured tree we also find a very good quantitative agreement. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  3. Arabidopsis VASCULAR-RELATED UNKNOWN PROTEIN1 Regulates Xylem Development and Growth by a Conserved Mechanism That Modulates Hormone Signaling1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grienenberger, Etienne; Douglas, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a strict conservation of the vascular tissues in vascular plants (tracheophytes), our understanding of the genetic basis underlying the differentiation of secondary cell wall-containing cells in the xylem of tracheophytes is still far from complete. Using coexpression analysis and phylogenetic conservation across sequenced tracheophyte genomes, we identified a number of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes of unknown function whose expression is correlated with secondary cell wall deposition. Among these, the Arabidopsis VASCULAR-RELATED UNKNOWN PROTEIN1 (VUP1) gene encodes a predicted protein of 24 kD with no annotated functional domains but containing domains that are highly conserved in tracheophytes. Here, we show that the VUP1 expression pattern, determined by promoter-β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression, is associated with vascular tissues, while vup1 loss-of-function mutants exhibit collapsed morphology of xylem vessel cells. Constitutive overexpression of VUP1 caused dramatic and pleiotropic developmental defects, including severe dwarfism, dark green leaves, reduced apical dominance, and altered photomorphogenesis, resembling brassinosteroid-deficient mutants. Constitutive overexpression of VUP homologs from multiple tracheophyte species induced similar defects. Whole-genome transcriptome analysis revealed that overexpression of VUP1 represses the expression of many brassinosteroid- and auxin-responsive genes. Additionally, deletion constructs and site-directed mutagenesis were used to identify critical domains and amino acids required for VUP1 function. Altogether, our data suggest a conserved role for VUP1 in regulating secondary wall formation during vascular development by tissue- or cell-specific modulation of hormone signaling pathways. PMID:24567189

  4. Seasonal and diel variation in xylem CO2 concentration and sap pH in sub-Mediterranean oak stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomón, Roberto; Valbuena-Carabaña, María; Teskey, Robert; McGuire, Mary Anne; Aubrey, Doug; González-Doncel, Inés; Gil, Luis; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Jesús

    2016-04-01

    Since a substantial portion of respired CO2 remains within the stem, diel and seasonal trends in stem CO2 concentration ([CO2]) are of major interest in plant respiration and carbon budget research. However, continuous long-term stem [CO2] studies are scarce, and generally absent in Mediterranean climates. In this study, stem [CO2] was monitored every 15min together with stem and air temperature, sap flow, and soil water storage during a growing season in 16 stems of Quercus pyrenaica to elucidate the main drivers of stem [CO2] at different temporal scales. Fluctuations in sap pH were also assessed during two growing seasons to evaluate potential errors in estimates of the concentration of CO2 dissolved in xylem sap ([CO2*]) calculated using Henry's law. Stem temperature was the best predictor of stem [CO2] and explained more than 90% and 50% of the variability in stem [CO2] at diel and seasonal scales, respectively. Under dry conditions, soil water storage was the main driver of stem [CO2]. Likewise, the first rains after summer drought caused intense stem [CO2] pulses, suggesting enhanced stem and root respiration and increased resistance to radial CO2 diffusion. Sap flow played a secondary role in controlling stem [CO2] variations. We observed night-time sap pH acidification and progressive seasonal alkalinization. Thus, if the annual mean value of sap pH (measured at midday) was assumed to be constant, night-time sap [CO2*] was substantially overestimated (40%), and spring and autumn sap [CO2*] were misestimated by 25%. This work highlights that diel and seasonal variations in temperature, tree water availability, and sap pH substantially affect xylem [CO2] and sap [CO2*]. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. An improved method and data analysis for ultrasound acoustic emissions and xylem vulnerability in conifer wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkerstorfer, Silviya V; Rosner, Sabine; Hietz, Peter

    2012-10-01

    The vulnerability of the xylem to cavitation is an important trait in plant drought resistance and has been quantified by several methods. We present a modified method for the simultaneous measurement of cavitations, recorded as ultrasound acoustic emissions (UAEs), and the water potential, measured with a thermocouple psychrometer, in small samples of conifer wood. Analyzing the amplitude of the individual signals showed that a first phase, during which the mean amplitude increased, was followed by a second phase with distinctly lower signal amplitudes. We provide a method to separate the two groups of signals and show that for many samples plausible vulnerability curves require rejecting late low-energy UAEs. These very likely do not result from cavitations. This method was used to analyze the differences between juvenile wood, and early and late mature wood in Picea abies (L.) Karst. Juvenile earlywood was more resistant to cavitation than mature earlywood or latewood, which we relate to the tracheid anatomy of the samples. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  6. Xylem traits, leaf longevity and growth phenology predict growth and mortality response to defoliation in northern temperate forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jane R

    2017-09-01

    Defoliation outbreaks are biological disturbances that alter tree growth and mortality in temperate forests. Trees respond to defoliation in many ways; some recover rapidly, while others decline gradually or die. Functional traits such as xylem anatomy, growth phenology or non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) storage could explain these responses, but idiosyncratic measures used by defoliation studies have frustrated efforts to generalize among species. Here, I test for functional differences with published growth and mortality data from 37 studies, including 24 tree species and 11 defoliators from North America and Eurasia. I synthesized data into standardized variables suitable for numerical models and used linear mixed-effects models to test the hypotheses that responses to defoliation vary among species and functional groups. Standardized data show that defoliation responses vary in shape and degree. Growth decreased linearly or curvilinearly, least in ring-porous Quercus and deciduous conifers (by 10-40% per 100% defoliation), whereas growth of diffuse-porous hardwoods and evergreen conifers declined by 40-100%. Mortality increased exponentially with defoliation, most rapidly for evergreen conifers, then diffuse-porous, then ring-porous species and deciduous conifers (Larix). Goodness-of-fit for functional-group models was strong (R2c = 0.61-0.88), if lower than species-specific mixed-models (R2c = 0.77-0.93), providing useful alternatives when species data are lacking. These responses are consistent with functional differences in leaf longevity, wood growth phenology and NSC storage. When defoliator activity lags behind wood-growth, either because xylem-growth precedes budburst (Quercus) or defoliator activity peaks later (sawflies on Larix), impacts on annual wood-growth will always be lower. Wood-growth phenology of diffuse-porous species and evergreen conifers coincides with defoliation and responds more drastically, and lower axial NSC storage makes them

  7. Structures of Bordered Pits Potentially Contributing to Isolation of a Refilled Vessel from Negative Xylem Pressure in Stems of Morus australis Poir.: Testing of the Pit Membrane Osmosis and Pit Valve Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooeda, Hiroki; Terashima, Ichiro; Taneda, Haruhiko

    2017-02-01

    Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanism preventing the refilling vessel water from being drained to the neighboring functional vessels under negative pressure. The pit membrane osmosis hypothesis proposes that the xylem parenchyma cells release polysaccharides that are impermeable to the intervessel pit membranes into the refilling vessel; this osmotically counteracts the negative pressure, thereby allowing the vessel to refill. The pit valve hypothesis proposes that gas trapped within intervessel bordered pits isolates the refilling vessel water from the surrounding functional vessels. Here, using the single-vessel method, we assessed these hypotheses in shoots of mulberry (Morus australis Poir.). First, we confirmed the occurrence of xylem refilling under negative pressure in the potted mulberry saplings. To examine the pit membrane osmosis hypothesis, we estimated the semi-permeability of pit membranes for molecules of various sizes and found that the pit membranes were not semi-permeable to polyethylene glycol of molecular mass osmosis mechanism in mulberry would be unrealistically large. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Distribution of pines in the Iberian Peninsula agrees with species differences in foliage frost tolerance, not with vulnerability to freezing-induced xylem embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, Laura; Villar-Salvador, Pedro; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Toca, Andrei; Zavala, Miguel A

    2018-04-01

    Drought and frosts are major determinants of plant functioning and distribution. Both stresses can cause xylem embolism and foliage damage. The objective of this study was to analyse if the distribution of six common pine species along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Europe is related to their interspecific differences in frost tolerance and to the physiological mechanisms underlying species-specific frost tolerance. We also evaluate if frost tolerance depends on plant water status. We studied survival to a range of freezing temperatures in 2-year-old plants and assessed the percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) due xylem embolism formation and foliage damage determined by needle electrolyte leakage (EL) after a single frost cycle to -15 °C and over a range of predawn water potential (ψpd) values. Species experiencing cold winters in their range (Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus uncinata Raymond ex A. DC.) had the highest frost survival rates and lowest needle EL and soluble sugar (SS) concentration. In contrast, the pines inhabiting mild or cool winter locations (especially Pinus halepensis Mill. and Pinus pinea L. and, to a lesser extent, Pinus pinaster Ait.) had the lowest frost survival and highest needle EL and SS values. Freezing-induced PLC was very low and differences among species were not related to frost damage. Reduction in ψpd decreased leaf frost damage in P. pinea and P. sylvestris, increased it in P. uncinata and had a neutral effect on the rest of the species. This study demonstrates that freezing temperatures are a major environmental driver for pine distribution and suggests that interspecific differences in leaf frost sensitivity rather than vulnerability to freezing-induced embolism or SS explain pine juvenile frost survival.

  9. Ion-mediated enhancement of xylem hydraulic conductivity in four Acer species: relationships with ecological and anatomical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Andrea; Dimasi, Federica; Klepsch, Matthias; Jansen, Steven

    2012-12-01

    The 'ionic effect', i.e., changes in xylem hydraulic conductivity (k(xyl)) due to variation of the ionic sap composition in vessels, was studied in four Acer species growing in contrasting environments differing in water availability. Hydraulic measurements of the ionic effect were performed together with measurements on the sap electrical conductivity, leaf water potential and vessel anatomy. The low ionic effect recorded in Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer campestre L. (15.8 and 14.7%, respectively), which represented two species from shady and humid habitats, was associated with a low vessel grouping index, high sap electrical conductivity and least negative leaf water potential. Opposite traits were found for Acer monspessulanum L. and Acer platanoides L., which showed an ionic effect of 23.6 and 23.1%, respectively, and represent species adapted to higher irradiance and/or lower water availability. These findings from closely related species provide additional support that the ionic effect could function as a compensation mechanism for embolism-induced loss of k(xyl), either as a result of high evaporative demand or increased risk of hydraulic failure.

  10. Sequence/structural analysis of xylem proteome emphasizes pathogenesis-related proteins, chitinases and β-1, 3-glucanases as key players in grapevine defense against Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of various plant diseases including Pierce’s disease in the US, and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis in Brazil, remains a continual source of concern and economic losses, especially since almost all commercial varieties are sensitive to this Gammaproteobacteria. Differential expression of proteins in infected tissue is an established methodology to identify key elements involved in plant defense pathways. Methods. In the current work, we developed a methodology named CHURNER that emphasizes relevant protein functions from proteomic data, based on identification of proteins with similar structures that do not necessarily have sequence homology. Such clustering emphasizes protein functions which have multiple copies that are up/down-regulated, and highlights similar proteins which are differentially regulated. As a working example we present proteomic data enumerating differentially expressed proteins in xylem sap from grapevines that were infected with X. fastidiosa. Results. Analysis of this data by CHURNER highlighted pathogenesis related PR-1 proteins, reinforcing this as the foremost protein function in xylem sap involved in the grapevine defense response to X. fastidiosa. β-1, 3-glucanase, which has both anti-microbial and anti-fungal activities, is also up-regulated. Simultaneously, chitinases are found to be both up and down-regulated by CHURNER, and thus the net gain of this protein function loses its significance in the defense response. Discussion. We demonstrate how structural data can be incorporated in the pipeline of proteomic data analysis prior to making inferences on the importance of individual proteins to plant defense mechanisms. We expect CHURNER to be applicable to any proteomic data set.

  11. Application of point-process statistical tools to stable isotopes in xylem water for the study of inter- and intra-specific interactions in water uptake patterns in a mixed stand of Pinus halepensis Mill. and Quercus ilex L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Carles; del Castillo, Jorge; Voltas, Jordi; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2013-04-01

    The stable isotope composition of xylem water reflects has been used to assess inter-specific differences in uptake patterns, revealing synergistic and competition processes in the use of water resources (see e.g. Dawson et al. 1993). However, there is a lack of detailed studies on spatial and temporal variability of inter- and intra-specific competition within forest stands. In this context, the aim of this work was to compare the isotope composition of xylem water (δ18O , δ2H) in two common Mediterranean tree species, Quercus ilex L. and Pinus halepensis Mill, in order to understand their water uptake patterns throughout the growing season. In addition, we analyze the spatial variability of xylem water, to get insight into inter-specific strategies employed to cope with drought and the interaction between the individuals. Our first hypothesis was that both species used different strategies to cope with drought by uptaking water at different depths; and our second hypothesis was that individual trees would behave in different manner according to the distance to their neighbours as well as to whether the neighbour is from one species or the other. The study was performed in a mixed stand where both species are nearly co-dominant, adding up to a total of 33 oaks and 77 pines (plot area= 893 m2). We sampled sun-exposed branches of each tree six times over the growing season, and extracted the xylem water with a cryogenic trap. The isotopic composition of the water was determined using a Picarro Water Analizer L2130-i. Tree mapping for spatial analysis was done using a high resolution GPS technology (Trimble GeoExplorer 6000). For the spatial analysis, we used the pair-correlation function to study intra-specific tree configuration and the bivariate pair correlation function to analyse the inter-specific spatial configurations (Stoyan et al 1995). Moreover, the isotopic composition of xylem water was assumed to be a mark associated to each tree and analysed as a

  12. Studying global change through investigation of the plastic responses of xylem anatomy in tree rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonti, Patrick; von Arx, Georg; García-González, Ignacio; Eilmann, Britta; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; Gärtner, Holger; Eckstein, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Variability in xylem anatomy is of interest to plant scientists because of the role water transport plays in plant performance and survival. Insights into plant adjustments to changing environmental conditions have mainly been obtained through structural and functional comparative studies between taxa or within taxa on contrasting sites or along environmental gradients. Yet, a gap exists regarding the study of hydraulic adjustments in response to environmental changes over the lifetimes of plants. In trees, dated tree-ring series are often exploited to reconstruct dynamics in ecological conditions, and recent work in which wood-anatomical variables have been used in dendrochronology has produced promising results. Environmental signals identified in water-conducting cells carry novel information reflecting changes in regional conditions and are mostly related to short, sub-annual intervals. Although the idea of investigating environmental signals through wood anatomical time series goes back to the 1960s, it is only recently that low-cost computerized image-analysis systems have enabled increased scientific output in this field. We believe that the study of tree-ring anatomy is emerging as a promising approach in tree biology and climate change research, particularly if complemented by physiological and ecological studies. This contribution presents the rationale, the potential, and the methodological challenges of this innovative approach.

  13. Frost fatigue and spring recovery of xylem vessels in three diffuse-porous trees in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Karen K; Tyree, Melvin T

    2014-05-01

    Frost has been shown to cause frost fatigue (reduced cavitation resistance) in branch segments in the lab. Here, we studied the change in cavitation resistance and percent loss of conductivity (PLC) from fall to spring over 2 consecutive years in three diffuse-porous species in situ. We used the cavitron technique to measure P25 , P50 and P90 (the xylem pressure causing a 25, 50 and 90% conductivity loss) and PLC and stained functioning vessels. Cavitation resistance was reduced by 64-87% (in terms of P50 ), depending on the species and year. P25 was impacted the most and P90 the least, changing the vulnerability curves from s- to r-shaped over the winter in all three species. The branches suffered an almost complete loss of conductivity, but frost fatigue did not necessarily occur concurrently with increases in PLC. In two species, there was a trade-off between conduit size and vulnerability. Spring recovery occurred by growth of new vessels, and in two species by partial refilling of embolized conduits. Although newly grown and functioning conduits appeared more vulnerable to cavitation than year-old vessels, cavitation resistance generally improved in spring, suggesting other mechanisms for partial frost fatigue repair. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Red Xylem and Higher Lignin Extractability by Down-Regulating a Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucher, M.; Chabbert, B.; Pilate, G.; Van Doorsselaere, J.; Tollier, M. T.; Petit-Conil, M.; Cornu, D.; Monties, B.; Van Montagu, M.; Inze, D.; Jouanin, L.; Boerjan, W.

    1996-12-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of the lignin precursors, the monolignols. We have down-regulated CAD in transgenic poplar (Populus tremula X Populus alba) by both antisense and co-suppression strategies. Several antisense and sense CAD transgenic poplars had an approximately 70% reduced CAD activity that was associated with a red coloration of the xylem tissue. Neither the lignin amount nor the lignin monomeric composition (syringyl/guaiacyl) were significantly modified. However, phloroglucinol-HCl staining was different in the down-regulated CAD plants, suggesting changes in the number of aldehyde units in the lignin. Furthermore, the reactivity of the cell wall toward alkali treatment was altered: a lower amount of lignin was found in the insoluble, saponified residue and more lignin could be precipitated from the soluble alkali fraction. Moreover, large amounts of phenolic compounds, vanillin and especially syringaldehyde, were detected in the soluble alkali fraction of the CAD down-regulated poplars. Alkaline pulping experiments on 3-month-old trees showed a reduction of the kappa number without affecting the degree of cellulose degradation. These results indicate that reducing the CAD activity in trees might be a valuable strategy to optimize certain processes of the wood industry, especially those of the pulp and paper industry.

  15. The accumulation pattern of ferruginol in the heartwood-forming Cryptomeria japonica xylem as determined by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and quantity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Hashida, Koh; Imai, Takanori; Kushi, Masayoshi; Saito, Kaori; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Heartwood formation is a unique phenomenon of tree species. Although the accumulation of heartwood substances is a well-known feature of the process, the accumulation mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the accumulation process of ferruginol, a predominant heartwood substance of Cryptomeria japonica, in heartwood-forming xylem. Methods The radial accumulation pattern of ferruginol was examined from sapwood and through the intermediate wood to the heartwood by direct mapping using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The data were compared with quantitative results obtained from a novel method of gas chromatography analysis using laser microdissection sampling and with water distribution obtained from cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Key Results Ferruginol initially accumulated in the middle of the intermediate wood, in the earlywood near the annual ring boundary. It accumulated throughout the entire earlywood in the inner intermediate wood, and in both the earlywood and the latewood in the heartwood. The process of ferruginol accumulation continued for more than eight annual rings. Ferruginol concentration peaked at the border between the intermediate wood and heartwood, while the concentration was less in the latewood compared wiht the earlywood in each annual ring. Ferruginol tended to accumulate around the ray parenchyma cells. In addition, at the border between the intermediate wood and heartwood, the accumulation was higher in areas without water than in areas with water. Conclusions TOF-SIMS clearly revealed ferruginol distribution at the cellular level. Ferruginol accumulation begins in the middle of intermediate wood, initially in the earlywood near the annual ring boundary, then throughout the entire earlywood, and finally across to the whole annual ring in the heartwood. The heterogeneous timing of ferruginol accumulation could be related to the distribution of ray parenchyma cells

  16. The SbSOS1 gene from the extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances Na(+) loading in xylem and confers salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Narendra Singh; Shukla, Pushp Sheel; Jha, Anupama; Agarwal, Pradeep K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2012-10-11

    Soil salinity adversely affects plant growth and development and disturbs intracellular ion homeostasis resulting cellular toxicity. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter that plays an important role in imparting salt stress tolerance to plants. Here, we report the cloning and characterisation of the SbSOS1 gene from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte. The SbSOS1 gene is 3774 bp long and encodes a protein of 1159 amino acids. SbSOS1 exhibited a greater level of constitutive expression in roots than in shoots and was further increased by salt stress. Overexpressing the S. brachiata SbSOS1 gene in tobacco conferred high salt tolerance, promoted seed germination and increased root length, shoot length, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll, K(+)/Na(+) ratio, membrane stability index, soluble sugar, proline and amino acid content relative to wild type (WT) plants. Transgenic plants exhibited reductions in electrolyte leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MDA content in response to salt stress, which probably occurred because of reduced cytosolic Na(+) content and oxidative damage. At higher salt stress, transgenic tobacco plants exhibited reduced Na(+) content in root and leaf and higher concentrations in stem and xylem sap relative to WT, which suggests a role of SbSOS1 in Na(+) loading to xylem from root and leaf tissues. Transgenic lines also showed increased K(+) and Ca(2+) content in root tissue compared to WT, which reflect that SbSOS1 indirectly affects the other transporters activity. Overexpression of SbSOS1 in tobacco conferred a high degree of salt tolerance, enhanced plant growth and altered physiological and biochemical parameters in response to salt stress. In addition to Na(+) efflux outside the plasma membrane, SbSOS1 also helps to maintain variable Na(+) content in different organs and also affect the other transporters activity indirectly. These

  17. Xylem specific activation of 5’ upstream regulatory region of two NAC transcription factors (MusaVND6 and MusaVND7) in banana is regulated by SNBE-like sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Deposition of secondary cell wall in the xylem elements is controlled by a subgroup of NAC (NAM, ATAF, CUC) family, known as vascular-related NAC transcription factors (VNDs). In the present study, we analyzed the 5’ upstream regulatory region of two banana NAC transcription factors (MusaVND6 and MusaVND7) for tissue specific expression and presence of 19-bp secondary-wall NAC binding element (SNBE)-like motifs. Transgenic banana plants of Musa cultivar Rasthali harboring either PMusaVND7::GUS or PMusaVND6::GUS showed specific GUS (β-D-Glucuronidase) activity in cells of the xylem tissue. Approximately 1.2kb promoter region of either MusaVND6 or MusaVND7 showed presence of at least two SNBE-like motifs. This 1.2kb promoter region was retarded in a gel shift assay by three banana VND protein (VND1,VND2 and VND3). The banana VND1-VND3 could also retard the mobility of isolated SNBE-like motifs of MusaVND6 or MusaVND7 in a gel shift assay. Transcript levels of MusaVND6 and MusaVND7 were elevated in transgenic banana overexpressing either banana VND1, VND2 or VND3. Present study suggested a probable regulation of banana VND6 and VND7 expression through direct interaction of banana VND1- VND3 with SNBE-like motifs. Our study also indicated two promoter elements for possible utilization in cell wall modifications in plants especially banana, which is being recently considered as a potential biofuel crop. PMID:29438404

  18. Application of TXRF spectrometry and HPLC for the characterization of xylem saps of nickel contaminated cucumber plants grown in urea containing nutrient solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatar, E.; Mihucz, V.G.; Varga, G.; Zaray, G.; Cseh, E.

    2000-01-01

    The total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry was used to determine the elemental composition of xylem saps of cucumber plants grown in nutrient solutions having urea, as the sole nitrogen source and artificially contaminated with nickel(II) ions in concentration of 10 μM, which proved to be toxic for the plants. The saps of uncontaminated plants - grown at the same time with the contaminated ones - were also investigated. The collection of the samples was performed for 1 hour followed by two additional 30-minute-long time periods, thus three samples resulted for each group of plants. The TXRF measurements were performed using Ga as internal standard. For excitation, Mo tube was used and the integration time was 300 s. The nutrient heavy metals determined by the TXRF spectrometry in the saps were Fe, Mn and Zn in concentration range of ng/cm 3 . Two other nutrient elements, Ca and K were also determined and they were present in the samples in concentration of μg/cm 3 . The concentration of nickel in the saps originating from the contaminated plants, was approximately 1400 ng/cm 3 . The concentration of another nutrient heavy metal, Cu was determined by the graphite furnace atomic absorption (GF-AAS) spectrometry. Applying a reversed-phased HPLC method, the organic acids of the samples, citric, malic and fumaric acids were also quantified, their concentrations being also in the μg/cm 3 concentration range. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) measurements were also performed in order to detect possible macromolecules of the saps. Both techniques, having low sample volume demand, were suitable to perform reliable measurements of the samples whose masses were between 0,9-2,5 g. Furthermore, the absence of the matrix effects is also an important advantage of the TXRF spectrometry that permits the direct analysis of the xylem saps. These investigations form part of our work focusing on the availability, accumulation and transport of heavy metals in

  19. The SbSOS1 gene from the extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances Na+ loading in xylem and confers salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Narendra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil salinity adversely affects plant growth and development and disturbs intracellular ion homeostasis resulting cellular toxicity. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1 gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in imparting salt stress tolerance to plants. Here, we report the cloning and characterisation of the SbSOS1 gene from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte. Results The SbSOS1 gene is 3774 bp long and encodes a protein of 1159 amino acids. SbSOS1 exhibited a greater level of constitutive expression in roots than in shoots and was further increased by salt stress. Overexpressing the S. brachiata SbSOS1 gene in tobacco conferred high salt tolerance, promoted seed germination and increased root length, shoot length, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, relative water content (RWC, chlorophyll, K+/Na+ ratio, membrane stability index, soluble sugar, proline and amino acid content relative to wild type (WT plants. Transgenic plants exhibited reductions in electrolyte leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS and MDA content in response to salt stress, which probably occurred because of reduced cytosolic Na+ content and oxidative damage. At higher salt stress, transgenic tobacco plants exhibited reduced Na+ content in root and leaf and higher concentrations in stem and xylem sap relative to WT, which suggests a role of SbSOS1 in Na+ loading to xylem from root and leaf tissues. Transgenic lines also showed increased K+ and Ca2+ content in root tissue compared to WT, which reflect that SbSOS1 indirectly affects the other transporters activity. Conclusions Overexpression of SbSOS1 in tobacco conferred a high degree of salt tolerance, enhanced plant growth and altered physiological and biochemical parameters in response to salt stress. In addition to Na+ efflux outside the plasma membrane, SbSOS1 also helps to maintain variable Na+ content in different organs and also affect the other

  20. The SbSOS1 gene from the extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances Na+ loading in xylem and confers salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Soil salinity adversely affects plant growth and development and disturbs intracellular ion homeostasis resulting cellular toxicity. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in imparting salt stress tolerance to plants. Here, we report the cloning and characterisation of the SbSOS1 gene from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte. Results The SbSOS1 gene is 3774 bp long and encodes a protein of 1159 amino acids. SbSOS1 exhibited a greater level of constitutive expression in roots than in shoots and was further increased by salt stress. Overexpressing the S. brachiata SbSOS1 gene in tobacco conferred high salt tolerance, promoted seed germination and increased root length, shoot length, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll, K+/Na+ ratio, membrane stability index, soluble sugar, proline and amino acid content relative to wild type (WT) plants. Transgenic plants exhibited reductions in electrolyte leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MDA content in response to salt stress, which probably occurred because of reduced cytosolic Na+ content and oxidative damage. At higher salt stress, transgenic tobacco plants exhibited reduced Na+ content in root and leaf and higher concentrations in stem and xylem sap relative to WT, which suggests a role of SbSOS1 in Na+ loading to xylem from root and leaf tissues. Transgenic lines also showed increased K+ and Ca2+ content in root tissue compared to WT, which reflect that SbSOS1 indirectly affects the other transporters activity. Conclusions Overexpression of SbSOS1 in tobacco conferred a high degree of salt tolerance, enhanced plant growth and altered physiological and biochemical parameters in response to salt stress. In addition to Na+ efflux outside the plasma membrane, SbSOS1 also helps to maintain variable Na+ content in different organs and also affect the other transporters activity indirectly

  1. THE EFFECT OF HERBAL ESSENTIAL OIL IN PRESERVATIVE SOLUTION, ON QUANTITATIVE, VASE LIFE, BACTERIA-INDUCED STEM XYLEM BLOCKAGE OF LISIANTHUS VAR. ECHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Pourianejad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of essential oil taken from medicinal plant as antibacterial components in preservative solution of Lisianthus var. Echo (Eustoma grandiflorum was investigated. The test was done with application of preservative solution. Cut flowers were treated with different concentrations of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris, Spearmint (Mentha spicata and Lavender (Lavandula officinalis essential oil in addition to Sucrose 2.5%. The results showed that there was the longest time in vase life with Thyme in 50 ppm (15.6 days and the control treatment showed the shortest vase life (11.6 days. Moreover, Thyme with 50 ppm had the highest effect on relative fresh weight and solution uptake. In addition, bacteria-induced stem xylem blockage, extracted from the end of stem, was cultured in NA medium culture with several concentrations of essential oil. The result showed that in pure concentration (100% inhibition was completed and in various concentrations of essential oil the bacterial population was reduced.

  2. Effects of Drought on Xylem Anatomy and Water-Use Efficiency of Two Co-Occurring Pine Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Martin-Benito

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exploring how drought influences growth, performance, and survival in different species is crucial to understanding the impacts of climate change on forest ecosystems. Here, we investigate the responses of two co-occurring pines (Pinus nigra and Pinus sylvestris to interannual drought in east-central Spain by dendrochronological and wood anatomical features integrated with isotopic ratios of carbon (δ13C and oxygen (δ18O in tree rings. Our results showed that drought induces both species to allocate less carbon to build tracheid cell-walls but increases tracheid lumen diameters, particularly in the transition wood between early and latewood, potentially maximizing hydraulic conductivity but reducing resistance to embolism at a critical phase during the growing season. The thicker cell-wall-to-lumen ratio in P. nigra could imply that its xylem may be more resistant to bending stress and drought-induced cavitation than P. sylvestris. In contrast, the higher intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE in P. sylvestris suggests that it relies more on a water-saving strategy. Our results suggest that narrower cell-walls and reduced growth under drought are not necessarily linked to increased iWUE. At our site P. nigra showed a higher growth plasticity, grew faster and was more competitive than P. sylvestris. In the long term, these sustained differences in iWUE and anatomical characters could affect forest species performance and composition, particularly under increased drought stress.

  3. Stem water transport and freeze-thaw xylem embolism in conifers and angiosperms in a Tasmanian treeline heath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feild, Taylor S; Brodribb, Tim

    2001-05-01

    The effect of freezing on stem xylem hydraulic conductivity and leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence was measured in 12 tree and shrub species from a treeline heath in Tasmania, Australia. Reduction in stem hydraulic conductivity after a single freeze-thaw cycle was minimal in conifers and the vessel-less angiosperm species Tasmannia lanceolata (Winteraceae), whereas mean loss of conductivity in vessel-forming angiosperms fell in the range 17-83%. A positive linear relationship was observed between percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity by freeze-thaw and the average conduit diameter across all 12 species. This supports the hypothesis that large-diameter vascular conduits have a greater likelihood of freeze-thaw cavitation because larger bubbles are produced, which are more likely to expand under tension. Leaf frost tolerances, as measured by a 50% loss of maximum PSII quantum yield, varied from -6 to -13°C, indicating that these species were more frost-sensitive than plants from northern hemisphere temperate forest and treeline communities. There was no evidence of a relationship between frost tolerance of leaves and the resilience of stem water transport to freezing, suggesting that low temperature survival and the resistance of stem water transport to freezing are independently evolving traits. The results of this study bear on the ecological importance of stem freezing in the southern hemisphere treeline zones.

  4. Impact of Laurel Wilt, Caused by Raffaelea lauricola, on Leaf Gas Exchange and Xylem Sap Flow in Avocado, Persea americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C; Schaffer, Bruce; Vargas, Ana I; Konkol, Joshua L; Salvatierra, Juanpablo; Wideman, Ronney

    2015-04-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, is a destructive disease of avocado (Persea americana). The susceptibility of different cultivars and races was examined previously but more information is needed on how this host responds to the disease. In the present study, net CO2 assimilation (A), stomatal conductance of H2O (gs), transpiration (E), water use efficiency (WUE), and xylem sap flow rates were assessed in cultivars that differed in susceptibility. After artificial inoculation with R. lauricola, there was a close relationship between symptom development and reductions in A, gs, E, WUE, and mean daily sap flow in the most susceptible cultivar, 'Russell', and significantly greater disease and lower A, gs, E, WUE, and sap flow rates were usually detected after 15 days compared with the more tolerant 'Brogdon' and 'Marcus Pumpkin'. Significant differences in preinoculation A, gs, E, and WUE were generally not detected among the cultivars but preinoculation sap flow rates were greater in Russell than in Brogdon and Marcus Pumpkin. Preinoculation sap flow rates and symptom severity for individual trees were correlated at the end of an experiment (r=0.46), indicating that a plant's susceptibility to laurel wilt was related to its ability to conduct water. The potential management of this disease with clonal rootstocks that reduce sap flow rates is discussed.

  5. Direct and individual analysis of stress-related phytohormone dispersion in the vascular system of Cucurbita maxima after flagellin 22 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furch, Alexandra C U; Zimmermann, Matthias R; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Reichelt, Michael; Mithöfer, Axel

    2014-03-01

    • The stress-related phytohormones, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and the three jasmonates, jasmonic acid (JA), cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA), and (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), were investigated in phloem and xylem exudates of Cucurbita maxima. • Phloem and xylem exudates were separately collected and analysed via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. • We show direct evidence for all three jasmonates, ABA, and SA in both phloem and xylem exudates of C. maxima. JA and JA-Ile concentrations are higher in xylem (JA: c(xylem) ≈ 199.5 nM, c(phloem) ≈ 43.9 nM; JA-Ile: c(xylem) ≈ 7.9 nM, c(phloem) ≈ 1.6 nM), whereas ABA and SA concentrations are higher in phloem exudates (ABA: c(xylem) ≈ 37.1 nM, c(phloem) ≈ 142.6 nM; SA: c(xylem) ≈ 61.6 nM, c(phloem) ≈ 1319 nM). During bacteria-derived flagellin 22 (flg22)-triggered remote root-to-shoot signalling, phytohormone concentration changed rapidly both in phloem and xylem. • The unequal distribution of phytohormones suggests that phloem and xylem have distinct roles in defence responses. Our data shed light on systemic phytohormone signalling and help explain how plants cope with environmental challenges by lateral exchange between phloem and xylem. Our analysis is a starting point for further investigations of how phytohormones contribute to phloem- and xylem-based defence signalling. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Xylem anatomical responses of Vaccinium myrtillus exposed to air CO2 enrichment and soil warming at treeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadon-Rosell, Alba; Fonti, Patrick; Dawes, Melissa; von Arx, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Plant life at treeline is limited by harsh growth conditions. In this study we used nine years of free air CO2 enrichment (+200 ppm from 2001 to 2009) and six years of soil warming (+4 °C from 2007 to 2012) at a treeline experimental site in the Swiss Alps to investigate xylem anatomical responses of Vaccinium myrtillus, a co-dominant dwarf shrub in many treeline communities. Our aim was to identify whether the release from limiting growth conditions induced adjustments of the water conductive and storage tissues. High-resolution images of wood anatomical microsections from the stem base of 40 individuals were captured with a digital camera mounted on a microscope. We used the specialized image analysis tool ROXAS to quantify size, density, grouping patterns, and potential hydraulic conductivity of vessels. In addition, we measured the abundance and distribution of ray parenchyma. Our preliminary results show that CO2 enrichment and soil warming induced contrasting anatomical responses. In the last years of the CO2 enhancement vessels were larger, whereas soil warming induced an immediate reduction of vessel size. Moreover, larger vessels were found when V. myrtillus was in cohabitation with pine as opposed to larch. Results for ray parenchyma measurements did not show clear trends, although warming seemed to have a slightly positive effect on the fraction of uniseriate vs. multiseriate rays. These results suggest that release from the growth limiting factors can result in contrasting and partially lagged responses in the hydraulic system with little impact on the storage tissues. In addition, the overstory species seem to play a key role on the anatomy of V. myrtillus at treeline.

  7. The Role of DNA Methylation in Xylogenesis in Different Tissues of Poplar

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    Qingshi Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In trees, xylem tissues play a key role in the formation of woody tissues, which have important uses for pulp and timber production; also DNA methylation plays an important part in gene regulation during xylogenesis in trees. In our study, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP analysis was used to analyze the role cytosine methylation plays in wood formation in the commercially important tree species Populus tomentosa. This analysis compared the methylation patterns between xylem tissues (developing xylem and mature xylem and non-xylem tissues (cambium, shoot apex, young leaf, mature leaf, phloem, root, male catkin, and female catkin and found 10,316 polymorphic methylation sites. MSAP identified 132 candidate genes with the same methylation patterns in xylem tissues, including seven wood-related genes. The expression of these genes differed significantly between xylem and non-xylem tissue types (P<0.01. This indicated that the difference of expression of specific genes with unique methylation patterns, rather than relative methylation levels between the two tissue types plays a critical role in wood biosynthesis. However, 46.2% of candidate genes with the same methylation pattern in vascular tissues (cambium, phloem, and developing xylem did not have distinct expression patterns in xylem and non-xylem tissue. Also, bisulfite sequencing and transcriptome sequencing of MYB, NAC and FASCICLIN-LIKE AGP 13 revealed that the location of cytosine methylation in the gene might affect the expression of different transcripts from the corresponding gene. The expression of different transcripts that produce distinct proteins from a single gene might play an important role in the regulation of xylogenesis.

  8. Multi-scale heterogeneity in the temporal origin of water taken up by trees water uptake inferred using stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S. T.; Kirchner, J. W.; Braun, S.; Siegwolf, R. T.; Goldsmith, G. R.

    2017-12-01

    Xylem water isotopic composition can reveal how water moves through soil and is subsequently taken up by plants. By examining how xylem water isotopes vary across distinct climates and soils, we test how these site characteristics control critical-zone water movement and tree uptake. Xylem water was collected from over 900 trees at 191 sites across Switzerland during a 10-day period in mid-summer 2015. Sites contained oak, beech and/or spruce trees and ranged in elevation from 260 to 1870 m asl with mean annual precipitation from 700 to 2060 mm. Xylem water samples were analyzed for 2H and 18O using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Patterns in the temporal origin of xylem water showed regional differences. For example, trees in the southern and alpine regions had xylem water isotopic signatures that more closely resembled summer precipitation. The isotopic spatial range observed for mid-summer xylem waters was similar to the seasonal range of precipitation; that is, mid-summer xylem water at some sites resembled summer precipitation, and at other sites resembled winter precipitation. Xylem water from spruces, oaks, and beeches at the same sites did not differ from each other, despite these species having different rooting habits. Across all sites and species, precipitation amount correlated positively with xylem δ18O. In higher-precipitation areas, summer rain apparently displaces or mixes with older (winter) stored waters, thus reducing the winter-water isotopic signal in xylem water. Alternatively, in areas with limited precipitation, xylem water more closely matched winter water, indicating greater use of older stored water. We conclude that regional variations in precipitation deficits determine variations in the turnover rate of plant-available soil water and storage.

  9. Seasonal dynamics of secondary growth and xylem anatomy in two coexisting Mediterranean Quercus; Dinamica estacional del crecimiento secundario y anatomia del xilema en dos Quercus mediterraneos que coexisten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuixech, J.; Camarero, J. J.; Montserrat-Marti, G.

    2012-11-01

    The contribution of secondary growth's patterns and wood anatomy on the coexistence of two species of Quercus (Quercus ilex subsp ballota diffused porous wood and Quercus faginea ring porous wood) were studied in a location with continental Mediterranean climate, which has been studied during two years with contrasted climatology. According to our results secondary growth pattern of Q. faginea is concentrated in the spring, starting before, and responding more than Q. ilex to a rainfall increase during this period. Q. ilex extends wood formation into the fall and late summer growth. Q. ilex growth during the fall and late summer has a greater importance in terms of theoretical hydraulic conductivity than in Q. faginea, which concentrates hydraulic conductivity in spring vessels. Therefore, different response of wood phenology formation and xylem anatomy in both species to the seasonal pattern of precipitation could contribute to explain the coexistence of Q. ilex and Q. faginea. (Author) 48 refs.

