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Sample records for xut bia ghi

  1. Rheology and BIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquemal, M.; Zanotti, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    Is it possible to link erythrosedimentation to a global monofrequency of 50KHz bio impedance analysis parameters? Two populations, Control (N=20, average age of 38 ± 18 years, 55% female predominance) versus neopathology undergoing chemotherapy treatment (N=10, average age of 51 ± 10 years, 70% female predominance) were exposed to two simple tests: Blood composition and erythrosedimentation and global Bio Impedance mono frequency (50 KHz) assessment analysis. The Results of simple statistical tests (average, anova) show that the two populations were significantly different (1%), using both biological bood tests or BIA. Only the neopathological group showed a significant correlation between the erythrosedimentation the bio impedance parameters such as Phase angle or Xc (ratio - 0.93 and - 0.93)

  2. 25 CFR 103.38 - Is there anything else for BIA or the lender to do after BIA makes payment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is there anything else for BIA or the lender to do after BIA makes payment? 103.38 Section 103.38 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... there anything else for BIA or the lender to do after BIA makes payment? When BIA pays the lender on...

  3. L` avverbio e pronome ghi in dialetti corsi e peri-corsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenzo Toso

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio sottolinea il particolare rilievo che assume la presenza del- 1'avverbio e pronome ghi in area corsa, e specificamente nei dialetti di Ajaccio, Calvi, La Maddalena e Capraia, quale esempio rappresentativo di una commistione lin­ guistica corso-ligure che si verificò durante la fase secolare dell'amministrazione genovese della Corsica (1294-1768. La riflessione su questo caso specifico si allarga in una considerazione più ampia dell'apporto ligure nei dialetti corsi, spesso mini­ mizzato per motivi di ordine culturale e ideologico ma in realtà assai piu consistente di quanto si ritenga. Esso non si ridusse in particolare a un apporto lessicale (che per di più molti considerano, a torto, alquanto limitato ma interferì nella struttura fonetica e (come mostra il caso specifico grammaticale di alcune varietà maggior­ mente esposte, quelle formatesi o ristrutturatesi nell'ambito di processi di conver­ genza tra le varietà liguri dei centri urbani della Corsica e i dialetti corsi che anda­ vano progressivamente sovrapponendovisi.

  4. AIPRC--BIA Management Study: Personnel Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Continuing the American Indian Policy Review Commission's (AIPRC) Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Management Study, this article reviews the divisions of responsibility, Indian preference, recruitment and hiring problems, training, labor relations, and internal communication. (NQ)

  5. 5 CFR 870.203 - Post-election BIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Post-election BIA. 870.203 Section 870...-election BIA. (a) The BIA of an individual who elects a Living Benefit under subpart K of this part is the amount of insurance left after the effective date of the Living Benefit election. This amount is...

  6. 25 CFR 170.801 - What is the BIA Road Maintenance Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the BIA Road Maintenance Program? 170.801 Section... ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.801 What is the BIA Road Maintenance Program? The BIA Road... subpart contains a list of activities that are eligible for funding under the BIA road maintenance program....

  7. Resistivity and phase in localized BIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, C. A.; Aaron, R.; Amoss, V.; Therrien, J.; Coomler, K.

    1999-10-01

    We describe a system for highly reproducible non-invasive rf impedance measurements as a function of position along body segments such as the thigh. Results are reported for mainly healthy male and female subjects ranging in age from 19 to 65 and in body-mass index from 15 to 40. A principal conclusion is that the phase of the impedance falls monotonically with increasing distance from the knee, with average values substantially above what is found using standard, whole-body bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). To compensate for thigh shape, the data are further analysed using an anatomical model based on reasonable approximations for the distributions of muscle, fat and bone, yielding values of the effective resistivity for current flow parallel to the muscle fibres. The phase and resistivity results are discussed with reference to the whole-body BIA study of maintenance haemodialysis patients by Chertow et al, and in regard to possible physiological correlations observed in this work.

  8. Product ion studies of diastereomeric benzo[ghi]fluoranthene-2'-deoxynucleoside adducts by electrospray ionization and quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Linge [Department of Chemistry, Loyola University, Chicago, IL 60626 (United States); Chang, H.-F. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States); Olsen, Kenneth W. [Department of Chemistry, Loyola University, Chicago, IL 60626 (United States); Cho, Bongsup P. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States); Chiarelli, M. Paul [Department of Chemistry, Loyola University, Chicago, IL 60626 (United States)]. E-mail: mchiare@luc.edu

    2006-01-31

    The product ion formation characteristics of the protonated molecule ions generated from 10 different deoxynucleoside adducts of benzo[ghi]fluoranthene (B[ghi]F) have been studied using electrospray ionization (ESI) and quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry to gain a better understanding of the fragmentation mechanisms that govern structure-specific fragmentation. The reaction of the syn- and anti-diastereomers of trans-3,4-dihydroxy-5,5a-tetrahydrobenzo[ghi]fluoranthene with DNA produce four deoxyguanosine, four deoxyadenosine, and two deoxycytidine adducts whose structures differ based on the cis/trans arrangement of the hydroxyl groups and nucleic acids bound to B[ghi]F. Those adducts that have structures where the nucleic acid and 3'-hydroxyl group of B[ghi]F are cis with respect to each other undergo extensive water loss whereas those isomers where the nucleic acid and 3'-hydroxyl group are trans do not. These results are consistent with a mechanism of water loss initiated by a hydrogen-bonding interaction between the charge-bearing proton on a heterocyclic nitrogen atom on the nucleic acid and the 3'-hydroxyl oxygen on the PAH. The dG and dC adducts are observed to undergo more extensive water loss than the dA adducts. Molecular modeling indicates that the larger relative abundances of the product ions formed by water loss for the dG and dC relative to dA are due to stronger hydrogen-bonding interactions prior to fragmentation and the greater stability of the carbocations formed at the C3' carbon after fragmentation.

  9. Use of electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes for Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BIA is a safe, noninvasive, portable and relatively inexpensive method of estimating body composition that is practical and suitable for individual use and large-scale studies. However, the cost of the electrodes recommended by some BIA manufacturers is too high for developing countries; where very often the long and complicated process of importation reduces the time they can be used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of two types of ECG electrodes (2290 and 2228 by 3M®) in BIA measurements to decrease the costs of the test. The results showed that the 2228 ECG electrodes can be used in BIA measurements for adult's body composition assessment. These electrodes are available in the domestic market and their costs are 92% lower than the electrodes recommended by manufacturer. The results show a new cost-benefit relation for BIA method and make this a more accessible tool for individual tests, large-scale researches and studies in the community.

  10. 25 CFR 170.804 - How is BIA's Road Maintenance Program related to the IRR Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is BIA's Road Maintenance Program related to the IRR... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.804 How is BIA's Road Maintenance Program related to the IRR Program? The following chart illustrates how BIA's Road Maintenance Program...

  11. 25 CFR 170.803 - What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.803 What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program? (a) The following public transportation facilities are eligible for maintenance under the BIA Road Maintenance Program: (1) BIA transportation facilities listed...

  12. 25 CFR 170.605 - When may BIA use force account methods in the IRR Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When may BIA use force account methods in the IRR Program... § 170.605 When may BIA use force account methods in the IRR Program? BIA may use force account methods... before using a force account under this situation. The applicable FAR and Federal law apply to BIA...

  13. Photoinduced Processes of Supramolecular Nanoarrays Composed of Porphyrin and Benzo[ghi]perylenetriimide Units through Triple Hydrogen Bonds with One-Dimensional Columnar Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hayato; Ohkubo, Kei; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Hasobe, Taku

    2016-02-18

    One-dimensional supramolecular columnar phases composed of porphyrins (electron donor: D) and benzo[ghi]perylenetriimides (electron acceptor: A) through triple hydrogen bonds have been successfully constructed to perform sequential light-harvesting and electron-transfer processes. A series of benzo[ghi]peryleneimide derivatives have been synthesized to examine the substituent effects such as imide and nitrile groups on the spectroscopic and electrochemical properties. Then, formation of the 1:1 supramolecular complex between zinc porphyrin and benzo[ghi]perylenetriimide derivatives through triple hydrogen bonds was confirmed by Job's plot of (1) H NMR titration. Next, the one-dimensional supramolecular nanoarrays were successfully prepared in a mixed solvent. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement suggested that these nanoarrays contained one-dimensional columnar phases composed of stacked donor and acceptor layers. Finally, femtosecond transient absorption and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements clearly indicated that photoinduced electron transfer occurred via the singlet excited states in the supramolecular columns. PMID:26766519

  14. Microsomal biotransformation of benzo[ghi]perylene, a mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon without a "classic" bay region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Karl L; Grupe, Stefanie

    2005-04-01

    Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), e.g., benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), possess a bay region comprising an ortho-fused benzene ring. Benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP) represents the group of PAHs lacking such a "classic" bay region and hence cannot be metabolically converted like BaP to bay region dihydrodiol epoxides considered as ultimate mutagenic and carcinogenic metabolites of PAH. BghiP exhibits bacterial mutagenicity in strains TA98 (1.3 his(+)-revertant colonies/nmol) and TA100 (4.3 his(+)-revertant colonies/nmol) of Salmonella typhimurium after metabolic activation by the postmitochondrial hepatic fraction of CD rats treated with 3-methylcholanthrene. Inhibition of microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) with 1,1,1-trichloro-2-propene oxide raised the bacterial mutagenicity of BghiP in TA98 almost 4-fold indicating arene oxides as ultimate mutagens. To confirm this assumption, the biotransformation of BghiP was elucidated. Incubation of BghiP with liver microsomes of CD rats treated with Aroclor 1254 yielded 17 ethyl acetate extractable metabolic products. Twelve metabolites were identified by a combination of chromatographic, spectroscopic, and biochemical methods. The microsomal biotransformation of BghiP proceeds by two pathways: Pathway I starts with the monooxygenase attack at the 7-position leading to the 7-phenol, which is transformed to the 7,8- and 7,10-diphenols followed by oxidation to the 7,8- and 7,10-quinones. On pathway II, the K regions of BghiP are successively converted to arene oxides yielding the indirectly identified 3,4-oxide and the 3,4,11,12-bisoxides. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the 3,4-oxide leads to the trans-3,4-dihydrodiol, which is oxidized to the 3,4-quinone. Similarly, the trans-3,4-trans-11,12-bisdihydrodiols and the trans-3,4-dihydrodiol 11,12-quinone are generated from the 3,4,11,12-bisoxides. The trans-3,4-dihydrodiol and the trans-3,4-trans-11,12-bisdihydrodiols are preferentially formed as R,R and R,R,R,R enantiomers

  15. 25 CFR 170.2 - What is the IRR Program and BIA Road Maintenance Program policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the IRR Program and BIA Road Maintenance Program... and BIA Road Maintenance Program policy? (a) It is the policy of the Secretary of the Interior and the... designed to enable Indian tribes to participate in all contractible IRR and BIA Road Maintenance...

  16. 25 CFR 170.808 - Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve... THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.808 Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities? No. BIA...

  17. Preliminary bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; González-Correa, C. H.; González-Correa, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    A previous study showed that reported BIA equations for body composition are not suitable for Colombian population. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preliminary BIA equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia, using hydrodensitometry as reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. A preliminary BIA equation was developed (r2 = 0.72, SEE = 2.48 kg) by stepwise multiple regression with fat-free mass (FFM) as dependent variable and weight, height and impedance measurements as independent variables. The quality of regression was evaluated and a cross-validation against 50% of sample confirmed that results obtained with the preliminary BIA equation is interchangeable with results obtained with hydrodensitometry (r2 = 0.84, SEE = 2.62 kg). The preliminary BIA equation can be used for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia until a definitive equation is developed. The next step will be increasing the sample, including a second reference method, as deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), and using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA). It would also be desirable to develop equations for males and other ethnic groups in Colombia.

  18. Synthesis, microsome-mediated metabolism, and identification of major metabolites of environmental pollutant naphtho(8,1,2-ghi)chrysene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, A.K.; Gowdahalli, K.; Gimbor, M.; Amin, S. [Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Naphtho(8,1,2-ghi)chrysene, commonly known as naphtho(1,2-e)pyrene (N(1,2-e)P) is a widespread environmental pollutant, identified in coal tar extract, air borne particulate matter, marine sediment, cigarette smoke condensate, and vehicle exhaust. Herein, we determined the ability of rat liver microsomes to metabolize N(1,2-e)P and an unequivocal assignment of the metabolites by comparing them with independently,synthesized standards. We developed the synthesis of both the fjord region and the K-region dihydrodiols and various phenolic derivatives for metabolite identification. In summary, N(1,2-e)P trans-11, 12-dihydrodiol was the major metabolite formed along with N(1,2-e)P 4,5-trtins-dihydrodiol and 12-OH-N(1,2-e)P on exposure of rat liver microsomes to N(1,2-e)P. The presence of N(1,2-e)P in the environment and formation of fjord region dihydrodiol 14 as a major metabolite in in vitro metabolism studies strongly suggest the role of N(1,2-e)P as a potential health hazard.

  19. Norte de África: a Líbia

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, José

    2012-01-01

    Uma das características do atual ambiente internacional é o seu nível de imprevisibilidade e as revoltas árabes são um exemplo recente disso. Apesar da constatação de um crescente clima de insatisfação no Norte de África e das consequentes mudanças, ninguém previu o momento da sua ocorrência. No caso particular da Líbia, os acontecimentos têm implicações para a região, para a Europa e, consequentemente, para Portugal, devido sobretudo à sua grande dependência energética dos recursos líbios...

  20. Książka o getcie białostockim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerszman, Gustaw

    2014-01-01

    Remarks about the book: Rafael Rajzner, Henry R. Lew: Losy nieopowiedziane. Zagłada Żydów białostockich 1939-1945 (Żydowski Instytut Historyczny im. E. Ringelbluma : Warszawa 2013)......Remarks about the book: Rafael Rajzner, Henry R. Lew: Losy nieopowiedziane. Zagłada Żydów białostockich 1939-1945 (Żydowski Instytut Historyczny im. E. Ringelbluma : Warszawa 2013)...

  1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): a proposal for standardization of the classical method in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of BIA measurements is limited by different sources of error such as physical model, cross sectional area, ethnicity, body hydration, age and level of body fat among other variables. Equation for each population is required as they can produce overestimation when manufacturer's equations are used. The classical measurements hand to foot has shown better correlation against hydrodensitometry than foot to foot or hand to hand. However there is a lack for an accepted standard of BIA procedures. This is compounded when there is not a good report of the BIA study's methodology; hence the comparability between the results is poor and reduces the reliability of the method. Perhaps, standardization of methods would be the first step for BIA studies to move forward and subsequently improve its accuracy. Standardized procedures could also minimize the impact of these variables on studies results. The aim of this study was to propose a protocol as a checklist to standardize BIA procedures and produce comparable results from future studies performed with the classic hand-foot configuration in adults.

  2. 25 CFR 170.807 - What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? 170.807 Section 170.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.807 What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

  3. Literatura białoruska w Polsce po roku 1989. O potrzebie tworzenia bazy literackiej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Charytoniuk-Michiej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Belarusian literature in Poland after 1989. About the necessity of developing a literature database Speaking about Belarusian literature in Poland we focus on fiction, its translation into Polish and the study of literature. The existence of the Belarusian literature in Poland in the post-war period is indicated by the following bibliographies: a bibliography of translations for the period 1945–1994 (G. Charytoniuk, Literatura białoruska w Polsce. Bibliografia przekładów za lata 1945–1994, Białystok 1996 and a subject bibliography for the period 1945–1998 (G. Charytoniuk, Polskie białorutenika literackie. Bibliografia przedmiotowa 1945–1998, Białystok 1998. The new political, economical and social conditions in Poland after 1989 have had an influence on the situation of the Belarusian literature. In addition to the existing departments some new university departments and scientific branches have been organized. Their aim is to realize new scientific projects connected with the Belarusian literature in Poland and Belarus. A lot of nongovernment organizations (funds, partnerships, associations have been organized not only in Bialystok region, but also in the other parts of the country. A new publishing market has been established which has focused on the modern literature of Central and Eastern Europe including Belarusian literature. The Internet also plays an important role in popularization of the Belarusian literature. That literature has been included in the database of the National library (Przewodnik Bibliograficzny, Bibliografia Zawartości Czasopism, regional libraries (Bibliografia województwa podlaskiego and the digital library (Polska Bibliografia Literacka. The information is searched by institutional scientific depositories and digital libraries. The considerable part of the information has not been registered in the bibliographic database. In this situation it is necessary to develop an integral literature

  4. 25 CFR 162.210 - When can BIA grant a permit covering agricultural land?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When can BIA grant a permit covering agricultural land... covering agricultural land? (a) We may grant a permit covering agricultural land in the same manner as we... no substantial injury to the land will occur. (b) We may grant a permit covering agricultural...

  5. 25 CFR 166.901 - How will the BIA select an agriculture intern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the following criteria: (1) Be eligible for Indian preference as defined in 25 CFR part 5; (2) Possess... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will the BIA select an agriculture intern? 166.901... PERMITS Agriculture Education, Education Assistance, Recruitment, and Training § 166.901 How will the...

  6. 25 CFR 103.5 - What size loan will BIA guarantee or insure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Indian, or more for an acceptable Indian business entity, Tribe, or tribal enterprise involving two or... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What size loan will BIA guarantee or insure? 103.5 Section 103.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES...

  7. Estados Unidos e Arábia Saudita: desafio do governo Obama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Caixeta Arraes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata do relacionamento diplomático
    entre Estados Unidos e Arábia Saudita. Narra a atual
    dificuldade da Casa Branca de aproximar-se mais
    daquele país, o maior produtor de petróleo.

  8. 25 CFR 170.805 - What are the local, tribal, and BIA roles in transportation facility maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transportation facility maintenance? 170.805 Section 170.805 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.805 What are the local... Road Maintenance dollars....

  9. Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus Schreber, 1774 in the bat fauna of the Białowieża Primeval Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachwald Alek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of the Common pipistrelle in the bat fauna of the Białowieża Primeval Forest was expected, because the taxon P. pipistrellus was previously comprised of two separate species. Earlier observations of P. pipistrellus in the Białowieża area can mostly be counted for by the new species Soprano pipistrelle, which is considered equally widely distributed in the area. In this study, we were able to record and distinguish several passes of the Common pipistrelle by means of bat detecting techniques. Bats were found in two locations, the first one being the Białowieża village, whereas the second one is the woodland in close proximity of the Czerlonka village. It is very likely, that this species is more widely distributed in the Białowieża area, especially in the vicinity of human settlements.

  10. A massa gorda de risco afeta a capacidade aeróbia de jovens adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Massuça

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o comportamento do sexo e os efeitos da idade e da massa gorda sobre a capacidade aeróbia de jovens adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Os 621 estudantes do ensino secundário participantes no estudo (14 aos 17 anos; feminino: n = 329, idade, 15,84 ± 0,92 anos; masculino: n = 292, idade, 15,82 ± 0,87 anos foram avaliados em duas categorias: morfologia (altura, peso e % massa gorda - %MG e aptidão física (capacidade aeróbia. As medições antropométricas foram realizadas de acordo com o protocolo descrito por Marfell-Jones e a %MG foi calculada por bioimpedância. A avaliação da capacidade aeróbia foi realizada com o teste aeróbio de corrida - PACER, e VO2máx relativo foi calculado utilizando a equação de Léger. Os resultados das avaliações foram classificados de acordo com os valores normativos das tabelas de referência da bateria de testes FITNESSGRAM® As técnicas estatísticas utilizadas foram: 1 cálculo de frequências; 2 teste t de Student para amostras independentes; e 3 ANOVA two-way seguida do teste post-hoc HSD de Bonferroni. RESULTADOS: 1 existem diferenças significativas entre sexos no que se refere à %MG e ao VO2máx; 2 durante a adolescência, o VO2máx estabiliza nos rapazes e sofre um declínio nas moças; 3 independentemente do sexo, a classe de %MG e a idade cronológica têm um efeito significativo sobre a capacidade aeróbia; e 4 em jovens adolescentes, com %MG de risco, a redução da %MG para níveis saudáveis parece resultar na melhoria da capacidade aeróbia. CONCLUSÃO: O impacto da %MG na capacidade aeróbia, reforça a importância da educação física escolar na promoção da saúde cardiovascular.

  11. Design and Development of a Portable WiFi enabled BIA device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Križaj, D.; Baloh, M.; Brajkovič, R.; Žagar, T.

    2013-04-01

    A bioimpedance device (BIA) for evaluation of sarcopenia - age related muscle mass loss - is designed, developed and evaluated. The requirements were based on lightweight design, flexible and user enabled incorporation of measurement protocols and WiFi protocol for remote device control, full internet integration and fast development and usage of measurement protocols. The current design is based on usage of a microcontroller with integrated AD/DA converters. The prototype system was assembled and the operation and connectivity to different handheld devices and laptop computers was successfully tested. The designed BIA device can be accessed using TCP sockets and once the connection is established the data transfer runs successfully at the specified speed. The accuracy of currently developed prototype is about 5% for the impedance modulus and 5 deg. for the phase for the frequencies below 20 kHz with an unfiltered excitation signal and no additional amplifiers employed.

  12. Design and Development of a Portable WiFi enabled BIA device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bioimpedance device (BIA) for evaluation of sarcopenia – age related muscle mass loss – is designed, developed and evaluated. The requirements were based on lightweight design, flexible and user enabled incorporation of measurement protocols and WiFi protocol for remote device control, full internet integration and fast development and usage of measurement protocols. The current design is based on usage of a microcontroller with integrated AD/DA converters. The prototype system was assembled and the operation and connectivity to different handheld devices and laptop computers was successfully tested. The designed BIA device can be accessed using TCP sockets and once the connection is established the data transfer runs successfully at the specified speed. The accuracy of currently developed prototype is about 5% for the impedance modulus and 5 deg. for the phase for the frequencies below 20 kHz with an unfiltered excitation signal and no additional amplifiers employed.

  13. Smart Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Spectrometer for BIA and BIVA Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Rene; Diedrich, Andre; Whitfield, Jonathan S; Buchowski, Macie S; Pietsch, John B; Baudenbacher, Franz J

    2016-08-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a noninvasive and commonly used method for the assessment of body composition including body water. We designed a small, portable and wireless multi-frequency impedance spectrometer based on the 12 bit impedance network analyzer AD5933 and a precision wide-band constant current source for tetrapolar whole body impedance measurements. The impedance spectrometer communicates via Bluetooth with mobile devices (smart phone or tablet computer) that provide user interface for patient management and data visualization. The export of patient measurement results into a clinical research database facilitates the aggregation of bioelectrical impedance analysis and biolectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) data across multiple subjects and/or studies. The performance of the spectrometer was evaluated using a passive tissue equivalent circuit model as well as a comparison of body composition changes assessed with bioelectrical impedance and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy volunteers. Our results show an absolute error of 1% for resistance and 5% for reactance measurements in the frequency range of 3 kHz to 150 kHz. A linear regression of BIA and DXA fat mass estimations showed a strong correlation (r(2)=0.985) between measures with a maximum absolute error of 6.5%. The simplicity of BIA measurements, a cost effective design and the simple visual representation of impedance data enables patients to compare and determine body composition during the time course of a specific treatment plan in a clinical or home environment.

  14. Smart Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Spectrometer for BIA and BIVA Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Rene; Diedrich, Andre; Whitfield, Jonathan S; Buchowski, Macie S; Pietsch, John B; Baudenbacher, Franz J

    2016-08-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a noninvasive and commonly used method for the assessment of body composition including body water. We designed a small, portable and wireless multi-frequency impedance spectrometer based on the 12 bit impedance network analyzer AD5933 and a precision wide-band constant current source for tetrapolar whole body impedance measurements. The impedance spectrometer communicates via Bluetooth with mobile devices (smart phone or tablet computer) that provide user interface for patient management and data visualization. The export of patient measurement results into a clinical research database facilitates the aggregation of bioelectrical impedance analysis and biolectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) data across multiple subjects and/or studies. The performance of the spectrometer was evaluated using a passive tissue equivalent circuit model as well as a comparison of body composition changes assessed with bioelectrical impedance and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy volunteers. Our results show an absolute error of 1% for resistance and 5% for reactance measurements in the frequency range of 3 kHz to 150 kHz. A linear regression of BIA and DXA fat mass estimations showed a strong correlation (r(2)=0.985) between measures with a maximum absolute error of 6.5%. The simplicity of BIA measurements, a cost effective design and the simple visual representation of impedance data enables patients to compare and determine body composition during the time course of a specific treatment plan in a clinical or home environment. PMID:26863670

  15. 25 CFR 1000.68 - May non-BIA bureaus provide technical assistance to a Tribe/Consortium in drafting its planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Process § 1000.68 May non-BIA bureaus provide technical assistance to a Tribe/Consortium in drafting its... technical assistance to the Tribe/Consortium in the drafting of its planning grant application. ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May non-BIA bureaus provide technical assistance to...

  16. Zakład Medycyny Sądowej w Bielsku-Białej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Brzyski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Zakład Medycyny Sądowej w Bielsku-Białej został utworzony w 1978 roku. Podstawą dla jego utworzenia i wpisania w strukturę Wojewódzkiego Szpitala Zespolonego były wytyczne Ministra Zdrowia i Opieki Społecznej z dnia 15.06.1978 roku w sprawie organizacji i zadań komórek medycyny sądowej (Dz.U. MZiOS Nr 11, poz 28.

  17. Bioelectrical impedance analysis in clinical practice: implications for hepatitis C therapy BIA and hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahraman Alisan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body composition analysis using phase angle (PA, determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA, reflects tissue electrical properties and has prognostic value in liver cirrhosis. Objective of this prospective study was to investigate clinical use and prognostic value of BIA-derived phase angle and alterations in body composition for hepatitis C infection (HCV following antiviral therapy. Methods 37 consecutive patients with HCV infection were enrolled, BIA was performed, and PA was calculated from each pair of measurements. 22 HCV genotype 3 patients treated for 24 weeks and 15 genotype 1 patients treated for 48 weeks, were examined before and after antiviral treatment and compared to 10 untreated HCV patients at 0, 24, and 48 weeks. Basic laboratory data were correlated to body composition alterations. Results Significant reduction in body fat (BF: 24.2 ± 6.7 kg vs. 19.9 ± 6.6 kg, genotype1; 15.4 ± 10.9 kg vs. 13.2 ± 12.1 kg, genotype 3 and body cell mass (BCM: 27.3 ± 6.8 kg vs. 24.3 ± 7.2 kg, genotype1; 27.7 ± 8.8 kg vs. 24.6 ± 7.6 kg, genotype 3 was found following treatment. PA in genotype 3 patients was significantly lowered after antiviral treatment compared to initial measurements (5.9 ± 0.7° vs. 5.4 ± 0.8°. Total body water (TBW was significantly decreased in treated patients with genotype 1 (41.4 ± 7.9 l vs. 40.8 ± 9.5 l. PA reduction was accompanied by flu-like syndromes, whereas TBW decline was more frequently associated with fatigue and cephalgia. Discussion BIA offers a sophisticated analysis of body composition including BF, BCM, and TBW for HCV patients following antiviral regimens. PA reduction was associated with increased adverse effects of the antiviral therapy allowing a more dynamic therapy application.

  18. Estudo experimental do efeito das hastes femorais na tíbia RATJ

    OpenAIRE

    Rego, Ana Maria Moreira Amorim de

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho visa avaliar o uso das hastes no fémur quando existem defeitos ósseos significativos neste que possam influenciar o comportamento biomecânico da tíbia. Para tal, foi seleccionada a prótese de joelho P.F.C. Sigma Knee System como elemento para a realização do estudo comparativo. Realizaram-se três modelos experimentais e numéricos, nomeadamente a prótese com haste cimentada, outra com haste press-fit e um modelo sem haste. No modelo experimental começou-se po...

  19. 25 CFR 170.108 - Should Indian tribes and BIA consult with States' planning organizations and local governments in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...' planning organizations and local governments in the development of their IRRTIP? 170.108 Section 170.108... § 170.108 Should Indian tribes and BIA consult with States' planning organizations and local governments...: (1) Developed in cooperation with State and metropolitan planning organizations; and (2) Included...

  20. Species of lichenized and allied fungi new to Białowieża Large Forest (NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents 38 species of lichenized and allied fungi new to Białowieża Large Forest. 24 taxa of lichenized Ascomycota and 14 taxa of lichenicolous and saprobic fungi are the result of the analysis of collected materials as well as additional field studies.

  1. 25 CFR 166.214 - Will the BIA notify the permittee of any change in land title status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will the BIA notify the permittee of any change in land title status? 166.214 Section 166.214 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND... permittee of any change in land title status? Yes. We will notify the permittee if a fee patent is issued...

  2. POTÊNCIA E CAPACIDADE ANAERÓBIA EM ATLETAS DE KARATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Sato Urbinati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o nível de potência muscular, bem como a intensidade de esforço durante prova de potência e capacidade anaeróbia em atletas de Karate. Participaram do estudo treze karatekas especialistas em prova de kumitê (luta,sexo masculino, idade média de 20,7±3,79 anos. Realizou-se a avaliação de potência e capacidade anaeróbia (Wingate test, com coleta das variáveis fisiológicas:frequência cardíaca (FC, pressão arterial (PA e lactato sanguíneo (LAC de repouso, imediatamente após e em 5 min de recuperação. Para verificar se ocorrem diferenças nas variáveis fisiológicas durante o teste, realizou-se análise de variância, post hoc de Bonferronie (p?0,05. Verificou-se potência de pico(PP de 8,77 ± 0,99 W/kg-1, potência média (PM de 5,13± 0,49 W.kg-1 e % de fadiga de 50,5 ± 6,45%. Para as variáveis fisiológicas,a FC (F=9,79; p=0,00 pós-teste de Wingate foi estatisticamente maior e diferenteda FC de repouso e recuperação. Não foram encontradas diferenças nos níveis pressatórios e nas concentrações de LAC. Em relação aos valores de FC e LAC tais variáveis pós-teste não se apresentaram elevados. Os valores de potência anaeróbia estão de acordo com a necessidade da modalidade esportiva. Assim, verificou-se menores intensidades de esforço em teste de Wingate quando comparados a de situação real de competição. O nível de potência muscular parece estar adequado ao kumitê.

  3. Tibial plato leveling osteotomy / Osteotomia de nivelamento do plato da tíbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Maria Matera

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO is a relatively new and innovative surgical treatment for the cranial cruciate ligament rupture in the canine species. The real intent of the procedure is to provide functional stability to the stifle joint by eliminating or neutralizing the cranial tibial thrust during weight bearing instead to restore the cranial cruciate ligament function. The proposal of this study is to report a review of the TPLO procedure, emphasizing procedure, surgical technique, post operative care and complications. The TPLO procedure consists in a radial osteotomy in the tibial plato and rotation of the caudal plateau in order to obtain a desired angle. After the leveling of the tibial plateau, a bone plate and screws are used to stabilize the osteotomy until bone is healed up. The complications that have been associated with the procedure include tibial tuberosity fracture and patellar tendon tendinosis. This procedure has become increasingly more popular for surgical treatment of cranial cruciate ligament injuries in large breed dog. The long term clinical results have not been completely elucidated yet. It has been showed that this technique doesn’t halt the degenerative joint disease.A osteotomia do platô da tíbia (TPLO é um tratamento relativamente novo e inovador para a ruptura do ligamento cruzado cranial (RLCC na espécie canina. Ao invés de restaurar a função do ligamento, o procedimento promove estabilidade funcional para a articulação do joelho, por eliminar ou neutralizar a força tibial cranial durante a sustentação de peso. A proposta do presente estudo é revisar a técnica de TPLO, enfatizando o procedimento, técnica cirúrgica, cuidados pós-operatórios e complicações. A técnica da TPLO consiste na realização de uma osteotomia circular do platô da tíbia com rotação de sua porção caudal até a obtenção do ângulo desejado. Após o nivelamento do platô da tíbia, placa e parafusos

  4. Carotenoids in certain lichens of Białowieża Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Column-, and thin-layer chromatography revealed the presence of the following carotenoids in the thalli of 29 lichen species from Białowieża Forest: α-carotene, β-carotene, α-cryptoxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, 3'-epilutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene monoepoxide, lutein epoxide, antheraxanthin, 3'-hydroxyechinenone, α-doradexanthin, canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, neoxani thin, violaxanthin and mutatoxanthin. The total content of carotenoids ranged from 16.83 (Cladonia rangiferina to 92.98 µg g dry wt (Xanthoria parietina. There were differences in carotenoid composition, concentration of each carotenoid, and in the total content in the thalli of four species collected from niches with different insolation.

  5. Business English in the Eyes of Economics and Management Students at the University of Białystok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzięcioł-Pędich Agnieszka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the regulations of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, university graduates should have to know a foreign language at B2 level, as described in The Common European Framework of Reference, and they should know its specialized variety. These are the only recommendations concerning general language courses and their specialized varieties. It is up to schools of foreign languages or other institutions providing language courses for institutions of higher education to determine requirements concerning language for specific purposes. However, students are rarely asked to contribute to the development of curricula and syllabi. This article presents the results of a survey conducted among students of Economics and Management at the University of Białystok. The survey was devoted to students’ perceptions of Business English in English courses conducted by the School of Foreign Languages at the University of Białystok. The aim of the survey was to answer the following questions:

  6. Changes in slime mould flora in the reservation of Puszczy Śnieżnej Białki

    OpenAIRE

    Wanda Stojanowska

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the changes which have taken place after 15 years in the slime-molds flora of the reservation forest of Puszcza Snieżnej Białki, in Silesia. In 1959-60 28 species were known from this region. Now 42 species are known from this forest. Thus the amount of the slime-molds taxons in this forest increased to 50 species.

  7. Localized BIA identifies structural and pathophysiological changes in soft tissue after post-traumatic injuries in soccer

    OpenAIRE

    Nescolarde Selva, Lexa Digna; Yanguas Leyes, Javier; Lukaski, Henry; Rodas Font, Gil; Rosell Ferrer, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Localized bioimpedance (BIA) was measured with a single frequency phase-sensitive analyzer at 50 kHz in three post-traumatic types of injuries on four professional soccer players: (1) myositis ossificans, (2) intramuscular seroma and (3) trochanteric (hip) bursitis. Normal reference value (no injury) was obtained from the contra lateral not injured limb at a mirror-like location of the injury. The relative variations resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) at the time of inj...

  8. Enantioselective HPLC-UV method for determination of eslicarbazepine acetate (BIA 2-093) and its metabolites in human plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Gilberto; Figueiredo, Isabel; Castel-Branco, Margarida; Loureiro, Ana; Fortuna, Ana; Falcão, Amílcar; Caramona, Margarida

    2007-01-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (BIA 2-093) is a novel central nervous system drug undergoing clinical phase III trials for epilepsy and phase II trials for bipolar disorder. A simple and reliable chiral reversed-phase HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of eslicarbazepine acetate, oxcarbazepine, S-licarbazepine and R-licarbazepine in human plasma. The analytes and internal standard were extracted from plasma by a solid-phase extraction using Waters ...

  9. Approaches to teaching high school students about environmental protection in the Greater Bielsko-Biała Metropolitan Area (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczewska-Popowycz Natalia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to assess the level of knowledge about local environmental protection among high school students in Bielsko-Biała and the surrounding areas. This sort of knowledge is part of the curriculum and is covered in various natural science school courses, such as geography, biology, chemistry, and social sciences. Various laws and regulations mandate that ecology is part of the secondary education curriculum – “Podstawa programowa kształcenia ogólnego” (2002, 2008 a, b. The Bielsko-Biała area is known for its valuable natural resources and natural attractions. It is home to twelve protected natural areas, including: two sanctuaries, two scenic landscape parks, four nature and landscape complexes, two unique endangered ecosystems, and two protected Natura 2000 areas, as well as 62 natural landmarks. The present paper presents results of a study that was conducted by means of a survey of Bielsko-Biała’s high school students with respect to their knowledge about these protected natural areas. The results of the study revealed that the vast majority of the students do not take an interest in environmental protection issues. Moreover, the high school students displayed unsatisfactory knowledge about the protected natural areas around their city. The survey revealed that the study subjects were unable to identify the types of natural protected areas surrounding their city, let alone list or name the specific sanctuaries or natural landmarks. These disappointing findings generalize for both the students who live in Bielsko-Biała, and those who live in the distant northern provinces of the region. The results of the study stress the need for field trips and other programs aimed at advancing students’ knowledge in this area. The need to incentivize teachers to organize field trips and other events of this kind is also highlited.

  10. Detection and kinetic studies of triplex formation by oligodeoxynucleotides using real-time biomolecular interaction analysis (BIA).

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, P. J.; Dosanjh, H. S.; S. Kumar; Jenkins, T. C.; Laughton, C A; Neidle, S

    1995-01-01

    Real-time biomolecular interaction analysis (BIA) has been applied to triplex formation between oligodeoxynucleotides. 5'-Biotinylated oligonucleotides were immobilised on the streptavidin-coated surface of a biosensor chip and subsequently hybridised to their complementary strand. Sequence-specific triplex formation was observed when a suitable third-strand oligopyrimidine was injected over the surface-bound duplex. In addition, a single-stranded oligonucleotide immobilised on the chip surfa...

  11. The efficacy of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) in monitoring body composition changes during treatment of restrictive eating disorder patients

    OpenAIRE

    Saladino, Charles F

    2014-01-01

    Reviews Treating restrictive eating disorder patients is metabolically and psychologically complex. Determining body composition is an important diagnostic and treatment option for these patients, because it ascertains whether the acquisition of body mass during refeeding is metabolically appropriate - ideally an approximate 20/80% - 25/75% fat/lean body mass ratio. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) during the treatment period of p...

  12. Amplified Immunoassay of Human IgG Using Real-time Biomolecular Interaction Analysis (BIA) Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI,Ren-Jun(裴仁军); CUI,Xiao-Qiang(崔小强); YANG,Xiu-Rong(杨秀荣); WANG,Er-Kang(汪尔康)

    2002-01-01

    An automated biomolecular interaction analysis instrument (BIAcore) based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has been used to determine human immunoglobulin G (IgG) in real time. Polyclonal anti-human IgG antibody was covalently immobilized to a carboxymethyldextran-modified gold film surface. The samples of human IgG prepared in HBS buffer were poured over the immobilized surface. The signal amplification antibody was applied to amplify the response signal. After each measurement, the surface was regenerated with 0.1 mol/L H3PO4. The assay was rapid, requiring only 30 min for antibody immobilization and 20 min for each subsequent process of immune binding, antibody amplification and regeneration. The antibody immobilized surface had good response to human IgG in the range of 0.12-60 nmol/L with a detection limit of 60 pmoL/L. The same antibody immobilized surface could be used for more than 110 cycles of binding, amplificafion and regeneration. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of amplified immunoassay using real-time BIA technology are satisfactory.

  13. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for sarcopenic obesity (SO) diagnosis in young female subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarcopenia is defined as a loss of muscle mass depending of ageing and affecting physical function (definition A). A new definition considers excluding mass reduction criterion (definition B). Obesity is pandemic and occurs at all ages. Sarcopenic obesity (SO) implies both processes. The purpose of this study was to compare the results obtained after applying these 2 definitions in 66 aged 22 ± 2.8 years overweight or obese young college women. Percentage body fat (%BF) and skeletal mass index (SMI) were estimated by BIA, muscle function by handgrip strength test (HGS) and physical performance by Harvard step test (HST). There were 9.1% and 90.9% overweight or obese subjects. Twenty nine subjects (43.9%) had decreased HGS and 22 (33.3%) had impaired physical performance. One obese subject (1.5%) met the criteria for sarcopenic obesity by definition A and 9 (13.6%) by definition B. Although a linear regression (α 2 = 0.094, 0.037 and 0.275 respectively) it was observed a tendency for HGS, HST and SMI deterioration when %BF increases. However, other confounding factors must be investigated. Probably as the population gets more obese, the problematic of SO will be found earlier in life.

  14. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for sarcopenic obesity (SO) diagnosis in young female subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; S, Villada-Gomez J.

    2013-04-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as a loss of muscle mass depending of ageing and affecting physical function (definition A). A new definition considers excluding mass reduction criterion (definition B). Obesity is pandemic and occurs at all ages. Sarcopenic obesity (SO) implies both processes. The purpose of this study was to compare the results obtained after applying these 2 definitions in 66 aged 22 ± 2.8 years overweight or obese young college women. Percentage body fat (%BF) and skeletal mass index (SMI) were estimated by BIA, muscle function by handgrip strength test (HGS) and physical performance by Harvard step test (HST). There were 9.1% and 90.9% overweight or obese subjects. Twenty nine subjects (43.9%) had decreased HGS and 22 (33.3%) had impaired physical performance. One obese subject (1.5%) met the criteria for sarcopenic obesity by definition A and 9 (13.6%) by definition B. Although a linear regression (α obese, the problematic of SO will be found earlier in life.

  15. Impact of the Pb and Zn ore mining industry on the pollution of the Biała Przemsza River, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłońska-Czapla, Magdalena; Nocoń, Katarzyna; Szopa, Sebastian; Łyko, Aleksandra

    2016-05-01

    The development of mining and metallurgic industries of Pb and Zn ores in the Biała Przemsza catchment area has had a strong influence on the condition of the surface water and bottom sediments. In the following study, total contents of metals and metalloids were researched in the water and bottom sediment samples from the Biała Przemsza River. The samples were collected monthly in 2014 at five sampling points along the river. The research helped to determine correlations between the parameters and components of the water environment (metals/metalloids, cations/anions, pH, Eh, conductivity, carbon (TOC, IC, TC), and suspension). The contents of metals and metalloids were determined with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), whereas anions and cations were investigated with ion chromatography (IC). The simplified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) three-step sequential chemical extraction was performed on Biała Przemsza River bottom sediments collected in April, July, and October. At its lower course, the Biała Przemsza River water did not meet the Polish surface water quality standards. The Biała Przemsza River water is mainly loaded with metals. Toxic concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn were observed at sampling points in Okradzionów and Sławków. The toxic Tl concentration was exceeded (2-6 μg/L) at three sampling points. The Biała Przemsza River bottom sediments were composed mostly of medium and fine sand. The BCR extraction of the bottom sediments demonstrated that Cd and Zn were bound to cations/anions and carbonates loosely adsorbed on the bottom sediments in spring and summer. Such a situation was observed at all the sampling points, except for BP3 in Okradzionów. The organic carbon concentration increased along the river course.

  16. Impact of the Pb and Zn ore mining industry on the pollution of the Biała Przemsza River, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłońska-Czapla, Magdalena; Nocoń, Katarzyna; Szopa, Sebastian; Łyko, Aleksandra

    2016-05-01

    The development of mining and metallurgic industries of Pb and Zn ores in the Biała Przemsza catchment area has had a strong influence on the condition of the surface water and bottom sediments. In the following study, total contents of metals and metalloids were researched in the water and bottom sediment samples from the Biała Przemsza River. The samples were collected monthly in 2014 at five sampling points along the river. The research helped to determine correlations between the parameters and components of the water environment (metals/metalloids, cations/anions, pH, Eh, conductivity, carbon (TOC, IC, TC), and suspension). The contents of metals and metalloids were determined with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), whereas anions and cations were investigated with ion chromatography (IC). The simplified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) three-step sequential chemical extraction was performed on Biała Przemsza River bottom sediments collected in April, July, and October. At its lower course, the Biała Przemsza River water did not meet the Polish surface water quality standards. The Biała Przemsza River water is mainly loaded with metals. Toxic concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn were observed at sampling points in Okradzionów and Sławków. The toxic Tl concentration was exceeded (2-6 μg/L) at three sampling points. The Biała Przemsza River bottom sediments were composed mostly of medium and fine sand. The BCR extraction of the bottom sediments demonstrated that Cd and Zn were bound to cations/anions and carbonates loosely adsorbed on the bottom sediments in spring and summer. Such a situation was observed at all the sampling points, except for BP3 in Okradzionów. The organic carbon concentration increased along the river course. PMID:27037697

  17. BIA interpretation techniques for vegetation mapping using thematic mapper false color composites (interim report for San Carlos Reservation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, W.J.; English, T.C.; Haas, R.H.; Feagan, T.R.; McKinley, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is responsible for the natural resource management of approximately 52 million acres of Trust lands in the contiguous United States. The lands are distributed in a "patchwork" fashion throughout the country. Management responsibilities on these areas include: minerals, range, timber, fish and wildlife, agricultural, cultural, and archaeological resources. In an age of decreasing natural resources and increasing natural resource values, effective multiple resource management is critical. BIA has adopted a "systems approach" to natural resource management which utilizes Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. The GIS encompasses a continuum of spatial and relational data elements, and included functional capabilities such as: data collection, data entry, data base development, data analysis, data base management, display, and report generalization. In support of database development activities, BIA and BLM/TGS conducted a cooperative effort to investigate the potential of 1:100,000 scale Thematic Mapper (TM) False Color Composites (FCCs) for providing vegetation information suitable for input to the GIS and to later be incorporated as a generalized Bureau wide land cover map. Land cover information is critical as the majority of reservations currently have no land cover information in either map or digital form. This poster outlines an approach which includes the manual interpretation of land cover using TM FCCs, the digitizing of interpreted polygons, and the editing of digital data, used upon ground truthing exercises. An efficient and cost-effective methodology for generating large area land cover information is illustrated for the Mineral Strip area on the San Carlos Indian Reservation in Arizona. Techniques which capitalize on the knowledge of the local natural resources professionals, while minimizing machine processing requirements, are suggested.

  18. Analysis of activity in swine producers group based on agricultural producers association in Biała district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Knecht

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of pigs producer groups formation in Poland is quite dynamic. Currently on the pork market 181 groups operate, which includes about 4000 swine producers. The aim of this study was to characterize the activities of the Agricultural Producers Association in Biała District. The research tool was a personal questionnaire and the research sample consisted of 30 farmers. It has been shown that after joining the producers group, the investigated households reported an increase in sales volume and improved the flock production parameters. Majority of the respondents were not satisfied with the cooperation with meat processing companies.

  19. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACUTE FLUID LOSS AND BODY FAT PERCENTAGE BY USING BIA METHOD TO DETERMİNE BODY COMPOSİTİON

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet; VAN, Ali; Yücel

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) is so popular technique to analysis body fat mass (BFM), free fat mass (FFM), lean body mass (LBM) and total body fluid (TBF) in both healthy and patient subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the acute weight(fluid) loss on body fat mass and percentage by using BIA method. In this study 43 soccer players (age: 21.90; length: 179.62and weight: 73.90) who playing in college league in Afyonkarahisar province has been participated....

  20. Forms of Physical Activity of Biała Podlaska Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradus Paulina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Physical activity is fundamental to children's all-round development in the first six years of their life. It is particularly significant in preschool age, when the need for movement is predominant. Psychomotor development, conditioned by children's innate abilities and their own activity, depends upon the influence of external surroundings as well as parental upbringing and preschool education. The aim of the study was to obtain data regarding physical activity (both structured and unstructured of children during their stay in a kindergarten. Material and methods. The study was conducted in five state kindergartens situated in four main housing estates of Bia³a Podlaska. It included 11 groups of older preschool children. It was a diagnostic study. A diagnostic poll method employed in the study included interviews with teachers, lesson observations (during one day and document analyses (programmes and class registers. Results. During their stay in a kindergarten children take part in physical activities for 1.5 hours a day. During this period they participate in obligatory forms of physical activity such as morning gymnastics, movement plays, outdoor activities and gymnastic exercises. Furthermore, optional movement activities are organised in kindergartens (different forms in different kindergartens. Such extra classes enable children to be physically active for over two more hours per week. Conclusions. In terms of caring about health and motor development of children, not all elements of preschool education programmes are fully realised. Training sessions, workshops and lectures showing diverse forms of physical activity for children ought to be organised for preschool teachers.

  1. Survey of Forest Elephants Loxodonta cyclotis (Matschie, 1900 (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Elephantidae in the Bia Conservation Area, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Danquah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Information on elephant ranges and numbers is vital for effective conservation and management, especially in western Africa where elephant populations are small and scattered.  The Bia Conservation Area (BCA in southwestern Ghana is a priority site for the conservation of Forest Elephants in western Africa.  A dung count was conducted using a systematic segmented track line design to determine the density and distribution of the BCA elephant population.  The mean density of dung-piles was 452.15 per sq.km. and mean dung survival time was estimated to be 54.64 days (SD 2 days, leading to an estimate of 146 elephants (95% confidence interval 98-172 with a density of 0.48/km2 for the BCA. This estimate probably makes the Bia forest elephant population the largest in Ghana.  Records of BCA elephant activities were also made.  This study augments the Regional African Elephant Database and should facilitate strategic planning and management programmes.

  2. bia, um caso particular: da guerra civil à guerra internacional pelo controle dos poços de petróleo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Giuseppe Dal Bo Ribeiro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata sobre uma questão inserida na atual tensão do mundo árabe no norte da África, o caso da Líbia. As potências ocidentais acusam o líder da Líbia Muamar Kadafi de crimes contra a humanidade e atacam em uma coalizão representada pela OTAN. Meses antes essas mesmas potências realizavam negócios com o líder líbio que doravante é o mau a ser combatido. Essa pode ser mais uma guerra pelo petróleo, mas agora inserida numa região que vive um colapso político de origem muito diversa do que ocorre na Líbia. Na verdade o que vem ocorrendo na Líbia é uma guerra civil e não uma rebelião popular e o principal objetivo desta guerra é o petróleo. A medida que as forças de Trípoli foram adquirindo armas das potências ocidentais essa guerra ficou desigual e afetou os interesses das multinacionais do petróleo instaladas na região

  3. 25 CFR 162.256 - What will BIA do if a tenant holds over after the expiration or cancellation of an agricultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... expiration or cancellation of an agricultural lease? 162.256 Section 162.256 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... What will BIA do if a tenant holds over after the expiration or cancellation of an agricultural lease? If a tenant remains in possession after the expiration or cancellation of an agricultural lease,...

  4. ALTERAÇÕES DA RESISTÊNCIA AERÓBIA EM JOVENS FUTEBOLISTAS EM UM PERÍODO DE 15 SEMANAS DE TREINAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenilson de Souza

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O futebolista, para apresentar uma capacidade técnica e tática superior e consistente, tem que possuir níveis elevados de condicionamento físico, especialmente de resistência aeróbia. Este artigo tem como objetivo estudar as alterações da resistência aeróbia expressa por meio do consumo máximo de oxigênio em jovens futebolistas que foram submetidos a 15 semanas de treinamento. Para tanto, participaram do estudo 37 jovens futebolistas com idade média de 17,15 – 1,18 anos, submetidos a um programa de treinamento de cinco dias por semana, duas vezes por dia, com sessão de treinamento de aproximadamente duas horas. O estudo seguiu a periodização de Matveev (1986 e foi desenvolvido durante o período de preparação. Os futebolistas realizaram o teste YO-YO Intermitente de Resistência proposto por Bangsbo (1996. Os resultados mostraram que as posições de laterais, de meias e de volantes parecem solicitar maior resistência aeróbia. Em relação às alterações da resistência aeróbia (VO2máx, os futebolistas das posições de goleiro e de atacante foram os que apresentaram aumentos significantes; porém os futebolistas de todas as posições de jogo apresentaram melhoras em uma amplitude de 2,19 a 8,60%. Assim, com os resultados desse estudo, pôde-se concluir que 15 semanas de treinamento proporcionaram alterações importantes da resistência aeróbia (VO2máx.

  5. [Hair vanadium content and nutritional status of students of the Medical University of Białystok].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefańska, Ewa; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Czapska, Danuta; Karczewski, Jan; Borawska, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the vanadium content in the hair of students of the Medical University of Białystok and to find out whether its level in the organism measured basing on its hair content correlates with the nutritional status. The study involved 134, 127 and 125 students in the years 2000-2003, respectively. Hair vanadium content was determined using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method with atomization in a graphite cuvette (ET AAS) on a Hitachi Z-5000 apparatus. The nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index BMI. Higher vanadium content was detected in the hair of female students compared to male students. Negative correlation was noted between vanadium content in the hair of female students and their nutritional status.

  6. Biodigestão anaeróbia de efluente de abatedouro avícola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arley Borges de Morais Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o processo de biodigestão anaeróbia no tratamento de efluentes de abatedouro avícola, considerando-se os TRH de 7, 14 e 21 dias, além da adição de enzima lipolítica aos substratos, nas concentrações de 0; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 g L-1 de carga adicionada aos biodigestores. A influência dos TRH e da adição de enzima lipolítica aos substratos foi avaliada por meio das produções de biogás e CH4, dos potenciais de produção por DQO, adicionada e removida, bem como pelas reduções dos teores de DQO, concentrações de N, P e K e dos valores de pH. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que houve influência dos TRH (em que o TRH 7 expressou os melhores resultados, para produção semanal média de biogás, com 40,7 L, e CH4, com 32,2 L e das concentrações de enzimas, com maiores valores de produção para os tratamentos 1,0 (24,6 L e 1,5 g L-1 (26,2 L, que não diferiram entre si. As concentrações de enzimas de 1,0 e 1,5 g L-1 apresentaram maiores potenciais de produção de biogás (1,1 e 1,1 L g-1 de DQO adicionada, respectivamente e metano (0,9 e 0,8 L g¹ de DQO adicionada, respectivamente, quando comparadas com as da 0,5 g L-1 (0,8 e 0,7 L g-1 biogás e CH4, respectivamente e 0 (0,7 e 0,5 L g-1 biogás e CH4, respectivamente. As maiores remoções de DQO foram alcançadas nas concentrações de 0,5 g L-1 (83,3% e TRH de 21 dias (74,4%. Contudo, para que haja maior eficiência na reciclagem energética, recomenda-se a utilização de concentrações de 1,0 g L-1 de efluente e tempo de retenção hidráulica de 7 dias.

  7. Fraturas da diáfise da tíbia Tibial shaft fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodi Edson Kojima

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A fratura de osso longo mais frequente é a da diáfise da tíbia, e seu tratamento adequado evita o aparecimento de falhas da consolidação, consolidação viciosa e reoperações. Para classificar a fratura ainda se utiliza a classificação AO/OTA, mas vale a pena conhecer a classificação de Ellis, que também inclui a avaliação da lesão das partes moles. A síndrome compartimental é uma associação frequente, e o diagnóstico precoce pode ser feito precocemente com avaliação dos parâmetros clínicos e uma monitorização clínica constante. Feito o diagnóstico, deve-se realizar a fasciotomia. A avaliação da consolidação sempre é difícil, mas o método de RUST pode ajudar nessa avaliação. Avalia-se a radiografia em duas projeções, dando-se pontos para a presença da linha de fratura e a presença de calo ósseo visível. Hoje em dia se discute o dogma das seis horas para a limpeza da fratura exposta. Considera-se de mais importância o início precoce da antibioticoterapia endovenosa e a gravidade da lesão. A questão do fechamento precoce ou tardio da lesão em uma fratura exposta passou por várias fases, com épocas se indicando o fechamento precoce e épocas o tardio. Atualmente se preconiza, sempre que possível, o fechamento precoce da lesão, pois isso diminui o risco de infecção. A fresagem do canal quando da introdução da haste intramedular ainda é um assunto controverso. Apesar de fortes posições pessoais a favor da fresagem, os estudos mostram haver alguma vantagem nas fraturas fechadas, mas não nas expostas.The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an

  8. Producció d'energia per digestió anaeròbia de residus biodegradables a Catalunya. Horitzó 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Flotats Ripoll, Xavier; Casañé, Antoni

    2001-01-01

    Treball realitzat sobre el potencial energètics dels residus biodegradables en el marc de la redacció del pla d'energia de Catalunya 2001-2010. Dins l’aprofitament energètic dels residus biodegradables a Catalunya, la digestió anaeròbia juga un paper molt important. El interès de la digestió anaeròbia es centra, en primer lloc, per produir energia en forma de biogàs i, en segon lloc, com a estabilitzador de la matèria orgànica. El potencial energètic màxim teòric tenint en compte el bio...

  9. Przebieg ciąży i porodu u pacjentki z ostrą białaczką szpikową. Opis przypadku

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Krekora; Lidia Biesiada; Anna Kędzierska; Agnieszka Pluta; Piotr Krajewski; Tadeusz Robak; Grzegorz Krasomski

    2011-01-01

    Szacuje się, że ok. 1/1000 ciąż jest powikłana występowaniem nowotworu złośliwego, z czego największyodsetek dotyczy zachorowalności na raka szyjki macicy. Rozpoznanie białaczki przypada na ok. 1/100 000 ciężarnychi do dziś nie ma wystarczających doniesień na temat postępowania leczniczego w trakcie ciąży, jak i odległegowpływu ewentualnych terapii na dzieci urodzone z ciąż objętych leczeniem jeszcze za życia płodowego.Leczenie białaczek podczas ciąży jest o wiele trudniejsze z uwagi na fakt ...

  10. BMI or BIA: Is Body Mass Index or Body Fat Mass a Better Predictor of Cardiovascular Risk in Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bohn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body fat (BF percentiles for German children and adolescents have recently been published. This study aims to evaluate the association between bioelectrical impedance analysis(BIA-derived BF and cardiovascular risk factors and to investigate whether BF is better suited than BMI in children and adolescents. Methods: Data of 3,327 children and adolescents (BMI > 90th percentile were included. Spearman's correlation and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs were applied determining the associations between BMI or BF and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, elevated liver enzymes, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated to predict cardiovascular risk factors. Results: A significant association between both obesity indices and hypertension was present (all p Conclusion: BIA-derived BF was not superior to BMI to predict cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese children and adolescents.

  11. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACUTE FLUID LOSS AND BODY FAT PERCENTAGE BY USING BIA METHOD TO DETERMİNE BODY COMPOSİTİON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA is so popular technique to analysis body fat mass (BFM, free fat mass (FFM, lean body mass (LBM and total body fluid (TBF in both healthy and patient subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the acute weight(fluid loss on body fat mass and percentage by using BIA method. In this study 43 soccer players (age: 21.90; length: 179.62and weight: 73.90 who playing in college league in Afyonkarahisar province has been participated. Body weight, total body fluid, body fat percentage and fat mass of soccer players were measured by using BIA(Tanita method before and after the matches. Paired t test has been used to compare pretest and posttest values. Pearson's correlation analysis has been used to determine relationship between tests values. Statistically differences has been determined between pre-post body weight and body fat TBF (p<0,01. Also, highly negative correlation has been determined between pre-post body fluide loss percentage differences and pre-post body fat mass percentage differences (r=-,766; p<0,001. Theoretically, body fat loss is expected following weight loss after computation, anything but rising rate of body fat was observed. So it is speculated that bio-electric facing more resistance in the body due to fluid loss. Therefore more body fat calculated. Dehydration should be taken into account for the measurements made by the BIA method, because of changes in body fat percentages. It is suggested that fluid intake of the subjects should be under control before the measurementin the studies.

  12. Radosław Kaleta, Białorusko-polska homonimia międzyjęzykowa, Warszawa: Slawistyczny Ośrodek Wydawniczy, 2014, 167 ss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Duszkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Review The text is a presentation of R. Kaleta's book Białorusko-polska homonimia międzyjęzykowa published in 2014 by the Slavic Publishing Centre of the Institute of Slavic Studies PAS. The monograph includes an analysis of source literature and some theoretical reflections on a phenomenon of the so-called interlanguage homonymy. The book also includes a brief vocabulary of selected Belarusian-Polish interlanguage homonyms. Recenzja W recenzji przedstawiono wydaną w 2014 r. w Slawistycznym Ośrodku Wydawniczym Instytutu Slawistyki PAN książkę R. Kalety Białorusko-polska homonimia międzyjęzykowa. Monografia zawiera między innymi opis literatury przedmiotu oraz rozważania teoretyczne, dotyczące zjawiska tzw. hominimii międzyjęzykowej. Znaleźć w niej można również słowniczek wybranych białorusko-polskich hominimów międzyjęzykowych.

  13. Generalized GHY term for f(R) Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Alhamzawi, Ahmed; Alhamzawi, Rahim

    2014-01-01

    A generalization to the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term for metric $f(R)$ gravity theories is introduced. A redefinition of the Gibbons-Hawking-York term is proposed. The proposed new definition is used to derive a consistent set of field equations and is extended to metric $f(R)$ gravity theories. The surface terms in the action are gathered into a total variation of some quantity. A total divergence term is added to the action to cancel these terms. Finally, the new definition is proven ...

  14. The complete genome of Propionibacterium freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1, a hardy actinobacterium with food and probiotic applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Falentin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Propionibacterium freudenreichii is essential as a ripening culture in Swiss-type cheeses and is also considered for its probiotic use. This species exhibits slow growth, low nutritional requirements, and hardiness in many habitats. It belongs to the taxonomic group of dairy propionibacteria, in contrast to the cutaneous species P. acnes. The genome of the type strain, P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii CIRM-BIA1 (CIP 103027(T, was sequenced with an 11-fold coverage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The circular chromosome of 2.7 Mb of the CIRM-BIA1 strain has a GC-content of 67% and contains 22 different insertion sequences (3.5% of the genome in base pairs. Using a proteomic approach, 490 of the 2439 predicted proteins were confirmed. The annotation revealed the genetic basis for the hardiness of P. freudenreichii, as the bacterium possesses a complete enzymatic arsenal for de novo biosynthesis of aminoacids and vitamins (except panthotenate and biotin as well as sequences involved in metabolism of various carbon sources, immunity against phages, duplicated chaperone genes and, interestingly, genes involved in the management of polyphosphate, glycogen and trehalose storage. The complete biosynthesis pathway for a bifidogenic compound is described, as well as a high number of surface proteins involved in interactions with the host and present in other probiotic bacteria. By comparative genomics, no pathogenicity factors found in P. acnes or in other pathogenic microbial species were identified in P. freudenreichii, which is consistent with the Generally Recognized As Safe and Qualified Presumption of Safety status of P. freudenreichii. Various pathways for formation of cheese flavor compounds were identified: the Wood-Werkman cycle for propionic acid formation, amino acid degradation pathways resulting in the formation of volatile branched chain fatty acids, and esterases involved in the formation of free fatty acids and esters

  15. Baltic Sea coastal erosion; a case study from the Jastrzębia Góra region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uścinowicz Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The coastline in the Jastrzębia Góra area can be divided into three major zones of general importance: a beach and barrier section, a cliff section, and a section protected by a heavy hydrotechnical construction. These areas are characterised by a diverse geology and origin, and hence different vulnerability to erosion. In addition, observations have demonstrated a different pace of erosion within each zone. Based on the results obtained by remote sensing methods (analysis of aerial photographs and maps, it has been determined that the coastline in the barrier area, i.e., to the west of Jastrzębia Góra, moved landwards by about 130 m, in a period of 100 years, and 80 m over about 50 years. A smaller displacement of the shoreline could be observed within the cliff. Between the middle of the twentieth and the start of the twenty-first centuries the shore retreated by about 25 m. However, in recent years, an active landslide has led to the displacement of the uppermost part of the cliff locally up to 25 m. Another issue is, functioning since 2000, a heavy hydrotechnical construction which has been built in order to protect the most active part of the cliff. The construction is not stable and its western part, over a distance of 50 m, has moved almost 2 m vertically downwards and c. 2.5 m horizontally towards the sea in the past two years. This illustrates that the erosional factor does not comprise only marine abrasion, but also involves land-based processes determined by geology and hydrogeology. Changes in the shoreline at the beach and barrier part are constantly conditioned by rising sea levels, the slightly sloping profile of the sea floor and low elevation values of the backshore and dune areas. Cliffs are destroyed by mass wasting and repetitive storm surges that are responsible for the removal of the colluvium which protects the coast from adverse wave effects. Presumably, mass movements combined with groundwater outflow from the cliff

  16. Baltic Sea coastal erosion; a case study from the Jastrzębia Góra region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uścinowicz, Grzegorz; Kramarska, Regina; Kaulbarsz, Dorota; Jurys, Leszek; Frydel, Jerzy; Przezdziecki, Piotr; Jegliński, Wojciech

    2014-12-01

    The coastline in the Jastrzębia Góra area can be divided into three major zones of general importance: a beach and barrier section, a cliff section, and a section protected by a heavy hydrotechnical construction. These areas are characterised by a diverse geology and origin, and hence different vulnerability to erosion. In addition, observations have demonstrated a different pace of erosion within each zone. Based on the results obtained by remote sensing methods (analysis of aerial photographs and maps), it has been determined that the coastline in the barrier area, i.e., to the west of Jastrzębia Góra, moved landwards by about 130 m, in a period of 100 years, and 80 m over about 50 years. A smaller displacement of the shoreline could be observed within the cliff. Between the middle of the twentieth and the start of the twenty-first centuries the shore retreated by about 25 m. However, in recent years, an active landslide has led to the displacement of the uppermost part of the cliff locally up to 25 m. Another issue is, functioning since 2000, a heavy hydrotechnical construction which has been built in order to protect the most active part of the cliff. The construction is not stable and its western part, over a distance of 50 m, has moved almost 2 m vertically downwards and c. 2.5 m horizontally towards the sea in the past two years. This illustrates that the erosional factor does not comprise only marine abrasion, but also involves land-based processes determined by geology and hydrogeology. Changes in the shoreline at the beach and barrier part are constantly conditioned by rising sea levels, the slightly sloping profile of the sea floor and low elevation values of the backshore and dune areas. Cliffs are destroyed by mass wasting and repetitive storm surges that are responsible for the removal of the colluvium which protects the coast from adverse wave effects. Presumably, mass movements combined with groundwater outflow from the cliff, plus sea abrasion

  17. Post-Mortem Evaluation of Pathological Lesions in European Bison (Bison Bonasus) in the Białowieża Primeval Forest Between 2008 and 2013

    OpenAIRE

    K. Krzysiak Michał; Dackiewicz Jerzy; Kęsik-Maliszewska Julia; Larska Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The study presents the analysis of the findings of 234 post-mortem examinations on free-ranging and captive European bison selectively culled or having fallen between 2008 and 2013 in Białowieża Primeval Forest. Pneumonia, emphysema, nephritis, bodily traumas, and intestinal lesions were observed in 106 (45.3%), 77 (32.9%), 82 (35.0%), 68 (29.1%), and 56 (23.9%) animals respectively and were the most common pathological changes. Almost half of all males (66 out of 140; 47.1%) tested showed so...

