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Sample records for xeqf spectroscopy

  1. Auger electron spectroscopy, ionization loss spectroscopy, appearance potential spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riwan, R.

    1973-01-01

    The spectroscopy of surfaces using an incident electron beam is studied. The fundamental mechanisms are discussed together with the parameters involved in Auger emission: excitation of the atom, de-excitation by electron emission, and the migration of electrons towards the surface and their ejection. Some examples of applications are given (surface structures, metallurgy, chemical information). Two new techniques for analyzing surfaces are studied: ionization spectroscopy, and appearance potential spectroscopy [fr

  2. Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, S

    1976-01-01

    The three volumes of Spectroscopy constitute the one comprehensive text available on the principles, practice and applications of spectroscopy. By giving full accounts of those spectroscopic techniques only recently introduced into student courses - such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy - in addition to those techniques long recognised as being essential in chemistry teaching - sucha as e.s.r. and infrared spectroscopy - the book caters for the complete requirements of undergraduate students and at the same time provides a sound introduction to special topics for graduate students.

  3. Electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction to the various techniques in electron spectroscopy is presented. These techniques include: (1) UV Photoelectron spectroscopy, (2) X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy, (3) Auger electron spectroscopy, (4) Electron energy loss spectroscopy, (5) Penning ionization spectroscopy and (6) Ion neutralization spectroscopy. The radiations used in each technique, the basis of the technique and the special information obtained in structure determination in atoms and molecules by each technique are summarised. (A.K.)

  4. Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses spectroscopy, the study of absorption of radiation by matter, including X-ray, gamma-ray, microwave, mass spectroscopy, as well as others. Spectroscopy has produced more fundamental information to the study of the detailed structure of matter than any other tools.

  5. Terahertz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation I will review methods for spectroscopy in the THz range, with special emphasis on the practical implementation of the technique known ad THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). THz-TDS has revived the old field of far-infrared spectroscopy, and enabled a wealth of new...... activities that promise commercial potential for spectroscopic applications in the THz range. This will be illustrated with examples of spectroscopy of liquids inside their bottles as well as sensitive, quantitative spectroscopy in waveguides....

  6. Gamma Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, J.W.; Butz, Tilman; Ertl, G.; Knözinger, H.; Schüth, F.

    2008-01-01

    No abstract. The sections in this article are 1 Introduction 2 Mössbauer Spectroscopy 3 Time-Differential Perturbed Angular Correlations (TDPAC) 4 Conclusions and Outlook Keywords: Mössbauer spectroscopy; gamma spectroscopy; perturbed angular correlation; TDPAC

  7. Sub-Doppler spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansch, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy, tunable cw sources, and Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy. Discusses saturation spectroscopy; continuous wave saturation spectroscopy in the ultraviolet; and two-photon spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen 1S-2S. Focuses on Doppler-free laser spectroscopy of gaseous samples. Explains that in saturation spectroscopy, a monochromatic laser beam ''labels'' a group of atoms within a narrow range of axial velocities through excitation or optical pumping, and a Doppler-free spectrum of these selected atoms is observed with a second, counterpropagating beam. Notes that in two-photon spectroscopy it is possible to record Doppler-free spectra without any need for velocity selection by excitation with two counterpropagating laser beams whose first order Doppler shifts cancel

  8. Molecular spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokh, Eh.; Zonntag, B.

    1981-01-01

    The latest investigation results on molecular spectroscopy with application of synchrotron radiation in the region of vacuum ultraviolet are generalized. Some results on investigation of excited, superexcited and ionized molecule states with the use of adsorption spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, by fluorescent and mass-spectrometric methods are considered [ru

  9. Vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Rajai Atalla

    2010-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy is an important tool in modern chemistry. In the past two decades, thanks to significant improvements in instrumentation and the development of new interpretive tools, it has become increasingly important for studies of lignin. This chapter presents the three important instrumental methods-Raman spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and...

  10. Modern spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hollas, J Michael

    2013-01-01

    The latest edition of this highly acclaimed title introduces the reader to a wide range of spectroscopies, and includes both the background theory and applications to structure determination and chemical analysis.  It covers rotational, vibrational, electronic, photoelectron and Auger spectroscopy, as well as EXAFs and the theory of lasers and laser spectroscopy. A  revised and updated edition of a successful, clearly written book Includes the latest developments in modern laser techniques, such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy and femtosecond lasers Provides numerous worked examples, calculations and questions at the end of chapters.

  11. Atom spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodling, K.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on atom photoabsorption spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation in the 10-1000 eV range are reviewed. Properties of the necessary synchrotron radiation and the experiment on absorption spectroscopy are briefly described. Comparison with other spectroscopy methods is conducted. Some data on measuring photoabsorption, photoelectron emission and atom mass spectra are presented [ru

  12. Analytical applications of spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creaser, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    This book provides an up to date overview of recent developments in analytical spectroscopy, with a particular emphasis on the common themes of chromatography - spectroscopy combinations, Fourier transform methods, and data handling techniques, which have played an increasingly important part in the development of all spectroscopic techniques. The book contains papers originally presented at a conference entitled 'Spectroscopy Across The Spectrum' held jointly with the first 'International Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference' at the University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK, in July 1987, which have been edited and rearranged with some additional material. Each section includes reviews of key areas of current research as well as short reports of new developments. The fields covered are: Near Infrared Spectroscopy; Infrared Spectroscopy; Mass Spectroscopy; NMR Spectroscopy; Atomic and UV/Visible Spectroscopy; Chemometrics and Data Analysis. (author)

  13. Admittance spectroscopy or deep level transient spectroscopy: A contrasting juxtaposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Joachim; Venter, Andre

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive understanding of defects in semiconductors remains of primary importance. In this paper the effectiveness of two of the most commonly used semiconductor defect spectroscopy techniques, viz. deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and admittance spectroscopy (AS) are reviewed. The analysis of defects present in commercially available SiC diodes shows that admittance spectroscopy allows the identification of deep traps with reduced measurement effort compared to deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS). Besides the N-donor, well-studied intrinsic defects were detected in these diodes. Determination of their activation energy and defect density, using the two techniques, confirm that the sensitivity of AS is comparable to that of DLTS while, due to its well defined peak shape, the spectroscopic resolution is superior. Additionally, admittance spectroscopy can analyze faster emission processes which make the study of shallow defects more practical and even that of shallow dopant levels, possible. A comparative summary for the relevant spectroscopic features of the two capacitance methods are presented.

  14. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  15. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., ultrafast lasers (atto- and femto-second lasers) and parametric oscillators, coherent matter waves, Doppler-free Fourier spectroscopy with optical frequency combs, interference spectroscopy, quantum optics, the interferometric detection of gravitational waves and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  16. Photoelectron spectroscopy an introduction to ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy in the gas phase

    CERN Document Server

    Eland, J H D

    2013-01-01

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy: An Introduction to Ultraviolet Photoelectronspectroscopy in the Gas Phase, Second Edition Photoelectron Spectroscopy: An Introduction to Ultraviolet PhotoelectronSpectroscopy in the Gas Phase, Second Edition aims to give practical approach on the subject of photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as provide knowledge on the interpretation of the photoelectron spectrum. The book covers topics such as the principles and literature of photoelectron microscopy; the main features and analysis of photoelectron spectra; ionization techniques; and energies from the photoelectron spectra. Also covered in the book are topics suc as photoelectron band structure and the applications of photoelectron spectroscopy in chemistry. The text is recommended for students and practitioners of chemistry who would like to be familiarized with the concepts of photoelectron spectroscopy and its importance in the field.

  17. Spectroscopy for Dummies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvold, Lars René

    This presentation will give short introduction to the most pertinent topics of optical spectroscopy. The following topics will be discussed: • The origin of spectra in UV, VIS and IR spectral range • Spectroscopic methods like absorption, luminescence and Raman • Wavelength dispersive optical...... components • Materials for use optical spectroscopy • Spectrometer geometries • Detectors for use in spectrometer • Practical examples of optical spectroscopy The objective of this presentation is to give the audience a good feel for the range of possibilities that optical spectroscopy can provide....

  18. Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonser, U.

    1975-01-01

    This book is addressed to persons interested in learning about what has been done and what can be done with Moessbauer spectroscopy. In an introductory chapter the basic principle is explained and the general parameters governing Moessbauer spectroscopy are tabulated. For the following chapters various disciplines are chosen and the wide applicability of this measuring technique is demonstrated. The second chapter discusses a few representative examples of chemical interesting information being reflected by isomer shifts and quadrupole splittings, particularly with respect to bonding and structural properties. The third chapter deals with some applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy for characterizing magnetic compounds and its use for magnetic structure investigations, particularly by making use of polarized radiation. The fourth chapter describes the use of the Moessbauer spectroscopy for studying iron in biological molecules. As an example of recent applications to mineralogy and geology the results of the studies of lunar samples are reviewed in the fifth chapter. Finally, in the last chapter, work is described on the use of Moessbauer spectroscopy in physical metallurgy, particularly quantitative analyses which have enabled metallurgists to solve many old problems. (orig./FW) [de

  19. Progress in atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.J.; Kleinpoppen, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents reviews by leading experts in the field covering areas of research at the forefront of atomic spectroscopy. Topics considered include the k ordering of atomic structure, multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock calculations for complex atoms, new methods in high-resolution laser spectroscopy, resonance ionization spectroscopy (inert atom detection), trapped ion spectroscopy, high-magnetic-field atomic physics, the effects of magnetic and electric fields on highly excited atoms, x rays from superheavy collision systems, recoil ion spectroscopy with heavy ions, investigations of superheavy quasi-atoms via spectroscopy of electron rays and positrons, impact ionization by fast projectiles, and amplitudes and state parameters from ion- and atom-atom excitation processes

  20. Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules.......This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules....

  1. Synchrotron radiation spectroscopy including X-ray absorption spectroscopy and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Recent trends of synchrotron radiation spectroscopy, especially X-ray absorption spectroscopy for industrial applications are introduced based on our latest results for energy efficient devices such as magnetic RAM, LSI and organic FET, power generation devices such as fuel cells, and energy storage devices such as Li ion batteries. Furthermore, future prospects of spectroscopy with higher energy resolution, higher spatial resolution, higher temporal resolution and operando spectroscopy taking advantage of much brighter synchrotron radiation beam at low emittance SR rings are discussed from the view point of practical applications. (author)

  2. New Hadronic Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccini, R.

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years the field of hadron spectroscopy has seen renewed interest due to the publication, initially mostly from B-Factories, of evidences of states that do not match regular spectroscopy, but are rather candidates for bound states with additional quarks or gluons (four quarks for tetraquarks and molecules and two quarks and gluons for hybrids). A huge effort in understanding the nature of this new states and in building a new spectroscopy is ongoing. This paper reviews the experimental and theoretical state of the art on heavy quarkonium exotic spectroscopy, with particular attention on the steps towards a global picture.

  3. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    2000-01-01

    This fifth volume of the successful series Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy continues to discuss and investigate the area of atomic spectroscopy.It begins with a description of the use of various atomic spectroscopic methods and applications of speciation studies in atomic spectroscopy. The emphasis is on combining atomic spectroscopy with gas and liquid chromatography. In chapter two the authors describe new developments in tunable lasers and the impact they will have on atomic spectroscopy. The traditional methods of detection, such as photography and the photomultiplier, and how they are being replaced by new detectors is discussed in chapter three. The very active area of glow discharge atomic spectrometry is presented in chapter four where, after a brief introduction and historical review, the use of glow discharge lamps for atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are discussed. Included in this discussion is geometry and radiofrequency power. The future of this source in atomic spectroscopy is also dis...

  4. Spectroscopy in catalysis : an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Spectroscopy in Catalysis describes the most important modern analytical techniques used to investigate catalytic surfaces. These include electron spectroscopy (XPS, UPS, AES, EELS), ion spectroscopy (SIMS, SNMS, RBS, LEIS), vibrational spectroscopy (infrared, Raman, EELS), temperature-programmed

  5. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1997-01-01

    This series describes selected advances in the area of atomic spectroscopy. It is primarily intended for the reader who has a background in atmoic spectroscopy; suitable to the novice and expert. Although a widely used and accepted method for metal and non-metal analysis in a variety of complex samples, Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy covers a wide range of materials. Each Chapter will completely cover an area of atomic spectroscopy where rapid development has occurred.

  6. Dye lasers in atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, W.; Luther, J.; Steudel, A.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of dye lasers which are relevant to atomic spectroscopy are discussed. Several experiments made possible by tunable dye lasers are discussed. Applications of high spectral density dye lasers are covered in areas such as absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, photoionization and photodetachment, and two- and multi-photon processes. Applications which take advantage of the narrow bandwidth of tunable dye lasers are discussed, including saturation spectroscopy, fluorescence line narrowing, classic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, nonoptical detection of optical resonances, heterodyne spectroscopy, and nonlinear coherent resonant phenomena. (26 figures, 180 references) (U.S.)

  7. Symposium on atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Topics covered by the conference include: fast beam spectroscopy; astrophysical and other spectra; highly ionized spectroscopy; complex spectra; rydberg levels; fine structure, hyperfine structure and isotope shift; lineshapes; lifetimes, oscillator strengths and Einstein coefficients; and spectroscopy with lasers. Abstracts of the conference papers are presented

  8. Introductory Raman spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R

    2012-01-01

    Praise for Introductory Raman Spectroscopy Highlights basic theory, which is treated in an introductory fashion Presents state-of-the-art instrumentation Discusses new applications of Raman spectroscopy in industry and research.

  9. Symposium on atomic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Topics covered by the conference include: fast beam spectroscopy; astrophysical and other spectra; highly ionized spectroscopy; complex spectra; rydberg levels; fine structure, hyperfine structure and isotope shift; lineshapes; lifetimes, oscillator strengths and Einstein coefficients; and spectroscopy with lasers. Abstracts of the conference papers are presented. (GHT)

  10. Mid-infrared upconversion spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Andersen, H. V.

    2016-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is emerging as an attractive alternative to near-infrared or visible spectroscopy. MIR spectroscopy offers a unique possibility to probe the fundamental absorption bands of a large number of gases as well as the vibrational spectra of complex molecules. In this paper...

  11. Cavity-enhanced spectroscopies

    CERN Document Server

    van Zee, Roger

    2003-01-01

    ""Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy"" discusses the use of optical resonators and lasers to make sensitive spectroscopic measurements. This volume is written by the researcchers who pioneered these methods. The book reviews both the theory and practice behind these spectroscopic tools and discusses the scientific discoveries uncovered by these techniques. It begins with a chapter on the use of optical resonators for frequency stabilization of lasers, which is followed by in-depth chapters discussing cavity ring-down spectroscopy, frequency-modulated, cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, intracavity spectr

  12. Advances in DUV spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Mogensen, Claus Tilsted

    The would-be advantages of deep UV (DUV) spectroscopy are well known, but the potential applications have so far not been fully realized due to technological limitations and, perhaps, lack of bright ideas. However, new components and new knowledge about DUV spectra and spectroscopic methods...... combined with increasing needs for solutions to practical problems in environmental protection, medicine and pollution monitoring promise a new era in DUV spectroscopy. Here we shall review the basis for DUV spectroscopy, both DUV fluorescence and DUV Raman spectroscopy, and describe recent advances...

  13. Optical Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrhaug, Erling

    The work presented in this thesis is broadly concerned with how complexation reactions and molecular motion can be characterized with the standard techniques in optical spectroscopy. The thesis aims to show a relatively broad range of methods for probing physico-chemical properties in fluorophore...... information about chemical equilibria, kinetics and molecular motion by monitoring changes in optical properties of the system. The five presented research projects are largely unrelated to each other both in aim and in what property is probed, however they are all connected in that they are fluorophore...... reactions by optical spectroscopy. In project 1 simple steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the stoichiometries and equilibrium constants in the inclusion complex formation between cyclodextrins and derivatives of the water-insoluble oligo(phenylene vinylene) in aqueous...

  14. Acoustic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitters, G.; Kamsma, D.; Thalhammer, G.; Ritsch-Marte, M.; Peterman, E.J.G.; Wuite, G.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Force spectroscopy has become an indispensable tool to unravel the structural and mechanochemical properties of biomolecules. Here we extend the force spectroscopy toolbox with an acoustic manipulation device that can exert forces from subpiconewtons to hundreds of piconewtons on thousands of

  15. Ultrafast Laser-Based Spectroscopy and Sensing: Applications in LIBS, CARS, and THz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy-Hoppa, Megan R.; Miragliotta, Joseph; Osiander, Robert; Burnett, Jennifer; Dikmelik, Yamac; McEnnis, Caroline; Spicer, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrafast pulsed lasers find application in a range of spectroscopy and sensing techniques including laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), coherent Raman spectroscopy, and terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. Whether based on absorption or emission processes, the characteristics of these techniques are heavily influenced by the use of ultrafast pulses in the signal generation process. Depending on the energy of the pulses used, the essential laser interaction process can primarily involve lattice vibrations, molecular rotations, or a combination of excited states produced by laser heating. While some of these techniques are currently confined to sensing at close ranges, others can be implemented for remote spectroscopic sensing owing principally to the laser pulse duration. We present a review of ultrafast laser-based spectroscopy techniques and discuss the use of these techniques to current and potential chemical and environmental sensing applications. PMID:22399883

  16. Ultrafast Laser-Based Spectroscopy and Sensing: Applications in LIBS, CARS, and THz Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan R. Leahy-Hoppa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast pulsed lasers find application in a range of spectroscopy and sensing techniques including laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS, coherent Raman spectroscopy, and terahertz (THz spectroscopy. Whether based on absorption or emission processes, the characteristics of these techniques are heavily influenced by the use of ultrafast pulses in the signal generation process. Depending on the energy of the pulses used, the essential laser interaction process can primarily involve lattice vibrations, molecular rotations, or a combination of excited states produced by laser heating. While some of these techniques are currently confined to sensing at close ranges, others can be implemented for remote spectroscopic sensing owing principally to the laser pulse duration. We present a review of ultrafast laser-based spectroscopy techniques and discuss the use of these techniques to current and potential chemical and environmental sensing applications.

  17. Near-infrared spectroscopy for cocrystal screening. A comparative study with Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesø, Morten; Velaga, Sitaram; Alhalaweh, Amjad; Cornett, Claus; Rasmussen, Morten A; van den Berg, Frans; de Diego, Heidi Lopez; Rantanen, Jukka

    2008-10-15

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a well-established technique for solid-state analysis, providing fast, noninvasive measurements. The use of NIR spectroscopy for polymorph screening and the associated advantages have recently been demonstrated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the analytical potential of NIR spectroscopy for cocrystal screening using Raman spectroscopy as a comparative method. Indomethacin was used as the parent molecule, while saccharin and l-aspartic acid were chosen as guest molecules. Molar ratios of 1:1 for each system were subjected to two types of preparative methods. In the case of saccharin, liquid-assisted cogrinding as well as cocrystallization from solution resulted in a stable 1:1 cocrystalline phase termed IND-SAC cocrystal. For l-aspartic acid, the solution-based method resulted in a polymorphic transition of indomethacin into the metastable alpha form retained in a physical mixture with the guest molecule, while liquid-assisted cogrinding did not induce any changes in the crystal lattice. The good chemical peak selectivity of Raman spectroscopy allowed a straightforward interpretation of sample data by analyzing peak positions and comparing to those of pure references. In addition, Raman spectroscopy provided additional information on the crystal structure of the IND-SAC cocrystal. The broad spectral line shapes of NIR spectra make visual interpretation of the spectra difficult, and consequently, multivariate modeling by principal component analysis (PCA) was applied. Successful use of NIR/PCA was possible only through the inclusion of a set of reference mixtures of parent and guest molecules representing possible solid-state outcomes from the cocrystal screening. The practical hurdle related to the need for reference mixtures seems to restrict the applicability of NIR spectroscopy in cocrystal screening.

  18. Fluorescence spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses the foundati......Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses...

  19. Homogeneity spoil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, J.; Boesch, C.; Martin, E.; Grutter, R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the problems of in vivo MR spectroscopy of P-31 is spectra localization. Surface coil spectroscopy, which is the method of choice for clinical applications, suffers from the high-intensity signal from subcutaneous muscle tissue, which masks the spectrum of interest from deeper structures. In order to suppress this signal while maintaining the simplicity of surface coil spectroscopy, the authors introduced a small sheet of ferromagnetically dotted plastic between the surface coil and the body. This sheet destroys locally the field homogeneity and therefore all signal from structures around the coil. The very high reproducibility of the simple experimental procedure allows long-term studies important for monitoring tumor therapy

  20. In vivo spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.R.; Cady, E.B.

    1987-01-01

    The technique which the authors describe in this chapter provides alternative information to imaging, although based upon the same physical principles. The experiments are carried out differently and have instrumental requirements which are not met by a standard imaging system. Furthermore, although the clinical efficacy of NMR imaging has been proven, clinical spectroscopy is very much in its infancy. With the exception of some specific /sup 31/P applications not is not even clear how spectroscopic investigations will be performed. This is particularly true with regard to localization techniques for investigating other than superficial organs and and in the use of /sup 1/H spectroscopy. They attempt to show what information spectroscopy can provide in principle and point out some of the problems associated with such investigations. NMR has come to the notice of the clinical community mainly through its use as an imaging technique, and many may consider spectroscopy as a secondary discipline. NMR spectroscopy, however, has a longer history than imaging and has been a standard technique in chemistry laboratories for more than two decades. It is a technique without peer for structural analysis of molecules and no new chemical compound is discovered or synthesized without an NMR spectrum being taken. The influence of molecular structure on resonant frequency has been termed the chemical shift

  1. Quantitative fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media using fluorescence differential path length spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelink, Arjen; Kruijt, Bastiaan; Robinson, Dominic J.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a new technique, fluorescence differential path length spectroscopy (FDPS), that enables the quantitative investigation of fluorophores in turbid media. FDPS measurements are made with the same probe geometry as differential path length spectroscopy (DPS) measurements. Phantom

  2. Moessbauer spectroscopy. Tutorial book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Langouche, Guido

    2013-01-01

    First textbook on Moessbauer Spectroscopy covering the complete field. Offers a concise introduction to all aspects of Moessbauer spectroscopy by the leading experts in the field. Tutorials on Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Since the discovery of the Moessbauer Effect many excellent books have been published for researchers and for doctoral and master level students. However, there appears to be no textbook available for final year bachelor students, nor for people working in industry who have received only basic courses in classical mechanics, electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, chemistry and materials science. The challenge of this book is to give an introduction to Moessbauer Spectroscopy for this level. The ultimate goal of this book is to give this audience not only a scientific introduction to the technique, but also to demonstrate in an attractive way the power of Moessbauer Spectroscopy in many fields of science, in order to create interest among the readers in joining the community of Moessbauer spectroscopists. This is particularly important at times where in many Moessbauer laboratories succession is at stake.

  3. Laser spectroscopy used in nuclear physics; La spectroscopie laser appliquee a la physique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, F

    2001-04-05

    The study of nuclear shapes is a basic topic since it constitutes an excellent ground for testing and validating nuclear models. Measurements of the electron quadrupolar moment, of the nuclear charge radius and of the magnetic dipolar moment shed light on the nuclear deformation. Laser spectroscopy is a specific tool for such measurements, it is based on the interaction of the nucleus with the surrounding electron cloud (hyperfine structure), it is then an external approach of the shape of the nucleus whereas the classical nuclear spectroscopy ({alpha}, {beta} or {gamma}) gives information on the deformation from the inside of the nucleus. The author describes 2 techniques of laser spectroscopy: the colinear spectroscopy directly applied to a beam issued from an isotope separator and the resonant ionization spectroscopy linked with atom desorption that allows the study of particular nuclei. In order to illustrate both methods some effective measurements are presented: - the colinear spectroscopy has allowed the achievement of the complete description of the isomeric state (T = 31 years) of hafnium-178; - The experiment Complis has revealed an unexpected even-odd zigzag effect on very neutron-deficient platinum isotopes; and - the comparison of 2 isotopes of gold and platinum with their isomers has shown that the inversion of 2 levels of neutron, that was found out by nuclear spectroscopy, is in fact a consequence of a change in the nuclear shape. (A.C.)

  4. Optogalvanic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianarosa, P.; Demers, Y.; Gagne, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Laser induced optogalvanic spectroscopy in a hollow cathode-produced plasma has been used to resolve the isotopic structure of some absorption lines in uranium. We have shown that the optogalvanic signal associated with any isotope can be related to the concentration of that isotope in a multi-isotopic sample. From the results we have obtained, optogalvanic spectroscopy of sputtered samples appears to be an interesting approach to the isotopic analysis of both natural and enriched uranium and could easily be applied to the analysis of other fissile elements, such as the plutonium isotopes

  5. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 2. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy - Recent Advancement of Raman Spectroscopy. Ujjal Kumar Sur. General Article Volume 15 Issue 2 February 2010 pp 154-164 ...

  6. Spectroscopy stepping stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, M.R.; Sturman, B.T.

    2003-01-01

    Determining the elemental composition of samples has long been a basic task of analytical science. Some very powerful and convenient approaches are based on the wavelength-specific absorption or emission of light by gas-phase atoms. Techniques briefly described as examples of analytical atomic spectrometry include atomic emission and absorption spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma emission and mass spectroscopy and laser induced breakdown spectrometry

  7. Coherent atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garton, W.R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Argonne Spectroscopy Laboratory, initiated and advanced over several decades by F.S. Tomkins and M. Fred, has been a major international facility. A range of collaborative work in atomic spectroscopy is selected to illustrate advances in experimental physics which have been made possible by combination of the talents of Tomkins and Fred with the unique facilities of the Argonne Laboratory. (orig.)

  8. Autobalanced Ramsey Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanner, Christian; Huntemann, Nils; Lange, Richard; Tamm, Christian; Peik, Ekkehard

    2018-01-01

    We devise a perturbation-immune version of Ramsey's method of separated oscillatory fields. Spectroscopy of an atomic clock transition without compromising the clock's accuracy is accomplished by actively balancing the spectroscopic responses from phase-congruent Ramsey probe cycles of unequal durations. Our simple and universal approach eliminates a wide variety of interrogation-induced line shifts often encountered in high precision spectroscopy, among them, in particular, light shifts, phase chirps, and transient Zeeman shifts. We experimentally demonstrate autobalanced Ramsey spectroscopy on the light shift prone Yb+ 171 electric octupole optical clock transition and show that interrogation defects are not turned into clock errors. This opens up frequency accuracy perspectives below the 10-18 level for the Yb+ system and for other types of optical clocks.

  9. Fusion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, N.J.

    1995-09-01

    This article traces developments in the spectroscopy of high temperature laboratory plasma used in controlled fusion research from the early 1960's until the present. These three and a half decades have witnessed many orders of magnitude increase in accessible plasma parameters such as density and temperature as well as particle and energy confinement timescales. Driven by the need to interpret the radiation in terms of the local plasma parameters, the thrust of fusion spectroscopy has been to develop our understanding of (i) the atomic structure of highly ionised atoms, usually of impurities in the hydrogen isotope fuel; (ii) the atomic collision rates and their incorporation into ionization structure and emissivity models that take into account plasma phenomena like plasma-wall interactions, particle transport and radiation patterns; (iii) the diagnostic applications of spectroscopy aided by increasingly sophisticated characterisation of the electron fluid. These topics are discussed in relation to toroidal magnetically confined plasmas, particularly the Tokamak which appears to be the most promising approach to controlled fusion to date. (author)

  10. Positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar, C.S.; Viswanathan, B.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of positron annihilation spectroscopy, the experimental techniques and its application to studies on defects and electronic structure of materials is presented. The scope of this paper is to present the requisite introductory material, that will enable a better appreciation of the subsequent specialized articles on the applications of positron annihilation spectroscopy to investigate various problems in materials science. (author). 31 refs., 3 figs

  11. Antihydrogen Experiment Gravity Interferometry Spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Trezzi, D; Dassa, L; Rienacker, B; Khalidova, O; Ferrari, G; Krasnicky, D; Perini, D; Cerchiari, G; Belov, A; Boscolo, I; Sacerdoti, M G; Ferragut, R O; Nedelec, P; Hinterberger, A; Al-qaradawi, I; Malbrunot, C L S; Brusa, R S; Prelz, F; Manuzio, G; Riccardi, C; Fontana, A; Genova, P; Haider, S; Haug, F; Turbabin, A; Castelli, F; Testera, G; Lagomarsino, V E; Doser, M; Penasa, L; Gninenko, S; Cataneo, F; Zenoni, A; Cabaret, L; Comparat, D P; Zmeskal, J; Scampoli, P; Nesteruk, K P; Dudarev, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Mariazzi, S; Carraro, C; Zavatarelli, S M

    The AEGIS experiment (Antihydrogen Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) has the aim of carrying out the first measurement of the gravitational interaction of antimatter to a precision of 1%, by applying techniques from atomic physics, laser spectroscopy and interferometry to a beam of antihydrogen atoms. A further goal of the experiment is to carry out spectroscopy of the antihydrogen atoms in flight.

  12. Multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, Barry D; Soifer, Hadas; Shafir, Dror; Dudovich, Nirit; Serbinenko, Valeria; Smirnova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    High harmonic generation (HHG) has opened up a new frontier in ultrafast science where attosecond time resolution and Angstrom spatial resolution are accessible in a single measurement. However, reconstructing the dynamics under study is limited by the multiple degrees of freedom involved in strong field interactions. In this paper we describe a new class of measurement schemes for resolving attosecond dynamics, integrating perturbative nonlinear optics with strong-field physics. These approaches serve as a basis for multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy. Specifically, we show that multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy can measure tunnel ionization dynamics with high precision, and resolves the interference between multiple ionization channels. In addition, we show how multidimensional HHG can function as a type of lock-in amplifier measurement. Similar to multi-dimensional approaches in nonlinear optical spectroscopy that have resolved correlated femtosecond dynamics, multi-dimensional high harmonic spectroscopy reveals the underlying complex dynamics behind attosecond scale phenomena. (paper)

  13. Laser Spectroscopy and Frequency Combs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hänsch, Theodor W; Picqué, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The spectrum of a frequency comb, commonly generated by a mode-locked femtosecond laser consists of several hundred thousand precisely evenly spaced spectral lines. Such laser frequency combs have revolutionized the art measuring the frequency of light, and they provide the long-missing clockwork for optical atomic clocks. The invention of the frequency comb technique has been motivated by precision laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom. The availability of commercial instruments is facilitating the evolution of new applications far beyond the original purpose. Laser combs are becoming powerful instruments for broadband molecular spectroscopy by dramatically improving the resolution and recording speed of Fourier spectrometers and by creating new opportunities for highly multiplexed nonlinear spectroscopy, such as two-photon spectroscopy or coherent Raman spectroscopy. Other emerging applications of frequency combs range from fundamental research in astronomy, chemistry, or attosecond science to telecommunications and satellite navigation

  14. EDITORIAL: Nano Meets Spectroscopy Nano Meets Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, David J. S.

    2012-08-01

    The multidisciplinary two-day Nano Meets Spectroscopy (NMS) event was held at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, UK, in September 2011. The event was planned from the outset to be at the interface of several areas—in particular, spectroscopy and nanoscience, and to bring together topics and people with different approaches to achieving common goals in biomolecular science. Hence the meeting cut across traditional boundaries and brought together researchers using diverse techniques, particularly fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy. Despite engaging common problems, these techniques are frequently seen as mutually exclusive with the two communities rarely interacting at conferences. The meeting was widely seen to have lived up to its billing in good measure. It attracted the maximum capacity of ~120 participants, including 22 distinguished speakers (9 from outside the UK), over 50 posters and a vibrant corporate exhibition comprising 10 leading instrument companies and IOP Publishing. The organizers were Professor David Birch (Chair), Dr Karen Faulds and Professor Duncan Graham of the University of Strathclyde, Professor Cait MacPhee of the University of Edinburgh and Dr Alex Knight of NPL. The event was sponsored by the European Science Foundation, the Institute of Physics, the Royal Society of Chemistry, NPL and the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance. The full programme and abstracts are available at http://sensor.phys.strath.ac.uk/nms/program.php. The programme was quite ambitious in terms of the breadth and depth of scope. The interdisciplinary and synergistic concept of 'X meets Y' played well, cross-fertilization between different fields often being a source of inspiration and progress. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy provided the core, but the meeting had little repetition and also attracted contributions on more specialist techniques such as CARS, super-resolution, single molecule and chiral methods. In terms of application the

  15. Photoelectron photoion molecular beam spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevor, D.J.

    1980-12-01

    The use of supersonic molecular beams in photoionization mass spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy to assist in the understanding of photoexcitation in the vacuum ultraviolet is described. Rotational relaxation and condensation due to supersonic expansion were shown to offer new possibilities for molecular photoionization studies. Molecular beam photoionization mass spectroscopy has been extended above 21 eV photon energy by the use of Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) facilities. Design considerations are discussed that have advanced the state-of-the-art in high resolution vuv photoelectron spectroscopy. To extend gas-phase studies to 160 eV photon energy, a windowless vuv-xuv beam line design is proposed

  16. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokmakoff, Andrei [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Champion, Paul [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Heilweil, Edwin J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Nelson, Keith A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ziegler, Larry [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2009-05-14

    This document contains the Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, which was held in Meredith, NH from May 9-14, 2009. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time-resolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOE's Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy is central to all fiveof DOE's grand challenges for fundamental energy science. The Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy conference is organized biennially to bring the leaders in this field from around the globe together with young scientists to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.

  17. Dual THz comb spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    Optical frequency combs are innovative tools for broadband spectroscopy because a series of comb modes can serve as frequency markers that are traceable to a microwave frequency standard. However, a mode distribution that is too discrete limits the spectral sampling interval to the mode frequency spacing even though individual mode linewidth is sufficiently narrow. Here, using a combination of a spectral interleaving and dual-comb spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) region, we achieved a spectral sampling interval equal to the mode linewidth rather than the mode spacing. The spectrally interleaved THz comb was realized by sweeping the laser repetition frequency and interleaving additional frequency marks. In low-pressure gas spectroscopy, we achieved an improved spectral sampling density of 2.5 MHz and enhanced spectral accuracy of 8.39 × 10-7 in the THz region. The proposed method is a powerful tool for simultaneously achieving high resolution, high accuracy, and broad spectral coverage in THz spectroscopy.

  18. Molecular studies by electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansteen, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experience gained in experimental nuclear physics has played a large role in the development of electron spectroscopy as a powerful tool for studying chemical systems. The use of ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) for the mapping of molecular properties connected with inner as well as outer electron shells is reviewed, mainly from a phenomological point of view. Molecular Auger electron spectroscopy is described as a means of gaining information on details in molecular structure, simultaneously being extensively applied for surface studies. Future highly promising research areas for molecular electron spectroscopy are suggested to be (e,2e) processes as well as continued exploitation of synchrotron radiation from high energy nuclear devices. (Auth.)

  19. Infrared diode laser spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Matulková, Irena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2010), s. 408-420 ISSN 1230-3402 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : FTIR spectroscopy * absorption spectroscopy * laser diodes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.027, year: 2010

  20. Photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, W.C.

    1974-01-01

    A survey is given of the development of x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Applications of photoelectron spectroscopy to studies of atomic electronic configurations are discussed, including photoelectron spectra of hydrides isoelectronic with the inert gases; photoelectron spectra of the halogen derivatives of methane; photoelectron spectra of multiple bonded diatomic molecules; spectra and structure of some multiple bonded polyatomic molecules; spectra and structure of triatomic molecules; and methods of orbital assignment of bands in photoelectron spectra. Physical aspects are considered, including intensities; selection rules; dependence of cross section on photoelectron energy; autoionization; angular distribution of photoelectrons; electron-molecule interactions; and transient species. (26 figures, 54 references) (U.S.)

  1. Spectroscopy Division: progress report for 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.; Marathe, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarises the work done by members of the Spectroscopy Division both within BARC as well as in scientific institutions elsewhere during the calendar year 1990. Main areas of research activity include atomic spectroscopy for hyperfine structure and isotope shift determination, theoretical and experimental studies of diatomic molecules, infrared and Raman spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules, design and fabrication of beam line optics for INDUS-I synchrotron radiation source, beam foil spectroscopy and laser spectroscopy of various atomic and molecular systems. Major experimental facilities that have been utilised include a fourier transform spectrometer, an excimer laser pumped dye-laser and a continous wave argon-ion laser. The report also includes the spectroscopic analytical service rendered for various DAE units and describes briefly some new analytical facilities like laser enhanced ionization in flames and resonance ionization mass spectroscopy using pulsed lasers which are being set up. The above activites were reported by members of the Spectroscopy Division via invited lectures, papers presented in various national and international conferences and publication in scientific journals. Details of these are given at the end of the report. (author). figs., tabs

  2. Baryon spectroscopy at KAON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comyn, Martin

    1992-07-01

    The unique opportunities for the study of baryon spectroscopy at the TRIUMF KAON Factory are outlined. Related issues in other areas of hadron spectroscopy are discussed. The complex of accelerators that comprise the TRIUMF KAON Factory, and the properties of the separated beams that will be available to experimenters, are described. Initial design considerations for detectors to be used in the study of hadron spectroscopy are presented, along with a proposed detector configuration. The progress towards realization of the TRIUMF KAON Factory is examined, and the timetable for the determination of the initial experimental programme and facilities is explained. 23 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attekum, P.M.T.M. van.

    1979-01-01

    The methods and results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the study of plasmons, alloys and gold compounds are discussed. After a comprehensive introduction, seven papers by the author, previously published elsewhere, are reprinted and these cover a wide range of the uses of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (W.D.L.)

  4. Energy analyzer for Auger electron spectroscopy and low-energy backscattering ion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, S.S.; Gorelik, V.A.; Gutenko, V.T.; Protopopov, O.D.; Trubitsin, A.A.; Shuvalova, Z.A.; Yakushev, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Energy analyzer for electron Auger spectroscopy and low-energy backscattering ion spectroscopy is described. Analyzer presents one-cascade variant of cylindrical mirror with second-order focusing. Energy relative resolution is continuously adjusted within 0.2-1.2% limits. Signal/noise relation by Cu Auger-line at 1 muA current of exciting beam changes upper limit of range 150-450

  5. Issues in light meson spectroscopy: The case for meson spectroscopy at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, S. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa (Canada)

    1994-04-01

    The author reviews some outstanding issues in meson spectroscopy. The most important qualitative issue is whether hadrons with explicit gluonic degrees of freedom exist. To answer this question requires a much better understanding of conventional q{bar q} mesons. The author therefore begins by examining the status of conventional meson spectroscopy and how the situation can be improved. The expected properties of gluonic excitations are discussed with particular emphasis on hybrids to give guidance to experimental searches. Multiquark systems are commented upon as they are likely to be important in the mass region under study and will have to be understood better. In the final section the author discusses the opportunities that CEBAF can offer for the study of meson spectroscopy.

  6. VMEbus interface for spectroscopy ADCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeaeskelaeinen, M.

    1987-01-01

    A high performance VMEbus interface for spectroscopy ADCs and other similar devices used in nuclear spectroscopy coincidence experiments has been developed. This new module can be used to interface existing spectroscopy ADCs with fast parallel data transfer into the industry standard multiprocessor VMEbus. The unit provides a fast direct readout of the ADC data into the VMEbus memory. The interface also has built-in capabilities that enable it to be used in coincidence experiments for slow data timing and ADC pattern recognition. (orig.)

  7. Near-infrared spectroscopy for cocrystal screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allesø, Morten; Velaga, Sitaram; Alhalaweh, Amjad

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a well-established technique for solid-state analysis, providing fast, noninvasive measurements. The use of NIR spectroscopy for polymorph screening and the associated advantages have recently been demonstrated. The objective of this work was to evaluate...... the analytical potential of NIR spectroscopy for cocrystal screening using Raman spectroscopy as a comparative method. Indomethacin was used as the parent molecule, while saccharin and l-aspartic acid were chosen as guest molecules. Molar ratios of 1:1 for each system were subjected to two types of preparative...... retained in a physical mixture with the guest molecule, while liquid-assisted cogrinding did not induce any changes in the crystal lattice. The good chemical peak selectivity of Raman spectroscopy allowed a straightforward interpretation of sample data by analyzing peak positions and comparing to those...

  8. Biomolecular EPR spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen, Wilfred Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive, Up-to-Date Coverage of Spectroscopy Theory and its Applications to Biological SystemsAlthough a multitude of books have been published about spectroscopy, most of them only occasionally refer to biological systems and the specific problems of biomolecular EPR (bioEPR). Biomolecular EPR Spectroscopy provides a practical introduction to bioEPR and demonstrates how this remarkable tool allows researchers to delve into the structural, functional, and analytical analysis of paramagnetic molecules found in the biochemistry of all species on the planet. A Must-Have Reference in an Intrinsically Multidisciplinary FieldThis authoritative reference seamlessly covers all important bioEPR applications, including low-spin and high-spin metalloproteins, spin traps and spin lables, interaction between active sites, and redox systems. It is loaded with practical tricks as well as do's and don'ts that are based on the author's 30 years of experience in the field. The book also comes with an unprecedented set of...

  9. Comparison of photoacoustic spectroscopy, conventional absorption spectroscopy, and potentiometry as probes of lanthanide speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, R.A.; Palmer, C.E.A.; Baisden, P.A.; Russo, R.E.; Silva, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors measured the stability constants of praseodymium acetate and oxydiacetate complexes by laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy, conventional UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, and pH titration. For the spectroscopic studies, changes in the free Pr absorption peaks at 468 and 481 nm were monitored at varying ligand concentrations. The total Pr concentration was 1 x 10 -4 M in solutions used for the photoacoustic studies and 0.02 M for conventional spectroscopy. For the pH titrations, we used solutions whose Pr concentrations varied from 5 x 10 -3 to 5 x 10 -2 M, with total ligand-to-metal ratios ranging from 1 to 10. A comparison of the results obtained by the three techniques demonstrates that photoacoustic spectroscopy can give the same information about metal-ligand speciation as more conventional methods. It is particularly suited to those situations where the other techniques are insensitive because of limited metal concentrations

  10. International symposium on NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication consists of 32 papers and presentations from the field of NMR spectroscopy applications submitted to the International Symposium on NMR Spectroscopy held at Smolenice between 29 Sep and 3 Oct, 1980. (B.S.)

  11. General survey of recent development of photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edamoto, Kazuyuki

    1994-01-01

    On the present state of the recent development of photoemission spectroscopy, by limiting the topics to the development of the spectroscopy proper and the development contributing to the progress of surface science, general explanation is made. As to the development that enabled to heighten spectrum resolution, surface core-level shift and the precise measurement of the Fermi surface of surface level are described, showing the example. Also a number of the developments which enabled the utilization of the light source, of which the wavelength is variable, and which was brought about by synchrotron radiation beam, were mentioned. Besides, spin polarized photoelectron spectroscopy, the development of photoelectron microscope and others are outlined. Photoemission spectroscopy is very useful for analyzing the electron condition of solid surfaces. There are two factors in heightening core level spectrum resolution, namely, heightening the resolution of an electron energy analyzer proper and the utilization of synchrotron radiation as a light source. High resolution core-level spectra, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and as the light source of which the wavelength is variable, resonance photoemission spectroscopy, constant initial state spectroscopy and soft X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and as the recently developed spectroscopy, spin polarized photoemission spectroscopy, Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy and photoelectron microscope are explained. (K.I.)

  12. Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Shapiro, Alexander; Berg, Rolf W.

    Poster "Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy", See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/petroday2004.ppt......Poster "Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy", See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/petroday2004.ppt...

  13. Critical Metadata for Spectroscopy Field Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Rasaiah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A field spectroscopy metadata standard is defined as those data elements that explicitly document the spectroscopy dataset and field protocols, sampling strategies, instrument properties and environmental and logistical variables. Standards for field spectroscopy metadata affect the quality, completeness, reliability, and usability of datasets created in situ. Currently there is no standardized methodology for documentation of in situ spectroscopy data or metadata. This paper presents results of an international experiment comprising a web-based survey and expert panel evaluation that investigated critical metadata in field spectroscopy. The survey participants were a diverse group of scientists experienced in gathering spectroscopy data across a wide range of disciplines. Overall, respondents were in agreement about a core metadataset for generic campaign metadata, allowing for a prioritization of critical metadata elements to be proposed including those relating to viewing geometry, location, general target and sampling properties, illumination, instrument properties, reference standards, calibration, hyperspectral signal properties, atmospheric conditions, and general project details. Consensus was greatest among individual expert groups in specific application domains. The results allow the identification of a core set of metadata fields that enforce long term data storage and serve as a foundation for a metadata standard. This paper is part one in a series about the core elements of a robust and flexible field spectroscopy metadata standard.