  10. Water relations in silver birch during springtime: How is sap pressurised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölttä, T; Dominguez Carrasco, M D R; Salmon, Y; Aalto, J; Vanhatalo, A; Bäck, J; Lintunen, A

    2018-05-06

    Positive sap pressures are produced in the xylem of birch trees in boreal conditions during the time between the thawing of the soil and bud break. During this period, xylem embolisms accumulated during wintertime are refilled with water. The mechanism for xylem sap pressurization and its environmental drivers are not well known. We measured xylem sap flow, xylem sap pressure, xylem sap osmotic concentration, xylem and whole stem diameter changes, and stem and root non-structural carbohydrate concentrations, along with meteorological conditions at two sites in Finland during and after the sap pressurisation period. The diurnal dynamics of xylem sap pressure and sap flow during the sap pressurisation period varied, but were more often opposite to the diurnal pattern after bud burst, i.e. sap pressure increased and sap flow rate mostly decreased when temperature increased. Net conversion of soluble sugars to starch in the stem and roots occurred during the sap pressurisation period. Xylem sap osmotic pressure was small in comparison to total sap pressure, and it did not follow changes in environmental conditions or tree water relations. Based on these findings, we suggest that xylem sap pressurisation and embolism refilling occur gradually over a few weeks through water transfer from parenchyma cells to xylem vessels during daytime, and then the parenchyma are refilled mostly during nighttime by water uptake from soil. Possible drivers for water transfer from parenchyma cells to vessels are discussed. Also the functioning of thermal dissipation probes in conditions of changing stem water content is discussed. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. A low cost apparatus for measuring the xylem hydraulic conductance in plants Um aparato de baixo custo para medição da condutância hidráulica do xilema em plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant yield and resistance to drought are directly related to the efficiency of the xylem hydraulic conductance and the ability of this system to avoid interrupting the flow of water. In this paper we described in detail the assembling of an apparatus proposed by TYREE et al. (2002, and its calibration, as well as low cost adaptations that make the equipment accessible for everyone working in this research area. The apparatus allows measuring the conductance in parts of roots or shoots (root ramifications or branches, or in the whole system, in the case of small plants or seedlings. The apparatus can also be used to measure the reduction of conductance by embolism of the xylem vessels. Data on the hydraulic conductance of eucalyptus seedlings obtained here and other reports in the literature confirm the applicability of the apparatus in physiological studies on the relationship between productivity and water stress.A produtividade das plantas e a capacidade de resistência à seca estão diretamente relacionadas com a eficiência da condutância hidráulica do xilema e a capacidade desse sistema em evitar a interrupção do fluxo de água. No presente trabalho, detalha-se a montagem de um aparato proposto por TYREE et al. (2002, e sua calibração, bem como adaptações com peças de menor custo que tornam o aparelho acessível a qualquer um trabalhando nesta linha de pesquisa. Esse aparato possibilita medir a condutância de partes do sistema radicular ou da parte aérea (ramificações radiculares ou ramos, ou em todo o sistema, no caso de plantas de porte pequeno ou plântulas. O aparato também pode ser usado para medir a redução da condutância pela embolização dos vasos do xilema. Medições de condutância hidráulica feitas em plântulas de eucalipto e outros trabalhos encontrados na literatura confirmaram a aplicabilidade desse aparato em estudos fisiológicos de produtividade relacionada ao estresse hídrico.

  12. Behavioral Plasticity in Probing by Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera, Liviidae): Ingestion from Phloem Versus Xylem is Influenced by Leaf Age and Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Timothy A; Backus, Elaine A; Shugart, Holly J; Rogers, Michael E

    2018-01-01

    Diaphorina citri is a major pest of citrus because it transmits Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, a phloem-limited bacterium that putatively causes Huanglongbing (HLB). The disease moves slowly through a tree, and the vector facilitates further within-tree movement via transmission of the pathogen. However, this only happens when D. citri stylets contact the phloem, to inoculate bacteria during phloem salivation and acquire bacteria during phloem sap ingestion. Behavioral changes in D. citri associated with different plant parts would affect how long it takes to reach phloem and how long the psyllids stays in phloem to ingest, thereby influencing the risk of disease spread. D. citri feeding was recorded on the abaxial and adaxial surfaces of mature and immature citrus leaves. Adults in the field can be found on these surfaces at all times of year. On abaxial surface of immature leaves, phloem salivation would occur after 11 h on average, but rarely as soon as 0.56 h. The corresponding values on mature leaves were 16 and 2.7. In general, psyllids spent more time ingesting phloem sap on immature leaves than on mature leaves. Psyllids on abaxial surfaces spent more time ingesting from phloem, though the strength of this effect was less than for immature versus mature leaves. In contrast, xylem ingestion increased on mature leaves compared with young. The biological differences that could produce this outcome are discussed. The results discussed herein are of relevance to further studies on the efficacy of an insecticide to act quickly enough to prevent pathogen transmission.

  13. Sap fluxes from different parts of the rootzone modulate xylem ABA concentration during partial rootzone drying and re-wetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, J G; Dodd, I C

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies with partial rootzone drying (PRD) irrigation demonstrated that alternating the wet and dry parts of the rootzone (PRD-Alternated) increased leaf xylem ABA concentration ([X-ABA]leaf) compared with maintaining the same wet and dry parts of the rootzone (PRD-Fixed). To determine the relative contributions of different parts of the rootzone to this ABA signal, [X-ABA]leaf of potted, split-root tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants was modelled by quantifying the proportional water uptake from different soil compartments, and [X-ABA]leaf responses to the entire pot soil-water content (θpot). Continuously measuring soil-moisture depletion by, or sap fluxes from, different parts of the root system revealed that water uptake rapidly declined (within hours) after withholding water from part of the rootzone, but was rapidly restored (within minutes) upon re-watering. Two hours after re-watering part of the rootzone, [X-ABA]leaf was equally well predicted according to θpot alone and by accounting for the proportional water uptake from different parts of the rootzone. Six hours after re-watering part of the rootzone, water uptake by roots in drying soil was minimal and, instead, occurred mainly from the newly irrigated part of the rootzone, thus [X-ABA]leaf was best predicted by accounting for the proportional water uptake from different parts of the rootzone. Contrary to previous results, alternating the wet and dry parts of the rootzone did not enhance [X-ABA]leaf compared with PRD-Fixed irrigation. Further work is required to establish whether altered root-to-shoot ABA signalling contributes to the improved yields of crops grown with alternate, rather than fixed, PRD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Functional relationships between wood structure and vulnerability to xylem cavitation in races of Eucalyptus globulus differing in wood density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barotto, Antonio José; Monteoliva, Silvia; Gyenge, Javier; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Fernandez, María Elena

    2018-02-01

    Wood density can be considered as a measure of the internal wood structure, and it is usually used as a proxy measure of other mechanical and functional traits. Eucalyptus is one of the most important commercial forestry genera worldwide, but the relationship between wood density and vulnerability to cavitation in this genus has been little studied. The analysis is hampered by, among other things, its anatomical complexity, so it becomes necessary to address more complex techniques and analyses to elucidate the way in which the different anatomical elements are functionally integrated. In this study, vulnerability to cavitation in two races of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. with different wood density was evaluated through Path analysis, a multivariate method that allows evaluation of descriptive models of causal relationship between variables. A model relating anatomical variables with wood properties and functional parameters was proposed and tested. We found significant differences in wood basic density and vulnerability to cavitation between races. The main exogenous variables predicting vulnerability to cavitation were vessel hydraulic diameter and fibre wall fraction. Fibre wall fraction showed a direct impact on wood basic density and the slope of vulnerability curve, and an indirect and negative effect over the pressure imposing 50% of conductivity loss (P50) through them. Hydraulic diameter showed a direct negative effect on P50, but an indirect and positive influence over this variable through wood density on one hand, and through maximum hydraulic conductivity (ks max) and slope on the other. Our results highlight the complexity of the relationship between xylem efficiency and safety in species with solitary vessels such as Eucalyptus spp., with no evident compromise at the intraspecific level. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A Novel Plasma Membrane-Anchored Protein Regulates Xylem Cell-Wall Deposition through Microtubule-Dependent Lateral Inhibition of Rho GTPase Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yuki; Wakazaki, Mayumi; Toyooka, Kiminori; Fukuda, Hiroo; Oda, Yoshihisa

    2017-08-21

    Spatial control of cell-wall deposition is essential for determining plant cell shape [1]. Rho-type GTPases, together with the cortical cytoskeleton, play central roles in regulating cell-wall patterning [2]. In metaxylem vessel cells, which are the major components of xylem tissues, active ROP11 Rho GTPases form oval plasma membrane domains that locally disrupt cortical microtubules, thereby directing the formation of oval pits in secondary cell walls [3-5]. However, the regulatory mechanism that determines the planar shape of active Rho of Plants (ROP) domains is still unknown. Here we show that IQD13 associates with cortical microtubules and the plasma membrane to laterally restrict the localization of ROP GTPase domains, thereby directing the formation of oval secondary cell-wall pits. Loss and overexpression of IQD13 led to the formation of abnormally round and narrow secondary cell-wall pits, respectively. Ectopically expressed IQD13 increased the presence of parallel cortical microtubules by promoting microtubule rescue. A reconstructive approach revealed that IQD13 confines the area of active ROP domains within the lattice of the cortical microtubules, causing narrow ROP domains to form. This activity required the interaction of IQD13 with the plasma membrane. These findings suggest that IQD13 positively regulates microtubule dynamics as well as their linkage to the plasma membrane, which synergistically confines the area of active ROP domains, leading to the formation of oval secondary cell-wall pits. This finding sheds light on the role of microtubule-plasma membrane linkage as a lateral fence that determines the planar shape of Rho GTPase domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Xylem Hydraulics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dilip Amritphale1 Santosh K Sharma2. Professor of Botany, School of Studies in Botany, Vikram University, Ujjain 456 010, MP, India; BKS Naveen PG College, Shajapur. Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 3 · Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 3. March 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues ...

  17. The impact of xylem cavitation on water potential isotherms measured by the pressure chamber technique in Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu & W.C. Cheng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongmei; Pan, Shaoan; Tyree, Melvin T

    2016-08-01

    Pressure-volume (PV) curve analysis is the most common and accurate way of estimating all components of the water relationships in leaves (water potential isotherms) as summarized in the Höfler diagram. PV curve analysis yields values of osmotic pressure, turgor pressure, and elastic modulus of cell walls as a function of relative water content. It allows the computation of symplasmic/apoplastic water content partitioning. For about 20 years, cavitation in xylem has been postulated as a possible source of error when estimating the above parameters, but, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no one has ever previously quantified its influence. Results in this paper provide independent estimates of osmotic pressure by PV curve analysis and by thermocouple psychrometer measurement. An anatomical evaluation was also used for the first time to compare apoplastic water fraction estimates from PV analysis with anatomical values. Conclusions include: (i) PV curve values of osmotic pressure are underestimated prior to correcting osmotic pressure for water loss by cavitation in Metasequoia glyptostroboides; (ii) psychrometer estimates of osmotic pressure obtained in tissues killed by freezing or heating agreed with PV values before correction for apoplastic water dilution; (iii) after correction for dilution effects, a solute concentration enhancement (0.27MPa or 0.11 osmolal) was revealed. The possible sources of solute enhancement were starch hydrolysis and release of ions from the Donnan free space of needle cell walls. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Tree differences in primary and secondary growth drive convergent scaling in leaf area to sapwood area across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Giai; von Arx, Georg; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Prendin, Angela Luisa; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Caldeira, Maria C; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Crivellaro, Alan; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Gričar, Jožica; Grönholm, Leila; Hölttä, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Lavrič, Martina; Lintunen, Anna; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Peters, Richard L; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Roig Juan, Sílvia; Senfeldr, Martin; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Van Camp, Janne; Sterck, Frank

    2018-06-01

    Trees scale leaf (A L ) and xylem (A X ) areas to couple leaf transpiration and carbon gain with xylem water transport. Some species are known to acclimate in A L  : A X balance in response to climate conditions, but whether trees of different species acclimate in A L  : A X in similar ways over their entire (continental) distributions is unknown. We analyzed the species and climate effects on the scaling of A L vs A X in branches of conifers (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies) and broadleaved (Betula pendula, Populus tremula) sampled across a continental wide transect in Europe. Along the branch axis, A L and A X change in equal proportion (isometric scaling: b ˜ 1) as for trees. Branches of similar length converged in the scaling of A L vs A X with an exponent of b = 0.58 across European climates irrespective of species. Branches of slow-growing trees from Northern and Southern regions preferentially allocated into new leaf rather than xylem area, with older xylem rings contributing to maintaining total xylem conductivity. In conclusion, trees in contrasting climates adjust their functional balance between water transport and leaf transpiration by maintaining biomass allocation to leaves, and adjusting their growth rate and xylem production to maintain xylem conductance. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Transporte de compostos nitrogenados em soja cultivada com diferentes fontes de nitrogênio Xylem sap composition of soybean plants treated with different nitrogen sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiko Enok Sawazaki

    1987-01-01

    the xylem sap. Nodulated plants were treated with nutrient solution either containing NO3- (15 mM, or NH4+ (10 mM, or without nitrogen (control for 7 days, near the flowering period. Higher proportion of alantoic acid was found relative to allantoin, and this proportion increased in plants grown on mineral N. The NH4+ ion had an intermediary effect compared to the other N-assimilatory processes, with respect to the quantity of N transported to the aerial parts, suggesting that the mecanism of transport depended on the interaction between the soil mineral nitrogen and the energy available. Asparagin was the amino acid in the greatest quantity in the xylem, independent of the treatment. Ammonium did not alter the levels of N-NH4+ in the sap, but increased slightly the level of NO3-. Nitrate caused slight increase in aspartic acid and large in NO3- content in the sap. These results suggested that the differences in the amino acid synthesis proceeded of a specific pathway of nitrogen uptake.

  20. Comparisons of xylem sap flow and water vapour flux at the stand level and derivation of canopy conductance for Scots pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier, A.; Biron, P.; Köstner, B.; Gay, L. W.; Najjar, G.

    1996-03-01

    Simultaneous measurements of xylem sap flow and water vapour flux over a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forest (Hartheim, Germany), were carried out during the Hartheim Experiment (HartX), an intensive observation campaign of the international programme REKLIP. Sap flow was measured every 30 min using both radial constant heating (Granier, 1985) and two types of Cermak sap flowmeters installed on 24 trees selected to cover a wide range of the diameter classes of the stand (min 8 cm; max 17.5 cm). Available energy was high during the observation period (5.5 to 6.9 mm.day-1), and daily cumulated sap flow on a ground area basis varied between 2.0 and 2.7 mm day-1 depending on climate conditions. Maximum hourly values of sap flow reached 0.33 mm h-1, i.e., 230 W m-2. Comparisons of sap flow with water vapour flux as measured with two OPEC (One Propeller Eddy Correlation, University of Arizona) systems showed a time lag between the two methods, sap flow lagging about 90 min behind vapour flux. After taking into account this time lag in the sap flow data set, a good agreement was found between both methods: sap flow = 0.745* vapour flux, r 2 = 0.86. The difference between the two estimates was due to understory transpiration. Canopy conductance ( g c ) was calculated from sap flow measurements using the reverse form of Penman-Monteith equation and climatic data measured 4 m above the canopy. Variations of g c were well correlated ( r 2 = 0.85) with global radiation ( R) and vapour pressure deficit ( vpd). The quantitative expression for g c = f ( R, vpd) was very similar to that previously found with maritime pine ( Pinus pinaster) in the forest of Les Landes, South Western France.

  1. The Differential Effects of the Blue-Stain Fungus Leptographium qinlingensis on Monoterpenes and Sesquiterpenes in the Stem of Chinese White Pine (Pinus armandi Saplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Pham

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available When conifers such as Chinese white pine (Pinus armandi Fr. are attacked by insects or pathogens, they respond by increasing their content of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. In this study, we determined the effects of the blue-stain fungus Leptographium qinlingensis Tang and Chen on monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in the phloem and xylem of the stem of P. armandi saplings. We found that the total monoterpene concentrations in the phloem and xylem of the stem and the total sesquiterpene concentrations in the xylem of the stem were significantly higher in L. qinlingensis-inoculated saplings than in control (mechanically wounded saplings or untreated saplings. Additionally, the proportions of β-pinene in the xylem of the stem and limonene + β-phellandrene in the phloem and xylem of the stem were significantly higher in L. qinlingensis-inoculated saplings than in both control and untreated saplings. The proportions of individual sesquiterpenes in the phloem and xylem of the stem were significantly greater in L. qinlingensis-inoculated saplings than in untreated saplings. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that increases in total monoterpene and sesquiterpene concentrations, as well as increases in the concentrations of β-pinene and limonene + β-phellandrene, may play an important defensive role against blue-stain fungus L. qinlingensis inoculation.

  2. Synchronisms and correlations of spring phenology between apical and lateral meristems in two boreal conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Serena; Rossi, Sergio; Deslauriers, Annie; Lombardi, Fabio; Marchetti, Marco; Tognetti, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Phenological synchronisms between apical and lateral meristems could clarify some aspects related to the physiological relationships among the different organs of trees. This study correlated the phenological phases of bud development and xylem differentiation during spring 2010-14 in balsam fir (Abies balsamea Mill.) and black spruce [(Picea mariana Mill. (BSP)] of the Monts-Valin National Park (Quebec, Canada) by testing the hypothesis that bud development occurs after the reactivation of xylem growth. From May to September, we conducted weekly monitoring of xylem differentiation using microcores and bud development with direct observations on terminal branches. Synchronism between the beginning of bud development and xylem differentiation was found in both species with significant correlations between the phases of bud and xylem phenology. Degree-day sum was more appropriate in assessing the date of bud growth resumption, while thermal thresholds were more suitable for cambium phenology. Our results provide new knowledge on the dynamics of spring phenology and novel information on the synchronisms between two meristems in coniferous trees. The study demonstrates the importance of precisely defining the phases of bud development in order to correctly analyse the relationships with xylem phenology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Occurrence of blockage in cut stems of Clematis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Jędrzejuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available During vase life of cut flowers obstructions in stem xylem vessels develop. Such obstructions may restrict water uptake in stems and its transport towards flowers, thus lowering their ornamental value and longevity. Clematis is a very attractive plant which can be used as a cut flower in floral compositions. However, nothing is known about the histochemical or cytolo- gical nature of xylem blockages occurring in cut stems of this plant. Observations carried out on Clematis cv. 'Solidarność' proved that tyloses appeared as a principal source of xylem blockage in cut stems. The preservative composed of 200 mg × dm-3 8-HQC (8-hydroxyquinolin citrate and 2% sucrose arre-sted development of xylem blockage, while the vessels in stems kept in water were filled with tyloses or an amorphic substance. PAS reaction proved that polysaccharides were present in the xylem occlusions, whereas no homogalacturonans were immunolocalized in tyloses using JIM 5 and JIM 7 antibodies. The present study provides new information on the origin of xylem occlusions in clematis and their development in two different vase solutions. Such information can be useful to develop pro- per postharvest treatments aiming to improve keeping qualities of this new cut flower.

  4. Tree shoot bending generates hydraulic pressure pulses: a new long-distance signal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Rosana; Badel, Eric; Peraudeau, Sebastien; Leblanc-Fournier, Nathalie; Beaujard, François; Julien, Jean-Louis; Cochard, Hervé; Moulia, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    When tree stems are mechanically stimulated, a rapid long-distance signal is induced that slows down primary growth. An investigation was carried out to determine whether the signal might be borne by a mechanically induced pressure pulse in the xylem. Coupling xylem flow meters and pressure sensors with a mechanical testing device, the hydraulic effects of mechanical deformation of tree stem and branches were measured. Organs of several tree species were studied, including gymnosperms and angiosperms with different wood densities and anatomies. Bending had a negligible effect on xylem conductivity, even when deformations were sustained or were larger than would be encountered in nature. It was found that bending caused transient variation in the hydraulic pressure within the xylem of branch segments. This local transient increase in pressure in the xylem was rapidly propagated along the vascular system in planta to the upper and lower regions of the stem. It was shown that this hydraulic pulse originates from the apoplast. Water that was mobilized in the hydraulic pulses came from the saturated porous material of the conduits and their walls, suggesting that the poroelastic behaviour of xylem might be a key factor. Although likely to be a generic mechanical response, quantitative differences in the hydraulic pulse were found in different species, possibly related to differences in xylem anatomy. Importantly the hydraulic pulse was proportional to the strained volume, similar to known thigmomorphogenetic responses. It is hypothesized that the hydraulic pulse may be the signal that rapidly transmits mechanobiological information to leaves, roots, and apices.

  5. Unraveling the Host Plant Alternation of Cacopsylla pruni – Adults but Not Nymphs Can Survive on Conifers Due to Phloem/Xylem Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallinger, Jannicke; Gross, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Plant sap feeding insects like psyllids are known to be vectors of phloem dwelling bacteria (‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ and ‘Ca. Liberibacter’), plant pathogens which cause severe diseases and economically important crop damage. Some univoltine psyllid species have a particular life cycle, within one generation they alternate two times between different host plant species. The plum psyllid Cacopsylla pruni, the vector of European Stone Fruit Yellows (ESFY), one of the most serious pests in European fruit production, migrates to stone fruit orchards (Prunus spp.) for mating and oviposition in early spring. The young adults of the new generation leave the Prunus trees in summer and emigrate to their overwintering hosts like spruce and other conifers. Very little is known about the factors responsible for the regulation of migration, reasons for host alternation, and the behavior of psyllids during their phase of life on conifers. Because insect feeding behavior and host acceptance is driven by different biotic factors, such as olfactory and gustatory cues as well as mechanical barriers, we carried out electrical penetration graph (EPG) recordings and survival bioassays with C. pruni on different conifer species as potential overwintering hosts and analyzed the chemical composition of the respective plant saps. We are the first to show that migrating psyllids do feed on overwintering hosts and that nymphs are able to ingest phloem and xylem sap of coniferous trees, but cannot develop on conifer diet. Analyses of plant saps reveal qualitative differences in the chemical composition between coniferous trees and Prunus as well as within conifer species. These differences are discussed with regard to nutritional needs of psyllid nymphs for proper development, overwintering needs of adults and restriction of ‘Ca. P. prunorum’ to Prunus phloem. PMID:29706983

  6. Soil-to-plant transfer of 99mTc: how to determine Tc-species in uptake and transport processes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krijger, G. C.; Van Elswijk, D. A.; Wolterbeek, H. Th.

    1995-01-01

    Selective extraction, filtration and capillary electrophoresis were used to recognize problems dealing with complexation, oxidation and ligand-exchange processes during collection and analysis of Tc-species in xylem exudates, while 99m Tc-citrate was used as a marker complex. Relatively unstable Tc-species were synthesized in xylem exudates. Oxidation of relative unstable Tc-species during the collection of xylem exudates was suggested, requiring new, better procedures to recognize Tc-species representative for the plant interior. (author)

  7. Hydraulic limits on maximum plant transpiration and the emergence of the safety-efficiency trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Stefano; Vico, Giulia; Katul, Gabriel; Palmroth, Sari; Jackson, Robert B; Porporato, Amilcare

    2013-04-01

    Soil and plant hydraulics constrain ecosystem productivity by setting physical limits to water transport and hence carbon uptake by leaves. While more negative xylem water potentials provide a larger driving force for water transport, they also cause cavitation that limits hydraulic conductivity. An optimum balance between driving force and cavitation occurs at intermediate water potentials, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate the xylem can sustain (denoted as E(max)). The presence of this maximum raises the question as to whether plants regulate transpiration through stomata to function near E(max). To address this question, we calculated E(max) across plant functional types and climates using a hydraulic model and a global database of plant hydraulic traits. The predicted E(max) compared well with measured peak transpiration across plant sizes and growth conditions (R = 0.86, P efficiency trade-off in plant xylem. Stomatal conductance allows maximum transpiration rates despite partial cavitation in the xylem thereby suggesting coordination between stomatal regulation and xylem hydraulic characteristics. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. The changes in redox status of ascorbate in stem tissue cells during Scots pine tree growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Antonova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The contents of ascorbate (AsA and dehydroascorbate (DHA and their ratio, showing cellular redox state of AsA, were studied in the cells of the separate tissues at different levels of Pinus sylvestris L. stem during early- and latewood formation. Morphological status of the cells in the tissues and the content of soluble carbohydrates were also estimated. The cellular redox potential of AsA has been found to depend on the type of tissue, cell development degree, the level of stem and the type of forming wood. The content of AsA and AsA/DHA ratio in the cells of non-conducting phloem along the stem were higher than in mature xylem and less during earlywood than latewood formation. The cells of conducting phloem and forming xylem, as the principal tissues taking part in annual ring wood formation, differed in the content of acids in the course of early and late xylem formation. Along the stem, the content of AsA decreased in conducting phloem cells and increased in the cells of forming xylem during both early- and latewood formation. The AsA/DHA of conducting phloem during earlywood formation was greatest below the stem and diminished to the top of the tree, while in the course of latewood development it was similar at all levels. In forming xylem AsA/DHA increased to the top of tree during the early xylem formation and decreased in late xylem that indicates the differences in oxidation-reduction reactions into the cells of two type of forming wood. The data are discussed according to morphological development of cells and the content of carbohydrates.

  9. Phenotype-gene: 500 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n organ named vascular leaf during process named phloem or xylem histogenesis for AT1G24100 Grubb C Douglas ... insufficient in organ named vascular leaf during process named phloem or xylem h

  10. Microclimate, Water Potential, Transpiration, and Bole Dielectric Constant of Coniferous and Deciduous Tree Species in the Continental Boreal Ecotone of Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R.; McDonald, K.; Way, J.; Oren, R.

    1994-01-01

    Tree canopy microclimate, xylem water flux and xylem dielectric constant have been monitored in situ since June 1993 in two adjacent natural forest stands in central Alaska. The deciduous stand represents a mature balsam poplar site on the Tanana River floodplain, while the coniferous stand consists of mature white spruce with some black spruce mixed in. During solstice in June and later in summer, diurnal changes of xylem water potential were measured to investigate the occurrence and magnitude of tree transpiration and dielectric constant changes in stems.

  11. Mechanism of phytohormone involvement in feedback regulation of cotton leaf senescence induced by potassium deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Li, Bo; Du, Mingwei; Eneji, A Egrinya; Wang, Baomin; Duan, Liusheng; Li, Zhaohu; Tian, Xiaoli

    2012-10-01

    To elucidate the phytohormonal basis of the feedback regulation of leaf senescence induced by potassium (K) deficiency in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), two cultivars contrasting in sensitivity to K deficiency were self- and reciprocally grafted hypocotyl-to-hypocotyl, using standard grafting (one scion grafted onto one rootstock), Y grafting (two scions grafted onto one rootstock), and inverted Y grafting (one scion grafted onto two rootstocks) at the seedling stage. K deficiency (0.03mM for standard and Y grafting, and 0.01mM for inverted Y grafting) increased the root abscisic acid (ABA) concentration by 1.6- to 3.1-fold and xylem ABA delivery rates by 1.8- to 4.6-fold. The K deficiency also decreased the delivery rates of xylem cytokinins [CKs; including the zeatin riboside (ZR) and isopentenyl adenosine (iPA) type] by 29-65% and leaf CK concentration by 16-57%. The leaf ABA concentration and xylem ABA deliveries were consistently greater in CCRI41 (more sensitive to K deficiency) than in SCRC22 (less sensitive to K deficiency) scions under K deficiency, and ZR- and iPA-type levels were consistently lower in the former than in the latter, irrespective of rootstock cultivar or grafting type, indicating that cotton shoot influences the levels of ABA and CKs in leaves and xylem sap. Because the scions had little influence on phytohormone levels in the roots (rootstocks) of all three types of grafts and rootstock xylem sap (collected below the graft union) of Y and inverted Y grafts, it appears that the site for basipetal feedback signal(s) involved in the regulation of xylem phytohormones is the hypocotyl of cotton seedlings. Also, the target of this feedback signal(s) is more likely to be the changes in xylem phytohormones within tissues of the hypocotyl rather than the export of phytohormones from the roots.

  12. Going with the flow: N resourcing in macadamia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, A.; Critchley, C.; Schmidt, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Macadamia, large evergreen sub-tropical rainforest trees are the only Australian tree genus to become an economically important food crop. Annual export production from Australian orchards to June 2002 was 12,560 tons nut-in-shell valued at $96m. However, low and variable nut yields represent a major constraint for producers worldwide. Orchard management includes hedging and fertilizer application although how such strategies affect Macadamia physiology and subsequent yield is largely unclear. Our study examined the role of xylem sap for provision of long distance transport of resources to developing tissue. Three techniques were used: (i) a new xylem injection 15 N-labeling method for tissue of branches to identify N sinks within sub-branches, (ii) analysis of 15 N-label distribution patterns following soil application of N-labeled fertiliser, (iii) screening of the composition of endogenous xylem amino N of mature trees in years with different nut yields. The highest rate of 15 N-label incorporation in the dormant period was observed in bark tissue. During vegetative flush, very young flush leaves had a high rate of xylem sap delivered 15 N incorporation. Incorporation N into nuts during premature nut drop between 8-10 weeks post-anthesis was not significantly different between retained and abscised nuts. This suggests that xylem derived N is not the primary factor in determination of premature nut drop. Uptake and transport of soil-applied 15 N-Iabel is rapid and one week after 15 N-label application increased 15 N levels were observed in young flush leaves while youngest mature leaves showed increases in labeling approximately 2 weeks after soil application. In mature trees, the dominant forms of amino N in the xylem are arginine, asparagine, glutamine, aspartate and glutamate accounting for 60-95% of the total amino N in the xylem sap. Increases in arginine preceding flowering in July 2000 were not seen in 2001 suggesting a loss of storage N because

  13. Chemical signals and their interactions change transpiration processes in tomato wild-type and flacca mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokic, Ljiljana; Wollenweber, Bernd; Stikic, Radmila

    2011-01-01

    After the exposure to soil drying treatments, plants alkalize xylem sap. Xylem sap alkalization is not one a chemical signal per se, but it also facilitates the mobilization and redistribution of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Therefore, the objective of this paper was to investigate...

  14. Use of gold nanoparticles to detect water uptake in vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bae Geun; Ahn, Sungsook; Lee, Sang Joon

    2014-01-01

    Direct visualization of water-conducting pathways and sap flows in xylem vessels is important for understanding the physiology of vascular plants and their sap ascent. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) combined with synchrotron X-ray imaging technique is a new promising tool for investigating plant hydraulics in opaque xylem vessels of vascular plants. However, in practical applications of AuNPs for real-time quantitative visualization of sap flows, their interaction with a vascular network needs to be verified in advance. In this study, the effect of AuNPs on the water-refilling function of xylem vessels is experimentally investigated with three monocot species. Discrepancy in the water uptakes starts to appear at about 20 min to 40 min after the supply of AuNP solution to the test plant by the possible gradual accumulation of AuNPs on the internal structures of vasculature. However conclusively, it is observed that the water-refilling speeds in individual xylem vessels are virtually unaffected by hydrophilically surface-modified AuNPs (diameter ∼20 nm). Therefore, the AuNPs can be effectively used as flow tracers in the xylem vessels in the first 20∼30 min without any physiological barrier. As a result, AuNPs are found to be useful for visualizing various fluid dynamic phenomena occurring in vascular plants.

  15. Anatomical regulation of ice nucleation and cavitation helps trees to survive freezing and drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, A.; Hölttä, T.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-01-01

    Water in the xylem, the water transport system of plants, is vulnerable to freezing and cavitation, i.e. to phase change from liquid to ice or gaseous phase. The former is a threat in cold and the latter in dry environmental conditions. Here we show that a small xylem conduit diameter, which has previously been shown to be associated with lower cavitation pressure thus making a plant more drought resistant, is also associated with a decrease in the temperature required for ice nucleation in the xylem. Thus the susceptibility of freezing and cavitation are linked together in the xylem of plants. We explain this linkage by the regulation of the sizes of the nuclei catalysing freezing and drought cavitation. Our results offer better understanding of the similarities of adaption of plants to cold and drought stress, and offer new insights into the ability of plants to adapt to the changing environment. PMID:23778457

  16. Histopathological study of response of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon to bark and wood injury with and without inoculation by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme POUZOULET

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Pch is one of the main causal agents of tracheomycosis in grapevine. We characterize how this fungus affects the response of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon to bark and xylem-tissue wounding after six weeks post-treatment. A histological investigation shows that, in xylem tissue, cell-wall modifications in response to wounding are related to suberin deposits rather than to lignin-induced wall thickening. The xylem response does not appear to be disturbed by Pch infection. Therefore, cell-wall modification strongly inhibits the development of wound-closure tissue (WCT but does not prevent the differentiation of the necro-phylactic periderm. Hyphae localization in tissue surrounding the wound or inoculation sites indicates that Pch colonizes all cell types, such as vascular tissues, paratracheal parenchyma cells, fibers and rays. The results also suggest that efficient compartmentalization separating fascicular xylem portions is assured by thick suberized cell walls bordering the ray parenchyma.

  17. Influence of soil texture on hydraulic properties and water relations of a dominant warm-desert phreatophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultine, K R; Koepke, D F; Pockman, W T; Fravolini, A; Sperry, J S; Williams, D G

    2006-03-01

    We investigated hydraulic constraints on water uptake by velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina Woot.) at a site with sandy-loam soil and at a site with loamy-clay soil in southeastern Arizona, USA. We predicted that trees on sandy-loam soil have less negative xylem and soil water potentials during drought and a lower resistance to xylem cavitation, and reach E(crit) (the maximum steady-state transpiration rate without hydraulic failure) at higher soil water potentials than trees on loamy-clay soil. However, minimum predawn leaf xylem water potentials measured during the height of summer drought were significantly lower at the sandy-loam site (-3.5 +/- 0.1 MPa; all errors are 95% confidence limits) than at the loamy-clay site (-2.9 +/- 0.1 MPa). Minimum midday xylem water potentials also were lower at the sandy-loam site (-4.5 +/- 0.1 MPa) than at the loamy-clay site (-4.0 +/- 0.1 MPa). Despite the differences in leaf water potentials, there were no significant differences in either root or stem xylem embolism, mean cavitation pressure or Psi(95) (xylem water potential causing 95% cavitation) between trees at the two sites. A soil-plant hydraulic model parameterized with the field data predicted that E(crit) approaches zero at a substantially higher bulk soil water potential (Psi(s)) on sandy-loam soil than on loamy-clay soil, because of limiting rhizosphere conductance. The model predicted that transpiration at the sandy-loam site is limited by E(crit) and is tightly coupled to Psi(s) over much of the growing season, suggesting that seasonal transpiration fluxes at the sandy-loam site are strongly linked to intra-annual precipitation pulses. Conversely, the model predicted that trees on loamy-clay soil operate below E(crit) throughout the growing season, suggesting that fluxes on fine-textured soils are closely coupled to inter-annual changes in precipitation. Information on the combined importance of xylem and rhizosphere constraints to leaf water supply across soil

  18. Hydraulic Limits on Maximum Plant Transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Katul, G. G.; Palmroth, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Porporato, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through transpiration. As a consequence of this basic carbon-water interaction at the leaf level, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchanges are tightly coupled to transpiration. In this contribution, the hydraulic constraints that limit transpiration rates under well-watered conditions are examined across plant functional types and climates. The potential water flow through plants is proportional to both xylem hydraulic conductivity (which depends on plant carbon economy) and the difference in water potential between the soil and the atmosphere (the driving force that pulls water from the soil). Differently from previous works, we study how this potential flux changes with the amplitude of the driving force (i.e., we focus on xylem properties and not on stomatal regulation). Xylem hydraulic conductivity decreases as the driving force increases due to cavitation of the tissues. As a result of this negative feedback, more negative leaf (and xylem) water potentials would provide a stronger driving force for water transport, while at the same time limiting xylem hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation. Here, the leaf water potential value that allows an optimum balance between driving force and xylem conductivity is quantified, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate that can be sustained by the soil-to-leaf hydraulic system. To apply the proposed framework at the global scale, a novel database of xylem conductivity and cavitation vulnerability across plant types and biomes is developed. Conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation are shown to be complementary (in particular between angiosperms and conifers), suggesting a tradeoff between transport efficiency and hydraulic safety. Plants from warmer and drier biomes tend to achieve larger maximum transpiration than plants growing in environments with lower atmospheric water demand. The predicted maximum transpiration and the corresponding leaf water

  19. Outside-xylem pathways, not xylem embolism, drive leaf hydraulic decline with dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf hydraulic supply is crucial to enable the maintenance of open stomata for CO2 capture and plant growth. During drought-induced leaf dehydration, the capacity for water flow through the leaf (Kleaf) declines, a phenomenon surprisingly attributed for the past fifty years solely to the formation o...

  20. Is precipitation a trigger for the onset of xylogenesis in Juniperus przewalskii on the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ping; Rossi, Sergio; Gricar, Jozica; Liang, Eryuan; Cufar, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims A series of studies have shown that temperature triggers the onset of xylogenesis of trees after winter dormancy. However, little is known about whether and how moisture availability influences xylogenesis in spring in drought-prone areas. Methods Xylogenesis was monitored in five mature Qilian junipers (Juniperus przewalskii) by microcore sampling from 2009 to 2011 in a semi-arid area of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. A simple physical model of xylem cell production was developed and its sensitivity was analysed. The relationship between climate and growth was then evaluated, using weekly wood production data and climatic data from the study site. Key Results Delayed onset of xylogenesis in 2010 corresponded to a negative standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) value and a continuous period without rainfall in early May. The main period of wood formation was in June and July, and drier conditions from May to July led to a smaller number of xylem cells. Dry conditions in July could cause early cessation of xylem differentiation. The final number of xylem cells was mainly determined by the average production rate rather than the duration of new cell production. Xylem growth showed a positive and significant response to precipitation, but not to temperature. Conclusions Precipitation in late spring and summer can play a critical role in the onset of xylogenesis and xylem cell production. The delay in the initiation of xylogenesis under extremely dry conditions seems to be a stress-avoidance strategy against hydraulic failure. These findings could thus demonstrate an evolutionary adaptation of Qilian juniper to the extremely dry conditions of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. PMID:25725006

  1. Deciphering the Niches of Colonisation of Vitis vinifera L. by the Esca-Associated Fungus Phaeoacremonium aleophilum Using a gfp Marked Strain and Cutting Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Pierron

    Full Text Available Esca disease has become a major threat for viticulture. Phaeoacremonium aleophilum is considered a pioneer of the esca complex pathosystem, but its colonisation behaviour inside plants remains poorly investigated.In this study, P. aleophilum::gfp7 colonisation was assessed six and twelve weeks post-inoculation in two different types of tissues: in the node and the internode of one year-old rooted cuttings of Cabernet Sauvignon. These processes of colonisation were compared with the colonisation by the wild-type strain using a non-specific lectin probe Alexa Fluor 488-WGA.Data showed that six weeks post-inoculation of the internode, the fungus had colonised the inoculation point, the bark and xylem fibres. Bark, pith and xylem fibres were strongly colonised by the fungus twelve weeks post-inoculation and it can progress up to 8 mm from the point of inoculation using pith, bark and fibres. P. aleophilum was additionally detected in the lumen of xylem vessels in which tyloses blocked its progression. Different plant responses in specific tissues were additionally visualised. Inoculation of nodes led to restricted colonisation of P. aleophilum and this colonisation was associated with a plant response six weeks post-inoculation. The fungus was however detected in xylem vessels, bark and inside the pith twelve weeks post-inoculation.These results demonstrate that P. aleophilum colonisation can vary according to the type of tissues and the type of spread using pith, bark and fibres. Woody tissues can respond to the injury and to the presence of this fungus, and xylem fibres play a key role in the early colonisation of the internode by P. aleophilum before the fungus can colonise xylem vessels.

  2. Bole girdling affects metabolic properties and root, trunk and branch hydraulics of young ponderosa pine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domec, Jean-Christophe; Pruyn, Michele L

    2008-10-01

    Effects of trunk girdling on seasonal patterns of xylem water status, water transport and woody tissue metabolic properties were investigated in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws.) trees. At the onset of summer, there was a sharp decrease in stomatal conductance (g(s)) in girdled trees followed by a full recovery after the first major rainfall in September. Eliminating the root as a carbohydrate sink by girdling induced a rapid reversible reduction in g(s). Respiratory potential (a laboratory measure of tissue-level respiration) increased above the girdle (branches and upper trunk) and decreased below the girdle (lower trunk and roots) relative to control trees during the growing season, but the effect was reversed after the first major rainfall. The increase in branch respiratory potential induced by girdling suggests that the decrease in g(s) was caused by the accumulation of carbohydrates above the girdle, which is consistent with an observed increase in leaf mass per area in the girdled trees. Trunk girdling did not affect native xylem embolism or xylem conductivity. Both treated and control trunks experienced loss of xylem conductivity ranging from 10% in spring to 30% in summer. Girdling reduced xylem growth and sapwood to leaf area ratio, which in turn reduced branch leaf specific conductivity (LSC). The girdling-induced reductions in g(s) and transpiration were associated with a decrease in leaf hydraulic conductance. Two years after girdling, when root-to-shoot phloem continuity had been restored, girdled trees had a reduced density of new wood, which increased xylem conductivity and whole-tree LSC, but also vulnerability to embolism.