  18. DIFERENTES DOSES DE BIOFERTILIZANTE PROVENIENTE DA DIGESTÃO ANAERÓBIA DE EFLUENTE DE PROCESSAMENTO DE MANDIOCA NO CULTIVO DE SOJA

    OpenAIRE

    Pessuti, Carlos Alexandre Alves; Hermes, Eliane; Neves, Andressa Caroline; Silva, Rafaela Pachega da; Penachio, Manoel; Zenatti, Dilcemara Cristina

    2015-01-01

    O biofertilizante proveniente da digestão anaeróbia do efluente da indústria de processamento de mandioca é rico em material orgânico, fornecendo elementos essenciais para o desenvolvimento da planta, como, nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio. Adicionado ao solo promove a mineralização dos elementos que poderão ser absorvidos pelas plantas da mesma forma que os dos fertilizantes minerais, além de melhorar suas qualidades físicas, químicas e biológicas. O objetivo deste estudo consistiu no uso de e...

  19. Przebieg ciąży i porodu u pacjentki z ostrą białaczką szpikową. Opis przypadku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Krekora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Szacuje się, że ok. 1/1000 ciąż jest powikłana występowaniem nowotworu złośliwego, z czego największyodsetek dotyczy zachorowalności na raka szyjki macicy. Rozpoznanie białaczki przypada na ok. 1/100 000 ciężarnychi do dziś nie ma wystarczających doniesień na temat postępowania leczniczego w trakcie ciąży, jak i odległegowpływu ewentualnych terapii na dzieci urodzone z ciąż objętych leczeniem jeszcze za życia płodowego.Leczenie białaczek podczas ciąży jest o wiele trudniejsze z uwagi na fakt konieczności doboru terapii do każdejciąży z osobna, uwzględniając zaawansowanie ciąży oraz stan zdrowia zarówno matki, jak i dziecka. Mimokontrowersji, jakie wzbudza zastosowanie chemioterapii u kobiet ciężarnych, to dziś takie postępowanie wydajesię najlepszym sposobem leczenia, a negatywne skutki terapii zmniejszają się wraz z wiekiem ciąży.

  20. Molecular dynamics of spin crossover: The (P, T) phase diagram of [Fe(PM-BIA){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marbeuf, A. [Université de Bordeaux-CNRS, LOMA, 351 cours de la Libération, F-33400 Talence (France); Matar, S.F., E-mail: matar@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Négrier, P. [Université de Bordeaux-CNRS, LOMA, 351 cours de la Libération, F-33400 Talence (France); Kabalan, L.; Létard, J.F.; Guionneau, P. [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France)

    2013-07-11

    Highlights: • [Fe(PM-BIA){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}] is identified in high and low spin states, showing spin crossover. • DFT studies provide charges and Morse potentials used in MD for orthorhombic phase. • DFT and MD simulations reproduce thermodynamics leading to enthalpy variation. • Spin crossover T{sub 1/2} calculated within range of experiment from enthalpies and structure. • Calculated (P, T) phase diagram shows monoclinic polymorph in two spin states. - Abstract: The spin crossover properties and the domains of existence of the different phases for the [Fe(PM-BIA){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}] complex are obtained from combining DFT and classical molecular dynamics (MD). The potential energy surfaces expressed in the Morse form for Fe–N interactions are deduced from molecular DFT calculations and they allow producing Infra Red and Raman frequencies. These Fe–N potentials inserted in a classical force field lead from MD calculations to the relative energies of the high spin and low spin configurations of the orthorhombic structure. The MD investigations have also allowed assessing the experimental (P, T) phase diagram by showing the monoclinic polymorph in its two spin-states, and generating two triple points.

  1. „Silę ucho”, czyli co słychać w przekładzie. Niemieckojęzyczne warianty wiersza Skakanka ufoistki Mirona Białoszewskiego na tle zabiegów „przekładania” codzienności na język poetycki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Burba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article has been derived from a chapter of an MA thesis on everyday speech in Miron Białoszewski’s work. The text focuses on exposition of methodological assumptions - the notion of everyday speech and its translation into poetic language in Białoszewski’s works. In particular, the article discusses a series of non-professional translations of the poem UFO agent’s skipping rope into German, as an example of the functioning of the dominant of everyday speech in translations of Białoszewski’s poetry.

  2. Efeitos do treinamento de corrida em diferentes intensidades sobre a capacidade aeróbia e produção de lactato pelo músculo de ratos Wistar Running training effects in different intensities on the aerobic capacity and lactate production by the muscle of Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Barbosa de Araújo; Fúlvia de Barros Manchado-Gobatto; Fabrício Azevedo Voltarelli; Carla Ribeiro; Clécia Soares de Alencar Mota; Claudio Alexandre Gobatto; Maria Alice Rostom de Mello

    2009-01-01

    São raros os estudos que associam indicadores de capacidade aeróbia e os substratos produzidos pelo metabolismo muscular em ratos. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o efeito do treinamento de corrida em duas diferentes intensidades sobre a capacidade aeróbia e a produção de lactato pelo músculo sóleo isolado de ratos. Ratos Wistar (90 dias) tiveram a transição metabólica aeróbio-anaeróbia determinada pelo teste de máxima fase estável de lactato (MFEL). Em seguida, os ra...

  3. Białoruskie elementy językowe w rosyjskiej gwarze staroobrzędowców mieszkających w regionie suwalsko-augustowskim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Angelika Paśko-Koneczniak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Elements of the Belarusian language in the Russian dialect used by the Old Believers living in the Suwałki-Augustów region The article deals with the Belarusian elements in the Russian dialect of the Old Believers living in Poland. The Old Believers arrived in Poland in the second half of the 18th century. At present they live in the Suwałki-Augustów region in the north-eastern Poland. They inhabit mostly two villages in the county of Suwałki, namely Gabowe Grądy and Bór, which are very close to each other, and three towns: Augustów, Suwałki and Sejny. The dialect used by the Polish Old Believers represents the western Central Great Russian dialects characterized by akanie, the so-called Pskov group. They share features which are typical of Pskov. The dialect was also influenced by other north-eastern Belarusian dialects, that is, the ones which were closest to the areas originally inhabited by Old Believers, who migrated in phases. After each phase, their dialect came to reflect some new linguistic influences. A large number of lexemes directly borrowed from Polish, or via the Belarusian language, are found in this dialect, which is also characterized by other features common in Belarusian dialects or the Bulgarian language. By way of illustration, they include the following features: the prosthetic j-, prosthetic v-, the occurrence of the endings –im and –ym in the case of singular masculine adjectives in the locative, promotion of the endings –i and –y in the case of the plural masculine and neutral nouns in the nominative, and the occurrence of lexemes borrowed from the Belarusian language.   Białoruskie elementy językowe w rosyjskiej gwarze staroobrzędowców mieszkających w regionie suwalsko-augustowskim Artykuł poświęcony jest problematyce białoruskich elementów językowych w rosyjskiej gwarze staroobrzędowców mieszkających w Polsce. Staroobrzędowcy pojawili się na terytorium Polski w drugiej połowie XVIII

  4. Energia solar térmica como fonte de calor no processo de digestão anaeróbia

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Rosana Sofia Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Engenharia Mecânica A gestão de resíduos encontra-se cada vez mais sob restrições crescentes, em especial no que toca aos resíduos orgânicos. O tratamento biológico da fração orgânica dos resíduos sólidos urbanos (RSU) constitui uma solução necessária a ter em conta na gestão de resíduos, ao promover a redução da matéria orgânica, através dos processos de estabilização e de recuperação de nutrientes. A digestão anaeróbia assume particular destaque ...

  5. Wood-inhabiting fungi of the Białowieża virgin forest in Poland. XVIII. Amylocystis lapponica (RomellBond. & Sing.

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    Stanisław Domański

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The author examined the microstructure of the fruitbody and culture of polypore Amylocystis lapponica (Romell Bond. & Sing., common in the Białowieża virgin forest on lying logs of Picea excelsa with symptoms of advanced brown rot produced by Fomitopsis rosea (Alb. & Schw. ex Fr. P. Karst. In the fruitbody a monomitic hyphal system was revealed consisting for the most part of thick-walled nodose-septate hyphae 4-10,5 μm thick. Moreover, by examination of four cultures obtained from basidiospores, it was found (1 that the diploid mycelium gives nearly always a negative reaction, whereas the haploid mycelia give positive reactions in tests for extracellular oxidase, and (2 that the fungus is tetrapolar.

  6. [Professional dysphonia and its risk factors in the material of the outpatient clinic of the Department of Otolaryngology, Medical Academy of Białystok].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosztyła-Hojna, Bozena; Rogowski, Marek; Ruczaj, Jan; Pepiński, Witold

    2004-01-01

    Occurrence of professional dysphonia was analysed in a group of 309 patients treated in the Phoniatric Outpatient Clinic, Department of Otolaryngology, Medical Academy in Białystok through the period of 1999-2001. In a group of professional voice users female teachers of primary schools and lower secondary schools predominated. Obtained results were compared with those from a group of 65 persons of other occupations. In the both groups other harmful factors affecting the voice organ were excluded. The clinical assessment included subjective and objective laryngological examination using videolaryngostroboscopy. The clinical material was evaluated in a view of functional and organic disorders of the voice organ. Early occurrence and aggravation of functional changes in the larynx was recorded in non professional voice users in the course of their seniority. In professional patients organic changes were more common and occurred earlier than functional disorders. Severity of dysphonia was related to the larynx pathology, especially of a functional character.

  7. Biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de bovinos leiteiros submetidos a diferentes tempos de retenção hidráulica

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral Cecília Maria Costa do; Amaral Luiz Augusto do; Lucas Júnior Jorge de; Nascimento Adjair Antônio do; Ferreira Daniel de Souza; Machado Márcia Rita Fernandes

    2004-01-01

    Utilizando-se biodigestores contínuos, abastecidos com dejetos de bovinos leiteiros e operados sob três tempos de retenção hidráulica, avaliou-se o efeito do processo de digestão anaeróbia sobre o número de microrganismos indicadores de poluição fecal, sobre a ocorrência de ovos e larvas de helmintos parasitas de ruminantes, analisando-se também os teores de sólidos totais e voláteis do afluente e dos efluentes, bem como a produção e a qualidade do biogás produzido. Verificou-se que vinte dia...

  8. Modernization Of Public Space Floor And Its Impact On Area - The Example Of The Kościuszko Square In Białystok

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    Tofiluk Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The last 25 years have been in many Polish cities a period of intensive modernization and renewals of the existing public spaces. Most of all the resurfacing of the pavement and changing of street furniture have been held. In many cases, the transformations in the urban areas were integrated with exclusion from traffic. The question arises what criteria architects or landscape architects follow and what design solutions apply. It is also interesting how the new shape of the floor in public spaces (understood here as a pavement and street furniture together can help to create integrating and activating space for residents. And how it can affect the quality of life in a wider area. This article attempts to answer these questions based on new solutions on Kosciuszko Square in Białystok, executed in 2005-2009.

  9. Participation and Protected Areas Governance: the Impact of Changing Influence of Local Authorities on the Conservation of the Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland

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    Jouni Paavola

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the new conservation paradigm, protected areas should contribute to the socioeconomic development of host communities, and the latter ought to be included in participatory decision making concerning these areas. However, the understanding of participation is ambiguous and there are at least three major approaches, which may have different impacts on the governance of protected areas. We examine the case of the Białowieża Primeval Forest in order to trace the effectiveness of changing modes of participation as well as to discuss the limitations and problems of public participation. Between 1918 and 2010, the role of local authorities changed from no influence to limited control over decision making regarding designation and enlargement of the Białowieża National Park (BNP. As a result of these changes, attempts to enlarge the BNP over the whole forest were undermined. The evidence shows that power relations and instrumental reasons constituted the main drivers of the changing participation pattern with deliberative rationale lacking. As a result, the conservation goals were only partially achieved. We argue that when interests are clearly conflicting and win–win solutions are difficult to reach, room for constructive participation may be limited. In these circumstances, public involvement may turn into yet another venue for a power play between actors with vested interests, without bringing gains in legitimacy or new policy options. This is especially the case for countries with a relatively short democratic record where the government lacks the consistency and capacity to steer the process over the longer term.

  10. Nonmelanoma skin cancer incidence in the inhabitants of Bielsko-Biała subregion in Silesia Voivodeship in the years 1999–2005

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    Małgorzata Juszko-Piekut

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Our earlier studies, on incidence rates of non-melanoma skin cancers in the inhabitants of Silesia Voivodeship between 1999 and 2003, confirmed a steady increase of incidence rates in both genders. An average annual increase in non-melanoma skin cancers incidence rates between 1999 and 2003 was 4.2% and 4.8% for men and women, respectively. Higher incidence rates of non-melanoma skin cancer in inhabitants of regions with intensive solar irradiation suggest that a total dose of UV radiation may have an important impact on the development of skin cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence rates of non-melanoma skin cancers in the inhabitants of a mountain area of Silesia Voivodeship in the years 1999–2005. Material and methods. The incidence data was provided by the Silesia Cancer Registry. The incidence rates were estimated by calculating age-specific and standardized rates using direct method and the “the world population” as a standard, and a cumulative risk. Results. The non-melanoma skin cancers incidence rate in Bielsko Biała subregion is higher than in other parts of Silesia Voivodeship. There are also significant differences between the incidence rates of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas, which are unfavorable for the inhabitants in this subregion. A cumulative risk shows that the risk of cancer development is higher for the inhabitants in Bielsko Biała subregion. The number of cancer cases is significantly increasing after the age of 50, and the largest number of patients is recorded in the oldest age groups. Conclusions High incidence rate in inhabitants of the mountain area of Upper Silesia proves that intensive UV irradiation can induce the development of non-melanoma skin cancers as well as both leading histological types of cancer under study.

  11. A temporal-omic study of Propionibacterium freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1 adaptation strategies in conditions mimicking cheese ripening in the cold.

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    Marion Dalmasso

    Full Text Available Propionibacterium freudenreichii is used as a ripening culture in Swiss cheese manufacture. It grows when cheeses are ripened in a warm room (about 24°C. Cheeses with an acceptable eye formation level are transferred to a cold room (about 4°C, inducing a marked slowdown of propionic fermentation, but P. freudenreichii remains active in the cold. To investigate the P. freudenreichii strategies of adaptation and survival in the cold, we performed the first global gene expression profile for this species. The time-course transcriptomic response of P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1(T strain was analyzed at five times of incubation, during growth at 30°C then for 9 days at 4°C, under conditions preventing nutrient starvation. Gene expression was also confirmed by RT-qPCR for 28 genes. In addition, proteomic experiments were carried out and the main metabolites were quantified. Microarray analysis revealed that 565 genes (25% of the protein-coding sequences of P. freudenreichii genome were differentially expressed during transition from 30°C to 4°C (P1. At 4°C, a general slowing down was observed for genes implicated in the cell machinery. On the contrary, P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1(T strain over-expressed genes involved in lactate, alanine and serine conversion to pyruvate, in gluconeogenesis, and in glycogen synthesis. Interestingly, the expression of different genes involved in the formation of important cheese flavor compounds, remained unchanged at 4°C. This could explain the contribution of P. freudenreichii to cheese ripening even in the cold. In conclusion, P. freudenreichii remains metabolically active at 4°C and induces pathways to maintain its long-term survival.

  12. Determinação rápida de hidroquinona usando análise por injeção em batelada (BIA com detecção amperométrica

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    Rafael Rodrigues Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fast analytical method for determination of hydroquinone in pharmaceutical formulations employing batch injection analysis (BIA with amperometric detection using a boron-doped diamond electrode is described. The supporting electrolyte was a 0.1 mol L-1 H2SO4 solution (the single reagent used for analysis. The method showed good repeatability (RSD of 0.45%, n=20, wide linear range (from 10 to 2000 µmol L-1, R=0.9999, low detection limit (0.016 µmol L-1 and satisfactory recovery values (91-96%. Accuracy of the method was evaluated by comparative analyses using high-performance liquid-chromatography. The ability to replace the electronic pipette by disposable syringes (injection procedure in BIA systems was also shown.

  13. Aptidão aeróbia e amplitude dos domínios de intensidade de exercício no ciclismo

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    Renato Aparecido Corrêa Caritá

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A determinação dos domínios de intensidade de exercício tem importantes implicações na prescrição do treino aeróbio e na elaboração de delineamentos experimentais. OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos do nível de aptidão aeróbia sobre a amplitude dos domínios de intensidade de exercício durante o ciclismo. MÉTODOS: Doze ciclistas (CIC, 11 corredores (COR e oito indivíduos não treinados (NT foram submetidos aos seguintes protocolos em diferentes dias: 1 teste progressivo para determinação do limiar de lactato (LL, consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2máx e sua respectiva intensidade (IVO2máx; 2 três testes de carga constante até a exaustão a 95, 100 e 110% IVO2máx para a determinação da potência crítica (PC; 3 testes até a exaustão para determinar a intensidade superior do domínio severo (Isup. As amplitudes dos domínios (moderado pesado severo < Isup foram expressas como percentual da Isup (VO2. RESULTADOS: A amplitude do domínio moderado foi similar entre CIC (52 ± 8% e COR (47 ± 4% e significantemente maior no CIC em relação ao NT (41 ± 7%. O domínio pesado foi significantemente menor no CIC (17 ± 6% em relação ao COR (27 ± 6% e NT (27 ± 9%. Em relação ao domínio severo não foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre os CIC (31 ± 7%, COR (26 ± 5% e NT (31 ± 7%. CONCLUSÃO: O domínio pesado de exercício é mais sensível a mudanças determinadas pelo nível de aptidão aeróbia, existindo a necessidade de que se atenda ao princípio da especificidade do movimento, quando se pretende obter um elevado grau de adaptação fisiológica.

  14. Fraturas da diáfise da tíbia em crianças Tibial diaphyseal fractures in children

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    Cláudio Santili

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As fraturas da diáfise da tíbia nas crianças e adolescentes são lesões relativamente comuns e geralmente têm boa evolução com os métodos clássicos de tratamento conservador. Sua elevada frequência se deve ao alto grau de exposição da criança nas suas atividades físicas e também pela anatomia e topografia da tíbia, expondo-a ao trauma direto ou indireto. Algumas particularidades devem ser consideradas e respeitadas na sua abordagem, que compreendem aspectos atinentes à faixa etária, local de acometimento (se proximal ou distal, tipo de fratura e de terapêutica instituída. A vantagem anatômica do periósteo mais espesso e a relativa flexibilidade na acomodação de impactos angulares podem proporcionar na criança de menor idade, maior estabilidade e consequente tendência ao melhor prognóstico. Nas crianças maiores e nos adolescentes o grau de exposição a traumas de maior energia, a maior gravidade e complexidade das lesões têm tornado mais comum a estabilização cirúrgica. Complicações encontradas nessas fraturas nos adultos como infecção, retarde de consolidação e pseudartrose são muito menos frequentes nas crianças, mas o risco de instalação de síndromes compartimentais é uma eventualidade que requer atenção, principalmente nas condutas incruentas com imobilizações gessadas.Tibial diaphyseal fractures in children and adolescents are relatively common injuries and often evolve with good results when treated through traditional methods of conservative treatment. Their elevated frequency is due to the high degree of exposure of children in physical activities and also to the topographic location, exposing them to direct or indirect trauma. The approach used should consider and respect some features regarding age, place of affection (whether proximal or distal, type of fracture and therapy. The anatomical advantage of a thicker periosteum and flexibility when submitted to angular impacts can provide

  15. Fratura periprotética da tíbia combinada com fratura de fadiga da haste tibial de artroplastia total do joelho Tibial periprosthetic fracture combined with tibial stem stress fracture from total knee arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Fonseca; Edgar Rebelo; António Completo

    2011-01-01

    As complicações das artroplastias totais do joelho relacionadas com o próprio material são muito raras, exceto o desgaste do polietileno. Neste artigo os autores reportam o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino de 58 anos referenciada ao pronto-socorro do nosso hospital por uma fratura periprotética tibial (tipo I da classificação da Mayo Clinic). Uma observação mais cuidadosa mostrou a presença concomitante da referida fratura da tíbia associada à fratura de fadiga da haste tibial. A prótese...

  16. Diseño de una impulsión por bombeo para el suministro de agua a las urbanizaciones de Nova Xàbia, La Plana y La Corona, en Jávea (Alicante)

    OpenAIRE

    LLORENS GARDUÑO, HÉCTOR

    2016-01-01

    [ES] El objeto de este proyecto es el diseño y dimensionado de una impulsión de bombeo de agua potable entre dos depósitos situados en el término municipal de Jávea (Alicante). Con ello se pretende abastecer a tres urbanizaciones de este municipio (Nova Xàbia, La Plana y La Corona). Para ello, se estudian los posibles trazados para la conducción, así como las distintas alternativas en cuanto a las bombas necesarias y el tiempo que deben estar en funcionamiento a lo largo del...

  17. Análise da potência aeróbia de futebolistas por meio de teste de campo e teste laboratorial

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    Cristian Javier Ramirez Lizana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Há métodos diretos e indiretos que são utilizados pelos clubes de futebol para avaliar, acompanhar e determinar o VO2max dos jogadores, sendo este muito importante para o rendimento e a recuperação dos atletas durante uma partida. Objetivo: Avaliar o nível de correlação entre as medidas de VO2max por meio da análise direta de gases e do teste de campo Yo-Yo Intermitente Recovery Level 1 (Yo-YoIR1. Métodos: Participaram do estudo 24 jogadores de futebol da categoria SUB-20 de um clube do estado de São Paulo, Brasil, com estatura 1,72±0,08 m e massa corporal 61,17±9,18 kg, com no mínimo cinco anos de prática na modalidade. Os atletas realizaram o teste de análise direta dos gases em esteira ergométrica e após 48 horas foi realizado o Yo-Yo IR1. Resultados: Os resultados apontaram uma correlação significante entre os testes (r=0,524; p<0,01, porém o Yo-Yo IR1 subestimou as medidas de análise direta dos gases em laboratório (44,98ml/kg/min e 48,14ml/kg/min, respectivamente. Conclusão: Os resultados apontaram uma correlação moderada entre as medidas de VO2max, dessa forma pode-se utilizar ambos os testes para análise da potência aeróbia dos jogadores de futebol, desde que seja repetido o mesmo protocolo nas avaliações subsequentes.

  18. Adição de óleo e lipase sobre a biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos suínos

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    João Paulo Rodrigues

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a eficiência da co-digestão anaeróbia dos dejetos suínos com crescentes níveis de adição de óleo de descarte e lipase. Foram testadas quatro doses de óleos (8, 12, 16 e 20g kg-1 de substrato e 3 doses de lipase (1, 2 e 3g kg-1 de substrato. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: redução de sólidos totais (ST, sólidos voláteis (SV e número mais provável (NMP de coliformes totais (CT e termotolerantes (CTT, além do pH, demanda química de oxigênio (DQO, produção e potenciais de produção de biogás. Os resultados demonstraram que houve influência das adições de óleo e lipase sobre as reduções de ST SV e pH do efluente, seguindo um modelo de predição linear e decrescente. As reduções do NMP de CT e CTT foram mais elevadas nos tratamentos com maior adição de óleo e lipase. A produção de biogás apresentou uma correlação negativa com as adições de lipase, sendo que estas proporcionaram efeito linear decrescente sobre os potenciais de produção de biogás/kg de dejeto, ST e SV adicionado. As adições de óleo e lipase não proporcionam efeitos favoráveis sobre as produções de biogás.

  19. Post-Mortem Evaluation of Pathological Lesions in European Bison (Bison Bonasus in the Białowieża Primeval Forest Between 2008 and 2013

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    K. Krzysiak Michał

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the analysis of the findings of 234 post-mortem examinations on free-ranging and captive European bison selectively culled or having fallen between 2008 and 2013 in Białowieża Primeval Forest. Pneumonia, emphysema, nephritis, bodily traumas, and intestinal lesions were observed in 106 (45.3%, 77 (32.9%, 82 (35.0%, 68 (29.1%, and 56 (23.9% animals respectively and were the most common pathological changes. Almost half of all males (66 out of 140; 47.1% tested showed some pathological changes of prepuce and penis, described as posthitis or balanoposthitis. Infection with liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica and lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus was observed macroscopically in 114 (48.7% and 80 (32.9% bison respectively. F. hepatica prevalence was associated with the emergence of other liver changes such as hepatitis and cirrhosis (P < 0.001. Similarly, the prevalence of D. viviparus coincided with pneumonia (P = 0.001, changes in the upper respiratory tract (P = 0.04, and emphysema (P < 0.001. Hepatitis, infection with F. hepatica, and pathological lesions in the male and female reproductive tracts were associated with the animals’ age. Mechanical injuries, caused by other bison or less commonly by traffic accidents, were the most common cause of death of bison below six months of age. Most pathological changes were significantly more frequent in the selectively culled animals in comparison with the ones having fallen, which confirms the desirability of elimination as a tool to improve the health and welfare of the bison population and limit the number of reservoirs of invasive and possibly infectious diseases.

  20. Biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de bovinos leiteiros submetidos a diferentes tempos de retenção hidráulica

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    Amaral Cecília Maria Costa do

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando-se biodigestores contínuos, abastecidos com dejetos de bovinos leiteiros e operados sob três tempos de retenção hidráulica, avaliou-se o efeito do processo de digestão anaeróbia sobre o número de microrganismos indicadores de poluição fecal, sobre a ocorrência de ovos e larvas de helmintos parasitas de ruminantes, analisando-se também os teores de sólidos totais e voláteis do afluente e dos efluentes, bem como a produção e a qualidade do biogás produzido. Verificou-se que vinte dias de retenção hidráulica foram suficientes para reduzir significativamente o número de microorganismos indicadores de poluição fecal e a quantidade de ovos de helmintos parasitas de ruminantes. Os resultados obtidos nas análises de sólidos totais e voláteis, bem como a produção de biogás (m³/dia, permitem concluir que o biodigestor modelo Chinês operado com 20 dias de tempo de retenção hidráulica, apresentou mais eficiência. Vale ressaltar que vinte dias de retenção foram insuficientes para impedir a sobrevivência de larvas de helmintos parasitas de ruminantes.

  1. Avaliação da qualidade de vida em pacientes com fratura da tíbia Assessment of quality of life in patients with tibia fractures

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    Oswaldo Roberto Nascimento

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto da fratura na qualidade de vida dos pacientes. MÉTODO: Os pacientes foram submetidos a um protocolo de dados clínicos e epidemiológicos, a uma avaliação específica para fraturas da tíbia, o método de Johner e Wruhs, cujo dados foram analisados por um questionário genérico para avaliação da qualidade de vida, o SF-36, o qual foi aplicado pelos autores, com um mínimo de seis meses de pós-operatório. Estes instrumentos foram também estratificados com relação ao retorno ou não dos pacientes a todas as atividades que realizavam antes do acidente. RESULTADOS: Observou-se uma diminuição dos valores de avaliação do questionário SF-36 demonstrada estatisticamente (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of tibial fractures on patient's quality of life. METHOD: All patients were evaluated by means of a protocol of clinical and epidemiological data. The Johner and Wruhs method was employed to evaluate tibial fractures and the results were compared to those of the SF-36 Health Survey, which was applied by the authors from the sixth month postoperatively. Those methods were applied considering the return of the patients or not to all the activities they used to perform before the accident. RESULTS: We found a statistical significance (p<0.05 showed by Mann- Whitney's U-test between the component of SF-36, and return or not to previous activities. Regarding the results of SF36 and clinical evaluation (Johner and Wruhs, on the Kruskal-Wallis' test, we also found significant correlation. CONCLUSION: According to the established criteria and based on the results, tibial fractures, even with favorable clinical outcomes, result in a diminished quality of life.

  2. Capacidade aeróbia de ratos alimentados com dieta rica em frutose Aerobic capacity of rats fed with fructose rich diet

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    Rodrigo Ferreira de Moura

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Evidências apontam que a ingestão exacerbada de frutose pode desencadear distúrbios característicos da síndrome metabólica. OBJETIVOS: Analisar os efeitos da ingestão de dieta rica em frutose sobre aspectos metabólicos de ratos da linhagem Wistar. Adicionalmente, verificar a capacidade aeróbia através da identificação da máxima fase estável de lactato (MFEL. MÉTODOS: Dezesseis ratos foram separados em dois grupos de oito animais: a controle, alimentados com dieta balanceada, e b frutose, alimentados com dieta rica em frutose. Foram analisadas a tolerância à glicose (área sob a curva de glicose durante teste de tolerância à glicose, sensibilidade à insulina (taxa de remoção da glicose sérica após sobrecarga exógena de insulina, perfil lipídico sérico e concentração de lactato sanguíneo [lac]s durante exercício na intensidade da MFEL. RESULTADOS: Teste t não pareado (p INTRODUCTION: Evidence points that exacerbated ingestion of fructose may trigger disturbs characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effects of a fructose rich diet on metabolic aspects of Wistar lineage rats. Additionally, to verify the aerobic capacity, through the identification of the maximal lactate steady state (MSSL. PROCEDURES: Sixteen rats were separated in two groups of eight animals: a Control, fed a balanced diet, and b fructose, fed a fructose-rich diet. The glucose tolerance, (area under serum glucose during a glucose tolerance test, insulin sensibility (glucose disappearance rate after exogenous insulin administration, serum lipid profile and blood lactate concentration [lac]b during exercise at MSSL intensity, have been analyzed. RESULTS: Non-paired t test (p<0.05 revealed difference between groups in the area under the curve of glucose and serum triglycerides, no difference in insulin sensibility or in [lac]b was detected, though. One-way ANOVA with Newman Keuls post hoc revealed difference in

  3. Caracterização e biodigestão anaeróbia dos dejetos de caprinos Characterization and anaerobic digestion of goat manure

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    Ana C. A. Orrico

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantificar e caracterizar os dejetos gerados por cabras Saanen em quatro categorias de idade e alimentadas com três dietas e na seqüência, e promover a biodigestão anaeróbia dos dejetos constituíram os objetivos deste trabalho. Para a produção de dejetos, foram utilizadas 36 cabras Saanen, com idades entre 2 e 4 (C1, 4 e 8 (C2, 8 e 12 (C3 e acima de 12 meses (C4, alimentadas com as dietas 1 (D1: 80% volumoso (Vol e 20% concentrado (Con; 2 (D2: 60% Vol e 40% Con e 3 (D3: 40% Vol e 20% Con. Foram quantificadas as produções diárias de fezes e urina e seus teores em N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn e Mn. Com a mistura das fezes e urina de todas as categorias, separadas segundo as dietas, foram abastecidos biodigestores batelada, com capacidade para 4 L de substrato em fermentação. A C1 apresentou menor (PThis study aimed quantify and characterize the manure generated by Saanen goats in four categories of age, fed with three diets and then promote the anaerobic digestion of the manures. Thirty six goats were used with ages between 2 and 4 (C1, 4 and 8 (C2, 8 and 12 (C3 and above 12 months (C4, fed with the diets 1 (D1: 80% forage (Fo and 20% concentrated (Co, 2 (D2: 60% Fo and 40% Co and 3 (D3: 40% Fo and 20% Co. The daily productions of feces and urine and its contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn were quantified. A mixture of feces and urine of all the categories of age was used; separated according to the diets, for the supply of batch digesters, with capacity of 4.0 liters of substrate in fermentation. The C1 presented smaller excretion (P<0.05 of feces (164.1 g of MS/animal per day and the smallest food consumption (362.16 g MS/animal per day. The largest concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and K occurred in the feces and urine generated by goats of C4 and fed by D3. The prepared substrate with manures originating from of D3 presented 45% of reduction in the contents of volatile solids (VS. The prepared substrate with

  4. Desempenho da co-digestão anaeróbia de dejetos suínos com inclusão de glicerina bruta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Watte Schwingel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo foi avaliar o desempenho da co-digestão anaeróbia de dejetos de suínos associados com crescentes doses de glicerina bruta, adotando-se diferentes tempos de retenção hidráulica (TRH. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3x4, três TRH (10; 17 e 24 dias e quatro doses de glicerina bruta (0; 5; 10 e 15% dos sólidos totais, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Os parâmetros avaliados foram produção e potencial de produção de biogás, reduções de sólidos totais (ST, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA. A produção de biogás e potencial de produção apresentaram efeito quadrático nos TRH de 17 e 24 dias, evidenciando como doses ideais 4,09 e 5,63% de glicerina bruta, respectivamente, para produção e 4,52 e 5,42% de glicerina bruta para potencial de produção. Não houve diferença entre as doses de glicerina bruta dentro do TRH de 10 dias para as reduções de ST. No entanto, foi observado diferença entre as doses nos TRH 17 e 24, com a maior redução observada de 54,9% ao incluir 5% de glicerina bruta no maior TRH. As reduções de FDN e FDA aumentaram de acordo com a adição de glicerina bruta nos TRHs de 10 e 17 dias. A inclusão de 4 a 6% de glicerina bruta no TRH 24 mostrou-se mais eficiente na produção de biogás e reduções de ST e FDN. Já visando maior redução de FDA pode-se utilizar doses mais altas de glicerina a partir da co-digestão com dejetos suínos.

  5. Avaliação radiográfica da osteotomia proximal de abertura gradual da tíbia Radiographic assessment of the opening wedge proximal tibial osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Francisco Bittencourt Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar radiograficamente indivíduos submetidos à osteotomia de abertura gradual da tíbia proximal com o objetivo de analisar a inclinação tibial proximal no plano frontal e no plano sagital e a altura patelar. MÉTODO: Foram incluídos no estudo 22 indivíduos operados no Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia (INTO para correção do desvio angular em varo da tíbia pela técnica de osteotomia de abertura gradual (OAG com fixador externo monolateral da Orthofix. Foram analisados pacientes submetidos à OAG com término de tratamento entre janeiro de 2000 e dezembro de 2006. A técnica utilizada para a mensuração dos valores foi obtida através de radiografias em AP com carga e perfil com flexão a 30º dos joelhos operados. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças entre os valores dos índices de altura patelar e inclinação tibial pré-operatórios e pós-operatórios de significância estatística nos pacientes avaliados. CONCLUSÃO: A osteotomia tibial de abertura gradual representa uma técnica que evita os problemas apresentados pela osteotomia tibial proximal alta, pois ela é realizada sem promover alterações do mecanismo extensor, desequilíbrio ligamentar ou distorções na tíbia proximal.OBJETIVO: To radiographically evaluate patients who underwent opening wedge proximal tibial osteotomy in order to analyze the proximal tibial slope in the frontal plane, sagittal plane, and patellar height. METHOD: The study included 22 patients operated on at the Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia (INTO for the correction of varus angular tibial deviation using the opening wedge osteotomy (OWO technique with the Orthofix monolateral external fixator. We analyzed patients with OWO having completed treatment between January 2000 and December 2006. Values were measured by using X-rays of the anteroposterior profile with load and lateral profile with 30º flexion of the operated knees. RESULTS: No statistically

  6. Desempenho da potência anaeróbia em atletas de elite do mountain bike submetidos à suplementação aguda com creatina Anaerobic power output of elite off-road cyclists with acute oral creatine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Eckhardt Molina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar os efeitos da suplementação aguda com creatina no desempenho da potência anaeróbia de atletas de elite do mountain bike, 20 atletas em período básico do macrociclo de treinamento foram distribuídos aleatoriamente (duplo-cego em dois grupos: placebo (PLA, n = 10 e creatina (CRE, n = 10. Foram avaliados quanto à composição corporal (pesagem hidrostática e potência anaeróbia (teste de Wingate - TW antes (PRÉ e depois (PÓS de sete dias de suplementação. A creatina ou maltodextrina foi usada em três doses diárias de 0,3g/kg de massa corporal diluídos em meio líquido adoçado. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas variáveis morfológicas após sete dias de suplementação (PRÉ x PÓS, e os grupos não diferiram apesar da variação percentual (Δ% contrária (positiva para o grupo CRE e negativa para o PLA. A potência anaeróbia pico (PP e o instante da potência pico (IPP aumentaram e o índice de fadiga diminuiu do PRÉ para o PÓS-testes no grupo CRE, enquanto que o grupo PLA não apresentou diferenças significantes. A PP apresentou forte tendência em ser maior e o IPP foi maior no grupo CRE comparado com o PLA. Conclui-se que existem evidências de que a suplementação com creatina (0,3g/kg em curto prazo (sete dias pode retardar o IPP (CRE 3,0 ± 0,5/3,6 ± 0,8 Δ%= 20% no teste de Wingate em atletas de elite do mountain bike, sugerindo que a suplementação com creatina pode melhorar o desempenho físico quanto à potência anaeróbia durante o trabalho de alta intensidade e curta duração.In order to investigate the effect of a high dose, acute oral creatine supplementation on anaerobic power of male off-road cyclists, twenty elite athletes training at the basic period were randomly (double-blind assigned into 2 groups: placebo (PLA n=10 and creatine (CRE n=10. They were submitted to a body composition evaluation (underwater weighting and Wingate Anaerobic Test (TW before

  7. Regras sobre o uso da força no âmbito das Nações Unidas: o caso de intervenção na Líbia

    OpenAIRE

    Frasson, Paolla Salgado

    2012-01-01

    O presente artigo visa analisar as normas jurídicas das Nações Unidas que permitem o uso da força em ações militares em Estados. Para uma noção introdutória, fez-se uma abordagem quanto à origem do sistema coletivo de segurança internacional no âmbito das Nações Unidas. Na sequência, estudam-se as regras estabelecidas na Carta desta organização relacionadas com o uso da força. Ao final, discute-se o caso de intervenção na Líbia, à luz das regras analisadas.

  8. 一种新的人体成分分析分段模型——检测系统设计及初步实验%A new trunk subdivision BIA model system design and preliminary experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓娟; 赵舒; 王妍; 沙洪

    2009-01-01

    Objective Taking account of the deficiency in whole body impedance measurement and in the traditional segment measurement, an optimization towards bioelectrical impedance segmental model is developod, then a system based on the new model is designed and preliminary experiment is carried out. Methods A trunk subdivision model was proposed to avoid the undesirable effect from thorax and abdominal cavity on fat measurement. The new model-basod measuring system was established. In addition, the result of the experiment based on trunk subdivision Bio-Impedance Analysis (BIA) method was compared to the result obtained via Multislice Spiral Computer Tomography(MSCT). Results Focusing on trunk detection, the trunk subdivision BIA is able to distinguish the impedance of upper segment (thorax) and the impedance of lower segment (abdominal cavity). With the utilization of the impedance, the fat content of thorax and abdominal cavity can be calculated. Furthermore, the comparison results of the two methods above show excellent correlation. Conclusion The novel method is a good remedy to whole body model method and the traditional segment BIA (SBIA) method. It is an effective improvement in body composition analysis, well meets the requirements and purpose of body composition measurement and more physiologically meaningful.%目的 针对全身阻抗测量方法和传统分段阻抗测量法存在的问题,优化生物电阻抗人体成分分析(BIA)的分段模型,研制基于新模型的测量系统,进行初步实验.方法 分析人体胸部和腹部对脂肪测量的不同影响,提出新的躯干细分模型;对新模型进行理论分析,构建基于躯干细分模型BIA系统,进行多层螺旋CT(MSCT)法与新方法的人体成分测量对照实验.结果 以人体躯干部分为检测重点,基于躯干细分模型的BIA法能有效区分躯干上段和下段的阻抗值,从而得到人体的胸部和腹部脂肪含量.2种方法的对照试验结果显示

  9. Efeitos do ultra-som terapêutico sobre o crescimento longitudinal do fêmur e da tíbia em ratos Effects of therapeutic ultrasound on longitudinal growth of the femur and tibia in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Alcantara Barreto; Romi Kawasaki Alcantara Barreto; Hamilton da Rosa Pereira; William Saad Hosnne

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estudar efeitos do ultra-som terapêutico sobre o crescimento do fêmur e da tíbia, em ratos jovens. MÉTODO: Ratus norvegicus com quatro semanas de vida, machos, totalizando 115 animais, divididos em quatro grupos, foram submetidos ao ultra-som terapêutico (0,8 MHz, cabeçote fixo, pulso contínuo, por dez minutos, durante dez dias), na face medial do joelho direito, nas potências de 0,0 W/cm2 (grupo controle), 0,5 W/cm2 (grupo G2), 1,0 W/cm2 (grupo G3), e 1,5 W/cm2 (grupo G4). Lâminas ...

  10. Avaliação dos níveis de atividade física e capacidade aeróbia estimada em estudantes universitários

    OpenAIRE

    Trzan, Abel Góes

    2013-01-01

    Mestrado em Fisioterapia O Ingresso na Universidade proporciona uma grande alteração nos hábitos de vida dos estudantes. Os estudantes de Medicina são duas vezes mais inativos tendo alto nível de estresse acadêmico. Este projeto visa avaliar o nível de atividade física e capacidade aeróbia de estudantes universitários. A população alvo foram estudantes do 1º e 5º ano do curso de medicina entre os 18 e 30 anos. Foi teita a amostragem aleatória e estratificada, com afetação proporcional (n=8...

  11. Microbiota bacteriana aeróbia da conjuntiva de doadores de córnea Aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva of cornea donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fontana Lorenzini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a microbiota bacteriana aeróbia da conjuntiva de doadores de córnea e seu padrão de suscetibilidade a antibióticos; verificar o número de córneas utilizadas para transplante e a média de tempo de preservação em solução preservante com gentamicina e estreptomicina; traçar o perfil dos doadores e receptores de córnea. MÉTODOS: Espécimes clínicos foram colhidos de saco inferior da conjuntiva de ambos os olhos, de 40 doadores de córnea. As amostras foram inoculadas em ágar sangue azida, ágar chocolate e ágar MacConkey e o antibiograma foi realizado pelo método de Kirby-Bauer. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de cultura positiva da conjuntiva de doadores de córnea foi de 72,5%, sendo que Gram-positivos totalizaram 81,6% e apenas 18,4% das amostras foram identificadas como Gram-negativos. Vancomicina inibiu 100% dos Gram-positivos, ao passo que a sensibilidade dos Gram-negativos à gentamicina foi de 53,8% e à estreptomicina foi de 30%. O sexo masculino predominou entre os doadores e receptores, a média de tempo entre o óbito e a enucleação foi de 2h e a de preservação em solução preservante com gentamicina e estreptomicina foi de 7 dias. Neoplasia e mais de uma causa associada foram as causas de óbito mais freqüentes. O ceratocone foi a principal indicação para transplante (51,7%. CONCLUSÕES: Staphylococcus coagulase negativo foi o microrganismo com o maior número de isolamentos, apresentando sensibilidade variada aos antimicrobianos. A quantidade de córneas utilizadas para transplante foi bastante inferior em relação ao total de captações. O perfil dos doadores e receptores de córnea mostrou-se heterogêneo para grande parte das variáveis analisadas.PURPOSE: To determine aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva of cornea donors and its patterns of susceptibility to antibiotics; verify the number of corneas used for transplant and the average time of preservation in solutions with

  12. O aterro da caturrita em Santa Maria – RS: uma atualização quanto aos potenciais da digestão anaeróbia

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    Tiago Luis Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As oportunidades do processo de digestão anaeróbia, em aterros sanitários e controlados, são ligadas à formação de biogásatravés da biodegradação da matéria orgânica em ambiente predominantemente anaeróbio. Com isso, através de um ajuste decapacidade do aterro da Caturrita em Santa Maria-RS, que consiste no produto entre a massa de resíduos (467.929 toneladas quecomporta a célula e o fator de recuperação do gás metano (RF=0,7, sendo o mesmo relacionado, principalmente ao percentual deresíduos domésticos que chegam ao aterro (alto teor de matéria orgânica de fácil degradação, obteve-se um aproveitamento potencialde 327.550 toneladas de resíduos depositados, resultando num aterro com baixa capacidade de produção de biogás. A recuperaçãototal do metano entre 2013 e 2033, considerando um rendimento na captação de gases de 70%, resultou 17.529.657m3, através dautilização do método Scholl Canyon. O total da receita estimada para o mesmo período, admitindo uma comercialização conservadora(aterro Bandeirantes em São Paulo que é de € 19,20 de créditos de carbono em € 10,00 por tonelada equivalente de CO2 (eCO2, eenergia elétrica em um valor de € 0,0326/kWh que é referência para o projeto NovaGerar no Rio de Janeiro, seria de € 3.604.650, ouem torno de R$ 11.030.229, isto é, um faturamento mensal de R$ 45.960,00.Abstract The anaerobic digestion process opportunities,about sanitary and controlled landfills, are related to a biogasformation process through the biodegradation of organicsubstances in a predominantly anaerobic environment. Thus,through capacity adjustment of the Caturrita’s landfill in SantaMaria-RS reached an exploitation potential of 327,550 tons ofdeposited residues, resulting in a landfill, which has a lowbiogas production capacity. The methane recovered between2013 and 2033, considering an availability of 70%, came to be17,529,657m3. Admitting the carbon credits and electricenergy

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of crude glycerin and starch industry effluent Codigestão anaeróbia de glicerina bruta e efluente de fecularia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Larsen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazil's Biodiesel Production and Use Program introduces biodiesel in the Brazilian energy matrix, bringing along the perspective of a growth of the glycerin offer, co-product generated in the proportion of 10 kg for each 100 L of biodiesel. The aim of this study was to evaluate the addition of crude glycerin in the anaerobic digestion of cassava starch industry effluent (cassava wastewater, in a horizontal semi-continuous flow reactor of one phase in laboratory scale. It was used a reactor with a 8.77 L of useful volume, a medium support for corrugated conduit of polyvinyl chloride (PVC, temperature of 261 ºC, fed with cassava wastewater and glycerin, with hydraulic detention times of 4 and 5 days and increasing volumetric organic load of 3.05; 9.32; 14.83 and 13.59 g COD L-1 d-1, obtained with the addition of glycerin at 0; 2; 3 and 2% (v/v, respectively. The average removal efficiencies of TS and TVS were decreasing from the addition of glycerin to the cassava wastewater, averaging 81.19 to 55.58% for TS and 90.21 to 61.45% for TVS. The addition of glycerin at 2% increased the biogas production compared to the control treatment, reaching 1.979 L L-1 d-1. The biogas production as a function of the consumed COD was higher for the control treatment than for the treatments with addition of glycerin, which indicates lower conversion of organic matter into biogas.O Programa Nacional de Produção e Uso do Biodiesel introduziu o biodiesel na matriz energética brasileira, trazendo a perspectiva de aumento da oferta de glicerina, coproduto gerado na proporção de 10 kg para cada 100 L de biodiesel. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar a adição de glicerina bruta na digestão anaeróbia de efluente de indústria de fécula de mandioca (manipueira, em reator de fluxo semicontínuo horizontal de uma fase, em escala de laboratório. Foi utilizado um reator com volume útil de 8,77 L, meio suporte em eletroduto corrugado de policloreto

  14. Operational Solar Forecasting System for DNI and GHI for Horizons Covering 5 Minutes to 72 Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    I will describe the methodology used to develop and deploy operationally a comprehensive solar forecasting system for both concentrated and non-concentrated solar technologies. This operational forecasting system ingests data from local telemetry, remote sensing and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models, processes all the diferent types of data (time series, sky images, satellite images, gridded data, etc.) to produce concatenated solar forecasts from 5 minutes out to 72 hours into the future. Each forecast is optimized with stochastic learning techniques that include input selection, model topology optimization, model output statistics, metric fitness optimization and machine learning. These forecasts are used by solar generators (plant managers), utilities and independent system operators for operations, scheduling, dispatching and market participation.

  15. Efeitos de 24 semanas de treinamento resistido sobre índices da aptidão aeróbia de mulheres idosas Effects of 24 weeks of resistance training on aerobic fitness indexes of older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Guido

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVO: O consumo de oxigênio pico (VO2pico e o limiar anaeróbio (LA são amplamente aceitos como importantes medidas da aptidão aeróbia. Tradicionalmente, o treinamento aeróbio é visto como o principal meio de se aumentar esses índices. Em contrapartida, o treinamento resistido (TR não é tipicamente prescrito para este fim. Em indivíduos idosos, tem sido sugerido que o TR é capaz de aprimorar a capacidade aeróbia; entretanto, a temática é controversa. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar os efeitos do treinamento resistido sobre índices da capacidade aeróbia de mulheres idosas. METODOLOGIA: Participaram voluntariamente 50 idosas, as quais foram distribuídas em dois possíveis grupos: grupo controle (GC - n = 25; idade média 68,00 ± 6,38 e grupo treinamento (GT - n = 25; idade média 68,04 ± 6,78 anos. Todas as participantes realizaram teste ergoespirométrico em esteira conduzido até a exaustão voluntária antes e após a intervenção. O GT foi submetido a um programa de TR para os principais grupos musculares três vezes por semana durante um período de 24 semanas. Ao GC foi solicitado que mantivessem suas rotinas habituais. Split plot Anova foi utilizada para verificar possíveis diferenças intra e intergrupos. RESULTADOS: Foi observado que o GT apresentou aumento significativo nas variáveis tempo de teste e VO2, tanto no momento do LA como no momento da exaustão. No GC nenhuma das variáveis dependentes sofreu alteração significativa. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que 24 semanas de TR é capaz de promover melhora no desempenho durante teste de esforço cardiopulmonar em uma amostra de mulheres idosas. Futuros estudos serão importantes para elucidar os mecanismos responsáveis por tais adaptações.INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak and anaerobic threshold (AT have been widely accepted as important predictors of aerobic fitness. Traditionally, aerobic training is viewed as

  16. Efeitos do ultra-som terapêutico sobre o crescimento longitudinal do fêmur e da tíbia em ratos Effects of therapeutic ultrasound on longitudinal growth of the femur and tibia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Alcantara Barreto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar efeitos do ultra-som terapêutico sobre o crescimento do fêmur e da tíbia, em ratos jovens. MÉTODO: Ratus norvegicus com quatro semanas de vida, machos, totalizando 115 animais, divididos em quatro grupos, foram submetidos ao ultra-som terapêutico (0,8 MHz, cabeçote fixo, pulso contínuo, por dez minutos, durante dez dias, na face medial do joelho direito, nas potências de 0,0 W/cm2 (grupo controle, 0,5 W/cm2 (grupo G2, 1,0 W/cm2 (grupo G3, e 1,5 W/cm2 (grupo G4. Lâminas histológicas da epífise, placa de crescimento e metáfise e as medidas dos comprimentos do fêmur e da tíbia foram estudadas na sexta, décima terceira e vigésima sexta semanas de vida. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância - fatorial inteiramente aleatorizado. RESULTADO: Nenhuma alteração estatística do crescimento ósseo foi estabelecida entre quaisquer dos três grupos tratados e o grupo controle. Entretanto, alterações sugestivas de diminuição do crescimento do fêmur e da tíbia de G4 em relação a G2 e G3, foram evidenciadas. No grupo G4 alterações histopatológicas como necroses celulares e neoformação óssea, pós-necrose, foram encontradas. CONCLUSÃO: Quando comparados os grupos tratados com o grupo controle, não há evidência estatística de estímulo ou inibição ao crescimento ósseo pela aplicação do ultra-som terapêutico. Nível de Evidência: Nível II, estudo coorte transversal.OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of ultrasound therapy on the femur and tibia growth in young rats. METHOD: Four-week-old male Ratus Norvegicus totaling 115 animals, divided into four groups, were submitted to ultrasound therapy (0.8 MHz, fixed tube head, continuous pulse, for 10 minutes, once a day, ten times on the medial face of the right knee, with powers of 0.0 W/cm2 (group G1, 0.5 W/cm2 (group G2, 1.0 W/cm2 (group G3, and 1.5 W/cm2 (group G4. Histological slides of the epiphysis, growth plate and metaphysis and the

  17. Aerobic stability of triticale silage in single culture or in mixtures with oat and/or legumes Estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de triticale em cultivo exclusivo ou em misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Harry Bumbieris Junior

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the aerobic stability and losses during the fermentation process of triticale silages in single crop or in mixtures with oats and/or legumes. The following crops were used for silage production: triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittimack, triticale intercropped with forage pea (Pisum arvense and triticale intercropped with oats (Avena strigosa Schreb, forage pea and vetch (Vicia sativa. The dry matter content and its recovery did not differ among the silages. Buffer capacity was higher for tricale silage intercropped with oats, forage pea and vetch(88.67 m eq. NaOH/100 g DM followed by triticale intercropped with forage pea (80.80 m eq. NaOH/100 g DM. Electric conductivity values were higher in the intercropped triticale silages. Triticale silage presented the lowest temperatures observed in the silos, and the silages of intercropped triticale silages presented higher heat retention and higher pH values. Silage of triticale intercropped with oats and legumes presented lower aerobic stability but it did not reduce the aerobic stability of the total feed. Dry matter recovery during storage and in stability evaluations in aerobiosis is similar among the silages.O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar a estabilidade aeróbia e as perdas durante o processo de fermentação de silagens de triticale em cultivo exclusivo ou em misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas. As culturas utilizadas para produção das silagens foram: triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittimack; triticale em consórcio com ervilha-forrageira (Pisum arvense; e triticale em consórcio com aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb, ervilha-forrageira e ervilhaca (Vicia sativa. O teor de matéria seca e a recuperação de matéria seca não diferiram entre as silagens. A capacidade tampão foi maior para a silagem de triticale cultivado em consórcio com aveia, ervilha-forrageira e ervilhaca (88,67 m eq. NaOH/100 g de MS, seguida da silagem de triticale cultivado

  18. Rodzinny poziom przekazywania tradycji katolickich przez Polaków i Białorusinów na Syberii/ Family level of transferring Catholic traditions by Poles and Belarusians in Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATJANA A. GONČAROVA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ważnym komponentem wychowania dziecka w rodzinie jest włączenie go w wartości religijne. Wychowanie religijne nie tylko ksztatuje moralnść dziecka, ale również łączy pokolenia i pomaga zachować tożsamość etniczną. Co więcej, przestrzeganie tradycji religijnych w rodzinie pomaga jednocześnie tworzyć relacje z innymi członkami wspólnoty religijnej. Szczególny nacisk kładzie się na rolę rodziny w sytuacji, gdy praktyki religijne są oficjalnie zabronione, jak byo przez lata w ZSRR. To właśnie wtedy religijne wychowanie stało się podstawowym narzędziem socjalizacji w życiu religijnym. Obiektem badania jest katolicka ludność okręgu Tomskiego, reprezentowana przez Polaków i Białorusinów. Ludzie ci zamieszkują Syberię od wieków i dzięki czynnikowi wyznaniowemu udao im się zachować kulturową i etniczną tożsamość. Głównym punktem badań będą następujące zagadnienia: życie zgodnie z kalendarzem liturgicznym, udział w świętach religijnych, czytanie literatury religijnej, odwiedzanie świątyń itd. Ujawnianie form i mechanizmów wspierajcych tradycję katolicką w rodzinie wymaga bada nad źródłami prywatnymi i ustnymi. Podstawowymi źródłami w tych badaniach są informacje, które autor artykułu otrzymał od Polaków i Białorusinów w okręgu tomskim.

  19. Tomografia computadorizada da matriz óssea mineralizada heteróloga fragmentada e metilmetacrilato na reparação de falhas ósseas segmentares produzidas em tíbia de coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Freitas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada falha segmentar de 6mm na região metafisária medial da tíbia de 12 coelhos, seguida de preenchimento desta por matriz óssea mineralizada heteróloga fragmentada conservada em glicerina (98% e metilmetacrilato autoclavado, bem como avaliação por meio da tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (cone beam aos 30, 60 e 90 dias. Houve incorporação gradativa do implante no leito receptor em relação ao tempo em 100% dos casos, o que mostra ser este biologicamente compatível, ao promover reparação da falha óssea, sem sinais de infecção, migração e/ou rejeição, caracterizando-se, assim, como nova opção de substituto ósseo para preenchimento de falhas ósseas.

  20. Validade do teste de 30 minutos (T-30 na determinação da capacidade aeróbia, parâmetros de braçada e performance aeróbia de nadadores treinados Validity of 30 minutes test (T-30 in aerobic capacity, stroke parameters and aerobic performance determination of trained swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Deminice

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a utilização da velocidade de 30 minutos (VT-30, freqüência de braçada (fB, comprimento de braçada (CB e índice de braçada (IB, obtidos no teste T-30, como métodos não-invasivos para determinação da performance aeróbia e técnica de nadadores treinados. Catorze nadadores submeteram-se a três esforços de 400m (85, 90 e 100% do esforço máximo para determinação da velocidade de limiar anaeróbio (VLan correspondente à concentração fixa de 3,5mM de lactato e um esforço máximo de 30 minutos (VT-30. fB, CB e IB foram calculados nos 10m centrais da piscina (nado limpo para o teste T-30 (fBT-30, CBT-30 e IBT-30 e progressivo. Através da relação entre VLan e parâmetros de braçada no teste progressivo, determinaram-se freqüência de braçada de limiar (fBLan, comprimento de braçada de limiar (CBLan e índice de braçada de limiar (IBLan. O tempo para realizar 400m em máximo esforço foi considerado como parâmetro de performance (P400. Não foi encontrada diferença significativa entre VLan (1,29 ± 0,07m.s-1 e VT-30 (1,29 ± 0,08m.s-1, que ainda apresentaram alta correlação (r = 0,90. Os valores de fBLan (33,6 ± 4,14 ciclos/min e fBT-30 (34,9 ± 3,53 ciclos/min e de CBLan (2,09 ± 0,20m/ciclo e CBT-30 (2,09 ± 0,20m/ciclo também não foram significativamente diferentes. Correlações significativas (p The aim of the present study was to verify the use of the 30 minutes velocity (VT-30, stroke rate (SR, stroke length (SL and stroke index (SI, obtained in T-30 test, as non-invasive methods for trained swimmer's aerobic performance and technical determination. Fourteen swimmers accomplished three efforts along 400 m (85, 90 and 100% of the maximum effort for anaerobic threshold speed determination (ATS corresponding to 3.5 mM lactate fixed concentration, as well as a 30 minutes maximal effort (VT-30. SR, SL, and SI were calculated within the 10 m midsection of the swimming pool

  1. Estabilidade aeróbia de silagens do capim-marandu submetidas a diferentes intensidades de compactação na ensilagem Aerobic stability of marandu grass silages submitted to different packing intensities during ensiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Camargo do Amaral

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a estabilidade aeróbia das silagens de capim-marandu submetidas a diferentes pressões de compactação. A espécie forrageira foi colhida aos 60 dias de crescimento vegetativo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, utilizando-se o modelo de medidas repetidas no tempo. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de quatro densidades (100, 120, 140 e 160 kg MS/m³. As alterações químicas das silagens foram determinadas com 0, 3 e 6 dias após a abertura. As leituras das temperaturas das silagens foram obtidas em intervalos de 12 horas, 156 horas após a acomodação dos baldes na câmara climática, utilizando-se o termômetro inserido a 10 cm no centro da massa de silagem. As silagens de maiores valores de densidade alcançaram máxima temperatura em maior tempo que as densidades inferiores, evidenciando a maior estabilidade decorrente de melhor compactação da massa ensilada. Com o avançar do tempo de exposição aeróbia, as silagens tiveram aumento nos valores de pH e decréscimos nos teores de nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3. Verificou-se queda nos teores de NIDN (nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente neutro e da fração B3 com o aumento da densidade, o que caracterizou a participação dessa fração durante o processo de proteólise após a quebra da vedação. Os teores de fibras em detergente neutro e detergente ácido durante a exposição ao ar sofreram acréscimo, sendo os maiores valores obtidos nas silagens de menor densidade. As silagens mais densas apresentaram maiores coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira in vitro que os demais tratamentos.This trial aimed to evaluate the aerobic stability of marandu grass silages submitted to different packing intensities. The forage was harvested at 60 days of regrowth. The following packing densities were evaluated: 100, 120, 140, and 160 kg DM/m³. Silage chemical changes were determined 0, 3, and 6 days after air

  2. Qualidade de vida e síndrome metabólica em mulheres brasileiras: análise da correlação com a aptidão aeróbia e a força muscular

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    Tatiane Gomes Teixeira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome metabólica (SM é definida pela presença de, ao menos três, dentre cinco fatores de risco cardiovascular: hiperglicemia, resistência à insulina, obesidade, dislipidemia e pressão arterial elevada. Embora portadores de SM apresentem baixa aptidão física e pior qualidade de vida (QV, quando comparado aos indivíduos sem SM, ainda não foram investigadas as correlações entre a aptidão física e a QV em mulheres com SM. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a QV, força muscular e aptdião aeróbia, bem como analisar a correlação entre a QV e a aptidão física de mulheres com e sem SM. Participaram do estudo 49 mulheres, 21 com SM (33.5 ± 9.1 anos e 28 sem SM (32.3 ± 7.9 anos. Para avaliação da QV, aptidão aeróbia e força muscular foram utilizados, respectivamente, o questionário Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36, o teste de caminhada de 6 minutos (6-C e o teste de preensão manual. As mulheres com SM apresentaram pior QV, percorreram menor distância no 6-C e obtiveram menor força muscular relativa. Foi observada correlação positiva entre a aptidão aeróbia e quatro domínios da QV: capacidade funcional, limitação por aspectos físicos, dor e aspectos sociais da funcionalidade. Mulheres com SM apresentam menor de força muscular e aptidão aeróbia, bem como piores escores de QV no estado de saúde geral, capacidade funcional, dor no corpo, limitação por aspectos emocionais, aspectos sociais da funcionalidade e limitação por aspectos físicos quando comparado com mulheres sem SM.

  3. Avaliação da potência aeróbia de praticantes de Rugby em Cadeira de Rodas através de um teste de quadra

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    Lucinar Jupir Forner Flores

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por finalidade estimar a potência aeróbia em atletas com LME praticantes de RCR, correlacionar os níveis de VO2máx com a classificação funcional (CF dos atletas e analisar o comportamento da FC antes e pós-teste. A amostra foi composta por 10 atletas com LME, do sexo masculino e idade média de 29,6±6,5anos. Os atletas foram submetidos ao teste de corrida de 12 minutos e monitorados com o frequêncimetro cardíaco. A média do VO2máx foi de 18,3±8,1ml(kg.min-1 e da FCmáx de 114,6±25,3bpm. Os valores de VO2máx obtidos no estudo são classificados como médio para a população com tetraplegia. Observou-se que existe correlação moderada (r=0,77 entre a CF e o VO2máx entre atletas praticantes de RCR e por fim, observou-se baixos valores de FC frente á um teste submáximo, fato que pode estar relacionado à diminuição da atuação simpática após LME.

  4. 应用同位素稀释法验证生物电阻抗分析法测定人体成分的研究%Using isotope dilution to validate BIA on body composition assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨炯贤; 陈伟; 刘静民; 郑秀瑗; 冯连君

    2014-01-01

    目的:验证生物电阻抗分析法(BIA)用于成人体成分分析的精度. 方法:以同位素稀释法技术作为标准方法.纳入健康受试者,空腹留取基础尿液.应用BIA对每名受试者进行人体成分测定,然后口服双标水(2H和18O),经5h在体内平衡后再次留取标本.根据标本中同位素变化量计算出总体水(TBW),进而通过公式计算得出去脂瘦体组织(FFM)、脂肪组织(FM)以及FM%.比较两种方法测得结果,建立BIA校正线性方程. 结果:纳入12名健康受试者,体重指数(BMI)为21.53±1.51.2H和18O测定人体各成分间无统计学差异,选用2H作为校正BIA的标准方法.BIA测碍TBW、FFM、FM和FM%与2H测得结果相关系数分别为0.959,0.959,0.563,0.780.TBW校正方程为:y=4.057+0.798x. 结论:BIA测定人体成分与标准同位素稀释法有等效性,结果稳定,相关性好,适于快速评价人群的TBW和FFM等人体成分.