  14. Ultrabroadband spectroscopy for security applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Sunniva; Berge, Luc; Skupin, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Ultrabroadband spectroscopy is a promising novel approach to overcome two major hurdles which have so far limited the application of THz spectroscopy for security applications: the increased bandwidth enables to record several characteristic spectroscopic features and the technique allows...

  15. Role of Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Cerys A; Lewis, Paul D; Dunstan, Peter R; Harris, Dean A

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cancer in the United Kingdom and is the second largest cause of cancer related death in the United Kingdom after lung cancer. Currently in the United Kingdom there is not a diagnostic test that has sufficient differentiation between patients with cancer and those without cancer so the current referral system relies on symptomatic presentation in a primary care setting. Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) are forms of vibrational spectroscopy that offer a non-destructive method to gain molecular information about biological samples. The techniques offer a wide range of applications from in vivo or in vitro diagnostics using endoscopic probes, to the use of micro-spectrometers for analysis of biofluids. The techniques have the potential to detect molecular changes prior to any morphological changes occurring in the tissue and therefore could offer many possibilities to aid the detection of CRC. The purpose of this review is to look at the current state of diagnostic technology in the United Kingdom. The development of Raman spectroscopy and SERS in clinical applications relation for CRC will then be discussed. Finally, future areas of research of Raman/SERS as a clinical tool for the diagnosis of CRC are also discussed. PMID:27190582

  16. spectroscopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-10-14

    Oct 14, 2015 ... characterized by using phenotypic, API and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods. One hundred and fifty-seven (157) strains were isolated from 13 cheese samples, and identification test was performed for 83 strains. At the end of the study, a total of 22 Lactococcus sp., 36 Enterecoccus ...

  17. Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Brooks

    2014-06-01

    The past decade has seen several major technology advances in electronics operating at microwave frequencies making it possible to develop a new generation of spectrometers for molecular rotational spectroscopy. High-speed digital electronics, both arbitrary waveform generators and digitizers, continue on a Moore's Law-like development cycle that started around 1993 with device bandwidth doubling about every 36 months. These enabling technologies were the key to designing chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometers which offer significant sensitivity enhancements for broadband spectrum acquisition in molecular rotational spectroscopy. A special feature of the chirped-pulse spectrometer design is that it is easily implemented at low frequency (below 8 GHz) where Balle-Flygare type spectrometers with Fabry-Perot cavity designs become technologically challenging due to the mirror size requirements. The capabilities of CP-FTMW spectrometers for studies of molecular structure will be illustrated by the collaborative research effort we have been a part of to determine the structures of water clusters - a project which has identified clusters up to the pentadecamer. A second technology trend that impacts molecular rotational spectroscopy is the development of high power, solid state sources in the mm-wave/THz regions. Results from the field of mm-wave chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy will be described with an emphasis on new problems in chemical dynamics and analytical chemistry that these methods can tackle. The third (and potentially most important) technological trend is the reduction of microwave components to chip level using monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) - a technology driven by an enormous mass market in communications. Some recent advances in rotational spectrometer designs that incorporate low-cost components will be highlighted. The challenge to the high-resolution spectroscopy community - as posed by Frank De

  18. Electron-probe microanalysis: x-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The main principles on X-ray, energy and wave length dispersive spectroscopy are reviewed. In order to allow the choice of the best operating conditions, the importance of the regulation and control systems is underlined. Emission theory, X-rays nature and its interaction with matter and electrons in the matter is shown. The structure, operating procedures and necessary electronics (single channel - analysis chain) automatic-control system for the threshold-energies discrimination and the energy distribution visualization) associated to the wavelength dispersive spectroscopy are described. The focusing control, resolution, influence of chemical bonds and multilayer-structure monochromators relaled to wavelength dispersive spectroscopy are studied. Concerning the energy-dispersive spectroscopy, the detector, preamplifier, amplifier, analog-digital converter, as well as the utilization and control of the spectrometer are described. Problems and instrumental progress on energy-dispersive spectroscopy related to the electronic-noise control, charge collection and light-elements detection are discussed [fr

  19. Two-colour dip spectroscopy of jet-cooled molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mitsuo

    In optical-optical double resonance spectroscopy, the resonance transition from an intermediate state to a final state can be detected by a dip of the signal (fluorescence or ion) associated with the intermediate state. This method probing the signal of the intermediate state may be called `two-colour dip spectroscopy'. Various kinds of two-colour dip spectroscopy such as two-colour fluorescence/ion dip spectroscopy, two-colour ionization dip spectroscopy employing stimulated emission, population labelling spectroscopy and mass-selected ion dip spectroscopy with dissociation were briefly described, paying special attention to their characteristics in excitation, detection and application. They were extensively and successfully applied to jet-cooled large molecules and provided us with new useful information on the energy and dynamics of excited molecules.

  20. Fast antihydrogen beam spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The motivation for production and precision spectroscopy of antihydrogen atoms is outlined. An experimental configuration is considered, concerning laser-microwave spectroscopy of a fast hydrogen beam with characteristics similar to those of an antihydrogen beam emanating from an antiproton-positron overlap region in an antiproton storage ring. In particular, a possible experiment for the measurement of the ground state hyperfine structure splitting is described. (orig.)

  1. Advanced techniques for actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2012). Abstract book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Mueller, Katharina; Steudtner, Robin [eds.

    2012-07-01

    The abstract book of the International workshop on advanced techniques for actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2012) include contributions concerning the following issues: environmental applications, NMR spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and theory, technical application: separation processes, emission spectroscopy.

  2. Advanced techniques for actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2012). Abstract book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Mueller, Katharina; Steudtner, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The abstract book of the International workshop on advanced techniques for actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2012) include contributions concerning the following issues: environmental applications, NMR spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and theory, technical application: separation processes, emission spectroscopy.

  3. Ultrafast surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Emily L; Brandt, Nathaniel C; Cassabaum, Alyssa A; Frontiera, Renee R

    2015-08-07

    Ultrafast surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with pico- and femtosecond time resolution has the ability to elucidate the mechanisms by which plasmons mediate chemical reactions. Here we review three important technological advances in these new methodologies, and discuss their prospects for applications in areas including plasmon-induced chemistry and sensing at very low limits of detection. Surface enhancement, arising from plasmonic materials, has been successfully incorporated with stimulated Raman techniques such as femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS). These techniques are capable of time-resolved measurement on the femtosecond and picosecond time scale and can be used to follow the dynamics of molecules reacting near plasmonic surfaces. We discuss the potential application of ultrafast SERS techniques to probe plasmon-mediated processes, such as H2 dissociation and solar steam production. Additionally, we discuss the possibilities for high sensitivity SERS sensing using these stimulated Raman spectroscopies.

  4. Handbook of Molecular Force Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Noy, Aleksandr

    2008-01-01

    "...Noy's Handbook of Molecular Force Spectroscopy is both a timely and useful summary of fundamental aspects of molecular force spectroscopy, and I believe it would make a worthwhile addition to any good scientific library. New research groups that are entering this field would be well advisedto study this handbook in detail before venturing into the exciting and challenging world of molecular force spectroscopy." Matthew F. Paige, University of Saskatchewan, Journal of the American Chemical Society Modern materials science and biophysics are increasingly focused on studying and controlling intermolecular interactions on the single-molecule level. Molecular force spectroscopy was developed in the past decade as the result of several unprecedented advances in the capabilities of modern scientific instrumentation, and defines a number of techniques that use mechanical force measurements to study interactions between single molecules and molecular assemblies in chemical and biological systems. Examples of these...

  5. Recommendations concerning magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In medicine the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is applied in the form of in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In vivo MRS can be carried out non-invasively. The committee of the Dutch Health Council briefly discusses the qualities and potentialities of the nuclei that will probably be used in future clinical spectroscopy: 31 P, 13 C, 1 H (and possibly 19 F and 23 Na). The committee discusses several possibilities of combining imaging and spectroscopy. The imaging of nuclei other than protons is also possible with MRS. Potential applications are considered in oncology, cardiology, neurology and hepatology. (Auth.)

  6. Photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.L.I.

    1980-01-01

    It is an epoch making event for photoemission spectroscopy that the light sources of continuous wavelength from vacuum ultra-violet to X-ray region have become available by the advent of synchrotron radiation. Specifically the progress after stable intense light has become obtainable from storage rings is very significant. One of the features of these synchrotron radiation is its extreme polarization of radiating pattern. Though the elementary processes of photoemission out of solids are the basic themes, phenomenalistic 3-stage model is usually applied to the analysis of experiments. In this model, the process of photoemission is considered by dividing into three stages, namely the generation of photoelectrons due to optical transition between electron status -- the transportation of photoelectrons to solid surfaces -- breaking away from the surfaces. The spectrometers, the energy analyzers of photoelectrons, and sample-preparing room used for photoemission spectroscopy are described. Next, energy distribution curves are explained. At the end, photoelectron yield spectroscopy, CFS (constant final energy spectroscopy) and CIS (constant initial energy spectroscopy), Auger yield and interatomic Auger yield, the determination of surface structure by normal emission CIS, and surface EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) are described. As seen above, the application specifically to surface physics is promising in the future. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy investigation of Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2(100) and (110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, G.S.; Henderson, M.A.; Starkweather, K.A.; McDaniel, E.P.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the (100) and (110) surfaces of yttria-stabilized cubic ZrO 2 using Auger electron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction (LEED), direct recoil spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions (MSRI), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The concentration of yttrium at the surface was weakly influenced by the surface structure under the experimental conditions investigated. Both MSRI and SIMS indicated a more enhanced yttrium signal than zirconium signal at the surface compared to the respective bulk concentrations. The surfaces were not very well ordered as indicated by LEED. The yttria-stabilized cubic ZrO 2 single crystal surfaces may not be a suitable model material for pure phase ZrO 2 surfaces due to significant yttria concentrations at the surface. copyright 1999 American Vacuum Society

  8. Theory and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, John F.

    2015-05-01

    The interaction between quantum-mechanical theory and spectroscopy is one of the most fertile interfaces in all of science, and has a richly storied history. Of course it was spectroscopy that provided essentially all of the evidence that not all was well (or, perhaps more correctly put, complete) with the world of 19th century classical physics. From the discoveries of the dark lines in the solar spectrum by Fraunhöfer in 1814 to the curiously simple geometric formula discovered seventy years later that described the hydrogen atom spectrum, spectroscopy and spectroscopists have consistently identified the areas of atomic and molecular science that are most in need of hard thinking by theoreticians. The rest of the story, of course, is well-known: spectroscopic results were used to understand and motivate the theory of radioactivity and ultimately the quantum theory, first in its immature form that was roughly contemporaneous with the first World War, and then the Heisenberg-Schrödinger-Dirac version that has withstood the test of time. Since the basic principles of quantum mechanics ware first understood, the subject has been successfully used to understand the patterns found in spectra, and how these relate to molecular structure, symmetry, energy levels, and dynamics. But further understanding required to attain these intellectual achievements has often come only as a result of vital and productive interactions between theoreticians and spectroscopists (of course, many people have strengths in both areas). And indeed, a field that might be termed "theoretical spectroscopy" was cultivated and is now an important part of modern molecular science.

  9. Proceedings of the Third Symposium Optical Spectroscopy SOS-84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassler, D.; Feller, K.H.; Wilhelmi, B.

    1985-01-01

    The main topics of the symposium were: 1) new developments and applications of laser spectroscopy including time resolved UV/VIS spectroscopy, time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser Raman spectroscopy, 2) dynamics and photokinetics of molecular systems, and 3) spectroscopy and photoprocesses in organized biological systems

  10. Solid-State Spectroscopy An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmany, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Spectroscopic methods have opened up a new horizon in our knowledge of solid-state materials. Numerous techniques using electromagnetic radiation or charged and neutral particles have been invented and worked out to a high level in order to provide more detailed information on the solids. The text presented here is an updated description of such methods as they were originally presented in the first edition. It covers linear response of solids to electromagnetic radiation in a frequency range extending from megahertz or gigahertz as used in spin resonance spectroscopy, to infrared spectroscopy and various forms of spectroscopy in the visible and near visible spectral range. It extends to spectroscopy in the UV and x-ray spectral range and eventually several spectroscopic methods are addressed in the frequency range of g radiation. Likewise linear response to irradiation with particles such as electrons, positrons, muons, neutrons, and atoms is discussed. Instrumental and technical background is provided as we...

  11. Call for papers for special issue of Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy focusing on "Frequency-comb spectroscopy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra; Picqué, Nathalie; Ye, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Frequency combs are becoming enabling tools for many applications in science and technology, beyond the original purpose of frequency metrology of simple atoms. The precisely evenly spaced narrow lines of a laser frequency comb inspire intriguing approaches to molecular spectroscopy, designed and implemented by a growing community of scientists. Frequency-comb spectroscopy advances the frontiers of molecular physics across the entire electro-magnetic spectrum. Used as frequency rulers, frequency combs enable absolute frequency measurements and precise line shape studies of molecular transitions, for e.g. tests of fundamental physics and improved determination of fundamental constants. As light sources interrogating the molecular samples, they dramatically improve the resolution, precision, sensitivity and acquisition time of broad spectral-bandwidth spectroscopy and open up new opportunities and applications at the leading edge of molecular spectroscopy and sensing.

  12. Coherent cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Fleisher, Adam J.; Long, David A.; Reed, Zachary D.; Hodges, Joseph T.; Plusquellic, David F.

    2016-01-01

    Dual-comb spectroscopy allows for the rapid, multiplexed acquisition of high-resolution spectra without the need for moving parts or low-resolution dispersive optics. This method of broadband spectroscopy is most often accomplished via tight phase locking of two mode-locked lasers or via sophisticated signal processing algorithms, and therefore, long integration times of phase coherent signals are difficult to achieve. Here we demonstrate an alternative approach to dual-comb spectroscopy usin...

  13. Vibrational spectroscopy in the electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, Ondrej L; Lovejoy, Tracy C; Dellby, Niklas; Aoki, Toshihiro; Carpenter, R W; Rez, Peter; Soignard, Emmanuel; Zhu, Jiangtao; Batson, Philip E; Lagos, Maureen J; Egerton, Ray F; Crozier, Peter A

    2014-10-09

    Vibrational spectroscopies using infrared radiation, Raman scattering, neutrons, low-energy electrons and inelastic electron tunnelling are powerful techniques that can analyse bonding arrangements, identify chemical compounds and probe many other important properties of materials. The spatial resolution of these spectroscopies is typically one micrometre or more, although it can reach a few tens of nanometres or even a few ångströms when enhanced by the presence of a sharp metallic tip. If vibrational spectroscopy could be combined with the spatial resolution and flexibility of the transmission electron microscope, it would open up the study of vibrational modes in many different types of nanostructures. Unfortunately, the energy resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy performed in the electron microscope has until now been too poor to allow such a combination. Recent developments that have improved the attainable energy resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope to around ten millielectronvolts now allow vibrational spectroscopy to be carried out in the electron microscope. Here we describe the innovations responsible for the progress, and present examples of applications in inorganic and organic materials, including the detection of hydrogen. We also demonstrate that the vibrational signal has both high- and low-spatial-resolution components, that the first component can be used to map vibrational features at nanometre-level resolution, and that the second component can be used for analysis carried out with the beam positioned just outside the sample--that is, for 'aloof' spectroscopy that largely avoids radiation damage.

  14. Raman Spectroscopy and its Application in Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shu-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Raman Spectroscopy and its Application in Nanostructures is an original and timely contribution to a very active area of physics and materials science research. This book presents the theoretical and experimental phenomena of Raman spectroscopy, with specialized discussions on the physical fundamentals, new developments and main features in low-dimensional systems of Raman spectroscopy. In recent years physicists, materials scientists and chemists have devoted increasing attention to low-dimensional systems and as Raman spectroscopy can be used to study and analyse such materials as carbon nan

  15. Nanometrology using localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Claus; Lindstedt, Daniel N.; Laurberg, Asger V.

    2013-01-01

    in a transmission spectrum and it is very sensitive to the constituent materials as well as both lateral and vertical dimensions of the structures. This makes LSPR spectroscopy interesting for a number of applications including nanometrology. Like scatterometry, LSPR spectroscopy requires test structures...... and computer simulations to establish the correlation between spectra and physical dimensions. Instead of measuring on individual structures like CD-SEM and AFM, LSPR spectroscopy measures on an array of test structures with an arbitrary array size. This makes LSPR spectroscopy particularly interesting...... for dense device layers where the vacant space for test structures is limited.In this work, LSPR spectroscopy is used to evaluate a fabrication process including imprinting, etching and metallisation of gammadion test structures distributed on a 4” wafer....

  16. Applications of core level spectroscopy to adsorbates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Anders

    2002-01-01

    In the following review different applications of core-level spectroscopy to atomic and molecular adsorbates will be shown. Core-holes are created through core-level ionization and X-ray absorption processes and the core-hole decays by radiant and non-radiant processes. This forms the basis for X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy. We will demonstrate how we can use the different methods to obtain information about the chemical state, local geometric structure, nature of chemical bonding and dynamics in electron transfer processes. The adsorption of N 2 and CO on Ni(100) will be used as prototype systems for chemisorption while N 2 on graphite and Ar on Pt for physisorption

  17. Ultrafast infrared vibrational spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fayer, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    The past ten years or so have seen the introduction of multidimensional methods into infrared and optical spectroscopy. The technology of multidimensional spectroscopy is developing rapidly and its applications are spreading to biology and materials science. Edited by a recognized leader in the field and with contributions from top researchers, including experimentalists and theoreticians, this book presents the latest research methods and results and will serve as an excellent resource for other researchers.

  18. Spectroscopy, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Hal

    This booklet is one of the "Understanding the Atom" Series. The science of spectroscopy is presented by a number of topics dealing with (1) the uses of spectroscopy, (2) its origin and background, (3) the basic optical systems of spectroscopes, spectrometers, and spectrophotometers, (4) the characteristics of wave motion, (5) the…

  19. Photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, A.

    1982-01-01

    In this work examples of the various aspects of photoelectron spectroscopy are given. The investigation was started with the development of an angle-resolved spectrometer so that the first chapters deal with angle-resolved ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy. To indicate the possibilities and pitfalls of the technique, in chapter II the theory is briefly reviewed. In chapter III the instrument is described. The system is based on the cylindrical mirror deflection analyzer, which is modified and improved for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. In combination with a position sensitive detector, a spectrometer is developed with which simultaneously several angle-resolved spectra can be recorded. In chapter IV, the results are reported of angle-integrated UPS experiments on dilute alloys. Using the improved energy resolution of the instrument the author was able to study the impurity states more accurately and shows that the photoemission technique has become an important tool in the study of impurities and the interactions involved. XPS and Auger results obtained from dilute alloys are presented in chapter V. It is shown that these systems are especially suited for the study of correlation effects and can provide interesting problems related to the satellite structure and the interaction of the impurity with the host. In chapter VI, the valence bands of ternary alloys are studied with UPS and compared to recent band structure calculation. The core level shifts are analyzed in a simple, thermodynamic scheme. (Auth.)

  20. Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS), part A

    CERN Document Server

    Tetin, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial by containing quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers Fluorescence Fluctuation SpectroscopyContains chapters on such topics as Time-integrated fluorescence cumulant analysis, Pulsed Interleaved Excitation, and raster image correlation spectroscopy and number and brightness analysis.Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the fieldCovers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopyContains chapte

  1. Photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy of solids and surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalczyk, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    The use of photoelectron spectroscopy, primarily x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, to obtain information on the electronic structure of a wide variety of solids (especially the bulk electronic structure of solids) is covered. Both valence band and core-level spectra, as well as a few cases of photon excited Auger electron spectroscopy, are employed in the investigations to derive information on N(E). The effect of several modulations inherent in the measured I(E)'s, such as final state band structure, cross section, and relaxation, is discussed. Examples of many-electron interactions in PES are given. Some experimental aspects of PES and AES studies are given with emphasis on sample preparation techniques. Multiple splitting of core levels is examined using the Mn levels in MnF 2 as a detailed case study. Core level splittings in transition metals, rare earth metals, transition metal halides and several alloys are also reported. The application of PES to the study of the chemical bond in some crystalline semiconductors and insulators, A/sup N/B/sup 8-N/ and A/sup N/B/sup 10-N/ compounds is treated, and a spectroscopic scale of ionicity for these compounds is developed from the measured ''s-band'' splitting in the valence band density of states

  2. Raman spectroscopy in high temperature chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, M.C.; Rosenblatt, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy (largely because of advances in laser and detector technology) is assuming a rapidly expanding role in many areas of research. This paper reviews the contribution of Raman spectroscopy in high temperature chemistry including molecular spectroscopy on static systems and gas diagnostic measurements on reactive systems. An important aspect of high temperature chemistry has been the identification and study of the new, and often unusual, gaseous molecules which form at high temperatures. Particularly important is the investigation of vibrational-rotational energy levels and electronic states which determine thermodynamic properties and describe chemical bonding. Some advantages and disadvantages of high temperature Raman spectrosocpy for molecular studies on static systems are compared: (1) Raman vs infrared; (2) gas-phase vs condensed in matries; and (3) atmospheric pressure Raman vs low pressure techniques, including mass spectroscopy, matrix isolation, and molecular beams. Raman studies on molecular properties of gases, melts, and surfaces are presented with emphasis on work not covered in previous reviews of high temperature and matrix isolation Raman spectroscopy

  3. Raman spectroscopy in high temperature chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, M.C.; Rosenblatt, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy (largely because of advances in laser and detector technology) is assuming a rapidly expanding role in many areas of research. This paper reviews the contribution of Raman spectroscopy in high temperature chemistry including molecular spectroscopy on static systems and gas diagnostic measurements on reactive systems. An important aspect of high temperature chemistry has been the identification and study of the new, and often unusual, gaseous molecules which form at high temperatures. Particularly important is the investigation of vibrational-rotational energy levels and electronic states which determine thermodynamic properties and describe chemical bonding. Some advantages and disadvantages of high temperature Raman spectrosocpy for molecular studies on static systems are compared: (1) Raman vs infrared; (2) gas-phase vs condensed in matrices; and (3) atmospheric pressure Raman vs low pressure techniques, including mass spectroscopy, matrix isolation, and molecular beams. Raman studies on molecular properties of gases, melts, and surfaces are presented with emphasis on work not covered in previous reviews of high temperature and matrix isolation Raman spectroscopy

  4. Combination of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy for multivariate classification of bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, D.; Mazura, M.; Samek, Ota; Rebrošová, K.; Pořízka, P.; Klus, J.; Procházková, P.; Novotný, J.; Novotný, K.; Kaiser, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 139 (2018), s. 6-12 ISSN 0584-8547 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20645S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12477S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy * Raman spectroscopy * chemometrics * bacteria Impact factor: 3.241, year: 2016

  5. Laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letokhov, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    This article describes recent progress in the application of laser atomic spectroscopy to study parameters of nuclei available in very small quantities; radioactive nuclei, rare isotopes, nuclear isomers, etc, for which study by conventional spectroscopic methods is difficult. (author)

  6. Spectroscopy Division progress report (July 1992-June 1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahavir

    1994-01-01

    The research and development activities of the Spectroscopy Division during the year July 1992-June 1993 are reported in the form of individual summaries. These are arranged under the headings: (1) analytical spectroscopy, (2) infrared and Raman spectroscopy, (3) atomic spectra, (4) electronic spectra, (5) laser spectroscopy, (6) synchrotron beam foil and plasma spectroscopy, (7) optics, (8) electronics and instrumentation, and (9) design, fabrication and workshop etc. The list of publications and papers presented at the various conferences, symposia, workshops etc. by the staff members of the Division during the report period is also given. (author)

  7. A simple decay-spectroscopy station at CRIS-ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, K.M., E-mail: kara.marie.lynch@cern.ch [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern, en Stralingsfysica, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); EP Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cocolios, T.E. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern, en Stralingsfysica, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Althubiti, N. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Farooq-Smith, G.J. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern, en Stralingsfysica, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gins, W. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern, en Stralingsfysica, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Smith, A.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-01

    A new decay-spectroscopy station (DSS2.0) has been designed by the CRIS collaboration for use at the radioactive ion beam facility, ISOLDE. With the design optimised for both charged-particle and γ-ray detection, the DDS2.0 allows high-efficiency decay spectroscopy to be performed. The DSS2.0 complements the existing decay-spectroscopy system at the CRIS experiment, and together provide the ability to perform laser-assisted nuclear decay spectroscopy on both ground state and long-lived isomeric species. This paper describes the new decay-spectroscopy station and presents the characterisation studies that have recently been performed.

  8. Bioimpedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen, Beate; Rümenapp, Christine; Gleich, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    causes relaxation processes with characteristic contributions to the frequency-dependent complex dielectric constant. These dipolar relaxations were initially described by Debye (Polare Molekeln 1929). They are the basis of impedance spectroscopy (K’Owino and Sadik Electroanalysis 17(23):2101–2113, 2005...

  9. THz spectroscopy of liquids – applications and future challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Cooke, David; Møller, Uffe

    2009-01-01

    transmission spectroscopy of pressed pellets for the investigation of powder materials and wafer-like samples for spectroscopy of bulk and nanostructured semiconductor materials. Reflection-type spectroscopy is applied using plane interfaces for the study of liquids [1,2,3]. However, quantitative spectroscopy...

  10. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zeitler, Axel; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    "This book presents the current state of knowledge in the field of terahertz spectroscopy, providing a comprehensive source of information for beginners and experienced researchers alike whose interests lie in this area. The book aims to explain the fundamental physics that underpins terahertz  technology and to describe its key applications. Highlights of scientific research in the field of terahertz science are also outlined in some chapters, providing an overview as well as giving an insight into future directions for research.  Over the past decade terahertz spectroscopy has developed into one of the most rapidly growing areas of its kind, gaining an important impact across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Due to substantial advances in femtosecond laser technology, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has established itself as the dominant spectroscopic technique for experimental scientists interested in measurements at this frequency range. In solids and liquids THz radiation is in reso...

  11. UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy: Lambert-Beer reloaded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntele, Werner; Deniz, Erhan

    2017-02-01

    UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy is used in almost every spectroscopy laboratory for routine analysis or research. All spectroscopists rely on the Lambert-Beer Law but many of them are less aware of its limitations. This tutorial discusses typical problems in routine spectroscopy that come along with technical limitations or careless selection of experimental parameters. Simple rules are provided to avoid these problems.

  12. Raman Spectroscopy for Homeland Security Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Mogilevsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy is an analytical technique with vast applications in the homeland security and defense arenas. The Raman effect is defined by the inelastic interaction of the incident laser with the analyte molecule’s vibrational modes, which can be exploited to detect and identify chemicals in various environments and for the detection of hazards in the field, at checkpoints, or in a forensic laboratory with no contact with the substance. A major source of error that overwhelms the Raman signal is fluorescence caused by the background and the sample matrix. Novel methods are being developed to enhance the Raman signal’s sensitivity and to reduce the effects of fluorescence by altering how the hazard material interacts with its environment and the incident laser. Basic Raman techniques applicable to homeland security applications include conventional (off-resonance Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and spatially or temporally offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS and TORS. Additional emerging Raman techniques, including remote Raman detection, Raman imaging, and Heterodyne imaging, are being developed to further enhance the Raman signal, mitigate fluorescence effects, and monitor hazards at a distance for use in homeland security and defense applications.

  13. Determining the Authenticity of Gemstones Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponick, Aaron; Marchozzi, Emedio; Johnston, Cynthia R.; Wigal, Carl T.

    1998-04-01

    The benefits of laser spectroscopy in the undergraduate curriculum have been the focus of several recent articles in this journal. Raman spectroscopy has been of particular interest since the similarities of Raman to conventional infrared spectroscopy make the interpretation of spectral data well within undergraduate comprehension. In addition, the accessibility to this technology is now within the reach of most undergraduate institutions. This paper reports the development of an experiment using Raman spectroscopy which determines the authenticity of both diamonds and pearls. The resulting spectra provide an introduction to vibrational spectroscopy and can be used in a variety of laboratory courses ranging from introductory chemistry to instrumental analysis.

  14. Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman spectroscopy has gained increased use and importance in recent years for accurate and precise detection of physical and chemical properties of food materials, due to the greater specificity and sensitivity of Raman techniques over other analytical techniques. This book chapter presents Raman s...

  15. Atomic spectroscopy sympsoium, Gaithersburg, Maryland, September 23--26, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of one hundred papers given at the conference are presented along with the conference program and an author index. Session topics include: highly ionized atoms; laser spectroscopy and hyperfine structure; complex spectra; laser spectroscopy, radiation theory; theory of highly ionized atoms and analysis of plasmas; plasma spectroscopy, line strengths; spectral analysis, instrumentation, reference wavelengths; beam foil spectroscopy, line strengths, energy levels; absorption spectroscopy, autoionization, and related theory; and spectral analysis, instrumentation, and VUV physics

  16. Emerging technology: applications of Raman spectroscopy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Rachel E; Tucker, Stephanie C; Killian, Kevin; Trexler, Micaela; Honn, Kenneth V; Auner, Gregory W

    2014-09-01

    There is a need in prostate cancer diagnostics and research for a label-free imaging methodology that is nondestructive, rapid, objective, and uninfluenced by water. Raman spectroscopy provides a molecular signature, which can be scaled from micron-level regions of interest in cells to macroscopic areas of tissue. It can be used for applications ranging from in vivo or in vitro diagnostics to basic science laboratory testing. This work describes the fundamentals of Raman spectroscopy and complementary techniques including surface enhanced Raman scattering, resonance Raman spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy, stimulated Raman scattering, and spatially offset Raman spectroscopy. Clinical applications of Raman spectroscopy to prostate cancer will be discussed, including screening, biopsy, margin assessment, and monitoring of treatment efficacy. Laboratory applications including cell identification, culture monitoring, therapeutics development, and live imaging of cellular processes are discussed. Potential future avenues of research are described, with emphasis on multiplexing Raman spectroscopy with other modalities.

  17. Microresonator soliton dual-comb spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Yang, Qi-Fan; Yang, Ki Youl; Yi, Xu; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2016-11-01

    Measurement of optical and vibrational spectra with high resolution provides a way to identify chemical species in cluttered environments and is of general importance in many fields. Dual-comb spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful approach for acquiring nearly instantaneous Raman and optical spectra with unprecedented resolution. Spectra are generated directly in the electrical domain, without the need for bulky mechanical spectrometers. We demonstrate a miniature soliton-based dual-comb system that can potentially transfer the approach to a chip platform. These devices achieve high-coherence pulsed mode locking. They also feature broad, reproducible spectral envelopes, an essential feature for dual-comb spectroscopy. Our work shows the potential for integrated spectroscopy with high signal-to-noise ratios and fast acquisition rates.

  18. Layman friendly spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentic, Stipo; Sessions, Sharon

    Affordable consumer grade spectroscopes (e.g. SCiO, Qualcomm Tricorder XPRIZE) are becoming more available to the general public. We introduce the concepts of spectroscopy to the public and K12 students and motivate them to delve deeper into spectroscopy in a dramatic participatory presentation and play. We use diffraction gratings, lasers, and light sources of different spectral properties to provide a direct experience of spectroscopy techniques. Finally, we invite the audience to build their own spectroscope--utilizing the APS SpectraSnapp cell phone application--and study light sources surrounding them in everyday life. We recontextualize the stigma that science is hard (e.g. ``Math, Science Popular Until Students Realize They're Hard,'' The Wall Street Journal) by presenting the material in such a way that it demonstrates the scientific method, and aiming to make failure an impersonal scientific tool--rather than a measure of one's ability, which is often a reason for shying away from science. We will present lessons we have learned in doing our outreach to audiences of different ages. This work is funded by the APS Outreach Grant ``Captain, we have matter matters!'' We thank New Mexico Tech Physics Department and Physics Club for help and technical equipment.

  19. Spectroscopy and optical diagnostics for gases

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, Ronald K; Goldenstein, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to the science that governs the interaction of light and matter (in the gas phase). It provides readers with the basic knowledge to exploit the light-matter interaction to develop quantitative tools for gas analysis (i.e. optical diagnostics) and understand and interpret the results of spectroscopic measurements. The authors pair the basics of gas‐phase spectroscopy with coverage of key optical diagnostic techniques utilized by practicing engineers and scientists to measure fundamental flow‐field properties. The text is organized to cover three sub‐topics of gas‐phase spectroscopy: (1) spectral line positions, (2) spectral line strengths, and (3) spectral lineshapes by way of absorption, emission, and scattering interactions. The latter part of the book describes optical measurement techniques and equipment. Key subspecialties include laser induced fluorescence, tunable laser absorption spectroscopy, and wavelength modulation spectroscopy. It is ideal for students an...

  20. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  1. FTIR spectroscopy applications in forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, C.; Maynard, P.; Dawson, M.

    1999-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy, and especially Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, is a well-established technique in analytical chemistry and finds widespread application in qualitative and quantitative analyses. Infrared spectra depend on the nature of the functional groups present in the analyte, and are generally complex with numerous maxima and minima. These features are useful for comparison purposes and, in most cases, the infrared spectrum of an organic compound is considered as a unique functional print of this compound (i e the infrared spectrum constitutes the chemical signature or fingerprint of an organic compound). Many inorganic substances may also be uniquely identified using infrared spectroscopy. Until recently, infrared spectroscopy was of only limited utility in forensic science, despite its high selectivity. This is because infrared spectroscopy suffered from a lack of sensitivity in its early forms. However, with the advance of modern technology this is no longer the case. The widespread use of microscope attachments, along with numerous new sampling accessories, has overcome most of the previous limitations. For example, with an infrared microscope, it is possible to focus the infrared beam, and therefore select relevant areas of the sample as small as 10 x 10 μm and achieve a measurement in situ. Such a configuration enables the rapid generation of high-resolution spectra from samples of 10 ng. Typical forensic applications include the analysis of single textile fibres, minute paint chips or smears, drugs, laser printer and photocopy toners, polymers and miscellaneous unknown substances. Here we will broadly review the most common applications of infrared spectroscopy in forensic science

  2. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (νCN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific νCN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.

  3. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira, E-mail: mkhalil@uw.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 351700, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (ν{sub CN}) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([Fe{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−} dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN){sub 5}Fe{sup II}CNRu{sup III}(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup −} dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific ν{sub CN} modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a

  4. Nuclear γ-ray spectroscopy of cool free atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivlin, Lev A

    1999-01-01

    Consideration is given to the capabilities of gamma-ray spectroscopy of the nuclei of free neutral atoms cooled employing modern laser light-pressure techniques. This spectroscopy is comparable with the Mossbauer spectroscopy in respect of the expected resolving power. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  5. Chlorococcalean microalgae Ankistrodesmus convolutes biodiesel characterization with Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati SONAWANE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chlorococcalean microalgae Ankistrodesmus convolutes was found in fresh water Godawari reservoir, Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra State, India. Microalgae are modern biomass for the production of liquid biofuel due to its high solar cultivation efficiency. The collection, harvesting and drying processes were play vital role in converting algal biomass into energy liquid fuel. The oil extraction was the important step for the biodiesel synthesis. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME synthesis was carried through base catalyzed transesterification method. The product was analyzed by using the hyphened techniques like Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS. FT-IR Spectroscopy was results the ester as functional group of obtained product while the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy was results the six type of fatty acid methyl ester with different concentration. Ankistrodesmus convolutes biodiesel consist of 46.5% saturated and 49.14% unsaturated FAME.

  6. Applications of Raman spectroscopy in life science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Airton A.; T. Soto, Cláudio A.; Ali, Syed M.; Neto, Lázaro P. M.; Canevari, Renata A.; Pereira, Liliane; Fávero, Priscila P.

    2015-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been applied to the analysis of biological samples for the last 12 years providing detection of changes occurring at the molecular level during the pathological transformation of the tissue. The potential use of this technology in cancer diagnosis has shown encouraging results for the in vivo, real-time and minimally invasive diagnosis. Confocal Raman technics has also been successfully applied in the analysis of skin aging process providing new insights in this field. In this paper it is presented the latest biomedical applications of Raman spectroscopy in our laboratory. It is shown that Raman spectroscopy (RS) has been used for biochemical and molecular characterization of thyroid tissue by micro-Raman spectroscopy and gene expression analysis. This study aimed to improve the discrimination between different thyroid pathologies by Raman analysis. A total of 35 thyroid tissues samples including normal tissue (n=10), goiter (n=10), papillary (n=10) and follicular carcinomas (n=5) were analyzed. The confocal Raman spectroscopy allowed a maximum discrimination of 91.1% between normal and tumor tissues, 84.8% between benign and malignant pathologies and 84.6% among carcinomas analyzed. It will be also report the application of in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy as an important sensor for detecting advanced glycation products (AGEs) on human skin.

  7. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of asbestos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Fabbri, F.; Fantoni, R.; Spizzichino, V.; Striber, J.

    2005-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was applied to test the possibility of detecting and identifying asbestos in different samples in view of the perspective at field operation without sample preparation which is peculiar to this technique. Several like-resin materials were first investigated by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, in order to find an asbestos container assuring safe laboratory operation during the material characterization aimed to identify indicators suitable for a quick identification on field. Successively, spectra of asbestos samples of both in serpentine and amphibole forms were measured and the variability in elemental composition was calculated from the emission spectra. Ratios of intensities of characteristic elements were tested as indicators for asbestos recognition. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy results were compared with those obtained by analyzing the same asbestos samples with a scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, a good correlation was found for Mg/Si and Fe/Si, thus showing the capability of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for this category of materials. In particular, it was demonstrated that the method based on two indicators derived from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy intensity ratios allows to discriminate between asbestos and cements in single shot measurements suitable to field operation

  8. Biochemical applications of FT-IR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, A.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of (FT-)IR spectroscopy in general biochemical research. In chapter 3, IR spectroscopy is used in the quantitation of residual detergent after reconstitution of an integral membrane protein in a pre-defined lipid matrix. This chapter discusses the choice of the

  9. Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideguchi, Takuro; Poisson, Antonin; Guelachvili, Guy; Picqué, Nathalie; Hänsch, Theodor W.

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum of a laser frequency comb consists of several hundred thousand equally spaced lines over a broad spectral bandwidth. Such frequency combs have revolutionized optical frequency metrology and they now hold much promise for significant advances in a growing number of applications including molecular spectroscopy. Despite an intriguing potential for the measurement of molecular spectra spanning tens of nanometres within tens of microseconds at Doppler-limited resolution, the development of dual-comb spectroscopy is hindered by the demanding stability requirements of the laser combs. Here we overcome this difficulty and experimentally demonstrate a concept of real-time dual-comb spectroscopy, which compensates for laser instabilities by electronic signal processing. It only uses free-running mode-locked lasers without any phase-lock electronics. We record spectra spanning the full bandwidth of near-infrared fibre lasers with Doppler-limited line profiles highly suitable for measurements of concentrations or line intensities. Our new technique of adaptive dual-comb spectroscopy offers a powerful transdisciplinary instrument for analytical sciences. PMID:24572636

  10. Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideguchi, Takuro; Poisson, Antonin; Guelachvili, Guy; Picqué, Nathalie; Hänsch, Theodor W.

    2014-02-01

    The spectrum of a laser frequency comb consists of several hundred thousand equally spaced lines over a broad spectral bandwidth. Such frequency combs have revolutionized optical frequency metrology and they now hold much promise for significant advances in a growing number of applications including molecular spectroscopy. Despite an intriguing potential for the measurement of molecular spectra spanning tens of nanometres within tens of microseconds at Doppler-limited resolution, the development of dual-comb spectroscopy is hindered by the demanding stability requirements of the laser combs. Here we overcome this difficulty and experimentally demonstrate a concept of real-time dual-comb spectroscopy, which compensates for laser instabilities by electronic signal processing. It only uses free-running mode-locked lasers without any phase-lock electronics. We record spectra spanning the full bandwidth of near-infrared fibre lasers with Doppler-limited line profiles highly suitable for measurements of concentrations or line intensities. Our new technique of adaptive dual-comb spectroscopy offers a powerful transdisciplinary instrument for analytical sciences.

  11. EXAFS-spectroscopy on synchrotron radiation beam

    CERN Document Server

    Aksenov, V L; Kuzmin, A Y; Purans, Y

    2001-01-01

    In the review the basis theoretical principles of EXAFS spectroscopy are given, as one of principal directions of an absorption spectroscopy permitting with a high accuracy to gain parameters of the short-range order in multicomponent amorphous and quasi-crystal mediums. The methods of the analysis of EXAFS spectra with allowance of effects of multiply scattering are featured. The exposition of the experimental set-ups, which realize the method of EXAFS spectroscopy on beams of SR, requirement of the monochromatization of radiation beams are given. For investigation of phase transition and external effects the energy-dispersive EXAFS spectrometer is creating at the National center of SR Kurchatov Institute which can measure the EXAFS spectrum with a time resolution 3-5 ms. The experimental results on investigation (by the EXAFS spectroscopy method) of oxides of tungsten and molybdenum are given, which have unique property: the variable valence of an ion of metal is depending on external action. The most inter...

  12. Combination of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy for multivariate classification of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, D.; Mazura, M.; Samek, O.; Rebrošová, K.; Pořízka, P.; Klus, J.; Prochazková, P.; Novotný, J.; Novotný, K.; Kaiser, J.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the impact of data provided by complementary laser-based spectroscopic methods on multivariate classification accuracy. Discrimination and classification of five Staphylococcus bacterial strains and one strain of Escherichia coli is presented. The technique that we used for measurements is a combination of Raman spectroscopy and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). Obtained spectroscopic data were then processed using Multivariate Data Analysis algorithms. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was selected as the most suitable technique for visualization of bacterial strains data. To classify the bacterial strains, we used Neural Networks, namely a supervised version of Kohonen's self-organizing maps (SOM). We were processing results in three different ways - separately from LIBS measurements, from Raman measurements, and we also merged data from both mentioned methods. The three types of results were then compared. By applying the PCA to Raman spectroscopy data, we observed that two bacterial strains were fully distinguished from the rest of the data set. In the case of LIBS data, three bacterial strains were fully discriminated. Using a combination of data from both methods, we achieved the complete discrimination of all bacterial strains. All the data were classified with a high success rate using SOM algorithm. The most accurate classification was obtained using a combination of data from both techniques. The classification accuracy varied, depending on specific samples and techniques. As for LIBS, the classification accuracy ranged from 45% to 100%, as for Raman Spectroscopy from 50% to 100% and in case of merged data, all samples were classified correctly. Based on the results of the experiments presented in this work, we can assume that the combination of Raman spectroscopy and LIBS significantly enhances discrimination and classification accuracy of bacterial species and strains. The reason is the complementarity in

  13. Intermultiplet transitions using neutron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, R.; Lovesey, S.W.; Taylor, A.D.; Balcar, E.

    1989-12-01

    Neutron inelastic scattering is used here to attempt to obtain optical spectra for lanthanide metals and compounds. Intermultiplet spectroscopy provides information about transitions from different electronic configurations and hybridisation of the 4f shell. This report discusses the relatively limited contribution that neutron scattering has played in intermultiplet spectroscopy, and covers spin-orbit transitions and coulomb transitions Racah algebra is developed in calculating the scattering cross sections. (author)

  14. Spectroscopy Division progress report (January 1991 to June 1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.A.; Kartha, V.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research and development activities of the Spectroscopy Division during the calendar year 1990-1992 are reported in the form of individual summaries. These are arranged under the headings: (1) analytical spectroscopy, (2) infrared and Raman spectroscopy, (3) atomic spectra, (4) molecular and electronic spectra, (5) laser spectroscopy (6) synchrotron, beam foil and plasma spectroscopy, (7) optics, (8) design, fabrication and workshop etc. The list of publications and papers presented at the various conferences, symposia etc. by the staff members of the Division during the report period is given at the end. (author). figs

  15. Charmonium spectroscopy, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    The state of charmonium spectroscopy is reviewed. All analyses proceed from a spin-dependent, non-relativistic Schroedinger equation. Many of the possible branching ratios for charm like states are investigated. 17 refs

  16. Classical ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaneck, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Although X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of polymers was well established by Clark and coworkers in the 1970s, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of polymer films, was developed later. Previous to the 1970s, the first attempts to use ultraviolet light on polymer films took the form of appearance potential (valence band edge) measurements. Only some years later could the full valence band region of thin polymer films, including insulating polymers, semiconducting polymers and electrically conducting polymers. The development of what might be termed 'classical ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy' of polymer films may be loosely based upon a variety of issues, including adapting thin polymer film technology to ultra high vacuum studies, the widespread use of helium resonance lamps for studies of solid surfaces, the combined advent of practical and sufficient theoretical-computational methods. The advent of, and the use of, easily available synchrotron radiation for multi-photon spectroscopies, nominally in the area of the near UV, is not included in the term 'classical'. At the same time, electrically conducting polymers were discovered, leading to applications of the corresponding semiconducting polymers, which added technologically driven emphasis to this development of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy for polymer materials. This paper traces a limited number of highlights in the evolution of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of polymers, from the 1970s through to 2008. Also, since this issue is dedicated to Prof. Kazuhiko Seki, who has been a friend and competitor for over two decades, the author relies on some of Prof. Seki's earlier research, unpublished, on who-did-what-first. Prof. Seki's own contributions to the field, however, are discussed in other articles in this issue.