  3. Proteomics of plasma membranes from poplar trees reveals tissue distribution of transporters, receptors, and proteins in cell wall formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Robert; Bernfur, Katja; Gustavsson, Niklas; Bygdell, Joakim; Wingsle, Gunnar; Larsson, Christer

    2010-02-01

    By exploiting the abundant tissues available from Populus trees, 3-4 m high, we have been able to isolate plasma membranes of high purity from leaves, xylem, and cambium/phloem at a time (4 weeks after bud break) when photosynthesis in the leaves and wood formation in the xylem should have reached a steady state. More than 40% of the 956 proteins identified were found in the plasma membranes of all three tissues and may be classified as "housekeeping" proteins, a typical example being P-type H(+)-ATPases. Among the 213 proteins predicted to be integral membrane proteins, transporters constitute the largest class (41%) followed by receptors (14%) and proteins involved in cell wall and carbohydrate metabolism (8%) and membrane trafficking (8%). ATP-binding cassette transporters (all members of subfamilies B, C, and G) and receptor-like kinases (four subfamilies) were two of the largest protein families found, and the members of these two families showed pronounced tissue distribution. Leaf plasma membranes were characterized by a very high proportion of transporters, constituting almost half of the integral proteins. Proteins involved in cell wall synthesis (such as cellulose and sucrose synthases) and membrane trafficking were most abundant in xylem plasma membranes in agreement with the role of the xylem in wood formation. Twenty-five integral proteins and 83 soluble proteins were exclusively found in xylem plasma membranes, which identifies new candidates associated with cell wall synthesis and wood formation. Among the proteins uniquely found in xylem plasma membranes were most of the enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis, which suggests that they may exist as a complex linked to the plasma membrane.

  4. Tree differences in primary and secondary growth drive convergent scaling in leaf area to sapwood area across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit, Giai; Arx, von Georg; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Prendin, Angela Luisa; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Caldeira, Maria C.; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Crivellaro, Alan; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Gričar, Jožica; Grönholm, Leila; Hölttä, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Lavrič, Martina; Lintunen, Anna; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Peters, Richard L.; Robert, Elisabeth M.R.; Roig Juan, Sílvia; Senfeldr, Martin; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Camp, Van Janne; Sterck, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Trees scale leaf (AL) and xylem (AX) areas to couple leaf transpiration and carbon gain with xylem water transport. Some species are known to acclimate in AL: AX balance in response to climate conditions, but whether trees of different species acclimate in AL: AX in similar ways over their entire

  5. Coordination of leaf and stem water transport properties in tropical forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick C. Meinzer; David R. Woodruff; Jean-Christophe Domec; Guillermo Goldstein; Paula I. Campanello; Genoveva M. Gatti; Randol Villalobos-Vega

    2008-01-01

    Stomatal regulation of transpiration constrains leaf water potential (ψ l) within species-specific ranges that presumably avoid excessive tension and embolism in the stem xylem upstream. However, the hydraulic resistance of leaves can be highly variable over short time scales, uncoupling tension in the xylem of leaves from that in the...

  6. The DinJ/RelE Toxin-Antitoxin System Suppresses Bacterial Proliferation and Virulence of Xylella fastidiosa in Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Lindsey P; Stenger, Drake C

    2017-04-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapes, is a slow-growing, xylem-limited, bacterial pathogen. Disease progression is characterized by systemic spread of the bacterium through xylem vessel networks, causing leaf-scorching symptoms, senescence, and vine decline. It appears to be advantageous to this pathogen to avoid excessive blockage of xylem vessels, because living bacterial cells are generally found in plant tissue with low bacterial cell density and minimal scorching symptoms. The DinJ/RelE toxin-antitoxin system is characterized here for a role in controlling bacterial proliferation and population size during plant colonization. The DinJ/RelE locus is transcribed from two separate promoters, allowing for coexpression of antitoxin DinJ with endoribonuclease toxin RelE, in addition to independent expression of RelE. The ratio of antitoxin/toxin expressed is dependent on bacterial growth conditions, with lower amounts of antitoxin present under conditions designed to mimic grapevine xylem sap. A knockout mutant of DinJ/RelE exhibits a hypervirulent phenotype, with higher bacterial populations and increased symptom development and plant decline. It is likely that DinJ/RelE acts to prevent excessive population growth, contributing to the ability of the pathogen to spread systemically without completely blocking the xylem vessels and increasing probability of acquisition by the insect vector.

  7. Hydraulic efficiency and safety of vascular and non-vascular components in Pinus pinaster leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Badel, Eric; Burlett, Régis; Cochard, Hervé; Delzon, Sylvain; Mayr, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    Leaves, the distal section of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, exhibit the lowest water potentials in a plant. In contrast to angiosperm leaves, knowledge of the hydraulic architecture of conifer needles is scant. We investigated the hydraulic efficiency and safety of Pinus pinaster needles, comparing different techniques. The xylem hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) and embolism vulnerability (P(50)) of both needle and stem were measured using the cavitron technique. The conductance and vulnerability of whole needles were measured via rehydration kinetics, and Cryo-SEM and 3D X-ray microtomographic observations were used as reference tools to validate physical measurements. The needle xylem of P. pinaster had lower hydraulic efficiency (k(s) = 2.0 × 10(-4) m(2) MPa(-1) s(-1)) and safety (P(50) = - 1.5 MPa) than stem xylem (k(s) = 7.7 × 10(-4) m(2) MPa(-1) s(-1); P(50) = - 3.6 to - 3.2 MPa). P(50) of whole needles (both extra-vascular and vascular pathways) was - 0.5 MPa, suggesting that non-vascular tissues were more vulnerable than the xylem. During dehydration to - 3.5 MPa, collapse and embolism in xylem tracheids, and gap formation in surrounding tissues were observed. However, a discrepancy in hydraulic and acoustic results appeared compared with visualizations, arguing for greater caution with these techniques when applied to needles. Our results indicate that the most distal parts of the water transport pathway are limiting for hydraulics of P. pinaster. Needle tissues exhibit a low hydraulic efficiency and low hydraulic safety, but may also act to buffer short-term water deficits, thus preventing xylem embolism.

  8. Sitios de infección por hongos más frecuentes en la zanahoria (Daucus carota L. y patogenicidad en sus diferentes tejidos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Rivera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungi from carrot roots collected in the field local market were isolated and identified. Sites of natural infection on the root were recorded. Sixteen genera were identified and their pathogenicity tested by  placing them on: not wounded periderm, pericyclic parenchyma, phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. Half of the total fungi was isolated in both field and market samples. The most frequent natural infection sites were the crown, end of the tap root, and lateral roots. In the pathogenicity tests a gradient of resistance was shown varying from a very high level at periderm to a low level at the xylem parenchyma.  Sclerotinia sclerotiorum,  Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium tricinctum, F. nivale, F. solani, F. oxysporum, Fusarium sp., Trichoderma sp. y Gliocladium sp., all penetrated directly throught the periderm and also infected the other tissues. Geotrivhum candidum Rhizopus stolonifer . Verticillium sp., Penicillium so., and Candida sp. did no intect the periderm, but were pathogenic  to the pericyclic, phloem, and xylem parenchyma. Phoma sp. and Mucor sp. only infected phloem and xylem parenchyma.

  9. Rapid hydraulic recovery in Eucalyptus pauciflora after drought: linkages between stem hydraulics and leaf gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Sebastià; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Medrano, Hipólito; Ball, Marilyn C; Choat, Brendan

    2014-03-01

    In woody plants, photosynthetic capacity is closely linked to rates at which the plant hydraulic system can supply water to the leaf surface. Drought-induced embolism can cause sharp declines in xylem hydraulic conductivity that coincide with stomatal closure and reduced photosynthesis. Recovery of photosynthetic capacity after drought is dependent on restored xylem function, although few data exist to elucidate this coordination. We examined the dynamics of leaf gas exchange and xylem function in Eucalyptus pauciflora seedlings exposed to a cycle of severe water stress and recovery after re-watering. Stomatal closure and leaf turgor loss occurred at water potentials that delayed the extensive spread of embolism through the stem xylem. Stem hydraulic conductance recovered to control levels within 6 h after re-watering despite a severe drought treatment, suggesting an active mechanism embolism repair. However, stomatal conductance did not recover after 10 d of re-watering, effecting tighter control of transpiration post drought. The dynamics of recovery suggest that a combination of hydraulic and non-hydraulic factors influenced stomatal behaviour post drought. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Soft valves in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keunhwan; Tixier, Aude; Christensen, Anneline; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Sif; Zwieniecki, Maciej; Jensen, Kaare

    2017-11-01

    Water and minerals flow from plant roots to leaves in the xylem, an interconnected network of vascular conduits that spans the full length of the organism. When a plant is subjected to drought stress, air pockets can spread inside the xylem, threatening the survival of the plant. Many plants prevent propagation of air by using hydrophobic nano-membranes in the ``pit'' pores that link adjacent xylem cells. This adds considerable resistance to flow. Interestingly, torus-margo pit pores in conifers are open and offer less resistance. To prevent propagation of air, conifers use a soft gating mechanism, which relies on hydrodynamic interactions between the xylem liquid and the elastic pit. However, it is unknown exactly how it is able to combine the seemingly antagonist functions of high permeability and resistance to propagation of air. We conduct experiments on biomimetic pores to elucidate the flow regulation mechanism. The design of plant valves is compared to other natural systems and optimal strategies are discussed. This work was supported by a research Grant (13166) from VILLUM FONDEN.

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04691-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 63 ) GQ02748.B3_E01 GQ099: Mixed spruce tissues Picea ... 50 0.11 1 ( DV989931 ) GQ0223.B7_H01 GQ022: ROOT XYLEM - mature trees... Pi... 50 0.11 1 ( DV989830 ) GQ0222.B7_A17 GQ022: ROOT XYLEM - mature trees Pi... 50 0.1

  12. Tissue and cell-specific transcriptomes in cotton reveal the subtleties of gene regulation underlying the diversity of plant secondary cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Colleen P; Birke, Hannah; Chuah, Aaron; Brill, Elizabeth; Tsuji, Yukiko; Ralph, John; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Llewellyn, Danny; Pettolino, Filomena A

    2017-07-18

    Knowledge of plant secondary cell wall (SCW) regulation and deposition is mainly based on the Arabidopsis model of a 'typical' lignocellulosic SCW. However, SCWs in other plants can vary from this. The SCW of mature cotton seed fibres is highly cellulosic and lacks lignification whereas xylem SCWs are lignocellulosic. We used cotton as a model to study different SCWs and the expression of the genes involved in their formation via RNA deep sequencing and chemical analysis of stem and seed fibre. Transcriptome comparisons from cotton xylem and pith as well as from a developmental series of seed fibres revealed tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression of several NAC transcription factors some of which are likely to be important as top tier regulators of SCW formation in xylem and/or seed fibre. A so far undescribed hierarchy was identified between the top tier NAC transcription factors SND1-like and NST1/2 in cotton. Key SCW MYB transcription factors, homologs of Arabidopsis MYB46/83, were practically absent in cotton stem xylem. Lack of expression of other lignin-specific MYBs in seed fibre relative to xylem could account for the lack of lignin deposition in seed fibre. Expression of a MYB103 homolog correlated with temporal expression of SCW CesAs and cellulose synthesis in seed fibres. FLAs were highly expressed and may be important structural components of seed fibre SCWs. Finally, we made the unexpected observation that cell walls in the pith of cotton stems contained lignin and had a higher S:G ratio than in xylem, despite that tissue's lacking many of the gene transcripts normally associated with lignin biosynthesis. Our study in cotton confirmed some features of the currently accepted gene regulatory cascade for 'typical' plant SCWs, but also revealed substantial differences, especially with key downstream NACs and MYBs. The lignocellulosic SCW of cotton xylem appears to be achieved differently from that in Arabidopsis. Pith cell walls in

  13. Are tall trees more sensitive to prolonged drought in tropical per-humid forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Bernhard; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Seasonality of water flux was investigated for common tree species of a Central Sulawesi pre-montane perhumid forest located in the Lore Lindu National Park. Trees were exposed to reduced soil water levels under a rainfall exclusion experiment (Sulawesi Throughfall Displacement Experiment, STD), to simulate drought effects and to monitor species-specific short-term responses to extended water stress. Several climate scenarios predict more frequent occurrence of ENSO droughts with increasing severity induced by global warming. Detailed assessments of the ecological consequences of droughts in perhumid forests are scarce and knowledge whether and how these ecosystems are adapted to severe droughts is limited. Key research questions were: (1) how do tall rainforest trees cope with long pathways under low evaporative demand, (2) how sensitive are trees from tropical perhumid forests and how do they acclimate to drought-stress and 3) does wood density determine the drought sensitivity of perhumid forest trees? From June 2007 until October 2009 we monitored 95 trees from 8 common tree species. Half of them were located under the STD Experiment and the other half in control areas. We used the constant heated method to continuously monitor stem xylem flux density and conduct parallel measurements of xylem anatomy and hydraulic conductivity in twigs, stems and roots. After almost 22 months of experimental drought only 25% of xylem flux density reduction was observed in the experimental trees. But the reaction to water stress was species-specific and in some species xylem flux went down to 50 % compared to the individuals located at the control plots. Wood density did not correlate with any hydraulic measurement, but anatomy and hydraulic architecture observations showed a positive correlation between xylem conductivity and vessel size with tree height. These results reveal a well adapted hydraulic system of tall canopy trees allowing for highly efficient water flow under

  14. Large-scale transcriptional profiling of lignified tissues in Tectona grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Esteban; Vasconcelos, Tarcísio Sales; Vidal, Mabel; Mejia-Guerra, Maria Katherine; Carrer, Helaine

    2015-09-15

    Currently, Tectona grandis is one of the most valuable trees in the world and no transcript dataset related to secondary xylem is available. Considering how important the secondary xylem and sapwood transition from young to mature trees is, little is known about the expression differences between those successional processes and which transcription factors could regulate lignin biosynthesis in this tropical tree. Although MYB transcription factors are one of the largest superfamilies in plants related to secondary metabolism, it has not yet been characterized in teak. These results will open new perspectives for studies of diversity, ecology, breeding and genomic programs aiming to understand deeply the biology of this species. We present a widely expressed gene catalog for T. grandis using Illumina technology and the de novo assembly. A total of 462,260 transcripts were obtained, with 1,502 and 931 genes differentially expressed for stem and branch secondary xylem, respectively, during age transition. Analysis of stem and branch secondary xylem indicates substantial similarity in gene ontologies including carbohydrate enzymes, response to stress, protein binding, and allowed us to find transcription factors and heat-shock proteins differentially expressed. TgMYB1 displays a MYB domain and a predicted coiled-coil (CC) domain, while TgMYB2, TgMYB3 and TgMYB4 showed R2R3-MYB domain and grouped with MYBs from several gymnosperms and flowering plants. TgMYB1, TgMYB4 and TgCES presented higher expression in mature secondary xylem, in contrast with TgMYB2, TgHsp1, TgHsp2, TgHsp3, and TgBi whose expression is higher in young lignified tissues. TgMYB3 is expressed at lower level in secondary xylem. Expression patterns of MYB transcription factors and heat-shock proteins in lignified tissues are dissimilar when tree development was evaluated, obtaining more expression of TgMYB1 and TgMYB4 in lignified tissues of 60-year-old trees, and more expression in TgHsp1, TgHsp2, Tg

  15. Structure-function relationships in sapwood water transport and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Gartner; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2005-01-01

    Primary production by plants requires the loss of substantial quantities of water when the stomata are open for carbon assimilation. The delivery of that water to the leaves occurs through the xylem. The structure, condition, and quantity of the xylem control not only the transport efficiency but also the release of water from storage. For example, if there is high...

  16. The within-season and between-tree distribution of imidacloprid trunk-injected into Acer platanoides (Sapindales: Sapindaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugine, Todd A; Gardescu, Sana; Hajek, Ann E

    2013-04-01

    Norway maple trees, Acer platanoides L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae), that were trunk-injected with imidacloprid as part of an Asian longhorned beetle eradication program, were used to study the temporal and between-tree distribution of imidacloprid in twigs from June through September. The effect of injection time during spring on imidacloprid residues across the summer season and the distribution of imidacloprid in twig bark versus twig xylem were also investigated. Overall, we observed a significant decline in imidacloprid concentrations within each plant part sampled across the study period, although the 19 trees used in the study varied greatly in the pattern of imidacloprid residues over time. The concentration of imidacloprid in twig bark per dry mass was approximately two times higher than that of the twig xylem (means +/- SD of 1.21 +/- 2.16 ppm vs. 0.63 +/- 1.08 ppm imidacloprid, respectively). The majority (> 50%) of whole twig, twig bark and twig xylem samples from injected trees contained 5 ppm imidacloprid, with a maximum of 49 ppm. The concentrations ofimidacloprid in whole twigs, twig bark, and twig xylem were highly correlated, and levels in leaves were correlated with imidacloprid levels in whole twigs.

  17. Illumination on “Reserving Phloem and Discarding Xylem” and Quality Evaluation of Radix polygalae by Determining Oligosaccharide Esters, Saponins, and Xanthones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The root of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. or Polygala sibirica L. exhibits protective effects on the central nervous system and is frequently used to treat insomnia, amnesia, and other cognitive dysfunction. In our study, we studied nine bioactive compounds spanning oligosaccharide esters, saponins, and xanthones by using a sensitive, efficient, and validated method established on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The quantified result of interesting compounds proved that accumulation of those compounds were found in phloem rather than in xylem. By taking the standardized result of nine compound contents into account, the “Spider-web” analytical result of xylem and phloem from Radix polygalae (RP unveiled the rationality of RP’s classical use in clinic including discarding the xylem and reserving the phloem. Moreover, the remarkable variation was also revealed from the quantitative result of 45 samples with different diameters from the different origins, which did not significantly correlate with the variation of RP’s diameter. Our study could shed the light on the quality assessment of RP for further research and illustrate the scientific connotation of the processing method of “discarding the xylem and reserving the phloem”.

  18. Transport and partitioning of CO2 fixed by root nodules of ureide and amide producing legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, C.P.; Boylan, K.L.M.; Maxwell, C.A.; Heichel, G.H.; Hardman, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Nodulated and denodulated roots of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), soybean (Glycine max), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were exposed to 14 CO 2 to investigate the contribution of nodule CO 2 fixation to assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen. The distribution of radioactivity in xylem sap and partitioning of carbon fixed by nodules to the whole plant were measured. Radioactivity in the xylem sap of nodulated soybean and adzuki bean was located primarily (70 to 87%) in the acid fraction while the basic (amino acid) fraction contained 10 to 22%. In contrast radioactivity in the xylem sap of nodulated alfalfa was primarily in amino acids with about 20% in organic acids. Total ureide concentration was 8.1, 4.7, and 0.0 micromoles per milliliter xylem sap for soybean, adzuki bean, and alfalfa, respectively. While the major nitrogen transport products in soybeans and adzuki beans are ureides, this class of metabolites contained less than 20% of the the total radioactivity. When nodules of plants were removed, radioactivity in xylem sap decreased by 90% or more. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that CO 2 fixed by nodules was rapidly transported to shoots and incorporated into acid stable constituents. The data are consistent with a role for nodule CO 2 fixation providing carbon for the assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen in amide-based legumes. In contrast, CO 2 fixation by nodules of ureide transporting legumes appears to contribute little to assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen. 19 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  19. Biological basis of tree-ring formation: a crash course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Barthélémy Karl Rathgeber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wood is of crucial importance for man and biosphere. In this mini review, we present the fundamental processes involved in tree-ring formation and intra-annual dynamics of cambial activity, along with the influences of the environmental factors. During wood formation, new xylem cells produced by the cambium are undergoing profound transformations, passing through successive differentiation stages, which enable them to perform their functions in trees. Xylem cell formation can be divided in five major phases: (1 the division of a cambial mother cell that creates a new cell; (2 the enlargement of this newly formed cell; (3 the deposition of its secondary wall; (4 the lignification of its cell wall; and finally, (5 its programmed cell death. In most regions of the world cambial activity follows a seasonal cycle. At the beginning of the growing season, when temperature increases, the cambium resumes activity, producing new xylem cells. These cells are disposed along radial files, and start their differentiation program according to their birth date, creating typical developmental strips in the forming xylem. The width of these strips smoothly changes along the growing season. Finally, when climatic conditions deteriorate (temperature or water availability in particular, cambial activity stops, soon followed by cell enlargement, and later on by secondary wall deposition. Without a clear understanding of the xylem formation process, it is not possible to comprehend how annual growth rings and typical wood structures are formed, recording seasonal variations of the environment as well as extreme climatic events.

  20. Early changes of the pH of the apoplast are different in leaves, stem and roots of Vicia faba L. under declining water availability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karuppanapandian, T.; Geilfus, C.M.; Muehling, K.H.; Novák, Ondřej; Gloser, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 255, FEB (2017), s. 51-58 ISSN 0168-9452 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : xylem sap constituents * abscisic-acid * stomatal conductance * leaf apoplast * helianthus-annuus * plant-responses * intact plants * nacl stress * drying soil * guard-cells * Drought stress * Abscisic acid * Soil drying * Xylem sap * Osmolality * Water relations * Leaf water potential Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.437, year: 2016

  1. Evolutionary and ecological perspectives of Late Paleozoic ferns. Part III. Anachoropterid ferns (including Anachoropteris, Tubicaulis, the Sermayaceae, Kaplanopteridaceae and Psalixochlaenaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Galtier, Jean; Phillips, Tom L.

    2014-01-01

    The anachoropterid ferns, previously assigned to the family Anachoropteridaceae, are a group of anatomically preserved late Paleozoic filicalean ferns characterized by a C-shaped foliar xylem with abaxially recurved arms (inversicatenalean anatomy) and two main protoxylem strands. The variously curved to strongly inrolled foliar xylem certainly reflects different evolutionary trends within the morphogenus Anachoropteris. The occurrence of two groups of Tubicaulis is supported by differences i...

  2. Quantitative proteomics reveals protein profiles underlying major transitions in aspen wood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obudulu, Ogonna; Bygdell, Joakim; Sundberg, Björn; Moritz, Thomas; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Trygg, Johan; Wingsle, Gunnar

    2016-02-18

    Wood development is of outstanding interest both to basic research and industry due to the associated cellulose and lignin biomass production. Efforts to elucidate wood formation (which is essential for numerous aspects of both pure and applied plant science) have been made using transcriptomic analyses and/or low-resolution sampling. However, transcriptomic data do not correlate perfectly with levels of expressed proteins due to effects of post-translational modifications and variations in turnover rates. In addition, high-resolution analysis is needed to characterize key transitions. In order to identify protein profiles across the developmental region of wood formation, an in-depth and tissue specific sampling was performed. We examined protein profiles, using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry system, in high-resolution tangential sections spanning all wood development zones in Populus tremula from undifferentiated cambium to mature phloem and xylem, including cell expansion and cell death zones. In total, we analyzed 482 sections, 20-160 μm thick, from four 47-year-old trees growing wild in Sweden. We obtained high quality expression profiles for 3,082 proteins exhibiting consistency across the replicates, considering that the trees were growing in an uncontrolled environment. A combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures (OPLS) modeling and an enhanced stepwise linear modeling approach identified several major transitions in global protein expression profiles, pinpointing (for example) locations of the cambial division leading to phloem and xylem cells, and secondary cell wall formation zones. We also identified key proteins and associated pathways underlying these developmental landmarks. For example, many of the lignocellulosic related proteins were upregulated in the expansion to the early developmental xylem zone, and for laccases with a rapid decrease

  3. Pharmacognostical studies of leaves of Combretum albidum G. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish S Zalke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combretum albidum Don belonging to family Combretaceae is an unexplored medicinal plant in the Indian medicinal system. According to ethnobotanical information, the leaves are used in the treatment of peptic ulcer and its fruits are used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Stem bark is used in the treatment of jaundice and skin diseases. The problem encountered in standardisation of this medicinal plant is its identification by source. Materials and Methods: The pharmacognostical studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, florescence and phytochemical analysis. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content and extractive values are determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf components are observed with Nikon lab photo device with microscopic units. Results: Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, obovate in shape, acuminate apex, entire margin and smooth surface. Microscopically, the leaves showed a large vascular strand that consists of thick walled xylem elements mixed with xylem fibres and phloem which is present in a thin layer along inner and outer portions of xylem. External to the xylem occur a thin line of sclerenchyma. Powder microscopy revealed glandular trichomes in the adaxial epidermal peelings also shows the non-glandular trichomes fairly common in powder and epidermis with anisocytic stomata. Vessels elements are narrow, long, cylindrical and dense multi-seriate bordered pits. Xylem fibres are thin and long, with thick walls, which are lignified. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, saponin, flavonoid, phytosterols and phenolic compounds. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of pharmacognostic information as suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications.

  4. The physiological resilience of fern sporophytes and gametophytes: advances in water relations offer new insights into an old lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila ePittermann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ferns are some of the oldest vascular plants in existence and they are the second most diverse lineage of tracheophytes next to angiosperms. Recent efforts to understand fern success have fo-cused on the physiological capacity and stress tolerance of both the sporophyte and the gameto-phyte generations. In this review, we examine these insights through the lens of plant water rela-tions, focusing primarily on the form and function of xylem tissue in the sporophyte, as well as the tolerance to and recovery from drought and desiccation stress in both stages of the fern life cycle. The absence of secondary xylem in ferns is compensated by selection for efficient primary xylem composed of large, closely arranged tracheids with permeable pit membranes. Protection from drought-induced hydraulic failure appears to arise from a combination of pit membrane traits and the arrangement of vascular bundles. Features such as tracheid-based xylem and vari-ously sized megaphylls are shared between ferns and more derived lineages, and offer an oppor-tunity to compare convergent and divergent hydraulic strategies critical to the success of xylem-bearing plants. Fern gametophytes show a high degree of desiccation tolerance but new evidence shows that morphological attributes in the gametophytes may facilitate water retention, though little work has addressed the ecological significance of this variation. We conclude with an emergent hypothesis that selection acted on the physiology of both the sporophyte and gameto-phyte generations in a synchronous manner that is consistent with selection for drought tolerance in the epiphytic niche, and the increasingly diverse habitats of the mid to late Cenozoic.

  5. Seasonal changes in plant-water relations influence patterns of leaf display in Miombo woodlands: evidence of water conservative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinya, Royd; Malhi, Yadvinder; Brown, Nick D; Fisher, Joshua B; Brodribb, Timothy; Aragão, Luiz E O C

    2018-06-15

    Water availability has frequently been linked to seasonal leaf display in seasonally dry ecosystems, but there have been few ecohydrological investigations of this link. Miombo woodland is a dominant seasonally dry tropical forest ecosystem type in southern Africa; however, there are few data on the relationship between seasonal dynamics in plant-water relations and patterns of leaf display for Miombo woodland. Here we investigate this relationship among nine key Miombo woodland tree species differing in drought tolerance ability and leaf phenology. Results of this study showed that seasonal patterns of leaf phenology varied significantly with seasonal changes in stem water relations among the nine species. Leaf shedding coincided with the attainment of seasonal minimum stem water potential. Leaf flush occurred following xylem rehydration at the peak of the dry season suggesting that endogenous plant factors play a pivotal role in seasonal leaf display in this forest type. Drought-tolerant deciduous species suffered significantly higher seasonal losses in xylem hydraulic conductivity than the drought-intolerant semi-evergreen tree species (P water stress in seasonally dry tropical forests selects for water conservative traits that protect the vulnerable xylem transport system. Therefore, seasonal rhythms in xylem transport dictate patterns of leaf display in seasonally dry tropical forests.

  6. Wood cell-wall structure requires local 2D-microtubule disassembly by a novel plasma membrane-anchored protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yoshihisa; Iida, Yuki; Kondo, Yuki; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2010-07-13

    Plant cells have evolved cortical microtubules, in a two-dimensional space beneath the plasma membrane, that regulate patterning of cellulose deposition. Although recent studies have revealed that several microtubule-associated proteins facilitate self-organization of transverse cortical microtubules, it is still unknown how diverse patterns of cortical microtubules are organized in different xylem cells, which are the major components of wood. Using our newly established in vitro xylem cell differentiation system, we found that a novel microtubule end-tracking protein, microtubule depletion domain 1 (MIDD1), was anchored to distinct plasma membrane domains and promoted local microtubule disassembly, resulting in pits on xylem cell walls. The introduction of RNA interference for MIDD1 resulted in the failure of local microtubule depletion and the formation of secondary walls without pits. Conversely, the overexpression of MIDD1 reduced microtubule density. MIDD1 has two coiled-coil domains for the binding to microtubules and for the anchorage to plasma membrane domains, respectively. Combination of the two coils caused end tracking of microtubules during shrinkage and suppressed their rescue events. Our results indicate that MIDD1 integrates spatial information in the plasma membrane with cortical microtubule dynamics for determining xylem cell wall pattern. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Root-to-seed transport and metabolism of fixed nitrogen in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    The great energetic demand of nitrogen fixation to support growth of the exceptionally high-N seeds is certainly a major yield barrier for soybeans. Transport of carbohydrate energy supplies to the root and of fixed nitrogen (N) from the root appear to contribute to the yield barrier, also. N is loaded into the soybean xylem stream principally as allantoin (ALL), and allantonic acid (ALLA), but xylem carries only dilute N and cannot reach the seeds at sufficient rate to support their N needs. Explants consisting of stem and a few leaves and pods were allowed to take up 14 C- and/or 15 N-ALL/ALLA in synthetic xylem sap. The 14 C label was found to become fairly quantitatively immobilized in leaves. The N (and 15 N label) almost certainly is separated from the C( 14 C label) at this time

  8. Varietal differences of quinoa's tolerance to saline conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adolf, Verena Isabelle; Shabala, Sergey; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2012-01-01

    varieties, the Danish variety Titicaca and the Bolivian variety Utusaya gas exchange, chlorophyll content index (CCI), fluorescence and ion relations were studied. Results Responses to salinity differed greatly among the varieties; least affected were two varieties from the Bolivian altiplano and a variety...... from Peru. Titicaca and Utusaya both had substantially increased K+ concentrations in the leaf sap. But, Utusaya was much more efficient in restricting xylem Na+ loading. Xylem Na+ and K+ loading were found to be uncoupled. Utusaya maintained a relatively high stomatal conductance resulting in an only...... 25% NaCl-induced reduction in net CO2 assimilation compared to a 67% reduction in salt treated Titicaca plants. Maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII was not affected by salinity. Conclusion In addition to maintaining high gas exchange, tolerant varieties better control xylem Na+ loading. To what...

  9. Ingestão de seiva do xilema de laranjeiras 'Pêra' e 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck sadias e infectadas por Xylella fastidiosa, pelas cigarrinhas vetoras Oncometopia facialis e Dilobopterus costalimai (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae Xylem sap ingestion form healthy "Pera" and "Valencia" sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and infected ones by Xylella fastidiosa, Oncometopia facialis and Dilobopterus costalimai (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Montesino

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da infecção pela bactéria Xylella fastidiosa, agente causal da Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC, sobre a taxa de ingestão de seiva do xilema de plantas cítricas por duas espécies de cigarrinhas vetoras (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. Foram utilizados pés-francos de laranjeira-doce (Citrus sinensis das variedades 'Pêra' e 'Valência', infectadas por X. fastidiosa da linhagem 9a5c, por meio de inoculação mecânica. Os insetos utilizados nos experimentos foram coletados em campo, sendo um representante da Tribo Cicadellini (Dilobopterus costalimai e um da Proconiini (Oncometopia facialis. A taxa de ingestão de seiva do xilema por O. facialis foi quantificada nos ramos das plantas e a de D. costalimai nas folhas e ramos, por meio da avaliação do volume do líquido (honeydew excretado por unidade de tempo. O consumo pela cigarrinha O. facialis nas plantas doentes foi menor do que nas plantas sadias. Na variedade 'Pêra' doente, o consumo foi baixo, não permitindo a quantificação da seiva eliminada. Na 'Pêra' sadia e na 'Valência' doente e sadia, O. facialis apresentou valores expressivos de excreção, com maior alimentação no período diurno. Nas plantas sadias das duas variedades, o consumo pela cigarrinha D. costalimai foi maior do que nas plantas com CVC. Comparando-se as variedades, o consumo foi superior na variedade 'Valência', e, em relação às partes da planta, folha e ramo, a taxa de ingestão foi maior no ramo das duas variedades, apresentando consumo maior no período diurno.It was studied the effect of Xylella fastidiosa infection, causal agent of Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC, on the xylem sap ingestion rate of citrus plants by two sharpshooters species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. Seedlings of sweet orange Pera and Valencia (Citrus sinensis were used and infected by X. fastidiosa, strain 9a5c, obtained by mechanical inoculation. The insects used in the experiments were collected in the field, one

  10. Variation in the wood anatomical structure of Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae) trees at different ecological conditions in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    MOYA, Roger; FO, Mario Tomazello

    2008-01-01

    The tree Gmelina arborea has been widely introduced in Costa Rica for commercial purposes. This new conditions for melina cause variations on anatomy in secondary xylem of the trees growing in plantations. The objective of the present research was to determine the variation in the anatomy of xylem caused by the ecological conduction variation. Dimensions of fiber, axial parenchyma percentage of cross sections, parameters of vessels and the ray were measured. The results showed that some anato...

  11. The role of water channel proteins in facilitating recovery of leaf hydraulic conductance from water stress in Populus trichocarpa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Laur

    Full Text Available Gas exchange is constrained by the whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kplant. Leaves account for an important fraction of Kplant and may therefore represent a major determinant of plant productivity. Leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf decreases with increasing water stress, which is due to xylem embolism in leaf veins and/or the properties of the extra-xylary pathway. Water flow through living tissues is facilitated and regulated by water channel proteins called aquaporins (AQPs. Here we assessed changes in the hydraulic conductance of Populus trichocarpa leaves during a dehydration-rewatering episode. While leaves were highly sensitive to drought, Kleaf recovered only 2 hours after plants were rewatered. Recovery of Kleaf was absent when excised leaves were bench-dried and subsequently xylem-perfused with a solution containing AQP inhibitors. We examined the expression patterns of 12 highly expressed AQP genes during a dehydration-rehydration episode to identify isoforms that may be involved in leaf hydraulic adjustments. Among the AQPs tested, several genes encoding tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs showed large increases in expression in rehydrated leaves, suggesting that TIPs contribute to reversing drought-induced reductions in Kleaf. TIPs were localized in xylem parenchyma, consistent with a role in facilitating water exchange between xylem vessels and adjacent living cells. Dye uptake experiments suggested that reversible embolism formation in minor leaf veins contributed to the observed changes in Kleaf.

  12. Hydraulic properties of rice and the response of gas exchange to water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller, Volker; Lafitte, H Renee; Sperry, John S

    2003-07-01

    We investigated the role of xylem cavitation, plant hydraulic conductance, and root pressure in the response of rice (Oryza sativa) gas exchange to water stress. In the field (Philippines), the percentage loss of xylem conductivity (PLC) from cavitation exceeded 60% in leaves even in watered controls. The PLC versus leaf water potential relationship indicated diurnal refilling of cavitated xylem. The leaf water potential causing 50 PLC (P(50)) was -1.6 MPa and did not differ between upland versus lowland rice varieties. Greenhouse-grown varieties (Utah) were more resistant to cavitation with a 50 PLC of -1.9 MPa but also showed no difference between varieties. Six-day droughts caused concomitant reductions in leaf-specific photosynthetic rate, leaf diffusive conductance, and soil-leaf hydraulic conductance that were associated with cavitation-inducing water potentials and the disappearance of nightly root pressure. The return of root pressure after drought was associated with the complete recovery of leaf diffusive conductance, leaf-specific photosynthetic rate, and soil-leaf hydraulic conductance. Root pressure after the 6-d drought (61.2 +/- 8.8 kPa) was stimulated 7-fold compared with well-watered plants before drought (8.5 +/- 3.8 kPa). The results indicate: (a) that xylem cavitation plays a major role in the reduction of plant hydraulic conductance during drought, and (b) that rice can readily reverse cavitation, possibly aided by nocturnal root pressure.

  13. The role of water channel proteins in facilitating recovery of leaf hydraulic conductance from water stress in Populus trichocarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laur, Joan; Hacke, Uwe G

    2014-01-01

    Gas exchange is constrained by the whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kplant). Leaves account for an important fraction of Kplant and may therefore represent a major determinant of plant productivity. Leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) decreases with increasing water stress, which is due to xylem embolism in leaf veins and/or the properties of the extra-xylary pathway. Water flow through living tissues is facilitated and regulated by water channel proteins called aquaporins (AQPs). Here we assessed changes in the hydraulic conductance of Populus trichocarpa leaves during a dehydration-rewatering episode. While leaves were highly sensitive to drought, Kleaf recovered only 2 hours after plants were rewatered. Recovery of Kleaf was absent when excised leaves were bench-dried and subsequently xylem-perfused with a solution containing AQP inhibitors. We examined the expression patterns of 12 highly expressed AQP genes during a dehydration-rehydration episode to identify isoforms that may be involved in leaf hydraulic adjustments. Among the AQPs tested, several genes encoding tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) showed large increases in expression in rehydrated leaves, suggesting that TIPs contribute to reversing drought-induced reductions in Kleaf. TIPs were localized in xylem parenchyma, consistent with a role in facilitating water exchange between xylem vessels and adjacent living cells. Dye uptake experiments suggested that reversible embolism formation in minor leaf veins contributed to the observed changes in Kleaf.

  14. ERECTA-family receptor kinase genes redundantly prevent premature progression of secondary growth in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikematsu, Shuka; Tasaka, Masao; Torii, Keiko U; Uchida, Naoyuki

    2017-03-01

    Secondary growth is driven by continuous cell proliferation and differentiation of the cambium that acts as vascular stem cells, producing xylem and phloem to expand vascular tissues laterally. During secondary growth of hypocotyls in Arabidopsis thaliana, the xylem undergoes a drastic phase transition from a parenchyma-producing phase to a fiber-producing phase at the appropriate time. However, it remains to be fully elucidated how progression of secondary growth is properly controlled. We focused on phenotypes of hypocotyl vasculatures caused by double mutation in ERECTA (ER) and ER-LIKE1 (ERL1) receptor-kinase genes to elucidate their roles in secondary growth. ER and ERL1 redundantly suppressed excessive radial growth of the hypocotyl vasculature during secondary growth. ER and ERL1 also prevented premature initiation of the fiber differentiation process mediated by the NAC SECONDARY WALL THICKENING PROMOTING FACTORs in the hypocotyl xylem. Upon floral transition, the hypocotyl xylem gained a competency to respond to GA in a BREVIPEDICELLUS-dependent manner, which was a prerequisite for fiber differentiation. However, even after the floral transition, ER and ERL1 prevented precocious initiation of the GA-mediated fiber formation. Collectively, our findings reveal that ER and ERL1 redundantly prevent premature progression of sequential events in secondary growth. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Production of Xylella fastidiosa diffusible signal factor in transgenic grape causes pathogen confusion and reduction in severity of Pierce's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindow, Steven; Newman, Karyn; Chatterjee, Subhadeep; Baccari, Clelia; Lavarone, Anthony T; Ionescu, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The rpfF gene from Xylella fastidiosa, encoding the synthase for diffusible signal factor (DSF), was expressed in 'Freedom' grape to reduce the pathogen's growth and mobility within the plant. Symptoms in such plants were restricted to near the point of inoculation and incidence of disease was two- to fivefold lower than in the parental line. Both the longitudinal and lateral movement of X. fastidiosa in the xylem was also much lower. DSF was detected in both leaves and xylem sap of RpfF-expressing plants using biological sensors, and both 2-Z-tetradecenoic acid, previously identified as a component of X. fastidiosa DSF, and cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid were detected in xylem sap using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. A higher proportion of X. fastidiosa cells adhered to xylem vessels of the RpfF-expressing line than parental 'Freedom' plants, reflecting a higher adhesiveness of the pathogen in the presence of DSF. Disease incidence in RpfF-expressing plants in field trials in which plants were either mechanically inoculated with X. fastidiosa or subjected to natural inoculation by sharpshooter vectors was two- to fourfold lower in than that of the parental line. The number of symptomatic leaves on infected shoots was reduced proportionally more than the incidence of infection, reflecting a decreased ability of X. fastidiosa to move within DSF-producing plants.