  5. Fratura periprotética da tíbia combinada com fratura de fadiga da haste tibial de artroplastia total do joelho Tibial periprosthetic fracture combined with tibial stem stress fracture from total knee arthroplasty

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    Fernando Fonseca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As complicações das artroplastias totais do joelho relacionadas com o próprio material são muito raras, exceto o desgaste do polietileno. Neste artigo os autores reportam o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino de 58 anos referenciada ao pronto-socorro do nosso hospital por uma fratura periprotética tibial (tipo I da classificação da Mayo Clinic. Uma observação mais cuidadosa mostrou a presença concomitante da referida fratura da tíbia associada à fratura de fadiga da haste tibial. A prótese com a haste foi remetida a um laboratório de biomecânica independente onde foi avaliada e efetuada uma reconstrução com uso de sistema de elementos finitos em CAD de modo a verificar a existência de algum defeito de fabricação e as eventuais causas para o sucedido. Depois de avaliadas diversas hipóteses, concluiu-se que a fratura do material foi provocada por uma sobrecarga na zona de transição prato/haste secundária à falência óssea prévia (fratura. Da avaliação do caso ressalta-se novamente a necessidade de efetuar uma avaliação adequada da mineralização óssea e, em caso de dúvida, utilizar uma haste longa.Total knee arthroplasty complications related to the prosthetic material are very rare, except for polyethylene wear. We report the case of a 58-year-old woman who came to the emergency service of our hospital with a periprosthetic tibial fracture (Mayo Clinic type I. Careful examination showed that this fracture was concomitantly associated with a tibial stem fatigue fracture. The prosthesis and the stem were sent to an independent biomechanics laboratory for evaluation. A finite-element CAD system was used to make a reconstruction, so as to ascertain whether there had been any manufacturing defect and what the causes of the event might have been. After evaluation of several hypotheses, it was concluded that the fracture in the prosthetic material had been caused by overloading at the plate/stem transition zone

  6. O papel do esteroide anabolizante sobre a hipertrofia e força muscular em treinamentos de resistência aeróbia e de força

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    Everton Crivoi do Carmo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os efeitos dos esteroides anabolizantes (EA sobre a massa muscular e força são controversos e dependentes do treinamento realizado e das fibras musculares recrutadas. Com isso, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da associação de EA ao treinamento de força ou aeróbio sobre a hipertrofia e força muscular. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar (42 foram divididos em seis grupos: sedentário (SC, n = 7, sedentário anabolizante (SA, n = 7, treinado natação controle (TNC, n = 7, treinado natação anabolizante (TNA, n = 7, treinado força controle (TFC, n = 7 e treinado força anabolizante (TFA, n = 7. O EA foi administrado duas vezes por semana (10mg/kg/semana. Os protocolos de treinamento foram realizados durante 10 semanas, cinco sessões semanais. Foram avaliadas a hipertrofia dos músculos sóleo, plantar e gastrocnêmio (massa muscular corrigida pelo comprimento da tíbia, a proteína total muscular (Bradford e a força muscular em patas traseiras (testes de resistência à inclinação. RESULTADOS: Não foram observadas diferenças significantes na hipertrofia do músculo sóleo. Os grupos TFC e TFA apresentaram, respectivamente, hipertrofia de 18% e 31% no músculo plantar comparado ao grupo SC. A hipertrofia foi 13% maior no grupo TFA em relação ao grupo TFC. Resultados semelhantes foram encontrados no músculo gastrocnêmio. Os grupos TFC e TFA apresentaram significantes aumentos na quantidade total de proteína nos músculos plantares, sendo essa mais pronunciada no grupo TFA e positivamente correlaciona a hipertrofia muscular. Observamos aumento de força nas patas traseiras nos grupos TCF e TAF. CONCLUSÃO: A administração de EA ou sua associação ao treinamento aeróbio não aumenta a massa muscular e força. Porém, à associação ao treinamento de força leva a maior hipertrofia muscular em fibras glicolíticas. Portanto, o tipo de treinamento físico, recrutamento muscular e características das fibras

  7. Estudo anatômico da via de acesso suprapatelar lateral para a haste intramedular bloqueada na fratura da tíbia Anatomical study on the lateral suprapatellar access route for locked intramedullary nails in tibial fractures

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    Italo Scanavini Cerqueira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A haste intramedular (HIM é o padrão ouro no tratamento das fraturas diafisárias da tíbia. Uma das complicações frequentes é a dor no joelho após o procedimento. MÉTODOS: Vias alternativas, como a suprapatelar para a introdução da haste como opção para evitar a dor no joelho no período pós-operatório tardio, têm sido estudadas. A questão é se nesta nova via ocorre alguma lesão às estruturas intra-articulares do joelho. RESULTADOS: Este estudo analisa a via suprapatelar e o risco para as estruturas adjacentes através da sua reprodução em 10 joelhos de cinco cadáveres. CONCLUSÃO: Foi visto facilidade para a localização do ponto de entrada por esta via, lesando apenas a gordura de Hoffa. Em três dos nossos casos houve lesão da superfície condral, sendo um obstáculo de difícil transposição e indicando necessidade de fabricação de material específico para minimizar a lesão das estruturas intra-articulares por essa via.OBJECTIVE: Intramedullary nails are the gold standard for treating tibial shaft fractures. Knee pain is a frequent complication after the procedure. Alternative routes such as the suprapatellar approach for nail insertion are seen as an option for avoiding late postoperative knee pain. The question is whether this approach might give rise to any injury to intra-articular structures of the knee. METHODS: This study analyzed the suprapatellar approach and the risk to adjacent structures by reproducing it in 10 knees of five cadavers. RESULTS: This approach was seen to make it easy to locate the entry point, with lesions only occurring in the Hoffa fat. In three of our cases, there were lesions of the chondral surface, which is an obstacle that is difficult to overcome. CONCLUSION: There is a need to develop specific material to minimize injury to intra-articular structures when using this route.

  8. Site-adaptation of satellite-based DNI and GHI time series: Overview and SolarGIS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebecauer, Tomas; Suri, Marcel

    2016-05-01

    Site adaptation is an approach of reducing uncertainty in the satellite-based longterm estimates of solar radiation by combining them with short-term high-accuracy measurements at a project site. We inventory the existing approaches and introduce the SolarGIS method that is optimized for providing bankable data for energy simulation in Concentrating Solar Power. We also indicate the achievable uncertainty of SolarGIS model outputs based on site-adaptation of projects executed in various geographical conditions.

  9. Biodigestão anaeróbia dos resíduos da produção avícola: cama de frangos e carcaças Anaerobic digestion of waste from poultry production: poultry litter and carcass

    OpenAIRE

    Marco A. P. Orrico Júnior; Ana C. A. Orrico; Jorge de Lucas Júnior

    2010-01-01

    O propósito deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de biogás, bem como os potenciais de produção e a qualidade do biofertilizante obtido com a biodigestão anaeróbia dos resíduos cama de frangos e carcaças de aves pré-compostados. Para tanto, foram pré-compostados cama de frango e carcaças de aves mortas em uma composteira durante um período de 60 dias, período necessário para que ocorresse decomposição prévia das carcaças e assim fosse possível manipular o material para abastecer os biodigesto...

  10. Anaerobic digestion of vinasse: energetic application of biogas and acquisition of credits of carbon – a case Biodigestão anaeróbia da vinhaça: aproveitamento energético do biogás e obtenção de créditos de carbono – estudo de caso

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    Rafaelo Balbinot

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase of the ethanol production in Brazil leads to growing of vinasse (main by-product of sugar and alcohol industry, worsing the problem related to its destinantion. Vinasse is rich in nutrients and has a high content of organic matter, which justifies its intense ferti-irrigation use in sugar cane crop areas. Thus, the anaerobic digestion of vinasse by UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket digestion reactor emerges as an alternative treatment for this by-product, showing also an economic factor, the production of methane and its use. This work aimed to implement the system of anaerobic digestion of vinasse in UASB reactor and the use of energy generated by biogas. In this way, the design of UASB was based on organic volumetrical load of vinasse. The estimation of the baseline was based on the mass balance between the carbon present in the vinasse and CO2 emitted by the aerobic degradation of effluent into the environment. From the compute emissions, it was found that emissions from the baseline and the project implementation would be the same, and additionally it could be occur the production of electricity by biogas. In this way, biogas produced by anaerobic digestion has a competitive energy potential compared to other energy sources and presents additionality; however, carbon credits marked could not be a financial attractive in the development of this type of project.A crescente produção de etanol no Brasil acarretou aumento na produção de vinhaça (principal subproduto da indústria sucroalcoleira, agravando o problema de sua destinação. A vinhaça é rica em nutrientes minerais e apresenta elevado teor de matéria orgânica, o que justifica sua intensa utilização na fertirrigação de áreas cultivadas com cana. Neste cenário, a biodigestão anaeróbia da vinhaça em reatores UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket digestion surge como uma alternativa de tratamento deste subproduto apresentando, ainda, um fator econ

  11. Osteotomia proximal da tíbia: estabilização da abertura medial com enxerto tricortical de ilíaco Proximal tibial osteotomy: stabilization of the medial opening with atricortical iliac bone graft

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    Roberto da Cunha Luciano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação radiográfica do alinhamento do membro inferior, nos planos frontal e sagital, após osteotomia alta da tíbia. Para estabilização da osteotomia foi utilizado enxerto tricortical de ilíaco e parafuso de posicionamento. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo envolvendo 46 pacientes com idade entre 17 e 61 anos, sendo 42 portadores de geno varo secundário à osteoartrose e quatro por outras causas. A telerradiografia foi realizada para planejamento cirúrgico, utilizando o método de Frank Noyes modificado por Fugizawa. Foi realizado acesso cirúrgico convencional de 3cm para retirada do enxerto tricortical de ilíaco. A osteotomia foi realizada sob controle de radioscopia, por incisão anteromedial de 3cm com liberação da porção superficial do ligamento colateral medial. O enxerto foi colocado na porção posterior da osteotomia, para manter inalterado o slope tibial. O parafuso cruzou a osteotomia ortogonalmente para proteger a cortical lateral. Foram estabelecidos critérios radiográficos pré e pós-operatórios para avaliação dos resultados. RESULTADOS: Houve consolidação em 100% dos casos e manutenção do eixo mecânico, obtido no intraoperatório, em 94%. A inclinação posterior do platô tibial, no plano sagital, variou entre 7º e 12º. A mobilidade articular foi restabelecida em todos os pacientes operados. Onze pacientes apresentaram dor temporária no local da retirada do enxerto; no entanto, nenhum apresentou parestesia. A incidência de complicações foi de 8% (infecção, perda da correção, fratura articular. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica mostrou-se reprodutível, simples, biológica, precisa e com baixos custos, podendo ser uma alternativa às técnicas já existentes.OBJECTIVE: Roentgenographic assessment of lower limb alignment, in the frontal and sagittal planes, after a high tibial osteotomy. To stabilize the osteotomy, a tricortical iliac graft was used along with a positioning screw. METHODS

  12. Perfil fermentativo, estabilidade aeróbia e valor nutritivo de silagens de capim-marandu ensilado com aditivos Fermentative profile, aerobic stability, and nutritive value of marandu grass silages using additives at ensiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Fernandes Bernardes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar as perdas em silagem de capim-marandu produzidas com aditivos foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos. No experimento 1, objetivou-se conhecer o perfil de fermentação e a estabilidade aeróbia de quatro silagens: 1 forragem não tratada (Controle; 2 tratada com Lactobacillus plantarum e Propionibacterium; 3 tratada com Lactobacillus buchneri; e 4 tratada com 0,1% de benzoato de sódio. No experimento 2, foram utilizados nove novilhos castrados Nelore (PC de 350 ± 38,9 kg, alocados em três quadrados latinos 3 x 3 para avaliação do consumo e da digestibilidade das rações contendo 85,4% das seguintes silagens de capim-marandu: 1 controle; 2 controle com L. plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici + enzimas fibrolíticas; e 3 tratamento 2 + L. buchneri. No experimento 1, as silagens apresentaram baixas recuperações de MS durante a fermentação (média de 86% e os coeficientes de digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca reduziram de 65,5% (momento da ensilagem para 50,0% no 60º dia após o fechamento dos silos. No experimento 2, o valor médio de consumo das rações foi de 5,7 kg MS/dia (1,6% PC e a digestibilidade de 51,6% e não diferiram entre as rações. As silagens apresentaram perdas acentuadas na fase fermentativa e o uso de aditivos não alterou essas perdas. A inoculação com bactérias não influenciou o consumo ou a digestibilidade das rações.Two trials were conducted to evaluate losses of Marandu grass silages using different additives. The fermentation profile and aerobic stability of the silages were evaluated on the first trial. The followings silages were evaluated: 1 - Marandu grass (Control, 2 - Marandu grass plus L. plantarum and Propionibacterium, 3 - Marandu grass plus L. buchneri, 4 - Marandu grass plus 0.1% of sodium benzoate. On the second experiment, it was utilized nine castrated Nellore steers (Body weight 350 ± 38.9 kg allocated in three Latin squares (3 x 3 to evaluate the intake and

  13. Biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de caprinos obtidos nas diferentes estações do ano Anaerobic digestion of caprine manure in different seasons

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    Ana C. Amorim

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados dejetos produzidos por caprinos, em diferentes estádios fisiológicos e submetidos ao mesmo regime alimentar, nas quatro estações do ano. O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito das estações do ano sobre a digestão anaeróbia de resíduos de caprinos em biodigestores modelo batelada com volume útil de 60 L de substrato em fermentação e mantidos sob temperatura ambiente. Foram avaliadas as produções de biogás, as reduções de sólidos voláteis (SV, os potenciais de produção (m³ de biogás/kg de substrato, de estrume, de sólidos totais (ST ou sólidos voláteis, os números mais prováveis de coliformes totais e fecais, e a composição do biogás. As reduções de SV foram de 38; 34; 33 e 39% para o verão, outono, inverno e primavera, respectivamente. Os totais de biogás produzidos foram de 1,06 m³ no verão, 0,88 m³ no outono, 0,88 m³ no inverno e 0,99 m³ na primavera, e os potenciais de produção médios foram de 0,02 m³ de biogás/kg de substrato e 0,2 m³ de biogás/kg de estrume para todas as estações. As reduções médias de coliformes totais e fecais foram de 99,99% em todas as estações, e os teores máximos de CH4 no biogás foram 88,3; 84,6; 80,6 e 79,2%, para o verão, outono, inverno e primavera, respectivamente.The dejections produced by caprines were used, in different physiologic states and submitted to the same alimentary regime, in the four seasons of the year.This study was carried out in 60 L batch digesters at ambient temperature and aimed to evaluate the effect of the season on the anaerobic digestion of caprine manure. The biogas production, volatile solids (VS reduction, the potential production (m³ of biogas/kg of substrate, manure, total solids (TS or VS, the removal of total and fecal coliforms and the biogas composition were evaluated. The VS reductions were of 38; 34; 33 and 39% for Summer, Autumn, Winter and Spring, respectively. The biogas production were of 1.06 m³ in Summer

  14. Biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de poedeiras coletados após diferentes períodos de acúmulo Anaerobic biodigestion of laying hens manure collected after different periods of accumulation

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    Romildo Marques de Farias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a interferência do tempo de acúmulo sobre o desempenho do processo de biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de aves de postura. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos que constaram de 1, 8, 15 e 22 dias de acúmulo dos dejetos, efetuando-se cinco repetições por tratamento, totalizando assim 20 biodigestores. Foram utilizados biodigestores do tipo batelada de bancada com capacidade útil para 3 litros de substrato em fermentação. A eficiência do processo de biodigestão foi avaliada pelas reduções de sólidos totais (ST, sólidos voláteis (SV, número mais provável (NMP de coliformes totais e termotolerantes, além das produções e dos potenciais de produção de biogás. Foram observadas reduções significativas dos conteúdos de SV presentes nos dejetos de aves à medida que se aumentaram os dias de acúmulo, sendo observados teores de SV (em % dos ST de 97,1 e 75,6% no primeiro e após 22 dias de acúmulo, respectivamente. A redução de SV contribuiu para reduzir a produção e os potenciais de produção do biogás à medida que se aumentaram os dias de acúmulo, sendo observada redução de 37,2% no potencial de produção de biogás kg de SV-1 entre o menor e maior período de acúmulo, ou seja, 6,81 litros de biogás a menos por dia de acúmulo para cada kg de SV adicionado. Também foram observadas reduções de 100% no NMP de coliformes totais e termotolerantes ao final do processo, independente do tratamento testado. O tempo de estocagem contribui para reduzir os potenciais de produção de biogás dos dejetos de aves de postura.The objective was to evaluate the interference of the time of accumulation of waste on the performance of the anaerobic digestion process of waste from laying hens. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four treatments, which observed 1, 8, 15 and 22 days of accumulated waste with five

  15. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): BIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link...

  16. Fermentation, losses, and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages treated with chemical or bacterial additives Fermentação, perdas e estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com aditivos químicos ou bacterianos

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    André de Faria Pedroso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of sugarcane Saccharum officinarum L. silage is increasing in Brazil but intensive ethanol production during fermentation reduces forage quality. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of additives on fermentation and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages produced in minisilos. Treatments were (fresh basis: untreated silage (control, urea (5.0 g kg-1, sodium benzoate (1.0 g kg-1, potassium sorbate (0.3 g kg-1, Lactobacillus plantarum (1 x 10(6 cfu g-1, and Lactobacillus buchneri (3.64 x 10(5 cfu g-1. At the 94th day after ensilage, ethanol concentration was lower in urea, benzoate, sorbate and L. buchneri supplemented silages and higher in L. plantarum inoculated silage, as compared to control. Urea and benzoate treated silages showed the highest and L. plantarum treated silage the lowest in vitro dry matter digestibility. Effluent production was higher in the urea treated silage. Inoculation with L. buchneri reduced 50% ethanol production as compared to control. Urea and L. buchneri reduced yeast count. Aerobic stability was enhanced by L. buchneri and benzoate. Sodium benzoate and L. buchneri were the most promising additives, improving both silage fermentation and aerobic stability; inoculants containing L. plantarum can be deleterious to fermentation and conservation of sugarcane silages.A utilização de silagem de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. está aumentando no Brasil, mas a intensa produção de etanol durante a fermentação reduz a qualidade da forragem. Este experimento visou avaliar os efeitos de aditivos na fermentação e estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de cana-de-açúcar produzidas em minisilos. Os tratamentos foram (base matéria verde: silagem sem tratamento (controle, uréia (5,0 g kg-1, benzoato de sódio (1,0 g kg-1, sorbato de potássio (0,3 g kg-1, Lactobacillus plantarum (1 x 10(6 ufc g-1 e Lactobacillus buchneri (3,64 x 10(5 ufc g-1. Aos 94 dias após a ensilagem, a concentração de

  17. Uso do transporte ósseo no tratamento de perda óssea segmentar extensa da tíbia: estudo experimental em cães Use of bone transport to treat tibial large segmental defects: experimental study in dogs

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    S.C. Rahal

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a técnica de transporte ósseo realizada com fixador externo de Ilizarov no tratamento de defeito ósseo segmentar extenso promovido na tíbia de sete cães. Após aplicação de montagem constituída de um semi-anel proximal, um anel médio e outro distal, ligados entre si por meio de hastes rosqueadas, foi excisado um segmento da diáfise média distal da tíbia e fíbula direitas de 30% do comprimento ósseo. A reconstrução do defeito foi realizada por transporte de um segmento ósseo obtido por osteotomia subperiosteal da parte proximal da tíbia, entre o semi-anel proximal e o anel médio. O período de latência foi de seis dias e o ritmo do transporte foi de 0,5mm a cada 12 horas. Na área de acoplamento foi aplicada compressão. O fixador permaneceu em fase neutra por 14 semanas e, após a remoção do aparelho, os animais foram observados por mais quatro semanas. O resultado funcional foi considerado excelente em um animal, bom em um, satisfatório em três e deficiente nos outros dois. O transporte ósseo permitiu a reparação de falhas ósseas segmentares extensas, porém pode apresentar dificuldades no direcionamento do segmento ósseo transportado e de sua consolidação na área de acoplagem.The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone transport technique using the Ilizarov external fixator for the treatment of the extensive segmental bone defect induced in the tibia of seven dogs. An Ilizarov frame assembled with one proximal half-ring, one middle ring and one distal ring, all connected to each other, was used. Thirty percent of the tibia and fibula were removed in the medium and distal parts of the diaphyses, between the medium and distal rings. The bone defect was reconstructed by bone transport using a bone segment developed by proximal subperiosteal osteotomy of the tibia between the half-ring and the middle ring. Bone transport started seven days after surgery (0.5mm every 12 hours. Compression was applied in

  18. Estabilidade aeróbia da ração total e de silagens de capim-marandu tratadas com aditivos químicos e bacterianos Aerobic stability of total mixed ration and marandugrass silage using microbial or chemical additive

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    Thiago Fernandes Bernardes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de determinar o efeito da inclusão de aditivo químico e da inoculação de bactérias homo e heterofermentativas sobre a estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de capim-marandu e da ração total. Foram conduzidos três experimentos para avaliação do benzoato de sódio e de dois inoculantes, um contendo Lactobacillus plantarum + Propionibacterium e o segundo Lactobacillus buchneri. Após 60 dias de fermentação, os silos foram abertos e as silagens e a ração total (RT contendo silagens de capim-marandu foram colocadas em caixas de isopor e transferidas para câmara climática, a 25 ± 1ºC, para determinação das variações de temperatura na ração total e na silagem, das recuperações de MS e das alterações no pH da silagem. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. Houve perdas de MS e elevação dos teores de pH quando as silagens foram colocadas em condições de aerobiose. A temperatura das silagens e da RT teve discreto aumento durante os seis dias de aeração. O uso de bactérias ou de benzoato de sódio não influenciou a estabilidade aeróbia das silagens.This research evaluated the inclusion of chemical additive and the inoculation with homo and heterofermentative bacteria on the aerobic stability of the Marandu grass silages and on the total mixed ration (TMR. It was conducted three experiments to evaluate sodium benzoate and two inoculants: 1. Lactobacillus plantarum + Propionibacterium and; 2. Lactobacillus buchneri. The silos were opened after 60 days of fermentation; the silages and the TMR containing the silages were placed in a polystyrene box, and transferred to a climatic chamber kept at 25 ± 1ºC to determine the temperature changes, dry matter recovery, and pH values. The data were analyzed according to a complete randomized design, in a split plot arrangement. The silages showed DM losses and increasing pH during the

  19. Fratura proximal de tíbia após cirurgia extracapsular para correção de ruptura de ligamento cruzado cranial em cão Tibial fracture caused by complications after an extracapsular suture for the repair of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in a dog

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    Jaqueline França dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ruptura de ligamento cruzado cranial (RLCCr é a afecção ortopédica mais frequente no joelho de cães e a sutura fabelo-tibial é frequentemente utilizada na sua correção. Essa técnica pode estar associada com complicações incisionais, lesão tardia de menisco, edema associado ao material de sutura e infecção. O objetivo desta nota foi relatar a ocorrência de fratura proximal de tíbia em um cão, causada por complicação em sutura fabelo-tibial para correção de RLCCr. Um canino atendido em outro serviço foi submetido à osteossíntese com placa 2,0mm para correção de complicação em técnica extra-capsular, na qual houve fratura da tíbia na região do orifício criado para confecção da sutura fabelo-tibial. Houve falha dos implantes e a placa foi removida. A fratura foi estabilizada com fixador esquelético externo circular, sendo constatada, após 120 dias, consolidação.Cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR is one of the most common orthopedic diseases in dogs and extracapsular suture with nylon is often used for its correction. This technique may be associated with incisional complications, post-surgical meniscus injury, swelling associated with suture material and infection. The objective of this study is to report a tibial fracture in a dog, caused by complications after an extracapsular suture for the repair of CCLR. An adult dog, which suffered a tibial fracture after an extracapsular fixation for a CCLR, underwent surgery for the fixation of the fracture with a 2.0mm plate, by a referring veterinarian, but the implant failed. The plate was removed and the fracture was stabilized with a circular fixator. Bone consolidation was observed after 120 days.

  20. Composição química e estabilidade aeróbia em silagens de milho preparadas com inoculantes bacteriano e/ou enzimático = Chemical composition and aerobic stability of corn silages made with bacterials and/or enzymatic inoculants

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    Agda Luzia de Godoy Gimenes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o efeito de inoculantes bacterianos e/ou enzimáticos na composição química e na estabilidade aeróbia da silagem de milho confeccionada em minisilos. Os tratamentos foram: SC (silagem controle, SIB (silagem com inoculante bacteriano, SIBE (silagem com inoculante bacteriano e enzimático e SIE (silagem com inoculante enzimático. A adição de inoculante não alterou os teores de matéria orgânica (87,43%, proteína bruta (7,99%, fibra em detergente neutro (55,43% e fibra em detergente ácido (27,67%. Os tratamentos SIE e SC apresentaram, na abertura, o menor (3,28 e maior (3,42 pH, e, após o período de exposição ao ar, o menor (3,87 e maior (6,64 pH, respectivamente. O uso de inoculantes não influenciou os teores de N-amoniacal das silagens. Os tratamentoscom inoculantes apresentaram menor pico de temperatura, maior tempo para atingir o pico de temperatura e maior estabilidade aeróbia.This work evaluated the effect of bacterial and/or enzymatic inoculants on chemical composition and aerobic stability in corn silage, made in mini-silos. The treatments were: CS (control silage, SBI (silage with bacterial inoculant, SBEI (silage with bacterial and enzymatic inoculant and SEI (silage with enzymatic inoculant. The use of inoculants did not affect the organic matter (87,43%, crude protein (7,99%, neutral detergent fiber (55,43% and acid detergent fiber (27,67% contents. The SEI and CS treatments showed the lowest (3,28 and the highest (3,42 pH values in the beginningand after an air exposure period, showed again the lowest (3,87 and the highest (6,64 pH values, respectively. The inoculants used did not affect N-amonniacal contents of the silages. The treatments with inoculants presented the lowest temperature peak, more time to reach this temperature and the highest aerobics stability.

  1. Análise macroscópica e histológica do emprego da poliuretana derivada do óleo de mamona (Ricinus communis aplicada na tíbia de cães em fase de crescimento Macroscopic and histopathologic evaluations of the use of polyurethane resins derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis applied in the tibia of the puppies

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    Patricia Popak Maria

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o efeito da poliuretana de mamona aplicada ao osso de cães em crescimento. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 12 cães subdivididos aleatoriamente em 3 grupos, os quais receberam o implante de mamona na face medial proximal da tíbia, com análise macroscópica e histopatológica aos 30 (GIII, 60 (GII e 90 (GI dias. RESULTADOS: A poliuretana foi recoberta por uma cápsula conjuntiva fibrosa, não ocorrendo proliferação óssea ao seu redor. CONCLUSÃO: A poliuretana é biocompatível, comportando-se como espaçador biológico em cães. Nesta espécie não ocorre a osteointegração.PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of castor oil derived poliurethane, when applied to bones of puppies. METHODS: Twelve dogs, randomly divided in 3 groups, received a castor oil derived poliurethane at the medial side of the proximal tibia. Gross and histopathologic evaluations were performed at 30 (GIII, 60 (GII and 90 (GI days. RESULTS: The poliurethane was enclosed in a connective fibrous tissue capsule and there was no new bone formation around it. CONCLUSION: The castor oil derived poliurethane is biocompatible and behaves as a biological "stand off" in dogs. Osteointegration does not occur in this species.

  2. Suplementação de vitamina C não acelera o processo de consolidação de fratura da tíbia em ratos Supplementary vitamin C does not accelerate bone healing in a rat tibia fracture model

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    Vincenzo Giordano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a função da suplementação de ácido ascórbico na consolidação de fraturas da tíbia de ratos. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos Wistar machos foram aleatoriamente divididos nos grupos Vitamina C (Grupo A e sham (Grupo B, com 15 ratos em cada grupo. Ao grupo A foram administrados 200mg/kg de ácido ascórbico por dia intraperitonialmente e ao grupo B,5ml/kg de soro fisiológico intraperitonialmente uma vez ao dia. Os animais foram separados em duplas e colocados em gaiolas, com água e ração padrão ad libitum. As fraturas foram produzidas manualmente, não foram estabilizadas nem foi usado qualquer tipo de imobilização. Duas, quatro e seis semanas após a fratura, cinco ratos de cada grupo foram anestesiados e sacrificados por deslocamento cervical. O calo foi dissecado, preparado e analisado histologicamente. A análise histomorfológica foi realizada seis semanas após a fratura e o estágio de consolidação determinado a partir de escala de cinco pontos. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças histológicas e histomorfológicas entre os animais nos três diferentes estágios usados no experimento. Seis semanas após a fratura, os cinco animais de cada grupo apresentaram completa consolidação óssea. CONCLUSÃO: Nas condições estudadas, a suplementação de Vitamina C não acelerou o processo de consolidação de fraturas da tíbia de ratos. Nível de evidência II, estudo individual com delineamento experimental.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of ascorbic acid supplementation on bone healing after rat tibia fracture. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into Vitamin C (Group A and sham (Group B groups (15 rats each. Group A received 200 mg intraperitoneally per kg per day of ascorbic acid and Group B was given saline 5 ml per kg per day intraperitoneally once a day. The animals were caged in pairs and allowed free access to tap water and a standard rodent chow ad libitum. Fractures were produced

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OPPORTUNITIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL OF THE ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND INCINERATION PROCESSES OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE = IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE OPORTUNIDADES DE MELHORIA DO DESEMPENHO AMBIENTAL DOS PROCESSOS DE BIODIGESTÃO ANAERÓBIA E INCINERAÇÃO DOS RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS URBANOS

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    Luana de Assis Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify opportunities for improving the environmental performance of the power generation technologies from the treatment of municipal solid waste - MSW using the tool of the life cycle assessment. The most significant impact was the disposal of waste in landfill; while incineration itself was the technology in which the impacts were most prevalent. The results of the comparative analysis, point out the need to improve the environmental performance of the incineration process, as this was more impactful, considering also that the incineration process has greater energy efficiency. It was observed that are necessary investments in technologies that enable the reduction of these impacts, so that incineration is a possible solution for sustainable treatment of MSW associated with power generation, for its efficiency on power generation, and for the reduction of volume, mass and hazardous waste. Therefore, it recommends the use of energy recovery technologies such as incineration, anaerobic digestion and utilization of landfill biogas, associated with recycling to generate electricity from MSW treatment. = O presente trabalho tem por objetivo identificar as oportunidades para melhoria do desempenho ambiental dos processos de geração de energia pela biodigestão anaeróbia e incineração a partir do tratamento de resíduo sólido urbano - RSU com o uso da ferramenta avaliação do ciclo de vida. Para biodigestão anaeróbia dos RSU a etapa que apresentou impactos mais significativos foi a disposição dos rejeitos em aterro sanitário; enquanto que, a incineração propriamente dita, foi a etapa nos quais os impactos foram mais preponderantes. Os resultados das análises comparativas, apontam para necessidades de melhorias no desempenho ambiental do processo de incineração, pois este se mostrou mais impactante, considerado também, que o processo de incineração apresenta maior eficiência energética. Observou-se que se

  4. Influência da relação volumoso: concentrado e do tempo de retenção hidráulica sob a biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de bovinos Effects of roughage: concentrate in relation to time of hydraulic retention under anaerobic biodigestion of cattle manure

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    Marco A. P. Orrico Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as possíveis alterações existentes na composição e no processo de biodigestão anaeróbia dos dejetos de bovinos em fase de terminação alimentados com diferentes proporções de volumoso: concentrado e com diferentes tempos de retenção hidráulica (TRH. Foram utilizados 24 biodigestores batelada de bancada com 12 litros de capacidade, dos quais 12 foram abastecidos com dejetos de bovinos alimentados com a dieta 1 (60% volumoso:40% concentrado e dieta 2 (40% volumoso:60% concentrado e submetidos a 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de TRH. A eficiência do processo de biodigestão anaeróbia foi avaliada pelas reduções de sólidos totais, sólidos voláteis, fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido, celulose e número mais provável (NMP de coliformes totais e termotolerantes, além dos potenciais de produção de biogás e metano. Os resultados mostraram que o aumento da proporção de volumoso na dieta levou a menor eficiência do processo, principalmente nos potenciais de produção de biogás e metano que foram em média 13% menor. Com relação ao NMP de coliformes totais e termotolerantes, foram observadas reduções significativas conforme aumentou TRH.The aim of this survey was to evaluate the possible alterations that exist in composition and in anaerobic biodigestion process of cattle manure in phase of slaughter and fed with different proportions of roughage: concentrate and with different times of hydraulic retention (THR. 24 batch digesters of bench with capacity of 12 liters, from which 12 were provided with cattle manure that were fed with diet 1 (60% roughage: 40% concentrate and diet 2 (40% roughage:60% concentrate and submitted to 30; 60; 90 and 120 days of TRH were used. The efficiency of anaerobic biodigestion process was evaluated by reductions of total solids, volatile solids; neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose and the most probable number (MPN of total

  5. Biodigestão anaeróbia dos dejetos de cabritos Saanen alimentados com dietas com diferentes proporções volumoso e concentrado Anaerobic biodigestion of manure of Saanen goats fed diets with different proportions of roughage and concentrate

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    Ana Carolina Amorim Orrico

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da idade do animal e da proporção de volumoso nas dietas sobre a biodigestão anaeróbia dos dejetos de cabritos Saanen. Foram utilizadas as fezes produzidas por cabritos Saanen aos 90, 120 e 150 dias de idade e alimentados com dietas de três relações volumoso:concentrado (80:20, 60:40 e 40:60, representando as dietas 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente. Utilizaram-se biodigestores tipo batelada de bancada com capacidade para 12 litros de substrato em fermentação e 8% de sólidos totais iniciais para determinação das produções e dos potenciais de produção de biogás e metano, da redução de sólidos voláteis e quantificação dos teores de minerais no afluente e efluente. As maiores reduções de sólidos voláteis foram observadas nos substratos preparados com as fezes de cabritos aos 150 dias alimentados com a dieta com relação volumoso:concentrado de 40:60. Os melhores rendimentos de substrato ou fezes foram obtidos com os dejetos dos cabritos de 120 e 150 dias de idade alimentados com a dieta com relação volumoso:concentrado 40:60. As maiores concentrações de minerais nos biodigestores foram observadas para as fezes de cabritos de 150 dias de idade alimentados com a dieta com relação volumoso:concentrado 40:60. A biodigestão anaeróbia é eficiente na remoção de coliformes nos dejetos de caprinos, proporcionando efluentes com no máximo 4,3 × 10² coliformes totais termotolerantes por grama de material.It was evaluated the effects of age of the animal and of the proportion of dietary roughag on anaerobic biodigestion of the manure of Saanen kids. It was used the feces produced by Saanen kids at 90, 120 and 150 days of age and fed diets with three roughage:concentrate ratios (80:20, 60:40 and 40:60, representing diets 1, 2 and 3, respectively. It was used batch digesters of bench with capacity for 12 liters of substratum in fermentation process and 8% of initial total solids for determination of biogas

  6. Efeito da heparina sódica e da enoxaparina na consolidação de fratura da tíbia no rato: avaliação clínica e anatomopatológica e biomecânica Effect of heparin-sodium and enoxaparin on rats tibial fracture healing: clinical,anatomopathological, and biomechanical approach

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    Emilio Carlos Curcelli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo experimental em ratos para avaliar o efeito do anticoagulante na consolidação óssea, conforme critérios clínicos, anatomopatológicos e biomecânicos. Manualmente, após perfuração do osso, foi produzida fratura aberta, na diáfise da tíbia direita, mantida sem imobilização, em 72 ratos machos da linhagem Wistar, com 60 dias de idade e peso médio de 242 gramas. Doze horas após a fratura, foi iniciado tratamento anticoagulante, mantido por 28 dias. Via subcutânea, um grupo recebeu heparina sódica na dose de 200UI/Kg de 12 em 12 horas, enquanto outro, recebeu enoxaparina na dose de 1mg/Kg de 12 em 12 horas, doses preconizadas para tratamento do tromboembolismo em humanos. O terceiro grupo, controle, recebeu água destilada. Durante o experimento, os animais foram avaliados clinicamente e após 28 dias, sacrificados. Nos animais dos três grupos, a evolução clínica foi semelhante. Mediante análise anatomopatológica efetuada por estudo descritivo e quantitativo, foi observada presença de fibrose, cartilagem e osso igualmente nos três grupos, sempre com predomínio de tecido ósseo. O estudo biomecânico, realizado por intermédio de ensaios de flexão, demonstrou coeficiente de rigidez e carga máxima semelhantes nos três grupos. Nenhuma diferença clínica, anatomopatológica e biomecânica foi encontrada, resultando todas as fraturas em consolidação de acordo com os critérios adotados, concluindo-se, portanto, que a heparina sódica e a enoxaparina nas doses, via e tempo de administração utilizados não interfiriram na consolidação da fratura da tíbia do rato.An experimental study in rats was accomplished to evaluate the effect of anticoagulant on fracture union, according to clinical, anatomopathological, and biomechanical approaches. Manually, after bone perforation, fracture was produced in the diaphysis of the right tibia, and maintained without immobilization in 72 male rats of Wistar lineage

  7. Biodigestão anaeróbia dos resíduos da produção avícola: cama de frangos e carcaças Anaerobic digestion of waste from poultry production: poultry litter and carcass

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    Marco A. P. Orrico Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de biogás, bem como os potenciais de produção e a qualidade do biofertilizante obtido com a biodigestão anaeróbia dos resíduos cama de frangos e carcaças de aves pré-compostados. Para tanto, foram pré-compostados cama de frango e carcaças de aves mortas em uma composteira durante um período de 60 dias, período necessário para que ocorresse decomposição prévia das carcaças e assim fosse possível manipular o material para abastecer os biodigestores. Após este período, o material foi utilizado para abastecer os biodigestores batelada de campo com capacidade de 60 litros de material em fermentação. Para o processo de biodigestão anaeróbia, foram efetuadas análises dos teores de sólidos totais (ST, sólidos voláteis (SV, composição química do efluente, potenciais de produção, além do número mais provável (NMP de coliformes totais e termotolerantes no afluente e efluente. Os potenciais médios de produção de biogás foram: 0,073; 0,152 e 0,141m³.kg-1 de material, SV e ST adicionados, respectivamente. Foram observadas reduções acima de 99% no NMP de coliformes totais e termotolerantes, sendo observado NMP de 3,7 x 10(5 g-1 no início e 7,45 x 10² g-1 no final.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the production of biogas, and the production potential, and quality of biofertilizer obtained from the anaerobic digestion of waste poultry litter and poultry carcasses pre composted. For this were pre composted poultry litter and carcasses of dead birds in a composter for a period of 60 days, time needed to occur prior decomposition of the carcasses and so it can manipulate the material to supply the biodigestor. After this period the material was used to supply the batch field biodigestor with a capacity of 60 liters of material in fermentation. For the process of anaerobic digestion tests were performed in the levels of total solids (TS, volatile solids (VS

  8. Efeitos do treinamento de corrida em diferentes intensidades sobre a capacidade aeróbia e produção de lactato pelo músculo de ratos Wistar Running training effects in different intensities on the aerobic capacity and lactate production by the muscle of Wistar rats

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    Michel Barbosa de Araújo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available São raros os estudos que associam indicadores de capacidade aeróbia e os substratos produzidos pelo metabolismo muscular em ratos. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o efeito do treinamento de corrida em duas diferentes intensidades sobre a capacidade aeróbia e a produção de lactato pelo músculo sóleo isolado de ratos. Ratos Wistar (90 dias tiveram a transição metabólica aeróbio-anaeróbia determinada pelo teste de máxima fase estável de lactato (MFEL. Em seguida, os ratos foram treinados 40 minutos/dia, cinco dias/semana, na velocidade equivalente à MFEL (TT ou 5% superior a essa (TS, por oito semanas. Como controles foram usados ratos mantidos sedentários (S. Ao final, todos os animais foram sacrificados para análise da produção de lactato pelo músculo sóleo isolado. No inicio do experimento, a maior parte dos animais obteve a MFEL na velocidade de 25m/min à concentração de 4,38 ± 0,22mmol/L sanguínea de lactato. Ao final do experimento, a maior parte dos ratos treinados na TT apresentou MFEL na velocidade de 25m/min, à concentração sanguínea de lactato 3,10 ± 0,27mmol/L. A maioria dos treinados TS teve MFEL na velocidade de 25m/min à concentração sanguínea de lactado de 3,36 ± 0,62mmol/L. Os sedentários mostraram a MFEL na velocidade de 20m/min à concentração sanguínea de lactato de 4,83 ± 0,67mmol/L. A produção de lactato (μmol/g.h pelo músculo sóleo isolado foi menor no grupo TS (3,83 ± 0,62 do que nos demais (S 4,31 ± 0,58 e TT 4,71 ± 0,39. A partir dos resultados obtidos no presente estudo, pode-se concluir que o treinamento aeróbio evitou a deterioração do condicionamento aeróbio imposta pelo avanço da idade e que o treinamento físico na intensidade superior à MFEL reduziu a produção muscular de lactato.There are few studies that associate indicators of aerobic capacity and the substrates produced by the muscular metabolism in rats. The aim of the present

  9. Mikrosomale Biotransformation von Benzo[ghi]perylen, einem mutagenen polyaromatischen Kohlenwasserstoff ohne das Strukturelement der Bay-Region des kanzerogenen Benzo[a]pyrens

    OpenAIRE

    Grupe, Stefanie

    2005-01-01

    Kanzerogene polyaromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAKs), wie Benzo[a]pyren, besitzen eine Bay-Region mit ortho-kondensiertem Benzoring. Dadurch ist die enzymatische Bildung von Bay-Region-Dihydrodiolepoxiden (Oxiranylring in der sterisch abgeschirmten Molekülbucht) möglich, die als ultimal kanzerogene Metaboliten der PAKs gelten. Diese lösen durch DNA-Modifikation Primärläsionen aus, die, sofern sie nicht enzymatisch repariert werden, bei der DNA-Replikation Fehler verursachen (Mu-tationen). De...

  10. Comparative multicenter study of treatment of multi-fragmented tibial diaphyseal fractures with nonreamed interlocking nails and with bridging plates Estudo multicêntrico comparativo do tratamento de fraturas diafisárias multifragmentárias de tíbia com hastes bloqueadas não-fresadas e placas em ponte

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    Hélio Jorge Alvachian Fernandes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A prospective, randomized study to compare patients with closed, multi-fragmented tibial diaphyseal fractures treated using one of two fixation methods undertaken during minimally invasive surgery: nonreamed interlocking intramedullary nails or bridging plates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five patients were studied; 22 patients were treated with bridging plates, 23 with interlocking nails without reaming. All fractures were Type B and C (according to the AO classification. RESULTS: Clinical and radiographic healing occurred in all cases. No cases of infection occurred. The healing time for patients who received nails was longer (4.32 weeks on average than the healing time for those who received plates (P = 0.026. No significant differences were observed between the two methods regarding ankle mobility for patients in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The healing time was shorter with the bridging plate technique, although no significant functional differences were found.OBJETIVOS: Estudo prospectivo e randomizado comparou pacientes com fraturas diafisárias multifragmentárias fechadas de tíbia, tratados com dois métodos de fixação: hastes intramedulares bloqueadas não-fresadas e placas em ponte. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 45 pacientes sendo utilizadas 22 placas em ponte e 23 hastes bloqueadas. Todas as fraturas foram tipos B e C (Classificação AO. RESULTADOS: A consolidação clínica e radiográfica ocorreu em todos os casos. Não houve caso de infecção. Verificou-se que o tempo de consolidação dos pacientes que receberam haste foi maior (em média 4,32 semanas do que o tempo de consolidação daqueles que receberam placa (p = 0,026. Não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os dois métodos no tocante à mobilidade do tornozelo nos pacientes dos dois grupos. CONCLUSÕES: O tempo de consolidação foi menor com uso de placas em ponte, porém sem diferenças funcionais significantes.

  11. Biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de suínos sob efeito de três temperaturas e dois níveis de agitação do substrato: considerações sobre a partida Anaerobic digestion of swine wastes under effect of three temperatures and two substratum agitation levels: considerations about the departure phase

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    Cecília F. Souza

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de suínos. Para isso, foi utilizado esquema laboratorial, constituído de 24 digestores com volume total de 14 L, sendo cada um abastecido com dejetos de suínos em fase de terminação, diluídos em água, perfazendo 10 L de volume útil de substrato com concentração inicial de sólidos totais de 6%. Três grupos formados por oito desses biodigestores foram expostos a três temperaturas (25; 35 e 40 ºC e a dois níveis de agitação (com e sem do substrato. A análise da fase de partida foi feita com base na produção média acumulada de biogás, num período de 71 dias. Os resultados demonstraram que a agitação não interferiu e que o melhor desempenho, inclusive o menor tempo gasto para atingir determinado nível de produção de biogás, foi verificado na temperatura de 35 ºC.In this work was evaluated the anaerobic digestion of swine wastes. For that, a laboratory scheme was used, consisting of 24 digesters whose total volume was 14 L, being each one supplied with ending swine wastes, diluted in water, resulting on 10 L of net volume of substratum, with initial total solids concentration of 6%. Three groups formed by eight of these biodigesters were exposed to three temperatures (25; 35 and 40 ºC and to two substratum agitation levels (with and without. The departure phase analysis was based in the average accumulated biogas yield along the period of 71 days. Results showed that agitation didn't contribute and that the best performance, including the minor time requested to obtain a specific biogas yield level, was verified in the temperature of 35 ºC.

  12. Composição química e estabilidade aeróbia em silagens de milho preparadas com inoculantes bacteriano e/ou enzimático - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.640 Chemical composition and aerobic stability of corn silages made with bacterials and/or enzymatic inoculants - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.640

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    Elzânia Sales Pereira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o efeito de inoculantes bacterianos e/ou enzimáticos na composição química e na estabilidade aeróbia da silagem de milho confeccionada em minisilos. Os tratamentos foram: SC (silagem controle, SIB (silagem com inoculante bacteriano, SIBE (silagem com inoculante bacteriano e enzimático e SIE (silagem com inoculante enzimático. A adição de inoculante não alterou os teores de matéria orgânica (87,43%, proteína bruta (7,99%, fibra em detergente neutro (55,43% e fibra em detergente ácido (27,67%. Os tratamentos SIE e SC apresentaram, na abertura, o menor (3,28 e maior (3,42 pH, e, após o período de exposição ao ar, o menor (3,87 e maior (6,64 pH, respectivamente. O uso de inoculantes não influenciou os teores de N-amoniacal das silagens. Os tratamentos com inoculantes apresentaram menor pico de temperatura, maior tempo para atingir o pico de temperatura e maior estabilidade aeróbia.This work evaluated the effect of bacterial and/or enzymatic inoculants on chemical composition and aerobic stability in corn silage, made in mini-silos. The treatments were: CS (control silage, SBI (silage with bacterial inoculant, SBEI (silage with bacterial and enzymatic inoculant and SEI (silage with enzymatic inoculant. The use of inoculants did not affect the organic matter (87,43%, crude protein (7,99%, neutral detergent fiber (55,43% and acid detergent fiber (27,67% contents. The SEI and CS treatments showed the lowest (3,28 and the highest (3,42 pH values in the beginning and after an air exposure period, showed again the lowest (3,87 and the highest (6,64 pH values, respectively. The inoculants used did not affect N-amonniacal contents of the silages. The treatments with inoculants presented the lowest temperature peak, more time to reach this temperature and the highest aerobics stability.

  13. Método de número mais provável para avaliação de grupos fisiológicos de microrganismos em digestão anaeróbia de água residuária de mandioca / Most probable number method for microorganism physiologic group's evaluation in anaerobic digestion of cassava wastewater

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    Maria Magdalena Ferreira Ribas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoA avaliação da microbiologia anaeróbia é um método caro e muito difícil. Técnicas simples são disponíveis para avaliação de microrganismos de diversos usos como médico, alimentar, ambiental e sistemas anaeróbios para tratamento de efluentes. Uma metodologia desenvolvida foi usada para avaliar a atividade de grupos de microrganismos em digestão anaeróbia com possível aplicação a substratos específicos. A técnica usa gases isentos de oxigênio em frascos tipo penicilina e fechados com tampa de borracha e selo de alumínio, onde foi adicionado um indicador de redução, complementos nutricionais e agentes redutores após a esterilização. O metabolismo dos microrganismos foi observado nesses frascos fechados depois de um período de incubação de quatorze dias pela variação da turbidez, de pH medido em indicador de Arrhenius e de gás capturado em tubos Duran. A técnica do Número Mais Provável (NMP foi usada para contagem de microrganismos em meio de cultivo adaptado para grupos específicos de microrganismos que eram esperados para se desenvolver em água residuária de mandioca com amido e seus hidrolisados (dextrina, maltose e glicose como fonte de energia. Para aferir o método, amostras foram coletadas de um reator acidogênico de mistura completa ligado a um reator metanogênico de leito fixo, ambos alimentados com água residuária de mandioca. O gás capturado nos tubos Duran dos frascos de penicilina foi analisado por cromatografia quanto ao conteúdo de metano. O uso dos meios permitiu separar os microrganismos em três grupos usando meio de cultivo seletivo: Meio Mínimo (MM sem substratos orgânicos, Meio Completo (MC com uma mistura de amido de mandioca e seus hidrolisados e Meio Diferencial (MD usando cada derivado de amido isoladamente. O sistema de tratamento anaeróbio no período analisado operou com um bom desempenho e a microbiologia confirmou estes resultados. No efluente do reator acidog

  14. Perdas fermentativas, composição química, estabilidade aeróbia e digestibilidade aparente de silagem de cana-de-açúcar com aditivos químico e microbiano Fermentation losses, chemical composition, aerobic stability and apparent digestibility of sugarcane ensiling with chemical and microbial additives

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    Geraldo Balieiro Neto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da adição de cal virgem e Lactobacillus buchneri em perdas fermentativas, valor nutritivo, estabilidade aeróbia e digestibilidade aparente da silagem de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum. O primeiro experimento avaliou perdas fermentativas, pH e temperatura, composição química e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca de silagens de cana-de-açúcar, com adição ou sem adição de cal ou de inoculante bacteriano (L. buchneri; o segundo avaliou o consumo de matéria seca e a digestibilidade aparente da cana-de-açúcar ensilada com os mesmos aditivos para cordeiros. Os aditivos não reduziram as perdas na ensilagem, e silagens com cal apresentaram maiores perdas por efluentes. O consumo de matéria seca da silagem com inoculante foi inferior ao da silagem com cal ou ao da cana-de-açúcar in natura. A digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca da silagem com cal foi inferior à da cana-de-açúcar in natura e à da silagem com inoculante. A digestibilidade aparente do extrato etéreo das silagens com cal foi superior à da cana-de-açúcar in natura. Os valores de nutrientes digestíveis totais da cana-de-açúcar in natura ou ensilada com inoculante ou cal foram de 61,2, 54,1 e 51,7%, respectivamente. Independentemente do aditivo, a ensilagem da cana-de-açúcar resulta em perda de nutrientes e redução de digestibilidade.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence addition whitewash (CaO and Lactobacillus buchneri in fermentation losses, nutritional value, aerobic stability and apparent digestibility of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum silages. A first experiment evaluated fermentation losses, pH and temperature values, chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of sugarcane silages with or without bacterial inoculants (L. buchneri or CaO. A second experiment evaluated intake and apparent digestibility of sugarcane silage with the same additives to

  15. Biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de suínos com e sem separação da fração sólida em diferentes tempos de retenção hidráulica Anaerobic biodigestion of swine manure with and without separation of the solid fraction in different hydraulic retention times

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    Marco A. P. Orrico Júnior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o processo de biodigestão anaeróbia utilizando dejetos de suínos, com e sem separação da fração sólida, considerando-se diferentes tempos de retenção hidráulica. Para tanto, foram utilizados biodigestores tubulares semicontínuos abastecidos com água residuária de suinocultura, com e sem separação da fração sólida (CSFS e SSFS, respectivamente, manejados com tempos de retenção hidráulica (TRH iguais a 36; 29; 22 e 15 dias. A eficiência dos tratamentos foi avaliada pela redução dos números mais prováveis de coliformes totais e fecais, teores de fibra em detergentes neutro e ácido, demandas química e bioquímica de oxigênio e dos potenciais de produção de biogás e metano. A qualidade do biofertilizante foi avaliada quanto aos teores de macro e micronutrientes. A separação da fração sólida acarretou decréscimo nos teores de fibra dos afluentes, o que contribuiu para o aumento da eficiência da produção de metano. Foram observados valores de 0,47 e 0,75 m³ CH4 kg-1 SV adicionado para os afluentes SSFS e CSFS, respectivamente, no TRH de 15 dias. Com o aumento do TRH, houve acréscimo médio de 50% no potencial de produção de metano kg-1 de SV adicionado. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas reduções de coliformes fecais e totais, sendo a maior redução de 3,6 10(9 para 3,6 10² NMP 100 mL-1 para o TRH de 36 dias CSFS.This work aimed to evaluate the anaerobic biodigestion process by using swine manure with and without separation of the solid fraction and considering different hydraulic retention times. For such purpose semi continual plug flow biodigestors were used, with residual water from a pig farm with and without separation of the solid fraction, managed with 36; 29; 22 e 15 days of hydraulic retention. Efficiency of the treatments was evaluated by the reduction of the most probable number of total and fecal coliforms, fiber content, chemical and

  16. Análise clínica e biomecânica do efeito do diclofenaco sódico na consolidação da fratura da tíbia no rato Clinical and biomechanical analysis of the effect of diclofenac sodium in tibial fracture healing in rats

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    Sérgio Swain Müller

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os AINH (Antiinflamatórios não hormonais são agentes utilizados na prática clínica que interferem no processo inflamatório pela inibição da síntese de prostaglandinas e tromboxanos. Alguns trabalhos experimentais investigaram sua ação no processo de consolidação de fraturas, por meio de estudos clínicos e histológicos, sendo escassas as análises biomecânicas. Nesse estudo foram utilizados 20 ratos da linhagem Wistar, divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos iguais: grupo A (controle e grupo B (tratado com diclofenaco sódico. Em ambos os grupos foram realizadas fraturas abertas, após perfuração, na tíbia direita. A administração da droga foi via intramuscular, dose única diária, por 28 dias. Os animais foram pesados semanalmente. Após o sacrifício as tíbias foram dissecadas, pesadas e submetidas a ensaio biomecânico de flexão analisando-se carga máxima, deformação e coeficiente de rigidez. Observou-se que no grupo tratado com AINH não houve aumento do peso corpóreo a partir da segunda semana e as tíbias fraturadas foram mais pesadas. Neste grupo o calo ósseo suportou menor carga máxima, apresentando maior deformação e menor coeficiente de rigidez. Nos animais tratados, o osso não fraturado também se mostrou menos rígido. Concluiu-se, nas condições estudadas, que o DS alterou o processo de consolidação e o metabolismo ósseo, levando a retardo na maturação do calo e menor rigidez do osso intacto, respectivamente.The antinflammatories are agents utilized on clinical practice that interfere on inflammatory process by synthesis inhibition of prostaglandin and tromboxanes. Some experimental studies investigated their action on the fractures consolidation process, through clinical and histological studies, as the biomechanical analyses are scarce. In this study, 20 (twenty Wistar pedigree rats were used, aleatory divided into two groups: A group (control and B group (treated with diclofenac. In both

  17. Avaliação de parâmetros da biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de suínos alimentados com dietas à base de milho e sorgo Evaluation of anaerobic biodigestion parameters of swine waste fed with diets based on corn and sorghum

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    Marco A. P. Orrico Júnior

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência da dieta à base de sorgo em substituição à de milho na composição e no tratamento dos dejetos. Foram utilizados 24 biodigestores batelada de bancada, dos quais 12 foram abastecidos com dejetos de suínos alimentados com dieta á base de milho, e o restante, com dieta á base de sorgo. A cada 30 dias foram esvaziados três biodigestores dentro de cada dieta, em um total de quatro tempos de retenção hidráulica (TRH 30; 60; 90 e 120 dias. Para avaliar a eficiência do processo de biodigestão anaeróbia, foram avaliadas as reduções de sólidos totais, sólidos voláteis totais, demanda química de oxigênio, demanda bioquímica de oxigênio, número mais provável (NMP de coliformes totais e termotolerantes, além dos potenciais de produção do biogás e metano. Os resultados mostraram que os dejetos dos suínos alimentados com dietas à base de sorgo apresentaram menor eficiência no processo, principalmente nos potenciais de produção de biogás e metano. Em média, os potenciais foram 8,6% menor (PThe aim of this work was to evaluate the interference of a diet based on sorghum in substitution of corn in the compound and treatment of waste. Twenty four batch digesters of bench with capacity of 12 liters, from which 12 were provided with swine waste that were fed with a diet base on corn and the others with a diet based on sorghum. At every 30 days, 3 digesters of each diet were emptied, in a total of 4 hydraulic retention times (HRT: 30; 60; 90 and 120 days. For evaluating the efficiency of anaerobic biodigestion process, reduction of total solids, total volatile solids, chemical demand of oxygen, biochemical demand of oxygen, the most probably number (NMP of total and thermo tolerant coliforms, besides potentials of biogas and methane production were evaluated. Results showed that swine waste that were fed with diets based on sorghum, presented a smaller efficiency of the

  18. Combination of poly L-lactic acid nanofiber scaffold with omentum graft for bone healing in experimental defect in tibia of rabbits Combinação de poli L-ácido láctico nanofibras com enxerto de omento para reparo ósseo em defeito experimental em tíbia de coelhos

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    Amir Sotoudeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the osteoconductive properties and biological performance of Poly L-lactic acid (PLLA with omentum in bone defects. METHODS: PLLA nanofiber scaffolds were prepared via electrospinning technique. Forty four New Zealand white female rabbits randomly divided into three groups of 18 rabbits each. Created defects in right tibias were filled in group I with omentum, in group II with PLLA nanofiber scaffold and in group III with combination of the omentum and PLLA. The same defects were created in left tibia of all groups but did not receive any treatment (control group. Histological and histomorphometric evaluations were performed at two, four and six weeks after the implantation. RESULTS: Histological changes on all groups along with the time course were scored and statistical analysis showed that the average scores in group III were significantly higher than the other groups. CONCLUSION: Histomorphometric analysis of bone healing was shown to be significantly improved by the combined PLLA with omentum compared with the other groups, suggesting this biomaterial promote the healing of cortical bone, presumably by acting as an osteoconductive scaffold.OBJETIVO: Investigar as propriedades de osteocondução e desempenho biológico do ácido L láctico-Poly (PLLA com omento em defeitos ósseos. MÉTODOS: Andaimes PLLA nanofibras foram preparados via eletrofiação técnica. Cinquenta e quatro coelhos fêmeas Nova Zelândia brancos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos de 18 coelhos cada. Defeitos criados em tíbias direitas foram preenchidos no grupo I com omento, no grupo II com PLLA nanofibras e no grupo III com a combinação do omento e PLLA. Os mesmos defeitos foram criados na tíbia esquerda de todos os grupos, mas não receberam qualquer tratamento (grupo controle. As avaliações histológicas e histomorfométricas foram realizadas em duas, quatro e seis semanas após a implantação. RESULTADOS: As altera

  19. Biodigestão anaeróbia dos dejetos da bovinocultura de corte: influência do período, do genótipo e da dieta Anaerobic biodigestion of beef cattle manure: influence of period, genotype and diet

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    Marco Antonio Previdelli Orrico Junior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo identificar possíveis alterações na composição e no processo de biodigestão anaeróbia dos dejetos produzidos por bovinos Canchim e Nelore em diferentes períodos do confinamento e alimentados com diferentes proporções de volumoso e concentrado. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial com parcela subdividida no tempo. As parcelas foram compostas por quatro tratamentos: dejetos provenientes de duas dietas (40% de volumoso e 60% de concentrado e 60% de volumoso e 40% de concentrado e dois genótipos (Canchim e Nelore e as subparcelas pelos três períodos de colheita dos resíduos (início, meio e final. A eficiência do processo de biodigestão foi avaliada pelas reduções de sólidos totais (ST, sólidos voláteis (SV, número mais provável (NMP de coliformes totais e termotolerantes, demanda química e bioquímica de oxigênio, além da produção e dos potenciais de produção de biogás e metano. Não houve efeito do genótipo nem do período sobre a composição dos dejetos, no entanto o aumento da proporção de volumoso na dieta levou a menor eficiência do processo, pois foi observado aumento de 26,31% no volume de metano produzido na dieta com 60% de concentrado com relação à dieta com 40%, de concentrado. Também foram observadas importantes reduções no NMP de coliformes totais e termotolerantes ao final do processo, independentemente do tratamento testado.The objective of this study was to identify possible alterations in the composition and anaerobic biodigestion process of manure from Canchim and Nellore cattle in different periods in feedlot fed with different forage to concentrate ratios. The experiment was carried out in complete randomized design in factorial arrangement with time as sub-divided plot. Plots were established by four treatments: manure from two diets (40% forage and 60% concentrate and 60% forage and 40% concentrate and two

  20. Microbiota aeróbia conjuntival nas conjuntivites adenovirais

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    Nakano Eliane Mayumi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estudar a microbiota aeróbica conjuntival em pacientes com quadro clínico de conjuntivite viral aguda. Método: Trinta pacientes entre 18 e 40 anos portadores de conjuntivite adenoviral e 30 pacientes sem a doença foram submetidos à colheita de material da conjuntiva para cultura. Os portadores de conjuntivite adenoviral foram submetidos ao exame até 3 dias após o início dos sintomas. As culturas foram realizadas utilizando-se os meios de ágar-sangue e ágar-chocolate. Pacientes em uso de medicação tópica ou sistêmica, usuários de lentes de contato e aqueles com doença ocular prévia ou doença sistêmica foram excluídos. Resultados: Houve positividade significantemente maior das culturas de conjuntiva nos pacientes com conjuntivite adenoviral (33,3%, sendo Haemophylus influenzae em 50% e Streptococcus pneumoniae em 50% quando comparados ao grupo controle (6,6% - Staphylococcus coagulase negativo. O grupo de pacientes com conjuntivite e que apresentaram culturas positivas, não diferiu em nenhum dos critérios clínicos analisados do grupo com culturas negativas. Conclusão: Pacientes com conjuntivite adenoviral apresentaram maior freqüência de exames de cultura de amostra de conjuntiva positivas quando comparados aos controles normais. Os pacientes com conjuntivite adenoviral com cultura positiva apresentaram evolução clínica semelhante aos pacientes com cultura negativa. Os agentes isolados na microbiota conjuntival no grupo com conjuntivite foram diferentes do observado no grupo normal. Porém o resultado das culturas não apresentou correlação com a evolução clínica.

  1. BIA Indian Lands Dataset (Indian Lands of the United States)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Geographic Data Committee — The American Indian Reservations / Federally Recognized Tribal Entities dataset depicts feature location, selected demographics and other associated data for the...

  2. Język polski na Białorusi

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    Teresa Kryszyń

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polish language in the Republic of Belarus  The situation of the Polish minority in Belarus was always difficult because the politics of Belarusian authorities was focused on destruction of anything connected with Polish culture or possessing Polish roots: intelligentsia, school, theatres, press. The reestablishing of Polish education in late 80-ties of the last century started from scratch therefore and the biggest amount of learners studied Polish in late 90-ties of the XX century. Recently the amount of students has decreased which is explained by the current demographical and political situation. The most significant influence on forming national consciousness is possesses by family. Unfortunately nowadays it is being observed that most of Polish families has not performed that function anymore and using of Polish language by members of Polish families is decreasing. The leading role of Polish language in a Catholic liturgy is changing as well: the word “Catholic” does not mean “Pole”. According to surveys 66% of Catholics would prefer Polish as the language of liturgy, 20% – Belarusian, 10% – Russian and Polish, 4% – another language. This situation creates the possibility of disappearing of Polish language from liturgy and catechism. Consequently the role of Polish schools and organizations in education of children and teenagers has increased. Language acquisition begins in kindergartens during extra lessons or within Polish groups. The forms of language acquisition at school vary a lot. Most of the students learn Polish languages after-hours, some of them attends required Polish classes at school. Moreover there are two Polish schools of Grodno region. There is an opportunity of studying Polish language in high educational establishments in Belarus, e.g. in Grodno State University Polish language department has existed since 1989 and it prepares its students to teaching Polish language. Farther development of Polish education in Belarus depends on both factors the Poles attitude and current political situation in the country.   Польский язык в Республике Беларусь Положение польского национального меньшинства в РБ всегда была трудной, так как политика властей была направлена на уничтожение всего, что имело польские корни и было связано с польской культурой: интеллигенции, школ, театров, газет. В связи с этим возрождение образования на польском языке в конце 80-тых годов прошлого столетия начиналось с нулевого уровня и наибольшее количество учащихся изучало польский язык в конце 90-тых годов XX века. В последние годы наблюдается уменьшение количества учащихся, что объясняется демографической и современной политической ситуацией. На формирование национального самосознания наиболее значительное влияние оказывает cемья. К сожалению, большинство современных польских семей не выполняет эту функцию, использование польского языка как языка внутрисемейных отношений уменьшается. Польский язык в костеле также выходит из употребления, понятие “католик” сегодня уже не означает “поляк”. Как видно из исследований, 66% католиков хотели бы, чтобы литургия в костелах была на польском языке, 20% – на белорусском, 10% – на польском и русском, 4% – ином языке. Такая ситуация создает опасность исчезновения польского языка из литургии и катехизиса. В связи с вышесказанным усиливается роль польских школ и польских общественных объединений в воспитании и обучении детей и молодежи. Oбучение и воспитание детей польскому языку начинается уже в детском саду в кружках либо в специальных группах с обучением и воспитанием на польском языке. В школах обучение польскому языку ведется в разных формах. Наибольшее количество желающих учится во внеурочное время, определенная часть – в классах с обязательным изучением польского языка. Помимо этого в Гродненской области существуют две школы с обучением на польском языке. В высших учебных заведениях Беларуси также изучается польский язык, а в Гродненском госуниверситете с 1989 г. cуществует кафедра полонистики, занимающаяся подготовкой учителей польского языка. Дальнейшее развитие польскоязычного образования в РБ зависит как от позиции поляков, так и от современной политической ситуации в нашей стране.