  17. Modern luminescence spectroscopy of minerals and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gaft, Michael; Panczer, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    Luminescence Spectroscopy of Minerals and Materials presents an overview of the general concepts in luminescence spectroscopy as well as experimental methods and their interpretation. Special emphasis is laid on the fluorescence lifetime and the determination of time-resolved spectra. This method enables the exposure of new luminescence in minerals previously hidden by more intensive centers. Specialists in the fields of solid state physics, chemistry and spectroscopy will find a wealth of new information in this unique book.

  18. Handbook of Applied Solid State Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vij, D. R

    2006-01-01

    Solid-State spectroscopy is a burgeoning field with applications in many branches of science, including physics, chemistry, biosciences, surface science, and materials science. Handbook of Applied Solid-State Spectroscopy brings together in one volume information about various spectroscopic techniques that is currently scattered in the literature of these disciplines. This concise yet comprehensive volume covers theory and applications of a broad range of spectroscopies, including NMR, NQR, EPR/ESR, ENDOR, scanning tunneling, acoustic resonance, FTIR, auger electron emission, x-ray photoelectron emission, luminescence, and optical polarization, and more. Emphasis is placed on fundamentals and current methods and procedures, together with the latest applications and developments in the field.

  19. Near edge x-ray spectroscopy theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    We propose to develop a quantitative theory of x-ray spectroscopies in the near edge region, within about 100 eV of threshold. These spectroscopies include XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure), photoelectron diffraction (PD), and diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS), all of which are important tools for structural studies using synchrotron radiation x-ray sources. Of primary importance in these studies are many-body effects, such as the photoelectron self-energy, and inelastic losses. A better understanding of these quantities is needed to obtain theories without adjustable parameters. We propose both analytical and numerical calculations, the latter based on our x-ray spectroscopy codes FEFF

  20. Atomic spectroscopy and radiative processes

    CERN Document Server

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the basic physical principles of atomic spectroscopy and the absorption and emission of radiation in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. It summarizes the basics of electromagnetism and thermodynamics and then describes in detail the theory of atomic spectra for complex atoms, with emphasis on astrophysical applications. Both equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena in plasmas are considered. The interaction between radiation and matter is described, together with various types of radiation (e.g., cyclotron, synchrotron, bremsstrahlung, Compton). The basic theory of polarization is explained, as is the theory of radiative transfer for astrophysical applications. Atomic Spectroscopy and Radiative Processes bridges the gap between basic books on atomic spectroscopy and the very specialized publications for the advanced researcher: it will provide under- and postgraduates with a clear in-depth description of theoretical aspects, supported by practical examples of applications.

  1. The hallmarks of breast cancer by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramczyk, H.; Surmacki, J.; Brożek-Płuska, B.; Morawiec, Z.; Tazbir, M.

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents new biological results on ex vivo breast tissue based on Raman spectroscopy and demonstrates its power as diagnostic tool with the key advantage in breast cancer research. The results presented here demonstrate the ability of Raman spectroscopy to accurately characterize cancer tissue and distinguish between normal, malignant and benign types. The goal of the paper is to develop the diagnostic ability of Raman spectroscopy in order to find an optical marker of cancer in the breast tissue. Applications of Raman spectroscopy in breast cancer research are in the early stages of development in the world. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is one of the most statistically reliable reports (1100 spectra, 99 patients) on Raman spectroscopy-based diagnosis of breast cancers among the world women population.

  2. Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Correlated Spin Orbit Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Unlimited UU UU UU UU 14-06-2016 15-Mar-2013 14-Mar-2016 Final Report: Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Correlated Spin-Orbit Phases The views...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Ultrafast optical spectroscopy , nonlinear optical spectroscopy , iridates, cuprates REPORT...California Blvd. Pasadena, CA 91125 -0001 ABSTRACT Number of Papers published in peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Optical Spectroscopy and

  3. ESR spectroscopy and electron distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy can map out the electron distribution in a molecule, in much the same way as proton NMR spectroscopy can map out the proton distribution, and it provides some of the most direct evidence for the principal concepts underlying the electronic theory of organic structure and mechanism. This is illustrated for phenomena of conjugation, hyper-conjugation, substituent effects in annulenes, Hueckel theory, ring strain, the Mills-Nixon effect, and ion pairing. (author)

  4. Perspectives of shaped pulses for EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Philipp E.; Schöps, Philipp; Kallies, Wolfgang; Glaser, Steffen J.; Prisner, Thomas F.

    2017-07-01

    This article describes current uses of shaped pulses, generated by an arbitrary waveform generator, in the field of EPR spectroscopy. We show applications of sech/tanh and WURST pulses to dipolar spectroscopy, including new pulse schemes and procedures, and discuss the more general concept of optimum-control-based pulses for applications in EPR spectroscopy. The article also describes a procedure to correct for experimental imperfections, mostly introduced by the microwave resonator, and discusses further potential applications and limitations of such pulses.

  5. XXII Conference on spectroscopy. Summaries of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    XXII Conference on spectroscopy took place 8-12 October 2001 in Zvenigorod, Moscow region. The recent advantages in the field of atomic and molecular spectroscopy were discussed. The current methods for elemental spectra analysis were considered. They are based on both traditional atomic emission, adsorption and Raman spectroscopic techniques and on introduction of the mass spectroscopy with the high-temperature plasma atomizer. The particular attention was given the application of spectroscopic methods for plasma diagnostics and air pollution control [ru

  6. Application of resonance ionisation spectroscopy in atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    Resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS) and resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS) techniques have proved to be a powerful tool in atomic spectroscopy and trace analysis. Detailed atomic spectroscopy can be performed on samples containing less than 10 12 atoms. This sensitivity is especially important for investigating atomic properties of transuranium elements. RIMS is especially suitable for ultra trace determination of long lived radioactive isotopes. The extremely low detection limits allow analysis of samples in the sub-femtogram regime. High elemental and isotopic selectivity can be obtained. To produce isobarically pure ion beams, a RIS based laser ion source can be used

  7. NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenert, J.

    1989-01-01

    The book reviews the applications of NMR-spectroscopy in medicine and biology. The first chapter of about 40 pages summarizes the history of development and explains the chemical and physical fundamentals of this new and non-invasive method in an easily comprehensible manner. The other chapters summarize diagnostic results obtained with this method in organs and tissues, so that the reader will find a systematic overview of the available findings obtained in the various organ systems. It must be noted, however, that ongoing research work and new insight quite naturally will necessitate corrections to be done, as is the case here with some biochemical interpretations which would need adjustment to latest research results. NMR-spectroscopy is able to measure very fine energy differences on the molecular level, and thus offers insight into metabolic processes, with the advantage that there is no need of applying ionizing radiation in order to qualitatively or quantitatively analyse the metabolic processes in the various organ systems. (orig./DG) With 40 figs., 4 tabs [de

  8. Imaging spectroscopy for characterisation of grass swards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Imaging spectroscopy, imaging spectrometry, remote sensing, reflection, reflectance, grass sward, white clover, recognition, characterisation, ground cover, growth monitoring, stress detection, heterogeneity quantification

    The potential of imaging spectroscopy as a tool for

  9. Cytosine Radical Cations: A Gas-Phase Study Combining IRMPD Spectroscopy, UVPD Spectroscopy, Ion-Molecule Reactions, and Theoretical Calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lesslie, M.; Lawler, J. T.; Dang, A.; Korn, J. A.; Bím, Daniel; Steinmetz, V.; Maitre, P.; Tureček, F.; Ryzhov, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 10 (2017), s. 1293-1301 ISSN 1439-4235 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ion-molecule reactions * IRMPD spectroscopy * nucleobases * radical ions * UVPD spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.075, year: 2016

  10. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  11. A high resolution portable spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, C.P.; Vaidya, P.P.; Paulson, M.; Bhatnagar, P.V.; Pande, S.S.; Padmini, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes the system details of a High Resolution Portable Spectroscopy System (HRPSS) developed at Electronics Division, BARC. The system can be used for laboratory class, high-resolution nuclear spectroscopy applications. The HRPSS consists of a specially designed compact NIM bin, with built-in power supplies, accommodating a low power, high resolution MCA, and on-board embedded computer for spectrum building and communication. A NIM based spectroscopy amplifier and a HV module for detector bias are integrated (plug-in) in the bin. The system communicates with a host PC via a serial link. Along-with a laptop PC, and a portable HP-Ge detector, the HRPSS offers a laboratory class performance for portable applications

  12. Vibrational Spectroscopy and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Galina M.; Kwak, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Role of vibrational spectroscopy in solving problems related to astrobiology will be discussed. Vibrational (infrared) spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for identifying molecules. Theoretical approach used in this work is based on direct computation of anharmonic vibrational frequencies and intensities from electronic structure codes. One of the applications of this computational technique is possible identification of biological building blocks (amino acids, small peptides, DNA bases) in the interstellar medium (ISM). Identifying small biological molecules in the ISM is very important from the point of view of origin of life. Hybrid (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) theoretical techniques will be discussed that may allow to obtain accurate vibrational spectra of biomolecular building blocks and to create a database of spectroscopic signatures that can assist observations of these molecules in space. Another application of the direct computational spectroscopy technique is to help to design and analyze experimental observations of ice surfaces of one of the Jupiter's moons, Europa, that possibly contains hydrated salts. The presence of hydrated salts on the surface can be an indication of a subsurface ocean and the possible existence of life forms inhabiting such an ocean.

  13. PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROSCOPY USING A SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JACKSON, R.S.; MICHAELIAN, K.H.; HOMES, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the use of a synchrotron as a source for infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. A synchrotron has an intrinsically high radiance, which is beneficial when photoacoustic spectroscopy is applied to small samples, especially at long wavelengths

  14. Molecular ions, Rydberg spectroscopy and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Ion spectroscopy, Rydberg spectroscopy and molecular dynamics are closely related subjects. Multichannel quantum defect theory is a theoretical approach which draws on this close relationship and thereby becomes a powerful tool for the study of systems consisting of a positively charged molecular ion core interacting with an electron which may be loosely bound or freely scattering

  15. Molecular ions, Rydberg spectroscopy and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungen, Ch. [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Université de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2015-01-22

    Ion spectroscopy, Rydberg spectroscopy and molecular dynamics are closely related subjects. Multichannel quantum defect theory is a theoretical approach which draws on this close relationship and thereby becomes a powerful tool for the study of systems consisting of a positively charged molecular ion core interacting with an electron which may be loosely bound or freely scattering.

  16. Time-resolved ESR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckert, D.

    1986-06-01

    The time-resolved ESR spectroscopy is one of the modern methods in radiospectroscopy and plays an important role in solving various problems in chemistry and biology. Proceeding from the basic ideas of time-resolved ESR spectroscopy the experimental equipment is described generally including the equipment developed at the Central Institute of Isotope and Radiation Research. The experimental methods applied to the investigation of effects of chemically induced magnetic polarization of electrons and to kinetic studies of free radicals in polymer systems are presented. The theory of radical pair mechanism is discussed and theoretical expressions are summarized in a computer code to compute the theoretical polarization for each pair of the radicals

  17. Erratum: Quantum corrections and black hole spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qing-Quan; Han, Yan; Cai, Xu

    2012-06-01

    In my paper [Qing-Quan Jiang, Yan Han, Xu Cai, Quantum corrections and black hole spectroscopy, JHEP 08 (2010) 049], there was an error in deriving the black hole spectroscopy. In this erratum, we attempt to rectify them.

  18. Point defects in gallium arsenide characterized by positron annihilation spectroscopy and deep level transient spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mih, R.; Gronsky, R.; Sterne, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is a unique technique for detection of vacancy related defects in both as-grown and irradiated materials. The authors present a systematic study of vacancy defects in stoichiometrically controlled p-type Gallium Arsenide grown by the Hot-Wall Czochralski method. Microstructural information based on PALS, was correlated to crystallographic data and electrical measurements. Vacancies were detected and compared to electrical levels detected by deep level transient spectroscopy and stoichiometry based on crystallographic data

  19. Study of electron beam effects on surfaces using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettings, M.; Coad, J.P.

    1976-02-01

    Discrepancies in the surface analyses of oxidised or heavily contaminated materials have been observed between X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and techniques using electron beams (primarily Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)). These discrepancies can be ascribed to the influence of the primary electron beam and to illustrate the various types of electron effects different materials were analysed using XPS and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) before and after large area electron bombardment. The materials used included chrome and stainless steels, nickel, platinum, glass and brass. (author)

  20. Toward practical terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigada, David J.

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is a promising technology for the identification of explosive and pharmaceutical substances in adverse conditions. It interacts strongly with intermolecular vibrational and rotational modes. Terahertz also passes through many common dielectric covering materials, allowing for the identification of substances in envelopes, wrapped in opaque plastic, or otherwise hidden. However, there are several challenges preventing the adoption of terahertz spectroscopy outside the laboratory. This dissertation examines the problems preventing widespread adoption of terahertz technology and attempts to resolve them. In order to use terahertz spectroscopy to identify substances, a spectrum measured of the target sample must be compared to the spectra of various known standard samples. This dissertation examines various methods that can be employed throughout the entire process of acquiring and transforming terahertz waveforms to improve the accuracy of these comparisons. The concepts developed in this dissertation directly apply to terahertz spectroscopy, but also carry implications for other spectroscopy methods, from Raman to mass spectrometry. For example, these techniques could help to lower the rate of false positives at airport security checkpoints. This dissertation also examines the implementation of several of these methods as a way to realize a fully self-contained, handheld, battery-operated terahertz spectrometer. This device also employs techniques to allow minimally-trained operators use terahertz to detect different substances of interest. It functions as a proof-of-concept of the true benefits of the improvements that have been developed in this dissertation.

  1. Vibrational spectroscopy: a clinical tool for cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Catherine; Isabelle, Martin; Bazant-Hegemark, Florian; Hutchings, Joanne; Orr, Linda; Babrah, Jaspreet; Baker, Rebecca; Stone, Nicholas

    2009-06-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy techniques have demonstrated potential to provide non-destructive, rapid, clinically relevant diagnostic information. Early detection is the most important factor in the prevention of cancer. Raman and infrared spectroscopy enable the biochemical signatures from biological tissues to be extracted and analysed. In conjunction with advanced chemometrics such measurements can contribute to the diagnostic assessment of biological material. This paper also illustrates the complementary advantage of using Raman and FTIR spectroscopy technologies together. Clinical requirements are increasingly met by technological developments which show promise to become a clinical reality. This review summarises recent advances in vibrational spectroscopy and their impact on the diagnosis of cancer.

  2. Bertram Brockhouse, the Triple-axis Spectrometer, and Neutron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutron Spectroscopy Resources with Additional Information Bertram Brockhouse Courtesy of McMaster was awarded the 1994 Nobel Prize in Physics for his development of neutron spectroscopy. Bert Physicist, Dies, The New York Times, October 16, 2003 1994: Development of Neutron Spectroscopy, Brookhaven

  3. X-ray and photoelectron spectroscopy of light rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuggle, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Core level photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, bremsstrahlung isochromat spectroscopy and valence band studies are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on cerium. Correlation effects, multiplet structure, screening effects and the dynamics of the processes involved are illustrated with selected examples. (Auth.)

  4. Linear and Nonlinear Molecular Spectroscopy with Laser Frequency Combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picque, Nathalie

    2013-06-01

    The regular pulse train of a mode-locked femtosecond laser can give rise to a comb spectrum of millions of laser modes with a spacing precisely equal to the pulse repetition frequency. Laser frequency combs were conceived a decade ago as tools for the precision spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen. They are now becoming enabling tools for an increasing number of applications, including molecular spectroscopy. Recent experiments of multi-heterodyne frequency comb Fourier transform spectroscopy (also called dual-comb spectroscopy) have demonstrated that the precisely spaced spectral lines of a laser frequency comb can be harnessed for new techniques of linear absorption spectroscopy. The first proof-of-principle experiments have demonstrated a very exciting potential of dual-comb spectroscopy without moving parts for ultra-rapid and ultra-sensitive recording of complex broad spectral bandwidth molecular spectra. Compared to conventional Michelson-based Fourier transform spectroscopy, recording times could be shortened from seconds to microseconds, with intriguing prospects for spectroscopy of short lived transient species. The resolution improves proportionally to the measurement time. Therefore longer recordings allow high resolution spectroscopy of molecules with extreme precision, since the absolute frequency of each laser comb line can be known with the accuracy of an atomic clock. Moreover, since laser frequency combs involve intense ultrashort laser pulses, nonlinear interactions can be harnessed. Broad spectral bandwidth ultra-rapid nonlinear molecular spectroscopy and imaging with two laser frequency combs is demonstrated with coherent Raman effects and two-photon excitation. Real-time multiplex accessing of hyperspectral images may dramatically expand the range of applications of nonlinear microscopy. B. Bernhardt et al., Nature Photonics 4, 55-57 (2010); A. Schliesser et al. Nature Photonics 6, 440-449 (2012); T. Ideguchi et al. arXiv:1201.4177 (2012) T

  5. Self-compensation in ZnO thin films: An insight from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, K.G.; Ibrahim, K.; Lim, Y.T.; Chai, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    As-grown ZnO typically exhibits n-type conductivity and the difficulty of synthesizing p-type ZnO for the realization of ZnO-based optoelectronic devices is mainly due to the compensation effect of a large background n-type carrier concentration. The cause of this self-compensation effect has not been conclusively identified although oxygen vacancies, zinc interstitials and hydrogen have been suggested. In this work, typical n-type ZnO thin films were prepared by sputtering and investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy to gain an insight on the possible cause of the self-compensation effect. The analyses found that the native defect that most likely behaved as the donor was zinc interstitial but some contribution of n-type conductivity could also come from the electronegative carbonates or hydrogen carbonates incorporated in the ZnO thin films

  6. Scanning, non-contact, hybrid broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Johannes D; Mireles, Miguel; Morales-Dalmau, Jordi; Farzam, Parisa; Martínez-Lozano, Mar; Casanovas, Oriol; Durduran, Turgut

    2016-02-01

    A scanning system for small animal imaging using non-contact, hybrid broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (ncDOS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (ncDCS) is presented. The ncDOS uses a two-dimensional spectrophotometer retrieving broadband (610-900 nm) spectral information from up to fifty-seven source-detector distances between 2 and 5 mm. The ncDCS data is simultaneously acquired from four source-detector pairs. The sample is scanned in two dimensions while tracking variations in height. The system has been validated with liquid phantoms, demonstrated in vivo on a human fingertip during an arm cuff occlusion and on a group of mice with xenoimplanted renal cell carcinoma.

  7. Mössbauer Spectroscopy Tutorial Book

    CERN Document Server

    Langouche, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Tutorials on Mössbauer Spectroscopy Since the discovery of the Mössbauer Effect many excellent books have been published for researchers and for doctoral and master level students.  However, there appears to be no textbook available for final year bachelor students, nor for people working in industry who have received only basic courses in classical mechanics, electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, chemistry and materials science.  The challenge of this book is to give an introduction to Mössbauer Spectroscopy for this level.  The ultimate goal of this book is to give this audience not only a scientific introduction to the technique, but also to demonstrate in an attractive way the power of Mössbauer Spectroscopy in many fields of science, in order to create interest among the readers in joining the community of Mössbauer spectroscopists.  This is particularly important at times where in many Mössbauer laboratories succession is at stake.

  8. Uranium(VI) speciation by spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinrath, G.

    1997-01-01

    The application of UV-Vis and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TRLF) spectroscopies to direct of uranium(VI) in environmental samples offers various prospects that have, however, serious limitations. While UV-Vis spectroscopy is probably not sensitive enough to detect uranium(VI) species in the majority of environmental samples, TRLFS is principially able to speciate uranium(VI) at very low concentration levels in the nanomol range. Speciation by TRLFS can be based on three parameters: excitation spectrum, emission spectrum and lifetime of the fluorescence emission process. Due to quenching effects, the lifetime may not be expected to be as characteristics as, e.g., the emission spectrum. Quenching of U(VI) fluorescence by reaction with organic substances, inorganic ions and formation of carbonate radicals is one important limiting factor in the application of U(VI) fluorescence spectroscopy. Fundamental photophysical criteria are illustrated using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectra of U(VI) hydrolysis and carbonato species as examples. (author)

  9. Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2009-01-01

    Except in the very early stage of the development of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) by Kai Siegbahn and his coworkers, the excitation sources for XPS studies have predominantly been the Al Kα and Mg Kα emission lines. The advent of synchrotron radiation sources opened up the possibility of tuning the excitation photon energy with much higher throughputs for photoemission spectroscopy, however the excitation energy range was limited to the vacuum ultra violet and soft X-ray regions. Over the past 5-6 years, bulk-sensitive hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy using high-brilliance high-flux X-rays from third generation synchrotron radiation facilities has been developed. This article reviews the history of HXPES covering the period from Kai Siegbahn and his coworkers' pioneering works to the present, and describes the fundamental aspects, instrumentation, applications to solid state physics, applied physics, materials science, and industrial applications of HXPES. Finally, several challenging new developments which have been conducted at SPring-8 by collaborations among several groups are introduced.

  10. X-ray spectroscopy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Bipin K

    1979-01-01

    Rontgen's discovery of X-rays in 1895 launched a subject which became central to the development of modern physics. The verification of many of the predic­ tions of quantum theory by X-ray spectroscopy in the early part of the twen­ tieth century stimulated great interest in thi's area, which has subsequently influenced fields as diverse as chemical physics, nuclear physics, and the study of the electronic properties of solids, and led to the development of techniques such as Auger, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The improvement of the theoretical understanding of the physics underlying X-ray spectroscopy has been accompanied by advances in experimental techniques, and the subject provides an instructive example of how progress on both these fronts can be mutually beneficial. This book strikes a balance between his­ torical description, which illustrates this symbiosis, and the discussion of new developments. The application of X-ray spectroscopic methods to the in­ vestigation of chemical b...

  11. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy: Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 20 Issue 2 February 2015 pp 151-164. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Astronomical Spectroscopy -24 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    growth of spectroscopy and its application to the study of .... Cesium was discovered ten years earlier, in 1859; it is the ... Kirchhoff and Bunsen's discovery; he was spared the pain of seeing ... We will have to go back about twenty years.

  13. Baryonic spectroscopy and its immediate future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalitz, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    The quark model is reviewed briefly for baryons and the various versions of SU(6) symmetry which were proposed and used in connection with baryon spectroscopy are reviewed. A series of basic questions are reviewed which experimental work in this field should aim to settle, as a minimal program. One also heralds the beginning of a new baryon spectroscopy associated with psi physics

  14. Application of X-ray spectroscopy in nondestructive photon activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weise, H.-P.; Segebade, Chr.

    1977-01-01

    The use of X-ray spectroscopy for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples activated by 30 MeV bremsstrahlung from an electron linear accelerator. Detection limits are calculated from the measured X-ray spectra and compared with those for γ-ray spectroscopy. In general, the detection limits for γ-ray and X-ray spectroscopy are comparable. Higher sensitivities for X-ray spectroscopy are observed when only low intensity γ-rays are emitted by the activation products. X-ray spectroscopy should be applied in three cases: (a) low γ-ray emission probability, (b) extremely complicated γ-ray spectrum, (c) overlapping of γ-ray lines from different elements. γ-ray spectroscopy should be preferred for the analysis of light elements for two reasons: very strong absorption of low energy X-rays (low Z) within the sample, low X-ray emission probability for the activation products of light elements. Therefore no attempt was made to use X-ray spectroscopy for the analysis of elements below Ti. Some practical applications of X-ray spectroscopy in nondestructive multielement analysis are quoted. (T.G.)

  15. Clinical Proton MR Spectroscopy in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Jeffry R.; Barker, Peter B.; Bartha, Robert; Bizzi, Alberto; Boesch, Chris; Bolan, Patrick J.; Brindle, Kevin M.; Cudalbu, Cristina; Dinçer, Alp; Dydak, Ulrike; Emir, Uzay E.; Frahm, Jens; González, Ramón Gilberto; Gruber, Stephan; Gruetter, Rolf; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Heerschap, Arend; Henning, Anke; Hetherington, Hoby P.; Howe, Franklyn A.; Hüppi, Petra S.; Hurd, Ralph E.; Kantarci, Kejal; Klomp, Dennis W. J.; Kreis, Roland; Kruiskamp, Marijn J.; Leach, Martin O.; Lin, Alexander P.; Luijten, Peter R.; Marjańska, Małgorzata; Maudsley, Andrew A.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Mountford, Carolyn E.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Pamir, M. Necmettin; Pan, Jullie W.; Peet, Andrew C.; Poptani, Harish; Posse, Stefan; Pouwels, Petra J. W.; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Ross, Brian D.; Scheenen, Tom W. J.; Schuster, Christian; Smith, Ian C. P.; Soher, Brian J.; Tkáč, Ivan; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Kauppinen, Risto A.

    2014-01-01

    A large body of published work shows that proton (hydrogen 1 [1H]) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy has evolved from a research tool into a clinical neuroimaging modality. Herein, the authors present a summary of brain disorders in which MR spectroscopy has an impact on patient management, together with a critical consideration of common data acquisition and processing procedures. The article documents the impact of 1H MR spectroscopy in the clinical evaluation of disorders of the central nervous system. The clinical usefulness of 1H MR spectroscopy has been established for brain neoplasms, neonatal and pediatric disorders (hypoxia-ischemia, inherited metabolic diseases, and traumatic brain injury), demyelinating disorders, and infectious brain lesions. The growing list of disorders for which 1H MR spectroscopy may contribute to patient management extends to neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, and stroke. To facilitate expanded clinical acceptance and standardization of MR spectroscopy methodology, guidelines are provided for data acquisition and analysis, quality assessment, and interpretation. Finally, the authors offer recommendations to expedite the use of robust MR spectroscopy methodology in the clinical setting, including incorporation of technical advances on clinical units. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:24568703

  16. Portable in situ NaI(Tl) γ spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bairong; Dong Binjiang; Zeng Liping; Shen Tingyun

    2000-01-01

    The author describes a portable in situ NaI(Tl) γ spectroscopy system, which consists of a NaI (Tl) scintillation detector, an integrative spectroscopy card, a notebook computer and spectroscopy software. The spectrometer addresses applications in environmental or nuclear accident in situ γ spectroscopy measurements, and gives valid quantitative results of radionuclide concentrations per unit volume (Bq/kg) or unit area (Bq/cm 2 ) in the soil and absorbed dose rate in air at 1 m above ground (Gy/h)

  17. Raman spectroscopy of saliva as a perspective method for periodontitis diagnostics Raman spectroscopy of saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Minaeva, S.

    2012-01-01

    In view of its potential for biological tissues analyses at a molecular level, Raman spectroscopy in optical range has been the object of biomedical research for the last years. The main aim of this work is the development of Raman spectroscopy for organic content identifying and determination of biomarkers of saliva at a molecular level for periodontitis diagnostics. Four spectral regions were determined: 1155 and 1525 cm-1, 1033 and 1611 cm-1, which can be used as biomarkers of this widespread disease.

  18. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy on complex biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renault, M.A.M.; Cukkemane, A.A.; Baldus, M.

    2010-01-01

    Biomolecular applications of NMR spectroscopy are often merely associated with soluble molecules or magnetic resonance imaging. However, since the late 1970s, solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy has demonstrated its ability to provide atomic-level insight into complex biomolecular systems ranging

  19. Near-infrared spectroscopy during peripheral vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, J P; Schroeder, T V; Vogt, K C

    1997-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy was performed perioperatively on the dorsum of the foot in 14 patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass surgery using a prosthesis or the greater saphenous vein. Dual-wavelength continuous light spectroscopy was used to assess changes in tissue saturation before, duri...

  20. Study of clusters using negative ion photodetachment spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuexing [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The weak van der Waals interaction between an open-shell halogen atom and a closed-shell atom or molecule has been investigated using zero electron kinetic energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy. This technique is also applied to study the low-lying electronic states in GaAs and GaAs-. In addition, the spectroscopy and electron detachment dynamics of several small carbon cluster anions are studied using resonant multiphoton detachment spectroscopy.

  1. Study of clusters using negative ion photodetachment spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yuexing.

    1995-12-01

    The weak van der Waals interaction between an open-shell halogen atom and a closed-shell atom or molecule has been investigated using zero electron kinetic energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy. This technique is also applied to study the low-lying electronic states in GaAs and GaAs - . In addition, the spectroscopy and electron detachment dynamics of several small carbon cluster anions are studied using resonant multiphoton detachment spectroscopy

  2. Oasis-an innovative system for alpha spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour, R; Richards, W; Knight, K; El-Sayad, G [Oxford Instruments Inc., P.O. Box 2560, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-2560 (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Until recently, instrumental alpha spectroscopy has behind the technical developments of instrumentation and software that are available for low background o c/ counting, liquid scintillation, and gamma spectroscopy instruments. We report in this paper, the development of Oasis, a new family of alpha spectroscopy systems from oxford instruments Inc., Nuclear measurements Group. The Oasis instruments incorporate many hardware and software innovations providing an automated and integrated production environment for alpha spectroscopy. These instruments are needed because of the large number of samples to be measured and the required throughput of production laboratories processing these samples. Oasis is also useful for facilities because of their sophisticated vacuum control, management, and analysis features. One of the most important innovations is the electronic vacuum system and cartesian diver. Many additional features contribute to improving accuracy, lowering cost per sample, improving sample throughput, and ensuring accountability of laboratory results. 5 figs.

  3. Oasis-an innovative system for alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, R.; Richards, W.; Knight, K.; El-Sayad, G.

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, instrumental alpha spectroscopy has behind the technical developments of instrumentation and software that are available for low background o c/ counting, liquid scintillation, and gamma spectroscopy instruments. We report in this paper, the development of Oasis, a new family of alpha spectroscopy systems from oxford instruments Inc., Nuclear measurements Group. The Oasis instruments incorporate many hardware and software innovations providing an automated and integrated production environment for alpha spectroscopy. These instruments are needed because of the large number of samples to be measured and the required throughput of production laboratories processing these samples. Oasis is also useful for facilities because of their sophisticated vacuum control, management, and analysis features. One of the most important innovations is the electronic vacuum system and cartesian diver. Many additional features contribute to improving accuracy, lowering cost per sample, improving sample throughput, and ensuring accountability of laboratory results. 5 figs

  4. Dark spectroscopy at lepton colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2018-03-01

    Rich and complex dark sectors are abundant in particle physics theories. Here, we propose performing spectroscopy of the mass structure of dark sectors via mono-photon searches at lepton colliders. The energy of the mono-photon tracks the invariant mass of the invisible system it recoils against, which enables studying the resonance structure of the dark sector. We demonstrate this idea with several well-motivated models of dark sectors. Such spectroscopy measurements could potentially be performed at Belle II, BES-III and future low-energy lepton colliders.

  5. Migraine and magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younis, Samaira; Hougaard, Anders; Vestergaard, Mark B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: To present an updated and streamlined overview of the metabolic and biochemical aspect of the migraine pathophysiology based on findings from phosphorous (31P) and hydrogen (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies. Recent findings: Despite of the variation in the meth......Purpose of review: To present an updated and streamlined overview of the metabolic and biochemical aspect of the migraine pathophysiology based on findings from phosphorous (31P) and hydrogen (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies. Recent findings: Despite of the variation...

  6. A Simple LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) Laboratory Experiment to Introduce Undergraduates to Calibration Functions and Atomic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinni, Rosemarie C.

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory experiment introduces students to a different type of atomic spectroscopy: laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS uses a laser-generated spark to excite the sample; once excited, the elemental emission is spectrally resolved and detected. The students use LIBS to analyze a series of standard synthetic silicate samples…

  7. Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, E.B.; Manoharan, R.; Koo, T.-W.; Shafer, K.E.; Motz, J.T.; Fitzmaurice, M.; Kramer, J.R.; Itzkan, I.; Dasari, R.R.; Feld, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a potentially important clinical tool for real-time diagnosis of disease and in situ evaluation of living tissue. The purpose of this article is to review the biological and physical basis of Raman spectroscopy of tissue, to assess the current status of the field and to explore future directions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy and the molecular level information it provides are explained. An overview of the evolution of Raman spectroscopic techniques in biology and medicine, from early investigations using visible laser excitation to present-day technology based on near-infrared laser excitation and charge-coupled device array detection, is presented. State-of-the-art Raman spectrometer systems for research laboratory and clinical settings are described. Modern methods of multivariate spectral analysis for extracting diagnostic, chemical and morphological information are reviewed. Several in-depth applications are presented to illustrate the methods of collecting, processing and analysing data, as well as the range of medical applications under study. Finally, the issues to be addressed in implementing Raman spectroscopy in various clinical applications, as well as some long-term directions for future study, are discussed. (author)

  8. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy: principles and spectral interpretation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larkin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    "Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: Principles and Spectral Interpretation explains the background, core principles and tests the readers understanding of the important techniques of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy...

  9. Atomic Auger spectroscopy: Historical perspective and recent highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhorn, W.

    2000-01-01

    The non-radiating decay of an inner-shell ionized atom by the emission of an electron was discovered by Pierre Auger in cloud-chamber experiments in the years 1923 to 1926. The first spectroscopic investigation of Auger electrons was performed by Robinson and Cassie in 1926, marking the birth date of Auger spectroscopy. The following seven decades of Auger spectroscopy will be divided into three periods. In the first period (1926-1960) Auger spectroscopy was mainly connected with β-ray spectroscopy where inner-shell ionization of atoms in the solid state was caused either by γ-conversion or by electron capture. The second period (beginning in 1960) is characterized by the external excitation of gas-phase or free metallic atoms, opening Auger spectroscopy to electron energies in the range of few eV to few keV. The third period (beginning in 1977/78) is characterized by the use of synchrotron radiation with its outstanding properties of tunability, polarization and narrow-band high intensity for the excitation and ionization of inner-shell electrons. Finally, two recent highlights of Auger spectroscopy, the interference between photo- and Auger electron with equal energies and an 'almost' complete experiment for Auger decay, will be presented

  10. Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS)

    CERN Document Server

    Tetin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy and includes chapters on such topics as Förster resonance energy transfer (fret) with fluctuation algorithms, protein corona on nanoparticles by FCS, and FFS approaches to the study of receptors in live cells. Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field Covers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy Contains chapters on such topics as Förster resonance energy transfer (fret) with fluctuation algorithms, protein corona on nanoparticles by FCS, and FFS approaches to the study of receptors in live cells.

  11. Femtosecond laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hannaford, Peter

    2005-01-01

    As concepts and methodologies have evolved over the past two decades, the realm of ultrafast science has become vast and exciting and has impacted many areas of chemistry, biology and physics, and other fields such as materials science, electrical engineering, and optical communication. The field has recently exploded with the announcement of a series of remarkable new developments and advances. This volume surveys this recent growth in eleven chapters written by leading international researchers in the field. It includes sections on femtosecond optical frequency combs, soft x-ray femtosecond laser sources, and attosecond laser sources. In addition, the contributors address real-time spectroscopy of molecular vibrations with sub-5-fs pulses and multidimensional femtosecond coherent spectroscopies for studying molecular and electron dynamics. Novel methods for measuring and characterizing ultrashort laser pulses and ultrashort pulses of light are also described. The topics covered are revolutionizing the field...

  12. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhoff, D.J.; Weiner, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    A major function of the liver is regulation of carbohydrate, lipid, and nitrogen metabolism. Food is absorbed by the intestines and transported to the liver by the portal circulation. Substrates are metabolized and stored in the liver to maintain optimal blood concentrations of glucose and lipids. Ammonia generated in the gastrointestinal tract is converted to urea in the liver by the urea cycle. Various forms of liver disease are associated with disorders of carbohydrate, fat, and nitrogen metabolism. Therefore the ability to characterize liver metabolism noninvasively is of potential diagnostic value. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides information about tissue metabolism by measuring concentrations of metabolites. However, to determine the anatomic location from which spectroscopic signals are derived, MRS could be performed in conjunction with MRI. This paper summarizes the current experience with spectroscopy ion animal models of human disease and reviews the clinical experience with hepatic MRS to date

  13. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shimul Kumar Dam

    Keywords. Impedance spectroscopy; grid connection; battery converter; state of charge; health monitoring. 1. Introduction .... the load should be within the safe range of operation specified by the ... A split capacitor damping scheme is adopted here as shown in ...... spectroscopy testing on the Advanced Technology Devel-.

  14. Gamma-ray spectroscopy on irradiated fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac

    2009-01-01

    The recording of gamma-ray spectra along an irradiated fuel rod allows the fission products to be qualitatively and quantitatively examined. Among all nondestructive examinations performed on irradiated fuel rods by gamma-ray spectroscopy, the most comprehensive one is the average burnup measurement, which is quantitative. Moreover, burnup measurements by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy are less time-consuming and waste-generating than burnup measurements by radiochemical, destructive methods. This work presents the theoretical foundations and experimental techniques necessary to measure, using nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy, the average burnup of irradiated fuel rods in a laboratory equipped with hot cells. (author)

  15. Theory of attosecond absorption spectroscopy in krypton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Jan Conrad; Lindroth, Eva; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2012-01-01

    A theory for time-domain attosecond pump–attosecond probe photoabsorption spectroscopy is formulated and related to the atomic response. The theory is illustrated through a study of attosecond absorption spectroscopy in krypton. The atomic parameters entering the formulation such as energies...... of the hole in this manner. In a second example, a hole is created in an inner shell by the first pulse, and the second probe pulse couples an even more tightly bound state to that hole. The hole decays in this example by Auger electron emission, and the absorption spectroscopy follows the decay of the hole...

  16. Nuclear spectroscopy using the neutron capture reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidy, T.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental methods using neutron spectroscopy as a means to study the nucleus structure are described. Since reactions of neutron capture (n, γ) are non-selective, they permit to study the nature of excitation (monoparticle and collective) of nuclear levels, the nature of vibrational excitations, to check the connection between shell model and liquid drop model etc. In many cases (n, γ) reactions are the only way to check the forecast of nuclear models. Advantages of (n, γ) spectroscopy, possessing a high precision of measurement and high sensitivity, are underlined. Using neutron spectroscopy on facilities with a high density of neutron flux the structures of energy levels of a large group of nuclei are studied. In different laboratories complete schemes of energy levels of nuclei are obtained, a great number of new levels are found, the evergy level densities are determined, multipolarities of γ-transitions, spins, level parities are considered. StrUctures of rotational bands of heavy deformed nuclei are studied. The study of the structure of high-spin states is possible only using the methods of (n, γ) spectroscopy Investigation results of the nuclei 24 Na, 114 Cd, 154 Eu, 155 Cd, 155 Sm, 233 Th are considered as examples. The most interesting aspects of the investigations using neutron spectroscopy are discUssed

  17. Developments in inverse photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheils, W.; Leckey, R.C.G.; Riley, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    In the 1950's and 1960's, Photoemission Spectroscopy (PES) established itself as the major technique for the study of the occupied electronic energy levels of solids. During this period the field divided into two branches: X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) for photon energies greater than ∼l000eV, and Ultra-violet Photoemission Spectroscopy (UPS) for photon energies below ∼100eV. By the 1970's XPS and UPS had become mature techniques. Like XPS, BIS (at x-ray energies) does not have the momentum-resolving ability of UPS that has contributed much to the understanding of the occupied band structures of solids. BIS moved into a new energy regime in 1977 when Dose employed a Geiger-Mueller tube to obtain density of unoccupied states data from a tantalum sample at a photon energy of ∼9.7eV. At similar energies, the technique has since become known as Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy (IPS), in acknowledgment of its complementary relationship to UPS and to distinguish it from the higher energy BIS. Drawing on decades of UPS expertise, IPS has quickly moved into areas of interest where UPS has been applied; metals, semiconductors, layer compounds, adsorbates, ferromagnets, and superconductors. At La Trobe University an IPS facility has been constructed. This presentation reports on developments in the experimental and analytical techniques of IPS that have been made there. The results of a study of the unoccupied bulk and surface bands of GaAs are presented

  18. EPR Spectroscopy in Environmental Lichen-Indication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, P. V.; Nguyet, Le Thi Bich; Zhuravleva, S. E.; Trukhan, E. M.

    2017-09-01

    The paramagnetic properties of lichens were investigated using EPR spectroscopy and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. as a case study. It was found that the concentration of paramagnetic centers in lichen thalli increased as the air-pollution level increased. Possible formation mechanisms of the paramagnetic centers in lichens were discussed. The efficiency of using EPR spectroscopy to study lichens as environmental quality indicators was demonstrated.

  19. Growth and trends in Auger-electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    A perspective is given of the development and use of surface analysis, primarily by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), for solving scientific and technological problems. Information is presented on growth and trends in instrumental capabilities, instrumental measurements with reduced uncertainties, knowledge of surface sensitivity, and knowledge and effects of sample morphology. Available analytical resources are described for AES, XPS, and secondary-ion mass spectrometry. Finally, the role of the American Vacuum Society in stimulating improved surface analyses is discussed

  20. Chemical analysis of acoustically levitated drops by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckermann, Rudolf; Puskar, Ljiljana; Zavabeti, Mahta; Sekine, Ryo; McNaughton, Don

    2009-07-01

    An experimental apparatus combining Raman spectroscopy with acoustic levitation, Raman acoustic levitation spectroscopy (RALS), is investigated in the field of physical and chemical analytics. Whereas acoustic levitation enables the contactless handling of microsized samples, Raman spectroscopy offers the advantage of a noninvasive method without complex sample preparation. After carrying out some systematic tests to probe the sensitivity of the technique to drop size, shape, and position, RALS has been successfully applied in monitoring sample dilution and preconcentration, evaporation, crystallization, an acid-base reaction, and analytes in a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy colloidal suspension.

  1. 2012 ELECTRONIC SPECTROSCOPY & DYNAMICS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JULY 22-27, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Bern

    2012-07-27

    Topics covered in this GRC include high-resolution spectroscopy, coherent electronic energy transport in biology, excited state theory and dynamics, excitonics, electronic spectroscopy of cold and ultracold molecules, and the spectroscopy of nanostructures. Several sessions will highlight innovative techniques such as time-resolved x-ray spectroscopy, frequency combs, and liquid microjet photoelectron spectroscopy that have forged stimulating new connections between gas-phase and condensed-phase work.