  16. Cd and Ni transport and accumulation in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum: implication of organic acids in these processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar eGhnaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The implication of organic acids in Cd and Ni translocation was studied in the halophyte species Sesuvium portulacastrum. Citric, fumaric, malic and ascorbic acids were separated and quantified by HPLC technique in shoots, roots and xylem saps of plants grown on nutrient solutions added with 50 µM Cd, 100 µM Ni and the combination of 50 µM Cd + 100 µM Ni. Results showed that Cd had no significant impact on biomass production while Ni and the combination of both metals drastically affected plant development. Cadmium and Ni concentrations in tissues and xylem sap were higher in plants individually exposed to heavy metal application than in those subjected to the combined treatment Cd + Ni, suggesting a possible competition between these metals for absorption. Both metals applied separately or in combination induced an increase in citrate concentration in shoots and xylem sap but a decrease of this concentration in the roots. However a minor relationship was observed between metal application and fumaric, malic and ascorbic acids. Both observations suggest the implication of citric acid in Cd, Ni translocation and shoot accumulation in S. portulacastrum. The relatively high accumulation of citric acid in xylem sap and shoot of S. portulacastrum could be involved in metal chelation and thus contributes to heavy metal tolerance in this species.

  17. Quantitative and microscopic assessment of compatible and incompatible interactions between chickpea cultivars and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fernández, Daniel; Landa, Blanca B; Kang, Seogchan; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Navas-Cortés, Juan A

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, a main threat to global chickpea production, is managed mainly by resistant cultivars whose efficiency is curtailed by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. We characterized compatible and incompatible interactions by assessing the spatial-temporal pattern of infection and colonization of chickpea cvs. P-2245, JG-62 and WR-315 by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races 0 and 5 labeled with ZsGreen fluorescent protein using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The two races colonized the host root surface in both interactions with preferential colonization of the root apex and subapical root zone. In compatible interactions, the pathogen grew intercellularly in the root cortex, reached the xylem, and progressed upwards in the stem xylem, being the rate and intensity of stem colonization directly related with the degree of compatibility among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races and chickpea cultivars. In incompatible interactions, race 0 invaded and colonized 'JG-62' xylem vessels of root and stem but in 'WR-315', it remained in the intercellular spaces of the root cortex failing to reach the xylem, whereas race 5 progressed up to the hypocotyl. However, all incompatible interactions were asymptomatic. The differential patterns of colonization of chickpea cultivars by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races may be related to the operation of multiple resistance mechanisms.

  18. Quantitative and microscopic assessment of compatible and incompatible interactions between chickpea cultivars and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jiménez-Fernández

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, a main threat to global chickpea production, is managed mainly by resistant cultivars whose efficiency is curtailed by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. METHODOLOGY: We characterized compatible and incompatible interactions by assessing the spatial-temporal pattern of infection and colonization of chickpea cvs. P-2245, JG-62 and WR-315 by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races 0 and 5 labeled with ZsGreen fluorescent protein using confocal laser scanning microscopy. FINDINGS: The two races colonized the host root surface in both interactions with preferential colonization of the root apex and subapical root zone. In compatible interactions, the pathogen grew intercellularly in the root cortex, reached the xylem, and progressed upwards in the stem xylem, being the rate and intensity of stem colonization directly related with the degree of compatibility among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races and chickpea cultivars. In incompatible interactions, race 0 invaded and colonized 'JG-62' xylem vessels of root and stem but in 'WR-315', it remained in the intercellular spaces of the root cortex failing to reach the xylem, whereas race 5 progressed up to the hypocotyl. However, all incompatible interactions were asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: The differential patterns of colonization of chickpea cultivars by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races may be related to the operation of multiple resistance mechanisms.

  19. Classification of Floating Chris Chemicals for the Development of a Spill Response Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    PETROLATUM WAX : CARNAUBA WAX : PARAFFIN TABLE B-2. Non-Toxic, Highly Flammable ACETYLENE TABLE B-3. Slightly Toxic, Noncombustible I-TETRADZCENE ANYL...TURPENTINE 1-TETRADECENE TETRADECANOL n-UNDECYLBENZENE 1-U WDZCEN UNDECANOL VINYL TOLUENE VAX: CARNAUBA WAX : PARAFFIN m-XYLE o-XYLEM! p-XYLEM XYLENOL BLANK...VINYL IUTNYL KIN3 YIM RICKY? NOATILLY VINYL. uuu9CAMATt YP MD DATA Ut IMLY VINYL TOUWN a5 WSWMIT3LR N63ATLY WAX : CAEI.UBA YB MON . Vy TOXIC MU: PAFFIN YB

  20. Root-to-shoot signal transduction in rice under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the impact of salt stress on changes in the level of Abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinins as signal molecules communicated through root-to-shoot in rice. The study focus to investigate the time related changes in the salt induced ABA and cytokinins accumulation concomitant with the changes in water potential and stomatal conductance of salt stressed plants. Seeds of 3 rice varieties were grown in plastic pots in phytotron. The changes in the level of abscisic acid (ABA), transzeatin riboside (t-zr) and 2-isopentyl adenine (2-ipa) were monitored in xylem sap and leaves of three rice varieties viz. BAS-385 (salt-sensitive), BG-402 (moderately tolerant) and NIAB-6 (tolerant). The salt solution (NaCl,1.2 dS m-1) was added to the rooting medium after transplanting when plants were 50 d old. There was delay in response of stomata to salt treatment in BAS-385 as opposed to earlier increase in leaf resistance in BG-402 and NIAB-6. The stem water potential increased sharply in all the varieties following salt treatment but the decrease in stomatal conductance of leaves preceded the decrease in stem water potential. The concentration of xylem ABA increased significantly greatly reaching a peak in BAS-385 much earlier (24 h of salt treatment) than that of other varieties. The ABA accumulation was delayed and the magnitude of ABA accumulation was greater in BG-402 and NIAB-6.The xylem flux of ABA followed a similar pattern. The concentration of xylem t-zr showed a short- term increase in all the varieties but the magnitude of increase was greater in BAS-385 at all the measurements till 96h of salt treatment .The concentration of xylem 2-ipa was higher in BAS-385 till 48 h of salt treatment . The flux of both the t-zr and 2ipa was greater in the tolerant variety 96h after salt treatment. The basal level of ABA and cytokinin appears to play important role in determining the response of a variety to salt stress. The xylem flux of ABA and cytokinin (2-ipa and t

  1. Freezing pattern and frost killing temperature of apple (Malus domestica) wood under controlled conditions and in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramsohler, Manuel; Hacker, Jürgen; Neuner, Gilbert

    2012-07-01

    The freezing pattern and frost killing temperatures of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) xylem were determined by differential thermal analysis and infrared differential thermal analysis (IDTA). Results from detached or attached twigs in controlled freezing experiments and during natural field freezing of trees were compared. Non-lethal freezing of apoplastic water in apple xylem as monitored during natural winter frosts in the field occurred at -1.9 ± 0.4 °C and did not change seasonally. The pattern of whole tree freezing was variable and specific to the environmental conditions. On detached twigs high-temperature freezing exotherms (HTEs) occurred 2.8 K below the temperature observed under natural frosts in the field with a seasonal mean of -4.7 ± 0.5 °C. Microporous apple xylem showed freezing without a specific pattern within a few seconds in IDTA images during HTEs, which is in contrast to macroporous xylem where a 2D freezing pattern mirrors anatomical structures. The pith tissue always remained unfrozen. Increasing twig length increased ice nucleation temperature; for increased twig diameter the effect was not significant. In attached twigs frozen in field portable freezing chambers, HTEs were recorded at a similar mean temperature (-4.6 ± 1.0 °C) to those for detached twigs. Upon lethal intracellular freezing of apple xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) low-temperature freezing exotherms (LTEs) can be recorded. Low-temperature freezing exotherms determined on detached twigs varied significantly between a winter minimum of -36.9 °C and a summer maximum -12.7 °C. Within the temperature range wherein LTEs were recorded by IDTA in summer (-12.7 ± 0.5 to -20.3 ± 1.1 °C) various tiny clearly separated discontinuous freezing events could be detected similar to that in other species with contrasting XPC anatomy. These freezing events appeared to be initially located in the primary and only later in the secondary xylem. During the LTE no

  2. Disruption of the rice nitrate transporter OsNPF2.2 hinders root-to-shoot nitrate transport and vascular development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuge; Ouyang, Jie; Wang, Ya-Yun; Hu, Rui; Xia, Kuaifei; Duan, Jun; Wang, Yaqin; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Mingyong

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved to express some members of the nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter family (NPF) to uptake and transport nitrate. However, little is known of the physiological and functional roles of this family in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Here, we characterized the vascular specific transporter OsNPF2.2. Functional analysis using cDNA-injected Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed that OsNPF2.2 is a low-affinity, pH-dependent nitrate transporter. Use of a green fluorescent protein tagged OsNPF2.2 showed that the transporter is located in the plasma membrane in the rice protoplast. Expression analysis showed that OsNPF2.2 is nitrate inducible and is mainly expressed in parenchyma cells around the xylem. Disruption of OsNPF2.2 increased nitrate concentration in the shoot xylem exudate when nitrate was supplied after a deprivation period; this result suggests that OsNPF2.2 may participate in unloading nitrate from the xylem. Under steady-state nitrate supply, the osnpf2.2 mutants maintained high levels of nitrate in the roots and low shoot:root nitrate ratios; this observation suggests that OsNPF2.2 is involved in root-to-shoot nitrate transport. Mutation of OsNPF2.2 also caused abnormal vasculature and retarded plant growth and development. Our findings demonstrate that OsNPF2.2 can unload nitrate from the xylem to affect the root-to-shoot nitrate transport and plant development. PMID:25923512

  3. Variable conductivity and embolism in roots and branches of four contrasting tree species and their impacts on whole-plant hydraulic performance under future atmospheric CO2 concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domec, J.C.; North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC; Schafer, K.; Oren, R.; Kim, H.S.; McCarthy, H.R.

    2010-01-01

    Tree growth and wood quality are being affected by changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations and precipitation regimes. Plant photosynthesis is likely to be higher under elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, thereby increasing the availability of carbohydrates for growth. This study quantified the effect of elevated CO 2 concentration on anatomical and functional traits related to water transport, gas exchange, water economy and drought tolerance. The conditions under which embolism in the xylem of roots and branches are most likely to occur were investigated on 4 tree species at the Duke Forest free-air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) facility. The trees occupied different canopy strata and represented different xylem types. The study determined whether different xylem anatomies result in a wide range of hydraulic conductance and difference in resistance to cavitation. The link between liquid and gas-phase transport and how it is affected by elevated CO 2 was then quantified. Physiological changes observed under elevated CO 2 were not clearly related to structural change in the xylem of any of the species. The study showed that in some species, elevated CO 2 changed the hydraulic pathways, most likely structurally, thereby affecting the liquid phase transport and reducing stomatal conductance. The results provided a better understanding of the physiological and anatomical mechanisms that determine the responses of tree species to drought, and more generally to global change. 96 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  4. Purification, Characterization, and Cloning of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'malley, D M; Porter, S; Sederoff, R R

    1992-04-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1. 195) has been purified to homogeneity from differentiating xylem tissue and developing seeds of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). The enzyme is a dimer with a native molecular weight of 82,000 and a subunit molecular weight of 44,000, and is the only form of CAD involved in lignification in differentiating xylem. High levels of loblolly pine CAD enzyme were found in nonlignifying seed tissue. Characterization of the enzyme from both seeds and xylem demonstrated that the enzyme is the same in both tissues. The enzyme has a high affinity for coniferaldehyde (K(m) = 1.7 micromolar) compared with sinapaldehyde (K(m) in excess of 100 micromolar). Kinetic data strongly suggest that coniferin is a noncompetitive inhibitor of CAD enzyme activity. Protein sequences were obtained for the N-terminus (28 amino acids) and for two other peptides. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on the protein sequences were used to amplify by polymerase chain reaction a 1050 base pair DNA fragment from xylem cDNA. Nucleotide sequence from the cloned DNA fragment coded for the N-terminal protein sequence and an internal peptide of CAD. The N-terminal protein sequence has little similarity with the lambdaCAD4 clone isolated from bean (MH Walter, J Grima-Pettenati, C Grand, AM Boudet, CJ Lamb [1988] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:5546-5550), which has homology with malic enzyme.

  5. Purification, Characterization, and Cloning of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, David M.; Porter, Stephanie; Sederoff, Ronald R.

    1992-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1. 195) has been purified to homogeneity from differentiating xylem tissue and developing seeds of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). The enzyme is a dimer with a native molecular weight of 82,000 and a subunit molecular weight of 44,000, and is the only form of CAD involved in lignification in differentiating xylem. High levels of loblolly pine CAD enzyme were found in nonlignifying seed tissue. Characterization of the enzyme from both seeds and xylem demonstrated that the enzyme is the same in both tissues. The enzyme has a high affinity for coniferaldehyde (Km = 1.7 micromolar) compared with sinapaldehyde (Km in excess of 100 micromolar). Kinetic data strongly suggest that coniferin is a noncompetitive inhibitor of CAD enzyme activity. Protein sequences were obtained for the N-terminus (28 amino acids) and for two other peptides. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on the protein sequences were used to amplify by polymerase chain reaction a 1050 base pair DNA fragment from xylem cDNA. Nucleotide sequence from the cloned DNA fragment coded for the N-terminal protein sequence and an internal peptide of CAD. The N-terminal protein sequence has little similarity with the λCAD4 clone isolated from bean (MH Walter, J Grima-Pettenati, C Grand, AM Boudet, CJ Lamb [1988] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:5546-5550), which has homology with malic enzyme. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:16668801

  6. Fluorescing macerals from wood precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, S A; Bensley, D F

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary investigation into the origin of wood-derived macerals has established the existence of autofluorescent maceral precursors in the secondary xylem of swamp-inhabiting plant species. The optical character and fluorescent properties of microtomed thin-sections of modern woods from the Florida Everglades and Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia are compared to the character and properties of their peatified equivalents from various Everglades and Okefenokee peat horizons and their lignitic equivalents from the Brandon lignite of Vermont and the Trail Ridge lignitic peat from northern Florida. The inherent fluorescence of woody cell walls is believed to be caused by lignin though other cell wall components may contribute. The fluorescence spectra for several wood and cell types had a ..gamma../sub m//sub a//sub x/ of 452 nm and Q value of 0.00. The color as observed in blue light and the spectral geometry as measured in UV light of peatified and lignitic woody cell walls (potential textinites) may change progressively during early coalification. Cell wall-derived maceral material is shown to maintain its fluorescing properties after being converted to a structureless material, perhaps a corpohuminite or humodetrinite precursor. Fluorescing xylem cell contents, such as condensed tannins or essential oils, can maintain the fluorescent character through early coalification. Xylem cell walls and xylem cell contents are shown to provide fluorescing progenitor materials which would not require subsequent infusion with 'lipid' materials to account for their fluorescence as phytoclast material or as macerals in coal. 35 references.

  7. Mutation of the Arabidopsis NRT1.5 nitrate transporter causes defective root-to-shoot nitrate transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan-Hua; Kuo, Hui-Fen; Canivenc, Geneviève; Lin, Choun-Sea; Lepetit, Marc; Hsu, Po-Kai; Tillard, Pascal; Lin, Huey-Ling; Wang, Ya-Yun; Tsai, Chyn-Bey; Gojon, Alain; Tsay, Yi-Fang

    2008-09-01

    Little is known about the molecular and regulatory mechanisms of long-distance nitrate transport in higher plants. NRT1.5 is one of the 53 Arabidopsis thaliana nitrate transporter NRT1 (Peptide Transporter PTR) genes, of which two members, NRT1.1 (CHL1 for Chlorate resistant 1) and NRT1.2, have been shown to be involved in nitrate uptake. Functional analysis of cRNA-injected Xenopus laevis oocytes showed that NRT1.5 is a low-affinity, pH-dependent bidirectional nitrate transporter. Subcellular localization in plant protoplasts and in planta promoter-beta-glucuronidase analysis, as well as in situ hybridization, showed that NRT1.5 is located in the plasma membrane and is expressed in root pericycle cells close to the xylem. Knockdown or knockout mutations of NRT1.5 reduced the amount of nitrate transported from the root to the shoot, suggesting that NRT1.5 participates in root xylem loading of nitrate. However, root-to-shoot nitrate transport was not completely eliminated in the NRT1.5 knockout mutant, and reduction of NRT1.5 in the nrt1.1 background did not affect root-to-shoot nitrate transport. These data suggest that, in addition to that involving NRT1.5, another mechanism is responsible for xylem loading of nitrate. Further analyses of the nrt1.5 mutants revealed a regulatory loop between nitrate and potassium at the xylem transport step.

  8. Long-distance transport of pertechnetate in the moonflower (Ipomoea alba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Simon J.; Rogiers, Suzy Y.; Currie, Geoffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    The first research on the transport of metastable-technetium-99 ( 99m Tc) in the form of pertechnetate ( 99m TcO 4 − ) within plants suggested that 99m TcO 4 − may be mobile in the phloem. In contrast, more recent evidence indicates the anion is transported in the xylem. Here we demonstrate that observations of 99m Tc transport in the test subject of these initial investigations, the moonflower (Ipomoea alba L.), are incompatible with phloem flow. Rather, the presence of only minute amounts of 99m Tc in typical sinks for phloem solutes and 99m Tc transport out of labeled leaves when shaded but not when illuminated strongly suggest that the radionuclide is transported in the xylem. The study increases confidence in the identification of 99m TcO 4 − as a xylem mobile compound whose distribution in plants can be visualized using nuclear medicine scintigraphic imaging techniques. - Highlights: ► The vascular transport pathway of metastable-technetium-99 in plants is not clear. ► Nuclear medicine techniques were used to obtain images of 99m Tc in the moonflower. ► Translocation of the radionuclide is incompatible with transport by the phloem. ► 99m Tc transport characteristics are those of a xylem-mobile nutrient analog. ► The research has implications for 99m Tc as a tracer and modeling 99 Tc uptake.

  9. 11C-imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorpe, Michael R; Ferrieri, Abigail P; Herth, Matthias Manfred

    2007-01-01

    JA enters the phloem and moves in sieve tube sap along with photoassimilate, but that vigorous exchange between phloem and xylem allows movement in xylem to regions which are sources of photoassimilate. This exchange may be enhanced by the volatility of MeJA, which moved readily between non......-orthostichous vascular pathways, unlike reports for jasmonic acid (which is not volatile). The phloem loading of MeJA was found to be inhibited by parachloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS) (a thiol reagent known to inhibit membrane transporters), and by protonophores carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP...

  10. An evaluation of the environmental fate and behavior of munitions materiel (tetryl and polar metabolites of TNT) in soil and plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to elucidate the nature of the polar metabolites reported for plant tissues and xylem exudates following root accumulation of trinitrotoluene. Studies focused on the nature of the proposed conjugates of TNT-residues in xylem exudates of bush beam plants. Use of enzymatic methods failed to demonstrate that the conjugates were carbohydrate based, but acid hydrolysis indicated that the conjugates may be protein based. Of the five polar conjugates isolated from exudates, the presence of aminodinitrotoluene isomers and one unknown TNT residue was demonstrated

  11. An evaluation of the environmental fate and behavior of munitions materiel (tetryl and polar metabolites of TNT) in soil and plant systems. Preliminary evaluation of TNT-polar metabolites in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to elucidate the nature of the polar metabolites reported for plant tissues and xylem exudates following root accumulation of trinitrotoluene. Studies focused on the nature of the proposed conjugates of TNT-residues in xylem exudates of bush beam plants. Use of enzymatic methods failed to demonstrate that the conjugates were carbohydrate based, but acid hydrolysis indicated that the conjugates may be protein based. Of the five polar conjugates isolated from exudates, the presence of aminodinitrotoluene isomers and one unknown TNT residue was demonstrated.

  12. A new Late Devonian genus with seed plant affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deming; Liu, Le

    2015-02-26

    Many ovules of Late Devonian (Famennian) seed plants have been well studied. However, because few taxa occur with anatomically preserved stems and/or petioles, the vascular system of these earliest spermatophytes is little understood and available data come mostly from Euramerica. There remains great controversy over the anatomical differentiation of Late Devonian and Carboniferous seed plant groups of Buteoxylonales, Calamopityales and Lyginopteridales. Protostele evolution of these early spermatophytes needs more research. A new taxon Yiduxylon trilobum gen. et sp. nov. with seed plant affinities has been discovered in the Upper Devonian (Famennian) Tizikou Formation of Hubei Province, China. It is represented by stems, helically arranged and bifurcate fronds with two orders of pinnae and planate pinnules. Both secondary pinnae and pinnules are borne alternately. Stems contain a small protostele with three primary xylem ribs possessing a single peripheral protoxylem strand. Thick secondary xylem displays multiseriate bordered pitting on the tangential and radial walls of the tracheids, and has biseriate to multiseriate and high rays. A narrow cortex consists of inner cortex without sclerotic nests and sparganum-type outer cortex with peripheral bands of vertically aligned sclerenchyma cells. Two leaf traces successively arise tangentially from each primary xylem rib and they divide once to produce four circular-oval traces in the stem cortex. Four vascular bundles occur in two C-shaped groups at each petiole base with ground tissue and peripheral bands of sclerenchyma cells. Yiduxylon justifies the assignment to a new genus mainly because of the protostele with protoxylem strands only near the periphery of primary xylem ribs, leaf trace origination and petiolar vascular supply structure. It shares many definitive characters with Calamopityales and Lyginopteridales, further underscoring the anatomical similarities among early seed plants. The primary vascular

  13. A Revised Similarity Law in Botanic Describes the Genesis of the Vulnerability Curve Shape in Vascular Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrad, A.; Domec, J. C.; Huang, C. W.; Katul, G. G.

    2017-12-01

    Xylem tissues are specialized in offering the least possible resistance to water flow. However, this is not guaranteed when ascending sap reaches large negative pressures during periods of water stress when embolism within the xylem occurs, an inevitable step toward potential drought-induced mortality. Ongoing research into changing forest patterns and plant survival due to droughts rarely dispute the significance of Vulnerability Curves (VCs), plots that feature loss in relative conductance with declining liquid pressure (ψ). While Earth-Systems models routinely employ various VC functions, the theoretical underpinnings describing their shape remains lacking. VCs are the outcome of microscopic phenomena describing embolism formation, bubble-scale xylem properties allowing embolism spread, and hydraulic processes that dictate the water potential along the flow path. The work here explores how the upscaled version of these gives rise to popular mathematical shapes used to describe VC measurements: The Logistic and Weibull exceedance equations. Each of these two captures a distinct type of embolism spread: The Logistic VC arises when the probability that embolized vessels interact with intact ones describe embolism spread as water pressure decreases (labeled as a similarity law in botanic [1]). The Weibull VC arises when the aforementioned description includes the effects of ψ explicitly. Variability in xylem properties along the flow path is explored analytically using novel approaches borrowed from `super-statistics' and numerical simulations. The numerical simulations intend to single out which xylem network property is significant in describing the VC shape. The model results corroborate previous research (experimental and 3-dimensional high-resolution simulations) on the effect of vessel size and network topology. It is shown that (i) initial embolism locations alter air-seeding pressure and VC slope; (ii) redundancy and size variations decrease bubble

  14. Hydraulic Function in Australian Tree Species during Drought-Induced Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissue, D.; Maier, C.; Creek, D.; Choat, B.

    2016-12-01

    Drought induced tree mortality and decline are key issues facing forest ecology and management. Here, we primarily investigated the hydraulic limitations underpinning drought-induced mortality in three Australian tree species. Using field-based large rainout shelters, three angiosperm species (Casuarina cunninghamiana, Eucalyptus sideroxylon, Eucalyptus tereticornis) were subjected to two successive drought and recovery cycles, prior to a subsequent long and extreme drought to mortality; total duration of experiment was 2.5 years. Leaf gas exchange, leaf and stem hydraulics, and carbon reserves were monitored during the experiment. Trees died as a result of failure in the hydraulic transport system, primarily related to water stress induced embolism. Stomatal closure occurred prior to the induction of significant embolism in the stem xylem of all species. Nonetheless, trees suffered a rapid decline in xylem water potential and increase in embolism during the severe drought treatment. Trees died at water potentials causing greater than 90% loss of hydraulic conductivity in the stem, providing support for the theory that lethal water potential is correlated with complete loss of hydraulic function in the stem xylem of angiosperms.

  15. Soil warming enhances the hidden shift of elemental stoichiometry by elevated CO2 in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangnan; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2016-03-22

    Increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and associated soil warming along with global climate change are expected to have large impacts on grain mineral nutrition in wheat. The effects of CO2 elevation (700 μmol l(-1)) and soil warming (+2.4 °C) on K, Ca and Mg concentrations in the xylem sap and their partitioning in different organs of wheat plant during grain filling were investigated. Results showed that the combination of elevated [CO2] and soil warming improved wheat grain yield, but decreased plant K, Ca and Mg accumulation and their concentrations in the leaves, stems, roots and grains. The reduced grain mineral concentration was attributed to the lowered mineral uptake as exemplified by both the decreased stomatal conductance and mineral concentration in the xylem sap. These findings suggest that future higher atmospheric [CO2] and warmer soil conditions may decrease the dietary availability of minerals from wheat crops. Breeding wheat cultivars possessing higher ability of mineral uptake at reduced xylem flux in exposure to climate change should be a target.

  16. Xylella fastidiosa outer membrane vesicles modulate plant colonization by blocking attachment to surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Michael; Zaini, Paulo A; Baccari, Clelia; Tran, Sophia; da Silva, Aline M; Lindow, Steven E

    2014-09-16

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Gram-negative bacteria have been studied intensively in recent years, primarily in their role in delivering virulence factors and antigens during pathogenesis. However, the near ubiquity of their production suggests that they may play other roles, such as responding to envelope stress or trafficking various cargoes to prevent dilution or degradation by other bacterial species. Here we show that OMVs produced by Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-colonizing plant pathogenic bacterium, block its interaction with various surfaces such as the walls of xylem vessels in host plants. The release of OMVs was suppressed by the diffusible signal factor-dependent quorum-sensing system, and a X. fastidiosa ΔrpfF mutant in which quorum signaling was disrupted was both much more virulent to plants and less adhesive to glass and plant surfaces than the WT strain. The higher virulence of the ΔrpfF mutant was associated with fivefold higher numbers of OMVs recovered from xylem sap of infected plants. The frequency of attachment of X. fastidiosa to xylem vessels was 20-fold lower in the presence of OMVs than in their absence. OMV production thus is a strategy used by X. fastidiosa cells to adjust attachment to surfaces in its transition from adhesive cells capable of insect transmission to an "exploratory" lifestyle for systemic spread within the plant host which would be hindered by attachment. OMV production may contribute to the movement of other bacteria in porous environments by similarly reducing their contact with environmental constituents.

  17. Unique growth strategy in the Earth's first trees revealed in silicified fossil trunks from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong-He; Berry, Christopher M; Stein, William E; Wang, Yi; Tang, Peng; Fu, Qiang

    2017-11-07

    Cladoxylopsida included the earliest large trees that formed critical components of globally transformative pioneering forest ecosystems in the Mid- and early Late Devonian (ca. 393-372 Ma). Well-known cladoxylopsid fossils include the up to ∼1-m-diameter sandstone casts known as Eospermatopteris from Middle Devonian strata of New York State. Cladoxylopsid trunk structure comprised a more-or-less distinct cylinder of numerous separate cauline xylem strands connected internally with a network of medullary xylem strands and, near the base, externally with downward-growing roots, all embedded within parenchyma. However, the means by which this complex vascular system was able to grow to a large diameter is unknown. We demonstrate-based on exceptional, up to ∼70-cm-diameter silicified fossil trunks with extensive preservation of cellular anatomy from the early Late Devonian (Frasnian, ca. 374 Ma) of Xinjiang, China-that trunk expansion is associated with a cylindrical zone of diffuse secondary growth within ground and cortical parenchyma and with production of a large amount of wood containing both rays and growth increments concentrically around individual xylem strands by normal cambia. The xylem system accommodates expansion by tearing of individual strand interconnections during secondary development. This mode of growth seems indeterminate, capable of producing trees of large size and, despite some unique features, invites comparison with secondary development in some living monocots. Understanding the structure and growth of cladoxylopsids informs analysis of canopy competition within early forests with the potential to drive global processes. Published under the PNAS license.

  18. Conifer species adapt to low-rainfall climates by following one of two divergent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodribb, Timothy J; McAdam, Scott A M; Jordan, Gregory J; Martins, Samuel C V

    2014-10-07

    Water stress is one of the primary selective forces in plant evolution. There are characters often cited as adaptations to water stress, but links between the function of these traits and adaptation to drying climates are tenuous. Here we combine distributional, climatic, and physiological evidence from 42 species of conifers to show that the evolution of drought resistance follows two distinct pathways, both involving the coordinated evolution of tissues regulating water supply (xylem) and water loss (stomatal pores) in leaves. Only species with very efficient stomatal closure, and hence low minimum rates of water loss, inhabit dry habitats, but species diverged in their apparent mechanism for maintaining closed stomata during drought. An ancestral mechanism found in Pinaceae and Araucariaceae species relies on high levels of the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) to close stomata during water stress. A second mechanism, found in the majority of Cupressaceae species, uses leaf desiccation rather than high ABA levels to close stomata during sustained water stress. Species in the latter group were characterized by xylem tissues with extreme resistance to embolism but low levels of foliar ABA after 30 d without water. The combination of low levels of ABA under stress with cavitation-resistant xylem enables these species to prolong stomatal opening during drought, potentially extending their photosynthetic activity between rainfall events. Our data demonstrate a surprising simplicity in the way conifers evolved to cope with water shortage, indicating a critical interaction between xylem and stomatal tissues during the process of evolution to dry climates.

  19. A role of TDIF peptide signaling in vascular cell differentiation is conserved among euphyllophytes

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    Yuki eHirakawa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Peptide signals mediate a variety of cell-to-cell communication crucial for plant growth and development. During Arabidopsis thaliana vascular development, a CLE (CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION-related family peptide hormone, TDIF (tracheary element differentiation inhibitory factor, regulates procambial cell fate by its inhibitory activity on xylem differentiation. To address if this activity is conserved among vascular plants, we performed comparative analyses of TDIF signaling in non-flowering vascular plants (gymnosperms, monilophytes and lycophytes. We identified orthologs of TDIF/CLE as well as its receptor TDR/PXY (TDIF RECEPTOR/PHLOEM INTERCALATED WITH XYLEM in Ginkgo biloba, Adiantum aethiopicum and Selaginella kraussiana by RACE-PCR. The predicted TDIF peptide sequences in seed plants and monilophytes were identical to that of A. thaliana TDIF. We examined the effects of exogenous CLE peptide-motif sequences of TDIF in these species. We found that liquid culturing of dissected leaves or shoots was useful for examining TDIF activity during vascular development. TDIF treatment suppressed xylem/tracheary element differentiation of procambial cells in G. bioloba and A. aethiopicum leaves. In contrast, neither TDIF nor putative endogenous TDIF inhibited xylem differentiation in developing shoots and rhizophores of S. kraussiana. These data suggest that activity of TDIF in vascular development is conserved among extant euphyllophytes. In addition to the conserved function, via liquid culturing of its bulbils, we found a novel inhibitory activity on root growth in the monilophyte Asplenium x lucrosum suggesting lineage-specific co-option of peptide signaling occurred during the evolution of vascular plant organs.

  20. Quorum-sensing regulation governs bacterial adhesion, biofilm development, and host colonization in Pantoea stewartii subspecies stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoudis, Maria D; Tsaltas, Dimitrios; Minogue, Timothy D; von Bodman, Susanne B

    2006-04-11

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii synthesizes stewartan exo/capsular polysaccharide (EPS) in a cell density-dependent manner governed by the EsaI/EsaR quorum-sensing (QS) system. This study analyzes biofilm development and host colonization of the WT and QS regulatory mutant strains of P. stewartii. First, we show that the cell density-dependent synthesis of stewartan EPS, governed by the EsaI/EsaR QS system, is required for proper bacterial adhesion and development of spatially defined, 3D biofilms. Second, a nonvirulent mutant lacking the esaI gene adheres strongly to surfaces and develops densely packed, less structurally defined biofilms in vitro. This strain appears to be arrested in a low cell density developmental mode. Exposure of this strain to exogenous N-acyl-homoserine lactone counteracts this adhesion phenotype. Third, QS mutants lacking the EsaR repressor attach poorly to surfaces and form amorphous biofilms heavily enmeshed in excess EPS. Fourth, the WT strain disseminates efficiently within the xylem, primarily in a basipetal direction. In contrast, the two QS mutant strains remain largely localized at the site of infection. Fifth, and most significantly, epifluorescence microscopic imaging of infected leaf tissue and excised xylem vessels reveals that the bacteria colonize the xylem with unexpected specificity, particularly toward the annular rings and spiral secondary wall thickenings of protoxylem, as opposed to indiscriminate growth to fill the xylem lumen. These observations are significant to bacterial plant pathogenesis in general and may reveal targets for disease control.

  1. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies of Helleborus niger L root

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    V Kishor Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helleborus niger L (Ranunculaceae is used Ayurvedic and Unani systems and other herbal medicine systems. The roots of H. niger have a good medicinal value. Aims: To conduct a pharmacognostical and phytochemical study of H. niger. Materials and Methods: The pharmacognostical studies on roots including parameters such as taxonomical, macroscopic, microscopic characters, physico-chemical, ultra-violet analysis and phytochemical studies are established. Results: Macroscopically, the roots are brownish-black in colour, cylindrical in shape, feeble odour, slightly acrid taste with irregularly branched. Microscopically the root showed the presence of epidermis, air-chambers, fissure periderm, periderm, inner cortex, pith, phloem, xylem, vessels and xylem vessels. Microscopic examination of the powder showed the presence of parenchyma cells, parenchyma mass, periderm, cell inclusion, laticifer, lateral wall pith, perforation, xylem bundle and xylem elements. Ultra-violet and ordinary light analyses with different reagents were conducted to identify the drug in powder form. Physico-chemical evaluation established, Ash values - Total, acid insoluble, water soluble and sulphated ash values were 7.3%, 4.1%, 3.7% and 5.2%, respectively. Extractive values - Alcohol soluble, water soluble and ether soluble extractive values were 22.8%, 7.4% and 5.6%, respectively. Loss on drying was 3.3%. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, saponins, flavonoid, phytosterols, tannins and phenolic compounds. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable resource of pharmacognostic and phytochemical information. This will serve as appropriate, standards for discovery of this plant material in future investigations and applications and also contribute towards establishing pharmacopoeial standards.

  2. Development of successive cambia and wood structure in stem of Rivea hypocriteriformis (Convolvulaceae

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    Rajput Kishore S.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the formation of successive rings of cambia in Rivea hypocriteriformis Choisy (Convolvulaceae. The mature stem is composed of four to five rings of xylem alternating with phloem. Successive cambia originate as smaller and larger segments; union and anastomosing of small cambial segments often leads to the formation of discontinuous rings. In the initial stage of growth, several vascular bundles interconnect to form the first ring of vascular cambium. The cambium remains functional for one complete season and becomes dormant during summer; a new ring of cambium is completed prior to the subsequent monsoon season and sprouting of new leaves. Successive cambia are initiated from the pericyclic parenchyma situated three to four cell layers outside of the protophloem. Functionally, all the successive cambia are bidirectional and produce secondary xylem centripetally and phloem centrifugally. The secondary xylem is diffuse-porous, with indistinct growth rings and consisting of wide fibriform vessels, fibre tracheids, and axial and ray parenchyma cells. The xylem rays are uni- to multiseriate and heterocellular. The multiseriate rays contain lignified marginal ray cells and thin-walled, unlignified central cells. The central ray cells also show accumulations of starch and druses. Discrete strands of intraxylary phloem occur at the periphery of the pith, and additional intraxylary phloem develops from adjacent cells as secondary growth progresses. Earlier-formed phloem shows heavy accumulation of callose, followed by its compaction. The development of successive cambia is correlated with extension growth and with the phenology of the plant.

  3. Feeding ecology and evidence for amino acid synthesis in the periodical cicada (Magicicada).

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    Christensen, Hilary; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2011-01-01

    The periodical cicadas of the genus Magicicada (including M. septendecim, M. cassini, and M. septendecula) have the longest juvenile life span of any insect, living underground for 13 or 17 years and feeding exclusively on root xylem fluids. Due to their inaccessible life cycles very little is known about cicada nutrition, despite the fact that members of Magicicada can achieve a very large biomass in woodland habitats east of the Mississippi and hence constitute a major part of the ecosystem where they occur in high densities. Live cicadas were collected at two sites in early June of 2004, during the emergence of Brood X (both M. septendecim and M. cassini were recovered). We used a combination of stable isotopic measurements (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) and multivariate statistical techniques to test for differences in resource acquisition among the cicada species and sexes collected at two locations within the 17-year periodical Brood X range. The amino acid constituents of cicada chitin and organs, plus xylem extracted from a deciduous sapling, were also analyzed. The data show that male and female cicadas have different carbon fractionations, which could reflect differential resource utilization due to oviposition in females. Several essential amino acids for the cicada were absent in xylem. Carbon-isotopic composition of all amino acids in the cicadas was distinctly different from the limited set measured in the xylem. Because of the differences in isotopic composition, we conclude that amino acids were synthesized de novo rather than incorporated directly, most likely produced by endosymbiotic bacteria. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cenozoic climate change shaped the evolutionary ecophysiology of the Cupressaceae conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittermann, Jarmila; Stuart, Stephanie A; Dawson, Todd E; Moreau, Astrid

    2012-06-12

    The Cupressaceae clade has the broadest diversity in habitat and morphology of any conifer family. This clade is characterized by highly divergent physiological strategies, with deciduous swamp-adapted genera-like Taxodium at one extreme, and evergreen desert genera-like Cupressus at the other. The size disparity within the Cupressaceae is equally impressive, with members ranging from 5-m-tall juniper shrubs to 100-m-tall redwood trees. Phylogenetic studies demonstrate that despite this variation, these taxa all share a single common ancestor; by extension, they also share a common ancestral habitat. Here, we use a common-garden approach to compare xylem and leaf-level physiology in this family. We then apply comparative phylogenetic methods to infer how Cenozoic climatic change shaped the morphological and physiological differences between modern-day members of the Cupressaceae. Our data show that drought-resistant crown clades (the Cupressoid and Callitroid clades) most likely evolved from drought-intolerant Mesozoic ancestors, and that this pattern is consistent with proposed shifts in post-Eocene paleoclimates. We also provide evidence that within the Cupressaceae, the evolution of drought-resistant xylem is coupled to increased carbon investment in xylem tissue, reduced xylem transport efficiency, and at the leaf level, reduced photosynthetic capacity. Phylogenetically based analyses suggest that the ancestors of the Cupressaceae were dependent upon moist habitats, and that drought-resistant physiology developed along with increasing habitat aridity from the Oligocene onward. We conclude that the modern biogeography of the Cupressaceae conifers was shaped in large part by their capacity to adapt to drought.

  5. Ecophysiology of the internal cycling of nitrogen in deciduous fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, P.