  3. Inteligenckie biografie na Białorusi. Studium przypadku

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    Natalia Mamul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intelligentsia biographies in Belarus. A case studyDrawing on a case study from the body of empirical research which includes 30 narrative interviews conducted using Fritz Schuetze’s biographical method with male and female residents of Belarus, the author explores the process of Belarusian identity formation of a Belarusian-speaking dissenting intellectual. The case study is drawn from the author’s research into the ways in which Belarusian-speaking intellectuals (the group locating itself in opposition to the establishment by the very recourse to the literary Belarusian language of instruction and everyday life as well as other dissenting identity markers conceptualize and hone their national identity. One can trace the path towards fully-fledged Belarusian identity which unrolls via turning points, thanks to significant others through participation in intelligentsia circles. One of the membership rules in the social world of intelligentsia is the use of the high-profile Belarusian language. The interpretive analysis is set against the backdrop of the socio-linguistic situation in contemporary Belarus with its authoritarian regime, advanced Russification, contested memory field, restrained memory work and conflicting historical and national discourses.

  4. Comparação dos efeitos do laser de baixa potência e do ultrassom de baixa intensidade no processo de reparo ósseo em tíbia de rato Comparison of the effects of low-level laser therapy and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on the process of bone repair in the rat tibia

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    Poliani Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Recursos eletrofísicos, como o ultrassom (US e a terapia laser de baixa potência (LLLT, vêm sendo cada vez mais utilizados na prática fisioterapêutica. Estudos sugerem que esses recursos são capazes de estimular a proliferação de osteoblastos e a osteogênese no local da fratura, promovendo maior deposição de massa óssea e acelerando o processo de consolidação. OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos do US e da LLLT no processo de consolidação óssea por meio das análises biomecânica e histológica do calo ósseo. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 30 ratos machos, distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos: grupo controle fratura, sem tratamento (GC; grupo fratura tratado com US pulsado com burst de 1,5 MHz, 200us, 1KHz, 30 mW/cm² (GUS e grupo fratura tratado com laser 830nm, 100mW, 120J/cm² (GL. Foram realizados defeitos ósseos circulares com broca de 2 mm de diâmetro nas tíbias dos animais. Os tratamentos foram realizados a cada 48 horas, totalizando sete aplicações e, no 14º dia, os animais foram sacrificados. A tíbia direita foi designada para análise biomecânica, enquanto a esquerda, para análise histológica. RESULTADOS: A análise biomecânica não mostrou diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as propriedades biomecânicas do GC, GL e GUS. Na análise morfométrica, tanto GUS quanto GL apresentaram área de osso neoformado estatisticamente maior em relação ao GC. No entanto, quando as duas modalidades de tratamento foram comparadas, não foram encontradas diferenças estatísticas entre elas. CONCLUSÃO: Ambos os recursos utilizados neste estudo foram capazes de acelerar o processo de reparo ósseo em ratos.BACKGROUND: Electrophysical agents such as Ultrasound (US and low-level laser therapy (LLLT have been increasingly used in physical therapy practice. Studies suggest that these devices are able to stimulate osteoblast proliferation and osteogenesis at the fracture site, resulting in a

  5. Avaliação de inoculante microbiano na composição bromatológica, fermentação e estabilidade aeróbia da silagem pré-seca de alfafa Evaluation of microbial inoculant on chemical composition, fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of alfalfa haylage

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    Vanessa Jaime de Almeida Magalhães

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do inoculante microbiano Silobac® (L. plantarum, P. pentosaceus, na silagem pré-seca de alfafa, em 22 silos, distribuídos em dois tratamentos, sendo 11 silos com inoculante e 11 controle, segundo o delineamento inteiramente casualizado. A alfafa foi cortada quando em estádio do meio do florescimento e os silos, confeccionados com aproximadamente 600 kg e revestidos com película de PVC branca. Amostras foram coletadas, logo após a abertura de cada silo, para análise bromatológica e perfil fermentativo. O inoculante diminuiu o teor de MS (inoculada = 44,7 vs. controle = 51,2% e aumentou a concentração de ácido acético (2,35 vs. 0,89% MS, em relação ao grupo controle. O inoculante também revelou diminuição no escore de bolor obtido a 10 cm de profundidade, mas não a 30 ou 50 cm. Não foram observados efeitos sobre os teores de PB (15,9 vs. 16,4% MS, NIDN (14,7 vs. 16,2% do N total, NIDA (11,2 vs. 11,6% do N total, FDN (47,1 vs. 46,7% MS, FDA (40,2 vs. 39,8% MS, celulose (29,7 vs. 28,6% MS, hemicelulose (6,94 vs. 6,89% MS, LDA (10,4 vs. 11,1% MS, carboidratos solúveis (2,97 vs. 2,44% MS e amido (0,82 vs. 0,69% MS, DIVMS (61,6 vs. 62,5% MS, poder tampão (52,9 vs. 51,7 meq./100g MS, as concentrações de etanol (0,018 vs. 0,024% MS e dos ácidos propiônico (0,00 vs. 0,00% MS, butírico (0,00 vs. 0,00% MS e lático (5,62 vs. 4,45% MS, a relação lático:acético (4,57 vs. 4,87, bem como sobre o pH (4,96 vs. 5,33, as concentrações de N-NH3 (8,19 vs. 5,21% do N total e a estabilidade aeróbia.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of microbial inoculant Silobac® (L. plantarum, P. pentosaceus on alfalfa haylage, in twenty-two big bales, allotted to two treatment, eleven with inoculant and eleven control, assigned to a totally randomized design. Alfalfa crop was harvested at middle bloom stage and conditioned in silage bales of about 600 kg capacity and covered with

  6. Comparação da potência anaeróbia mensurada pelo teste de RAST em diferentes condições de calçado e superfícies Comparison of the anaerobic power measured by the RAST test at different footwear and surfaces conditions

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    Carlos Augusto Kalva-Filho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST tem sido considerado um teste válido para avaliação anaeróbia. Entretanto, como a superfície e o calçado podem afetar alguns parâmetros mensurados durante o exercício, isso pode modificar os parâmetros do RAST. OBJETIVO: Comparar as variáveis do RAST mensuradas utilizando chuteiras na grama (RAST CG e tênis na pista (RAST TP. MÉTODOS: Oito jogadores de futebol (da categoria sub-17 participaram do estudo. Os participantes realizaram dois RAST (intervalo > 24 h. O RAST consistiu em seis corridas máximas de 35m com 10s de intervalo passivo entre cada corrida. O tempo de cada esforço foi registrado para determinação da potência pico (PP, potência média (PM e índice de fadiga (IF. Após o sexto esforço, amostras sanguíneas foram coletadas para determinação da lactacidemia ([Lac]. RESULTADOS: Durante o RAST TP, a PP (763,1 ± 87,2 W e PM (621,6 ± 68,1 W foram significativamente superiores às PP e PM mensuradas em RAST CG (PP = 667,3 ± 67,0 W e PM = 555,9 ± 74,7 W, enquanto que as [Lac] observadas em RAST TP (7,3 ± 1,8 mmol.L-1 foram significativamente inferiores às mensuradas em RAST CG (9,9 ± 3,2 mmol.L-1. No entanto, o IF não foi significativamente diferente (RAST TP = 32,5 ± 8,3%; RAST CG = 34,1 ± 6,6%. Significativas correlações foram observadas entre as PM (r = 0,90 e as [Lac] (r = 0,72. CONCLUSÃO: Podemos concluir que as variáveis do RAST são influenciadas pela superfície e calçado utilizados, com valores superiores observados em RAST TP.INTRODUCTION: Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST has been considered a valid test for anaerobic evaluation. However, since the floor surfaces and footwear can affect some outcomes measured during exercise, this also can modify the RAST outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Was to compare the RAST outcomes measured using soccer cleats on grass (RAST SCG and using shoes on the track (RAST ST. METHODS: Eight young male soccer players

  7. Análise da translação anterior da tíbia, pico de torque e atividade eletromiográfica do quadríceps e isquiotibiais em indivíduos com lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior em cadeia cinética aberta Analysis of anterior tibial translation, peak torque, and quadriceps and hamstrings coactivation in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament injuries performing isometric open kinetic chain exercises

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    Rodrigo Antunes de Vasconcelos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a translação anterior da tíbia (TAT, pico de torque isométrico e atividade eletromiográfica de indivíduos com lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA realizando contrações isométricas em cadeia cinética aberta no ângulo de 30º de flexão do joelho. Foram avaliados 20 voluntários do sexo masculino (31.1 ± 7.45 anos com ruptura completa do LCA e 20 indivíduos controle (22.2 ± 3.15 anos. Eletromiografia de superfície, artrômetro KT 1000 e um Dinamômetro isocinético foram utilizados para avaliar a atividade EMG do Quadríceps e Isquiotibiais, TAT passiva e ativa e pico de torque isométrico respectivamente durante três contrações isométricas voluntária máxima a 30 º de flexão do joelho. Os resultados demonstraram que a TAT passiva e ativa é significativamente maior em joelhos com lesão do LCA comparado ao joelho contralateral, lado dominante e não dominante do grupo controle, porém os valores da TAT ativa foram menores do que a passiva. Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os grupos na atividade EMG do quadríceps e isquiotibiais e no pico de torque isométrico produzido durante o tarefa motora requisitada. Os resultados deste estudo demonstram que indivíduos com lesão do LCA e indivíduos controle se comportam de maneira similar em relação a pico de torque isométrico e controle motor embora a artrocinemática da articulação tibiofemural mostrou-se diferente em joelhos lesados.The aim of this study was to evaluated the anterior tibial translation (ATT, isometric peak torque and EMG activity in individuals with acl rupture performing isometric contraction in open kinetic chain in angle that provoke substantial ATT. It was evaluated 20 male subjects (31.1± 7.45 years with acl total rupture and 20 control subjects (22.2 ± 3.15 years. Electromyography, arthrometric kt 1000 and isokinetic dynamometry was used to evaluate the quadriceps and

  8. Hidroxiapatita sintética pura, hidroxiapatita sintética associada ao colágeno e hidroxiapatita sintética associada ao lipossoma como substitutos ósseos em defeitos provocados na tíbia de cães: aspectos da osteointegração à microscopia de luz transmitida Pure synthetic hydroxyapatite, collagen associated synthetic hydroxyapatite and liposome associated synthetic hydroxyapatite as a bone substitute for defects in bone healing of dogs: transmitted light microscopy osteointegration aspects

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    K.L. Franco

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 40 cães clinicamente sadios com o objetivo de avaliar histologicamente o efeito da hidroxiapatita sintética pura (HAP-91, da HAP-91 associada ao colágeno (COL.HAP-91 e da HAP-91 associada ao lipossoma (INT.HAP-91 como substitutos ósseos em defeitos provocados na tíbia dos animais. Após protocolo anestésico, o procedimento cirúrgico constou de incisão na face medial e no terço proximal da tíbia esquerda, com retirada de um fragmento ósseo com cerca de 10 × 6mm de tamanho. Os animais foram separados em quatro grupos de 10 cada. No grupo 1 a falha óssea foi preenchida com HAP-91, no grupo 2 com COL.HAP-91 e no grupo 3 com INT.HAP-91. O grupo quatro não recebeu tratamento. Dois animais de cada grupo foram sacrificados nos dias 8, 30, 60, 120 e 180 de pós-operatório para coleta de material para histopatologia. Aos oito dias observou-se neoformação óssea no grupo-controle e ao redor do implante nos grupos tratados com HAP-91 e INT.HAP-91. Aos 30 dias, notou-se preenchimento do defeito nos mesmos grupos, fato não observado no grupo COL.HAP-91. Conclui-se que a cicatrização óssea ocorreu nos grupos controle e tratados com HAP- 91 e INT.HAP-91, mais precoce neste último grupo. Nos animais tratados com COL.HAP-91 não houve cicatrização completa.The objective of this work was to evaluate histologically the synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP-91, associated to collagen (COL.HAP-91 and associated to liposome (INT.HAP-91, as bone substitutes. Fourty clinically healthy dogs were studied. After a conventional anaesthesic protocol, the surgical procedure consisted of skin incision on medial surface in the left tibial third middle. A bone fragment of 10 × 6mm in size was retreated in all animals, which were divided into four groups with 10 animals each. Group one was treated with HAP-91, group two with COL.HAP-91, group three with INT.HAP-91, group four did not receive any treatment and was used as a control. Histological

  9. Utilização do intercepto-y na avaliação da aptidão anaeróbia e predição da performance de nadadores treinados El uso del intercepto-y en la evaluación de adaptacion anaeróbica en la predicción de la performance de nadadores especializados Use of the y-intercept in the evaluation of the anaerobic fitness and performance prediction of trained swimmers

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    Marcelo Papoti

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar a utilização do intercepto-y na avaliação da aptidão anaeróbia e predição da performance de nadadores treinados. Foram participantes do estudo 14 nadadores com idade entre 15 e 18 anos. Os atletas realizaram o teste de nado atado, performance máxima e velocidade crítica (VC para determinação da capacidade de nado anaeróbio (CTA, todos em nado crawl em um período de três dias. 1 O teste de nado atado consistiu em realizar esforço máximo durante 30 segundos amarrado a um aparato de medição com células de carga para mensuração da força pico (Fpic, aptidão anaeróbia (AP ANA e concentração de lactato pico ([la-]pic conforme Papoti et al. (11; 2 Os participantes realizaram também performances máximas nas distâncias de 100, 200, 300, 400 e 600 m, com intervalo mínimo de duas horas entre cada nado; 3 E o teste de VC foi aplicado para determinação da CTA utilizando todas as combinações possíveis dos resultados das performances máximas, através do modelo de regressão linear entre distância versus tempo. Foi encontrada média de 25,07± 4,22 m nas 16 combinações de CTAs encontradas e coeficiente de regressão linear variando entre 0,99 e 1,00 e erro de coeficiente linear de 19,30± 5,9%. Não foram encontradas correlações significativas entre as CTAs e performances máximas, Fpic (227,81± 63,02 N, AP ANA (86,55± 13,05 N e [la-]pic (6,80± 1,03 mM. Contudo, foram encontradas correlações significativas entre a AP ANA e as performances máximas. Desse modo, é possível concluir que a CTA representada pelo intercepto-y da relação distância versus tempo de nado, parece não ser um bom parâmetro na avaliação da aptidão anaeróbia e predição de performances entre 100 m e 600 m nado crawl.El objetivo de ese estudio fue verificar el uso del intercepto-y en la evaluación anaeróbica de la aptitud y predicción de la performance de los nadadores especializados. Los

  10. Comparação entre métodos invasivos e não invasivo de determinação da capacidade aeróbia em futebolistas profissionais Comparación entre métodos invasivos y no invasivos de determinación de la capacidad aeróbica en futbolistas profesionales Comparison between invasive and non-invasive methods for the determination of the aerobic capacity of professional soccer players

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    Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O Limiar Anaeróbio (Lan pode ser determinado por protocolos que utilizam concentrações fixas de lactato sanguíneo como o OBLA (Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation e os que utilizam procedimentos mais individualizados, como o Lactato Mínimo (Lacmin. Independente do método, a mensuração da capacidade aeróbia através do Lan nesses casos exige a utilização de equipamentos sofisticados, além do elevado custo por atleta, o que torna sua aplicação limitada. Como alternativa, um dos testes não invasivos mais empregados no meio esportivo é o de 12 minutos proposto por Cooper. O objetivo principal do presente estudo foi comparar a intensidade de exercício obtida pelo teste de 12min com as intensidades correspondentes ao Lan obtido pelo protocolo adaptado ao de Tegtbur et al. (1993 (Lac minat e pelo OBLA em futebolistas profissionais. Para tanto participaram 16 atletas pertencentes a uma equipe profissional filiada à série A3 do futebol paulista. Cada atleta foi avaliado nos três protocolos, com intervalo mínimo de 48 e máximo de 72 horas. Os resultados mostraram diferença (p El umbral anaeróbico (Lan puede ser determinado por protocolos que utilizan concentraciones fijas de lactato sanguíneo como el OBLA (Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation y los que utilizan procedimientos mas individualizados como el Lactato Mínimo (Lacmin. Independiente del método, la medida de la capacidad aeróbica a traves del Lan en esos casos exige una utilización de equipamientos sofisticados, además del elevado costo por atleta lo que torna su aplicación limitada. Como alternativa, uno de los tests no invasivos mas empleados en el medio deportivo es el de 12 minutos propuesto por Cooper. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue el de comparar la intensidad de ejercicio obtenida por el test de 12 minutos con las intensidades obtenidas correspondientes al Lan obtenido por el protocolo adaptado al de Tegtbur et al. (1993 (Lac minat y por el OBLA en

  11. Índices fisiológicos associados com a "performance" aeróbia em corredores de "endurance": efeitos da duração da prova Índices fisiológicos asociados a la "performance" aerobia en competidores de "endurance": efectos de la duración de la prueba Physiological indexes associated with aerobic performance in endurance runners: effects of race duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Sérgio Denadai

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a validade do consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max, da velocidade correspondente ao VO2max (vVO2max, do tempo de exaustão na vVO2max (Tlim, da economia de corrida (EC e do limiar anaeróbio (LAn para a predição da performance de atletas de endurance. Quatorze corredores de endurance (33,4 ± 4,4 anos; 62,7 ± 4,3kg; 166,1 ± 5,0cm; VO2max = 60,4 ± 5,9ml.kg-1.min-1 realizaram os seguintes testes: a competição simulada nas distâncias de 1.500 e 5.000m. e; b testes de laboratório para a determinação do VO2max, vVO2max, EC, LAn e Tlim na intensidades de 100% vVO2max. As velocidades (km/h da vVO2max (18,7 ± 0,8, LAn (17,3 ± 1,1 v1.500m (19,9 ± 0,8 e v5.000m (17,9 ± 0,9 foram significantemente diferentes. A regressão múltipla stepwise revelou que o LAn foi o único preditor da performance da v5.000m, explicando 50% da variação desta performance. Para a v1.500m, o Tlim e a vVO2max explicaram 88% da variação da performance. Com base em nossos resultados, pode-se concluir que a validade dos índices fisiológicos (VO2max, vVO2max, Tlim, EC e LAn, para a predição da performance aeróbia de atletas de endurance, é dependente da distância da prova (1.500 x 5.000m analisada.El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la validez del consumo máximo de oxígeno (VO2max, de la velocidad correspondiente al VO2max (vVO2max, del tiempo de exaustión en la vVO2max (Tlim, de la economía de la carrera (EC y del umbral anaeróbico (LAn para predecir la performance de atletas de endurance. Catorce competidores de endurance (33,4 ± 4,4 años; 62,7 ± 4,3kg; 166,1 ± 5,0cm; VO2max = 60,4 ± 5,9ml.kg-1.min-1 realizaron las siguientes pruebas: a competición simulada en las distancias de 1.500 y 5.000m. e; b pruebas de laboratorio para la determinación del VO2max, vVO2max, EC, LAn y Tlim en la intensidad del 100% vVO2max. Las velocidades (km/h de la vVO2max (18,7 ± 0,8, LAn (17,3 ± 1,1 v1.500m (19,9 ± 0,8 y v5

  12. Comparação entre protocolos diretos e indiretos de avaliação da aptidão aeróbia em indivíduos fisicamente ativos Comparacion entre protocolos directos e indirectos de evaluación de la aptitud aeróbica en indivíduos fisicamente activos Comparison between direct and indirect protocols of aerobic fitness evaluation in physically active individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo da Matta Silva

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O limiar anaeróbio individual (IAT, o limiar glicêmico individual (IGT, a velocidade associada ao VO2max (Vmax, a velocidade média em corrida de 3.000m (Vm3km e a velocidade crítica (VC têm sido utilizados na avaliação aeróbia e prescrição de exercício para atletas-corredores. No entanto, estudos comparando estes parâmetros e sua possível aplicação para indivíduos não atletas ainda não foram realizados. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram comparar e estabelecer as relações entre IAT, IGT, Vmax, Vm3km e VC em indivíduos fisicamente ativos não atletas. Onze indivíduos fisicamente ativos e saudáveis (20,7 ± 1,8 anos; 74,2 ± 14,5kg; 48,9 ± 5,8mlO2.kg.min-1 realizaram randomicamente os seguintes testes de corrida em dias distintos: 1 determinação da Vm3km a partir do desempenho em corrida de 3.000m; 2 desempenho em corrida de 500m e 3 teste incremental em esteira ergométrica para determinação do IAT, IGT, VO2max e Vmax. A VC foi determinada por regressão linear (relação distância-tempo a partir dos testes de 3km e 500m. Não foram verificadas diferenças entre as velocidades do IAT e IGT (184,8 ± 27,7 e 182,8 ± 27,9m.min-1; P > 0,05, e entre Vmax e Vm3km (211,1 ± 30 e 213,4 ± 32,2m.min-1; P > 0,05. Apesar da alta correlação entre as variáveis estudadas, a VC (199,8 ± 30,4m.min-1 superestimou o IAT e o IGT (P El umbral anaeróbico individual (IAT, el umbral glucémico individual (IGT, la velocidad asociada al VO2max (Vmax, la velocidad media de carrera de 3.000m (Vm3km y la velocidad crítica (VC estan estudiados junto con la evaluación aeróbica y la prescripción del ejercicio para atletas corredores. Sin embargo, los estudios que comparan estos parámetros y su posible aplicación para personas no atletas no ha sido realizados aún. Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron el de comparar y establecer las relaciones entre IAT, IGT, Vmax, Vm3km y VC en individuos físicamente activos no atletas. Once

  13. Uwagi o leksyce polszczyzny na Litwie na pograniczu litewsko‑łotewsko‑białoruskim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Karaś

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Observations on the Polish lexis in Lithuania on the borderland of Lithuania, Latvia and BelarusThe paper comments on the lexicon of Polish on the borderland of Lithuania, Latvia and Belarus (in the Zarasai district and the Ignalina district in Lithuania. The remarks, illustrated with selected examples, have been formulated on the basis of data gathered during field research in 2000–2001 and 2010–2011. The paper aims primarily at discussing the extent to which the collected material contributes to the state-of-the-art knowledge on the vocabulary of the North-Eastern Borderlands; the author analyzes the types of words present in the collected material in order to specify whether they are generally attested and well documented, or conversely – less known and only occasionally considered in literature.A large part of the collected material consists of vocabulary well known in Lithuania, and often in the whole area of the North-Eastern Borderlands. These include old expressions of various origin typical of the Eastern Borderlands, richly documented in works devoted to the Polish language of the North-Eastern Borderlands; loans from Lithuanian and Belorussian; or Polish archaic forms, e.g. asystentka ‘maid of honour’, budni ‘usual, ordinary’, fest ‘church fair’, gadzina ‘viper’, hurba ‘snowbank’, karszun ‘hawk’. Another numerous group are newer loanwords from Russian and Lithuanian, popularised in the post-war period, as well as in the recent years along with the changing role of the Lithuanian language, e.g. elektra ‘electric light, electri­city’, awtoławka ‘travelling shop’, balnica ‘hospital’.A small, yet extremely interesting for researchers, part of the lexis is composed of vocabulary not so well known in the North-Eastern Borderlands or in Lithuania, regionally bound (exhibited solely in the examined areas or in two former tightly-knit Polish-speaking areas, with limited frequency (rare words, appearing in various regions, yet seldom recognized, or restricted as far as the chronology is concerned (not attested presently, until now known only from older, pre-war sources, mainly from the works of Halina Turska, e.g. bracienik ‘cousin’, ciuszka ‘blowhole’, czeladź ‘children, offspring’, lun ‘marsh, swamp’, babaczka ‘bow tie’, murawiejnik ‘anthill’, ciełuszutka ‘heiferdim’, światleć ‘to shine’.A separate group encompasses words previously undocumented in literature, e.g. wieczuruszkować ‘to go to soirees, parties in the evening’, including the unknown word-formation variants, e.g. walaniantówka ‘epilepsy’ vs. walentaczka/walantaczka, or the regionally-bound diminutive forms with typical suffixes, today rare, e.g. buteleniatka ‘bottledim’, chustalutka ‘handkerchiefdim’.It is worth emphasizing that certain parts of the described vocabulary might still be commonly used, however the scarcity of extensive lexical research, as well as the lack of a full dictionary of Polish of the North-Eastern Borderlands render it impossible to resolve this question. Заметки о лексике польского языка в Литве на литовско-латышско-белорусском пограничьеВ статье изложены заметки о лексике польского языка, функционирующего в Литве на литовско-латышско-белорусском пограничье (в районах Зарасай и Игналина, составленные по материалам, собранным во время полевых исследований в 2000–2001 и 2010–2011 годы и проиллюстрированные отобранными примерами. Цель статьи состоит, прежде всего, в том, чтобы обратить внимание на то, какие новшества в польской лексике северовосточных районов отражает собранный материал, какого типа лексику он подтверждает – распространённую и хорошо закрепившуюся либо представленную словами менее знакомыми, реже обнаруживаемыми в литературе. Основная часть собранной лексики – это слова хорошо известные в Литве и на всей территории „польщизны кресовой”, слова различного происхождения из давнего словарного состава, хорошо описанные в научной литературе – литовско-белорусские генетические заимствования или польские архаизмы, напр. asystentka ‘подруга невесты’, budni ‘будничный’, fest ‘храмовый праздник’, gadzina ‘гадюка’, hurba ‘сугроб’, karszun ‘ястреб’. Значительную группу составляют более поздние заимствования из русского и литовского языков, вошедшие в обиход в послевоенный период и в последние годы в связи с новой функцией литовского языка, напр. elektra ‘электричество’, awtoławka ‘автолавка’, balnica ‘больница’. Малочисленную группу лексики, однако наиболее интересную, по мнению исследователей, составляют слова менее распространённые на бывшей польской северовосточной территории или же по всей Литве. Они ограничены территориально (лишь исследованными районами или двумя компактными польскоязычными ареалами, по частотности (редко появляются в отдельных местах, хронологически (в настоящее время не засвидетельствованны или известны лишь по довоенным работам Г. Турской и по записям речи переселенцев из Виленщины в Польшу, напр. bracienik ‘двоюродный брат, кузен’, ciuszka ‘прорубь’, chromina ‘хозяйственная постройка’, czeladź ‘дети, потомки’, lun ‘трясина, топь’, babaczka ‘бабочка, вид галстука’, murawiejnik ‘муравейник’, ciełuszutka ‘тёлка’, światleć ‘светлеть’. Отдельную группу составляют слова, не упоминавшиеся до сих пор в ли- тературе, напр. wieczuruszkować ‘танцевать на вечеринках’, в том числе неизвестные до сих пор словообразовательные варианты, напр. walaniantówka ‘эпилепсия’ перед walentaczka/walantaczka ‘эпилепсия’, или, редкие сегодня, региональные деминутивы с характерными суффиксами, напр. buteleniatka ‘бутылочка’, chustalutka ‘платочек’. Следует оговориться, что часть вышеуказанной лексики возможно известна шире, однако отсутствие широкозапланированных лексических исследований и большого полного словаря польского северовосточного региолекта препятствует решению этого вопроса.

  14. Forms of Physical Activity of Biała Podlaska Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gradus Paulina; Benza Ewa; Rybak Olga; Krzysztoń Paweł; Batorzyńska Paulina; Plandowska Magdalena; Kurpeta Wiesław Lech

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Physical activity is fundamental to children's all-round development in the first six years of their life. It is particularly significant in preschool age, when the need for movement is predominant. Psychomotor development, conditioned by children's innate abilities and their own activity, depends upon the influence of external surroundings as well as parental upbringing and preschool education. The aim of the study was to obtain data regarding physical activity (both structured...

  15. Indian Reservations, RBD, Published in 1985, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, BIA Western Regional Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Indian Reservations dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1985. It is described as 'RBD'....

  16. 25 CFR 166.224 - What factors does the BIA consider when reviewing a leasehold mortgage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... surety or guarantor; (2) The mortgage covers only the permit interest, and no unrelated collateral... order to protect the best interests of the Indian landowner. (b) In making the finding required...

  17. Informacja o badaniach terenowych w rejonie postawskim obwodu witebskiego na Białorusi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга [Ol'ga] Гущева [Gushcheva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Information about field research in Postavsky district of Vitebsk region in BelarusThe article begins with a brif presentation of this multiethnic and multicultural region (main historical events, towns and villages, churches of different religions. An interdisciplinary field research in Postavsky district was conducted in July–August 2011. The aim of the research was gathering data concerning sociocultural aspects of local Polish community life, such as identity, historical memory, sociolinguistic situation, national stereotypes, system of values. The main method was an interview. We based on two dialectological questionnaires while examining the local Polish and Belarusian vocabulary. The interview records with a brif description of contents will be available on internet site of Fundacja Slawistyczna and it will be useful for different humanists such as dialectologists, sociolinguists, etnologists, sociologists, historians. Информация о полевых исследованиях в Поставском районе Витебской областиВ начале статьи коротко представлена основная информация, касающаяся этого полинационального и поликультурного региона (основные исторические события, основные местечки и деревни, святыни разных конфессий. Интердисциплинарное исследование в Поставском районе Витебской области проводилось в июле–августе 2011 года. Целью исследования был сбор материала, касающегося социокультурных аспектов функционирования представителей польского меньшинства в данном регионе, таких как идентичность, историческая память, социолингвистическая ситуация, национальные стереотипы, система ценностей. Основным методом исследования являлось интервью; лексика местного польского и белорусского говоров опрашивалaсь по двум диалектологическим опросникам. Аудиозаписи интервью с коротким описанием их содержания будут размещены на интернет странице Славистического фонда (Fundacja Slawistyczna. Содержащийся в них материал может быть полезен представителям различных гуманитарных дисциплин: диалектологам, социолингвистам, этнологам, социологам, историкам.

  18. A Mulher sábia e prudente : aproximações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Idalina Resina Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article on A Wise and Prudent Woman (from an original by Goldoni begins with some information on Portuguese versions with different titles (1768 and 1778, it analyses a later handwritten copy (1784 and following that, dwells on the consideration of the argument and on character analysis. The plot essentially concentrates on the sensible and efficient way in which the protagonist acts, initially exchanged by her husband for a lover of higher social position and rehabilitating her marriage through finely interwoven stratagems without harming anyone. In the end, everyone is grateful to her and even the servants learn their lessons, one of which is, no doubt, that of the required mutual understanding for a happy marriage.

  19. Multifrequency right-side, localized and segmental BIA obtained with different bioimpedance analysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to compare two commercial bioimpedance analysers, BioparHom Z-Métrix and Impedimed SFB7, measuring the impedance of three different body segments. The segments measured were ‘right-side’ (or ‘whole-body’), ‘segmental right-lower limb’ and ‘localized longitudinal right-quadriceps’. The comparison was made on electrical models of each segment, including electrode–skin impedance, and in vivo on nine healthy volunteers. Both devices are designed to measure right-side impedances and, in the present study, as the length of the segment investigated decreased, the accuracy of the impedance measured was found to decrease. The accuracy of the devices was calculated via measurements performed on RC networks of known values. It was found that adding electrode–skin contact impedances in the electrical model affected the accuracy by both devices. (paper)

  20. Bocian biały (Ciconia ciconia) na terenie Ziemi Łęczyckiej

    OpenAIRE

    Zuchniewicz, Andrzej

    1992-01-01

    A comparison of studies on the distribution and breeding efficiency of the White Stork in the Łęczyca District in 1968-1970, 1975 and 1984 is presented. In the analysed period, there occurred a significant increase in the abundance of nests not occupied by pairs (HO + HB) and in nests built on the poles of electric traction. The spatial distribution of stork nests is described. Besides, the author proves the limiting influence of interspecific com petition on the breeding succe...

  1. Statistics Concerning Indian Education, Fiscal Year 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Alice S., Comp.

    Presenting statistical data on the 1974 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) operated schools, this publication is comprised of the following tabular data: (1) school census by BIA area and agency; (2) number of BIA schools operated, by type (day and boarding schools); (3) enrollment and average daily attendance by BIA area; (4) BIA boarding school…

  2. 25 CFR 900.97 - How can an Indian tribe or tribal organization acquire excess BIA or IHS property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exercise discretion in a way that gives maximum effect to the request of Indian tribes or tribal... INTERIOR, AND INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE...

  3. 25 CFR 162.244 - How will BIA decide whether to approve a leasehold mortgage under an agricultural lease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the tenant's interest in the leased premises, and no unrelated collateral; (3) The loan being secured... find no compelling reason to withhold our approval in order to protect the best interests of the...

  4. 25 CFR 171.500 - How does BIA determine the annual operation and maintenance assessment rate for the irrigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Depreciation; (6) Acquisition costs; (7) Maintenance of a reserve fund available for contingencies or emergency...) Annual operation and maintenance assessment rates may be lowered through the exercise of our...

  5. ESTUDO QUALI-QUANTITATIVO DA MICROBIOTA ANAERÓBIA EM AMOSTRAS DE QUEIJOS PROVOLONE, PARMESÃO E PRATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Soares Nicolau

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve o propósito de quantificar, isolar e identificar as bactérias mais freqüentes em amostras de queijos provolone, parmesão e prato, consideradas estufadas e normais, assim como determinar o pH e os níveis de nitrito e nitrato. Foram analisadas 120 amostras, compostas de queijo provolone (62, parmesão (36 e prato (22, produzidas em queijarias do Estado de Goiás e Minas Gerais. Nas amostras de queijos provolone, parmesão e prato, consideradas estufadas, foram isolados e identificados com maior freqüência o Clostridium butyricum e o Streptococcus intermedius, enquanto nas consideradas normais as espécies mais freqüentes foram o Streptococcus intermedius, o Actinomyces israelli e o Actinomyces naeslundii. Em relação à quantificação das bactérias anaeróbias, não houve diferença significativa entre as amostras consideradas estufadas e normais. Os valores médios de pH, independentemente da condição do queijo, normal ou estufado, não apresentaram grandes variações, sendo a determinação considerada ineficaz para formar juízo a respeito do estufamento tardio dos queijos. As amostras consideradas estufadas não apresentaram nitrato e/ou nitrito, entretanto algumas normais mostraram-se positivas para a presença de nitrato e/ou nitrito, sendo a média de 2,06 ppm. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Estufamento tardio, queijo, Clostridium butyricum, microbiologia.

  6. 25 CFR Appendix A to Subpart G - List of Activities Eligible for Funding Under BIA Transportation Facility Maintenance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Stabilizing, removing, and controlling slides, drift sand, mud, ice, snow, and other impediments. 3. Adding... traffic control devices, guardrails and other features necessary to control traffic and protect the road..., or purchasing of maintenance equipment. 13. Paying utilities cost for roadway lighting and...

  7. BoRIS and BIA: CRIS and Institutional Repository integration at the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano

    OpenAIRE

    Siciliano, Luigi; Schmidt, Sabine; Kinzler, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Delivered at the CRIS2014 Conference in Rome; published in Procedia Computer Science 33 (Jul 2014). Contains conference paper (6 pages) and presentation (14 slides). This paper describes the implementation at the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano (FUB) of a Current Research Information System named BoRIS (Bozen-Bolzano Research Information System, an implementation of Avedas Converis 5 software) integrated not only with locally developed Human Resource Information (HRIS) and Financial sy...

  8. Agreement between Omron 306 and Biospace InBody 720 Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzers (BIA) in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Kevin J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Ihász, Ferenc; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the convergent validity of Omron 306 using Biospace InBody 720. Method: A total of 267 participants (145 boys; aged 10.4-17.9 years) completed testing during a single session. Each measure provided percent body fat (%BF), while the InBody 720 included fat-free mass (FFM). The validity was examined…

  9. DEGRADAÇÃO ANAERÓBIA DE FENOL EM REATORES EM BATELADA SOB CONDIÇÕES FERMENTATIVAS

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Imaculada Maintinguer; Isabel Kimiko Sakamoto; Iolanda Cristina Silveira Duarte; Edson Luiz Silva; Carlos Dias Maciel; Maria Bernadete Amâncio Varesche

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a potencialidade do inóculo na degradação de fenol sob diferentes condições nutricionais.Os reatores foram alimentados com fenol, sulfato e extrato de levedura, mantidos a 30 +1º C, sob agitação 150 rpm. Os reatoresalimentados com fenol (240 mg L-1) e extrato de levedura obtiveram 100% de eficiência de degradação em 11 dias. Os reatoresalimentados com fenol (234 mg L-1), sulfato (162,5 mg L-1) e extrato de levedura; e fenol (256 mg L-1), sulfato (500 mg L...

  10. DEGRADAÇÃO ANAERÓBIA DE FENOL EM REATORES EM BATELADA SOB CONDIÇÕES FERMENTATIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Imaculada Maintinguer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a potencialidade do inóculo na degradação de fenol sob diferentes condições nutricionais.Os reatores foram alimentados com fenol, sulfato e extrato de levedura, mantidos a 30 +1º C, sob agitação 150 rpm. Os reatoresalimentados com fenol (240 mg L-1 e extrato de levedura obtiveram 100% de eficiência de degradação em 11 dias. Os reatoresalimentados com fenol (234 mg L-1, sulfato (162,5 mg L-1 e extrato de levedura; e fenol (256 mg L-1, sulfato (500 mg L-1 eextrato de levedura obtiveram eficiências de degradação de respectivamente 98,8% e 99,3%, em 17 dias. Tais ganhos foramobtidos devido às adições de extrato de levedura no início dos experimentos. As análises de Biologia Molecular confirmaram queas bactérias presentes no inóculo permaneceram nos reatores, apesar de terem sido operados sob condições nutricionais distintas.Essas condições propiciaram a permanência de populações bacterianas capazes de degradar fenol sob condições fermentativas econsumir sulfato.

  11. A register based system for gene tracking in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Read, A P; Kerzin-Storrar, L; Mountford, R C; Elles, R G; Harris, R.

    1986-01-01

    A total of 102 families with Duchenne muscular dystrophy has been studied with linked DNA polymorphisms as an aid to estimating carrier risks for female relatives. Early work using probes RC8, L1.28, and pXUT23 gave very little clinically useful information because of the high recombination rates between these probes and Duchenne muscular dystrophy and the low proportion of women who were heterozygous. Clinically useful results were obtained using probes 99-6, 754, and particularly pERT87. Ex...

  12. Health workforce responses to global health initiatives funding: a comparison of Malawi and Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Brugha; J. Kadzandira; J. Simbaya; P. Dicker; V. Mwapasa; A. Walsh

    2010-01-01

    Background Shortages of health workers are obstacles to utilising global health initiative (GHI) funds effectively in Africa. This paper reports and analyses two countries' health workforce responses during a period of large increases in GHI funds. Methods Health facility record reviews were conduct

  13. Przemiany narodowościowo-językowe ludności Białorusi na przełomie XX i XXI wieku

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Eberhardt

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic and linguistic changes of the Belarusian population at the turn of the 21th centuryThe first part of the article presents historical background of the origin of the Belarusian nation, located in the area of a confrontation between Russia and Poland. This rivalry was won by Russia, and in effect Belarusian land was incorporated into the Russian Empire, and later into the Soviet state. The next part presents the 20th century ethnic structure as the consequence of the Bolshevik Revolution...

  14. Cechy polszczyzny północnokresowej utrwalone w poezji Feliksa Mieszczańskiego ze wsi Kadysz na Białorusi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Mazurkiewicz-Sułkowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The north-eastern Polish dialects preserved in the poetry of Feliks Mieszczański from Kadysz village (Republic of Belarus The article describes the variety of Polish spoken by the inhabitants of Kadysz – a village located in the closed border zone at the junction of three state borders: Belarus, Poland and Lithuania. Its population preserved the local culture and Polish as a means of everyday communication, due to the fact that during the Period of Partitions in Poland this area never became part of the Russian Empire, but remained part of the Kingdom of Poland, and today it is isolated from the Republic of Belarus by the closed border zone. The observations are based on the analysis of Feliks Mieszczański’s texts – a man who spent all his life in Kadysz village. He has never learned the literary variety of Polish or literary Russian, because of a mild mental retardation.   Черты северо-восточного польского диалекта, зафиксированные в поэзии Феликса Мещанского, жителя деревни Кадыш (Беларусь Статья посвящена польскому языку жителей деревни Кадыш, находящейся в закрытой приграничной зоне на стыке трех государственных границ: Беларуси, Польши и Литвы. Благодаря тому, что во время разделов Речипосполитой земли эти никогда не входили в состав северо-западных губерний Российской Империи, а являлись частью Королевства Польского, и сейчас изолированы от остальной части Беларуси закрытой приграничной зоной, местное население сохранило местную культуру и польский язык в качестве средства повседневного общения. Наблюдения представлены на основании анализа текстов Феликса Мещанского – лица, прожившего всю свою жизнь в Кадыше, никoгда не изучавшего польский литературный язык, а также практически не изучавшего русский язык (в связи с легкой степенью умственной отсталости.

  15. Korrelation der bioelektrischen Impedanz-Analyse (BIA) und Lebensqualität nach körperformenden Eingriffen in der Plastischen Chirurgie

    OpenAIRE

    Smeets, Ralf

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: In plastic surgery, body contouring becomes more popular. In this study, long-term effects of abdominoplasty and liposuction on fat-/BMI-values and changes in quality of life were analysed. Materials and methods: The study included two patient groups who underwent plastic surgery between October 1998 and November 2001. 57 patients (group A) underwent liposuction, 41 (group B) abdominoplasty. Fat and BMI-values were determined one hour before surgery, at the first postoperative d...

  16. Influência do biodiesel de soja na biodegradação anaeróbia do benzeno e tolueno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Moraes Schambeck

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A influência do biodiesel de soja na biodegradação dos hidrocarbonetos monoaromáticos benzeno e tolueno foi estudada sob condições anaeróbias em dois microcosmos montados com água subterrânea sintética, inóculo metanogênico, benzeno, tolueno e biodiesel. Na presença de biodiesel não foi observada biodegradação do benzeno e do tolueno. Com a biodegradação do biodiesel ocorreu a formação de acetato e metano, uso do sulfato e um aumento de 45 vezes no número de bactérias sulfato-redutoras. Esses resultados mostraram que, na mistura com benzeno e tolueno, o biodiesel foi biodegradado tanto sob condições de sulfato-redução quanto metanogênicas e que sua presença estimulou o crescimento da biomassa.

  17. Effect of Gender on the Pharmacokinetics of Eslicarbazepine Acetate (BIA 2-093), a New Voltage-gated Sodium Channel Blocker

    OpenAIRE

    Falcão, Amílcar; Maia, Joana; Almeida, Luís; Mazur, Dago; Gellert, Manfred; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effect of gender on the pharmacokinetics of eslicarbazepine acetate, a novel voltage-gated sodium channel blocker in the development for the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Methods. Single-centre, open-label, parallel-group study in 12 female and 12 male healthy subjects. The study consisted of a single-dose (600 mg) period and a multiple-dose (600 mg, oncedaily, for 8 days) period, separated by 4 days. Results. Eslicarbazepine acetate w...

  18. Bioprocesso intensificado para a conversão anaeróbia de gás de síntese a biocombustíveis

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Filipa Maria Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica In the last decades, biological conversion of syngas has been studied and explored, in order to become an environmental friendly biotechnological alternative for the chemical route. Lignocellulosic biomass and other recalcitrant residues are a widely available feedstock that can be easily converted to syngas through gasification. Anaerobic microorganisms are able to use this syngas mixture, mainly composed by carbon monoxide (...

  19. Przemiany narodowościowo-językowe ludności Białorusi na przełomie XX i XXI wieku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Eberhardt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic and linguistic changes of the Belarusian population at the turn of the 21th centuryThe first part of the article presents historical background of the origin of the Belarusian nation, located in the area of a confrontation between Russia and Poland. This rivalry was won by Russia, and in effect Belarusian land was incorporated into the Russian Empire, and later into the Soviet state. The next part presents the 20th century ethnic structure as the consequence of the Bolshevik Revolution and World Wars I and II, resulting in some border changes, war loses and migration movements. The main part of the article deals with the ethnic and language changes which occurred in the last decade of the 20th and in the first decade of the 21st centuries. The statistical analysis and interpretation is based on data from three population censuses (1989, 1999, 2009. An ethnic structure and linguistic situation are presented with the emphasis placed on the status of the two languages commonly used in Belarus, i.e. Russian and Belarusian, as seen in two categories: of mother language and of the language used for communication at home. The conclusions prove the expansion of popularity of the Russian language and gradual decrease of the use of the Belarusian language, both in public and at home. The processes of Russification, which had begun in the Soviet period, are intensifying despite the fact that Belarus regained its political souverianity as a country. On the basis of quantitative data the author defines specific intensity and territorial distribution of the influence of the Russian language. The final part of the article shows political and geo-political consequences of these changes in Belarus.

  20. Análise da potência aeróbia de futebolistas por meio de teste de campo e teste laboratorial

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Javier Ramirez Lizana; Felipe Belozo; Thiago Lourenço; René Brenzikofer; Denise Vaz Macedo; Milton ShoitiMisuta; Alcides José Scaglia

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: Há métodos diretos e indiretos que são utilizados pelos clubes de futebol para avaliar, acompanhar e determinar o VO2max dos jogadores, sendo este muito importante para o rendimento e a recuperação dos atletas durante uma partida. Objetivo: Avaliar o nível de correlação entre as medidas de VO2max por meio da análise direta de gases e do teste de campo Yo-Yo Intermitente Recovery Level 1 (Yo-YoIR1). Métodos: Participaram do estudo 24 jogadores de futebol da categoria SUB-2...

  1. Wyniki liczenia gniazd bociana białego (Ciconia ciconia) na terenie byłych powiatów Bełchatów i Sieradz

    OpenAIRE

    Bartyzel, Piotr; Kamerdyn, Czeslaw

    1992-01-01

    In 1984 the nests of the White Stork in the area of the former Bełchatów District (734 km2) and a part of the former Sieradz District (about 720 km2) were investigated. Comparisons were based on questionnaire data from 1968-1970 and on an inspection from 1974. 42 (5.72 nests /100 km2) and 35 (4.86 nests/km 2) nests, respectively, occupied by pairs were recorded. In the whole course of the investigated period the percentage of nests with no breeding success (HPo) increased expon...

  2. CARACTERIZAÇÃO E ACEITABILIDADE DE BARRAS DE CEREAIS ADICIONADAS DE PROTEÍNA TEXTURIZADA DE SOJA E CAMU - CAMU (MYRCIARIA DÚBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanna Paz PEUCKERT

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A associação entre barras de cereais e alimentos saudáveis é uma tendência no setor de alimentos, beneficiando assim, o mercado desses produtos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo a elaboração e análise sensorial de barra de cereal adicionada de proteína de soja e camu-camu (Myrciaria dúbia. Avaliou-se a composição química (umidade, proteínas, lipídios, fi bra bruta, cinzas e carboidratos e o teor de vitamina C da fruta e da barra elaborada, além de efetuar-se análise sensorial e determinação do valor calórico da barra. As análises de pH, acidez e °Brix foram realizadas somente na fruta. A barra de cereal apresentou resultados de 12,24% de umidade, 6% de lipídios, 1,75% de fi bra, 3,06% de cinzas, 17,1% e 59,95% de proteínas e carboidrato, respectivamente, além de um aporte calórico de 361,8kcal/100g e um teor de vitamina C de 57,23mg%. O produto ainda apresentou boa aceitabilidade em todos os atributos sensoriais (cor, aparência, sabor e textura, os quais foram considerados similares às barras de cereais industrializadas, com alta aceitabilidade global e resultado satisfatório na pesquisa de mercado, demonstrando ser um produto com grande potencial.

  3. 25 CFR 162.623 - What will BIA do if a tenant holds over after the expiration or cancellation of a lease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... expiration or cancellation of a lease? 162.623 Section 162.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT... if a tenant holds over after the expiration or cancellation of a lease? If a tenant remains in possession after the expiration or cancellation of a lease, we will treat the unauthorized use as a...

  4. 25 CFR 166.709 - What will the BIA do if a permittee holds over after the expiration or cancellation of a permit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... expiration or cancellation of a permit? 166.709 Section 166.709 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT... permittee holds over after the expiration or cancellation of a permit? If a permittee remains in possession of Indian land after the expiration or cancellation of a permit, we will treat the unauthorized...

  5. On the solution of fractional evolution equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbas, Anatoly A [Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, Belarusian State University, 220050 Minsk (Belarus); Pierantozzi, Teresa [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Facultad de Informatica, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Trujillo, Juan J [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de la Laguna, 38271 La Laguna-Tenerife (Spain); Vazquez, Luis [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Facultad de Informatica, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-03-05

    This paper is devoted to the solution of the bi-fractional differential equation ({sup C}D{sup {alpha}}{sub t}u)(t, x) = {lambda}({sup L}D{sup {beta}}{sub x}u)(t, x) (t>0, -{infinity} 0 and {lambda} {ne} 0, with the initial conditions lim{sub x{yields}}{sub {+-}}{sub {infinity}} u(t,x) = 0 u(0+,x)=g(x). Here ({sup C}D{sup {alpha}}{sub t}u)(t, x) is the partial derivative coinciding with the Caputo fractional derivative for 0 < {alpha} < 1 and with the usual derivative for {alpha} = 1, while ({sup L}D{sup {beta}}{sub x}u)(t, x)) is the Liouville partial fractional derivative ({sup L}D{sup {beta}}{sub t}u)(t, x)) of order {beta} > 0. The Laplace and Fourier transforms are applied to solve the above problem in closed form. The fundamental solution of these problems is established and its moments are calculated. The special case {alpha} = 1/2 and {beta} = 1 is presented, and its application is given to obtain the Dirac-type decomposition for the ordinary diffusion equation.

  6. The Development of a Provincial Green and Happy Society Index in Thailand: The Richer You Are, the Happier You Are

    OpenAIRE

    Sumalee Santipolvut

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to develop the GHI at the provincial level, in order to reflect obvious levels of development under the eleventh National Economic and Social Development plan (2012–2016), which can be used to monitor, evaluate, and report the performance of a green and happy society. It will also encourage awareness and the formation of networks in the development of the GHI in each province. There are six dimensions of the GHI, the values and levels of which depend on data availability, benc...

  7. Aerobic and anaerobic mineralization of Salvinia molesta and Myriophyllum aquaticum leachates from a tropical reservoir (Brazil Mineralização aeróbia e anaeróbia dos lixiviados de Salvinia molesta e Myriophyllum aquaticum de um reservatório tropical (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Henriques da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed at describing and discussing the leachates mineralization (aerobic and anaerobic of two species of aquatic macrophytes (Salvinia molesta and Myriophyllum aquaticum from a tropical reservoir (22° 00' S and 47° 54' W; METHODS: The incubations were prepared with plant leachates and reservoir water sample and were maintained during 45 days in the dark (at 20 °C. The organic carbon and the oxygen consumption kinetics were evaluated; RESULTS: Irrespective of to the experimental condition, the leachates were mainly utilized for catabolic processes (i.e., respiration, mineralization was slightly faster in an aerobic environment (1.22 fold and in this condition, the yield of refractory products was smaller (2.3%; the O/C stoichiometric ratios values (oxygen consumed per atom of carbon from mineralization of the 2 types of leachates were similar (ca. 1.12; CONCLUSIONS: According to these results we conclude that the leachate from selected macrophytes is rapidly decomposed and subsidize primariy the microbial catabolism (aerobic or anaerobic; in addition, we propose that S. molesta contributes more to the input of dissolved organic matter within the reservoir.OBJETIVO: Nesse estudo foram descritas as mineralizações (aeróbias e anaeróbias dos lixiviados de 2 espécies de macrófitas aquáticas (Salvinia molesta e Myriophyllum aquaticum que ocorrem em um reservatório tropical (22° 00' S e 47° 54' O; MÉTODOS: As incubações, preparadas com os lixiviados das plantas e amostra de água do reservatório, foram mantidas no escuro e a 20 °C, por 45 dias. Foram avaliadas as cinéticas de perda de massa do carbono orgânico e de consumo de oxigênio; RESULTADOS: Independente da condição experimental, os lixiviados foram principalmente utilizados na respiração; as mineralizações foram ligeiramente mais rápidas em meio aeróbio (1,22 vezes e nessa condição, os rendimentos dos produtos refratários foram menores (2,3%; as relações estequiométricas O/C (oxigênio consumido por átomo de carbono foram similares nas mineralizações aeróbias dos dois tipos de lixiviado (≈1,12; CONCLUSÕES: Com base nesses resultados concluiu-se que os lixiviados das macrófitas selecionadas são rapidamente decompostos e subsidiam prioritariamente o catabolismo (aeróbio ou anaeróbio microbiano; supôs-se, ainda, que S. molesta contribua mais para as aduções de matéria orgânica dissolvida do reservatório do Monjolinho.

  8. Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimation Fat-Free Mass in the Army Cadets

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, Raquel D.; Borges, Juliano H.; Pascoa, Mauro A.; Cirolini, Vagner X.; Gil Guerra-Júnior; Ezequiel M. Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) is a fast, practical, non-invasive, and frequently used method for fat-free mass (FFM) estimation. The aims of this study were to validate predictive equations of BIA to FFM estimation in Army cadets and to develop and validate a specific BIA equation for this population. Methods: A total of 396 males, Brazilian Army cadets, aged 17–24 years were included. The study used eight published predictive BIA equations, a specific equation in FFM est...

  9. 77 FR 20790 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ..., bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), food habits, and genetic research. The yellowtail flounder retained... for maturity, fecundity, BIA, food habits, and genetic research. The summer flounder retained would...--whole fish would be retained for maturity, fecundity, BIA, food habits, and genetic research. The...

  10. BMI percentile-for-age overestimates adiposity in early compared with late maturing pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    .041) was found with early compared with late maturation, despite similar BIA-estimated body fat percentage (BIA-BF%). Neither BMI nor BIA-BF% differed for a given stage of maturation. BMI percentile-for-age and prevalence of overweight/obesity were higher in the early compared with late matured pubertal children...

  11. 76 FR 33340 - Revision of Agency Information Collection for the Indian Child Welfare Assistance Annual Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Child Welfare Act (ICWA) coordinators provide to BIA on a quarterly basis. The information collection is... the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) and implementing regulations, at 25 CFR part 23. BIA collects the information using a consolidated caseload form, which tribal ICWA program directors fill out. BIA uses...

  12. Advancing integrative “one-health” approaches to global health through multidisciplinary, faculty-led global health field courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. C Olsen, DVM

    2015-03-01

    Funding: The GHI is supported through a combination of university, grants, and philanthropic funding; these field courses do not have specific, separate funding. Students self-fund participation in the courses.

  13. GENETIC DEFECTS IN THE GROWTH HORMONE-IGF-I AXIS CAUSING GROWTH HORMONE INSENSITIVITY AND IMPAIRED LINEAR GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Martin O; Vivian eHwa; Alessia eDavid; Rosenfeld, Ron G.; Metherell, Louise A.

    2011-01-01

    Human genetic defects in the growth hormone (GH)–IGF-I axis affecting the IGF system present with growth failure as their principal clinical feature. This is usually associated with GH insensitivity (GHI) presenting in childhood as severe or mild short stature. Dysmorphic features and metabolic abnormalities may also be present. The field of GHI due to mutations affecting GH action has evolved rapidly since the first description of the extreme phenotype related to homozygous GH receptor (GHR)...

  14. Kinetic studies of gas hydrate formation with low-dosage hydrate inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Pipeline blockage by gas hydrates is a serious problem in the petroleum industry.Low-dosage inhibitors have been developed for its cost-effective and environmentally acceptable characteristics.In a 1.072-L reactor with methane,ethane and propane gas mixture under the pressure of about 8.5 MPa at 4 °C,hydrate formation was investigated with low-dosage hydrate inhibitors PVP and GHI1,the change of the compressibility factor and gas composition in the gas phase was analyzed,the gas contents in hydrates were compared with PVP and GHI1 added,and the inhibition mechanism of GHI1 was discussed.The results show that PVP and GHI1 could effectively inhibit the growth of gas hydrates but not nucleation.Under the experimental condition with PVP added,methane and ethane occupied the small cavities of the hydrate crystal unit and the ability of ethane entering into hydrate cavities was weaker than that of methane.GHI1 could effectively inhibit molecules which could more readily form hydrates.The ether and hydroxy group of diethylene glycol monobutyl ether have the responsibility for stronger inhibition ability of GHI1 than PVP.

  15. A Comparison Between Heliosat-2 and Artificial Neural Network Methods for Global Horizontal Irradiance Retrievals over Desert Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedira, H.; Eissa, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Global horizontal irradiance (GHI) retrievals at the surface of any given location could be used for preliminary solar resource assessments. More accurately, the direct normal irradiance (DNI) and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) are also required to estimate the global tilt irradiance, mainly used for fixed flat plate collectors. Two different satellite-based models for solar irradiance retrievals have been applied over the desert environment of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Both models employ channels of the SEVIRI instrument, onboard the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation, as their main inputs. The satellite images used in this study have a temporal resolution of 15-min and a spatial resolution of 3-km. The objective of this study is to compare between the GHI retrieved using the Heliosat-2 method and an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble method over the UAE. The high-resolution visible channel of SEVIRI is used in the Heliosat-2 method to derive the cloud index. The cloud index is then used to compute the cloud transmission, while the cloud-free GHI is computed from the Linke turbidity factor. The product of the cloud transmission and the cloud-free GHI denotes the estimated GHI. A constant underestimation is observed in the estimated GHI over the dataset available in the UAE. Therefore, the cloud-free DHI equation in the model was recalibrated to fix the bias. After recalibration, results over the UAE show a root mean square error (RMSE) value of 10.1% and a mean bias error (MBE) of -0.5%. As for the ANN approach, six thermal channels of SEVIRI were used to estimate the DHI and the total optical depth of the atmosphere (δ). An ensemble approach is employed to obtain a better generalizability of the results, as opposed to using one single weak network. The DNI is then computed from the estimated δ using the Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law. The GHI is computed from the DNI and DHI estimates. The RMSE for the estimated GHI obtained over an

  16. Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimation Fat-Free Mass in the Army Cadets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel D. Langer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA is a fast, practical, non-invasive, and frequently used method for fat-free mass (FFM estimation. The aims of this study were to validate predictive equations of BIA to FFM estimation in Army cadets and to develop and validate a specific BIA equation for this population. Methods: A total of 396 males, Brazilian Army cadets, aged 17–24 years were included. The study used eight published predictive BIA equations, a specific equation in FFM estimation, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as a reference method. Student’s t-test (for paired sample, linear regression analysis, and Bland–Altman method were used to test the validity of the BIA equations. Results: Predictive BIA equations showed significant differences in FFM compared to DXA (p < 0.05 and large limits of agreement by Bland–Altman. Predictive BIA equations explained 68% to 88% of FFM variance. Specific BIA equations showed no significant differences in FFM, compared to DXA values. Conclusion: Published BIA predictive equations showed poor accuracy in this sample. The specific BIA equations, developed in this study, demonstrated validity for this sample, although should be used with caution in samples with a large range of FFM.

  17. Microbiota cloacal aeróbia de cracídeos cativos no Rio Grande do Sul e sua susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos Cloacal microbiota identification and evaluation of the antimicrobial resistance in captive cracids from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Fernandes Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Os cracídeos são aves silvestres que habitam as matas tropicais da América. Foram coletadas, no ano de 2007, amostras cloacais de 51 aves de dez espécies diferentes de cracídeos mantidos em cativeiros no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A partir dos swabs, colhidos assepticamente, foi realizado o isolamento e a caracterização bacteriana e o teste de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana dos isolados. Foram identificadas 93 cepas de bactérias. As bactérias mais frequentemente isoladas foram Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp. e Streptococcus spp. Todas as amostras foram negativas para o isolamento de Salmonella spp. O resultado do teste de sensibilidade mostrou que dentre as 93 cepas isoladas, todas foram sensíveis apenas ao imipinem. Adicionalmente, os menores percentuais de resistência foram observados frente ao cloranfenicol e ciprofloxacina. Os gêneros e espécies bacterianas com maior percentual de resistência a diferentes antibióticos testados foram Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus spp. Com os resultados obtidos no presente trabalho, concluí-se, que a população de cracídeos estudada apresenta sua microbiota cloacal composta por vários gêneros e espécies bacterianas e que a multirresistencia pode ser um problema no futuro, uma vez que algumas cepas isoladas mostraram percentuais elevados de resistência a diferente antimicrobianos.Cracids are wildlife Galliformes which inhabits the America's tropical forests. Fifty one cloacal swabs were collected from 10 different species of captive cracids from the Rio Grande do Sul State during 2007. The cloacal swab samples were submitted to bacterial isolation, identification and, subsequently; antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Ninety three bacterial isolates were obtained from the cracid population examined. The most prevalent among the isolates were Escherichia coli, and bacteria from the Staphylococcus and Streptococcus genera. All samples tested in this study were negative for Salmonella spp. The antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that none of the 93 strains presented resistance to the antimicrobial imipinem. In addition, the lower percentages of resistance were observed against cloranfenicol and ciprofloxacine. The bacteria genus and species with the highest percentage of resistance to the different antimicrobials examined were E. coli, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. In conclusion, the data presented in this article demonstrate that the cloacal microbiota of the reported cracid population is composed of several bacterial genera and species and multi-drug resistance may be a problem for the future, since some strains showed elevated percentage of resistance against several different antimicrobials.

  18. Estudo de catalisadores a base de cobre e nióbia na reação de reforma a vapor de etanol = Study of catalysts based on copper and niobium oxide in steam reforming of ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Carolina Pelissari Rizzo-Domingues

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalisadores Cu/Nb2O5 foram modificados pela incorporação de MgO ouK2O (redutores da acidez do suporte ou Ni (um facilitador da quebra da ligação C-C para serem utilizados na reforma do etanol em unidade de bancada com leito catalítico de 7 g a 573 K, variando-se a velocidade espacial e a razão molar dos reagentes de modo a otimizar oprocesso de produção de hidrogênio com conseqüente diminuição de subprodutos. Os catalisadores foram caracterizados por área superficial específica, difração de raios-X e redução à temperatura programada. Pôde-se verificar que a introdução de óxido dopante daacidez ou de um segundo metal provocou um aumento da porosidade e da temperatura de início de redução do cobre nos catalisadores, alterando dessa forma a superfície catalítica. A redução da acidez do suporte diminuiu a formação de subprodutos e aumentou a dehidrogênio. Níquel como segundo metal aumentou a produção de CO e CH4.Cu/Nb2O5 catalysts were modified by the incorporation of MgOor K2O (support acidity reducer and Ni (a facilitator of the bond break C-C to be used in the ethanol reforming in bench-scale unit with catalytic bed of 7 g at 573 K, varying the space velocity and the molar rate of the reagents in order to optimize the process ofproduction of hydrogen with consequent decrease of by-products. The catalysts were characterized by specific superficial area, X-ray diffraction and temperature programmed reduction. Results showed that the introduction of the basic oxide or a second metal, nickel, lead to an increase in the porosity and in the temperature at the beginning of copper reduction in the catalyst. The acidity reduction of the support decreased the formation of by-products and increased the hydrogen formation. Nickel as a second metal increased theproduction of CO and CH4.

  19. Estudo de catalisadores a base de cobre e nióbia na reação de reforma a vapor de etanol - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v29i1.78

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Carolina Pelissari Rizzo-Domingues

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalisadores Cu/Nb2O5 foram modificados pela incorporação de MgO ou K2O (redutores da acidez do suporte ou Ni (um facilitador da quebra da ligação C-C para serem utilizados na reforma do etanol em unidade de bancada com leito catalítico de 7 g a 573 K, variando-se a velocidade espacial e a razão molar dos reagentes de modo a otimizar o processo de produção de hidrogênio com conseqüente diminuição de subprodutos. Os catalisadores foram caracterizados por área superficial específica, difração de raios-X e redução à temperatura programada. Pôde-se verificar que a introdução de óxido dopante da acidez ou de um segundo metal provocou um aumento da porosidade e da temperatura de início de redução do cobre nos catalisadores, alterando dessa forma a superfície catalítica. A redução da acidez do suporte diminuiu a formação de subprodutos e aumentou a de hidrogênio. Níquel como segundo metal aumentou a produção de CO e CH4.