  2. Proton MR spectroscopy in solitary pulmonary nodules: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chunshan; Xiao Xiangsheng; Li Huimin; Liu Shiyuan; Li Chengzhou; Li Shenjiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics and the regularities of the metabolites in solitary pulmonary nodules with proton MR spectroscopy, and to investigate the clinical value of MR spectroscopy in differentiating benign from malignant pulmonary nodules. Methods: Sixty-nine patients with solitary pulmonary nodules underwent routine MRI and single-voxel MR spectroscopy using Siemens Vision 1.5 T MR system. MR spectroscopy characteristics and parameters of the metabolites were observed and recorded. Ten pathologic specimens were examined with single-voxel MR spectroscopy. The MR spectroscopy results of the pathologic specimens were compared with those of the solitary pulmonary nodules in vivo. Results: The Cho peak (2.86 ± 1.89) of the malignant nodules was higher than that of the inflammatory (0.87 ± 0.74), tuberculous nodules (0.97 ± 1.09), and hamartoma (0.42 ± 0.53) (P 0.05). Conclusion: MR spectroscopy is reliable in evaluating pulmonary nodules in vivo. The Cho peak, Cho/Cr, and Lac peak of the malignant nodules were higher than those of inflammatory, tuberculous nodules, and hamartoma. MR spectroscopy is helpful in differentiating benign from malignant pulmonary nodules. (authors)

  3. Synthesis-Spectroscopy Roadmap Problems: Discovering Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Laurie L.; Kurth, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Organic chemistry problems that interrelate and integrate synthesis with spectroscopy are presented. These synthesis-spectroscopy roadmap (SSR) problems uniquely engage second-year undergraduate organic chemistry students in the personal discovery of organic chemistry. SSR problems counter the memorize-or-bust strategy that many students tend to…

  4. Annual reports on NMR spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Graham A; McCarthy, M J

    1995-01-01

    Over recent years, no other technique has grown to such importance as that of NMR spectroscopy. It is used in all branches of science where precise structural determination is required and where the nature of interactions and reactions in solution is being studied. Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy has established itself as a means for the specialist and non-specialist alike to become familiar with new applications of the technique in all branches of chemistry, including biochemistry, and pharmaceutics. This volume focuses on theoretical aspects of NMR nuclear shielding and on applications of

  5. Surface vibrational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erskine, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A brief review of recent studies which combine measurements of surface vibrational energies with lattice dynamical calculations is presented. These results suggest that surface vibrational spectroscopy offers interesting prospects for use as a molecular-level probe of surface geometry, adsorbate bond distances and molecular orientations

  6. Statistical filtering in fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháň, Radek; Kapusta, Peter; Hof, Martin

    Roč. 406 , č. 20 (2014), s. 4797-4813 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Filtered fluorescence correlation spectroscopy * Fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy * Fluorescence spectral correlation spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.436, year: 2014

  7. Synchrotron radiation resonance Raman spectroscopy (SR3S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The use of normal Raman spectroscopy and resonance Raman spectroscopy to study the structure of molecular species and the nature of their chemical bonds is discussed. The availability of a fully tunable radiation source (the Synchrotron Radiation Source) extending into the ultraviolet raises the possibility of using synchrotron radiation resonance Raman spectroscopy as a sensitive and specific analytical probe. The pulsed nature of the SRS beam may be exploited for time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy and its high degree of polarization could be very helpful in the interpretation of spectra. The possibilities are considered under the headings: intensity requirements and comparison with other sources; some applications (e.g. structure of proteins; study of iron-porphyrin unit; study of chlorophylls). (U.K.)

  8. IR Spectroscopy. An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenzler, H.; Gremlich, H.U.

    2002-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: absorption and molecular design, spectrometers, sample preparation, qualitative spectral interpretation and assertions, near-infrared and far-infrared spectroscopy, reference spectra and expert systems

  9. 31-P NMR spectroscopy in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiricuta, I.C.; Schmitt, W.G.H.; Beyer, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    Results suggest 31-P NMR spectroscopy to allow a discrimination between good and bad blood supply to the tumour owing to different metabolic behaviour and to furnish important information on tumour response to radiotherapy just a few hours after the application of a relatively low dose. Spectroscopy showed the radiation-sensitive tumour cells to behave relatively uniformly after radiotherapy suggesting this behaviour to be interpreted as therapeutical effectiveness. (orig./SHA) [de

  10. Utilizing Raman Spectroscopy and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy to investigate healthy and cancerous colon samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzegar, A.; Rezaei, H.; Malekfar, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, spontaneous Raman scattering and surface-enhanced Raman scattering, Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy spectra have been investigated. The samples which were kept in the formalin solution selected from the human's healthy and cancerous colon tissues. The Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy spectra were collected by adding colloidal solution contained silver nanoparticles to the top of the samples. The recorded spectra were compared for the spontaneous Raman spectra of healthy and cancerous colon samples. The spontaneous and surface enhanced Raman scattering data were also collected and compared for both healthy and damaged samples.

  11. Solid-state characterization of triamcinolone acetonide nanosuspensiones by X-ray spectroscopy, ATR Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva García-Millán

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article describe the physical state of the triamcinolone acetonide (TA in nanosuspension stabilized with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and poloxamer 407 (PL. The data were assessed by X-ray spectroscopy, ATR Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy measurements (FTIR, and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis. PVA, PL and polymeric mixture (PVA and PL were compared with nanosuspension and the interactions between drug triamcinolone acetonide and polymers were studied. The data are related and are complementary to the research article entitle “Improved release of triamcinolone acetonide from medicated soft contact lenses loaded with drug nanosuspensions” (García-Millán et al., 2017 [1]. Keywords: Triamcinolona acetonide nanosuspensiones, X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, DSC

  12. Mössbauer spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Boi Hanh

    2011-01-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy has contributed significantly to the studies of Fe-containing proteins. Early applications yielded detailed electronic characterizations of hemeproteins, and thus enhanced our understanding of the chemical properties of this important class of proteins. The next stage of the applications was marked by major discoveries of several novel Fe clusters of complex structures, including the 8Fe7S P cluster and the mixed metal 1Mo7Fe M center in nitrogenase. Since early 1990 s, rapid kinetic techniques have been used to arrest enzymatic reactions for Mössbauer studies. A number of reaction intermediates were discovered and characterized, both spectroscopically and kinetically, providing unprecedented detailed molecular-level mechanistic information. This chapter gives a brief summary of the historical accounts and a concise description of some experimental and theoretical elements in Mössbauer spectroscopy that are essential for understanding Mössbauer spectra. Major biological applications are summarized at the end.

  13. Precision muonium spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmann, Klaus P.

    2016-01-01

    The muonium atom is the purely leptonic bound state of a positive muon and an electron. It has a lifetime of 2.2 µs. The absence of any known internal structure provides for precision experiments to test fundamental physics theories and to determine accurate values of fundamental constants. In particular ground state hyperfine structure transitions can be measured by microwave spectroscopy to deliver the muon magnetic moment. The frequency of the 1s–2s transition in the hydrogen-like atom can be determined with laser spectroscopy to obtain the muon mass. With such measurements fundamental physical interactions, in particular quantum electrodynamics, can also be tested at highest precision. The results are important input parameters for experiments on the muon magnetic anomaly. The simplicity of the atom enables further precise experiments, such as a search for muonium–antimuonium conversion for testing charged lepton number conservation and searches for possible antigravity of muons and dark matter. (author)

  14. Consistent spectroscopy for a extended gauge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Neto, G. de.

    1990-11-01

    The consistent spectroscopy was obtained with a Lagrangian constructed with vector fields with a U(1) group extended symmetry. As consistent spectroscopy is understood the determination of quantum physical properties described by the model in an manner independent from the possible parametrizations adopted in their description. (L.C.J.A.)

  15. Statistical process control for alpha spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, W; Majoras, R E [Oxford Instruments, Inc. P.O. Box 2560, Oak Ridge TN 37830 (United States); Joo, I O; Seymour, R S [Accu-Labs Research, Inc. 4663 Table Mountain Drive, Golden CO 80403 (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Statistical process control(SPC) allows for the identification of problems in alpha spectroscopy processes before they occur, unlike standard laboratory Q C which only identifies problems after a process fails. SPC tools that are directly applicable to alpha spectroscopy include individual X-charts and X-bar charts, process capability plots, and scatter plots. Most scientists are familiar with the concepts the and methods employed by SPC. These tools allow analysis of process bias, precision, accuracy and reproducibility as well as process capability. Parameters affecting instrument performance are monitored and analyzed using SPC methods. These instrument parameters can also be compared to sampling, preparation, measurement, and analysis Q C parameters permitting the evaluation of cause effect relationships. Three examples of SPC, as applied to alpha spectroscopy , are presented. The first example investigates background contamination using averaging to show trends quickly. A second example demonstrates how SPC can identify sample processing problems, analyzing both how and why this problem occurred. A third example illustrates how SPC can predict when an alpha spectroscopy process is going to fail. This allows for an orderly and timely shutdown of the process to perform preventative maintenance, avoiding the need to repeat costly sample analyses. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Statistical process control for alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, W.; Majoras, R.E.; Joo, I.O.; Seymour, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Statistical process control(SPC) allows for the identification of problems in alpha spectroscopy processes before they occur, unlike standard laboratory Q C which only identifies problems after a process fails. SPC tools that are directly applicable to alpha spectroscopy include individual X-charts and X-bar charts, process capability plots, and scatter plots. Most scientists are familiar with the concepts the and methods employed by SPC. These tools allow analysis of process bias, precision, accuracy and reproducibility as well as process capability. Parameters affecting instrument performance are monitored and analyzed using SPC methods. These instrument parameters can also be compared to sampling, preparation, measurement, and analysis Q C parameters permitting the evaluation of cause effect relationships. Three examples of SPC, as applied to alpha spectroscopy , are presented. The first example investigates background contamination using averaging to show trends quickly. A second example demonstrates how SPC can identify sample processing problems, analyzing both how and why this problem occurred. A third example illustrates how SPC can predict when an alpha spectroscopy process is going to fail. This allows for an orderly and timely shutdown of the process to perform preventative maintenance, avoiding the need to repeat costly sample analyses. 7 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnakumar, N.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading causes of death next to heart diseases, Half of all cancer cases occur in developing countries. The conventional histopathology is usually the most trustable gold standard for pre-cancer and cancer diagnosis. However, the applicability of this method is more or less restricted because of the requirement of removing human tissues and the difficulty of real time diagnosis. Recently, there has been increased interest in 'optical biopsy' system using tissue spectroscopy to establish the pathological changes. Among optical based methods, Raman spectroscopy is a unique vibrational spectroscopic technique capable of probing biomolecular structures and conformation of tissues, and has excelled in the early detection of pre-cancer and cancer in the number of organs with high diagnostic specificity. Raman spectroscopy offers certain distinct advantages over than other optical diagnostic techniques such as high spatial resolution, use of less harmful NIR radiation, less or no sample preparation, no influence of water bands which facilitates in vivo/in situ measurements. This makes Raman spectroscopy also very useful for biomedical applications. Several research groups have demonstrated the efficacy of this technique in biomedical applications. The background and principle of these techniques will be discussed with some examples and discussions on how Raman spectroscopy can act as a promising technique for rapid in vivo diagnosis and detection of various cancers at the molecular level. (author)

  18. Foundations of laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Stenholm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    A simple presentation of the theoretical foundations of steady-state laser spectroscopy, this text helps students to apply theory to calculations with a systematic series of examples and exercises. 1984 edition.

  19. Application of principal component and factor analyses in electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siuda, R.; Balcerowska, G.

    1998-01-01

    Fundamentals of two methods, taken from multivariate analysis and known as principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), are presented. Both methods are well known in chemometrics. Since 1979, when application of the methods to electron spectroscopy was reported for the first time, they became to be more and more popular in different branches of electron spectroscopy. The paper presents examples of standard applications of the method of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Advantages one can take from application of the methods, their potentialities as well as their limitations are pointed out. (author)

  20. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Vitor H; Faria, Luiz F O; Ribeiro, Mauro C C

    2017-05-24

    Vibrational spectroscopy has continued use as a powerful tool to characterize ionic liquids since the literature on room temperature molten salts experienced the rapid increase in number of publications in the 1990's. In the past years, infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies have provided insights on ionic interactions and the resulting liquid structure in ionic liquids. A large body of information is now available concerning vibrational spectra of ionic liquids made of many different combinations of anions and cations, but reviews on this literature are scarce. This review is an attempt at filling this gap. Some basic care needed while recording IR or Raman spectra of ionic liquids is explained. We have reviewed the conceptual basis of theoretical frameworks which have been used to interpret vibrational spectra of ionic liquids, helping the reader to distinguish the scope of application of different methods of calculation. Vibrational frequencies observed in IR and Raman spectra of ionic liquids based on different anions and cations are discussed and eventual disagreements between different sources are critically reviewed. The aim is that the reader can use this information while assigning vibrational spectra of an ionic liquid containing another particular combination of anions and cations. Different applications of IR and Raman spectroscopies are given for both pure ionic liquids and solutions. Further issues addressed in this review are the intermolecular vibrations that are more directly probed by the low-frequency range of IR and Raman spectra and the applications of vibrational spectroscopy in studying phase transitions of ionic liquids.

  1. Spectroscopy Division : Progress report for Oct 1979 - Dec 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksena, G.D.; Naik, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    An account of the activities, with an individual summary of each, of the Spectroscopy Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay, for the period from October 1979 to December 1980 is given. The activities of the Division are mainly concerned with: (1) spectrochemical analysis of nuclear fuels, reactor materials, mineral samples, environmental samples, biological samples, and other samples by methods of optical emission spectroscopy, electron spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, (2) research and development primarily in the field of high resolution atomic and molecular spectroscopy, and (3) design and fabrication of high precision optical instruments and electronic components for other Divisions of BARC and other constituent units of the Department of Atomic Energy. During the report period, the following were fabricated: a monochromator using a concave holographic grating, a holographic grating spectrograph, a core viewing system for the Fast Breeder Test Reactor now under construction at Kalpakkam, a critical angle refractometer for heavy water analysis in the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station, electronic equipment like frequency divider amplifier, lock-in-voltmeter, analog ratio meter etc. required for laser spectroscopy. Lists of the staff members, their publications during the report period, educational and training activities of the Division are also given. Two feature articles, one dealing with beam foil spectroscopy and the other with monochromatization of synchrotron radiation, are also included. (M.G.B.)

  2. Micro-raman and tip-enhanced raman spectroscopy of carbon allotropes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, G.G.; With, de G.; Loos, J.

    2008-01-01

    Raman spectroscopic data are obtained on various carbon allotropes like diamond, amorphous carbon, graphite, graphene and single wall carbon nanotubes by micro-Raman spectroscopy, tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy imaging, and the potentials of these techniques for

  3. Xclaim: A graphical interface for the calculation of core-hole spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Javier; Toby, Brian; Veenendaal, Michel van

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The program Xclaim (X-ray core level atomic multiplets) calculates core-hole spectra. • Crystal field under an arbitrary point symmetry and hybridization with ligands. • X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and inverse photoemission (IPES). - Abstract: Xclaim (X-ray core level atomic multiplets) is a graphical interface for the calculation of core-hole spectroscopy and ground state properties within a charge-transfer multiplet model taking into account a many-body Hamiltonian with Coulomb, spin–orbit, crystal-field, and hybridization interactions. Using Coulomb and spin–orbit parameters calculated in the Hartree–Fock limit and ligand field parameters (crystal-field, hybridization and charge-transfer energy) the program calculates X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and inverse photoemission (IPES). The program runs on Linux, Windows and MacOS platforms

  4. Xclaim: A graphical interface for the calculation of core-hole spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Javier [Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Toby, Brian, E-mail: toby@anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Veenendaal, Michel van, E-mail: veenendaal@niu.edu [Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The program Xclaim (X-ray core level atomic multiplets) calculates core-hole spectra. • Crystal field under an arbitrary point symmetry and hybridization with ligands. • X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and inverse photoemission (IPES). - Abstract: Xclaim (X-ray core level atomic multiplets) is a graphical interface for the calculation of core-hole spectroscopy and ground state properties within a charge-transfer multiplet model taking into account a many-body Hamiltonian with Coulomb, spin–orbit, crystal-field, and hybridization interactions. Using Coulomb and spin–orbit parameters calculated in the Hartree–Fock limit and ligand field parameters (crystal-field, hybridization and charge-transfer energy) the program calculates X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and inverse photoemission (IPES). The program runs on Linux, Windows and MacOS platforms.

  5. Surface vibrational spectroscopy (EELS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Adsorbed states of hydrogen on metal surfaces have been studied by means of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). In this article, typical spectra and analysis as well as recent development are introduced. (author)

  6. Hadron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igi, K.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is related to mini-rapporteur talk on baryonium spectroscopy. First of all, the models of baryonium, namely the diquark model, the string picture, the linear baryonium and the bag model, are described. All of these models so far discussed are highly suggestive. In this paper, discussions are confined to the spectroscopy of the string and the bag models. Because of the color degree of freedom, the bag model has mock diquonium and mock mesonium besides true baryonium. It might be possible that the string model takes into account only a part of them. The constraints among baryonium, baryon and boson trajectories using duality and unitarity were proposed as a guide for classifying various spectra. Inequalities were derived as the modest and reliable constraints on baryonium intercepts from baryon and boson intercepts by imposing unitarity and Regge behaviors on scattering amplitudes. As a consequence of residue factorization and duality, the baryonium slopes were derived. The spin of S (1936) was also obtained. The baryonium containing s or c quarks can also be studied. Topics such as the EXD patterns of baryons, linear baryons, linear Regge trajectories for all Q-anti Q families, and the Al and two Q mesons, are presented in this paper. Comments on di-baryon are described. (Kato, T.)

  7. Hadron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Spectra of hadrons show various and complex structures due to the strong coupling constants of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) constituting its fundamental theory. For their understandings, two parameters, i.e., (1) the quark mass and (2) their excitation energies are playing important roles. In low energies, for example, rather simple structures similar to the positronium appear in the heavy quarks such as charms and bottoms. It has been, however, strongly suggested by the recent experiments that the molecular resonant state shows up when the threshold to decay to mesons is exceeded. On the other hand, chiral symmetry and its breaking play important roles in the dynamics of light quarks. Strange quarks are in between and show special behaviors. In the present lecture, the fundamental concept of the hadron spectroscopy based on the QCD is expounded to illustrate the present understandings and problems of the hadron spectroscopy. Sections are composed of 1. Introduction, 2. Fundamental Concepts (hadrons, quarks and QCD), 3. Quark models and exotic hadrons, 4. Lattice QCD and QCD sum rules. For sections 1 to 3, only outline of the concepts is described because of the limited space. Exotic hadrons, many quark pictures of light hadrons and number of quarks in hadrons are described briefly. (S. Funahashi)

  8. Investigating Low-Cost Optical Spectroscopy for Sensing Pressure Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchandani, Smruti Suresh

    Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy has been used widely to characterize tissue properties for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This thesis focuses on the use of spectroscopy for early pressure ulcer detection. The most common early diagnosis technique for pressure ulcers is a blanch test. A major issue with a blanch test is that it is purely visual and cannot be visibly observed on dark skinned individuals. Studies have already proven that spectroscopy can be used to detect blanch response in skin across light and dark skinned individuals. The portable reflectance spectroscopy setup showed that pressure changes to the skin can be detected spectroscopically. Some work on an iPhone based spectrometer was also done to have a low-cost spectroscopy alternative to the usual DRS equipment. This study failed to develop an iPhone based spectrometer but various factors that can be changed to better this research have been mentioned in this thesis.

  9. Computer Assisted Instruction (Cain) For Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaturonrusmee, Wasna; Arthonvorakul, Areerat; Assateranuwat, Adisorn

    2005-10-01

    A computer assisted instruction program for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was developed by using Author ware 5.0, Adobe Image Styler 1.0, Adobe Photo shop 7.0 and Flash MX. The contents included the basic theory of 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the instrumentation of NMR spectroscopy, the two dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy and the interpretation of NMR spectra. The program was also provided examples, and exercises, with emphasis on NMR spectra interpretation to determine the structure of unknown compounds and solutions for self study. The questionnaire from students showed that they were very satisfied with the software

  10. Evaluating minerals of environmental concern using spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayze, G.A.; Clark, R.N.; Higgins, C.T.; Kokaly, R.F.; Livo, K. Eric; Hoefen, T.M.; Ong, C.; Kruse, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy has been successfully used to aid researchers in characterizing potential environmental impacts posed by acid-rock drainage, ore-processing dust on mangroves, and asbestos in serpentine mineral deposits and urban dust. Many of these applications synergistically combine field spectroscopy with remote sensing data, thus allowing more-precise data calibration, spectral analysis of the data, and verification of mapping. The increased accuracy makes these environmental evaluation tools efficient because they can be used to focus field work on those areas most critical to the research effort. The use of spectroscopy to evaluate minerals of environmental concern pushes current imaging spectrometer technology to its limits; we present laboratory results that indicate the direction for future designs of imaging spectrometers.

  11. Near-Field Spectroscopy with Nanoparticles Deposited by AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    An alternative approach to apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy involving an atomic-force microscope (AFM) entails less complexity of equipment than does a prior approach. The alternative approach has been demonstrated to be applicable to apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy of the type using an AFM and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and is expected to be equally applicable in cases in which infrared or fluorescence spectroscopy is used. Apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy is a means of performing spatially resolved analyses of chemical compositions of surface regions of nanostructured materials. In apertureless near-field spectroscopy, it is common practice to utilize nanostructured probe tips or nanoparticles (usually of gold) having shapes and dimensions chosen to exploit plasmon resonances so as to increase spectroscopic-signal strengths. To implement the particular prior approach to which the present approach is an alternative, it is necessary to integrate a Raman spectrometer with an AFM and to utilize a special SERS-active probe tip. The resulting instrumentation system is complex, and the tasks of designing and constructing the system and using the system to acquire spectro-chemical information from nanometer-scale regions on a surface are correspondingly demanding.

  12. The laser spectroscopy for the quality and safety food of vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconieri, Mauro; Sighicelli, Maria

    2015-01-01

    ENEA has long been engaged in research in order to the development of instrumentation and application of spectroscopic methods for monitoring and diagnostics early and non-destructive state of health of plants and the quality of food products. In addition to the most common spectroscopic techniques (such as the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the spectroscopy transmittance and reflectance in the visible and near infrared spectroscopy and photoluminescence), the use of which in the agro-industry is well documented in the scientific literature, particular attention has recently been paid to the Raman spectroscopy and reflectance spectroscopy Time resolved (time-resolved reflectivity spectroscopy, TRRS) with ultrashort laser pulses (in the domain of hundreds of femto seconds, 10 -15 s). [it

  13. Electrochemical surface plasmon spectroscopy-Recent developments and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Nan; Schweiss, Ruediger; Zong, Yun; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    A survey is given on recent developments and applications of electrochemical techniques combined with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. Surface plasmon spectroscopy (SPS) and optical waveguide mode spectroscopy make use of evanescent waves on metal-dielectric interfaces and can be conveniently combined with electrochemical methods. Selected examples of applications of high-pressure surface electrochemical plasmon resonance spectroscopy to study supramolecular architectures such as layer-by-layer films of conducting polymers or thin composite films will be presented. Then a combination of SPS with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) will be introduced and illustrated with a study on doping/de-doping process of a conducting polymer. This combination allows for simultaneous electrochemical, optical and microgravimetric characterization of interfaces. Finally, new technical developments including integration of SPS into microfluidic devices using a grating coupler and surface plasmon enhanced diffraction will be discussed

  14. Hadron spectroscopy in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Palano, Antimo

    2018-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to study the properties and decays of heavy flavored hadrons produced in pp collisions at the LHC. The data collected in the LHC Run I enables precision spectroscopy studies of beauty and charm hadrons. The latest results on spectroscopy of conventional and exotic hadrons are reviewed. In particular the discovery of the first charmonium pentaquark states in the $J/\\psi p$ system, the possible existence of four-quark states decaying to $J/\\psi \\phi$ and the confirmation of resonant nature of the $Z_c(4430)^−$ mesonic state are discussed. In the sector of charmed baryons, the observation of five new $\\Omega_c$ states, the observation of the $\\Xi^+_{cc}$ and the study of charmed baryons decaying to $D^0 p$ are presented.

  15. From Femtosecond Dynamics to Breast Cancer Diagnosis by Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramczyk, H.; Placek, I.; Brozek-Pluska, B.; Kurczewski, K.; Morawiec, Z.; Tazbir, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents new results based on Raman spectroscopy and demonstrates its utilisation as a diagnostic and development tool with the key advantage in breast cancer research. Applications of Raman spectroscopy in cancer research are in the early stages of development. However, research presented here as well as performed in a few other laboratories demonstrate the ability of Raman spectroscopy to accurately characterize cancer tissue and distinguish between normal, malignant and benign types. The main goals of bio-Raman spectroscopy at this stage are threefold. Firstly, the aim is to develop the diagnostic ability of Raman spectroscopy so it can be implemented in a clinical environment, producing accurate and rapid diagnoses. Secondly, the aim is to optimize the technique as a diagnostic tool for the non-invasive real time medical applications. Thirdly, the aim is to formulate some hypothesis based on Raman spectroscopy on the molecular mechanism which drives the transformation of normal human cells into highly malignant derivatives. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most statistically reliable report on Raman spectroscopy-based diagnosis of breast cancers among the world women population

  16. Data processing system for spectroscopy at Novillo Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega C, G.; Gaytan G, E.

    1998-01-01

    Taking as basis some proposed methodologies by software engineering it was designed and developed a data processing system coming from the diagnostic equipment by spectroscopy, for the study of plasma impurities, during the cleaning discharges. the data acquisition is realized through an electronic interface which communicates the computer with the spectroscopy system of Novillo Tokamak. The data were obtained starting from files type text and processed for their subsequently graphic presentation. For development of this system named PRODATN (Processing of Data for Spectroscopy in Novillo Tokamak) was used the LabVIEW graphic programming language. (Author)

  17. A portable in situ NaI(Tl) γ spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bairong; Dong Binjiang; Zeng Liping

    1999-01-01

    The author describes a portable in situ NaI(Tl) γ spectroscopy system, which consists of a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, an integrative spectroscopy card, a notebook computer and the spectroscopy software. The spectrometer addresses applications in environmental or nuclear accident in situ γ spectroscopy measurements, and gives valid quantitative results of radionuclide concentrations per unit volume (Bq/kg) or per unit area (Bq/cm 2 ) in the soil and absorbed dose rate in air 1 m above ground (Gy/h)

  18. Development and applications of quantitative NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Taichi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, quantitative NMR spectroscopy has attracted attention as an analytical method which can easily secure traceability to SI unit system, and discussions about its accuracy and inaccuracy are also started. This paper focuses on the literatures on the advancement of quantitative NMR spectroscopy reported between 2009 and 2016, and introduces both NMR measurement conditions and actual analysis cases in quantitative NMR. The quantitative NMR spectroscopy using an internal reference method enables accurate quantitative analysis with a quick and versatile way in general, and it is possible to obtain the precision sufficiently applicable to the evaluation of pure substances and standard solutions. Since the external reference method can easily prevent contamination to samples and the collection of samples, there are many reported cases related to the quantitative analysis of biologically related samples and highly scarce natural products in which NMR spectra are complicated. In the precision of quantitative NMR spectroscopy, the internal reference method is superior. As the quantitative NMR spectroscopy widely spreads, discussions are also progressing on how to utilize this analytical method as the official methods in various countries around the world. In Japan, this method is listed in the Pharmacopoeia and Japanese Standard of Food Additives, and it is also used as the official method for purity evaluation. In the future, this method will be expected to spread as the general-purpose analysis method that can ensure traceability to SI unit system. (A.O.)

  19. Coherent spectroscopies on ultrashort time and length scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three spectroscopic techniques are presented that provide simultaneous spatial and temporal resolution: modified confocal microscopy with heterodyne detection, space-time-resolved spectroscopy using coherent control concepts, and coherent two-dimensional nano-spectroscopy. Latest experimental results are discussed.

  20. Application of Raman Spectroscopy and Infrared Spectroscopy in the Identification of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depciuch, Joanna; Kaznowska, Ewa; Zawlik, Izabela; Wojnarowska, Renata; Cholewa, Marian; Heraud, Philip; Cebulski, Józef

    2016-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are both techniques that allow for the investigation of vibrating chemical particles. These techniques provide information not only about chemical particles through the identification of functional groups and spectral analysis of so-called "fingerprints", these methods allow for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of chemical substances in the sample. Both of these spectral techniques are frequently being used in biology and medicine in diagnosing illnesses and monitoring methods of therapy. The type of breast cancer found in woman is often a malignant tumor, causing 1.38 million new cases of breast cancer and 458 000 deaths in the world in 2013. The most important risk factors for breast cancer development are: sex, age, family history, specific benign breast conditions in the breast, ionizing radiation, and lifestyle. The main purpose of breast cancer screening tests is to establish early diagnostics and to apply proper treatment. Diagnoses of breast cancer are based on: (1) physical techniques (e.g., ultrasonography, mammography, elastography, magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography [PET]); (2) histopathological techniques; (3) biological techniques; and (4) optical techniques (e.g., photo acoustic imaging, fluorescence tomography). However, none of these techniques provides unique or especially revealing answers. The aim of our study is comparative spectroscopic measurements on patients with the following: normal non-cancerous breast tissue; breast cancer tissues before chemotherapy; breast cancer tissues after chemotherapy; and normal breast tissues received around the cancerous breast region. Spectra collected from breast cancer patients shows changes in amounts of carotenoids and fats. We also observed changes in carbohydrate and protein levels (e.g., lack of amino acids, changes in the concentration of amino acids, structural changes) in comparison with normal breast tissues. This fact

  1. Versatile silicon-waveguide supercontinuum for coherent mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Nima; Maser, Daniel L.; Cruz, Flavio C.; Kowligy, Abijith; Timmers, Henry; Chiles, Jeff; Fredrick, Connor; Westly, Daron A.; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard P.; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Diddams, Scott

    2018-03-01

    Laser frequency combs, with their unique combination of precisely defined spectral lines and broad bandwidth, are a powerful tool for basic and applied spectroscopy. Here, we report offset-free, mid-infrared frequency combs and dual-comb spectroscopy through supercontinuum generation in silicon-on-sapphire waveguides. We leverage robust fabrication and geometrical dispersion engineering of nanophotonic waveguides for multi-band, coherent frequency combs spanning 70 THz in the mid-infrared (2.5 μm-6.2 μm). Precise waveguide fabrication provides significant spectral broadening with engineered spectra targeted at specific mid-infrared bands. We characterize the relative-intensity-noise of different bands and show that the measured levels do not pose any limitation for spectroscopy applications. Additionally, we use the fabricated photonic devices to demonstrate dual-comb spectroscopy of a carbonyl sulfide gas sample at 5 μm. This work forms the technological basis for applications such as point sensors for fundamental spectroscopy, atmospheric chemistry, trace and hazardous gas detection, and biological microscopy.

  2. Versatile silicon-waveguide supercontinuum for coherent mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Nader

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser frequency combs, with their unique combination of precisely defined spectral lines and broad bandwidth, are a powerful tool for basic and applied spectroscopy. Here, we report offset-free, mid-infrared frequency combs and dual-comb spectroscopy through supercontinuum generation in silicon-on-sapphire waveguides. We leverage robust fabrication and geometrical dispersion engineering of nanophotonic waveguides for multi-band, coherent frequency combs spanning 70 THz in the mid-infrared (2.5 μm–6.2 μm. Precise waveguide fabrication provides significant spectral broadening with engineered spectra targeted at specific mid-infrared bands. We characterize the relative-intensity-noise of different bands and show that the measured levels do not pose any limitation for spectroscopy applications. Additionally, we use the fabricated photonic devices to demonstrate dual-comb spectroscopy of a carbonyl sulfide gas sample at 5 μm. This work forms the technological basis for applications such as point sensors for fundamental spectroscopy, atmospheric chemistry, trace and hazardous gas detection, and biological microscopy.

  3. Laser spectroscopy probes the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.; Billowes, J.

    1998-01-01

    Extremely sensitive optical measurements are shedding new light on the shape and size of nuclei, and the properties of nuclear matter far from stability. Of the 7000 or so isotopes known to nuclear physicists, less than 270 are stable. In general isotopes become more and more unstable as we move away from the so-called valley of stability, and therefore become more difficult to study in experiments. The tests of the theory also become more demanding. Laser spectroscopy is one of the techniques that is helping to explore the properties of these isotopes and improve our understanding of the forces inside the nucleus. High-resolution laser spectroscopy of short-lived radioactive atoms now makes it possible to measure the nuclear charge radius of many elements, including many isotopes far from stability. The method can reveal fine details of the sizes, shapes and structures of nuclei. In addition, laser spectroscopy is making significant contributions to our understanding of the nuclear force in unstable nuclei with unusual, or extreme, proton-neutron ratios. In this article the authors discuss the latest advances in studying heavy nuclei. (author)

  4. Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using Vis/NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuqi; Tang, Xuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was studied in this paper. Vis/NIR diffuse reflection spectroscopy responses to samples were measured for 6 days. Spectroscopy data were processed by stochastic resonance (SR). Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to analyze original spectroscopy data and SNR eigen value. Results demonstrated that PCA could not totally discriminate Fuji apples using original spectroscopy data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectrum clearly classified all apple samples. PCA using SNR spectrum successfully discriminated apple samples. Therefore, Vis/NIR spectroscopy was effective for Fuji apple storage time rapid discrimination. The proposed method is also promising in condition safety control and management for food and environmental laboratories. PMID:25874818

  5. The rates of elementary atomic processes and laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudzikas, Z.; Sereapinas, P.; Kaulakys, B.

    1989-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy and physics of the atom are closely interrelated. Spectra are the fundamental characteristics of atoms. Modern atomic spectroscopy deals with the structure and properties of any atom of the periodic table as well as of ions of any ionization degree. Therefore, one has to develop fairly universal and, at the same time, exact methods. In this paper briefly analyze the contemporary status of the theory of many-electron atoms and ions, the peculiarities of their structure and spectra, as well as of the processes of their interaction with radiation, interatomic interaction and of the plasma spectroscopy. The attention mainly is paid to the spectroscopy of multiply charged ions and to the processes with highly excited atoms

  6. Electron capture and energy-gain spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taulbjerg, K.

    1989-01-01

    The applicability of translation energy spectroscopy as a tool to determine individual reaction cross sections in atomic collisions is analyzed with special emphasis on the electron capture process in highly charged ion collisions. A condition is derived to separate between higher collision energies where translation energy spectroscopy is problem free and lower energies where strong overlap of individual spectra features prohibits an analysis of the total translation energy spectrum by means of a simple deconvolution procedure. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Conversion electron spectroscopy in transfermium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzberg, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    Conversion electron spectroscopy is an essential tool for the spectroscopy of heavy deformed nuclei. The conversion electron spectrometer SACRED has been used in conjunction with the gas-filled recoil separator RITU to study conversion electron cascades in 254 No. The spectra reveal the ground state rotational bands down to low spin. A detailed analysis of the background seen for 254 No shows that approximately 40% of the decay path goes via excited high K bands which may be built on an isomer. (orig.)

  8. Probing giant magnetoresistance with THz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zuanming; Tkach, Alexander; Casper, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    We observe a giant magnetoresistance effect in CoFe/Cu-based multistack using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The magnetic field-dependent dc conductivity, electron scattering time, as well as spin-asymmetry parameter of the structure are successfully determined. © 2014 OSA.......We observe a giant magnetoresistance effect in CoFe/Cu-based multistack using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The magnetic field-dependent dc conductivity, electron scattering time, as well as spin-asymmetry parameter of the structure are successfully determined. © 2014 OSA....

  9. Raman Spectroscopy of Microbial Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapid nondestructive technique providing spectroscopic and structural information on both organic and inorganic molecular compounds. Extensive applications for the method in the characterization of pigments have been found. Due to the high sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy for the detection of chlorophylls, carotenoids, scytonemin, and a range of other pigments found in the microbial world, it is an excellent technique to monitor the presence of such pigments, both in pure cultures and in environmental samples. Miniaturized portable handheld instruments are available; these instruments can be used to detect pigments in microbiological samples of different types and origins under field conditions. PMID:24682303

  10. Laser Spectroscopy : XII International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Allegrini, Maria; Sasso, Antonio

    1996-01-01

    This text includes all the recent advances in the field of laser spectroscopy. Major results span from the control of matter by electromagnetic fields (trapping and coding) to high precision measurements on simple atomic systems and to quantum optics with single atoms. It includes a report of the Bose-Einstein condensation achieved by laser-cooling of rubidium atoms. Achievements in the technology of tunable sources, in particular of miniaturized solid state devices, are also reported. Most recent advances in molecular spectroscopy are illustrated with emphasis on "cooled" spectra, clusters and high accuracy frequency references. Topics such as atomic interferometry and microcavity quantum optics are also covered.

  11. Spectroscopy Division Progress report for 1977-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksena, G.D.; Naik, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    An account of the activities of the Spectroscopy Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, covering the period 1977-79 is given. The activities broadly cover the areas of spectrochemical analysis, research and development programmes in the fields of atomic and molecular spectroscopy and design and fabrication of high precision optical instruments and electronic components required for the above programmes. (K.B.)

  12. Gamma-ray and electron spectroscopy in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejiri, H.

    1989-01-01

    This book is devoted to the role of gamma-ray and conversion-electron (γ-e) spectroscopy in developing our understanding of nuclear structure and nuclear reaction-mechanisms. The book was written because of the spectacular development in the last decade of new γ-e spectroscopic methods, and their application to various kinds of nuclear reactions and the need to present γ-e spectroscopy from the point of view of nuclear structure as well as of reaction mechanism. The importance of γ-e spectroscopy is due to the simplicity and familiarity of the electromagnetic interaction, which gives accurate values for many nuclear quantities and reveals special nuclear properties. γ-e spectroscopy is applied to investigate static as well as dynamic nuclear properties over a wide range of excitation energies from the ground state to states of extreme temperatures and angular momentum, including some new degrees of freedom. (author)

  13. Spectroscopy Division progress report for January 1987 - December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    During the period January 1987 - December 1988, the Spectroscopy Division has carried out research and development in many areas of analytical spectroscopy, atomic spectra and spectra of diatomic and polyatomic molecules. The Division has acquired an ICP spectrometer and an excimer laser pumped dye laser during this period and they have been used very fruitfully for research and development. Research in high resolution atomic spectroscopy has continued to flourish. Beam foil spectroscopy and spectroscopy of low energy plasma focus sources have been put on a firm foundation. Setting up of new experimental systems for solid state spectral studies at liquid helium temperatures have been started. A good amount of theoretical work in forbidden transitions, has been carried out. Diode laser spectroscopy has been used for high precision intensity and frequency measurements. Service facilities like quality control analysis of nuclear materials and supply of optical components and thin film devices have performed with maximum efficiency. The electronics and instrumentation group has developed several facilities for various experimental set ups. Brief description of all these and other activities of the Division are given in the present progress report. A list of publications and a divisional staff chart are also given. (author). figs., tabs

  14. Charmonium(like) spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhiqing [Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Since its discovery in 1974, charmonium spectroscopy has always been an important probe to study strong interactions and the structure of hadronic matter. Below open-charm threshold, the charmonium spectrum is well established now. Also our understanding of charmonium states above the open-charm threshold has seen a big progress during recent years. However, the most surprising was the discovery of charmonium-like states, which have a similar mass scale as charmonium states but can not be classified as conventional states easily. Indeed, charmonium-like states are good candidates for the so-called exotic hadron states, i.e. particles with a quark content different from normal mesons and baryons, such as multi-quark states, hybrid states or molecule states. Although neutral charmonium-like states are more difficult to be identified, the observation of charged states provide us a convincing evidence. In this talk, I review the recent progress on charmonium and charmonium-like spectroscopy from BESIII, Belle, BABAR, CLEO-c and LHCb and the prospect for future experiments at Belle II and PANDA.

  15. Periodontitis diagnostics using resonance Raman spectroscopy on saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Biryukova, T.; Tsvetkov, M.; Bagratashvily, V.

    2013-07-01

    In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm-1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva.

  16. Vibrational Micro-Spectroscopy of Human Tissues Analysis: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunaciu, Andrei A; Hoang, Vu Dang; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2017-05-04

    Vibrational spectroscopy (Infrared (IR) and Raman) and, in particular, micro-spectroscopy and micro-spectroscopic imaging have been used to characterize developmental changes in tissues, to monitor these changes in cell cultures and to detect disease and drug-induced modifications. The conventional methods for biochemical and histophatological tissue characterization necessitate complex and "time-consuming" sample manipulations and the results are rarely quantifiable. The spectroscopy of molecular vibrations using mid-IR or Raman techniques has been applied to samples of human tissue. This article reviews the application of these vibrational spectroscopic techniques for analysis of biological tissue published between 2005 and 2015.

  17. New positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques for thick materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, F.A.; Wells, D.P.; Harmon, J.F.; Kwofie, J.; Erikson, G.; Roney, T.

    2003-01-01

    The Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC) has developed new techniques for positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) by using highly penetrating γ-rays to create positrons inside the material via pair production. Two sources of γ-rays have been employed. Bremsstrahlung beams from small-electron linacs (6 MeV) were used to generate positrons inside the material to perform Doppler-broadening spectroscopy. A 2 MeV proton beam was used to obtain coincident γ-rays from 27 Al target and enable lifetime and Doppler-broadening spectroscopy. This technique successfully measured stress/strain in thick samples, and showed promise to extend PAS into a variety of applications

  18. Periodontitis diagnostics using resonance Raman spectroscopy on saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonchukov, S; Sukhinina, A; Bakhmutov, D; Biryukova, T; Tsvetkov, M; Bagratashvily, V

    2013-01-01

    In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm −1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva. (letter)

  19. Visible spectroscopy on ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, J.V.

    1991-12-01

    In this report visible spectroscopy and impurity investigations on ASDEX are reviewed and several sets of visible spectra are presented. As a basis for identification of metallic impurity lines during plasma discharges spectra from a stainless steel - Cu arc have been recorded. In a next step a spectrum overview of ASDEX discharges is shown which reveals the dominating role of lines from light impurities like carbon and oxygen throughout the UV and visible range (2000 A ≤ λ ≤ 8000 A). Metallic impurity lines of neutrals or single ionized atoms are observed near localized surfaces. The dramatic effect of impurity reduction by boronization of the vessel walls is demonstrated in a few examples. In extension to some ivesti-gations already published, further diagnostic applications of visible spectroscopy are presented. Finally, the hardware and software system used on ASDEX are described in detail. (orig.)

  20. Applied spectroscopy and the science of nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on several areas of intense topical interest related to applied spectroscopy and the science of nanomaterials. The eleven chapters in the book cover the following areas of interest relating to applied spectroscopy and nanoscience: ·         Raman spectroscopic characterization, modeling and simulation studies of carbon nanotubes, ·         Characterization of plasma discharges using laser optogalvanic spectroscopy, ·         Fluorescence anisotropy in understanding protein conformational disorder and aggregation, ·         Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in nanomedicine, ·         Calculation of Van der Waals interactions at the nanoscale, ·         Theory and simulation associated with adsorption of gases in nanomaterials, ·         Atom-precise metal nanoclusters, ·         Plasmonic properties of metallic nanostructures, two-dimensional materials, and their composites, ·         Applications of graphe...

  1. Accuracy Enhancement of Raman Spectroscopy Using Complementary Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) with Geologically Mixed Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soojin; Kim, Dongyoung; Yang, Junho; Yoh, Jack J

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative Raman analysis was carried out with geologically mixed samples that have various matrices. In order to compensate the matrix effect in Raman shift, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis was performed. Raman spectroscopy revealed the geological materials contained in the mixed samples. However, the analysis of a mixture containing different matrices was inaccurate due to the weak signal of the Raman shift, interference, and the strong matrix effect. On the other hand, the LIBS quantitative analysis of atomic carbon and calcium in mixed samples showed high accuracy. In the case of the calcite and gypsum mixture, the coefficient of determination of atomic carbon using LIBS was 0.99, while the signal using Raman was less than 0.9. Therefore, the geological composition of the mixed samples is first obtained using Raman and the LIBS-based quantitative analysis is then applied to the Raman outcome in order to construct highly accurate univariate calibration curves. The study also focuses on a method to overcome matrix effects through the two complementary spectroscopic techniques of Raman spectroscopy and LIBS.

  2. Detection of biologically active diterpenoic acids by Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talian, Ivan; Orinak, Andrej; Efremov, Evtim V.

    2010-01-01

    Three poorly detectable, biologically active diterpenoic acids, kaurenoic, abietic, and gibberellic acid, were studied by using different modes of Raman spectroscopy. Because of their structural similarities, in the absence of strongly polarizable groups, conventional Raman spectroscopy is not su......Three poorly detectable, biologically active diterpenoic acids, kaurenoic, abietic, and gibberellic acid, were studied by using different modes of Raman spectroscopy. Because of their structural similarities, in the absence of strongly polarizable groups, conventional Raman spectroscopy...... few enhanced Raman lines. SERS spectra with 514-nm excitation with Ag colloids were also relatively weak. The best SERS spectrawere obtained with 785-nm excitation on a novel nanostructured substrate, 'black silicon' coated with a 400-nm gold layer. The spectra showed clear differences...

  3. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Biological Applications. B G Hegde. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 1017-1032. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Spectroscopy of new particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, G.

    1977-08-01

    A review of the spectroscopy of the ''psions'' with hidden charm or charm quantum number ch = o is followed by a discussion of charmed mesons and baryons. The anomalous C-μ events and the heavy lepton hypothesis are briefly considered

  5. High-resolution reflection spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducloy, Martial

    1997-01-01

    In this article some recent developments in selective reflection spectroscopy is reviewed and the various ways to extend Doppler free techniques to this spectroscopic field is discussed. Its main feature is to probe atomic gas close to the cell boundaries

  6. Study on Senna alata and its different extracts by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiana, M. A.; Mazura, M. P.