    2005-01-01

    In EU Countries, society’s expectations and political decisions have pushed the adoption of ecologically sustainable ways to manage orchards. Nitrogen (N) nutrition is a powerful means of controlling growth and fruiting of trees and guidelines for N management now aim to limit fertiliser applications below threshold values in order to reduce N losses. Increasing the effectiveness of the recycling of N pools available in the orchard is a basic step to reduce external N inputs. The availability of the stable isotope 15N as experimental tool has made possible significant advancements in the knowledge of the fluxes of N in the soil-tree system. Within-tree N sources for vegetative tree growth and reproduction include remobilization of winter stored N (within the tree and between the years) and root-shoot-root N recycling (within the tree and within each year). Nitrogen remobilization from storage is the major source of N in spring, until root uptake becomes predominant. As trees age, relatively more N in new growth is derived from storage and trees become relatively less dependent on root N uptake. Specific amino acids and amides have been identified in the xylem sap of several trees, including apple and cherry, that are considered responsible for remobilization of N compounds in spring. Most evidence has been obtained with relatively young trees grown in pot so there is a need for developing new approaches for quantifying N storage by adult trees in the field. Shoot-root transport of N and subsequent xylem reloading at the root level is a normal feature of vascular plants. While qualitative evidence of this phenomenon are based on detailed analysis of phloem and xylem sap, quantifying reloading N in the xylem was approached by comparing the N fluxes in the xylem with the accumulation of N in tree canopy. Results indicate that recycling of N in the xylem is a mechanism by which plants might regulate N uptake by roots. The adoption of stable isotope techniques in tree

  6. Engineering of plants with improved properties as biofuels feedstocks by vessel-specific complementation of xylan biosynthesis mutants

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    Petersen Pia Damm

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-efficient generation of second-generation biofuels requires plant biomass that can easily be degraded into sugars and further fermented into fuels. However, lignocellulosic biomass is inherently recalcitrant toward deconstruction technologies due to the abundant lignin and cross-linked hemicelluloses. Furthermore, lignocellulosic biomass has a high content of pentoses, which are more difficult to ferment into fuels than hexoses. Engineered plants with decreased amounts of xylan in their secondary walls have the potential to render plant biomass a more desirable feedstock for biofuel production. Results Xylan is the major non-cellulosic polysaccharide in secondary cell walls, and the xylan deficient irregular xylem (irx mutants irx7, irx8 and irx9 exhibit severe dwarf growth phenotypes. The main reason for the growth phenotype appears to be xylem vessel collapse and the resulting impaired transport of water and nutrients. We developed a xylan-engineering approach to reintroduce xylan biosynthesis specifically into the xylem vessels in the Arabidopsis irx7, irx8 and irx9 mutant backgrounds by driving the expression of the respective glycosyltransferases with the vessel-specific promoters of the VND6 and VND7 transcription factor genes. The growth phenotype, stem breaking strength, and irx morphology was recovered to varying degrees. Some of the plants even exhibited increased stem strength compared to the wild type. We obtained Arabidopsis plants with up to 23% reduction in xylose levels and 18% reduction in lignin content compared to wild-type plants, while exhibiting wild-type growth patterns and morphology, as well as normal xylem vessels. These plants showed a 42% increase in saccharification yield after hot water pretreatment. The VND7 promoter yielded a more complete complementation of the irx phenotype than the VND6 promoter. Conclusions Spatial and temporal deposition of xylan in the secondary cell wall of

  7. Internalization of Sapovirus, a Surrogate for Norovirus, in Romaine Lettuce and the Effect of Lettuce Latex on Virus Infectivity

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    Esseili, Malak A.; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2012-01-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of food-borne outbreaks, including those that involve lettuce. The culturable porcine sapovirus (SaV) was used as a norovirus surrogate to study the persistence and the potential transfer of the virus from roots to leaves and from outer to inner leaves of lettuce plants. Treatment of lettuce with SaV was done through the roots of young plants, the soil, or the outer leaves of mature plants. Sampling of roots, xylem sap, and inner and outer leaves followed by RNA extraction and SaV-specific real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was performed at 2 h and on postinoculation days (PID) 2, 5, 7, 14, and/or 28. When SaV was inoculated through the roots, viral RNA persisted on the roots and in the leaves until PID 28. When the virus was inoculated through the soil, viral RNA was detected on the roots and in the xylem sap until PID 14; viral RNA was detected in the leaves only until PID 2. No infectious virus was detected inside the leaves for either treatment. When SaV was inoculated through the outer leaves, viral RNA persisted on the leaves until PID 14; however, the virus did not transfer to inner leaves. Infectious viral particles on leaves were detected only at 2 h postinoculation. The milky sap (latex) of leaves, but not the roots' xylem sap, significantly decreased virus infectivity when tested in vitro. Collectively, our results showed the transfer of SaV from roots to leaves through the xylem system and the capacity of the sap of lettuce leaves to decrease virus infectivity in leaves. PMID:22752176

  8. Plant water stress effects on stylet probing behaviors of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated with acquisition and inoculation of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugner, Rodrigo; Backus, Elaine A

    2014-02-01

    ABSTRACT The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is a xylem fluid-ingesting leafhopper that transmits Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al., a plant-infecting bacterium that causes several plant diseases in the Americas. Although the role of plant water stress on the population density and dispersal ofH. vitripennis has been studied, nothing is known about the effects of plant water stress on the transmission of X. fastidiosa by H. vitripennis. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the influence of plant water stress on the sharpshooter stylet probing behaviors associated with the acquisition and inoculation of X. fastidiosa. Electrical penetration graph was used to monitor H. vitripennis feeding behaviors for 20-h periods on citrus [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and almond [Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb] plants subjected to levels of water stress. Adult H. vitripennis successfully located xylem vessels, then performed behaviors related to the evaluation of the xylem cell and fluid, and finally ingested xylem fluid from citrus and almond plants under the tested fluid tensions ranging from -5.5 to -33.0 bars and -6.0 to -24.5 bars, respectively. In general, long and frequent feeding events associated with the acquisition and inoculation of X. fastidiosa were observed only in fully irrigated plants (i.e., >-10 bars), which suggests that even low levels of plant water stress may reduce the spread of X. fastidiosa. Results provided insights to disease epidemiology and support the hypothesis that application of regulated deficit irrigation has the potential to reduce the incidence of diseases caused by X.fastidiosa by reducing the number of vectors and by decreasing pathogen transmission efficiency.

  9. Growth modulation effects of CBM2a under the control of AtEXP4 and CaMV35S promoters in Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keadtidumrongkul, Pornthep; Suttangkakul, Anongpat; Pinmanee, Phitsanu; Pattana, Kanokwan; Kittiwongwattana, Chokchai; Apisitwanich, Somsak; Vuttipongchaikij, Supachai

    2017-08-01

    The expression of cell-wall-targeted Carbohydrate Binding Modules (CBMs) can alter cell wall properties and modulate growth and development in plants such as tobacco and potato. CBM2a identified in xylanase 10A from Cellulomonas fimi is of particular interest for its ability to bind crystalline cellulose. However, its potential for promoting plant growth has not been explored. In this work, we tested the ability of CBM2a to promote growth when expressed using both CaMV35S and a vascular tissue-specific promoter derived from Arabidopsis expansin4 (AtEXP4) in three plant species: Arabidopsis, Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus camaldulensis. In Arabidopsis, the expression of AtEXP4pro:CBM2a showed trends for growth promoting effects including the increase of root and hypocotyl lengths and the enlargements of the vascular xylem area, fiber cells and vessel cells. However, in N. tabacum, the expression of CBM2a under the control of either CaMV35S or AtEXP4 promoter resulted in subtle changes in the plant growth, and the thickness of secondary xylem and vessel and fiber cell sizes were generally reduced in the transgenic lines with AtEXP4pro:CBM2a. In Eucalyptus, while transgenics expressing CaMV35S:CBM2a showed very subtle changes compared to wild type, those transgenics with AtEXP4pro:CBM2a showed increases in plant height, enlargement of xylem areas and xylem fiber and vessel cells. These data provide comparative effects of expressing CBM2a protein in different plant species, and this finding can be applied for plant biomass improvement.

  10. ESKIMO1 disruption in Arabidopsis alters vascular tissue and impairs water transport.

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    Valérie Lefebvre

    Full Text Available Water economy in agricultural practices is an issue that is being addressed through studies aimed at understanding both plant water-use efficiency (WUE, i.e. biomass produced per water consumed, and responses to water shortage. In the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, the ESKIMO1 (ESK1 gene has been described as involved in freezing, cold and salt tolerance as well as in water economy: esk1 mutants have very low evapo-transpiration rates and high water-use efficiency. In order to establish ESK1 function, detailed characterization of esk1 mutants has been carried out. The stress hormone ABA (abscisic acid was present at high levels in esk1 compared to wild type, nevertheless, the weak water loss of esk1 was independent of stomata closure through ABA biosynthesis, as combining mutant in this pathway with esk1 led to additive phenotypes. Measurement of root hydraulic conductivity suggests that the esk1 vegetative apparatus suffers water deficit due to a defect in water transport. ESK1 promoter-driven reporter gene expression was observed in xylem and fibers, the vascular tissue responsible for the transport of water and mineral nutrients from the soil to the shoots, via the roots. Moreover, in cross sections of hypocotyls, roots and stems, esk1 xylem vessels were collapsed. Finally, using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, severe chemical modifications of xylem cell wall composition were highlighted in the esk1 mutants. Taken together our findings show that ESK1 is necessary for the production of functional xylem vessels, through its implication in the laying down of secondary cell wall components.

  11. How do drought and warming influence survival and wood traits of Picea mariana saplings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Lorena; Deslauriers, Annie; Giovannelli, Alessio; Beaulieu, Marilène; Delzon, Sylvain; Rossi, Sergio; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K

    2015-01-01

    Warming and drought will occur with increased frequency and intensity at high latitudes in the future. How heat and water stress can influence tree mortality is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate how carbon resources, stem hydraulics, and wood anatomy and density determine the ability of black spruce saplings to survive daytime or night-time warming (+ 6 °C in comparison with control) in combination with a drought period. Plant water relations, the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates and starch, mortality rate, and wood anatomy and density of saplings were monitored. Warming, in conjunction with 25 d of water deficit, increased sapling mortality (10% and 20% in night-time and daytime warming, respectively) compared with the control conditions (0.8%). Drought substantially decreased gas exchange, and also pre-dawn and mid-day leaf water potential to values close to -3MPa which probably induced xylem embolism (xylem air entry point, P₁₂, being on average around -3MPa for this species). In addition, the recovery of gas exchange never reached the initial pre-stress levels, suggesting a possible loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity associated with cavitation. Consequently, mortality may be due to xylem hydraulic failure. Warmer temperatures limited the replenishment of starch reserves after their seasonal minimum. Lighter wood was formed during the drought period, reflecting a lower carbon allocation to cell wall formation, preventing the adaptation of the hydraulic system to drought. Saplings of black spruce experienced difficulty in adapting under climate change conditions, which might compromise their survival in the future. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Xylogenesis in zinnia (Zinnia elegans) cell cultures: unravelling the regulatory steps in a complex developmental programmed cell death event.

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    Iakimova, Elena T; Woltering, Ernst J

    2017-04-01

    Physiological and molecular studies support the view that xylogenesis can largely be determined as a specific form of vacuolar programmed cell death (PCD). The studies in xylogenic zinnia cell culture have led to many breakthroughs in xylogenesis research and provided a background for investigations in other experimental models in vitro and in planta . This review discusses the most essential earlier and recent findings on the regulation of xylem elements differentiation and PCD in zinnia and other xylogenic systems. Xylogenesis (the formation of water conducting vascular tissue) is a paradigm of plant developmental PCD. The xylem vessels are composed of fused tracheary elements (TEs)-dead, hollow cells with patterned lignified secondary cell walls. They result from the differentiation of the procambium and cambium cells and undergo cell death to become functional post-mortem. The TE differentiation proceeds through a well-coordinated sequence of events in which differentiation and the programmed cellular demise are intimately connected. For years a classical experimental model for studies on xylogenesis was the xylogenic zinnia (Zinnia elegans) cell culture derived from leaf mesophyll cells that, upon induction by cytokinin and auxin, transdifferentiate into TEs. This cell system has been proven very efficient for investigations on the regulatory components of xylem differentiation which has led to many discoveries on the mechanisms of xylogenesis. The knowledge gained from this system has potentiated studies in other xylogenic cultures in vitro and in planta. The present review summarises the previous and latest findings on the hormonal and biochemical signalling, metabolic pathways and molecular and gene determinants underlying the regulation of xylem vessels differentiation in zinnia cell culture. Highlighted are breakthroughs achieved through the use of xylogenic systems from other species and newly introduced tools and analytical approaches to study the

  13. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

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    Louise eComas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length (SRL, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less ‘leaky’ and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g. functional differences between fine and coarse roots needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria and rice (Oryza show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait

  14. Estudo anatômico do xilema secundário da raiz e do caule de Maytenus guyanensis Klotzsch ex Reissek (Celastraceae Anatomic study of secundary xylem of root and stem of Maytenus guyanensis Klotzsch ex Reissek (Celastraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ressiliane Ribeiro Prata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus guyanensis é uma planta medicinal, conhecida popularmente por chichuá, possuindo ação analgésica, antiinflamatória, afrodisíaca e antireumática. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar as características estruturais, da raiz e caule desta espécie como contribuição aos trabalhos anatômicos já realizados para o gênero. O material botânico foi coletado na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, Manaus/AM onde foram selecionados três indivíduos e de cada um deles retirados fragmentos de 1cm³ do caule e raiz. Amostras foram seccionadas em micrótomo de deslize e coradas com safranina e azul de astra. A análise estrutural revelou-se de acordo com o registrado pela literatura para o gênero. O xilema secundário da raiz e do caule apresentam parênquima axial apotraqueal, raios multisseriados, heterogêneos, vasos solitários, de distribuição difusa, uniforme, seção circular, com parede delgada, pontoações intervasculares alternas e areoladas.Maytenus guyanensis, known popularly as chichuá, possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory, aphrodisiac and anti-rheumatic agents. The object of this present wor was the anatomical analysis of material collected of this species at the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve. Stem and root fragments of 1cm were removed from 3 selected individuals. Sections from the stem and root were cut with slide microtome, and stained with astra blue and safranin. The structural analysis of stems and roots was in accordance with the literature available for the Maytenus genus. The secondary xylem of the root and stem presented parenchyma axial apotracheal, multiseriates, heterogeneous rays, solitary vessels, of diffuse distribution, uniform, circular section, with thin wall, bordered and alternate intervascular pits.

  15. Detection of Inulin, a Prebiotic Polysaccharide, in Maple Syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiadong; Ma, Hang; Seeram, Navindra P; Rowley, David C

    2016-09-28

    Maple syrup is a widely consumed plant-derived natural sweetener produced by concentrating xylem sap collected from certain maple (Acer) species. During thermal evaporation of water, natural phytochemical components are concentrated in maple syrup. The polymeric components from maple syrup were isolated by ethanol precipitation, dialysis, and anion exchange chromatography and structurally characterized by glycosyl composition analysis, glycosyl linkage analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Among the maple syrup polysaccharides, one neutral polysaccharide was characterized as inulin with a broad molecular weight distribution, representing the first isolation of this prebiotic carbohydrate from a xylem sap. In addition, two acidic polysaccharides with structural similarity were identified as arabinogalactans derived from rhamnogalacturonan type I pectic polysaccharides.

  16. Noninvasive Measurement of Vulnerability to Drought-Induced Embolism by X-Ray Microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choat, Brendan; Badel, Eric; Burlett, Regis; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Herve; Jansen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic failure induced by xylem embolism is one of the primary mechanisms of plant dieback during drought. However, many of the methods used to evaluate the vulnerability of different species to drought-induced embolism are indirect and invasive, increasing the possibility that measurement artifacts may occur. Here, we utilize x-ray computed microtomography (microCT) to directly visualize embolism formation in the xylem of living, intact plants with contrasting wood anatomy (Quercus robur, Populus tremula × Populus alba, and Pinus pinaster). These observations were compared with widely used centrifuge techniques that require destructive sampling. MicroCT imaging provided detailed spatial information regarding the dimensions and functional status of xylem conduits during dehydration. Vulnerability curves based on microCT observations of intact plants closely matched curves based on the centrifuge technique for species with short vessels (P. tremula × P. alba) or tracheids (P. pinaster). For ring porous Q. robur, the centrifuge technique significantly overestimated vulnerability to embolism, indicating that caution should be used when applying this technique to species with long vessels. These findings confirm that microCT can be used to assess the vulnerability to embolism on intact plants by direct visualization. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Meta-analysis Reveals that Hydraulic Traits Explain Cross-Species Patterns of Drought-Induced Tree Mortality across the Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, W.

    2016-12-01

    Drought-induced tree mortality has been observed globally and is expected to increase under climate change scenarios, with large potential consequences for the terrestrial carbon sink. Predicting mortality across species is crucial for assessing the effects of climate extremes on forest community biodiversity, composition, and carbon sequestration. However, the physiological traits associated with elevated risk of mortality in diverse ecosystems remain unknown, though these could greatly improve understanding and prediction of tree mortality in forests. We performed a meta-analysis on species' mortality rates across 475 species from 33 studies around the globe to assess which traits determine a species' mortality risk. We found that species-specific mortality anomalies from community mortality rate in a given drought were associated with plant hydraulic traits. Across all species, mortality was best predicted by a low hydraulic safety margin - the difference between typical minimum xylem water potential and that causing xylem dysfunction - and xylem vulnerability to embolism. Angiosperms and gymnosperms experienced roughly equal mortality risk. Our results provide broad support that hydraulic traits capture key mechanisms determining tree death and highlight that physiological traits can improve vegetation models' prediction of tree mortality during climate extremes. We conclude with thoughts about a revised framework for future tree mortality research.

  18. Early changes of the pH of the apoplast are different in leaves, stem and roots of Vicia faba L. under declining water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppanapandian, T; Geilfus, C-M; Mühling, K-H; Novák, O; Gloser, V

    2017-02-01

    Changes in pH of the apoplast have recently been discussed as an important factor in adjusting transpiration and water relations under conditions of drought via modulatory effect on abscisic acid (ABA) concentration. Using Vicia faba L., we investigated whether changes in the root, shoot and leaf apoplastic pH correlated with (1) a drought-induced reduction in transpiration and with (2) changes in ABA concentration. Transpiration, leaf water potential and ABA in leaves were measured and correlated with root and shoot xylem pH, determined by a pH microelectrode, and pH of leaf apoplast quantified by microscopy-based in vivo ratiometric analysis. Results revealed that a reduction in transpiration rate in the early phase of soil drying could not be linked with changes in the apoplastic pH via effects on the stomata-regulating hormone ABA. Moreover, drought-induced increase in pH of xylem or leaf apoplast was not the remote effect of an acropetal transport of alkaline sap from root, because root xylem acidified during progressive soil drying, whereas the shoot apoplast alkalized. We reason that other, yet unknown signalling mechanism was responsible for reduction of transpiration rate in the early phase of soil drying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. No evidence for an open vessel effect in centrifuge-based vulnerability curves of a long-vesselled liana (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Anna L; Pratt, R Brandon

    2012-06-01

    Vulnerability to cavitation curves are used to estimate xylem cavitation resistance and can be constructed using multiple techniques. It was recently suggested that a technique that relies on centrifugal force to generate negative xylem pressures may be susceptible to an open vessel artifact in long-vesselled species. Here, we used custom centrifuge rotors to measure different sample lengths of 1-yr-old stems of grapevine to examine the influence of open vessels on vulnerability curves, thus testing the hypothesized open vessel artifact. These curves were compared with a dehydration-based vulnerability curve. Although samples differed significantly in the number of open vessels, there was no difference in the vulnerability to cavitation measured on 0.14- and 0.271-m-long samples of Vitis vinifera. Dehydration and centrifuge-based curves showed a similar pattern of declining xylem-specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) with declining water potential. The percentage loss in hydraulic conductivity (PLC) differed between dehydration and centrifuge curves and it was determined that grapevine is susceptible to errors in estimating maximum K(s) during dehydration because of the development of vessel blockages. Our results from a long-vesselled liana do not support the open vessel artifact hypothesis. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Heavy Metals in Crop Plants: Transport and Redistribution Processes on the Whole Plant Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Page

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Copper, zinc, manganese, iron, nickel and molybdenum are essential micronutrients for plants. However, when present in excess they may damage the plant or decrease the quality of harvested plant products. Some other heavy metals such as cadmium, lead or mercury are not needed by plants and represent pollutants. The uptake into the roots, the loading into the xylem, the acropetal transport to the shoot with the transpiration stream and the further redistribution in the phloem are crucial for the distribution in aerial plant parts. This review is focused on long-distance transport of heavy metals via xylem and phloem and on interactions between the two transport systems. Phloem transport is the basis for the redistribution within the shoot and for the accumulation in fruits and seeds. Solutes may be transferred from the xylem to the phloem (e.g., in the small bundles in stems of cereals, in minor leaf veins. Nickel is highly phloem-mobile and directed to expanding plant parts. Zinc and to a lesser degree also cadmium are also mobile in the phloem and accumulate in meristems (root tips, shoot apex, axillary buds. Iron and manganese are characterized by poor phloem mobility and are retained in older leaves.

  1. BACOPA MONNIERI (L. PENNELL –A GOOD BIOMARKER OF WATER POLLUTION/CONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain. K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of water pollution on Bacopa monnieri was studied by culturing their rooted propagules in various polluted water samples and Hoagland nutrient medium artificially contaminated with different micro-level concentrations of HgCl2. Anatomical observations of those plants showed safranin-stained masses deposited in the xylem vessels of stem. The plants treated in chemical solutions which are free from metallic ions, under threshold level of HgCl2, and control plants were devoid of such deposits. Similar deposits were observed in plants cultured in various local water samples. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric analyses of these water samples and the bioaccumulation property of the plant detected the presence of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn at various levels. The occurrence of the localized stained deposits in the xylem vessels of the stem of the plants cultured in polluted/contaminated aqueous medium, eventhough the growth medium contamination is micro-levels, is indicative of high sensitivity of Bacopa monnieri plants towards water pollution irrespective of the chemical nature of the pollutants. Although these stained deposits are not specific to any individual element that causes pollution, detection of water contamination is possible by observing the safranin-stained masses in the xylem vessels of this medicinal plant.

  2. Testing hypotheses that link wood anatomy to cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in the genus Acer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Frederic; Sperry, John S; Christman, Mairgareth A; Choat, Brendan; Rabaey, David; Jansen, Steven

    2011-05-01

    • Vulnerability to cavitation and conductive efficiency depend on xylem anatomy. We tested a large range of structure-function hypotheses, some for the first time, within a single genus to minimize phylogenetic 'noise' and maximize detection of functionally relevant variation. • This integrative study combined in-depth anatomical observations using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy of seven Acer taxa, and compared these observations with empirical measures of xylem hydraulics. • Our results reveal a 2 MPa range in species' mean cavitation pressure (MCP). MCP was strongly correlated with intervessel pit structure (membrane thickness and porosity, chamber depth), weakly correlated with pit number per vessel, and not related to pit area per vessel. At the tissue level, there was a strong correlation between MCP and mechanical strength parameters, and some of the first evidence is provided for the functional significance of vessel grouping and thickenings on inner vessel walls. In addition, a strong trade-off was observed between xylem-specific conductivity and MCP. Vessel length and intervessel wall characteristics were implicated in this safety-efficiency trade-off. • Cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in Acer appear to be controlled by a very complex interaction between tissue, vessel network and pit characteristics. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Identification of a Stelar-Localized Transport Protein That Facilitates Root-to-Shoot Transfer of Chloride in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo; Byrt, Caitlin; Qiu, Jiaen; Baumann, Ute; Hrmova, Maria; Evrard, Aurelie; Johnson, Alexander A T; Birnbaum, Kenneth D.; Mayo, Gwenda M.; Jha, Deepa; Henderson, Sam W.; Tester, Mark A.; Gilliham, Mathew; Roy, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Under saline conditions, higher plants restrict the accumulation of chloride ions (Cl–) in the shoot by regulating their transfer from the root symplast into the xylem-associated apoplast. To identify molecular mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon, we undertook a transcriptional screen of salt stressed Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Microarrays, quantitative RT-PCR, and promoter-GUS fusions identified a candidate gene involved in Cl– xylem loading from the Nitrate transporter 1/Peptide Transporter family (NPF2.4). This gene was highly expressed in the root stele compared to the cortex, and its expression decreased after exposure to NaCl or abscisic acid. NPF2.4 fused to fluorescent proteins, expressed either transiently or stably, was targeted to the plasma membrane. Electrophysiological analysis of NPF2.4 in Xenopus laevis oocytes suggested that NPF2.4 catalyzed passive Cl– efflux out of cells and was much less permeable to NO3−. Shoot Cl– accumulation was decreased following NPF2.4 artificial microRNA knockdown, whereas it was increased by overexpression of NPF2.4. Taken together, these results suggest that NPF2.4 is involved in long-distance transport of Cl– in plants, playing a role in the loading and the regulation of Cl– loading into the xylem of Arabidopsis roots during salinity stress.

  4. Transpiration directly regulates the emissions of water-soluble short-chained OVOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, K; Hölttä, T; Bäck, J

    2018-04-20

    Most plant-based emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are considered mainly temperature dependent. However, certain oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) have high water solubility; thus, also stomatal conductance could regulate their emissions from shoots. Due to their water solubility and sources in stem and roots, it has also been suggested that their emissions could be affected by transport in xylem sap. Yet, further understanding on the role of transport has been lacking until present. We used shoot-scale long-term dynamic flux data from Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) to analyse the effects of transpiration and transport in xylem sap flow on emissions of three water soluble OVOC: methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde. We found a direct effect of transpiration on the shoot emissions of the three OVOCs. The emissions were best explained by a regression model that combined linear transpiration and exponential temperature effects. In addition, a structural equation model indicated that stomatal conductance affects emissions mainly indirectly, by regulating transpiration. A part of temperature's effect is also indirect. The tight coupling of shoot emissions to transpiration clearly evidences that these OVOCs are transported in xylem sap from their sources in roots and stem to leaves and to ambient air. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of a Stelar-Localized Transport Protein That Facilitates Root-to-Shoot Transfer of Chloride in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2015-12-11

    Under saline conditions, higher plants restrict the accumulation of chloride ions (Cl–) in the shoot by regulating their transfer from the root symplast into the xylem-associated apoplast. To identify molecular mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon, we undertook a transcriptional screen of salt stressed Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Microarrays, quantitative RT-PCR, and promoter-GUS fusions identified a candidate gene involved in Cl– xylem loading from the Nitrate transporter 1/Peptide Transporter family (NPF2.4). This gene was highly expressed in the root stele compared to the cortex, and its expression decreased after exposure to NaCl or abscisic acid. NPF2.4 fused to fluorescent proteins, expressed either transiently or stably, was targeted to the plasma membrane. Electrophysiological analysis of NPF2.4 in Xenopus laevis oocytes suggested that NPF2.4 catalyzed passive Cl– efflux out of cells and was much less permeable to NO3−. Shoot Cl– accumulation was decreased following NPF2.4 artificial microRNA knockdown, whereas it was increased by overexpression of NPF2.4. Taken together, these results suggest that NPF2.4 is involved in long-distance transport of Cl– in plants, playing a role in the loading and the regulation of Cl– loading into the xylem of Arabidopsis roots during salinity stress.

  6. Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation.

  7. Heavy browsing affects the hydraulic capacity of Ceanothus rigidus (Rhamnaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittermann, Jarmila; Lance, Jonathan; Poster, Lauren; Baer, Alex; Fox, Laurel R

    2014-07-01

    Defoliation by herbivores can reduce carbon assimilation, change plant water relations, and even shift the biotic structure of plant communities. In this study, we took advantage of a long-term deer exclosure experiment to examine the consequences of persistent deer herbivory on plant water relations and the xylem structure-function relationships in Ceanothus rigidus, a maritime chaparral shrub in coastal California. Browsed plants had thicker stems with many intertwined short distal twigs, and significantly higher sapwood-to-leaf area ratios than their non-browsed counterparts. Leaf area-specific hydraulic conductivity was similar in both browsed and non-browsed plants, but xylem area-specific conductivity was significantly lower in the browsed plants. Vessel diameters were equivalent in both plant groups, but the number of vessels on a transverse area basis was nearly 40% lower in the browsed plants, accounting for their lower transport efficiency. Mid-day in situ water potentials and losses of hydraulic conductivity due to embolism were similar in both groups of plants but stomatal conductance was higher in the browsed shrubs in the early part of the growing season. We discuss our findings in the context of whole-plant ecophysiology, and explore the consequences of herbivory on hormonal signals, wood anatomy, and xylem function.

  8. A multi-species synthesis of physiological mechanisms in drought-induced tree mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Henry D.; Zeppel, Melanie J. B.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Hartmann, Henrik; Landhäusser, Simon M.; Tissue, David T.; Huxman, Travis E.; Hudson, Patrick J.; Franz, Trenton E.; Allen, Craig D.; Anderegg, Leander D. L.; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Beerling, David J.; Breshears, David D.; Brodribb, Timothy J.; Bugmann, Harald; Cobb, Richard C.; Collins, Adam D.; Dickman, L. Turin; Duan, Honglang; Ewers, Brent E.; Galiano, Lucía; Galvez, David A.; Garcia-Forner, Núria; Gaylord, Monica L.; Germino, Matthew J.; Gessler, Arthur; Hacke, Uwe G.; Hakamada, Rodrigo; Hector, Andy; Jenkins, Michael W.; Kane, Jeffrey M.; Kolb, Thomas E.; Law, Darin J.; Lewis, James D.; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Love, David M.; Macalady, Alison K.; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Mitchell, Patrick J.; Muss, Jordan D.; O’Brien, Michael J.; O’Grady, Anthony P.; Pangle, Robert E.; Pinkard, Elizabeth A.; Piper, Frida I.; Plaut, Jennifer A.; Pockman, William T.; Quirk, Joe; Reinhardt, Keith; Ripullone, Francesco; Ryan, Michael G.; Sala, Anna; Sevanto, Sanna; Sperry, John S.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Vennetier, Michel; Way, Danielle A.; Xu, Chonggang; Yepez, Enrico A.; McDowell, Nate G.

    2017-08-07

    Widespread tree mortality associated with drought has been observed on all forested continents, and global change is expected to exacerbate vegetation vulnerability. Forest mortality has implications for future biosphere-atmosphere interactions of carbon, water, and energy balance, and is poorly represented in dynamic vegetation models. Reducing uncertainty requires improved mortality projections founded on robust physiological processes. However, the proposed mechanisms of drought-induced mortality, including hydraulic failure and carbon starvation, are unresolved. A growing number of empirical studies have investigated these mechanisms, but data have not been consistently analyzed across species and biomes using a standardized physiological framework. Here we show that xylem hydraulic failure was ubiquitous across multiple tree taxa at drought-induced mortality. All species assessed had 60% or greater loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity, consistent with proposed theoretical and modelled survival thresholds. We found diverse responses in non-structural carbohydrates at mortality, indicating that evidence supporting carbon starvation was not universal. Reduced non-structural carbohydrates were more common for gymnosperms than angiosperms, associated with xylem hydraulic vulnerability, and may have a role in hydraulic deterioration. The consistent Our finding that across species of hydraulic failure at drought-induced mortality was persistent across species indicates that substantial improvement in vegetation modelling can be achieved using thresholds in hydraulic function.

  9. A multi-species synthesis of physiological mechanisms in drought-induced tree mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Henry D; Zeppel, Melanie J B; Anderegg, William R L; Hartmann, Henrik; Landhäusser, Simon M; Tissue, David T; Huxman, Travis E; Hudson, Patrick J; Franz, Trenton E; Allen, Craig D; Anderegg, Leander D L; Barron-Gafford, Greg A; Beerling, David J; Breshears, David D; Brodribb, Timothy J; Bugmann, Harald; Cobb, Richard C; Collins, Adam D; Dickman, L Turin; Duan, Honglang; Ewers, Brent E; Galiano, Lucía; Galvez, David A; Garcia-Forner, Núria; Gaylord, Monica L; Germino, Matthew J; Gessler, Arthur; Hacke, Uwe G; Hakamada, Rodrigo; Hector, Andy; Jenkins, Michael W; Kane, Jeffrey M; Kolb, Thomas E; Law, Darin J; Lewis, James D; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Love, David M; Macalady, Alison K; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Mitchell, Patrick J; Muss, Jordan D; O'Brien, Michael J; O'Grady, Anthony P; Pangle, Robert E; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Piper, Frida I; Plaut, Jennifer A; Pockman, William T; Quirk, Joe; Reinhardt, Keith; Ripullone, Francesco; Ryan, Michael G; Sala, Anna; Sevanto, Sanna; Sperry, John S; Vargas, Rodrigo; Vennetier, Michel; Way, Danielle A; Xu, Chonggang; Yepez, Enrico A; McDowell, Nate G

    2017-09-01

    Widespread tree mortality associated with drought has been observed on all forested continents and global change is expected to exacerbate vegetation vulnerability. Forest mortality has implications for future biosphere-atmosphere interactions of carbon, water and energy balance, and is poorly represented in dynamic vegetation models. Reducing uncertainty requires improved mortality projections founded on robust physiological processes. However, the proposed mechanisms of drought-induced mortality, including hydraulic failure and carbon starvation, are unresolved. A growing number of empirical studies have investigated these mechanisms, but data have not been consistently analysed across species and biomes using a standardized physiological framework. Here, we show that xylem hydraulic failure was ubiquitous across multiple tree taxa at drought-induced mortality. All species assessed had 60% or higher loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity, consistent with proposed theoretical and modelled survival thresholds. We found diverse responses in non-structural carbohydrate reserves at mortality, indicating that evidence supporting carbon starvation was not universal. Reduced non-structural carbohydrates were more common for gymnosperms than angiosperms, associated with xylem hydraulic vulnerability, and may have a role in reducing hydraulic function. Our finding that hydraulic failure at drought-induced mortality was persistent across species indicates that substantial improvement in vegetation modelling can be achieved using thresholds in hydraulic function.

  10. A multi-species synthesis of physiological mechanisms in drought-induced tree mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Henry D.; Zeppel, Melanie; Anderegg, William R.L.; Hartmann, Henrik; Landhäusser, Simon M.; Tissue, David T.; Huxman, Travis E.; Hudson, Patrick J.; Franz, Trenton E.; Allen, Craig D.; Anderegg, Leander D. L.; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Beerling, David; Breshears, David D.; Brodribb, Timothy J.; Bugmann, Harald; Cobb, Richard C.; Collins, Adam D.; Dickman, L. Turin; Duan, Honglang; Ewers, Brent E.; Galiano, Lucia; Galvez, David A.; Garcia-Forner, Núria; Gaylord, Monica L.; Germino, Matthew J.; Gessler, Arthur; Hacke, Uwe G.; Hakamada, Rodrigo; Hector, Andy; Jenkins, Michael W.; Kane, Jeffrey M.; Kolb, Thomas E.; Law, Darin J.; Lewis, James D.; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Love, David; Macalady, Alison K.; Martinez-Vilalta, Jordi; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Mitchell, Patrick J.; Muss, Jordan D.; O'Brien, Michael J.; O'Grady, Anthony P.; Pangle, Robert E.; Pinkard, Elizabeth A.; Piper, Frida I.; Plaut, Jennifer; Pockman, William T.; Quirk, Joe; Reinhardt, Keith; Ripullone, Francesco; Ryan, Michael G.; Sala, Anna; Sevanto, Sanna; Sperry, John S.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Vennetier, Michel; Way, Danielle A.; Wu, Chonggang; Yepez, Enrico A.; McDowell, Nate G.

    2017-01-01

    Widespread tree mortality associated with drought has been observed on all forested continents and global change is expected to exacerbate vegetation vulnerability. Forest mortality has implications for future biosphere–atmosphere interactions of carbon, water and energy balance, and is poorly represented in dynamic vegetation models. Reducing uncertainty requires improved mortality projections founded on robust physiological processes. However, the proposed mechanisms of drought-induced mortality, including hydraulic failure and carbon starvation, are unresolved. A growing number of empirical studies have investigated these mechanisms, but data have not been consistently analysed across species and biomes using a standardized physiological framework. Here, we show that xylem hydraulic failure was ubiquitous across multiple tree taxa at drought-induced mortality. All species assessed had 60% or higher loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity, consistent with proposed theoretical and modelled survival thresholds. We found diverse responses in non-structural carbohydrate reserves at mortality, indicating that evidence supporting carbon starvation was not universal. Reduced non-structural carbohydrates were more common for gymnosperms than angiosperms, associated with xylem hydraulic vulnerability, and may have a role in reducing hydraulic function. Our finding that hydraulic failure at drought-induced mortality was persistent across species indicates that substantial improvement in vegetation modelling can be achieved using thresholds in hydraulic function.

  11. Quantifying the role of vegetation in controlling the time-variant age of evapotranspiration, soil water and stream flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.

    2017-12-01

    Identifying the sources of water which sustain plant water uptake is an essential prerequisite to understanding the interactions of vegetation and water within the critical zone. Estimating the sources of root-water uptake is complicated by ecohydrological separation, or the notion of "two-water worlds" which distinguishes more mobile and immobile water sources which respectively sustain streamflow and evapotranspiration. Water mobility within the soil determines both the transit time/residence time of water through/in soils and the subsequent age of root-uptake and xylem water. We used time-variant StorAge Selection (SAS) functions to conceptualise the transit/residence times in the critical zone using a dual-storage soil column differentiating gravity (mobile) and tension dependent (immobile) water, calibrated to measured stable isotope signatures of soil water. Storage-discharge relationships [Brutsaert and Nieber, 1977] were used to identify gravity and tension dependent storages. A temporally variable distribution for root water uptake was identified using simulated stable isotopes in xylem and soil water. Composition of δ2H and δ18O was measured in soil water at 4 depths (5, 10, 15, and 20 cm) on 10 occasions, and 5 times for xylem water within the dominant heather (Calluna sp. and Erica sp.) vegetation in a Scottish Highland catchment over a two-year period. Within a 50 cm soil column, we found that more than 53% of the total stored water was water that was present before the start of the simulation. Mean residence times of the mobile water in the upper 20 cm of the soil were 16, 25, 36, and 44 days, respectively. Mean evaporation transit time varied between 9 and 40 days, driven by seasonal changes and precipitation events. Lastly, mean transit times of xylem water ranged between 95-205 days, driven by changes in soil moisture. During low soil moisture (i.e. lower than mean soil moisture), root-uptake was from lower depths, while higher than mean soil

  12. Determination of the physiological root activity of fruit trees by means of the radionuclide 131I. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckruehm, I.

    1976-01-01

    The rate of climb of the radionuclide per 1 m of stem vascular height was found to be dependent on the time of application; it came up to six to seven hours if applied in the morning, and 17 hours if applied in the evening. Limited information concerning the xylem transport activity was obtained through measuring the activity of a boring sample of stem fresh matter. Autoradiographic stem analysis provided the information most suitable for determining the transport routes in the stem. The analysis revealed that with increasing stem height the width of the radionuclide-labelled xylem is increasing 4.5 fold in proportion to the width when entering the stem. Beside the vertical climb there is some limited horizontal spread of the nuclide as well. (author)

  13. Morphogenesis of pericarp in two varieties of Momordica charantia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Saha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of Uchchey and Korala, two common Indian varieties of Momordica charantia L. have the same length and diameter in initial stages. But with age the rate of lengthwise growth becomes higher in Karola, which differs from Uchchey by its larger size and much elongated shape. The major cause of their difference in size and shape is the higher cell number of Karola in its axial direction from the earliest stages of development, and their rapid transverse division during maturation. Differentiation of xylem bundles of the pericarp starts at the middle and apical parts of the ovary. The courses of differentiation of xylem in the middle, apical and basal bundles are bidirectional, basipetal and acropetal, respectively.

  14. Vascular Morphodynamics During Secondary Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Reuille, Pierre Barbier; Ragni, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Quantification of vascular morphodynamics during secondary growth has been hampered by the scale of the process. Even in the tiny model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the xylem can include more than 2000 cells in a single cross section, rendering manual counting impractical. Moreover, due to its deep location, xylem is an inaccessible tissue, limiting live imaging. A novel method to visualize and measure secondary growth progression has been proposed: "the Quantitative Histology" approach. This method is based on a detailed anatomical atlas, and image segmentation coupled with machine learning to automatically extract cell shapes and identify cell type. Here we present a new version of this approach, with a user-friendly interface implemented in the open source software LithoGraphX.

  15. Physicochemical hydrodynamics of porous structures in vascular plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jeongeun; Ahn, Sungsook; Kim, Seung-Gon; Kim, Taejoo; Lee, Sang Joon

    2013-11-01

    Transport of sap flow through xylem conduits of vascular plants has been considered as a passive process, because the xylem conduits are regarded as inert, dead wood. However, plants can actively regulate water transport using ion-mediated response for adapting to environmental changes. In order to understand the active regulation mechanism of physicochemical hydrodynamics of porous structures in vascular plants, the effects of specific ion types and their ionic ratios on the water transport were experimentally investigated under in vivocondition. Based on the experimental results, the principle of ionic effects will be explained through in-vitro comparative experiments and theoretical considerations. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2008-0061991).