  20. A profecia dos desertos da Líbia: conservação da natureza e construção nacional no pensamento de José Bonifácio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pádua José Augusto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo demonstra que as preocupações manifestadas por José Bonifácio quanto ao uso destrutivo dos recursos naturais, especialmente das florestas, representam um elemento básico e recorrente no seu pensamento político. A análise da evolução dos seus escritos, entre 1790 e 1823, revela uma permanente ligação do autor com a corrente científica conhecida como "economia da natureza", que se originou na Europa do século XVIII e é considerada um dos elos genealógicos mais imediatos na formação posterior da "ecologia". A reforma profunda na relação com o meio natural no Brasil, superando o padrão predatório de exploração herdado do colonialismo, configurou um dos eixos centrais do projeto nacional de Bonifácio, que incluía uma indicação bastante precisa das políticas públicas que seriam necessárias para realizar este objetivo. Sua principal contribuição foi demonstrar a existência de uma relação de causalidade entre o escravismo e a destruição ambiental.

  1. A profecia dos desertos da Líbia: conservação da natureza e construção nacional no pensamento de José Bonifácio

    OpenAIRE

    Pádua José Augusto

    2000-01-01

    O artigo demonstra que as preocupações manifestadas por José Bonifácio quanto ao uso destrutivo dos recursos naturais, especialmente das florestas, representam um elemento básico e recorrente no seu pensamento político. A análise da evolução dos seus escritos, entre 1790 e 1823, revela uma permanente ligação do autor com a corrente científica conhecida como "economia da natureza", que se originou na Europa do século XVIII e é considerada um dos elos genealógicos mais imediatos na formação pos...

  2. Viabilidade de ovos de Fasciola hepatica de bovinos em sistema de biodigestão anaeróbia Viability of bovine's Fasciola hepatica eggs in a system of anaerobic biodigestion

    OpenAIRE

    M.B. Mentz; J.M. Wiest; P.C. Gonçalves

    2004-01-01

    Cattle Fasciola hepatica egg-viability was studied in closed system of anaerobic biodigestion. Two thirds of a biodigestor were filled with liquefied manure from eight Hosltein cows, naturally infected. For 10 consecutive weeks of observation, the biodigestor internal temperature ranged from 24ºC to 28ºC, and external temperature from 26ºC to 33ºC. All the effluent samples showed a constant pH of 7. The samples of the effluent were weekly collected, in a total of 10 and submitted to technique...

  3. Zamowy białoruskie oraz inne teksty ludowego lekarowania jako dowód na przenikanie się języków i kultur na obszarze byłego Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Szcześniak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Belorussian zamowy and other folk medicine texts as evidence for linguistic and cultural permeation in the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania This paper presents the lexical material stored in the Belorussian zamowy: names of holidays, prayers, designations of the sacred and clergy portaits, as well as names and nationalities. The documentation, coming from two sets of Belorussian zamowy (addresses given in references, shows clearly that these texts – which usually come with a classic construction, important for those telling them – preserved traces of multilingualism, different religions and dialects, as well as the information about the nationalities residing in the area. Some lexemes (or groups of lexemes mix two or three languages. What is more, it often occurs that literary language and the standard variety (Polish are mixed with Belorussian dialects, which stems from the historical circumstances the area studied. Such information could be preserved in zamowy because słowa or szepty (as they were called had strictly defined structure, and had to include certain lexemes that always came in the same pre-defined order.   Белорусские заговоры и другие тексты народного лечения как свидетельство взаимопроникновения языков на территории бывшего Великого княжества Литовского Статья представляет лексический материал, содержащийся в белoрусских заговорах, который касается названий праздников, молитв, определений изображений святых и священников, а также имен святых и национальностей. Документация, почерпнутая из двух книг белoрусских заговоров, выходные данные которых содержит перечень использованной литературы, с яркостью показала, что в данных текстах (отличающихся, как правило, классической композицией, существенной для тех, кто их произносил сохранилсь следы многоязычия, разных религий и диалектов, а также информация относительно национальности проживающих на данной территории. Некоторые лексемы (или сочетания лексем содержат следы смешения двух или даже трех языков, или общелитературного языка (польского с белoрусским диалектом, что – по мнению автора – вытекает из прошлого исследуемого пространства. В загово рах моглa сохраниться вся указаннaя информация, так как данные единицы (слова, шепоты, как их принято определять, помимо прочего отличались определенным построением и набором определенных лексем с их четкой последовательностью.

  4. Modelagem da decomposição aeróbia de lodo de esgoto em solos com diferentes texturas Modeling of aerobic decomposition of sewage sludge in soils of different textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia R. Teles

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito do teor de argila sobre o processo de decomposição de lodo de esgoto disposto em solo e propor modelos matemáticos inserindo este efeito em seus parâmetros. Solos com texturas contrastantes originados de uma mesma matriz permitiram estabelecer melhores relações entre o teor de argila, biomassa microbiana e carbono orgânico total e a produção de CO2 do que experimentos similares da literatura em que foram utilizados solos de diferentes matrizes. O efeito do teor de argila se manifestou apenas no período inicial de 7 dias (R² = 0,59**. Modelos cinéticos foram propostos para modelar a decomposição de lodo em solos com diferentes texturas. Determinaram-se modelos de primeira ordem bifásicos, assumindo que a fase lenta e a rápida não ocorrem simultaneamente, enquanto os parâmetros do modelo correspondentes às fases lenta e rápida foram correlacionados ao teor de argila resultando em modelos matemáticos que evidenciaram o efeito deste fator no processo de decomposição ao mesmo tempo em que permitem prever seu efeito na produção de CO2.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of clay content on sewage sludge decomposition in soil and to propose mathematical models with clay dependent parameters. Soils with contrasting textures from the same sample matrix allowed better relationships to be derived between clay content, microbial biomass, organic carbon and CO2 production then those usually obtained in the literature. Clay effect was noticed only in the first week (R² = 0.59**. Kinetic models were proposed to model sludge decomposition in soils with different textures. Double phase first order models with non-simultaneous time scales were fitted to the data. Model parameters were correlated to clay content, emphasizing the clay effect on sewage sludge decomposition and providing a model for prediction of CO2 production.

  5. Research and design of intelligent structure for test and evaluation system of human health on BIA%基于智能结构的BIA人体健康测评系统研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 王建平; 孙怡宁; 张崇巍

    2012-01-01

    针对人体健康评价中数据庞大、受影响因素多等问题,从智能特征建模方法入手结合专家系统理论提出一种智能结构人体健康评价系统模型.运用生物电阻抗技术综合人体总阻抗与分段阻抗相结合的测量方法得到人体生理参数;仿人思维模式把人体健康测评这一复杂任务系统分解为决策、测评两个层次,决策层通过定义有限状态机的转移方式,确定系统所属状态,测评层采用层次分析获取健康评价模式,有效解决了人体健康测评中的多任务、不确定的问题,为解决一类复杂系统的建模问题提供了一个解决思路.%An intelligent structure model is presented in test and evaluation of human health system due to the huge data and many interfering factors in the evaluation process. Human physiologic parameters are obtained with the whole body bioelectrical impedance and trunk subdivision bioelectrical impedance; according to basic ideas of imitation of human intelligence, the complex task system of test and evaluation of human health can be decomposed into two levels: decision and evaluation; the transferring manners based on finite-state-machine is defined in decision level, the analytic hierarchy process is adopted in evaluation level. The multi-mission and uncertainty problem in test and evaluation of human health system can be solved with the intelligent structure model. It brings about a method to deal with the modelling complex system.

  6. Bioestabilização anaeróbia de resíduos sólidos orgânicos em reatores de batelada Anaerobic biostabilization of organic solid waste in batch reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Valderi D. Leite; Wilton S. Lopes; Shiva Prasad

    2001-01-01

    O processo de bioestabilização anaeróbio pode ser empregado para o tratamento de uma grande variedade de substratos, dentre os quais pode-se destacar os resíduos sólidos orgânicos. Neste trabalho, o processo de bioestabilização anaeróbio foi utilizado, quando do tratamento de resíduos sólidos orgânicos putrescíveis de origem urbana e rural. Os resíduos de origem urbana eram constituídos, basicamente, de restos de fruta, verduras e folhagens, enquanto o rúmen bovino era o resíduo rural utiliza...

  7. Bioestabilização anaeróbia de resíduos sólidos orgânicos em reatores de batelada Anaerobic biostabilization of organic solid waste in batch reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi D. Leite

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O processo de bioestabilização anaeróbio pode ser empregado para o tratamento de uma grande variedade de substratos, dentre os quais pode-se destacar os resíduos sólidos orgânicos. Neste trabalho, o processo de bioestabilização anaeróbio foi utilizado, quando do tratamento de resíduos sólidos orgânicos putrescíveis de origem urbana e rural. Os resíduos de origem urbana eram constituídos, basicamente, de restos de fruta, verduras e folhagens, enquanto o rúmen bovino era o resíduo rural utilizado. As proporções de rúmen empregadas foram de 5, 10 e 15% (percentagem em peso.O trabalho foi realizado em um sistema experimental, constituído basicamente por quatro reatores anaeróbios de batelada, com capacidade unitária de 20 L. A eficiência do processo foi determinada tomando-se, como parâmetros avaliativos, os sólidos totais voláteis (STV, a demanda química de oxigênio (DQO e o nitrogênio total Kjedhal (NTK. Salienta-se que este processo de tratamento bioestabiliza os resíduos orgânicos putrescíveis, tornando-os biodisponíveis de aplicação nos solos, além de produzir metano, que pode ser utilizado como fonte alternativa de energia para fins domésticos e industriais. A análise dos dados deste trabalho demonstra que o desempenho do processo de bioestabilização foi função do percentual de rúmen utilizado.The anaerobic biostabilization process can be employed for the treatment of a large variety of substrates, among which the organic solid waste can be cited. In this work, the anaerobic biostabilization process was employed to treat the putrescible organic solid waste of urban and rural origin. The urban origin waste basically consisted of fruits peelings, vegetables and foliage, whereas the rural solid waste was only the bovine rumen. The proportions of rumen used were 5, 10 and 15% (weight basis. The work was carried out on an experimental scale, basically consisting of four anaerobic batch reactors, each with a capacity of 20 L. The efficiency of the process was determined by evaluation of the following parameters: total volatile solids (TVS, chemical oxygen demand (COD and total Kjedhal nitrogen (TKN. It may be pointed out that this treatment process biostabilizes the putrescible organic waste, making it available for application in the soils as well as producing of methane, which can be used as a source of alternative energy for domestic and industrial purposes. The analysis of the data shows that the performance of the biostabilization process is a function of the percentage of rumen used.

  8. Co-digestão anaeróbia de substâncias surfactantes, óleo e lodo de esgoto Anaerobic codigestion of surfactants substances, oil and sludge of sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Comandante Costa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a viabilidade de se tratar conjuntamente substâncias surfactantes, óleo mineral e lodo de esgoto sanitário. Para todos os tratamentos foram analisadas as concentrações de matéria orgânica (DQO afluente e efluente. O sistema experimental foi monitorado durante 150 dias e diariamente eram realizadas quantificações do volume e da composição do biogás produzido. Foram constatadas remoções de DQO filtrada média de 82% aos 18 dias, e para DQO bruta em torno de 76% para os seis tratamentos aos 100 dias de operação. A produção de metano observada durante o período experimental demonstrou que as diferentes concentrações de surfactantes presentes no sistema não se mostraram tóxicas o suficiente para inibir as bactérias metanogênicas.The present work had as objective investigate the viability of treating, through processes anaerobic substances surfactants, mineral oil and sewage sludge. For all the treatments the concentrations of organic matter were analyzed (COD influent and effluent. The experimental system was monitored for 150 days. The volume and composition of the produced biogas were daily quantificated. Removals of filtered COD average were verified from 82% to the 18 days and for raw COD around 76% for the six treatments to the 100 dias.de operation. The methane production observed during the experimental period demonstrated that the different concentrations of present surfactants in the system were not shown toxicant enough to inhibit the methanogenic bacterias.

  9. Język polski w Rosji Radzieckiej w okresie międzywojennym a polszczyzna na Białorusi radzieckiej (na materiale wybranych zagadnień fleksji rzeczowej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Graczykowska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Polish language in Soviet Russia in the interwar period and the Polish language in Soviet Belarus (based on selected features of noun inflexionIn this present paper the author makes an attempt to compare several specific features of noun inflexion excerpted from “Trybuna Radziecka” with the adequate material from the Belarussian press published in the interwar period too. “Trybuna Radziecka” was the Polish newspaper published in Moscow from 1927 to 1938 and edited by Polish Communists, living as political émigrés in the post-revolution Soviet Russia. The Polish language (including the language of the Polish press in Soviet Russia was subject to two powerful mechanisms: communist propaganda and totalitarianism. The language of the Polish press is characteristic of numerous divergences in relation to general Polish especially in vocabulary (the lexical level is dominated by the Russicisms and Sovietic elements. Comaparative analysis shows that the deviations from the general Polish occurred in both sources, but the specific inflexion features are not numerous. The flexion level is arisen under the influence of foreign language system (Belarussian and Russian. All the regional features still function in the postwar Northern Borderland Polish. Польский язык в советской России в период между первой и второй мировой войнами и польский язык в советской Белоруссии (на избранных примерах флексии имени существительногоВ статье сопоставлен язык газеты „Trybuna Radziecka”, издаваемой польскими коммунистами в Москве в межвоенный период, с языком польской прессы, публикуемой в советской Белоруссии в то же веремя. Анализ ведётся на избранных примерах флексии имени существительного. Большинство явлений отмечено в обоих источниках. Следует подчеркнуть, что почти все представленные особенности флексии существительного появились вследствие восточнославянского воздействия, прежде всего русского. Некоторые отклонения представляют собой общепольские тенденции того времени (напр. колебания -i (-y // -owie в именительном падеже существительных м.р. типа liberali или колебания ø // -i в родительном падеже мн.ч. существительных ж.р. типа czytelń. Как показало исследование, все указанные явления в области флексии зафиксированы также в послевоенной вильнюсской прессе. Автор подчёркивает, что ком мунистическая пропаганда и тоталитаризм оставили на польском языке (включая язык польской прессы в советской России в межвоенный период сильный отпечаток (особенно в лексике.

  10. Documentación 3D de pinturas rupestres con Photomodeler Scanner: los motivos esquemáticos de la Cueva del Barranc del Migdia (Xàbia, Alicante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tejerina Antón

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available During the recent campaign of excavation at the Cova del Barranc del Migdia (Javea, Alicantewe have carried out the 3D documentation of the wall painting motifs, which corresponds to the schematic rock art style. To produce the 3D models, we have used Photomodeler Scanner, a commercial digital photogrammetry software with increased use in the cultural heritage sector. The results have been exported to a format compatible with 3D printers, creating a 1/1 scale replica of the original panel. In this paper we describe the typical workflow in a project with Photomodeler Scanner and the results obtained from the x-3 panel.

  11. 运用行为矫正原理矫正大学生恐惧症的案例报告%Case Report on the Correction of College Students' Pho-bia by Using Behavior Modification Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄哲; 唐燕萍

    2015-01-01

    Behavior modification technology is mainly used for children's bad behavior correction, in order to enhance children's adaptation to society. This article explores the expansion of the behavior modification techniques to the field of adults, correcting a university student's phobia of being afraid of walking alone at night by applying the method of systematic desensitization, the implementation process of which is demonstrated in the form of case analysis, and good results have been received.%行为矫正技术主要用于儿童不良行为的矫正,以增进儿童对社会的适应。本文探索将行为矫正技术的适用范围拓展到成人领域,运用系统脱敏法矫正某大学生怕走夜路的恐惧症,以案例分析的形式展现了系统脱敏法的实施过程,收到良好效果。

  12. Viabilidade de ovos de Fasciola hepatica de bovinos em sistema de biodigestão anaeróbia Viability of bovine's Fasciola hepatica eggs in a system of anaerobic biodigestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Mentz

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Cattle Fasciola hepatica egg-viability was studied in closed system of anaerobic biodigestion. Two thirds of a biodigestor were filled with liquefied manure from eight Hosltein cows, naturally infected. For 10 consecutive weeks of observation, the biodigestor internal temperature ranged from 24ºC to 28ºC, and external temperature from 26ºC to 33ºC. All the effluent samples showed a constant pH of 7. The samples of the effluent were weekly collected, in a total of 10 and submitted to techniques to detect the presence and viability of the trematode eggs. It was detected a 42-day egg viability. Therefore, liquefied cattle manure containing Fasciola hepatica eggs must remain under anaerobic biodigestion for at least 42 days before its safe return to the environment.

  13. Biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de caprinos e ovinos em reator contínuo de PVC flexível Anaerobic digestion of goat and sheep wastes in a continuous reactor of flexible PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo G. de Quadros

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A escassez de fontes energéticas e as altas taxas de mortalidade do rebanho são dois grandes problemas para os agricultores familiares no semiárido brasileiro. De setembro de 2006 a abril de 2007 um reator contínuo com gasômetro em PVC flexível, com 33 m³ de volume, instalado na Estação Experimental da EBDA, Jaguarari, Estado da Bahia, foi monitorado quanto aos parâmetros bioquímicos, microbiológicos e parasitários do afluente e efluente, sendo avaliadas a produção e a composição do biogás, além da utilização do biofertilizante em capim-elefante. Com o manejo adequado, o poder poluente dos dejetos foi reduzido significativamente. Microbiologicamente, a eficiência de remoção de coliformes totais e fecais se manteve acima de 98% enquanto os ovos dos principais endoparasitos foram eliminados com o tratamento. A produção de biogás foi de 0,061 m³ kg-1 de esterco. Basicamente, o biogás apresentou, em sua composição, 58 e 34% de metano e gás carbônico, respectivamente. O biofertilizante (pH 7,5 foi uma boa fonte de nutrientes, sobretudo de nitrogênio (64 g 100L-1, 80% na forma amoniacal e potássio (214 g 100L-1, aumentando a produção de forragem sem alterações significativas na composição bromatológica, digestibilidade "in vitro" da matéria seca e teor de minerais.The scarcity of energy resources and the high livestock mortality rates are perpetual problems for small farmers of the Brazilian semi-arid region. From September 2006 to April 2007 a continuous reactor, of 33 m³ with gasometer in PVC flexible film, was installed at the EBDA Experimental Station, Jaguarari, Bahia State and the affluent and effluent biochemical, microbiological, and parasitological characteristics were monitored, the biogas production and composition being evaluated, as well as the use of the biofertilizer in elephant grass. With adequate management, the pollution power of residues reduced significantly. Microbiologically, the efficiency of total and fecal coliforms remotion was above 98%, when the main endoparasite eggs were eliminated after treatment. The biogas production was 0.061 m³ kg-1 of manure. The biogas showed in its composition basically 58 and 34% of methane and carbonic dioxide, respectively. The biofertilizer (pH 7.5 was a great source of nutrients, mainly nitrogen (64 g 100L-1, 80% ammoniacal form and potassium (214 g 100L-1, increasing forage production, without significant changes in the chemical composition, "in vitro" dry matter digestibility, and mineral content.

  14. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition

  15. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, R.F.; Kunigk, A.; Alspaugh, M.; Andronis, P.T.; Leitch, C.A.; Schoeller, D.A. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition.

  16. L-Dex Ratio in Detecting Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema: Reliability, Sensitivity, and Specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Mei R. Fu; Cleland, Charles M.; Guth, Amber A.; Kayal, Maia; Haber, Judith; Cartwright, Francis; Kleinman, Robin; Kang, Yang; Scagliola, Joan; Axelrod, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Advances in bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) permit the assessment of lymphedema by directly measuring lymph fluid changes. The purpose of the study was to examine the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of cross-sectional assessment of BIA in detecting lymphedema in a large metropolitan clinical setting. BIA was used to measure lymph fluid changes. Limb volume by sequential circumferential tape measurement was used to validate the presence of lymphedema. Data were collected from ...

  17. Smartphone-Based Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Devices for Daily Obesity Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ahyoung Choi; Justin Younghyun Kim; Seongwook Jo; Jae Hwan Jee; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Bhagat, Yusuf A.; Insoo Kim; Jaegeol Cho

    2015-01-01

    Current bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) systems are often large, cumbersome devices which require strict electrode placement on the user, thus inhibiting mobile capabilities. In this work, we developed a handheld BIA device that measures impedance from multiple frequencies (5 kHz~200 kHz) with four contact electrodes and evaluated the BIA device against standard body composition analysis systems: a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system (GE Lunar Prodigy, GE Healthcare, Buckingha...

  18. Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Measurement in Predicting Fat-Free Mass of Chinese Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-chuen; Wong, Stephen Heung-sang

    2014-01-01

    Background The current study aimed to examine the validity of various published bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations in estimating FFM among Chinese children and adolescents and to develop BIA equations for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) appropriate for Chinese children and adolescents. Material/Methods A total of 255 healthy Chinese children and adolescents aged 9 to 19 years old (127 males and 128 females) from Tianjin, China, participated in the BIA measurement at 50 kHz...

  19. Fat-free mass prediction equations for bioelectric impedance analysis compared to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in obese adolescents: a validation study

    OpenAIRE

    Hofsteenge, Geesje H.; Chinapaw, Mai JM; Weijs, Peter JM

    2015-01-01

    Background In clinical practice, patient friendly methods to assess body composition in obese adolescents are needed. Therefore, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) related fat-free mass (FFM) prediction equations (FFM-BIA) were evaluated in obese adolescents (age 11–18 years) compared to FFM measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (FFM-DXA) and a new population specific FFM-BIA equation is developed. Methods After an overnight fast, the subjects attended the outpatient clinic. Af...

  20. Bioelectrical impedance analysis--part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyle, Ursula G; Bosaeus, Ingvar; De Lorenzo, Antonio D;

    2004-01-01

    The use of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is widespread both in healthy subjects and patients, but suffers from a lack of standardized method and quality control procedures. BIA allows the determination of the fat-free mass (FFM) and total body water (TBW) in subjects without significant...... of the estimate. The determination of changes in body cell mass (BCM), extra cellular (ECW) and intra cellular water (ICW) requires further research using a valid model that guarantees that ECW changes do not corrupt the ICW. The use of segmental-BIA, multifrequency BIA, or bioelectrical spectroscopy in altered...

  1. A Comprehensive Diagnostic Framework for Evaluating Business Intelligence and Analytics Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Foshay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Business intelligence and analytics (BIA initiatives are costly, complex and experience high failure rates. Organizations require effective approaches to evaluate their BIA capabilities in order to develop strategies for their evolution. In this paper, we employ a design science paradigm to develop a comprehensive BIA effectiveness diagnostic (BIAED framework that can be easily operationalized. We propose that a useful BIAED framework must assess the correct factors, should be deployed in the proper process context and acquire the appropriate input from different constituencies within an organization. Drawing on the BIAED framework, we further develop an online diagnostic toolkit that includes a comprehensive survey instrument. We subsequently deploy the diagnostic mechanism within three large organizations in North America (involving over 1500 participants and use the results to inform BIA strategy formulation. Feedback from participating organizations indicates that BIA diagnostic toolkit provides insights that are essential inputs to strategy development. This work addresses a significant research gap in the area of BIA effectiveness assessment.

  2. Exogenous recombinant human growth hormone effects during suboptimal energy and zinc intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duro Debora

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Energy and Zinc (Zn deficiencies have been associated with nutritional related growth retardation as well as growth hormone (GH resistance. In this study, the relationship between suboptimal energy and/or Zn intake and growth in rats and their response to immunoreactive exogenous recombinant human GH (GHi, was determined. Results Rats treated with GHi and fed ad-libitum energy and Zn (100/100 had increased IGFBP-3 (p Conclusion These results suggest that GHi enhances weight gain in rats with suboptimal energy and Zn intake but does not modify energy expenditure or physical activity index. Suboptimal Zn intake did not exacerbate the reduced growth or decrease in energy expenditure observed with energy restriction.

  3. Quantifying consumer portion control practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spence, M.; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Stancu, Violeta;

    2015-01-01

    The use of portion control practices has rarely been quantified. The present study aimed to: (1) explore which portion control practices are actually used by the general population and their association with cognitive restraint, demographic background and general health interest (GHI), and (2......) examine how the usage of portion control practices predicts the estimated consumption of an energy dense food (i.e. pizza). Twenty-two portion control practices were rated in terms of their frequency of use from ‘never’ to ‘very often’ by a representative sample of 1012 consumers from the island...... predictor was GHI, followed by gender. Having higher GHI and being female were independently associated with more frequent portion control. Both the eating-strategy scale score and the purchasing-strategy scale score were negatively associated with pizza portion size consumption estimates. In conclusion...

  4. Sub-Hour Solar Data for Power System Modeling From Static Spatial Variability Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, M.; Ibanez, E.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.

    2012-12-01

    High penetration renewable integration studies need high quality solar power data with spatial-temporal correlations that are representative of a real system. This paper will summarize the research relating sequential point-source sub-hour global horizontal irradiance (GHI) values to static, spatially distributed GHI values. This research led to the development of an algorithm for generating coherent sub-hour datasets that span distances ranging from 10 km to 4,000 km. The algorithm, in brief, generates synthetic GHI values at an interval of one-minute, for a specific location, using SUNY/Clean Power Research, satellite-derived, hourly irradiance values for the nearest grid cell to that location and grid cells within 40 km.

  5. 2012 Indice de la faim dans le monde:: Relever le defi de la faim: Assurer une sécurité alimentaire durable dan un monde sous contraintes en eau, en énergie et en terres

    OpenAIRE

    von Grebmer, Klaus; Ringler, Claudia; Rosegrant, Mark W.; Olofinbiyi, Tolulope; Wiesmann, Doris; Fritschel, Heidi; Badiane, Ousmane; Torero, Maximo; Yohannes, Yisehac; Thompson, Jennifer; von Oppeln, Constanze; Rahall, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Selon l’Indice de la faim dans le monde 2012 (GHI), la faim dans le monde a quelque peu diminué depuis 1990 mais reste « grave ». La moyenne mondiale masque des écarts importants entre les régions et les pays. A l’échelle régionale, ce sont l’Asie du Sud et l’Afrique subsaharienne qui obtiennent les scores GHI les plus élevés. L’Asie du Sud a considérablement diminué son score GHI entre 1990 et 1996, notamment en réduisant le nombre d’enfants souffrant d’insuffisance pondérale, mais n’a pas p...

  6. 78 FR 34039 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ...), food habits, and genetic research. The yellowtail flounder retained would not exceed 200 fish per month... combined. Summer Flounder--whole fish would be retained for maturity, fecundity, BIA, food habits, and..., BIA, food habits, and genetic research. The winter flounder retained would not exceed 200 fish...

  7. 25 CFR 166.4 - What terms do I need to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... means a management action to protect, conserve, utilize, and maintain the sustained yield productivity... been reserved for administrative purposes. Grant/granting means the process of the BIA or the Indian... such land reserved for BIA administrative purposes when it is not immediately needed for such...

  8. Off-Reservation Boarding School Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, George W.

    Investigating the Bureau of Indian Affairs' (BIA) boarding schools, a survey team of researchers in law, accounting, education, and psychology gathered data from the 18 BIA off-reservation boarding schools (3 elementary, 12 secondary, and 3 post secondary schools). Data were utilized to examine: student characteristics; teacher-pupil ratios;…

  9. Multi-frequency bioimpedance in equine muscle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-frequency BIA (mfBIA) equipment has been shown to be a non-invasive and reliable method to assess a muscle as a whole or at fibre level. In the equine world this may be the future method of assessment of training condition or of muscle injury. The aim of this study was to test if mfBIA reliably can be used to assess the condition of a horse’s muscles in connection with health assessment, injury and both training and re-training. mfBIA measurements was carried out on 10 ‘hobby’ horses and 5 selected cases with known anamnesis. Impedance, resistance, reactance, phase angle, centre frequency, membrane capacitance and both extracellular and intracellular resistance were measured. Platinum electrodes in connection with a conductance paste were used to accommodate the typical BIA frequencies and to facilitate accurate measurements. Use of mfBIA data to look into the effects of myofascial release treatment was also demonstrated. Our findings indicate that mfBIA provides a non-invasive, easily measurable and very precise assessment of the state of muscles in horses. This study also shows the potential of mfBIA as a diagnostic tool as well as a tool to monitor effects of treatment e.g. myofascial release therapy and metabolic diseases, respectively. (paper)

  10. 25 CFR 103.36 - What options and remedies does the lender have if the borrower defaults on the loan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... include, for example: (1) Hazard, liability, or key man life insurance premiums; (2) Security measures to... INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LOAN GUARANTY, INSURANCE, AND INTEREST SUBSIDY Default and Payment by BIA...), will invalidate BIA's loan guaranty certificate or insurance coverage for that particular loan,...

  11. The Impact of National Cultures on Business & IT Alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvius, A.J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Aligning IT to business needs is still one of the most important concerns for senior management. The message of Business & IT Alignment (BIA) is logical and undisputed, but implementation apparently difficult. As part of a research program on the differences between the theory and practice of BIA th

  12. 25 CFR 170.811 - What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... maintenance? 170.811 Section 170.811 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.811 What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance? If BIA determines that an IRR transportation facility is not...

  13. 30 CFR 218.51 - How to make payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equal annual installments over a specified number of years. EFT—Electronic Funds Transfer. Any paperless... of Indian Affairs (BIA) agency or area office represented by the leases on your report or invoice document. You must include the name of the applicable BIA agency or area office on your payment. Make...

  14. The use of bioelectrical impedance analysis for body composition in epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhm, A; Heitmann, B L

    2013-01-01

    with increased risk of developing chronic diseases. Studies, among others using BIA, suggest that low BMI may reflect low muscle and high BMI fat mass (FM). BIA-derived lean and FM is directly associated with morbidity and mortality. To the contrary, BMI is rather of limited use for measuring BF...

  15. Remarks of Kevin Gover, Assistant Secretary-Indian Affairs: Address to Tribal Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Assistant Secretary Gover apologizes for the Bureau of Indian Affairs' (BIA) actions in the ethnic cleansing of American Indian tribes and the destruction of Indian cultures. He asserts the agency's moral responsibility of putting things right and proposes that a healing process begin and that the BIA work to reinvent itself as an instrument of…

  16. Inferences from stable water isotopes on the Holocene evolution of Scharffenbergbotnen blue-ice area, East Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinisalo, Anna; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John C.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Martma, Tonu; Van De Wal, Roderik S. W.

    2007-01-01

    We show that it is possible to extract a high-resolution (annual) paleoclimate record from the surface of a blue-ice area (BIA). The variability of the surface stable-isotope values suggests that almost all the surface ice in Scharffenbergbotnen BIA, East Antarctica, is of Holocene age. The isotopic

  17. Oito semanas de treinamento intervalado na doença vascular periférica: um estudo de caso = Eight weeks of interval training on the peripheral vascular disease: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos, Tiago Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Conclusão: O treinamento intervalado associado ao treinamento de força melhorou a capacidade aeróbia e anaeróbia do paciente, e pode ser uma boa alternativa para o tratamento da doença vascular periférica

  18. The Effect of an Acute After-School Exercise Bout on Percentage of Body Fat Using Leg-to-Leg Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreacci, Joseph L.; Dixon, Curt B.; Rompolski, Krista; VanGorden, Kelly M.

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a fast, easy to administer, and relatively inexpensive method of evaluating body composition. Due to the ease of operation, interest in using BIA to estimate percentage of body fat (%BF) has grown, especially in settings where body composition assessments are often performed without the benefit of…

  19. Comparison of Bioelectrical Impedance and Skinfolds with Hydrodensitometry in the Assessment of Body Composition in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, W. J.; Diemer, Gary A.; Scott, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a widely used method for estimating body composition, yet issues concerning its validity persist in the literature. The purpose of this study was to validate percentage of body fat (BF) values estimated from BIA and skinfold (SF) with those obtained from hydrodensitometry (HD). Percent BF values measured…

  20. Critical factors and their impact on bioelectrical impedance analysis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brantlov, Steven; Ward, Leigh C; Jødal, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    to BIA, highlights critical factors that may impact on BIA and identifies areas where there is a need for further research in order to increase the quality of impedance measurements and prediction of body composition in children. Although the results of this review highlights a lack of studies...... in children to provide definitive BIA guidelines, the technique has, however, still proven valuable for body composition assessment in ill and healthy children. To fill the gaps in our knowledge, future studies should focus on methodological issues, particularly with regard to hydration, voiding, clothing......Several guidelines for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) have been prepared for adults, but not for children. For that reason, there is a pressing need to develop a consensus set of guidelines to facilitate standardisation of BIA in this important group. This review provides an introduction...

  1. Graft function and nutritional parameters in stable postrenal transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anita; Sharma, R K; Gupta, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a method for the assessment of nutritional status. We studied the effect of graft function on nutritional status in postrenal 45 transplant patients with borderline to good allograft function using BIA. The patients had a mean serum creatinine of 1.42 ± 0.42 mg% and mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 45.1 ± 14.1 mL/min. Based on BIA-derived GFR, the patients were divided into two groups; group 1: borderline graft function GFR nutritional status compared with those in group 2. Based on phase angle, there were significant differences between group A (phase angle 4.0) in extracellular water (P nutritional status, but when compared with healthy individuals as assessed by BIA, there were significant differences in FM, FFM, and body cell mass. In conclusion, BIA was more sensitive to evaluate nutritional depletion than SGA in transplant patients with borderline.

  2. Comparison of Standing Posture Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis with DXA for Body Composition in a Large, Healthy Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuen-Tsann; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Wang, Chia-Wei; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Li-Ming; Lai, Chung-Liang; Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Dwyer, Gregory B.; Chao, Shu-Ping; Shih, Ming-Kuei; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a common method for assessing body composition in research and clinical trials. BIA is convenient but when compared with other reference methods, the results have been inconclusive. The level of obesity degree in subjects is considered to be an important factor affecting the accuracy of the measurements. A total of 711 participants were recruited in Taiwan and were sub-grouped by gender and levels of adiposity. Regression analysis and Bland-Altman analysis were used to evaluate the agreement of the measured body fat percentage (BF%) between BIA and DXA. The BF% measured by the DXA and BIA methods (Tanita BC-418) were expressed as BF%DXA and BF%BIA8, respectively. A one-way ANOVA was used to test the differences in BF% measurements by gender and levels of adiposity. The estimated BF%BIA8 and BF%DXA in the all subjects, male and female groups were all highly correlated (r = 0.934, 0.901, 0.916, all P< 0.001). The average estimated BF%BIA8 (22.54 ± 9.48%) was significantly lower than the average BF%DXA (26.26 ± 11.18%). The BF%BIA8 was overestimated in the male subgroup (BF%DXA< 15%), compared to BF%DXA by 0.45%, respectively. In the other subgroups, the BF%BIA8 values were all underestimated. Standing BIA estimating body fat percentage in Chinese participants have a high correlation, but underestimated on normal and high obesity degree in both male and female subjects. PMID:27467065

  3. Body composition measures of obese adolescents by the deuterium oxide dilution method and by bioelectrical impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.M. Resende

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to describe and compare the body composition variables determined by bioelectrical impedance (BIA and the deuterium dilution method (DDM, to identify possible correlations and agreement between the two methods, and to construct a linear regression model including anthropometric measures. Obese adolescents were evaluated by anthropometric measures, and body composition was assessed by BIA and DDM. Forty obese adolescents were included in the study. Comparison of the mean values for the following variables: fat body mass (FM; kg, fat-free mass (FFM; kg, and total body water (TBW; % determined by DDM and by BIA revealed significant differences. BIA overestimated FFM and TBW and underestimated FM. When compared with data provided by DDM, the BIA data presented a significant correlation with FFM (r = 0.89; P < 0.001, FM (r = 0.93; P < 0.001 and TBW (r = 0.62; P < 0.001. The Bland-Altman plot showed no agreement for FFM, FM or TBW between data provided by BIA and DDM. The linear regression models proposed in our study with respect to FFM, FM, and TBW were well adjusted. FFM obtained by DDM = 0.842 x FFM obtained by BIA. FM obtained by DDM = 0.855 x FM obtained by BIA + 0.152 x weight (kg. TBW obtained by DDM = 0.813 x TBW obtained by BIA. The body composition results of obese adolescents determined by DDM can be predicted by using the measures provided by BIA through a regression equation.

  4. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in human tissues from Dutch citizens (1968-1983)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greve; P.A.

    1985-01-01

    In dit rapport zijn de onderzoekingen samengevat die sinds 1968 door het RIV(M) zijn uitgevoerd in opdracht van de HIL en/of GHI m.b.t. het voorkomen van de organochloorverbindingen hexachloorbenzeen (HCB), HCH-isomeren, heptachloorepoxide, dieldrin, DDT-complex en PCB's in humane weefsels.

  5. Robust Benzo[g,h,i]perylenetriimide Dye-Sensitized Electrodes in Air-Saturated Aqueous Buffer Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.-C. Chen; R.M. Williams; J.N.H. Reek; A.M. Brouwer

    2016-01-01

    Highly electron deficient benzo[ghi]perylenetriimide (BPTI) chromophores were persistently anchored to a metal oxide electrode surface and reversible formation of their radical anions was shown in air-saturated aqueous buffer solution. Our results show a very low reaction-rate constant of BPTI.- wit

  6. Validation of the Surface Downwelling Solar Irradiance Estimates of the HelioClim-3 Database in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia Eissa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available HelioClim-3 (HC3 is a database providing time series of the surface downwelling solar irradiance that are computed from images of the Meteosat satellites. This paper presents the validation results of the hourly global horizontal irradiance (GHI and direct normal irradiance (DNI, i.e., beam irradiance at normal incidence, of versions four and five of HC3 at seven Egyptian sites. The validation is performed for all-sky conditions, as well as cloud-free conditions. Both versions of HC3 provide similar performances whatever the conditions. Another comparison is made with the estimates provided by the McClear database that is restricted to cloud-free conditions. All databases capture well the temporal variability of the GHI in all conditions, McClear being superior for cloud-free cases. In cloud-free conditions for the GHI, the relative root mean square error (RMSE are fairly similar, ranging from 6% to 15%; both HC3 databases exhibit a smaller bias than McClear. McClear offers an overall better performance for the cloud-free DNI estimates. For all-sky conditions, the relative RMSE for GHI ranges from 10% to 22%, except one station, while, for the DNI, the results are not so good for the two stations with DNI measurements.

  7. Initiatives to Reduce Earthquake Risk of Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, B. E.

    2008-12-01

    The seventeen-year-and-counting history of the Palo Alto-based nonprofit organization GeoHazards International (GHI) is the story of many initiatives within a larger initiative to increase the societal impact of geophysics and civil engineering. GHI's mission is to reduce death and suffering due to earthquakes and other natural hazards in the world's most vulnerable communities through preparedness, mitigation and advocacy. GHI works by raising awareness in these communities about their risk and about affordable methods to manage it, identifying and strengthening institutions in these communities to manage their risk, and advocating improvement in natural disaster management. Some of GHI's successful initiatives include: (1) creating an earthquake scenario for Quito, Ecuador that describes in lay terms the consequences for that city of a probable earthquake; (2) improving the curricula of Pakistani university courses about seismic retrofitting; (3) training employees of the Public Works Department of Delhi, India on assessing the seismic vulnerability of critical facilities such as a school, a hospital, a police headquarters, and city hall; (4) assessing the vulnerability of the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives in Dharamsala, India; (5) developing a seismic hazard reduction plan for a nonprofit organization in Kathmandu, Nepal that works to manage Nepal's seismic risk; and (6) assisting in the formulation of a resolution by the Council of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to promote school earthquake safety among OECD member countries. GHI's most important resource, in addition to its staff and Board of Trustees, is its members and volunteer advisors, who include some of the world's leading earth scientists, earthquake engineers, urban planners and architects, from the academic, public, private and nonprofit sectors. GHI is planning several exciting initiatives in the near future. One would oversee the design and construction of

  8. Evaluating the spatio-temporal performance of sky imager based solar irradiance analysis and forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schmidt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Clouds are the dominant source of variability in surface solar radiation and uncertainty in its prediction. However, the increasing share of solar energy in the world-wide electric power supply increases the need for accurate solar radiation forecasts. In this work, we present results of a shortest-term global horizontal irradiance (GHI forecast experiment based on hemispheric sky images. A two month dataset with images from one sky imager and high resolutive GHI measurements from 99 pyranometers distributed over 10 km by 12 km is used for validation. We developed a multi-step model and processed GHI forecasts up to 25 min with an update interval of 15 s. A cloud type classification is used to separate the time series in different cloud scenarios. Overall, the sky imager based forecasts do not outperform the reference persistence forecasts. Nevertheless, we find that analysis and forecast performance depend strongly on the predominant cloud conditions. Especially convective type clouds lead to high temporal and spatial GHI variability. For cumulus cloud conditions, the analysis error is found to be lower than that introduced by a single pyranometer if it is used representatively for the whole area in distances from the camera larger than 1–2 km. Moreover, forecast skill is much higher for these conditions compared to overcast or clear sky situations causing low GHI variability which is easier to predict by persistence. In order to generalize the cloud-induced forecast error, we identify a variability threshold indicating conditions with positive forecast skill.

  9. Multi-frequency bioimpedance in equine muscle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Elbrønd (Bibs), Vibeke Sødring; Riis-Olesen, Kiwa;

    2015-01-01

    Multi-frequency BIA (mfBIA) equipment has been shown to be a non-invasive and reliable method to assess a muscle as a whole or at fibre level. In the equine world this may be the future method of assessment of training condition or of muscle injury. The aim of this study was to test if mfBIA reli.......g. myofascial release therapy and metabolic diseases, respectively....... frequency, membrane capacitance and both extracellular and intracellular resistance were measured. Platinum electrodes in connection with a conductance paste were used to accommodate the typical BIA frequencies and to facilitate accurate measurements. Use of mfBIA data to look into the effects of myofascial...... release treatment was also demonstrated. Our findings indicate that mfBIA provides a non-invasive, easily measurable and very precise assessment of the state of muscles in horses. This study also shows the potential of mfBIA as a diagnostic tool as well as a tool to monitor effects of treatment e...

  10. Bioelectrical impedance is an accurate method to assess body composition in obese but not severely obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verney, Julien; Metz, Lore; Chaplais, Elodie; Cardenoux, Charlotte; Pereira, Bruno; Thivel, David

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and segmental body composition results between bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan and to test the reproducibility of BIA in obese adolescents. We hypothesized that BIA offers an accurate and reproducible method to assess body composition in adolescents with obesity. Whole-body and segmental body compositions were assessed by BIA (Tanita MC-780) and DXA (Hologic) among 138 (110 girls and 28 boys) obese adolescents (Tanner stage 3-5) aged 14±1.5years. The BIA analysis was replicated on 3 identical occasions in 32 participants to test the reproducibility of the methods. Whole-body fat mass percentage was significantly higher using the BIA method compared with DXA (40.6±7.8 vs 38.8±4.9%, PBioimpedance analysis offers an acceptable and reproducible alternative to assess body composition in obese adolescents, with however a loss of correlation between BIA and DXA with increasing body fat; its validity remains uncertain for segmental analysis among obese youth. PMID:27333957

  11. DECAY RATES TOWARD STATIONARY WAVES OF SOLUTIONS FOR DAMPED WAVE EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Lili; Yin Hui; Zhao Huijiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the initial-boundary value problem for damped wave equations with a nonlinear convection term in the half space R+(utt-uxx+ut+f(u)x=0,t>0,z∈R+,(u(0,x)=u0(x)→u+, as x→+∞, (I)(ut(0,x)=u1(x),u(t,0)=ub.For the non-degenerate case,f'(u+)<0,it is shown in[1]that the above initialboundary value problem admits a unique global solution u(t,x)which converges to the stationary wave φ(x)uniformly in x∈R+as time tends to infinity provided that the initial perturbation and/or the strength of the stationary wave are sufficiently small.Moreover,by using the space-time weighted energy method initiated by Kawashima and Matsumura[2],the convergence rates(including the algebraic convergence rate and the exponential convergence rate)of u(t,x)toward φ(x)are also obtained in[1].We note,however,that the analysis in[1]relies heavily on the assumption that f'(ub)<0.The main purpose of this paper is devoted to discussing the case of f'(ub)=0 and we show that similar results still hold for such a case.Our analysis is based on some delicate energy estimates.

  12. Multi-frequency bioimpedance in human muscle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else Marie; Sørensen, Emma Rudbæk; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2015-01-01

    the hypothesis that mfBIA can be used to assess the anatomical, physiological, and metabolic state of skeletal muscles. mfBIA measurements focusing on impedance, resistance, reactance, phase angle, center frequency, membrane capacitance, and both extracellular and intracellular resistance were carried out. Eight...... healthy human control subjects and three selected cases were examined to demonstrate the extent to which this method may be used clinically, and in relation to training in sport. The electrode setup is shown to affect the mfBIA parameters recorded. Our recommendation is the use of noble metal electrodes...

  13. Modeling the relationship between photosynthetically active radiation and global horizontal irradiance using singular spectrum analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempila, Melina-Maria; Taylor, Michael; Bais, Alkiviadis; Kazadzis, Stelios

    2016-10-01

    We report on the construction of generic models to calculate photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) from global horizontal irradiance (GHI), and vice versa. Our study took place at stations of the Greek UV network (UVNET) and the Hellenic solar energy network (HNSE) with measurements from NILU-UV multi-filter radiometers and CM pyranometers, chosen due to their long (≈1 M record/site) high temporal resolution (≈1 min) record that captures a broad range of atmospheric environments and cloudiness conditions. The uncertainty of the PAR measurements is quantified to be ±6.5% while the uncertainty involved in GHI measurements is up to ≈±7% according to the manufacturer. We show how multi-linear regression and nonlinear neural network (NN) models, trained at a calibration site (Thessaloniki) can be made generic provided that the input-output time series are processed with multi-channel singular spectrum analysis (M-SSA). Without M-SSA, both linear and nonlinear models perform well only locally. M-SSA with 50 time-lags is found to be sufficient for identification of trend, periodic and noise components in aerosol, cloud parameters and irradiance, and to construct regularized noise models of PAR from GHI irradiances. Reconstructed PAR and GHI time series capture ≈95% of the variance of the cross-validated target measurements and have median absolute percentage errors <2%. The intra-site median absolute error of M-SSA processed models were ≈8.2±1.7 W/m2 for PAR and ≈9.2±4.2 W/m2 for GHI. When applying the models trained at Thessaloniki to other stations, the average absolute mean bias between the model estimates and measured values was found to be ≈1.2 W/m2 for PAR and ≈0.8 W/m2 for GHI. For the models, percentage errors are well within the uncertainty of the measurements at all sites. Generic NN models were found to perform marginally better than their linear counterparts.

  14. Seasonal and geographical variation of Linke turbidity factor and its effect on global horizontal irradiance estimation: UAE case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Y. A.; Ghedira, H.

    2011-12-01

    In a clear-sky condition, solar radiation travelling through the Earth's atmosphere encounters atmospheric attenuation caused by several factors. Scattering of solar radiation is mainly caused by air molecules, water vapor, water droplets and dust. On the other hand, the absorption of solar radiation is usually related to the presence of O3, water vapor and CO2 layers in the upper atmosphere. Linke turbidity factor (TL) is commonly used to model the attenuation of solar radiation in the atmosphere. TL is the key parameter used in the Heliosat model, which is developed to estimate the global horizontal irradiance (GHI) at the surface of the earth. TL is calculated by the following equation: T_L=δ/δ_R where δ is the optical thickness of the whole atmosphere, and δR is the optical thickness of the Rayleigh atmosphere, i.e. the clear and dry atmosphere. The problem with TL is its dependence on the air mass (m). Therefore, TL is normalized to an air mass of 2 in order to reduce the daily variance. In this study, the monthly TL(m=2) is computed over 7 ground-based stations available in the UAE (figure 1). Spatial and temporal analysis was performed to assess the seasonal and the geographical distribution of TL over the UAE. The computed TL(m=2) values are then applied in the Heliosat model to compare between the measured and modeled GHI values. The model treats the atmospheric and cloud transmittances separately. First, clear-sky direct normal irradiance (DNI) and diffused horizontal irradiance (DHI) values are computed using TL(m=2), solar zenith angle, air mass, sun-earth distance correction, solar constant and the Rayleigh optical depth, from that the clear-sky GHI is determined. Next, the cloud index is derived from the HRV channel available from the SEVIRI instrument, and from that the cloud transmission is computed. The product of the cloud transmission and the clear-sky GHI produces the modeled GHI. The comparison between TL calculated over the seven stations

  15. Body Composition Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In BIA, a person is weighed. Age, height, gender and weight or other physical characteristics such as ... You can print this fact sheet on a single page in Microsoft Word (.doc) format or Adobe ...

  16. 77 FR 30423 - Innovation in the Broadcast Television Bands: Allocations, Channel Sharing and Improvements to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... addition, according to Commission staff review of the BIA Publications, Inc., Master Access Television... and Job Creation Act of 2012. Subject to the provisions of this section, qualified television...

  17. 20 CFR 632.173 - Allowable program activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Expenditures for CSE are limited to 10 percent or the unemployment rate, based on data collected by an appropriate Federal or State agency including BIA, of a NAG's total section 401 allocation. For...

  18. Combining Near-Subject Absolute and Relative Measures of Longitudinal Hydration in Hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Cian; McIntyre, Christopher; Smith, David; Spanel, Patrik; Davies, Simon J.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The feasibility and additional value of combining bioimpedance analysis (BIA) with near-subject absolute measurement of total body water using deuterium dilution (TBWD) in determining longitudinal fluid status was investigated.

  19. Distribution and ecology of Biatoridium monasteriense J. Lahm ex Körb in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Łubek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new site of Biatoridium monasteriense was discovered during a lichenological investigation in Białowieża National Park. The paper presents information on the distribution of this species in Poland.

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OPPORTUNITIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL OF THE ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND INCINERATION PROCESSES OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE = IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE OPORTUNIDADES DE MELHORIA DO DESEMPENHO AMBIENTAL DOS PROCESSOS DE BIODIGESTÃO ANAERÓBIA E INCINERAÇÃO DOS RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS URBANOS

    OpenAIRE

    Luana de Assis Silva; Fábio Rubens Soares; Emília Satoshi Miyamaru Seo

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify opportunities for improving the environmental performance of the power generation technologies from the treatment of municipal solid waste - MSW using the tool of the life cycle assessment. The most significant impact was the disposal of waste in landfill; while incineration itself was the technology in which the impacts were most prevalent. The results of the comparative analysis, point out the need to improve the environmental performance of the incineration proc...

  1. Nióbia magnética como adsorvente de contaminantes orgânicos em meio aquoso: efeito da temperatura e do pH Magnetic niobia as adsorbent of organic contaminants in aqueous medium: effect of temperature and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maraísa Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes novel materials based on pure iron oxide and iron oxide/niobia composite to produce a magnetic adsorbent. These materials were prepared with synthetic iron oxide and characterized by powder XRD, SEM, FTIR, TPR and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Results showed that the main iron oxides formed were goethite (aFeOOH and maghemite (gFe2O3 with small particle size. The iron oxide and iron oxide/niobia composite showed high adsorption ability for organic compounds. The positive enthalpy indicated an endothermic adsorption process suggesting physical adsorption.

  2. Effects of fibrin sealer and resorbable gelatin on the repair of osseous defects in rat tibia Efeitos de selante de fibrina e de gelatina absorvível no reparo de defeitos ósseos em tíbia de rato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleny Balducci Roslindo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Gelfoam® - a biologically resorbable gelatin sponge - has the function of restricting hemorrhage, providing platelet rupture, and supporting fibrin threads. Beriplast® - a fibrinogen-thrombin compound - is used to adhere tissues, to consolidate sutures and in hemostasis. The objective of this study was to perform a histological analysis of the effects of haemostatic agents on osseous repair. These materials were inserted into surgical sites in young rat right and left tibiae. After the observation periods of 7, 14, 30 and 45 days, according to the bioethic protocol, the animals were killed, the tibiae were removed and fixed in 10% formalin and decalcified in equal parts of formic acid and sodium citrate solutions. After routine processing, the specimens were embedded in paraffin for microtomy. Analysis of the results demonstrated that the haemostatic agents are effective in controlling hemorrhage; they stimulate osteogenesis, featuring a pattern of osseous tissue formation similar to the control pattern, although the amount of osseous trabeculae was superior, especially in the Gelfoam group in the periods of 7 and 14 days; 30 days after surgery, the delay in tissue healing in the control group in relation to the experimental groups started to decrease, and the control and experimental groups exhibited similar tissue repair after 45 days, when all the groups exhibited secondary osseous tissue.Gelfoam® - uma esponja de gelatina biologicamente reabsorvível - tem por função coibir as hemorragias, promover o rompimento de plaquetas e sustentar a rede de fibrina. Beriplast P® - um composto de fibrinogênio-trombina - é usado na adesão de tecidos, consolidação de suturas e hemostasia. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar histologicamente os efeitos de agentes hemostáticos na reparação óssea, os quais foram colocados em lojas cirúrgicas nas tíbias direita e esquerda de ratos jovens. Após os períodos de observação de 7, 14, 30 e 45 dias, segundo o protocolo bioético, os animais foram sacrificados, as tíbias foram removidas e fixadas em formalina a 10% e descalcificadas em partes iguais de soluções de ácido fórmico e citrato de sódio, para inclusão em parafina e microtomia. A análise dos resultados demonstrou que os agentes hemostáticos têm eficácia no controle hemorrágico; eles estimulam a osteogênese, provocando um padrão de formação de tecido ósseo semelhante ao padrão do grupo controle, embora a quantidade de trabéculas ósseas tenha sido superior principalmente no grupo do Gelfoam, nos períodos de 7 e 14 dias; após os 30 dias da cirurgia, o retardo na reparação tecidual do grupo controle em relação aos grupos experimentais começou a decrescer, tornando-se a reparação tecidual daquele semelhante à destes aos 45 dias, quando todos os grupos apresentaram tecido ósseo secundário.

  3. Processamento e caracterização morfológica do compósito Al2O3-YAG aditivado com nióbia Processing and morphological characterization of Al2O3-YAG composite with niobia addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F Cabral

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O compósito Al2O3-YAG possui alta resistência a fluência em elevadas temperaturas, o que permite vislumbrar aplicações no campo da engenharia aeronáutica e espacial, tais como motores a jato e turbinas a gás de alto desempenho. Este compósito também apresenta algumas propriedades favoráveis a seu emprego na área de blindagem balísticas, como por exemplo elevada dureza e alta resistência à abrasão. Nesse estudo foram produzidas amostras de Al2O3-YAG e Al2O3-YAG com Nb2O5 e Al2O3 com Nb2O5. Os pós precursores foram homogeneizados em moinho planetário de bolas por 4 h, secos em estufa a 120 ºC por 48 h, desaglomerados e peneirados. Os pós foram prensados uniaxialmente a 70 MPa. A sinterização foi realizada a 1450 ºC, com taxa de aquecimento e resfriamento de 10 ºC/min, durante 2, 3 e 4 h. Os materiais sinterizados foram caracterizados quanto à densidade pelo método de Arquimedes e avaliados microestruturalmente por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e difração de raios X com refinamento por Rietveld. As amostras Al2O3-YAG e Al2O3 aditivadas com Nb2O5 revelaram a presença da fase niobato de ítrio (YNbO4 e niobato de alumínio (AlNbO4 na ordem de 5 e 1% em peso, respectivamente. Não há registro na literatura desta adição a esse compósito. Os resultados mostraram que são necessários ainda ajustes nas condições de sinterização da composição Al2O3-YAG com Nb2O5 para maximizar a baixa densificação, da ordem de 60%. O Al2O3 aditivado com Nb2O5, por sua vez, apresentou uma densificação satisfatória, de 96%.The Al2O3-YAG composite has high mechanical strength at high temperatures which allows its use in air craft applications, since it increases the thermal efficiency of jet engines and helps the development of high performance gas turbines. This composite also exhibits some favorable properties toward military applications such as armor, due to its high hardness. In this study, Al2O3-YAG and Al2O3-YAG with 4wt.% Nb2O5 (niobia samples were produced. The precursors powders were ground in a planetary ball mill for 4 h, dried in an oven at 120 ºC during 48 h, deagglomerated and sieved. The powder mixtures were then uniaxially pressed at 70 MPa. Sintering was carried out at 1450 ºC for 2, 3, and 4 h, with heating and cooling rates of 10 ºC/min. The materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM in order to characterize the microstructure. X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement was performed to determine and quantify the structural phases, whereas density was measured by the Archimede´s method. The samples with niobia addition revealed approximately 5wt.% of yttrium niobate (YNbO4 phase. It is worth pointing out that there is no citation in the literature involving niobia addition to the Al2O3-YAG composite. On the other hand, the obtained results indicated that additional experiments regarding the sintering conditions are necessary to optimize density.

  4. Predição da potência aeróbia (VO2máx de crianças e adolescentes em teste incremental na esteira rolante Prediction of aerobic power (VO2max of children and adolescents during an incremental treadmill test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Andrade Machado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2máx é a quantidade máxima de energia que pode ser produzida pelo metabolismo aeróbio em determinada unidade de tempo, podendo ser determinado direta ou indiretamente através de equações preditivas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar uma equação preditiva específica para determinar o VO2máx de meninos de 10 a 16 anos. Quarenta e dois meninos realizaram teste ergoespirométrico de corrida em esteira rolante com velocidade inicial de 9 km/h até exaustão voluntária. Através da regressão linear múltipla foi possível desenvolver a seguinte equação para a determinação indireta do VO2máx: VO2máx (ml/min = -1574,06 + (141,38 x Vpico + (48,34 * Massa corporal, com erro padrão de estimativa = 191,5 ml/min (4,10 ml/kg/min e o coeficiente de determinação = 0,934. Sugerimos que esta é uma fórmula adequada para predizer o VO2máx para esta população.The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max is the maximal quantity of energy that can be produced by the aerobic metabolism in certain time unity. It can be determined direct or indirectly by predictive equations. The objective of this study was to make a specific predictive equation to determine the VO2max from boys aged 10-16 years-old. Forty-two boys underwent a treadmill running ergospirometric test, with the initial velocity set at 9 km/h, until voluntary exhaustion. By the multiple linear regression was possible to develop the following equation for the indirect determination of the VO2max: VO2max (ml/min = -1574.06 + (141.38 x Vpeak + (48.34 * Body mass, with standard error of estimate = 191.5 ml/min (4.10 ml/kg/min and coefficient of determination = 0.934. We suggest that this formula is appropriate to predict VO2max for this population.

  5. Soil micromorphogenesis and Early Holocene paleoclimate at the desert margin of Southern Arabia Micromorfoedafogénesis y paleoclima del Holoceno Inferior en el márgen desértico del sur de Arabia Micromorfogénese do solo e paleoclima inicial do Holoceno na margem deserta do Sul da Arábia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kühn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ramlat as-Sab'atayn desert margin near Ma'rib, Yemen, displays well-preserved Early Holocene paleosols that are documented by micromorphological and pedological data. The buried soils, which are represented by Ahb horizons, indicate soil formation mostly before 8.3 cal ka BP. In contrast, sandy cover sediments without signs of pedogenesis appeared between 8.3 and 6.6 cal ka BP due to increasing aridity. Characteristic micromorphological features of the cover sediments are a single grain microstructure, crystallitic b-fabric, predominant occurrence of fresh sideromelane, and remnants of microlayers. Micromorphological pedogenic features in the buried Ah horizons include a subangular blocky microstructure, undifferentiated b-fabric as a result of enrichment of organic matter and decalcification, and the predominant occurrence of completely altered sideromelane. Most of these horizons appeared to be nearly completely decalcified so that in parts a stipple speckled b-fabric and neoformed clay coatings could be detected as a result of stronger weathering and soil formation. Pedogenic data provide important information about Holocene climate fluctuations, including the amount of precipitation, which was calculated on the basis of geochemical data from buried A, AB and B horizons. The buried paleosols represent moist climate conditions with precipitation ranging from 400 to 600 mm a-1.En los márgenes del desierto Ramlat as-Sab'atayn, cerca de Ma'rib (Yemen, se encuentran paleosuelos del Holoceno Inferior bien conservados que se documentan con datos micromorfológicos y edáficos. Los suelos enterrados, representados por horizontes Ahb, indican que se formaron mayoritariamente antes de hace 8,3 ka. Por el contrario, los sedimentos arenosos que los cubren sin rasgos de edafogénesis se depositaron posteriormente debido a una aridez creciente hasta hace 6,6 ka. Los rasgos micromorfológicos de los sedimentos arenosos están caracterizados por una microestructura granular sencilla, una fábrica birrefringente cristalítica, presencia predominante de sideromelana fresca y remanentes de microláminas. Los horizontes Ah enterrados tienen una microestructura en bloques subangulares, una fábrica birrefringente no diferenciada como resultado del enriquecimiento en materia orgánica y del proceso de descalcificación, y la presencia predominante de sideromelana completamente alterada. La mayoría de estos horizontes están casi descalcificados, por lo que en algunas partes se observa una fábrica birrefringente de motas en mosaico y revestimientos de arcilla neoformada como resultado de una fuerte meteorización y edafogénesis. Los datos edáficos aportan información importante sobre las fluctuaciones climáticas del Holoceno, en particular la cantidad de precipitación calculada a partir de los datos geoquímicos de los horizontes enterrados A, AB y B. Los paleosuelos enterrados indican condiciones de un clima húmedo con precipitaciones que varían entre 400 y 600 mm año-1.A margem deserta de Ramlat as-Sab'atayn próxima de Ma'rib, Yemen, apresenta paleosols antigos do Holoceno bem preservados, documentados por dados micromorfológicos e pedológicos. Os solos enterrados, representados por horizontes Ahb, indicam que a formação do solo ocorreu maioritariamente antes de 8,3 cal ka BP. Pelo contrário, a cobertura com sedimentos arenosos sem sinais de pedogénese surge devido ao aumento da aridez entre 8,3 e 6,6 cal ka BP. As características micromorfológicas desses sedimentos manifestam-se pela presença de uma microestrutura granular constituída por grânulos simples, material b-cristalítico, predominância de obsidiana de formação recente, e restos de microcamadas. As características pedogénicas micromorfológicas nos horizontes enterrados Ah manifestam-se pela presença de uma microestrutura em blocos subangulares, material-b indiferenciado como consequência do enriquecimento em matéria orgânica e descalcificação, e ocorrência predominante de obsidiana completamente alterada. A maioria dest

  6. Wzbogacanie indywidualnych zasobów słownictwa rdzennych mieszkańców Zagłębia Bełchatowskiego wywodzących się spoś ród użytkownikow gwary

    OpenAIRE

    Szlesiński, Iwo

    1987-01-01

    Zadanie pt. „Digitalizacja i udostępnienie w Cyfrowym Repozytorium Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego kolekcji czasopism naukowych wydawanych przez Uniwersytet Łódzki” nr 885/P-DUN/2014 zostało dofinansowane ze środków MNiSW w ramach działalności upowszechniającej naukę

  7. Efficiency of resource use in small-scale white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei production in Lamongan Regency, East Java Province, Indonesia Wydajność wykorzystania zasobów w produkcji białej krewetki (Penaeus vannamei na małą skalę w regencji Lamongan, prowincji Wschodnia Jawa w Indonezji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riski A. Lestariadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out to determine the efficiency of recourses used in white shrimp (Pe-naeus Vannamei production in Lamongan Regency, East Java Province, Indonesia. The simple random sampling technique used to select 125 small-scale white shrimp farmers from six-study areas in Lamongan Regency. The white shrimp production function was es-timated using Ordinary Least Square (OLS technique. The results indicated that Double Log production function had the best fit in explaining the relationship between output of white shrimp and inputs used. The coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.846 indicated that the eighty-four point six percent of variation in output of white shrimp was explained by the independent variables in the model. Findings showed that labor, fertilizer, feed and stocking density are significant determinants of production inputs. Moreover, the estimates of the ra-tio of the value of marginal product (VMP to marginal factor cost (MFC revealed that the non-optimal combination of inputs among the white shrimp farmers, it showed that the aq-uaculture farms resources were inefficiently utilized for labor, feed and stocking density by 1.94, 1.93 and 171.4 respectively, while fertilizer showed otherwise by 0.11 or over uti-lized.