    2011-04-01

    Senna alata L. commonly known as candle bush belongs to the family of Fabaceae and the plant has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, laxative and antiplatelet-aggregating activity. In order to develop a rapid and effective analysis method for studying integrally the main constituents in the medicinal materials and their extracts, discriminating the extracts from different extraction process, comparing the categories of chemical constituents in the different extracts and monitoring the qualities of medicinal materials, we applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) associated with second derivative infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) to study the main constituents of S. alata and its different extracts (extracted by hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol in turn). The findings indicated that FT-IR and 2D-IR can provide many holistic variation rules of chemical constituents. Use of the macroscopical fingerprint characters of FT-IR and 2D-IR spectrum can identify the main chemical constituents in medicinal materials and their extracts, but also compare the components differences among similar samples. In a conclusion, FT-IR spectroscopy combined with 2D correlation analysis provides a powerful method for the quality control of traditional medicines.

  7. Photographic infrared spectroscopy and near infrared photometry of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swings, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Two topics are tackled in this presentation: spectroscopy and photometry. The following definitions are chosen: photographic infrared spectroscopy (wavelengths Hα<=lambda<1.2 μ); near infrared photometry (wavebands: 1.6 μ<=lambda<=20 μ). Near infrared spectroscopy and photometry of classical and peculiar Be stars are discussed and some future developments in the field are outlined. (Auth.)

  8. High-resolution coherent three-dimensional spectroscopy of Br2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter C; Wells, Thresa A; Strangfeld, Benjamin R

    2013-07-25

    In the past, high-resolution spectroscopy has been limited to small, simple molecules that yield relatively uncongested spectra. Larger and more complex molecules have a higher density of peaks and are susceptible to complications (e.g., effects from conical intersections) that can obscure the patterns needed to resolve and assign peaks. Recently, high-resolution coherent two-dimensional (2D) spectroscopy has been used to resolve and sort peaks into easily identifiable patterns for molecules where pattern-recognition has been difficult. For very highly congested spectra, however, the ability to resolve peaks using coherent 2D spectroscopy is limited by the bandwidth of instrumentation. In this article, we introduce and investigate high-resolution coherent three-dimensional spectroscopy (HRC3D) as a method for dealing with heavily congested systems. The resulting patterns are unlike those in high-resolution coherent 2D spectra. Analysis of HRC3D spectra could provide a means for exploring the spectroscopy of large and complex molecules that have previously been considered too difficult to study.

  9. A New Spin on Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozwiak, Chris [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The electronic spin degree of freedom is of general fundamental importance to all matter. Understanding its complex roles and behavior in the solid state, particularly in highly correlated and magnetic materials, has grown increasingly desirable as technology demands advanced devices and materials based on ever stricter comprehension and control of the electron spin. However, direct and efficient spin dependent probes of electronic structure are currently lacking. Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) has become one of the most successful experimental tools for elucidating solid state electronic structures, bolstered by-continual breakthroughs in efficient instrumentation. In contrast, spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has lagged behind due to a lack of similar instrumental advances. The power of photoemission spectroscopy and the pertinence of electronic spin in the current research climate combine to make breakthroughs in Spin and Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (SARPES) a high priority . This thesis details the development of a unique instrument for efficient SARPES and represents a radical departure from conventional methods. A custom designed spin polarimeter based on low energy exchange scattering is developed, with projected efficiency gains of two orders of magnitude over current state-of-the-art polarimeters. For energy analysis, the popular hemispherical analyzer is eschewed for a custom Time-of-Flight (TOF) analyzer offering an additional order of magnitude gain in efficiency. The combined instrument signifies the breakthrough needed to perform the high resolution SARPES experiments necessary for untangling the complex spin-dependent electronic structures central to today's condensed matter physics.

  10. Spectroscopy with trapped highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We give an overview of atomic spectroscopy performed on electron beam ion traps at various locations throughout the world. Spectroscopy at these facilities contributes to various areas of science and engineering, including but not limited to basic atomic physics, astrophysics, extreme ultraviolet lithography, and the development of density and temperature diagnostics of fusion plasmas. These contributions are accomplished by generating, for example, spectral surveys, making precise radiative lifetime measurements, accounting for radiative power emitted in a given wavelength band, illucidating isotopic effects, and testing collisional-radiative models. While spectroscopy with electron beam ion traps had originally focused on the x-ray emission from highly charged ions interacting with the electron beam, the operating modes of such devices have expanded to study radiation in almost all wavelength bands from the visible to the hard x-ray region; and at several facilities the ions can be studied even in the absence of an electron beam. Photon emission after charge exchange or laser excitation has been observed; and the work is no longer restricted to highly charged ions. Much of the experimental capabilities are unique to electron beam ion traps, and the work performed with these devices cannot be undertaken elsewhere. However, in other areas the work on electron beam ion traps rivals the spectroscopy performed with conventional ion traps or heavy-ion storage rings. The examples we present highlight many of the capabilities of the existing electron beam ion traps and their contributions to physics.

  11. Penning ionization processes studied by electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yencha, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    The technique of measuring the kinetic energy of electrons ejected from atomic or molecular species as a result of collisional energy transfer between a metastable excited rare gas atom and an atom or molecule is known as Penning ionization spectroscopy. Like the analogous photoionization process of photoelectron spectroscopy, a considerable amount of information has been gained about the ionization potentials of numerous molecular systems. It is, in fact, through the combined analyses of photoelectron and Penning electron spectra that affords a probe of the particle-particle interactions that occur in the Penning process. In this paper a short survey of the phenomenon of Penning ionization, as studied by electron spectroscopy, will be presented as it pertains to the ionization processes of simple molecules by metastable excited atoms. (author)

  12. Near Infrared Spectroscopy as a Hemodynamic Monitor in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanayem, Nancy S; Hoffman, George M

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this review are to discuss the technology and clinical interpretation of near infrared spectroscopy oximetry and its clinical application in patients with congenital heart disease. MEDLINE and PubMed. Near infrared spectroscopy provides a continuous noninvasive assessment of tissue oxygenation. Over 20 years ago, near infrared spectroscopy was introduced into clinical practice for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during cardiopulmonary bypass in adults. Since that time, the utilization of near infrared spectroscopy has extended into the realm of pediatric cardiac surgery and is increasingly being used in the cardiac ICU to monitor tissue oxygenation perioperatively.

  13. Nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, C.

    1977-02-01

    A survey of the state of nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions is given. Proceeding from the physical and nuclear properties the specific topics arising by the acceleration of these ions are discussed. The results obtained from measurements of excitation functions of different lithium reactions, particularly of compound reactions, with several target nuclei are summarized. Besides compound reactions direct reactions are important, especially transfer reactions, elastic and inelastic scattering and exchange reactions. The results on high spin states obtained by in-beam gamma-spectroscopy are discussed in detail. Finally the possibilities are considered for accelerating lithium ions in the cyclotron U-120 and in the tandem generator EGP-10 of the ZfK. (author)

  14. An integrative portable X γ ray spectroscopy with stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Dajing; Chen Baoliu; Liu Yongsheng

    1996-01-01

    An integrative portable X γ-ray spectroscopy with stabilizer is described, which is consists of an integrative detector, an integrative spectroscopy card, and the notebook computer. The former includes the integration of detector, preamplifier and Pb room, and the later includes the integration of the main amplifier, the high voltage power, the lower voltage power, the spectroscopy ADC, the stabilizer and the multichannel interface, all of those are design in a PC card, which is plunged into the spread bin of the note-book computer. The detector and the spectroscopy card is linked with the multi-wire cable. The power is supplied by 6 voltages of re-chargeable battery. At present, the low background portable scintillation spectroscopy has been built with the integrative detector of the Φ 50 mm x 50 mm NaI(Tl). another is the XFR portable analyzer with the integrative detector of proportional counter. The stabilizer is based on the detection of reference peak of the spectrum. The main amplifier is with the pole/zero and Gauss shaping. The shaping time is: 1 μs or 2 μs. The spectroscopy ADC is 1024-4096, 50 MHz. Analysis signal amplitude: 5 V. INL:≤ 0.1%; DNL:≤ 0.5%; FHWM:7%; analysis energy range: 0.5 keV-2.0 MeV

  15. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Brunger, M. J.; Neves, R. F. C.; Lopes, M. C. A.; de Oliveira, E. M.; da Costa, R. F.; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Lima, M. A. P.; Jones, D. B.

    2015-10-01

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5-10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.

  16. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Brunger, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5–10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range

  17. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Limão-Vieira, P., E-mail: plimaovieira@fct.unl.pt, E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: maplima@ifi.unicamp.br [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V. [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000 Århus C (Denmark); Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J. [Départment de Chimie, Institut de Chimie-Bât. B6C, Université de Liège, B-4000 Liège 1 (Belgium); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: plimaovieira@fct.unl.pt, E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: maplima@ifi.unicamp.br [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); and others

    2015-10-14

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5–10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.

  18. Spectroscopy of element 115 decay chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, D; Forsberg, U; Golubev, P; Sarmiento, L G; Yakushev, A; Andersson, L-L; Di Nitto, A; Düllmann, Ch E; Gates, J M; Gregorich, K E; Gross, C J; Heßberger, F P; Herzberg, R-D; Khuyagbaatar, J; Kratz, J V; Rykaczewski, K; Schädel, M; Åberg, S; Ackermann, D; Block, M; Brand, H; Carlsson, B G; Cox, D; Derkx, X; Eberhardt, K; Even, J; Fahlander, C; Gerl, J; Jäger, E; Kindler, B; Krier, J; Kojouharov, I; Kurz, N; Lommel, B; Mistry, A; Mokry, C; Nitsche, H; Omtvedt, J P; Papadakis, P; Ragnarsson, I; Runke, J; Schaffner, H; Schausten, B; Thörle-Pospiech, P; Torres, T; Traut, T; Trautmann, N; Türler, A; Ward, A; Ward, D E; Wiehl, N

    2013-09-13

    A high-resolution α, x-ray, and γ-ray coincidence spectroscopy experiment was conducted at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. Thirty correlated α-decay chains were detected following the fusion-evaporation reaction 48Ca + 243Am. The observations are consistent with previous assignments of similar decay chains to originate from element Z=115. For the first time, precise spectroscopy allows the derivation of excitation schemes of isotopes along the decay chains starting with elements Z>112. Comprehensive Monte Carlo simulations accompany the data analysis. Nuclear structure models provide a first level interpretation.

  19. Sydenham's chorea: MRI and proton spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, M.; Kwock, L.; Arbelaez, A.

    1999-01-01

    We present the MRI and proton spectroscopy findings in a child with clinical diagnosis of Sydenham's chorea. MRI showed high signal in the caudate nuclei and putamina on T2-weighted images. We believe that the spectra showed an abnormality in the number and/or function of neurons, lipids from cellular breakdown (cytolytic effect of antibodies), aminoacids (related to the presence of antibodies in the neostriatum), and sugars (also related to the presence of antibodies). The spectroscopy features correlate well with the histopathology and biochemistry of this rare disorder. (orig.)

  20. Spectroscopy the key to the stars

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Keith

    2007-01-01

    This is the first non-technical book on spectroscopy written specifically for practical amateur astronomers. It includes all the science necessary for a qualitative understanding of stellar spectra, but avoids a mathematical treatment which would alienate many of its intended readers. Any amateur astronomer who carries out observational spectroscopy and who wants a non-technical account of the physical processes which determine the intensity and profile morphology of lines in stellar spectra will find this is the only book written specially for them. It is an ideal companion to existing books

  1. Mid-infrared spectroscopy in skin cancer cell type identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Lena; Kemper, Björn; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Stone, Nick; Naranjo, Valery; Penaranda, Francisco; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    Mid infrared spectroscopy samples were developed for the analysis of skin tumor cell types and three dimensional tissue phantoms towards the application of midIR spectroscopy for fast and reliable skin cancer diagnostics.

  2. Bimolecular reaction dynamics from photoelectron spectroscopy of negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradforth, S.E.

    1992-11-01

    The transition state region of a neutral bimolecular reaction may be experimentally investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy of an appropriate negative ion. The photoelectron spectrum provides information on the spectroscopy and dynamics of the short lived transition state and may be used to develop model potential energy surfaces that are semi-quantitative in this important region. The principles of bound [yields] bound negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy are illustrated by way of an example: a full analysis of the photoelectron bands of CN[sup [minus

  3. Spectroscopy Division: progress report for January 1989-December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.; Marathe, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Research and development activities of the Spectroscopy Division during the calendar year 1989 are reported in the form of individual summaries which are grouped under the headings entitled: (i)analysis by optical emission spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and x-ray fluroescence techniques, (ii)atomic, molecular, solid state and laser-spectroscopy, (iii)optics and thin films, (iv)electronics, (v)fabrication, (vi)publications, and (vii)other academic activities. A divisional staff chart is given at the end. (author). figs., tabs

  4. Pulse shaping amplifier (PSA) for nuclear spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombigit, L.; Maslina Mohd Ibrahim; Nolida Yusup; Nur Aira Abdul Rahman; Yong, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    Pulse Shaping Amplifier (PSA) is an essential components in nuclear spectroscopy system. This networks have two functions; to shape the output pulse and performs noise filtering. In this paper, we describes procedure for design and development of a pulse shaping amplifier which can be used for nuclear spectroscopy system. This prototype was developed using high performance electronics devices and assembled on a FR4 type printed circuit board. Performance of this prototype was tested by comparing it with an equivalent commercial spectroscopy amplifier (Model SILENA 7611). The test results show that the performance of this prototype is comparable to the commercial spectroscopic amplifier. (author)

  5. Autofluorescence Imaging and Spectroscopy of Human Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyan Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers, with high mortality rate worldwide. Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy is a non-invasive, label-free, real-time technique for cancer detection. In this study, lung tissue sections excised from patients were detected by laser scan confocal microscopy and spectroscopy. The autofluorescence images demonstrated the cellular morphology and tissue structure, as well as the pathology of stained images. Based on the spectra study, it was found that the majority of the patients showed discriminating fluorescence in tumor tissues from normal tissues. Therefore, autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy may be a potential method for aiding the diagnosis of lung cancer.

  6. Positron Spectroscopy of Hydrothermally Grown Actinide Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    actinide oxides . The work described here is an attempt to characterize the quality of crystals using positron annihilation spectroscopy (PALS). The...Upadhyaya, R. V. Muraleedharan, B. D. Sharma and K. G. Prasad, " Positron lifetime studies on thorium oxide powders," Philosohical Magazine A, vol. 45... crystals . A strong foundation for actinide PALS studies was laid, but further work is required to build a more effective system. Positron Spectroscopy

  7. IR Cards: Inquiry-Based Introduction to Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jacqueline; Forster, Tabetha

    2010-01-01

    As infrared spectroscopy (IR) is frequently used in undergraduate organic chemistry courses, an inductive introduction to IR spectroscopy that uses index cards printed with spectra, structures, and chemical names is described. Groups of students are given an alphabetized deck of these "IR cards" to sort into functional groups. The students then…

  8. Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglieri, M.; Briscoe, B. J.; Celentano, A.; Chung, S.-U.; D'Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; Döring, M.; Dudek, J.; Eidelman, S.; Fegan, S.; Ferretti, J.; Filippi, A.; Fox, G.; Galata, G.; García-Tecocoatzi, H.; Glazier, D. I.; Grube, B.; Hanhart, C.; Hoferichter, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ireland, D. G.; Ketzer, B.; Klein, F. J.; Kubis, B.; Liu, B.; Masjuan, P.; Mathieu, V.; McKinnon, B.; Mitchel, R.; Nerling, F.; Paul, S.; Peláez, J. R.; Rademacker, J.; Rizzo, A.; Salgado, C.; Santopinto, E.; Sarantsev, A. V.; Sato, T.; Schlüter, T.; [Silva]da Silva, M. L. L.; Stankovic, I.; Strakovsky, I.; Szczepaniak, A.; Vassallo, A.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Zana, L.

    The series of workshops on New Partial-Wave Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments was initiated with the ATHOS 2012 meeting, which took place in Camogli, Italy, June 20-22, 2012. It was followed by ATHOS 2013 in Kloster Seeon near Munich, Germany, May 21-24, 2013. The third, ATHOS3, meeting is planned for April 13-17, 2015 at The George Washington University Virginia Science and Technology Campus, USA. The workshops focus on the development of amplitude analysis tools for meson and baryon spectroscopy, and complement other programs in hadron spectroscopy organized in the recent past including the INT-JLab Workshop on Hadron Spectroscopy in Seattle in 2009, the International Workshop on Amplitude Analysis in Hadron Spectroscopy at the ECT*-Trento in 2011, the School on Amplitude Analysis in Modern Physics in Bad Honnef in 2011, the Jefferson Lab Advanced Study Institute Summer School in 2012, and the School on Concepts of Modern Amplitude Analysis Techniques in Flecken-Zechlin near Berlin in September 2013. The aim of this document is to summarize the discussions that took place at the ATHOS 2012 and ATHOS 2013 meetings. We do not attempt a comprehensive review of the field of amplitude analysis, but offer a collection of thoughts that we hope may lay the ground for such a document.

  9. Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglieri, Marco; Briscoe, William; Celentano, Andrea; Chung, Suh-Urk; D'Angelo, Annalisa; De Vita, Rafaella; Döring, Michael; Dudek, Jozef; Eidelman, S.; Fegan, Stuart; Ferretti, J.; Filippi, A.; Fox, G.; Galata, G.; Garcia-Tecocoatzi, H.; Glazier, Derek; Grube, B.; Hanhart, C.; Hoferichter, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ireland, David G.; Ketzer, B.; Klein, Franz J.; Kubis, B.; Liu, B.; Masjuan, P.; Mathieu, Vincent; McKinnon, Brian; Mitchel, R.; Nerling, F.; Paul, S.; Peláez, J. R.; Rademacker, J.; Rizzo, Alessandro; Salgado, Carlos; Santopinto, E.; Sarantsev, Andrey V.; Sato, Toru; Schlüter, T.; Da Silva, M. L.L.; Stankovic, I.; Strakovsky, Igor; Szczepaniak, Adam; Vassallo, A.; Walford, Natalie K.; Watts, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    The series of workshops on New Partial-Wave Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments was initiated with the ATHOS 2012 meeting, which took place in Camogli, Italy, June 20-22, 2012. It was followed by ATHOS 2013 in Kloster Seeon near Munich, Germany, May 21-24, 2013. The third, ATHOS3, meeting is planned for April 13-17, 2015 at The George Washington University Virginia Science and Technology Campus, USA. The workshops focus on the development of amplitude analysis tools for meson and baryon spectroscopy, and complement other programs in hadron spectroscopy organized in the recent past including the INT-JLab Workshop on Hadron Spectroscopy in Seattle in 2009, the International Workshop on Amplitude Analysis in Hadron Spectroscopy at the ECT*-Trento in 2011, the School on Amplitude Analysis in Modern Physics in Bad Honnef in 2011, the Jefferson Lab Advanced Study Institute Summer School in 2012, and the School on Concepts of Modern Amplitude Analysis Techniques in Flecken-Zechlin near Berlin in September 2013. The aim of this document is to summarize the discussions that took place at the ATHOS 2012 and ATHOS 2013 meetings. We do not attempt a comprehensive review of the field of amplitude analysis, but offer a collection of thoughts that we hope may lay the ground for such a document

  10. Threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and photoionization total ion yield spectroscopy of simple organic acids, aldehydes, ketones and amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yencha, Andrew J; Malins, Andrew E R; Siggel-King, Michele R F; Eypper, Marie; King, George C

    2009-01-01

    We have initiated a research program to investigate the ionization behavior of some simple organic molecules containing the carboxyl group (R 2 C=O), where R could be H, OH, NH 2 , or CH 3 or other aliphatic or aromatic carbon groups, using threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and photoionization total ion yield spectroscopy. We report here on the simplest organic acid, formic acid, and two simple aldehydes: acetaldehyde and the simplest unsaturated aldehyde, 2-propenal (acrolein). The objective of this study was to characterize the valence cationic states of these molecules with vibrational structural resolution.

  11. Research of Raman spectroscopy to detect subsurface ingredient under non-transparent medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaohua; Zhang Ji; Zhang Haifeng; Lu Jianxin; Sun Shuying; Wang Leijian; Xu Yongsheng; Wang Xiaojie; Tang Xiuzhang

    2014-01-01

    The measurement and contrast of NaNO 3 powder concealed in opaque/semi-transparent plastic bottles were carried out through conventional Raman spectroscopy configuration and spatially offset Raman spectroscopy configuration individually. The action mechanism why the spatially offset Raman spectroscopy can effectively detect the medium concealed in the non-transparent bottle was analyzed. The detection depth of conventional Raman spectroscopy is small and the ingredient of the subsurface under non-transparent medium can not be detected, and the spatially offset Raman spectroscopy broke through the neck of the conventional Raman spectroscopy detection. The measurement and identification of the substance concealed in the non-transparent medium (opaque/semi-transparent plastic bottle) were realized. (authors)

  12. High energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojciech, Blachucki [Univ. of Fribourg (Switzerland). Dept. of Physics

    2015-10-16

    This work treats of the high energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy (HEROS) method of determining the density of unoccupied electronic states in the vicinity of the absorption edge. HEROS is an alternative to the existing X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) methods and opens the way for new studies not achievable before.

  13. Neutron spectroscopy on TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishitani, T.; Strachan, J.D.

    1988-05-01

    This paper describes the use of an 3 He ionization chamber for neutron spectroscopy on TFTR during 1987. The ion temperature was measured using neutron spectroscopy for one set of ohmically heated plasmas. The deduced ion temperatures agreed to within 20% with those measured by other diagnostics. 11 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  14. Overview. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy. Section 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styczen, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The 1994 year activity in the Nuclear Spectroscopy Department was like in previous years spread over large variety of subjects concerned with the in-beam nuclear spectroscopy and many nucleon transfer reactions, properties of high excited nuclear states, and the applied nuclear spectroscopy. The studies in the first two groups were mostly carried out in a vast international collaboration which enabled us to carry out experiments on highly sophisticated experimental facilities abroad like EUROGAM, GASP, HECTOR or OSIRIS, and others. Some preparations for `home` experiments have been carried out on the very much looked forward and recently obtained heavy ion beam from the cyclotron at the Warsaw University. The applied nuclear spectroscopy works, on the other hand, were based on using our own installations: an elaborated set-up for perturbed angular correlations, the RBS and PIXE set-ups at the Van de Graaff accelerator, the implanter, an atomic force microscope and several others. Much of the effort manifests itself in several valuable results which are summarized in the following pages. It is to be underlined that those results, as well as some new instrumentation developments were possible due to additional support via special grants and the promotion of the international cooperation by the State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). (author).

  15. Overview. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy. Section 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styczen, J [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The 1994 year activity in the Nuclear Spectroscopy Department was like in previous years spread over large variety of subjects concerned with the in-beam nuclear spectroscopy and many nucleon transfer reactions, properties of high excited nuclear states, and the applied nuclear spectroscopy. The studies in the first two groups were mostly carried out in a vast international collaboration which enabled us to carry out experiments on highly sophisticated experimental facilities abroad like EUROGAM, GASP, HECTOR or OSIRIS, and others. Some preparations for `home` experiments have been carried out on the very much looked forward and recently obtained heavy ion beam from the cyclotron at the Warsaw University. The applied nuclear spectroscopy works, on the other hand, were based on using our own installations: an elaborated set-up for perturbed angular correlations, the RBS and PIXE set-ups at the Van de Graaff accelerator, the implanter, an atomic force microscope and several others. Much of the effort manifests itself in several valuable results which are summarized in the following pages. It is to be underlined that those results, as well as some new instrumentation developments were possible due to additional support via special grants and the promotion of the international cooperation by the State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). (author).

  16. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a diagnostic modality for carcinoma thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Nikhil; Kakar, Arun K.; Chowdhury, Veena; Gulati, Praveen; Shankar, L. Ravi; Vindal, Anubhav

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to observe the findings of magnetic resonance spectroscopy of solitary thyroid nodules and its correlation with histopathology. Materials and methods: In this study, magnetic resonance spectroscopy was carried out on 26 patients having solitary thyroid nodules. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed on a 1.5 T super conductive system with gradient strength of 33 mTs. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done after MRS. All 26 patients underwent surgery either because of cytopathologically proven malignancy or because of cosmetic reasons. Findings of magnetic resonance spectroscopy were compared with histopathology of thyroid specimens. Results and conclusion: It was seen that presence or absence of choline peak correlates very well with presence or absence of malignant foci with in the nodule (sensitivity = 100%; specificity = 88.88%). These results indicate that magnetic resonance spectroscopy may prove to be an useful diagnostic modality for carcinoma thyroid

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in organic chemistry. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschunke, A.

    1977-01-01

    The fundamentals of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are discussed only briefly. The emphasis is laid on developing reader's ability to evaluate resonance spectra. The following topics are covered: principles of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; chemical shift and indirect nuclear spin coupling constants and their relation to the molecular structure; analysis of spectra; and uses for structural analysis and solution of kinetic problems, mainly with regard to organic compounds. Of interest to chemists and graduate students who want to make themselves acquainted with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

  18. Introduction to experimental infrared spectroscopy fundamentals and practical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Tasumi, Mitsuo; Ochiai, Shukichi

    2014-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is generally understood to mean the science of spectra relating to infrared radiation, namely electromagnetic waves, in the wavelength region occurring intermediately between visible light and microwaves. Measurements of infrared spectra have been providing useful information, for a variety of scientific research and industrial studies, for over half a century; this is set to continue in the foreseeable future. Introduction to Experimental Infrared Spectroscopy is intended to be a handy guide for those who have no, or limited, experience in infrared spectroscopi

  19. Principles and applications of force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Kyu; Kim, Woong; Park, Joon Won [Dept. of Chemistry, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful technique for addressing single molecules. Unseen structures and dynamics of molecules have been elucidated using force spectroscopy. Atomic force microscope (AFM)-based force spectroscopy studies have provided picoNewton force resolution, subnanometer spatial resolution, stiffness of substrates, elasticity of polymers, and thermodynamics and kinetics of single-molecular interactions. In addition, AFM has enabled mapping the distribution of individual molecules in situ, and the quantification of single molecules has been made possible without modification or labeling. In this review, we describe the basic principles, sample preparation, data analysis, and applications of AFM-based force spectroscopy and its future.

  20. Wave mixing spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.W.

    1980-08-01

    Several new aspects of nonlinear or wave mixing spectroscopy were investigated utilizing the polarization properties of the nonlinear output field and the dependence of this field upon the occurrence of multiple resonances in the nonlinear susceptibility. First, it is shown theoretically that polarization-sensitive detection may be used to either eliminate or controllably reduce the nonresonant background in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, allowing weaker Raman resonances to be studied. The features of multi-resonant four-wave mixing are examined in the case of an inhomogeneously broadened medium. It is found that the linewidth of the nonlinear output narrows considerably (approaching the homogeneous width) when the quantum mechanical expressions for the doubly- and triply-resonant susceptibilities are averaged over a Doppler or strain broadened profile. Experimental studies of nonlinear processes in Pr +3 :LaF 3 verify this linewidth narrowing, but indicate that this strain broadened system cannot be treated with a single broadening parameter as in the case of Doppler broadening in a gas. Several susceptibilities are measured from which are deduced dipole matrix elements and Raman polarizabilities related to the 3 H 4 , 3 H 6 , and 3 P 0 levels of the praseodymium ions

  1. Broad-band dielectric spectroscopy of tetragonal PLZT x/40/60

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buixaderas, Elena; Noujni, Dmitri; Veljko, Sergiy; Savinov, Maxim; Vaněk, Přemysl; Kamba, Stanislav; Petzelt, Jan; Kosec, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 79, 6-7 (2006), s. 415-426 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0403; GA ČR GA202/04/0993 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferroelectrics * relaxors * dielectric behaviour * lattice dynamics dielectric spectroscopy * IR spectroscopy * THz spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.830, year: 2006

  2. Ion-atom interactions probed by photofragment spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, H.

    1984-01-01

    Photofragment spectroscopy studies energetic and dynamical properties of molecular states interacting with dissociation continuum. So far, data for eighteen diatomic molecular ions have been gathered by this technique. This paper is a review of these investigations, introduced by a discussion of the experimental methods used. The wealth of information accessible by ion photofragment spectroscopy challenges the experimentalist in the application of innovative techniques and the theoretician for less approximate accounts of the Hamiltonian. (Auth.)

  3. Liquid-Arc/Spark-Excitation Atomic-Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagen, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    Constituents of solutions identified in situ. Liquid-arc/spark-excitation atomic-emission spectroscopy (LAES) is experimental variant of atomic-emission spectroscopy in which electric arc or spark established in liquid and spectrum of light from arc or spark analyzed to identify chemical elements in liquid. Observations encourage development of LAES equipment for online monitoring of process streams in such industries as metal plating, electronics, and steel, and for online monitoring of streams affecting environment.

  4. Cost Effective Process Monitoring using UV-VIS-NIR Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipiti, B.; McDaniel, M.; Bryan, S.; Pratt, S.

    2015-01-01

    UV-VIS-NIR Spectroscopy is a simple and inexpensive measurement technology which has been proposed for process monitoring applications at reprocessing plants. The purpose of this work was to examine if spectroscopy could replace more costly analytical measurements to reduce the safeguards burden to the operator or inspector. Recognizing that the higher measurement uncertainty of spectroscopy makes it unsuited for the accountability tanks, the approach instead was to focus on replacing mass spectrometry for random samples that are taken in a plant. The Interim Inventory Verification and Short Inventory Verification (IIV/SIV) at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant utilize random sampling of internal process vessels and laboratory measurement using Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) to account for plutonium on a timely basis. These measurements are time-consuming, and the low uncertainty may not always be required. For this work, modelling was used to examine if spectroscopy could be used without adversely affecting the safeguards of the plant. The Separation and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM), developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was utilized to examine the replacement of IDMS measurements with spectroscopy. Modeling results showed that complete replacement of IDMS with spectroscopy lowered the detection probability for diversion by an unacceptable amount. However, partial replacement (only for samples from vessels with low plutonium content) did not adversely affect the detection probability. This partial replacement covers roughly half of the twenty or so sampling points used for the IIV/SIVA cost-benefit analysis was completed to determine the cost savings that this approach can provide based on lower equipment costs, maintenance, and reduction of analysts' time. This work envisions working with the existing sampling system and performing the spectroscopic measurements in the analytical laboratory, but future work could examine incorporating

  5. Spectroscopy: Developments in instrumentation and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dardenne, Pierre

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the characteristics, advantages, limits and potential of three spectroscopic techniques: near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR, mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR and Raman spectroscopy. The theoretical aspects related with these techniques, the information that can supplied and the main features of the instrumentation are presented and briefly discussed. The last part of the review concerns the application of the spectroscopy to food analysis, with special emphasis on the lipid analysis. The illustrations and examples have been chosen to demonstrate the importance of spectroscopic techniques both in process (on-line control and in laboratories for the analysis of major or minor compounds.Este artículo de revisión presenta las características, ventajas, límites y potencial de tres técnicas espectroscópicas: las espectroscopias del infrarrojo cercano, del medio infrarrojo y Raman. Se presentan, y discuten brevemente, los aspectos teóricos relacionados con estas técnicas, la información que pueden suministrar, y las principales características de la instrumentación. La última parte de la revisión esta dedicada a las aplicaciones de la espectroscopia en análisis de alimentos, con especial énfasis en análisis de lípidos. La ilustraciones y los ejemplos se han elegido para demostrar la importancia de las técnicas espectroscópicas en los procesos en-línea y en los laboratorios en el análisis de componentes mayoritarios y minoritarios.

  6. Near infrared spectroscopy of human muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarrone, R.; Currà, A.; Cardillo, A.; Bonifazi, G.; Serranti, S.

    2018-02-01

    Optical spectroscopy is a powerful tool in research and industrial applications. Its properties of being rapid, non-invasive and not destructive make it a promising technique for qualitative as well as quantitative analysis in medicine. Recent advances in materials and fabrication techniques provided portable, performant, sensing spectrometers readily operated by user-friendly cabled or wireless systems. We used such a system to test whether infrared spectroscopy techniques, currently utilized in many areas as primary/secondary raw materials sector, cultural heritage, agricultural/food industry, environmental remote and proximal sensing, pharmaceutical industry, etc., could be applied in living humans to categorize muscles. We acquired muscles infrared spectra in the Vis-SWIR regions (350-2500 nm), utilizing an ASD FieldSpec 4 Standard-Res Spectroradiometer with a spectral sampling capability of 1.4 nm at 350-1000 nm and 1.1 nm at 1001-2500 nm. After a preliminary spectra pre-processing (i.e. signal scattering reduction), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to identify similar spectral features presence and to realize their further grouping. Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was utilized to implement discrimination/prediction models. We studied 22 healthy subjects (age 25-89 years, 11 females), by acquiring Vis-SWIR spectra from the upper limb muscles (i.e. biceps, a forearm flexor, and triceps, a forearm extensor). Spectroscopy was performed in fixed limb postures (elbow angle approximately 90‡). We found that optical spectroscopy can be applied to study human tissues in vivo. Vis-SWIR spectra acquired from the arm detect muscles, distinguish flexors from extensors.

  7. Solution NMR Spectroscopy in Target-Based Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Kang, Congbao

    2017-08-23

    Solution NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool to study protein structures and dynamics under physiological conditions. This technique is particularly useful in target-based drug discovery projects as it provides protein-ligand binding information in solution. Accumulated studies have shown that NMR will play more and more important roles in multiple steps of the drug discovery process. In a fragment-based drug discovery process, ligand-observed and protein-observed NMR spectroscopy can be applied to screen fragments with low binding affinities. The screened fragments can be further optimized into drug-like molecules. In combination with other biophysical techniques, NMR will guide structure-based drug discovery. In this review, we describe the possible roles of NMR spectroscopy in drug discovery. We also illustrate the challenges encountered in the drug discovery process. We include several examples demonstrating the roles of NMR in target-based drug discoveries such as hit identification, ranking ligand binding affinities, and mapping the ligand binding site. We also speculate the possible roles of NMR in target engagement based on recent processes in in-cell NMR spectroscopy.

  8. Supercurrent Spectroscopy of Andreev States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bretheau

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We measure the excitation spectrum of a superconducting atomic contact. In addition to the usual continuum above the superconducting gap, the single-particle excitation spectrum contains discrete, spin-degenerate Andreev levels inside the gap. Quasiparticle excitations are induced by a broadband on-chip microwave source and detected by measuring changes in the supercurrent flowing through the atomic contact. Since microwave photons excite quasiparticles in pairs, two types of transitions are observed: Andreev transitions, which consist of putting two quasiparticles in an Andreev level, and transitions to odd states with a single quasiparticle in an Andreev level and the other one in the continuum. In contrast to absorption spectroscopy, supercurrent spectroscopy allows detection of long-lived odd states.

  9. Spectroscopy of plutonium-organic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmann, M.K.; Reed, D.T.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the spectroscopy of plutonium-organic complexes is needed to help establish the speciation of these complexes under environmentally relevant conditions. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) and absorption spectrometry were used to characterize the Pu(IV)-citrate and Pu(IV)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) complexes at concentrations of 10 -3 --10 -7 M in aqueous solution. Good agreement was observed between the band shape of the LPAS and absorption spectra for the Pu(IV)-NTA complex. Agreement for the Pu(IV)-citrate complex was not quite as good. In both cases, a linear dependence of the LPAS signal on laser power and total concentration of the complexes was noted. This work is part of an ongoing research effort to study key subsurface interactions of plutonium-organic complexes

  10. 2008 Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip J. Reid

    2009-09-21

    The conference focuses on using vibrational spectroscopy to probe structure and dynamics of molecules in gases, liquids, and interfaces. The goal is to bring together a collection of researchers who share common interests and who will gain from discussing work at the forefront of several connected areas. The intent is to emphasize the insights and understanding that studies of vibrations provide about a variety of systems.

  11. Application of Raman spectroscopy to forensic fibre cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepot, L; De Wael, K; Gason, F; Gilbert, B

    2008-09-01

    Five forensic fibre cases in which Raman spectroscopy proved to be a good complementary method for microspectrophotometry (MSP) are described. Absorption spectra in the visible range are indeed sometimes characteristic ofa certain dye but this one can be subsequently identified unambiguously by Raman spectroscopy using a spectral library. In other cases the comparison of Raman spectra of reference fibres and suspect fibres led to an improvement of the discrimination power. The Raman measurements have been performed directly on mounted fibres and the spectra showed only little interference from the mounting resin and glass. Raman spectroscopy is therefore a powerful method that can be applied in routine fibre analysis following optical microscopy and MSP measurements.

  12. High-resolution inverse Raman and resonant-wave-mixing spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahn, L.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    These research activities consist of high-resolution inverse Raman spectroscopy (IRS) and resonant wave-mixing spectroscopy to support the development of nonlinear-optical techniques for temperature and concentration measurements in combustion research. Objectives of this work include development of spectral models of important molecular species needed to perform coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements and the investigation of new nonlinear-optical processes as potential diagnostic techniques. Some of the techniques being investigated include frequency-degenerate and nearly frequency-degenerate resonant four-wave-mixing (DFWM and NDFWM), and resonant multi-wave mixing (RMWM).

  13. Study on Angelica and its different extracts by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-xia; Sun, Su-qin; Lv, Guang-hua; Chan, Kelvin K. C.

    2006-05-01

    In order to develop a rapid and effective analysis method for studying integrally the main constituents in the medicinal materials and their extracts, discriminating the extracts from different extraction process, comparing the categories of chemical constituents in the different extracts and monitoring the qualities of medicinal materials, we applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) associated with second derivative infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR) to study the main constituents in traditional Chinese medicine Angelica and its different extracts (extracted by petroleum ether, ethanol and water in turn). The findings indicated that FT-IR spectrum can provide many holistic variation rules of chemical constituents. Use of the macroscopical fingerprint characters of FT-IR and 2D-IR spectrum can not only identify the main chemical constituents in medicinal materials and their different extracts, but also compare the components differences among the similar samples. This analytical method is highly rapid, effective, visual and accurate for pharmaceutical research.

  14. Positron Annihilation Ratio Spectroscopy (PsARS) Applied to Positronium Formation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Positron Annihilation Ratio Spectroscopy (PsARS). These experimental techniques have been used for a variety of military and civilian applications ... POSITRON ANNIHILATION RATIO SPECTROSCOPY (PsARS) APPLIED TO POSITRONIUM FORMATION STUDIES THESIS...of Defense, or the United States Government. AFIT/GNE/ENP/10-M07 POSITRON ANNIHILATION RATIO SPECTROSCOPY

  15. Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS theme meeting on recent trends in spectroscopy: book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The meeting aimed at providing the latest developments in various spectroscopic techniques to the research students and practicing scientists. The proceedings of the symposium covered a wide range of topics of infrared and Raman spectroscopy, time resolved spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, rotational and vibrational spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, cavity ring down spectroscopy, laser based spectroscopic techniques and electrochemical spectroscopy. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  16. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Of Metal Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdowell, L. G.; Calle, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to investigate resistances of 19 alloys to corrosion under conditions similar to those of corrosive, chloride-laden seaside environment of Space Transportation System launch site. Alloys investigated: Hastelloy C-4, C-22, C-276, and B-2; Inconel(R) 600, 625, and 825; Inco(R) G-3; Monel 400; Zirconium 702; Stainless Steel 304L, 304LN, 316L, 317L, and 904L; 20Cb-3; 7Mo+N; ES2205; and Ferralium 255. Results suggest electrochemical impedance spectroscopy used to predict corrosion performances of metal alloys.

  17. Analysis of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and its active components by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yizhen; Lv, Beiran; Wang, Jingjuan; Liu, Yang; Sun, Suqin; Xiao, Yao; Lu, Lina; Xiang, Li; Yang, Yanfang; Qu, Lei; Meng, Qinghong

    2016-01-15

    As complicated mixture systems, active components of Chuanxiong Rhizoma are very difficult to identify and discriminate. In this paper, the macroscopic IR fingerprint method including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2DCOS-IR), was applied to study and identify Chuanxiong raw materials and its different segmented production of HPD-100 macroporous resin. Chuanxiong Rhizoma is rich in sucrose. In the FT-IR spectra, water eluate is more similar to sucrose than the powder and the decoction. Their second derivative spectra amplified the differences and revealed the potentially characteristic IR absorption bands and combined with the correlation coefficient, concluding that 50% ethanol eluate had more ligustilide than other eluates. Finally, it can be found from 2DCOS-IR spectra that proteins were extracted by ethanol from Chuanxiong decoction by HPD-100 macroporous resin. It was demonstrated that the above three-step infrared spectroscopy could be applicable for quick, non-destructive and effective analysis and identification of very complicated and similar mixture systems of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Basic Principles of Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Michael H.

    Spectroscopy deals with the production, measurement, and interpretation of spectra arising from the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. There are many different spectroscopic methods available for solving a wide range of analytical problems. The methods differ with respect to the species to be analyzed (such as molecular or atomic spectroscopy), the type of radiation-matter interaction to be monitored (such as absorption, emission, or diffraction), and the region of the electromagnetic spectrum used in the analysis. Spectroscopic methods are very informative and widely used for both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Spectroscopic methods based on the absorption or emission of radiation in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), infrared (IR), and radio (nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR) frequency ranges are most commonly encountered in traditional food analysis laboratories. Each of these methods is distinct in that it monitors different types of molecular or atomic transitions. The basis of these transitions is explained in the following sections.

  19. Spectroscopy of neutral radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mol, Aran; De, Subhadeep; Jungmann, Klaus; Wilschut, Hans; Willmann, Lorenz [KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    The heavy alkaline earth atoms radium is uniquely sensitive towards parity and time reversal symmetry violations due to a large enhancement of an intrinsic permanent electric dipole moment of the nucleous or the electron. Furthermore, radium is sensitive to atomic parity violation and the nuclear anapole moment. To prepare such experiments spectroscopy of relevant atomic states need to be done. At a later stage we will build a neutral atom trap for radium. We have built an atomic beam of the short lived isotope {sup 225}Ra with a flux of several 10{sup 4} atoms/sec. We are preparing the laser spectroscopy using this beam setup. In the preparation for efficient laser cooling and trapping we have successfully trapped barium, which is similar in it's requirements for laser cooling. The techniques which we have developed with barium can be used to trap rare radium isotopes. We report on the progress of the experiments.

  20. Achieving sensitive, high-resolution laser spectroscopy at CRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groote, R. P. de [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven (Belgium); Lynch, K. M., E-mail: kara.marie.lynch@cern.ch [EP Department, CERN, ISOLDE (Switzerland); Wilkins, S. G. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the CRIS collaboration

    2017-11-15

    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE facility, has recently performed high-resolution laser spectroscopy, with linewidths down to 20 MHz. In this article, we present the modifications to the beam line and the newly-installed laser systems that have made sensitive, high-resolution measurements possible. Highlights of recent experimental campaigns are presented.

  1. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in complex solid state materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianqi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This thesis summarizes my work on applying the ultrafast laser spectroscopy to the complex solid state materials. It shows that the ultrafast laser pulse can coherently control the material properties in the femtosecond time scale. And the ultrafast laser spectroscopy can be employed as a dynamical method for revealing the fundamental physical problems in the complex material systems.

  2. Determination of Serum Lithium by Flame Emission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nafissy

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithum can be de termined both by atomic absorption spectroscopy andflame emission spectroscopy. We have used the later method with a Zeiss Model pMQlI spectro photometer fitt ed with ante-chamber atomizer and a potensiome rric line recorder. Accurate ana lysis for the clement was acco mplished due to a sophisracared measuring instrument.

  3. Cancer diagnosis by infrared spectroscopy: methodological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael; Kim, Keith; Tetteh, John; Mansfield, James R.; Dolenko, Brion; Somorjai, Raymond L.; Orr, F. W.; Watson, Peter H.; Mantsch, Henry H.

    1998-04-01

    IR spectroscopy is proving to be a powerful tool for the study and diagnosis of cancer. The application of IR spectroscopy to the analysis of cultured tumor cells and grading of breast cancer sections is outlined. Potential sources of error in spectral interpretation due to variations in sample histology and artifacts associated with sample storage and preparation are discussed. The application of statistical techniques to assess differences between spectra and to non-subjectively classify spectra is demonstrated.