  16. Biogeochemical Processes Responsible for the Enhanced Transport of Plutonium Under transient Unsaturated Ground Water Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred J. Molz, III

    2010-05-28

    To better understand longer-term vadose zone transport in southeastern soils, field lysimeter experiments were conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC, in the 1980s. Each of the three lysimeters analyzed herein contained a filter paper spiked with different Pu solutions, and they were left exposed to natural environmental conditions (including the growth of annual weed grasses) for 11 years. The resulting Pu activity measurements from each lysimeter core showed anomalous activity distributions below the source, with significant migration of Pu above the source. Such results are not explainable by adsorption phenomena alone. A transient variably saturated flow model with root water uptake was developed and coupled to a soil reactive transport model. Somewhat surprisingly, the fully transient analysis showed results nearly identical to those of a much simpler steady flow analysis performed previously. However, all phenomena studied were unable to produce the upward Pu transport observed in the data. This result suggests another transport mechanism such as Pu uptake by roots and upward transport due to transpiration. Thus, the variably saturated flow and reactive transport model was extended to include uptake and transport of Pu within the root xylem, along with computational methodology and results. In the extended model, flow velocity in the soil was driven by precipitation input along with transpiration and drainage. Water uptake by the roots determined the flow velocity in the root xylem, and this along with uptake of Pu in the transpiration stream drove advection and dispersion of the two Pu species in the xylem. During wet periods with high potential evapotranspiration, maximum flow velocities through the xylem would approached 600 cm/hr, orders of magnitude larger that flow velocities in the soil. Values for parameters and the correct conceptual viewpoint for Pu transport in plant xylem was uncertain. This motivated further experiments devoted

  17. Biogeochemical Processes Responsible for the Enhanced Transport of Plutonium Under transient Unsaturated Ground Water Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molz, Fred J. III

    2010-01-01

    To better understand longer-term vadose zone transport in southeastern soils, field lysimeter experiments were conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC, in the 1980s. Each of the three lysimeters analyzed herein contained a filter paper spiked with different Pu solutions, and they were left exposed to natural environmental conditions (including the growth of annual weed grasses) for 11 years. The resulting Pu activity measurements from each lysimeter core showed anomalous activity distributions below the source, with significant migration of Pu above the source. Such results are not explainable by adsorption phenomena alone. A transient variably saturated flow model with root water uptake was developed and coupled to a soil reactive transport model. Somewhat surprisingly, the fully transient analysis showed results nearly identical to those of a much simpler steady flow analysis performed previously. However, all phenomena studied were unable to produce the upward Pu transport observed in the data. This result suggests another transport mechanism such as Pu uptake by roots and upward transport due to transpiration. Thus, the variably saturated flow and reactive transport model was extended to include uptake and transport of Pu within the root xylem, along with computational methodology and results. In the extended model, flow velocity in the soil was driven by precipitation input along with transpiration and drainage. Water uptake by the roots determined the flow velocity in the root xylem, and this along with uptake of Pu in the transpiration stream drove advection and dispersion of the two Pu species in the xylem. During wet periods with high potential evapotranspiration, maximum flow velocities through the xylem would approached 600 cm/hr, orders of magnitude larger that flow velocities in the soil. Values for parameters and the correct conceptual viewpoint for Pu transport in plant xylem was uncertain. This motivated further experiments devoted

  18. Extracellular DNases of Ralstonia solanacearum modulate biofilms and facilitate bacterial wilt virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh Tran, Tuan; MacIntyre, April; Khokhani, Devanshi; Hawes, Martha; Allen, Caitilyn

    2016-11-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil-borne vascular pathogen that colonizes plant xylem vessels, a flowing, low-nutrient habitat where biofilms could be adaptive. Ralstonia solanacearum forms biofilm in vitro, but it was not known if the pathogen benefits from biofilms during infection. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that during tomato infection, R. solanacearum forms biofilm-like masses in xylem vessels. These aggregates contain bacteria embedded in a matrix including chromatin-like fibres commonly observed in other bacterial biofilms. Chemical and enzymatic assays demonstrated that the bacterium releases extracellular DNA in culture and that DNA is an integral component of the biofilm matrix. An R. solanacearum mutant lacking the pathogen's two extracellular nucleases (exDNases) formed non-spreading colonies and abnormally thick biofilms in vitro. The biofilms formed by the exDNase mutant in planta contained more and thicker fibres. This mutant was also reduced in virulence on tomato plants and did not spread in tomato stems as well as the wild-type strain, suggesting that these exDNases facilitate biofilm maturation and bacterial dispersal. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that R. solanacearum forms biofilms in plant xylem vessels, and the first documentation that plant pathogens use DNases to modulate their biofilm structure for systemic spread and virulence. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Acclimation of mechanical and hydraulic functions in trees:Impact of the thigmomorphogenetic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eBadel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The secondary xylem (wood of trees mediates several functions including water transport and storage, mechanical support and storage of photosynthates. The optimal structures for each of these functions will most likely differ. The complex structure and function of xylem could lead to trade-offs between conductive efficiency, resistance to embolism and mechanical strength needed to count for mechanical loading due to gravity and wind. This has been referred to as the trade-off triangle, with the different optimal solutions to the structure/function problems depending on the environmental constraints as well as taxonomic histories. Thus, the optimisation of each function will lead to drastically different anatomical structures. Trees are able to acclimate the internal structure of their trunk and branches according to the stress they experience. These acclimations lead to specific structures that favour the efficiency or the safety of one function but can be antagonistic with other functions. Currently, there are no means to predict the way a tree will acclimate or optimize its internal structure in support of its various functions under differing environmental conditions. In this review, we will focus on the acclimation of xylem anatomy and its resulting mechanical and hydraulic functions to recurrent mechanical strain that usually result from wind-induced thigmomorphogenesis with a special focus on the construction cost and the possible trade-off between wood functions.

  20. Comparing Avocado, Swamp Bay, and Camphortree as Hosts of Raffaelea lauricola Using a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-Labeled Strain of the Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A S; Ploetz, R C; Rollins, J A

    2017-01-01

    Raffaelea lauricola, a fungal symbiont of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus, causes laurel wilt in members of the Lauraceae plant family. North American species in the family, such as avocado (Persea americana) and swamp bay (P. palustris), are particularly susceptible to laurel wilt, whereas the Asian camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora) is relatively tolerant. To determine whether susceptibility is related to pathogen colonization, a green fluorescent protein-labeled strain of R. lauricola was generated and used to inoculate avocado, swamp bay, and camphortree. Trees were harvested 3, 10, and 30 days after inoculation (DAI), and disease severity was rated on a 1-to-10 scale. By 30 DAI, avocado and swamp bay developed significantly more severe disease than camphortree (mean severities of 6.8 and 5.5 versus 1.6, P < 0.003). The extent of xylem colonization was recorded as the percentage of lumena that were colonized by the pathogen. More xylem was colonized in avocado than camphortree (0.9% versus 0.1%, P < 0.03) but colonization in swamp bay (0.4%) did not differ significantly from either host. Although there were significant correlations between xylem colonization and laurel wilt severity in avocado (r = 0.74), swamp bay (r = 0.82), and camphortree (r = 0.87), even severely affected trees of all species were scarcely colonized by the pathogen.

  1. Vulnerability to cavitation, hydraulic efficiency, growth and survival in an insular pine (Pinus canariensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rosana; López de Heredia, Unai; Collada, Carmen; Cano, Francisco Javier; Emerson, Brent C; Cochard, Hervé; Gil, Luis

    2013-06-01

    It is widely accepted that hydraulic failure due to xylem embolism is a key factor contributing to drought-induced mortality in trees. In the present study, an attempt is made to disentangle phenotypic plasticity from genetic variation in hydraulic traits across the entire distribution area of a tree species to detect adaptation to local environments. A series of traits related to hydraulics (vulnerability to cavitation and hydraulic conductivity in branches), growth performance and leaf mass per area were assessed in eight Pinus canariensis populations growing in two common gardens under contrasting environments. In addition, the neutral genetic variability (FST) and the genetic differentiation of phenotypic variation (QST) were compared in order to identify the evolutionary forces acting on these traits. The variability for hydraulic traits was largely due to phenotypic plasticity. Nevertheless, the vulnerability to cavitation displayed a significant genetic variability (approx. 5 % of the explained variation), and a significant genetic × environment interaction (between 5 and 19 % of the explained variation). The strong correlation between vulnerability to cavitation and survival in the xeric common garden (r = -0·81; P < 0·05) suggests a role for the former in the adaptation to xeric environments. Populations from drier sites and higher temperature seasonality were less vulnerable to cavitation than those growing at mesic sites. No trade-off between xylem safety and efficiency was detected. QST of parameters of the vulnerability curve (0·365 for P50 and the slope of the vulnerability curve and 0·452 for P88) differed substantially from FST (0·091), indicating divergent selection. In contrast, genetic drift alone was found to be sufficient to explain patterns of differentiation for xylem efficiency and growth. The ability of P. canariensis to inhabit a wide range of ecosystems seemed to be associated with high phenotypic plasticity and some degree of local

  2. Does short-term potassium fertilization improve recovery from drought stress in laurel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Elisabetta; Inzerillo, Simone; Grisafi, Francesca; Sajeva, Maurizio; Salleo, Sebastiano; Nardini, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    Xylem hydraulic conductance varies in response to changes in sap solute content, and in particular of potassium (K(+)) ion concentration. This phenomenon, known as the 'ionic effect', is enhanced in embolized stems, where it can compensate for cavitation-induced loss of hydraulic conductance. Previous studies have shown that in well-watered laurel plants (Laurus nobilis L.), potassium concentration of the xylem sap and plant hydraulic conductance increased 24 h after fertilization with KCl. The aim of this work was to test whether water-stressed laurel plants, grown under low potassium availability, could recover earlier from stress when irrigated with a KCl solution instead of potassium-free water. Two-year-old potted laurel seedlings were subjected to water stress by suspending irrigation until leaf conductance to water vapour (g(L)) dropped to ∼30% of its initial value and leaf water potential (ψ(L)) reached the turgor loss point (ψ(TLP)). Plants were then irrigated either with water or with 25 mM KCl and monitored for water status, gas exchange and plant hydraulics recovery at 3, 6 and 24 h after irrigation. No significant differences were found between the two experimental groups in terms of ψ(L), g(L), plant transpiration, plant hydraulic conductance or leaf-specific shoot hydraulic conductivity. Analysis of xylem sap potassium concentration showed that there were no significant differences between treatments, and potassium levels were similar to those of potassium-starved but well-watered plants. In conclusion, potassium uptake from the soil solution and/or potassium release to the xylem appeared to be impaired in water-stressed plants, at least up to 24 h after relief from water stress, so that fertilization after the onset of stress did not result in any short-term advantage for recovery from drought. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Three novel rice genes closely related to the Arabidopsis IRX9, IRX9L, and IRX14 genes and their roles in xylan biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn eChiniquy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Xylan is the second most abundant polysaccharide on Earth, and represents a major component of both dicot wood and the cell walls of grasses. Much knowledge has been gained from studies of xylan biosynthesis in the model plant, Arabidopsis. In particular, the irregular xylem (irx mutants, named for their collapsed xylem cells, have been essential in gaining a greater understanding of the genes involved in xylan biosynthesis. In contrast, xylan biosynthesis in grass cell walls is poorly understood. We identified three rice genes Os07g49370 (OsIRX9, Os01g48440 (OsIRX9L, and Os06g47340 (OsIRX14, from glycosyltransferase family 43 as putative orthologs to the putative β-1,4-xylan backbone elongating Arabidopsis IRX9, IRX9L, and IRX14 genes, respectively. We demonstrate that the overexpression of the closely related rice genes, in full or partly complement the two well-characterized Arabidopsis irregular xylem (irx mutants: irx9 and irx14. Complementation was assessed by measuring dwarfed phenotypes, irregular xylem cells in stem cross sections, xylose content of stems, xylosyltransferase activity of stems, and stem strength. The expression of OsIRX9 in the irx9 mutant resulted in xylosyltransferase activity of stems that was over double that of wild type plants, and the stem strength of this line increased to 124% above that of wild type. Taken together, our results suggest that OsIRX9/OsIRX9L, and OsIRX14, have similar functions to the Arabidopsis IRX9 and IRX14 genes, respectively. Furthermore, our expression data indicate that OsIRX9 and OsIRX9L may function in building the xylan backbone in the secondary and primary cell walls, respectively. Our results provide insight into xylan biosynthesis in rice and how expression of a xylan synthesis gene may be modified to increase stem strength.

  4. Ethylene-Related Gene Expression Networks in Wood Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Seyfferth

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thickening of tree stems is the result of secondary growth, accomplished by the meristematic activity of the vascular cambium. Secondary growth of the stem entails developmental cascades resulting in the formation of secondary phloem outwards and secondary xylem (i.e., wood inwards of the stem. Signaling and transcriptional reprogramming by the phytohormone ethylene modifies cambial growth and cell differentiation, but the molecular link between ethylene and secondary growth remains unknown. We addressed this shortcoming by analyzing expression profiles and co-expression networks of ethylene pathway genes using the AspWood transcriptome database which covers all stages of secondary growth in aspen (Populus tremula stems. ACC synthase expression suggests that the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC is synthesized during xylem expansion and xylem cell maturation. Ethylene-mediated transcriptional reprogramming occurs during all stages of secondary growth, as deduced from AspWood expression profiles of ethylene-responsive genes. A network centrality analysis of the AspWood dataset identified EIN3D and 11 ERFs as hubs. No overlap was found between the co-expressed genes of the EIN3 and ERF hubs, suggesting target diversification and hence independent roles for these transcription factor families during normal wood formation. The EIN3D hub was part of a large co-expression gene module, which contained 16 transcription factors, among them several new candidates that have not been earlier connected to wood formation and a VND-INTERACTING 2 (VNI2 homolog. We experimentally demonstrated Populus EIN3D function in ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. The ERF hubs ERF118 and ERF119 were connected on the basis of their expression pattern and gene co-expression module composition to xylem cell expansion and secondary cell wall formation, respectively. We hereby establish data resources for ethylene-responsive genes and

  5. Accumulation of weathered p,p'-DDTs in hybridized Cucurbita pepo cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isleyen, Mehmet; Sevim, Pinar; White, Jason C

    2012-08-01

    Cucurbita pepo spp pepo (zucchini) is known as an exceptional weathered dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) accumulator, whereas Cucurbita pepo ssp ovifera (squash) is termed a nonaccumulator. Experiments were conducted with hybridized zucchini and squash to assess the inheritance pattern of DDX (the sum of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [p,p'-DDT], p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,p'-DDD], and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE]) accumulation potential in xylem sap and tissues of parental, F1 hybrids, and F1 backcross (BC) generations of plants. Plants were grown in pots containing soil with weathered DDX at 732 to 1,130 ng/g soil or under field conditions in soil with 322 to 2,700 ng/g. The DDX stem bioconcentration factors and xylem sap values showed differences between parental and hybridized plants of squash and zucchini. For squash grown in greenhouse conditions, the DDX flow rate in the xylem sap was 17.3, 121, and 40.8 ng/h in parental, F1 hybrids, and F1 BC plants, respectively. Similarly, the stem DDX content of parental, F1, and F1 BC squash was 11, 253, and 96 ng/g (dry wt), respectively. A similar inheritance pattern for squash was observed when the plants were grown under field conditions. The DDX flow rates in the xylem sap of pot-grown parental, F1, and F1 BC zucchini cultivars were 100, 8.5, and 26 ng/hr, respectively, and the stem DDX content was 191, 102, and 142 ng/g, respectively. Again, similar trends in accumulation potential were observed for hybridized zucchini grown under field conditions. The DDX concentrations in parental plants matched the expected pattern, with hybrids midway between the two species, and the backcross being more like the parent again for both species. This inheritance pattern of contaminant accumulation and translocation ability follows classical Mendelian segregation and suggests single-gene or single-locus control. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  6. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Michael Wallis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf causes Pierce’s disease (PD, an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L.. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that consisted of Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay grafted to 13 different rootstocks were inoculated with Xf and evaluated for PD severity and Xf titer after six months. A subset of six rootstock/scion combinations had xylem sap phenolic levels assessed in non-infected and Xf-infected grapevines. Vigor also was analyzed by measuring root lengths and masses. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 101-14MG, 1103P, 420A, or Schwarzmann had reduced PD severity compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 110R, 5BB, or SO4. Chardonnay grafted to Salt Creek or Freedom had reduced PD severity compared to Chardonnay grafted to RS3 or Schwarzmann. Chardonnay grafted to RS3 had greater Xf titer than Chardonnay grafted to 101-14MG, Freedom, or Salt Creek. No other differences in Xf titer among rootstocks were observed. Of the six scion/rootstock combinations which had xylem sap phenolics analyzed, Chardonnay/ RS3 had the highest levels of most phenolics whereas Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14MG had the lowest phenolic levels. However, Chardonnay/101-14MG, which had mild PD symptoms, had greater sap levels of caftaric acid than other scion/rootstock combinations. Sap levels of caftaric acid, methyl salicylate, a procyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were greater in Xf-infected versus non-infected grapevines. Chardonnay on 101-14MG or Salt Creek had greater root mass than Chardonnay on RS3. Cabernet Sauvignon on 101-14MG had greater root mass than Cabernet Sauvignon on 110R. These results identified rootstocks with the capacity for reducing PD symptom progression. Rootstocks also were shown to affect Xf titer, xylem sap phenolic levels, and plant vigor.

  7. Natural Competence of Xylella fastidiosa Occurs at a High Frequency Inside Microfluidic Chambers Mimicking the Bacterium's Natural Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Prem P; Lopez, Samantha M; Almeida, Rodrigo P P; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2016-09-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium that is the causal agent of emerging diseases in a number of economically important crops. Genetic diversity studies have demonstrated homologous recombination occurring among X. fastidiosa strains, which has been proposed to contribute to host plant shifts. Moreover, experimental evidence confirmed that X. fastidiosa is naturally competent for recombination in vitro Here, as an approximation of natural habitats (plant xylem vessels and insect mouthparts), recombination was studied in microfluidic chambers (MCs) filled with media amended with grapevine xylem sap. First, different media were screened for recombination in solid agar plates using a pair of X. fastidiosa strains that were previously reported to recombine in coculture. The highest frequency of recombination was obtained with PD3 medium, compared to those with the other two media (X. fastidiosa medium [XFM] and periwinkle wilt [PW] medium) used in previous studies. Dissection of the media components led to the identification of bovine serum albumin as an inhibitor of recombination that was correlated to its previously known effect on inhibition of twitching motility. When recombination was performed in liquid culture, the frequencies were significantly higher under flow conditions (MCs) than under batch conditions (test tubes). The recombination frequencies in MCs and agar plates were not significantly different from each other. Grapevine xylem sap from both susceptible and tolerant varieties allowed high recombination frequency in MCs when mixed with PD3. These results suggest that X. fastidiosa has the ability to be naturally competent in the natural growth environment of liquid flow, and this phenomenon could have implications in X. fastidiosa environmental adaptation. Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen that lives inside xylem vessels (where water and nutrients are transported inside the plant) and the mouthparts of insect vectors. This bacterium

  8. Biochar mitigates salinity stress in potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib; Andersen, M.N.; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    capability of biochar. Results indicated that biochar was capable to ameliorate salinity stress by adsorbing Na+. Increasing salinity level resulted in significant reductions of shoot biomass, root length and volume, tuber yield, photosynthetic rate (An), stomatal conductance (gs), midday leaf water......A pot experiment was conducted in a climate-controlled greenhouse to investigate the growth, physiology and yield of potato in response to salinity stress under biochar amendment. It was hypothesized that addition of biochar may improve plant growth and yield by mitigating the negative effect...... potential, but increased abscisic acid (ABA) concentration in both leaf and xylem sap. At each salinity level, incorporation of biochar increased shoot biomass, root length and volume, tuber yield, An, gs, midday leaf water potential, and decreased ABA concentration in the leaf and xylem sap as compared...

  9. Interactive effect of biochar and plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes on ameliorating salinity stress in maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Naveed, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the interactive effect of biochar and plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase and exopolysaccharide activity on mitigating salinity stress in maize (Zea mays L.). The plants were grown in a greenhouse...... under controlled conditions, and were subjected to separate or combined treatments of biochar (0% and 5%, w/w) and two endophytic bacterial strains (Burkholderia phytofirmans (PsJN) and Enterobacter sp. (FD17)) and salinity stress. The results indicated that salinity significantly decreased the growth...... of maize, whereas both biochar and inoculation mitigated the negative effects of salinity on maize performance either by decreasing the xylem Na+ concentration ([Na+]xylem) uptake or by maintaining nutrient balance within the plant, especially when the two treatments were applied in combination. Moreover...

  10. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  11. Isolation of high quality DNA and RNA from cambium of the East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... bitat modification and unsustainable rates of exploitation. (Joshi and Joshi, 2000; ... actively dividing cells between xylem (wood) and phloem. (bast) tissues ... pellet washed twice with 450 µl of 70% ethanol before air drying.

  12. QTL Information Table: 1043 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available inandang Patong B RM262 RM341 jsa Uga, Y., Okuno, K., and Yano, M. (2008). QTLs underlying natural variation in stele and xylem structures of rice root. Breeding Science 58, 7-14. ...

  13. Comparative wood anatomy of some shrubs native to the Northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlene Dale

    1968-01-01

    This paper describes some xylem characteristics of the more important shrub species of the Northern Rockies and presents a key for identifying shrub-wood specimens by microscopic characters. The paper contains photomicrographs of 55 shrub woods.

  14. Effects of ventilation and sucrose concentrations on the growth and plantlet anatomy of micropropagated persian walnut plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantlets grown in conventional tissue culture systems usually encounter physiological and anatomical abnormalities including inability to photosynthesize, low chlorophyll content, open stomata, lack of a cuticle layer in the leaf, abnormal xylem parenchyma etc. Photoautotrophic and photomixotrophic...

  15. Effects of phyllotaxy on biomechanical properties of stems of Cercis occidentalis (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caringella, Marissa A; Bergman, Brett A; Stanfield, Ryan C; Ewers, Madeleine M; Bobich, Edward G; Ewers, Frank W

    2014-01-01

    Phyllotaxy, the arrangement of leaves on a stem, may impact the mechanical properties of woody stems several years after the leaves have been shed. We explored mechanical properties of a plant with alternate distichous phyllotaxy, with a row of leaves produced on each side of the stem, to determine whether the nodes behave as spring-like joints. Flexural stiffness of 1 cm diameter woody stems was measured in four directions with an Instron mechanical testing system; the xylem of the stems was then cut into node (former leaf junction) and nonnode segments for measurement of xylem density. Stems had 20% greater flexural stiffness in the plane perpendicular to the original leaf placement than in the parallel plane. The xylem in the node region was more flexible, but it had significantly greater tissue density than adjacent regions, contradicting the usual correlation between wood density and stiffness. Nodes can behave as spring-like joints in woody plants. For plagiotropic shoots, distichous phyllotaxy results in stems that resist up-and-down bending more than lateral back-and-forth movement. Thus, they may more effectively absorb applied loads from fruits, animals, wind, rain, and snow and resist stresses due to gravity without cracking and breaking. Under windy conditions, nodes may improve damping by absorbing vibrational energy and thus reducing oscillation damage. The effect of plant nodes also has biomimetic design implications for architects and material engineers.

  16. Axial vessel widening in arborescent monocots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Giai; DeClerck, Fabrice A J; Carrer, Marco; Anfodillo, Tommaso

    2014-02-01

    Dicotyledons have evolved a strategy to compensate for the increase in hydraulic resistance to water transport with height growth by widening xylem conduits downwards. In monocots, the accumulation of hydraulic resistance with height should be similar, but the absence of secondary growth represents a strong limitation for the maintenance of xylem hydraulic efficiency during ontogeny. The hydraulic architecture of monocots has been studied but it is unclear how monocots arrange their axial vascular structure during ontogeny to compensate for increases in height. We measured the vessel lumina and estimated the hydraulic diameter (Dh) at different heights along the stem of two arborescent monocots, Bactris gasipaes (Kunth) and Guadua angustifolia (Kunth). For the former, we also estimated the variation in Dh along the leaf rachis. Hydraulic diameter increased basally from the stem apex to the base with a scaling exponent (b) in the range of those reported for dicot trees (b = 0.22 in B. gasipaes; b = 0.31 and 0.23 in G. angustifolia). In B. gasipaes, vessels decrease in Dh from the stem's centre towards the periphery, an opposite pattern compared with dicot trees. Along the leaf rachis, a pattern of increasing Dh basally was also found (b = 0.13). The hydraulic design of the monocots studied revealed an axial pattern of xylem conduits similar to those evolved by dicots to compensate and minimize the negative effect of root-to-leaf length on hydrodynamic resistance to water flow.

  17. Hydrogen isotope response to changing salinity and rainfall in Australian mangroves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, S Nemiah; Sachs, Julian P

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios ((2) H/(1) H, δ(2) H) of leaf waxes covary with those in precipitation and are therefore a useful paleohydrologic proxy. Mangroves are an exception to this relationship because their δ(2) H values are also influenced by salinity. The mechanisms underlying this response were investigated by measuring leaf lipid δ(2) H and leaf and xylem water δ(2) H and δ(18) O values from three mangrove species over 9.5 months in a subtropical Australian estuary. Net (2) H/(1) H fractionation between surface water and leaf lipids decreased by 0.5-1.0‰ ppt(-1) for n-alkanes and 0.4-0.8‰ ppt(-1) for isoprenoids. Xylem water was (2) H depleted relative to surface water, reflecting (2) H discrimination of 4-10‰ during water uptake at all salinities and opportunistic uptake of freshwater at high salinity. However, leaf water (2) H enrichment relative to estuary water was insensitive to salinity and identical for all species. Therefore, variations in leaf and xylem water δ(2) H values cannot explain the salinity-dependent (2) H depletion in leaf lipids, nor the 30‰ range in leaf lipid δ(2) H values among species. Biochemical changes in direct response to salt stress, such as increased compatible solute production or preferential use of stored carbohydrates, and/or the timing of lipid production and subsequent turnover rates, are more likely causes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Stomatal- and growth responses in willow to deficits in water- and nitrogen supply. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadenberg, I. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dep. for Production Ecology

    2002-02-01

    The two plants, grown with an [N] of 100 mg per litre and subjected to a decrease in N-supply decreased their leaf relative growth rate from 22% per day to 13% per day within 2 days. Stomatal conductance did not change significantly after the decrease in N-supply. Xylem samples did not show any significant changes in its composition of mineral nutrient elements after decreased N-supply. The three plants, grown with an [N] of 50 mg per litre and subjected to a decrease in N-supply, significantly decreased leaf relative growth rate from 18.5 % to 9 % per day within 2 days. Stomatal conductance did not change significantly after the decrease in N-supply. Xylem sap samples showed a significant decrease in [K] (74 mg/l to 42 mg/l) and [S] (11 mg/l to 3.2 mg/l) within 2 days after decreased N-supply. The four plants subjected to root drying decreased their leaf relative growth rate slightly but not significantly during the drying period. Xylem samples showed a significant decrease in S-concentration (11 mg/l to 1.3 mg/l) and [NO{sub 3}] (8.0 mg/l to 1.0 mg/l), while [Fe] increased significantly (0.065 mg/l to 0.14 mg/l). Stomatal conductance is known to decrease when plants are subjected to drying of part of the root system. This was shown for Salix dasyclados in a recent publication.

  19. New insights into the mechanisms of water-stress-induced cavitation in conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochard, Hervé; Hölttä, Teemu; Herbette, Stéphane; Delzon, Sylvain; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2009-10-01

    Cavitation resistance is a key parameter to understand tree drought tolerance but little is known about the mechanisms of air entry into xylem conduits. For conifers three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) a rupture of pit margo microfibrils, (2) a displacement of the pit torus from its normal sealing position over the pit aperture, and (3) a rupture of an air-water menisci in a pore of the pit margo. In this article, we report experimental results on three coniferous species suggesting additional mechanisms. First, when xylem segments were injected with a fluid at a pressure sufficient to aspirate pit tori and well above the pressure for cavitation induction we failed to detect the increase in sample conductance that should have been caused by torus displacement from blocking the pit aperture or by membrane rupture. Second, by injecting xylem samples with different surfactant solutions, we found a linear relation between sample vulnerability to cavitation and fluid surface tension. This suggests that cavitation in conifers could also be provoked by the capillary failure of an air-water meniscus in coherence with the prediction of Young-Laplace's equation. Within the bordered pit membrane, the exact position of this capillary seeding is unknown. The possible Achilles' heel could be the seal between tori and pit walls or holes in the torus. The mechanism of water-stress-induced cavitation in conifers could then be relatively similar to the one currently proposed for angiosperms.

  20. 77 FR 65858 - Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Papercraft Pvt. Ltd. Taiwan: Narrow Woven Ribbons with Woven Selvedge, A- 9/1/11-8/31/12 583-844 Apex Ribbon... Growth Funds Ltd. Swift Freight (India) Pvt. Ltd. Ultra Engineers V&M Yash Laminates Xylem Papercraft Pvt...

  1. Effect of indole butyric acid on micrografting of cactus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... The histological studies were done on grafted plants with cross section. Auxin of 100 ppm was .... strands; formation of the radial pattern of xylem and phloem within .... were applied exogenously to stem segments indicate that.

  2. hca: an Arabidopsis mutant exhibiting unusual cambial activity and altered vascular patterning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pineau, C.; Amandine, F.; Ranocha, P.; Jauneau, A.; Turner, S.; Lemonnier, G.; Renou, J.P.; Tarkowski, Petr; Sandberg, G.; Jouanin, L.; Sundberg, B.; Boudet, A.M.; Goffner, D.; Pichon, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 2 (2005), s. 271-289 ISSN 0960-7412 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * cambium * secondary xylem Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.969, year: 2005

  3. The role of Fusarium oxysporum effector protein Avr2 in resistance and pathogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.

    2012-01-01

    Lisong Ma onderzocht de moleculaire interactie tussen tomaat en de verwelking veroorzakende schimmel Fusarium oxyspourm f.sp. lycopersici (Fol). Hierbij identificeerde ze de functionele aspecten van de effectoreiwitten Six (Secreted un Xylem). Planten worden onafgebroken blootgesteld aan pathogene

  4. David et al (12)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    larger mesophyll cells, xylem tissues, vascular bundles and bundle sheaths than other cultivars. Thus, larger ... mechanism to cope with drought stress. There was an ... where solar radiation is intense (Løe et al., 2007). Most ecological studies ...

  5. Enzymatic activities for lignin monomer intermediates highlight the biosynthetic pathway of syringyl monomers in Robinia pseudoacacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeto, Jun; Ueda, Yukie; Sasaki, Shinya; Fujita, Koki; Tsutsumi, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Most of the known 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) isoforms lack CoA-ligation activity for sinapic acid. Therefore, there is some doubt as to whether sinapic acid contributes to sinapyl alcohol biosynthesis. In this study, we characterized the enzyme activity of a protein mixture extracted from the developing xylem of Robinia pseudoacacia. The crude protein mixture contained at least two 4CLs with sinapic acid 4-CoA ligation activity. The crude enzyme preparation displayed negligible sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, but showed ferulic acid 5-hydroxylation activity and 5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase activity; these activities were retained in the presence of competitive substrates (coniferaldehyde and 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde, respectively). 5-Hydroxyferulic acid and sinapic acid accumulated in the developing xylem of R. pseudoacacia, suggesting, in part at least, sinapic acid is a sinapyl alcohol precursor in this species.

  6. The efficacy and safety of bromacil based herbicide for the control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... absorbed through the plant's root system and translocated upwards via the xylem vessels to the ... control, its persistence in the environment and low degradation rates, .... the use of an aircraft and direct application to the soil.

  7. Perturbing phosphoinositide homeostasis oppositely affects vascular differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gujas, Bojan; Cruz, Tiago M D; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Vermeer, Joop E M; Munnik, Teun; Rodriguez-Villalon, Antia

    2017-01-01

    The plant vascular network consists of specialized phloem and xylem elements that undergo two distinct morphogenetic developmental programs to become transport-functional units. Whereas vacuolar rupture is a determinant step in protoxylem differentiation, protophloem elements never form a big

  8. Isolation of developing secondary xylem specific cellulose synthase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Total RNA was treated with RNase-free DNase I (Fermentas, USA) ... Twenty-five μL of qRT- PCR reaction included 11.5 μL milli-q water, 200 ng of cDNA, ..... grey shading, class specific region (CSR I and II), plant conserved region (CRP) and.

  9. Characterising the water use and hydraulic properties of riparian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-10

    Apr 10, 2018 ... Exacerbating the effects of the invasions in these regions is the fact that the ... tree size, drop size, and physiological factors. In this study ... irrigation. The climate ... extent of the active xylem vessels (sapwood depth) where the.

  10. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo; Tester, Mark A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele

  11. The effect of grass transpiration on the air temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šír, M.; Tesař, Miroslav; Lichner, Ľ.; Czachor, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 11 (2014), s. 1570-1576 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : air temperature oscillations * embolism * plant transpiration * soil water * tensiometric pressure * xylem tension Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2014

  12. Behavioral assays for evaluating host preferences of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, the exotic ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) was first discovered in Florida avocado groves. Introduction of its symbiotic Fusarium spp. fungi into galleries in the xylem tissue results in Fusarium-dieback disease. Unlike most ambros...

  13. Characterization of resistant tomato mutants to bacterial canker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-19

    Apr 19, 2012 ... Cmm bacteria induce bacterial canker and wilt during infection. It is unknown ... are able to degrade plant cell walls and attack xylem vessels and ... seedlings were transferred into plastic pots at four to five true leaf stages.

  14. AtNPF2.5 Modulates Chloride (Cl−) Efflux from Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo; Qiu, Jiaen; Jayakannan, Maheswari; Xu, Bo; Li, Yuan; Mayo, Gwenda M.; Tester, Mark A.; Gilliham, Matthew; Roy, Stuart J.

    2017-01-01

    better under saline conditions; however, the molecular mechanisms involved in maintaining low shoot Cl remain largely undefined. Recently, it was shown that the NRT1/PTR Family 2.4 protein (NPF2.4) loads Cl into the root xylem, which affects

  15. Dynamic relationship between the VOC emissions from a Scots pine stem and the tree water relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhatalo, Anni; Chan, Tommy; Aalto, Juho; Kolari, Pasi; Rissanen, Kaisa; Hakola, Hannele; Hölttä, Teemu; Bäck, Jaana

    2013-04-01

    The stems of coniferous trees contain huge storages of oleoresin. The composition of oleoresin depends on e.g. tree species, age, provenance, health status, and environmental conditions. Oleoresin is under pressure in the extensive network of resin ducts in wood and needles. It flows out from a mechanically damaged site to protect the tree by sealing the wounded site. Once in contact with air, volatile parts of oleoresin evaporate, and the residual compounds harden to make a solid protective seal over damaged tissues. The hardening time of the resin depends on evaporation rate of the volatiles which in turn depends on temperature. The storage is also toxic to herbivores and attracts predators that restrict the herbivore damage. Despite abundant knowledge on emissions of volatile isoprenoids from foliage, very little is known about their emissions from woody plant parts. We set up an experiment to measure emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes as well as two oxygenated VOCs, methanol and acetone, from a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stem and branches. The measurements were started in early April and continued until mid-June, 2012. Simultaneously, we measured the dynamics of whole stem and xylem diameter changes, stem sap flow rate and foliage transpiration rate. These measurements were used to estimate A) pressure changes inside the living stem tissue and the water conducting xylem, B) the refilling of stem water stores after winter dehydration (the ratio of sap flow at the stem base to water loss by foliage), and C) the increase in tree water transport capacity (the ratio of maximum daily sap flow rate to the diurnal variation in xylem pressure) during spring due to winter embolism refilling and/or the temperature dependent root water uptake capacity. The results show that already very early in spring, significant VOC emissions from pine stem can be detected, and that they exhibit a diurnal cycle similar to that of ambient temperature. During the highest emission

  16. The in planta transcriptome of Ralstonia solanacearum: conserved physiological and virulence strategies during bacterial wilt of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jonathan M; Babujee, Lavanya; Meng, Fanhong; Milling, Annett; Allen, Caitilyn

    2012-01-01

    Plant xylem fluid is considered a nutrient-poor environment, but the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is well adapted to it, growing to 10(8) to 10(9) CFU/g tomato stem. To better understand how R. solanacearum succeeds in this habitat, we analyzed the transcriptomes of two phylogenetically distinct R. solanacearum strains that both wilt tomato, strains UW551 (phylotype II) and GMI1000 (phylotype I). We profiled bacterial gene expression at ~6 × 10(8) CFU/ml in culture or in plant xylem during early tomato bacterial wilt pathogenesis. Despite phylogenetic differences, these two strains expressed their 3,477 common orthologous genes in generally similar patterns, with about 12% of their transcriptomes significantly altered in planta versus in rich medium. Several primary metabolic pathways were highly expressed during pathogenesis. These pathways included sucrose uptake and catabolism, and components of these pathways were encoded by genes in the scrABY cluster. A UW551 scrA mutant was significantly reduced in virulence on resistant and susceptible tomato as well as on potato and the epidemiologically important weed host Solanum dulcamara. Functional scrA contributed to pathogen competitive fitness during colonization of tomato xylem, which contained ~300 µM sucrose. scrA expression was induced by sucrose, but to a much greater degree by growth in planta. Unexpectedly, 45% of the genes directly regulated by HrpB, the transcriptional activator of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS), were upregulated in planta at high cell densities. This result modifies a regulatory model based on bacterial behavior in culture, where this key virulence factor is repressed at high cell densities. The active transcription of these genes in wilting plants suggests that T3SS has a biological role throughout the disease cycle. IMPORTANCE Ralstonia solanacearum is a widespread plant pathogen that causes bacterial wilt disease. It inflicts serious crop losses on tropical

  17. Water movement through plant roots - exact solutions of the water flow equation in roots with linear or exponential piecewise hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Félicien; Couvreur, Valentin; Draye, Xavier; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Vanderborght, Jan; Javaux, Mathieu

    2017-12-01

    In 1978, Landsberg and Fowkes presented a solution of the water flow equation inside a root with uniform hydraulic properties. These properties are root radial conductivity and axial conductance, which control, respectively, the radial water flow between the root surface and xylem and the axial flow within the xylem. From the solution for the xylem water potential, functions that describe the radial and axial flow along the root axis were derived. These solutions can also be used to derive root macroscopic parameters that are potential input parameters of hydrological and crop models. In this paper, novel analytical solutions of the water flow equation are developed for roots whose hydraulic properties vary along their axis, which is the case for most plants. We derived solutions for single roots with linear or exponential variations of hydraulic properties with distance to root tip. These solutions were subsequently combined to construct single roots with complex hydraulic property profiles. The analytical solutions allow one to verify numerical solutions and to get a generalization of the hydric behaviour with the main influencing parameters of the solutions. The resulting flow distributions in heterogeneous roots differed from those in uniform roots and simulations led to more regular, less abrupt variations of xylem suction or radial flux along root axes. The model could successfully be applied to maize effective root conductance measurements to derive radial and axial hydraulic properties. We also show that very contrasted root water uptake patterns arise when using either uniform or heterogeneous root hydraulic properties in a soil-root model. The optimal root radius that maximizes water uptake under a carbon cost constraint was also studied. The optimal radius was shown to be highly dependent on the root hydraulic properties and close to observed properties in maize roots. We finally used the obtained functions for evaluating the impact of root maturation

  18. Water movement through plant roots – exact solutions of the water flow equation in roots with linear or exponential piecewise hydraulic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Meunier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1978, Landsberg and Fowkes presented a solution of the water flow equation inside a root with uniform hydraulic properties. These properties are root radial conductivity and axial conductance, which control, respectively, the radial water flow between the root surface and xylem and the axial flow within the xylem. From the solution for the xylem water potential, functions that describe the radial and axial flow along the root axis were derived. These solutions can also be used to derive root macroscopic parameters that are potential input parameters of hydrological and crop models. In this paper, novel analytical solutions of the water flow equation are developed for roots whose hydraulic properties vary along their axis, which is the case for most plants. We derived solutions for single roots with linear or exponential variations of hydraulic properties with distance to root tip. These solutions were subsequently combined to construct single roots with complex hydraulic property profiles. The analytical solutions allow one to verify numerical solutions and to get a generalization of the hydric behaviour with the main influencing parameters of the solutions. The resulting flow distributions in heterogeneous roots differed from those in uniform roots and simulations led to more regular, less abrupt variations of xylem suction or radial flux along root axes. The model could successfully be applied to maize effective root conductance measurements to derive radial and axial hydraulic properties. We also show that very contrasted root water uptake patterns arise when using either uniform or heterogeneous root hydraulic properties in a soil–root model. The optimal root radius that maximizes water uptake under a carbon cost constraint was also studied. The optimal radius was shown to be highly dependent on the root hydraulic properties and close to observed properties in maize roots. We finally used the obtained functions for evaluating the impact

  19. [Seasonal differences in the leaf hydraulic conductance of mature Acacia mangium in response to its leaf water use and photosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Sun, Gu-Chou; Ni, Guang-Yan; Zeng, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    In this study, measurements were made on the leaf water potential (psi1), stomatal conductance (g(s)), transpiration rate, leaf area index, and sapwood area of mature Acacia mangium, aimed to understand the relationships of the leaf hydraulic conductance (K1) with the leaf water use and photosynthetic characteristics of the A. mangium in wet season (May) and dry season (November). The ratio of sapwood area to leaf area (A(sp)/A(cl)) of the larger trees with an average height of 20 m and a diameter at breast height (DBH) of 0.26 m was 8.5% higher than that of the smaller trees with an average height of 14.5 m and a DBH of 0.19 m, suggesting that the larger trees had a higher water flux in their leaf xylem, which facilitated the water use of canopy leaf. The analysis on the vulnerability curve of the xylem showed that when the K1 decreased by 50%, the psi1 in wet season and dry season was -1.41 and -1.55 MPa, respectively, and the vulnerability of the xylem cavitation was higher in dry season than in wet season. The K1 peak value in wet season and dry season was 5.5 and 4.5 mmol x m(-2) x s(-1) x MPa(-1), and the maximum transpiration rate (T(r max)) was 3.6 and 1.8 mmol x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively. Both the K1 and T(r max), were obviously higher in wet season than in dry season. Within a day, the K1 and T(r), fluctuated many times, reflecting the reciprocated cycle of the xylem cavitation and refilling. The leaf stomatal closure occurred when the K1 declined over 50% or the psi1 reached -1.6 MPa. The g(s) would be maintained at a high level till the K1 declined over 50%. The correlation between the hydraulic conductance and photosynthetic rate was more significant in dry season than in wet season. The loss of leaf hydraulic conductance induced by seasonal change could be the causes of the decrease of T(r) and CO2 gas exchange.