  8. Reproducibility of maximum aerobic power (VO2max among soccer players using a modified heck protocol Reprodutibilidade da potência aeróbia máxima (VO2max em jogadores de futebol utilizando o protocolo de heck modificado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Santos-Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the degree of reproducibility of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max among soccer players, using a modified Heck protocol. METHODS: 2 evaluations with an interval of 15 days between them were performed on 11 male soccer players. All the players were at a high performance level; they were training for an average of 10 hours per week, totaling 5 times a week. When they were evaluated, they were in the middle of the competitive season, playing 1 match per week. The soccer players were evaluated on an ergometric treadmill with velocity increments of 1.2 km.h-1 every 2 minutes and a fixed inclination of 3% during the test. VO2max was measured directly using a breath-by-breath metabolic gas analyzer. RESULTS: The maximum running speed and VO2max attained in the 2 tests were, respectively: (15.6 ± 1.1 vs. 15.7 ± 1.2 km.h-1; [P = .78] and (54.5 ± 3.9 vs. 55.2 ± 4.4 ml.kg-1.min-1; [P = .88]. There was high and significant correlation of VO2max between the 2 tests with a 15-day interval between them [r = 0.97; P OBJETIVO: Determinar o grau de reprodutibilidade do consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max em jogadores de futebol utilizando o protocolo de Heck modificado. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados por duas vezes, com intervalo de 15 dias entre os testes, 11 futebolistas masculinos. Todos eram de alto nível, treinavam em média 10 horas por semana subdivididos em treinamentos físicos, técnicos, táticos e jogos competitivos, totalizando cinco vezes por semana e na fase em que foram avaliados se encontravam em pleno período competitivo realizando um jogo por semana. Os futebolistas foram avaliados em esteira ergométrica (1,2 km.h-1 a cada dois minutos e inclinação fixa durante o teste em 3%. O VO2max foi medido diretamente utilizando analisador metabólico de análise de gases expirados respiração-a-respiração. RESULTADOS: A velocidade máxima de corrida e o VO2max atingido nos dois testes foram respectivamente: (15,6 ± 1,1 vs. 15,7 ± 1,2 km.h-1; [p = 0,78] e (54,5 ± 3,9 vs. 55,2 ± 4,4 ml.kg-1.min-1; [P = 0,88]. Houve correlação significante e alta do VO2max entre os dois testes após 15 dias de intervalo [r = 0,97; P< 0,001]. CONCLUSÃO: O protocolo de Heck modificado foi reprodutível e o intervalo de quinze dias entre os testes ergoespirométricos não foi suficiente para modificar significativamente o VO2max dos jogadores de futebol.

  9. Az ortodox kolostor mint önfenntartó ökológiai rendszer. Élet Besszarábia szerzetesi közösségeiben - The Ortodox Monastery as a Self-sustaining Ecological System-Life in the Monastic Communities of Bessarabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LENGYEL, László

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available I have visited monasteries in Moldovaten times between 2004 and 2013. In this paper, I would like to present my experiences that I have gained there. I am going to start my account witha briefintroduction of the history of Eastern Monasticism and the general way of life in the monasteries. Nowadays, monks in Moldova live according to medieval laws and rules, but not in thespiritual, but in the practical sense of these regulations. They produce their own food, raw materials and ritual accessories. They are involved in several merchant activities,such as icon painting, candle pouring and wine production. How is a communityorganized, maintained and provided with the goods it requires? How do people become members of these communities? What are the most important factsto know about Ortodox monasteries? These are the questionsI tried toanswer in my presentation.

  10. Série de treinamento intervalado de alta intensidade como índice de determinação da tolerância à acidose na predição da performance anaeróbia de natação High intensity interval training series as indices of acidosis tolerance determination in swimming anaerobic performance prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Deminice

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a tolerância à acidose através de uma série de nados intervalados de alta intensidade e relacionar com a velocidade de limiar anaeróbio (VLan, concentração de lactato sanguíneo de pico ([Lac]pico, capacidade de trabalho anaeróbio (CTA, freqüência de braçada (fB, comprimento de braçada (CB e índice de braçada (IB na predição da performance de 100m de natação. Dez nadadores realizaram seis nados máximos de 100m no estilo crawl com intervalo de seis minutos. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas cinco minutos após cada nado para posterior análise de lactacidemia ([Lac]. Através da razão entre [Lac] e os respectivos tempos de execução dos seis nados, determinou-se a tolerância à acidose (TA. O número de braçadas realizadas durante os seis esforços foi anotado para determinação da fB, CB, IB. Um nado máximo de 100m foi utilizado como parâmetro de performance (P100 e amostras de sangue foram coletadas para determinação da concentração de lactato sanguíneo de pico ([Lac]pico. Três esforços progressivos de 400m foram realizados para determinação da VLan correspondente à concentração fixa de 3,5mM de lactato. Esforços máximos de 200 e 400m foram realizados para determinação da CTA por regressão linear (coeficiente linear. Os resultados apresentaram significativas correlações (p The aim of the present study was to determine the acidosis tolerance through one high intensity interval swim serie and to relate with anaerobic threshold speed (ATS, blood lactate peak concentration ([Lac]peak, anaerobic work capacity (AWC, stroke rate (SR, stroke length (SL and stroke index (SI in swimming 100 m performance prediction. Ten swimmers performed six maximal swims along 100 m by crawl style with 6 minutes for a rest. Blood samples were taken 5 minutes before each swim for lactate analyses ([Lac]. Through the division of the [Lac] for the time to complete the 6 swims, was determined acidosis tolerance (AT. The numbers of strokes in the six efforts were taken for SR, SL and SI determination. A maximal 100 m swim was considered as performance parameter (P100 and blood samples were taken for blood lactate peak concentration determination ([Lac]peak. Three progressive efforts along 400 m were accomplished for ATS determination corresponding to 3.5 mM lactate fixed concentration; 200 and 400 m maximal efforts were accomplished for AWC determination by linear regression (linear coefficient. The results showed significant correlations (p < 0.05 of AT with ATS (r = 0.77, [Lac]peak (r = 0.81, SL (r = 0.85 and SI (r = 0.84. Moreover, P100 was correlated with ATS (r = 0.88, AT (r = 0.95, [Lac]peak (r = 0.77, SL (r = 0.97 and SI (r = 0.96. It was concluded that AT determined through a high intensity training series appears to be useful to anaerobic fitness determination and 100 m swim performance prediction, besides suffer SL and SI influence.

  11. Contribuição para o estudo de avaliação do desempenho de um sistema de estabilização anaeróbia e utilização do gás produzido

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Ana Filipa Ferreira Esteves

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada na Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia do Ambiente,Perfil Engenharia Sanitária As crescentes preocupações relativas à escassez de recursos energéticos (petróleo, carvão) e principalmente a poluição ambiental a eles associada levam à necessidade de procura de fontes alternativas, “amigas do ambiente” e que possam ao mesmo tempo reduzir resíduos gerados pelas várias actividades humanas. ...

  12. Respostas cardiovasculares a mudança postural e capacidade aeróbia em homens e mulheres de meia-idade antes e após treinamento físico aeróbio Cardiovascular responses to postural change and aerobic capacity among middle-aged men and women before and after aerobic physical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ST Leite

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar respostas cardiovasculares a Manobra Postural Passiva (Tilt Test e capacidade cardiorrespiratória em homens e mulheres de meia-idade antes e após treinamento físico aeróbio. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Sete homens - GH (44,6±2,1 anos e sete mulheres - GM (51,7±4,8 anos, participaram de treinamento físico aeróbio por 12 semanas. Foi realizado protocolo de Tilt Test (cinco minutos supino, dez minutos inclinado 70º, cinco minutos supino, com monitoração da pressão arterial e freqüência cardíaca. Para mensuração da capacidade cardiorrespiratória foi realizado protocolo em cicloergômetro. RESULTADOS: Na condição sedentária, GH mostrou maior influência parassimpática no controle da freqüência cardíaca evidenciada por maior intervalo RR (iRR durante Tilt Test. Na condição treinada, os valores de iRR de ambos os grupos se assemelham, tendo as mulheres iRR maior em supino, mas na inclinação os homens mantêm iRR mais elevado. Para pressão arterial, as mulheres permanecem com valores superiores após treino, mas a freqüência cardíaca tende a se assemelhar em ambos. Já na capacidade cardiorrespiratória, homens e mulheres têm um padrão de comportamento semelhante após treino. Com exceção dos valores absolutos da freqüência cardíaca, sem diferenças entre os grupos, para todas as outras variáveis os homens obtiveram valores superiores aos das mulheres. Observa-se ainda que, após o treinamento, houve redução significativa dos valores de pressão arterial no GM, mesmo continuando superiores aos dos homens. CONCLUSÃO: O treinamento parece ter reduzido os níveis pressóricos nas mulheres, além de serem observadas melhorias na capacidade cardiorrespiratória de ambos os grupos, permanecendo os homens com melhor desempenho do que as mulheres.OBJECTIVE: To compare the cardiovascular responses to passive postural maneuvers (tilt test and the cardiorespiratory capacity in middle-aged men and women, before and after aerobic physical training. METHODS: Seven men (44.6±2.1 years old and seven women (51.7±4.8 years old participated in aerobic physical training for 12 weeks. The tilt test protocol (five minutes supine, ten minutes tilted at 70º and five minutes supine was followed, with arterial blood pressure and heart rate monitoring. A cycle ergometer protocol was used to measure cardiorespiratory capacity. RESULTS: In the sedentary condition, men showed greater parasympathetic influence in heart rate control, as demonstrated by their higher RR interval (iRR during the tilt test. After training, the iRR values became more similar in the two groups, although the women had higher iRR in the supine position and the men continued to present higher iRR under tilted conditions. The women's blood pressures continued to be higher after training, but heart rate tended to become similar in the two groups. The cardiorespiratory capacity patterns in the two groups were similar after training. Except for absolute heart rate values, for which there were no differences between the groups, the men's values were higher than those of the women for all other variables. It was also observed that, after the training, the women's blood pressures were significantly lower, even though their pressures remained higher than the men's. CONCLUSIONS: The training seemed to reduce the women's arterial blood pressure levels and improve both groups' cardiorespiratory capacity, but the men continued to present better performance than the women.

  13. Anaerobic biodigestion of pigs feces in the initial, growing and finishing stages fed with diets formulated with corn or sorghum Biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de suínos nas diferentes fases alimentados com dietas formuladas com milho ou sorgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adélia P. Miranda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality and the production of biogas and biofertilizer obtained from biodigester supplied with pig feces in the initial, growing and finishing stages, fed with diets formulated based on corn or sorghum. Twenty bench biodigesters were used with hydraulic retention time of 30 days and daily loads that contained 4 to 6% of total solids (TS and 3.6 to 5.2% of volatile solids (VS. In the effluent of the biodigesters, mean levels of TS were observed ranging between 1.6 and 2.0% and of VS between 1.2 and 1.6%. The mean reductions of TS were 57.7 to 64.7% and of VS from 61.7 to 69.0%, and there was only difference in the finishing phase, in which the major averages reductions were produced by the biodigesters supplied with feces from animals fed with diets based on corn. In biodigesters supplied with feces from animals in the initial and growing stages fed with diets based on corn, were observed higher average productions of biogas and the greatest average potentials of biogas production. The average potentials obtained were 0.033; 0.181; 0.685; 0.788 and 1.132 m³ per kg of affluent, manure, TS added, VS added and VS reduced, respectively. No differences were found on the average content of methane in the biogas between diets and stages. The average concentrations of nutrients N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in the biodigester affluent and effluent, ranged between diets and stages.Objetivou-se avaliar a produção e a qualidade do biogás e do biofertilizante obtidos em biodigestores abastecidos com dejetos de suínos, nas fases inicial, crescimento e terminação, alimentados com dietas formuladas à base de milho ou sorgo. Foram utilizados 20 biodigestores de bancada, com tempo de retenção hidráulica de 30 dias, e cargas diárias que continham 4,0 a 6,0% de sólidos totais (ST e 3,6 a 5,2% de sólidos voláteis (SV. Nos efluentes dos biodigestores, foram verificados teores médios de ST variando de 1,6 a 2,0% e de SV entre 1,2 e 1,6%. As reduções médias de ST foram de 57,7 a 64,7% e de SV de 61,7 a 69,0%, sendo que houve diferença somente na fase de terminação, na qual as maiores reduções médias foram para biodigestores abastecidos com dejetos de animais alimentados com dietas à base de milho. Nos biodigestores abastecidos com dejetos de animais em fase inicial e de crescimento, alimentados com dietas formuladas à base de milho, foram verificadas maiores produções médias de biogás e os maiores potenciais médios de produção de biogás. Os potenciais médios obtidos foram 0,033; 0,181; 0,685; 0,788 e 1,132 m³ por kg de afluente, estrume, ST adicionados, SV adicionados e SV reduzidos, respectivamente. Não foram verificadas diferenças quanto ao teor médio de metano no biogás entre dietas e fases. As concentrações médias dos nutrientes N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn e Cu no afluente e efluente dos biodigestores variaram entre as dietas e fases.

  14. Feasibility of bioelectrical impedance analysis in children with a severe generalized cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Veugelers, Rebekka; Penning, Corine; van Gulik, Laura; Tibboel, Dick; Evenhuis, Heleen

    2006-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The need is strong for an accurate and easy-to-perform test to evaluate the nutritional state of children who have a severe generalized cerebral palsy, defined as a severe motor handicap and an intellectual disability. For that purpose, we determined the feasibility of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in these children and evaluated their nutritional state. Methods: BIA recordings were done in 35 children who had a severe generalized cerebral palsy using a single-...

  15. A Comparison Study of Portable Foot-to-Foot Bioelectrical Impedance Scale to Measure Body Fat Percentage in Asian Adults and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Ying Sim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the measurements of body fat percentage (BF% using the foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (FTF-BIA with the direct segmental multifrequency BIA (DSM-BIA. Methods. There were 36 men and 52 women (37.1±14.3 years with 57% Malays, 30% Chinese, and 13% Indian. For children, there were 45 boys and 26 girls (11.5±2.5 years with 52% Malay, 15% Chinese, and 33% Indian. Results. Mean height for men was 168.4 cm, 11 cm taller than women. Men were 10 kg heavier than women at 70 kg. BF% in women was 32% and 33% whereas BF% in men was 23% and 25% when measured using FTF-BIA and DSM-BIA, respectively. In children, BF% measured with FTF-BIA and DSM-BIA was 49% and 46%, respectively. The correlations were significant for men (r=0.92, SEE = 2.80, women (r=0.91, SEE = 3.31, boys (r=0.95, SEE = 5.44, and girls (r=0.96, SEE = 5.27. The BF% in underweight/normal (r=0.92, SEE = 2.47 and that in overweight/obese adults (r=0.89, SEE = 3.61 were strongly correlated. The correlations were significant in normal/underweight (r=0.94, SEE = 3.78 and obese/overweight children (r=0.83, SEE = 6.49. All ethnic groups showed significant correlation with BF%. Malay adults (r=0.92, SEE = 3.27 and children (r=0.94, SEE = 0.88 showed significant mean differences in BF%. Conclusion. The FTF-BIA showed higher accuracy for all normal/underweight and Chinese group with acceptable overestimation in children and underestimation in adults. Caution should be taken when interpreting BF% depending on gender, BMI, and ethnicity.

  16. Reliability of bioimpedance analysis compared with other adiposity measurements in children: the FLVS II Study. : Bioimpedance fat measurement in children

    OpenAIRE

    Kettaneh, Adrien; Heude, Barbara; Lommez, Agnès; Borys, Jean-Michel; Ducimetière, Pierre; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reproducibility of the measurement of% body fat by bipedal biometrical impedance analysis (BIA) compared with anthropometric measurements of adiposity in children and the correlations between these methods in children and adults.METHODS: A cross-sectional study in a total of 1080 adults and children enrolled in 1999 in the Fleurbaix-Laventie Ville Sant?I (FLVS II) population-based study in northern France. The reproducibility of anthropometrical and BIA methods was ...

  17. Volume and Nutritional Status Evaluated by Bioimpedance Affected by Body Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Ender HÜR; Özişik, Melih; Ural, Cihan; Şennur KÖSE; İbrahim YILDIRIM; Yildiz, Gürsel; Mağden, Kemal; Fehmi AKÇİÇEK; Ali BAŞÇI; Gültekin SÜLEYMANLAR; ATEŞ, Kenan; Duman, Soner

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Body composition analysis is useful technique for assessing hydration, nutritional status and predicting clinical outcomes. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) is a cheap and noninvasive tool for monitoring body composition but needs some improvements regarding measurement methods. We aimed to fi nd out if body position has an effect on the BIA results. MATERIAL and METHODS: Personal characteristics including age, gender, height, weight and blood pressure were recorded. Hydration and nu...

  18. Foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance accurately tracks direction of adiposity change in overweight and obese 7- to 13-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasvis, Popi; Cohen, Tamara R; Loiselle, Sarah-Ève; Kim, Nicolas; Hazell, Tom J; Vanstone, Catherine A; Rodd, Celia; Plourde, Hugues; Weiler, Hope A

    2015-03-01

    Body composition measurements are valuable when evaluating pediatric obesity interventions. We hypothesized that foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) will accurately track the direction of adiposity change, but not magnitude, in part due to differences in fat patterning. The purposes of this study were to examine the accuracy of body composition measurements of overweight and obese children over time using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and BIA and to determine if BIA accuracy was affected by fat patterning. Eighty-nine overweight or obese children (48 girls, 41 boys, age 7-13 years) participating in a randomized controlled trial providing a family-centered, lifestyle intervention, underwent DXA and BIA measurements every 3 months. Bland-Altman plots showed a poor level of agreement between devices for baseline percent body fat (%BF; mean, 0.398%; +2SD, 8.685%; -2SD, -7.889%). There was overall agreement between DXA and BIA in the direction of change over time for %BF (difference between visits 3 and 1: DXA -0.8 ± 0.5%, BIA -0.7 ± 0.5%; P = 1.000) and fat mass (FM; difference between visits 3 and 1: DXA 0.7 ± 0.5 kg, BIA 0.6 ± 0.5 kg; P = 1.000). Bioelectrical impedance analysis measurements of %BF and FM at baseline were significantly different in those with android and gynoid fat (%BF: 35.9% ± 1.4%, 32.2% ± 1.4%, P < .003; FM: 20.1 ± 0.8 kg, 18.4 ± 0.8, P < .013). Bioelectrical impedance analysis accurately reports the direction of change in FM and FFM in overweight and obese children; inaccuracy in the magnitude of BIA measurements may be a result of fat patterning differences.

  19. Are Ethnic and Gender Specific Equations Needed to Derive Fat Free Mass from Bioelectrical Impedance in Children of South Asian, Black African-Caribbean and White European Origin? Results of the Assessment of Body Composition in Children Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, Claire M; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G; Donin, Angela S.; Newton, Sian L.; Furness, Cheryl A.; Emma L Howard; Gillings, Rachel D.; Jonathan C K Wells; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM) from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of children aged 8-10 years in London Primary schools including 325 ...

  20. Segmental Body Composition Assessment for Obese Japanese Adults by Single-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis with 8-point Contact Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Susumu; Demura, Shinichi; Kitabayashi, Tamotsu; Noguchi, Takanori

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the accuracy of segmental body composition variables estimated by singlefrequency BIA with 8-point contact electrodes (SF-BIA8), compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects were 72 obese Japanese adults (43 males and 29 females) aged 30 to 66 years. Segmental body composition variables (fat free mass : FFM, fat mass : FM, and percent fat mass : %FAT) were measured by these techniques. The correlations between impedance values and FFM measured b...

  1. Prediction of Fat-Free Mass Using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Young Adults from Five Populations of African Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, Amy; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E.; Lambert, Estelle V; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Dugas, Lara R.; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Kroff, Jacolene; Richie, Whitney N.; Schoeller, Dale A

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA) is used in population and clinical studies as a technique for estimating body composition. Because of significant underrepresentation in existing literature, we sought to develop and validate predictive equation(s) for BIA for studies in populations of African origin. Subjects/Methods Among five cohorts of the Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS), height, weight, waist circumference and body composition, using isotope...

  2. Measurement of body fat using leg to leg bioimpedance

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, R; Lau, P; Yu, C.; Lam, P.; Nelson, E

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—(1) To validate a leg to leg bioimpedance analysis (BIA) device in the measurement of body composition in children by assessment of its agreement with dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and its repeatability. (2) To establish a reference range of percentage body fat in Hong Kong Chinese children.
METHODS—Sequential BIA and DXA methods were used to determine body composition in 49 children aged 7-18 years; agreement between the two methods was calculated. Repea...

  3. Smartphone-Based Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Devices for Daily Obesity Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahyoung; Kim, Justin Younghyun; Jo, Seongwook; Jee, Jae Hwan; Heymsfield, Steven B; Bhagat, Yusuf A; Kim, Insoo; Cho, Jaegeol

    2015-01-01

    Current bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) systems are often large, cumbersome devices which require strict electrode placement on the user, thus inhibiting mobile capabilities. In this work, we developed a handheld BIA device that measures impedance from multiple frequencies (5 kHz~200 kHz) with four contact electrodes and evaluated the BIA device against standard body composition analysis systems: a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system (GE Lunar Prodigy, GE Healthcare, Buckinghamshire, UK) and a whole-body BIA system (InBody S10, InBody, Co. Ltd, Seoul, Korea). In the study, 568 healthy participants, varying widely in body mass index, age, and gender, were recruited at two research centers: the Samsung Medical Center (SMC) in South Korea and the Pennington Biomedical Research Center (PBRC) in the United States. From the measured impedance data, we analyzed individual body fat and skeletal muscle mass by applying linear regression analysis against target reference data. Results indicated strong correlations of impedance measurements between the prototype pathways and corresponding InBody S10 electrical pathways (R = 0.93, p 0.728 (paired t-test), DXA mean body fat 29.45 ± 10.77 kg, estimated body fat 29.52 ± 12.53 kg). Thus, this portable BIA system shows a promising ability to estimate an individual's body composition that is comparable to large stationary BIA systems. PMID:26364636

  4. Reliability and intermethod agreement for body fat assessment among two field and two laboratory methods in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Rey-López, Juan P; Mesana, Maria I; Poortvliet, Eric; Ortega, Francisco B; Polito, Angela; Nagy, Eniko; Widhalm, Kurt; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A

    2012-01-01

    To increase knowledge about reliability and intermethods agreement for body fat (BF) is of interest for assessment, interpretation, and comparison purposes. It was aimed to examine intra- and inter-rater reliability, interday variability, and degree of agreement for BF using air-displacement plethysmography (Bod-Pod), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and skinfold measurements in European adolescents. Fifty-four adolescents (25 females) from Zaragoza and 30 (14 females) from Stockholm, aged 13-17 years participated in this study. Two trained raters in each center assessed BF with Bod-Pod, DXA, BIA, and anthropometry (DXA only in Zaragoza). Intermethod agreement and reliability were studied using a 4-way ANOVA for the same rater on the first day and two additional measurements on a second day, one each rater. Technical error of measurement (TEM) and percentage coefficient of reliability (%R) were also reported. No significant intrarater, inter-rater, or interday effect was observed for %BF for any method in either of the cities. In Zaragoza, %BF was significantly different when measured by Bod-Pod and BIA in comparison with anthropometry and DXA (all P Bod-Pod, DXA, BIA, and anthropometry are reliable for %BF repeated assessment within the same day by the same or different raters or in consecutive days by the same rater. Bod-Pod showed close agreement with BIA as did DXA with anthropometry; however, Bod-Pod and BIA presented higher values of %BF than anthropometry and DXA.

  5. Is bioelectrical impedance accurate for use in large epidemiological studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merchant Anwar T

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Percentage of body fat is strongly associated with the risk of several chronic diseases but its accurate measurement is difficult. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a relatively simple, quick and non-invasive technique, to measure body composition. It measures body fat accurately in controlled clinical conditions but its performance in the field is inconsistent. In large epidemiologic studies simpler surrogate techniques such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio are frequently used instead of BIA to measure body fatness. We reviewed the rationale, theory, and technique of recently developed systems such as foot (or hand-to-foot BIA measurement, and the elements that could influence its results in large epidemiologic studies. BIA results are influenced by factors such as the environment, ethnicity, phase of menstrual cycle, and underlying medical conditions. We concluded that BIA measurements validated for specific ethnic groups, populations and conditions can accurately measure body fat in those populations, but not others and suggest that for large epdiemiological studies with diverse populations BIA may not be the appropriate choice for body composition measurement unless specific calibration equations are developed for different groups participating in the study.

  6. Bioelectrical impedance and visceral fat: a comparison with computed tomography in adults and elderly; Bioimpedancia eletrica e gordura visceral: uma comparacao com a tomografia computadorizada em adultos e idosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickemberg, Michaela [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Roriz, Anna Karla Carneiro [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Fontes, Gardenia Abreu Vieira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Sampaio, Lilian Ramos [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (Unifesp), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and visceral fat (VF) in adult and elderly patients. Subjects and methods: This was a cross-sectional study, with a sample of 191 subjects (52% women, 49% elderly) stratified by sex, age and body mass. Computerized tomography (VF area) and BIA (percentage of total body fat (%TBF-BIA), phase angle, reactance and resistance) data were generated. Statistical analysis was based on Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, Anova, Pearson's Chi-square, and ROC curves. Results: VF areas {>=} 130 cm{sup 2} were more prevalent among the elderly and among men. Adult females showed a stronger correlation between GV and %TBF-BIA. The other groups showed similar results and statistically significant correlations. Correlations between GV and phase angle were weak and not statistically significant. ROC Curves analyzes showed the following %TBF-BIA, which identified excess VF: for male subjects: 21.5% (adults) and 24.25% (elderly); for female subjects: 35.05% (adults) and 38.45% (elderly) with sensitivity of 78.6%, 82.1%, 83.3%, and 66.7%, and specificity of 70.6%, 62.5%, 79.1%, and 69%, respectively. Conclusion: BIA was found to have satisfactory sensitivity and specificity to predict VF; however, other devices and other techniques should be investigated to improve VF prediction. (author)

  7. Bioimpedance analysis in dialysis: state of the art and what we can expect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, James

    2009-01-01

    Dialysis must control the body's fluid content accurately in order to maintain optimal health. The only commonly used, practical and objective measurements we have to guide fluid removal are very inaccurate. Recent study has validated bioimpedance (BIA) as an objective measure of fluid and nutritional status in dialysis patients. There are a number of different methods suitable for routine use available to the clinician. Single-frequency whole-body BIA uses inexpensive equipment capable of almost instantaneous or continuous measurement. The results can be used to give an indication of a patient's fluid content, nutrition and body composition when compared to appropriate reference values. Multiple-frequency whole-body BIA can be used to calculate excess fluid volume to within 1-2 liters. The equipment is more expensive than for single-frequency BIA, but the output is much easier to interpret. Multiple-frequency segmental BIA is more complicated to perform, but subject to less interference from changes in fluid distribution (e.g. resulting from hemodialysis or changes in posture). It is not suitable for routine use but could be considered as a gold standard for occasional clinical BIA.

  8. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Energy Efficiency Program Phase 1 Summary. Existing Conditions and Baseline Energy Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wood, A. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2013-02-01

    A multi-year pilot energy efficiency retrofit project has been undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 co-operative of circa 1930 and '40 homes. The three predominate construction methods of the townhomes in the community are materials common to the area and climate zone including 8” CMU block, wood frame with brick veneer and wood frame with vinyl siding. GHI has established a pilot project that will serve as a basis for decision making for the roll out of a decade-long community upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency to the building envelope and equipment with the modernization of other systems like plumbing, mechanical equipment, and cladding.

  9. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  10. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Energy Efficiency Program Phase 1 Summary: Existing Conditions and Baseline Energy Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.; Wood, A.

    2013-02-01

    A multi-year pilot energy efficiency retrofit project has been undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 co-operative of circa 1930 and '40 homes. The three predominate construction methods of the townhomes in the community are materials common to the area and climate zone including 8" CMU block, wood frame with brick veneer and wood frame with vinyl siding. GHI has established a pilot project that will serve as a basis for decision making for the roll out of a decade-long community upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency to the building envelope and equipment with the modernization of other systems like plumbing, mechanical equipment, and cladding.

  11. Health workforce responses to global health initiatives funding: a comparison of Malawi and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugha Ruairí

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shortages of health workers are obstacles to utilising global health initiative (GHI funds effectively in Africa. This paper reports and analyses two countries' health workforce responses during a period of large increases in GHI funds. Methods Health facility record reviews were conducted in 52 facilities in Malawi and 39 facilities in Zambia in 2006/07 and 2008; quarterly totals from the last quarter of 2005 to the first quarter of 2008 inclusive in Malawi; and annual totals for 2004 to 2007 inclusive in Zambia. Topic-guided interviews were conducted with facility and district managers in both countries, and with health workers in Malawi. Results Facility data confirm significant scale-up in HIV/AIDS service delivery in both countries. In Malawi, this was supported by a large increase in lower trained cadres and only a modest increase in clinical staff numbers. Routine outpatient workload fell in urban facilities, in rural health centres and in facilities not providing antiretroviral treatment (ART, while it increased at district hospitals and in facilities providing ART. In Zambia, total staff and clinical staff numbers stagnated between 2004 and 2007. In rural areas, outpatient workload, which was higher than at urban facilities, increased further. Key informants described the effects of increased workloads in both countries and attributed staff migration from public health facilities to non-government facilities in Zambia to PEPFAR. Conclusions Malawi, which received large levels of GHI funding from only the Global Fund, managed to increase facility staff across all levels of the health system: urban, district and rural health facilities, supported by task-shifting to lower trained staff. The more complex GHI arena in Zambia, where both Global Fund and PEPFAR provided large levels of support, may have undermined a coordinated national workforce response to addressing health worker shortages, leading to a less effective

  12. 40 CFR 131.36 - Toxics criteria for those states not complying with Clean Water Act section 303(c)(2)(B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of: Water &Organisms (µg/L) (D1) OrganismsOnly (µg/L) (D2) 1 Antimony 7440360 14 a 4300 a 2 Arsenic....0028 c 0.031 c 63 Benzo(ghi)Perylene 191242 64 Benzo(k)Fluoranthene 207089 0.0028 c 0.031 c 65 Bis(2... function of the water effect ratio, WER, as defined in 40 CFR 131.36(c). CMC = column B1 or C1 value ×...

  13. Nitrogen and Oxygen Regulation of Bacillus subtilis nasDEF Encoding NADH-Dependent Nitrite Reductase by TnrA and ResDE

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Michiko M.; Hoffmann, Tamara; Zhu, Yi; Jahn, Dieter

    1998-01-01

    The nitrate and nitrite reductases of Bacillus subtilis have two different physiological functions. Under conditions of nitrogen limitation, these enzymes catalyze the reduction of nitrate via nitrite to ammonia for the anabolic incorporation of nitrogen into biomolecules. They also function catabolically in anaerobic respiration, which involves the use of nitrate and nitrite as terminal electron acceptors. Two distinct nitrate reductases, encoded by narGHI and nasBC, function in anabolic and...

  14. Validation of the surface downwelling solar irradiance estimates of the HelioClim-3 database in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Yehia Eissa; Mohamed Korany; Youva Aoun; Mohamed Boraiy; Magdy M. Abdel Wahab; Alfaro, Stephane C.; Philippe Blanc; Mossad El-Metwally; Hosni Ghedira; Katja Hungershoefer; Lucien Wald

    2015-01-01

    International audience HelioClim-3 (HC3) is a database providing time series of the surface downwelling solar irradiance that are computed from images of the Meteosat satellites. This paper presents the validation results of the hourly global horizontal irradiance (GHI) and direct normal irradiance (DNI), i.e., beam irradiance at normal incidence, of versions four and five of HC3 at seven Egyptian sites. The validation is performed for all-sky conditions, as well as cloud-free conditions. ...

  15. Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2012-09-01

    Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

  16. Validation of the NSRDB-SUNY global horizontal irradiance in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nottrott, Anders; Kleissl, Jan [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Satellite derived global horizontal solar irradiance (GHI) from the SUNY modeled dataset in the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) was compared to measurements from 27 weather stations in California during the years 1998-2005. The statistics of spatial and temporal differences between the two datasets were analyzed and related to meteorological phenomena. Overall mean bias errors (MBE) of the NSRDB-SUNY indicated a GHI overprediction of 5%, which is smaller than the sensor accuracy of ground stations. However, at coastal sites, year-round systematic positive MBEs in the NSRDB-SUNY data up to 18% were observed and monthly MBEs increased up to 54% in the summer months during the morning. These differences were explained by a tendency for the NSRDB-SUNY model to overestimate GHI under cloudy conditions at the coast during summer mornings. A persistent positive evening MBE which was independent of site location and cloudiness occurred at all stations and was explained by an error in the time-shifting method applied in the NSRDB-SUNY. A correction method was derived for these two errors to improve the accuracy of the NSRDB-SUNY data in California. (author)

  17. Measuring the impact of health insurance with a correction for selection bias--a case study of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, H R

    1999-08-01

    This article develops and uses methodologies to evaluate the impact of publicly-financed health insurance programmes on the use of health care. Using univariate and bivariate probit estimation techniques, the study tests and corrects for endogeneity resulting from selection bias. Potential endogeneity arises from the choice to be insured, eligibility for insurance, and differences in individuals' health status. The setting for the study is the country of Ecuador. The General Health Insurance (GHI) programme, which primarily covers workers in the formal sector of the economy, is found to have a strong positive association with the use of curative health care after correcting for selection bias, but no significant effect on the use of preventive care. Individuals with severe illnesses who are eligible for GHI have a preference for private health care, and self-select out of the GHI programme. The Seguro Campesino Social (SSC) programme, directed at farming populations, has positive but insignificant associations with both curative and preventive care. PMID:10470552

  18. Gestational Hypertension and Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Ledda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most common medical problem encountered during pregnancy, complicating 2-3% of pregnancies. High blood pressure (BP with diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm Hg and/or systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg arising after week 22 of pregnancy and resolving after delivery is defined as gestational hypertension (GHY. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether occupational and/or environmental exposure to organophosphorus (OP pesticide affects GHY. Women at approximately 22 weeks of gestation were recruited. OP pesticide exposure in the first trimester of pregnancy was classified into four categories: no exposure, indirect exposure, domestic exposure, and occupational exposure. Application of the exclusion criteria left 2203 participants (mean age 30.4 ± 11.6 years. Data analysis showed that in women with indirect OP pesticide exposure the incidence of GHY was slightly higher than that in the world population, whereas domestic exposure involved a 7% increase and occupational exposure a 12% increase. Analysis of the pesticides used by participants highlighted a possible role for malathion and diazinon (adjusted OR 1.09 and 1.14, resp.. Further investigation of exposed workers and the general population is clearly warranted given the broad diffusion of OP pesticides and their possible public health impact, maybe by including a wider range of health outcomes.

  19. Modeling the Cumulative Effects of Social Exposures on Health: Moving beyond Disease-Specific Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. White

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The traditional explanatory models used in epidemiology are “disease specific”, identifying risk factors for specific health conditions. Yet social exposures lead to a generalized, cumulative health impact which may not be specific to one illness. Disease-specific models may therefore misestimate social factors’ effects on health. Using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and Canada 2001 Census we construct and compare “disease-specific” and “generalized health impact” (GHI models to gauge the negative health effects of one social exposure: socioeconomic position (SEP. We use logistic and multinomial multilevel modeling with neighbourhood-level material deprivation, individual-level education and household income to compare and contrast the two approaches. In disease-specific models, the social determinants under study were each associated with the health conditions of interest. However, larger effect sizes were apparent when outcomes were modeled as compound health problems (0, 1, 2, or 3+ conditions using the GHI approach. To more accurately estimate social exposures’ impacts on population health, researchers should consider a GHI framework.

  20. Earthquake risk mitigation projects in central asia and india

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausler, E.; Petal, M.; Tobin, T.; Tucker, B.; Gupta, M.; Sharma, A.; Shaw, R.

    2003-04-01

    In the fall of 2002, GeoHazards International (GHI), a California-based nonprofit organization, launched two 3-year projects, each funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, to improve the earthquake risk management of 23 cities in Central Asia and India. The objectives of these projects are to: * Assess the earthquake risk of each city, * Identify the most effective risk mitigation options for each city, * Raise awareness of that risk and those mitigation options, and * Initiate mitigation activities in some of these cities. A critical characteristic of these projects is that leaders of each local community will be deeply involved in realizing all four objectives. GHI will work with, in addition to local authorities, national government, academic and non-governmental organizations. In India, GHI’s partners are the Disaster Management Planning Hyogo Office, United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD) of Kobe, Japan, and the Sustainable Environment and Ecological Development Society (SEEDS), of Delhi, India. In India, we will work in 20 cities that were chosen, in a February 1, 2002 workshop (sponsored by Munich Reinsurance Company) in Delhi; the cities were selected by Indian earthquake professionals on the basis of the cities’ population, hazard, and economic, cultural and political significance. In Central Asia, we will focus on Tashkent, Uzbekistan; Dushanbe, Tadzhikistan; and Almaty, Kazakstan. GHI and its partners are looking for other organizations that would like to collaborate on these projects.

  1. Quantifying consumer portion control practices. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, M; Lähteenmäki, L; Stefan, V; Livingstone, M B E; Gibney, E R; Dean, M

    2015-09-01

    The use of portion control practices has rarely been quantified. The present study aimed to: (1) explore which portion control practices are actually used by the general population and their association with cognitive restraint, demographic background and general health interest (GHI), and (2) examine how the usage of portion control practices predicts the estimated consumption of an energy dense food (i.e. pizza). Twenty-two portion control practices were rated in terms of their frequency of use from 'never' to 'very often' by a representative sample of 1012 consumers from the island of Ireland. Three factors were extracted and named: measurement-strategy scale, eating-strategy scale, and purchasing-strategy scale. The eating-strategy scale score was the highest, while the measurement-strategy scale carried the lowest frequency score. For each strategy scale score, the strongest predictor was GHI, followed by gender. Having higher GHI and being female were independently associated with more frequent portion control. Both the eating-strategy scale score and the purchasing-strategy scale score were negatively associated with pizza portion size consumption estimates. In conclusion, while this study demonstrates that the reported use of portion control practices is low, the findings provide preliminary evidence for their validity. Further studies are needed to explore how portion control practices are used in different kinds of portion size decisions and what their contribution is to the intake of food over an extended period of time. PMID:26048005

  2. Comparison of two field methods for estimating body fat in different spanish dance disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Marfell-Jones, Mike; Alacid, Fernando; Artero Orta, Pedro; Correas-Gómez, Lorena; Santonja Medina, Fernando; Carnero, Elvis A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate percentage body fat (%BF) differences in three Spanish dance disciplines and to compare skinfold and bioelectrical impedance predictions of body fat percentage in the same sample. Seventy-six female dancers, divided into three groups, Classical (n=23), Spanish (n=29) and Flamenco (n=24), were measured using skinfold measurements at four sites: triceps, subscapular, biceps and iliac crest, and whole body multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance (BIA). The skinfold measures were used to predict body fat percentage via Durnin and Womersley's and Segal, Sun and Yannakoulia equations by BIA. Differences in percent fat mass between groups (Classical, Spanish and Flamenco) were tested by using repeated measures analysis (ANOVA). Also, Pearson's product-moment correlations were performed on the body fat percentage values obtained using both methods. In addition, Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement, between anthropometric and BIA methods. Repeated measures analysis of variance did not found differences in %BF between modalities (p<0.05). Fat percentage correlations ranged from r= 0.57 to r=0.97 (all, p<0.001). Bland-Altman analysis revealed differences between BIA Yannakoulia as a reference method with BIA Segal (-0.35 ± 2.32%, 95%CI: -0.89to 0.18, p=0.38), with BIA Sun (-0.73 ± 2.3%, 95%CI: -1.27 to -0.20, p=0.014) and Durnin-Womersley (-2.65 ± 2,48%, 95%CI: -3.22 to -2.07, p<0.0001). It was concluded that body fat percentage estimates by BIA compared with skinfold method were systematically different in young adult female ballet dancers, having a tendency to produce underestimations as %BF increased with Segal and Durnin-Womersley equations compared to Yannakoulia, concluding that these methods are not interchangeable. PMID:25238839

  3. Localized bioimpedance to assess muscle injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injuries to lower limb muscles are common among football players. Localized bioimpedance analysis (BIA) utilizes electrical measurements to assess soft tissue hydration and cell membrane integrity non-invasively. This study reports the effects of the severity of muscle injury and recovery on BIA variables. We made serial tetra-polar, phase-sensitive 50 kHz localized BIA measurements of quadriceps, hamstring and calf muscles of three male football players before and after injury and during recovery until return-to-play, to determine changes in BIA variables (resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and phase angle (PA)) in different degrees of muscle injury. Compared to non-injury values, R, Xc and PA decreased with increasing muscle injury severity: grade III (23.1%, 45.1% and 27.6%), grade II (20.6%, 31.6% and 13.3%) and grade I (11.9%, 23.5% and 12.1%). These findings indicate that decreases in R reflect localized fluid accumulation, and reductions in Xc and PA highlight disruption of cellular membrane integrity and injury. Localized BIA measurements of muscle groups enable the practical detection of soft tissue injury and its severity. (paper)

  4. Reliability of non-lethal assessment methods of body composition and energetic status exemplified by applications to eel (Anguilla anguilla) and carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefoth, Thomas; Skov, Christian; Aarestrup, Kim;

    2013-01-01

    ),bioelectric impedance-based assessments of body composition (BIA), and microwave-based “fat” meters(FM). Previous studies have revealed mixed findings as to the reliability of each of these. We compared theperformance of Kn, BIA and FM at different temperatures to predict energetic status of the whole bodiesof live eel...... mass as an index of energetic status of a fish. FM readings were found to predict relative dry mass ofwhole body in eel (R2= 0.707) and carp (R2= 0.676), and dorsal white muscle of carp (R2= 0.814) well. Bycontrast, BIA measurements and Knwere much less suited to identify variation in relative dry mass....... BIA-based models were also temperature-dependent. As a result, a regression model calibrated at 10◦C andapplied to BIA measurements at 20◦C was found to underestimate energetic status of a fish. By contrast,no effects of temperature on FM calibration results were found. Based on our study, the FM...

  5. A review of the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate in the management of partial-onset seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocamora, Rodrigo

    2015-07-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate is a is a once-daily antiepileptic drug (AED) that was approved in 2009 by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) (Zebinix™), and in 2013 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Aptiom™) as adjunctive therapy in adults with refractory partial-onset seizures, with or without secondary generalization. It is a third-generation member of the dibenzazepine family of AEDs with distinctive mechanism of action, posology and tolerability profile. The eslicarbazepine acetate development program included an initial phase II study (study BIA 2-093) and three subsequent phase III, multicentre, randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled clinical trials (studies BIA-2093-301, BIA- 2093-302 and BIA -2093-303). A fourth phase III placebo-controlled trial (study BIA-2093-304) was designed in order to meet specific requirements of the FDA. All performed studies have consistently shown that eslicarbazepine acetate (800 to 1200 mg/day) is effective and well tolerated as adjunctive therapy for adults with partial-onset seizures. PMID:26136845

  6. Graft function and nutritional parameters in stable postrenal transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a method for the assessment of nutritional status. We studied the effect of graft function on nutritional status in postrenal 45 transplant patients with borderline to good allograft function using BIA. The patients had a mean serum creatinine of 1.42 ± 0.42 mg% and mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR of 45.1 ± 14.1 mL/min. Based on BIA-derived GFR, the patients were divided into two groups; group 1: borderline graft function GFR 4.0 in extracellular water (P <0.015, intracellular water (P <0.002, plasma fluid (P <0.016, interstitial fluid (P <0.016, and body cell mass (P <0.024. Subjective global assessment (SGA scores showed that transplant patients had normal nutritional status, but when compared with healthy individuals as assessed by BIA, there were significant differences in FM, FFM, and body cell mass. In conclusion, BIA was more sensitive to evaluate nutritional depletion than SGA in transplant patients with borderline.

  7. Nióbia sintética modificada como catalisador na oxidação de corante orgânico: utilização de H2O2 e O2 atmosférico como oxidantes Modified synthetic niobia as catalyst in the oxidation of organic dye: utilization of H2O2 and atmospheric O2 as oxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kele T. G. Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work synthetic niobia was used to promote the oxidation of methylene blue dye in aqueous medium. The niobia was characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, XRD and TG measurements. The presence of reactive species on the niobia surface strongly increased the oxidation rate of the methylene blue dye. The reaction mechanism was studied by ESI-MS suggesting that the oxidation of the organic dye involve oxidizing species generated mainly after previous treatment with H2O2. It can be observed that the catalyst is a good material in the activation of gas (atmospheric oxygen or liquid (hydrogen peroxide oxidant agent with a total discoloration of the dye solution after only 1 h of reaction.

  8. Sedimentary Rocks Associated with the Coal Seams of the Saddle Beds from the Chwałowice Trough - West Part of Upper Silesian Coal Basin / Skały Osadowe Towarzyszące Pokładom Węgla Warstw Siodłowych Niecki Chwałowickiej - Zachodnia Część Górnośląskiego Zagłębia Węglowego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanienda, Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    The results of investigation of the associated rocks with the Saddle Beds Coals Seams from Chwałowice Trough were presented in this article. The results of researches show that sandstones and mudstones dominate in the investigating profile. Claystones are situated mainly in ceilings and floors of coal seams. Grains of sandstones include mainly quartz, feldspars, micas and also quartzite's and gneiss's fragments. It is also possible to observe small grains of heavy minerals. Some of sandstones present bad compactness and are destroyed during transportation. This feature is connected with presence of little quantity of cement, especially in medium grained sandstones, which include more matrix than typical cement. The cement is built mainly of clay minerals, kaolinite and illite, carbonates and chalcedony but X-ray diffraction confirmed also the presence of halite in the cement of investigated sandstones. Mudstones and claystones are composed mainly of clay minerals. It's also possible to find quartz and micas there. Higher amounts of quartz and micas are possible to find rather in mudstones. The associated rocks with the Saddle Beds Coal Seams from Chwałowice Trough include also organic matter. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań skał towarzyszących pokładom węgla warstw siodłowych Niecki Chwałowickiej. Wyniki badań wskazują, że w badanym profilu dominują piaskowce oraz mułowce. Iłowce natomiast występują głównie w stropach i spągach pokładów węgla. Okruchy piaskowców to głównie ziarna kwarcu, skaleni, mik oraz fragmenty kwarcytów i gnejsów. Można tu również zaobserwować drobne okruchy minerałów ciężkich. Niektóre piaskowce charakteryzują się obniżoną zwięzłością i podczas transportu ulegają rozpadowi. Cecha ta związana jest z niewielką ilością spoiwa, szczególnie w piaskowcach średnioziarnistych, w których matrix przeważa nad typowym cementem. Spoiwo zbudowane jest głównie z minerałów ilastych, takich jak kaolinit i illit, węglanów i chalcedonu, chociaż wyniki dyfraktometrii rentgenowskiej potwierdziły występowanie w spoiwie badanych piaskowców również halitu. Na podstawie składu mineralnego piaskowców, dokonano ich klasyfikacji, stosując podziały skał okruchowych Krynina (1948) i Pettijohn'a-Potter'a-Siever'a (1973). Według klasyfikacji Krynina badane piaskowce reprezentują szarogłazy (szarowaki). W klasyfikacji Pettijohn'a, próbki 6, 8 i 13 reprezentują arenity lityczne, natomiast próbki 3 i 10- waki. Mułowce i iłowce zbudowane SA głównie z minerałów ilastych. Można w nich również spotkać ziarna kwarcu oraz miki. Wyższy udział kwarcu i mik jest jednak charakterystyczny dla mułowców. Skały towarzyszące pokładom węgla warstw siodłowych Niecki Chwałowickiej zawierają również domieszki substancji organicznej.

  9. Fast biosensor immunoassays for the detection of cows' milk in the milk of ewes and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasnoot, Willem; Smits, Nathalie G E; Kemmers-Voncken, Anniek E M; Bremer, Maria G E G

    2004-08-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (MAb) raised against bovine kappa-casein were developed and applied in an automated optical biosensor (Biacore 3000) to create easy and fast direct and inhibition biosensor immunoassays (BIA) for the detection of cows' milk in the milk of ewes and goats. With both assay formats, low limits of detection (goats' milk were used. Advantages of the direct BIA are: the single reagent format (biosensor chip immobilized antibodies only); the use of small amounts of antibodies (2 microg for >350 tests); and the wide measurement range (0.1 to 10% cows' milk). Despite these advantages, the inhibition BIA (using kappa-casein immobilized on the chip) was preferred because of the possible application of non-purified Mab, the higher responses, the higher sensitivity at relevant low percentages of cows' milk and its robustness (>800 cycles per chip). PMID:15354579

  10. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells markedly attenuate brain infarct size and improve neurological function in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheuk-Kwan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs on brain infarction area (BIA and neurological status in a rat model of acute ischemic stroke (IS was investigated. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (n = 30 were divided into IS plus intra-venous 1 mL saline (at 0, 12 and 24 h after IS induction (control group and IS plus intra-venous ADMSCs (2.0 × 106 (treated interval as controls (treatment group after occlusion of distal left internal carotid artery. The rats were sacrificed and brain tissues were harvested on day 21 after the procedure. Results The results showed that BIA was larger in control group than in treatment group (p Conclusions ADMSC therapy significantly limited BIA and improved sensorimotor dysfunction after acute IS.

  11. Bioelectrical impedance analysis as a laboratory activity: At the interface of physics and the body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylott, Elliot; Kutschera, Ellynne; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel laboratory activity on RC circuits aimed at introductory physics students in life-science majors. The activity teaches principles of RC circuits by connecting ac-circuit concepts to bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) using a custom-designed educational BIA device. The activity shows how a BIA device works and how current, voltage, and impedance measurements relate to bioelectrical characteristics of the human body. From this, useful observations can be made including body water, fat-free mass, and body fat percentage. The laboratory is engaging to pre-health and life-science students, as well as engineering students who are given the opportunity to observe electrical components and construction of a commonly used biomedical device. Electrical concepts investigated include alternating current, electrical potential, resistance, capacitance, impedance, frequency, phase shift, device design, and the use of such topics in biomedical analysis.

  12. Smartphone-Based Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Devices for Daily Obesity Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahyoung Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Current bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA systems are often large, cumbersome devices which require strict electrode placement on the user, thus inhibiting mobile capabilities. In this work, we developed a handheld BIA device that measures impedance from multiple frequencies (5 kHz~200 kHz with four contact electrodes and evaluated the BIA device against standard body composition analysis systems: a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA system (GE Lunar Prodigy, GE Healthcare, Buckinghamshire, UK and a whole-body BIA system (InBody S10, InBody, Co. Ltd, Seoul, Korea. In the study, 568 healthy participants, varying widely in body mass index, age, and gender, were recruited at two research centers: the Samsung Medical Center (SMC in South Korea and the Pennington Biomedical Research Center (PBRC in the United States. From the measured impedance data, we analyzed individual body fat and skeletal muscle mass by applying linear regression analysis against target reference data. Results indicated strong correlations of impedance measurements between the prototype pathways and corresponding InBody S10 electrical pathways (R = 0.93, p < 0.0001. Additionally, body fat estimates from DXA did not yield significant differences (p > 0.728 (paired t-test, DXA mean body fat 29.45 ± 10.77 kg, estimated body fat 29.52 ± 12.53 kg. Thus, this portable BIA system shows a promising ability to estimate an individual’s body composition that is comparable to large stationary BIA systems.

  13. Total body water and fat-free mass: evaluation of equations based on bioelectrical impedance analysis in infants and young children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Bandana; Mahalanabis, Dilip; Kurpad, Anura V; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Bose, Kaushik

    2010-07-01

    The association of early postnatal growth with diseases in adults such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes and CHD has generated interest in studying postnatal growth. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a useful measure to estimate total body water (TBW) and fat-free mass (FFM). We evaluated three published equations (Fjeld et al. (Pediatr Res (1990) 27, 98-102), Bocage (MSc Thesis (1988) University of West Indies) and Kushner et al. (Am J Clin Nutr (1992) 56, 835-839) to measure TBW and derived FFM based on BIA, using 2H2O dilution as a reference method for suitability in infants in India. In a cross-sectional study in seventy-eight apparently healthy infants aged 6-24 months from the urban poor attending an immunisation clinic at a hospital in Kolkata, we measured their length to the nearest 0.1 cm, weight to the nearest 10 g, resistance at 50 kHz using BIA and TBW using 2H2O dilution. TBW was derived using three published BIA-based equations and compared with TBW using 2H2O dilution. Based on the BIA equations of Fjeld et al., Bocage and Kushner et al., the mean TBW values were 2.46 % (P < 0.001), 4.62 % (P < 0.001) and 9.50 % (P < 0.001) lower than the reference 2H2O method, respectively. All three published BIA-based equations consistently underestimated the TBW and FFM and appeared inadequate for studying infants in India. The equation described by Fjeld et al. gave the smallest deviation from the reference method and may be used for field studies. New equations based on population-specific data are desirable for a more precise measure of TBW. PMID:20188001

  14. Microcystin assimilation and detoxification by Daphnia spp. in two ecosystems of different cyanotoxin concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Wojtal-Frankiewicz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs, the main group of cyanotoxins, can induce oxidative stress in the cells of aquatic animals. This study evaluated the sensitivity of daphniids – from two ecosystems characterised by different trophic states and habitat levels of cyanobacteria abundance – to microcystin toxicity by analysing oxidative stress parameters and MC detoxification ability. As a study site, we chose the eutrophic Sulejow reservoir, which has regular annual toxic cyanobacterial blooms, and the mesotrophic lake Białe, where low abundances of cyanobacteria have only recently appeared. We found much higher accumulations of MCs in tissues of Daphnia spp. in lake Białe, despite low toxin concentrations in this ecosystem compared with the Sulejow reservoir. Simultaneously, high levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO and a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH were observed in daphniid cells in lake Białe, while LPO levels were generally lower and GSH concentration more stable in the Sulejow reservoir. Catalase activity, which reflects more efficient oxidative protection, was always significantly higher in the reservoir than in lake Białe. These results demonstrate that generations of daphniids from the Sulejow reservoir had more effective antioxidant systems protecting them against the accumulation of cyanobacterial toxins; thereby, they are less susceptible to toxic effects than the daphniids from lake Białe. However, the presence of conjugate forms of microcystins (MC-GSH and MC-Cys in tissues of the studied animals indicated the ability for MC detoxification by daphniids from the Sulejow reservoir and lake Białe. Nevertheless, the high effectiveness of antioxidant systems in daphniids coexisting with cyanobacteria for a long time in the Sulejow reservoir indicates the importance of a selective pressure exerted by toxic cyanobacterial strains that favours the most resistant daphniid genotypes.

  15. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism: a century of discovery and a brave new world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Jillian M; Facchini, Peter J

    2013-05-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a structurally diverse group of plant specialized metabolites with a long history of investigation. Although the ecophysiological functions of most BIAs are unknown, the medicinal properties of many compounds have been exploited for centuries. These include the narcotic analgesics codeine and morphine, the antimicrobial agents sanguinarine and berberine, and the antitussive and anticancer drug noscapine. BIA biosynthesis involves a restricted number of enzyme types that catalyze landmark coupling reactions and subsequent functional group modifications. A pathogenesis-related (PR)10/Bet v1 'Pictet-Spenglerase', several O-methyl-, N-methyl- and O-acetyltransferases, cytochromes P450, FAD-dependent oxidases, non-heme dioxygenases and NADPH-dependent reductases have been implicated in the multistep pathways leading to structurally diverse alkaloids. A small number of plant species, including opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and other members of the Ranunculales, have emerged as model systems to study BIA metabolism. The expansion of resources to include a wider range of plant species is creating an opportunity to investigate previously uncharacterized BIA pathways. Contemporary knowledge of BIA metabolism reflects over a century of research coupled with the development of key innovations such as radioactive tracing, enzyme isolation and molecular cloning, and functional genomics approaches such as virus-induced gene silencing. Recently, the emergence of transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics has expedited the discovery of new BIA biosynthetic genes. The growing repository of BIA biosynthetic genes is providing the parts required to apply emerging synthetic biology platforms to the development of production systems in microbes as an alternative to plants as a commecial source of valuable BIAs.

  16. Padronização de um protocolo experimental de treinamento periodizado em natação utilizando ratos Wistar Standardization of an experimental periodized training protocol in swimming rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Gomes de Araujo; Marcelo Papoti; Fúlvia de Barros Manchado-Gobatto; Maria Alice Rostom de Mello; Claudio Alexandre Gobatto

    2010-01-01

    Verificar os efeitos de 12 semanas de treinamento periodizado de natação em ratos sobre os valores de glicogênio muscular (GM) e hepático (GH), capacidade aeróbia (LAn) e anaeróbia (Tlim) e creatina quinase (CK). Foram utilizados 70 ratos da linhagem Wistar com 60 dias, adaptados individualmente ao meio líquido por duas semanas. Os animais foram divididos em grupos: controle (GC, n = 40) e periodizado (GP, n = 30); a intensidade do treinamento foi equivalente ao peso corporal do animal (% do ...

  17. Lower creatinine as a marker of malnutrition and lower muscle mass in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiz A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abdulmecit Yildiz,1 Fatih Tufan2 1Department of Nephrology, Uludag University School of Medicine, Bursa, 2Department of Geriatrics, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, TurkeyWe read the recently published and well-designed study of Lee et al that suggests that bioimpedance analysis (BIA gives relevant information about hydration status and malnutrition in hemodialysis patients. The authors recommend that utilization of BIA routinely in hemodialysis patients would be rational. We would like to make a few comments about their study.View original paper by Lee et al.

  18. Looking for a road to get out of poverty. Is the current allocation of public spending on education in Colombia helping?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Cecilia Zuluaga Díaz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to explore the impact on poverty of the public spending on education. The methodology consists of two approaches: Benefit Incidence Analysis (BIA and behavioral approach. BIA considers the cost and use of the educational service, and the distribution of the benefits among groups of income. Regarding the behavioral approach, we use a Probit model of schooling attendance, in order to determine the influence of public spending on the probability for the poor to attend the school. As a complement, a measurement of targeting errors in the allocation of public spending is included in the methodology.

  19. 牙周基础治疗对药物性牙龈增生的疗效观察%Effect of initial periodontal therapy on drug-induced gingival hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马兆峰; 张建霞; 孙丽荣; 李石

    2011-01-01

    目的:评价牙周基础治疗对钙拮抗剂导致的药物性牙龈增生的治疗效果.方法:钙拮抗剂导致的牙龈增生患者7例,在治疗前和牙周基础治疗后1、3、6个月各时点分别记录菌斑指数(plaque index,PLI),出血指数(bleeding index,BI),探诊深度(probing depth,PD)和牙龈增生指数(gingival hyperplasia index,GHI),7例患者完成7至少6个月的观察.结果:在观察期间,牙龈炎症状态指标(PLI、BI、PD)持续减轻(P<0.01),牙龈增生状态(GHI)持续改善.结论:牙周基础治疗可改善钙拮抗剂药物引起牙龈增生的程度.%Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of initial periodontal therapy on gingival hyperplasia induced by calcium channel blocker. Methods Seven patients with gingival hyperplasia induced by calcium channel blocker were collected.The bleeding index (BI), plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD) and gingival hyperplasia index (GHI) were scored at time of first periodontal therapy, 1 month,3 months and 6 months. Results During the longitudinal survey,the extent of gingival hyperplasia and gingivitis gradually reduced. Conclusion Initial periodontal therapy may successfully decrease the severity of drug-induced gingival hyperplasia for at least 6 months.

  20. Analysis and Prediction of Energy Production in Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Barnett

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A method for the prediction of Energy Production (EP in Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV installations is examined in this study. It presents a new method that predicts EP by using Global Horizontal Irradiation (GHI and the Photovoltaic Geographical Information System (PVGIS database, instead of Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI data, which are rarely recorded at most locations. EP at four Spanish CPV installations is analyzed: two are based on silicon solar cells and the other two on multi-junction III-V solar cells. The real EP is compared with the predicted EP. Two methods for EP prediction are presented. In the first preliminary method, a monthly Performance Ratio (PR is used as an arbitrary constant value (75% and an estimation of the DNI. The DNI estimation is obtained from GHI measurements and the PVGIS database. In the second method, a lineal model is proposed for the first time in this paper to obtain the predicted EP from the estimated DNI. This lineal model is the regression line that correlates the real monthly EP and the estimated DNI in 2009. This new method implies that the monthly PR is variable. Using the new method, the difference between the predicted and the real EP values is less than 2% for the annual EP and is in the range of 5.6%–16.1% for the monthly EP. The method that uses the variable monthly PR allows the prediction of the EP with reasonable accuracy. It is therefore possible to predict the CPV EP for any location, using only widely available GHI data and the PVGIS database.

  1. Developing and testing solar irradiance forecasting techniques in the Hawaiian Islands region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, D. K.; Souza, J. M.; Stein, K.

    2014-12-01

    Irradiance variability, primarily driven by cloud formation and advection, can be problematic in the state of Hawaíi, because of the high penetration of distributed solar and the small scale of the island electrical grids. The Hawaíi Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) is developing an operational system in order to research and test new techniques to generate solar forecasts for the Hawaiian Islands. The operational system comprises the following three components.(i) A ground-observation-based advection model, using sky imagers and a ceilometer located at the University of Hawaíi at Mānoa. Every 10 minutes (during daylight hours), this component generates a high-resolution 1 hour Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) prediction for a region that is within ~15 km of the instrumentation. (ii) A satellite-image-based advection model, using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imagery and the Heliosat-II method. Every 30 minutes (during daylight hours), this component generates a 1 km resolution, 6 hour GHI prediction for the entire Hawaiian Archipelago. (iii) A coupled ocean-atmosphere model, using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, including newly available microphysics, shallow convection parameterization, and radiative transfer model options. Nightly, this component generates 48 hour GHI, Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI), and Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance (DHI) predictions for (a) a 10 km resolution domain covering the full Hawaiian Archipelago and (b) a nested 2 km resolution domain covering the islands of Maui, Óahu, and Hawaíi. We discuss the development and validation of the system, and the scales of forecasting accuracy for each component. We also examine the impact of the coupled model on the simulations of surface flux processeses and ocean-atmosphere feedbacks, both of which influence the prediction of regional cloud properties.

  2. Uncertainty of Rotating Shadowband Irradiometers and Si-Pyranometers Including the Spectral Irradiance Error

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbert, Stefan; Kleindiek, Stefan; Nouri, Bijan; Geuder, Norbert; Habte, Aron; Schwandt, Marko; Vignola, Frank

    2016-05-31

    Concentrating solar power projects require accurate direct normal irradiance (DNI) data including uncertainty specifications for plant layout and cost calculations. Ground measured data are necessary to obtain the required level of accuracy and are often obtained with Rotating Shadowband Irradiometers (RSI) that use photodiode pyranometers and correction functions to account for systematic effects. The uncertainty of Si-pyranometers has been investigated, but so far basically empirical studies were published or decisive uncertainty influences had to be estimated based on experience in analytical studies. One of the most crucial estimated influences is the spectral irradiance error because Si-photodiode-pyranometers only detect visible and color infrared radiation and have a spectral response that varies strongly within this wavelength interval. Furthermore, analytic studies did not discuss the role of correction functions and the uncertainty introduced by imperfect shading. In order to further improve the bankability of RSI and Si-pyranometer data, a detailed uncertainty analysis following the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) has been carried out. The study defines a method for the derivation of the spectral error and spectral uncertainties and presents quantitative values of the spectral and overall uncertainties. Data from the PSA station in southern Spain was selected for the analysis. Average standard uncertainties for corrected 10 min data of 2% for global horizontal irradiance (GHI), and 2.9% for DNI (for GHI and DNI over 300 W/m2) were found for the 2012 yearly dataset when separate GHI and DHI calibration constants were used. Also the uncertainty in 1 min resolution was analyzed. The effect of correction functions is significant. The uncertainties found in this study are consistent with results of previous empirical studies.

  3. Uncertainty of rotating shadowband irradiometers and Si-pyranometers including the spectral irradiance error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbert, Stefan; Kleindiek, Stefan; Nouri, Bijan; Geuder, Norbert; Habte, Aron; Schwandt, Marko; Vignola, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Concentrating solar power projects require accurate direct normal irradiance (DNI) data including uncertainty specifications for plant layout and cost calculations. Ground measured data are necessary to obtain the required level of accuracy and are often obtained with Rotating Shadowband Irradiometers (RSI) that use photodiode pyranometers and correction functions to account for systematic effects. The uncertainty of Si-pyranometers has been investigated, but so far basically empirical studies were published or decisive uncertainty influences had to be estimated based on experience in analytical studies. One of the most crucial estimated influences is the spectral irradiance error because Si-photodiode-pyranometers only detect visible and color infrared radiation and have a spectral response that varies strongly within this wavelength interval. Furthermore, analytic studies did not discuss the role of correction functions and the uncertainty introduced by imperfect shading. In order to further improve the bankability of RSI and Si-pyranometer data, a detailed uncertainty analysis following the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) has been carried out. The study defines a method for the derivation of the spectral error and spectral uncertainties and presents quantitative values of the spectral and overall uncertainties. Data from the PSA station in southern Spain was selected for the analysis. Average standard uncertainties for corrected 10 min data of 2 % for global horizontal irradiance (GHI), and 2.9 % for DNI (for GHI and DNI over 300 W/m²) were found for the 2012 yearly dataset when separate GHI and DHI calibration constants were used. Also the uncertainty in 1 min resolution was analyzed. The effect of correction functions is significant. The uncertainties found in this study are consistent with results of previous empirical studies.

  4. Source apportionment of elevated wintertime PAHs by compound-specific radiocarbon analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheesley, R. J.; Kruså, M.; Krecl, P.; Johansson, C.; Gustafsson, Ã.-.