  4. Moessbauer spectroscopy of metals from birth to death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Francisco Eiichi

    1998-01-01

    In today's metallurgy, precision techniques, such as X-ray and electron diffraction, electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and electron probe micro-analyzer, are being indispensably used, and, comparing to them, Moessbauer spectroscopy is not inferior at all in usefulness, convenience and cost benefit. Actually, however, it is not yet popular among the metallurgists probably because people believe that the Moessbauer effect is a difficult physics, radioactive sources are difficult to handle, and spectral analyses are complicated. These beliefs are in fact groundless and must be dissolved for further diffusion of this useful Moessbauer technique in metals and other industries.The present introductory talk intends to help people's better understanding and no anxiety for using the Moessbauer spectroscopy by showing how it can be applied to various problems of metals and alloys from their birth to the end, that is, from the study of minerals and ores before smelting to that of corrosion and other failures.Firstly, the principle of Moessbauer spectroscopy will be explained with simplest illustrations together with simple pictures of apparatuses including the high temperature furnace and the high pressure cell.In the second will be shown typical examples of Moessbauer patterns of magnetite, carbon steel and other alloys, with indications of how to analyze the seemingly complicated spectra. Some other examples will be shown with special apparatuses easy to measure. The usefulness and convenience of Moessbauer spectroscopy will be understood again from these examples. More examples will be on amorphous alloys and other advanced materials

  5. γ-ray spectroscopy of N=Z nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, C. J.

    1999-01-01

    The use of γ-ray spectroscopy to probe the properties of marginally bound nuclear states has evolved from being a curiosity a decade ago to being the mainstream use for these devices. The key to this success has been the development of ultra-sensitive channel selection techniques which allow the parentage of each emitted γ-ray to be established. With these techniques, and the enhanced efficiency of the arrays themselves, the level of sensitivity for nuclear spectroscopy has increased by several orders of magnitude, in some special cases reaching the 10's nanobarns level, 1000 times more sensitive than was possible a decade ago. In this paper I will discuss some recent developments in light nuclear spectroscopy, on nuclei with N=Z, below mass 100. These examples have been chosen to compliment other presentations at this conference which have covered similar experiments in heavier nuclei

  6. Practical guide to surface science and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Yip-Wah

    2001-01-01

    Practical Guide to Surface Science and Spectroscopy provides a practical introduction to surface science as well as describes the basic analytical techniques that researchers use to understand what occurs at the surfaces of materials and at their interfaces. These techniques include auger electron spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, inelastic scattering of electrons and ions, low energy electron diffraction, scanning probe microscopy, and interfacial segregation. Understanding the behavior of materials at their surfaces is essential for materials scientists and engineers as they design and fabricate microelectronics and semiconductor devices. The book gives over 100 examples, discussion questions and problems with varying levels of difficulty. Included with this book is a CD-ROM, which not only contains the same information, but also provides many elements of animation and interaction that are not easily emulated on paper. In diverse subject matters ranging from the operation of ion pumps, computer-...

  7. The semiclassical way to dynamics and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Physical systems have been traditionally described in terms of either classical or quantum mechanics. But in recent years, semiclassical methods have developed rapidly, providing deep physical insight and computational tools for quantum dynamics and spectroscopy. In this book, Eric Heller introduces and develops this subject, demonstrating its power with many examples. In the first half of the book, Heller covers relevant aspects of classical mechanics, building from them the semiclassical way through the semiclassical limit of the Feynman path integral. The second half of the book applies this approach to various kinds of spectroscopy, such as molecular spectroscopy and electron imaging and quantum dynamical systems with an emphasis on tunneling. Adopting a distinctly time-dependent viewpoint, Heller argues for semiclassical theories from experimental and theoretical vantage points valuable to research in physics and chemistry. Featuring more than two hundred figures, the book provides a geometric, phase-sp...

  8. Perspectives in hadron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, J.M. [Universite Joseph Fourier-IN2P3-CNRS, Lab. de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    A brief survey is presented of selected recent results on hadron spectroscopy and related theoretical studies. Among the new hadron states, some of them are good candidates for exotic structures: chiral partners of ground-states, hybrid mesons (quark, antiquark and constituent gluon), four-quark states, or meson-meson molecules.

  9. Outlook for baryon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, R.D.

    1976-09-01

    The review of baryon spectroscopy includes a number of new generation experiments with greatly improved statistics which have emerged and are enhancing experimental knowledge of baryon resonances. The future research directions are pointed out, and some problems and deficiencies which can be resolved with contemporary techniques are mentioned

  10. Proceedings of the 3rd Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the 3rd Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy. It was held on Nov 10-11, 1995 in Taejeon, Korea. The main topics are as follows: Laser Isotope, Laser Spectroscopy, Laser Fusion, Laser Applications and so on. (Yi, J. H.)

  11. Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the 5th Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy. It was held on Nov 7-8, 1997 in Taejeon, Korea. The main topics are as follows: Laser Isotope, Laser Spectroscopy, Laser Fusion, Laser Applications and so on. (Yi, J. H.)

  12. Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the 4th Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy. It was held on Nov 8-9, 1996 in Taejeon, Korea. The main topics are as follows: Laser Isotope, Laser Spectroscopy, Laser Fusion, Laser Applications and so on. (Yi, J. H.)

  13. Proceedings of the 1st Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the 1st Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy. It was held on Nov 11, 1993 in Taejeon, Korea. The main topics are as follows: Laser Isotope, Laser Spectroscopy, Laser Fusion, Laser Applications and so on. (Yi, J. H.)

  14. Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the 2nd Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy. It was held on Nov 3-4, 1994 in Taejeon, Korea. The main topics are as follows: Laser Isotope, Laser Spectroscopy, Laser Fusion, Laser Applications and so on. (Yi, J. H.)

  15. Moessbauer Spectroscopy in Materials Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The publication in electronic form has been set up as proceedings of the conference dealing with applications of the Moessbauer spectroscopy in material science. Twenty-three abstracts and twenty-two presentations are included.

  16. Scanning Angle Raman spectroscopy in polymer thin film characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Vy H.T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-12-19

    The focus of this thesis is the application of Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of thin polymer films. Chapter 1 provides background information and motivation, including the fundamentals of Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, scanning angle Raman scattering and scanning angle Raman scattering for applications in thin polymer film characterization. Chapter 2 represents a published manuscript that focuses on the application of scanning angle Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of submicron thin films with a description of methodology for measuring the film thickness and location of an interface between two polymer layers. Chapter 3 provides an outlook and future directions for the work outlined in this thesis. Appendix A, contains a published manuscript that outlines the use of Raman spectroscopy to aid in the synthesis of heterogeneous catalytic systems. Appendix B and C contain published manuscripts that set a foundation for the work presented in Chapter 2.

  17. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of β-hematin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, Edward B; Goldschmidt, Benjamin S; Whiteside, Paul J D; Sudduth, Amanda S M; Custer, John R; Viator, John A; Beerntsen, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Malaria affects over 200 million individuals annually, resulting in 800 000 fatalities. Current tests use blood smears and can only detect the disease when 0.1–1% of blood cells are infected. We are investigating the use of photoacoustic flowmetry to sense as few as one infected cell among 10 million or more normal blood cells, thus diagnosing infection before patients become symptomatic. Photoacoustic flowmetry is similar to conventional flow cytometry, except that rare cells are targeted by nanosecond laser pulses to induce ultrasonic responses. This system has been used to detect single melanoma cells in 10 ml of blood. Our objective is to apply photoacoustic flowmetry to detection of the malaria pigment hemozoin, which is a byproduct of parasite-digested hemoglobin in the blood. However, hemozoin is difficult to purify in quantities greater than a milligram, so a synthetic analog, known as β-hematin was derived from porcine hemin. The specific purpose of this study is to establish the efficacy of using β-hematin, rather than hemozoin, for photoacoustic measurements. We characterized β-hematin using UV–vis spectroscopy, TEM, and FTIR, then tested the effects of laser irradiation on the synthetic product. We finally determined its absorption spectrum using photoacoustic excitation. UV–vis spectroscopy verified that β-hematin was distinctly different from its precursor. TEM analysis confirmed its previously established nanorod shape, and comparison of the FTIR results with published spectroscopy data showed that our product had the distinctive absorbance peaks at 1661 and 1206 cm −1 . Also, our research indicated that prolonged irradiation dramatically alters the physical and optical properties of the β-hematin, resulting in increased absorption at shorter wavelengths. Nevertheless, the photoacoustic absorption spectrum mimicked that generated by UV–vis spectroscopy, which confirms the accuracy of the photoacoustic method and strongly suggests

  18. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  19. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy for the advanced undergraduate laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Villafañe, J A; Méndez-Sánchez, R A; Flores-Olmedo, E; Báez, G; Gandarilla-Carrillo, O

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple experiment that allows advanced undergraduates to learn the principles and applications of spectroscopy. The technique, known as acoustic resonance spectroscopy, is applied to study a vibrating rod. The setup includes electromagnetic-acoustic transducers, an audio amplifier and a vector network analyzer. Typical results of compressional, torsional and bending waves are analyzed and compared with analytical results. (paper)

  20. New results from old spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemingway, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    A report is presented of some of the major experimental results during the last year in the field of old spectroscopy. Included are properties, quark model, multiplets, particle interactions, and cross sections. 34 references

  1. Spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation sources: challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagatap, B.N.

    2011-01-01

    Spectroscopy and energetics of atoms, molecules and cluster in ultra-violate (UV), vacuum ultra-violate (VUV) and soft X-ray region is one of the frontier topics of research today, These high energy photons allow us to prepare atomic and molecular systems in energy levels far away from their ground levels; the energy region that is characterized by the complex and highly degenerate energy level structure and multiple channels for reaction and energy dissipation. In this talk we provide a bird's eye view of the progress in this area, with a particular emphasis on spectroscopy research using Indian synchrotron sources. We shall also cover the avenues for collaborative research on Indus synchrotron sources, and the challenges and opportunities that await the Indian spectroscopy community

  2. Spectroscopy and reactions of vibrationally excited transient molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, H.L. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Spectroscopy, energy transfer and reactions of vibrationally excited transient molecules are studied through a combination of laser-based excitation techniques and efficient detection of emission from the energized molecules with frequency and time resolution. Specifically, a Time-resolved Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy technique has been developed for detecting dispersed laser-induced fluorescence in the IR, visible and UV regions. The structure and spectroscopy of the excited vibrational levels in the electronic ground state, as well as energy relaxation and reactions induced by specific vibronic excitations of a transient molecule can be characterized from time-resolved dispersed fluorescence in the visible and UV region. IR emissions from highly vibrational excited levels, on the other hand, reveal the pathways and rates of collision induced vibrational energy transfer.

  3. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnun, Jacob J.; Leftin, Avigdor; Brown, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy finds growing application to inorganic and organic materials, biological samples, polymers, proteins, and cellular membranes. However, this technique is often neither included in laboratory curricula nor typically covered in undergraduate courses. On the other hand, spectroscopy and…

  4. Laser techniques for spectroscopy of core-excited atomic levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S. E.; Young, J. F.; Falcone, R. W.; Rothenberg, J. E.; Willison, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    We discuss three techniques which allow the use of tunable lasers for high resolution and picosecond time scale spectroscopy of core-excited atomic levels. These are: anti-Stokes absorption spectroscopy, laser induced emission from metastable levels, and laser designation of selected core-excited levels.

  5. Heavy quark spectroscopy and decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The understanding of q anti q systems containing heavy, charmed, and bottom quarks has progressed rapidly in recent years, through steady improvements in experimental techniques for production and detection of their decays. These lectures are meant to be an experimentalist's review of the subject. In the first of two lectures, the existing data on the spectroscopy of the bound c anti c and b anti b systems will be discussed. Emphasis is placed on comparisons with the theoretical models. The second lecture covers the rapidly changing subject of the decays of heavy mesons (c anti q and b anti q), and their excited states. In combination, the spectroscopy and decays of heavy quarks are shown to provide interesting insights into both the strong and electroweak interactions of the heavy quarks. 103 refs., 39 figs

  6. Review of x-ray spectroscopy from laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    Recent progress in x-ray spectroscopy from laser plasmas is reviewed. Advances in the use of K-shell spectra as a diagnostic tool is discussed. Much activity in understanding complex spectra especially from Ne I and Ni I isoelectronic series have been made. Much of the progress has been due to observation of amplification from Δn = O transitions from these configurations. The spectroscopy will be discussed and examples of spectra of the amplified lines will be shown. Finally, recent work on using x-ray spectroscopy to diagnose high density implosions will be discussed. 33 refs

  7. [Current views on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy in microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoxiao; Li, Jing; Qin, Tian; Deng, Aihua; Liu, Wenjun

    2015-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy has generated many branches during the development for more than 90 years. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) improves SNR by using the interaction between tested materials and the surface of rough metal, as to quickly get higher sensitivity and precision spectroscopy without sample pretreatment. This article describes the characteristic and classification of SERS, and updates the theory and clinical application of SERS. It also summarizes the present status and progress of SERS in various disciplines and illustrates the necessity and urgency of its research, which provides rationale for the application for SERS in microbiology.

  8. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Susanta Das. General Article Volume 9 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 34-49. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/01/0034-0049. Keywords.

  9. Raman spectroscopy as a process analytical technology for pharmaceutical manufacturing and bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A; Cuellar, Maryann; Uerpmann, Carsten; Lenain, Bruno; Lewis, Ian R

    2017-01-01

    Adoption of Quality by Design (QbD) principles, regulatory support of QbD, process analytical technology (PAT), and continuous manufacturing are major factors effecting new approaches to pharmaceutical manufacturing and bioprocessing. In this review, we highlight new technology developments, data analysis models, and applications of Raman spectroscopy, which have expanded the scope of Raman spectroscopy as a process analytical technology. Emerging technologies such as transmission and enhanced reflection Raman, and new approaches to using available technologies, expand the scope of Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical manufacturing, and now Raman spectroscopy is successfully integrated into real-time release testing, continuous manufacturing, and statistical process control. Since the last major review of Raman as a pharmaceutical PAT in 2010, many new Raman applications in bioprocessing have emerged. Exciting reports of in situ Raman spectroscopy in bioprocesses complement a growing scientific field of biological and biomedical Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy has made a positive impact as a process analytical and control tool for pharmaceutical manufacturing and bioprocessing, with demonstrated scientific and financial benefits throughout a product's lifecycle.

  10. Hadron Spectroscopy: Seventh International Conference. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, S.; Willutzki, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Seventh International Conference on Hadron Spectroscopy (HADRON close-quote 97) held in Upton, New York in August, 1997. The Conference provided a wonderful opportunity for practitioners of hadron spectroscopy to discuss and exchange the latest information on both theoretical and experimental progress. A wide range of topics was covered at the Conference, including proton-antiproton interactions, glueballs, quantum chromodynamics, quarkonium hybrid meson, long-lived exotic particles and gluon degrees of freedom in meson spectroscopy. The Conference represents results from various collaborations including the Fermilab E690 and E835, Crystal Barrel, the H1 and ZEUS, etc. The facilities represented included CERN-SPS, Fermilab-Main Injector, BNL-RHIC, KEK-JHF, BNL-AGS, Julich-COSY, Uppsala-CELSIUS, SLAC-PEPII and Cornell-CESR, Frascati-DAΦNE, Beijing-BEPC, Bonn-ELSA and CEBAF backslash TJNAF. The papers described the existing capabilities and active research programs at these facilities. The conference was supported by BNL and the U.S. Department of Energy. There were 155 presented, and out of these, 33 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  11. Characterizing Exoplanet Habitability with Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler

    2018-01-01

    Results from NASA’s Kepler mission and other recent exoplanet surveys have demonstrated that potentially habitable exoplanets are relatively common, especially in the case of low-mass stellar hosts. The next key question that must be addressed for such planets is whether or not these worlds are actually habitable, implying they could sustain surface liquid water. Only through investigations of the potential habitability of exoplanets and through searches for biosignatures from these planets will we be able to understand if the emergence of life is a common phenomenon in our galaxy. Emission spectroscopy for transiting exoplanets (sometimes called secondary eclipse spectroscopy) is a powerful technique that future missions will use to study the atmospheres and surfaces of worlds orbiting in the habitable zones of nearby, low-mass stars. Emission observations that span the mid-infrared wavelength range for potentially habitable exoplanets provide opportunities to detect key habitability and life signatures, and also allow observers to probe atmospheric and surface temperatures. This presentation will outline the case for using emission spectroscopy to understand if an exoplanet can sustain surface liquid water, which is believed to be a critical precursor to the origin of life.

  12. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in physics laboratory courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Möllmann, K-P; Vollmer, M

    2013-01-01

    Infrared spectrometry is one of the most important tools in the field of spectroscopic analysis. This is due to the high information content of spectra in the so-called spectroscopic fingerprint region, which enables measurement not only of gases, but also of liquids and solids. Today, infrared spectroscopy is almost completely dominated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR spectroscopy is able to detect minute quantities in the ppm and ppb ranges, and the respective analyses are now standard tools in science as well as industry. Therefore FTIR spectroscopy should be taught within the standard curriculum at university to physicists and engineers. Here we present respective undergraduate laboratory experiments designed for students at the end of their third year. Experiments deal first with understanding the spectrometer and second with recording and analysing spectra. On the one hand, transmission spectra of gases are treated which relate to environmental analytics (being probably the most prominent and well-known examples), and on the other hand, the focus is on the transmission and reflection spectra of solids. In particular, silicon wafers are studied—as is regularly done in the microelectronics industry—in order to characterize their thickness, oxygen content and phonon modes. (paper)

  13. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Zhao, Bin-xing; Xiao, Hong-tao; Tong, Rong-sheng; Gao, Chun-ming

    2013-09-01

    Chinese medicine is a historic cultural legacy of China. It has made a significant contribution to medicine and healthcare for generations. The development of Chinese herbal medicine analysis is emphasized by the Chinese pharmaceutical industry. This study has carried out the experimental analysis of ten kinds of Chinese herbal powder including Fritillaria powder, etc., based on the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) method. First, a photoacoustic spectroscopy system was designed and constructed, especially a highly sensitive solid photoacoustic cell was established. Second, the experimental setup was verified through the characteristic emission spectrum of the light source, obtained by using carbon as a sample in the photoacoustic cell. Finally, as the photoacoustic spectroscopy analysis of Fritillaria, etc., was completed, the specificity of the Chinese herb medicine analysis was verified. This study shows that the PAS can provide a valid, highly sensitive analytical method for the specificity of Chinese herb medicine without preparing and damaging samples.

  14. SpeckTackle: JavaScript charts for spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisken, Stephan; Conesa, Pablo; Haug, Kenneth; Salek, Reza M; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Spectra visualisation from methods such as mass spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy or nuclear magnetic resonance is an essential part of every web-facing spectral resource. The development of an intuitive and versatile visualisation tool is a time- and resource-intensive task, however, most databases use their own embedded viewers and new databases continue to develop their own viewers. We present SpeckTackle, a custom-tailored JavaScript charting library for spectroscopy in life sciences. SpeckTackle is cross-browser compatible and easy to integrate into existing resources, as we demonstrate for the MetaboLights database. Its default chart types cover common visualisation tasks following the de facto 'look and feel' standards for spectra visualisation. SpeckTackle is released under GNU LGPL to encourage uptake and reuse within the community. The latest version of the library including examples and documentation on how to use and extend the library with additional chart types is available online in its public repository.

  15. Photoelectron spectroscopy bulk and surface electronic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Suga, Shigemasa

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is now becoming more and more required to investigate electronic structures of various solid materials in the bulk, on surfaces as well as at buried interfaces. The energy resolution was much improved in the last decade down to 1 meV in the low photon energy region. Now this technique is available from a few eV up to 10 keV by use of lasers, electron cyclotron resonance lamps in addition to synchrotron radiation and X-ray tubes. High resolution angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) is now widely applied to band mapping of materials. It attracts a wide attention from both fundamental science and material engineering. Studies of the dynamics of excited states are feasible by time of flight spectroscopy with fully utilizing the pulse structures of synchrotron radiation as well as lasers including the free electron lasers (FEL). Spin resolved studies also made dramatic progress by using higher efficiency spin detectors and two dimensional spin detectors. Polarization depend...

  16. VUV spectroscopy of water under cellular conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, R.; Parafita, R.; Maneira, M. J. P.; Mason, N. J.; Garcia, G.; Ribeiro, P. A.; Raposo, M.; Limao-Vieira, P.

    2006-01-01

    The understanding of radiation damage within cells, and thence mutagenesis, depends upon a detailed knowledge of the spectroscopy and dissociation dynamics of water. Results of a new study of the electronic state spectroscopy of water, using synchrotron radiation are reported. In order to gain some insight into how the spectroscopy and dissociation dynamics of water is influenced by its environment we also report photo-absorption spectra of water within thin films of poly(o-methoxyaniline) which have been suggested as a good mimic for biological membranes in the cellular environment. Comparison of these spectra with those of gaseous water and condensed amorphous water ice suggest that water in such films is similar to gaseous water and does not show the blue shift suggested in some cellular models. The lowest energy of OH production from dissociation of water in the cellular environment may therefore be around 6.7 eV (185 nm). (authors)

  17. Ultrafast X-Ray Spectroscopy of Conical Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Simon P.; Chergui, Majed; Stolow, Albert; Schuurman, Michael S.

    2018-06-01

    Ongoing developments in ultrafast x-ray sources offer powerful new means of probing the complex nonadiabatically coupled structural and electronic dynamics of photoexcited molecules. These non-Born-Oppenheimer effects are governed by general electronic degeneracies termed conical intersections, which play a key role, analogous to that of a transition state, in the electronic-nuclear dynamics of excited molecules. Using high-level ab initio quantum dynamics simulations, we studied time-resolved x-ray absorption (TRXAS) and photoelectron spectroscopy (TRXPS) of the prototypical unsaturated organic chromophore, ethylene, following excitation to its S2(π π*) state. The TRXAS, in particular, is highly sensitive to all aspects of the ensuing dynamics. These x-ray spectroscopies provide a clear signature of the wave packet dynamics near conical intersections, related to charge localization effects driven by the nuclear dynamics. Given the ubiquity of charge localization in excited state dynamics, we believe that ultrafast x-ray spectroscopies offer a unique and powerful route to the direct observation of dynamics around conical intersections.

  18. Scikit-spectra: Explorative Spectroscopy in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hughes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scikit-spectra is an intuitive framework for explorative spectroscopy in Python. Scikit-spectra leverages the Pandas library for powerful data processing to provide datastructures and an API designed for spectroscopy. Utilizing the new IPython Notebook widget system, scikit-spectra is headed towards a GUI when you want it, API when you need it approach to spectral analysis. As an application, analysis is presented of the surface-plasmon resonance shift in a solution of gold nanoparticles induced by proteins binding to the gold’s surface. Please refer to the scikit-spectra website for full documentation and support: http://hugadams.github.io/scikit-spectra/

  19. Spectroscopy of element 115 decay chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, Dirk [Lund University, Sweden; Forsberg, U. [Lund University, Sweden; Golubev, P. [Lund University, Sweden; Sarmiento, L. G. [Lund University, Sweden; Yakushev, A. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Andersson, L.-L. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Di Nitto, A. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Duehllmann, Ch. E. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Gates, J. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Gregorich, K. E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Gross, Carl J [ORNL; Hessberger, F. P. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Herzberg, R.-D [University of Liverpool; Khuyagbaatar, J. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Kratz, J. V. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Schaedel, M. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Aberg, S. [Lund University, Sweden; Ackermann, D. [GSI-Hemholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany; Block, M. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Brand, H. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Carlsson, B. G. [Lund University, Sweden; Cox, D. [University of Liverpool; Derkx, X. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Eberhardt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Even, J. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Fahlander, C. [Lund University, Sweden; Gerl, J. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Jaeger, E. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Kindler, B. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Krier, J. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Kojouharov, I. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Kurz, N. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Lommel, B. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Mistry, A. [University of Liverpool; Mokry, C. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Nitsche, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Omtvedt, J. P. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland; Papadakis, P. [University of Liverpool; Ragnarsson, I. [Lund University, Sweden; Runke, J. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Schaffner, H. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Schausten, B. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Thoerle-Pospiech, P. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Torres, T. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Traut, T. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Trautmann, N. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Tuerler, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland; Ward, A. [University of Liverpool; Ward, D. E. [Lund University, Sweden; Wiehl, N. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany

    2013-01-01

    A high-resolution a, X-ray and -ray coincidence spectroscopy experiment was conducted at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fu r Schwerionenforschung. Thirty correlated a-decay chains were detected following the fusion-evaporation reaction 48Ca + 243Am. The observations are consistent with previous assignments of similar decay chains to originate from element Z = 115. The data includes first candidates of fingerprinting the decay step Mt --> Bh with characteristic X rays. For the first time, precise spectroscopy allows the derivation of excitation schemes of isotopes along the decay chains starting with elements Z > 112. Comprehensive Monte-Carlo simulations accompany the data analysis. Nuclear structure models provide a first level interpretation.

  20. The ROSPHERE γ-ray spectroscopy array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucurescu, D.; Căta-Danil, I.; Ciocan, G.; Costache, C.; Deleanu, D.; Dima, R. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN-HH, R-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Filipescu, D. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN-HH, R-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Extreme Light Infrastructure Nuclear Physics - ELI-NP, Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN-HH, R-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Florea, N.; Ghiţă, D.G.; Glodariu, T.; Ivaşcu, M.; Lică, R.; Mărginean, N.; Mărginean, R. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN-HH, R-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Mihai, C., E-mail: cmihai@tandem.nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN-HH, R-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Negret, A.; Niţă, C.R.; Olăcel, A.; Pascu, S.; Sava, T. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN-HH, R-077125 Bucharest (Romania); and others

    2016-11-21

    The ROmanian array for SPectroscopy in HEavy ion REactions (ROSPHERE) has been designed as a multi-detector setup dedicated to γ-ray spectroscopy studies at the Bucharest 9 MV Tandem accelerator. Consisting of up to 25 detectors (either Compton suppressed HPGe detectors or fast LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillator detectors) together with a state of the art plunger device, ROSPHERE is a powerful tool for lifetime measurements using the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift (RDDS) and the in-beam Fast Electronic Scintillation Timing (FEST) methods. The array's geometry, detectors, electronics and data acquisition system are described. Selected results from the first experimental campaigns are also presented.

  1. Raman Spectroscopy of Optically Trapped Single Biological Micro-Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Brandon; Schwab, Mark J.; Pan, Yong-le

    2015-01-01

    The combination of optical trapping with Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful method for the study, characterization, and identification of biological micro-particles. In essence, optical trapping helps to overcome the limitation imposed by the relative inefficiency of the Raman scattering process. This allows Raman spectroscopy to be applied to individual biological particles in air and in liquid, providing the potential for particle identification with high specificity, longitudinal studies of changes in particle composition, and characterization of the heterogeneity of individual particles in a population. In this review, we introduce the techniques used to integrate Raman spectroscopy with optical trapping in order to study individual biological particles in liquid and air. We then provide an overview of some of the most promising applications of this technique, highlighting the unique types of measurements enabled by the combination of Raman spectroscopy with optical trapping. Finally, we present a brief discussion of future research directions in the field. PMID:26247952

  2. Progress in far-infrared spectroscopy: Approximately 1890 to 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuishi, Akiyoshi

    2014-03-01

    The history of far-infrared spectroscopy from its beginning to around 1970 is reviewed. Before World War II, the size of the community investigating this topic was limited. During this period, in particular before 1925, about 90% of the papers were published by H. Rubens and his co-workers in Germany. One or two researchers from the US joined the Rubens group per year from 1890 to the beginning of 1910. During the next year or two, some researchers joined M. Czerny, who is seen as the successor of Rubens. After World War II, far-infrared techniques progressed further in the US, which did not suffer damage during the war. The advanced techniques of far-infrared grating spectroscopy were transferred from the US (R. A. Oetjen) to Japan (H. Yoshinaga). Yoshinaga and his co-workers expanded the techniques by themselves. This paper describes the historical development of far-infrared spectroscopy before Fourier transform spectroscopy became popular around 1970.

  3. Characterization of alkali silica reaction gels using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, C.; Muñoz, J.F.; Arnold, T.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of Raman spectroscopy to characterize amorphous materials makes this technique ideal to study alkali silica reaction (ASR) gels. The structure of several synthetic ASR gels was thoroughly characterized using Raman Spectroscopy. The results were validated with additional techniques such as Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The Raman spectra were found to have two broad bands in the 800 to 1200 cm −1 range and the 400 to 700 cm −1 range indicating the amorphous nature of the gel. Important information regarding the silicate polymerization was deduced from both of these spectral regions. An increase in alkali content of the gels caused a depolymerization in the silicate framework which manifested in the Raman spectra as a gradual shift of predominant peaks in both regions. The trends in silicate depolymerization were in agreement with results from a NMR spectroscopy study on similar synthetic ASR gels.

  4. Recent developments in fast spectroscopy for plant mineral analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie evan Maarschalkerweerd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ideal fertilizer management to optimize plant productivity and quality is more relevant than ever, as global food demands increase along with the rapidly growing world population. At the same time, sub-optimal or excessive use of fertilizers leads to severe environmental damage in areas of intensive crop production. The approaches of soil and plant mineral analysis are briefly compared and discussed here, and the new techniques using fast spectroscopy that offer cheap, rapid and easy-to-use analysis of plant nutritional status are reviewed. The majority of these methods use vibrational spectroscopy, such as Visual-Near Infrared (Vis-NIR and to a lesser extent Ultraviolet (UV and Mid-Infrared (MIR spectroscopy. Advantages of and problems with application of these techniques are thoroughly discussed. Spectroscopic techniques considered having major potential for plant mineral analysis, such as chlorophyll a fluorescence, X-ray fluorescence (XRF and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS are also described.

  5. Evanescent spectroscopy - theory and experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Karabchevsky, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Outline1 Introduction2 Literature Overview3 Photonic-Plasmonic WaveguideStructureModellingTheory4 ResultsOptical TransmittanceLoss of Fundamental Mode in a Gold RegionOptical Surface Intensity5 NIR Spectroscopy - Experiment6 Conclusions7 Acknowledgements

  6. Structure of polypropylene/polyethylene blends assessed by polarised PA-FTIR spectroscopy, polarised FT Raman spectroscopy and confocal Raman microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schmidt, Pavel; Dybal, Jiří; Ščudla, Jaroslav; Raab, Miroslav; Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Eichhorn, K. J.; López-Quintana, S.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 184, - (2002), s. 107-122 ISSN 1022-1360. [European Symposium on Polymer Spectroscopy /14./. Dresden, 02.09.2001-05.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/97/1071; GA ČR GA203/97/0539; GA AV ČR KSK4050111; GA AV ČR IAA4050904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : polypropylene/polyethylene blends * polarized photoacoustic FTIR spectroscopy * confocal Raman microscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.758, year: 2002

  7. Photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Research activities in photoelectron spectroscopy at Lawrence Radiation Laboratory during 1976 are described. Topics covered include: the orientation of CO on Pt(III) and Ni(III) surfaces from angle-resolved photoemission; photoemission from CO on Pt(III) in the range 40 eV less than or equal to dirac constant ω less than or equal to 150 eV; photoemission studies of electron states at clean surfaces using synchrotron radiation; angle and energy dependent photoemission studies of plasmon loss structure in Al and In; d-orbital directed photoemission from copper; interpretation of angle-resolved x-ray photoemission from valence bands; atomic cross-section effects in soft x-ray photoemission from Ag, Au, and Pt valence bands; x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of the electronic structure of transition metal difluorides; x-ray photoemission investigation of the density of states of B'-NiAl; the electronic structure of SrTiO 3 and some simple related oxides; fluorescence lifetime measurements of np 5 (n+1)S' states in krypton and xenon; Zeeman beats in the resonance fluorescence of the 3P 1 , states in krypton and xenon; lifetime measurements of rare-gas dimers; configuration interaction effects in the atomic photoelectron spectra of Ba, Sm, Eu, and Yb; glow discharge lamps as electron sources for electron impact excitation; electron impact excitation of electron correlation states in Ca, Sr, and Ba; photoelectron spectroscopy of atomic and molecular bismuth; relativistic effects in the uv photoelectron spectra of group VI diatomic molecules; and relative gas-phase acidities and basicities from a proton potential model

  8. Moessbauer spectroscopy of metals from birth to death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Francisco Eiichi [Osaka University (Japan)

    1998-12-15

    In today's metallurgy, precision techniques, such as X-ray and electron diffraction, electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and electron probe micro-analyzer, are being indispensably used, and, comparing to them, Moessbauer spectroscopy is not inferior at all in usefulness, convenience and cost benefit. Actually, however, it is not yet popular among the metallurgists probably because people believe that the Moessbauer effect is a difficult physics, radioactive sources are difficult to handle, and spectral analyses are complicated. These beliefs are in fact groundless and must be dissolved for further diffusion of this useful Moessbauer technique in metals and other industries.The present introductory talk intends to help people's better understanding and no anxiety for using the Moessbauer spectroscopy by showing how it can be applied to various problems of metals and alloys from their birth to the end, that is, from the study of minerals and ores before smelting to that of corrosion and other failures.Firstly, the principle of Moessbauer spectroscopy will be explained with simplest illustrations together with simple pictures of apparatuses including the high temperature furnace and the high pressure cell.In the second will be shown typical examples of Moessbauer patterns of magnetite, carbon steel and other alloys, with indications of how to analyze the seemingly complicated spectra. Some other examples will be shown with special apparatuses easy to measure. The usefulness and convenience of Moessbauer spectroscopy will be understood again from these examples. More examples will be on amorphous alloys and other advanced materials.

  9. Polarization contrast linear spectroscopies for cubic semiconductors under stress: macro- and micro-reflectance difference spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastras-Martinez, L.F.; Balderas-Navarro, R.E.; Castro-Garcia, R.; Herrera-Jasso, R.; Lastras-Martinez, A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Chavira-Rodriguez, M. [Departamento de Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    The technique to measure optical anisotropies (OA) in cubic semiconductors is termed either reflectance difference spectroscopy (RDS) or reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS). In this paper we report on the application of RDS/RAS to a number of cubic semiconductors. We discuss RD spectra of GaAs, Si, CdTe, GaP, InP and GaSb (001) surfaces, induced by an uniaxial stress applied along [110] crystal directions. We show that all RD spectra can be explained in terms of a phenomenological model based on a perturbative Hamiltonian. We further report on measurements of spatial-resolved RDS measurements of GaAs employing a newly developed micro-RD spectrometer with a spatial resolution of 5 {mu}m. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The technique of laser resonance magnetic resonance allows one to study the high-resolution spectroscopy of transient paramagnetic species, viz, atoms, radicals, and molecular ions. This article is a brief exposition of the method, describing the principles, instrumentation and applicability of the IR and FIR-LMR and shows results of HF + . (Author) [pt

  11. Neutron resonance spectroscopy at n-TOF at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunsing, F.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Becvar, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calvino, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapic, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Jericha, E.; Kappeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Kossionides, E.; Krticka, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martinez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M.T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M.C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron resonance spectroscopy plays an important role in the investigation of neutron induced reaction cross sections and nuclear structure in the MeV excitation range. Neutron time-of-flight facilities are the most used installations to explore neutron resonances. In this paper we describe the basic features of neutron resonance spectroscopy together with recent results from the time-of-flight facility n-TOF at CERN. (authors)

  12. Validation of interventional fiber optic spectroscopy with MR Spectroscopy, MAS-NMR spectroscopy, high-performance thin-layer chromatography, and histopathology for accurate hepatic fat quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nachabé, R.; Hoorn, J.W.A. van der; Molengraaf, R. van de; Lamerichs, R.; Pikkemaat, J.; Sio, C.F.; Hendriks, B.H.W.; Sterenborg, H.J.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To validate near-infrared (NIR)-based optical spectroscopy measurements of hepatic fat content using a minimally invasive needle-like probe with integrated optical fibers, enabling real-time feedback during percutaneous interventions. The results were compared with magnetic resonance

  13. Monitoring Industrial Food Processes Using Spectroscopy & Chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dorthe Kjær; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade rapid spectroscopic measurements have revolutionized quality control in practically all areas of primary food and feed production. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR & NIT) has been implemented for monitoring the quality of millions of samples of cereals, milk and meat with unprec......In the last decade rapid spectroscopic measurements have revolutionized quality control in practically all areas of primary food and feed production. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR & NIT) has been implemented for monitoring the quality of millions of samples of cereals, milk and meat...

  14. Spectroscopy and astronomy: H3+ from the laboratory to the Galactic center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Since the serendipitous discovery of the Fraunhofer spectrum in the Sun in 1814 which initiated spectroscopy and astrophysics, spectroscopy developed hand in hand with astronomy. I discuss my own work on the infrared spectrum of H3+ from its discovery in the laboratory in 1980, in interstellar space in 1996, to recent studies in the Galactic center as an example of astronomical spectroscopy. Its spin-off, the spectroscopy of simple molecular ions, is also briefly discussed.

  15. Irradiation effects detected by Moessbauer spectroscopy in iron complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladriere, J.

    1998-01-01

    The nature and the extent of the 60 Co gamma radiolysis of several iron coordination compounds have been analysed by Moessbauer absorption spectroscopy. The comparison of the radiolytic yields with the after effects observed by Moessbauer emission spectroscopy in similar 57 Co-doped compounds, supports the self-radiolysis model

  16. Lecture II. Charmed particle spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The discussion of charmed particle spectroscopy covers the particle properties and interrelations from a charmed quark composition point of view including SU(4)-symmetry generalities, mesons, baryons, charmed particle masses, and decays of charmed particles. 6 references

  17. Molecular spectroscopy in biodiagnostics (from Hippocrates to Herschel and beyond)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantsch, Henry; Jackson, Michael

    1995-03-01

    After two decades of intense research on the spectroscopic properties of biological molecules in isolated systems, infrared spectroscopy is now being applied to the study of human tissues. Extending this approach, it is possible to use the sensitivity of infrared spectroscopy to probe the biochemical events underlying transformation from normal to a diseased state within tissues, and so develop novel diagnostic methods. We highlight some of the areas of research within our group aimed at developing clinically useful methodologies based upon infrared spectroscopy.

  18. Hydrocarbon isotope detection by elastic peak electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostanovskiy, I.A., E-mail: kostanovskiyia@gmail.com [National Research University MPEI, Krasnokazarmennaya 14, 111250 Moscow (Russian Federation); Afanas’ev, V.P. [National Research University MPEI, Krasnokazarmennaya 14, 111250 Moscow (Russian Federation); Naujoks, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Mayer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • PCVD hydrocarbon coatings containing protium or deuterium are analyzed via NRA, ERD, XPS and EPES. • EPES analysis with modern electron energy analyzer SPECS Phoibos 225 shows a clear signal from the hydrogen isotopes. • Different primary energies and scattering angles help to quantify isotope content from EPES spectra. - Abstract: Experimental results on the hydrocarbon isotope analysis by elastic peak electron spectroscopy are presented. Amorphous hydrocarbon samples (a-C:H, a-C:D) are prepared by PCVD and analyzed by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), elastic recoil detection analysis (ERD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES). Electron energy spectra show a clear signal from the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and protium. Different incident energies and scattering geometries help to resolve plasmon and elastic energy losses.

  19. Hydrocarbon isotope detection by elastic peak electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostanovskiy, I.A.; Afanas’ev, V.P.; Naujoks, D.; Mayer, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PCVD hydrocarbon coatings containing protium or deuterium are analyzed via NRA, ERD, XPS and EPES. • EPES analysis with modern electron energy analyzer SPECS Phoibos 225 shows a clear signal from the hydrogen isotopes. • Different primary energies and scattering angles help to quantify isotope content from EPES spectra. - Abstract: Experimental results on the hydrocarbon isotope analysis by elastic peak electron spectroscopy are presented. Amorphous hydrocarbon samples (a-C:H, a-C:D) are prepared by PCVD and analyzed by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), elastic recoil detection analysis (ERD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES). Electron energy spectra show a clear signal from the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and protium. Different incident energies and scattering geometries help to resolve plasmon and elastic energy losses

  20. High pressure Moessbauer spectroscopy of perovskite iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasu, Saburo; Suenaga, Tomoya; Morimoto, Shotaro; Kawakami, Takateru; Kuzushita, Kaori; Takano, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    High-pressure 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy using a diamond anvil cell has been performed for perovskite iron oxides SrFeO 3 , CaFeO 3 and La 1/3 Sr 2/3 O 3 . The charge states and the magnetic dependency to pressure were determined. Pressure magnetic phase diagrams of these perovskite iron oxides are determined up to about 70 GPa. To be clear the magnetic ordered state, they are measured up to 7.8 T external magnetic fields at 4.5K. The phase transition of these perovskite oxides to ferromagnetisms with high magnetic ordered temperature is observed. In higher pressure, high spin-low spin transition of oxides besides CaFeO 3 is generated. The feature of Moessbauer spectroscopy, perovskite iron oxide and Moessbauer spectroscopy under high pressure are explained. (S.Y.)

  1. Modelling high-resolution electron microscopy based on core-loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.J.; Findlay, S.D.; Oxley, M.P.; Witte, C.; Zaluzec, N.J.

    2006-01-01

    There are a number of factors affecting the formation of images based on core-loss spectroscopy in high-resolution electron microscopy. We demonstrate unambiguously the need to use a full nonlocal description of the effective core-loss interaction for experimental results obtained from high angular resolution electron channelling electron spectroscopy. The implications of this model are investigated for atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Simulations are used to demonstrate that core-loss spectroscopy images formed using fine probes proposed for future microscopes can result in images that do not correspond visually with the structure that has led to their formation. In this context, we also examine the effect of varying detector geometries. The importance of the contribution to core-loss spectroscopy images by dechannelled or diffusely scattered electrons is reiterated here

  2. COMPLIS: COllinear spectroscopy Measurements using a Pulsed Laser Ion Source

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A Pulsed Laser spectroscopy experiment has been installed for the study of hyperfine structure and isotope shift of refractory and daughter elements from ISOLDE beams. It includes decelerated ion-implantation, element-selective laser ionization, magnetic and time-of-flight mass separation. The laser spectroscopy has been performed on the desorbed atoms in a set-up at ISOLDE-3 but later on high resolution laser collinear spectroscopy with the secondary pulsed ion beam is planned for the Booster ISOLDE set-up. During the first operation time of ISOLDE-3 we restricted our experiments to Doppler-limited resonant ionization laser and $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$ nuclear spectroscopy on neutron deficient platinum isotopes of even mass number down to A~=~186 and A~=~179 respectively. These isotopes have been produced by implantation of radioactive Hg and their subsequent $\\beta$-decay.

  3. In situ scanning probe spectroscopy at nanoscale solid/liquid interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, W.; Hugelmann, M.; Hugelmann, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemistry provides unique features for the preparation of low-dimensional structures, but in situ spectroscopy with atomic/molecular resolution at such structures is at present not well established yet. This paper shows that in situ scanning probe spectroscopy at solid/liquid interfaces can be utilized to study electronic properties at nanoscale, if appropriate conditions are applied. Tunneling spectroscopy provides information about tunneling barrier heights and electronic states in the tunneling gap, as shown on Au(1 1 1) substrates, contact spectroscopy allows for transport measurements at single nanostructures, as shown at Au/n-Si(1 1 1) nanodiodes. The influence of the electrolytic environment on spectroscopic investigations is not a principal limitation, but offers additional degrees of freedom, which allow, for example, spectroscopic studies of potential dependent surface phenomena at solid/liquid interfaces

  4. Detection of Poisonous Herbs by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Li, Z.; Chen, T.; Liu, J.-J.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is the application of terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques to distinguish poisonous and non-poisonous herbs which both have a similar appearance. Spectra of one poisonous and two non-poisonous herbs (Gelsemium elegans, Lonicera japonica Thunb, and Ficus Hirta Vahl) were obtained in the range 0.2-1.4 THz by using a THz time-domain spectroscopy system. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for feature extraction. The prediction accuracy of classification is between 97.78 to 100%. The results demonstrate an efficient and applicative method to distinguish poisonous herbs, and it may be implemented by using THz spectroscopy combined with chemometric algorithms.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in evaluation of central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolicki, L.; Bak, M.; Grieb, P.