  20. Nonstructural leaf carbohydrates dynamics of Pinus edulis during drought-induced tree mortality reveal role for carbon metabolism in mortality mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Henry D.; Germino, Matthew J.; Breshears, David D.; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Guardiola-Claramonte, Maite; Zou, Chris B.; Huxman, Travis E.

    2013-01-01

    * Vegetation change is expected with global climate change, potentially altering ecosystem function and climate feedbacks. However, causes of plant mortality, which are central to vegetation change, are understudied, and physiological mechanisms remain unclear, particularly the roles of carbon metabolism and xylem function.

  1. Survival Response of .i.Larix Sibirica./i. to the Tunguska Explosion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kletetschka, Günther; Procházka, V.; Fantucci, R.; Trojek, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 2 (2017), s. 75-90 ISSN 1536-1098 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : airburst * defoliation * impact * PGAA * tree rings * Tunguska event * XRF * xylem Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.769, year: 2016

  2. Egg maturation by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae); a vector of Xylella fastidiosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rates of spread of insect-transmitted plant pathogens are a function of vector abundance. Despite this, factors affecting population growth rates of insects that transmit plant pathogens have received limited attention. The glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) feeds on xylem-sap and ...

  3. Pharmacognostic studies and elemental analysis of the aerial parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings from this study revealed the presence of some diagnostic microscopical features such as paracytic stomata, unicellular covering trichomes with cystoliths, prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and annular xylem vessels. Quantitative physical constants include moisture contents (5.5 %), ash value (17 %), acid insoluble ...

  4. Influence of tree age and variety on allometric characteristics and water use of Mangifera indica L. growing in plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oguntunde, P.G.; fasinmirin, J.T.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2011-01-01

    Data on water relations and growth characteristics of mango trees needed for productive plantation management are currently lacking in West Africa. Relationships between allometric properties and water use in mango trees were examined. In addition, the effects on allometric characteristics and xylem

  5. Comparative wood anatomy of Bonnetiaceae, Theaceae and Guttiferae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baretta-Kuipers, Tine

    1976-01-01

    A description of the xylem anatomy of the genera Archytaea, Ploiarium, Bonnetia, Neblinaria, Neotatea, Caraipa, Haploclathra, Mahurea, Marila, Kielmeyera, and Asteropeia is given. All these genera except Asteropeia, were included in the family of the Bonnetiaceae by Maguire (1972). He considered the

  6. Propagation of Homalodisca Coagulata Virus-01 via Homalodisca Vitripennis cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) is a highly vagile and polyphagous insect found throughout the southwestern United States. These insects are the predominant vectors of Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-limited bacterium that is the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevin...

  7. Microscopic Evaluation of Leaves of Memecylon umbellatum Burm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh G. Killedar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Aim of present work is to perform the microscopic evaluation and physicochemical analysis and to explore the morphology parameters of Memecylon umbellatum Burm leaves. Methods. Fresh, dried and desiccated powdered leaf samples were studied for their morphology, microscopy, organoleptic characters, and an assortment of other WHO recommended methods for standardisation. Results. The microscopy revealed the dorsiventral nature of the leaf. Midrib showed presence of nonlignified phloem, lignified xylem with well-defined xylem fibers, vessels, and parenchyma. Presence of Phloecentric vascular bundles surrounded by endodermis and crystal sheath. Well-defined patches of collenchyma were observed above and below the vascular bundles in the midrib area. Trichomes are mostly absent and stomata (anomocytic were observed on both epidermal surfaces. Conclusions. It can be concluded that the microscopic analysis and pharmacognostic parameters can serve as tool for developing standards for proper authentication, quality, and purity of Memecylon umbellatum Burm leaves.

  8. Xylella fastidiosa requires polygalacturonase for colonization and pathogenicity in Vitis vinifera grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, M Caroline; Greve, L Carl; Warren, Jeremy G; Labavitch, John M; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2007-04-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of Pierce's disease of grape, an economically significant disease for the grape industry. X. fastidiosa systemically colonizes the xylem elements of grapevines and is able to breach the pit pore membranes separating xylem vessels by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that X. fastidiosa utilizes cell wall degrading enzymes to break down pit membranes, based on the presence of genes involved in plant cell wall degradation in the X. fastidiosa genome. These genes include several beta-1,4 endoglucanases, several xylanases, several xylosidases, and one polygalacturonase (PG). In this study, we demonstrated that the pglA gene encodes a functional PG. A mutant in pglA lost pathogenicity and was compromised in its ability to systemically colonize Vitis vinifera grapevines. The results indicate that PG is required for X. fastidiosa to successfully infect grapevines and is a critical virulence factor for X. fastidiosa pathogenesis in grapevine.

  9. Soil warming enhances the hidden shift of elemental stoichiometry by elevated CO2 in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2016-01-01

    sap and their partitioning in different organs of wheat plant during grain filling were investigated. Results showed that the combination of elevated [CO2] and soil warming improved wheat grain yield, but decreased plant K, Ca and Mg accumulation and their concentrations in the leaves, stems, roots......Increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and associated soil warming along with global climate change are expected to have large impacts on grain mineral nutrition in wheat. The effects of CO2 elevation (700 μmol l(-1)) and soil warming (+2.4 °C) on K, Ca and Mg concentrations in the xylem...... and grains. The reduced grain mineral concentration was attributed to the lowered mineral uptake as exemplified by both the decreased stomatal conductance and mineral concentration in the xylem sap. These findings suggest that future higher atmospheric [CO2] and warmer soil conditions may decrease...

  10. A cell wall-bound anionic peroxidase, PtrPO21, is involved in lignin polymerization in Populus trichocarpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chien-Yuan; Li, Quanzi; Tunlaya-Anukit, Sermsawat; Shi, Rui; Sun, Ying-Hsuan; Wang, Jack P.; Liu, Jie; Loziuk, Philip; Edmunds, Charles W.; Miller, Zachary D.; Peszlen, Ilona; Muddiman, David C.; Sederoff, Ronald R.; Chiang, Vincent L.

    2016-03-11

    Class III peroxidases are members of a large plant-specific sequence-heterogeneous protein family. Several sequence-conserved homologs have been associated with lignin polymerization in Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Nicotiana tabacum, Zinnia elegans, Picea abies, and Pinus sylvestris. In Populus trichocarpa, a model species for studies of wood formation, the peroxidases involved in lignin biosynthesis have not yet been identified. To do this, we retrieved sequences of all PtrPOs from Peroxibase and conducted RNA-seq to identify candidates. Transcripts from 42 PtrPOs were detected in stem differentiating xylem (SDX) and four of them are the most xylem-abundant (PtrPO12, PtrPO21, PtrPO42, and PtrPO64). PtrPO21 shows xylem-specific expression similar to that of genes encoding the monolignol biosynthetic enzymes. Using protein cleavage-isotope dilution mass spectrometry, PtrPO21 is detected only in the cell wall fraction and not in the soluble fraction. Downregulated transgenics of PtrPO21 have a lignin reduction of ~20% with subunit composition (S/G ratio) similar to wild type. The transgenics show a growth reduction and reddish color of stem wood. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) of the stems of the downregulated PtrPO21-line 8 can be reduced to ~60% of wild type. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis of PtrPO21 downregulated transgenics identified a significant overexpression of PtPrx35, suggesting a compensatory effect within the peroxidase family. No significant changes in the expression of the 49 P. trichocarpa laccases (PtrLACs) were observed.

  11. A cell-cell signaling sensor is required for virulence and insect transmission of Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Subhadeep; Wistrom, Christina; Lindow, Steven E

    2008-02-19

    Cell-cell signaling in Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-colonizing plant pathogenic bacterium, mediated by a fatty acid Diffusible Signaling Factor (DSF), is required to colonize insect vectors and to suppress virulence to grape. Here, we show that a hybrid two-component regulatory protein RpfC is involved in negative regulation of DSF synthesis by RpfF in X. fastidiosa. X. fastidiosa rpfC mutants hyperexpress rpfF and overproduce DSF and are deficient in virulence and movement in the xylem vessels of grape. The expression of the genes encoding the adhesins FimA, HxfA, and HxfB is much higher in rpfC mutants, which also exhibit a hyperattachment phenotype in culture that is associated with their inability to migrate in xylem vessels and cause disease. rpfF mutants deficient in DSF production have the opposite phenotypes for all of these traits. RpfC is also involved in the regulation of other signaling components including rpfG, rpfB, a GGDEF domain protein that may be involved in intracellular signaling by modulating the levels of cyclic-di-GMP, and the virulence factors tolC and pglA required for disease. rpfC mutants are able to colonize the mouthparts of insect vectors and wild-type strains but are not transmitted as efficiently to new host plants, apparently because of their high levels of adhesiveness. Because of the conflicting contributions of adhesiveness and other traits to movement within plants and vectoring to new host plants, X. fastidiosa apparently coordinates these traits in a population-size-dependent fashion involving accumulation of DSF.

  12. Uptake and distribution of chlordecone in radish: different contamination routes in edible roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létondor, Clarisse; Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Laurent, François

    2015-01-01

    Chlordecone (CLD) was an organochlorine insecticide mainly used to struggle against banana weevils in the French West Indies. Forbidden since 1993, it has been a long-term contaminant of soils and aquatic environments. Crops growing in contaminated soils lead to human exposure by food consumption. We used radiolabeled [(14)C]-CLD to investigate the contamination ways into radish, a model of edible roots. Radish plants were able to accumulate CLD in both roots (RCF35d 647) and tubers (edible parts, CF35d 6.3). CLD was also translocated to leaves (CF35d 1.7). The contamination of tuber was mainly due to peridermic adsorption or CLD systemic translocation to the pith. TSCF was 3.44×10(-)(3). CLD diffused across periderm to internal tissues. We calculated a mean flux of diffusion J through periderm about 5.71×10(-)(14)gcm(-)(2)s(-)(1). We highlighted different contamination routes of the tuber, (i) adsorption on periderm followed by diffusion of CLD towards underlying tissues, cortex, xylem, and pith (ii) adsorption by roots and translocation by the transpiration stream followed by diffusion from xylem vessels towards inner tissues, pith, and peripheral tissues, cortex and periderm. Concerning chemical risk assessment for other tubers, contamination would depend on various parameters, the thickness of periderm and CLD periderm permeance, the origin of secondary tissues - from cortex and/or pith - , the importance of xylem flow in tuber, and the lipid amount within tuber. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional traits variation explains the distribution of Aextoxicon punctatum (Aextoxicaceae in pronounced moisture gradients within fog-dependent forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz eSalgado-Negret

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and fragmentation are major threats to world forests. Understanding how functional traits related to drought tolerance change across small-scale, pronounced moisture gradients in fragmented forests is important to predict species’ responses to these threats. In the case of Aextoxicon punctatum, a dominant canopy tree in fog-dependent rain forest patches in semiarid Chile, we explored how the magnitude, variability and correlation patterns of leaf and xylem vessel traits and hydraulic conductivity varied across soil moisture gradients established within and among forest patches of different size, which are associated with differences in tree establishment and mortality patterns. Leaf traits varied across soil-moisture gradients produced by fog interception. Trees growing at drier leeward edges showed higher LMA (leaf mass per area, trichome and stomatal density than trees from the wetter core and windward zones. In contrast, xylem vessel traits (vessels diameter and density did not vary producing loss of hydraulic conductivity at drier leeward edges. We also detected higher levels of phenotypic integration and variability at leeward edges. The ability of A. punctatum to modify leaf traits in response to differences in soil moisture availability established over short distances (<500 m facilitates its persistence in contrasting microhabitats within forest patches. However, xylem anatomy showed limited plasticity, which increases cavitation risk at leeward edges. Greater patch fragmentation, together with fluctuations in irradiance and soil moisture in small patches, could result in higher risk of drought-related tree mortality, with profound impacts on hydrological balances at the ecosystem scale.

  14. Living on the edge: contrasted wood-formation dynamics in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris under Mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edurne eMartinez Del Castillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood formation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. was intra-annually monitored to examine plastic responses of the xylem phenology according to altitude in one of the southernmost areas of their distribution range, i.e. in the Moncayo Natural Park, Spain. The monitoring was done from 2011 to 2013 at 1180 and 1580 m a.s.l., corresponding to the lower and upper limits of European beech forest in this region. Microcores containing phloem, cambium and xylem were collected biweekly from twenty-four trees from the beginning of March to the end of November to assess the different phases of wood formation. The samples were prepared for light microscopy to observe the following phenological phases: onset and end of cell production, onset and end of secondary wall formation in xylem cells and onset of cell maturation. The temporal dynamics of wood formation widely differed among years, altitudes and tree species. For Fagus sylvatica, the onset of cambial activity varied between the first week of May and the third week of June. Cambial activity then slowed down and stopped in summer, resulting in a length of growing season of 48–75 days. In contrast, the growing season for Pinus sylvestris started earlier and cambium remained active in autumn, leading to a period of activity varying from 139-170 days. The intra-annual wood-formation pattern is site and species-specific. Comparison with other studies shows a clear latitudinal trend in the duration of wood formation, positive for Fagus sylvatica and negative for Pinus sylvestris.

  15. Comparison of N uptake and internal use efficiency in two tobacco varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Department of Plant Nutrition, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To explain the observation in field experiments that tobacco variety CB-1 was more nitrogen (N-efficient than K326, the influence of two N levels on growth, N uptake and N flow within plants of the two tobacco varieties was studied. Xylem sap from the upper and lower leaves of both tobacco varieties cultured in quartz sand was collected by application of pressure to the root system. CB-1 took up more N with smaller roots at both high (HN, 10 mmol L− 1 and low (LN, 1 mmol L− 1 N levels, and built up more new tissues in upper leaves especially at LN level, than K326. Both varieties showed luxury N uptake, and CB-1 accumulated significantly less NO3− in new tissues than K326, when grown at the HN level. At both N levels, the amount of xylem-transported N and phloem-cycled N from shoot to root in K326 was greater than those in CB-1, indicating higher N use efficiency in CB-1 shoots than in K326 shoots. The major nitrogenous compound in the xylem sap was NO3− irrespective of N level and variety. Low N supply did not cause more NO3− reduction in the root. The results indicated that the N-efficient tobacco variety CB-1 was more efficient in both N uptake by smaller roots and N utilization in shoots, especially when grown at the LN level.

  16. Expression of ABA synthesis and metabolism genes under different irrigation strategies and atmospheric VPDs is associated with stomatal conductance in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Jim; Binney, Allan; Collins, Marisa; Edwards, Everard; Loveys, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The influence of different levels of irrigation and of variation in atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects on stomatal conductance were examined in field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines. Xylem sap, leaf tissue, and root tissue were collected at regular intervals during two seasons in conjunction with measurements of leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs). The different irrigation levels significantly altered the Ψleaf and gs of the vines across both seasons. ABA abundance in the xylem sap was correlated with gs. The expression of genes associated with ABA synthesis, NCED1 and NCED2, was higher in the roots than in the leaves throughout and highest in the roots in mid January, a time when soil moisture declined and VPD was at its highest. Their expression in roots was also inversely related to the levels of irrigation and correlated with ABA abundance in the roots, xylem sap, and leaves. Three genes encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylases were isolated and their identities confirmed by expression in yeast cells. The expression of one of these, Hyd1, was elevated in leaves when VPD was below 2.0-2.5 kPa and minimal at higher VPD levels. The results provide evidence that ABA plays an important role in linking stomatal response to soil moisture status and that changes in ABA catabolism at or near its site of action allows optimization of gas exchange to current environmental conditions.

  17. Cloning and functional characterization of MusaVND1 using transgenic banana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Sanjana; Tak, Himanshu; Ganapathi, T R

    2015-06-01

    Vascular related NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC) domain-containing genes regulate secondary wall deposition and differentiation of xylem vessel elements. MusaVND1 is an ortholog of Arabidopsis VND1 and contains the highly conserved NAC domain. The expression of MusaVND1 is highest in developing corm and during lignification conditions, the increase in expression of MusaVND1 coincides with the expression of PAL, COMT and C4H genes. MusaVND1 encodes a nuclear localized protein as MusaVND1-GFP fusion protein gets localized to nucleus. Transient overexpression of MusaVND1 converts banana embryogenic cells to xylem vessel elements, with a final differentiation frequency of 33.54% at the end of tenth day. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaVND1 showed stunted growth and were characterized by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Transgenic banana plants showed transdifferentiation of various types of cells into xylem vessel elements and ectopic deposition of lignin in cells of various plant organs such as leaf and corm. Tracheary element formation was seen in the cortical region of transgenic corm as well as in epidermal cells of leaves. Biochemical analysis indicates significantly higher levels of lignin and cellulose content in transgenic banana lines than control plants. MusaVND1 overexpressing transgenic banana plants showed elevated expression levels of genes involved in lignin and cellulose biosynthesis pathway. Further expression of different MYB transcription factors positively regulating secondary wall deposition was also up regulated in MusaVND1 transgenic lines.

  18. Variability in radial sap flux density patterns and sapwood area among seven co-occurring temperate broad-leaved tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Tobias; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

    2008-12-01

    Forest transpiration estimates are frequently based on xylem sap flux measurements in the outer sections of the hydro-active stem sapwood. We used Granier's constant-heating technique with heating probes at various xylem depths to analyze radial patterns of sap flux density in the sapwood of seven broad-leaved tree species differing in wood density and xylem structure. Study aims were to (1) compare radial sap flux density profiles between diffuse- and ring-porous trees and (2) analyze the relationship between hydro-active sapwood area and stem diameter. In all investigated species except the diffuse-porous beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and ring-porous ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), sap flux density peaked at a depth of 1 to 4 cm beneath the cambium, revealing a hump-shaped curve with species-specific slopes. Beech and ash reached maximum sap flux densities immediately beneath the cambium in the youngest annual growth rings. Experiments with dyes showed that the hydro-active sapwood occupied 70 to 90% of the stem cross-sectional area in mature trees of diffuse-porous species, whereas it occupied only about 21% in ring-porous ash. Dendrochronological analyses indicated that vessels in the older sapwood may remain functional for 100 years or more in diffuse-porous species and for up to 27 years in ring-porous ash. We conclude that radial sap flux density patterns are largely dependent on tree species, which may introduce serious bias in sap-flux-derived forest transpiration estimates, if non-specific sap flux profiles are assumed.

  19. The phylogenetic significance of vestured pits in Boraginaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaey, D.; Lens, F.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2010-01-01

    The bordered pit structure in tracheary elements of 105 Boraginaceae species is studied using scanning electron microscopy to examine the systematic distribution of vestured pits. Forty-three species out of 16 genera show a uniform presence of this feature throughout their secondary xylem. Most

  20. Plant water stress effects on stylet probing behaviors of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated with acquisition and inoculation of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, is a xylem fluid-ingesting leafhopper that transmits Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of several plant diseases in the Americas. While the role of plant water stress on the population density and dispersal of H. vitripennis has been studie...

  1. Physiological blockage in plants in response to postharvest stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marcos

    2013-03-13

    Mar 13, 2013 ... response of the plant to cut stem (Ichimura et al., 1999). When the vessel is blocked, ... E-mail: m.r.s.v@hotmail.com. of complex physiological ... of cells which protrude into the vessel lumen xylem whose shape is similar to a.

  2. Intact plant MRI for the study of cell water relations, membrane permeability, cell-to-cell and long distance water transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, van H.

    2007-01-01

    Water content and hydraulic conductivity, including transport within cells, over membranes, cell-to-cell, and long-distance xylem and phloem transport, are strongly affected by plant water stress. By being able to measure these transport processes non-invasely in the intact plant situation in

  3. VULNERABILITY TO CAVITATION IN GRAPEVINES HAS BEEN OVERESTIMATED BY THE CENTRIFUGE TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevines are considered among the most vulnerable woody plant species to water stress-induced cavitation with embolism forming at slight tensions. However, we found that native embolism in stems of field grown Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay never exceeded 30% despite xylem water potentials ('x) rea...

  4. Composition and distribution of cell wall phenolic compounds in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) stem tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorshkova, T.A.; Salnikov, V.V.; Pogodina, N.M.; Chemikosova, S.B.; Yablokova, E.V.; Ulanov, A.V.; Ageeva, M.V.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Lozovaya, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    Cell wall phenolic compounds were analysed in xylem and bast fibre-rich peels of flax stems by biochemical, histochemical and ultrastructural approaches. Localization of cell wall phenolics by the enzyme-gold method using laccase revealed several gold particle distribution patterns. One of the major

  5. Comparative Genomics Yields Insights into Niche Adaptation of Plant Vascular Wilt Pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klosterman, S.J.; Subbarao, K.V.; Kang, S.; Veronese, P.; Gold, S.E.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Chen, Z.J.; Henrissat, B.; Lee, Y.H.; Park, J.; Garcia-Pedrajas, M.D.; Barbara, D.J.; Anchieta, A.; Jonge, de R.; Santhanam, P.; Maruthachalam, K.; Atallah, Z.; Amyotte, S.G.; Paz, Z.; Inderbitzin, P.; Hayes, R.J.; Heiman, D.I.; Young, S.; Zeng, Q.; Engels, R.; Galagan, J.; Cuomo, C.; Dobinson, K.F.; Ma, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum infect over 200 plant species, causing billions of dollars in annual crop losses. The characteristic wilt symptoms are a result of colonization and proliferation of the pathogens in the xylem vessels, which undergo fluctuations in

  6. Monitoring population density and fluctuations of Anisandrus dispar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bark and ambrosia beetles consist of two main ecological groups; bark beetles settle in the phloem, whereas ambrosia beetles bore in the xylem (sapwood). The latter are very detrimental ... in Samsun province. Key words: Hazelnut, population monitoring, Anisandrus dispar, Xyleborinus saxesenii, red winged sticky traps.

  7. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. MODHUMITA GHOSH DASGUPTA. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 93 Issue 2 August 2014 pp 403-414 Research Article. Isolation of developing secondary xylem specific cellulose synthase genes and their expression profiles during hormone signalling in Eucalyptus ...

  8. Wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Hogeweg, P.; Maanen, van W.H.M.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with the wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae). Generic descriptions of the secondary xylem of Blakea, Topobea, and Huilaea are given and compared with data on 16 genera of the Miconieae. Numerical pattern detection was undertaken. The results confirm our preliminary

  9. Comparative wood anatomy of Andromedeae s.s., Gaultherieae, Lyonieae and Oxydendreae (Vaccinioideae, Ericaceae s.l.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, F.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The wood anatomical structure of 11 out of 13 genera from four tribes of the Vaccinioideae, namely Andromedeae s.s., Gaultherieae, Lyonieae and Oxydendreae (Ericaceae s.l.), is described using light and scanning electron microscopy. Several features of the secondary xylem support the tribal

  10. Markers inside wood : tree rings as archives of insect outbreaks, drift-sand dynamics, and spring flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copini, P.

    2015-01-01

    MARKERS INSIDE WOOD – TREE RINGS AS ARCHIVES OF INSECT OUTBREAKS, DRIFT-SAND DYNAMICS AND SPRING FLOODING

    Trees are long-living organisms that record ecologically relevant information in their xylem that can be accessed by dendrochronology, the study of tree rings. Specific environmental

  11. How to conquer a tomato plant? Fusarium oxysporum effector targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sain, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens secrete small proteins, called effectors, to alter the environment in their host to facilitate infection. The causal agent of Fusarium wilt on tomato, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), secretes these proteins in the xylem sap of infected plants and hence they have been called

  12. Inferring the source of evaporated waters using stable H and O isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotope ratios of H and O are widely used to identify the source of water, e.g., in aquifers, river runoff, soils, plant xylem, and plant-based beverages. In situations where the sampled water is partially evaporated, its isotope values will have evolved along an evaporati...

  13. A capillary electrophoretic method for isolation and characterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    European (Vitis vinifera) and American (Vitis labrusca) grape species succumb to a bacterial disease known as Pierce's Disease (PD). In contrast, muscadine grape genotypes (Vitis rotundifolia) are tolerant/resistant to PD. This is due to the unique biochemical composition of muscadine xylem. However, because of low ...

  14. Acquisition of Xyllela fastidiosa causes changes to the inoculation behavior (EPG X wave) of an efficient sharpshooter vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is a foregut-borne bacterium that is inoculated into xylem cells of a healthy plant during feeding by sharpshooter vectors. Inoculation occurs during salivation and egestion behaviors that are likely represented by the sharpshooter X wave. The objective of this study was to t...

  15. Comparative effect of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on incidence of blossom-end rot in tomato under varied calcium rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yanqi; Feng, Hao; Liu, Fulai

    2013-01-01

    xylem sap abscisic acid concentration, lower stomatal conductance, and higher plant water status in the PRD in relation to the DI plants might have contributed to the increased fruit Ca uptake, and could have reduced BER development in tomato fruits. Therefore, under conditions with limited freshwater...

  16. Unravelling aspects of spatial and temporal distribution of Verticillium dahliae in olive, maple and ash trees and improvement of detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keykhasaber, Mojtaba

    2017-01-01

    Vascular wilts caused by xylem-colonizing pathogens are among the most devastating plant diseases that affect a wide range of plant species worldwide. Information on the distribution of V. dahliae in infected trees helps to design an appropriate and efficient sampling method for reliable

  17. Xylella taiwanensis sp. nov. cause of pear leaf scorch disease in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a group of xylem-limited and nutritionally fastidious plant pathogenic bacteria. While mostly found in the Americas, new X. fastidiosa strains have been reported from other continents such as Asia, including a pear leaf scorch (PLS) strain from Taiwan. Current taxonomy of X. fa...

  18. Archaeological and taxonomic significance of ancient wood samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ancient wood samples from an archaeological excavation, Test Pit II, in Ahanve, near Badagry were analysed to ascertain their identity. Anatomical study of the wood samples revealed oval-circular xylem pores, diffuse apotracheal axial parenchyma, procumbent and homogeneous ray and non-septate fibres, all consistent ...

  19. How to quantify conduits in wood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Alexander; Klepsch, Matthias; Karimi, Zohreh; Jansen, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Vessels and tracheids represent the most important xylem cells with respect to long distance water transport in plants. Wood anatomical studies frequently provide several quantitative details of these cells, such as vessel diameter, vessel density, vessel element length, and tracheid length, while important information on the three dimensional structure of the hydraulic network is not considered. This paper aims to provide an overview of various techniques, although there is no standard protocol to quantify conduits due to high anatomical variation and a wide range of techniques available. Despite recent progress in image analysis programs and automated methods for measuring cell dimensions, density, and spatial distribution, various characters remain time-consuming and tedious. Quantification of vessels and tracheids is not only important to better understand functional adaptations of tracheary elements to environment parameters, but will also be essential for linking wood anatomy with other fields such as wood development, xylem physiology, palaeobotany, and dendrochronology.

  20. Vascular Cell Induction Culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves (VISUAL) Reveals the Sequential Differentiation of Sieve Element-Like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yuki; Nurani, Alif Meem; Saito, Chieko; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Saito, Masato; Yamazaki, Kyoko; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2016-06-01

    Cell differentiation is a complex process involving multiple steps, from initial cell fate specification to final differentiation. Procambial/cambial cells, which act as vascular stem cells, differentiate into both xylem and phloem cells during vascular development. Recent studies have identified regulatory cascades for xylem differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying phloem differentiation is largely unexplored due to technical challenges. Here, we established an ectopic induction system for phloem differentiation named Vascular Cell Induction Culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves (VISUAL). Our results verified similarities between VISUAL-induced Arabidopsis thaliana phloem cells and in vivo sieve elements. We performed network analysis using transcriptome data with VISUAL to dissect the processes underlying phloem differentiation, eventually identifying a factor involved in the regulation of the master transcription factor gene APL Thus, our culture system opens up new avenues not only for genetic studies of phloem differentiation, but also for future investigations of multidirectional differentiation from vascular stem cells. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  1. Mevalocidin: a novel, phloem mobile phytotoxin from Fusarium DA056446 and Rosellinia DA092917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwick, B Clifford; Brewster, William K; Deboer, Gerrit J; Fields, Steve C; Graupner, Paul R; Hahn, Donald R; Pearce, Cedric J; Schmitzer, Paul R; Webster, Jeffery D

    2013-02-01

    A multiyear effort to identify new natural products was built on a hypothesis that both phytotoxins from plant pathogens and antimicrobial compounds might demonstrate herbicidal activity. The discovery of one such compound, mevalocidin, is described in the current report. Mevalocidin was discovered from static cultures of two unrelated fungal isolates designated Rosellinia DA092917 and Fusarium DA056446. The chemical structure was confirmed by independent synthesis. Mevalocidin demonstrated broad spectrum post-emergence activity on grasses and broadleaves and produced a unique set of visual symptoms on treated plants suggesting a novel mode of action. Mevalocidin was rapidly absorbed in a representative grass and broadleaf plant. Translocation occurred from the treated leaf to other plant parts including roots confirming phloem as well as xylem mobility. By 24 hr after application, over 20 % had been redistributed through-out the plant. Mevalocidin is a unique phytotoxin based on its chemistry, with the uncommon attribute of demonstrating both xylem and phloem mobility in grass and broadleaf plants.

  2. Changes In water translocation in the vascular tissue of grape during fruit development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhaosen, X.; Forney, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between vascular water translocation in grapes and berry growth was investigated. Berry growth, firmness and turgor were measured, and the structure and function of the vascular bundles for water translocation was observed. During phase I fruit development, the dorsal and central vascular bundles rapidly translocated introduced dye in the pedicle. The speed of dye translocation was highest in the dorsal vascular bundles of phase I fruit with a speed of 0.97cm/h. After phase II, both the distribution of dye and the speed of dye translocation in the fruit vascular tissue decreased, with speeds in the dorsal and central vascular bundles being 0.08 cm/h and 0.72 cm/h, respectively. During phase III, the distribution of dye was still lower than phase I. After phase II, the walls of some xylem vessels were indistinct and broken. After phase III, even though the water translocation efficiency of the xylem decreased, sugar accumulation in the berry as well as osmoregulation increased. (author)

  3. Co-occurring species differ in tree-ring δ18O trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Marshall; Robert A. Monserud

    2006-01-01

    The stable oxygen isotope ratio (δ18O) of tree-ring cellulose is jointly determined by the δ18O of xylem water, the δ18O of atmospheric water vapor, the humidity of the atmosphere and perhaps by species-specific differences in leaf structure and function. Atmospheric...

  4. Physiological roles and metabolism of fungal aryl alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de E.

    1993-01-01

    The major structural elements of wood and other vascular tissues are cellulose, hemicellulose and generally 20-30% lignin. Lignin gives the plant strength, it serves as a barrier against microbial attack and it acts as a water impermeable seal across cell walls of the xylem tissue. However,

  5. A review of measured bioaccumulation data in terrestrial plants for organic chemicals: Metrics, variability and the need for standardized measurement protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucette, William J; Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Dettenmaier, Erik M

    2018-01-01

    by plants are often expressed as ratios of chemical concentrations in the plant compartments of interest (e.g., leaves, shoots, roots, xylem sap) to that in the exposure medium (e.g., soil, soil pore water, hydroponic solution, air). These ratios are generally referred to as bioconcentration factors (BCFs...

  6. Water uptake and transport in lianas and co-occurring trees of a seasonally dry tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Luis Andrade; Frederick C. Meinzer; Guillermo Goldstein; Stefan A. Schnitzer

    2005-01-01

    Water uptake and transport were studied in eight liana species in a seasonally dry tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Stable hydrogen isotope composition (δD) of xylem and soil water, soil volumetric water content (θv), and basal sap flow were measured during the 1997 and...

  7. Evolutionary relationships of Slash Pine ( Pinus elliottii ) with its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    llozymes in bud tissue and monoterpene contents in xylem oleoresin of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) were analyzed from populations across the natural distribution, as well as those from other species in the AUSTRALES pines. Allozyme diversity measures of slash pine were similar to those found in other southern pines.

  8. Transcriptional and Hormonal Regulation of Gravitropism of Woody Stems in Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne Gerttula; Matthew S. Zinkgraf; Gloria K. Muday; Daniel R. Lewis; Farid M. Ibatullin; Harry Brumer; Foster Hart; Shawn D. Mansfield; Vladimir Filkov; Andrew Groover

    2015-01-01

    Angiosperm trees reorient their woody stems by asymmetrically producing a specialized xylem tissue, tension wood, which exerts a strong contractile force resulting in negative gravitropism of the stem. Here, we show, in Populus trees, that initial gravity perception and response occurs in specialized cells through sedimentation of starch-filled...

  9. 77 FR 65360 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status (Centrifugal and Submersible Pumps); Auburn, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... Status (Centrifugal and Submersible Pumps); Auburn, NY Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade... authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the centrifugal and submersible pump manufacturing and... submersible pumps and related controllers at the Xylem Water Systems U.S.A., LLC, facilities located in Auburn...

  10. Classification of Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. oocarpa, P. caribaea var. hondurensis, and Related Taxonomic Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Squillace; Jesse P. Perry

    1992-01-01

    Stem xylem terpenes of 75 pine populations were studied to determine relationships among taxonomic entities. Typical Pinus patula populations occurring in areas north and west of Oaxaca, Mexico, had very high proportions of 3-phellandrene and low proportions of other constituents. Terpene compositions of populations of variety longipeduncalatain...

  11. Conductive sapwood area prediction from stem and canopy areas - allometric equations of Kalahari trees, Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubczynski, M.W.; Chavarro-Rincon, D.C.; Rossiter, David

    2017-01-01

    Conductive sapwood (xylem) area (Ax) of all trees in a given forested area is the main factor contributing to spatial tree transpiration. One hundred ninety-five trees of 9 species in the Kalahari region of Botswana were felled, stained, cut into discs, and measured to develop allometric equations

  12. A novel multifunctional O-methyltransferase implicated in a dual methylation pathway associated with lignin biosynthesis in loblolly pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Popko, J L; Zhang, X H; Osakabe, K; Tsai, C J; Joshi, C P; Chiang, V L

    1997-05-13

    S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferases (OMTs) catalyze the methylation of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives for the synthesis of methylated plant polyphenolics, including lignin. The distinction in the extent of methylation of lignins in angiosperms and gymnosperms, mediated by substrate-specific OMTs, represents one of the fundamental differences in lignin biosynthesis between these two classes of plants. In angiosperms, two types of structurally and functionally distinct lignin pathway OMTs, caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferases (CAOMTs) and caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferases (CCoAOMTs), have been reported and extensively studied. However, little is known about lignin pathway OMTs in gymnosperms. We report here the first cloning of a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) xylem cDNA encoding a multifunctional enzyme, SAM:hydroxycinnamic Acids/hydroxycinnamoyl CoA Esters OMT (AEOMT). The deduced protein sequence of AEOMT is partially similar to, but clearly distinguishable from, that of CAOMTs and does not exhibit any significant similarity with CCoAOMT protein sequences. However, functionally, yeast-expressed AEOMT enzyme catalyzed the methylation of CAOMT substrates, caffeic and 5-hydroxyferulic acids, as well as CCoAOMT substrates, caffeoyl CoA and 5-hydroxyferuloyl CoA esters, with similar specific activities and was completely inactive with substrates associated with flavonoid synthesis. The lignin-related substrates were also efficiently methylated in crude extracts of loblolly pine secondary xylem. Our results support the notion that, in the context of amino acid sequence and biochemical function, AEOMT represents a novel SAM-dependent OMT, with both CAOMT and CCoAOMT activities and thus the potential to mediate a dual methylation pathway in lignin biosynthesis in loblolly pine xylem.

  13. A novel multifunctional O-methyltransferase implicated in a dual methylation pathway associated with lignin biosynthesis in loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Laigeng; Popko, Jacqueline L.; Zhang, Xing-Hai; Osakabe, Keishi; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Joshi, Chandrashekhar P.; Chiang, Vincent L.

    1997-01-01

    S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferases (OMTs) catalyze the methylation of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives for the synthesis of methylated plant polyphenolics, including lignin. The distinction in the extent of methylation of lignins in angiosperms and gymnosperms, mediated by substrate-specific OMTs, represents one of the fundamental differences in lignin biosynthesis between these two classes of plants. In angiosperms, two types of structurally and functionally distinct lignin pathway OMTs, caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferases (CAOMTs) and caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferases (CCoAOMTs), have been reported and extensively studied. However, little is known about lignin pathway OMTs in gymnosperms. We report here the first cloning of a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) xylem cDNA encoding a multifunctional enzyme, SAM:hydroxycinnamic Acids/hydroxycinnamoyl CoA Esters OMT (AEOMT). The deduced protein sequence of AEOMT is partially similar to, but clearly distinguishable from, that of CAOMTs and does not exhibit any significant similarity with CCoAOMT protein sequences. However, functionally, yeast-expressed AEOMT enzyme catalyzed the methylation of CAOMT substrates, caffeic and 5-hydroxyferulic acids, as well as CCoAOMT substrates, caffeoyl CoA and 5-hydroxyferuloyl CoA esters, with similar specific activities and was completely inactive with substrates associated with flavonoid synthesis. The lignin-related substrates were also efficiently methylated in crude extracts of loblolly pine secondary xylem. Our results support the notion that, in the context of amino acid sequence and biochemical function, AEOMT represents a novel SAM-dependent OMT, with both CAOMT and CCoAOMT activities and thus the potential to mediate a dual methylation pathway in lignin biosynthesis in loblolly pine xylem. PMID:9144260

  14. Uptake, distribution, and velocity of organically complexed plutonium in corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Shannon W; Molz, Fred J; Fjeld, Robert A; Kaplan, Daniel I

    2012-10-01

    Lysimeter experiments and associated simulations suggested that Pu moved into and through plants that invaded field lysimeters during an 11-year study at the Savannah River Site. However, probable plant uptake and transport mechanisms were not well defined, so more detailed study is needed. Therefore, experiments were performed to examine movement, distribution, and velocity of soluble, complexed Pu in corn. Corn was grown and exposed to Pu using a "long root" system in which the primary root extended through a soil pot and into a hydroponic container. To maintain solubility, Pu was complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB (Desferrioxamine B) or the chelating agent DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid). Corn plants were exposed to nutrient solutions containing Pu for periods of 10 min to 10 d. Analysis of root and shoot tissues permitted concentration measurement and calculation of uptake velocity and Pu retardation in corn. Results showed that depending on exposure time, 98.3-95.9% of Pu entering the plant was retained in the roots external to the xylem, and that 1.7-4.1% of Pu entered the shoots (shoot fraction increased with exposure time). Corn Pu uptake was 2-4 times greater as Pu(DFOB) than as Pu(2)(DTPA)(3). Pu(DFOB) solution entered the root xylem and moved 1.74 m h(-1) or greater upward, which is more than a million times faster than Pu(III/IV) downward movement through soil during the lysimeter study. The Pu(DFOB) xylem retardation factor was estimated to be 3.7-11, allowing for rapid upward Pu transport and potential environmental release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stomatal closure of Pelargonium × hortorum in response to soil water deficit is associated with decreased leaf water potential only under rapid soil drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Richard K A; McAinsh, Martin; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-01-01

    Soil water deficits applied at different rates and for different durations can decrease both stomatal conductance (gs ) and leaf water potential (Ψleaf ). Understanding the physiological mechanisms regulating these responses is important in sustainable irrigation scheduling. Glasshouse-grown, containerized Pelargonium × hortorum BullsEye plants were irrigated either daily at various fractions of plant evapotranspiration (100, 75 and 50% ET) for 20 days or irrigation was withheld for 4 days. Xylem sap was collected and gs and Ψleaf were measured on days 15 and 20, and on days 16-19 for the respective treatments. Xylem sap pH and NO3 (-) and Ca(2+) concentrations did not differ between irrigation treatments. Xylem abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations ([ABA]xyl ) increased within 24 h of irrigation being withheld whilst gs and Ψleaf decreased. Supplying irrigation at a fraction of daily ET produced a similar relationship between [ABA]xyl and gs , but did not change Ψleaf . Treatment differences occurred independently of whether Ψleaf was measured in whole leaves with a pressure chamber, or in the lamina with a thermocouple psychrometer. Plants that were irrigated daily showed lower [ABA]xyl than plants from which irrigation was withheld, even at comparable soil moisture content. This implies that regular re-watering attenuates ABA signaling due to maintenance of soil moisture in the upper soil levels. Crucially, detached leaves supplied with synthetic ABA showed a similar relationship between [ABA]xyl and gs as intact plants, suggesting that stomatal closure of P. hortorum in response to soil water deficit is primarily an ABA-induced response, independent of changes in Ψleaf . © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  16. Variability of the tree-rings structure of Gmelin’s larch at northern tree line (peninsula of Taymyr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Fakhrutdinova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of tree-ring cell structure changes as the result of tree adaptation to varying environmental conditions becomes increasingly important to predict future vegetation shifts under projected climate changes. The estimate of intrapopulation annual variability of wood anatomy characteristics is particularly informative. It helps to divide the contribution of different ecological factors to total features dispersion. In this work, a comparative analysis of individual and climatic variability of tree ring structure characteristics of Gmelin’s larch Larix gmelinii (Rupr. growth within northernmost forest was carried out. The trees from forest-tundra boundary has greater radial growth intensity, forms the bigger conductive zone in rings with wider mean lumen area in comparison with trees from closed forest. This result can be explained by adaptive features and height ecological xylem plasticity of larch. The tree rings structure of larch from boundary with tundra is determined by largely current weather conditions. Is because these ones evince high adaptive plasticity on the level of xylem structure. The xylem reflects joint changes of climate factors and local ecological conditions. The trees from closed forest are characterized by larger individual variability. The local conditions in oldest forest (for example, bad hydrothermal soil conditions inhibit the radial growth and sensitivity to environmental factors. In this case, the trees on individual level are tended to save the normal functioning of water-transport system. The significant differences in ratio individual to climate variability of tree ring structure characteristics can be caused by the different in the level of ecological habitat heterogeneity or the different in the level genetic within-population heterogeneity.