    2008-12-01

    Natural abundance radiocarbon analysis facilitates distinct source apportionment between contemporary biomass/biofuel (14C "alive") versus fossil fuel (14C "dead") combustion. Here, the first compound-specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA) of atmospheric polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was demonstrated for a set of samples collected in Lycksele, Sweden a small town with frequent episodes of severe atmospheric pollution in the winter. Renewed interest in residential wood combustion means than this type of seasonal pollution is of increasing concern in many areas. Five individual/paired PAH isolates from three pooled fortnight-long filter collections were analyzed by CSRA: phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[b+k]fluoranthene and indeno[cd]pyrene plus benzo[ghi]perylene; phenanthrene was the only compound also analyzed in the gas phase. The measured Δ14C for PAHs spanned from -138.3‰ to 58.0‰. A simple isotopic mass balance model was applied to estimate the fraction biomass (fbiomass) contribution that was constrained to a range of 71% for indeno[cd]pyrene+benzo[ghi]perylene to 87% for the gas phase phenanthrene and particulate fluoranthene, respectively. Indeno[cd]pyrene plus benzo[ghi]perylene, known to be enhanced in gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust compared to diesel exhaust, had the lowest contribution of biomass combustion of the measured PAHs by 9%. The total organic carbon (TOC, defined as carbon remaining after removal of inorganic carbon) fbiomass was estimated to be 77%, which falls within the range for PAHs. This CSRA data of atmospheric PAHs demonstrate the non-uniformity of biomass combustion contribution to different PAHs even in a location with limited local emission sources and illustrates that regulatory efforts would not evenly reduce all PAHs.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the airborne particulate matter at a location 40 km north of Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, N. T.; Bætz Reutergårdh, L.; Dung, N. Tr.; Yu, M.-H.; Yao, W.-X.; Co, H. X.

    Total suspended particulate matter in ambient air was sampled by high-volume samplers at four sites at the Asian Institute of Technology campus, west of the Phahonyothin Road, Phathumthani Province, 40 km North of Bangkok, Thailand. The concentrations of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), were measured by gas chromatography with flame ionisation and/or liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The PAH profile with relatively high concentrations of benzo(ghi)perylene and coronene, decreasing with the distance from the road, suggested a substantial contribution from the traffic. The concentrations in the core of the campus were in the same range as those reported for residential areas in the Bangkok Metropolitan.

  6. Atypical defects resulting in growth hormone insensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wit, Jan M; de Luca, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Besides four well-documented genetic causes of GH insensitivity (GHI) (GHR, STAT5B, IGF1, IGFALS defects), several other congenital and acquired conditions are associated with GHI. With respect to its anabolic actions, GH induces transcription of IGF1, IGFBP3 and IGFALS through a complex regulatory cascade including GH binding to its receptor (GHR), activation of JAK2 and phosphorylation of STAT5b, which then trafficks to the nucleus. GH also activates the MAPK and PI3K pathways. The synthesis of GHR can be reduced by estrogen deficiency or corticosteroid excess, and is possibly decreased in African pygmies. An increased degradation of GHRs because of overexpression of cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS) was suggested for some children with idiopathic short stature. Effects on several downstream components of GH signaling were observed for FGF21, cytokines, sepsis, fever and chronic renal failure. In Noonan syndrome and other "rasopathies" the activation of the RAS-RAF-MAPK-ERK pathway leads to inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway. In contrast, fibroblasts from tall patients with Sotos syndrome showed a downregulation of this axis. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that the NF-κB pathway plays a role in GH signaling. In a patient with an IκBα mutation presenting with short stature, GHI, severe immune deficiency and other features, NF-κB nuclear transportation and STAT5 and PI3K expression and activity were reduced. A patient with a mosaic de novo duplication of 17q21-25 presented with several congenital anomalies, GHI and mild immunodeficiency. Studies in blood lymphocytes showed disturbed signaling of the CD28 pathway, involving NF-κB and related proteins. Functional studies on skin fibroblasts revealed that NF-κB activation, PI3K activity and STAT5 phosphorylation in response to GH were suppressed, while the sensitivity to GH in terms of MAPK phosphorylation was increased. The expression of one of the duplicated genes, PRKCA, was

  7. Estratto: 2015 Indice globale della fame: I conflitti armati e la sfida della fame

    OpenAIRE

    von Grebmer, Klaus; Bernstein, Jill; Prasai, Nilam; Yin, Sandra; Yohannes, Yisehac; Towey, Olive; Sonntag, Andrea; Neubauer, Larissa; de Waal, Alex

    2015-01-01

    L’Indice Globale della Fame 2015 (Global Hunger Index, abbreviato in GHI) – al suo decimo anno – presenta una misurazione multidimensionale della fame a livello nazionale, regionale e mondiale. Indica che sono stati compiuti dei progressi riducendo la fame dopo il 2000, ma c’è ancora molto da fare: i livelli di fame restano gravi o allarmanti in 52 Paesi. Il tema del rapporto di quest’anno sono i conflitti armati e il problema della fame. Guerra e fame sono strettamente associati. In effetti,...

  8. Solar Radiometric Data Quality Assessment of SIRS, SKYRAD and GNDRAD Measurements (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Kutchenreiter, M.; Gotseff, P.; Anderberg, M.

    2014-03-01

    Solar radiation is the driving force for the earth's weather and climate. Understanding the elements of this dynamic energy balance requires accurate measurements of broadband solar irradiance. Since the mid-1990's the ARM Program has deployed pyrheliometers and pyranometers for the measurement of direct normal irradiance (DNI), global horizontal irradiance (GHI), diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), and upwelling shortwave (US) radiation at permanent and mobile field research sites. This poster summarizes the basis for assessing the broadband solar radiation data available from the SIRS, SKYRAD, and GNDRAD measurement systems and provides examples of data inspections.

  9. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program. Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Marlboro, MD (United States); Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2015-05-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Home Innovation wrote a report on Phase 1 of the project that summarized a condition assessment of the homes and evaluated retrofit options within the constraints of the cooperative provided by GHI. Phase 2 was completed following monitoring in the 2013–2014 winter season; the results are summarized in this report. Phase 3 upgrades of heating equipment will be implemented in time for the 2014–2015 heating season and are not part of this report.

  10. Synopsis: 2015 Global hunger index: Armed conflict and the challenge of hunger

    OpenAIRE

    von Grebmer, Klaus; Bernstein, Jill; Prasai, Nilam; Yin, Sandra; Yohannes, Yisehac; Towey, Olive; Sonntag, Andrea; Neubauer, Larissa; de Waal, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Global Hunger Index (GHI) report—the tenth in an annual series—presents a multidimensional measure of national, regional, and global hunger. It shows that the world has made progress in reducing hunger since 2000, but still has a long way to go, with levels of hunger still serious or alarming in 52 countries. The theme of this year’s report is armed conflict and the challenge of hunger. Conflict and hunger are closely associated. Indeed, conflict is the main cause of persistent sever...

  11. A Comparison of Methods for the Estimation of Body Composition in Highly Trained Wheelchair Games Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosey-Tolfrey, V; Keil, M; Brooke-Wavell, K; de Groot, S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement in body composition measurements of wheelchair athletes using skinfolds, bio-impedance analysis (BIA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) relative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A secondary objective was to develop new skinfold

  12. Business and IT alignment in context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvius, A.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Already for more than two decades, the necessity and desirability of aligning business needs and information technology (IT) capabilities is considered to be one of the key issues in IT management. However, several studies report quite low scores on business and IT alignment (BIA). The question “Why

  13. 77 FR 70460 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Ho-Chunk Nation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... environmental concern identified for analysis in the EIS include land resources, water resources, air quality... Bureau of Indian Affairs Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed... Affairs (BIA) as lead agency intends to gather information necessary for preparing an Environmental...

  14. 75 FR 47591 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice Of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Facility and Hotel Fee-To-Trust Acquisition Project, Implementation, Federal Trust, Estom Yumeka Maida.... 20100302, Final EIS, BIA, CA, North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians Fee-to-Trust and Casino/Hotel Project... Stobaugh 775-861-6478. Amended Notices EIS No. 20100259, Draft EIS, FAA, RI, Theodore Francis Green...

  15. Changes in body composition during weight loss in obese subjects in the NUGENOB study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdich, C.; Barbe, P.; Petersen, Martin;

    2011-01-01

    AIM: We studied the accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess changes in body composition during moderate weight loss in obese subjects. METHODS: Estimates of changes in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) by BIA were compared with those by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA......) as the reference method during a 10-week standardized weight-loss intervention. In obese women (age: 20-50years, mean BMI: 33.8kg/m(2)) participating in a European multicentre trial (nutrient-gene interactions in human obesity [NUGENOB]), body composition was assessed by BIA (Bodystat QuadScan 4000) and DXA (Lunar...... DPX-IQ at two centres, Hologic QDR 2000 at another centre) at baseline (n=131) and at week 10 (n=105) after a mean weight loss of -5.7kg. RESULTS: At baseline, BIA significantly overestimated FFM and underestimated FM (by 1-3kg on average) compared with DXA, and the limits of agreement were wide (mean...

  16. 76 FR 28983 - Media Bureau Seeks Comment on the Economic Impact of Low-Power FM Stations on Full-Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... conditions? Are the databases maintained by BIA/Kelsey the best sources for tracking radio advertising... report due to Congress, as required by section 8 of the Local Community Radio Act of 2010. DATES...-3160. Summary of the Public Notice 1. The Local Community Radio Act of 2010 (LCRA),\\1\\ enacted...

  17. 23 CFR 973.212 - Indian lands safety management system (SMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inspection and copying as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. (d) The BIA and ITGs shall utilize the SMSs to ensure... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands safety management system (SMS). 973.212... PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.212 Indian lands safety management system...

  18. Reward-Related Attentional Bias and Adolescent Substance Use : A Prognostic Relationship?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E.; de Jong, Peter J.; Ostafin, Brian D.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2015-01-01

    Current cognitive-motivational addiction theories propose that prioritizing appetitive, reward-related information (attentional bias) plays a vital role in substance abuse behavior. Previous cross-sectional research has shown that adolescent substance use is related to reward-related attentional bia

  19. Benefit-incidence analysis: are government health expenditures more pro-rich than we think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2012-04-01

    Authors of benefit-incidence analyses (BIA) have to impute subsidies using assumptions about the relationship between unobserved subsidies 'captured' by the household and what can be observed at the household and aggregate levels. This paper shows that one of the two assumptions used in BIA studies to date will necessarily produce a more pro-rich (or less pro-poor) picture of government health spending than the other, depending on whether utilization is more pro-rich or pro-poor than fees paid to public providers. Both assumptions have their disadvantages, and the paper suggests a couple of alternatives that explicitly link fees paid to the costliness of care. It shows that in the most likely case where fees are distributed in a more pro-rich fashion than utilization, the two traditional assumptions will produce less pro-rich distributions of subsidies than the two new alternatives. Also considered are three complications that arise in BIA studies, including factoring in social health insurance. The paper's theoretical results are illustrated with an empirical BIA for Vietnam.

  20. Dealing with differences : the impact of perceived diversity outcomes on selection and assessment of minority candidates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, Joep; van der Zee, Karen I.; Otten, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Although many strategies have been employed to specifically recruit and select minority employees, the selection rates for designated minority groups are often lower than those for the majority group. Minority candidates with high cultural maintenance (CM) are particularly vulnerable to cultural bia

  1. 75 FR 19989 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Drought Management Planning at the Kerr Hydroelectric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Final Environmental Impact Statement for Drought Management Planning at the Kerr... Management Planning at the Kerr Hydroelectric Project, Flathead Lake, Montana, is now available for public review and comment. DATES: The BIA will issue a final decision on drought management planning at the...

  2. Geometric Methods in Physics : XXXIII Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Bieliavsky, Pierre; Odzijewicz, Anatol; Schlichenmaier, Martin; Voronov, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a selection of papers based on the XXXIII Białowieża Workshop on Geometric Methods in Physics, 2014. The Białowieża Workshops are among the most important meetings in the field and attract researchers from both mathematics and physics. The articles gathered here are mathematically rigorous and have important physical implications, addressing the application of geometry in classical and quantum physics. Despite their long tradition, the workshops remain at the cutting edge of ongoing research. For the last several years, each Białowieża Workshop has been followed by a School on Geometry and Physics, where advanced lectures for graduate students and young researchers are presented; some of the lectures are reproduced here. The unique atmosphere of the workshop and school is enhanced by its venue, framed by the natural beauty of the Białowieża forest in eastern Poland. The volume will be of interest to researchers and graduate students in mathematical physics, theoretical physics and m...

  3. 25 CFR 1001.10 - Selection criteria for other planning and negotiating financial assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for other financial assistance for planning and negotiating of a DOI non-BIA program, service... circumstances may planning and negotiation financial assistance be made available to tribes/consortia? At the... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selection criteria for other planning and...

  4. 78 FR 7804 - Privacy Act of 1974; as amended; Notice to Amend an Existing System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... of records, ``National Irrigation Information Management System (NIIMS), Interior, BIA-34,'' to... Management System is a collection, debt management, and billing system utilized by various Indian irrigation projects operated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The system facilitates the revenue and...

  5. 78 FR 15039 - Extending Scoping Period To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ...: The BIA published a Notice of Intent in the Federal Register on January 14, 2013, (78 FR 2685) and... 20, 2013. Please refer to the January 14, 2013, (78 FR 2685) Notice of Intent for project details and... Counties, AZ; McKinley, San Juan, McGill, and Cibola, Counties, NM; and San Juan County, UT AGENCY:...

  6. 76 FR 54249 - Revision of Agency Information Collection for the Indian Child Welfare Assistance Report; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... CFR part 23. The revision affects the form that tribal Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) coordinators... seeking revision of the information collection conducted under the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) and..., which tribal ICWA program directors fill out. BIA uses the information to determine the extent...

  7. 25 CFR 67.5 - Notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT PREPARATION OF A ROLL OF INDEPENDENT SEMINOLE INDIANS OF FLORIDA § 67.5 Notices. (a) The Director shall give notice to all Area Directors of the BIA and all Superintendents within the jurisdiction of the Director of the preparation of the roll for...

  8. Assessing Giftedness in Children: Comparing the Accuracy of Three Shortened Measures of Intelligence to the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jocelyn H.; McIntosh, David E.; Dixon, Felicia; Williams, Tasha; Youman, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the accuracy of three shortened measures of intelligence: the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability, Third Edition Brief Intellectual Ability (WJ III COG BIA) score; the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Fifth Edition Abbreviated IQ (SB5 ABIQ); and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test IQ Composite (K-BIT) in predicting…

  9. Serum Chrome levels sampled with steel needle vs. plastic IV cannula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Overgaard, Søren

    2010-01-01

      Modern Metal-on-metal (MoM) joint articulations releases metal ions to the body. Research tries to establish how much this elevates metal ion levels and whether it causes adverse effects. The steel needle that samples the blood may introduce additional chromium to the sample thereby causing bia...

  10. The Tanita SC-240 to Assess Body Composition in Pre-School Children: An Evaluation against the Three Component Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Pontus; Alexandrou, Christina; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Quick, easy-to-use, and valid body composition measurement options for young children are needed. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of the bioelectrical impedance (BIA) device, Tanita SC-240, to measure fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM) and body fatness (BF%) in 40 healthy, Swedish 5.5 years old children against the three component model (3C model). Average BF%, FM, and FFM for BIA were: 19.4% ± 3.9%, 4.1 ± 1.9 kg, and 16.4 ± 2.4 kg and were all significantly different (p < 0.001) from corresponding values for the 3C model (25.1% ± 5.5%, 5.3 ± 2.5 kg, and 15.2 ± 2.0 kg). Bland and Altman plots had wide limits of agreement for all body composition variables. Significant correlations ranging from 0.81 to 0.96 (p < 0.001) were found for BF%, FM, and FFM between BIA and the 3C model. When dividing the children into tertiles for BF%, 60% of children were classified correctly by means of BIA. In conclusion, the Tanita SC-240 underestimated BF% in comparison to the 3C model and had wide limits of agreement. Further work is needed in order to find accurate and easy-to-use methods for assessing body composition in pre-school children. PMID:27322313

  11. Alcohol and American Indian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, George A.

    The growing problem of teenage drinking and alcoholism in the United States, especially among Indian segments of society, increases the necessity for adequate education concerning alcoholism. This document is prepared for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools to acquaint Indian students with social concepts of alcohol outside their cultural…

  12. 78 FR 6770 - Notice of Intent To Establish an Adequate Yearly Progress Negotiated Rulemaking Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ...)(1)(A)(i); 25 U.S.C. 2017-2018. In 2005, the BIA promulgated such regulations. See 70 FR 22178 (April... authority delegated to the Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs, has determined that a negotiated rulemaking... at BIE-schools, tribal officials, parents, teachers, administrators, and school board members...

  13. Biosíntesis de alcaloides bencilisoquinolínicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Anabí Riley-Saldaña

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis. The benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIA are specialized metabolites with an ancient phylogeneticdistribution, but still preserved in modern clades. Some of them, such as morphine, sanguinerine or berberine, are important for modernmedicine. This review discusses the highlights of the current state of the biosynthesis of BIA. There have been studies that show thebiosynthesis of 22 of these nitrogenous metabolites. In their formation there are 43 enzymes grouped into oxidoreductases, transferasesand lyases, which in some cases represent atypical examples of the manner in which the secondary metabolism diversification wasoriginated. Two of these examples are the cytochrome proteins P450 (P450, with catalytic activities for ABI route, or the norcoclaurinesynthase enzyme (NCS, which share substantial identity with defense allergenic proteins. Likewise, there are genetic advances thathave produced the characterization of 30 enzymes, allowing knowledge of regulatory processes. Another interesting aspect is thecompartmentation of the biosynthesis sites and accumulation of BIA, since in several cases they are spatially separated and in differentspecies, or in the same species several types of cells may be involved. This has suggested intra and intercellular transport of alkaloids,precursors and enzymes, and it has been documented berberine transport between the cytoplasm and the vacuoles of storage. The picturefor the biosynthesis of BIA has been constructed with exemplary studies of alkaloids with pharmacological importance.

  14. Biosensor immunoassay for flumequine in broiler serum and muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.; Gercek, H.; Cazemier, G.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Flumequine (Flu) is one of the fluoroquinolones most frequently applied for the treatment of broilers in The Netherlands. For the detection of residues of Flu in blood serum of broilers, a biosensor immunoassay (BIA) was developed which was fast (7.5 min per sample) and specific (no cross-reactivity

  15. Direct biosensor immunoassays for the detection of nonmilk proteins in milk powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.; Olieman, K.; Cazemier, G.; Verheijen, R.

    2001-01-01

    The low prices of some nonmilk proteins make them attractive as potential adulterants in dairy products. An optical biosensor (BIACORE 3000) was used to develop a direct and combined biosensor immunoassay (BIA) for the simultaneous detection of soy, pea, and soluble wheat proteins in milk powders. A

  16. 25 CFR 170.809 - Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self-determination contract or self-governance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.809 Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self-determination contract or self-governance...

  17. 25 CFR 170.806 - What is an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.806 What is an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? An IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is an IRR Transportation Facilities...

  18. 25 CFR 170.802 - How is road maintenance funded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is road maintenance funded? 170.802 Section 170.802 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.802 How is road maintenance funded? (a) The U.S. Congress funds a...

  19. 25 CFR 170.812 - What is emergency maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is emergency maintenance? 170.812 Section 170.812 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.812 What is emergency maintenance? Emergency maintenance is work...

  20. 25 CFR 170.810 - To what standards must an IRR transportation facility be maintained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.810 To what standards must an IRR... standards; (b) AASHTO road and bridge maintenance manuals, latest edition; or (c) Other applicable Federal, State, tribal, or local government maintenance standards as may be negotiated in an ISDEAA...

  1. 25 CFR 170.800 - Who owns IRR transportation facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who owns IRR transportation facilities? 170.800 Section 170.800 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.800 Who owns IRR transportation facilities? Public...

  2. 25 CFR 170.813 - When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted? 170.813 Section 170.813 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.813 When can access to...

  3. XXXIV Bialowieza Workshop on Geometric Methods in Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, S; Bieliavsky, Pierre; Odzijewicz, Anatol; Schlichenmaier, Martin; Voronov, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    This book features a selection of articles based on the XXXIV Białowieża Workshop on Geometric Methods in Physics, 2015. The articles presented are mathematically rigorous, include important physical implications and address the application of geometry in classical and quantum physics. Special attention deserves the session devoted to discussions of Gerard Emch's most important and lasting achievements in mathematical physics. The Białowieża workshops are among the most important meetings in the field and gather participants from mathematics and physics alike. Despite their long tradition, the Workshops remain at the cutting edge of ongoing research. For the past several years, the Białowieża Workshop has been followed by a School on Geometry and Physics, where advanced lectures for graduate students and young researchers are presented. The unique atmosphere of the Workshop and School is enhanced by the venue, framed by the natural beauty of the Białowieża forest in eastern Poland.

  4. 78 FR 2685 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Navajo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... weeds that have social and economic impacts on the Navajo Nation. The BIA, in partnership with... Bureau of Indian Affairs Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... meetings will be announced at least 15 days in advance through local media, including the Navajo...

  5. 25 CFR 103.44 - What certain terms mean in this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reservation, California rancheria, public domain Indian allotment, pueblo, Indian colony, former Indian....44 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LOAN GUARANTY... this part. BIA means the Bureau of Indian Affairs within the United States Department of the...

  6. 28 CFR 16.84 - Exemption of Immigration Appeals System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of Immigration Appeals System... MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Exemption of Records Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.84 Exemption of Immigration...) Decisions of the Board of Immigration Appeals (JUSTICE/BIA-001). This exemption applies only to the...

  7. [Gene polymorphism and dyslipidemias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Magdalena; Rachubik, Patrycja; Rzeszutek, Justyna; Matysiak, Magdalena; Kruszewski, Marcin; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna

    2015-12-15

    Dyslipidemie to szerokie spektrum zaburzeń, charakteryzujące się nieprawidłowym stężeniem i/lub składem lipoprotein w surowicy krwi. Objawy te mogą towarzyszyć wtórnie innym chorobom, ale najczęściej mamy do czynienia z dyslipidemiami pierwotnymi, będącymi wynikiem interakcji czynników środowiskowych oraz predyspozycji genetycznych. W opracowaniu dokonano podsumowania stanu wiedzy na temat genetycznego podłoża dyslipidemii. Dotychczas polimorfizmy genowe skutkujące zaburzeniami lipidowymi opisano dla genów kodujących apolipoproteiny, białka receptorowe odpowiedzialne za transport lipoprotein do komórek, białka transportujące cholesterol z komórek obwodowych, białka transportujące estry cholesterolu i enzymy szlaku syntezy cholesterolu. W pracy przedstawiona została krótka charakterystyka tych genów i kodowanych przez nie białek oraz ich związek ze stężeniem lipidów we krwi.

  8. 78 FR 45556 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Lac du Flambeau...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... and Class II gaming, hotel, restaurant and retail facilities, entertainment and convention facilities... addresses of respondents, will be available for public review at the BIA address shown in the...

  9. Cartographic Encounters at the Bureau of Indian Affairs Geographic Information System Center of Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    The centering processes of geographic information system (GIS) development at the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) was an extension of past cartographic encounters with American Indians through the central control of geospatial technologies, uneven development of geographic information resources, and extension of technically dependent…

  10. [Schilbetrematoides manizani n. sp. (Dactylogyridea) monogenean parasite of Schilbe mandibularis (Günther, 1867) (Schilbeidae) in the Ivory Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Douba, V; Lambert, A; Pariselle, A; Euzet, L

    2000-06-01

    The authors describe a new species in the genus Schilbetrematoides Kritsky & Kulo, 1992 from the gills of Schilbe mandibularis (Günther, 1867) (Schilbeidae) caught in the rivers Bia and Agneby in Ivory Coast. S. manizani n. sp. differs from S. pseudodactylogyrus Kritsky & Kulo, 1992, a parasite of Schilbe intermedius Rüppell, 1832 by having morphologically distinct gripi. PMID:10887660

  11. The Tanita SC-240 to Assess Body Composition in Pre-School Children: An Evaluation against the Three Component Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quick, easy-to-use, and valid body composition measurement options for young children are needed. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of the bioelectrical impedance (BIA device, Tanita SC-240, to measure fat mass (FM, fat free mass (FFM and body fatness (BF% in 40 healthy, Swedish 5.5 years old children against the three component model (3C model. Average BF%, FM, and FFM for BIA were: 19.4% ± 3.9%, 4.1 ± 1.9 kg, and 16.4 ± 2.4 kg and were all significantly different (p < 0.001 from corresponding values for the 3C model (25.1% ± 5.5%, 5.3 ± 2.5 kg, and 15.2 ± 2.0 kg. Bland and Altman plots had wide limits of agreement for all body composition variables. Significant correlations ranging from 0.81 to 0.96 (p < 0.001 were found for BF%, FM, and FFM between BIA and the 3C model. When dividing the children into tertiles for BF%, 60% of children were classified correctly by means of BIA. In conclusion, the Tanita SC-240 underestimated BF% in comparison to the 3C model and had wide limits of agreement. Further work is needed in order to find accurate and easy-to-use methods for assessing body composition in pre-school children.

  12. 76 FR 80387 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Law and Order on Indian Reservations-Marriage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... this information collection, but received no comments. See 76 FR 56786. II. Request for Comments BIA... Reservations--Marriage & Dissolution Applications; Request for Comments AGENCIES: Bureau of Indian Affairs...--Marriage & Dissolution Applications.'' The information collection is currently authorized by OMB...

  13. Buffalo Tiger, Bobo Dean, and the "Young Turks": A Miccosukee Prelude to the 1975 Indian Self-Determination Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Harry A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    An account of the Miccosukees' struggle to wrest control over their own economic destiny from conservative elements within the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and Department of the Interior is provided. The tenacity of Buffalo Tiger and his tribe with the support of Bobo Dean, Commissioner Bruce and the "Young Turks", helped pave the way for…

  14. BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE VECTOR ANALYSIS IDENTIFIES SARCOPENIA IN NURSING HOME RESIDENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of muscle mass and water shifts between body compartments are contributing factors to frailty in the elderly. The body composition changes are especially pronounced in institutionalized elderly. We investigated the ability of single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to identify b...

  15. Breast Implant–associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: Updated Results from a Structured Expert Consultation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Kim, MD, MPhil

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Our assessment yielded consistent results on a number of key, incompletely addressed issues regarding BIA-ALCL, but additional research is needed to support these statement ratings and enhance our understanding of the biology, treatment, and outcomes associated with this disease.

  16. Single biosensor immunoassay for the detection of five aminoglycosides in reconstituted skimmed milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.; Cazemier, G.; Koets, M.; Amerongen, van A.

    2003-01-01

    The application of an optical biosensor (Biacore 3000), with four flow channels (Fcs), in combination with a mixture of four specific antibodies resulted in a competitive inhibition biosensor immunoassay (BIA) for the simultaneous detection of the five relevant aminoglycosides in reconstituted skimm

  17. 75 FR 22611 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Acquisition of Trust Land; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Services, 316 N. 26th Street, Billings, MT 59601; facsimile: (406) 247- 7991; e-mail: Darryl.LaCounte@bia..., Billings, MT 59601, during the hours of 9 a.m.-5 p.m., Local Time, Monday through Friday except for legal... renewal of this information collection on February 18, 2010. See 75 FR 7285. Two commenters responded...

  18. Practical issues in handling data input and uncertainty in a budget impact analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.C. Nuijten (Mark); T. Mittendorf (Thomas); U. Persson (Ulf)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of this paper was to address the importance of dealing systematically and comprehensively with uncertainty in a budget impact analysis (BIA) in more detail. The handling of uncertainty in health economics was used as a point of reference for addressing the uncertainty in a

  19. Analysis of body water compartments after a short sauna bath using bioelectric impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servidio, M-F; Mohamed, E I; Maiolo, C; Hereba, A T; Perrone, F; Garofano, P; Iacopino, L

    2003-10-01

    Studies have suggested that long-term sauna bathing may lower blood pressure in persons with hypertension by causing a direct loss of extracellular water and plasma minerals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of short-term sauna bathing on body water compartments as estimated by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). We recruited 15 men [mean age (+/-SD) of 23.93+/-5.12 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 23.25+/-2.84 kg/m(2)] and 10 women matched for age and BMI. Total body resistance, reactance, and impedance were measured for all participants using BIA, at baseline, after a short sauna bath, and after a rest period. Total, extracellular, and intracellular water compartments were calculated using BIA formulae. There were no significant differences for any of the body water compartments when comparing the measurements taken before and after the sauna bath and after the rest period. However, it remains to be determined whether or not BIA is sensitive to rapid changes in water volume.

  20. Is Tree Species Diversity or Species Identity the More Important Driver of Soil Carbon Stocks, C/N Ratio, and pH?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawud, Seid Muhie; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Domisch, Timo;

    2016-01-01

    We explored tree species diversity effects on soil C stock, C/N ratio, and pH as compared with effects of tree species identity. We sampled forest floors and mineral soil (0–40 cm) in a diversity gradient of 1–5 tree species composed of conifers and broadleaves in Białowieża Forest, Poland. Diver...

  1. 78 FR 67928 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... purposes, and helps protect tribal culture and ways of life (e.g., housing for tribal citizens, energy and... Secretary acquired title to land in trust. See 61 FR 18082 (Apr. 24, 1996). The Department had determined... for issuing trust acquisition decisions. 78 FR 32214. BIA then extended the original comment...

  2. 78 FR 15035 - Extension, Without Changes of Agency Information Collection for Indian Self-Determination and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... collected to process contracts, grants or cooperative agreements (contracts) for award by BIA and IHS, as... Changes of Agency Information Collection for Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Contracts... information collection, titled ``Indian Self- Determination and Education Assistance Contracts, 25 CFR...

  3. The Tanita SC-240 to Assess Body Composition in Pre-School Children: An Evaluation against the Three Component Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Pontus; Alexandrou, Christina; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Quick, easy-to-use, and valid body composition measurement options for young children are needed. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of the bioelectrical impedance (BIA) device, Tanita SC-240, to measure fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM) and body fatness (BF%) in 40 healthy, Swedish 5.5 years old children against the three component model (3C model). Average BF%, FM, and FFM for BIA were: 19.4% ± 3.9%, 4.1 ± 1.9 kg, and 16.4 ± 2.4 kg and were all significantly different (p FFM between BIA and the 3C model. When dividing the children into tertiles for BF%, 60% of children were classified correctly by means of BIA. In conclusion, the Tanita SC-240 underestimated BF% in comparison to the 3C model and had wide limits of agreement. Further work is needed in order to find accurate and easy-to-use methods for assessing body composition in pre-school children. PMID:27322313

  4. 23 CFR 973.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management systems requirements. 973.204 Section 973.204... Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.204 Management systems requirements. (a) The BIA, in consultation... maximum extent possible to meet the management system requirements. (i) A nationwide congestion...

  5. Syntax and intentionality: An automatic link between language and theory-of-mind

    OpenAIRE

    Strickland, Brent; Fisher, Matthew; Keil, Frank; Knobe, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Three studies provided evidence that syntax influences intentionality judgments. In Experiment 1, participants made either speeded or unspeeded intentionality judgments about ambiguously intentional subjects or objects. Participants were more likely to judge grammatical subjects as acting intentionally in the speeded relative to the reflective condition (thus showing an intentionality bias), but grammatical objects revealed the opposite pattern of results (thus showing an unintentionality bia...

  6. 77 FR 19313 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for the Bureau of Indian Education Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... for Student Enrollment in Bureau-Funded Schools The BIA is requesting renewal of OMB approval for the Student Enrollment Application in Bureau-funded Schools. School registrars collect information on this form to determine the student's eligibility for enrollment in a Bureau-funded school, and if...

  7. 76 FR 62440 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Manzanita Band of Kumeyaay Indians Fee-to-Trust...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ...-square foot casino; 63,000 square feet of food/beverage and retail components; 38,660-square foot... to view at the following locations: Contact number for Location Address general information Holtville... action in the Federal Register on March 6, 2008 (73 FR 12203). The BIA held a public scoping meeting...

  8. 76 FR 16614 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ...--Whole fish would be retained for reproductive biology research. The spiny dogfish retained would not... support of an ongoing study at the NEFSC to evaluate BIA to measure fish energy density and reproductive...: Minimum fish size restrictions; fish possession limits; species quota closures; prohibited fish...

  9. Evaluation of body composition in COPD patients using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blasio, Francesca; de Blasio, Francesco; Miracco Berlingieri, Giulia; Bianco, Andrea; La Greca, Marta; Franssen, Frits M E; Scalfi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Background Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) is a technique that measures body impedance (Z) at different frequencies (5, 10, 50, 100, and 250 kHz). Body composition may be estimated using empirical equations, which include BIA variables or, alternatively, raw BIA data may provide direct information on water distribution and muscle quality. Objectives To compare raw MF-BIA data between COPD patients and controls and to study their relationship with respiratory and functional parameters in COPD patients. Methods MF-BIA was performed (Human Im-Touch analyzer) in 212 COPD patients and 115 age- and BMI-matched controls. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass were estimated from BIA data, and low- to high-frequency (5 kHz/250 kHz) impedance ratio was calculated. Physical fitness, lung function and respiratory muscle strength were also assessed in COPD patients. Results After adjusting for age, weight, and body mass index, FFM and the 5/250 impedance ratio were lower in COPD patients (P<0.001) and were negatively affected by disease severity. In both male and female patients, the 5/250 impedance ratio was significantly correlated mainly with age (r=−0.316 and r=−0.346, respectively). Patients with a 5/250 impedance ratio below median value had lower handgrip strength (P<0.001), 6-minute walk distance (P<0.005), respiratory muscle strength (P<0.005), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (P<0.05) and vital capacity (P<0.005). Finally, the 5/250 impedance ratio was reduced (P<0.05) in patients with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) III and IV (compared to those with GOLD I and II) or a BODE index between 6 and 10 points (compared to those with BODE index between 1 and 5 points). Conclusion MF-BIA may be a useful tool for assessing body composition and nutritional status in COPD patients. In particular, the impedance ratio could give valuable information on cellular integrity and muscle quality.

  10. A randomized controlled trial of long term effect of BCM guided fluid management in MHD patients (BOCOMO study: rationales and study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Li

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioimpedance analysis (BIA has been reported as helpful in identifying hypervolemia. Observation data showed that hypervolemic maintenance hemodialysis (MHD patients identified using BIA methods have higher mortality risk. However, it is not known if BIA-guided fluid management can improve MHD patients’ survival. The objectives of the BOCOMO study are to evaluate the outcome of BIA guided fluid management compared with standard care. Methods This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. More than 1300 participants from 16 clinical sites will be included in the study. The enrolment period will last 6 months, and minimum length of follow-up will be 36 months. MHD patients aged between 18 years and 80 years who have been on MHD for at least 3 months and meet eligibility criteria will be invited to participate in the study. Participants will be randomized to BIA arm or control arm in a 1:1 ratio. A portable whole body bioimpedance spectroscopy device (BCM—Fresenius Medical Care D GmbH will be used for BIA measurement at baseline for both arms of the study. In the BIA arm, additional BCM measurements will be performed every 2 months. The primary intent-to-treat analysis will compare outcomes for a composite endpoint of death, acute myocardial infarction, stroke or incident peripheral arterial occlusive disease between groups. Secondary endpoints will include left ventricular wall thickness, blood pressure, medications, and incidence and length of hospitalization. Discussions Previous results regarding the benefit of strict fluid control are conflicting due to small sample sizes and unstable dry weight estimating methods. To our knowledge this is the first large-scale, multicentre, prospective, randomized controlled trial to assess whether BIS-guided volume management improves outcomes of MHD patients. The endpoints of the BOCOMO study are of utmost importance to health care providers. In order to obtain

  11. Percent body fat estimations in college women using field and laboratory methods: a three-compartment model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalbo Vincent J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods used to estimate percent body fat can be classified as a laboratory or field technique. However, the validity of these methods compared to multiple-compartment models has not been fully established. This investigation sought to determine the validity of field and laboratory methods for estimating percent fat (%fat in healthy college-age women compared to the Siri three-compartment model (3C. Methods Thirty Caucasian women (21.1 ± 1.5 yrs; 164.8 ± 4.7 cm; 61.2 ± 6.8 kg had their %fat estimated by BIA using the BodyGram™ computer program (BIA-AK and population-specific equation (BIA-Lohman, NIR (Futrex® 6100/XL, a quadratic (SF3JPW and linear (SF3WB skinfold equation, air-displacement plethysmography (BP, and hydrostatic weighing (HW. Results All methods produced acceptable total error (TE values compared to the 3C model. Both laboratory methods produced similar TE values (HW, TE = 2.4%fat; BP, TE = 2.3%fat when compared to the 3C model, though a significant constant error (CE was detected for HW (1.5%fat, p ≤ 0.006. The field methods produced acceptable TE values ranging from 1.8 – 3.8 %fat. BIA-AK (TE = 1.8%fat yielded the lowest TE among the field methods, while BIA-Lohman (TE = 2.1%fat and NIR (TE = 2.7%fat produced lower TE values than both skinfold equations (TE > 2.7%fat compared to the 3C model. Additionally, the SF3JPW %fat estimation equation resulted in a significant CE (2.6%fat, p ≤ 0.007. Conclusion Data suggest that the BP and HW are valid laboratory methods when compared to the 3C model to estimate %fat in college-age Caucasian women. When the use of a laboratory method is not feasible, NIR, BIA-AK, BIA-Lohman, SF3JPW, and SF3WB are acceptable field methods to estimate %fat in this population.

  12. Cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies in dogs enabled for a poorly soluble molecule using spray-dried dispersion: Impact on lead selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yin-Chao; Linehan, Brian; Ng, Khing Jow; Smith, Dustin M; Markert, Michael; Patel, Mita; Guth, Brian; Fryer, Ryan M

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study was to identify an adequate formulation for a poorly soluble lead molecule (BI-A) that would achieve sufficiently high plasma concentrations after oral administration in dogs to enable a robust cardiovascular safety pharmacology assessment in telemetry-instrumented conscious dogs during lead optimization in drug discovery. A spray-dried dispersion of BI-A (BI-A-SDD) containing a 1:2 ratio of BI-A and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate-LF was prepared using a Büchi spray dryer B-90 (B-90). Physical form characterization, an in vitro dissolution test and a preliminary pharmacokinetic (PK) study following oral administration of BI-A-SDD were performed. Thereafter, effects on cardiovascular parameters in conscious, chronically-instrumented dogs were investigated for 24h after a single oral dose (5, 10, and 50mg/kg) using a modified Latin square cross-over study design. The BI-A-SDD powder was confirmed to be amorphous and was stable as an aqueous suspension for at least 4h. The BI-A-SDD suspension provided a greater rate and extent of dissolution than the crystalline BI-A suspension and the supersaturation was maintained for at least 4h. In PK studies the Cmax of the BI-A-SDD formulation (25.4μM; 77-fold the projected efficacious Cmax of 0.33μM) was 7.5-fold higher than the Cmax observed using oral administration of a 10% hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin formulation at 100mg/kg in dogs (3.4μM). In conscious, chronically-instrumented dogs, the doses tested and plasma concentrations achieved were sufficient to enable a robust safety pharmacology evaluation. Multiple off-target hemodynamic effects were detected including acute elevations in aortic blood pressure (up to 22% elevation in systolic and diastolic blood pressure) and tachycardia (68% elevation in heart rate), results that were confirmed in other in vivo models. These results led to a deprioritization of BI-A. The study demonstrated that a spray-dried dispersion, prepared

  13. A comparison of fat mass and skeletal muscle mass estimation in male ultra-endurance athletes using bioelectrical impedance analysis and different anthropometric methods Comparación de la masa grasa y muscular estimada en atletas varones de ultra-resistencia utilizando la bioimpedancia eléctrica y diferentes métodos antropométricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Knechtle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and fifty seven male Caucasian ultraendurance athletes were recruited, pre-race, before different swimming, cycling, running and triathlon races. Fat mass and skeletal muscle mass were estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and anthropometric methods in order to investigate whether the use of BIA or anthropometry would be useful under field conditions. Total body fat estimated using BIA was significantly high (P Se reclutaron a 257 hombres caucasianos que eran atletas de alto rendimiento, antes de competir en diferentes pruebas triatlón de natación, ciclismo y carrera. Se estimaron la masa grasa y la masa de músculo esquelético utilizando un análisis de impedancia bioeléctrica (BIA y métodos antropométricos con el fin de investigar si el uso de BIA o de la antropometría sería útil en tales condiciones de campo. La grasa corporal total estimada por BIA fue significativamente mayor en comparación con la antropometría (P < 0,001. Cuando se compararon los resultados entre BIA y antropometría, se encontraron niveles de concordancia bajos a moderados. Estos resultados concuerdan con las diferencias halladas con el análisis Bland-Altman, lo que indica que la ecuación antropométrica de Ball et al. posee el mayor grado de concordancia (desviación = -3,0 ± 5,8 kg con BIA, con Stewart et al. (desviación = -6,4 ± 6,3 kg, Faulkner (desviación = -4,7 ± 5,8 kg y Wilmore-Siri (desviación = -4,8 ± 6,2 kg. La estimación de la masa de músculo esquelético fue significativamente superior con BIAS que con antropometría (P < 0,001. Los resultados de la ICC y del método Bland-Altman muestran que la ecuación antropométrica de Lee et al. (desviación = -5,4 ± 5,3 kg produjo el mayor grado de concordancia. El método combinado de Janssen et al. entre antropometría y BIA mostró el menor grado de concordancia (desviación = -12,5 ± 5,7 kg. Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los resultados

  14. Predictive validity of four bioelectrical impedance equations in determining percent fat mass in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Jane; Daniells, Suzie; Okely, Anthony D; Batterham, Marijka; Nicholls, Jessie

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance equations are frequently used by food and nutrition professionals to estimate percent fat mass in overweight and obese children. However, it is not known whether they are accurate for such children, as they have been primarily developed for children of varying body weights. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the predictive validity of four previously published prediction equations developed for the pediatric population, among a sample of overweight and obese children. Thirty overweight or obese children (mean age=7.57+/-1.28 years) underwent measurement of fat mass, percent fat mass, and fat-free mass using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Impedance values from the BIA were entered into the four prediction equations and Pearson correlations used to determine the significance of associations between each of the BIA prediction equations and DEXA for percent fat mass, fat mass, and fat-free mass. For percent fat mass, paired t tests were used to assess differences between the methods and the technique of Bland and Altman was used to determine bias and error. Results showed that the mean percent fat mass as determined by DEXA for this age group was 40.79%. In comparison with other BIA prediction equations, the Schaefer equation had the closest mean value of 41.98%, and was the only equation not to significantly differ from the DEXA (P=0.121). This study suggests that the Schaefer equation is the only accurate BIA prediction equation for assessing percent fat mass in this sample of overweight and obese children from primarily white backgrounds. PMID:18156000

  15. Evaluation of a foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analyser in highly active, moderately active and less active young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Ann M; Swartz, Ann M; Jeremy Evans, M; King, George A; Thompson, Dixie L

    2002-08-01

    The Tanita TBF-305 (Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan) is a commercially available foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) system. The manufacturer-supplied equations incorporate gender, mass, height, activity category and a measured impedance value to determine % body fat (BF). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the manufacturer-supplied 'adult' and 'athlete' equations provided an accurate estimate of % BF for a group of young men with varying activity levels. Fifty-seven men (18-35 years old) were categorized into the following groups: (1) highly active (HA) (> or = 10.0 h aerobic activity/week); (2) moderately active (MA) (2.5-10.0 h aerobic activity/week); (3) less active (LA) (aerobic activity/week). The % BF was measured using the BIA 'athlete' and 'adult' modes. After BIA measurements, residual volume was measured and hydrostatic weighing (HW) was performed. The amount of activity performed by each group was significantly different (P<0.001). No significant differences were found between the % BF determined by the 'athlete' mode and HW for HA (P=0.309) and MA (P=0.091). However, a significant difference was found for LA (P=0.001). The % BF determined by the 'adult' mode and HW was not different for LA (P=0.395), but was significantly different for MA (P<0.001) and HA (P<0.001). The choice of activity mode on the foot-to-foot BIA significantly alters prediction of % BF. With careful selection of activity mode, there was no statistical difference between % BF determined by HW and the BIA, but the range of individual error scores was large. PMID:12144724

  16. Estimating Body Composition in Adolescent Sprint Athletes: Comparison of Different Methods in a 3 Years Longitudinal Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerenhouts, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A recommended field method to assess body composition in adolescent sprint athletes is currently lacking. Existing methods developed for non-athletic adolescents were not longitudinally validated and do not take maturation status into account. This longitudinal study compared two field methods, i.e., a Bio Impedance Analysis (BIA) and a skinfold based equation, with underwater densitometry to track body fat percentage relative to years from age at peak height velocity in adolescent sprint athletes. In this study, adolescent sprint athletes (34 girls, 35 boys) were measured every 6 months during 3 years (age at start = 14.8 ± 1.5yrs in girls and 14.7 ± 1.9yrs in boys). Body fat percentage was estimated in 3 different ways: 1) using BIA with the TANITA TBF 410; 2) using a skinfold based equation; 3) using underwater densitometry which was considered as the reference method. Height for age since birth was used to estimate age at peak height velocity. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA and Pearson correlations between measurement methods at each occasion. Data were analyzed longitudinally using a multilevel cross-classified model with the PROC Mixed procedure. In boys, compared to underwater densitometry, the skinfold based formula revealed comparable values for body fatness during the study period whereas BIA showed a different pattern leading to an overestimation of body fatness starting from 4 years after age at peak height velocity. In girls, both the skinfold based formula and BIA overestimated body fatness across the whole range of years from peak height velocity. The skinfold based method appears to give an acceptable estimation of body composition during growth as compared to underwater densitometry in male adolescent sprinters. In girls, caution is warranted when interpreting estimations of body fatness by both BIA and a skinfold based formula since both methods tend to give an overestimation. PMID:26317426

  17. A comparison of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and two bioelectrical impedance analyzers to measure body fat percentage and fat-free mass index in a group of Mexican young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Alva, Maria Del Consuelo; Irigoyen-Camacho, Maria Esther; Huerta-Huerta, Raquel; Delgadillo-Velazquez, Jaime

    2014-05-01

    Introducción: Los estudios de obesidad requieren estimación de masa grasa (FM) y masa libre de grasa (FFM). Objetivo: Comparar dos equipos de impedancia bioeléctrica (BIA) para estimar FM y FFM usando absorciometría de rayos X de energía dual (DXA) como referencia. Métodos: Estudio transversal. FM y FFM fueron evaluados por DXA y BIA: sistema pie-pie (FFS) y sistema mano-pie (HFS). Se realizaron pruebas t pareadas, coeficientes de correlación y análisis de Bland y Altman. Limites de acuerdo fueron calculados (CL). Resultados: Fueron estudiadas 175 mujeres (22,9 ± 2,2 años). Hubo diferencias significativas entre el promedio del porcentaje de grasa estimado por los equipos de BIA en comparación con DXA (FFS = 28,7%, HFS = 34,4% y DXA = 35,3%). La diferencia de medias del porcentaje de grasa entre HFS y DXA fue -0.96, (CL -5,29, 7,21). La diferencia de medias para FFS fue de -6,69,(CL -0,29, - 13.09) Hubo diferencias significativas entre las estimaciones de FFMI por BIA y DXA (FFS = 16,29, HFS = 14,95, DXA = 14,18). La diferencia de medias entre HFS y DXA fue = 0,78, (CL -2,27, 0,72) y la diferencia de medias de FFS fue -2,11: (CL -3,73 , -0,49). Conclusiones: Niveles diferentes de sesgo se observaron entre los equipos de BIA. El HFS parece ser más confiable que el FFS, sobre todo en la obtención de FFMI en mujeres jóvenes.

  18. A Theoretical Framework for Utilizing Long-Term Measurements of Radiation and Clouds for Solar Energy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Xie, Y.

    2015-12-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing solar energy research is accurately predicting global horizontal irradiance (GHI) for photovoltaic (PV) modules and direct normal irradiance (DNI) for concentrated solar power (CSP) plants at the surface with a high temporal resolution. Addressing this solar energy challenge is tied ultimately to the quantitative relationship between the direct, diffuse and total radiation reaching the surface and clouds in the atmosphere, which remains elusive. Here we will first introduce a theoretical framework that relates DNI and GHI to cloud fraction and cloud albedo through two dimensionless numbers: the relative cloud radiative forcing for the direct radiation (defined as the difference between the clear sky and all sky direct downwelling radiative fluxes normalized by the clear sky direct downwelling radiative fluxes) is primarily determined by cloud fraction; the ratio of the relative cloud radiative forcing for the total downwelling radiation to the relative cloud radiative forcing for the direct radiation is primarily determined by cloud albedo. We then use decade-long measurements of partitioned radiation and cloud properties at the ARM sites to validate the theoretical relationships between the two dimensionless radiation-based parameters and cloud properties. We will also explore the potentials and challenges of using the relationships between cloud properties and radiation partition at the surface for solar energy research, opening new avenues to utilizing ARM measurements.

  19. Optimization and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar-based fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Zhou, Hui; Gan, Jay; Sun, Mingxing; Shang, Guofeng; Liu, Liang; Shen, Guoqing

    2015-03-01

    The agronomic benefit of biochar has attracted widespread attention to biochar-based fertilizers. However, the inevitable presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar is a matter of concern because of the health and ecological risks of these compounds. The strong adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to biochar complicates their analysis and extraction from biochar-based fertilizers. In this study, we optimized and validated a method for determining the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar-based fertilizers. Results showed that accelerated solvent extraction exhibited high extraction efficiency. Based on a Box-Behnken design with a triplicate central point, accelerated solvent extraction was used under the following optimal operational conditions: extraction temperature of 78°C, extraction time of 17 min, and two static cycles. The optimized method was validated by assessing the linearity of analysis, limit of detection, limit of quantification, recovery, and application to real samples. The results showed that the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exhibited good linearity, with a correlation coefficient of 0.996. The limits of detection varied between 0.001 (phenanthrene) and 0.021 mg/g (benzo[ghi]perylene), and the limits of quantification varied between 0.004 (phenanthrene) and 0.069 mg/g (benzo[ghi]perylene). The relative recoveries of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 70.26-102.99%.

  20. Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

  1. Seismic Hazard Analysis of Aizawl, India with a Focus on Water System Fragilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belair, G. M.; Tran, A. J.; Dreger, D. S.; Rodgers, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    GeoHazards International (GHI) has partnered with the University of California, Berkeley in a joint Civil Engineering and Earth Science summer internship program to investigate geologic hazards. This year the focus was on Aizawl, the capital of India's Mizoram state, situated on a ridge in the Burma Ranges. Nearby sources have the potential for large (M > 7) earthquakes that would be devastating to the approximately 300,000 people living in the city. Earthquake induced landslides also threaten the population as well as the city's lifelines. Fieldwork conducted in June 2015 identified hazards to vital water system components. The focus of this abstract is a review of the seismic hazards that affect Aizawl, with special attention paid to water system locations. To motivate action to reduce risk, GHI created an earthquake scenario describing effects of a M7 right-lateral strike-slip intraplate earthquake occurring 30 km below the city. We extended this analysis by exploring additional mapped faults as well as hypothetical blind reverse faults in terms of PGA, PGV, and PSA. Ground motions with hanging wall and directivity effects were also examined. Several attenuation relationships were used in order to assess the uncertainty in the ground motion parameters. Results were used to determine the likely seismic performance of water system components, and will be applied in future PSHA studies.

  2. Large Earthquakes in Developing Countries: Estimating and Reducing their Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, B. E.

    2003-12-01

    Recent efforts to reduce the risk of earthquakes in developing countries have been diverse, earnest, and inadequate. The earthquake risk in developing countries is large and growing rapidly. It is largely ignored. Unless something is done - quickly - to reduce it, both developing and developed countries will suffer human and economic losses far greater than have been experienced in the past. GeoHazards International (GHI) is a nonprofit organization that has attempted to reduce the death and suffering caused by earthquakes in the world's most vulnerable communities, through preparedness, mitigation and prevention. Its approach has included raising awareness, strengthening local institutions and launching mitigation activities, particularly for schools. GHI and its partners around the world have achieved some success: thousands of school children are safer, hundreds of cities are aware of their risk, tens of cities have been assessed and advised, and some local organizations have been strengthened. But there is disturbing evidence that what is being done is insufficient. The problem outpaces the cure. A new program is now being considered that would attempt to improve earthquake-resistant construction of schools, internationally, by publicizing well-managed programs around the world that design, construct and maintain earthquake-resistant schools. While focused on schools, this program might have broader applications in the future.

  3. A Guidebook to Help Coastal Sumatran Communities Prepare for Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, L.; Tobin, L. T.; Tucker, B. E.

    2007-12-01

    One way to save lives in future tsunamis in coastal Sumatran communities - where more than one million people live and where tsunamis can strike less than one half hour after the triggering earthquake - is to help these communities prepare themselves. To this end, GeoHazards International (GHI) has developed, with a team of advisors from the fields of earth science, civil engineering, emergency response management and social science, a tsunami preparedness guidebook that summarizes state-of-the-art research and worldwide experience in community tsunami preparedness. This guidebook (available at no cost on www.geohaz.org) introduces essential information about tsunamis, tsunami risk mapping, evacuation planning, community education, tsunami warning systems, and the reduction of damage that tsunamis can cause. It describes how to plan and conduct effective tsunami safety programs. Particular emphasis is placed on methods to evacuate quickly and safely all areas that could be flooded. Each section of the guidebook points to sources that provide supplementary, detailed information that may be important to particular communities. The guidebook is aimed at any person - a concerned citizen, government official, business leader, or member of a community organization - who is willing to become an advocate for local tsunami safety. Scientific expertise is not needed. GHI now seeks assistance in distributing this guidebook and in working with grassroots and international organizations to help Sumatran coastal communities use it to prepare for the next tsunami.

  4. Risk assessment of the impact of future volcanic eruptions on direct normal irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Blanc, Philippe; Vignola, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Stratospheric sulfate aerosols from Plinian volcanic eruptions affect the solar surface irradiance forcing by scattering the solar radiation as it passes through the Earth atmosphere. Since these aerosols have high single scattering albedos they mostly affect direct normal irradiances (DNI). The effect on global horizontal irradiance (GHI) is less because some of the scattered irradiance reaches the surface as diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) and adds to the GHI. DNI is the essential input to concentrating solar thermal electric power (CSP/STE) and concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) plants. Therefore, an assessment of the future potential variability in the DNI resource caused by Plinian volcanic eruptions is desirable. Based on investigations of the El Chichón and Pinatubo eruptions, the microphysical, and thereby optical, properties of the stratospheric sulfate aerosols are well known. Given these, radiative transfer computations of the DNI resource can be made. The DNI resource includes forward scattered irradiance within the acceptance angle of a given CSP/STE or CPV plant. The rarity of Plinian eruptions poses a challenge for assessing the statistical risk of future eruptions and its potential of risk in the electricity production. Here we present and discuss methods to account for these potential volcanic eruptions for technical and economical studies including scenarios with very high probability of exceedance (e.g. P99 scenarios) for risk assessment of DNI-based solar power projects.

  5. Nitrogen and oxygen regulation of Bacillus subtilis nasDEF encoding NADH-dependent nitrite reductase by TnrA and ResDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, M M; Hoffmann, T; Zhu, Y; Jahn, D

    1998-10-01

    The nitrate and nitrite reductases of Bacillus subtilis have two different physiological functions. Under conditions of nitrogen limitation, these enzymes catalyze the reduction of nitrate via nitrite to ammonia for the anabolic incorporation of nitrogen into biomolecules. They also function catabolically in anaerobic respiration, which involves the use of nitrate and nitrite as terminal electron acceptors. Two distinct nitrate reductases, encoded by narGHI and nasBC, function in anabolic and catabolic nitrogen metabolism, respectively. However, as reported herein, a single NADH-dependent, soluble nitrite reductase encoded by the nasDE genes is required for both catabolic and anabolic processes. The nasDE genes, together with nasBC (encoding assimilatory nitrate reductase) and nasF (required for nitrite reductase siroheme cofactor formation), constitute the nas operon. Data presented show that transcription of nasDEF is driven not only by the previously characterized nas operon promoter but also from an internal promoter residing between the nasC and nasD genes. Transcription from both promoters is activated by nitrogen limitation during aerobic growth by the nitrogen regulator, TnrA. However, under conditions of oxygen limitation, nasDEF expression and nitrite reductase activity were significantly induced. Anaerobic induction of nasDEF required the ResDE two-component regulatory system and the presence of nitrite, indicating partial coregulation of NasDEF with the respiratory nitrate reductase NarGHI during nitrate respiration. PMID:9765565

  6. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Greenbelt Homes, Inc. Pilot Retrofit Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc., (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. With the community upgrade fully funded by the cooperative through their membership without outside subsidies, this project presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects that include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy-savings benefits of improvements. Phase 1—baseline evaluation for a representative set of 28 homes sited in seven buildings; Phase 2—installation of the building envelope improvements and continued monitoring of the energy consumption for the heating season; Phase 3—energy simulations supporting recommendations for HVAC and water heating upgrades.

  7. Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Greenbelt Homes, Inc. Pilot Retrofit Program; Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a decade-long community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. With the community upgrade fully funded by the cooperative through their membership without outside subsidies, this project presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide-range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects to include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy savings benefits of improvements. Phase 1: baseline evaluation for a representative set of 28 homes sited in seven buildings; Phase 2: installation of the building envelope improvements and continued monitoring of the energy consumption for the heating season and energy simulations supporting recommendations for HVAC and water heating upgrades to be implemented in Phase 3.

  8. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program: Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Mallay, D. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2015-05-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a decade-long community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. It presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide-range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects to include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy savings benefits of improvements.

  9. A Neumann Boundary Term for Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Chethan

    2016-01-01

    The Gibbons-Hawking-York (GHY) boundary term makes the Dirichlet problem for gravity well defined, but no such general term seems to be known for Neumann boundary conditions. In this paper, we view Neumann {\\em not} as fixing the normal derivative of the metric ("velocity") at the boundary, but as fixing the functional derivative of the action with respect to the boundary metric ("momentum"). This leads directly to a new boundary term for gravity: the trace of the extrinsic curvature with a specific dimension-dependent coefficient. In three dimensions this boundary term reduces to a "one-half" GHY term noted in the literature previously, and we observe that our action translates precisely to the Chern-Simons action with no extra boundary terms. In four dimensions the boundary term vanishes, giving a natural Neumann interpretation to the standard Einstein-Hilbert action without boundary terms. We argue that in light of AdS/CFT, ours is a natural approach for defining a "microcanonical" path integral for gravit...

  10. Inżynierowany jedwab pajęczy: inteligentny biomateriał przyszłości. Część I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Florczak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Unikalne właściwości nici pajęczej, takie jak wytrzymałość, rozciągliwość, energia pękania (wiązkość, biokompatybilność oraz biodegradowalność spowodowały intensywny rozwój technologii biomateriałów opartych na białkach jedwabiu pajęczego. Postęp badań naukowych był hamowany przez długi czas brakiem metod pozyskiwania odpowiedniej ilości materiału. Przełomem technologicznym było opracowanie strategii biologii molekularnej, które doprowadziło do stworzenia warunków do produkcji inżynierowanych pajęczych białek jedwabiu (IPJ. Strategia ta polega na konstruowaniu sztucznych białek jedwabiu, których sekwencje oparte są na motywach konsensusowych białek naturalnych. Ponadto białka inżynierowane genetycznie, można skonstruować tak, aby nadać im „nowe” funkcje. Strategia białek hybrydowych zakłada, iż IPJ są rdzeniem, nośnikiem, nadającym strukturę, do którego można dołączyć (na poziomie DNA sekwencję nadającą funkcję np. rozpoznającą receptory komórkowe, enzymy, wiążącą metale, cukry i inne. Obecnie prowadzone są intensywne badania, które z jednej strony skupiają się na ustaleniu szczegółowej budowy i zrozumieniu procesu tworzenia się jedwabnej nici w naturze, a z drugiej strony próbuje się udoskonalić metody produkcji IPJ. Dzięki zdobytej wiedzy i rozwojowi powyższej technologii inżynierowany jedwab stanie się „inteligentnym” biomateriałem przyszłości, a otrzymywany na skalę przemysłową wywoła rewolucję biotechnologiczną.

  11. Concordancia entre los porcentajes de grasa corporal estimados mediante el área adiposa del brazo, el pliegue del tríceps y por impedanciometría brazo-brazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Moreno Vicente

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La valoración del estado nutricional a partir de los miembros superiores es útil a nivel clínico. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el grado de acuerdo entre los porcentajes de grasa corporal (%GC estimados mediante el área adiposa del brazo (%GC BRAZO, la ecuación de Siri para el pliegue del tríceps (%GC TRÍCEPS y por bioimpedanciometría brazo-brazo (%GC BIA, así como con la ecuación de Siri para cuatro pliegues (%GC SIRI. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Se valoró antropométricamente y por impedanciometría (Omron BF 300© a 145 personas (83 varones, 62 mujeres. La concordancia entre métodos se analizó mediante el coeficiente de correlación intraclase (CCI y el método de Bland-Altman. Resultados: el CCI entre %GC BRAZO-%GC TRÍCEPS fue de 0,8322 (intervalo de confianza al 95% 0,7672-0,8791; entre %GCB RAZO-%GC BIA de 0,7337 (0,6305-0,8080 y entre %GC TRICEPS-%GC BIA de 0,9290 (0,9015; 0,9488. Con el método de Bland-Altman el intervalo de concordancia entre %GC BRAZO-%GC TRÍCEPS (-11,2; 16,96 y entre %GC BRAZO-%GC BIA (-13,04; 21,76 superó el punto de corte (±10%, pero no entre %G CTRICEPS-%GC BIA (-6,64; 9,6, %GC SIRI-%GC TRÍCEPS (-5,27; 4,52 y %GC SIRI-%GC BIA (-6,31; 8,52. El IMC no influyó en el resultado. Conclusiones: El método utilizado influye en la valoración nutricional realizada a partir de los miembros superiores. El área adiposa del brazo sobreestima el %GC con relación a la ecuación de Siri para el pliegue del tríceps o para cuatro pliegues y a la impedanciometría, y aunque este resultado sugiere que el área adiposa del brazo puede no ser un indicador válido de la adiposidad global, este extremo deberá ser confirmado frente a una técnica patrón.

  12. What impact do Global Health Initiatives have on human resources for antiretroviral treatment roll-out? A qualitative policy analysis of implementation processes in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanefeld Johanna

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the beginning of the 21st century, development assistance for HIV/AIDS has increasingly been provided through Global Health Initiatives, specifically the United States Presidential Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the Global Fund to Fight HIV, TB and Malaria and the World Bank Multi-country AIDS Programme. Zambia, like many of the countries heavily affected by HIV/AIDS in southern Africa, also faces a shortage of human resources for health. The country receives significant amounts of funding from GHIs for the large-scale provision of antiretroviral treatment through the public and private sector. This paper examines the impact of GHIs on human resources for ART roll-out in Zambia, at national level, in one province and two districts. Methods It is a qualitative policy analysis relying on in-depth interviews with more than 90 policy-makers and implementers at all levels. Results Findings show that while GHIs do not provide significant funding for additional human resources, their interventions have significant impact on human resources for health at all levels. While GHIs successfully retrain a large number of health workers, evidence suggests that GHIs actively deplete the pool of skilled human resources for health by recruiting public sector staff to work for GHI-funded nongovernmental implementing agencies. The secondment of GHI staff into public sector facilities may help alleviate immediate staff shortages, but this practice risks undermining sustainability of programmes. GHI-supported programmes and initiatives add significantly to the workload of existing public sector staff at all levels, while incentives including salary top-ups and overtime payments mean that ART programmes are more popular among staff than services for non-focal diseases. Conclusion Research findings suggest that GHIs need to actively mediate against the potentially negative consequences of their funding on human resources for health. Evidence

  13. Contamination of agricultural lands by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Tver region, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidkin, Andrey; Koshovskii, Timur; Gennadiev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    It is important to study sources and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the agriculture soils within areas without intensive contaminations. Our studied object was soil and snow cover in the taiga zone (Tver region, Russia). A total of 52 surface (0-30 cm) and 31 subsurface (30-50 cm) soil samples, and 13 snow samples were collected in 35 soil pits, located in forest, crop and layland soils. Studied concentrations of the following 11 individual compounds: two-ring compounds (diphenyl and naphthalene homologues); three-ring compounds (fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene); four-ring compounds (chrysene, pyrene, tetraphene); five-ring compounds (perylene, benzo[a]pyrene); and six-ring compounds (benzo[ghi]perylene). Analyses made by specrtofluorometry method at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. The total concentrations of all PAHs in soil samples ranged from 9 to 770 ng*g‑1 with a median of 96 ng*g‑1. The sum of high molecular weight PAHs was significantly lower than the sum of low molecular weight PAHs in the studied soils. The phenanthrene concentration was highest and ranged from 1.2 to 720 ng*g‑1 (medium 72 ng*g‑1). Compared PAHs reserves in snow cover (μg*m-2) with the reserves in topsoil layer (μg*m-2 in the upper 30 cm). Low molecular weight PAHs (fluorene, phenanthrene, diphenyl, naphthalene) reserves in snow was less than 20% from the reserves in the soil surface layer. High molecular weight PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, perylene, pyrene and tetraphene) reserves in snow was about 50-70% from the reserves in soil surface layer. High molecular weight PAHs (benzo[ghi]perylene and anthracene) reserves in snow was more than in topsoil. PAHs vertical distribution in soil profiles was statistically examined. The total concentration of all PAHs decreased with depth in all studied forest soils. In the arable soils was no significant trend in domination of PAHs total concentrations in the plowing and subsoil layers. The ratio of

  14. Biochemical genomics for gene discovery in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Thu Thuy T; Onoyovwi, Akpevwe; Farrow, Scott C; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a large, diverse group of ∼2500 specialized plant metabolites. Many BIAs display potent pharmacological activities, including the narcotic analgesics codeine and morphine, the vasodilator papaverine, the cough suppressant and potential anticancer drug noscapine, the antimicrobial agents sanguinarine and berberine, and the muscle relaxant (+)-tubocurarine. Opium poppy remains the sole commercial source for codeine, morphine, and a variety of semisynthetic drugs, including oxycodone and buprenorphine, derived primarily from the biosynthetic pathway intermediate thebaine. Recent advances in transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics have created unprecedented opportunities for isolating and characterizing novel BIA biosynthetic genes. Here, we describe the application of next-generation sequencing and cDNA microarrays for selecting gene candidates based on comparative transcriptome analysis. We outline the basic mass spectrometric techniques to perform deep proteome and targeted metabolite analyses on BIA-producing plant tissues and provide methodologies for functionally characterizing biosynthetic gene candidates through in vitro enzyme assays and transient gene silencing in planta. PMID:22999177

  15. Cryogenic Optical Position Encoders for Mechanisms in the JWST Optical Telescope Element Simulator (OSIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Anderjaska, Thomas; Badger, James (Inventor); Capon, Tom; Davis, CLinton; Dicks, Brent (Inventor); Eichhorn, William; Garza, Mario; Guishard, Corina; Haghani, Shadan; Hakun, Claef; Haney, Paul; Happs, David (Inventor); Hovmand, Lars; Kadari, Madhu; Kirk, Jeffrey; Nyquist, Richard (Inventor); Robinson, F. David; Sullivan, Joseph (Inventor); Wilson, Erin

    2013-01-01

    The JWST Optical Telescope Element Simulator (OSIM) is a configurable, cryogenic, optical stimulus for high fidelity ground characterization and calibration of JWST's flight instruments. OSIM and its associated Beam Image Analyzer (BIA) contain several ultra-precise, cryogenic mechanisms that enable OSIM to project point sources into the instruments according to the same optical prescription as the flight telescope images stars - correct in focal surface position and chief ray angle. OSIM's and BIA's fifteen axes of mechanisms navigate according to redundant, cryogenic, absolute, optical encoders - 32 in all operating at or below 100 K. OSIM's encoder subsystem, the engineering challenges met in its development, and the encoders' sub-micron and sub-arcsecond performance are discussed.