    1996-01-01

    The article presents the current results of MR spectroscopy in evaluation of central nervous system. This method is useful in examination of brain ischemia, brain tumors, epilepsy; white matter disorders and degeneration diseases. MR spectroscopy is unique technique for in vivo examination of the brain in physiological and pathophysiological states. (author)

  6. Femtosecond Broadband Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo-Y; Yoon, Sagwoon; Mathies, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is a new technique where a narrow bandwidth picosecond Raman pump pulse and a red-shifted broadband femtosecond Stokes probe pulse (with or without time delay between the pulses) act on a sample to produce a high resolution Raman gain spectrum with high efficiency and speed, free from fluorescence background interference. It can reveal vibrational structural information and dynamics of stationary or transient states. Here, the quantum picture for femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is used to develop the semiclassical coupled wave theory of the phenomenon and to derive an expression for the measurable Raman gain in FSRS. The semiclassical theory is applied to study the dependence of lineshapes in FSRS on the pump-probe time delay and to deduce vibrational dephasing times in cyclohexane in the ground state

  7. Can infrared spectroscopy provide information on protein-protein interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Parvez I

    2010-08-01

    For most biophysical techniques, characterization of protein-protein interactions is challenging; this is especially true with methods that rely on a physical phenomenon that is common to both of the interacting proteins. Thus, for example, in IR spectroscopy, the carbonyl vibration (1600-1700 cm(-1)) associated with the amide bonds from both of the interacting proteins will overlap extensively, making the interpretation of spectral changes very complicated. Isotope-edited infrared spectroscopy, where one of the interacting proteins is uniformly labelled with (13)C or (13)C,(15)N has been introduced as a solution to this problem, enabling the study of protein-protein interactions using IR spectroscopy. The large shift of the amide I band (approx. 45 cm(-1) towards lower frequency) upon (13)C labelling of one of the proteins reveals the amide I band of the unlabelled protein, enabling it to be used as a probe for monitoring conformational changes. With site-specific isotopic labelling, structural resolution at the level of individual amino acid residues can be achieved. Furthermore, the ability to record IR spectra of proteins in diverse environments means that isotope-edited IR spectroscopy can be used to structurally characterize difficult systems such as protein-protein complexes bound to membranes or large insoluble peptide/protein aggregates. In the present article, examples of application of isotope-edited IR spectroscopy for studying protein-protein interactions are provided.

  8. Two-dimensional spectroscopy at infrared and optical frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Hochstrasser, Robin M.

    2007-01-01

    This Perspective on multidimensional spectroscopy in the optical and infrared spectral regions focuses on the principles and the scientific and technical challenges facing these new fields. The methods hold great promise for advances in the visualization of time-dependent structural changes in complex systems ranging from liquids to biological assemblies, new materials, and fundamental physical processes. The papers in this special feature on multidimensional spectroscopy in chemistry, physic...

  9. Picosecond spectroscopy: The first 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentzepis, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    Lasers were at first operating in the pulsed mode. That was the ruby, Cr/sup 3+/, emitting at 694.3 nm with a few kilowatts power, several microseconds time width, and a rather broad non-smooth-spiky-intensity profile. Even with such a primitive laser source, several noteworthy, novel experiments were performed such as two photon processes and second harmonic generation. The advent of Q-switch lasers by means of dyes, Kerr cells and electro-optic crystals introduced the era of high power lasers and laser spectroscopy. The high intensity and rather smooth intensity versus time profile pulses emitted by ruby and Nd/sup 3+//glass lasers provided excellent means for non-linear spectroscopy studies and nanosecond Raman spectroscopy, a field which flourished ten years later. In the mid-sixties, the He/Ne laser was mode locked, and shortly thereafter, the Nd/sup 3+//glass laser was also mode locked and shown to emit picosecond duration pulses. This paper presents what one observes on the screen of an oscilloscope once a laser is set up so as to generate picosecond pulses by use of either a saturable absorbing dye or solid state modulator. What is seen is, of course, a train of pulses. It is characteristic of these pulses that their intensity is extremely high, in the gigawatt region. In this particular case, the band width is approximately twenty to thirty wavenumbers. The method utilized to measure the picosecond pulses, initially, was the two photon method. This paper also gives a more graphic illustration how this technique operates. This same procedure provides an extremely simple technique which the author believes made possible the initial development of the picosecond spectroscopy field

  10. Hyperfine structure of 147,149Sm measured using saturated absorption spectroscopy in combination with resonance-ionization mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyunmin; Lee, Miran; Rhee, Yongjoo

    2003-01-01

    The hyperfine structures of four levels of the Sm isotopes have been measured by means of diode-laser-based Doppler-free saturated absorption spectroscopy in combination with a diode-laser-initiated resonance-ionization mass spectroscopy. It was demonstrated that combining the two spectroscopic methods was very effective for the identification and accurate measurement of the spectral lines of atoms with several isotopes, such as the rare-earth elements. From the obtained spectra, the hyperfine constants A and B for the odd-mass isotopes 147 Sm and 149 Sm were determined for four upper levels of the studied transitions.

  11. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy with microcalorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollerith, C.; Wernicke, D.; Buehler, M.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Huber, M.; Hoehne, J.; Hertrich, T.; Jochum, J.; Phelan, K.; Stark, M.; Simmnacher, B.; Weiland, W.; Westphal, W.

    2004-01-01

    Shrinking feature sizes in semiconductor device production as well as the use of new materials demand innovation in device technology and material analysis. X-ray spectrometers based on superconducting sensor technology are currently closing the gap between fast energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and high-resolution wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). This work reports on the successful integration of iridium/gold transition edge sensors in the first industrially used microcalorimeter EDS. The POLARIS microcalorimeter system is installed at the failure analysis lab FA5 at Infineon Technologies AG in Neuperlach (Munich) and is used in routine analysis

  12. Principles of laser spectroscopy and quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    Principles of Laser Spectroscopy and Quantum Optics is an essential textbook for graduate students studying the interaction of optical fields with atoms. It also serves as an ideal reference text for researchers working in the fields of laser spectroscopy and quantum optics. The book provides a rigorous introduction to the prototypical problems of radiation fields interacting with two- and three-level atomic systems. It examines the interaction of radiation with both atomic vapors and condensed matter systems, the density matrix and the Bloch vector, and applications involving linear absorptio

  13. Photoacoustic and photothermal spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Tsuguo; Kitamori, Takehiko; Nakamura, Masato

    1995-01-01

    Photoacoustic and photothermal spectroscopy methods can be effectively applied to the analysis of microparticles in condensed matter. A more violent photothermal conversion phenomenon of a particle, laser breakdown and accompanying plasma and acoustic emission, was applied to individual detection and analysis of ultrafine particles in ultrapure water. Laser-like nonlinear emission from the plasma was observed. (author)

  14. High-spin nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    High-spin spectroscopy is the study of the changes in nuclear structure, properties, and behavior with increasing angular momentum. It involves the complex interplay between collective and single-particle motion, between shape and deformation changes, particle alignments, and changes in the pairing correlations. A review of progress in theory, experimentation, and instrumentation in this field is given

  15. Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. de.

    1980-01-01

    A new method of background correction in atomic absorption spectroscopy has recently been introduced, based on the Zeeman splitting of spectral lines in a magnetic field. A theoretical analysis of the background correction capability observed in such instruments is presented. A Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer utilizing a 50 Hz sine wave modulated magnetic field is described. (Auth.)

  16. Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paudel, Amrit; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Almost 100 years after the discovery of the Raman scattering phenomenon, related analytical techniques have emerged as important tools in biomedical sciences. Raman spectroscopy and microscopy are frontier, non-invasive analytical techniques amenable for diverse biomedical areas, ranging from...... molecular-based drug discovery, design of innovative drug delivery systems and quality control of finished products. This review presents concise accounts of various conventional and emerging Raman instrumentations including associated hyphenated tools of pharmaceutical interest. Moreover, relevant...... application cases of Raman spectroscopy in early and late phase pharmaceutical development, process analysis and micro-structural analysis of drug delivery systems are introduced. Finally, potential areas of future advancement and application of Raman spectroscopic techniques are discussed....

  17. Deep-ultraviolet cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneep, M.C.; Hannemann, S.; van Duijn, E.J.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    2004-01-01

    The sensitive optical detection technique of cavity ringdown spectroscopy is extended to the wavelength range 197-204 nm. A novel design narrowband Fourier-transform-limited laser is used, and the technique is applied to gas-phase extinction measurements in CO

  18. Tutorial: Junction spectroscopy techniques and deep-level defects in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaker, A. R.; Markevich, V. P.; Coutinho, J.

    2018-04-01

    The term junction spectroscopy embraces a wide range of techniques used to explore the properties of semiconductor materials and semiconductor devices. In this tutorial review, we describe the most widely used junction spectroscopy approaches for characterizing deep-level defects in semiconductors and present some of the early work on which the principles of today's methodology are based. We outline ab-initio calculations of defect properties and give examples of how density functional theory in conjunction with formation energy and marker methods can be used to guide the interpretation of experimental results. We review recombination, generation, and trapping of charge carriers associated with defects. We consider thermally driven emission and capture and describe the techniques of Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS), high resolution Laplace DLTS, admittance spectroscopy, and scanning DLTS. For the study of minority carrier related processes and wide gap materials, we consider Minority Carrier Transient Spectroscopy (MCTS), Optical DLTS, and deep level optical transient spectroscopy together with some of their many variants. Capacitance, current, and conductance measurements enable carrier exchange processes associated with the defects to be detected. We explain how these methods are used in order to understand the behaviour of point defects and the determination of charge states and negative-U (Hubbard correlation energy) behaviour. We provide, or reference, examples from a wide range of materials including Si, SiGe, GaAs, GaP, GaN, InGaN, InAlN, and ZnO.

  19. Identification of color development potential of quartz by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkmim, Danielle G.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Almeida, Frederico O.T.

    2013-01-01

    Colorless quartz is usually exposed to ionizing radiation (gamma rays or high energy electron beams) to acquire different colors for jewelry. Color development is due to the presence of traces of some elements such as aluminum, iron, hydrogen, lithium, or sodium. Most quartz crystals are extracted colorless from nature and it is necessary to separate those that can develop colors from those that cannot. Irradiation tests can be used to accomplish this separation, but they take a long time. Infrared signature of colorless quartz can also be used. However, infrared spectroscopy is quite expensive, especially when using portable devices. Raman spectroscopy is now available as an inexpensive and portable technique that could provide identification of the samples of colorless quartz still in the field, facilitating the prediction for their economic exploitation. In addition, Raman spectroscopy usually requires a minimum or no sample preparation. This paper presents an investigation of the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy as a substitute for infrared spectroscopy to predict the potential for color development of quartz. A band at 3595 cm -1 in the Raman shift spectrum was observed only along the c axis of a prasiolite excited by a high power 514 nm laser. This band was not observed in quartz samples that do not develop color after irradiation. Further studies are required to identify the potential for color development by Raman spectroscopy of other types of colorless quartz. (author)

  20. High-resolution narrowband CARS spectroscopy in the spectral fingerprint region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chimento, P.F.; Jurna, M.; Bouwmans, H.S.P.; Garbacik, E.T.; Garbacik, E.T.; Hartsuiker, Liesbeth; Otto, Cornelis; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2010-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy is an important technique for spectroscopy and chemically selective microscopy, but wider implementation requires dedicated versatile tunable sources. We describe an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on a magnesium oxide-doped

  1. Soil Spectroscopy: An Alternative to Wet Chemistry for Soil Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nocita, M.; Stevens, A.; van Wesemael, Bas

    2015-01-01

    The soil science community is facing a growing demand of regional, continental, and worldwide databases in order to monitor the status of the soil. However, the availability of such data is very scarce. Cost-effective tools to measure soil properties for large areas (e.g., Europe) are required....... Soil spectroscopy has shown to be a fast, cost-effective, envi-ronmental-friendly, nondestructive, reproducible, and repeatable analytical technique. The main aim of this paper is to describe the state of the art of soil spectroscopy as well as its potential to facilitating soil monitoring. The factors...... constraining the application of soil spectroscopy as an alternative to traditional laboratory analyses, together with the limits of the technique, are addressed. The paper also highlights that the widespread use of spectroscopy to monitor the status of the soil should be encouraged by (1) the creation...

  2. Photoelectron spectroscopy of supersonic molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, J.E.

    1982-05-01

    A new technique for performing high resolution molecular photoelectron spectroscopy is described, beginning with its conceptual development, through the construction of a prototypal apparatus, to the initial applications on a particularly favorable molecular system. The distinguishing features of this technique are: (1) the introduction of the sample in the form of a collimated supersonic molecular beam; and (2) the use of an electrostatic deflection energy analyzer which is carefully optimized in terms of sensitivity and resolution. This combination makes it possible to obtain photoelectron spectra at a new level of detail for many small molecules. Three experiments are described which rely on the capability to perform rotationally-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy on the hydrogen molecule and its isotopes. The first is a measurement of the ionic vibrational and rotational spectroscopic constants and the vibrationally-selected photoionization cross sections. The second is a determination of the photoelectron asymmetry parameter, β, for selected rotational transitions. The third is an investigation of the rotational relaxation in a free jet expansion, using photoelectron spectroscopy as a probe of the rotational state population distributions. In the closing chapter an assessment is made of the successes and limitations of the technique, and an indication is given of areas for further improvement in future spectrometers

  3. Coherent cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, Adam J; Long, David A; Reed, Zachary D; Hodges, Joseph T; Plusquellic, David F

    2016-05-16

    Dual-comb spectroscopy allows for the rapid, multiplexed acquisition of high-resolution spectra without the need for moving parts or low-resolution dispersive optics. This method of broadband spectroscopy is most often accomplished via tight phase locking of two mode-locked lasers or via sophisticated signal processing algorithms, and therefore, long integration times of phase coherent signals are difficult to achieve. Here we demonstrate an alternative approach to dual-comb spectroscopy using two phase modulator combs originating from a single continuous-wave laser capable of > 2 hours of coherent real-time averaging. The dual combs were generated by driving the phase modulators with step-recovery diodes where each comb consisted of > 250 teeth with 203 MHz spacing and spanned > 50 GHz region in the near-infrared. The step-recovery diodes are passive devices that provide low-phase-noise harmonics for efficient coupling into an enhancement cavity at picowatt optical powers. With this approach, we demonstrate the sensitivity to simultaneously monitor ambient levels of CO2, CO, HDO, and H2O in a single spectral region at a maximum acquisition rate of 150 kHz. Robust, compact, low-cost and widely tunable dual-comb systems could enable a network of distributed multiplexed optical sensors.

  4. Neutron characteristic and spectroscopy logging methods and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antkiw, S.

    1977-01-01

    Earth formations surrounding a well bore are irradiated with pulses of fast neutrons, and gamma rays resulting from the ensuring thermal neutron capture interactions with nuclei of the formations are detected, from which measurements of the thermal neutron decay times characterizing the respective formations are derived. The gamma ray energy spectra of the respective formations are analyzed. Gating of the gamma ray detection periods is automatically controlled, both for the decay time and the spectroscopy functions, in accrdance with the measured values of the decay times. The duration and repetition rate of the neutron pulses are also controlled as a function of the measured decay times to provide an overall optimized decay time-spectroscopy operating cycle. spectroscopy outputs representative of formation lithology, salinity, porosity and shaliness are developed to supplement and improve decay time log interpretation

  5. Atomic and molecular spectroscopy basic concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kakkar, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopy is the study of electromagnetic radiation and its interaction with solid, liquid, gas and plasma. It is one of the widely used analytical techniques to study the structure of atoms and molecules. The technique is also employed to obtain information about atoms and molecules as a result of their distinctive spectra. The fast-spreading field of spectroscopic applications has made a noteworthy influence on many disciplines, including energy research, chemical processing, environmental protection and medicine. This book aims to introduce students to the topic of spectroscopy. The author has avoided the mathematical aspects of the subject as far as possible; they appear in the text only when inevitable. Including topics such as time-dependent perturbation theory, laser action and applications of Group Theory in interpretation of spectra, the book offers a detailed coverage of the basic concepts and applications of spectroscopy.

  6. Modulated Raman Spectroscopy for Enhanced Cancer Diagnosis at the Cellular Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Anna Chiara; Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is emerging as a promising and novel biophotonics tool for non-invasive, real-time diagnosis of tissue and cell abnormalities. However, the presence of a strong fluorescence background is a key issue that can detract from the use of Raman spectroscopy in routine clinical care. The review summarizes the state-of-the-art methods to remove the fluorescence background and explores recent achievements to address this issue obtained with modulated Raman spectroscopy. This innovative approach can be used to extract the Raman spectral component from the fluorescence background and improve the quality of the Raman signal. We describe the potential of modulated Raman spectroscopy as a rapid, inexpensive and accurate clinical tool to detect the presence of bladder cancer cells. Finally, in a broader context, we show how this approach can greatly enhance the sensitivity of integrated Raman spectroscopy and microfluidic systems, opening new prospects for portable higher throughput Raman cell sorting. PMID:26110401

  7. PC operated acoustic transient spectroscopy of deep levels in MIS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bury, P.; Jamnicky, I.

    1996-01-01

    A new version of acoustic deep-level transient spectroscopy is presented to study the traps at the insulator-semiconductor interface. The acoustic deep-level transient spectroscopy uses an acoustoelectric response signal produced by the MIS structure interface when a longitudinal acoustic wave propagates through a structure. The acoustoelectric response signal is extremely sensitive to external conditions of the structure and reflects any changes in the charge distribution, connected also with charged traps. In comparison with previous version of acoustic deep-level transient spectroscopy that closely coincides with the principle of the original deep-level transient spectroscopy technique, the present technique is based on the computer-evaluated isothermal transients and represents an improved, more efficient and time saving technique. Many tests on the software used for calculation as well as on experimental setup have been performed. The improved acoustic deep-level transient spectroscopy method has been applied for the Si(p) MIS structures. The deep-level parameters as activation energy and capture cross-section have been determined. (authors)

  8. Aspects of statistical spectroscopy relevant to effective-interaction theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    The three aspects of statistical spectroscopy discussed in this paper are the information content of complex spectra: procedures for spectroscopy in huge model spaces, useful in effective-interaction theory; and practical ways of identifying and calculating measurable parameters of the effective Hamiltonian and other operators, and of comparing different effective Hamiltonians. (4 figures) (U.S.)

  9. Atomic force microscope-assisted scanning tunneling spectroscopy under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhshouri, Amin; Hashimoto, Katsushi; Hirayama, Yoshiro

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a method of atomic force microscopy (AFM)-assisted scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) under ambient conditions. An AFM function is used for rapid access to a selected position prior to performing STS. The AFM feedback is further used to suppress vertical thermal drift of the tip-sample distance during spectroscopy, enabling flexible and stable spectroscopy measurements at room temperature. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Validation studies on quick analysis of MOX fuel by combination of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and ablation resonance absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakaida, Ikuo; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Miyabe, Masabumi; Kato, Masaaki; Otobe, Haruyoshi; Ohoba, Hironori; Khumaeni, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Research and development of laser based quick analysis without chemical analysis and neutron measurement for next-generation Minor Actinide containing MOX fuel has been carried out, and the basic performances by using un-irradiated MOX fuel were demonstrated. The glove box had been re-constructed and specialized for laser spectroscopy, and the remote spectroscopy of MOX sample contained several concentrations of Pu was performed. In elemental analysis by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) with high resolution spectrometer, relative error of 2.9% at 30% Pu and the detection lower limit of 2500ppm in natural U oxide were demonstrated with the operation time of 5 min. In isotope ratio analysis by Ablation Resonance Absorption Spectroscopy, tunable semiconductor laser system was constructed, and the performances such as relative deviation less than 1% in the ratio of "2"4"0Pu/"2"3"9Pu and the sensitivity of 30-100ppm in natural U were also accomplished with laser operation time of 3 to 5min. As for an elemental analysis of the simulated liquid sample, ultra-thin laminate flow was experimented as LIBS target, and the sensitivity comparable to conventional ICP-AES was confirmed. Present study includes the result of the entrusted project by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT). (author)

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation of nonlinear spectroscopies of intermolecular motions in liquid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagasaki, Takuma; Saito, Shinji

    2009-09-15

    Water is the most extensively studied of liquids because of both its ubiquity and its anomalous thermodynamic and dynamic properties. The properties of water are dominated by hydrogen bonds and hydrogen bond network rearrangements. Fundamental information on the dynamics of liquid water has been provided by linear infrared (IR), Raman, and neutron-scattering experiments; molecular dynamics simulations have also provided insights. Recently developed higher-order nonlinear spectroscopies open new windows into the study of the hydrogen bond dynamics of liquid water. For example, the vibrational lifetimes of stretches and a bend, intramolecular features of water dynamics, can be accurately measured and are found to be on the femtosecond time scale at room temperature. Higher-order nonlinear spectroscopy is expressed by a multitime correlation function, whereas traditional linear spectroscopy is given by a one-time correlation function. Thus, nonlinear spectroscopy yields more detailed information on the dynamics of condensed media than linear spectroscopy. In this Account, we describe the theoretical background and methods for calculating higher order nonlinear spectroscopy; equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, and a combination of both, are used. We also present the intermolecular dynamics of liquid water revealed by fifth-order two-dimensional (2D) Raman spectroscopy and third-order IR spectroscopy. 2D Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to couplings between modes; the calculated 2D Raman signal of liquid water shows large anharmonicity in the translational motion and strong coupling between the translational and librational motions. Third-order IR spectroscopy makes it possible to examine the time-dependent couplings. The 2D IR spectra and three-pulse photon echo peak shift show the fast frequency modulation of the librational motion. A significant effect of the translational motion on the fast frequency modulation of the librational motion is

  12. Admittance spectroscopy of spray-pyrolyzed ZnO film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavasoglu, Nese; Kavasoglu, A. Sertap

    2008-01-01

    A ZnO film was deposited using the spray pyrolysis method. The admittance spectroscopy method was used to establish the contributions to electrical behavior from grains, grain boundaries, and electrodes of film. Proper equivalent electrical circuit of a ZnO film composed of a single parallel resistor, capacitor, and inductor network connected with a series resistance was proposed. Moreover, we displayed metal-semiconductor transition (MST) in the ZnO film via admittance spectroscopy

  13. Laser spectroscopy of gas confined in nanoporous materials

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Tomas; Shen, Zhijian

    2010-01-01

    We show that high-resolution laser spectroscopy can probe surface interactions of gas confined in nanocavities of porous materials. We report on strong line broadening and unfamiliar line shapes due to tight confinement, as well as signal enhancement due to multiple photon scattering. This new domain of laser spectroscopy constitute a challenge for the theory of collisions and spectroscopic line shapes, and open for new ways of analyzing porous materials and processes taking place therein.

  14. A high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer for planetary spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Sinton, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of a high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) is described for planetary and other astronomical spectroscopy in conjunction with the 88-inch telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The FTS system is designed for a broad range of uses, including double-beam laboratory spectroscopy, infrared gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The data system is well-suited to astronomical applications because of its great speed in acquiring and transforming data, and because of the enormous storage capability of the magnetic tape unit supplied with the system. The basic instrument is outlined 2nd some of the initial results from the first attempted use on the Mauna Kea 88-inch telescope are reported.

  15. Neutron spin-echo spectroscopy for diffusion in crystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaisermayr, M.; Rennhofer, M.; Vogl, G.; Pappas, C.; Longeville, S.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron spin-echo spectroscopy (NSE) offers unprecedented opportunities in the investigation of diffusion in crystalline systems due to its outstanding energy resolution. NSE not only enables measurements at lower diffusivities than the established techniques of neutron spectroscopy, but it also gives a very immediate access to the different time scales involved in the diffusion process. This is demonstrated in detail on the example of the binary alloy NiGa where the Ni atoms hop between regular sites on the Ni sublattice and anti-sites on the Ga sublattice. Experiments on two different NSE instruments are compared to measurements using neutron backscattering spectroscopy. The potential of NSE for the investigation of jump diffusion and experimental requirements are discussed

  16. Interfacial structure of soft matter probed by SFG spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shen; Tong, Yujin; Ge, Aimin; Qiao, Lin; Davies, Paul B

    2014-10-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, an interface-specific technique in contrast to, for example, attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, which is only interface sensitive, has been employed to investigate the surface and interface structure of soft matter on a molecular scale. The experimental arrangement required to carry out SFG spectroscopy, with particular reference to soft matter, and the analytical methods developed to interpret the spectra are described. The elucidation of the interfacial structure of soft matter systems is an essential prerequisite in order to understand and eventually control the surface properties of these important functional materials. Copyright © 2014 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Use of absorption spectroscopy for refined petroleum product discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michael

    1991-07-01

    On-line discrimination between arbitrary petroleum products is necessary for optimal control of petroleum refinery and pipeline operation and process control involving petroleum distillates. There are a number of techniques by which petroleum products can be distinguished from one another. Among these, optical measurements offer fast, non-intrusive, real-time characterization. The application examined here involves optically monitoring the interface between dissimilar batches of fluids in a gasoline pipeline. After examination of near- infrared and mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform mid-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was chosen as the best candidate for implementation. On- line FTIR data is presented, verifying the applicability of the technique for batch interface detection.

  18. Future projects of light kaonic atom X-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuno, H.; Bazzi, M.; Beer, G.; Bellotti, G.; Berucci, C.; Bragadireanu, A.M.; Bosnar, D.; Cargnelli, M.; Curceanu, C.; Butt, A.D.; D’Uffizi, A.; Fiorini, C.; Ghio, F.; Guaraldo, C.; Hayano, R.S.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Sandri, P. Levi; Marton, J.; Okada, S.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Vidal, A. Romero; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D.L.; Sirghi, F.; Doce, O. Vazquez; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopy of light kaonic atoms is a unique tool to provide precise information on the fundamental K̄N interaction at the low-energy limit and the in-medium nuclear interaction of K"−. The future experiments of kaonic deuterium strong-interaction shift and width (SIDDHARTA-2 and J-PARC E57) can extract the isospin dependent K"−N interaction at threshold. The high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of kaonic helium with microcalorimeters (J-PARC E62) has the possibility to solve the long-standing potential-strength problem of the attractive K"−-nucleus interaction. Here, the recent experimental results and the future projects of X-ray spectroscopy of light kaonic atoms are presented.

  19. [MR spectroscopy of amygdala: investigation of methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hehan; Yue, Qiang; Gong, Qiyong

    2013-08-01

    This study was aimed to optimize the methods of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to improve its quality in amygdala. Forty-three volunteers were examined at right and left amygdala using stimulated-echo acquisition mode (STEAM), and point-resolved spectroscopy series (PRESS) with and without saturation bands. The Cr-SNR, water-suppression level, water full width at half maximum (FWHM) and RMS noise of three sequences were compared. The results showed that (1) the Cr-SNR and water-suppression lelvel of PRESS with saturation bands were better than that of PRESS without saturation bands and STEAM (P<0.001); (2) the left and right RMS noise was significantly different both using PRESS with saturation bands and using STEAM (P<0.05); (3) there was a positive, significant correlation between Cr-SNR and voxel size (P<0.05). Therefore, PRESS with saturation bands is better than PRESS without saturation bands or STEAM for the spectroscopy of amygdala. It is also useful to make the voxel as big as possible to improve the spectral quality.

  20. Impedance Spectroscopy of Dielectrics and Electronic Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanos, Nikolaos; Pissis, Polycarpos; Macdonald, J. Ross

    2013-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy is used for the characterization of materials, such as electroceramics, solid and liquid electrochemical cells, dielectrics and also fully integrated devices, such as fuel cells. It consists of measuring the electrical impedance - or a closely related property, such as admi......Impedance spectroscopy is used for the characterization of materials, such as electroceramics, solid and liquid electrochemical cells, dielectrics and also fully integrated devices, such as fuel cells. It consists of measuring the electrical impedance - or a closely related property......, such as admittance or dielectric constant - as a function of frequency and comparing the results with expectations based on physical, chemical, and microstructural models. This article reviews the principles and practical aspects of the technique, the representations of the results, the analysis of data......, and procedures for the correction of measurement errors. The applications of impedance spectroscopy are illustrated with examples from electroceramics and polymer-based dielectric systems. The way in which the technique is applied to the two classes of materials is compared with reference to the different models...

  1. Soil profile property estimation with field and laboratory VNIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) soil sensors have the potential to provide rapid, high-resolution estimation of multiple soil properties. Although many studies have focused on laboratory-based visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectroscopy of dried soil samples, previous work has demonstrated ...

  2. Hollow waveguide cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Chris (Inventor); Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Laser light is confined in a hollow waveguide between two highly reflective mirrors. This waveguide cavity is used to conduct Cavity Ringdown Absorption Spectroscopy of loss mechanisms in the cavity including absorption or scattering by gases, liquid, solids, and/or optical elements.

  3. Ultrafast spectroscopy of biological photoreceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennis, J.T.M.; Groot, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    We review recent new insights on reaction dynamics of photoreceptors proteins gained from ultrafast spectroscopy. In Blue Light sensing Using FAD (BLUF) domains, a hydrogen-bond rearrangement around the flavin chromophore proceeds through a radical-pair mechanism, by which light-induced electron and

  4. Neutron resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunsing, F.

    2005-06-01

    The present document has been written in order to obtain the diploma 'Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches'. Since this diploma is indispensable to supervise thesis students, I had the intention to write a document that can be useful for someone starting in the field of neutron resonance spectroscopy. Although the here described topics are already described elsewhere, and often in more detail, it seemed useful to have most of the relevant information in a single document. A general introduction places the topic of neutron-nucleus interaction in a nuclear physics context. The large variations of several orders of magnitude in neutron-induced reaction cross sections are explained in terms of nuclear level excitations. The random character of the resonances make nuclear model calculation predictions impossible. Then several fields in physics where neutron-induced reactions are important and to which I have contributed in some way or another, are mentioned in a first synthetic chapter. They concern topics like parity nonconservation in certain neutron resonances, stellar nucleosynthesis by neutron capture, and data for nuclear energy applications. The latter item is especially important for the transmutation of nuclear waste and for alternative fuel cycles. Nuclear data libraries are also briefly mentioned. A second chapter details the R-matrix theory. This formalism is the foundation of the description of the neutron-nucleus interaction and is present in all fields of neutron resonance spectroscopy. (author)

  5. Spectroscopy 101: A Practical Introduction to Spectroscopy and Analysis for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Lucas A.; Kammeyer, Jacquelin K.; Garg, Neil K.

    2017-01-01

    An undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory that provides an introduction to various spectroscopic techniques is reported. Whereas organic spectroscopy is most often learned and practiced in the context of reaction analyses, this laboratory experiment allows students to become comfortable with [superscript 1]H NMR, [superscript 13]C NMR, and IR…

  6. Trapping and spectroscopy of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, Claudio Lenz

    1997-01-01

    I review the results and techniques used by the MIT H↑ group to achieve a fractional resolution of 2 parts in 10 12 in the 1S-2S transition in hydrogen [Cesar, D. Fried, T. Killian, A. Polcyn, J. Sandberg, I.A. Yu, T. Greytak, D. Kleppner and J. Doyle, Two-photon spectroscopy of trapped atomic hydrogen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1996) 255.] With some improvements, this system should deliver 100 times higher resolution with an improved signal count rate getting us closer to an old advertised goal of a precision of 1 part in 10 18 . While these developments are very important for the proposed test of the CPT theorem through the comparison with anti-hydrogen, some of the techniques used with hydrogen are not applicable to anti-hydrogen and I discuss some difficulties and alternatives for the trapping and spectroscopy of anti-hydrogen

  7. Liquid identification by Hilbert spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyatti, M; Divin, Y; Poppe, U; Urban, K, E-mail: M.Lyatti@fz-juelich.d, E-mail: Y.Divin@fz-juelich.d [Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Fast and reliable identification of liquids is of great importance in, for example, security, biology and the beverage industry. An unambiguous identification of liquids can be made by electromagnetic measurements of their dielectric functions in the frequency range of their main dispersions, but this frequency range, from a few GHz to a few THz, is not covered by any conventional spectroscopy. We have developed a concept of liquid identification based on our new Hilbert spectroscopy and high- T{sub c} Josephson junctions, which can operate at the intermediate range from microwaves to THz frequencies. A demonstration setup has been developed consisting of a polychromatic radiation source and a compact Hilbert spectrometer integrated in a Stirling cryocooler. Reflection polychromatic spectra of various bottled liquids have been measured at the spectral range of 15-300 GHz with total scanning time down to 0.2 s and identification of liquids has been demonstrated.

  8. Liquid identification by Hilbert spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyatti, M.; Divin, Y.; Poppe, U.; Urban, K.

    2009-11-01

    Fast and reliable identification of liquids is of great importance in, for example, security, biology and the beverage industry. An unambiguous identification of liquids can be made by electromagnetic measurements of their dielectric functions in the frequency range of their main dispersions, but this frequency range, from a few GHz to a few THz, is not covered by any conventional spectroscopy. We have developed a concept of liquid identification based on our new Hilbert spectroscopy and high- Tc Josephson junctions, which can operate at the intermediate range from microwaves to THz frequencies. A demonstration setup has been developed consisting of a polychromatic radiation source and a compact Hilbert spectrometer integrated in a Stirling cryocooler. Reflection polychromatic spectra of various bottled liquids have been measured at the spectral range of 15-300 GHz with total scanning time down to 0.2 s and identification of liquids has been demonstrated.

  9. Liquid identification by Hilbert spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyatti, M; Divin, Y; Poppe, U; Urban, K

    2009-01-01

    Fast and reliable identification of liquids is of great importance in, for example, security, biology and the beverage industry. An unambiguous identification of liquids can be made by electromagnetic measurements of their dielectric functions in the frequency range of their main dispersions, but this frequency range, from a few GHz to a few THz, is not covered by any conventional spectroscopy. We have developed a concept of liquid identification based on our new Hilbert spectroscopy and high- T c Josephson junctions, which can operate at the intermediate range from microwaves to THz frequencies. A demonstration setup has been developed consisting of a polychromatic radiation source and a compact Hilbert spectrometer integrated in a Stirling cryocooler. Reflection polychromatic spectra of various bottled liquids have been measured at the spectral range of 15-300 GHz with total scanning time down to 0.2 s and identification of liquids has been demonstrated.

  10. Blood analysis by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enejder, Annika M K; Koo, Tae-Woong; Oh, Jeankun; Hunter, Martin; Sasic, Slobodan; Feld, Michael S; Horowitz, Gary L

    2002-11-15

    Concentrations of multiple analytes were simultaneously measured in whole blood with clinical accuracy, without sample processing, using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were acquired with an instrument employing nonimaging optics, designed using Monte Carlo simulations of the influence of light-scattering-absorbing blood cells on the excitation and emission of Raman light in turbid medium. Raman spectra were collected from whole blood drawn from 31 individuals. Quantitative predictions of glucose, urea, total protein, albumin, triglycerides, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were made by means of partial least-squares (PLS) analysis with clinically relevant precision (r(2) values >0.93). The similarity of the features of the PLS calibration spectra to those of the respective analyte spectra illustrates that the predictions are based on molecular information carried by the Raman light. This demonstrates the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy for quantitative measurements of biomolecular contents in highly light-scattering and absorbing media.

  11. Atomic spectroscopy sympsoium, Gaithersburg, Maryland, September 23--26, 1975. [Program, abstracts, and author index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of one hundred papers given at the conference are presented along with the conference program and an author index. Session topics include: highly ionized atoms; laser spectroscopy and hyperfine structure; complex spectra; laser spectroscopy, radiation theory; theory of highly ionized atoms and analysis of plasmas; plasma spectroscopy, line strengths; spectral analysis, instrumentation, reference wavelengths; beam foil spectroscopy, line strengths, energy levels; absorption spectroscopy, autoionization, and related theory; and spectral analysis, instrumentation, and VUV physics. (GHT)

  12. Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy (FLCS): Concepts, Applications and Outlook

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kapusta, Peter; Macháň, Radek; Benda, A.; Hof, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 10 (2012), s. 12890-12910 E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) * time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) * fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2012

  13. Coherent atomic and molecular spectroscopy in the far infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inguscio, M.

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in far infrared spectroscopy of atoms (fine structure transitions) and molecules (rotational transitions) are reviewed. Results obtained by means of Laser Magnetic Resonance, using fixed frequency lasers, and Tunable Far Infrared spectrometers are illustrated. The importance of far infrared spectroscopy for several fields, including astrophysics, atmospheric physics, atomic structure and metology, is discussed. (orig.)

  14. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., frequency doubling in external cavities, reliable cw-parametric oscillators, tunable narrow-band UV sources, more sensitive detection techniques, tunable femtosecond and sub-femtosecond lasers (X-ray region and the attosecond range), control of atomic and molecular excitations, frequency combs able to synchronize independent femtosecond lasers, coherent matter waves, and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  15. Near-infrared-excited confocal Raman spectroscopy advances in vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Zheng, Wei; Ng, Joseph; Low, Jeffrey J H; Ilancheran, Arunachalam; Huang, Zhiwei

    2013-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a unique optical technique that can probe the changes of vibrational modes of biomolecules associated with tissue premalignant transformation. This study evaluates the clinical utility of confocal Raman spectroscopy over near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence (AF) spectroscopy and composite NIR AF/Raman spectroscopy for improving early diagnosis of cervical precancer in vivo at colposcopy. A rapid NIR Raman system coupled with a ball-lens fiber-optic confocal Raman probe was utilized for in vivo NIR AF/Raman spectral measurements of the cervix. A total of 1240 in vivo Raman spectra [normal (n=993), dysplasia (n=247)] were acquired from 84 cervical patients. Principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) together with a leave-one-patient-out, cross-validation method were used to extract the diagnostic information associated with distinctive spectroscopic modalities. The diagnostic ability of confocal Raman spectroscopy was evaluated using the PCA-LDA model developed from the significant principal components (PCs) [i.e., PC4, 0.0023%; PC5, 0.00095%; PC8, 0.00022%, (p<0.05)], representing the primary tissue Raman features (e.g., 854, 937, 1095, 1253, 1311, 1445, and 1654 cm(-1)). Confocal Raman spectroscopy coupled with PCA-LDA modeling yielded the diagnostic accuracy of 84.1% (a sensitivity of 81.0% and a specificity of 87.1%) for in vivo discrimination of dysplastic cervix. The receiver operating characteristic curves further confirmed that the best classification was achieved using confocal Raman spectroscopy compared to the composite NIR AF/Raman spectroscopy or NIR AF spectroscopy alone. This study illustrates that confocal Raman spectroscopy has great potential to improve early diagnosis of cervical precancer in vivo during clinical colposcopy.

  16. Applications of magnetic resonance spectroscopy for noninvasive assessment of hepatic steatosis

    OpenAIRE

    van Werven, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    MR spectroscopy is a noninvasive technique to quantify hepatic steatosis. MR spectroscopy provides information about the chemical composition of tissues in a spectrum. Hepatic steatosis is characterized by accumulation of fat in the liver. The prevalence of hepatic steatosis is increasing due to its relation with obesity and insulin resistance in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This thesis describes the applications of MR spectroscopy (primarily on 3T) for noninvasive assessment of hepatic...

  17. Proceedings of the 3rd US-Japan Workshop on Plasma Polarization Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P; Flyimoto, T

    2002-01-01

    The third US-Japan Workshop on Plasma Polarization Spectroscopy was held at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, on June 18-21, 2001. The talks presented at this workshop are summarized in these proceedings. The papers cover both experimental investigation and applications of plasma polarization spectroscopy as well as the theoretical foundation and formalisms to understand and describe the polarization phenomena. The papers give an overview of the history of plasma polarization spectroscopy, derive the formal aspects of polarization spectroscopy, including the effects of electric and magnetic fields, discuss spectra perturbed by intense microwave fields, charge exchange, and dielectronic recombination, and present calculations of various collisional excitation and ionization cross sections and the modeling of plasma polarization spectroscopy phenomena. Experimental results are given from the WT-3 tokamak, the MST reverse field pinch, the Large Helical Device, the GAMMA 10 mirror machine, the Nevada Terrawatt Facility, the Livermore EBIT-II electron beam ion trap, and beam-foil spectroscopy. In addition, results were presented from studies of several laser-produced plasma experiments and new instrumental techniques were demonstrated

  18. UV-Vis spectroscopy of tyrosine side-groups in studies of protein structure. Part 2: selected applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosiewicz, Jan M; Shugar, David

    2016-06-01

    In Part 2 we discuss application of several different types of UV-Vis spectroscopy, such as normal, difference, and second-derivative UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, linear and circular dichroism spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, of the side-chain of tyrosine residues in different molecular environments. We review the ways these spectroscopies can be used to probe complex protein structures.

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueterjans, H.

    1987-01-01

    Contributions by various authors who are working in the field of NMR imaging present the current status and the perspectives of in-vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, explaining not only the scientific and medical aspects, but also technical and physical principles as well as questions concerning practical organisation and training, and points of main interest for further research activities. (orig./TRV) [de

  20. Applications of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Asoka-Kumar , P.; Lynn , K.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the application of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) to some selected technologically important systems. The method involves a nondestructive probe to detect low levels of open-volume defects. The discussion shows the application of PAS to a wide range of advanced material systems.

  1. A Brief History of Spectroscopy on EBIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P

    2007-02-28

    In the autumn of 1986, the first electron beam ion trap, EBIT, was put into service as a light source for the spectroscopy of highly charged ions. On the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of EBIT, we review its early uses for spectroscopy, from the first measurements of x rays from L-shell xenon ions in 1986 to its conversion to SuperEBIT in 1992 and rebirth as EBIT-I in 2001. Together with their sibling, EBIT-II, these machines have been used at Livermore to perform a multitude of seminal studies of the physics of highly charged ions.

  2. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijen, P.C. van.

    1991-01-01

    In-vivo proton and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to detect changes in cerebral metabolism during ischemia and other types of metabolic stress. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in an animal model to observe morphological alterations during focal cerebral ischemia. Spectroscopy was performed in animal models with global ischemia, in volunteers during hyperventilation and pharmaco-logically altered cerebral perfusion, and in patients with acute and prolonged focal cerebral ischemia. (author). 396 refs.; 44 figs.; 14 tabs

  3. MR spectroscopy in metabolic disorders of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, U.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic disorders of the brain often present a particular challenge for the neuroradiologist, since the disorders are rare, changes on conventional MR are often non-specific and there are numerous differential diagnoses for the white substance lesions. As a complementary method to conventional brain MRI, MR spectroscopy may help to reduce the scope of the differential diagnosis. Entities with specific MR spectroscopy patterns are Canavan disease, maple syrup urine disease, nonketotic hyperglycinemia and creatine deficiency. (orig.) [de

  4. Plasma polarization spectroscopy. Time resolved spectroscopy in soft x-ray region on recombining plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Hasuo, Masahiro; Atake, Makoto; Hasegawa, Noboru; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    We present an experimental study of polarization of emission radiations from recombining plasmas generated by the interaction of 60 fs ultra-short laser pulses with a gas jet. Time-resolved spectroscopy with a temporal resolution of 5 ps with repetitive accumulation is used to follow the recombination time histories. (author)

  5. The EnMAP Spaceborne Imaging Spectroscopy Mission for Earth Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guanter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Imaging spectroscopy, also known as hyperspectral remote sensing, is based on the characterization of Earth surface materials and processes through spectrally-resolved measurements of the light interacting with matter. The potential of imaging spectroscopy for Earth remote sensing has been demonstrated since the 1980s. However, most of the developments and applications in imaging spectroscopy have largely relied on airborne spectrometers, as the amount and quality of space-based imaging spectroscopy data remain relatively low to date. The upcoming Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP German imaging spectroscopy mission is intended to fill this gap. An overview of the main characteristics and current status of the mission is provided in this contribution. The core payload of EnMAP consists of a dual-spectrometer instrument measuring in the optical spectral range between 420 and 2450 nm with a spectral sampling distance varying between 5 and 12 nm and a reference signal-to-noise ratio of 400:1 in the visible and near-infrared and 180:1 in the shortwave-infrared parts of the spectrum. EnMAP images will cover a 30 km-wide area in the across-track direction with a ground sampling distance of 30 m. An across-track tilted observation capability will enable a target revisit time of up to four days at the Equator and better at high latitudes. EnMAP will contribute to the development and exploitation of spaceborne imaging spectroscopy applications by making high-quality data freely available to scientific users worldwide.

  6. High pressure Moessbauer spectroscopy of perovskite iron oxide

    CERN Document Server

    Nasu, S; Morimoto, S; Kawakami, T; Kuzushita, K; Takano, M

    2003-01-01

    High-pressure sup 5 sup 7 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy using a diamond anvil cell has been performed for perovskite iron oxides SrFeO sub 3 , CaFeO sub 3 and La sub 1 sub / sub 3 Sr sub 2 sub / sub 3 O sub 3. The charge states and the magnetic dependency to pressure were determined. Pressure magnetic phase diagrams of these perovskite iron oxides are determined up to about 70 GPa. To be clear the magnetic ordered state, they are measured up to 7.8 T external magnetic fields at 4.5K. The phase transition of these perovskite oxides to ferromagnetisms with high magnetic ordered temperature is observed. In higher pressure, high spin-low spin transition of oxides besides CaFeO sub 3 is generated. The feature of Moessbauer spectroscopy, perovskite iron oxide and Moessbauer spectroscopy under high pressure are explained. (S.Y.)