  17. Endophytic colonization of plant roots by nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocking, Edward C.

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are able to enter into roots from the rhizosphere, particularly at the base of emerging lateral roots, between epidermal cells and through root hairs. In the rhizosphere growing root hairs play an important role in symbiotic recognition in legume crops. Nodulated legumes in endosymbiosis with rhizobia are amongst the most prominent nitrogen-fixing systems in agriculture. The inoculation of non-legumes, especially cereals, with various non-rhizobial diazotrophic bacteria has been undertaken with the expectation that they would establish themselves intercellularly within the root system, fixing nitrogen endophytic ally and providing combined nitrogen for enhanced crop production. However, in most instances bacteria colonize only the surface of the roots and remain vulnerable to competition from other rhizosphere micro-organisms, even when the nitrogen-fixing bacteria are endophytic, benefits to the plant may result from better uptake of soil nutrients rather than from endophytic nitrogen fixation. Azorhizobium caulinodans is known to enter the root system of cereals, other nonlegume crops and Arabidopsis, by intercellular invasion between epidermal cells and to internally colonize the plant intercellularly, including the xylem. This raises the possibility that xylem colonization might provide a nonnodular niche for endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation in rice, wheat, maize, sorghum and other non-legume crops. A particularly interesting, naturally occurring, non-qodular xylem colonising endophytic diazotrophic interaction with evidence for endophytic nitrogen fixation is that of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in sugarcane. Could this beneficial endophytic colonization of sugarcane by G. diazotrophicus be extended to other members of the Gramineae, including the major cereals, and to other major non-legume crops of the World? (author)

  18. Freezing resistance in Patagonian woody shrubs: the role of cell wall elasticity and stem vessel size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Bucci, Sandra J; Arias, Nadia S; Scholz, Fabian G; Hao, Guang-You; Cao, Kun-Fang; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2016-08-01

    Freezing resistance through avoidance or tolerance of extracellular ice nucleation is important for plant survival in habitats with frequent subzero temperatures. However, the role of cell walls in leaf freezing resistance and the coordination between leaf and stem physiological processes under subzero temperatures are not well understood. We studied leaf and stem responses to freezing temperatures, leaf and stem supercooling, leaf bulk elastic modulus and stem xylem vessel size of six Patagonian shrub species from two sites (plateau and low elevation sites) with different elevation and minimum temperatures. Ice seeding was initiated in the stem and quickly spread to leaves, but two species from the plateau site had barriers against rapid spread of ice. Shrubs with xylem vessels smaller in diameter had greater stem supercooling capacity, i.e., ice nucleated at lower subzero temperatures. Only one species with the lowest ice nucleation temperature among all species studied exhibited freezing avoidance by substantial supercooling, while the rest were able to tolerate extracellular freezing from -11.3 to -20 °C. Leaves of species with more rigid cell walls (higher bulk elastic modulus) could survive freezing to lower subzero temperatures, suggesting that rigid cell walls potentially reduce the degree of physical injury to cell membranes during the extracellular freezing and/or thaw processes. In conclusion, our results reveal the temporal-spatial ice spreading pattern (from stem to leaves) in Patagonian shrubs, and indicate the role of xylem vessel size in determining supercooling capacity and the role of cell wall elasticity in determining leaf tolerance of extracellular ice formation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Change in hydraulic properties and leaf traits of a tall rainforest tree species subjected to long-term throughfall exclusion in the perhumid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, B.; Leuschner, C.; Horna, V.; Moser, G.; Köhler, M.; Barus, H.

    2010-11-01

    In a throughfall displacement experiment on Sulawesi, Indonesia, three 0.16 ha stands of a premontane perhumid rainforest were exposed to a two-year soil desiccation period that reduced the soil moisture in the upper soil layers beyond the conventional wilting point. About 25 variables, including leaf morphological and chemical traits, stem diameter growth and hydraulic properties of the xylem in the trunk and terminal twigs, were investigated in trees of the tall-growing tree species Castanopsis acuminatissima (Fagaceae) by comparing desiccated roof plots with nearby control plots. We tested the hypotheses that this tall and productive species is particularly sensitive to drought, and the exposed upper sun canopy is more affected than the shade canopy. Hydraulic conductivity in the xylem of terminal twigs normalised to vessel lumen area was reduced by 25%, leaf area-specific conductivity by 10-33% during the desiccation treatment. Surprisingly, the leaves present at the end of the drought treatment were significantly larger, but not smaller in the roof plots, though reduced in number (about 30% less leaves per unit of twig sapwood area), which points to a drought effect on the leaf bud formation while the remaining leaves may have profited from a surplus of water. Mean vessel diameter and axial conductivity in the outermost xylem of the trunk were significantly reduced and wood density increased, while annual stem diameter increment decreased by 26%. In contradiction to our hypotheses, (i) we found no signs of major damage to the C. acuminatissima trees nor to any other drought sensitivity of tall trees, and (ii) the exposed upper canopy was not more drought susceptible than the shade canopy.

  20. Use of Plant Hydraulic Theory to Predict Ecosystem Fluxes Across Mountainous Gradients in Environmental Controls and Insect Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Reed, D. E.; Barnard, H. R.; Whitehouse, F.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Brooks, P. D.; Biederman, J. A.; Harpold, A. A.; Naithani, K. J.; Mitra, B.; Mackay, D. S.; Norton, U.; Borkhuu, B.

    2011-12-01

    While mountainous areas are critical for providing numerous ecosystem benefits at the regional scale, the strong gradients in environmental controls make predictions difficult. A key part of the problem is quantifying and predicting the feedback between mountain gradients and plant function which then controls ecosystem cycling. The emerging theory of plant hydraulics provides a rigorous yet simple platform from which to generate testable hypotheses and predictions of ecosystem pools and fluxes. Plant hydraulic theory predicts that plant controls over carbon, water, energy and nutrient fluxes can be derived from the limitation of plant water transport from the soil through xylem and out of stomata. In addition, the limit to plant water transport can be predicted by combining plant structure (e.g. xylem diameters or root-to-shoot ratios) and plant function (response of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit or root vulnerability to cavitation). We evaluate the predictions of the plant hydraulic theory by testing it against data from a mountain gradient encompassing sagebrush steppe through subalpine forests (2700 to 3400 m). We further test the theory by predicting the carbon, water and nutrient exchanges from several coniferous trees in the same gradient that are dying from xylem dysfunction caused by blue-stain fungi carried by bark beetles. The common theme of both of these data sets is a change in water limitation caused by either changing precipitation along the mountainous gradient or lack of access to soil water from xylem-occluding fungi. Across all of the data sets which range in scale from individual plants to hillslopes, the data fit the predictions of plant hydraulic theory. Namely, there was a proportional tradeoff between the reference canopy stomatal conductance to water vapor and the sensitivity of that conductance to vapor pressure deficit that quantitatively fits the predictions of plant hydraulic theory. Incorporating this result into

  1. Below- and above-ground controls on tree water use in lowland tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, F. C.; Woodruff, D.; McCulloh, K.; Domec, J.

    2012-12-01

    Even in moist tropical forests, fluctuations in soil water availability and atmospheric evaporative demand can constrain tree water use. Our research in three lowland tropical forest sites in Panama over the past two decades has identified a series of tree biophysical and functional traits related to daily and seasonal patterns of uptake, transport and loss of water. Studies combining measurements of sap flow and natural abundance of hydrogen isotopes in soil and xylem water during the dry season show considerable variation in depth of soil water uptake among co-occurring species. Trees able to exploit progressively deeper sources of soil water during the dry season, as indicated by increasingly negative xylem water hydrogen isotope ratios, were also able to maintain constant or even increased rates of water use. Injections of a stable isotope tracer (deuterated water) into tree trunks revealed a considerable range of water transit and residence times among co-occurring, similarly-sized trees. Components of tree hydraulic architecture were also strong determinants of patterns of water use. Sapwood hydraulic capacitance, the amount of water released per unit change in tissue water potential, was a strong predictor of several tree water use and water relations traits, including sap velocity, water residence time, daily maximum branch xylem tension, and the time of day at which stomata began to increasingly restrict transpiration. Among early and late successional species, hydraulic traits such as trunk-to-branch tapering of xylem vessels, branch sap flux, branch sapwood specific conductivity and whole-tree leaf area-specific hydraulic conductance scaled uniformly with branch wood density. Consistent with differences in trunk-to-branch tapering of vessels between early and late successional species, the ratio of branch to trunk sap flux was substantially greater in early successional species. Among species, stomatal conductance and transpiration per unit leaf area

  2. Pinus ponderosa: a taxonomic review with five subspecies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Z. Callaham

    2013-01-01

    Various forms of Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson are found from British Columbia southward and eastward through 16 states and, perhaps, into Mexico. The status of many names previously associated with this species, but excluded here, has been clarified. Accumulated evidence based on variation in morphology and xylem monoterpenes,...

  3. Bacterial leaf scorch distribution and isothermal lines (PROJECT NC-EM-08-02)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard C. Adams; Mursel Catall; James Walla; Ann B. Gould

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial leaf scorch (BLS) of shade trees is the common name for a disease caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-inhabiting bacterium that has fastidious nutritional requirements and is difficult to culture or verify by culturing. Forest trees including oak, sycamore, elm, planetree, sweetgum, mulberry and maple are species susceptible to ...

  4. Evaluation of log submergence to control EAB and preserve black ash for native American basketry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Damon J. Crook; Tina M. Ciaramitaro

    2011-01-01

    Many Native American cultures use black ash, Fraxinus nigra, for basket-making because its ring-porous wood allows the annual layers of xylem to be easily separated. The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is threatening North America's ash resource including black ash, and a centuries-old native art form. Native...

  5. Tracheid development and wood quality in larch seedlings under controlled environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Balatinecz; J.L. Farrar

    1968-01-01

    Several environmental factors necessary for tree growth undergo rhythmic and sometimes abrupt changes during the course of a year, and even during a day. Since wood cells are susceptible to outside influences during their differentiation, certain fluctuations of environmental conditions invariably leave a permanent imprint on xylem anatomy, and hence significantly...

  6. Obstruction of Water Uptake in cut Chrysanthemum Stems after Dry Storage: Role of Wound-induced Increase in Enzyme Activities and Air Emboli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Arevalo-Galarza, L.

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulic conductance of cut chrysanthemum stems was lowered by the aspiration of air as well as by a wound-induced plant response. By measuring the hydraulic conductance of stem segments in which air could be introduced into and/or removed from the xylem vessels at various times after harvest, we

  7. Does water transport scale universally with tree size?

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.C. Meinzer; B.J. Bond; J.M. Warren; D.R. Woodruff

    2005-01-01

    1. We employed standardized measurement techniques and protocols to describe the size dependence of whole-tree water use and cross-sectional area of conducting xylem (sapwood) among several species of angiosperms and conifers. 2. The results were not inconsistent with previously proposed 314-power scaling of water transport with estimated above-...

  8. Ultrastructure of hydathode trichomes of hemiparasitic Rhinanthus alectorolophus and Odontites vernus: how important is their role in physiology and evolution of parasitism in Orobanchaceae?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Těšitel, J.; Tesařová, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2013), s. 119-125 ISSN 1435-8603 Grant - others:JČU(CZ) IAA601410805; JČU(CZ) GD206/08/H044 Program:GD Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hydathode * Lathraea * leaf * parasitic plant * Rhinanthus * transpiration * xylem Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.405, year: 2013

  9. Dilip Amritphale

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 468-474 Classroom. Seedlings of Dicots: Form and Function · Dilip Amritphale Santosh K Sharma · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 15 Issue 3 March 2010 pp 223-231 General Article. Xylem Hydraulics: Rising Up and Higher! Dilip Amritphale Santosh K Sharma.

  10. Hydraulic safety margins and embolism reversal in stems and leaves: Why are conifers and angiosperms so different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel M. Johnson; Katherine A. McCulloh; David R. Woodruff; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2012-01-01

    Angiosperm and coniferous tree species utilize a continuum of hydraulic strategies. Hydraulic safety margins (defined as differences between naturally occurring xylem pressures and pressures that would cause hydraulic dysfunction, or differences between pressures resulting in loss of hydraulic function in adjacent organs (e.g., stems vs. leaves) tend to be much greater...

  11. Spring temperature responses of oaks are synchronous with North Atlantic conditions during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Voelker; Paul-Emile Noirot-Cosson; Michael C. Stambaugh; Erin R. McMurry; Frederick C. Meinzer; Barbara Lachenburch; Richard P. Guyette

    2012-01-01

    Paleoclimate proxies based on the measurement of xylem cell anatomy have rarely been developed across the temperature range of a species or applied to wood predating the most recent millennium. Here we describe wood anatomy-based proxies for spring temperatures in central North America from modern bur oaks (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.). The strong...

  12. Root resistance to cavitation is accurately measured using a centrifuge technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, R B; MacKinnon, E D; Venturas, M D; Crous, C J; Jacobsen, A L

    2015-02-01

    Plants transport water under negative pressure and this makes their xylem vulnerable to cavitation. Among plant organs, root xylem is often highly vulnerable to cavitation due to water stress. The use of centrifuge methods to study organs, such as roots, that have long vessels are hypothesized to produce erroneous estimates of cavitation resistance due to the presence of open vessels through measured samples. The assumption that roots have long vessels may be premature since data for root vessel length are sparse; moreover, recent studies have not supported the existence of a long-vessel artifact for stems when a standard centrifuge technique was used. We examined resistance to cavitation estimated using a standard centrifuge technique and compared these values with native embolism measurements for roots of seven woody species grown in a common garden. For one species we also measured vulnerability using single-vessel air injection. We found excellent agreement between root native embolism and the levels of embolism measured using a centrifuge technique, and with air-seeding estimates from single-vessel injection. Estimates of cavitation resistance measured from centrifuge curves were biologically meaningful and were correlated with field minimum water potentials, vessel diameter (VD), maximum xylem-specific conductivity (Ksmax) and vessel length. Roots did not have unusually long vessels compared with stems; moreover, root vessel length was not correlated to VD or to the vessel length of stems. These results suggest that root cavitation resistance can be accurately and efficiently measured using a standard centrifuge method and that roots are highly vulnerable to cavitation. The role of root cavitation resistance in determining drought tolerance of woody species deserves further study, particularly in the context of climate change. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Insight into the hydraulics and resilience of Ponderosa pine seedlings using a mechanistic ecohydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneta, M. P.; Simeone, C.; Dobrowski, S.; Holden, Z.; Sapes, G.; Sala, A.; Begueria, S.

    2017-12-01

    In semiarid regions, drought-induced seedling mortality is considered to be caused by failure in the tree hydraulic column. Understanding the mechanisms that cause hydraulic failure and death in seedlings is important, among other things, to diagnose where some tree species may fail to regenerate, triggering demographic imbalances in the forest that could result in climate-driven shifts of tree species. Ponderosa pine is a common lower tree line species in the western US. Seedlings of ponderosa pine are often subject to low soil water potentials, which require lower water potentials in the xylem and leaves to maintain the negative pressure gradient that drives water upward. The resilience of the hydraulic column to hydraulic tension is species dependent, but from greenhouse experiments, we have identified general tension thresholds beyond which loss of xylem conductivity becomes critical, and mortality in Ponderosa pine seedlings start to occur. We describe this hydraulic behavior of plants using a mechanistic soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model. Before we use this models to understand water-stress induced seedling mortality at the landscape scale, we perform a modeling analysis of the dynamics of soil moisture, transpiration, leaf water potential and loss of plant water conductivity using detailed data from our green house experiments. The analysis is done using a spatially distributed model that simulates water fluxes, energy exchanges and water potentials in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. Plant hydraulic and physiological parameters of this model were calibrated using Monte Carlo methods against information on soil moisture, soil hydraulic potential, transpiration, leaf water potential and percent loss of conductivity in the xylem. This analysis permits us to construct a full portrait of the parameter space for Ponderosa pine seedling and generate posterior predictive distributions of tree response to understand the sensitivity of transpiration

  14. Cambial variations of Piper (Piperaceae) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Zehn; Chen, Po-Hao

    2017-12-01

    Cambial variations in lianas of Piperaceae in Taiwan have not been studied previously. The stem anatomy of seven Piper species from Taiwan was examined to document cambial variations and better distinguish the species when leaves are absent. A key for the seven species is provided, based on the internal stem anatomy. The seven Piper species climb via adventitious roots, and in cross section, the stems were generally eccentric and oblate, although a transversely elliptic stem was found in P. kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi and P. sintenense Hatus. A cambial variant with secondary growth of external primary vascular bundles and xylem in plates was observed in all species except Piper betle L., which developed another cambium variant with xylem furrowed deeply by parenchyma proliferation. The sclerenchymatous ring surrounding the medullary vascular bundles was always continuous except in P. betle, where it was discontinuous. Mucilage canals varied from absent to present in the center of the pith, or present in the pith and inner cortex. Different sizes of vessels dispersed throughout the stem were ring or diffuse porous. The numbers of medullary and peripheral vascular bundles were distinctive and the widths of rays were noticeably different in each species. Differences in the growth rate of the medullary vascular bundles produced two development types of vascular bundles, although in both types, the peripheral vascular bundles gradually lengthen and become separated from each other by wide rays. We documented the internal stem anatomy of six previously unstudied species of Piper, including three endemic species, P. kwashoense Hayata, P. sintenense, and P. taiwanense Lin and Lu, and found that P. betle had deeply furrowed xylem, which had not been reported for the species before. The descriptions and photographs of seven Piper species will also provide a basis for further morphological studies.

  15. Determination of the distribution and reaction of polysaccharides in wood cell walls by the isotope tracer technique, 6: Selective radio-labeling of mannan in ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, T.; Terashima, N.; Yasuda, S.

    1997-01-01

    D-Mannose-[2-H-3] and GDP (guanosine diphosphate)-D-mannose-[mannose-1-H-3] were administered to the shoots of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) tolabel mannan selectively in the cell walls. To suppress the incorporation of radioactivity into the lignin and cellulose, the precursors were administered in the presence of the inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL): namely, L-alpha-aminooxy-beta-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP) and the inhibitor of glucan synthesis: namely, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and 2.6-dichlorobenzonitrile (2.6-DCB). When D-mannose-[2-H-3] was administered in the absence of the inhibitors, great radioactivities were found in the mannose and glucose obtained by sulfuric acid hydrolysis of the newly-formed xylem, and also in the vanillin obtained by nitrobenzene oxidation. These results indicate that the radioactivity was incorporated not only into mannan but also into cellulose and lignin. When D-mannose-[2-H-3] was administered in the presence of both AOPP and 2-DG, the radioactivities of vanillin and glucose were decreased but that of mannose was not decreased. These results indicate that the incorporations of radioactivities into lignin and cellulose were suppressed by the inhibitors, but the incorporation into mannan was not interfered with. The treatment with 2,6-DCB lessened the incorporations of radioactivity into vanillin, xylose, mannose, and glucose of the newly formed xylem considerably which indicated that 2,6-DCB disturbed the metabolic activities of the plant fatally. Consequently, the selective radiolabeling of mannan in ginkgo was achieved by the administration of D-mannose-[2-H-3], in the presence of both AOPP and 2-DG, toa growing stem. In the case of GDP-D-mannose-[mannose-1-H-3], the radioactivity incorporated into the newly-formed xylem was very little, and the selectivity in labeling and the effects of the inhibitors were not clear

  16. Loss of Arabidopsis GAUT12/IRX8 causes anther indehiscence and leads to reduced G lignin associated with altered matrix polysaccharide deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangying eHao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available GAUT12 (GAlactUronosylTransferase12/IRX8 (IRregular Xylem8 is a putative glycosyltransferase involved in Arabidopsis secondary cell wall biosynthesis. Previous work showed that Arabidopsis irregular xylem8 (irx8 mutants have collapsed xylem due to a reduction in xylan and a lesser reduction in a subfraction of homogalacturonan (HG. We now show that male sterility in the irx8 mutant is due to indehiscent anthers caused by reduced deposition of xylan and lignin in the endothecium cell layer. The reduced lignin content was demonstrated by histochemical lignin staining and pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (pyMBMS and is associated with reduced lignin biosynthesis in irx8 stems. Examination of sequential chemical extracts of stem walls using 2D 13C-1H Heteronuclear Single-Quantum Correlation (HSQC NMR spectroscopy and antibody-based glycome profiling revealed a reduction in G lignin in the 1 M KOH extract and a concomitant loss of xylan, arabinogalactan and pectin epitopes in the ammonium oxalate, sodium carbonate, and 1 M KOH extracts from the irx8 walls compared with wild-type walls. Immunolabeling of stem sections using the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M138 reactive against an unsubstituted xylopentaose epitope revealed a bi-lamellate pattern in wild-type fiber cells and a collapsed bi-layer in irx8 cells, suggesting that at least in fiber cells, GAUT12 participates in the synthesis of a specific layer or type of xylan or helps to provide an architecture framework required for the native xylan deposition pattern. The results support the hypothesis that GAUT12 functions in the synthesis of a structure required for xylan and lignin deposition during secondary cell wall formation.

  17. Linking Tropical Forest Function to Hydraulic Traits in a Size-Structured and Trait-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, B. O.; Gloor, M.; Fauset, S.; Fyllas, N.; Galbraith, D.; Baker, T. R.; Rowland, L.; Fisher, R.; Binks, O.; Sevanto, S.; Xu, C.; Jansen, S.; Choat, B.; Mencuccini, M.; McDowell, N. G.; Meir, P.

    2015-12-01

    A major weakness of forest ecosystem models is their inability to capture the diversity of responses to changes in water availability, severely hampering efforts to predict the fate of tropical forests under climate change. Such models often prescribe moisture sensitivity using heuristic response functions that are uniform across all individuals and lack important knowledge about trade-offs in hydraulic traits. We address this weakness by implementing a process representation of plant hydraulics into an individual- and trait-based model (Trait Forest Simulator; TFS) intended for application at discrete sites where community-level distributions of stem and leaf trait spectra (wood density, leaf mass per area, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus content) are known. The model represents a trade-off in the safety and efficiency of water conduction in xylem tissue through hydraulic traits, while accounting for the counteracting effects of increasing hydraulic path length and xylem conduit taper on whole-plant hydraulic resistance with increasing tree size. Using existing trait databases and additional meta-analyses from the rich literature on tropical tree ecophysiology, we obtained all necessary hydraulic parameters associated with xylem conductivity, vulnerability curves, pressure-volume curves, and hydraulic architecture (e.g., leaf-to-sapwood area ratios) as a function of the aforementioned traits and tree size. Incorporating these relationships in the model greatly improved the diversity of tree response to seasonal changes in water availability as well as in response to drought, as determined by comparison with field observations and experiments. Importantly, this individual- and trait-based framework provides a testbed for identifying both critical processes and functional traits needed for inclusion in coarse-scale Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, which will lead to reduced uncertainty in the future state of tropical forests.

  18. Age structure and age-related performance of sulfur cinquefoil (Potentilla recta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana L. Perkins; Catherine G. Parks; Kathleen A. Dwire; Bryan A. Endress; Kelsi L. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Age distributions of sulfur cinquefoil populations were determined on sites that were historically grazed, cultivated, and mechanically disturbed. From 12 sites, a total of 279 reproductively active plants were collected and aged by using herbchronology (counting rings in the secondary root xylem of the root crown) to (1) estimate the age structure of the populations...

  19. The blind men and the elephant: the impact of context and scale in evaluating conflicts between plant hydraulic safety and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick C. Meinzer; Katherine A. McCulloh; Barbara Lachenbruch; David R. Woodruff; Daniel M. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Given the fundamental importance of xylem safety and efficiency for plant survival and fitness, it is not surprising that these are among the most commonly studied features of hydraulic architecture. However, much remains to be learned about the nature and universality of conflicts between hydraulic safety and efficiency. Although selection for suites of hydraulic...

  20. Phenotype-gene: 558 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 558 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u3ria224u1555i non-functional ph...73-85. http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u16024589i non-functional phloem or xylem hi

  1. Air method measurements of apple vessel length distributions with improved apparatus and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtal Cohen; John Bennink; Mel Tyree

    2003-01-01

    Studies showing that rootstock dwarfing potential is related to plant hydraulic conductance led to the hypothesis that xylem properties are also related. Vessel length distribution and other properties of apple wood from a series of varieties were measured using the 'air method' in order to test this hypothesis. Apparatus was built to measure and monitor...

  2. Additional pest surveyed: hickory decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Juzwik; Ji-Hyun. Park

    2011-01-01

    A five year investigation of the cause of rapid crown decline and mortality of bitternut hickory was concluded in September 2011. Results of a series of related studies found that multiple cankers and xylem (the water conducting tissue) dysfunction caused by Ceratocystis smalleyi are correlated with rapid crown decline typical of a limited vascular...

  3. Water use patterns of three species in subalpine forest, Southwest China: the deuterium isotope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing Xu; Harbin Li; Jiquan Chen; Jiquan Cheng; Xiaoli Cheng; Shirong Liu; Shuqing An

    2011-01-01

    Determination of water sources of plant species in a community is critical for understanding the hydrological processes and their importance in ecosystem functions. Such partitioning of plant xylem water into specific sources (i.e. precipitation, groundwater) can be achieved by analyzing deuterium isotopic composition (δD) values for source waters. A subalpine dark...

  4. Characterization of xylan in the early stages of secondary cell wall formation in tobacco bright yellow-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tadashi; Matsuoka, Keita; Ono, Hiroshi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Yaoi, Katsuro; Nakano, Yoshimi; Ohtani, Misato; Demura, Taku; Iwai, Hiroaki; Satoh, Shinobu

    2017-11-15

    The major polysaccharides present in the primary and secondary walls surrounding plant cells have been well characterized. However, our knowledge of the early stages of secondary wall formation is limited. To address this, cell walls were isolated from differentiating xylem vessel elements of tobacco bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cells induced by VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN7 (VND7). The walls of induced VND7-VP16-GR BY-2 cells consisted of cellulose, pectic polysaccharides, hemicelluloses, and lignin, and contained more xylan and cellulose compared with non-transformed BY-2 and uninduced VND7-VP16-GR BY-2 cells. A reducing end sequence of xylan containing rhamnose and galaturonic acid- residues is present in the walls of induced, uninduced, and non-transformed BY-2 cells. Glucuronic acid residues in xylan from walls of induced cells are O-methylated, while those of xylan in non-transformed BY-2 and uninduced cells are not. Our results show that xylan changes in chemical structure and amounts during the early stages of xylem differentiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF METHYLMERCURY AND OTHER METAL(LOID)S IN MADAGASCAR UNPOLISHED RICE (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Mgutshini, Noma L.; Bizimis, Michael; Johnson-Beebout, Sarah E.; Ramanantsoanirina, Alain

    2014-01-01

    The rice ingestion rate in Madagascar is among the highest globally; however studies concerning metal(loid) concentrations in Madagascar rice are lacking. For Madagascar unpolished rice (n=51 landraces), levels of toxic elements (e.g., total mercury, methylmercury, arsenic and cadmium) as well as essential micronutrients (e.g., zinc and selenium) were uniformly low, indicating potentially both positive and negative health effects. Aside from manganese (Wilcoxon rank sum, p<0.01), no significant differences in concentrations for all trace elements were observed between rice with red bran (n=20) and brown bran (n=31) (Wilcoxon rank sum, p=0.06–0.91). Compared to all elements in rice, rubidium (i.e., tracer for phloem transport) was most positively correlated with methylmercury (Pearson's r=0.33, p<0.05) and total mercury (r=0.44, p<0.05), while strontium (i.e., tracer for xylem transport) was least correlated with total mercury and methylmercury (r<0.01 for both), suggesting inorganic mercury and methylmercury were possibly more mobile in phloem compared to xylem. PMID:25463705

  6. Dynamic analysis on cavitation and embolization in vascular plants under tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jeongeun; Hwang, Bae Geun; Kim, Yangmin; Lee, Sang Joon

    2014-11-01

    Plants can transport sap water from the soil to the tip of their leaves using the tensile forces created by leaf transpiration without any mechanical pumps. However, the high tension adversely induces a thermodynamically metastable state in sap water with negative pressure and gas bubbles are prone to be formed in xylem vessels. Cavitation easily breaks down continuous water columns and grows into embolization, which limits water transport through xylem vessels. Meanwhile, the repair process of embolization is closely related to water management and regulation of sap flow in plants. In this study, the cavitation and embolization phenomena of liquid water in vascular plants and a physical model system are experimentally and theoretically investigated in detail under in vivo and in vitro conditions. This study will not only shed light on the understanding of these multiphase flows under tension but also provide a clue to solve cavitation problems in micro-scale conduits and microfluidic network systems. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2008-0061991).

  7. [The structure of micromycete communities and their synecologic interactions with basidiomycetes during decomposition of plant debris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhova, V A; Semenova, T A

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the interactions between micromycetes and basidiomycete mycelium on plant substrates in the course of their 3-year incubation in the litter of ecologically intact spruce forests of the Central State Biosphere Forest Sanctuary (Nelidovo District, Tver oblast). Only 40-60% of the micromycetes were involved in direct antagonistic interactions with basidiomycetous fungi. In terms of the ratio between physiologically active strains and those which did not interact with basidiomycete mycelium, we revealed differences in the structure of micromycete communities developing on various types of substrates (xylem, bark, sphagnum, leaves, needles, litter, and cotton grass). The micromycetes tested belonged to 49 species. At the end of the observation period, the fraction of microscopic fungi that actively influenced basidiomycete mycelium was four times lower in the inactive litter fraction (lignin-containing xylem debris) than in the active fraction (grass substrates). The mechanisms of indirect regulation of the structure and functions of micromycete communities are discussed, which may be based on the accumulation of phenolic compounds in the medium and changes in the enzyme activities of basidiomycete mycelium.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Patterns In Ecohydrological Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, S. K.; Barnard, H. R.; Singha, K.; Harmon, R. E.; Szutu, D.

    2017-12-01

    The model of ecohydrological separation suggests that trees source water from a different subsurface pool than what is contributing to stream flow during dry periods, however diel fluctuations in stream flow and transpiration are tightly coupled. To better understand the mechanism of this coupling, this study examines spatiotemporal patterns in water isotopic relationships between tree, soil, and stream water. Preliminary analysis of data collected in 2015 show a trend in δ18O enrichment in xylem water, suggesting an increased reliance on enriched soil water not flowing to the stream as the growing season progresses, while xylem samples from 2016, a particularly wet year, do not have this trend. Variations in these temporal trends are explored with regard to distance from stream, aspect of hillslope, position in the watershed, size of the tree, and soil depth. Additionally, a near-stream site is examined at high resolution using water isotope data, sap flow, and electrical resistivity surveying to examine soil moisture and water use patterns across the riparian-hillslope transition.

  9. Fire-induced wounding elicits changes in the wood anatomy of North American conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelle Arbellay; Markus Stoffel; Elaine K. Sutherland; Kevin T. Smith; Donald A. Falk

    2013-01-01

    Fire is a major disturbance agent in North American forests. Fires injure trees when heat transfer through the bark partially kills the cambium and the compartmentalization process results in a fire scar. Dendrochronologists use these scars in the xylem to reconstruct fire regimes. However, little information exists on the wood anatomy of fire scars. Consequently, this...

  10. Monoterpene composition of pine species and hybrids...some preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Smith

    1967-01-01

    Xylem resin samples, obtained from 72 freshly cut pine stumps at the Institute of Forest Genetics, Placerville, Calif., were analyzed for monoterpenes by gasliquid chromatography. Very little or no qualitative or quantitative variation could be attributed to annual ring, time of securing sample, and period of storage of sample up to 1 year. The 34 hybrids sampled...

  11. Bacterial Leaf Scorch of Amenity Trees a Wide-Spread Problem of Economic Significance to the Urban Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Lashomb; Alan Iskra; Ann Brooks Gould; George Hamilton

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial leaf scorch (BLS) of amenity trees is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-limited pathogen that causes water stress resulting in leaf scorch, decline, and eventual death of affected trees. Recent surveys indicate that BLS is widespread throughout the eastern half of the United States. In New Jersey, BLS primarily affects red and pin oaks...

  12. Does bristlecone pine senesce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.M Lanner; Kristina F. Connor

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated hypotheses of senscence in old trees by comparing putative biomarkers of aging in great basin bristlecone pine ( Pinus longaeva) ranging in age from 23 to 4713 years. To teast a hypothesis that water and nutrient conduction is impaired in old trees we examined cambial products in the xylem and phloem. We found no statiscally significant...

  13. Factors influencing flower bud formation on the pear tree cultivar 'Doyenne du Cornice'. II. Influence of growth inhibition on the anatomical structure of the stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszka Jaumień

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation of the particular tissues in shoots inhibited in growth by chlormequat occurs differently than in vigorously growing ones. After the end of elongation growth, in the subapical part of shoots sprayed with chlormequat the cortex extends and secondary xylem develops less intensively, this leading to an increased participation of parenchymatous tissue in the stem.

  14. Moving water well: comparing hydraulic efficiency in twigs and trunks of coniferous, ring-porous, and diffuse-porous saplings from temperate and tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine McCulloh; John S. Sperry; Barbara Lachenbruch; Frederick D. Meinzer; Peter B. Reich; Steven Voelker

    2010-01-01

    Coniferous, diffuse-porous and ring-porous trees vary in their xylem anatomy, but the functional consequences of these differences are not well understood from the scale of the conduit to the individual. Hydraulic and anatomical measurements were made on branches and trunks from 16 species from temperate and tropical areas, representing all three wood types. Scaling of...

  15. Histological Examination of Phytophthora ramorum in Notholithocarpus densiflorus Bark Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Botts

    2010-01-01

    Colonization of N. densiflorus tissues by P. ramorum is not well understood. The pathogen is able to colonize nearly all tissues of this host but it is unclear how a tree is ultimately killed. Because this is such a destructive invasive pathogen, it is important to investigate its pathogenic strategy. Microscopic investigation of xylem colonization has been conducted,...

  16. Nitrate levels and stages of growth in hypernodulating mutants of Lupinus albus. II. Enzymatic activity and transport of N in the xylem sap Diferentes níveis de nitrato e estágio de crescimento em mutantes hipernodulantes de Lupinus albus II. Atividade enzimática e transporte de N na seiva do xilema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Almeida Burity

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic study and transport of N in the xylem sap was carried out with a view to observing the influence of different nitrate levels and growth stages of the plant in chemically treated mutants of Lupinus albus. Several stresses induce a reduction in plant growth, resulting in the accumulation of free amino acids, amides or ureides, not only in the shoot, but also in the roots and nodules. Although enzyme activity is decisive in avoiding products that inhibit nitrogenase by ammonium, little is known about the mechanism by which the xylem carries these products. However, this process may be the key to the function of avoiding the accumulation of amino acids in the cells of infected nodules. The behaviour of the enzymes nitrate reductase (NR, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, glutamine synthetase (GS and nitrogen compounds derived from fixation, such as N-a-amino, N-ureides and N-amide in mutant genotypes were observed. The NR enzyme activity was highly influenced by the application of nitrate showing much higher values than those in the non-application of nitrate, independently of genotype, being that the NR, the best evaluation period was in the tenth week. The L-62 genotype characterized with nitrate- resistance, clearly showed that the enzyme PEPC is inhibited by presence of nitrate. The L-135 genotype (nod- fix- showed GS activity extremely low, thus demonstrating that GS is an enzyme highly correlated with fixation. With regard to the best growth stage for GS, Lupinus albus should be evaluated in the seventh week.O estudo enzimático e o transporte de N na seiva do xilema foi realizado visando observar a influência de diferentes níveis de nitrato e estágios de crescimento da planta em mutantes tratadas quimicamente. Vários estresses induzem a redução no crescimento da planta da qual resulta na acumulação de aminoácidos livres, amidas ou ureídos, tanto na parte aérea como nas raízes e nódulos. A atividade de enzimas

  17. Low levels of strigolactones in roots as a component of the systemic signal of drought stress in tomato

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Visentin, I.; Vitali, M.; Ferrero, M.; Zhang, Y.; Ruyter-Spira, C.; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Lovisolo, C.; Schubert, A.; Cardinale, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 212, č. 4 (2016), s. 954-963 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : abscisic-acid * plant-responses * lotus-japonicus * biosynthesis * arabidopsis * pea * hormone * growth * xylem * soil * abscisic acid (ABA) * drought * strigolactones (SL) * systemic signalling * tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.330, year: 2016

  18. Resin duct characteristics in the wood of fire-scarred North American conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelle Arbellay; Markus Stoffel; Elaine K. Sutherland; Kevin T. Smith; Donald A. Falk

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic resin ducts form in xylem and phloem tissue of conifers in response to abiotic wounding, fungal invasion, and insect attack. Little is known about resin duct characteristics in the wood of fire-scarred trees. The aim of this study is to quantify changes in traits of both axial and radial resin ducts, along with those of associated epithelial cells and...

  19. Anatomical studies of some medicinal plants of family polygonaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, I.; Hussain, F.; Dastgir, G.

    2010-01-01

    Anatomical studies of the 6 different species of family Polygonaceae viz., Rumex hastatus D. Don, Rumex dentatus Linn, Rumex nepalensis Spreng, Rheum australe D. Don, Polygonum plebejum R. Br and Persicaria maculosa S.F. Gay are presented. The study is based on the presence and absence of epidermis, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, endodermis, pericycle, xylem, phloem, pith, mesophyll cells and stone cells. (author)

  20. Effect of H2S exposure on S-35-sulfate uptake, transport and utilization in curly kale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, S; Weidner, W; De Kok, LJ; Stulen, I.

    2000-01-01

    When Brassica oleracea L. was exposed to 0.2 mul l(-1) H2S the sulfate uptake measured during a dark or light period was decreased to the same extent. Both the xylem loading and the net sulfate uptake rate were decreased by 42% after 6 days of exposure to 0.4 mul l(-1) H2S. This suggested that the