  16. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L;

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK......). These measurements were compared with bioimpedance analysis (BIA) by applying 11 predictive BIA equations published in the literature. Predictive equations for the present study population were developed, with the use of fat-free mass (FFM) as assessed by TBK and DXA as references in multiple regression analysis...... equations are unable to predict static body composition and are not reproducible for individuals over time. However, a significant or insignificant change in R (without accompanying predictive equations) may be used to indicate whether FFM is lost or preserved in groups of obese subjects....

  17. Assessing the continuity of the blue ice climate record at Patriot Hills, Horseshoe Valley, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Kate; Woodward, John; Dunning, Stuart A.; Turney, Chris S. M.; Fogwill, Christopher J.; Hein, Andrew S.; Golledge, Nicholas R.; Bingham, Robert G.; Marrero, Shasta M.; Sugden, David E.; Ross, Neil

    2016-03-01

    We use high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to assess the continuity of the Blue Ice Area (BIA) horizontal climate record at Patriot Hills, Horseshoe Valley, West Antarctica. The sequence contains three pronounced changes in deuterium isotopic values at ~18 cal ka, ~12 cal ka, and ~8 cal ka. GPR surveys along the climate sequence reveal continuous, conformable dipping isochrones, separated by two unconformities in the isochrone layers, which correlate with the two older deuterium shifts. We interpret these unconformities as discontinuities in the sequence, rather than direct measures of climate change. Ice sheet models and Internal Layer Continuity Index plots suggest that the unconformities represent periods of erosion occurring, as the former ice surface was scoured by katabatic winds in front of mountains at the head of Horseshoe Valley. This study demonstrates the importance of high-resolution GPR surveys for investigating both paleoflow dynamics and interpreting BIA climate records.

  18. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance among 9- to 11-year-old Swedish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgit Marie; Dencker, M; Ward, L;

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Predictive equations for estimating body composition from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) among Scandinavian children are lacking. In the present study, equations for estimation of fat-free body mass (FFM) and lean tissue mass (LTM) were developed and cross-validated from BIA using dual......-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference measurement of body composition. METHODS: The study population consisted of 49 girls and 52 boys aged 9-11 years from Malmö, Sweden. Bioelectrical impedance was measured between hand and foot at 50 kHz. Predictive equations were developed by multiple......-validation revealed a mean RMSE = 0.95 kg FFM and a mean RMSE = 0.96 kg LTM. Prediction of body composition from equations developed in previous literature was mixed when applied to the present cohort of children. CONCLUSIONS: FFM and LTM are predicted with sufficient accuracy at the population level. We recommend...

  19. Development of Optical Fiber Technology in Poland, International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunication, vol. 57, no 2, pp.191-197, July 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Dorosz, J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors, chairmen of the 13th Conference on Optical Fibers and Their Applications OFA2011, and editors of the conference proceedings summarize the development of optical fiber technology in Poland (during the period of 2009- 2011) on the basis of papers presented there and consecutively published in this volume. The digest is thus not full but covers the periodically presented material every 18 months during the meetings on optical fibers in Białystok-Białowie˙za and Lublin- Krasnobród. OFC systems are developed for HEP experiments and accelerators. OFC systems are also developed for virtual atomic clocks. EuCARD information presentation was organized during this meeting. Keywords— optical fibers, optical communication systems, photonic sources and detectors, photonic sensors, integrated optics, photonics applications, photonic materials.

  20. URBAN HEAT ISLAND IN BIAŁYSTOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Czubaszek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the formation intensity of the urban heat island (UHI in Białystok, a relatively small city in north-eastern Poland. The UHI development was determined on the basis of meteorological data obtained from two weather stations of the Regional Inspectorate for Environmental Protection in Białystok, one located in the city center, and the other on its outskirts. The measurements of temperature gathered by automobile traverses along streets running from the city limits through the center were carried out in order to provide spatial diversity of the studied phenomenon. The results indicated that UHI in Bialystok is very clear. The intensity of this phenomenon changes in the daily cycle, with the peak in the evening. During the year the heat island is the most pronounced in the spring.

  1. Disease: H00273 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dibular angle. Inherited metabolic disease; Lysosomal storage disease hsa04142(1513) Lysosome hsa04620(1513)...M: 265800 PMID:8703060 Gelb BD, Shi GP, Chapman HA, Desnick RJ Pycnodysostosis, a lysosomal disease caused b...ia Y, Xiao Y Cathepsin K: a therapeutic target for bone diseases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 380:721-3 (2009...) PMID:1883197 Neufeld EF Lysosomal storage diseases. Annu Rev Biochem 60:257-80 (1991) PMID:18239127 (immun

  2. Bioelectrical Impedance Assessment of Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Lukaski, Henry C.; Moore, Micheal

    2012-01-01

    Objective assessment of wound healing is fundamental to evaluate therapeutic and nutritional interventions and to identify complications. Despite availability of many techniques to monitor wounds, there is a need for a safe, practical, accurate, and effective method. A new method is localized bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) that noninvasively provides information describing cellular changes that occur during healing and signal complications to wound healing. This article describes the ...

  3. Rhesus monkey is a new model of secondary lymphedema in the upper limb

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Guojun; Xu, Hao; Zhou, Wenhong; Yuan, Xianshun; Yang, Zhe; Yang, Qing; Ding, Feng; Meng, Zhigang; Liang, Weili; Geng, Chong; Gao, Ling; Tian, Xingsong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study is to establish the rhesus monkey model of lymphedema in the upper limbs, and assess the suitability of this model. Methods: An animal model of lymphedema was established by the combined irradiation and surgical techniques in the upper limbs of these rhesus monkeys. Physical examination, high-resolution MR lymphangiography, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and immunohistochemical staining were performed to determine the severity of the edema in the upper limbs of ...

  4. PERSISTENT AND INTERMITTENT HYPERHYDRATION IN PATIENTS ON PROGRAM HAEMODIALYSIS: METHODS OF EVALUATION AND CORRECTION

    OpenAIRE

    A. G. Strokov; V. A. Terekhov; Y. L. Poz; K.N. Kryshin; Yu. V. Kopylova

    2015-01-01

    Hyperhydration, the sum of persistent (PH) and intermittent (IH) ones is the strong predictor of mortality in patients on program haemodialysis (PHD). The aim of this research was to investigate the complex of methods for minimization of PH as well as IH. Materials and methods. The bioimpedance multifrequency analysis (BIA), relative blood volume (RBV) monitoring and plasma conductivity evaluation by ionic dialysance device were performed in candidates for kidney transplantation. Results. In ...

  5. Assessment of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, bioimpedance analysis and anthropometrics in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tompuri, Tuomo T; Lakka, Timo A; Hakulinen, Mikko;

    2015-01-01

    We compared InBody720 segmental multifrequency bioimpedance analysis (SMF-BIA) with Lunar Prodigy Advance dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in assessment of body composition among 178 predominantly prepubertal children. Segmental agreement analysis of body compartments was carried out......, and inter-relationships of anthropometric and other measures of body composition were defined. Moreover, the relations of different reference criteria for excess body fat were evaluated....

  6. Phase angle as a nutritional evaluation tool in all stages of chronic liver disease Ángulo de fase como una herramienta para evaluar el estado nutricional en todas las etapas de la enfermedad hepática crónica

    OpenAIRE

    W. A. F. Peres; D. F. Lento; K. Baluz; Ramalho, A

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Malnutrition is commonly and frequently under-diagnosed in clinical settings in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) due to the limitations of nutritional evaluation methods in this population. We hypothesized that the bioelectrical impedance analysis derived phase angle (BIA-derived PhA) might be considered as a nutritional indicator in CLD since it represents either cell death or malnutrition characterized by changes in cellular membrane integrity. Objective: The aim of t...

  7. Suggested methods for protective and commercial management in the forests with stands of Oxyporus mannerheimi Gyll., 1827 (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Mazur; Artur Chrzanowski; Robert Kuźmiński; Andrzej Łabędzki; Paweł Rutkowski

    2012-01-01

    The Oxyporus mannerheimi Gyll., 1827 is a species of beetle belonging to the family of rove beetles (Staphylinidae) included in the list of invertebrate species protected under Natura 2000 – European network of protected areas. In Poland, this species has been under legal protection since 2004. This paper contains the list of hitherto known locations of O. mannerheimi in Poland and characterizes new locations in the Białowieża and Starachowice Forest Districts. The data concerning new l...

  8. Action spectroscopy for single-molecule motion induced by vibrational excitation with a scanning tunneling microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Ueba, H.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2007-01-01

    We propose an action spectroscopy for single-molecule motion induced by vibrational excitation with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Calculations of the inelastic tunneling current for excitation of the C-O stretch mode of the CO molecule on metal surfaces are combined with a theory which describes how the energy in the vibrational mode is transferred to a reaction coordinate mode to overcome the activation barrier. The calculated rate for CO hopping on Pd (110) as a function of the bia...

  9. A two-phase population study: relationships between overweight, body composition and risk of eating disorders Estudio a doble fase: relación entre el sobrepeso, la composición corporal y el riesgo de trastorno de la conducta alimentaria

    OpenAIRE

    Babio, N.; Canals, J; Pietrobelli, A; Pérez, S.; Arija, V. (Victoria)

    2009-01-01

    Background: Overweight and eating disorder (ED) are major public health problems in adolescents. Aims: To assess the association of overweight, body composition and anthropometric characteristics with the probability being at risk of ED. Methods: A two-phase study was used. 329 girls and 96 boys (aged 12-18 years) from an initial sample of 2967 adolescents were studied. The BMI, percentage of fat mass estimated by bioimpedance (FM(BIA)), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and waist-t...

  10. DXA, bioelectrical impedance, ultrasonography and biometry for the estimation of fat and lean mass in cats during weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Naida C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few equations have been developed in veterinary medicine compared to human medicine to predict body composition. The present study was done to evaluate the influence of weight loss on biometry (BIO, bioimpedance analysis (BIA and ultrasonography (US in cats, proposing equations to estimate fat (FM and lean (LM body mass, as compared to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA as the referenced method. For this were used 16 gonadectomized obese cats (8 males and 8 females in a weight loss program. DXA, BIO, BIA and US were performed in the obese state (T0; obese animals, after 10% of weight loss (T1 and after 20% of weight loss (T2. Stepwise regression was used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables (FM, LM determined by DXA and the independent variables obtained by BIO, BIA and US. The better models chosen were evaluated by a simple regression analysis and means predicted vs. determined by DXA were compared to verify the accuracy of the equations. Results The independent variables determined by BIO, BIA and US that best correlated (p r2, 19 equations were selected (12 for FM, 7 for LM; however, only 7 equations accurately predicted FM and one LM of cats. Conclusions The equations with two variables are better to use because they are effective and will be an alternative method to estimate body composition in the clinical routine. For estimated lean mass the equations using body weight associated with biometrics measures can be proposed. For estimated fat mass the equations using body weight associated with bioimpedance analysis can be proposed.

  11. Examining Undergraduate Attitudes Towards Bisexuality and Bisexual Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    London-Terry, Charae A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the great strides that the Lesbian and Gay (LG) community has made in the last four decades, bisexual individuals still “report a lack of validation, isolation and ostracism within both the heterosexual and homosexual communities” (Israel & Mohr, 2004, p. 119). This study focuses on undergraduate students’ attitudes towards bisexuality and bisexual individuals at Eastern Michigan University by testing the hypothesis that homosexual and heterosexual students will have a significant bia...

  12. Sarcopenia: clinical evaluation, biological markers and other evaluation tools

    OpenAIRE

    Pahor, M.; Manini,, Claudia; CESARI, M.

    2009-01-01

    Sarcopenia is characterized by a lower skeletal muscle quantity, higher fat accumulation in the muscle, lower muscle strength, and lower physical performance. The most commonly used, low cost and accessible methods to assess skeletal muscle mass include dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT) and creatinine excretion are the most specific golden standards for assessing mus...

  13. Value of bioimpedance analysis and anthropometry for complication prediction in children with malignant and non-malignant diseases after hematopoietic stem cells transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ya. Tseytlin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is widely used in the treatment of malignant and autoimmune diseases. Various complications often develop during the post-transplantation period that can significantly impair the clinical outcomes, so the ability to predict therisk of severe complications is of great practical importance. Predictive value of some anthropometric indices and bioimpedance analysis(BIA measured before conditioning to assess the risks of serious complications and graft hypofunction in the early post-transplant period(100 days were analyzed. Anthropometry and BIA used in a comprehensive assessment of nutritional status in order to optimize the nutritional support of these patients. 101 patients were examined before conditioning and at different times during the early post-transplant period: 50 children (5–17 years of age were examined using BIA and anthropometry, 61 children (6 months – 4 years of age – using only anthropometry without BIA due to age restrictions. The prognostic value of the phase angle (FA, ratio of the active cell mass to lean body mass (ACM/LBM and shoulder muscle circumference (SMC was shown. Thus, in patients with FA ≤ 4, ACM/LBM < 0.45 and SMC ≤ 10th percentile before conditioning risk of severe complications during early post-transplant period was significantly higher (p < 0.05. Also, in patients with FA ≤ 4 and ACM/LBM < 0.45 a significantly higher risk of graft hypofunction developing was observed (p < 0.05.

  14. Comparison of Nutritional Parameters among Adult and Elderly Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gülperi Çelik, Bahar Oc, Inci Kara, Mümtaz Yılmaz, Ali Yuceaktas, Seza Apiliogullari

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional biochemical parameters, prealbumin levels, and bioimpedance analysis parameters of adult and elderly hemodialysis (HD) patients.Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included 50 adult HD patients (42.0 % female). Nutritional status was assessed by post-dialysis multifrequency bioimpedance analysis (BIA), serum prealbumin and other nutritional biochemical parameters.Results: Mean age of patients was 57.4±15.1 years (range...

  15. Comparison of Nutritional Parameters among Adult and Elderly Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Çelik, Gülperi; Oc, Bahar; Kara, Inci; Yılmaz, Mümtaz; Yuceaktas, Ali; Apiliogullari, Seza

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional biochemical parameters, prealbumin levels, and bioimpedance analysis parameters of adult and elderly hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included 50 adult HD patients (42.0 % female). Nutritional status was assessed by post-dialysis multifrequency bioimpedance analysis (BIA), serum prealbumin and other nutritional biochemical parameters. Results: Mean age of patients was 57.4±15.1 years (range: 3...

  16. Bias Adaptation for Vocal Tract Length Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Saheer, Lakshmi; Yamagishi, Junichi; Garner, Philip N.; Dines, John

    2013-01-01

    Vocal tract length normalisation (VTLN) is a well known rapid adaptation technique. VTLN as a linear transformation in the cepstral domain results in the scaling and translation factors. The warping factor represents the spectral scaling parameter. While, the translation factor represented by bias term captures more speaker characteristics especially in a rapid adaptation framework without having the risk of over-fitting. This paper presents a complete and comprehensible derivation of the bia...

  17. Risk–based capital measures for operational risk management / Snyman P.

    OpenAIRE

    Snyman, Philippus

    2011-01-01

    Basel II provides banks with four options that may be used to calculate regulatory capital for operational risk. Each of these options (except the most basic approach) requires an underlying risk measurement and management system, with increasing complexity and more refined capital calculations under the more advanced approaches. Approaches available are BIA, TSA, ASA and AMA. The most advanced and complex option under Basel II is the AMA. This approach allows a bank to calc...

  18. Redistributive Constraints under High Inequality: The Case of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    John Scott

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive analysis and interpretation of redistributive spending in Mexico. It reviews the evolution over the last two decades of the principal redistributive instruments and the distributive outcomes targeted by these instruments (income, land, education, health, nutrition). Using recent income and expenditure surveys, the paper presents a comparative benefit incidence analysis (BIA) of 25 mayor programs or spending categories covering all public spending on educatio...

  19. Assessing the continuity of the blue ice climate record at Patriot Hills, Horseshoe Valley, West Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Kate; Woodward, John; Dunning, Stuart; Turney, Chris; Fogwill, Christopher; Hein, Andrew; Golledge, Nicholas; Bingham, Robert; Marrero, Shasta; Sugden, David; Ross, Neil

    2016-01-01

    We use high resolution Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to assess the continuity of the Blue Ice Area (BIA) horizontal climate record at Patriot Hills, Horseshoe Valley, West Antarctica. The sequence contains three pronounced changes in deuterium isotopic values at ~18 cal ka, ~12 cal ka and ~8 cal ka. GPR surveys along the climate sequence reveal continuous, conformable dipping isochrones, separated by two unconformities in the isochrone layers, which correlate with the two older deuterium shi...

  20. The Local Bias of Individual Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Zhu

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates individual investors' bias towards nearby companies. Using data from a large U.S. discount brokerage, we find that individual investors tend to invest in companies closer to them relative to the market portfolio. Unlike Coval and Moskowitz's (1999) findings on institutional investors, however, we find that advantageous information cannot explain individual investors' local bias. Accounting numbers and information asymmetry matter less to individual investors' local bia...

  1. Valutazione delle relazioni fra forza di presa della mano e composizione corporea

    OpenAIRE

    Montagnese, Concetta

    2010-01-01

    La composizione corporea è largamente riconosciuta come uno degli aspetti importanti nella valutazione dello stato di nutrizione ed è comunemente studiata nella pratica con metodiche antropometriche e analisi bioimpedenziometria (BIA). Negli ultimi anni si è accentuata nello stesso ambito l’idea di avere parametri che valutino la funzionalità corporea e nello specifico la misura della forza di presa della mano (FPM) permette di valutare la funzione muscolare, espressione della forza volontari...

  2. 应用程序向IPv6的迁移技术%The Application Program Migrate to IPv6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁剑

    2010-01-01

    IPv6的时代即将到来,如何使IPv4下的程序在IPv6环境中也能正常运行呢?该文介绍了两种方法:BIS(Bump-in-the-Stack)和BIA(Bump-in-the-API),并对BIS的方案提出了改进意见.

  3. Mast Pulses Shape Trophic Interactions between Fluctuating Rodent Populations in a Primeval Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Nuria Selva; Keith A Hobson; Ainara Cortés-Avizanda; Andrzej Zalewski; José Antonio Donázar

    2012-01-01

    How different functional responses of consumers exploiting pulsed resources affect community dynamics is an ongoing question in ecology. Tree masting is a common resource pulse in terrestrial ecosystems that can drive rodent population cycles. Using stable isotope (δ(13)C, δ(15)N) analyses, we investigated the dietary response of two fluctuating rodent species, the yellow-necked mouse Apodemus flavicollis and the bank vole Myodes glareolus, to mast events in Białowieża Forest (NE Poland). Rod...

  4. Context‐dependent female preference for multiple ornaments in the bearded reedling

    OpenAIRE

    Griggio, Matteo; Hoi, Herbert; Lukasch, Barbara; Pilastro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Abstract While it is well established that females prefer to mate with well‐ornamented males, the influence of perceptive and cognitive processes on the expression of female mate choice is still poorly known. It has been suggested that the female perception of a male's attractiveness is not absolute, but depends on the other males with which he is compared that have been previously encountered (comparative evaluation). We investigated whether mate preference in bearded reedlings ( Panurus bia...

  5. Body composition : methods of measurement, normative values and clinical use

    OpenAIRE

    Genton Graf, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of body composition is an important part of nutritional assessment. The low FFM associated with malnutrition has been associated with numerous infectious and noninfectious complications, increasing length of stay, morbidity and mortality. DXA and TBK are reference method for determination of FFM and BCM, but, as these methods are expensive and require extensive technique of the operator, we have focused especially on BIA, an easy, quick, safe and reliable bedside method to measure...

  6. Direct Speech Found In Audrey Howard’s Novel, Rivers Of The Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Yennika Sari Zebua

    2009-01-01

    Tata bahasa merupakan deskripsi bahasa yang bersifat teknis. Tata basa juga merupakan urutan kata dan tanda baca yg sesuai standard sehingga tata bahasa dapat juga dikatakan sebagai aturan- aturan dalam menulis yang benar. Kalimat langsung (direct speech) adalah salah satu bagian yang tercakup dalam tata bahasa. Kalimat langsung itu sendiri berarti cara menyampaikan pesan atau kata- kata yang disampaikan oleh seseorang tanpa mengubah subjek maupun bentuk kata kerjanya. Kalimat langsung bia...

  7. Fast-Food Restaurant Advertising on Television and Its Influence on Youth Body Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Michael; Tekin, Erdal; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of fast-food restaurant advertising on television on the body composition of adolescents as measured by percentage body fat (PBF) and to assess the sensitivity of these effects to using conventional measures of youth obesity based on body-mass index (BMI). We merge measures of body composition from bioelectrical-impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with individual level data from th...

  8. Food Prices and Body Fatness among Youths

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Michael; Tekin, Erdal; Wada, Roy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the effect of food prices on clinical measures of obesity, including body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) measures derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), among youths ages 12 through 18. The empirical analyses employ data from various waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) merged with several food prices measured by county and year. This is the first study to consi...

  9. Effect of influenza-induced fever on human bioimpedance values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Marini

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a widely used technique to assess body composition and nutritional status. While bioelectrical values are affected by diverse variables, there has been little research on validation of BIA in acute illness, especially to understand prognostic significance. Here we report the use of BIA in acute febrile states induced by influenza.Bioimpedance studies were conducted during an H1N1 influenza A outbreak in Venezuelan Amerindian villages from the Amazonas. Measurements were performed on 52 subjects between 1 and 40 years of age, and 7 children were re-examined after starting Oseltamivir treatment. Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA and permutation tests were applied.For the entire sample, febrile individuals showed a tendency toward greater reactance (p=0.058 and phase angle (p=0.037 than afebrile individuals, while resistance and impedance were similar in the two groups. Individuals with repeated measurements showed significant differences in bioimpedance values associated with fever, including increased reactance (p<0.001 and phase angle (p=0.007, and decreased resistance (p=0.007 and impedance (p<0.001.There are bioelectrical variations induced by influenza that can be related to dehydration, with lower extracellular to intracellular water ratio in febrile individuals, or a direct thermal effect. Caution is recommended when interpreting bioimpedance results in febrile states.

  10. Tissue electrical properties measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis among healthy and sportsmen population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapica, Dominik; Warchulińska, Joanna; Jakubiak, Monika; Teter, Mariusz; Mlak, Radosław; Hałabiś, Magdalena; Wójcik, Waldemar; Małecka-Massalska, Teresa

    2015-09-01

    Introduction: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a useful tool to asses human body composition and nutrition status; multi-frequency BIA has a higher accuracy than single-frequency BIA. In our study a difference of impedance values (Z) at 5, 100 and 200 kHz and Z200/Z5 index between professional athletes and control group were determined. Methods: In this research 105 people were tested, divided into control group (72 people: 35 males and 37 females) and professional athletes (33 people: 16 males and 17 females). Impedance was measured at three frequency values - 5, 100 and 200 kHz; with received values the Z200/Z5 index was calculated. Results: In most compared subgroups impedance values showed significantly lower values in athletes than in control group (5 kHz - males: p=0.136, females: p=0.001, 100 kHz - males: p=0.039, females: pnutrition status and general health condition of athletes than in control group.

  11. Crystal structure of norcoclaurine-6-O-methyltransferase, a key rate-limiting step in the synthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Adeline Y; Giustini, Cécile; Graindorge, Matthieu; Matringe, Michel; Dumas, Renaud

    2016-09-01

    Growing pharmaceutical interest in benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIA) coupled with their chemical complexity make metabolic engineering of microbes to create alternative platforms of production an increasingly attractive proposition. However, precise knowledge of rate-limiting enzymes and negative feedback inhibition by end-products of BIA metabolism is of paramount importance for this emerging field of synthetic biology. In this work we report the structural characterization of (S)-norcoclaurine-6-O-methyltransferase (6OMT), a key rate-limiting step enzyme involved in the synthesis of reticuline, the final intermediate to be shared between the different end-products of BIA metabolism, such as morphine, papaverine, berberine and sanguinarine. Four different crystal structures of the enzyme from Thalictrum flavum (Tf 6OMT) were solved: the apoenzyme, the complex with S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH), the complexe with SAH and the substrate and the complex with SAH and a feedback inhibitor, sanguinarine. The Tf 6OMT structural study provides a molecular understanding of its substrate specificity, active site structure and reaction mechanism. This study also clarifies the inhibition of Tf 6OMT by previously suggested feedback inhibitors. It reveals its high and time-dependent sensitivity toward sanguinarine.

  12. Validity of the BOD POD for assessing body composition in athletic high school boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jordan R; Tobkin, Sarah E; Costa, Pablo B; Smalls, Marcus; Mieding, William K; O'Kroy, Joseph A; Zoeller, Robert F; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the percentage of body fat (%BF) values estimated from the BOD POD (BP) with those obtained from hydrostatic weighing (HW) in athletic American high school boys. Additionally, the %BF values measured via near-infrared interactance (NIR), bioelectrical impedance (BIA), and skinfold (SF) were compared to HW to determine the validity of these measures. Thirty white boys (mean age +/- SD = 15.8 +/- 1.0 years) who where currently participating in organized sports volunteered to have their %BF estimated. Measurements were obtained from NIR, BP, BIA, and SF in random order and concluded with HW. The findings from the present study indicated that the NIR and BIA instruments produced significant (P 4.0%BF). The BP produced a significantly (P 0.008) and had the lowest TE values compared to HW. These data suggest that the BP can produce acceptable body fat measures for athletic white boys but is not superior to estimates made by the SF equations used in this study.

  13. Southpoint power plant final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for a proposed lease of acreage on the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation in Mohave County, Arizona for development of a natural gas fired 500 megawatt combined cycle power plant. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) serves as the federal lead agency and the Fort Mojave Indian Tribe (FMIT) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) are cooperating agencies for the EIS process. The purpose of this document is to provide information to the public and to interested public agencies regarding the environmental consequences of the approval of a long-term lease for the construction and operation of the proposed Southpoint power plant. The FEIS, prepared by Hallock/Gross, Inc. under the direction of the BIA and in cooperation with the FMIT and WAPA, addresses the comparative analysis of alternatives and evaluates the environmental consequences of such alternatives on various resources and addresses public comments. A number of technical reports were used in the preparation of the Draft EIS and FEIS and are available for review as Appendices to this document under separate cover that can be reviewed at the BIA offices which are listed

  14. The Role of Anthropogenic Influence on Biological Signal Field (BSF Characteristics of the Wolf, Canis lupus lupus (Canidae, Carnivora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkvyria M. G.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the current research includes studying the biological signal field (BSF characteristics of the wolf (Canis lupus lupus Linnaeus, 1758 at different values of anthropogenic load on territories with conservation (Białowieża National park (Poland and hunting status of the species (Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (Ukraine. The research in Białowieża Primeval Forest was conducted in two stages: study of the BSF characteristics of the wolf and finding correlation between data acquired from Ukraine (the first stage, and over-time study of intensity of the biological signal field (the second stage. In result of the first stage, there was no significant dependence on the characteristics of the territory and the differences between the behavior of wolves in the Białowieża Primeval Forest (conservation status of the species and the Exclusion Zone (game status. During the second stage it was determined that provided variance of the intensity between territory groups was insufficient, the degree of significance to animals of area categories varied with the stages of the pack’s life. It was found that the main factors which govern the character of wolf activity are not the level of the anthropic load and hunting pressure, but periods of the life cycle and spatial structure of groups.

  15. Bioelectrical impedance analysis determination of water content and distribution in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latman, Neal S; Keith, Natalie; Nicholson, Alan; Davis, Michael

    2011-06-01

    A horse's hydration status is critical to its health. The accurate and quantitative determination of it has been problematic because of size, length and density of hair, and uneven topography. The objective of this study was to validate a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method for objectively quantifying hydration status. Monofrequency BIA values and simple biometric measurements were used to construct predictive equations for total body water, plasma, extracellular, and intra-cellular fluid volumes. These predictive equations were correlated with standard body fluid dilution reference methods. The result was an accuracy of ±0.64% for total body water, ±0.17% for plasma volume, ±1.91% for extra-cellular fluid, and ±0.57% for intra-cellular fluid compartments. Less than 5 min was required for all of the measurements and determinations. Therefore, it appears that an accurate measurement of body fluid distribution can be performed on horses using a fast, easy, non-invasive, inexpensive BIA method.

  16. Real-time fluorometric turn-on assay for protease activity and inhibitor screening with a benzoperylene probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuibei; Li, Wenying; Chen, Jian; Yang, Meiding; Li, Yang; Zhu, Jintao; Yu, Cong

    2014-03-01

    A real-time fluorescence turn-on strategy for protease activity and inhibitor screening has been developed. A negatively charged benzo[ghi]perylene derivative (probe 1) was employed. Protamine is a cationic protein which can induce aggregation of probe 1 via strong electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. The fluorescence of probe 1 was efficiently quenched. In the presence of a protease, protamine was enzymatically hydrolyzed and probe 1 de-aggregated. The recovery of the probe 1 monomer fluorescence could be detected. The protease activity could be monitored in real-time. In addition, upon addition of a protease inhibitor, the protease-catalyzed hydrolysis was inhibited, which led to a decreased fluorescence recovery. The fluorometric assay thus could also be employed for screening protease inhibitors. PMID:24427771

  17. A new system for the simultaneous measurement of δ13C and δ15N by IRMS and radiocarbon by AMS on gaseous samples: Design features and performances of the gas handling interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braione, Eugenia; Maruccio, Lucio; Quarta, Gianluca; D'Elia, Marisa; Calcagnile, Lucio

    2015-10-01

    We present the general design features and preliminary performances of a new system for the simultaneous AMS-14C and IRMS δ13C and δ15N measurements on samples with masses in the μg range. The system consists of an elemental analyzer (EA), a gas splitting unit (GSU), a IRMS system, a gas handling interface (GHI) and a sputtering ion source capable of accepting gaseous samples. A detailed description of the system and of the control software supporting unattended operation are presented together with the first performance tests carried out by analyzing samples with masses ranging from 8 μgC to 2.4 mgC. The performances of the system were tested in term of stability of the ion beam extracted from the ion source, precision and accuracy of the results by comparing the measured isotopic ratios with those expected for reference materials.

  18. Hydrogen and fuel cell activity report - France 2010; Rapport d'activites Hydrogene et Piles a combustible - France 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The report gathers the main outstanding facts which occurred in France in the field of hydrogen and fuel cells in 2010. After having noticed some initiatives (the Grenelle II law, an investment package, the new role of the CEA, the new role of the IFP), the report presents several projects and programs regarding hydrogen: ANR programs, creation of a national structure (the HyPaC platform), regional initiatives and local actions, colloquiums and meetings in France and in the world, research projects (photo-synthesis as a new electric energy source), a technical-economic investigation (HyFrance3), demonstrator projects (the Althytude project by GDF and Suez, the Plathee hybrid locomotive by the SNCF, the H2E project, the Zero CO{sub 2} sailing boat, and the Myrte project), educational applications, activity in small and medium-sized enterprises (CETH, SAGIM, HYCAN, McPhy, N-GHY).

  19. Approaching the basis set limit for transition metal compounds with highly polar bonds: a benchmark coupled-cluster study of the ScF3 and FeF3 molecular structures and spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonik, Victor G; Stanton, John F; Boggs, James E

    2005-03-01

    The molecular equilibrium geometries, quadratic and cubic force constants, vibrational frequencies, and infrared intensities of scandium and iron trifluorides are determined ab initio with a sequence of atomic natural orbital basis sets using the CCSD(T) treatment of electron correlation. The largest basis set of spdf ghi quality contains 462 contracted Gaussian functions. Relativistic corrections are applied to compute the equilibrium geometries and vibrational frequencies. The cubic force constants are used to estimate vibrational corrections to the effective r(g) internuclear distances determined in the gas electron diffraction experiments. The computed molecular properties are extrapolated to the complete basis-set limit. The predicted values are compared to the available experimental data; uncertainties and inconsistencies in these data are then discussed. PMID:15836143

  20. Actors of the hydrogen sector in France; Les acteurs de l'hydrogene en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This document proposes brief presentations (web site address, activities) of actors operating in the hydrogen sector in France. These actors are public actors who can be incentive or financing actors (ADEME, ANR) or research institutions (CNRS, CEA, university and engineering schools, IFP, INERIS, INRETS), private actors like industrial groups (Air Liquide, AREVA, GDF Suez, Total, PSA Peugeot Citroen, Renault, Saint-Gobain, SNECMA, ST Microelectronics, 3M, Veolia Environnement) or small companies (Alca Torda Applications, Axane, CETH2, Helion, MaHytec, N-GHY, PaxiTech, Sertronic, ULLIT). It also presents the HyPAC platform created by the AFH2 and ADEME), the AFH2 (the French Association for Hydrogen), and regional initiatives

  1. Hydrogen and fuel cell activity report - France 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gathers the main outstanding facts which occurred in France in the field of hydrogen and fuel cells in 2010. After having noticed some initiatives (the Grenelle II law, an investment package, the new role of the CEA, the new role of the IFP), the report presents several projects and programs regarding hydrogen: ANR programs, creation of a national structure (the HyPaC platform), regional initiatives and local actions, colloquiums and meetings in France and in the world, research projects (photo-synthesis as a new electric energy source), a technical-economic investigation (HyFrance3), demonstrator projects (the Althytude project by GDF and Suez, the Plathee hybrid locomotive by the SNCF, the H2E project, the Zero CO2 sailing boat, and the Myrte project), educational applications, activity in small and medium-sized enterprises (CETH, SAGIM, HYCAN, McPhy, N-GHY).

  2. Hydrogen and fuel cell activity report, France 2009; Rapport d'activites Hydrogene et Piles a combustible France 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report gathers the main highlights of 2009 in the field of hydrogen and fuel cells in France. It presents the political context (priority to a sustainable development and to renewable energies) and the main initiatives (official commitment, projects and programmes launched by different public bodies and organizations). It briefly presents the projects and programmes concerning the hydrogen: ANR programmes, national structures dedicated to hydrogen and fuel cells, fundamental research, demonstrator project (the H2E project), applications in transport (a project by Peugeot, the Althytude project coordinated by GDF, the Hychain European project, and other airborne or maritime projects), stationary applications (MYRTE). It also briefly describes the activities of some small companies (CETH, McPHY, RAIGI, PRAGMA Industries, N-GHY, SAGIM), and regional initiatives. Colloquiums, congresses and meetings are mentioned

  3. Synthèse: 2015 Indice de la faim dans le monde: Conflict armés et le défi de la faim

    OpenAIRE

    von Grebmer, Klaus; Bernstein, Jill; Prasai, Nilam; Yin, Sandra; Yohannes, Yisehac; Towey, Olive; Sonntag, Andrea; Neubauer, Larissa; de Waal, Alex

    2015-01-01

    L’Indice de la faim dans le monde 2015 (GHI) – le dixième d’une parution annuelle – propose une mesure multidimensionnelle de la faim au niveau national, régional et mondial. Il démontre que le monde a progressé en matière de réduction de la faim depuis 2000, mais qu’il reste encore un long chemin à faire, avec des niveaux de faim « alarmants » ou « graves » dans encore 52 pays. La thématique du rapport de cette année est celle des conflits armés et de la faim. Si l’Histoire a montré que la f...

  4. Hard Cap Espresso Machines in Analytical Chemistry: What Else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A

    2016-06-21

    A hard cap espresso machine has been used in combination with liquid chromatography with molecular fluorescence detection for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils and sediments providing appropriate extraction efficiencies and quantitative results. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benz[b]fluoranthene, benz[k]fluoranthene, benz[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benz[ghi]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene were used as target compounds. It should be mentioned that the pairs benz[a]anthracene-chrysene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene-benz[ghi]perylene peaks coelute under the employed chromatographic conditions; thus, those compounds were determined together. PAHs were extracted from 5.0 g of soil, previously homogenized, freeze-dried, and sieved to 250 μm, with 50 mL of 40% (v/v) acetonitrile in water at a temperature of 72 ± 3 °C. The proposed procedure is really fast, with an extraction time of 11 s, and it reduces the required amount of organic solvent to do the sample preparation. The obtained limit of detection for the evaluated PAHs was from 1 to 38 μg kg(-1). Recoveries were calculated using clean soils spiked with 100, 500, 1000, and 2000 μg kg(-1) PAHs with values ranging from 81 to 121% and good precision with relative standard deviation values lower than 30%. The method was validated using soil and sediment certified reference materials and also using real samples by comparison with ultrasound-assisted extraction, as reference methodology, obtaining statistically comparable results. Thus, the use of hard cap espresso machines in the analytical laboratories offers tremendous possibilities as low cost extraction units for the extraction of solid samples. PMID:27224000

  5. Hard Cap Espresso Machines in Analytical Chemistry: What Else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A

    2016-06-21

    A hard cap espresso machine has been used in combination with liquid chromatography with molecular fluorescence detection for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils and sediments providing appropriate extraction efficiencies and quantitative results. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benz[b]fluoranthene, benz[k]fluoranthene, benz[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benz[ghi]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene were used as target compounds. It should be mentioned that the pairs benz[a]anthracene-chrysene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene-benz[ghi]perylene peaks coelute under the employed chromatographic conditions; thus, those compounds were determined together. PAHs were extracted from 5.0 g of soil, previously homogenized, freeze-dried, and sieved to 250 μm, with 50 mL of 40% (v/v) acetonitrile in water at a temperature of 72 ± 3 °C. The proposed procedure is really fast, with an extraction time of 11 s, and it reduces the required amount of organic solvent to do the sample preparation. The obtained limit of detection for the evaluated PAHs was from 1 to 38 μg kg(-1). Recoveries were calculated using clean soils spiked with 100, 500, 1000, and 2000 μg kg(-1) PAHs with values ranging from 81 to 121% and good precision with relative standard deviation values lower than 30%. The method was validated using soil and sediment certified reference materials and also using real samples by comparison with ultrasound-assisted extraction, as reference methodology, obtaining statistically comparable results. Thus, the use of hard cap espresso machines in the analytical laboratories offers tremendous possibilities as low cost extraction units for the extraction of solid samples.

  6. Measuring disease-specific health status in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Measurement Committee of The American Urological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, M J; Fowler, F J; O'Leary, M P; Bruskewitz, R C; Holtgrewe, H L; Mebust, W K

    1995-04-01

    In preparation for an outcomes study of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), two measures of disease-specific health status were developed to supplement a symptom score and overall health status measures. The symptom problem index (SPI) captures how troublesome patients find their urinary symptoms. The BPH impact index (BII) measures how much their urinary problems affect various domains of health. A prospective revalidation of the refined instruments (N = 108 BPH patients and 50 controls) documented that both indices had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88 and 0.79, respectively) and test-retest (r = 0.88 for both) reliabilities, correlated strongly with symptom scores (r = 0.86 and 0.77), and discriminated between BPH and control subjects (receiver-operating characteristic areas = 0.87 and 0.85, respectively). These indices were nearly as responsive as symptom scores in 50 men actively treated for BPH, and much more responsive than a non-disease-specific General Health Index (GHI), a Mental Health Index (MHI), and an Activity Index (AI). Finally, these measures capture most of the health status significance of BPH symptoms. In linear regression models constructed to predict scores on the GHI, MHI, and AI, symptom scores added little explanatory power to the SPI and, particularly, to the BII. These measures help clarify how BPH affects overall health status and function. Such measures have an important role to play in studies of the outcomes of treatment for BPH, and probably for other conditions that interfere with health status and function.

  7. A transfer function for the prediction of gas hydrate inventories in marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marquardt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple prognostic tool for gas hydrate (GH quantification in marine sediments is presented based on a diagenetic transport-reaction model approach. One of the most crucial factors for the application of diagenetic models is the accurate formulation of microbial degradation rates of particulate organic carbon (POC and the coupled formation of biogenic methane. Wallmann et al. (2006 suggested a kinetic formulation considering the ageing effects of POC and accumulation of reaction products (CH4, CO2 in the pore water. This model is applied to data sets of several ODP sites in order to test its general validity. Based on a thorough parameter analysis considering a wide range of environmental conditions, the POC accumulation rate (POCar in g/m2/yr and the thickness of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ in m were identified as the most important and independent controls for biogenic GH formation. Hence, depth-integrated GH inventories in marine sediments (GHI in g of CH4 per cm2 seafloor area can be estimated as:

    GHI = a · POCar · GHSZb · exp (– GHSZc/POCar/d + e

    with a = 0.00214, b = 1.234, c = –3.339,

            d = 0.3148, e = –10.265.

    The transfer function gives a realistic first order approximation of the minimum GH inventory in low gas flux (LGF systems. The overall advantage of the presented function is its simplicity compared to the application of complex numerical models, because only two easily accessible parameters need to be determined.

  8. A transfer function for the prediction of gas hydrate inventories in marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marquardt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple prognostic tool for gas hydrate (GH quantification in marine sediments is presented based on a diagenetic transport-reaction model approach. One of the most crucial factors for the application of diagenetic models is the accurate formulation of microbial degradation rates of particulate organic carbon (POC and the coupled biogenic CH4 formation. Wallmann et al. (2006 suggested a kinetic formulation considering the ageing effects of POC and accumulation of reaction products (CH4, CO2 in the pore water. This model is applied to data sets of several ODP sites in order to test its general validity. Based on a thorough parameter analysis considering a wide range of environmental conditions, the POC accumulation rate (POCar in g/cm2/yr and the thickness of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ in m were identified as the most important and independent controls for biogenic GH formation. Hence, depth-integrated GH inventories in marine sediments (GHI in g of CH4 per cm2 seafloor area can be estimated as:

    GHI = a · POCar · GHSZb · exp (−GHSZc/POCar/d + e

    with a = 0.00214, b = 1.234, c = −3.339, d = 0.3148, e = −10.265.

    Several tests indicate that the transfer function gives a realistic approximation of the minimum potential GH inventory of low gas flux (LGF systems. The overall advantage of the presented function is its simplicity compared to complex numerical models: only two easily accessible parameters are needed.

  9. Impact of aerosols on the forecast accuracy of solar irradiance calculated by a numerical weather prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimose, Ken-ichi; Ohtake, Hideaki; Fonseca, Joao Gari da Silva; Takashima, Takumi; Oozeki, Takashi; Yamada, Yoshinori

    2014-10-01

    The impact of aerosols on the forecast accuracy of solar irradiance calculated by a fine-scale, one day-ahead, and operational numerical weather prediction model (NWP) is investigated in this study. In order to investigate the impact of aerosols only, the clear sky period is chosen, which is defined as when there are no clouds in the observation data and in the forecast data at the same time. The evaluation of the forecast accuracy of the solar irradiance is done at a single observation point that is sometimes affected by aerosol events. The analysis period is one year from April 2010 to March 2011. During the clear sky period, the root mean square errors (RMSE) of the global horizontal irradiance (GHI), direct normal irradiance (DNI), and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) are 40.0 W m-2, 84.0 Wm-2, and 47.9 W m-2, respectively. During one extreme event, the RMSEs of the GHI, DNI, and DHI are 70.1 W m-2, 211.6 W m-2, and 141.7 W m-2, respectively. It is revealed that the extreme events were caused by aerosols such as dust or haze. In order to investigate the impact of the aerosols, the sensitivity experiments of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) for the extreme events are executed. The best result is obtained by changing the AOD to 2.5 times the original AOD. This changed AOD is consistent with the satellite observation. Thus, it is our conclusion that an accurate aerosol forecast is important for the forecast accuracy of the solar irradiance.

  10. Solar Forecasting Challenges and Opportunities for Enabling High Penetration of Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2011, DOE launched the SunShot Initiative to reduce the total cost of solar energy systems by about 75% to make them cost competitive with other forms of energy (without subsidies) by 2020. This translates to a total cost of installed solar energy at 1/Watt or 0.06/kWh, incentivizing high penetration of solar on the utility grid. In the past four years, the SunShot Initiative has catalyzed revolutionary advancements in solar technologies, stimulating significant growth and accelerating deployment of solar energy systems. However, as solar deployment increases, integrating solar energy into the utility grid poses difficult challenges due to the variability in solar resource and the impact of clouds and aerosols on surface irradiance. Accurate forecasting of solar resource and its variability at high temporal and spatial resolution at least a day ahead is crucial to large scale integration of solar energy into the utility grid. However, this is limited by current errors in forecasting that are as high as 25% for clear sky forecasts of Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI), and as large as 40-80% for cloudy conditions. Forecasting errors are even higher for the direct normal irradiance (DNI). For solar energy to be seamlessly integrated into the utility grid under the scenarios of high penetration of solar, significant improvements in surface solar irradiance modeling and observations of both Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) are essential to accurately predict power outputs from photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. Furthermore, forecasting improvements have to be closely tied to utility needs and operation timelines. Details about the ongoing research efforts supported through the SunShot initiative and the challenges and needs for solar forecasting improvements in regards to the SunShot Initiative will be presented at the conference.

  11. Comparação de três equações para predição da gordura corporal por bioimpedância em jovens obesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendell Arthur Lopes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A impedância bioelétrica (BIA tem sido bastante utilizada para o monitoramento da composição corporal em indivíduos de diferentes idades e estados nutricionais. Entretanto, não se sabe qual das equações propostas para crianças e adolescentes é a mais recomendada para utilização em adolescentes com excesso de peso. Objetivo: Verificar a concordância dos métodos de BIA usando três equações diferentes com a absorciometria de raio-X de dupla energia (DXA, para análise da composição corporal de adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade.MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 27 adolescentes do sexo feminino, com sobrepeso e obesidade. Foram avaliados o percentual de gordura corporal (%GC, a massa gorda (MG e a massa livre de gordura (MLG por DXA e por BIA utilizando as equações propostas por Houtkooper, Schaefer e Deurenberg. ANOVA oneway, gráficos de Bland-Altman e o coeficiente de correlação intraclasse foram utilizados para comparação e verificação da concordância entre os métodos.RESULTADOS: A BIA utilizando a equação proposta por Houtkooper foi a única que não apresentou diferença estatística significativa na estimativa de %GC, MG e MLG em comparação ao DXA e apresentou boa concordância com o DXA na estimativa de %GC (-1,9 ± 3,29%, MG (1,5 ± 2,59 kg e MLG (1,4 ± 2,60 kg, bem como boa reprodutibilidade para %GC (CCI = 0,81, MG (0,96 e MLG (0,89. As equações de Schaefer e de Deurenberg apresentaram menor concordância com o DXA, superestimando a MG e subestimando a MLG e apresentaram reprodutibilidade de moderada a baixa na maioria das medidas da composição corporal.CONCLUSÃO: Quando comparamos as três equações propostas para BIA com o DXA, verificamos que a equação proposta por Houtkooper foi a que melhor concordou com DXA e apresentou boa reprodutibilidade para estimar %GC, MG e MLG em adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade.

  12. Análise isocinética e cinética de corredores e triatletas com e sem histórico de fratura por estresse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Mariana Silva Luna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A associação da fadiga muscular com o aumento da força vertical de reação do solo representa risco de fratura por estresse de tíbia em esportes como a corrida de longa distância e o triatlo. Objetivo: Analisar e comparar parâmetros do componente vertical das forças de reação do solo e parâmetros musculares isocinéticos da flexão plantar (FP e dorsiflexão (DF do tornozelo entre grupos de corredores de longa distância e triatletas com e sem histórico de fratura por estresse de tíbia.MÉTODOS: Setenta e cinco atletas de corrida de longa distância e triatletas do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 30,26 ± 6,51 anos foram divididos de acordo com a história pregressa de fratura por estresse de tíbia em: grupo fratura (GF, composto por 12 indivíduos com história de fratura por estresse da tíbia, e grupo não-fratura (GNF, composto por 37 indivíduos sem história de fratura por estresse de tíbia. Os parâmetros cinéticos foram medidos durante a corrida por meio de uma plataforma de força AMTI, e os parâmetros isocinéticos por meio de dinamômetro isocinético Biodex (System 3.RESULTADOS: Para todas as variáveis isocinéticas e cinéticas, não houve diferenças entre GF e GNF.CONCLUSÃO: Ainda que não se tenha identificado uma diferença de desempenho entre os grupos estudados, o perfil cinético (impacto e isocinético (atividade muscular mostra que o treinamento da corrida com déficits em cuidados com a condição muscular e o controle de fatores extrínsecos pode criar uma situação de risco de ocorrência de fraturas por estresse.

  13. Study and classification of the abdominal adiposity throughout the application of the two-dimensional predictive equation Garaulet et al., in the clinical practice Estudio y clasificación de la adiposidad abdominal mediante la aplicación de la ecuación predictiva bidimensional de Garaulet et al., en la práctica clínica

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    C. M.ª Piernas Sánchez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The excess of visceral abdominal adipose tissue is one of the major concerns in obesity and its clinical treatment. Objective: To apply the two-dimensional predictive equation proposed by Garaulet et al. to determine the abdominal fat distribution and to compare the results with the body composition obtained by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (M-BIA. Subjects/methods: We studied 230 women, who underwent anthropometry and M-BIA. The predictive equation was applied. Multivariate lineal and partial correlation analyses were performed with control for BMI and % body fat, using SPSS 15.0 with statistical significance P Introducción: El exceso de tejido adiposo abdominal visceral es una de las mayores preocupaciones en la obesidad y su tratamiento clínico. Objetivo: Aplicar la ecuación predictiva bidimensional propuesta por Garaulet et al., para determinar la distribución de la grasa abdominal y comparar los resultados con la composición corporal obtenida mediante el análisis de impedancia bioeléctrica multi-frecuencia (M-BIA. Sujetos/métodos: Estudiamos a 230 mujeres a las que se sometió a antropometría y M-BIA. Se aplicó la ecuación predicitiva. Se realizaron correlaciones lineales multivariadas y parciales controlando el IMC y el % de grasa corporal, utilizando SPSS 15.0 con significación estadística P < 0,05. Resultados: En global, se consideró que las mujeres tenían una distribución subcutánea de la grasa abdominal. La grasa troncal, regional y la masa muscular se asociaron negativamente con VA/SApredicted, mientras que le índice visceral obtenido mediante M-BIA se correlacionó positivamente con VA/SApredicted. Discusión/conclusión: La ecuación predictiva puede ser útil en la práctica clínica para obtener una clasificación segura, barata y precisa de la obesidad abdominal.

  14. Decomposition of aquatic macrophytes from Cantá stream (Roraima, Brazil: kinetics approach Decomposição de macrófitas aquáticas do Igarapé do Cantá (Roraima, Brasil: aspectos cinéticos

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    Marcela Bianchessi da Cunha-Santino

    2010-06-01

    .OBJETIVOS: Este artigo descreve e compara a cinética de decomposição aeróbia e anaeróbia de Eleocharis interstincta, Nymphaea sp. e Montrichardia arborescens; MÉTODOS: Amostras de água e de macrófitas aquáticas foram coletadas no Igarapé do Cantá (02° 49' 11" N e 60° 40' 24" W, Cantá, Roraima, Brasil. O material foi seco e triturado e para cada condição experimental (aeróbia e anaeróbia, foram preparadas câmaras de mineralização contendo fragmentos de planta e água do igarapé. O volume de gases na mineralização anaeróbia foi monitorado durante 78 dias e consumo de oxigênio durante 121 dias; RESULTADOS: Os resultados da decomposição aeróbia e anaeróbia foram ajustados a um modelo cinético de 1ª ordem. O consumo de oxigênio variou de 195,36 mg.g-1 (PS para E. interstincta a 629,46 mg g-1 (PS para Nymphaea sp. A mineralização de M. arborescens apresentou o coeficiente de desoxigenação mais elevado (0,049 dia-1, seguida por E. interstincta (0,038 dia-1 e Nymphaea sp. (0,027 dia-1. Na condição anaeróbia, a evolução de gases apresentou duas fases: consumo e formação. De acordo com a variação temporal do carbono mineralizado, a decomposição anaeróbia de M. arborescens apresentou o coeficiente de mineralização mais elevado (0,0047 dia-1; seguido por Nymphaea sp. (0,0035 dia-1 e de E. interstincta (0,0017 dia-1; CONCLUSÃO: Baseado nestes resultados foi possível concluir que durante a decomposição aeróbia dessas macrófitas aquáticas, Nymphaea sp. foi responsável pela maior demanda de oxigênio e M. arborescens gerou as maiores produções de gases durante a mineralização anaeróbia. Em média, o processo aeróbio foi 11 vezes maior que o anaeróbio. Em relação aos fluxos de materiais em ecossistemas de água doce, as baixas taxas de decomposição observadas no processo anaeróbio, quando comparado com as taxas do decaimento aeróbio permite refletir que os sedimentos atuam como um compartimento eficiente de sumidouro de

  15. Evaluation of body composition in COPD patients using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis

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    de Blasio F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Francesca de Blasio,1 Francesco de Blasio,2,3 Giulia Miracco Berlingieri,2 Andrea Bianco,3,4 Marta La Greca,1 Frits M E Franssen,5 Luca Scalfi1 1Department of Public Health, Medical School, “Federico II” University of Naples, 2Respiratory Medicine and Pulmonary Rehabilitation Section, Clinic Center, Private Hospital, Naples, 3Department of Medicine and Health Sciences “V Tiberio”, University of Molise, Campobasso, 4Department of Cardio-Thoracic and Respiratory Sciences, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 5Department of Research and Education, CIRO, Horn, the NetherlandsBackground: Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA is a technique that measures body impedance (Z at different frequencies (5, 10, 50, 100, and 250 kHz. Body composition may be estimated using empirical equations, which include BIA variables or, alternatively, raw BIA data may provide direct information on water distribution and muscle quality.Objectives: To compare raw MF-BIA data between COPD patients and controls and to study their relationship with respiratory and functional parameters in COPD patients.Methods: MF-BIA was performed (Human Im-Touch analyzer in 212 COPD patients and 115 age- and BMI-matched controls. Fat-free mass (FFM and fat mass were estimated from BIA data, and low- to high-frequency (5 kHz/250 kHz impedance ratio was calculated. Physical fitness, lung function and respiratory muscle strength were also assessed in COPD patients.Results: After adjusting for age, weight, and body mass index, FFM and the 5/250 impedance ratio were lower in COPD patients (P<0.001 and were negatively affected by disease severity. In both male and female patients, the 5/250 impedance ratio was significantly correlated mainly with age (r=−0.316 and r=−0.346, respectively. Patients with a 5/250 impedance ratio below median value had lower handgrip strength (P<0.001, 6-minute walk distance (P<0.005, respiratory muscle strength (P<0.005, forced

  16. A two-phase population study: relationships between overweight, body composition and risk of eating disorders Estudio a doble fase: relación entre el sobrepeso, la composición corporal y el riesgo de trastorno de la conducta alimentaria

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    N. Babio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overweight and eating disorder (ED are major public health problems in adolescents. Aims: To assess the association of overweight, body composition and anthropometric characteristics with the probability being at risk of ED. Methods: A two-phase study was used. 329 girls and 96 boys (aged 12-18 years from an initial sample of 2967 adolescents were studied. The BMI, percentage of fat mass estimated by bioimpedance (FM(BIA, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHipr were calculated. The Eating Attitudes Test, Youth's Inventory-4 and a questionnaire to evaluate social influences were administered. Results: A total of 34.7% of girls and 53.6% of boys at risk of ED were overweight (including obesity. For girls, overweight frequency was significantly higher in risk ED group than in control group. Increases of one point in the BMI or FM(BIA increased the probability of being at risk of ED by 12% (3.0-19.0 and 4% (0.0-8.0, respectively. An increase in Whipr was negatively associated with ED risk. Smoking and symptoms of dysthymia and the genralized anxiety disorder also increase the probability of being at risk of ED in adolescent girls. In adolescent boys, these relations were not observed. Conclusions: The higher BMI and the percentage of FM(BIA are associated with greater risk of ED in adolescent girls, when psychological factors are present. Increases in the WHipr, characteristic of childhood body is negatively associated with that risk.Introducción: El sobrepeso y los Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria (TCA son problemas importantes de salud pública entre los adolescentes. Objetivos: Valorar la asociación del sobrepeso, la composición corporal y otras características antropométricas con la probabilidad de estar en riesgo de desarrollar un TCA. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio con un diseño en doble fase. Se estudiaron 329 chicas y 96 chicos (de 12-18 años procedentes de una muestra inicial de

  17. Comparison of bioelectrical impedance with skinfold thickness and X-ray absorptiometry to measure body composition in HIV-infected with lipodistrophy Comparación de impendancia bioeléctrica con grosor de pliegues cutáneos y absorciometría de rayos X para mensurar la composición corporal de personas con VIH con lipodistrofia

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    H. Siqueira Vassimon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human immunodeficiency vírus (HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (LS includes body composition and metabolic alterations. Lack of validated criteria and tools make difficult to evaluate body composition in this group. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare different methods to evaluate body composition between Brazilians HIV subjects with (HIV+LIPO+ or without LS (HIV+LIPO- and healthy subjects (Control. Methods: in a cross-sectional analyses, body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA, skinfold thickness (SF and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA in 10 subjects from HIV+LIPO+ group; 22 subjects from HIV+LIPO- group and 12 from Control group. Results: There were no differences in age and body mass index (BMI between groups. The fat mass (FM (% estimated by SF did not correlate with DXA in HIV+LIPO+ group (r = 0,46/ p > 0,05 and had fair agreement in both HIV groups (HIV+LIPO+ =0,35/ HIV+ LIPO- = 0,40. BIA had significant correlation in all groups (p Introducción: El síndrome de lipodistrofia (SL asociado al virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV incluye alteraciones en la composición corporal y metabólica. La falta de herramientas adecuadas y criterios válidos dificultan la evaluación de la composición corporal en este grupo. Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio fue comparar distintos métodos para evaluar la composición corporal entre individuos brasileños con HIV que teniam (HIV+LIPO+ o no LS (HIV+LIPO- e individuos sanos (control. Métodos: Estudio transversal en el que fue evaluada la composición corporal por análisis de impedancia bioeléctrica (BIA, pliegues cutáneos (SF y absorciometría de rayos X de doble energía (DXA en un grupo de 10 individuos con HIV+LIPO+, 22 individuos del grupo HIV+ LIPO- y 12 individuos del grupo control. Resultados: No hubo diferencias en la edad e índice de masa corporal (IMC entre grupos. La masa grasa (MG (% estimada por SF no se correlacion

  18. Evolution of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

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    Ziegler, Jörg; Facchini, Peter J; Geissler, René; Schmidt, Jürgen; Ammer, Christian; Kramell, Robert; Voigtländer, Susan; Gesell, Andreas; Pienkny, Silke; Brandt, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a group of nitrogen-containing plant secondary metabolites comprised of an estimated 2500 identified structures. In BIA metabolism, (S)-reticuline is a key branch-point intermediate that can be directed into several alkaloid subtypes with different structural skeleton configurations. The morphinan alkaloids are one subclass of BIAs produced in only a few plant species, most notably and abundantly in the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Comparative transcriptome analysis of opium poppy and several other Papaver species that do not accumulate morphinan alkaloids showed that known genes encoding BIA biosynthetic enzymes are expressed at higher levels in P. somniferum. Three unknown cDNAs that are co-ordinately expressed with several BIA biosynthetic genes were identified as enzymes in the pathway. One of these enzymes, salutaridine reductase (SalR), which is specific for the production of morphinan alkaloids, was isolated and heterologously overexpressed in its active form not only from P. somniferum, but also from Papaver species that do not produce morphinan alkaloids. SalR is a member of a class of short chain dehydrogenase/reductases (SDRs) that are active as monomers and possess an extended amino acid sequence compared with classical SDRs. Homology modelling and substrate docking revealed the substrate binding site for SalR. The amino acids residues conferring salutaridine binding were compared to several members of the SDR family from different plant species, which non-specifically reduce (-)-menthone to (+)-neomenthol. Previously, it was shown that some of these proteins are involved in plant defence. The recruitment of specific monomeric SDRs from monomeric SDRs involved in plant defence is discussed.

  19. O aparelho Saltatório do Halticíneo Homophoeta sexnotata Har. (Coleoptera

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    Rudolf Barth

    1954-06-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se o mecanismo saltatório do Halticíneo Homophoeta sexnotata. O aparelho se encontra localizado no fêmur e consta de uma placa cuticular arqueada, em forma de S, e, de uma placa menor, triangular. Tôdas as placas representam modificações dos tendões do abdutor e flexor da tíbia e mantêm ainda ligação com os mesmos. Pela colaboração das duas placas acumula-se uma forte tensão no tendão do abdutor (músculo saltatório. A tíbia não se pode esticar pois a placa trinagular fica presa numa cavidade da parede do fêmur. Apenas no momento da maior contração do abdutor a placa curvada força a saida da placa triangular do seu ponto de apóio. Desta maneira o forte músculo abdutor da tíbia exerce tôda a sua força, de uma só vez, sôbre a articulação da mesma, dando ao Coleóptero um forte impulso para saltar. O órgão é encontrado em grande número dos Halticíneos. em homenagem ao grande entomólogo brasileiro PROF. DR. ANGELO DA COSTA LIMA dei ao órgão o nome de ÓRGÂO DE COSTA LIMA.

  20. Multidimensional evaluation of soil pollution from railway tracks.

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    Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Bemowska-Kałabun, Olga; Gworek, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Railway transport is a source of pollution to soils and living organisms by e.g. PAHs, PCBs, oil-derived products, pesticides and heavy metals. Soil toxicity evaluation requires chemical analyses, indicating the type and content of particular pollutants, as well as biological analyses, which allow assessing the reaction of organisms to these pollutants. This paper is focused on a multi-aspect evaluation of the degree of toxicity and pollution of soil in selected railway areas from north-eastern Poland by application of numerous biotests and chemical analyses. The soils were sampled on railway tracks from the following railway stations: Białystok Fabryczny, Siemianówka, Hajnówka, Iława Główna and Waliły. The most toxic soils occur on the railway tracks at Białystok Fabryczny and Siemianówka. They had a significant toxic effect on test organisms from various trophic levels. The contents of PAHs, PCBs, heavy metals, oil-derived hydrocarbons and pesticide residues were determined in the examined soils. In all cases the detected pollutants did not exceed the admissible levels. The highest content of oil-derived substances was noted in soils from Białystok Fabryczny and concentrations were moderate in soils from Siemianówka. Although the pollutants determined in soils from railway tracks did not exceed the admissible values, they had a toxic effect on numerous test organisms from different trophic levels. This suggests a synergistic effect of low concentrations (within the admissible levels) of several pollutants together, which resulted in a toxic effect on the organisms. Thus, there is a strong need of not only chemical, but also ecotoxicological analyses during the evaluation of environmental conditions. Based on data obtained from biological and chemical analyses, we concluded that railway transport may pose a hazard to the natural environment to a larger extent that hitherto expected.