  7. Recent advancements in spectroscopy using tunable diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasim, Hira; Jamil, Yasir

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopy using tunable diode lasers is an area of research that has gone through a dramatic evolution over the last few years, principally because of new exciting approaches in the field of atomic and molecular spectroscopy. This article attempts to review major recent advancements in the field of diode laser based spectroscopy. The discussion covers the developments made so far in the field of diode lasers and illustrates comprehensively the properties of free-running diode lasers. Since the commercially available free-running diode lasers are not suitable for high-precision spectroscopic studies, various techniques developed so far for converting these free-running diode lasers into true narrow linewidth tunable laser sources are discussed comprehensively herein. The potential uses of diode lasers in different spectroscopic fields and their extensive list of applications have also been included, which may be interesting for the novice and the advanced user as well. (topical review)

  8. Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the 10th International Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy. It was held on 1-2 Nov 2002 in Taejeon, Korea. The main topics are as follows: Laser Isotope, Laser Spectroscopy, Laser Fusion, Laser Applications and so on. (Yi, J. H.)

  9. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the 9th International Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy. It was held on 2-3 Nov 2001 in Taejeon, Korea. The main topics are as follows: Laser Isotope, Laser Spectroscopy, Laser Fusion, Laser Applications and so on. (Yi, J. H.)

  10. Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the 11th International Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy. It was held on 7-8 Nov 2003 in Taejeon, Korea. The main topics are as follows: Laser Isotope, Laser Spectroscopy, Laser Fusion, Laser Applications and so on. (Yi, J. H.)

  11. Image correlation spectroscopy: mapping correlations in space, time, and reciprocal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of two recent implementations of image correlation spectroscopy (ICS). The background theory is presented for spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy and image cross-correlation spectroscopy (STICS and STICCS, respectively) as well as k-(reciprocal) space image correlation spectroscopy (kICS). An introduction to the background theory is followed by sections outlining procedural aspects for properly implementing STICS, STICCS, and kICS. These include microscopy image collection, sampling in space and time, sample and fluorescent probe requirements, signal to noise, and background considerations that are all required to properly implement the ICS methods. Finally, procedural steps for immobile population removal and actual implementation of the ICS analysis programs to fluorescence microscopy image time stacks are described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Advances in X-ray spectroscopy contributions in honour of professor Y. Cauchois

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnelle, C

    1982-01-01

    Advances in X-Ray Spectroscopy covers topics relevant to the advancement of X-ray spectroscopy technology. The book is a collection of papers written by specialists in X-ray spectroscopy and pays tribute to the scientific work of Prof. Yvette Cauchois. The text is organized into four parts. Part I covers the analysis of X-ray transitions between atomic levels and relativistic theories of X-ray emission satellites and electron BremsStrahlung. Part II reviews the means provided by X-ray spectroscopy for the determination of the electronic structure of solids, while Part III discusses methods of

  13. Sensing of phase transition in medium with terahertz pulsed spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaytsev, Kirill I; Fokina, Irina N; Fedorov, Aleksey K; Yurchenko, Stanislav O

    2014-01-01

    Phase state identification and phase transition registration in condensed matter are significant applications of terahertz spectroscopy. A set of fundamental and applied problems are associated with the phase state problem. Our report is devoted to the experimental analysis of the spectral characteristics of water and water solution during the phase transition from the solid state to the liquid state via the method of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy. In this work transformation of the sample spectral characteristics during the phase transition were observed and discussed. Possible application of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy as an effective instrument for phase transition sensing was considered

  14. Molecular Laser Spectroscopy as a Tool for Gas Analysis Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javis Anyangwe Nwaboh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used the traceable infrared laser spectrometric amount fraction measurement (TILSAM method to perform absolute concentration measurements of molecular species using three laser spectroscopic techniques. We report results performed by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS, and cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS, all based on the TILSAM methodology. The measured results of the different spectroscopic techniques are in agreement with respective gravimetric values, showing that the TILSAM method is feasible with all different techniques. We emphasize the data quality objectives given by traceability issues and uncertainty analyses.

  15. In situ TEM Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, F.I., E-mail: fiallen@lbl.gov [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kim, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Andresen, N.C. [Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Grigoropoulos, C.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Minor, A.M., E-mail: aminor@lbl.gov [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-07-15

    We present a modular assembly that enables both in situ Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials processing to be performed in a transmission electron microscope. The system comprises a lensed Raman probe mounted inside the microscope column in the specimen plane and a custom specimen holder with a vacuum feedthrough for a tapered optical fiber. The Raman probe incorporates both excitation and collection optics, and localized laser processing is performed using pulsed laser light delivered to the specimen via the tapered optical fiber. Precise positioning of the fiber is achieved using a nanomanipulation stage in combination with simultaneous electron-beam imaging of the tip-to-sample distance. Materials modification is monitored in real time by transmission electron microscopy. First results obtained using the assembly are presented for in situ pulsed laser ablation of MoS{sub 2} combined with Raman spectroscopy, complimented by electron-beam diffraction and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials processing in a TEM are demonstrated. • A lensed Raman probe is mounted in the sample chamber for close approach. • Localized laser processing is achieved using a tapered optical fiber. • Raman spectroscopy and pulsed laser ablation of MoS{sub 2} are performed in situ.

  16. In situ TEM Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, F.I.; Kim, E.; Andresen, N.C.; Grigoropoulos, C.P.; Minor, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a modular assembly that enables both in situ Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials processing to be performed in a transmission electron microscope. The system comprises a lensed Raman probe mounted inside the microscope column in the specimen plane and a custom specimen holder with a vacuum feedthrough for a tapered optical fiber. The Raman probe incorporates both excitation and collection optics, and localized laser processing is performed using pulsed laser light delivered to the specimen via the tapered optical fiber. Precise positioning of the fiber is achieved using a nanomanipulation stage in combination with simultaneous electron-beam imaging of the tip-to-sample distance. Materials modification is monitored in real time by transmission electron microscopy. First results obtained using the assembly are presented for in situ pulsed laser ablation of MoS_2 combined with Raman spectroscopy, complimented by electron-beam diffraction and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials processing in a TEM are demonstrated. • A lensed Raman probe is mounted in the sample chamber for close approach. • Localized laser processing is achieved using a tapered optical fiber. • Raman spectroscopy and pulsed laser ablation of MoS_2 are performed in situ.

  17. Photochromism of indolino-benzopyrans studied by NMR and UV-visible spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Delbaere

    2006-01-01

    is described. The structures of photomerocyanines elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and spectrokinetic data (λmax⁡ of colored form, colorability, and rate constant of bleaching obtained by UV-visible spectroscopy are reported.

  18. HIFI - a dedicated HIgh-FIeld diffraction and spectroscopy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, P.; Enderle, M.; Boehm, M.; Roux, S.

    2011-01-01

    The outstanding scientific impact of single-crystal neutron diffraction and spectroscopy in steady state vertical magnetic fields up to 15 T (17 T without dilution fringe) is reflected in numerous high-profile publications. Magnetic fields 30 T - 35 T in vertical geometry allow to address enigmatic questions without equivalence at lower fields. The constraints implied by such magnetic fields demand a specially designed dedicated instrument. Since the vertical field geometry is crucial for single-crystal diffraction as well as spectroscopy, the solid angle of scattered neutrons is restricted, and a high-flux reactor is best suited to host a corresponding instrument. We propose a world-wide unique versatile instrument for diffraction and spectroscopy in vertical steady fields of 30 T. (authors)

  19. Opportunities for sub-laser-cycle spectroscopy in condensed phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Misha; Smirnova, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We discuss how sub-cycle attosecond spectroscopy can be extended from gas to condensed phase. ► We show that attosecond streaking measurements can be applied to bound electrons. ► We discuss time-resolving the formation of band structure in laser fields. - Abstract: To a large extent, progress of attosecond spectroscopy in the gas phase has been driven by designing approaches where time-resolution is not limited by the pulse duration. Instead, the time resolution comes from exploiting the sensitivity of electronic response to the oscillations of the electric field in the laser pulse and attosecond control over these oscillations. This paper discusses perspectives and opportunities for transporting the ideas of sub-cycle spectroscopy from gas to condensed phase

  20. The measurement of X-rays radiation temperature with a new developed filter-fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chuanfei; Lin Libin; Lou Fuhong; Peng Taiping

    2001-01-01

    The author introduces how to measure the energy spectra of X-rays by filter-fluorescence spectroscopy. The design principle and structure of new-developed double diaphragms and filter-fluorescence spectroscopy with 5 channels are depicted. The parameters of optimized spectroscopy by numerical method are given. The filter-fluorescence spectroscopy designed according as Rousseau balance principle improves signal-noises ratio

  1. Photothermal spectroscopy of aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campillo, A.J.; Lin, H.B.

    1981-04-01

    In situ aerosol absorption spectroscopy was performed using two novel photothermal detection schemes. The first, based on a photorefractive effect and coherent detection, called phase fluctuation optical heterodyne (PFLOH) spectroscopy, could, depending on the geometry employed, yield particle specific or particle and gas absorption data. Single particles of graphite as small as 1 μm were detected in the particle specific mode. In another geometrical configuration, the total absorption (both gas and particle) of submicron sized aerosols of ammonium sulfate particles in equilibrium with gaseous ammonia and water vapor were measured at varying CO 2 laser frequencies. The specific absorption coefficient for the sulfate ion was measured to be 0.5 m 2 /g at 1087 cm -1 . The absorption coefficient sensitivity of this scheme was less than or equal to 10 -8 cm -1 . The second scheme is a hybrid visible Mie scattering scheme incorporating photothermal modulation. Particle specific data on ammonium sulfate droplets were obtained. For chemically identical species, the relative absorption spectrum versus laser frequency can be obtained for polydisperse aerosol distributions directly from the data without the need for complex inverse scattering calculations

  2. Comparing predictive ability of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy to Near Infrared Spectroscopy for soil texture and organic carbon determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knadel, Maria; Peng, Yi; Gislum, René

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) and texture have a practical value for agronomy and the environment. Thus, alternative techniques to supplement or substitute for the expensive conventional analysis of soil are developed. Here the feasibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine SOC...... and texture was tested and compared with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique and traditional laboratory analysis. Calibration models were developed on 50 topsoil samples. For all properties except silt, higher predictive ability of LIBS than NIRS models was obtained. Successful calibrations indicate...... that LIBS can be used as a fast and reliable method for SOC and texture estimation....

  3. Raman Spectroscopy: An Emerging Tool in Neurodegenerative Disease Research and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, George; Howard, Kelly; Mudher, Amrit; Mahajan, Sumeet

    2018-03-21

    The pathogenesis underlining many neurodegenerative diseases remains incompletely understood. The lack of effective biomarkers and disease preventative medicine demands the development of new techniques to efficiently probe the mechanisms of disease and to detect early biomarkers predictive of disease onset. Raman spectroscopy is an established technique that allows the label-free fingerprinting and imaging of molecules based on their chemical constitution and structure. While analysis of isolated biological molecules has been widespread in the chemical community, applications of Raman spectroscopy to study clinically relevant biological species, disease pathogenesis, and diagnosis have been rapidly increasing since the past decade. The growing number of biomedical applications has shown the potential of Raman spectroscopy for detection of novel biomarkers that could enable the rapid and accurate screening of disease susceptibility and onset. Here we provide an overview of Raman spectroscopy and related techniques and their application to neurodegenerative diseases. We further discuss their potential utility in research, biomarker detection, and diagnosis. Challenges to routine use of Raman spectroscopy in the context of neuroscience research are also presented.

  4. Thermodynamic Basis of Electron Transfer in Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase B from Lactococcus lactis:  Analysis by Potentiometry, EPR Spectroscopy, and ENDOR Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohnsen, Al-Walid A.; Rigby, Stephen E. J.; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    2004-01-01

    Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase B (DHODB) is a complex iron-sulfur flavoprotein that catalyzes the conversion of dihydroorotate to orotate and the reduction of NAD+. The enzyme is a dimer of heterodimers containing an FMN, an FAD, and a 2Fe-2S center. UV-visible, EPR, and ENDOR spectroscopies have...... similar to those recorded for the blue semiquinone of free flavins in aqueous solution, thus confirming the presence of this species in DHODB. Spectral features observed during EPR spectroscopy of dithionite-reduced DHODB are consistent with the midpoint reduction potentials determined using UV-visible...... spectroscopy and further identify an unusual EPR signal with very small rhombic anisotropy and g values of 2.02, 1.99, and 1.96. This unusual signal is assigned to the formation of a spin interacting state between the FMN semiquinone species and the reduced 2Fe-2S center. Reduction of DHODB using an excess...

  5. Spectroscopy in catalysis : an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Spectroscopy in Catalysis is an introduction to the most important analytical techniques that are nowadays used in catalysis and in catalytic surface chemistry. The aim of the book is to give the reader a feeling for the type of information that characterization techniques provide about questions

  6. Report of the Nuclear Spectroscopy Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerry, T.B.; Wylie, W.; Hugo

    1978-01-01

    This is a report of the group working with Nuclear Spectroscopy. They made a general discussion involving personnel, research interests (present and future) and suggestions, on general. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  7. Cavity-enhanced spectroscopy and sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, Gianluca [CNR-Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (INO), Pozzuoli (Italy); Loock, Hans-Peter (ed.) [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-07-01

    The book reviews the dramatic recent advances in the use of optical resonators for high sensitivity and high resolution molecular spectroscopy as well as for chemical, mechanical and physical sensing. It encompasses a variety of cavities including those made of two or more mirrors, optical fiber loops, fiber gratings and spherical cavities. The book focuses on novel techniques and their applications. Each chapter is written by an expert and/or pioneer in the field. These experts also provide the theoretical background in optics and molecular physics where needed. Examples of recent breakthroughs include the use of frequency combs (Nobel prize 2005) for cavity enhanced sensing and spectroscopy, the use of novel cavity materials and geometries, the development of optical heterodyne detection techniques combined to active frequency-locking schemes. These methods allow the use and interrogation of optical resonators with a variety of coherent light sources for trace gas detection and sensing of strain, temperature and pressure.

  8. Cavity-enhanced spectroscopy and sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Loock, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    The book reviews the dramatic recent advances in the use of optical resonators for high sensitivity and high resolution molecular spectroscopy as well as for chemical, mechanical and physical sensing.  It encompasses a variety of cavities including those made of two or more mirrors, optical fiber loops, fiber gratings and spherical cavities. The book focuses on novel techniques and their applications. Each chapter is written by an expert and/or pioneer in the field. These experts also provide the theoretical background in optics and molecular physics where needed. Examples of recent breakthroughs include the use of frequency combs (Nobel prize 2005) for cavity enhanced sensing and spectroscopy, the use of novel cavity materials and geometries, the development of optical heterodyne detection techniques combined to active frequency-locking schemes. These methods allow the use and interrogation of optical resonators with a variety of coherent light sources for trace gas detection and sensing of strain, temperat...

  9. Development of atomic spectroscopy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Yang, Ki Ho; Baik, Dae Hyun; Lee, Young Joo; Yi, Jong Hoon; Jeong, Do Young; Jeong, Eui Chang; Yoo, Byung Duk; Cha, Byung Heon; Kim, Seong Ho; Nam, Seong Mo; Kim, Sun Kuk; Lee, Byung Cheol; Choi, Hwa Lim; Ko, Dok Yung; Han, Jae Min; Rho, Si Pyo; Lim, Chang Hwan; Choi, An Seong

    1992-12-01

    This project is aimed for the 'Development of extraction and separation techniques for stable isotopes by atomic laser spectroscopy technique'. The project is devided by two sub-projects. One is the 'Development of the selective photoionization technology' and the other is 'Development of ultrasensitive spectroscopic analysis technololgy'. This year studies on Hg and Yb, both of which have 7 isotopes, have been performed and, as a result, it was proved that specific isotopes of these elements could be selectively extracted. In addition study on plasma extraction technique, development of atomizers, design of electron gun have been the result of the project in 1992. In second sub-project trace determination of Pb has been performed with laser resonance ionization spectroscopy. As a result 20 picogram of detection limit has been obtained. In addition to these results, design of high sensitive laser induced fluorescence detection system as well as remote sensing DIAL system have been done. (Author)

  10. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styczen, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The contributions given hereafter to this Annual Report cover a broad activity of the Department in 1999 both in the pure nuclear spectroscopy and in the applied spectroscopy investigations. That activity is then assembled in the two main groups: the nuclear structure studies with the application of the multidetector systems such as GASP, GAMMASPHERE, EUROBALL and the RFD - as its ancillary device, and investigations of condensed matter properties with the use of nuclear methods. In addition, non-nuclear methods such as the atomic force microscopy provided several new encouraging results. The nice data obtained are due to the great skill and hard work of all members of the staff, and a vast cooperation both with international and national institutes and institutions. When anticipated for calling the attractive results of the past year, I would rather admit that all data given here pretend to be those. To meet with, I refer directly to the short presentations given in the next pages. (author)

  11. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rule, Gordon S

    2006-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful technique to study the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy is a comprehensive textbook that guides the reader from a basic understanding of the phenomenological properties of magnetic resonance to the application and interpretation of modern multi-dimensional NMR experiments on 15N/13C-labeled proteins. Beginning with elementary quantum mechanics, a set of practical rules is presented and used to describe many commonly employed multi-dimensional, multi-nuclear NMR pulse sequences. A modular analysis of NMR pulse sequence building blocks also provides a basis for understanding and developing novel pulse programs. This text not only covers topics from chemical shift assignment to protein structure refinement, as well as the analysis of protein dynamics and chemical kinetics, but also provides a practical guide to many aspects of modern spectrometer hardware, sample preparation, experimental set-up, and data pr...

  12. XPS, AES and laser raman spectroscopy: A fingerprint for a materials surface characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi Embong

    2011-01-01

    This review briefly describes some of the techniques available for analysing surfaces and illustrates their usefulness with a few examples such as a metal and alloy. In particular, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and laser Raman spectroscopy are all described as advanced surface analytical techniques. In analysing a surface, AES and XPS would normally be considered first, with AES being applied where high spatial resolution is required and XPS where chemical state information is needed. Laser Raman spectroscopy is useful for determining molecular bonding. A combination of XPS, AES and Laser Raman spectroscopy can give quantitative analysis from the top few atomic layers with a lateral spatial resolution of < 10 nm. (author)

  13. Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy Imaging-Guided Confocal Single-Molecule Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Desheng; Kaldaras, Leonora; Lu, H. Peter

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an integrated spectroscopy system combining total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy imaging with confocal single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy for two-dimensional interfaces. This spectroscopy approach is capable of both multiple molecules simultaneously sampling and in situ confocal fluorescence dynamics analyses of individual molecules of interest. We have demonstrated the calibration with fluorescent microspheres, and carried out single-molecule spectroscop...

  14. Auger electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalaraman, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    General features of electron excited Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) which is a nondestructive technique for the analysis of surfaces upto about 15 Adeg depth with a detection limit of about 0.1% of a monolayer. Methods of measuring the Auger electron energies and recent improvements in the instrumentation are reviewed. Typical energy resolution is found to be about 0.5% which is specially suited for the detection of light elements. It is widely used in metallurgy, surface chemistry and thin film studies. (K.B.)

  15. The Clinical Application of Raman Spectroscopy for Breast Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy has been widely used as an important clinical tool for real-time in vivo cancer diagnosis. Raman information can be obtained from whole organisms and tissues, at the cellular level and at the biomolecular level. The aim of this paper is to review the newest developments of Raman spectroscopy in the field of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. Raman spectroscopy can distinguish malignant tissues from noncancerous/normal tissues and can assess tumor margins or sentinel lymph nodes during an operation. At the cellular level, Raman spectra can be used to monitor the intracellular processes occurring in blood circulation. At the biomolecular level, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy techniques may help detect the biomarker on the tumor surface as well as evaluate the efficacy of anticancer drugs. Furthermore, Raman images reveal an inhomogeneous distribution of different compounds, especially proteins, lipids, microcalcifications, and their metabolic products, in cancerous breast tissues. Information about these compounds may further our understanding of the mechanisms of breast cancer.

  16. Hypernuclear Spectroscopy at JLab Hall C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Osamu; Chiba, Atsushi; Doi, Daisuke; Fujii, Yu; Toshiyuki, Gogami; Kanda, Hiroki; Kaneta, M.; Kawama, Daisuke; Maeda, Kazushige; Maruta, Tomofumi; Matsumura, Akihiko; Nagao, Sho; Nakamura, Satoshi; Shichijo, Ayako; Tamura, Hirokazu; Taniya, Naotaka; Yamamoto, Taku; Yokota, Kosuke; Kato, S.; Sato, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Noumi, Hiroyuki; Motoba, T.; Hiyama, E.; Albayrak, Ibrahim; Ates, Ozgur; Chen, Chunhua; Christy, Michael; Keppel, Cynthia; Kohl, Karl; Li, Ya; Liyanage, Anusha Habarakada; Tang, Liguang; Walton, T.; Ye, Zhihong; Yuan, Lulin; Zhu, Lingyan; Baturin, Pavlo; Boeglin, Werner; Dhamija, Seema; Markowitz, Pete; Raue, Brian; Reinhold, Joerg; Hungerford, Ed; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard; Gaskell, David; Horn, Tanja; Jones, Mark; Smith, Gregory; Vulcan, William; Wood, Stephen; Johnston, C.; Simicevic, Neven; Wells, Stephen; Samanta, Chhanda; Hu, Bitao; Shen, Ji; Wang, W.; Zhang, Xiaozhuo; Zhang, Yi; Feng, Jing; Fu, Y.; Zhou, Jian; Zhou, S.; Jiang, Yi; Lu, H.; Yan, Xinhu; Ye, Yunxiu; Gan, Liping; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Danagoulian, Samuel; Gasparian, Ashot; Elaasar, Mostafa; Wesselmann, Frank; Asaturyan, Arshak; Margaryan, Amur; Mkrtchyan, Arthur; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Androic, Darko; Furic, Miroslav; Petkovic, Tomislav; Seva, Tomislav; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Rodriguez, Victor; Cisbani, Evaristo; Cusanno, Francesco; Garibaldi, Franco; Urciuoli, Guido; De Leo, Raffaele; Maronne, S.; Achenbach, Carsten; Pochodzalla, J.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1st generation experiment, E89-009, which was successfully carried out as a pilot experiment of (e,e(prime)K + ) hypernuclear spectroscopy at JLab Hall C in 2000, precision hypernuclear spectroscopy by the (e,e(prime)K + ) reactions made considerable progress. It has evolved to the 2nd generation experiment, E01-011, in which a newly constructed high resolution kaon spectrometer (HKS) was installed and the 'Tilt method' was adopted in order to suppress large electromagnetic background and to run with high luminosity. Preliminary high-resolution spectra of 7 ΛHe and 28 ΛAl together with that of 12 ΛB that achieved resolution better than 500 keV(FWHM) were obtained. The third generation experiment, E05-115, has completed data taking with an experimental setup combining a new splitter magnet, high resolution electron spectrometer (HES) and the HKS used in the 2nd generation experiment. The data were accumulated with targets of 7 Li, 9 Be, 10 B, 12 C and 52 Cr as well as with those of CH 2 and H 2 O for calibration. The analysis is under way with particular emphasis of determining precision absolute hypernuclear masses. In this article, hypernuclear spectroscopy program in the wide mass range at JLab Hall C that has undergone three generation is described.

  17. Shell-Tunneling Spectroscopy of the Single-Particle Energy Levels of Insulating Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Hens, Z.; Zunger, A.; Franceschetti, A; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Gurevich, L.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.

    2001-01-01

    The energy levels of CdSe quantum dots are studied by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. By varying the tip-dot distance, we switch from "shell-filling" spectroscopy (where electrons accumulate in the dot and experience mutual repulsion) to "shell-tunneling" spectroscopy (where electrons tunnel, one

  18. Interaction of gallic acid with trypsin analyzed by spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between trypsin and gallic acid (GA were investigated by means of fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, resonance light scattering (RLS spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, and enzymatic inhibition assay. It was found that GA can cause the fluorescence quenching of trypsin during the process of formation of GA-trypsin complex, resulting in inhibition of trypsin activity (IC50 = 3.9 × 10−6 mol/L. The fluorescence spectroscopic data showed that the quenching efficiency can reach about 80%. The binding constants were 1.9371 × 104 L/mol, 1.8192 × 104 L/mol, and 1.7465 × 104 L/mol at three temperatures, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters revealed that hydrogen bonds, van der Waals, hydrophobic, and electrostatic interactions were involved in the binding process of GA to trypsin. Molecular modeling studies illustrated a specific display of binding information and explained most of the experiment phenomena. The microenvironments of tryptophan and tyrosine residue in trypsin were changed by the GA. Results indicated that GA was a strong quencher and inhibitor of trypsin.

  19. NMR spectroscopy applied to the eye: Drugs and metabolic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saether, Oddbjoern

    2005-07-01

    NMR spectroscopy has been extensively applied in biomedical research during the last decades. It has proved to be an analytical tool of great value. From being mainly used in chemistry, technological developments have expanded the application of NMR spectroscopy to a great wealth of disciplines. With this method, biochemical information can be obtained by analysing tissue extracts. Moreover, NMR spectroscopy is increasingly employed for pharmacokinetic studies and analysis of biofluids. Technological progress has provided increased sensitivity and resolution in the spectra, which enable even more of the complexity of biological samples to be elucidated. With the implementation of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy in biomedicine, intact tissue samples or biopsies can be investigated. Thus, NMR spectroscopy has an ever-increasing impact in metabolic screening of human samples and in animal models, and methods are also increasingly realised in vivo. The present work, NMR spectroscopy applied to eye research, consists of two main parts. Firstly, the feasibility to monitor fluorinated ophthalmic drugs directly in the eye was assessed. Secondly, HR-MAS H1 NMR spectroscopy was applied for metabolic profiling of the anterior eye segment, specifically to analyse metabolic changes in intact corneal and lenticular samples after cataractogenic insults. This work included metabonomics with the application of pattern recognition methods to analyse HR-MAS spectra of eye tissues. Optimisation strategies were explored for F19 NMR detection of fluorinated drugs in a phantom eye. S/N gains in F19 NMR spectroscopy were achieved by implementing time-share H1 decoupling at 2.35 T. The method is advantageous for compounds displaying broad spectral coupling patterns, though detection of drugs at concentrations encountered in the anterior eye segment after topical application was not feasible. Higher magnetic fields and technological improvements could enable

  20. NMR spectroscopy applied to the eye: Drugs and metabolic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saether, Oddbjoern

    2005-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has been extensively applied in biomedical research during the last decades. It has proved to be an analytical tool of great value. From being mainly used in chemistry, technological developments have expanded the application of NMR spectroscopy to a great wealth of disciplines. With this method, biochemical information can be obtained by analysing tissue extracts. Moreover, NMR spectroscopy is increasingly employed for pharmacokinetic studies and analysis of biofluids. Technological progress has provided increased sensitivity and resolution in the spectra, which enable even more of the complexity of biological samples to be elucidated. With the implementation of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy in biomedicine, intact tissue samples or biopsies can be investigated. Thus, NMR spectroscopy has an ever-increasing impact in metabolic screening of human samples and in animal models, and methods are also increasingly realised in vivo. The present work, NMR spectroscopy applied to eye research, consists of two main parts. Firstly, the feasibility to monitor fluorinated ophthalmic drugs directly in the eye was assessed. Secondly, HR-MAS H1 NMR spectroscopy was applied for metabolic profiling of the anterior eye segment, specifically to analyse metabolic changes in intact corneal and lenticular samples after cataractogenic insults. This work included metabonomics with the application of pattern recognition methods to analyse HR-MAS spectra of eye tissues. Optimisation strategies were explored for F19 NMR detection of fluorinated drugs in a phantom eye. S/N gains in F19 NMR spectroscopy were achieved by implementing time-share H1 decoupling at 2.35 T. The method is advantageous for compounds displaying broad spectral coupling patterns, though detection of drugs at concentrations encountered in the anterior eye segment after topical application was not feasible. Higher magnetic fields and technological improvements could enable

  1. Microcalorimeter Q-spectroscopy for rapid isotopic analysis of trace actinide samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croce, M.P., E-mail: mpcroce@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bond, E.M.; Hoover, A.S.; Kunde, G.J.; Mocko, V.; Rabin, M.W.; Weisse-Bernstein, N.R.; Wolfsberg, L.E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, D.A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Schmidt, D.R.; Ullom, J.N. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We are developing superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters that are optimized for rapid isotopic analysis of trace actinide samples by Q-spectroscopy. By designing mechanically robust TESs and simplified detector assembly methods, we have developed a detector for Q-spectroscopy of actinides that can be assembled in minutes. We have characterized the effects of each simplification and present the results. Finally, we show results of isotopic analysis of plutonium samples with Q-spectroscopy detectors and compare the results to mass spectrometry.

  2. Microcalorimeter Q-spectroscopy for rapid isotopic analysis of trace actinide samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croce, M.P.; Bond, E.M.; Hoover, A.S.; Kunde, G.J.; Mocko, V.; Rabin, M.W.; Weisse-Bernstein, N.R.; Wolfsberg, L.E.; Bennett, D.A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Schmidt, D.R.; Ullom, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters that are optimized for rapid isotopic analysis of trace actinide samples by Q-spectroscopy. By designing mechanically robust TESs and simplified detector assembly methods, we have developed a detector for Q-spectroscopy of actinides that can be assembled in minutes. We have characterized the effects of each simplification and present the results. Finally, we show results of isotopic analysis of plutonium samples with Q-spectroscopy detectors and compare the results to mass spectrometry

  3. Ultrafast and versatile spectroscopy by temporal Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Wei, Xiaoming; Marhic, Michel E.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2014-06-01

    One of the most remarkable and useful properties of a spatially converging lens system is its inherent ability to perform the Fourier transform; the same applies for the time-lens system. At the back focal plane of the time-lens, the spectral information can be instantaneously obtained in the time axis. By implementing temporal Fourier transform for spectroscopy applications, this time-lens-based architecture can provide orders of magnitude improvement over the state-of-art spatial-dispersion-based spectroscopy in terms of the frame rate. On the other hand, in addition to the single-lens structure, the multi-lens structures (e.g. telescope or wide-angle scope) will provide very versatile operating conditions. Leveraging the merit of instantaneous response, as well as the flexible lens structure, here we present a 100-MHz frame rate spectroscopy system - the parametric spectro-temporal analyzer (PASTA), which achieves 17 times zoom in/out ratio for different observation ranges.

  4. Single Molecule Spectroscopy on Photosynthetic Pigment-Protein Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Jelezko, F; Schuler, S; Thews, E; Tietz, C; Wechsler, A; Wrachtrup, J

    2001-01-01

    Single molecule spectroscopy was applied to unravel the energy transfer pathway in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes. Detailed analysis of excitation and fluorescence emission spectra has been made for peripheral plant antenna LHC II and Photosystem I from cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. Optical transitions of individual pigments were resolved under nonselective excitation of antenna chlorophylls. High-resolution fluorescence spectroscopy of individual plant antenna LHC II indicates that at low temperatures, the excitation energy is localized on the red-most Chl a pool absorbing at 680 nm. More than one pigment molecule is responsible for the fluorescence emission of the LHC II trimer. The spectral lines of single Chl a molecules absorbing at 675 nm are broadened because of the Foerster energy transfer towards the red-most pigments. Low-temperature spectroscopy on single PS I trimers indicates that two subgroups of pigments, which are present in the red antenna pool, differ by the strength of t...

  5. Advances in Molecular Rotational Spectroscopy for Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Brent; Fields, Shelby S.; Pulliam, Robin; Muckle, Matt; Neill, Justin L.

    2017-06-01

    Advances in chemical sensitivity and robust, solid-state designs for microwave/millimeter-wave instrumentation compel the expansion of molecular rotational spectroscopy as research tool into applied science. It is familiar to consider molecular rotational spectroscopy for air analysis. Those techniques for molecular rotational spectroscopy are included in our presentation of a more broad application space for materials analysis using Fourier Transform Molecular Rotational Resonance (FT-MRR) spectrometers. There are potentially transformative advantages for direct gas analysis of complex mixtures, determination of unknown evolved gases with parts per trillion detection limits in solid materials, and unambiguous chiral determination. The introduction of FT-MRR as an alternative detection principle for analytical chemistry has created a ripe research space for the development of new analytical methods and sampling equipment to fully enable FT-MRR. We present the current state of purpose-built FT-MRR instrumentation and the latest application measurements that make use of new sampling methods.

  6. Optical spectroscopy using gas-phase femtosecond laser filamentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhner, Johanan; Levis, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Femtosecond laser filamentation occurs as a dynamic balance between the self-focusing and plasma defocusing of a laser pulse to produce ultrashort radiation as brief as a few optical cycles. This unique source has many properties that make it attractive as a nonlinear optical tool for spectroscopy, such as propagation at high intensities over extended distances, self-shortening, white-light generation, and the formation of an underdense plasma. The plasma channel that constitutes a single filament and whose position in space can be controlled by its input parameters can span meters-long distances, whereas multifilamentation of a laser beam can be sustained up to hundreds of meters in the atmosphere. In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding and use of laser filaments for spectroscopic investigations of molecules. A theoretical framework of filamentation is presented, along with recent experimental evidence supporting the established understanding of filamentation. Investigations carried out on vibrational and rotational spectroscopy, filament-induced breakdown, fluorescence spectroscopy, and backward lasing are discussed.

  7. Quantifying Young's moduli of protein fibrils and particles with bimodal force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jay; Charnley, Mirren; Cheng, Christopher; Reynolds, Nicholas P; Jones, Owen G

    2017-10-19

    Force spectroscopy is a means of obtaining mechanical information of individual nanometer-scale structures in composite materials, such as protein assemblies for use in consumer films or gels. As a recently developed force spectroscopy technique, bimodal force spectroscopy relates frequency shifts in cantilevers simultaneously excited at multiple frequencies to the elastic properties of the contacted material, yet its utility for quantitative characterization of biopolymer assemblies has been limited. In this study, a linear correlation between experimental frequency shift and Young's modulus of polymer films was used to calibrate bimodal force spectroscopy and quantify Young's modulus of two protein nanostructures: β-lactoglobulin fibrils and zein nanoparticles. Cross-sectional Young's modulus of protein fibrils was determined to be 1.6 GPa while the modulus of zein nanoparticles was determined as 854 MPa. Parallel measurement of β-lactoglobulin fibril by a competing pulsed-force technique found a higher cross-sectional Young's modulus, highlighting the importance of comparative calibration against known standards in both pulsed and bimodal force spectroscopies. These findings demonstrate a successful procedure for measuring mechanical properties of individual protein assemblies with potential use in biological or packaging applications using bimodal force spectroscopy.

  8. MR spectroscopy of liver in overweight children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Bille, Dorthe S; Thisted, Ebbe

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to investigate T(2) relaxation values and to optimize hepatic fat quantification using proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at 3T in overweight and obese children and adolescents.......The objective was to investigate T(2) relaxation values and to optimize hepatic fat quantification using proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at 3T in overweight and obese children and adolescents....

  9. Characterisation of InAs-based epilayers by FTIR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baisitse, T.R.; Forbes, A.; Katumba, G.; Botha, J.R.; Engelbrecht, J.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, infrared reflectance spectroscopy was employed to extract information on the optical and electrical properties of metal organic vapour phase epitaxial (MOVPE) grown InAs and InAsSb epilayers. These epitaxial layers were grown on InAs and GaAs substrates and characterised by infrared reflectance spectroscopy and Hall measurements. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Time-dependent Autler-Townes spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, Sajid; Zhu, S.-Y.; Zubairy, M Suhail

    2003-01-01

    Autler-Townes spontaneous emission spectroscopy is revisited for a time-dependent case. We report the results of spontaneous emission spectra for nonstationary scattered light signals using the definition of the time-dependent physical spectrum. This is a rare example of problems where time-dependent spectra can be calculated exactly

  11. Principles of electron tunneling spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, E L

    2012-01-01

    Electron tunnelling spectroscopy as a research tool has strongly advanced understanding of superconductivity. This book explains the physics and instrumentation behind the advances illustrated in beautiful images of atoms, rings of atoms and exotic states in high temperature superconductors, and summarizes the state of knowledge that has resulted.

  12. Time-dependent Autler-Townes spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamar, Sajid [Institute for Quantum Studies, Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Zhu, S.-Y. [Institute for Quantum Studies, Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Zubairy, M Suhail [Institute for Quantum Studies, Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Autler-Townes spontaneous emission spectroscopy is revisited for a time-dependent case. We report the results of spontaneous emission spectra for nonstationary scattered light signals using the definition of the time-dependent physical spectrum. This is a rare example of problems where time-dependent spectra can be calculated exactly.

  13. Current status of baryon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wali, K.C.

    1975-08-01

    In this review of baryon spectroscopy, the basic ideas of some of the current models and the experimental data for their claims to success are discussed including realistic or constituent quark models, experimental comparison, the experimental and theoretical basis for the assignments, algebraic quark models, and confinement schemes

  14. MR spectroscopy in clinical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O

    1994-01-01

    MR spectroscopy (MRS) offers unique possibilities for non-invasive evaluation of biochemistry in vivo. During recent years there has been a growing body of evidence from clinical research studies on human beings using 31P and 1H MRS. The results indicate that it is possible to evaluate phosphorous...

  15. Direct Frequency Comb Spectroscopy of Alkali Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhananga, Trinity; Palm, Christopher; Nguyen, Khoa; Guttikonda, Srikanth; Kimball, Derek Jackson

    2011-11-01

    We are using direct frequency comb spectroscopy to study transition frequencies and excited state hyperfine structure in potassium and rubidium using 2-photon transitions excited directly with the frequency-doubled output of a erbium fiber optical frequency comb. The frequency comb output is directed in two counterpropagating directions through a vapor cell containing the atomic vapor of interest. A pair of optical filters is used to select teeth of the comb in order to identify the transition wavelengths. A photomultiplier tube (PMT) measures fluorescence from a decay channel wavelength selected with another optical filter. Using different combinations of filters enables a wide range of transitions to be investigated. By scanning the repetition rate, a Doppler-free spectrum can be obtained enabling kHz-resolution spectral measurements. The thermal motion of the atoms in the vapor cell actually eliminates the need to fine-tune the offset frequency and repetition rate, alleviating a somewhat challenging requirement for spectroscopy of cold atoms. Our investigations are laying the groundwork for a long-term research program to use direct frequency comb spectroscopy to understand the complex spectra of rare-earth atoms.

  16. Mid-Infrared Frequency-Agile Dual-Comb Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pei-Ling; Yan, Ming; Iwakuni, Kana; Millot, Guy; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a new approach to mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy. It opens up new opportunities for accurate real-time spectroscopic diagnostics and it significantly simplifies the technique of dual-comb spectroscopy. Two mid-infrared frequency combs of slightly different repetition frequencies and moderate, but rapidly tunable, spectral span are generated in the 2800-3200 cm-1 region. The generators rely on electro-optic modulators, nonlinear fibers for spectral broadening and difference frequency generation and do not involve mode-locked lasers. Flat-top frequency combs span up to 10 cm-1 with a comb line spacing of 100 MHz (3×10-3 cm-1). The performance of the spectrometer without any phase-lock electronics or correction scheme is illustrated with spectra showing resolved comb lines and Doppler-limited spectra of methane. High precision on the spectroscopic parameter (line positions and intensities) determination is demonstrated for spectra measured on a millisecond time scale and it is validated with comparison with literature data. G. Millot, S. Pitois, M. Yan, T. Hovannysyan, A. Bendahmane, T.W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy, Nature Photonics 10, 27-30 (2016).

  17. Photoacoustic-based detector for infrared laser spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, L.; Palzer, S., E-mail: stefan.palzer@imtek.uni-freiburg.de [Department of Microsystems Engineering-IMTEK, Laboratory for Gas Sensors, University of Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 102, Freiburg 79110 (Germany)

    2016-07-25

    In this contribution, we present an alternative detector technology for use in direct absorption spectroscopy setups. Instead of a semiconductor based detector, we use the photoacoustic effect to gauge the light intensity. To this end, the target gas species is hermetically sealed under excess pressure inside a miniature cell along with a MEMS microphone. Optical access to the cell is provided by a quartz window. The approach is particularly suitable for tunable diode laser spectroscopy in the mid-infrared range, where numerous molecules exhibit large absorption cross sections. Moreover, a frequency standard is integrated into the method since the number density and pressure inside the cell are constant. We demonstrate that the information extracted by our method is at least equivalent to that achieved using a semiconductor-based photon detector. As exemplary and highly relevant target gas, we have performed direct spectroscopy of methane at the R3-line of the 2v{sub 3} band at 6046.95 cm{sup −1} using both detector technologies in parallel. The results may be transferred to other infrared-active transitions without loss of generality.

  18. Force spectroscopy of hepatocytic extracellular matrix components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongsunthon, R., E-mail: YongsuntR@Corning.com [Corning Incorporated, SP-FR-01, R1S32D, Corning, NY 14831 (United States); Baker, W.A.; Bryhan, M.D.; Baker, D.E.; Chang, T.; Petzold, O.N.; Walczak, W.J.; Liu, J.; Faris, R.A.; Senaratne, W.; Seeley, L.A.; Youngman, R.E. [Corning Incorporated, SP-FR-01, R1S32D, Corning, NY 14831 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    We present atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy data of live hepatocytes (HEPG2/C3A liver cell line) grown in Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium, a complex solution of salts and amino acids commonly used for cell culture. Contact-mode imaging and force spectroscopy of this system allowed correlation of cell morphology and extracellular matrix (ECM) properties with substrate properties. Force spectroscopy analysis of cellular 'footprints' indicated that the cells secrete large polymers (e.g., 3.5 {mu}m contour length and estimated MW 1000 kDa) onto their substrate surface. Although definitive identification of the polymers has not yet been achieved, fluorescent-labeled antibody staining has specified the presence of ECM proteins such as collagen and laminin in the cellular footprints. The stretched polymers appear to be much larger than single molecules of known ECM components, such as collagen and heparan sulfate proteoglycan, thus suggesting that the cells create larger entangled, macromolecular structures from smaller components. There is strong evidence which suggests that the composition of the ECM is greatly influenced by the hydrophobicity of the substrate surface, with preferential production and/or adsorption of larger macromolecules on hydrophobic surfaces.

  19. Neutron resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunsing, F

    2005-06-15

    The present document has been written in order to obtain the diploma 'Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches'. Since this diploma is indispensable to supervise thesis students, I had the intention to write a document that can be useful for someone starting in the field of neutron resonance spectroscopy. Although the here described topics are already described elsewhere, and often in more detail, it seemed useful to have most of the relevant information in a single document. A general introduction places the topic of neutron-nucleus interaction in a nuclear physics context. The large variations of several orders of magnitude in neutron-induced reaction cross sections are explained in terms of nuclear level excitations. The random character of the resonances make nuclear model calculation predictions impossible. Then several fields in physics where neutron-induced reactions are important and to which I have contributed in some way or another, are mentioned in a first synthetic chapter. They concern topics like parity nonconservation in certain neutron resonances, stellar nucleosynthesis by neutron capture, and data for nuclear energy applications. The latter item is especially important for the transmutation of nuclear waste and for alternative fuel cycles. Nuclear data libraries are also briefly mentioned. A second chapter details the R-matrix theory. This formalism is the foundation of the description of the neutron-nucleus interaction and is present in all fields of neutron resonance spectroscopy. (author)

  20. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bax, A.; Lerner, L.

    1986-01-01

    Great spectral simplification can be obtained by spreading the conventional one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum in two independent frequency dimensions. This so-called two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy removes spectral overlap, facilitates spectral assignment, and provides a wealth of additional information. For example, conformational information related to interproton distances is available from resonance intensities in certain types of two-dimensional experiments. Another method generates 1 H NMR spectra of a preselected fragment of the molecule, suppressing resonances from other regions and greatly simplifying spectral appearance. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy can also be applied to the study of 13 C and 15 N, not only providing valuable connectivity information but also improving sensitivity of 13 C and 15 N detection by up to two orders of magnitude. 45 references, 10 figures